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Sample records for area mt evidence

  1. Intermittent stimulus presentation stabilizes neuronal responses in macaque area MT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klink, P.C.; Oleksiak, A.; Lankheet, M.J.M.; Wezel, R.J.A.

    2012-01-01

    Klink PC, Oleksiak A, Lankheet MJ, van Wezel RJ. Intermittent stimulus presentation stabilizes neuronal responses in macaque area MT. J Neurophysiol 108: 2101-2114, 2012. First published July 25, 2012; doi: 10.1152/jn.00252.2012.-Repeated stimulation impacts neuronal responses. Here we show how

  2. Magnetotelluric (MT) surveying in the Kakkonda geothermal area; Kakkonda chinetsu chiiki deno MT ho tansa jikken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogawa, Y.; Takakura, S. [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan); Uchida, T. [New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo, (Japan)

    1997-05-27

    This paper describes the MT surveying conducted at the vicinity of a deep well (WD-1) in the Kakkonda geothermal area. For the MT surveying, the interval between measuring points was 300 m. Electric field dipole with a length of 300 m was given in the direction of traverse line, and that with a length of 50 m was given in the direction perpendicular to the line. Three components of magnetic field were measured using induction coil. Frequency band of the data was between 0.0005 Hz and 300 Hz. Characteristics of specific resistance model obtained from the MT surveying were illustrated. Low specific resistance zone less than 30 ohm-m was observed in the shallow zone below the altitude 0 m. This zone was comparable to the distribution of montmorillonite. High specific resistance anomaly was analyzed at the western half of the traverse line in the altitude between 0 m and -2000 m, which corresponded to the collective part of focuses. The bottom surface of the anomaly agreed well with the upper surface of neo-granite, i.e., the lower limits of earthquakes. Low specific resistance was observed in the altitude below -2000 m. 17 refs., 5 figs.

  3. Groundwater radon measurements in the Mt. Etna area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alessandro, Walter; Vita, Fabio

    2003-01-01

    Radon levels were measured in 119 groundwater samples collected throughout the active volcanic area of Mt. Etna by means of a portable Lucas-type scintillation chamber. The measured activity values range from 1.8 to 52.7 Bq l(-1). About 40% of the samples exceed the maximum contaminant level of 11 Bq l(-1) proposed by the USEPA in 1991. The highest radon levels are measured in the eastern sector of the volcano, which is the seismically most active zone of the volcano. On the contrary the south-western sector, which is both seismically active and a site of intense magmatic degassing, display lower radon levels. This is probably due to the formation of a free gas phase (oversaturation of CO(2)) that strips the radon from the water. Comparison of the data gathered at Mt. Etna with those of other areas indicates that (222)Rn activity in groundwater is positively correlated with both the content of parent elements in the aquifer rocks and the temperature of the geothermal systems that interacts with the sampled aquifers.

  4. Atmospheric mercury sources in the Mt. Amiata area, Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrara, R.; Mazzolai, B.; Edner, H.; Svanberg, S.; Wallinder, E.

    1998-01-01

    Mt. Amiata, located in southern Tuscany (Italy), is part of the geologic anomaly of the Mediterranean basin, which contains about 65% of the world's cinnabar (HgS) deposits. Atmospheric mercury emissions from the main sources (geothermal power plants, abandoned mine structures and spoil banks of roasted cinnabar ore) were determined by flux chamber and by LIDAR remote sensing. Mercury emissions from five geothermal power plants were on the order of 24 g h -1 for each plant, a value that remains constant throughout the year. In the month of July, the mine spoils (covering an area of =200000 m 2 ) emit a few grams of mercury per hour, while the abandoned mine structures give off 100-110 g h -1 . These two mercury sources were strongly influenced by ambient temperature. The area affected by mercury sources displays an average air mercury concentration of 20 ng m -3 during the summer and 10 ng m -3 in winter

  5. Task-specific, dimension-based attentional shaping of motion processing in monkey area MT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schledde, Bastian; Galashan, F Orlando; Przybyla, Magdalena; Kreiter, Andreas K; Wegener, Detlef

    2017-09-01

    Nonspatially selective attention is based on the notion that specific features or objects in the visual environment are effectively prioritized in cortical visual processing. Feature-based attention (FBA), in particular, is a well-studied process that dynamically and selectively addresses neurons preferentially processing the attended feature attribute (e.g., leftward motion). In everyday life, however, behavior may require high sensitivity for an entire feature dimension (e.g., motion), but experimental evidence for a feature dimension-specific attentional modulation on a cellular level is lacking. Therefore, we investigated neuronal activity in macaque motion-selective mediotemporal area (MT) in an experimental setting requiring the monkeys to detect either a motion change or a color change. We hypothesized that neural activity in MT is enhanced when the task requires perceptual sensitivity to motion. In line with this, we found that mean firing rates were higher in the motion task and that response variability and latency were lower compared with values in the color task, despite identical visual stimulation. This task-specific, dimension-based modulation of motion processing emerged already in the absence of visual input, was independent of the relation between the attended and stimulating motion direction, and was accompanied by a spatially global reduction of neuronal variability. The results provide single-cell support for the hypothesis of a feature dimension-specific top-down signal emphasizing the processing of an entire feature class. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Cortical processing serving visual perception prioritizes information according to current task requirements. We provide evidence in favor of a dimension-based attentional mechanism addressing all neurons that process visual information in the task-relevant feature domain. Behavioral tasks required monkeys to attend either color or motion, causing modulations of response strength, variability, latency, and

  6. Structural model of the Northern Latium volcanic area constrained by MT, gravity and aeromagnetic data

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    P. Gasparini

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available The results of about 120 magnetotelluric soundings carried out in the Vulsini, Vico and Sabatini volcanic areas were modeled along with Bouguer and aeromagnetic anomalies to reconstruct a model of the structure of the shallow (less than 5 km of depth crust. The interpretations were constrained by the information gathered from the deep boreholes drilled for geothermal exploration. MT and aeromagnetic anomalies allow the depth to the top of the sedimentary basement and the thickness of the volcanic layer to be inferred. Gravity anomalies are strongly affected by the variations of morphology of the top of the sedimentary basement, consisting of a Tertiary flysch, and of the interface with the underlying Mesozoic carbonates. Gravity data have also been used to extrapolate the thickness of the neogenic unit indicated by some boreholes. There is no evidence for other important density and susceptibility heterogeneities and deeper sources of magnetic and/or gravity anomalies in all the surveyed area.

  7. 75 FR 11511 - Rogue River-Siskiyou National Forest; Mt. Ashland Ski Area Expansion, Jackson County, OR

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-11

    ... Forest Service Rogue River-Siskiyou National Forest; Mt. Ashland Ski Area Expansion, Jackson County, OR...-03004-PA, to conditionally authorize expansion of the Mt. Ashland Ski Area. SUMMARY: In September 2004, the Forest Service issued a Record of Decision (ROD) for the Mt. Ashland Ski Area (MASA) expansion...

  8. Classical and surround receptive field structure in cortical area MT as revealed by reverse correlation

    OpenAIRE

    Richert, Micah David

    2008-01-01

    This dissertation is organized into two main parts: physiology and new techniques. The physiology is organized into classical receptive fields, surround properties and global object selectivity of area MT. The first two physiology chapters used a novel sparse motion stimulus to drive MT cells and used reverse correlation to analyze the data. For the classical receptive field the spike triggered average was used as an estimate of the field. For the surround, maximally informative dimension ana...

  9. mtDNA point and length heteroplasmy in high- and low radiation areas of Kerala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forster, L.; Forster, P.; Gurney, S.M.; Spencer, M.; Huang, C.; Röhl, A.; Brinkmann, B.

    2010-01-01

    A coastal peninsula in Kerala (India) contains the world's highest level of natural radioactivity in a densely populated area, offering an opportunity to characterize radiation-associated DNA mutations. Here, we focus on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations, which are passed exclusively from the mother to her children. To analyse point mutations, we sampled 248 pedigrees (988 individuals) in the high-radiation peninsula and in nearby low-radiation islands as a control population. Then, in an extended sample of 1,172 mtDNA sequences (containing some non-Indians for comparison), we also analysed length mutations, which in mtDNA can lead to the phenomenon of length heteroplasmy, i.e. the existence of different DNA types in the same cell. We wished to find out how fast mtDNA mutates between generations, and whether the mutation rate is increased in radioactive conditions compared to the low-irradiation sample

  10. Properties of pattern and component direction-selective cells in area MT of the macaque

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Helena X.

    2015-01-01

    Neurons in area MT/V5 of the macaque visual cortex encode visual motion. Some cells are selective for the motion of oriented features (component direction-selective, CDS); others respond to the true direction of complex patterns (pattern-direction selective, PDS). There is a continuum of selectivity in MT, with CDS cells at one extreme and PDS cells at the other; we compute a pattern index that captures this variation. It is unknown how a neuron's pattern index is related to its other tuning characteristics. We therefore analyzed the responses of 792 MT cells recorded in the course of other experiments from opiate-anesthetized macaque monkeys, as a function of the direction, spatial frequency, drift rate, size, and contrast of sinusoidal gratings and of the direction and speed of random-dot textures. We also compared MT responses to those of 718 V1 cells. As expected, MT cells with higher pattern index tended to have stronger direction selectivity and broader direction tuning to gratings, and they responded better to plaids than to gratings. Strongly PDS cells also tended to have smaller receptive fields and stronger surround suppression. Interestingly, they also responded preferentially to higher drift rates and higher speeds of moving dots. The spatial frequency preferences of PDS cells depended strongly on their preferred temporal frequencies, whereas these preferences were independent in component-selective cells. Pattern direction selectivity is statistically associated with many response properties of MT cells but not strongly associated with any particular property. Pattern-selective signals are thus available in association with most other signals exported by MT. PMID:26561603

  11. Human area MT+ shows load-dependent activation during working memory maintenance with continuously morphing stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galashan, Daniela; Fehr, Thorsten; Kreiter, Andreas K; Herrmann, Manfred

    2014-07-11

    Initially, human area MT+ was considered a visual area solely processing motion information but further research has shown that it is also involved in various different cognitive operations, such as working memory tasks requiring motion-related information to be maintained or cognitive tasks with implied or expected motion.In the present fMRI study in humans, we focused on MT+ modulation during working memory maintenance using a dynamic shape-tracking working memory task with no motion-related working memory content. Working memory load was systematically varied using complex and simple stimulus material and parametrically increasing retention periods. Activation patterns for the difference between retention of complex and simple memorized stimuli were examined in order to preclude that the reported effects are caused by differences in retrieval. Conjunction analysis over all delay durations for the maintenance of complex versus simple stimuli demonstrated a wide-spread activation pattern. Percent signal change (PSC) in area MT+ revealed a pattern with higher values for the maintenance of complex shapes compared to the retention of a simple circle and with higher values for increasing delay durations. The present data extend previous knowledge by demonstrating that visual area MT+ presents a brain activity pattern usually found in brain regions that are actively involved in working memory maintenance.

  12. A three-dimensional spatiotemporal receptive field model explains responses of area MT neurons to naturalistic movies

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    Nishimoto, Shinji; Gallant, Jack L.

    2012-01-01

    Area MT has been an important target for studies of motion processing. However, previous neurophysiological studies of MT have used simple stimuli that do not contain many of the motion signals that occur during natural vision. In this study we sought to determine whether views of area MT neurons developed using simple stimuli can account for MT responses under more naturalistic conditions. We recorded responses from macaque area MT neurons during stimulation with naturalistic movies. We then used a quantitative modeling framework to discover which specific mechanisms best predict neuronal responses under these challenging conditions. We find that the simplest model that accurately predicts responses of MT neurons consists of a bank of V1-like filters, each followed by a compressive nonlinearity, a divisive nonlinearity and linear pooling. Inspection of the fit models shows that the excitatory receptive fields of MT neurons tend to lie on a single plane within the three-dimensional spatiotemporal frequency domain, and suppressive receptive fields lie off this plane. However, most excitatory receptive fields form a partial ring in the plane and avoid low temporal frequencies. This receptive field organization ensures that most MT neurons are tuned for velocity but do not tend to respond to ambiguous static textures that are aligned with the direction of motion. In sum, MT responses to naturalistic movies are largely consistent with predictions based on simple stimuli. However, models fit using naturalistic stimuli reveal several novel properties of MT receptive fields that had not been shown in prior experiments. PMID:21994372

  13. Sensory integration dynamics in a hierarchical network explains choice probabilities in cortical area MT.

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    Wimmer, Klaus; Compte, Albert; Roxin, Alex; Peixoto, Diogo; Renart, Alfonso; de la Rocha, Jaime

    2015-02-04

    Neuronal variability in sensory cortex predicts perceptual decisions. This relationship, termed choice probability (CP), can arise from sensory variability biasing behaviour and from top-down signals reflecting behaviour. To investigate the interaction of these mechanisms during the decision-making process, we use a hierarchical network model composed of reciprocally connected sensory and integration circuits. Consistent with monkey behaviour in a fixed-duration motion discrimination task, the model integrates sensory evidence transiently, giving rise to a decaying bottom-up CP component. However, the dynamics of the hierarchical loop recruits a concurrently rising top-down component, resulting in sustained CP. We compute the CP time-course of neurons in the medial temporal area (MT) and find an early transient component and a separate late contribution reflecting decision build-up. The stability of individual CPs and the dynamics of noise correlations further support this decomposition. Our model provides a unified understanding of the circuit dynamics linking neural and behavioural variability.

  14. [Spatial and temporal variability of nitrate contaminant in groundwater in Jinfo Mt. area, Chongqing, China].

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    Wu, Kun-Yu; Wang, Peng; Shen, Li-Cheng; Xiao, Qiong

    2011-11-01

    The geochemical background of nitrate in groundwater in Jinfo Mt. area was determined, and spatial and temporal variability of nitrate contaminant was analyzed using geochemical, statistical and GIS methods. Twenty-three samples were collected from groundwater discharge points in the study area during 1976-1977, 2004-2006 and 2009, and mass concentration of nitrate in groundwater was tested. The results showed that the geochemical background of nitrate in groundwater in study area was in the range of 0.72-2. 00 mg x L(-1), and the threshold of anomaly was 3.20 mg x L(-1). During 2004-2006 and 2009, the average values of nitrate concentration in groundwater in Jinfo Mt. natural reserve were 2.08, 2.67, 2.59 and 3.92 mg x L(-1); and were 39.08, 25.46, 17.99 and 13.73 mg x L(-1) in the groundwater out of the reserve; the average over-limit rates (standard limit NO3(-) -N groundwater in study area were changing over time, but districts with low nitrate concentration in groundwater in study area were distributed along Jinfo Mt. natural reserve. The application of environmental policy measures and industrial restructuring implemented were reasonable and successful, which had a positive effect to environmental protection.

  15. Effect of feature-selective attention on neuronal responses in macaque area MT

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    Chen, X.; Hoffmann, K.-P.; Albright, T. D.

    2012-01-01

    Attention influences visual processing in striate and extrastriate cortex, which has been extensively studied for spatial-, object-, and feature-based attention. Most studies exploring neural signatures of feature-based attention have trained animals to attend to an object identified by a certain feature and ignore objects/displays identified by a different feature. Little is known about the effects of feature-selective attention, where subjects attend to one stimulus feature domain (e.g., color) of an object while features from different domains (e.g., direction of motion) of the same object are ignored. To study this type of feature-selective attention in area MT in the middle temporal sulcus, we trained macaque monkeys to either attend to and report the direction of motion of a moving sine wave grating (a feature for which MT neurons display strong selectivity) or attend to and report its color (a feature for which MT neurons have very limited selectivity). We hypothesized that neurons would upregulate their firing rate during attend-direction conditions compared with attend-color conditions. We found that feature-selective attention significantly affected 22% of MT neurons. Contrary to our hypothesis, these neurons did not necessarily increase firing rate when animals attended to direction of motion but fell into one of two classes. In one class, attention to color increased the gain of stimulus-induced responses compared with attend-direction conditions. The other class displayed the opposite effects. Feature-selective activity modulations occurred earlier in neurons modulated by attention to color compared with neurons modulated by attention to motion direction. Thus feature-selective attention influences neuronal processing in macaque area MT but often exhibited a mismatch between the preferred stimulus dimension (direction of motion) and the preferred attention dimension (attention to color). PMID:22170961

  16. Hazard connected to tunnel construction in Mt Stena karstic area (Rosandra Valley, Classical Karst)

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    Cucchi, F.; Boschin, W.; Visintin, L.; Zini, L.

    2009-04-01

    Rosandra Valley -a unique geomorphological environment- is located in the western side of the Classical Karst plateau. This deep limestone gorge is crossed by a stream that is fed by a large basin located in Slovenia. Rosandra Valley is the only example of Classical Karst river valley with surface hydrography; the torrent digs a deep gully into the rock, rich in rapids, swirl holes, small waterfalls, enclosed meanders and basins; here, the first seepage phenomena occur, and part of the water feeds the underground aquifer. Rosandra Valley is theatre to complex structural situation; the NE slope culminates in the structure of Mt Stena, a limestone tectonic scale located between two faults and firmly rooted in the karst platform. Tectonics is quite important for the development of deep karst in this area; Mt Stena, in particular, hosts a comprehensive net of articulated and diversely shaped caves, basically organised on several levels, which stretches over a total of 9,000 metres, bearing testimony to ancient geological and hydrogeological origins. The deepest areas of the system reach a suspended aquifer that is probably sustained by an overthrust and placed about 100 meters above Rosandra torrent underground aquifer. During feasibility studies about Trieste-Divača high velocity railway link, interaction between project and karst features was examined; in fact the proximity of proposal project and Mt Stena karst system suggest to improve the knowledge related to karst and hydrogeological aspects of the massif. Compatibly with the project requirements, risk of voids intersection and water contamination were analyzed. In fact the Mt Stena suspended aquifer partially feeds Rosandra torrent which flows in a protected natural area. Karst features were represented in a 3D model in order to better understand the spatial relationship between railway project and karst system.

  17. Breeding status of Adelie and emperor penguins in the Mt. Riiser-Larsen area, Amundsen Bay

    OpenAIRE

    Kato,Akiko; Ichikawa,Hideo

    1999-01-01

    Adelie and emperor penguin colonies were surveyed in the south-western part of the Mt. Riiser-Larsen area, Amundsen Bay (66°47'S, 50°33'E) on 17 December 1996 by JARE-38. A total of 877 pairs of Adelie penguins were located nesting on a moraine field; most were incubating and some eggs had started hatching. The emperor penguin colony was on a frozen pond in ice-free area. There were 25 adults (including 3 molting birds), 2 immatures and 250 chicks in a creche.

  18. TEMPORAL AND SPATIAL ANALYSIS OF EXTREME RAINFALL ON THE SLOPE AREA OF MT. MERAPI

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    Dhian Dharma Prayuda

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Rainfall has temporal and spatial characteristics with certain pattern which are affected by topographic variations and climatology of an area. The intensity of extreme rainfall is one of important characteristics related to the trigger factors for debris flow. This research will discuss the result of analysis on short duration rainfall data in the south and west slope of Mt. Merapi. Measured hourly rainfall data in 14 rainfall stations for the last 27 years were used as analysis input. The rainfall intensity-duration-frequency relationship (IDF was derived using empirical formula of Sherman, Kimijima, Haspers, and Mononobe method. The analysis on the characteristics of extreme rainfall intensity was performed by conducting spatial interpolation using Inverse Distance Weighted (IDW method. Result of analysis shows that IDF of rainfall in the research area fits to Sherman’s formula. Besides, the spatial distribution pattern of maximum rainfall intensity was assessed on the basis of area rainfall. Furthermore, the difference on the result of spatial map for one hour extreme rainfall based on isolated event and non-isolated event method can be evaluated. The result of this preliminary research is expected to be inputs in the establishment of debris flow early warning in Mt. Merapi slope area.

  19. Following during physically-coupled joint action engages motion area MT+/V5.

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    Chauvigné, Léa A S; Belyk, Michel; Brown, Steven

    2017-01-01

    Interpersonal coordination during joint action depends on the perception of the partner's movements. In many such situations - for example, while moving furniture together or dancing a tango - there are kinesthetic interactions between the partners due to the forces shared between them that allow them to directly perceive one another's movements. Joint action of this type often involves a contrast between the roles of leader and follower, where the leader imparts forces onto the follower, and the follower has to be responsive to these force-cues during movement. We carried out a novel 2-person functional MRI study with trained couple dancers engaged in bimanual contact with an experimenter standing next to the bore of the magnet, where the two alternated between being the leader and follower of joint improvised movements, all with the eyes closed. One brain area that was unexpectedly more active during following than leading was the region of MT+/V5. While classically described as an area for processing visual motion, it has more recently been shown to be responsive to tactile motion as well. We suggest that MT+/V5 responds to motion based on force-cues during joint haptic interaction, most especially when a follower responds to force-cues coming from a leader's movements.

  20. Soil-gas radon analyses in the Mt. Rose and Lovelock areas, west-central Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramelli, A.R.; Rigby, J.G.; LaPointe, D.D.

    1993-01-01

    Soil-gas radon has been sampled and analyzed in two area of differing surficial geology in west-central Nevada. Elevated levels of indoor radon have been found in both area. The Mt. Rose alluvial fan complex, located just southwest of Reno, is an alluvial fan/pediment formed by flow from major drainages in the Carson Range. The surface of the Mt. Rose fan is dominated by glacial outwash deposits believed to be of Donner Lake and Tahoe age. These two units have somewhat differing lithologies and degrees of soil development. The Donner Lake outwash is dominated by volcanic clasts and typically has a thick argillic B-horizon and a moderately to strongly developed duripan. The Tahoe outwash has a mixture of volcanic and granitic clasts and typically has a thinner argillic B-horizon and no duripan. Soil-gas radon levels are generally higher in the Tahoe outwash, probably reflecting either greater emanation from granitic clasts or differences in soil gas permeability. Radon levels along Holocene faults cutting these outwash deposits are fairly typical for the study area and minor differences may be due to the faults' effects on soil gas permeability. Lovelock, about 90 miles northeast of Reno, is located within the Humboldt Sink, one of the lowest parts of the pluvial Lake Lahontan basin. Surficial geology in this area is dominated by fine-grained lacustrine deposits and overbank alluvium from the Humboldt River. During interpluvial periods, this is commonly a marshy area resulting from Humboldt River flow into the basin. Elevated radon levels are likely due to uranium accumulation in black, organic-rich clay layers

  1. Comparative mtDNA analyses of three sympatric macropodids from a conservation area on the Huon Peninsula, Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGreevy, Thomas J; Dabek, Lisa; Husband, Thomas P

    2016-07-01

    Matschie's tree kangaroo (Dendrolagus matschiei), New Guinea pademelon (Thylogale browni), and small dorcopsis (Dorcopsulus vanheurni) are sympatric macropodid taxa, of conservation concern, that inhabit the Yopno-Urawa-Som (YUS) Conservation Area on the Huon Peninsula, Papua New Guinea. We sequenced three partial mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genes from the three taxa to (i) investigate network structure; and (ii) identify conservation units within the YUS Conservation Area. All three taxa displayed a similar pattern in the spatial distribution of their mtDNA haplotypes and the Urawa and Som rivers on the Huon may have acted as a barrier to maternal gene flow. Matschie's tree kangaroo and New Guinea pademelon within the YUS Conservation Area should be managed as single conservation units because mtDNA nucleotides were not fixed for a given geographic area. However, two distinct conservation units were identified for small dorcopsis from the two different mountain ranges within the YUS Conservation Area.

  2. Two-dimensional map of direction selectivity in cortical visual area MT of Cebus monkey

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    ANTONIA CINIRA M. DIOGO

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available We studied the spatial organization of direction of motion in visual area MT of the Cebus apella monkey. We used arrays of 6 (700 µm apart parallel electrodes in penetrations tangential to the cortical layers to record multi-unit responses to moving bars, at 200 µm steps. We determined the direction selectivity at each recording site. The data from single penetrations showed cyclic and gradual changes in the direction selectivity of clusters of cells, intermixed with abrupt 180º discontinuities along the electrode track. In order to obtain maps of direction of motion selectivity, we examined the spatial distribution of direction of motion in MT and we applied a method to determine the location of the centers of radial arrangements of direction selectivity. This tangential organization is characterized by slow continuous changes in direction of motion, interrupted by discontinuities. The changes in direction selectivity are organized radially in a pinwheel fashion and in slabs of linear variation. The pinwheel arrangements have 800-1400 µm in diameter. The size of the radial arrangement is comparable to the point image size in area MT at each eccentricity.Estudamos a organização espacial da seletividade ao sentido do movimento na área visual MT do macaco Cebus apella. Utilizamos um arranjo de 6 eletródios paralelos (separados por 700µm em penetrações tangenciais às camadas corticais para registrar, a cada 200µm, a atividade multi-unitária em resposta a barras em movimento. Determinamos a seletividade ao sentido de movimento em cada sítio de registro. Os dados captados por um único eletródio mostraram uma mudança cíclica e gradual na seletividade ao sentido de movimento dos grupos de neurônios registrados ao longo da trajetória do eletródio, interrompida por mudanças abruptas de 180º ocasionando descontinuidades na seletividade ao sentido do movimento. Para obter mapas de seletividade ao sentido do movimento, examinamos a

  3. Assessment of radiation exposure around abandoned uranium mining area of Stara planina Mt., Serbia

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    Tanić Milan N.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to estimate the health and radiation hazard due to external irradiation from terrestrial radionuclides in the Stara planina Mt. region, which is important because of past uranium mining activities on the mountain. Soil samples were collected inside the flotation processing facilities, their surroundings and more distant locations, i.e. from areas considered certainly affected, potentially affected, and unaffected by former mining and uranium ore processing activities. The radiological and health risk assessments were done by calculating the six main parameters, based on the activity concentration of 238U, 232Th, and 40K in soil samples as determined by gamma-ray spectrometry. Increased values of the risk parameters were observed only for sites where uranium ore was processed, while the location surrounding these compounds showed values that are usual for this mountain or slightly above them. Calculations of the risk parameters for the background area showed no radiation risk for the local and seasonal population. The presence of U and Th was detected in all water samples from creeks surrounding the facilities, but only in the water from the facility drainage pipe did their concentration exceed the limits given for the uranium content in drinking water. In conclusion, the results obtained in this study fall within the range of values in similar studies conducted worldwide and are below the values which can cause a significant radiation hazard. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III43009 i br. III41005

  4. Characteristics of Honey from Serpentine Area in the Eastern Rhodopes Mt., Bulgaria.

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    Atanassova, Juliana; Pavlova, Dolja; Lazarova, Maria; Yurukova, Lilyana

    2016-09-01

    Honey samples collected during 2007-2010 from serpentine and non-serpentine localities in the Eastern Rhodopes Mt. (Bulgaria) were characterized on the basis of their pollen content by qualitative melissopalynological analysis and physicochemical composition. Water content, pH, electrical conductivity, macroelements-K, Ca, Mg, P, and microelements-As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, and Zn were determined after the Harmonised Methods of the International Honey Commission and ICP-AES method. The results from serpentine honey samples were compared with data from bee pollen collected from the same serpentine area. Different elements have different concentrations in honey from the same botanical type even collected from the same geographical region, same locality, and same beehive but in different vegetation season. The elements Mg, Mn, Ni, and P contribute mostly for separation of the serpentine honey samples based on measured elemental concentrations and performed principal component analysis. The element concentrations were higher in bee pollen and above the permissible limits for the toxic metals Cd and Pb. No specific indicator plant species was found for identification of the geographical origin of serpentine honey in relation to the forage of bees.

  5. No evidence of Neandertal mtDNA contribution to early modern humans.

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    David Serre

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available The retrieval of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA sequences from four Neandertal fossils from Germany, Russia, and Croatia has demonstrated that these individuals carried closely related mtDNAs that are not found among current humans. However, these results do not definitively resolve the question of a possible Neandertal contribution to the gene pool of modern humans since such a contribution might have been erased by genetic drift or by the continuous influx of modern human DNA into the Neandertal gene pool. A further concern is that if some Neandertals carried mtDNA sequences similar to contemporaneous humans, such sequences may be erroneously regarded as modern contaminations when retrieved from fossils. Here we address these issues by the analysis of 24 Neandertal and 40 early modern human remains. The biomolecular preservation of four Neandertals and of five early modern humans was good enough to suggest the preservation of DNA. All four Neandertals yielded mtDNA sequences similar to those previously determined from Neandertal individuals, whereas none of the five early modern humans contained such mtDNA sequences. In combination with current mtDNA data, this excludes any large genetic contribution by Neandertals to early modern humans, but does not rule out the possibility of a smaller contribution.

  6. Magnetic biomonitoring of roadside pollution in the restricted Midagahara area of Mt. Tateyama, Toyama, Japan.

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    Kawasaki, Kazuo; Horikawa, Keiji; Sakai, Hideo

    2017-04-01

    Magnetic biomonitoring techniques and in situ topsoil magnetic susceptibility measurements have been shown to be rapid, cost-effective, and useful methods for investigating roadside pollution. However, combustible vegetation in samples makes it very difficult to use them in high-temperature magnetic experiments although the thermal alteration of spontaneous magnetization is a fundamental magnetic property and can be used to identify reliably the magnetic minerals. Here, we report the first magnetic biomonitoring results of dust deposited on plant leaves along the Tateyama-Kurobe Alpine route at the highly protected Midagahara wetland areas of Mt. Tateyama in Toyama, Japan. In-field magnetic susceptibility from 15 sites (161 points) shows higher susceptibilities near the roadside. Dust deposited on the leaves of Sasa kurilensis, or dwarf bamboo, has been wiped off at 12 sites (64 samples) with a commercial ethanol wipe sheet or silica wool damped in ethanol and subjected to rock magnetic analyses. Thermomagnetic remanence curves and low-temperature behaviors for samples collected near the roadside using silica wool show clearly that the main magnetic mineral in the dust is partially oxidized magnetite. Further, detailed rock magnetic analyses and elemental analyses of leaves in the study area indicate that (a) the magnetic mineralogy on leaves' surface is consistent throughout the study area and (b) higher saturation isothermal remanent magnetization intensities as well as higher concentrations of Pb, Fe, Cr, and Y are observed near the roadside, i.e., the closer to the roadside, the more anthropogenic materials, including partially oxidized magnetite, are present. Also, microscopic observations show the lack of spherical grains, indicating that dust on the roadside leaves is derived from passing vehicle rather than industrial process. Both rock magnetic and geochemical results show that S. kurilensis would be an excellent candidate for investigating air pollution

  7. Evolutionary neutrality of mtDNA introgression: evidence from complete mitogenome analysis in roe deer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matosiuk, M; Sheremetyeva, I N; Sheremetyev, I S; Saveljev, A P; Borkowska, A

    2014-11-01

    Introgressive hybridization offers a unique platform for studying the molecular basis of natural selection acting on mitogenomes. Most of the mtDNA protein-coding genes are extremely conserved; however, some of the observed variations have potentially adaptive significance. Here, we evaluated whether the evolution of mtDNA in closely related roe deer species affected by widespread mtDNA introgression is neutral or adaptive. We characterized and compared 16 complete mitogenomes of European (Capreolus capreolus) and Siberian (C. pygargus) roe deer, including four of Siberian origin introgressed into European species. The average sequence divergence of species-specific lineages was estimated at 2.8% and varied across gene classes. Only 21 of 315 fixed differences identified in protein-coding genes represented nonsynonymous changes. Only three of them were determined to have arisen in the C. pygargus lineage since the time to the most recent common ancestor (TMRCA) of both Capreolus species, reflecting a decelerated evolutionary ratio. The almost four-fold higher dN /dS ratio described for the European roe deer lineage is constrained by overall purifying selection, especially pronounced in the ND4 and ND5 genes. We suggest that the highly divergent C. capreolus lineage could have maintained a capability for genomic incorporation of the well-preserved and almost ancestral type of mtDNA present in C. pygargus. Our analyses did not indicate any signs of positive selection for Siberian roe deer mtDNA, suggesting that the present widespread introgression is evolutionarily neutral. © 2014 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2014 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  8. Long-term monitoring of atmospheric total gaseous mercury (TGM) at a remote site in Mt. Changbai area, northeastern China

    OpenAIRE

    X. W. Fu; X. Feng; L. H. Shang; S. F. Wang; H. Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Total gaseous mercury (TGM) was continuously monitored at a remote site (CBS) in the Mt. Changbai area, northeastern China biennially from 24 October 2008 to 31 October 2010. The overall mean TGM concentration was 1.60 ± 0.51 ng m−3, which is lower than those reported from remote sites in eastern, southwestern and western China, indicating a relatively low regional anthropogenic mercury (Hg) emission intensity in northeastern China. Measurements at a site in ...

  9. Two years of measurements of atmospheric total gaseous mercury (TGM) at a remote site in Mt. Changbai area, Northeastern China

    OpenAIRE

    X. W. Fu; X. Feng; L. H. Shang; S. F. Wang; H. Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Total gaseous mercury (TGM) was continuously monitored at a remote site (CBS) in Mt. Changbai area, Northeastern China from 24 October 2008 to 31 October 2010. The overall mean TGM concentration was 1.60±0.51 ng m−3, which is lower than those reported from remote sites in Eastern, Southwestern, and Western China, indicating a relatively lower regional anthropogenic mercury (Hg) emission intensity in Northeastern China. Measurements at a site in the vicinity (...

  10. Internucleotide correlations and nucleotide periodicity in Drosophila mtDNA: New evidence for panselective evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Y Valenzuela

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis for the homogeneity of the distribution of the second base of dinucleotides in relation to the first, whose bases are separated by 0, 1, 2,... 21 nucleotide sites, was performed with the VIH-1 genome (cDNA, the Drosophila mtDNA, the Drosophila Torso gene and the human p-globin gene. These four DNA segments showed highly significant heterogeneities of base distributions that cannot be accounted for by neutral or nearly neutral evolution or by the "neighbor influence" of nucleotides on mutation rates. High correlations are found in the bases of dinucleotides separated by 0, 1 and more number of sites. A periodicity of three consecutive significance values (measured by the x²9 was found only in Drosophila mtDNA. This periodicity may be due to an unknown structure or organization of mtDNA. This non-random distribution of the two bases of dinucleotides widespread throughout these DNA segments is rather compatible with panselective evolution and generalized internucleotide co-adaptation.

  11. Major Population Expansion of East Asians Began before Neolithic Time: Evidence of mtDNA Genomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Zhen-Dong; Wang, Yi; Tan, Jing-Ze; Li, Hui; Jin, Li

    2011-01-01

    It is a major question in archaeology and anthropology whether human populations started to grow primarily after the advent of agriculture, i.e., the Neolithic time, especially in East Asia, which was one of the centers of ancient agricultural civilization. To answer this question requires an accurate estimation of the time of lineage expansion as well as that of population expansion in a population sample without ascertainment bias. In this study, we analyzed all available mtDNA genomes of East Asians ascertained by random sampling, a total of 367 complete mtDNA sequences generated by the 1000 Genome Project, including 249 Chinese (CHB, CHD, and CHS) and 118 Japanese (JPT). We found that major mtDNA lineages underwent expansions, all of which, except for two JPT-specific lineages, including D4, D4b2b, D4a, D4j, D5a2a, A, N9a, F1a1'4, F2, B4, B4a, G2a1 and M7b1'2'4, occurred before 10 kya, i.e., before the Neolithic time (symbolized by Dadiwan Culture at 7.9 kya) in East Asia. Consistent to this observation, the further analysis showed that the population expansion in East Asia started at 13 kya and lasted until 4 kya. The results suggest that the population growth in East Asia constituted a need for the introduction of agriculture and might be one of the driving forces that led to the further development of agriculture. PMID:21998705

  12. Evidences of dynamic stress transfer at Mt. Etna volcano by regional and teleseismic earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannata, Andrea; di Grazia, Giuseppe; Montalto, Placido; Aliotta, Marco; Patanè, Domenico

    2010-05-01

    Influences of distant earthquakes on volcanic systems by dynamic stress transfer are well documented. We analysed seismic signals and volcanic activity at Mt. Etna during time periods characterised by strong regional and teleseismic earthquakes. Two periods, January 2006 and May 2008 showed variations clearly time-related to distant earthquakes. In the first period, characterised by mild volcano activity, the effect of the dynamic stress transfer, caused by a Greek earthquake (M=6.8), was duplex: i) banded tremor activity, whose source is generally related to the existence of a shallow hydrothermal system, changed its features and almost disappeared; ii) a swarm of volcano-tectonic earthquakes with focal depth of 10-15 km b.s.l. took place. The changes of the banded tremor were related to variations in parameters, such as heat and steam flows, permeability and porosity of the rocks, likely caused by weak dynamic stresses. On the other hand, VT earthquake swarm probably developed as a secondary process, promoted by the dynamically triggered activation of magmatic fluids. The second period, May 2008, showed an intense explosive activity. During this time interval the dynamic stress transfer, related to the arrival of the seismic waves of the Sichuan earthquake (M=7.9), affected the features of the seismo-volcanic signals and triggered an eruption on the following day. In particular, we observed a gradual decrease of volcanic tremor amplitude, just after the arrival of the teleseismic waves, related to tremor source shift, and an increase of both occurrence rate and energy of long period events. In this case, we suggest that dynamic stress transfer caused buildup of pressure in magma bodies, that was highlighted by the increase of LP activity. On the following day such increasing overpressure led to an eruption. In conclusion, phenomena of dynamic stress transfer have been recognized at Mt. Etna able to modify the state of the volcano. However, uncertainties still

  13. Overview of physical oceanographic measurements taken during the Mt. Mitchell Cruise to the ROPME Sea Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, R.M.

    1993-03-31

    The ROPME Sea Area (RSA) is one of the most important commercial waterways in the world. However, the number of direct oceanographic observations is small. An international program to study the effect of the Iraqi oil spill on the environment was sponsored by the ROPME, the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission, and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA).

  14. Overview of physical oceanographic measurements taken during the Mt. Mitchell Cruise to the ROPME Sea Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynolds, R.M.

    1993-01-01

    The ROPME Sea Area (RSA) is one of the most important commercial waterways in the world. However, the number of direct oceanographic observations is small. An international program to study the effect of the Iraqi oil spill on the environment was sponsored by the ROPME, the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission, and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)

  15. Northwest Geothermal Corp. 's (NGC) plan of exploration, Mt. Hood Area, Clackamas County, Oregon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-05-01

    The Area Geothermal Supervisor (AGS) received a Plan of Operations (POO) from Northwest Geothermal Corporation (NGC) on 2/12/80. In the POO, NGC proposed two operations: testing and abandoning an existing 1219 meter (m) geothermal temperature gradient hole, designated as OMF No. 1, and drilling and testing a new 1524 m geothermal exploratory hole, to be designated as OMF No. 7A. The POO was amended on 5/6/80, to provide for the use of an imp

  16. EVALUATION OF DISASTER MITIGATION SYSTEM AGAINST LAHAR FLOW OF PUTIH RIVER, MT. MERAPI AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Maksal Saputra

    2013-05-01

    Result of the evaluation shows that the existing early warning system does not produce sufficient time for the sand miners to save themselves. The proposed solution is to divide sand mine area in Putih River into 3 zones, each zone has different procedure of the early warning and evacuation. This is arranged to avoid casualties to the sand miners. Keywords: Lahar flood, sand miners, early warning.

  17. FY 1991 report on the survey of geothermal development promotion. Attached data. Electromagnetic exploration (High accuracy MT method) (No.38 - West area of Mt. Aso); Chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa chijo chosa hokokusho futai shiryo. 1991 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa - Denji tansa (Koseido MT ho) hokokusho (No.38 Asosan seibu chiiki - Tenpu shiryo)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-12-01

    As a part of the survey of geothermal development promotion in FY 1991, electromagnetic exploration by the high accuracy MT method was conducted to acquire the information on the geothermal structure in the west area of Mt. Aso, Kumamoto Prefecture. The detailed data were arranged as the data attached to the report on the electromagnetic exploration. As the attached data, included were the results of the 1D analysis (measuring/analysis {rho}a-F chart, analytic structure drawing), results of the 1D analysis (numerical list of the apparent resistivity analytic value and inverse analytic value) and numerical list of the apparent resistivity measured value. (NEDO)

  18. Long-term monitoring of atmospheric total gaseous mercury (TGM) at a remote site in Mt. Changbai area, northeastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, X. W.; Feng, X.; Shang, L. H.; Wang, S. F.; Zhang, H.

    2012-02-01

    Total gaseous mercury (TGM) was continuously monitored at a remote site (CBS) in the Mt. Changbai area, northeastern China biennially from 24 October 2008 to 31 October 2010. The overall mean TGM concentration was 1.60 ± 0.51 ng m-3, which is lower than those reported from remote sites in eastern, southwestern and western China, indicating a relatively low regional anthropogenic mercury (Hg) emission intensity in northeastern China. Measurements at a site in the vicinity (~1.2 km) of the CBS station during August 2005 and July 2006 showed a significantly higher mean TGM concentration of 3.58 ± 1.78 ng m-3. The divergent result was partially attributed to fluctuations in the regional surface wind system and moreover an effect of local emission sources. The temporal variation of TGM at CBS was obviously influenced by regional sources as well as long-range transported Hg. Regional sources, frequently contributing to episodical high TGM concentrations, were pinpointed as a large iron mining district in northern North Korea and two large power plants and urban areas to the southwest of the sampling site. Source areas in Beijing, Tianjin, southern Liaoning, Hebei, northwestern Shanxi and northwestern Shandong were found to contribute to elevated TGM observations at CBS via long-range transport. The diurnal pattern of TGM at CBS was mainly regulated by regional sources, likely as well as intrusion of air masses from the free troposphere during summer season. There are no discernible seasonal pattern of TGM at CBS, which mainly showed links with the patterns of regional air movements and long-range transport.

  19. Two years of measurements of atmospheric total gaseous mercury (TGM at a remote site in Mt. Changbai area, Northeastern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. W. Fu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Total gaseous mercury (TGM was continuously monitored at a remote site (CBS in Mt. Changbai area, Northeastern China from 24 October 2008 to 31 October 2010. The overall mean TGM concentration was 1.60±0.51 ng m−3, which is lower than those reported from remote sites in Eastern, Southwestern, and Western China, indicating a relatively lower regional anthropogenic mercury (Hg emission intensity in Northeastern China. Measurements at a site in the vicinity (~1.2 km of CBS station from August 2005 to July 2006 showed a significantly higher mean TGM concentration of 3.58±1.78 ng m−3. The divergent result was partially attributed to fluctuations in the relatively frequencies of surface winds during the two study periods and moreover an effect of local emission sources. The temporal variation of TGM at CBS was influenced by regional sources as well as long-range transported Hg. Regional sources frequently contributing to episodical high TGM concentrations were pin-pointed as a large iron mining district in Northern North Korea and two large power plants and urban areas to the southwest of the sampling site. Source areas in Beijing, Tianjin, southern Liaoning, Hebei, northwestern Shanxi, and northwestern Shandong were found to contribute to elevated TGM observations at CBS via long-range transport. Diurnal pattern of TGM at CBS was mainly controlled by regional sources, likely as well as intrusion of air masses from the free troposphere during summer season. There are no consistent seasonal pattern of TGM at CBS, and the monthly TGM variations showed links with the patterns of regional air movements and long-range transport.

  20. Two years of measurements of atmospheric total gaseous mercury (TGM) at a remote site in Mt. Changbai area, Northeastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, X. W.; Feng, X.; Shang, L. H.; Wang, S. F.; Zhang, H.

    2012-05-01

    Total gaseous mercury (TGM) was continuously monitored at a remote site (CBS) in Mt. Changbai area, Northeastern China from 24 October 2008 to 31 October 2010. The overall mean TGM concentration was 1.60±0.51 ng m-3, which is lower than those reported from remote sites in Eastern, Southwestern, and Western China, indicating a relatively lower regional anthropogenic mercury (Hg) emission intensity in Northeastern China. Measurements at a site in the vicinity (~1.2 km) of CBS station from August 2005 to July 2006 showed a significantly higher mean TGM concentration of 3.58±1.78 ng m-3. The divergent result was partially attributed to fluctuations in the relatively frequencies of surface winds during the two study periods and moreover an effect of local emission sources. The temporal variation of TGM at CBS was influenced by regional sources as well as long-range transported Hg. Regional sources frequently contributing to episodical high TGM concentrations were pin-pointed as a large iron mining district in Northern North Korea and two large power plants and urban areas to the southwest of the sampling site. Source areas in Beijing, Tianjin, southern Liaoning, Hebei, northwestern Shanxi, and northwestern Shandong were found to contribute to elevated TGM observations at CBS via long-range transport. Diurnal pattern of TGM at CBS was mainly controlled by regional sources, likely as well as intrusion of air masses from the free troposphere during summer season. There are no consistent seasonal pattern of TGM at CBS, and the monthly TGM variations showed links with the patterns of regional air movements and long-range transport.

  1. 78 FR 33047 - Humboldt-Toiyabe National Forest, Carson Ranger District Mt. Rose Ski Tahoe-Atoma Area...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-03

    ... conjunction with the proposed Atoma Pod a raised, vegetated buffer between the Mt. Rose Highway and new skiing... preserving/avoiding known resources of importance (e.g., wetlands, cultural resources, and healthy, large and...

  2. Phenology of two Siparuna guianensis Aublet woods of environmental conservation areas in Cuiabá-MT (Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Maria Abido Valentini

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The negramina (Siparuna guianensis Aublet belonging to the family Siparunaceae, is a species widely used in Mato Grosso, Brazil, as a bath for treatment of flu, headache, rheumatism and "malina", but little is known about their breeding and domestication. The objective of this study was to investigate the phenology of the species to determine the intensities of the fall foliage in the canopy, budding, flowering and fruiting in order to support the best time to collect seeds and cuttings for ex situ breeding. The phenological aspects of S. guianensis were obtained through observation biweekly 40 individuals in two areas of environmental conservation located in Cuiaba-MT, between August 2007 and July 2009. The region presents a clear seasonal climate with two distinct seasons: a dry (autumn-winter and rainy (spring-summer, and 70% of the average annual precipitation from 1250 to 1500 mm occurs between November and March. We analyzed the activity indices, intensity and synchrony to the phenological events in relation to climatic seasonality. It was concluded that in both places the behavior of S. guianensis had similar patterns, being an evergreen species, with greater loss of leaves during the dry season, his shooting occurred throughout the year, with peak activity and intensity at the end of the rainy season, there was intense flowering in the transition between the dry and rainy, and the fruiting period occurred only during the rainy season. For the flowering phenophase there was a high synchrony between individuals from both locations. It is suggested for breeding ex situ collection of cuttings at the end of the rainy season, time of intense vegetative growth, and the seeds during the rainy season.

  3. [Identification of Taenia saginata by mtCO I in four areas of Yunnan and Guizhou provinces].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zheng-rong; Bao, Huai-en

    2003-01-01

    To identify the types of Taenia saginata isolated from Dali of Yunnan Province, and from Duyun and Congjiang of Guizhou Province. Genomic DNA was isolated, and the mitochondrial cytochrome C oxidase subunit I (mtCO I) genes were amplified by polymerase chain reaction(PCR) and analyzed by PHYLIP software package. The mtCO I gene sequences of Lanping sample were identical to that of T. saginata asiatica known in Taiwan, and the samples obtained from Dali and Duyun showed the same mtCO I gene sequences, while the sample from Congjiang had the same mtCO I gene sequences as T. saginata. The homology between these two groups of gene sequences was 97.44%, while the homology of amino acid sequences reached to 99.16%. The constructed phylogenetic tree revealed that the relationship between T. saginata asiatica and T. saginata is closer, both are distant relative to T. solium and other species of cestodes. The Taenia prevalent in Lanping, Dali and Duyun is identified as T. saginata asiatica, while that isolated in Congjiang is the typical T. saginata.

  4. SEDIMENTARY LOW-MANGANESE HEMATITE DEPOSITS OF THE BUKOVICA AREA IN THE NORTHWESTERN MT. PETROVA GORA, CENTRAL CROATIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milivoj Čop

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Middle-Permian Gröden deposits crop out on the surface of 0.8 km in the Bukovica area and on the surface of 0.8 km2 in the Mt. Loskun-jska gora in the NW part of the Petrova gora Mountain. One half of the Bukovica Gröden deposits contains in its lowest parts 1 to 5 m (in average 2.5 m thick hematite bed cutted in blocks by NE-SW stretch¬ing vertical, normal and reverse faults. The hematite bed is unconfor-mably underlain by Lower Permian quartz-wackes (subgraywackes intercalated with shales intercalations. Ore deposit is explored by 308 boreholes (10509 m and by numerous adits, inclines and crosscuts on the underground surface of 0.4 km2 . From 1936 to 1941 and from 1953 to 1969 has been exploited 183000 t of ore with (in wt %: 34.0 Si02, 2.9 Al2O3; 59.0 Fe203; 0.15 MnO; 0.7 CaO; 0.4 MgO; 0.1 P, 0.37 S; 1.25 l.o. ign. Proven remaining ore reserves are 250.000 t. Paragenesis is investigated by microscopy of thin and polished sections, XRD, DTA, AAS analyses and by sedimentological analyses. Paragenesis major minerals are of hematite and quartz, with subordinate stable litho-clasts, muscovite (sericite and scarce kaolinite, calcite, dolomite, and barite. Accessories are zircon, rutile, tourmaline, amphibole, garnet, apatite. Epigenetic veinlets and small nests are built up of quartz or calcite as the main neominerals associated with siderite, barite, kaolinite, pyrite, gypsum. Iron from the Bukovica hematite ore origi¬nated by land weathering during hot climate and transported by rivers and underground waters deposited in river beds, in flood plains and in shallow sea. Precipitation of the Bukovica iron ores took place after the Saalic orogenetic phase. At Hrastno (SE Slovenia and at Rude nearby Samobor (Croatia, similar hematite deposits were found.

  5. DEBRIS FLOW DISASTER MITIGATION THROUGH COMMUNITY-BASED INTEGRATED SEDIMENT MANAGEMENT (BEST PRACTICE IN MT. MERAPI AREA, INDONESIA)

    OpenAIRE

    Otani, Kazuhiko; Suharyanto, Suharyanto

    2015-01-01

    Mt. Merapi is one of many active volcanoes in Indonesia which erupts frequently. The small eruption occurred nearly every year, whereas the big ones occurred at approximately once every five years. The eruption often produces impacts at both positive and negative view points, such as production of sediment as construction material and damage on infrastructures due to debris flow occurrences respectively. The eruption produces two types of disasters, i.e. primary disaster (such as ash fall, py...

  6. Deconvolving the process-origin of sediments on volcanic mountains and implications for paleoclimatic reconstruction: Mt Ruapehu area, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook, Martin; Winkler, Stefan

    2016-04-01

    Glaciation on the central North Island of New Zealand is limited to the volcanoes of Tongariro National Park, including Mt Ruapehu, the largest and most active andesitic stratovolcano on the North Island. At 2797 m asl, Mt Ruapehu represents the only peak in the North Island to currently intercept the permanent snowline, with small cirque glaciers descending to an altitude of ~2300 m. During the last glacial maximum (LGM), small ice-caps existed on Mt Ruapehu and the Tongariro Massif (15 km to the NNE of Ruapehu), with a series of small (clast roundness, clast shape and textural characteristics associated with active and former glaciers on Mt Ruaephu and the Tongariro Massif, in order to assist in classifying the process-origin of sediments on glaciated volcanic mountains. Supraglacial inputs include rockfall, tephra, and avalanche material delivered to the surface of glaciers. Basal debris, where observed at the terminus of active cirque glaciers, consists mainly of incorporated fluvial material. Following deposition, reworking is mainly by proglacial streams, debris flows and lahars. Within the vicinity of glaciers, the dominant facies appear to be: (i) bouldery gravel with angular clasts on steep slopes surrounding glaciers, (ii) silty-sandy boulder gravel, with mainly subangular clasts, forming lateral moraines, (iii) boulder/cobble gravel with mainly subrounded clasts and associated laminated sediments representing fluvially-reworked material; and (iv) debris-avalanche deposits including fragmental rock clasts with an unsorted inter-clast matrix. As some of these deposits appear to include unambiguous indicators of glacial transport, interpretation of unconsolidated debris ridges on volcanic mountains should not necessarily exclude the contribution of glacial processes.

  7. MtDNA COI-COII marker and drone congregation area: an efficient method to establish and monitor honeybee (Apis mellifera L.) conservation centres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, Bénédicte; Alburaki, Mohamed; Legout, Hélène; Moulin, Sibyle; Mougel, Florence; Garnery, Lionel

    2015-05-01

    Honeybee subspecies have been affected by human activities in Europe over the past few decades. One such example is the importation of nonlocal subspecies of bees which has had an adverse impact on the geographical repartition and subsequently on the genetic diversity of the black honeybee Apis mellifera mellifera. To restore the original diversity of this local honeybee subspecies, different conservation centres were set up in Europe. In this study, we established a black honeybee conservation centre Conservatoire de l'Abeille Noire d'Ile de France (CANIF) in the region of Ile-de-France, France. CANIF's honeybee colonies were intensively studied over a 3-year period. This study included a drone congregation area (DCA) located in the conservation centre. MtDNA COI-COII marker was used to evaluate the genetic diversity of CANIF's honeybee populations and the drones found and collected from the DCA. The same marker (mtDNA) was used to estimate the interactions and the haplotype frequency between CANIF's honeybee populations and 10 surrounding honeybee apiaries located outside of the CANIF. Our results indicate that the colonies of the conservation centre and the drones of the DCA show similar stable profiles compared to the surrounding populations with lower level of introgression. The mtDNA marker used on both DCA and colonies of the conservation centre seems to be an efficient approach to monitor and maintain the genetic diversity of the protected honeybee populations. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Petrology and Geochemistry of Peridotite xenoliths in Miocene alkaline basalt near the Mt. Baekdu area at the Eastern margin of the Eurasian Plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, E.; Park, G.; Yang, K.

    2017-12-01

    Peridotite xenoliths in intraplate Miocene alkaline basalt from Mt. Baekdu (also known as Changbaishan) on the border area between the Korean Peninsula and China are investigated. The studied Mt. Baekdu peridotite xenoliths are anhydrous and mainly coarse-grained, protogranular spinel lherzolites. These xenoliths have late-stage orthopyroxene replacing olivine as the metasomatic mineral and glass phases along the grain boundaries. The xenoliths are characterized by high Mg#(90-92) in olivine, orthopyroxene and clinopyroxene, and variable Cr#(11-29) of spinel. Calculated equilibrium temperatures and oxygen fugacities are 920 1050° and ΔlogfO2(FMQ)=-0.8 0.2, respectively. Based on available major element data, the studied xenoliths are similar to those from the abyssal peridotites. Rare earth element (REE) in clinopyroxenes display two patterns. (1) light REE-depleted [(La/Yb)N=0.1˜0.2, (La/Ce)N=0.4˜0.8]; (2) light REE-enriched [(La/Yb)N=2.2˜3.8, (La/Ce)N=1.2˜1.6). Trace element data show negative anomaly in Ba, Pb, Ta-Nb and Zr-Hf. The textural and geochemical characteristics suggest that the Mt. Baekdu peridotite xenoliths represent residues left after variable degrees of melt extraction (less than 15 vol%), which was subsequently subjected to different degrees of modal/cryptic metasomatism by slab-derived silica- and LREE-enriched fluids(or melts).

  9. Investigation report on promotion of geothermal development. No. A-4, Mt. Kunbetsu area; Chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa hokokusho. No.A-4 Kunbetsudake chiiki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    This paper summarizes the results of investigations in the Mt. Kunbetsu area out of the investigations on promotion of geothermal development having been performed during the period from 1998 to 1999. The investigated area is an area located in the eastern Hokkaido with an area of about 300 km{sup 2}. The wide area investigation has discussed possibilities of existence of geothermal resources mainly from existence of high-temperature anomalies. The investigation has performed the following activities: fluid geochemical investigations on ten spring water sources, three spring gas sources, and five surface water points; gravity exploration at 153 measuring points; electromagnetic exploration at 52 measuring points; excavation of two heat flow rate wells (to depths of 997m and 995m), temperature logging, core cuttings tests, thermal hot water survey; other fluid inclusions tests, rock alteration age measurement; and temperature logging at Ryuun Shiretoko Spa. As a result of the investigations, it was estimated that, as the geothermal system model, the heat source is assumed to exist at a great depth below Mt. Kaibetsu; the spring water and the mineral spring water show diverse spring qualities because of mixing of meteoric water with fossil sea water; the fossil sea water and the meteoric water have been heated by thermal conduction; and the high-temperature zone is not spread to the positions of the investigation wells. (NEDO)

  10. Magneto-telluric (MT) results in a deep sedimentary basin and contact area of geological provinces, Mendoza, Argentina; Resultados de MT en cuenca sedimentaria profunda y area de contacto de provincias geologicas, Mendoza, Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mamani, Manoel; Trad, Daniel; Moyano, Carlos; Castiglione, Bibiana [Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    1995-12-31

    Three magnetotelluric soundings were carried out in the Triassic sedimentary basin in the northern part of province of Mendoza, Argentina (33{sup 0} C S - 69{sup 0} C W). The results show strata thickness and resistivity of the basement where underground water deposits (Quaternary) could be exploited; beneath these underground water deposits, there`s the Tertiary stratum, at about 2000 mt and with low resistivity. The presence of a conductive layer at an average depth of 9.5 km, would indicate the overthrust zone between the geologic provinces of Precordillera and Sierras Pampeanas. This contact has been determined near the working sites by deep reflection seismic. This result allows the search of this conductive layer intercalated along the orogenic front of the Precordillera towards both directions (North and South) from the sites under study. (author). 5 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  11. Report on the geothermal development promotion survey. No.B-6. Mt. Tsujinodake area; Chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa hokokusho. No. B-6 Tsujinodake chiiki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    The paper summed up the results of the geothermal development promotion survey B 'Mt. Tsujinodake area' which was carried out at Yamagawa town, Ibusuki county, Kagoshima prefecture, from FY 1997 to FY 1999. In the survey, the following were conducted: surface survey such as geology/alteration zone survey, fluid geochemical survey, gravity exploration and electromagnetic exploration, and geothermal fluid survey by drilling 4 structural testing boreholes. In the Mt. Tsujinodake area, active fumarolic activities are still now continuing around the Unagi hot spring in the north, and the acidic alteration zone is distributed in the peripheral surface area. In Borehole N11-TD-2 in the north, it is assumed that there exists the hydrothermal bed of a temperature of approximately 230 degrees C in the depth of 400-800m, which is comparatively shallow, and that the stored geothermal water flows laterally. In the central area, a hydrothermal bed of a temperature of approximately 130 degrees C was confirmed in N11-TD-1, but it is judged that chances of the existence of high temperature hydrothermal bed are not very good. In N11-TD-3 in the south, the existence of promising heat sources is expected in the deeper part since the remarkable alteration was seen in the depth of 1,435m or deeper, and the sharp rise in temperature was recognized. (NEDO)

  12. Metastability exchange optical pumping in 3He gas up to 30 mT. Efficiency measurements and evidence of laser-induced nuclear relaxation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batz, Marion

    2011-01-01

    Advances in metastability exchange optical pumping (MEOP) of 3 He at high laser powers, with its various applications, but also at high gas pressures p 3 and high magnetic field strengths B, have provided strong motivation for revisiting the understanding and for investigating the limitations of this powerful technique. For this purpose, we present systematic experimental and theoretical studies of efficiency and of relaxation mechanisms in B≤30 mT and p 3 =0.63-2.45 mbar. 3 He nuclear polarisation is measured by light absorption in longitudinal configuration where weak light beams at 1083 nm parallel to magnetic field and cell axis with opposite circular polarisations are used to probe the distribution of populations in the metastable state. This method is systematically tested to evaluate potential systematic biases and is shown to be reliable for the study of OP dynamics despite the redistribution of populations by OP light. Nuclear polarisation loss associated to the emission of polarised light by the plasma discharge used for MEOP is found to decrease above 10 mT, as expected, due to hyperfine decoupling in highly excited states. However, this does not lead to improved MEOP efficiency at high laser power. We find clear evidence of additional laser-induced relaxation instead. The strong OP-enhanced polarisation losses, currently limiting MEOP performances, are quantitatively investigated using an angular momentum budget approach and a recently developed comprehensive model that describes the combined effects of OP, ME and relaxation, validated by comparison to experimental results.

  13. DEBRIS FLOW DISASTER MITIGATION THROUGH COMMUNITY-BASED INTEGRATED SEDIMENT MANAGEMENT (BEST PRACTICE IN MT. MERAPI AREA, INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuhiko Otani

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Mt. Merapi is one of many active volcanoes in Indonesia which erupts frequently. The small eruption occurred nearly every year, whereas the big ones occurred at approximately once every five years. The eruption often produces impacts at both positive and negative view points, such as production of sediment as construction material and damage on infrastructures due to debris flow occurrences respectively. The eruption produces two types of disasters, i.e. primary disaster (such as ash fall, pyroclastic flow, and lava flow, and secondary disaster such as debris flow. This paper presents the long term effort on the development of community participation in the sand mining management as one of strategic disaster mitigation activities. The raising awareness of the community on the necessity of conducting proper sand mining management and its effect on reducing the risk due to debris flow disaster has shown the effectives of the approach being introduced. The local government acceptance on the presence of the community participation in the whole system of sediment management may involve further collaboration between the local government authority and community society in the future.

  14. The earliest settlers' antiquity and evolutionary history of Indian populations: evidence from M2 mtDNA lineage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotal M

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The "out of Africa" model postulating single "southern route" dispersal posits arrival of "Anatomically Modern Human" to Indian subcontinent around 66–70 thousand years before present (kyBP. However the contributions and legacy of these earliest settlers in contemporary Indian populations, owing to the complex past population dynamics and later migrations has been an issue of controversy. The high frequency of mitochondrial lineage "M2" consistent with its greater age and distribution suggests that it may represent the phylogenetic signature of earliest settlers. Accordingly, we attempted to re-evaluate the impact and contribution of earliest settlers in shaping the genetic diversity and structure of contemporary Indian populations; using our newly sequenced 72 and 4 published complete mitochondrial genomes of this lineage. Results The M2 lineage, harbouring two deep rooting subclades M2a and M2b encompasses approximately one tenth of the mtDNA pool of studied tribes. The phylogeographic spread and diversity indices of M2 and its subclades among the tribes of different geographic regions and linguistic phyla were investigated in detail. Further the reconstructed demographic history of M2 lineage as a surrogate of earliest settlers' component revealed that the demographic events with pronounced regional variations had played pivotal role in shaping the complex net of populations phylogenetic relationship in Indian subcontinent. Conclusion Our results suggest that tribes of southern and eastern region along with Dravidian and Austro-Asiatic speakers of central India are the modern representatives of earliest settlers of subcontinent. The Last Glacial Maximum aridity and post LGM population growth mechanised some sort of homogeneity and redistribution of earliest settlers' component in India. The demic diffusion of agriculture and associated technologies around 3 kyBP, which might have marginalized hunter-gatherer, is

  15. Report on the geothermal development promotion survey. No.38. Mt. Aso West area; Chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa hokokusho. No. 38 Asozan seibu chiiki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    The paper summed up the results of the geothermal development promotion survey 'Mt. Aso West area' which was carried out at Choyo village and Kugino village, Aso county, and at Otsu town, Kikuchi county, Kumamoto prefecture, from FY 1991 to FY 1994. In the survey, the following were conducted for the comprehensive analysis: surface survey such as geology/alteration zone survey, geochemical survey and high precision MT method survey, and temperature log, electrical log, water injection test, core test and hydrothermal survey by drilling 7 structural boreholes. In the numerical analysis of thermal structure models, the present geothermal manifestation was obtained, assuming that the past magma reservoir in a state of agglomeration/semi-agglomeration exists in the depths of caldera and that the depth is set at 4km. It is assumed that the deep hydrothermal reservoir around Yunoya/Tarutama exists around the depth of 500-600m below sea level and that the temperature is 230-300 degrees C. The meteoric water permeating into the depths forms high-temperature reservoirs around Yunoya/Tarutama. The reservoir rises up to about 400m below sea level to become a vapor-dominated phase. It forms an acidic SO{sub 4} type reservoir phase around the earth surface. (NEDO)

  16. Report on earth science studies at the Mt. Riiser-Larsen area, Amundsen Bay, Enderby Land, 2000-2001 (JARE-42

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minoru Funaki

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Five members of the summer party of the 42nd Japanese Antarctic Research Expedition (JARE-42 stayed in the Mt. Riiser-Larsen area, Amundsen Bay, Enderby Land, Antarctica, from December 18, 2000 to February 18, 2001 for paleomagnetism, geochronology, electromagnetic and magnetic surveys. A resident hut was built beside the generator hut constructed by JARE-38 in the camp. For the paleomagnetic study, 741 samples from 86 sites were collected in addition to the data of susceptibility and distribution of magnetite-quartz gneiss. 187 samples of felsic gneisses and basic dike rocks were collected for the geochronology. The high conductivity layer between 8 and 28 km was elucidated by the magnetotelluric method applied to samples obtained from 5 sites on the moraine field and 1 site on Richardson Lake. Strong magnetic anomalies up to 7000 nT were observed along gneissosity and dike intrusions by the magnetic survey. The weather was relatively mild during 63 days, although the maximum wind speed reached 50.7m/s. The camp was maintained without major accidents or trouble. After the work was completed, the camp facilities at Mt. Riiser-Larsen and Tonagh Island were completely withdrawn for environmental protection.

  17. Metastability exchange optical pumping in {sup 3}He gas up to 30 mT. Efficiency measurements and evidence of laser-induced nuclear relaxation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batz, Marion

    2011-07-08

    Advances in metastability exchange optical pumping (MEOP) of {sup 3}He at high laser powers, with its various applications, but also at high gas pressures p{sub 3} and high magnetic field strengths B, have provided strong motivation for revisiting the understanding and for investigating the limitations of this powerful technique. For this purpose, we present systematic experimental and theoretical studies of efficiency and of relaxation mechanisms in B{<=}30 mT and p{sub 3}=0.63-2.45 mbar. {sup 3}He nuclear polarisation is measured by light absorption in longitudinal configuration where weak light beams at 1083 nm parallel to magnetic field and cell axis with opposite circular polarisations are used to probe the distribution of populations in the metastable state. This method is systematically tested to evaluate potential systematic biases and is shown to be reliable for the study of OP dynamics despite the redistribution of populations by OP light. Nuclear polarisation loss associated to the emission of polarised light by the plasma discharge used for MEOP is found to decrease above 10 mT, as expected, due to hyperfine decoupling in highly excited states. However, this does not lead to improved MEOP efficiency at high laser power. We find clear evidence of additional laser-induced relaxation instead. The strong OP-enhanced polarisation losses, currently limiting MEOP performances, are quantitatively investigated using an angular momentum budget approach and a recently developed comprehensive model that describes the combined effects of OP, ME and relaxation, validated by comparison to experimental results.

  18. Report on the geothermal development promotion survey. No.36. Mt. Amemasudake area; Chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa hokokusho. No. 36 Amemasudake chiiki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    The paper summed up the results of the geothermal development promotion survey 'Mt. Amemasudake area' which was carried out at Akaigawa village, Yoichi county, Hokkaido, from FY 1991 to FY 1994. In the survey, the following were conducted for the comprehensive analysis: surface survey such as geology/alteration zone survey, geochemical survey, gravity exploration, electromagnetic exploration and electric exploration, core test by drilling 5 boreholes, test to induce jetting of geothermal fluids, measurement of in-borehole temperature/pressure, survey of geochemical properties of geothermal water. As to the fracture system in this area, the Amemasudake fault and the Amemasuzawa fault are especially important, and it was assumed that these faults had relation to the present geothermal distribution. It is thought that structural conditions of geothermal reservoirs are fractures in basement rocks. As a result of the borehole survey, it was indicated that the center of the high-temperature part with a temperature of 250 degrees C or more was in the boundary zone southeast of this area at a level of 500m below sea level. The scale, which reached about 3km both in east/west and north/south, is almost the same scale as that of the neighboring Toyoha area where great potentiality of the geothermal development is expected. (NEDO)

  19. Metallothionein (MT)-III

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carrasco, J; Giralt, M; Molinero, A

    1999-01-01

    and renamed as MT-III. In this study we have raised polyclonal antibodies in rabbits against recombinant rat MT-III (rMT-III). The sera obtained reacted specifically against recombinant zinc-and cadmium-saturated rMT-III, and did not cross-react with native rat MT-I and MT-II purified from the liver of zinc...... astrocyte migration in vitro, rMT-III promoted migration to a higher extent than MT-I+II. Thus, MT-III could not only affect neuronal sprouting as previously suggested, but also astrocyte function. Finally, MT-III protein levels of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) were, if anything, increased when...

  20. Hydrogeology and hydrogeochemistry of an alkaline volcanic area: the NE Mt. Meru slope (East African Rift – Northern Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Oggiano

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to analyze the geochemical conditions associated with the presence of fluoride (F− in the groundwater of an area of Northern Tanzania. The studied aquifers are composed of volcanic rocks such as phonolitic and nephelinitic lavas, basalts, lahars of various ages and mantling ash. Sedimentary rocks consisting of fine-grained alluvial and lacustrine deposits occur as well. Samples collected from springs, borehole and surface water, during two monitoring surveys, were analyzed for the various physico-chemical and isotopic parameters. The geochemical composition of water is typically sodium bicarbonate. High values of F− (up to 68 mg l−1 were recorded. The highest values of fluoride agreed with the highest values of pH, sodium and bicarbonate. Dissolution of major ions, exchange processes and precipitation of Ca2+ from super-saturated solutions joined with the local permeability and hydraulic gradients, control the fluoride mobilization and the contamination of the area.

  1. Nucleation Techniques as a Strategy for Recovery and Environmental Valuation of Degraded Areas Located in Alto Rio São Lourenço, Campo Verde-MT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Freitag Daltro

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Our aim was to assess the effectiveness of different techniques that comprise the recovery plan of degraded area (RPDA in one of the headwaters of São Lourenço River, Campo Verde-MT, by monitoring the early stage of plant regeneration of permanent preservation degraded areas, according to the Federal Law 4.771/65 and its updates. The experimental area was divided into five treatments, for the planting of native plants, fruit, legumes, green manure and muvuca seed, based on the precepts of nucleation. For each treatment there was a random selection of three installments, measuring 81m2, totaling 12 plots. The planting, the identification and the characterization of indicators of vegetation regeneration site were monitored in these plots. The indicators found at the site were: flowers, fruits and seeds of revegetated species; traces and presence of wildlife; litter production and soil cover, and formation of microclimates, with increasing relative humidity and decreased atmospheric temperature.

  2. FY 1997 report on the data processing of the geothermal development promotion survey. Primary. No.B-5 Mt. Musadake area; 1997 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa data shori hokokusho. No. B-5 Musadake chiiki (Dai 1 ji)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-06-01

    As part of the geothermal development promotion survey, the comprehensive analysis was made on the survey of the existence amount of geothermal resource in the Mt. Musadake area, Shibetsu county, Hokkaido, which was conducted in FY 1997. In the surface survey, the following were carried out: survey of geology/alteration zone, age determination of rocks, alteration age determination by thermoluminescence method, geochemical survey (hot spring gas, hot spring water), gravity exploration and electromagnetic exploration. In the survey of environmental effects, survey of flora/fauna and survey of hot spring variations were made. The results of the analysis were outlined as follows. The geothermal system in this area seems to be controlled by the Mt. Musadake - Mt. Shitabanupuri fault, folding zone along the fault and Graben-state structure extending southeast of the zone. At deep underground, the existence of the deep geothermal water forming geothermal reservoirs is presumed, and the deep geothermal water seems to be helped by the thermal conduction and volcanic effluences from the magma reservoir related to a series of volcanoes, centered on Mt. Musadake that is regarded as heat source. The geothermal water has a temperature of over 250 degrees C and a high Cl concentration. (NEDO)

  3. Recreation conflicts on Mt. Evans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerry J. Vaske; Karin Wittmann; Susan Laidlaw; Maureen P. Donnelly

    1995-01-01

    This study examines recreation conflict at Mt. Evans, Colorado; a high visibility area that attracts both hunters and non-hunters. Two types of conflict were distinguished: goal interference and conflict of values. Data were obtained from a series of on-site and mailed surveys. For hunting related events (e.g. seeing an animal being shot, hearing...

  4. Mt. St. Helens

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1 Movie This 3-D anaglyph image of Mt. St. Helens volcano combines the nadir-looking and back-looking band 3 images of ASTER. To view the image in stereo, you will need blue-red glasses. Make sure to look through the red lens with your left eye. Figure 1: This ASTER image of Mt. St. Helens volcano in Washington was acquired on August 8, 2000 and covers an area of 37 by 51 km. Mount Saint Helens, a volcano in the Cascade Range of southwestern Washington that had been dormant since 1857, began to show signs of renewed activity in early 1980. On 18 May 1980, it erupted with such violence that the top of the mountain was blown off, spewing a cloud of ash and gases that rose to an altitude of 19 kilometers. The blast killed about 60 people and destroyed all life in an area of some 180 square kilometers (some 70 square miles), while a much larger area was covered with ash and debris. It continues to spit forth ash and steam intermittently. As a result of the eruption, the mountain's elevation decreased from 2,950 meters to 2,549 meters. The image is centered at 46.2 degrees north latitude, 122.2 degrees west longitude. Movie: The simulated fly-over was produced by draping ASTER visible and near infrared image data over a digital topography model, created from ASTER's 3-D stereo bands. The color was computer enhanced to create a natural color image, where the vegetation appears green. The topography has been exaggerated 2 times to enhance the appearance of the relief. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  5. Visual motion imagery neurofeedback based on the hMT+/V5 complex: evidence for a feedback-specific neural circuit involving neocortical and cerebellar regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banca, Paula; Sousa, Teresa; Catarina Duarte, Isabel; Castelo-Branco, Miguel

    2015-12-01

    Objective. Current approaches in neurofeedback/brain-computer interface research often focus on identifying, on a subject-by-subject basis, the neural regions that are best suited for self-driven modulation. It is known that the hMT+/V5 complex, an early visual cortical region, is recruited during explicit and implicit motion imagery, in addition to real motion perception. This study tests the feasibility of training healthy volunteers to regulate the level of activation in their hMT+/V5 complex using real-time fMRI neurofeedback and visual motion imagery strategies. Approach. We functionally localized the hMT+/V5 complex to further use as a target region for neurofeedback. An uniform strategy based on motion imagery was used to guide subjects to neuromodulate hMT+/V5. Main results. We found that 15/20 participants achieved successful neurofeedback. This modulation led to the recruitment of a specific network as further assessed by psychophysiological interaction analysis. This specific circuit, including hMT+/V5, putative V6 and medial cerebellum was activated for successful neurofeedback runs. The putamen and anterior insula were recruited for both successful and non-successful runs. Significance. Our findings indicate that hMT+/V5 is a region that can be modulated by focused imagery and that a specific cortico-cerebellar circuit is recruited during visual motion imagery leading to successful neurofeedback. These findings contribute to the debate on the relative potential of extrinsic (sensory) versus intrinsic (default-mode) brain regions in the clinical application of neurofeedback paradigms. This novel circuit might be a good target for future neurofeedback approaches that aim, for example, the training of focused attention in disorders such as ADHD.

  6. Edifice growth and collapse of the Pliocene Mt. Kenya: Evidence of large scale debris avalanches on a high altitude glaciated volcano

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoorl, J.M.; Veldkamp, A.; Claessens, L.; van Gorp, W.; Wijbrans, J.R.

    2014-01-01

    The cyclic growth and destruction of the Late Cenozoic Stratovolcano Mt. Kenya have been reconstructed for its southeastern segment. At least three major debris avalanche deposits have been reconstructed and dated. The oldest deposits indicate an edifice collapse around 4.9Ma (

  7. PROBLEMATIC AREAS OF ACCOUNTING: SOME EVIDENCE FROM THE CZECH REPUBLIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Paseková

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Accounting is a tool of evidence for reporting assets, equities, liabilities, expenses, revenues and profits or losses of the accounting unit. This information is collectively presented in financial statements, which are an essential source of information for external subjects. Nevertheless, the resulting financial statements are relevant only to the extent to which the information charged in the accounting is correct and error-free. For this reason, the aim of this article is to examine the individual areas recorded in accounting in terms of their possible bias due to an error. The objective of this article is to determine which of the areas of accounting are riskiest in relation to the occurrence of errors, and this in connection to the existence of an important foreign partner of the accounting unit. The risk of of the error occurrence is examined from the accountants’ perspective. For this purpose, a questionnaire survey was used for data collection focusing on areas that are considered to be the most important by the accountants and the areas which are the most problematic. The receivables, expenses and revenues were indicated as the most significant. The areas of long-term assets, financial assets and inventories appear to be problematic due to tax impacts. Expenses, revenues, accruals and deferrals appear to be problematic due to issues with correct valuation. The difference in perception of risk of the error occurrence in relation to the existence of a foreign business partner was proven only for some accounting areas such as liabilities, inventories or expenses.

  8. Serological evidence of hantavirus infection in an urban area in Mato Grosso State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Julia da Silva Pessoa Vieira

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: INTRODUCTION: In Brazil, Mato Grosso (MT has the highest number of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome cases. Our study aimed to identify anti-hantavirus antibodies in the sera of patients from Sinop, MT, presenting with acute febrile illness. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of data for 198 sera samples assessed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA was conducted. RESULTS: Immunoglobulins G (IgGs against the hantavirus nucleoprotein were found in 13.6% of the tested sera. No sample had immunoglobulin M (IgM antibodies to hantavirus. Seropositivity occurred mainly in female residents in urban areas who worked around the household. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest circulation of hantavirus in Sinop.

  9. Large area imaging of forensic evidence with MA-XRF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langstraat, Kirsten; Knijnenberg, Alwin; Edelman, Gerda; van de Merwe, Linda; van Loon, Annelies; Dik, Joris; van Asten, Arian

    2017-11-08

    This study introduces the use of macroscopic X-ray fluorescence (MA-XRF) for the detection, classification and imaging of forensic traces over large object areas such as entire pieces of clothing and wall paneling. MA-XRF was sufficiently sensitive and selective to detect human biological traces like blood, semen, saliva, sweat and urine on fabric on the basis of Fe, Zn, K, Cl and Ca elemental signatures. With MA-XRF a new chemical contrast is introduced for human stain detection and this can provide a valuable alternative when the evidence item is challenging for conventional techniques. MA-XRF was also successfully employed for the chemical imaging and classification of gunshot residues (GSR). The full and non-invasive elemental mapping (Pb, Ba, Sr, K and Cl) of intact pieces of clothing allows for a detailed shooting incident reconstruction linking firearms and ammunition to point of impact and providing information on the shooting angle. In high resolution mode MA-XRF can even be used to provide information on the shooting order of different ammunition types. Finally, by using the surface penetration of X-rays we demonstrate that the lead signature of a bullet impact can be easily detected even if covered by multiple layers of wall paint or human blood.

  10. The Mt. Hope Waterpower Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, F.; Balletti, R.

    1991-01-01

    The Mt. Hope Waterpower Project is a 2000 megawatt, underground pumped-storage, hydro-electric power project located on the site of an inactive iron mine in the Township of Rockaway, New Jersey. The Project is effectively situated within the City's greater metropolitan area. The Project site is therefore unusual from the point of view that it is located within a heavily populated, comparatively urbanized area. This paper reports that the application for licensing the Project was initially submitted to the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission in August 1985. The applicant is the Halecrest Company of Edison, New Jersey, formerly a substantial New Jersey construction company, which today is a holding company

  11. FY 1998 report on the data processing of the geothermal development promotion survey. Secondary. No.B-5 Mt. Musadake area; 1998 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa data shori hokokusho. No. B-5 Musadake chiiki (Dai 2 ji)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-01-01

    As part of the geothermal development promotion survey, the comprehensive analysis was made on the survey of the existence amount of geothermal resource in the Mt. Musadake area, Shibetsu county, Hokkaido, which was conducted in FY 1997 and FY 1998. In the surface survey, the following were carried out: survey of geology/alteration zone, geochemical survey, gravity exploration, wide-area gravity/magnetic structure analysis, seismic exploration, etc. In the well exploration, structural boreholes N10-MD-1 and N10-MD-2 were drilled, and the following were conducted: temperature logging/temperature recovery test, electric logging, water injection test and survey of core cuttings. For borehole N10-MD-2, the survey of geothermal water was made. In the survey of environmental effects, survey of flora/fauna and survey of hot spring variations were conducted. The results of the analysis were outlined as follows. At deep underground, the existence of the deep geothermal water forming geothermal reservoirs is presumed, and the deep geothermal water seems to be helped by the thermal conduction from the magma reservoir related to a series of volcanoes, centered on Mt. Musadake that is regarded as heat source. The geothermal water has a temperature of over 250 degrees C and a high Cl concentration. (NEDO)

  12. Crustal contamination and crystal entrapment during polybaric magma evolution at Mt. Somma-Vesuvius volcano, Italy: Geochemical and Sr isotope evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piochi, M.; Ayuso, R.A.; de Vivo, B.; Somma, R.

    2006-01-01

    New major and trace element analyses and Sr-isotope determinations of rocks from Mt. Somma-Vesuvius volcano produced from 25 ky BP to 1944 AD are part of an extensive database documenting the geochemical evolution of this classic region. Volcanic rocks include silica undersaturated, potassic and ultrapotassic lavas and tephras characterized by variable mineralogy and different crystal abundance, as well as by wide ranges of trace element contents and a wide span of initial Sr-isotopic compositions. Both the degree of undersaturation in silica and the crystal content increase through time, being higher in rocks produced after the eruption at 472 AD (Pollena eruption). Compositional variations have been generally thought to reflect contributions from diverse types of mantle and crust. Magma mixing is commonly invoked as a fundamental process affecting the magmas, in addition to crystal fractionation. Our assessment of geochemical and Sr-isotopic data indicates that compositional variability also reflects the influence of crustal contamination during magma evolution during upward migration to shallow crustal levels and/or by entrapment of crystal mush generated during previous magma storage in the crust. Using a variant of the assimilation fractional crystallization model (Energy Conservation-Assimilation Fractional Crystallization; [Spera and Bohrson, 2001. Energy-constrained open-system magmatic processes I: General model and energy-constrained assimilation and fractional crystallization (EC-AFC) formulation. J. Petrol. 999-1018]; [Bohrson, W.A. and Spera, F.J., 2001. Energy-constrained open-system magmatic process II: application of energy-constrained assimilation-fractional crystallization (EC-AFC) model to magmatic systems. J. Petrol. 1019-1041]) we estimated the contributions from the crust and suggest that contamination by carbonate rocks that underlie the volcano (2 km down to 9-10 km) is a fundamental process controlling magma compositions at Mt. Somma

  13. Stable isotope and petrologic evidence for open-system degassing during the climactic and pre-climactic eruptions of Mt. Mazama, Crater Lake, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandeville, Charles W.; Webster, James D.; Tappen, Christine; Taylor, Bruce E.; Timbal, Adrian; Sasaki, Akira; Hauri, Erik; Bacon, Charles R.

    2009-05-01

    Evaluation of the extent of volatile element recycling in convergent margin volcanism requires delineating likely source(s) of magmatic volatiles through stable isotopic characterization of sulfur, hydrogen and oxygen in erupted tephra with appropriate assessment of modification by degassing. The climactic eruption of Mt. Mazama ejected approximately 50 km 3 of rhyodacitic magma into the atmosphere and resulted in formation of a 10-km diameter caldera now occupied by Crater Lake, Oregon (lat. 43°N, long. 122°W). Isotopic compositions of whole-rocks, matrix glasses and minerals from Mt. Mazama climactic, pre-climactic and postcaldera tephra were determined to identify the likely source(s) of H 2O and S. Integration of stable isotopic data with petrologic data from melt inclusions has allowed for estimation of pre-eruptive dissolved volatile concentrations and placed constraints on the extent, conditions and style of degassing. Sulfur isotope analyses of climactic rhyodacitic whole rocks yield δ 34S values of 2.8-14.8‰ with corresponding matrix glass values of 2.4-13.2‰. δ 34S tends to increase with stratigraphic height through climactic eruptive units, consistent with open-system degassing. Dissolved sulfur concentrations in melt inclusions (MIs) from pre-climactic and climactic rhyodacitic pumices varies from 80 to 330 ppm, with highest concentrations in inclusions with 4.8-5.2 wt% H 2O (by FTIR). Up to 50% of the initial S may have been lost through pre-eruptive degassing at depths of 4-5 km. Ion microprobe analyses of pyrrhotite in climactic rhyodacitic tephra and andesitic scoria indicate a range in δ 34S from -0.4‰ to 5.8‰ and from -0.1‰ to 3.5‰, respectively. Initial δ 34S values of rhyodacitic and andesitic magmas were likely near the mantle value of 0‰. Hydrogen isotope (δD) and total H 2O analyses of rhyodacitic obsidian (and vitrophyre) from the climactic fall deposit yielded values οf -103 to -53‰ and 0.23-1.74 wt%, respectively

  14. Extensive Variation and Sub-Structuring in Lineage A mtDNA in Indian Sheep: Genetic Evidence for Domestication of Sheep in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sachin; Kumar Jr, Satish; Kolte, Atul P.; Kumar, Satish

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies on mitochondrial DNA analysis of sheep from different regions of the world have revealed the presence of two major- A and B, and three minor- C, D and E maternal lineages. Lineage A is more frequent in Asia and lineage B is more abundant in regions other than Asia. We have analyzed mitochondrial DNA sequences of 330 sheep from 12 different breeds of India. Neighbor-joining analysis revealed lineage A, B and C in Indian sheep. Surprisingly, multidimensional scaling plot based on FST values of control region of mtDNA sequences showed significant breed differentiation in contrast to poor geographical structuring reported earlier in this species. The breed differentiation in Indian sheep was essentially due to variable contribution of two major lineages to different breeds, and sub- structuring of lineage A, possibly the latter resulting from genetic drift. Nucleotide diversity of this lineage was higher in Indian sheep (0.014 ± 0.007) as compared to that of sheep from other regions of the world (0.009 ± 0.005 to 0.01 ± 0.005). Reduced median network analysis of control region and cytochrome b gene sequences of Indian sheep when analyzed along with available published sequences of sheep from other regions of the world showed that several haplotypes of lineage A were exclusive to Indian sheep. Given the high nucleotide diversity in Indian sheep and the poor sharing of lineage A haplotypes between Indian and non-Indian sheep, we propose that lineage A sheep has also been domesticated in the east of Near East, possibly in Indian sub-continent. Finally, our data provide support that lineage B and additional lineage A haplotypes of sheep might have been introduced to Indian sub-continent from Near East, probably by ancient sea trade route. PMID:24244282

  15. Evidence for brittle deformation events at eclogite-facies P-T conditions (example of the Mt. Emilius klippe, Western Alps)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertgen, Solenn; Yamato, Philippe; Morales, Luiz F. G.; Angiboust, Samuel

    2017-06-01

    Eclogitic rocks are crucial for the understanding of tectonic processes as they provide key constraints on both the P-T-t evolutions and the deformation modes sustained by rocks in subduction zones. Here we focus on eclogitised and deformed mafic bodies that are exposed within granulites from the continental basement slice of the Mt. Emilius klippe (Western Alps, Italy). These eclogites exhibit highly deformed garnetite and clinopyroxenite layers. In some places, these deformed rocks (up to mylonitic grade) can be found as clasts within meter-thick brecciated fault rocks that formed close to the lawsonite-eclogite facies peak P-T conditions. Garnet-rich layers are dominated by brittle features, whereas deformation within clinopyroxene-rich layers is accommodated by both creep and fracturing. We present a petro-structural study of these eclogites, that allows to track the brittle deformation history associated with chemical evolution. Based on these data, we propose a new tectono-metamorphic model for these rocks, related to the alpine eclogitic stage. This model is consistent with the coexistence of both ductile and brittle features that developed at similar P-T conditions (i.e., at P 2.15-2.40 GPa and T 500-550 °C), and closely associated with fluid circulations. Our study demonstrates that crustal material, buried along the subduction interface at HP-LT conditions, can record several successive brittle events in places where deformation is classically envisioned as ductile. We suggest, based on our observations, that strain-rate increase along plate interface shear zones may trigger fracturing and fluid infiltration which in turn enables brittle-ductile instabilities along these deformation networks.

  16. Fiscal 1998 geothermal development promotion survey. Annex to on-the-ground survey report, geothermal development promotion survey (Part 2. Electromagnetic surveillance using simplified MT method - No. 30: Western part of Hakkoda area); 1989 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa. Chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa chijo chosa hokokusho futai shiryo (Denji tansa (MT kan'i ho) hokokusho - No.30 Hakkoda seibu chiiki - 2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-01-01

    An electromagnetic surveillance using the simplified MT (magnetotelluric) method was conducted to help clarify the geothermal structure in the western part of the Hakkoda area, Aomori Prefecture. The survey covered approximately 60 km{sup 2,} and involved 38 survey points, 3 magnetic field components, 2 electric field components, not less than 10 measuring frequencies in the range of 0.01-125 Hz, and a measuring time of not less than 2 hours. An analysis was performed, with data previously collected at 60 points added to the data collected at the said 38 points. As the result, the resistivity structure in this area was divided into 3 layers of high-low-high as described from the surface to the depth, and the middle layer was further divided into 3 layers of high-middle-low and the bottom layer into 2 layers of high-low. The result conformed though roughly to the result obtained by the electrical logging carried out in the structure boring. In the geothermal zone including the Sukayu hot spa in the southeastern part of this area and along the Jogakura valley, there exist a complicated resistivity structure attributable to geothermal activities and a number of discontinuous lines of resistivity running in the directions of WNW-ESE and N-S. This enabled an inference that there is a deep-seated geothermal source between Odake and Akamizusawa extending eastward from the said geothermal zone. (NEDO)

  17. Large area imaging of forensic evidence with MA-XRF

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langstraat, Kirsten; Knijnenberg, Alwin; Edelman, Gerda; Van De Merwe, Linda; van Loon, A.; Dik, J.; van Asten, Arian C.

    2017-01-01

    This study introduces the use of macroscopic X-ray fluorescence (MA-XRF) for the detection, classification and imaging of forensic traces over large object areas such as entire pieces of clothing and wall paneling. MA-XRF was sufficiently sensitive and selective to detect human biological traces

  18. Large area imaging of forensic evidence with MA-XRF

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langstraat, K.; Knijnenberg, A.; Edelman, G.; van de Merwe, L.; van Loon, A.; Dik, J.; van Asten, A.

    2017-01-01

    This study introduces the use of macroscopic X-ray fluorescence (MA-XRF) for the detection, classification and imaging of forensic traces over large object areas such as entire pieces of clothing and wall paneling. MA-XRF was sufficiently sensitive and selective to detect human biological traces

  19. Financial constraints and productivity: evidence from euro area companies

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrando, Annalisa; Ruggieri, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we consider the relation between firms’ financial structure, access to external finance and labor productivity using a large dataset of firm-level data for Euro-area countries during the period 1995-2011. Our empirical strategy is twofold. First we develop an indicator of financial constraints at firm level using a classification based on specific firm characteristics and various measures of financial pressure and liquidity. Second we apply this indicator to a firm-level product...

  20. High Radon Areas and lung cancer prevalence: Evidence from Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempsey, Seraphim; Lyons, Seán; Nolan, Anne

    2018-02-01

    This paper examined the relationship between radon risk and lung cancer prevalence using a novel dataset combining spatially-coded survey data with a radon risk map. A logit model was employed to test for significant associations between a high risk of indoor radon and lung cancer prevalence using data on 5590 people aged 50+ from The Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing (TILDA) and radon risk data from Ireland's Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The use of data at the individual level allowed a wide range of potentially confounding factors (such as smoking) to be included. Results indicate that those who lived in an area in which 10%-20% of households were above the national reference level (200 Bq/m 3 ) were 2.9-3.1 times more likely to report a lung cancer diagnosis relative to those who lived in areas in which less than 1% of households were above the national reference level. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Application of remote sensing analysis and MT method for identification geothermal prospect zone in Mt. Endut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbar, A. M.; Permadi, A. N.; Wildan, D.; Sobirin, R.; Supriyanto

    2017-07-01

    Mount Endut is located at Banten Province, 40 km southward Rangkasbitung City, with geographic UTM position between 9261000-9274000 N and 639000-652000 E. Preliminary survey at Mt. Endut was geological and geochemical survey in 2006, resistivity survey and MT survey in 2007 with 27 measurement point. All survey conducted by Pusat Sumber Daya Geologi (PSDG). According to result of premilinary survey, Mt. Endut is dominated by quartenary volcanic rock produced by Mt. Endut, which breakthrough tertiary sediment layer. NE to SW normal fault produced surface manifestation, namely Cikawah (CKW) hot spring and Handeleum (HDL) hot spring. According to SiO2 and NaK geothermometer, subsurface temperature of Mt Endut is ranging from 162 to 180 °C. Apparent resistivity maps show that thermal manifestation areas coincide with pronounced high anomaly due to resistive intrusion bodies contrast to conductive sedimentary basements. In order to delineate permeability zone, fracture fault density (FFD) analysis from remote sensing image is carry out. FFD analysis from lansdat 7 image shows the area on westward flank of Mt. Endut have high fracture fault density (162-276 m/km2), higher than it's surrounding area and can be assume that area is weak zone and have high permeability. That's structure density anomaly coincide with low resistivity from Magnetotelluric data. Resistivity structure from Magnetotelluric data shows western flank have low permeability layer (14-27 Ohmm) with average thickness 250 m. Below this layer there is layer with higher resistivity (37-100 Ohmm) with ±1000 m depth and interpreted as shallow reservoir. Massive resistif intrusive bodies act controlled the surface manifestation, and act as boundary and bounded the geothermal system in western part of Mt. Endut.

  2. The Support of MPA (Marine Protected Area) in Coral Triangle Area: Evidence from Kei Islands, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamid, Syahibul K.; Teniwut, Wellem A.; Teniwut, Roberto M. K.; Rahantoknam, Meyske A.; Hasyim, Cawalinya L.; Hungan, Marselus

    2017-10-01

    Kei Islands located inside the coral triangle. Therefore, the biodiversity level on the sea in this area is considered high. United nation has proposed for water that included in the coral triangle has to apply marine protected area (MPA) to preserve the area. The main problem is most of the community especially in Kei Islands have depended on the sea as their sources of the economy even fisheries commodity like fish play a large part on the inflation rate and other prosperity indicators likes school and housing. Also, Kei Islands practice on form local wisdom for owning areal of the sea which calls “petuanan laut” by certain of villages or group of villages in one area. This study aimed to map the cluster of catching fisheries area based on the quantity of fish supply on a local market in Kei Islands and measure each cluster on their support and perspective on Marine Protected Area (MPA). We conducted a focus group discussion and collecting additional data by questionnaires with descriptive and quantitative analysis with logistic regression. The implication of this study can provide a clear view of coastal communities view on MPA program also to identify an area that has marine resources, human resources, and equipment to provide government an empirical view on catching fisheries in Kei Islands to issued better policy to develop fishing industry in Kei Islands.

  3. MT Lajpatrai blow-out studies at Bombay harbour

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Fondekar, S.P.

    The area around the tanker MT Lajpatrai was monitored for oil pollution studies. Measurements were carried out on the concentration of petroleum hydrocarbons in water and sediment samples along with visual observations on oil slicks...

  4. Mt. Etna, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    On Sunday, November 3, 2002, Mt. Etna's ash-laden plume was imaged by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. The plume is seen blowing toward the south-southeast, over the city and airport of Catania, Sicily. The previous day, the plume was blowing toward the northwest, and posed no hazard to Catania. The current eruption of Mt. Etna, Europe's most active volcano, began on October 27. These sorts of observations from space may help civil defense authorities mitigate hazards from active eruptions. Space data may also help scientists evaluate the behavior and effects volcanic eruptions have on our global climate system.With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., is the U.S. science team leader; Bjorn Eng of JPL is the project manager. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, a

  5. Sticky prices in the euro area: a summary of new micro-evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alvarez, L.; Dhyne, E.; Hoeberichts, M.M.; Kwapil, C.; Le Bihan, H.; Lunnemann, P; Martins, F.; Sabbatini, R.; Stahl, H.; Vermeulen, P.; Vilmunen, J.

    2006-01-01

    This paper summarises the vast evidence on micro price-setting recently obtained for euro area countries. We consider studies with micro data on consumer and producer prices, as well as survey information. The main findings are: (1) prices in the euro area are sticky and stickier than in the US; (2)

  6. Linkage experiment at Mt. Chacaltaya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honda, Ken

    1983-01-01

    At Mt. Chakaltaya, AS-EC linkage experiments have been made to study the hadrons and the high energy gamma-ray at the center of air showers. Thirty-five particle detectors for air showers were distributed in an area of radius 50 m. At the center, X-ray films were inserted at intervals of 2 c.u. in lead stack. Under this detector, there was a burst detector. The correspondence of the data of an emulsion chamber (EC) and those of an air shower was determined. The correspondence of high energy events was found easily, but it became hard in case of the events with energy less than 10 TeV. The age distribution of burst data was obtained. The air showers with large burst size had, on an average, young age. The lateral distribution of burst size was obtained. The results suggested that the age was an important parameter of the development of air showers. In the case of large burst size, the energy was large. (Kato, T.)

  7. The Global Evidence Mapping Initiative: Scoping research in broad topic areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Evidence mapping describes the quantity, design and characteristics of research in broad topic areas, in contrast to systematic reviews, which usually address narrowly-focused research questions. The breadth of evidence mapping helps to identify evidence gaps, and may guide future research efforts. The Global Evidence Mapping (GEM) Initiative was established in 2007 to create evidence maps providing an overview of existing research in Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) and Spinal Cord Injury (SCI). Methods The GEM evidence mapping method involved three core tasks: 1. Setting the boundaries and context of the map: Definitions for the fields of TBI and SCI were clarified, the prehospital, acute inhospital and rehabilitation phases of care were delineated and relevant stakeholders (patients, carers, clinicians, researchers and policymakers) who could contribute to the mapping were identified. Researchable clinical questions were developed through consultation with key stakeholders and a broad literature search. 2. Searching for and selection of relevant studies: Evidence search and selection involved development of specific search strategies, development of inclusion and exclusion criteria, searching of relevant databases and independent screening and selection by two researchers. 3. Reporting on yield and study characteristics: Data extraction was performed at two levels - 'interventions and study design' and 'detailed study characteristics'. The evidence map and commentary reflected the depth of data extraction. Results One hundred and twenty-nine researchable clinical questions in TBI and SCI were identified. These questions were then prioritised into high (n = 60) and low (n = 69) importance by the stakeholders involved in question development. Since 2007, 58 263 abstracts have been screened, 3 731 full text articles have been reviewed and 1 644 relevant neurotrauma publications have been mapped, covering fifty-three high priority questions. Conclusions GEM

  8. Molecular taxonomy of Plagioscion Heckel (Perciformes, Sciaenidae and evidence from mtDNA RFLP markers for an invasive species in the Paraná river, Southern Brazil Taxonomia molecular de Plagioscion Heckel (Perciformes, Sciaenidae e evidências de marcadores moleculares RFLPs de mtDNA para uma espécie invasora no rio Paraná, Sul do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo A. Torres

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial RFLP markers were developed to examine whether Plagioscion squamosissimus (Heckel, 1840 is invasive in natural environments of the congener P. ternetzi in the Paraná river, in southern Brazil. Specimens of P. squamosissimus and of the putative P. ternetzi (Boulenger, 1895 were obtained from the Negro river (Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil and from Paraná river, respectively. Fragments of the cytochrome b gene (900bp were amplified by PCR and four restriction enzymes (Eco RI, Mbo I, Bam HI and Alu I yielded the mitochondrial markers. An additional RFLP analysis with a cytochrome b gene sequence of Plagioncion sp. from GeneBank was carried out to validate the prior analysis. No genetic differentiation was found among either sample. While molecular variation in the cytochrome b analysis was no substantial among individuals, the combined analysis was important for demonstrating that there is no evidence for differentiation of the putative sample P. ternetzi from that of P. squamosissimus. The ecological implications of the introduced occurrence of P. squamosissimus, as well as the role of molecular taxonomic approaches for biodiversity studies are discussed.Marcadores RFLPs mitocondriais foram desenvolvidos para verificar se Plagioscion squamosissimus (Heckel, 1840 é invasora nos ambientes naturais da espécie congênere P. ternetzi no rio Paraná, no sul do Brasil. Exemplares de Plagioscion squamosissimus e supostamente de P. ternetzi (Boulenger, 1895 foram obtidos, respectivamente, do rio Negro (Manaus, AM, Brasil e rio Paraná (Foz do Iguaçu, PR, Brasil. Foram amplificados, via PCR, fragmentos de cerca de 900pb do Citocromo b e foram utilizadas quatro enzimas de restrição (Eco RI, Mbo I, Bam HI e Alu I para os fins de geração dos marcadores moleculares. Foi desenvolvida, a partir de uma seqüência de Citocromo b de Plagioscion sp. (genebank, uma análise de RFLP adicional, objetivando validar a primeira análise acima mencionada

  9. Mt. Taylor project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barendsen, R.J.; Heron, J.A.

    1980-01-01

    Gulf Oil Corporation is developing a large and deep mine in the Grants, New Mexico area. Many development challenges have been successfully met and Gulf expects to be in commercial production in 1981 after 7 years of effort. Some basic information about the scope of the project is given and plans for bringing it into production are discussed. The present status of the project is reported

  10. Biochemical evidence of the interactions of membrane type-1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) with adenine nucleotide translocator (ANT): potential implications linking proteolysis with energy metabolism in cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radichev, Ilian A; Remacle, Albert G; Sounni, Nor Eddine; Shiryaev, Sergey A; Rozanov, Dmitri V; Zhu, Wenhong; Golubkova, Natalya V; Postnova, Tatiana I; Golubkov, Vladislav S; Strongin, Alex Y

    2009-04-28

    Invasion-promoting MT1-MMP (membrane type-1 matrix metalloproteinase) is a key element in cell migration processes. To identify the proteins that interact and therefore co-precipitate with this proteinase from cancer cells, we used the proteolytically active WT (wild-type), the catalytically inert E240A and the C-end truncated (tailless; DeltaCT) MT1-MMP-FLAG constructs as baits. The identity of the pulled-down proteins was determined by LC-MS/MS (liquid chromatography tandem MS) and then confirmed by Western blotting using specific antibodies. We determined that, in breast carcinoma MCF cells (MCF-7 cells), ANT (adenine nucleotide translocator) efficiently interacted with the WT, E240A and DeltaCT constructs. The WT and E240A constructs also interacted with alpha-tubulin, an essential component of clathrin-mediated endocytosis. In turn, tubulin did not co-precipitate with the DeltaCT construct because of the inefficient endocytosis of the latter, thus suggesting a high level of selectivity of our test system. To corroborate these results, we then successfully used the ANT2-FLAG construct as a bait to pull-down MT1-MMP, which was naturally produced by fibrosarcoma HT1080 cells. We determined that the presence of the functionally inert catalytic domain alone was sufficient to cause the proteinase to interact with ANT2, thus indicating that there is a non-proteolytic mode of these interactions. Overall, it is tempting to hypothesize that by interacting with pro-invasive MT1-MMP, ANT plays a yet to be identified role in a coupling mechanism between energy metabolism and pericellular proteolysis in migrating cancer cells.

  11. α -decay chains of superheavy Mt-279265 isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhosh, K. P.; Nithya, C.

    2017-10-01

    The α -decay chains of the isotopes Mt-279265 are predicted by comparing the α half-lives calculated within the Coulomb and proximity potential model for deformed nuclei of Santhosh et al. [Nucl. Phys. A 850, 34 (2011)], 10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2010.12.002 with the spontaneous fission half-lives using the shell-effect-dependent formula of Santhosh and Nithya [Phys. Rev. C 94, 054621 (2016)], 10.1103/PhysRevC.94.054621. α half-lives also are calculated using different theoretical formalisms for comparison. The predicted half-lives and decay modes match well with the experimental results. The use of four different mass tables for calculating the α - decay energies indicates that the mass table of Wang et al. [Chin. Phys. C 41, 030003 (2017)], 10.1088/1674-1137/41/3/030003, which is based on the AME2016 atomic mass evaluation, is in better agreement with experimental results. The paper predicts long α chains from 265,267-269,271-273MT with half-lives within experimental limits. The isotopes 274-276,278Mt exhibit 2α chains followed by spontaneous fission. The 2α chain of 266Mt and the 4α chain of 270Mt end with electron capture. The isotopes Mt,279277 decay via spontaneous fission. We hope that the paper will open up new areas in this field.

  12. MtDNA T4216C variation in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andalib, Sasan; Emamhadi, Mohammadreza; Yousefzadeh-Chabok, Shahrokh

    2016-01-01

    MtDNA T4216C variation has frequently been investigated in Multiple Sclerosis (MS) patients; nonetheless, controversy has existed about the evidence of association of this variation with susceptibility to MS. The present systematic review and meta-analysis converge the results of the preceding...

  13. Participación de MT1-MMP en la Remodelación del Ligamento Periodontal Durante la Movilización Dentaria Role of MT1-MMP in the Remodeling of the Periodontal Ligament During Tooth Movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Rey Droghetti

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available La movilización dentaria involucra una serie de cambios en los tejidos de soporte caracterizados por la activa remodelación de estos. La MT1-MMP o MMP-14 es una potente enzima proteolítica capaz de degradar colágeno tipo I, la principal molécula estructural del ligamento periodontal. La migración dentaria requiere de la degradación controlada del colágeno constituyente del ligamento periodontal. Sin embargo, no existen evidencias de la participación de MT1-MMP en la remodelación del tejido periodontal durante este proceso. En el presente estudio hemos analizado la expresión de MT1 -MMP y del marcador de actividad osteoclástica Fosfatasa Acida Tartrato Resistente (TRAP en un modelo de migración dentaria en ratas. La migración dentaria fue activada mediante la inserción de una banda separadora entre los incisivos superiores. La expresión y distribución de TRAP y MT1-MMP fue evaluada a través de citoquímica e inmunohistoquímica a los días 1, 3, 5 y 7. La producción de TRAP fue identificada principalmente en osteoclastos ubicados en la zona de compresión del ligamento periodontal. La producción de MT1-MMP fue observada en fibroblastos de la zona de compresión del ligamento periodontal y osteoclastos ubicados en esta misma región. Nuestros resultados permiten proponer que tanto MT1 -MMP como TRAP participan en la remodelación de los tejidos de soporte periodontal durante la migración dentaria.Tooth movement involves a series of changes of the supporting periodontal tissues characterized by the active connective tissue remodeling. MT1-MMP or MMP-14 belongs to the family of matrix metalloproteinases that are able to degrade type I collagen, the main molecule involved in periodontal attachment. Tooth migration requires the controlled degradation of periodontal ligament collagen fibers. However, evidences linking MT1 -MMP expression with periodontal tissue remodeling are lacking. In the present study, we have evaluated the

  14. MicroRNAs in Kidney Fibrosis and Diabetic Nephropathy: Roles on EMT and EndMT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swayam Prakash Srivastava

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are a family of small, noncoding RNAs that regulate gene expression in diverse biological and pathological processes, including cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, and carcinogenesis. As a result, miRNAs emerged as major area of biomedical research with relevance to kidney fibrosis. Fibrosis is characterized by the excess deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM components, which is the end result of an imbalance of metabolism of the ECM molecule. Recent evidence suggests that miRNAs participate in the fibrotic process in a number of organs including the heart, kidney, liver, and lung. Epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT and endothelial mesenchymal transition (EndMT programs play vital roles in the development of fibrosis in the kidney. A growing number of the extracellular and intracellular molecules that control EMT and EndMT have been identified and could be exploited in developing therapeutics for fibrosis. This review highlights recent advances on the role of miRNAs in the kidney diseases; diabetic nephropathy especially focused on EMT and EndMT program responsible for the development of kidney fibrosis. These miRNAs can be utilized as a potential novel drug target for the studying of underlying mechanism and treatment of kidney fibrosis.

  15. Evaluating MT systems with BEER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanojević Miloš

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We present BEER, an open source implementation of a machine translation evaluation metric. BEER is a metric trained for high correlation with human ranking by using learning-to-rank training methods. For evaluation of lexical accuracy it uses sub-word units (character n-grams while for measuring word order it uses hierarchical representations based on PETs (permutation trees. During the last WMT metrics tasks, BEER has shown high correlation with human judgments both on the sentence and the corpus levels. In this paper we will show how BEER can be used for (i full evaluation of MT output, (ii isolated evaluation of word order and (iii tuning MT systems.

  16. Domain specific MT in use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Offersgaard, Lene; Povlsen, Claus; Almsten, Lisbeth Kjeldgaard

    2008-01-01

    point scale evaluate the sentence from the point of view of the post-editor. The post-editor profile defined by the LSP is based on the experiences of introducing MT in the LSP workflow. The relation between the Translation Edit Rate (TER) scores and “Usability” scores is tested. We find TER a candidate...... for an automatic metric simulating the post-editors’ usability judgements. LSP tests show 67% saved time in post-editing for the tested domain. Finally, the use of weighted sub-domain phrase tables in a SMT system is shown to improve translation quality.......The paper focuses on domain specific use of MT with a special focus on SMT in the workflow of a Language Service Provider (LSP). We report on the feedback of post-editors using fluency/adequacy evaluation and the evaluation metric ’Usability’, understood in this context as where users on a three...

  17. Patent documentation - comparison of two MT strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Offersgaard, Lene; Povlsen, Claus

    2007-01-01

    This paper focuses on two matters: A comparison of how two different MT strategies manage translating the text type of patent documentation and a survey of what is needed to transform a MT research prototype system to a translation application for patent texts. The two MT strategies is represented...

  18. Delivering patient decision aids on the Internet: definitions, theories, current evidence, and emerging research areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background In 2005, the International Patient Decision Aids Standards Collaboration identified twelve quality dimensions to guide assessment of patient decision aids. One dimension—the delivery of patient decision aids on the Internet—is relevant when the Internet is used to provide some or all components of a patient decision aid. Building on the original background chapter, this paper provides an updated definition for this dimension, outlines a theoretical rationale, describes current evidence, and discusses emerging research areas. Methods An international, multidisciplinary panel of authors examined the relevant theoretical literature and empirical evidence through 2012. Results The updated definition distinguishes Internet-delivery of patient decision aids from online health information and clinical practice guidelines. Theories in cognitive psychology, decision psychology, communication, and education support the value of Internet features for providing interactive information and deliberative support. Dissemination and implementation theories support Internet-delivery for providing the right information (rapidly updated), to the right person (tailored), at the right time (the appropriate point in the decision making process). Additional efforts are needed to integrate the theoretical rationale and empirical evidence from health technology perspectives, such as consumer health informatics, user experience design, and human-computer interaction. Despite Internet usage ranging from 74% to 85% in developed countries and 80% of users searching for health information, it is unknown how many individuals specifically seek patient decision aids on the Internet. Among the 86 randomized controlled trials in the 2011 Cochrane Collaboration’s review of patient decision aids, only four studies focused on Internet-delivery. Given the limited number of published studies, this paper particularly focused on identifying gaps in the empirical evidence base and

  19. A Framework for Evidence-Based Licensure of Adaptive Autonomous Systems: Technical Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    system (i.e., we assume it already has an anti - lock braking system ). The autonomous system includes additional software modules that implement the...dispatcher and police. We assume the tractor-trailer includes system software for device-level control of the power train, drivetrain, and braking ...I N S T I T U T E F O R D E F E N S E A N A L Y S E S A Framework for Evidence-Based Licensure of Adaptive Autonomous Systems : Technical Areas

  20. The Formation and Erosion History of Mt. Sharp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Carlton C.; Dapremont, Angela M.

    2014-01-01

    The Curiosity rover is exploring 155 km diameter Gale crater and Mt. Sharp, Gale's 5 km high central mound (Fig. 1). This study addresses the formation and erosion history of Mt. Sharp. Gale lies on the topographic dichotomy between the southern highlands and the northern plains - a drop of over 2 km [1,2]. Altitude differences between the north and south rim reflect this regional slope, as do altitude differences between the deep annulus north of Mt. Sharp and the southern crater floor. Orbiter and rover images demonstrate that most exposed areas on Mt. Sharp consist of thin, sub-parallel units interpreted as sedimentary layers [3]. Gale is typical of the 50 large martian craters that have been totally or partially filled with such layers [4,5]. In many craters these sediments have been deeply eroded. Central Peak and Peak Ring: The highest point on Mt. Sharp, near the crater's center, is interpreted as a central peak [6]. The peak has a massive lower portion and a thin, smooth capping deposit (Fig. 2). Gale's size is transitional between martian craters with single central peaks and craters with peak rings approximately half the crater's diameter [2,6]. The boundaries of Mt. Sharp, as well as an arc of hills to the southeast of the mountain, closely match a circle approximately 80 km in diameter (Fig. 3). This morphology suggests that the Gale impact may have formed both a central peak and a partial peak ring, which is covered by the sediments of Mt. Sharp in the north and possibly exposed in the arc of eroded hills in the southeast quadrant (Figs. 3,4).

  1. Serological evidence of schistosomiasis among Orang Asli from three areas of Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, G J; Anuar, H

    1984-09-01

    Using ELISA and COPT diagnostic tests, serological evidence of Malaysian schistosomiasis was discovered among Orang Asli populations from three areas in Peninsular Malaysia. Serum samples collected in 1975 indicated an ELISA-positive prevalence of 25% and a COPT prevalence of 11% from Pos Iskandar, Pahang and an ELISA prevalence of 13% and a COPT of 4% from Bukit Lanjan, Selangor. Resurveys at these site in 1982-1984 showed a continued presence of serological positive individuals but prevalence rates were markedly lower: 7% and 1% for ELISA and 4% and 2% for COPT at Pos Iskandar and Bukit Lanjan respectively. Snail hosts were not found at either site. The source of infection for persons living in these lowland areas remains unknown. In a third area, Kuala Tahan, Pahang, located in the foothills of the central mountain range, foci of transmission have been found near to Orang Asli settlements. The serological prevalence rate among Negrito Orang Asli in that study area was 9% for ELISA and 4% for COPT. Thirty-three of 36 COPT-positive sera produced vacuolated bleb precipates and in 31 these were the only reactions seen. The high percentage of positives producing only these precipates suggests that among Orang Asli schistosomiasis patients such reactions are not an indication of recently acquired infection as has been reported for schistosomiasis patients in the Philippines.

  2. Conflicting Values: Spirituality and Wilderness at Mt. Shasta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maria Fernandez-Gimenez; Lynn Huntsinger; Catherine Phillips; Barbara Allen-Diaz

    1992-01-01

    Many people from a variety of backgrounds believe that Mt. Shasta is a major spiritual center. Although these "spiritual users" value the area's natural features, their spiritual and social activities, including construction of sweat lodges, medicine wheels, altars, meditation pads, trails, and campsites, are leading to rapid ecological degradation. This...

  3. Blue Ice Tephra II - Mt. DeWitt, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set is the result of a study of volcanic ash and rock fragment (tephra) layers in exposed blue ice areas on Mt. DeWitt, Antarctica (77.12 deg S, 159.51 deg...

  4. 77 FR 39651 - Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Circle Town, MT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-05

    ... County Airport, Circle Town, MT, to accommodate aircraft using new Area Navigation (RNAV) Global... airspace at Circle Town County Airport, Circle Town, MT. Controlled airspace is necessary to accommodate aircraft using new RNAV (GPS) standard instrument approach procedures at Circle Town County Airport. This...

  5. Gas radon emission related to geodynamic activity on Mt. Etna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Patanè

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available We report preliminary observations on possible correlations between anomalies of subsoil radon concentration and geodynamical events on Mt. Etna. In recent years several studies have been carried out on radon as a precursor of geophysical events, most of them performed either on tectonic or volcanic areas. The peculiarity of our investigation lies on the choice of the etnean region, in which tectonic and volcanic features are both present. In order to characterize Mt. Etna features by investigating radon gas in soil, two stations were located along the NE-SW direction on Mt. Etna. Each of the two stations is fitted with a radon detector, a 3D seismic station and a meteorological station. Differences in the radon concentration trend in the data from north and south flanks could be linked to different faulting mechanisms and then to different mechanisms of radon uprising. The increase in soil radon concentration could be related to both seismic and volcanic events.

  6. Decreased Circulating mtDNA Levels in Professional Male Volleyball Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasi, Milena; Cristani, Alessandro; Pinti, Marcello; Lamberti, Igor; Gibellini, Lara; De Biasi, Sara; Guazzaloca, Alessandro; Trenti, Tommaso; Cossarizza, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Exercise exerts various effects on the immune system, and evidence is emerging on its anti-inflammatory effects; the mechanisms on the basis of these modifications are poorly understood. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) released from damaged cells acts as a molecule containing the so-called damage-associated molecular patterns and can trigger sterile inflammation. Indeed, high plasma levels of mtDNA are associated to several inflammatory conditions and physiological aging and longevity. The authors evaluated plasma mtDNA in professional male volleyball players during seasonal training and the possible correlation between mtDNA levels and clinical parameters, body composition, and physical performance. Plasma mtDNA was quantified by real-time PCR every 2 mo in 12 professional volleyball players (PVPs) during 2 consecutive seasons. As comparison, 20 healthy nonathlete male volunteers (NAs) were analyzed. The authors found lower levels of mtDNA in plasma of PVPs than in NAs. However, PVPs showed a decrease of circulating mtDNA only in the first season, while no appreciable variations were observed during the second season. No correlation was observed among mtDNA, hematochemical, and anthropometric parameters. Regular physical activity appeared associated with lower levels of circulating mtDNA, further confirming the protective, anti-inflammatory effect of exercise.

  7. Nuclear DNA but not mtDNA controls tumor phenotypes in mouse cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akimoto, Miho; Niikura, Mamoru; Ichikawa, Masami; Yonekawa, Hiromichi; Nakada, Kazuto; Honma, Yoshio; Hayashi, Jun-Ichi

    2005-01-01

    Recent studies showed high frequencies of homoplasmic mtDNA mutations in various human tumor types, suggesting that the mutated mtDNA haplotypes somehow contribute to expression of tumor phenotypes. We directly addressed this issue by isolating mouse mtDNA-less (ρ 0 ) cells for complete mtDNA replacement between normal cells and their carcinogen-induced transformants, and examined the effect of the mtDNA replacement on expression of tumorigenicity, a phenotype forming tumors in nude mice. The results showed that genome chimera cells carrying nuclear DNA from tumor cells and mtDNA from normal cells expressed tumorigenicity, whereas those carrying nuclear DNA from normal cells and mtDNA from tumor cells did not. These observations provided direct evidence that nuclear DNA, but not mtDNA, is responsible for carcinogen-induced malignant transformation, although it remains possible that mtDNA mutations and resultant respiration defects may influence the degree of malignancy, such as invasive or metastatic properties

  8. Melanesian mtDNA complexity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan S Friedlaender

    Full Text Available Melanesian populations are known for their diversity, but it has been hard to grasp the pattern of the variation or its underlying dynamic. Using 1,223 mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA sequences from hypervariable regions 1 and 2 (HVR1 and HVR2 from 32 populations, we found the among-group variation is structured by island, island size, and also by language affiliation. The more isolated inland Papuan-speaking groups on the largest islands have the greatest distinctions, while shore dwelling populations are considerably less diverse (at the same time, within-group haplotype diversity is less in the most isolated groups. Persistent differences between shore and inland groups in effective population sizes and marital migration rates probably cause these differences. We also add 16 whole sequences to the Melanesian mtDNA phylogenies. We identify the likely origins of a number of the haplogroups and ancient branches in specific islands, point to some ancient mtDNA connections between Near Oceania and Australia, and show additional Holocene connections between Island Southeast Asia/Taiwan and Island Melanesia with branches of haplogroup E. Coalescence estimates based on synonymous transitions in the coding region suggest an initial settlement and expansion in the region at approximately 30-50,000 years before present (YBP, and a second important expansion from Island Southeast Asia/Taiwan during the interval approximately 3,500-8,000 YBP. However, there are some important variance components in molecular dating that have been overlooked, and the specific nature of ancestral (maternal Austronesian influence in this region remains unresolved.

  9. Special report: Mt. St. Helens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mt. St Helens Volcano, Cascade Range, Southern Washington, USA (46.20°N, 122.18°W.) All times are local (GMT - 7 h through October 24, GMT - 8 h thereafter. Lava extrusion that probably began October 30 added a new lobe to the composite dome in the crater of Mt. St. Helens. After lava extrusion ended September 10 (see September 22 Eos), rates of deformation in the crater remained low for several weeks, as they had after earlier extrusion episodes. Sulfur dioxide emission ranged from 70 to 190 tons per day between October 9 and 24, but showed no particular trends. Inflation of the dome has caused small thrust faults to form in the surrounding crater floor. In early October the most active thrust, south of the dome, was moving at about 1.5 cm/d, and stations on the north crater rampart showed outward movement of about 0.5 cm/d. By October 24 these rates had increased to 14.5 and 3.5-4 cm/d, respectively, and leveling profiles perpendicular to the dome showed that crater floor tilt rates had reached 400-500 μrad/d, prompting the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to issue an advisory prediction of renewed lava extrusion within the next two weeks.

  10. The SbMT-2 gene from a halophyte confers abiotic stress tolerance and modulates ROS scavenging in transgenic tobacco.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Kumar Chaturvedi

    Full Text Available Heavy metals are common pollutants of the coastal saline area and Salicornia brachiata an extreme halophyte is frequently exposed to various abiotic stresses including heavy metals. The SbMT-2 gene was cloned and transformed to tobacco for the functional validation. Transgenic tobacco lines (L2, L4, L6 and L13 showed significantly enhanced salt (NaCl, osmotic (PEG and metals (Zn++, Cu++ and Cd++ tolerance compared to WT plants. Transgenic lines did not show any morphological variation and had enhanced growth parameters viz. shoot length, root length, fresh weight and dry weight. High seed germination percentage, chlorophyll content, relative water content, electrolytic leakage and membrane stability index confirmed that transgenic lines performed better under salt (NaCl, osmotic (PEG and metals (Zn++, Cu++ and Cd++ stress conditions compared to WT plants. Proline, H2O2 and lipid peroxidation (MDA analyses suggested the role of SbMT-2 in cellular homeostasis and H2O2 detoxification. Furthermore in vivo localization of H2O2 and O2-; and elevated expression of key antioxidant enzyme encoding genes, SOD, POD and APX evident the possible role of SbMT-2 in ROS scavenging/detoxification mechanism. Transgenic lines showed accumulation of Cu++ and Cd++ in root while Zn++ in stem under stress condition. Under control (unstressed condition, Zn++ was accumulated more in root but accumulation of Zn++ in stem under stress condition suggested that SbMT-2 may involve in the selective translocation of Zn++ from root to stem. This observation was further supported by the up-regulation of zinc transporter encoding genes NtZIP1 and NtHMA-A under metal ion stress condition. The study suggested that SbMT-2 modulates ROS scavenging and is a potential candidate to be used for phytoremediation and imparting stress tolerance.

  11. The SbMT-2 gene from a halophyte confers abiotic stress tolerance and modulates ROS scavenging in transgenic tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, Amit Kumar; Patel, Manish Kumar; Mishra, Avinash; Tiwari, Vivekanand; Jha, Bhavanath

    2014-01-01

    Heavy metals are common pollutants of the coastal saline area and Salicornia brachiata an extreme halophyte is frequently exposed to various abiotic stresses including heavy metals. The SbMT-2 gene was cloned and transformed to tobacco for the functional validation. Transgenic tobacco lines (L2, L4, L6 and L13) showed significantly enhanced salt (NaCl), osmotic (PEG) and metals (Zn++, Cu++ and Cd++) tolerance compared to WT plants. Transgenic lines did not show any morphological variation and had enhanced growth parameters viz. shoot length, root length, fresh weight and dry weight. High seed germination percentage, chlorophyll content, relative water content, electrolytic leakage and membrane stability index confirmed that transgenic lines performed better under salt (NaCl), osmotic (PEG) and metals (Zn++, Cu++ and Cd++) stress conditions compared to WT plants. Proline, H2O2 and lipid peroxidation (MDA) analyses suggested the role of SbMT-2 in cellular homeostasis and H2O2 detoxification. Furthermore in vivo localization of H2O2 and O2-; and elevated expression of key antioxidant enzyme encoding genes, SOD, POD and APX evident the possible role of SbMT-2 in ROS scavenging/detoxification mechanism. Transgenic lines showed accumulation of Cu++ and Cd++ in root while Zn++ in stem under stress condition. Under control (unstressed) condition, Zn++ was accumulated more in root but accumulation of Zn++ in stem under stress condition suggested that SbMT-2 may involve in the selective translocation of Zn++ from root to stem. This observation was further supported by the up-regulation of zinc transporter encoding genes NtZIP1 and NtHMA-A under metal ion stress condition. The study suggested that SbMT-2 modulates ROS scavenging and is a potential candidate to be used for phytoremediation and imparting stress tolerance.

  12. Functional Identification of a Pulvinar Path from Superior Colliculus to MT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Rebecca A.; Wurtz, Robert H.

    2010-01-01

    The idea of a second visual pathway, in which visual signals travel from brainstem to cortex via the pulvinar thalamus, has had considerable influence as an alternative to the primary geniculo-striate pathway. Existence of this second pathway in primates, however, is not well established. A major question centers on whether the pulvinar acts as a relay, particularly in the path from the superior colliculus (SC) to the motion area in middle temporal (MT) cortex. We used physiological microstimulation to identify pulvinar neurons belonging to the path from SC to MT in the macaque. We made three salient observations. First, we identified many neurons in the visual pulvinar that received input from SC or projected to MT, as well as a largely separate set of neurons that received input from MT. Second, and more importantly, we identified a subset of neurons as relay neurons that both received SC input and projected to MT. The identification of these relay neurons demonstrates a continuous functional path from SC to MT through the pulvinar in primates. Third, we histologically localized a subset of SC-MT relay neurons to the subdivision of inferior pulvinar known to project densely to MT, but also localized SC-MT relay neurons to an adjacent subdivision. This pattern indicates that the pulvinar pathway is not limited to a single anatomically-defined region. These findings bring new perspective to the functional organization of the pulvinar and its role in conveying signals to the cerebral cortex. PMID:20445060

  13. Extensional tectonics in Mt Parnon (Peloponnesus, Greece)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skourtsos, Emmanuel; Lekkas, Spyridon

    2011-10-01

    Peloponnesus in the south-western part of the Aegean is formed by a heterogeneous pile of alpine thrust sheets that was reworked by normal faulting from Upper Miocene to recent times. Upper Miocene-Lower Pliocene extension in Mt Parnon was accommodated by several mappable brittle detachment faults that exhibit a top-to-the-NE-ENE sense of shear. The hanging wall of the detachments comprises a number of highly tilted fault blocks containing abundant evidence of intense internal deformation by normal faulting and layer-parallel shearing contemporaneous with faulting. These fault blocks are remnants of a cohesive extensional block that slipped to the NE-ENE and broke up along high-angle normal faults that sole into or are cut by the detachments. The largest part of this block is located at the eastern edge of the metamorphic core forming the hanging wall of East Parnon high-angle normal fault that excised part of the aforementioned detachments. The lowermost metamorphic Unit of the nappe-pile does not seem to be affected by the previous extensional episode. Upper plate reconstruction shows that various units of the nappe-pile were affected by high-angle normal faults that linked to detachment faults in the weaker layers. Since the Middle-Upper Pliocene further exhumation of the metamorphic rocks has resulted in the formation of high-angle normal faults overprinting Neogene extensional structures and cut the entire nappe-pile. This new fault system tilted the earlier extensional structures and produced a NE-SW coaxial deformation of Mt Parnon.

  14. Evidences of Significant Nonstationarity in Precipitation Extremes over Urbanizing Areas in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, J.; H, V.; Karmakar, S.; Ghosh, S.

    2014-12-01

    The statistical assumption of stationarity in hydrologic extreme time/event series has been relied heavily in frequency analysis. However, due to the analytically perceivable impacts of climate change, urbanization and concomitant land use pattern, assumption of stationarity in hydrologic time series will draw erroneous results, which inturn effects the policy and decision-making. Past studies provided sufficient evidences on changes in the characteristics of Indian monsoon rainfall extremes and further it has been attributed to climate change and urbanization, which indicates the presence of significant nonstationary in the Indian monsoon extremes. Therefore, a comprehensive nonstationary frequency analysis must be conducted all over India to obtain realistic return periods. The present study aims to conduct a nonstationary frequency analysis of the precipitation extremes over India at 1o resolution for a period of 1901-2004, with the implementation of the Generalized Additive Model for Location, Scale and Shape (GAMLSS) parameters. A cluster of 74 GAMLSS models has been developed by considering nonstationary in different combinations of distribution parameters and regression techniques (families of parametric polynomials and nonparametric/smoothing cubic spline), which overcomes the limitations of the previous studies. Further, for identification of urban, urbanizing and rural grids, an population density data has been utilized. The results showed the significant differences in the stationary and nonstationary return periods for the urbanizing grids, when compared to urbanized and rural grids. The results give implications of presence of nonstationary in the precipitation extremes more prominently in urbanizing areas compare to urbanized and rural areas.

  15. Recycling of iodine in fore-arc areas: evidence from the iodine brines in Chiba, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muramatsu, Yasuyuki; Fehn, Udo; Yoshida, Satoshi

    2001-11-01

    The distribution of iodine in the Earth's crust is dominated by its accumulation in marine sediments. If fluxes between terrestrial and marine compartments are considered, however, a significant imbalance exists between known sources and sinks of iodine. We present here evidence from the fore-arc area near Chiba, Japan, the world's largest brine-iodine producing area, that iodine is mobilized from marine sediments during the early stages of subduction. Based on detailed chemical analyses of 22 brines and 129I dating of 13 of these samples collected from the Kazusa Formation, we show that iodine in these fluids is derived from organic-rich marine sediments with a minimum age of 50 Myr. Geochemical characteristics of the brines and the age of the iodine indicate that the iodine enrichment is caused by mobilization from subducting marine sediments and not by derivation from the host formation (age 1-2 Myr). The direct return of iodine from marine sediments into the oceans during the subduction of oceanic plates could provide the missing link in the iodine cycle and be an important pathway also in the marine cycle of carbon.

  16. Evident?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plant, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Quality assurance and evidence in career guidance in Europe are often seen as self-evident approaches, but particular interests lie behind......Quality assurance and evidence in career guidance in Europe are often seen as self-evident approaches, but particular interests lie behind...

  17. Floristic indicators of tropical landuse systems: Evidence from mining areas in Southwestern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sehinde Akinbiola

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Most forests in the tropics have not only been reduced in size but have also experienced forest degradation. The delicate balance of the components of the forest ecosystem has been altered largely by the landuse systems which have resulted in the disappearance of some species and the introduction of new ones. In order to understand the influence of human disturbance caused by artisanal mining on plant biodiversity and the physical environment, this study assessed changes in vegetation characteristics using plant functional groups, such as invasive, pioneer and understory species. The study was conducted at two sites in two Southwestern states of Nigeria, Itagunmodi in Atakumosa West Local Government Area of Osun State and Olode in Oluyole Local Government Area of Oyo State. Complete enumerations of woody, non-woody and herbaceous plant species were carried out in 20 m by 20 m plots selected using stratified random sampling as representative of landuse classes: freshly mined (6 months and a control plot (secondary forest. The results showed that the control plot in Itagunmodi had undergone degradation as indicated by the presence of Alchornea laxiflora, Geophilia obvallata, Musa sapientum,Elaeis guineensis and Keetia hispida. However, if left undisturbed, it has the potential of regeneration back to its original state because of its woody tree species composition and lianas (Triclisia gilletii. In addition the forest soils in the mines had been exposed to direct insolation for a long period, and the soil structure and texture have been affected, consequently altering the viability of the seed bank. Poaceae and Papilionoideae were the most common in the freshly mined plots while invasive species were the most common in abandoned mined plots. In conclusion, the floristic composition in the mining sites has been altered and there was no clear evidence that regrowth would bring restoration of the lost ecosystem services.

  18. Evidence for a functional subdivision of Premotor Ear-Eye Field (Area 8B.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco eLanzilotto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Supplementary Eye Field (SEF and the Frontal Eye Field (FEF have been described as participating in gaze shift control. Recent evidence suggests, however, that other areas of the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex also influence gaze shift. Herein, we have investigated electrically evoked ear- and eye movements from the Premotor Ear-Eye Field, or PEEF (area 8B of macaque monkeys. We stimulated PEEF during spontaneous condition (outside the task performance and during the execution of a visual fixation task (VFT. In the first case, we functionally identified two regions within the PEEF: a core and a belt. In the core region, stimulation elicited forward ear movements; regarding the evoked eye movements, in some penetrations, stimulation elicited contraversive fixed-vectors with a mean amplitude of 5.14°; while in other penetrations, we observed prevalently contralateral goal-directed eye movements having end-points that fell within 15° in respect to the primary eye position. On the contrary, in the belt region, stimulation elicited backward ear movements; regarding the eye movements, in some penetrations stimulation elicited prevalently contralateral goal-directed eye movements having end-points that fell within 15° in respect to the primary eye position, while in the lateral edge of the investigated region, stimulation elicited contralateral goal-directed eye movements having end-points that fell beyond 15° in respect to the primary eye position. Stimulation during VFT either did not elicit eye movements or evoked saccades of only a few degrees. Finally, even though no head rotation movements were observed during the stimulation period, we viewed a relationship between the duration of stimulation and the neck forces exerted by the monkey’s head. We propose an updated vision of the PEEF composed of two functional regions, core and belt, which may be involved in integrating auditory and visual information important to the programming of gaze

  19. Propriedades físico-químicas e microbiológicas do solo de um Parque em Tangará da Serra, MT, uma área de transição entre Amazônia e Cerrado Physicochemical and microbiological properties of soil in a municipal park in Tangará da Serra, MT, a transition area between Amazonia and Cerrado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliandra Meurer Melz

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available O Parque Natural Municipal Ilto Ferreira Coutinho, localizado em Tangará da Serra-MT, possui uma vegetação de transição entre Cerrado e Floresta Amazônica e apresenta três diferentes áreas denominadas: área de lazer, área alterada e reserva natural, conforme o seu estado de degradação e de utilização. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram: estudar algumas propriedades físico-químicas e microbiológicas (bactérias e fungos do solo; analisar a influência dos períodos seco e chuvoso nestas propriedades do solo e estimar os índices de diversidade, uniformidade e riqueza bacteriana do solo das áreas estudadas. As amostras de solo foram coletadas nos meses de agosto de 2005 e março de 2006 e as análises físico-químicas foram realizadas em um laboratório especializado. As análises de pH, umidade e contagem total de fungos e bactérias foram realizadas no Laboratório de Microbiologia da UNEMAT. A diversidade bacteriana foi calculada através do índice de Shannon-Wiener e a riqueza e uniformidade pelo índice de Pielou. Houveram diferenças nos valores da comunidade microbiana (fungos e actinomicetos, de pH, de matéria orgânica, de carbono orgânico e de umidade, entre as áreas e os períodos estudados. No período chuvoso, observamos a inibição do crescimento de actinomicetos provavelmente causado pela alta umidade. Os índices de diversidade, uniformidade e riqueza foram baixos, possivelmente devido à constante ação antrópica no parque.The Ilto Ferreira Coutinho Municipal Nature Park in Tangará da Serra, state of Mato Grosso, Brazil, has a transition vegetation of "Cerrado" to Amazonian forest and encompasses three different areas classified as: leisure area, altered area, and natural reserve area, according to their state of degradation and use. The objectives of this work were to study some of the physicochemical and microbiological (bacteria and fungi properties of the soil, analyze the influence of the dry and

  20. Protection enhances community and habitat stability: evidence from a mediterranean marine protected area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraschetti, Simonetta; Guarnieri, Giuseppe; Bevilacqua, Stanislao; Terlizzi, Antonio; Boero, Ferdinando

    2013-01-01

    Rare evidences support that Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) enhance the stability of marine habitats and assemblages. Based on nine years of observation (2001-2009) inside and outside a well managed MPA, we assessed the potential of conservation and management actions to modify patterns of spatial and/or temporal variability of Posidonia oceanica meadows, the lower midlittoral and the shallow infralittoral rock assemblages. Significant differences in both temporal variations and spatial patterns were observed between protected and unprotected locations. A lower temporal variability in the protected vs. unprotected assemblages was found in the shallow infralittoral, demonstrating that, at least at local scale, protection can enhance community stability. Macrobenthos with long-lived and relatively slow-growing invertebrates and structurally complex algal forms were homogeneously distributed in space and went through little fluctuations in time. In contrast, a mosaic of disturbed patches featured unprotected locations, with small-scale shifts from macroalgal stands to barrens, and harsh temporal variations between the two states. Opposite patterns of spatial and temporal variability were found for the midlittoral assemblages. Despite an overall clear pattern of seagrass regression through time, protected meadows showed a significantly higher shoot density than unprotected ones, suggesting a higher resistance to local human activities. Our results support the assumption that the exclusion/management of human activities within MPAs enhance the stability of the structural components of protected marine systems, reverting or arresting threat-induced trajectories of change.

  1. The role of MT2-MMP in cancer progression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Emiko; Yana, Ikuo; Fujita, Chisato; Irifune, Aiko; Takeda, Maki; Madachi, Ayako; Mori, Seiji; Hamada, Yoshinosuke; Kawaguchi, Naomasa; Matsuura, Nariaki

    2010-01-01

    The role of MT2-MMP in cancer progression remains to be elucidated in spite of many reports on MT1-MMP. Using a human fibrosarcoma cell, HT1080 and a human gastric cancer cell, TMK-1, endogenous expression of MT1-MMP or MT2-MMP was suppressed by siRNA induction to examine the influence of cancer progression in vitro and in vivo. In HT1080 cells, positive both in MT1-MMP and MT2-MMP, the migration as well as the invasion was impaired by MT1-MMP or MT2-MMP suppression. Also cell proliferation in three dimensional (3D) condition was inhibited by MT1-MMP or MT2-MMP suppression and tumor growth in the nude mice transplanted with tumor cells were reduced either MT1-MMP or MT2-MMP suppression with a prolongation of survival time in vivo. MT2-MMP suppression induces more inhibitory effects on 3D proliferation and in vivo tumor growth than MT1-MMP. On the other hand, TMK-1 cells, negative in MT1-MMP and MMP-2 but positive in MT2-MMP, all the migratory, invasive, and 3D proliferative activities in TMK-1 are decreased only by MT2-MMP suppression. These results indicate MT2-MMP might be involved in the cancer progression more than or equal to MT1-MMP independently of MMP-2 and MT1-MMP.

  2. Two-dimensional inversion of MT (magnetotelluric) data; MT ho no nijigen inversion kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, S.; Okuno, M.; Ushijima, K.; Mizunaga, H. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-05-27

    A program has been developed to conduct inversion analysis of two-dimensional model using MT data, accurately. For the developed program, finite element method (FEM) was applied to the section of sequential analysis. A method in which Jacobian matrix is calculated only one first time and is inversely analyzed by fixing this during the repetition, and a method in which Jacobian matrix is corrected at each repetition of inversion analysis, were compared mutually. As a result of the numerical simulation, it was revealed that the Jacobian correction method provided more stable convergence for the simple 2D model, and that the calculation time is almost same as that of the Jacobian fixation method. To confirm the applicability of this program to actually measured data, results obtained from this program were compared with those from the Schlumberger method analysis by using MT data obtained in the Hatchobara geothermal area. Consequently, it was demonstrated that the both are well coincided mutually. 17 refs., 7 figs.

  3. Biomarker Validation for Aging: Lessons from mtDNA Heteroplasmy Analyses in Early Cancer Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Peter E; Murthy, Mahadev

    2009-11-27

    The anticipated biological and clinical utility of biomarkers has attracted significant interest recently. Aging and early cancer detection represent areas active in the search for predictive and prognostic biomarkers. While applications differ, overlapping biological features, analytical technologies and specific biomarker analytes bear comparison. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) as a biomarker in both biological models has been evaluated. However, it remains unclear whether mtDNA changes in aging and cancer represent biological relationships that are causal, incidental, or a combination of both. This article focuses on evaluation of mtDNA-based biomarkers, emerging strategies for quantitating mtDNA admixtures, and how current understanding of mtDNA in aging and cancer evolves with introduction of new technologies. Whether for cancer or aging, lessons from mtDNA based biomarker evaluations are several. Biological systems are inherently dynamic and heterogeneous. Detection limits for mtDNA sequencing technologies differ among methods for low-level DNA sequence admixtures in healthy and diseased states. Performance metrics of analytical mtDNA technology should be validated prior to application in heterogeneous biologically-based systems. Critical in evaluating biomarker performance is the ability to distinguish measurement system variance from inherent biological variance, because it is within the latter that background healthy variability as well as high-value, disease-specific information reside.

  4. Biomarker Validation for Aging: Lessons from mtDNA Heteroplasmy Analyses in Early Cancer Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter E. Barker

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The anticipated biological and clinical utility of biomarkers has attracted significant interest recently. Aging and early cancer detection represent areas active in the search for predictive and prognostic biomarkers. While applications differ, overlapping biological features, analytical technologies and specific biomarker analytes bear comparison. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA as a biomarker in both biological models has been evaluated. However, it remains unclear whether mtDNA changes in aging and cancer represent biological relationships that are causal, incidental, or a combination of both. This article focuses on evaluation of mtDNA-based biomarkers, emerging strategies for quantitating mtDNA admixtures, and how current understanding of mtDNA in aging and cancer evolves with introduction of new technologies. Whether for cancer or aging, lessons from mtDNA based biomarker evaluations are several. Biological systems are inherently dynamic and heterogeneous. Detection limits for mtDNA sequencing technologies differ among methods for low-level DNA sequence admixtures in healthy and diseased states. Performance metrics of analytical mtDNA technology should be validated prior to application in heterogeneous biologically-based systems. Critical in evaluating biomarker performance is the ability to distinguish measurement system variance from inherent biological variance, because it is within the latter that background healthy variability as well as high-value, disease-specific information reside.

  5. Determinants of SME location in a suburban area: Evidence from the Gdańsk–Gdynia–Sopot Metropolitan Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Martyniuk-Pęczek

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Given the importance of small and medium enterprises (SMEs in the European economy, it is essential to have adequate information about the various factors that determine their choice of location. However, the size of a company is often an aspect not covered in theoretical studies and empirical research on industrial locations and urban planning. This article examines the place of residence as a stimulator of SME development in suburbs. Multidisciplinary research carried out in the Gdańsk–Gdynia–Sopot Metropolitan Area, known as the Tricity, confirms this trend. The location determinants of SMEs in suburban areas were identified using a questionnaire. The survey was conducted in 251 enterprises located in seven municipalities with the highest suburbanisation rates within the Tricity. The study confirms that the municipalities characterised by the highest intensity of suburbanisation processes have higher business activity than other municipalities. Location decisions were largely made by business owners in line with behavioural theory. This means that SME owners more often consider personal factors than cost or demand factors. From the perspective of an entrepreneur, living conditions, the quality of public space, education and healthcare are significant.

  6. Geologic framework and evidence for neotectonism in the epicentral area of the 2011 Mineral, Virginia, earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, William C.; Harrison, Richard W.; Spears, David B.; Evans, Nicholas H.; Mahan, Shannon

    2015-01-01

    The epicenters of the main shock and associated aftershocks of the 2011 moment magnitude, Mw 5.8 Mineral, Virginia (USA), earthquake, and the updip projection of the possible fault plane that triggered the quakes, are contained in the areas of 2 adjoining 7.5′ quadrangles in the central Virginia Piedmont. These quadrangles have therefore been the focus of concentrated geologic study in the form of bedrock and surficial mapping and near-surface trenching in order to identify potential seismogenic structures. Bedrock mapping has outlined a series of northeast-southwest–trending lithologic belts that include the Ordovician Chopawamsic and Quantico Formations, the narrow neck of the Late Ordovician Ellisville pluton, and mélange zone III of the Mine Run Complex. The region was affected by at least two ductile deformational events, one in the early Paleozoic that was broadly synchronous with the intrusion of the pluton, and one later in the Paleozoic. The earlier deformation produced the Quantico synclinorium and other regional folds, and the later deformation produced faults with associated high-strain zones. Two of these faults have been trenched at their intersection along the east-dipping eastern contact of the Ellisville neck, near where the causative fault for the earthquake projects to the surface. The trenches have exposed abundant evidence of post-Paleozoic fracturing and faulting, including brecciated quartz-tourmaline veins, slickensided thrust and strike-slip faults, and clay-filled fractures. Fluvial and colluvial gravels that overlie these brittle structures have yielded optically stimulated luminescence ages ranging from ca. 27 to 10 ka. These structures are likely representative of surface features associated with Quaternary earthquakes in the Central Virginia seismic zone.

  7. Divorce in a rural north Indian area: evidence from Himachali villages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, M

    1996-09-01

    This study focuses on divorce patterns in 10 rural villages near Shimla town, the capital of Himachal Pradesh, India. Data were obtained from a survey conducted in 1988 among 338 ever married women. Most villagers are Hindus. Caste groups include Brahmins (13%), Rajputs (45%), and Sudras (42%). Indian divorce consists in a permanent separation without legal formalities or an informal process within the panchayat judicial system. Large national studies indicate low levels of divorce, while local anthropological studies indicate high levels in some areas. This study in 1988 indicates that over 17% of women (58 out of 338) in Himachal villages were divorced at least once. Evidence suggests that divorces by cohort were higher prior to 1960. About 30% of women who married during 1951-60, 13% of women who married during 1971-80, and 3% of women who married during 1981-88 were divorced at least once. The mean age of marriage for ever divorced women was much lower than for never divorced women. The mean age at divorce was also much lower than the mean age at marriage among never divorced women. The variables associated with divorce at the 0.05 level of significance were marriage age, level of female education, age difference of spouses, and level of education of spouse and caste. Women who married before the age of 13 years were three times more likely to divorce than women who married at ages 13-15 years. Women with at least 5 years of education were four times less likely to divorce than uneducated women. Brahmin women were less likely to divorce. Women with uneducated husbands had a 50% greater chance of being divorced than women with primary educated husbands. Women who were younger by 10 years than their spouse were six times more likely to divorce.

  8. Soil gases and SAR measurements reveal hidden faults on the sliding flank of Mt. Etna (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonforte, Alessandro; Federico, Cinzia; Giammanco, Salvatore; Guglielmino, Francesco; Liuzzo, Marco; Neri, Marco

    2013-02-01

    From October 2008 to November 2009, soil CO2, radon and structural field surveys were performed on Mt. Etna, in order to acquire insights into active tectonic structures in a densely populated sector of the south-eastern flank of the volcano, which is involved in the flank dynamics, as highlighted by satellite data (InSAR). The studied area extends about 150 km2, in a sector of the volcano where InSAR results detected several lineaments that were not well-defined from previous geological surveys. In order to validate and better constrain these features with ground data evidences, soil CO2 and soil radon measurements were performed along transects roughly orthogonal to the newly detected faults, with measurement points spaced about 100 m. In each transect, the highest CO2 values were found very close to the lineaments evidenced by InSAR observations. Anomalous soil CO2 and radon values were also measured at old eruptive fractures. In some portions of the investigated area soil gas anomalies were rather broad over transects, probably suggesting a complex structural framework consisting of several parallel volcano-tectonic structures, instead of a single one. Soil gas measurements proved particularly useful in areas at higher altitude on Mt. Etna (i.e. above 900 m asl), where InSAR results are not very informative/are fairly limited, and allowed recognizing the prolongation of some tectonic lineaments towards the summit of the volcano. At a lower altitude on the volcanic edifice, soil gas anomalies define the active structures indicated by InSAR results prominently, down to almost the coastline and through the northern periphery of the city of Catania. Coupling InSAR with soil gas prospecting methods has thus proved to be a powerful tool in detecting hidden active structures that do not show significant field evidences.

  9. An integrated magnetotelluric study of the Mt. Etna volcanic structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Siniscalchi

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available he results of a magnetotelluric (MT survey performed at Mt. Etna (Sicily, Italy are presented and discussed. The MT interpretation is preceded by the description of the data managing strategy used for the estimate of the impedance tensor and the computation of a rotationally invariant parameter. The 1D Bostick inversion of MT soundings located in the Etnean central area highlights the existence of a wide conductive zone in the depth range 15-30 km. Resistivities of a fewW×m are estimated in the southern part of this zone, while resistivities one order of magnitude higher are estimated in the northern part. In the central sector, the MT soundings are characterized by much higher resistivity values suggesting the presence of an E-W directed resistive barrier separating the two conductive deep zones. A two-feeding system is thus hypothesized as an extension of a previous 3D model deduced from regional earthquakes and teleseisms in the depth range 15-25 km. Moreover, the comparison with previous shallow seismic tomographies from local earthquakes within the first 11 km of depth allows us to distinguish inside the upper portion of the resistive barrier a central high velocity zone. This zone can likely be ascribed to a slowly cooled dike tending to become highly fractured at its western and eastern edges. Finally, the impedivity analysis based on the comparison with previous geoelectric dipole soundings allows us to exclude the existence of a permanent magma chamber within the first 5 km of depth and to argue the existence of a shallowplumbing system consisting of a medium-to-low temperature hydrothermally altered environment.

  10. On three new cave pseudoscorpion species (Pseudoscorpiones, Neobisiidae from Mt. Mosor, Dalmatia (Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćurčić B.P.M.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Most subterranean pseudoscorpions are concentrated in regions with a Mediterranean climate. Although data on the abundance of pseudoscorpion species in the humid tropics are lacking, preliminary observations suggest that the number of species is greater in the Mediterranean area than in tropical rain forests. Speciation in pseudoscorpions has not been studied in great detail. New taxa are constantly being described. Exact data on the different niche preferences which are a prerequisite for evolutionary studies are available for only a few cases. The pseudoscorpions are not particularly suitable for genetic investigations due to their extended generation times. The cave-dwelling forms of the genus Neobisium L. Koch comprise many phyletic lines, some less specialized and others highly adapted to cave life. To trace their origin, biogeography and evolution, it is necessary to compare the evidence about troglobitic species with that of the epigean forms from different European habitats, especially in the Mediterranean or Dinaric regions. To the south of the river Zrmanja, up to the lower Neretva valley, a massive Holokarst region rises to a considerably height. Many summits attain between 1800 and 2000 m, and Mt. Dinara gave its name to both the Dinaric region and the Dinaric Karst. The karst of Mt. Mosor (and Mts. Kozjak and Biokovo, is quite different from that previously discussed. This is a zone of younger, intensively folded mountains. Their karst, although young, appears to be deep and almost fully developed. In this study, descriptions of Neobisium montdori n. sp., N. mosorensis n. sp., and N. dalmatinum Beier, 1939, all from caves on Mt. Mosor, Dalmatia (Croatia, have been presented, with some details on the comparative morphology of both sexes and tritonymph.

  11. The fate of MtBE during Fenton-like treatments through laboratory scale column tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piscitelli, Daniela; Zingaretti, Daniela; Verginelli, Iason; Gavasci, Renato; Baciocchi, Renato

    2015-12-01

    In Situ Chemical Oxidation (ISCO) based on the Fenton's process is a proven technology for the treatment of groundwater contaminated by organic compounds. Nevertheless, the application of this treatment process to methyl tert-butyl ether (MtBE) is questioned, as there are concerns about its capacity to achieve complete mineralization. Many existing studies have focused on water contaminated by MtBE and are thus not representative of in situ treatments since they do not consider the presence of soil. In this work, the effectiveness of a Fenton-like process for MtBE treatment was proven in soil column tests performed at operating conditions (i.e., oxidant and contaminant concentration and flow rates) resembling those typically used for in situ applications. No MtBE by-products were detected in any of the tested conditions, thus suggesting that the tert-butyl group of MtBE was completely degraded. A mass balance based on the CO2 produced was used as evidence that most of the MtBE removed was actually mineralized. Finally, the obtained results show that preconditioning of soil with a chelating agent (EDTA) significantly enhanced MtBE oxidation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Petrographic and geochemical investigation of magma chamber processes beneath small Quaternary volcanic centers between Mt. Jefferson and Mt. Hood volcanoes, Cascade Range Volcanic Arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, E.; Cribb, J. W.

    2017-12-01

    The northern Oregon Cascade Range has been dominated by andesite to rhyodacite lavas at both Mt. Jefferson (Conrey, 1991) and at Mt. Hood (Cribb and Barton, 1996) during the Quaternary period. Eruptive sequences at both Mt. Hood and Mt. Jefferson have been attributed to open-system mama mixing (Kent et al., 2010) (Ferrell et al., 2015), and the narrow range of lavas erupted at both centers has been derived from repeated cycles of magma mixing-fractionation (Cribb and Barton, 1996). This research examines major and trace element geochemistry as well as the petrographic characteristics of Clear Lake Butte (CLB), Pinhead Butte (PB), and Olallie Butte (OB), all of which are located between Mt. Hood and Mt. Jefferson, and have ben active in the Quaternary period. The research investigates whether the same type of open-system magma mixing known to have occurred at Mt. Hood and Mt. Jefferson has also occurred at CLB, PB, or OB, or whether those systems were closed to mixing and dominated by fractional crystallization. One of the main goals of this project is to highlight the similarities and differences exhibited by neighboring magmatic systems of similar age, but different scale. Disequilibrium textures observed in thin sections from CLB, OB, and PB suggest open-system magma mixing is likely occurring beneath all three buttes. This petrographic evidence includes plagioclase and pyroxene zoning, embayed margins, sieving, and reaction rims. Major element oxide trends at all three buttes are consistent with fractional crystallization, but show narrow concentrations and non-overlapping compositions between PB, CLB, and OB. All three buttes are characterized by narrow ranges of incompatible and compatible trace element concentrations. CLB, PB, and OB all exhibit LREE enrichment and lack significant HFSE depletions, with PB exhibiting greatest enrichment in REE.

  13. The Current State and Historico-geographical Background of Mt. Chirisan Region Immigrants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungho Kang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper examined the historico-geographical background and current state of immigrants in the area designated as the “Mt. Chirisan Region,” their characteristics, and related integration issues. This article defines the Mt. Chirisan Region as the 7 cities/kuns of Namwŏn-si, Changsu-kun, Koksŏng-kun, Kurye-kun, Hadong-kun, Sanchŏng-kun, and Hamyang-kun. As the Mt. Chirisan Region mainly consists of mountainous and agricultural areas, the immigrant induction effect socio-economically was low relative to urban and industrial areas. It was also noted that, as the percentage of marriage immigration in Mt. Chirisan was high relative to urban or industrial areas, the female foreigner ratio was higher than that of male foreigners. In regard to the home countries of immigrants, women from South-East Asia and North-East Asia accounted for the majority. Also, this article examines the current situation of support programs of 7 local Multicultural Family Support Centers in the Mt. Chirisan Region, their problems, and probably solutions. Based on the historical development of the region and recent social changes, our society and government need to actively develop a higher level of social integration and employment education support programs, and carry out policies that will protect the diverse cultural identities of immigrants. In addition, differentiated multicultural family support programs appropriate for Mt. Chirisan, an inland mountain region, need to be developed.

  14. Patent documentation - comparison of two MT strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Offersgaard, Lene; Povlsen, Claus

    2007-01-01

    This paper focuses on two matters: A comparison of how two different MT strategies manage translating the text type of patent documentation and a survey of what is needed to transform a MT research prototype system to a translation application for patent texts. The two MT strategies is represented....... The distinctive text type of patents pose special demands for machine translation and these aspects are discussed based on linguistic observations with focus on the users point of view. Two main demands are automatic pre processing of the documents and implementation of a module which in a flexible and user......-friendly manner offers the opportunity to extend the lexical coverage of the system. These demands and the comparison of the two MT strategies are discussed on the basis of proofread patents....

  15. Gas analyses of fumaroles from Mt. Hood, Oregon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nehring, N.L.; Wollenberg, H.A.; Johnston, D.A.

    1981-01-01

    The eruptive activity of Mt. St. Helens beginning in March 1980, coupled with earthquake activity on Mt. Hood in early July, has generated increased interest in the fumaroles near the summit of Mt. Hood. These fumaroles are associated with Crater Rock, a hornblende dacite plug, extruded 200 to 300 years ago (Crandell, 1980). A major eruption in about 1700 and lesser eruptions in 1805, 1859, and 1865 (Harris, 1976) were centered near Crater Rock. It is likely that future eruptions will occur in this area. Changes in the surficial characteristics of the fumaroles or changes in the composition of the gas emitted by the fumaroles could precede an eruption by a sufficient length of time to help predict the eruption. In 1935, K.N. Phillips and G.R. Collins collected and analyzed the first samples of gases from the fumaroles (Phillips, 1936). F.D. Ayres and A.E. Creswell (1951) collected and analyzed gas samples from orifices they considered to be equivalent to those sampled by Phillips and Collins, and these (or orifices in the same area) were re-sampled in 1977 and 1978. The results of the 1978 sampling are presented.

  16. Does improving Public Transport decrease Car Ownership? Evidence from the Copenhagen Metropolitan Area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mulalic, Ismir; Pilegaard, Ninette; Rouwendal, Jan

    Car ownership is lower in urban areas, which is probably related to the availability of better publict ransport. Better public transport thus may offer the possibility to relieve the many problems (congestion,health, and parking) associated with the presence of cars in urban areas. To investigate...... this issue, wedevelop and estimate a model for the simultaneous choice of a residential area and car ownership. Themodel is estimated on Danish register data for single-earner and dual-earners households in the greaterCopenhagen metropolitan area. We pay special attention to accessibility of the metro...... network whichoffers particularly high quality public transport. Simulations based on the estimated model show that forthe greater Copenhagen area a planned extension of the metro network decreases car ownership by 2-3%.Our results suggest also a substantial increase in the interest for living in areas...

  17. Association study of ERβ, AR, and CYP19A1 genes and MtF transsexualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Rosa; Esteva, Isabel; Gómez-Gil, Esther; Rumbo, Teresa; Almaraz, Mari Cruz; Roda, Ester; Haro-Mora, Juan-Jesús; Guillamón, Antonio; Pásaro, Eduardo

    2014-12-01

    The etiology of male-to-female (MtF) transsexualism is unknown. Both genetic and neurological factors may play an important role. To investigate the possible influence of the genetic factor on the etiology of MtF transsexualism. We carried out a cytogenetic and molecular analysis in 442 MtFs and 473 healthy, age- and geographical origin-matched XY control males. The karyotype was investigated by G-banding and by high-density array in the transsexual group. The molecular analysis involved three tandem variable regions of genes estrogen receptor β (ERβ) (CA tandem repeats in intron 5), androgen receptor (AR) (CAG tandem repeats in exon 1), and CYP19A1 (TTTA tandem repeats in intron 4). The allele and genotype frequencies, after division into short and long alleles, were obtained. We investigated the association between genotype and transsexualism by performing a molecular analysis of three variable regions of genes ERβ, AR, and CYP19A1 in 915 individuals (442 MtFs and 473 control males). Most MtFs showed an unremarkable 46,XY karyotype (97.96%). No specific chromosome aberration was associated with MtF transsexualism, and prevalence of aneuploidy (2.04%) was slightly higher than in the general population. Molecular analyses showed no significant difference in allelic or genotypic distribution of the genes examined between MtFs and controls. Moreover, molecular findings presented no evidence of an association between the sex hormone-related genes (ERβ, AR, and CYP19A1) and MtF transsexualism. The study suggests that the analysis of karyotype provides limited information in these subjects. Variable regions analyzed from ERβ, AR, and CYP19A1 are not associated with MtF transsexualism. Nevertheless, this does not exclude other polymorphic regions not analyzed. © 2014 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  18. Sweet Grass County, MT, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Floodplain Mapping study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the...

  19. Evidence of slope failure in the Sines Contourite Drift area (SW Portuguese Continental Margin) - preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Manuel; Roque, Cristina; Terrinha, Pedro; Rodrigues, Sara; Ercilla, Gemma; Casas, David

    2017-04-01

    Slope instability, expressed by landslide activity, is an important natural hazard both onshore as well as offshore. Offshore processes create great concern on coastal areas constituting one of the major and most prominent hazards, directly by the damages they generate and indirectly by the possibility of generating tsunamis, which may affect the coast line. The Southwest Portuguese Continental Margin has been identified as an area where several mass movements occurred from Late Pleistocene to Present. Recently, an area of 52 km long by 34 km wide, affected by slope failure has been recognized in the Sines contourite drift located off the Alentejo. SWIM and CONDRIBER multibeam swath bathymetry has been used for the geomorphologic analysis and for recognition of mass movement scars on the seabed. Scars' areas and volumes were calculated by reconstructing paleo-bathymetry. The net gain and net loss were calculated using both paleo and present day bathymetry. Geomorphologically, the study area presents 4 morphologic domains with landslide scars: I) Shelf and upper slope display an irregular boundary with domain II with a sharp step ( 150m - 600m); II) Smooth area with gentle slope angles making the transition from smoother area to the continental slope (scarp), with large scars, suggesting slow rate and distributed mass wasting processes over this area ( 600 - 1200m); III) Scarp with high rates of retrograding instability, where faster processes are verified and a great number of gullies is feeding downslope area (1200m - 3200m); IV) Lebre Basin where mass movements deposits accumulate (> 3200m). A total of 51 landslide scars were identified with a total affected area of 137.67 km2, with 80.9 km2 being located in the continental slope with about 59% of the disrupted area, between 1200 and 3200m, and 41% (56.6 km2) lies in the continental shelf and upper slope, on a range of depths between 150 and 800m. The mean scar area is 2.7 km2 and the maximum area recorded on a

  20. The Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)-Associated Protein SWIB5 Influences mtDNA Architecture and Homologous Recombination

    KAUST Repository

    Blomme, Jonas

    2017-04-19

    In addition to the nucleus, mitochondria and chloroplasts in plant cells also contain genomes. Efficient DNA repair pathways are crucial in these organelles to fix damage resulting from endogenous and exogenous factors. Plant organellar genomes are complex compared with their animal counterparts, and although several plant-specific mediators of organelle DNA repair have been reported, many regulators remain to be identified. Here, we show that a mitochondrial SWI/SNF (nucleosome remodeling) complex B protein, SWIB5, is capable of associating with mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in Arabidopsis thaliana. Gainand loss-of-function mutants provided evidence for a role of SWIB5 in influencing mtDNA architecture and homologous recombination at specific intermediate-sized repeats both under normal and genotoxic conditions. SWIB5 interacts with other mitochondrial SWIB proteins. Gene expression and mutant phenotypic analysis of SWIB5 and SWIB family members suggests a link between organellar genome maintenance and cell proliferation. Taken together, our work presents a protein family that influences mtDNA architecture and homologous recombination in plants and suggests a link between organelle functioning and plant development.

  1. Perceptual learning of motion direction discrimination with suppressed and unsuppressed MT in humans: an fMRI study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Thompson

    Full Text Available The middle temporal area of the extrastriate visual cortex (area MT is integral to motion perception and is thought to play a key role in the perceptual learning of motion tasks. We have previously found, however, that perceptual learning of a motion discrimination task is possible even when the training stimulus contains locally balanced, motion opponent signals that putatively suppress the response of MT. Assuming at least partial suppression of MT, possible explanations for this learning are that 1 training made MT more responsive by reducing motion opponency, 2 MT remained suppressed and alternative visual areas such as V1 enabled learning and/or 3 suppression of MT increased with training, possibly to reduce noise. Here we used fMRI to test these possibilities. We first confirmed that the motion opponent stimulus did indeed suppress the BOLD response within hMT+ compared to an almost identical stimulus without locally balanced motion signals. We then trained participants on motion opponent or non-opponent stimuli. Training with the motion opponent stimulus reduced the BOLD response within hMT+ and greater reductions in BOLD response were correlated with greater amounts of learning. The opposite relationship between BOLD and behaviour was found at V1 for the group trained on the motion-opponent stimulus and at both V1 and hMT+ for the group trained on the non-opponent motion stimulus. As the average response of many cells within MT to motion opponent stimuli is the same as their response to non-directional flickering noise, the reduced activation of hMT+ after training may reflect noise reduction.

  2. The Role of Broca's Area in Speech Perception: Evidence from Aphasia Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickok, Gregory; Costanzo, Maddalena; Capasso, Rita; Miceli, Gabriele

    2011-01-01

    Motor theories of speech perception have been re-vitalized as a consequence of the discovery of mirror neurons. Some authors have even promoted a strong version of the motor theory, arguing that the motor speech system is critical for perception. Part of the evidence that is cited in favor of this claim is the observation from the early 1980s that…

  3. The early Gravettian in a marginal area: New evidence from SW Poland

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wiśniewski, A.; Płonka, T.; Jary, Z.; Lisá, Lenka; Traczyk, A.; Kufel-Diakowska, B.; Raczyk, J.; Bajer, A.

    359/360, 2 March (2015), s. 131-152 ISSN 1040-6182 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : Early Gravettian * geoarchaeology * marginal area * mobility * Sudetes foreland Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology Impact factor: 2.067, year: 2015

  4. How have inflation dynamics changed over time? Evidence from the euro area and USA

    OpenAIRE

    Oinonen, Sami; Paloviita, Maritta; Vilmi , Lauri

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzes euro area and U.S. inflation dynamics since the beginning of the 1990s by estimating New Keynesian hybrid Phillips curves with time-varying parameters. We measure inflation expectations by subjective forecasts from Consensus Economics survey and so do not assume rational expectations. Both rolling regressions and state-space models are employed. The results indicate that in both economic areas the inflation dynamics have steadily become more forward-looking over time. We a...

  5. Reservoir uncertainty, Precambrian topography, and carbon sequestration in the Mt. Simon Sandstone, Illinois Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leetaru, H.E.; McBride, J.H.

    2009-01-01

    Sequestration sites are evaluated by studying the local geological structure and confirming the presence of both a reservoir facies and an impermeable seal not breached by significant faulting. The Cambrian Mt. Simon Sandstone is a blanket sandstone that underlies large parts of Midwest United States and is this region's most significant carbon sequestration reservoir. An assessment of the geological structure of any Mt. Simon sequestration site must also include knowledge of the paleotopography prior to deposition. Understanding Precambrian paleotopography is critical in estimating reservoir thickness and quality. Regional outcrop and borehole mapping of the Mt. Simon in conjunction with mapping seismic reflection data can facilitate the prediction of basement highs. Any potential site must, at the minimum, have seismic reflection data, calibrated with drill-hole information, to evaluate the presence of Precambrian topography and alleviate some of the uncertainty surrounding the thickness or possible absence of the Mt. Simon at a particular sequestration site. The Mt. Simon is thought to commonly overlie Precambrian basement granitic or rhyolitic rocks. In places, at least about 549 m (1800 ft) of topographic relief on the top of the basement surface prior to Mt. Simon deposition was observed. The Mt. Simon reservoir sandstone is thin or not present where basement is topographically high, whereas the low areas can have thick Mt. Simon. The paleotopography on the basement and its correlation to Mt. Simon thickness have been observed at both outcrops and in the subsurface from the states of Illinois, Ohio, Wisconsin, and Missouri. ?? 2009. The American Association of Petroleum Geologists/Division of Environmental Geosciences. All rights reserved.

  6. A novel wide-area backup protection based on fault component current distribution and improved evidence theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhe; Kong, Xiangping; Yin, Xianggen; Yang, Zengli; Wang, Lijun

    2014-01-01

    In order to solve the problems of the existing wide-area backup protection (WABP) algorithms, the paper proposes a novel WABP algorithm based on the distribution characteristics of fault component current and improved Dempster/Shafer (D-S) evidence theory. When a fault occurs, slave substations transmit to master station the amplitudes of fault component currents of transmission lines which are the closest to fault element. Then master substation identifies suspicious faulty lines according to the distribution characteristics of fault component current. After that, the master substation will identify the actual faulty line with improved D-S evidence theory based on the action states of traditional protections and direction components of these suspicious faulty lines. The simulation examples based on IEEE 10-generator-39-bus system show that the proposed WABP algorithm has an excellent performance. The algorithm has low requirement of sampling synchronization, small wide-area communication flow, and high fault tolerance.

  7. A Novel Wide-Area Backup Protection Based on Fault Component Current Distribution and Improved Evidence Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to solve the problems of the existing wide-area backup protection (WABP algorithms, the paper proposes a novel WABP algorithm based on the distribution characteristics of fault component current and improved Dempster/Shafer (D-S evidence theory. When a fault occurs, slave substations transmit to master station the amplitudes of fault component currents of transmission lines which are the closest to fault element. Then master substation identifies suspicious faulty lines according to the distribution characteristics of fault component current. After that, the master substation will identify the actual faulty line with improved D-S evidence theory based on the action states of traditional protections and direction components of these suspicious faulty lines. The simulation examples based on IEEE 10-generator-39-bus system show that the proposed WABP algorithm has an excellent performance. The algorithm has low requirement of sampling synchronization, small wide-area communication flow, and high fault tolerance.

  8. A Novel Wide-Area Backup Protection Based on Fault Component Current Distribution and Improved Evidence Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhe; Kong, Xiangping; Yin, Xianggen; Yang, Zengli; Wang, Lijun

    2014-01-01

    In order to solve the problems of the existing wide-area backup protection (WABP) algorithms, the paper proposes a novel WABP algorithm based on the distribution characteristics of fault component current and improved Dempster/Shafer (D-S) evidence theory. When a fault occurs, slave substations transmit to master station the amplitudes of fault component currents of transmission lines which are the closest to fault element. Then master substation identifies suspicious faulty lines according to the distribution characteristics of fault component current. After that, the master substation will identify the actual faulty line with improved D-S evidence theory based on the action states of traditional protections and direction components of these suspicious faulty lines. The simulation examples based on IEEE 10-generator-39-bus system show that the proposed WABP algorithm has an excellent performance. The algorithm has low requirement of sampling synchronization, small wide-area communication flow, and high fault tolerance. PMID:25050399

  9. Evidence of functional connectivity between auditory cortical areas revealed by amplitude modulation sound processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guéguin, Marie; Le Bouquin-Jeannès, Régine; Faucon, Gérard; Chauvel, Patrick; Liégeois-Chauvel, Catherine

    2007-02-01

    The human auditory cortex includes several interconnected areas. A better understanding of the mechanisms involved in auditory cortical functions requires a detailed knowledge of neuronal connectivity between functional cortical regions. In human, it is difficult to track in vivo neuronal connectivity. We investigated the interarea connection in vivo in the auditory cortex using a method of directed coherence (DCOH) applied to depth auditory evoked potentials (AEPs). This paper presents simultaneous AEPs recordings from insular gyrus (IG), primary and secondary cortices (Heschl's gyrus and planum temporale), and associative areas (Brodmann area [BA] 22) with multilead intracerebral electrodes in response to sinusoidal modulated white noises in 4 epileptic patients who underwent invasive monitoring with depth electrodes for epilepsy surgery. DCOH allowed estimation of the causality between 2 signals recorded from different cortical sites. The results showed 1) a predominant auditory stream within the primary auditory cortex from the most medial region to the most lateral one whatever the modulation frequency, 2) unidirectional functional connection from the primary to secondary auditory cortex, 3) a major auditory propagation from the posterior areas to the anterior ones, particularly at 8, 16, and 32 Hz, and 4) a particular role of Heschl's sulcus dispatching information to the different auditory areas. These findings suggest that cortical processing of auditory information is performed in serial and parallel streams. Our data showed that the auditory propagation could not be associated to a unidirectional traveling wave but to a constant interaction between these areas that could reflect the large adaptive and plastic capacities of auditory cortex. The role of the IG is discussed.

  10. Improving Schools in Socioeconomically Disadvantaged Areas--A Review of Research Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muijs, Daniel; Harris, Alma; Chapman, Christopher; Stoll, Louise; Russ, Jennifer

    2004-01-01

    Schools in difficult and challenging circumstances have received increasing policy and to some extent research attention in recent years. Improving schools in these circumstances is likely to prove a difficult process. This literature review has attempted to collect research on improving schools in these areas. Themes emerging from the literature…

  11. Homeless Students and Academic Achievement: Evidence from a Large Urban Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobin, Kerri J.

    2016-01-01

    Child homelessness has recently reached levels unprecedented in the United States since the Great Depression. Contemporary research has attempted to isolate the effects of homelessness on education, with mixed results. This study reports results from a study in one large urban area and finds that there is no meaningful difference in achievement…

  12. Are Conditional Cash Transfers Effective in Urban Areas? Evidence from Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrman, Jere R.; Gallardo-Garcia, Jorge; Parker, Susan W.; Todd, Petra E.; Velez-Grajales, Viviana

    2012-01-01

    Conditional cash transfer (CCT) programs have spread worldwide as a new form of social assistance for the poor. Previous evaluations of CCT programs focus mainly on rural settings, and little is known about their effects in urban areas. This paper studies the short-term (1- and 2-year) effects of the Mexican "Oportunidades" CCT program…

  13. MT-CYB mutations in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagen, Christian M; Aidt, Frederik H; Havndrup, Ole

    2013-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction is a characteristic of heart failure. Mutations in mitochondrial DNA, particularly in MT-CYB coding for cytochrome B in complex III (CIII), have been associated with isolated hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). We hypothesized that MT-CYB mutations might play an important...... and m.15482T>C; p.S246P were identified. Modeling showed that the p.C93Y mutation leads to disruption of the tertiary structure of Cytb by helix displacement, interfering with protein-heme interaction. The p.S246P mutation induces a diproline structure, which alters local secondary structure and induces...... of HCM patients. We propose that further patients with HCM should be examined for mutations in MT-CYB in order to clarify the role of these variants....

  14. Identifying Non-Volatile Data Storage Areas: Unique Notebook Identification Information as Digital Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikica Budimir

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The research reported in this paper introduces new techniques to aid in the identification of recovered notebook computers so they may be returned to the rightful owner. We identify non-volatile data storage areas as a means of facilitating the safe storing of computer identification information. A forensic proof of concept tool has been designed to test the feasibility of several storage locations identified within this work to hold the data needed to uniquely identify a computer. The tool was used to perform the creation and extraction of created information in order to allow the analysis of the non-volatile storage locations as valid storage areas capable of holding and preserving the data created within them.  While the format of the information used to identify the machine itself is important, this research only discusses the insertion, storage and ability to retain such information.

  15. Technical efficiency in Ghana's cocoa production: evidence from Twifo Hemang Lower Denkyira Area

    OpenAIRE

    Obeng, Isaac Antwarko; Adu, Kofi Osei

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the production efficiency of cocoa farmers in Twifo Hemang Lower Denkyira area composed of two districts namely Twifo Ati Mokwa district and Hemang Lower Denkyira districts in the central region of Ghana using farm level data. Results presented were based on data collected from multi-stage sampling of 326 cocoa farmers in twenty (20) communities using standardized structured questionnaires. The productivity and technical efficiency in cocoa production were estimated throug...

  16. Economic crisis promotes fertility decline in poor areas: Evidence from Colombia

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    Eleonora Davalos

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The effects of an economic recession extend beyond financial spheres and spill over into present and future family decisions via income restrictions and expectations. Hardly any research on the effects of economic recession on fertility outcomes has taken place in developing countries. Objective: This study seeks to explain the effects of economic cycles on fertility outcomes in poor areas. Methods: This paper analyzes fertility trends from the third largest economy in Latin America - Colombia - from 1998 to 2013. We estimate a panel data regression model with state and year fixed effects. Results: On average, periods of recession are associated with fertility decline in poor areas and fertility growth in well-off areas. During an economic crisis, fertility in poor states decreases by 0.002 children per woman, while in well-off states fertility increases by 0.007 children per woman. Conclusions: The impact of an economic crisis on fertility varies depending on poverty. Poor states have procyclical responses while well-off states tend to have countercyclical reactions to economic downturns. Contribution: This study illuminates the procyclical and countercyclical debate, showing that within a country there can be two different responses to an economic downturn.

  17. Earthworm Lumbricus rubellus MT-2: Metal Binding and Protein Folding of a True Cadmium-MT

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    Gregory R. Kowald

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Earthworms express, as most animals, metallothioneins (MTs—small, cysteine-rich proteins that bind d10 metal ions (Zn(II, Cd(II, or Cu(I in clusters. Three MT homologues are known for Lumbricus rubellus, the common red earthworm, one of which, wMT-2, is strongly induced by exposure of worms to cadmium. This study concerns composition, metal binding affinity and metal-dependent protein folding of wMT-2 expressed recombinantly and purified in the presence of Cd(II and Zn(II. Crucially, whilst a single Cd7wMT-2 species was isolated from wMT-2-expressing E. coli cultures supplemented with Cd(II, expressions in the presence of Zn(II yielded mixtures. The average affinities of wMT-2 determined for either Cd(II or Zn(II are both within normal ranges for MTs; hence, differential behaviour cannot be explained on the basis of overall affinity. Therefore, the protein folding properties of Cd- and Zn-wMT-2 were compared by 1H NMR spectroscopy. This comparison revealed that the protein fold is better defined in the presence of cadmium than in the presence of zinc. These differences in folding and dynamics may be at the root of the differential behaviour of the cadmium- and zinc-bound protein in vitro, and may ultimately also help in distinguishing zinc and cadmium in the earthworm in vivo.

  18. Energy usage, problems and policy proposals: evidence from distinctive villages in poverty-stricken loess areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xinglong; Xue, Weixian

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine energy consumption among poverty-stricken loess areas of middle Gansu, and put forward a settlement to energy upgrading and meanwhile mitigating environmental contagion and shaking off poverty. Energy consumption of 371 households from 3 distinctive categories of landform is explored. The surveyed data investigation displays that energy consumption composition is marked by clear dissimilarity of power mix, with stalk(41%) and coal(32.3%) acting as the major form, fire grass a powerful supplement, and the remaining power resources playing a tiny part for the mountain; coal(52.45%) being the dominant power, dry grasses(20%) and stalk (17.6%) performing a supplemental part, other resources of power being at the insignificant position for the semi-mountain; beside which there being a similar energy pattern on the plain except stalk composing a tiny share of 7.5%. This energy mix is mainly attributed to economic poverty, and provokes a list of ills such as plant damage, water loss and soil erosion, ultimately posing a formidable threat to sustainable development. A fresh energy engineering mode termed quaternity-dominating pattern is introduced and addressed, which can lift the sample areas out of poverty both in economics and energy. The paper concludes with pointing out practical proposals on launching and running this energy engineering project for the sample areas. This paper contributes to the growing body of knowledge by exploring energy use among poverty-stricken regions, usually being disregarded in most studies of China.

  19. Small area contextual effects on self-reported health: Evidence from Riverside, Calgary

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    Haines Valerie A

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We study geographic variation within one community in the City of Calgary using a more fine-grained geographic unit than the Census tract, the Census Dissemination Area (DA. While most Riverside residents consider their neighbourhood to be a fairly cohesive community, we explore the effect of socio-economic variation between these small geographic areas on individuals' self-reported health, net of individual level determinants. Methods We merge data from the 2001 Census for Riverside, Calgary with a 2004 random telephone survey of Riverside residents. Our data are unique in that we have information on individuals from every DA wholly contained in the Riverside community. These data enable us to conduct multinomial logistic regression analyses of self-reported health using both individual-level and DA-level variables as predictors. Results We find significant variation in measures of DA socio-economic status within the Riverside community. We find that individual self-reported health is affected by variation in an index of DA-level socio-economic disadvantage, controlling for individual variation in gender, age, and socio-economic status. We investigate each aspect of the DA index of disadvantage separately, and find that average education and the percent of households that are headed by a lone parent are most important. Conclusions These findings demonstrate that, even within a cohesive community, contextual effects on health can be located at a smaller geographic level than the Census tract. Research on the effects of local area socio-economic disadvantage on health that combines administrative and survey data enables researchers to develop more comprehensive measures of social and material deprivation. Our findings suggest that both social and material deprivation affect health at the local level.

  20. Insertion of a self-splicing intron into the mtDNA of atriploblastic animal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valles, Y.; Halanych, K.; Boore, J.L.

    2006-04-14

    Nephtys longosetosa is a carnivorous polychaete worm that lives in the intertidal and subtidal zones with worldwide distribution (pleijel&rouse2001). Its mitochondrial genome has the characteristics typical of most metazoans: 37 genes; circular molecule; almost no intergenic sequence; and no significant gene rearrangements when compared to other annelid mtDNAs (booremoritz19981995). Ubiquitous features as small intergenic regions and lack of introns suggested that metazoan mtDNAs are under strong selective pressures to reduce their genome size allowing for faster replication requirements (booremoritz19981995Lynch2005). Yet, in 1996 two type I introns were found in the mtDNA of the basal metazoan Metridium senile (FigureX). Breaking a long-standing rule (absence of introns in metazoan mtDNA), this finding was later supported by the further presence of group I introns in other cnidarians. Interestingly, only the class Anthozoa within cnidarians seems to harbor such introns. Although several hundreds of triploblastic metazoan mtDNAs have been sequenced, this study is the first evidence of mitochondrial introns in triploblastic metazoans. The cox1 gene of N. longosetosa has an intron of almost 2 kbs in length. This finding represents as well the first instance of a group II intron (anthozoans harbor group I introns) in all metazoan lineages. Opposite trends are observed within plants, fungi and protist mtDNAs, where introns (both group I and II) and other non-coding sequences are widespread. Plant, fungal and protist mtDNA structure and organization differ enormously from that of metazoan mtDNA. Both, plant and fungal mtDNA are dynamic molecules that undergo high rates of recombination, contain long intergenic spacer regions and harbor both group I and group II introns. However, as metazoans they have a conserved gene content. Protists, on the other hand have a striking variation of gene content and introns that account for the genome size variation. In contrast to

  1. Global gene expression profiles of MT knockout and wild-type mice in the condition of doxorubicin-induced cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuai, Yi; Guo, Jun; Dong, Yansheng; Zhong, Weijian; Xiao, Ping; Zhou, Tong; Zhang, Lishi; Peng, Shuangqing

    2011-01-15

    Increasing evidence from in vivo and in vitro studies has indicated that MT exerts protective effects against DOX-induced cardiotoxicity; however the underlying precise mechanisms still remain an enigma. Therefore, the present study was designed using MT knockout mice in concert with genomic approaches to explore the possible molecular and cellular mechanisms in terms of the genetic network changes. MT-I/II null (MT⁻/⁻) mice and corresponding wild-type mice (MT+/+) were administrated with a single dose of DOX (15 mg/kg, i.p.) or equal volume of saline. Animals were sacrificed on the 4th day after DOX administration and samples were collected for further analyses. Global gene expression profiles of cardiac mRNA from two genotype mice revealed that 381 characteristically MT-responsive genes were identified between MT+/+ mice and MT⁻/⁻ mice in response to DOX, including fos, ucp3, car3, atf3, map3k6, etc. Functional analysis implied MAPK signaling pathway, p53 signaling pathway, Jak-STAT signaling pathway, PPAR signaling pathway, Wnt signaling pathway, etc. might be involved to mediate the protection of DOX cardiomyopathy by MT. Results from the present study not only validated the previously reported possible mechanisms of MT protection against DOX toxicity, but also provided new clues into the molecular mechanisms involved in this process. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Monument of nature? An ethnography of the world heritage of Mt. Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akker, van den M.L.

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation examines the World Heritage status of Mt. Kenya, an alpine area in Central Kenya. The mountain joined the World Heritage List in 1997 and in 2013 the original designation expanded to cover a larger area. Both events were formulated exclusively in natural scientific language. This

  3. Unexpected high vulnerability of functions in wilderness areas: evidence from coral reef fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'agata, Stéphanie; Vigliola, Laurent; Graham, Nicholas A J; Wantiez, Laurent; Parravicini, Valeriano; Villéger, Sébastien; Mou-Tham, Gerard; Frolla, Philippe; Friedlander, Alan M; Kulbicki, Michel; Mouillot, David

    2016-12-14

    High species richness is thought to support the delivery of multiple ecosystem functions and services under changing environments. Yet, some species might perform unique functional roles while others are redundant. Thus, the benefits of high species richness in maintaining ecosystem functioning are uncertain if functions have little redundancy, potentially leading to high vulnerability of functions. We studied the natural propensity of assemblages to be functionally buffered against loss prior to fishing activities, using functional trait combinations, in coral reef fish assemblages across unfished wilderness areas of the Indo-Pacific: Chagos Archipelago, New Caledonia and French Polynesia. Fish functional diversity in these wilderness areas is highly vulnerable to fishing, explained by species- and abundance-based redundancy packed into a small combination of traits, leaving most other trait combinations (60%) sensitive to fishing, with no redundancy. Functional vulnerability peaks for mobile and sedentary top predators, and large species in general. Functional vulnerability decreases for certain functional entities in New Caledonia, where overall functional redundancy was higher. Uncovering these baseline patterns of functional vulnerability can offer early warning signals of the damaging effects from fishing, and may serve as baselines to guide precautionary and even proactive conservation actions. © 2016 The Author(s).

  4. What Factors Encourage Intrafamily Farm Succession in Mountain Areas? Evidence From an Alpine Valley in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Cavicchioli

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Family farming plays a vital role in mountain areas. Its survival is related to multiple factors, including intrafamily farm succession. This study examined data on apple-producing family farms in an Italian Alpine valley, trying to identify which factors foster or discourage intrafamily succession and to what extent they do this, both at the farm level and from the potential successor's viewpoint. To do so, various farm, farmer, and individual characteristics were analyzed using probabilistic regression. We found that intrafamily succession was more likely when the farm was managed by a woman (+20% with a high school diploma (+13% who had at least 1 child with specialized education in agriculture (+27% and when farm sales had increased in recent years (+25%. We also found that a child's willingness to take over the family farm decreases as the number of farm children increases and when the child is a female with a high school diploma; however, the likelihood that children will take over the family business rises as farmer education level and work experience increase. These findings, while mixed, suggest that women play a key role in keeping family farming alive in mountain areas, along with education of family members, improved marketability of agricultural products, and in general, competitiveness and profitability of the family farm.

  5. Air quality and urban form in U.S. urban areas: evidence from regulatory monitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Lara P; Millet, Dylan B; Marshall, Julian D

    2011-08-15

    The layout of an urban area can impact air pollution via changes in emissions and their spatial distribution. Here, we explore relationships between air quality and urban form based on cross-sectional observations for 111 U.S. urban areas. We employ stepwise linear regression to quantify how long-term population-weighted outdoor concentrations of ozone, fine particulate matter (PM(2.5)), and other criteria pollutants measured by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency depend on urban form, climate, transportation, city size, income, and region. Aspects of urban form evaluated here include city shape, road density, jobs-housing imbalance, population density, and population centrality. We find that population density is associated with higher population-weighted PM(2.5) concentrations (p pollutants, interquartile range changes in urban form variables are associated with 4%-12% changes in population-weighted concentrations-amounts comparable, for example, to changes in climatic factors. Our empirical findings are consistent with prior modeling research and suggest that urban form could potentially play a modest but important role in achieving (or not achieving) long-term air quality goals.

  6. Evidence of Yersinia pestis DNA from fleas in an endemic plague area of Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hang'ombe Bernard M

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Yersinia pestis is a bacterium that causes plague which infects a variety of mammals throughout the world. The disease is usually transmitted among wild rodents through a flea vector. The sources and routes of transmission of plague are poorly researched in Africa, yet remains a concern in several sub-Saharan countries. In Zambia, the disease has been reported on annual basis with up to 20 cases per year, without investigating animal reservoirs or vectors that may be responsible in the maintenance and propagation of the bacterium. In this study, we undertook plague surveillance by using PCR amplification of the plasminogen activator gene in fleas. Findings Xenopsylla species of fleas were collected from 83 rodents trapped in a plague endemic area of Zambia. Of these rodents 5 had fleas positive (6.02% for Y. pestis plasminogen activator gene. All the Y. pestis positive rodents were gerbils. Conclusions We conclude that fleas may be responsible in the transmission of Y. pestis and that PCR may provide means of plague surveillance in the endemic areas of Zambia.

  7. Phylogenetic relationships among Lemuridae (Primates): evidence from mtDNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastorini, Jennifer; Forstner, Michael R J; Martin, Robert D

    2002-10-01

    The family Lemuridae includes four genera: Eulemur, Hapalemur, Lemur,Varecia. Taxonomy and phylogenetic relationships between L. catta, Eulemur and Hapalemur, and of Varecia to these other lemurids, continue to be hotly debated. Nodal relationships among the five Eulemur species also remain contentious. A mitochondrial DNA sequence dataset from the ND 3, ND 4 L, ND 4 genes and five tRNAs (Gly, Arg, His, Ser, Leu) was generated to try to clarify phylogenetic relationships w ithin the Lemuridae. Samples (n=39) from all ten lemurid species were collected and analysed. Three Daubentonia madagascariensis were included as outgroup taxa. The approximately 2400 bp sequences were analysed using maximum parsimony, neighbor-joining and maximum likelihood methods. The results support monophyly of Eulemur, a basal divergence of Varecia, and a sister-group relationship for Lemur/Hapalemur. Based on tree topology, bootstrap values, and pairwise distance comparisons, we conclude thatVarecia and Eulemur both represent distinct genera separate from L. catta. H. griseus andH. aureus form a clade with strong support, but the sequence data do not permit robust resolution of the trichotomy involving H. simus, H. aureus/H. griseus and L. catta. Within Eulemur there is strong support for a clade containing E. fulvus, E. mongoz and E. rubriventer. However, analyses failed to clearly resolve relationships among those three species or with the more distantly related E. coronatus and E. macaco. Our sequencing data support the current subspecific status of E.m. macaco and E.m. flavifrons, and that of V.v. variegata and V.v. rubra. However, tree topology and relatively large genetic distances among individual V.v. variegata indicate that there may be more phylogenetic structure within this taxon than is indicated by current taxonomy.

  8. Ancient mtDNA genetic variants modulate mtDNA transcription and replication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarit Suissa

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Although the functional consequences of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA genetic backgrounds (haplotypes, haplogroups have been demonstrated by both disease association studies and cell culture experiments, it is not clear which of the mutations within the haplogroup carry functional implications and which are "evolutionary silent hitchhikers". We set forth to study the functionality of haplogroup-defining mutations within the mtDNA transcription/replication regulatory region by in vitro transcription, hypothesizing that haplogroup-defining mutations occurring within regulatory motifs of mtDNA could affect these processes. We thus screened >2500 complete human mtDNAs representing all major populations worldwide for natural variation in experimentally established protein binding sites and regulatory regions comprising a total of 241 bp in each mtDNA. Our screen revealed 77/241 sites showing point mutations that could be divided into non-fixed (57/77, 74% and haplogroup/sub-haplogroup-defining changes (i.e., population fixed changes, 20/77, 26%. The variant defining Caucasian haplogroup J (C295T increased the binding of TFAM (Electro Mobility Shift Assay and the capacity of in vitro L-strand transcription, especially of a shorter transcript that maps immediately upstream of conserved sequence block 1 (CSB1, a region associated with RNA priming of mtDNA replication. Consistent with this finding, cybrids (i.e., cells sharing the same nuclear genetic background but differing in their mtDNA backgrounds harboring haplogroup J mtDNA had a >2 fold increase in mtDNA copy number, as compared to cybrids containing haplogroup H, with no apparent differences in steady state levels of mtDNA-encoded transcripts. Hence, a haplogroup J regulatory region mutation affects mtDNA replication or stability, which may partially account for the phenotypic impact of this haplogroup. Our analysis thus demonstrates, for the first time, the functional impact of particular mt

  9. Seleção de áreas de interesse ecológico através de sensoriamento remoto e de otimização matemática: um estudo de caso no município de Cocalinho, MT Selection of areas of ecological importance through remote sensing and mathematics optimization: a case study in the municipality of Cocalinho, Mato Grosso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Cristina da Silveira Anacleto

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available A criação de unidades de conservação tem sido a principal estratégia para preservar a biodiversidade. O recente emprego de técnicas como o sensoriamento remoto e a otimização matemática, aliados a dados biológicos, ajudam a definir as áreas prioritárias para conservação, indicando a representação máxima da biodiversidade com base em medidas de complementaridade. O presente trabalho objetivou selecionar áreas de interesse ecológico, com base na heterogeneidade de hábitats, através da integração de imagens de satélite com dados biológicos, em Cocalinho, MT. As 66 parcelas quadradas estabelecidas foram comparadas com base na heterogeneidade e na representatividade mínima (ha dos ambientes em cada parcela, através do programa SITES. O parque de cerrado é a fitofisionomia predominante em Cocalinho (38,44%. A região central do município concentrou o maior agrupamento de parcelas, indicando a maior heterogeneidade de hábitats do local. Oficialmente, 6% da área total do município estão protegidos em duas unidades de conservação na categoria de Refúgios de Vida Silvestre. Esses refúgios foram demarcados em locais com cobertura vegetal homogênea e sem considerar a composição faunística e florística. O modelo usado neste estudo pode ser uma boa abordagem a ser empregada no processo de indicação de novas unidades de conservação no bioma Cerrado ou em outros biomas do Brasil.The creation of conservation areas has been a major strategy for biodiversity conservation. The recent use of techniques such as remote sensing and the optimization of mathematics contribute to the identification of priority areas for conservation through the use of biological data. Thus, maximal representativeness of biodiversity based on measures of complementarity can be achieved. This study aimed to identify areas of ecological importance in the municipality of Cocalinho, Mato Grosso. The selection was based on habitat heterogeneity

  10. Southeast Asian diversity: first insights into the complex mtDNA structure of Laos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodner, Martin; Zimmermann, Bettina; Röck, Alexander; Kloss-Brandstätter, Anita; Horst, David; Horst, Basil; Sengchanh, Sourideth; Sanguansermsri, Torpong; Horst, Jürgen; Krämer, Tanja; Schneider, Peter M; Parson, Walther

    2011-02-18

    Vast migrations and subsequent assimilation processes have shaped the genetic composition of Southeast Asia, an area of close contact between several major ethnic groups. To better characterize the genetic variation of this region, we analyzed the entire mtDNA control region of 214 unrelated donors from Laos according to highest forensic quality standards. To detail the phylogeny, we inspected selected SNPs from the mtDNA coding region. For a posteriori data quality control, quasi-median network constructions and autosomal STR typing were performed. In order to describe the mtDNA setup of Laos more thoroughly, the data were subjected to population genetic comparisons with 16 East Asian groups. The Laos sample exhibited ample mtDNA diversity, reflecting the huge number of ethnic groups listed. We found several new, so far undescribed mtDNA lineages in this dataset and surrounding populations. The Laos population was characteristic in terms of haplotype composition and genetic structure, however, genetic comparisons with other Southeast Asian populations revealed limited, but significant genetic differentiation. Notable differences in the maternal relationship to the major indigenous Southeast Asian ethnolinguistic groups were detected. In this study, we portray the great mtDNA variety of Laos for the first time. Our findings will contribute to clarify the migration history of the region. They encourage setting up regional and subpopulation databases, especially for forensic applications. The Laotian sequences will be incorporated into the collaborative EMPOP mtDNA database http://www.empop.org upon publication and will be available as the first mtDNA reference data for this country.

  11. Public Management in a Real Estate Area – Some Empirical Evidence from Polish Municipalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marona Bartłomiej

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this paper is to present the role of individual concepts of public management in the process of real estate management in Polish municipalities. Special attention was given to New Public Management (NPM as well as Good Governance (GG. The paper, apart from a review of literature and its critique, is based on the results of a survey conducted among municipalities belonging to the Kraków Metropolitan Area. This study demonstrates that both the NPM and the GG concepts do not constitute a benchmark model in the practice of municipal real estate management in Poland. The concepts are treated more as a set of tools from which the majority of municipalities choose only some, selected instruments.

  12. Individual Differences in the Alignment of Structural and Functional Markers of the V5/MT Complex in Primates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Large, I.; Bridge, H.; Ahmed, B.

    2016-01-01

    MT+ location, when defined with myelin-weighted sMRI signals to reveal structure. When comparing sMRI markers to functional MRI in response to moving stimuli, a region of high myelin signal was generally located within the hMT+ complex. However, there were considerable differences in the alignment......Extrastriate visual area V5/MT in primates is defined both structurally by myeloarchitecture and functionally by distinct responses to visual motion. Myelination is directly identifiable from postmortem histology but also indirectly by image contrast with structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI......). First, we compared the identification of V5/MT using both sMRI and histology in Rhesus macaques. A section-by-section comparison of histological slices with in vivo and postmortem sMRI for the same block of cortical tissue showed precise correspondence in localizing heavy myelination for V5/MT...

  13. Are area-level and individual-level socioeconomic factors associated with self-rated health in adult urban citizens? Evidence from Slovak and Dutch cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Behanova, Martina; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.; Nagyova, Iveta; Katreniakova, Zuzana; van Ameijden, Erik J. C.; Dijkshoorn, Henriette; van Dijk, Jitse P.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Evidence shows that living in disadvantaged areas is associated with poor health. This may be due to the socioeconomic (SE) characteristics of both these residents and the areas where they live. Evidence regarding this on Central European (CE) countries is scarce. Our aim was to assess

  14. Micropalaeontological evidence of the EECO and MECO events in southern England and adjacent areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Malcolm; Grimes, Stephen

    2015-04-01

    The Early Eocene Climatic Optimum (EECO) and Middle Eocene Climatic Optimum (MECO) are two, well-documented, warming events in the Paleogene prior to the general cooling trend of the late Eocene. Investigation of the classic succession of Whitecliff Bay (Isle of Wight, UK) and other locations on the English Channel coastline (e.g., Alum Bay, Bracklesham, Bognor Regis), around Jersey (Channel Islands) and the Cotentin Peninsula (France) have shown the limited, intermittent, presence of climatically-sensitive, larger foraminifera. The distribution of taxa, such as Nummulites spp., Alveolina spp. and other rotaliids, appear to be indicative of warmer waters, many of the species being at the northern limit of their distribution. Whitecliff Bay, and the other locations, also record fluctuations in sea level, which modify the facies and the microfossil distributions. In the early Eocene, the London Clay Formation contains no 'larger' foraminifera but there is a limited occurrence of planktic foraminifera associated with palaeobotanical evidence of warm conditions. The stable isotope data are equivocal, with work still in progress. Within the upper part of the Bracklesham Group and the lower part of the Barton Clay Formation, however, there is an interval characterised by the presence of distinctive, larger foraminifera. The main concentration of warm-water indicators is within the 'Brook Bed' and this assemblage is also recorded at Bracklesham, off-shore Jersey and near Vallognes (Cotentin Peninsula). Just above the disappearance of the N. prestwichianus and N. rectus, in the Barton Clay Formation, Dawber et al. (2011) have recorded an isotope excursion - which could be MECO - although their data do not extend into the interval with the larger foraminifera. Both EECO and MECO are potentially longer than the other Paleogene hyperthermal events and could, thererfore, include time for migration of larger foraminifera at the northern limits of latitudinal ranges. Dawber, C

  15. Evidence for Mantle Exhumation along the Arabian Margin in the Kermanshah Area (Zagros, Iran)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrobel-Daveau, Jean-Chrstophe; Ringenbach, Jean-Claude; Tavakoly, Saied; Frizon de Lamotte, Dominique

    2010-05-01

    The Kermanshah Suture Zone (Zagros, Iran) provides an interesting opportunity to study the Neo-Tethys rifting and obduction processes, for which the local models haven't been revisited since the 80's. The stack of nappes coming from the Neo-tethyan domain and obducted over the Arabian plate during late Cretaceous exposes from SW to NE, radiolarian cherts, the Harsin peridotitic domain, the Bisitoun Lst block and the Saneh peridotites. A new interpretation of the outcrops of Harsin area allows characterizing detachment faults between serpentinites and gabbros and overlying deep marine sediments (i.e.: cherts or pelagic Lst.) and pre-rift Lst (extensional allochtons). The setting can be interpreted as an extremely stretched amagmatic mantle-floored basin filled by radiolarites. Extensional allochtons are preserved pre-rift sediments and are made up of upper Triassic Lst. The radiolarites unconformably overlying the detachment have recently been dated as early Pliensbachian to early Turonian. This allows encompassing the onset of mantle exhumation stage between late Triassic and early Pliensbachian. Apart from its rather small extention, the structural position and the vertical movement deduced from existing stratigraphic descriptions, allow interpreting the Bisitoun platform as the sedimentary cover of a Hanging Wall Block "H Block", remnant of the stretching phase of the continental crust. However, the margin itself and the continental crust have not been mapped. They have likely been subducted and only the cap of the Bisitoun Block was preserved. These preliminary results lead us to re-interpret the geodynamic and structural evolution of this domain using recent models developed for magma poor passive margin.

  16. Does environmental policy affect scaling laws between population and pollution? Evidence from American metropolitan areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Nicholas Z; Jha, Akshaya

    2017-01-01

    Modern cities are engines of production, innovation, and growth. However, urbanization also increases both local and global pollution from household consumption and firms' production. Do emissions change proportionately to city size or does pollution tend to outpace or lag urbanization? Do emissions scale differently with population versus economic growth or are emissions, population, and economic growth inextricably linked? How are the scaling relationships between emissions, population, and economic growth affected by environmental regulation? This paper examines the link between urbanization, economic growth and pollution using data from Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSAs) in the United States between 1999 and 2011. We find that the emissions of local air pollution in these MSAs scale according to a ¾ power law with both population size and gross domestic product (GDP). However, the monetary damages from these local emissions scale linearly with both population and GDP. Counties that have previously been out of attainment with the local air quality standards set by the Clean Air Act show an entirely different relationship: local emissions scale according to the square root of population, while the monetary damages from local air pollution follow a 2/3rds power law with population. Counties out of attainment are subject to more stringent emission controls; we argue based on this that enforcement of the Clean Air Act induces sublinear scaling between emissions, damages, and city size. In contrast, we find that metropolitan GDP scales super-linearly with population in all MSAs regardless of attainment status. Summarizing, our findings suggest that environmental policy limits the adverse effects of urbanization without interfering with the productivity benefits that manifest in cities.

  17. Anxiety and risk of type 2 diabetes: evidence from the Baltimore Epidemiologic Catchment Area Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Lauren E; Mezuk, Briana

    2012-12-01

    Depression is increasingly recognized as a risk factor for type 2 diabetes, and is also commonly comorbid with anxiety. However, few studies have examined whether anxiety is predictive of diabetes risk. The objectives of this study are to examine the prospective relationship between anxiety disorders (generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, social phobia, and agoraphobia) and risk of type 2 diabetes over an 11-year period, and to investigate the association between anxiety and risk of diabetes-related complications among those with prevalent type 2 diabetes. Data come from the 1993/6 and 2004/5 waves of the Baltimore Epidemiologic Catchment Area Study (N=1920), a population-based prospective cohort. Anxiety disorders were assessed using the Diagnostic Interview Schedule. The prospective association between anxiety and incident type 2 diabetes was evaluated using a series of nested multivariable logistic regression models. At baseline, 315 participants (21.8%) had an anxiety disorder. The relationship between anxiety and risk of developing type 2 diabetes was not statistically significant after controlling for demographic characteristics (Odds Ratio (OR): 1.28, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 0.75, 2.18). There was no relationship between anxiety and diabetes risk after controlling for health behaviors and depression status (OR: 1.00, 95% CI: 0.53, 1.89). There was no significant relationship between anxiety and development of diabetes-related complications among those with prevalent type 2 diabetes (OR: 2.02, 95% CI: 0.61, 6.74). Anxiety disorders are not associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes or risk of diabetes complications among those who have diabetes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The Mt Logan Holocene-late Wisconsinan isotope record

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl-Jensen, Dorthe; Fisher, David; Osterberg, Erich

    2008-01-01

    Mt Logan • stable isotopes • Holocene • ENSO • peat • N Pacific • sudden change Udgivelsesdato: August......Mt Logan • stable isotopes • Holocene • ENSO • peat • N Pacific • sudden change Udgivelsesdato: August...

  19. Targeting MT1-MMP as an ImmunoPET-Based Strategy for Imaging Gliomas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A G de Lucas

    -specific-contrast imaging of MT1-MMP positive GBM tumors and provided strong evidence for utility of MT1-MMP-targeted immunoPET as an alternate to nonspecific imaging of GBM.

  20. Late Pleistocene glaciation of the Mt Giluwe volcano, Papua New Guinea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrows, T.T.; Hope, G.S.; Prentice, M.L.; Fifield, L.K.; Tims, S.G.

    2011-01-01

    The Mt Giluwe shield volcano was the largest area glaciated in Papua New Guinea during the Pleistocene. Despite minimal cooling of the sea surface during the last glacial maximum, glaciers reached elevations as low as 3200 m. To investigate changes in the extent of ice through time we have re-mapped evidence for glaciation on the southwest flank of Mt Giluwe. We find that an ice cap has formed on the flanks of the mountain on at least three, and probably four, separate occasions. To constrain the ages of these glaciations we present 39 new cosmogenic 36Cl exposure ages complemented by new radiocarbon dates. Direct dating of the moraines identifies that the maximum extent of glaciation on the mountain was not during the last glacial maximum as previously thought. In conjunction with existing potassium/argon and radiocarbon dating, we recognise four distinct glacial periods between 293-306 ka (Gogon Glaciation), 136-158 ka (Mengane Glaciation), centred at 62 ka (Komia Glaciation) and from >20.3-11.5 ka (Tongo Glaciation). The temperature difference relative to the present during the Tongo Glaciation is likely to be of the order of at least 5 ??C which is a minimum difference for the previous glaciations. During the Tongo Glaciation, ice was briefly at its maximum for less than 1000 years, but stayed near maximum levels for nearly 4000 years, until about 15.4 ka. Over the next 4000 years there was more rapid retreat with ice free conditions by the early Holocene. ?? 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Evidence of remediation-induced alteration of subsurface poly- and perfluoroalkyl substance distribution at a former firefighter training area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Meghan E; Schaefer, Charles; Richards, Trenton; Backe, Will J; Field, Jennifer A; Houtz, Erika; Sedlak, David L; Guelfo, Jennifer L; Wunsch, Assaf; Higgins, Christopher P

    2014-06-17

    Poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are a class of fluorinated chemicals that are utilized in firefighting and have been reported in groundwater and soil at several firefighter training areas. In this study, soil and groundwater samples were collected from across a former firefighter training area to examine the extent to which remedial activities have altered the composition and spatial distribution of PFASs in the subsurface. Log Koc values for perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs), estimated from analysis of paired samples of groundwater and aquifer solids, indicated that solid/water partitioning was not entirely consistent with predictions based on laboratory studies. Differential PFAA transport was not strongly evident in the subsurface, likely due to remediation-induced conditions. When compared to the surface soil spatial distributions, the relative concentrations of perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and PFAA precursors in groundwater strongly suggest that remedial activities altered the subsurface PFAS distribution, presumably through significant pumping of groundwater and transformation of precursors to PFAAs. Additional evidence for transformation of PFAA precursors during remediation included elevated ratios of perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHxS) to PFOS in groundwater near oxygen sparging wells.

  2. Mt. Elgon, Africa, Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    The striking contrast of geologic structures in Africa is shown in this shaded relief image of Mt. Elgon on the left and a section of the Great Rift Valley on the right. Mt. Elgon is a solitary extinct volcano straddling the border between Uganda and Kenya, and at 4,321 meters (14,178 feet) tall is the eighth highest mountain in Africa. It is positioned on the Pre-Cambriam bedrock of the Trans Nzoia Plateau, and is similar to other such volcanoes in East Africa in that it is associated with the formation of the Rift Valley. However one thing that sets Mt. Elgon apart is its age. Although there is no verifiable evidence of its earliest volcanic activity, Mt. Elgon is estimated to be at least 24 million years old, making it the oldest extinct volcano in East Africa. This presents a striking comparison to Mt. Kilimanjaro, the highest mountain in Africa at 5,895 meters (19,341 feet), which is just over one million years old. Judging by the diameter of its base, it is a common belief among geological experts that Mt. Elgon was once the highest mountains in Africa, however erosion has played a significant role in reducing the height to its present value. Juxtaposed with this impressive mountain is a section of the Great Rift Valley, a geological fault system that extends for about 4,830 kilometers (2,995 miles) from Syria to central Mozambique. Erosion has concealed some sections, but in some sections like that shown here, there are sheer cliffs several thousand feet high. The present configuration of the valley, which dates from the mid-Pleistocene epoch, results from a rifting process associated with thermal currents in the Earth's mantle. Two visualization methods were combined to produce the image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height

  3. Integrating phylogeographic patterns of microsatellite and mtDNA divergence to infer the evolutionary history of chamois (genus Rupicapra).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Fernando; Pérez, Trinidad; Hammer, Sabine E; Albornoz, Jesús; Domínguez, Ana

    2010-07-22

    ornata as an extremely low diversity. The phylogeographic patterns for mtDNA and microsatellites suggest an evolutionary history with limited range contractions and expansions during the Quaternary period and reflect a major effect of the Alpine barrier on west-east differentiation. The contrasting phylogenies for mtDNA and microsatellites indicate events of hybridization among highly divergent lineages in the central area of distribution. Our study points to the importance of reticulate evolution, with periods of isolation and reduction of population size followed by expansions and hybridizations, in the diversification at the level of close species or subspecies.

  4. Integrating phylogeographic patterns of microsatellite and mtDNA divergence to infer the evolutionary history of chamois (genus Rupicapra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albornoz Jesús

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The chamois, distributed over most of the medium to high altitude mountain ranges of southern Eurasia, provides an excellent model for exploring the effects of historical and evolutionary events on diversification. Populations have been grouped into two species, Rupicapra pyrenaica from southwestern Europe and R. rupicapra from eastern Europe. However, a previous study of cytochrome b revealed that the two proposed species were non-monophyletic. The reconstruction of phylogenetic relationships between animal species often depends on the markers studied. To further elucidate the evolutionary history of chamois, we extended earlier studies by analysing DNA sequences of four mitochondrial regions (ND1, 12S, tRNApro and Control Region and microsatellites (20 loci to include all subspecies and cover its entire distribution range. Results We found discordant microsatellite (μsat and mitochondrial (mt DNA phylogenies. Mitochondrial phylogenies form three clades, West, Central and East (mtW, mtC and mtE, at variance with taxonomic classification. Our divergence age estimates indicate an initial separation into branches mtW-mtC and mtE 1.7 million years ago (mya, in the late Pliocene-early Pleistocene, quickly followed by the split of clades mtW and mtC. Clade mtW contains haplotypes from the Iberian peninsula and the western Alps, Clade mtC includes haplotypes from the Apennines and the Massif of Chartreuse and Clade mtE comprises populations to the east of the Alps. Divergence among populations within these three major clades is recent (ornata as an extremely low diversity. Conclusions The phylogeographic patterns for mtDNA and microsatellites suggest an evolutionary history with limited range contractions and expansions during the Quaternary period and reflect a major effect of the Alpine barrier on west-east differentiation. The contrasting phylogenies for mtDNA and microsatellites indicate events of hybridization among highly

  5. Phytogeographical characteristics and endemism of the flora of Rogozna Mt. (SW Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papović, O.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on presence of area types and area groups, the phytogeographical analysis show that Rogozna Mt. is area with eurasian-submediterranean-centraleuropean-pontic characteristics. Eurasian area type is dominant in the flora of Rogozna Mt. Detailed analysis of the Eurasian area type showed a numerous presence of the species with Central European-Mediterranean (73 and Central European-Mediterranean-Pontic (73 types of distribution. The influence of the Mediterranean region is especially pronounced. There are 117 species with Mediterranean-Submediterranean type of distribution, many of which are endemics or subendemics. Typical Pontic elements of flora are present in very low percent (1.27%, but taxa with Mediterranean-Pontic (14.7% and Central-European-Mediterranean-Pontic (9.38% are numerous. The presence of an imposing number of endemic taxa (51 has a great significance from the aspect of biodiversity and conservation of the area.

  6. Mt. Kilimanjaro expedition in earth science education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparrow, Elena; Yoshikawa, Kenji; Narita, Kenji; Brettenny, Mark; Yule, Sheila; O'Toole, Michael; Brettenny, Rogeline

    2010-05-01

    Mt. Kilimanjaro, Africa's highest mountain is 5,895 meters above sea level and is located 330 km south of the equator in Tanzania. In 1976 glaciers covered most of Mt. Kilimanjaro's summit; however in 2000, an estimated eighty percent of the ice cap has disappeared since the last thorough survey done in 1912. There is increased scientific interest in Mt. Kilimanjaro with the increase in global and African average temperatures. A team of college and pre-college school students from Tanzania, South Africa and Kenya, teachers from South Africa and the United States, and scientists from the University of Alaska Fairbanks in the United States and Akita University in Japan, climbed to the summit of Mt Kilimanjaro in October 2009. They were accompanied by guides, porters, two expedition guests, and a videographer. This expedition was part of the GLOBE Seasons and Biomes Earth System Science Project and the GLOBE Africa science education initiative, exploring and contributing to climate change studies. Students learned about earth science experientially by observing their physical and biological surroundings, making soil and air temperature measurements, participating in discussions, journaling their experience, and posing research questions. The international trekkers noted the change in the biomes as the altitude, temperature and conditions changed, from cultivated lands, to rain forest, heath zone, moorland, alpine desert, and summit. They also discovered permafrost, but not at the summit as expected. Rather, it was where the mountain was not covered by a glacier and thus more exposed to low extreme temperatures. This was the first report of permafrost on Mt. Kilimanjaro. Classrooms from all over the world participated in the expedition virtually. They followed the trek through the expedition website (http://www.xpeditiononline.com/) where pictures and journals were posted, and posed their own questions which were answered by the expedition and base camp team members

  7. 77 FR 55691 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Circle Town, MT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-11

    ... at Circle Town County Airport, Circle Town, MT to accommodate aircraft using new Area Navigation (RNAV) Global Positioning System (GPS) standard instrument approach procedures at Circle Town County..., at Circle Town County Airport, to accommodate IFR aircraft executing new RNAV (GPS) standard...

  8. Do mtDNA Deletions Play a Role in the Development of Nasal Polyposis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arzu Tatar

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective:Nasal polyposis (NP is an inflammatory disease of the nasal mucosa and paranasal sinuses. Mitochondria are the cellular organelles which produce cellular energy by Oxidative Phosphorylation (OXPHOS, and they have own inheritance material, mtDNA. mtDNA is affected by reactive oxygen samples (ROS which are produced by both OXPHOS and the inflammatory process. The aim of this study was to investigate the 4977 bp and 7400 bp deletions of mtDNA in nasal polyposis tissue, and to indicate the possible association of mtDNA deletions with NP. Methods:Thirty-three patients, aged 15 to 65 years, with nasal polyposis were selected to be assessed for mitochondrial DNA deletions. The patients with possible mtDNA mutations due to mitochondrial disease, being treated with radiotherapy, of advanced age, with a familiar history, aspirin hypersensitivity, or a history of asthma, were excluded. Polyp excision surgery was applied to the treatment of the NP, and after histopathological diagnosis 1x1 cm of polyp tissue samples were used to isolate mtDNA. The 4977 bp and 7400 bp deletion regions, and two control regions of mtDNA were assessed by using four pairs of primers. DNA extractions from the NP tissues and peripheral blood samples of the patients were made, and then Polymerase Chain Reactions (PCR were made. PCR products were separated in 2% agarose gel.Results:No patient had either the 4977 bp deletion or the 7400 bp deletion in their NP tissue, and neither were these deletions evident in their peripheral blood. Two control sequences, one of them from a non-deleted region, and the other from a possible deletion region, were detected in the NP tissues and peripheral blood of all the patients.Conclusions:We had anticipated that some mtDNA deletion might have occurred in NP tissue due to the increased ROS levels caused by chronic inflammation, but we did not detect any deletion. Probably, the duration of inflammation in NP is insufficient to form mt

  9. Visual motion responses in the posterior cingulate sulcus: a comparison to V5/MT and MST.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Elvira; Bülthoff, Heinrich H; Logothetis, Nikos K; Bartels, Andreas

    2012-04-01

    Motion processing regions apart from V5+/MT+ are still relatively poorly understood. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to perform a detailed functional analysis of the recently described cingulate sulcus visual area (CSv) in the dorsal posterior cingulate cortex. We used distinct types of visual motion stimuli to compare CSv with V5/MT and MST, including a visual pursuit paradigm. Both V5/MT and MST preferred 3D flow over 2D planar motion, responded less yet substantially to random motion, had a strong preference for contralateral versus ipsilateral stimulation, and responded nearly equally to contralateral and to full-field stimuli. In contrast, CSv had a pronounced preference to 2D planar motion over 3D flow, did not respond to random motion, had a weak and nonsignificant lateralization that was significantly smaller than that of MST, and strongly preferred full-field over contralateral stimuli. In addition, CSv had a better capability to integrate eye movements with retinal motion compared with V5/MT and MST. CSv thus differs from V5+/MT+ by its unique preference to full-field, coherent, and planar motion cues. These results place CSv in a good position to process visual cues related to self-induced motion, in particular those associated to eye or lateral head movements.

  10. Reservoir characterization of the Mt. Simon Sandstone, Illinois Basin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frailey, S.M.; Damico, J.; Leetaru, H.E.

    2011-01-01

    The integration of open hole well log analyses, core analyses and pressure transient analyses was used for reservoir characterization of the Mt. Simon sandstone. Characterization of the injection interval provides the basis for a geologic model to support the baseline MVA model, specify pressure design requirements of surface equipment, develop completion strategies, estimate injection rates, and project the CO2 plume distribution.The Cambrian-age Mt. Simon Sandstone overlies the Precambrian granite basement of the Illinois Basin. The Mt. Simon is relatively thick formation exceeding 800 meters in some areas of the Illinois Basin. In the deeper part of the basin where sequestration is likely to occur at depths exceeding 1000 m, horizontal core permeability ranges from less than 1 ?? 10-12 cm 2 to greater than 1 ?? 10-8 cm2. Well log and core porosity can be up to 30% in the basal Mt. Simon reservoir. For modeling purposes, reservoir characterization includes absolute horizontal and vertical permeability, effective porosity, net and gross thickness, and depth. For horizontal permeability, log porosity was correlated with core. The core porosity-permeability correlation was improved by using grain size as an indication of pore throat size. After numerous attempts to identify an appropriate log signature, the calculated cementation exponent from Archie's porosity and resistivity relationships was used to identify which porosity-permeability correlation to apply and a permeability log was made. Due to the relatively large thickness of the Mt. Simon, vertical permeability is an important attribute to understand the distribution of CO2 when the injection interval is in the lower part of the unit. Only core analyses and specifically designed pressure transient tests can yield vertical permeability. Many reservoir flow models show that 500-800 m from the injection well most of the CO2 migrates upward depending on the magnitude of the vertical permeability and CO2 injection

  11. Molecular and Serological Evidence of Leishmania Infection in Stray Dogs from Visceral Leishmaniasis-Endemic Areas of Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akter, Shirin; Alam, Mohammad Zahangir; Nakao, Ryo; Yasin, Golam; Kato, Hirotomo; Katakura, Ken

    2016-10-05

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL), or kala-azar, is mainly caused by two closely related Leishmania species, Leishmania infantum and Leishmania donovani Leishmania infantum is responsible for zoonotic VL, with dogs as the main reservoir host in the Mediterranean, the Middle East, Asia, and South America. In the Indian subcontinent, VL is caused by L. donovani and is considered anthroponotic, although the only known vector, the sand fly, is zoophilic in nature. The role of domestic and stray dogs in VL transmission is still unclear in this area. We screened 50 stray dogs from VL-endemic areas of Bangladesh for serological and molecular evidence of Leishmania infection. We detected anti-Leishmania antibodies in six (12%) dog serum samples using rK39 immunochromatographic tests. We observed Leishmania kinetoplast DNA in 10 (20%) buffy coat DNA samples by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), five of which were positive based on internal transcribed spacer 1-PCR. A sequencing analysis of the amplified products confirmed that the parasitic DNA was derived from L. donovani Our findings support the hypothesis that stray dogs are an animal reservoir for L. donovani in this endemic region. Further studies are required to determine the precise role of dogs in the epidemiology of VL in Bangladesh. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  12. Periodic disruptions in the MT-1 tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoletnik, S.

    1988-11-01

    Disruptive instabilities are common phenomena in toroidal devices, especially in tokamaks. Three types can be distinguished: internal, minor and major disruptions. Periodic minor disruptions in the MT-1 tokamak were measured systematically with values of the limiter safety factor between 4 and 10. The density limit as a function of plasma current and horizontal displacement was investigated. Precursor oscillations always appear before the instability with increasing amplitude but can be observed at the density limit with quasi-stationary amplitude. Phase correlation between precursor oscillations were measured with Mirnov coils and x-ray detectors, and they show good agreement with a simple magnetic island model. (R.P.) 11 refs.; 6 figs

  13. Feature-based attention modulates direction-selective hemodynamic activity within human MT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoppel, Christian Michael; Boehler, Carsten Nicolas; Strumpf, Hendrik; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Noesselt, Toemme; Hopf, Jens-Max; Schoenfeld, Mircea Ariel

    2011-12-01

    Attending to the spatial location or to nonspatial features of a stimulus modulates neural activity in cortical areas that process its perceptual attributes. The feature-based attentional selection of the direction of a moving stimulus is associated with increased firing of individual neurons tuned to the direction of the movement in area V5/MT, while responses of neurons tuned to opposite directions are suppressed. However, it is not known how these multiplicatively scaled responses of individual neurons tuned to different motion-directions are integrated at the population level, in order to facilitate the processing of stimuli that match the perceptual goals. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) the present study revealed that attending to the movement direction of a dot field enhances the response in a number of areas including the human MT region (hMT) as a function of the coherence of the stimulus. Attending the opposite direction, however, lead to a suppressed response in hMT that was inversely correlated with stimulus-coherence. These findings demonstrate that the multiplicative scaling of single-neuron responses by feature-based attention results in an enhanced direction-selective population response within those cortical modules that processes the physical attributes of the attended stimuli. Our results provide strong support for the validity of the "feature similarity gain model" on the integrated population response as quantified by parametric fMRI in humans. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Shallow to intermediate resistivity features of the Colfiorito Fault System inferred by DC and MT survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Siniscalchi

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade electromagnetic (EM measurements have provided new constraints on the upper-crustal structure of the major fault zones in the world, both when they act as conduit and as a barrier, due to strong sensitivity of resistivity to fluids circulation and mineralization. On the track of a high impact magnetotelluric (MT study performed across the San Andreas Fault, high resolution EM data were collected in the Colfiorito epicentral area along profiles crossing some main fault lineaments. Being the study focussed both on shallow that on intermediate resistivity distribution in the brittle upper-crust, a MT profile was integrated by several electrical resistivity tomographies (ERT. The latter were successful in locating faults even where the structures are buried by a wide covering of Quaternary deposits and in the recognition of different electrical signatures of the faults. MT resistivity model crossing Mt. Prefoglio normal fault clearly imaged the typical thrust structures of the area and a high conductive zone spatially related to the fault. Seismicity seems to be located outside such conductive area, whose behaviour suggests a fluidised and altered zone incapable of supporting significant stress internally.

  15. Effectiveness of Occupation-Based Interventions to Improve Areas of Occupation and Social Participation After Stroke: An Evidence-Based Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuh, Adrianna; Floyd, Tracy; McInnis, Karen; Williams, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    This evidence-based review examined the evidence supporting the use of occupation-based interventions to improve areas of occupation and social participation poststroke. A total of 39 studies met the inclusion criteria and were critically evaluated. Most of the literature targeted activity of daily living (ADL)–based interventions and collectively provided strong evidence for the use of occupation-based interventions to improve ADL performance. The evidence related to instrumental ADLs was much more disparate, with limited evidence to support the use of virtual reality interventions and emerging evidence to support driver education programs to improve occupational performance poststroke. Only 6 studies addressed leisure, social participation, or rest and sleep, with sufficient evidence to support only leisure-based interventions. The implications of this review for research, education, and practice in occupational therapy are also discussed. PMID:25553745

  16. Effectiveness of occupation-based interventions to improve areas of occupation and social participation after stroke: an evidence-based review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Timothy J; Chuh, Adrianna; Floyd, Tracy; McInnis, Karen; Williams, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    This evidence-based review examined the evidence supporting the use of occupation-based interventions to improve areas of occupation and social participation poststroke. A total of 39 studies met the inclusion criteria and were critically evaluated. Most of the literature targeted activity of daily living (ADL)-based interventions and collectively provided strong evidence for the use of occupation-based interventions to improve ADL performance. The evidence related to instrumental ADLs was much more disparate, with limited evidence to support the use of virtual reality interventions and emerging evidence to support driver education programs to improve occupational performance poststroke. Only 6 studies addressed leisure, social participation, or rest and sleep, with sufficient evidence to support only leisure-based interventions. The implications of this review for research, education, and practice in occupational therapy are also discussed. Copyright © 2015 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  17. High Biomass Polar Forests During the Permian: Evidence from the Buckley Formation, Beardmore Glacier Area, Antarctica Supports Climate Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, M.

    2006-12-01

    Newly discovered fossil forests in the Central Transantarctic Mountains (CTM) are composed of 74 in situ stumps. They are surrounded by impressions of leaves of the gymnosperm Glossopteris and record monospecific stands of glossopterids. The stumps allow reconstruction of the height, density, and basal area of trees growing at 75 degrees S and provide a unique glimpse of a high latitude forest flourishing less than a million years before the end-Permian extinction event. The forests occur in two closely spaced beds (LP1, LP2) of the upper Buckley Formation at Lamping Peak (LP); the wood has been replaced by magnetite. Roots extending outward from the stumps and leaf mats recorded by densely packed impressions of Glossopteris leaves indicate that the stumps are in growth position. Stumps exposed in cross section have radiating roots than penetrate shallowly beneath the stump-bearing horizons. Both LP1 and LP2 contain stumps of diverse sizes, ranging from a few to 75 cm in diameter, reflecting young to old trees. Mean diameters at ground line (dgl) are 20.9cm (LP1) and 39.2cm (LP2). These mean diameters correspond to maximum tree heights of 15.4m (LP1) and 24.6m and are comparable to or greater than other high latitude fossil forests. Tree densities (trees/hectare; t/ha) are 2505 t/ha (LP1 and 1185 (LP2), which are within the range of densities of stands of old growth in deepwater swamps of the southeastern US and of old growth in the Smokies and greater than densities of trees in forests in Costa Rica. Basal areas (m2/ha), a measure of tree abundance that is independent of forest maturity, are 65 m2/ha (LP1) and 85 m2/ha (LP2), which are within the range of some modern forests and greater than others. Although fossil forest biomasses are not known, trend of basal area vs biomass of modern forests suggest high biomass given the basal areas of the fossil forests. The forests support with geologic evidence climate models indicating high temperatures and high CO2 levels

  18. Structural changes in left fusiform areas and associated fiber connections in children with abacus training: Evidence from morphometry and tractography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongxin eLi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Evidence supports the notion that the fusiform gyrus (FG, as an integral part of the ventral occipitotemporal junction, is involved widely in cognitive processes as perceiving faces, objects, places or words, and this region also might represent the visual form of an abacus in the abacus-based mental calculation process. The current study uses a combined voxel-based morphometry (VBM and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI analysis to test whether long-term abacus training could induce structural changes in the left FG and in the white matter (WM tracts distribution connecting with this region in school children. We found that, abacus-trained children exhibited significant smaller grey matter (GM volume than controls in the left FG. And the connectivity mapping identified left forceps major as a key pathway connecting left FG with other brain areas in the trained group, but not in the controls. Furthermore, mean fractional anisotropy (FA values within left forceps major were significantly increased in the trained group. Interestingly, a significant negative correlation was found in the trained group between the GM volume in left FG and the mean FA value in left forceps major, suggesting an inverse effect of the reported GM and WM structural changes. In the control group, a positive correlation between left FG GM volume and tract FA was found as well. This analysis visualized the group level differences in GM volume, FA and fiber tract between the abacus-trained children and the controls, and provided the first evidence that GM volume change in the left FG is intimately linked with the micro-structural properties of the left forceps major tracts. The present results demonstrate the structural changes in the left FG from the intracortical GM to the subcortical WM regions and provide insights into the neural mechanism of structural plasticity induced by abacus training.

  19. Women's maternity care needs and related service models in rural areas: A comprehensive systematic review of qualitative evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Ha; Le, Quynh; Ogden, Kathryn

    2014-12-01

    Understanding the needs of rural women in maternity care and service models available to them is significant for the development of effective policies and the sustainability of rural communities. Nevertheless, no systematic review of studies addressing these needs has been conducted. To synthesise the best available evidence on the experiences of women's needs in maternity care and existing service models in rural areas. Literature search of ten electronic databases, digital theses, and reference lists of relevant studies applying inclusion/exclusion criteria was conducted. Selected papers were assessed using standardised critical appraisal instruments from JBI-QARI. Data extracted from these studies were synthesised using thematic synthesis. 12 studies met the inclusion criteria. There were three main themes and several sub-themes identified. A comprehensive set of the maternity care expectations of rural women was reported in this review including safety (7), continuity of care (6) and quality of care (6), and informed choices needs (4). In addition, challenges in accessing maternity services also emerged from the literature such as access (6), risk of travelling (9) and associated cost of travel (9). Four models of maternity care examined in the literature were medically led care (5), GP-led care (4), midwifery-led care (7) and home birth (6). The systematic review demonstrates the importance of including well-conducted qualitative studies in informing the development of evidence-based policies to address women's maternity care needs and inform service models. Synthesising the findings from qualitative studies offers important insight for informing effective public health policy. Copyright © 2014 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Structural changes in left fusiform areas and associated fiber connections in children with abacus training: evidence from morphometry and tractography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongxin; Wang, Yunqi; Hu, Yuzheng; Liang, Yurong; Chen, Feiyan

    2013-01-01

    Evidence supports the notion that the fusiform gyrus (FG), as an integral part of the ventral occipitotemporal junction, is involved widely in cognitive processes as perceiving faces, objects, places or words, and this region also might represent the visual form of an abacus in the abacus-based mental calculation process. The current study uses a combined voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) analysis to test whether long-term abacus training could induce structural changes in the left FG and in the white matter (WM) tracts distribution connecting with this region in school children. We found that, abacus-trained children exhibited significant smaller gray matter (GM) volume than controls in the left FG. And the connectivity mapping identified left forceps major as a key pathway connecting left FG with other brain areas in the trained group, but not in the controls. Furthermore, mean fractional anisotropy (FA) values within left forceps major were significantly increased in the trained group. Interestingly, a significant negative correlation was found in the trained group between the GM volume in left FG and the mean FA value in left forceps major, suggesting an inverse effect of the reported GM and WM structural changes. In the control group, a positive correlation between left FG GM volume and tract FA was found as well. This analysis visualized the group level differences in GM volume, FA and fiber tract between the abacus-trained children and the controls, and provided the first evidence that GM volume change in the left FG is intimately linked with the micro-structural properties of the left forceps major tracts. The present results demonstrate the structural changes in the left FG from the intracortical GM to the subcortical WM regions and provide insights into the neural mechanism of structural plasticity induced by abacus training.

  1. Spatial distribution of soil radon as a tool to recognize active faulting on an active volcano: the example of Mt. Etna (Italy)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neri, Marco, E-mail: marco.neri@ct.ingv.it [Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Piazza Roma, 2 - 95123 Catania (Italy); Giammanco, Salvatore [Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Piazza Roma, 2 - 95123 Catania (Italy); Ferrera, Elisabetta; Patane, Giuseppe [Universita degli Studi di Catania, Dip. Scienze della Terra, Corso Italia, 52 - 95129 Catania (Italy); Zanon, Vittorio [Centro de Vulcanologia e Avaliacao de Riscos Geologicos - Universidade dos Acores, Rua Mae de Deus, 9501-801 Ponta Delgada (Portugal)

    2011-09-15

    This study concerns measurements of radon and thoron emissions from soil carried out in 2004 on the eastern flank of Mt. Etna, in a zone characterized by the presence of numerous seismogenic and aseismic faults. The statistical treatment of the geochemical data allowed recognizing anomaly thresholds for both parameters and producing distribution maps that highlighted a significant spatial correlation between soil gas anomalies and tectonic lineaments. The seismic activity occurring in and around the study area during 2004 was analyzed, producing maps of hypocentral depth and released seismic energy. Both radon and thoron anomalies were located in areas affected by relatively deep (5-10 km depth) seismic activity, while less evident correlation was found between soil gas anomalies and the released seismic energy. This study confirms that mapping the distribution of radon and thoron in soil gas can reveal hidden faults buried by recent soil cover or faults that are not clearly visible at the surface. The correlation between soil gas data and earthquakes depth and intensity can give some hints on the source of gas and/or on fault dynamics. - Highlights: > We performed measurements of radon from soil carried out on Mt. Etna. > The sampled zone is characterized by the presence of numerous active faults. > Radon mapping reveal dangerous hidden faults buried by recent soil cover. > Our study gives some hints on the source of gas and on fault dynamics. > We recognized areas where radon activity represents a hazard to the population.

  2. Ethnobotany of the Samburu of Mt. Nyiru, South Turkana, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bussmann Rainer W

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Traditional plant use is of extremely high importance in many societies, and prevalent in African communities. This knowledge is however dwindling rapidly due to changes towards a more Western lifestyle. The influence of modern tourism cannot be neglected in this context. This paper examines the plant use of the Samburu of the Mt. Nyiru area in Northern Kenya. The Samburu pastoralists of Kenya are still amongst the most traditional communities of the country and have retained most of their knowledge about the use of a large part of the plants in their environment for a wide variety of purposes. The results indicate that the local population has a very high knowledge of the plants in their surroundings, and attributes a purpose to a large percentage of the plants found. 448 plant species were collected, identified and their Samburu names and traditional uses recorded. 199 species were reported as of "no use". The high proportion of 249 plant species however had some traditional use: The highest number (180 species was used as fodder, followed by 80 species that had medicinal use. Firewood (59 species, construction (42 species, tools (31 species, food (29 species and ceremonial use (19 species ranked far behind. Traditionally the Samburu attribute most illnesses to the effect of pollutants that block or inhibit digestion. This can include "polluted" food, contagion through sick people as well as witchcraft. In most cases the treatment of illness involves herbal purgatives to cleanse the patient. There are however frequent indications of plant use for common problems like wounds, parasites, body aches and burns. The change from a nomadic to a more sedentary lifestyle, often observed in other areas of the country, has affected the Samburu of remote Mt. Nyiru to a much lesser extent and did so far not lead to a major loss of traditional plant knowledge. However, overgrazing and over-exploitation of plant resources have already led to a

  3. Oxygen isotope geochemistry of mafic magmas at Mt. Vesuvius

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallai, Luigi; Raffaello, Cioni; Chiara, Boschi; Claudia, D'oriano

    2010-05-01

    Pumice and scoria from different eruptive layers of Mt. Vesuvius volcanic products contain mafic minerals consisting of High-Fo olivine and Diopsidic Pyroxene. These phases were crystallized in unerupted trachibasaltic to tephritic magmas, and were brought to surface by large phonolitic/tephri-phonolitic (e.g. Avellino and Pompei) and/or of tephritic and phono-tephritic (Pollena) eruptions. A large set of these mm-sized crystals was accurately separated from selected juvenile material and measured for their chemical compositions (EPMA, Laser Ablation ICP-MS) and 18O/16O ratios (conventional laser fluorination) to constrain the nature and evolution of the primary magmas at Mt. Vesuvius. Uncontaminated mantle δ18O values are hardly recovered in Italian Quaternary magmas, mostly due to the widespread occurrence of crustal contamination of the primary melts during their ascent to the surface (e.g. Alban Hills, Ernici Mts., and Aeolian Islands). At Mt. Vesuvius, measured olivine and clinopyroxene share quite homogeneous chemical compositions (Olivine Fo 85-90 ; Diopside En 45-48, respectively), and represent phases crystallized in near primary mafic magmas. Trace element composition constrains the near primary nature of the phases. Published data on volatile content of melt inclusions hosted in these crystals reveal the coexistence of dissolved water and carbon dioxide, and a minimum trapping pressure around 200-300 MPa, suggesting that crystal growth occurred in a reservoir at about 8-10 km depth. Recently, experimental data have suggested massive carbonate assimilation (up to about 20%) to derive potassic alkali magmas from trachybasaltic melts. Accordingly, the δ18O variability and the trace element content of the studied minerals suggest possible contamination of primary melts by an O-isotope enriched, REE-poor contaminant like the limestone of Vesuvius basement. Low, nearly primitive δ18O values are observed for olivine from Pompeii eruption, although still

  4. Weak population structure in European roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) and evidence of introgressive hybridization with Siberian roe deer (C. pygargus) in northeastern Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olano-Marin, Juanita; Plis, Kamila; Sönnichsen, Leif; Borowik, Tomasz; Niedziałkowska, Magdalena; Jędrzejewska, Bogumiła

    2014-01-01

    We investigated contemporary and historical influences on the pattern of genetic diversity of European roe deer (Capreolus capreolus). The study was conducted in northeastern Poland, a zone where vast areas of primeval forests are conserved and where the European roe deer was never driven to extinction. A total of 319 unique samples collected in three sampling areas were genotyped at 16 microsatellites and one fragment (610 bp) of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region. Genetic diversity was high, and a low degree of genetic differentiation among sampling areas was observed with both microsatellites and mtDNA. No evidence of genetic differentiation between roe deer inhabiting open fields and forested areas was found, indicating that the ability of the species to exploit these contrasting environments might be the result of its phenotypic plasticity. Half of the studied individuals carried an mtDNA haplotype that did not belong to C. capreolus, but to a related species that does not occur naturally in the area, the Siberian roe deer (C. pygargus). No differentiation between individuals with Siberian and European mtDNA haplotypes was detected at microsatellite loci. Introgression of mtDNA of Siberian roe deer into the genome of European roe deer has recently been detected in eastern Europe. Such introgression might be caused by human-mediated translocations of Siberian roe deer within the range of European roe deer or by natural hybridization between these species in the past.

  5. Weak population structure in European roe deer (Capreolus capreolus and evidence of introgressive hybridization with Siberian roe deer (C. pygargus in northeastern Poland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juanita Olano-Marin

    Full Text Available We investigated contemporary and historical influences on the pattern of genetic diversity of European roe deer (Capreolus capreolus. The study was conducted in northeastern Poland, a zone where vast areas of primeval forests are conserved and where the European roe deer was never driven to extinction. A total of 319 unique samples collected in three sampling areas were genotyped at 16 microsatellites and one fragment (610 bp of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA control region. Genetic diversity was high, and a low degree of genetic differentiation among sampling areas was observed with both microsatellites and mtDNA. No evidence of genetic differentiation between roe deer inhabiting open fields and forested areas was found, indicating that the ability of the species to exploit these contrasting environments might be the result of its phenotypic plasticity. Half of the studied individuals carried an mtDNA haplotype that did not belong to C. capreolus, but to a related species that does not occur naturally in the area, the Siberian roe deer (C. pygargus. No differentiation between individuals with Siberian and European mtDNA haplotypes was detected at microsatellite loci. Introgression of mtDNA of Siberian roe deer into the genome of European roe deer has recently been detected in eastern Europe. Such introgression might be caused by human-mediated translocations of Siberian roe deer within the range of European roe deer or by natural hybridization between these species in the past.

  6. Forming Entrepreneurial Mindsets? Preliminary Evidence of Teaching Practices from Primary Schools in a Developing Area in South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Auxiliadora N. Figueiredo-Nery

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Over the past few years there has been a renewed interest by governments, companies and academics in the role of entrepreneurship in innovation and economic growth. There has also been a proliferation of studies on education for entrepreneurship in industrialised and developing countries. However, by addressing ‘entrepreneurship’ in terms of SMEs and high-tech start-ups, they overlook: (i the blurring distinctions between entrepreneurial and managerial capitalism, (ii an erosion of the Schumpeterian dichotomy between large and small firms, and (iii the growing importance of entrepreneurial management within companies as a source for economic growth. Additionally, ‘entrepreneurship’ tends to be taught as a stand-alone topic in higher education and business/non-business courses. Empirical studies related to entrepreneurship education within primary schools, especially in least developed locations in developing countries, are largely missing in this field. Drawing on first-hand empirical evidence from primary schools in a developing area in South America, this paper examines the incidence and functioning of pedagogic practices potentially related to the initial formation of entrepreneurial mindsets. The findings show that, despite some efforts, the researched schools suffered from, not surprisingly, inadequate physical conditions and, most importantly, teachers’ unawareness and deficient qualification related to the adoption of these techniques. These problems seemed to prevent children from developing important features of their initial entrepreneurial mindsets. Thus, if companies and countries want to secure their sources of revolutionary ideas and continuous and des-continuous innovation, they need to have a long-term commitment to continuously develop and nurture the seeds for their future innovative knowledge bases. Specifically, a comprehensive, long-term, geographically and socially inclusive perspective on entrepreneurship

  7. Intrinsic Neural Linkage between Primary Visual Area and Default Mode Network in Human Brain: Evidence from Visual Mental Imagery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zheng; Zhang, Delong; Wang, Zengjian; Li, Junchao; Lin, Yuting; Chang, Song; Huang, Ruiwang; Liu, Ming

    2018-03-08

    Previous studies have reported the essence of the sensory-based properties of human brain function, in which mental imagery is of great importance. In this study, we explored the association between the activities of two special regions, i.e., the primary visual area (PVA), which is the classically dominant sensory region, and the default mode network (DMN), which is the classical supra-sensory region, with a focus on their linkage in visual mental imagery. For this purpose, we collected fMRI data from 30 healthy participants (15 males; 22.37 ± 2.52 years) during the resting state and a mental rotation task state. By using a critical time point analysis (CTPA), we investigated the association between the activities of the PVA and the DMN. As the results showed, there existed a PVA-related (i.e., prefrontal cortex, DMN, sensorimotor areas and medial temporal lobe (MTL)) and a DMN-related neural association pattern (i.e., PVA, prefrontal cortex and the MTL) in the human brain. Furthermore, the results showed the steady and tight intrinsic association between the activities of the PVA and the DMN, with the prefrontal cortex and the MTL regions being found to be consistently involved in the resting-state brain. It also was suggested that the observed association between the PVA and the DMN was highly reproducible for the mental rotation task. Together, these observations, from the perspective of visual mental imagery, provided experimental evidence for the robustness and stability of the detailed map of the associations between the activities of the PVA and the DMN. Copyright © 2018 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Evidence of Sulfate-Dependent Anaerobic Methane Oxidation within an Area Impacted by Coalbed Methane-Related Gas Migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, A. L.; Wikin, R. T.

    2017-12-01

    We evaluated water quality characteristics in the northern Raton Basin of Colorado and documented the response of the Poison Canyon aquifer system several years after upward migration of methane gas occurred from the deeper Vermejo Formation coalbed production zone. Over a 17-month study period, water samples were obtained from domestic water wells and monitoring wells located within the impacted area, and analyzed for 245 constituents, including organic compounds, nutrients, major and trace elements, dissolved gases, and isotopic tracers for carbon, sulfur, oxygen, and hydrogen. Multiple lines of evidence suggest that sulfate-dependent methane biodegradation, which involves the oxidation of methane (CH4) to carbon dioxide (CO2) using sulfate (SO42-) as the terminal electron acceptor, is occurring: (i) consumption of methane and sulfate and production of sulfide and bicarbonate, (ii) methane loss coupled to production of higher molecular weight (C2+) gaseous hydrocarbons, (iii) patterns of 13C enrichment and depletion in methane and dissolved inorganic carbon, and (iv) a systematic shift in sulfur and oxygen isotope ratios of sulfate, indicative of microbial sulfate reduction. Groundwater-methane attenuation is linked to the production of dissolved sulfide, and elevated dissolved sulfide concentrations represent an undesirable secondary water quality impact. The biogeochemical response of the aquifer system has not mobilized naturally occurring trace metals, including arsenic, chromium, cobalt, nickel, and lead, likely due to the microbial production of hydrogen sulfide, which favors stabilization of metals in aquifer solids.

  9. Joint 3D Inversion of ZTEM Airborne and Ground MT Data with Application to Geothermal Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wannamaker, P. E.; Maris, V.; Kordy, M. A.

    2017-12-01

    ZTEM is an airborne electromagnetic (EM) geophysical technique developed by Geotech Inc® where naturally propagated EM fields originating with regional and global lightning discharges (sferics) are measured as a means of inferring subsurface electrical resistivity structure. A helicopter-borne coil platform (bird) measuring the vertical component of magnetic (H) field variations along a flown profile is referenced to a pair of horizontal coils at a fixed location on the ground in order to estimate a tensor H-field transfer function. The ZTEM method is distinct from the traditional magnetotelluric (MT) method in that the electric (E) fields are not considered because of the technological challenge of measuring E-fields in the dielectric air medium. This can lend some non-uniqueness to ZTEM interpretation because a range of conductivity structures in the earth depending upon an assumed background earth resistivity model can fit ZTEM data to within tolerance. MT data do not suffer this particular problem, but they are cumbersome to acquire in their common need for land-based transport often in near-roadless areas and for laying out and digging the electrodes and H coils. The complementary nature of ZTEM and MT logistics and resolution has motivated development of schemes to acquire appropriate amounts of each data type in a single survey and to produce an earth image through joint inversion. In particular, consideration is given to surveys where only sparse MT soundings are needed to drastically reduce the non-uniqueness associated with background uncertainty while straining logistics minimally. Synthetic and field data are analysed using 2D and 3D finite element platforms developed for this purpose. Results to date suggest that indeed dense ZTEM surveys can provide detailed heterogeneous model images with large-scale averages constrained by a modest number of MT soundings. Further research is needed in determining the allowable degree of MT sparseness and the

  10. Associations between arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase (AS3MT) and N-6 adenine-specific DNA methyltransferase 1 (N6AMT1) polymorphisms, arsenic metabolism, and cancer risk in a chilean population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Rosa, Rosemarie; Steinmaus, Craig; Akers, Nicholas K; Conde, Lucia; Ferreccio, Catterina; Kalman, David; Zhang, Kevin R; Skibola, Christine F; Smith, Allan H; Zhang, Luoping; Smith, Martyn T

    2017-07-01

    Inter-individual differences in arsenic metabolism have been linked to arsenic-related disease risks. Arsenic (+3) methyltransferase (AS3MT) is the primary enzyme involved in arsenic metabolism, and we previously demonstrated in vitro that N-6 adenine-specific DNA methyltransferase 1 (N6AMT1) also methylates the toxic inorganic arsenic (iAs) metabolite, monomethylarsonous acid (MMA), to the less toxic dimethylarsonic acid (DMA). Here, we evaluated whether AS3MT and N6AMT1 gene polymorphisms alter arsenic methylation and impact iAs-related cancer risks. We assessed AS3MT and N6AMT1 polymorphisms and urinary arsenic metabolites (%iAs, %MMA, %DMA) in 722 subjects from an arsenic-cancer case-control study in a uniquely exposed area in northern Chile. Polymorphisms were genotyped using a custom designed multiplex, ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) assay for 6 AS3MT SNPs and 14 tag SNPs in the N6AMT1 gene. We found several AS3MT polymorphisms associated with both urinary arsenic metabolite profiles and cancer risk. For example, compared to wildtypes, individuals carrying minor alleles in AS3MT rs3740393 had lower %MMA (mean difference = -1.9%, 95% CI: -3.3, -0.4), higher %DMA (mean difference = 4.0%, 95% CI: 1.5, 6.5), and lower odds ratios for bladder (OR = 0.3; 95% CI: 0.1-0.6) and lung cancer (OR = 0.6; 95% CI: 0.2-1.1). Evidence of interaction was also observed for both lung and bladder cancer between these polymorphisms and elevated historical arsenic exposures. Clear associations were not seen for N6AMT1. These results are the first to demonstrate a direct association between AS3MT polymorphisms and arsenic-related internal cancer risk. This research could help identify subpopulations that are particularly vulnerable to arsenic-related disease. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 58:411-422, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Dimerization of endogenous MT1-MMP is a regulatory step in the activation of the 72-kDa gelatinase MMP-2 on fibroblasts and fibrosarcoma cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingvarsen, Signe; Madsen, Daniel H.; Hillig, Thore

    2008-01-01

    The secreted gelatinase matrix metalloprotease-2 (MMP-2) and the membrane-anchored matrix metalloprotease MT1-MMP (MMP-14), are central players in pericellular proteolysis in extracellular matrix degradation. In addition to possessing a direct collagenolytic and gelatinolytic activity......, these enzymes take part in a cascade pathway in which MT1-MMP activates the MMP-2 proenzyme. This reaction occurs in an interplay with the matrix metalloprotease inhibitor, TIMP-2, and the proposed mechanism involves two molecules of MT1-MMP in complex with one TIMP-2 molecule. We provide positive evidence...... that proMMP-2 activation is governed by dimerization of MT1-MMP on the surface of fibroblasts and fibrosarcoma cells. Even in the absence of transfection and overexpression, dimerization of MT1-MMP markedly stimulated the formation of active MMP-2 products. The effect demonstrated here was brought about...

  12. Visual Virtual MT: relato de una pesquisa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUDMILA BRANDÃO

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Con el fin de contribuir a la discusión acerca de las artes visuales en la sociedad contemporánea y de los dispositivos que operan la colonialidad del arte, sus mecanismos y efectos, cuya urgente desactivación nos impone enormes retos, en este artículo se presentan los resultados de la investigación titulada: “Artes Visuales en Mato Grosso: recopilación, difusión y crítica” encargada de crear el sitio Visual Virtual MT (VVMT. El VVMT reúne producciones aestésicas visuales de artistas individuales y colectivos que operan en diferentes soportes y medios, trabajando con una variedad de materiales que configuran, actualmente, la mayor colección catalogada y digital disponible en el Estado de Mato Grosso, en Brasil.

  13. Overexposure measurement on microtron MT-17

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dang Thanh Luong; Tran Thanh Minh

    1995-01-01

    On 11 November 1992, the Radiation accident happened at the channel of the high energy photon beam generated by stopping 15 MeV accelerated electron on the tungsten target of Microtron MT-17. One physicist has been exposed to the high energy photon beam. The purposes of this work are the determination of overexposure from backscatter and primary beams to estimate the whole body and hand doses received by the victim. It was found that the upper parts of his body may be received the dose from 1.0 Gy to 5.0 Gy per 4 min. of the exposure; the dose received by victim's hands is in interval of 30 - 50 Gy. (author). 3 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs

  14. Static shift correction of MT data in Tohoku district using TEM soundings; TEM ho data wo mochiita Tohoku chiho MT ho data no statistic shift hosei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawakami, N.; Kumekawa, Y.; Miura, Y.; Takasugi, S. [GERD Geothermal Energy Research and Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Fujinawa, Y. [National Research Institute for Disaster Prevention, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1997-05-27

    There is a possibility that the wide-band MT observation data obtained in the central part of Tohoku district include the static shift effect. To grasp the static shift effect in the MT data, the TEM soundings were conducted at all the site where the MT data were measured. The TEM sounding system was developed for the shallow survey depth ranging from 5 m to 150 m. When showing the measured results on the histogram, it was found that the static shifts were concentrated in the vicinity of zero. About 70% of the data was below 0.2 decade. Only a slight static shift effect was observed. This means that the results obtained by the two-dimensional analysis are plausible. Especially, the static shift around plain was small. Therefore, the current results around the plain were trustful. On the other hand, the static shift in the mountainous area was rather large. Accordingly, the results around the mountainous area should be carefully treated. 7 refs., 10 figs.

  15. 75 FR 43556 - TA-W-73,381, MT Rail Link, Inc., Missoula, MT; TA-W-73,381A, Billings, MT; TA-W-73,381B, Laurel...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-26

    ...., Missoula, MT; TA-W-73,381A, Billings, MT; TA-W-73,381B, Laurel, MT; TA-W-73,381C, Livingston, MT; TA-W-73... in Missoula, Montana and operations facilities (yards) in Billings, Laurel, Livingston, Helena and Missoula, Montana. The Billings, Laurel, Livingston, and Helena facilities operate in conjunction with the...

  16. Co-ordinated expression of MMP-2 and its putative activator, MT1-MMP, in human placentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjørn, S F; Hastrup, N; Lund, L R; Danø, K; Larsen, J F; Pyke, C

    1997-08-01

    The spatial expression of mRNA for matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2), its putative activator, the membrane-type 1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP), and the MMP-2 substrate type IV collagen was investigated in human placentas of both normal and tubal ectopic pregnancies and in cyclic endometrium using in-situ hybridization. Cytokeratin staining applied to adjacent sections was used to identify epithelial and trophoblast cells. In both normal and tubal pregnancies MT1-MMP, MMP-2 and type IV collagen mRNA were highly expressed and co-localized in the extravillous cytotrophoblasts of anchoring villi, in cytotrophoblasts that had penatrated into the placental bed and in cytotrophoblastic cell islands. In addition, the decidual cells of normal pregnancies in some areas co-expressed MT1-MMP and MMP-2 mRNA, with moderate signals for both components. Fibroblast-like stromal cells in tubal pregnancies were positive for MMP-2 mRNA but generally negative for MT1-MMP mRNA. The consistent co-localization of MT1-MMP with MMP-2 and type IV collagen in the same subset of cytotrophoblasts strongly suggests that all three components co-operate in the tightly regulated fetal invasion process. The co-expression of MT1-MMP and MMP-2 mRNA in some of the decidual cells indicates that these cells are also actively involved in the placentation process.

  17. Amide Proton Transfer (APT) MR imaging and Magnetization Transfer (MT) MR imaging of pediatric brain development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Hong; Kang, Huiying; Peng, Yun; Zhao, Xuna; Jiang, Shanshan; Zhang, Yi; Zhou, Jinyuan

    2016-01-01

    To quantify the brain maturation process during childhood using combined amide proton transfer (APT) and conventional magnetization transfer (MT) imaging at 3 Tesla. Eighty-two neurodevelopmentally normal children (44 males and 38 females; age range, 2-190 months) were imaged using an APT/MT imaging protocol with multiple saturation frequency offsets. The APT-weighted (APTW) and MT ratio (MTR) signals were quantitatively analyzed in multiple brain areas. Age-related changes in MTR and APTW were evaluated with a non-linear regression analysis. The APTW signals followed a decreasing exponential curve with age in all brain regions measured (R 2 = 0.7-0.8 for the corpus callosum, frontal and occipital white matter, and centrum semiovale). The most significant changes appeared within the first year. At maturation, larger decreases in APTW and lower APTW values were found in the white matter. On the contrary, the MTR signals followed an increasing exponential curve with age in the same brain regions measured, with the most significant changes appearing within the initial 2 years. There was an inverse correlation between the MTR and APTW signal intensities during brain maturation. Together with MT imaging, protein-based APT imaging can provide additional information in assessing brain myelination in the paediatric population. (orig.)

  18. MT1-MMP expression in the odontogenic region of rat incisors undergoing interrupted eruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Nádia Fayez; Gomes, José Rosa; Neves, Juliana dos Santos; Salmon, Cristiane Ribeiro; Novaes, Pedro Duarte

    2011-12-01

    MT1-MMP (membrane type matrix metalloproteinase-1) has been considered an important membrane-type matrix metalloproteinase involved in the remodeling process in tissue and organ development, including the processes of the tooth and root growth and dental eruption. Therefore, the aims of this study were to evaluate MT1-MMP expression in the odontogenic region, as well as the eruption rate and morphology of the lower-left rat incisor, where the eruption process was interrupted for 14 days by a steel wire attached from the center of the incisor labial face and braced to the first molar. In the interrupted eruption group, the eruption rate was significantly reduced, producing drastic morphological alterations in the tooth germ and socket area. The MT1-MMP expression was widespread in the dental follicle, in both groups studied (normal and interrupted eruption groups); however a significant decrease in immunostaining was observed in the interrupted eruption group. Results indicate that MT1-MMP may have an important role in the process of dental eruption.

  19. Amide Proton Transfer (APT) MR imaging and Magnetization Transfer (MT) MR imaging of pediatric brain development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Hong; Kang, Huiying; Peng, Yun [Beijing Children' s Hospital, Capital Medical University, Imaging Center, Department of Radiology, Beijing (China); Zhao, Xuna [Philips Healthcare, Beijing (China); Jiang, Shanshan; Zhang, Yi; Zhou, Jinyuan [Johns Hopkins University, Division of MR Research, Department of Radiology, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2016-10-15

    To quantify the brain maturation process during childhood using combined amide proton transfer (APT) and conventional magnetization transfer (MT) imaging at 3 Tesla. Eighty-two neurodevelopmentally normal children (44 males and 38 females; age range, 2-190 months) were imaged using an APT/MT imaging protocol with multiple saturation frequency offsets. The APT-weighted (APTW) and MT ratio (MTR) signals were quantitatively analyzed in multiple brain areas. Age-related changes in MTR and APTW were evaluated with a non-linear regression analysis. The APTW signals followed a decreasing exponential curve with age in all brain regions measured (R{sup 2} = 0.7-0.8 for the corpus callosum, frontal and occipital white matter, and centrum semiovale). The most significant changes appeared within the first year. At maturation, larger decreases in APTW and lower APTW values were found in the white matter. On the contrary, the MTR signals followed an increasing exponential curve with age in the same brain regions measured, with the most significant changes appearing within the initial 2 years. There was an inverse correlation between the MTR and APTW signal intensities during brain maturation. Together with MT imaging, protein-based APT imaging can provide additional information in assessing brain myelination in the paediatric population. (orig.)

  20. Reproductive aging is associated with changes in oocyte mitochondrial dynamics, function, and mtDNA quantity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babayev, Elnur; Wang, Tianren; Szigeti-Buck, Klara; Lowther, Katie; Taylor, Hugh S; Horvath, Tamas; Seli, Emre

    2016-11-01

    Mitochondria affect numerous aspects of mammalian reproduction. We investigated whether the decrease in oocyte quality associated with aging is related to altered mitochondria. Oocytes from old (12 months) and young (9 weeks) C57BL/6J mice were compared in relation to: mitochondria morphology and dynamics (mitochondria density, coverage, size and shape) throughout folliculogenesis; levels of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA); mitochondrial stress reflected in the expression of mitochondrial unfolded protein response (mt-UPR) genes; and levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) under baseline conditions and following H 2 O 2 treatment. In old mice, mitochondria of primary follicle-enclosed oocytes were smaller, with lower mitochondria coverage (total mitochondria μm 2 /μm 2 cytosol area) (pchanges were not significant. Mature oocytes (Metaphase II-MII) from old mice had significantly less mtDNA (paged MII oocytes were also higher following pretreatment with H 2 O 2 (pAging is associated with altered mitochondrial morphological parameters and decreased mtDNA levels in oocytes, as well as an increase in ROS under stressful conditions and elevated expression of mitochondrial stress response gene Hspd1. Delineation of the mechanisms underlying mitochondrial changes associated with ageing may help in the development of diagnostic and therapeutic tools in reproductive medicine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of visual experience on the human MT+ functional connectivity networks: an fMRI study of motion perception in sighted and congenitally blind individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo eSani

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Human middle temporal complex (hMT+ responds also to the perception of non-visual motion in both sighted and early blind individuals, indicating a supramodal organization. Visual experience, however, leads to a segregation of hMT+ into a more anterior subregion, involved in the supramodal representation of motion, and a posterior subregion that processes visual motion only. In contrast, in congenitally blind subjects tactile motion activates the full extent of hMT+. Here, we used fMRI to investigate brain areas functionally connected with the two hMT+ subregions (seeds during visual and tactile motion in sighted and blind individuals.A common functional connectivity network for motion processing, including bilateral ventral and dorsal extrastriate, inferior frontal, middle and inferior temporal areas, correlated with the two hMT+ seeds both in sighted and blind individuals during either visual or tactile motion, independently from the sensory modality through which the information was acquired. Moreover, ventral premotor, somatosensory and posterior parietal areas correlated only with the anterior but not with the posterior portion of hMT+ in sighted subjects, and with both hMT+ seeds in blind subjects.Furthermore, a correlation between middle temporal and occipital areas with primary somatosensory seeds was demonstrated across conditions in both sighted and blind individuals, suggesting a cortico-cortical pathway that conveys non-visual information from somatosensory cortex, through posterior parietal regions, to ventral extrastriate cortex.These findings expand our knowledge about the development of the functional organization within hMT+ by showing that distinct patterns of brain functional correlations originate from the anterior and posterior hMT+ subregions as a result of visual experience.

  2. Analysis geothermal prospect of Mt. Endut using geochemistry methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobirin, R.; Permadi, A. N.; Akbar, A. M.; Wildan, D.; Supriyanto

    2017-07-01

    Mt. Endut geothermal area is located in Lebak district, Banten province, about 40 km to the south of the town of Rangkasbitung. There are four manifestations of hot springs i.e: Handeuleum hot springs, Cikawah 1, Cikawah 2, and Gajrug. Based on geochemical analysis using Na-K-Mg triangular diagrams, Cl-Li-B, and Cl-SO4-HCO3, it is known that Cikawah 1 hot springs is chloride type and the other springs are bicarbonate type. Reservoir temperature range is from 162°C to 180°C are predicted by SiO2 and NaK geothermometers. In general all hot springs are out flows, but there is an hypothesis that Cikawah 1 is the up flow. Because it is in partial equilibrium and chloride type. Mount Endut has a hydrothermal system with a fluid reservoir in the form of hot water or water dominated system. The geothermal prospect area of Mount Endut is located around the Cikawah manifestation to the western part of the Endut mountain. Further research is required by conducting geophysical surveys around the Mount Endut.

  3. Volcanic influence of Mt. Fuji on the watershed of Lake Motosu and its impact on the lacustrine sedimentary record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamair, Laura; Hubert-Ferrari, Aurélia; Yamamoto, Shinya; El Ouahabi, Meriam; Vander Auwera, Jacqueline; Obrochta, Stephen; Boes, Evelien; Nakamura, Atsunori; Fujiwara, Osamu; Shishikura, Masanobu; Schmidt, Sabine; Siani, Giuseppe; Miyairi, Yosuke; Yokoyama, Yusuke; De Batist, Marc; Heyvaert, Vanessa M. A.; QuakeRecNankai Team

    2018-01-01

    Lacustrine sediments are particularly sensitive to modifications within the lake catchment. In a volcanic area, sedimentation rates are directly affected by the history of the volcano and its eruptions. Here, we investigate the impact of Mt. Fuji Volcano (Japan) on Lake Motosu and its watershed. The lacustrine infill is studied by combining seismic reflection profiles and sediment cores. We show evidence of changes in sedimentation patterns during the depositional history of Lake Motosu. The frequency of large mass-transport deposits recorded within the lake decreases over the Holocene. Before 8000 cal yr BP, large sublacustrine landslides and turbidites were filling the lacustrine depression. After 8000 cal yr BP, only one large sublacustrine landslide was recorded. The change in sedimentation pattern coincides with a change in sediment accumulation rate. Over the last 8000 cal yr BP, the sediment accumulation rate was not sufficient enough to produce large sublacustrine slope failures. Consequently, the frequency of large mass-transport deposits decreased and only turbidites resulting from surficial slope reworking occurred. These constitute the main sedimentary infill of the deep basin. We link the change in sediment accumulation rate with (i) climate and vegetation changes; and (ii) the Mt. Fuji eruptions which affected the Lake Motosu watershed by reducing its size and strongly modified its topography. Moreover, this study highlights that the deposition of turbidites in the deep basin of Lake Motosu is mainly controlled by the paleobathymetry of the lakefloor. Two large mass-transport deposits, occurring around 8000 cal yr BP and 2000 cal yr BP respectively, modified the paleobathymetry of the lakefloor and therefore changed the turbidite depositional pattern of Lake Motosu.

  4. High-altitude adaptation of Tibetan chicken from MT-COI and ATP-6 perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaoling; Wu, Nan; Zhu, Qing; Gaur, Uma; Gu, Ting; Li, Diyan

    2016-09-01

    The problem of hypoxia adaptation in high altitudes is an unsolved brainteaser in the field of life sciences. As one of the best chicken breeds with adaptability to highland environment, the Tibetan chicken, is genetically different from lowland chicken breeds. In order to gain a better understanding of the mechanism of hypoxic adaptability in high altitude, in the present study, we focused on the MT-COI together with ATP-6 gene to explore the regulatory mechanisms for hypoxia adaptability in Tibet chicken. Here, we sequenced MT-COI of 29 Tibetan chickens and 30 Chinese domestic chickens and ATP-6 gene of 28 Tibetan chickens and 29 Chinese domestic chickens. In MT-COI gene, 9 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were detected though none of these was a missense mutation, confirming the fact that MT-COI gene is a largely conservative sequence. In ATP-6 gene, 6 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were detected and we found a missense mutation (m.9441G > A) in the ATP-6 gene of Tibetan chicken resulting in an amino acid substitution. Due to the critical role of ATP-6 gene in the proton translocation and energy metabolism, we speculated the possibility of this mutation playing an important role in easier energy conversion and metabolism in Tibetan chickens than Chinese domestic chickens so as to better adapt to the harsh environment of the high-altitude areas. The Median-joining profile also suggested that haplotype Ha2 has the ancestral position to the other haplotypes and has significant relationship with high-altitude adaptation in ATP-6 gene. Therefore, we considered that the polymorphism (m.9441G > A) in the ATP-6 gene may affect the specific functions of ATP-6 enzyme relating to high-altitude adaptation of Tibetan chicken and MT-COI gene is a largely conservative sequence.

  5. Pivotal role of hMT+ in long-range disambiguation of interhemispheric bistable surface motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, João Valente; Costa, Gabriel Nascimento; Martins, Ricardo; Castelo-Branco, Miguel

    2017-10-01

    It remains an open question whether long-range disambiguation of ambiguous surface motion can be achieved in early visual cortex or instead in higher level regions, which concerns object/surface segmentation/integration mechanisms. We used a bistable moving stimulus that can be perceived as a pattern comprehending both visual hemi-fields moving coherently downward or as two widely segregated nonoverlapping component objects (in each visual hemi-field) moving separately inward. This paradigm requires long-range integration across the vertical meridian leading to interhemispheric binding. Our fMRI study (n = 30) revealed a close relation between activity in hMT+ and perceptual switches involving interhemispheric segregation/integration of motion signals, crucially under nonlocal conditions where components do not overlap and belong to distinct hemispheres. Higher signal changes were found in hMT+ in response to spatially segregated component (incoherent) percepts than to pattern (coherent) percepts. This did not occur in early visual cortex, unlike apparent motion, which does not entail surface segmentation. We also identified a role for top-down mechanisms in state transitions. Deconvolution analysis of switch-related changes revealed prefrontal, insula, and cingulate areas, with the right superior parietal lobule (SPL) being particularly involved. We observed that directed influences could emerge either from left or right hMT+ during bistable motion integration/segregation. SPL also exhibited significant directed functional connectivity with hMT+, during perceptual state maintenance (Granger causality analysis). Our results suggest that long-range interhemispheric binding of ambiguous motion representations mainly reflect bottom-up processes from hMT+ during perceptual state maintenance. In contrast, state transitions maybe influenced by high-level regions such as the SPL. Hum Brain Mapp 38:4882-4897, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley

  6. Displacement across the Trecastagni Fault (Mt. Etna) and induced seismicity: the October 2009 to January 2010 episode

    OpenAIRE

    Vincenza Maiolino; Giuseppe Laudani; Francesco Guglielmino; Angelo Ferro; Ferruccio Ferrari; Giuseppe Falzone; Antonino Carnazzo; Alessandro Bonforte; Salvatore Gambino; Giuseppe Puglisi

    2011-01-01

    The Trecastagni Fault (TF) is a NNW-SSE tectonic structure inside Mt. Etna that is characterized by evident morphological scarps and normal and right-lateral type movements that directly affect roads and buildings. The TF has an important role in the instability that affects the south-eastern flank of Mt. Etna, and it represents part of the southern boundary of the unstable sector. Starting from 2005, the TF has been monitored using continuous wire extensometers and by carrying out periodic d...

  7. MT3DMS: Model use, calibration, and validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, C.; Hill, Mary C.; Cao, G.; Ma, R.

    2012-01-01

    MT3DMS is a three-dimensional multi-species solute transport model for solving advection, dispersion, and chemical reactions of contaminants in saturated groundwater flow systems. MT3DMS interfaces directly with the U.S. Geological Survey finite-difference groundwater flow model MODFLOW for the flow solution and supports the hydrologic and discretization features of MODFLOW. MT3DMS contains multiple transport solution techniques in one code, which can often be important, including in model calibration. Since its first release in 1990 as MT3D for single-species mass transport modeling, MT3DMS has been widely used in research projects and practical field applications. This article provides a brief introduction to MT3DMS and presents recommendations about calibration and validation procedures for field applications of MT3DMS. The examples presented suggest the need to consider alternative processes as models are calibrated and suggest opportunities and difficulties associated with using groundwater age in transport model calibration.

  8. Uranium favorability evaluation of the Mt. Withington cauldron, Socorro County, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickson, R.E.; Dayvault, R.D.

    1982-01-01

    The Mt. Withington cauldron is unfavorable for initial-magmatic pneumatogenic, hydroauthigenic, and hydroallogenic uranium deposits. Despite their favorable major-oxide chemistry, the rocks in the cauldron are relatively poor uranium source rocks; evidence for significant uranium mobilization and transport is lacking; the ash-flow tuffs and the domes and lava flows do not have porous structures adequate to accommodate uranium precipitated by pressure-temperature mechanisms in amounts large enough to constitute uranium deposits; and the lack of reductants signifies that uranium precipitation in adequate amounts by reduction is not probable. It is concluded that no further uranium favorability work in the Mt. Withington cauldron is warranted. 1 figure, 1 table

  9. Cross-Sectional Area of the Rotator Cuff Muscles in MRI - Is there Evidence for a Biomechanical Balanced Shoulder?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samy Bouaicha

    Full Text Available To provide in-vivo evidence for the common biomechanical concept of transverse and craniocaudal force couples in the shoulder that are yielded by both the rotator cuff muscles (RCM and the deltoid and to quantitatively evaluate and correlate the cross-sectional areas (CSA of the corresponding RCM as a surrogate marker for muscle strength using MRI.Fifty patients (mean age, 36 years; age range, 18-57 years; 41 male, 9 female without rotator cuff tears were included in this retrospective study. Data were assessed by two readers. The CSA (mm2 of all rotator cuff muscles was measured on parasagittal T1-weighted FSE sequence at two different positions (at the established "y-position" and at a more medial slice in the presumably maximal CSA for each muscle, i.e., the "set position". The CSA of the deltoid was measured on axial intermediate-weighted FSE sequences at three positions. CSA measurements were obtained using 1.5 Tesla MR-arthrographic shoulder. Pearson's correlation for the corresponding CSA of the force couple as well as was the intraclass correlation coefficient for the inter- and intra-reader agreement was calculated.The mean CSA was 770 mm2 (±167 and 841 mm2 (±191 for the supraspinatus (in the y- and set-positions, respectively and 984 mm2 (±241 and 1568 mm2 (±338 for the infraspinatus. The mean CSA was 446 mm2 (±129 and 438 mm2 (±128 for the teres minor (in the y- and set-positions, respectively and 1953 mm2 (±553 and 2343 mm2 (±587 for the subscapularis. The three measurements of the deltoid revealed a CSA of 3063 mm2 (±839 for the upper edge, 3829 mm2 (±836 for the lower edge and 4069 mm2 (±937 for the middle of the glenoid. At the set position Pearson's correlation of the transverse force couple (subscapularis/infraspinatus showed a moderate positive correlation of r = 0.583 (p<0.0001 and a strong correlation when the CSA of the teres minor was added to the infraspinatus CSA (r = 0.665, p = 0.0008 and a strong positive

  10. Site Effects estimation in the Po Plain area (Northern Italy): correlation between passive geophysical surveys and stratigraphic evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascandola, Claudia; Massa, Marco; Barani, Simone; Argnani, Andrea; Poggi, Valerio; Martelli, Luca; Albarello, Dario; Pergalani, Floriana; Compagnoni, Massimo; Lovati, Sara

    2017-04-01

    The recent case of the 2012, Mw 6.1, Emilia seismic sequence (Northern Italy) highlighted the importance of the site effects estimation in the Po Plain, the larger and deeper Italian sedimentary basin. This study, applied on extensive collection of geophysical and geological data in the entire area, allows a macrozonation of the site effects estimation, useful for scientific and applied purpose. In particular, site-response analysis can be performed in defined macrozones, where the geological-geotecnical and geophysical characteristics are homogeneous at macroscale. The collection of the available stratigraphic discontinuities and passive geophysical surveys (single station and array measurements) allowed defining a general macrozonation in terms of amplified frequencies and shear waves velocity (Vs) gradients. The correlation between the obtained geophysical evidence and the known geological information can then be crucial in order to define the most important stratigraphic discontinuities responsible for the local seismic amplification. In particular, ambient vibration data, recorded by all permanent and temporary seismic stations installed in the target region, were collected and then analyzed with the Nakamura technique, to determine the H/V spectral ratio. Moreover, all the available ambient vibration arrays where collected and analyzes to assess the local Vs profile, considering the Rayleigh waves fundamental mode. The Po Plain stratigraphy is defined by regional unconformities (aquifer limits) that have been extensively mapped throughout the basin and by regional geological and structural maps. In general, the H/V results show two ranges of amplified frequencies, both lower than 1 Hz: the former at frequencies lower than about 0.25 Hz and the latter between 0.4 and 1 Hz. The higher frequency range moves from about 0.4 Hz, in the eastern-Adriatic part of the plain, to about 0.8-1.0 Hz in the central and western part. Based on the available seismic array

  11. Role of Broca's Area in Implicit Motor Skill Learning: Evidence from Continuous Theta-Burst Magnetic Stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clerget, Emeline; Poncin, William; Fadiga, Luciano; Olivier, Etienne

    2012-01-01

    Complex actions can be regarded as a concatenation of simple motor acts, arranged according to specific rules. Because the caudal part of the Broca's region (left Brodmann's area 44, BA 44) is involved in processing hierarchically organized behaviors, we aimed to test the hypothesis that this area may also play a role in learning structured motor…

  12. More strictly protected areas are not necessarily more protective: evidence from Bolivia, Costa Rica, Indonesia, and Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferraro, Paul J; Hanauer, Merlin M; Miteva, Daniela A; Pattanayak, Subhrendu K; Canavire-Bacarreza, Gustavo Javier; Sims, Katharine R E

    2013-01-01

    National parks and other protected areas are at the forefront of global efforts to protect biodiversity and ecosystem services. However, not all protection is equal. Some areas are assigned strict legal protection that permits few extractive human uses. Other protected area designations permit a wider range of uses. Whether strictly protected areas are more effective in achieving environmental objectives is an empirical question: although strictly protected areas legally permit less anthropogenic disturbance, the social conflicts associated with assigning strict protection may lead politicians to assign strict protection to less-threatened areas and may lead citizens or enforcement agents to ignore the strict legal restrictions. We contrast the impacts of strictly and less strictly protected areas in four countries using IUCN designations to measure de jure strictness, data on deforestation to measure outcomes, and a quasi-experimental design to estimate impacts. On average, stricter protection reduced deforestation rates more than less strict protection, but the additional impact was not always large and sometimes arose because of where stricter protection was assigned rather than regulatory strictness per se. We also show that, in protected area studies contrasting y management regimes, there are y 2 policy-relevant impacts, rather than only y, as earlier studies have implied. (letter)

  13. Seismic activity and thermal regime of low temperature fumaroles at Mt. Vesuvius in 2004-2011: distinguishing among seismic, volcanic and hydrological signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Cusano

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Seismological, soil temperature and hydrological data from Mt. Vesuvius are collected to characterize the present-day activity of the volcanic/hydrothermal system and to detect possible unrest-related phenomena. We present patterns of seismicity and soil temperature in the crater area during the period February 2004-December 2011. The temporal distribution of number and depth of Volcano-Tectonic earthquakes and the energy release are considered. Hourly data of soil temperature have been acquired since January 2004 in different locations along the rim and within the crater. The observed changes of temperature are studied to establish a temporal-based correlation with the volcanic activity and/or with external forcing, as variations of the regional and local stress field acting on the volcano or meteorological phenomena. The comparison between seismic activity and temperature data highlights significant variations possibly related to changes in fluid circulation in the hydrothermal system of the volcano. The common continuous observations start just before a very shallow earthquake occurred in August 2005, which was preceded by a thermal anomaly. This coincidence has been interpreted as related to fluid-driven rock fracturing, as observed in other volcanoes. For the successive temporal patterns, the seismicity rate and energy release are characterized by slight variations accompanied by changes in temperature. This evidence of reactivity of the fumarole thermal field to seismic strain can be used to discriminate between tectonic and volcanic signals at Mt. Vesuvius.

  14. Investigating the prehistory of Tungusic peoples of Siberia and the Amur-Ussuri region with complete mtDNA genome sequences and Y-chromosomal markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duggan, Ana T; Whitten, Mark; Wiebe, Victor; Crawford, Michael; Butthof, Anne; Spitsyn, Victor; Makarov, Sergey; Novgorodov, Innokentiy; Osakovsky, Vladimir; Pakendorf, Brigitte

    2013-01-01

    Evenks and Evens, Tungusic-speaking reindeer herders and hunter-gatherers, are spread over a wide area of northern Asia, whereas their linguistic relatives the Udegey, sedentary fishermen and hunter-gatherers, are settled to the south of the lower Amur River. The prehistory and relationships of these Tungusic peoples are as yet poorly investigated, especially with respect to their interactions with neighbouring populations. In this study, we analyse over 500 complete mtDNA genome sequences from nine different Evenk and even subgroups as well as their geographic neighbours from Siberia and their linguistic relatives the Udegey from the Amur-Ussuri region in order to investigate the prehistory of the Tungusic populations. These data are supplemented with analyses of Y-chromosomal haplogroups and STR haplotypes in the Evenks, Evens, and neighbouring Siberian populations. We demonstrate that whereas the North Tungusic Evenks and Evens show evidence of shared ancestry both in the maternal and in the paternal line, this signal has been attenuated by genetic drift and differential gene flow with neighbouring populations, with isolation by distance further shaping the maternal genepool of the Evens. The Udegey, in contrast, appear quite divergent from their linguistic relatives in the maternal line, with a mtDNA haplogroup composition characteristic of populations of the Amur-Ussuri region. Nevertheless, they show affinities with the Evenks, indicating that they might be the result of admixture between local Amur-Ussuri populations and Tungusic populations from the north.

  15. Investigating the Prehistory of Tungusic Peoples of Siberia and the Amur-Ussuri Region with Complete mtDNA Genome Sequences and Y-chromosomal Markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duggan, Ana T.; Whitten, Mark; Wiebe, Victor; Crawford, Michael; Butthof, Anne; Spitsyn, Victor; Makarov, Sergey; Novgorodov, Innokentiy; Osakovsky, Vladimir; Pakendorf, Brigitte

    2013-01-01

    Evenks and Evens, Tungusic-speaking reindeer herders and hunter-gatherers, are spread over a wide area of northern Asia, whereas their linguistic relatives the Udegey, sedentary fishermen and hunter-gatherers, are settled to the south of the lower Amur River. The prehistory and relationships of these Tungusic peoples are as yet poorly investigated, especially with respect to their interactions with neighbouring populations. In this study, we analyse over 500 complete mtDNA genome sequences from nine different Evenk and even subgroups as well as their geographic neighbours from Siberia and their linguistic relatives the Udegey from the Amur-Ussuri region in order to investigate the prehistory of the Tungusic populations. These data are supplemented with analyses of Y-chromosomal haplogroups and STR haplotypes in the Evenks, Evens, and neighbouring Siberian populations. We demonstrate that whereas the North Tungusic Evenks and Evens show evidence of shared ancestry both in the maternal and in the paternal line, this signal has been attenuated by genetic drift and differential gene flow with neighbouring populations, with isolation by distance further shaping the maternal genepool of the Evens. The Udegey, in contrast, appear quite divergent from their linguistic relatives in the maternal line, with a mtDNA haplogroup composition characteristic of populations of the Amur-Ussuri region. Nevertheless, they show affinities with the Evenks, indicating that they might be the result of admixture between local Amur-Ussuri populations and Tungusic populations from the north. PMID:24349531

  16. Investigating the prehistory of Tungusic peoples of Siberia and the Amur-Ussuri region with complete mtDNA genome sequences and Y-chromosomal markers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana T Duggan

    Full Text Available Evenks and Evens, Tungusic-speaking reindeer herders and hunter-gatherers, are spread over a wide area of northern Asia, whereas their linguistic relatives the Udegey, sedentary fishermen and hunter-gatherers, are settled to the south of the lower Amur River. The prehistory and relationships of these Tungusic peoples are as yet poorly investigated, especially with respect to their interactions with neighbouring populations. In this study, we analyse over 500 complete mtDNA genome sequences from nine different Evenk and even subgroups as well as their geographic neighbours from Siberia and their linguistic relatives the Udegey from the Amur-Ussuri region in order to investigate the prehistory of the Tungusic populations. These data are supplemented with analyses of Y-chromosomal haplogroups and STR haplotypes in the Evenks, Evens, and neighbouring Siberian populations. We demonstrate that whereas the North Tungusic Evenks and Evens show evidence of shared ancestry both in the maternal and in the paternal line, this signal has been attenuated by genetic drift and differential gene flow with neighbouring populations, with isolation by distance further shaping the maternal genepool of the Evens. The Udegey, in contrast, appear quite divergent from their linguistic relatives in the maternal line, with a mtDNA haplogroup composition characteristic of populations of the Amur-Ussuri region. Nevertheless, they show affinities with the Evenks, indicating that they might be the result of admixture between local Amur-Ussuri populations and Tungusic populations from the north.

  17. Peptide aptamers as new tools to modulate clathrin-mediated internalisation — inhibition of MT1-MMP internalisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferrigno Paul

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Peptide aptamers are combinatorial protein reagents that bind to targets with a high specificity and a strong affinity thus providing a molecular tool kit for modulating the function of their targets in vivo. Results Here we report the isolation of a peptide aptamer named swiggle that interacts with the very short (21 amino acid long intracellular domain of membrane type 1-metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP, a key cell surface protease involved in numerous and crucial physiological and pathological cellular events. Expression of swiggle in mammalian cells was found to increase the cell surface expression of MT1-MMP by impairing its internalisation. Swiggle interacts with the LLY573 internalisation motif of MT1-MMP intracellular domain, thus disrupting the interaction with the μ2 subunit of the AP-2 internalisation complex required for endocytosis of the protease. Interestingly, swiggle-mediated inhibition of MT1-MMP clathrin-mediated internalisation was also found to promote MT1-MMP-mediated cell migration. Conclusions Taken together, our results provide further evidence that peptide aptamers can be used to dissect molecular events mediated by individual protein domains, in contrast to the pleiotropic effects of RNA interference techniques.

  18. Peptide aptamers as new tools to modulate clathrin-mediated internalisation--inhibition of MT1-MMP internalisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickramasinghe, Rochana D; Ko Ferrigno, Paul; Roghi, Christian

    2010-07-23

    Peptide aptamers are combinatorial protein reagents that bind to targets with a high specificity and a strong affinity thus providing a molecular tool kit for modulating the function of their targets in vivo. Here we report the isolation of a peptide aptamer named swiggle that interacts with the very short (21 amino acid long) intracellular domain of membrane type 1-metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP), a key cell surface protease involved in numerous and crucial physiological and pathological cellular events. Expression of swiggle in mammalian cells was found to increase the cell surface expression of MT1-MMP by impairing its internalisation. Swiggle interacts with the LLY573 internalisation motif of MT1-MMP intracellular domain, thus disrupting the interaction with the mu2 subunit of the AP-2 internalisation complex required for endocytosis of the protease. Interestingly, swiggle-mediated inhibition of MT1-MMP clathrin-mediated internalisation was also found to promote MT1-MMP-mediated cell migration. Taken together, our results provide further evidence that peptide aptamers can be used to dissect molecular events mediated by individual protein domains, in contrast to the pleiotropic effects of RNA interference techniques.

  19. Porous aerosol in degassing plumes of Mt. Etna and Mt. Stromboli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Shcherbakov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Aerosols of the volcanic degassing plumes from Mt. Etna and Mt. Stromboli were probed with in situ instruments on board the Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt research aircraft Falcon during the contrail, volcano, and cirrus experiment CONCERT in September 2011. Aerosol properties were analyzed using angular-scattering intensities and particle size distributions measured simultaneously with the Polar Nephelometer and the Forward Scattering Spectrometer probes (FSSP series 100 and 300, respectively. Aerosols of degassing plumes are characterized by low values of the asymmetry parameter (between 0.6 and 0.75; the effective diameter was within the range of 1.5–2.8 µm and the maximal diameter was lower than 20 µm. A principal component analysis applied to the Polar Nephelometer data indicates that scattering features of volcanic aerosols of different crater origins are clearly distinctive from angular-scattering intensities of cirrus and contrails. Retrievals of aerosol properties revealed that the particles were "optically spherical" and the estimated values of the real part of the refractive index are within the interval from 1.35 to 1.38. The interpretation of these results leads to the conclusion that the degassing plume aerosols were porous with air voids. Our estimates suggest that aerosol particles contained about 18 to 35 % of air voids in terms of the total volume.

  20. 75 FR 54419 - Environmental Impact Statement: Yellowstone County, MT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement: Yellowstone County, MT AGENCY: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of intent--revised... CONTACT: Brian Hasselbach, Right of Way and Environmental Programs Manager, Federal Highway Administration...

  1. Transportation observations, considerations and recommendations for Mt. Hood National Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-24

    A field investigation of the current transportation infrastructure and operations at Mt. Hood : National Forest (MHNF) by the interagency Transportation Assistance Group (TAG) was conducted June : 24-26, 2009, on behalf of the U.S. Forest Service (US...

  2. Clinical implications of duplicated mtDNA in Pearson syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muraki, K; Sakura, N; Ueda, H; Kihara, H; Goto, Y

    2001-01-22

    We report on a seven-year-old Japanese boy with Pearson syndrome, which is characterized by refractory sideroblastic anemia with vacuolization of marrow precursors and dysfunction of the exocrine pancreas, and caused by mitochondrial (mt) DNA deletions and duplications. Although analysis with Southern hybridization on his bone marrow cells at age one year or on the muscle at age five years did not detect any duplications of mtDNA, an analysis after death at age seven years detected them in the kidney, heart, and even in the bone marrow. Using long PCR to specifically amplify duplicated mtDNA, we found duplications in all biopsy and postmortem samples, indicating that duplications had been present in the patient since his early life, and that the number of duplications increased with age. The results indicate some dynamism in the mtDNA duplication and that the dynamism may imply clinical importance.

  3. Deep-water Triassic and Jurassic beds from Mt. Kobla (W Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanko Buser

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This contribution deals with geological setting of Mt. Kobla which is situated in the central part of the Bohinj ridge, and brings a review of the previous geological studies in the area.The first detailed studies are closely related to a 6334 m long Bohinjska Bistrica–Podbrdo railway tunnel which was opened in 1906. The tunnel is constructed just under the peak of Mt. Kobla and encompasses 8 lithological members. The second period of intensive geological studies is related to elaboration of the Basic Geological Map, scale 1:100.000, Sheet Tolmin that were carried out from 1969–1987. During this time, Middle Triassic to Late Cretaceous existence of Slovenian Basin and two platforms in western Slovenia was established. In the past decade geological studies in the area have been focused on detailed stratigraphy and lithology. The analysis of conodont assemblages and foraminifers indicates that a part of limestone classified in Basic Geological Map as Lower Jurassicare actually of the Upper Triassic age.Jurassic sediments in Mt. Kobla were settled in deep-marine environment of the Slovenian Basin. Limestone breccias and calcarenites were transported by gravitational currents from the shelf edge to the slope and to the basin. In Lower Jurassic calcarenite with abundant reworked ooids and crinoids occur.

  4. Scientific Evidence Supporting Policy Change: A Study on Secondhand Smoke Exposure in Non-smoking Areas of PC Rooms in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Soon-Yeol; Lim, Min Kyung; Yun, E Hwa; Park, Eun Young; Jeong, Bo Yoon; Yang, Wonho; Lee, Do-Hoon

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to measure secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure in personal computer (PC) rooms with the purpose of determining the strength of scientific evidence supporting the legislative ban on smoking in PC rooms located in the Republic of Korea. From June to September 2012, particulate matter (PM2.5) and air nicotine concentration (ANC) were measured in the smoking and non-smoking areas of PC rooms in Goyang City, Korea. In 28 randomly sampled PC rooms, field investigators completed an observational questionnaire on building characteristics, smoking policies, and evidence of smoking. The geometric means (GM) of PM2.5 and ANC in smoking and non-smoking areas were compared. Evidence of smoking was identified in both the smoking and non-smoking areas of all PC rooms. The GMs of PM2.5 and ANC in both areas were high and did not differ significantly (174.77 μg/m(3) and 48.95 μg/m(3) in smoking areas; 93.38 μg/m(3) and 41.30 μg/m(3) in non-smoking areas). Overall PM2.5 concentrations were 5.5-fold higher than those listed in the World Health Organization guidelines. This study supported previous reports that a partial smoking ban did not protect individuals from SHS exposure. Furthermore, the results from our study suggest how research can support policy. Countries in which smoke-free policies are not yet comprehensive may find our results useful.

  5. MT1A (A>G, MT1A (C>G, MT1M (A>C and MT4 (G>A single nucleotide polymorphism allele frequencies in Iranian populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Babaei

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available It has been widely reported that metallothioneins (MTs play pivotal roles in the metabolism of the relatively nontoxic essential metals, as well as of toxic heavy metals. MT gene polymorphisms in an individual may increase or decrease the expression efficiency of the gene. The present study was aimed to investigate the frequency of genetic variation of four MTs in the Iranian population. Whole blood samples were collected from 300 Iranian healthy individuals. Polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP and automated Sanger sequencing were used for DNA genotype determination. The frequencies of major homozygous, heterozygous and minor homozygous genotypes in MT1 (A>G were, respectively, 76.0%, 24.0% and 0.0%; in MT1A (C>G, 88.0%, 12.0% and 0.0%; in MT1M (A>C, 86.0%, 14.0% and 0.0%; in MT4 (G>A, 80.0%, 18.7% and 1.3%. The present study showed for the first time that the polymorphism frequency distribution of these four MTs significantly differed between the studied Iranian population and other populations around the world, except for the MT4 polymorphism in the Iranian population and populations from the USA and New Zealand, which were similar. In conclusion, it could be suggested that regional and ethnic differences are the main reasons for this varied prevalence.

  6. A greater involvement of posterior brain areas in interhemispheric transfer in autism: fMRI, DWI and behavioral evidences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elise B. Barbeau

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A small corpus callosum (CC is one of the most replicated neurobiological findings in autism spectrum (AS. However, its effect on interhemispheric (IH communication is unknown. We combined structural (CC area and DWI, functional (task-related fMRI activation and connectivity analyses as well as behavioral (Poffenberger and Purdue tasks measures to investigate IH integration in adult AS individuals of typical intelligence. Despite similar behavioral IH transfer time and performances in bimanual tasks, the CC sub-regions connecting frontal and parietal cortical areas were smaller in AS than in non-AS individuals, while those connecting visual regions were similar. The activation of visual areas was lower in AS than in non-AS individuals during the presentation of visual stimuli. Behavioral IH performances were related to the properties of CC subregions connecting motor areas in non-AS individuals, but to the properties of posterior CC regions in AS individuals. Furthermore, there was greater functional connectivity between visual areas in the AS than in the non-AS group. Levels of connectivity were also stronger in visual than in motor regions in the autistic subjects, while the opposite was true for the non-autistic group. Thus, visual IH transfer plays an important role in visuo-motor tasks in AS individuals. These findings extend the well established enhanced role of perception in autistic cognition to visuo-motor IH information transfer.

  7. 3-D Inversion of the MT EarthScope Data, Collected Over the East Central United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gribenko, A. V.; Zhdanov, M. S.

    2017-12-01

    The magnetotelluric (MT) data collected as a part of the EarthScope project provided a unique opportunity to study the conductivity structure of the deep interior of the North American continent. Besides the scientific value of the recovered subsurface models, the data also allowed inversion practitioners to test the robustness of their algorithms applied to regional long-period data. In this paper, we present the results of MT inversion of a subset of the second footprint of the MT data collection covering the East Central United States. Our inversion algorithm implements simultaneous inversion of the full MT impedance data both for the 3-D conductivity distribution and for the distortion matrix. The distortion matrix provides the means to account for the effect of the near-surface geoelectrical inhomogeneities on the MT data. The long-period data do not have the resolution for the small near-surface conductivity anomalies, which makes an application of the distortion matrix especially appropriate. The determined conductivity model of the region agrees well with the known geologic and tectonic features of the East Central United States. The conductivity anomalies recovered by our inversion indicate a possible presence of the hot spot track in the area.

  8. Conversion of Stationary to Invasive Tumor Initiating Cells (TICs): Role of Hypoxia in Membrane Type 1-Matrix Metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) Trafficking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian; Zucker, Stanley; Pulkoski-Gross, Ashleigh; Kuscu, Cem; Karaayvaz, Mihriban; Ju, Jingfang; Yao, Herui; Song, Erwei; Cao, Jian

    2012-01-01

    Emerging evidence has implicated the role of tumor initiating cells (TICs) in the process of cancer metastasis. The mechanism underlying the conversion of TICs from stationary to invasive remains to be characterized. In this report, we employed less invasive breast cancer TICs, SK-3rd, that displays CD44high/CD24low with high mammosphere-forming and tumorigenic capacities, to investigate the mechanism by which stationary TICs are converted to invasive TICs. Invasive ability of SK-3rd TICs was markedly enhanced when the cells were cultured under hypoxic conditions. Given the role of membrane type 1-matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) in cancer invasion/metastasis, we explored a possible involvement of MT1-MMP in hypoxia-induced TIC invasion. Silencing of MT1-MMP by a shRNA approach resulted in diminution of hypoxia-induced cell invasion in vitro and metastasis in vivo. Under hypoxic conditions, MT1-MMP redistributed from cytoplasmic storage pools to the cell surface of TICs, which coincides with the increased cell invasion. In addition, CD44, a cancer stem-like cell marker, inversely correlated with increased cell surface MT1-MMP. Interestingly, cell surface MT1-MMP gradually disappeared when the hypoxia-treated cells were switched to normoxia, suggesting the plasticity of TICs in response to oxygen content. Furthermore, we dissected the pathways leading to upregulated MT1-MMP in cytoplasmic storage pools under normoxic conditions, by demonstrating a cascade involving Twist1-miR10b-HoxD10 leading to enhanced MT1-MMP expression in SK-3rd TICs. These observations suggest that MT1-MMP is a key molecule capable of executing conversion of stationary TICs to invasive TICs under hypoxic conditions and thereby controlling metastasis. PMID:22679501

  9. Exchange rate uncertainty and deviations from Purchasing\\ud Power Parity: evidence from the G7 area

    OpenAIRE

    Arghyrou, Michael; Gregoriou, Andros; Pourpourides, Panayiotis; Cardiff University

    2009-01-01

    Arghyrou, Gregoriou and Pourpourides (2009) argue that exchange rate uncertainty causes deviations from the law of one price. We test this hypothesis on aggregate data from the G7-area. We find that exchange rate uncertainty explains to a significant degree deviations from Purchasing Power Parity.

  10. Archaeological evidence of former occurrence and changes in fishes, amphibians, birds, mammals and molluscs in the Wadden Sea area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prummel, W; Heinrich, D

    Animal remains are well preserved in archaeological sites, especially the terp sites, of the Wadden Sea area of Denmark, Germany and The Netherlands. Here, we provide an overview on the wild mammals, birds, fishes, amphibians and molluscs found in coastal sites dating from 2700 to 2600 B. C. and 700

  11. Agricultural land purchases for alternative uses – evidence from two farming areas in the Western Cape province, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Reed, LL

    2009-09-30

    Full Text Available for redistribution purposes. This paper reports on the extent of purchases of agricultural land for diverse reasons within an intensive and extensive agricultural farming area in the Western Cape, gathered through a survey of land buyers between January 2005...

  12. New fish populations as evidence of climate chage in former dry areas of the Pampa Region ( Southern South America).

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez, Sergio Enrique; Trenti, Patricia S.; Menni, Roberto C.

    2004-01-01

    Water bodies located at 34º 58' S, 62º 58' W formed after 1980 by 30 % increasing rainfall during the last half century, were colonized by ten fish species which are a subset of the commonest species living in the pampasic lagunas. These new populations imply a displacement of the West of Pampasian fishes to areas of the western basins previously lacking fish.

  13. Relative importance of fuel management, ignition management and weather for area burned: Evidence from five landscape-fire-succession models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geoffrey J. Cary; Mike D. Flannigan; Robert E. Keane; Ross A. Bradstock; Ian D. Davies; James M. Lenihan; Chao Li; Kimberley A. Logan; Russell A. Parsons

    2009-01-01

    The behaviour of five landscape fire models (CAFE, FIRESCAPE, LAMOS(HS), LANDSUM and SEMLAND) was compared in a standardised modelling experiment. The importance of fuel management approach, fuel management effort, ignition management effort and weather in determining variation in area burned and number of edge pixels burned (a measure of potential impact on assets...

  14. Qualitative: Python Tool for MT Quality Estimation Supporting Server Mode and Hybrid MT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avramidis Eleftherios

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available We are presenting the development contributions of the last two years to our Python opensource Quality Estimation tool, a tool that can function in both experiment-mode and online web-service mode. The latest version provides a new MT interface, which communicates with SMT and rule-based translation engines and supports on-the-fly sentence selection. Additionally, we present an improved Machine Learning interface allowing more efficient communication with several state-of-the-art toolkits. Additions also include a more informative training process, a Python re-implementation of QuEst baseline features, a new LM toolkit integration, an additional PCFG parser and alignments of syntactic nodes.

  15. Role of MT1-MMP in the osteogenic differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manduca, Paola; Castagnino, Alessia; Lombardini, Domenico; Marchisio, Stefania; Soldano, Stefano; Ulivi, Valentina; Zanotti, Stefano; Garbi, Corrado; Ferrari, Nicoletta; Palmieri, Daniela

    2009-02-01

    Metalloproteinase MT1-MMP is induced and Pro-MMP-2 up modulated early in rat preosteoblasts (ROB) set to differentiate. We here show that the induction of MMPs, accompanied by activation of Pro-MMP-2, occurs by 6 h of adhesion on endogenous extracellular matrix (ECM), Fibronectin (FN) and Collagen type I (CI). These events do not occur after adhesion on Collagen III (CIII), Vitronectin (VN) or BSA. Within the first hour on inducing substrata or plastic, FAK is unchanged and ERK(1,2), is activated, but this activation is not sufficient for MT1-MMP induction. The function of p38 MAPK and PTKs is not required for the induction by substrata of MMPs. Six hours after plating preosteoblasts on MMP-inducing substrata, complexes of beta1 integrin with MT1-MMP are formed, that contain integrin dimers specifically engaged by the substratum, alpha4 and alpha5 chains for cells plated on FN, and alpha2 chain for cells plated on CI and ECM. Induction of MT1-MMP and its expression during osteogenesis pleiotropically regulate alkaline phosphatase (AP) expression. During differentiation, variant clones derived from preosteoblasts and MMPs-over-expressing osteoblasts show high MT1-MMP level associated with high AP level both persisting in time, while inhibition of MMPs is accompanied by inhibition of AP. Up or down modulation of AP, transcriptionally or by inhibition of the enzyme activity, has no effect on level or timing of expression of MT1-MMP and Pro-MMP-2. The persistence in expression of MT1-MMP during differentiation, and the associated persistence in expression of AP, as well as their inhibition, both impair the formation of nodules and mineral deposition. A transient pattern of expression of MT1-MMP is required for the establishment of nodules, and MT1-MMP decrease is permissive for nodule mineralization. The expression of AP is required for nodule formation and its level modulates the mineralization. MT1-MMP has multiple functions and is implicated in multiple steps of the

  16. FLOODPLAIN MAPPING FOR CARBON COUNTY MT, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Floodplain Mapping/Redelineation study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the...

  17. The Visual Word Form Area: evidence from an fMRI study of implicit processing of Chinese characters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chao; Zhang, Wu-Tian; Tang, Yi-Yuan; Mai, Xiao-Qin; Chen, Hsuan-Chih; Tardif, Twila; Luo, Yue-Jia

    2008-04-15

    A notable controversy in neurolinguistics is whether there is a particular brain area specialized for visual word recognition within the visual ventral stream. We investigated this question via implicit processing of Chinese characters. Implicit processing of four types of stimuli--real characters, pseudo characters, artificial characters, and checkerboard--in two different sizes, were compared in 14 normal participants using functional MRI (fMRI) with a size judgment task. The results showed that when the three character types were contrasted to one another, there was significantly greater activation in the left middle fusiform gyrus during real and pseudo character processing compared to artificial characters. Moreover, individual analysis revealed that the coordinates were consistent with the Visual Word Form Area (VWFA) reported for alphabetic scripts. Results also showed a consistent activation in the left middle frontal gyrus (BA 9) for real and pseudo characters. The relation between this region and the VWFA in Characters processing still needs further investigation.

  18. Is the Region of Visegrad Countries on the Track to the Euro Area? Recent Evidence from the Real Convergence Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Stavárek

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available After enlargement of the European Union and subsequently joining of a new member states to the euro area, the question of economic convergence attracted considerable research interest. This paper adopts three alternative concepts to examine the level and trend of convergence in the Visegrad countries (Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Slovakia. We concurrently estimate the β-convergence, σ-convergence and business cycle synchronization to find out whether all countries are on the way towards higher convergence with the euro area. The results suggest that convergence of all countries has been increasing. However, the recent acceleration of the convergence process is caused mainly by external shocks in the form of the financial crisis and following economic slowdowns. Hence, the current level of convergence in the Visegrad countries cannot be considered as fully adequate.

  19. Domain-general inhibition areas of the brain are involved in language switching: fMRI evidence from trilingual speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bruin, Angela; Roelofs, Ardi; Dijkstra, Ton; Fitzpatrick, Ian

    2014-04-15

    The prevailing theory of language switching states that unbalanced bilingual speakers use inhibition to switch between their languages (Inhibitory Control or IC model; Green, 1998). Using fMRI, we examined the brain mechanisms underlying language switching and investigated the role of domain-general inhibition areas such as the right inferior frontal gyrus (rIFG) and the pre-supplementary motor area (pre-SMA). Dutch-English-German trilinguals performed a picture naming task in the MRI scanner in both a blocked-language and a mixed-language context. The rIFG and pre-SMA showed more activation for switches to the second and third language (L2 and L3) compared to non-switch trials and blocked trials. No such difference was found for switches to the first language (L1). Our results indicate that language switching recruits brain areas related to domain-general inhibition. In this way, our study supports the claim that multilinguals use inhibition to switch between their languages. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. [First evidence for breeding Aedes aegypti L in the area of Greater Sochi and in some towns of Abkhasia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iunicheva, Iu V; Riabova, T E; Markovich, N Ia; Bezzhonova, O V; Ganushkina, L A; Semenov, V B; Tarkhov, G A; Vasilenko, L E; Guzeeva, T M; Shevereva, T V; Sergiev, V P

    2008-01-01

    A preliminary survey of some widely spaced settlements in Greater Sochi (and in the city of Sochi) in a period of late July to early October 2007 has revealed man-biting females and swarming males of Aedes aegypti females indoors and outdoors. Man-biting Ae. aegypti females, like males swarming nearby, were also present in the town of Gudauta under study in September (the males and females of this species were found on one-day youngsters in the animal houses) and in the suburbs of the town of Sukhumi (Republic of Abkhazia). Ae. aegypti breeding places and larvae were revealed at the back of houses in Gudauta. Detection of not only males, but also females and preimagoes of this species suggests that a local breeding Ae. aegypti population is available in this area. The findings show that a local breeding population of Ae. aegypti mosquitoes has reemerged in the inspected area of the Black Sea coast (Tuapse-Sukhumi) with a humid Mediterranean climate after 35-40-year absence. Prevention of outbreaks of menacing human arbovirus diseases in the importation of their pathogens to the health resort-tourist area of the Caucasian Black-Sea coast requires urgent organization of a continuous entomological service for environmental monitoring, organization, and implementation of measures to eradicate Ae. aegypti.

  1. Mt. Pinatubo, Phillipines - Comparison of November, 1996 and September, 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    The effects of the June 15, 1991, eruption of Mt. Pinatubo continue to affect the lives of people living near the volcano on the island of Luzon in the Philippines. The eruption produced a large amount of volcanic debris that was deposited on the flanks of the volcano as part of pyroclastic flows. This debris consists of unconsolidated ash and boulders, and following heavy rains, it mixes with the rain run-off to form volcanic mudflows called lahars. Lahars are moving rivers of concrete slurry that are highly erosive. They can sweep down existing river valleys, carving deep canyons where the slopes are steep, or depositing a mixture of fine ash and larger rocks on the gentler slopes. The deposits left from a lahar soon solidify into a material similar to concrete, but while they are moving, lahars are dynamic features, and in a single river valley, the active channel may change locations within a few minutes or hours. These changes represent a significant natural hazard to local communities.These images from the NASA's airborne imaging radar AIRSAR instrument show two snapshots in the evolution of the lahars in the lower Pasig-Potrero River, just north of the town of Bacalor, east of the summit of the volcano. These images were collected on November 29, 1996 and September 25, 2000. The radar is particularly good at picking out spatial variations in the average particle size of the lahar deposits, which show up as a variety of different colored units at lower right. The active river channel is dark in both images, and is particularly well-defined in the September 2000 image. In the November 1996 image, the area of the flooded channel is much wider, so that the radar images are quite effective at showing where the drier surface materials are located.Also visible as a series of linear features in both images is a series of concrete dikes that have been constructed to protect the adjacent agricultural land from the lahar deposits. Some of this land has recently been

  2. Evidence for perennial malaria in rural and urban areas under the Sudanian climate of Kandi, Northeastern Benin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govoetchan, Renaud; Gnanguenon, Virgile; Azondékon, Roseric; Agossa, Rodrigue Fiacre; Sovi, Arthur; Oké-Agbo, Frédéric; Ossè, Razaki; Akogbéto, Martin

    2014-02-24

    In arid settings, droughts usually lead to periods of very low or no malaria transmission. However, in rural Kandi (Sonsoro) in northeastern Benin, several malaria cases are often diagnosed during dry seasons. The underlying factors accounting for this phenomenon remain unknown. The entomological profile of Sonsoro has been studied compared to a location in urban Kandi (Gansosso) for a period of one year. During this period, Anopheles larval habitats were investigated and populations of Anopheles gambiae s.l. were sampled by human landing catches in both areas. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) for Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite protein (CSP) were conducted on vector specimens and the entomological inoculation rates (EIR) were determined per season (wet versus dry) in each area. In addition, during the severe drought period, Rapid Diagnostic Tests (RDTs) were conducted on school children under the age 10 years in these areas to provide a global view of drought-malaria prevalence and to perform a crossing with entomological data in Kandi. Overall, An. gambiae s.l. was particularly abundant in rural Kandi compared to the urban area with a significant decrease of vector density in both sites during the dry season. In this period, larval sampling data identified household water sources as potential breeding sites in urban and rural Kandi. We also observed a significant seasonal variation of the infectivity rate in both areas but for each period (season), the EIR was higher in the rural site than in the urban. Data of P. falciparum detection was the reflection of entomological findings. The drought-malaria prevalence was 5.5 times higher in rural Kandi as compared to urban Kandi. The presence of a permanent water site and the low level of urbanization in rural Kandi were identified as a risk factor. Our data showed a high level of malaria transmission in the municipality of Kandi. Household water source plays an important role in maintaining the

  3. MtDNA mutagenesis impairs elimination of mitochondria during erythroid maturation leading to enhanced erythrocyte destruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahlqvist, K.J.; Leoncini, S.; Pecorelli, A.; Wortmann, S.B.; Ahola, S.; Forsstrom, S.; Guerranti, R.; Felice, C. De; Smeitink, J.; Ciccoli, L.; Hamalainen, R.H.; Suomalainen, A.

    2015-01-01

    Haematopoietic progenitor cells show special sensitivity to mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutagenesis, which suggests that increased mtDNA mutagenesis could underlie anemias. Here we show that elevated mtDNA mutagenesis in mice with a proof-reading deficient mtDNA polymerase (PolG) leads to incomplete

  4. Economic Growth and Expansion of China’s Urban Land Area: Evidence from Administrative Data and Night Lights, 1993–2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Gibson

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between economic growth, expansion of urban land area and the broader issue of cultivated land conversion in China has been closely examined for the late 1980s and 1990s. Much less is known about recent urban expansion and if the effects of economic growth on this expansion have changed over time. This paper updates estimates of urban expansion for China and examines the relationship with city economic growth for 1993–2012. To see if patterns are robust to different types of evidence, administrative data on the area of 225 urban cores are compared to estimates of brightly lit areas from remotely sensed night lights. The trend annual expansion rate in lit area is 8% and was significantly faster in the decade to 2002 than in the most recent decade. Expansion is slower according to administrative data, at just 5% per annum, with no change in unconditional expansion rates between decades, while conditional expansion rates have declined. The elasticity of area with respect to city economic output is about 0.3. Over time, expansion of urban land area is becoming less responsive to the growth of the local non-agricultural population.

  5. A Web-based graphical user interface for evidence-based decision making for health care allocations in rural areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leight Margo

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The creation of successful health policy and location of resources increasingly relies on evidence-based decision-making. The development of intuitive, accessible tools to analyse, display and disseminate spatial data potentially provides the basis for sound policy and resource allocation decisions. As health services are rationalized, the development of tools such graphical user interfaces (GUIs is especially valuable at they assist decision makers in allocating resources such that the maximum number of people are served. GIS can used to develop GUIs that enable spatial decision making. Results We have created a Web-based GUI (wGUI to assist health policy makers and administrators in the Canadian province of British Columbia make well-informed decisions about the location and allocation of time-sensitive service capacities in rural regions of the province. This tool integrates datasets for existing hospitals and services, regional populations and road networks to allow users to ascertain the percentage of population in any given service catchment who are served by a specific health service, or baskets of linked services. The wGUI allows policy makers to map trauma and obstetric services against rural populations within pre-specified travel distances, illustrating service capacity by region. Conclusion The wGUI can be used by health policy makers and administrators with little or no formal GIS training to visualize multiple health resource allocation scenarios. The GUI is poised to become a critical decision-making tool especially as evidence is increasingly required for distribution of health services.

  6. Areas with evidence of equity and their progress on mortality from tuberculosis in an endemic municipality of southeast Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamura, Mellina; Santos Neto, Marcelino; Chiaravalloti Neto, Francisco; Arroyo, Luiz Henrique; Ramos, Antônio Carlos Vieira; de Queiroz, Ana Angélica Rêgo; Belchior, Aylana de Souza; Dos Santos, Danielle Talita; Crispim, Juliane de Almeida; Pinto, Ione Carvalho; Uchôa, Severina Alice da Costa; Fiorati, Regina Célia; Arcêncio, Ricardo Alexandre

    2017-10-12

    In Brazil, people still fall ill and die from tuberculosis (TB), and this can be explained by the significant impasse in the equity of distribution of therapeutic resources to the population as a whole. The aim was to identify geographical areas which have shown progress in terms of equity (of income, schooling and urban occupancy) and test its effect on mortality from TB in a municipality of southeast Brazil. It is an ecological study considering TB as the basic cause for deaths registered between 2006 and 2013 on the Mortality Information System and other variables obtained through the Demographic Census of the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (2010). The geographical area for analysis comprised the areas of coverage of the health services. Social indicators have been constructed through the Principal Component Analysis (PCA). The cases were geocoded and the annual mortality rate from TB was calculated with smoothing using the local empirical Bayesian method. Multiple linear regression was then performed. There was confirmation of the existence of spatial dependence of residue through the application of the Global Moran I test, and application of the Models with Global Spatial Effects, to identify the best standard of spatial regression. The mortality rates ranged from 0.00 to 2.8 deaths per 100,000 people, per year. In the PCA, three indicators were constructed, and designated as indicators of income, social inequality, and social equity. In multiple linear regression, the indicator of social equity was statistically significant (P Sustainable Development Goals. In addition, cartography was also applied, which can be replicated in other scenarios throughout the world, using a scope distinct from that of works traditionally produced in that it places the emphasis on social equity.

  7. Does the Visibility of Greenery Increase Perceived Safety in Urban Areas? Evidence from the Place Pulse 1.0 Dataset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojiang Li

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Urban green space provides a series of esthetic, environmental and psychological benefits to urban residents. However, the relationship between the visibility of green vegetation and perceived safety is still in debate. This research investigated whether green vegetation could help to increase the perceived safety based on a crowdsourced dataset: the Place Pulse 1.0 dataset. Place Pulse 1.0 dataset, which was generated from a large number of votes by online participants, includes geo-tagged Google Street View images and the corresponding perceived safety score for each image. In this study, we conducted statistical analyses to analyze the relationship between perceived safety and green vegetation characteristics, which were extracted from Google Street View images. Results show that the visibility of green vegetation plays an important role in increasing perceived safety in urban areas. For different land use types, the relationship between vegetation structures and perceived safety varies. In residential, urban public/institutional, commercial and open land areas, the visibility of vegetation higher than 2.5 m has significant positive correlations with perceived safety, but there exists no significant correlation between perceived safety and the percentage of green vegetation in transportation and industrial areas. The visibility of vegetation below 2.5 m has no significant relationship with the perceived safety in almost all land use types, except for multifamily residential land and urban public/institutional land. In general, this study provided insight for the relationship between green vegetation characteristics and the perception of environment, as well as valuable reference data for developing urban greening programs.

  8. Games between stakeholders and the payment for ecological services: evidence from the Wuxijiang River reservoir area in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Lin

    2018-01-01

    A gambling or "game" phenomenon can be observed in the complex relationship between sources and receptors of ecological compensation among multiple stakeholders. This paper investigates the problem of gambling to determine payment amounts, and details a method to estimate the ecological compensation amount related to water resources in the Wuxijiang River reservoir area in China. Public statistics and first-hand data obtained from a field investigation were used as data sources. Estimation of the source and receptor amount of ecological compensation relevant to the water resource being investigated was achieved using the contingent valuation method (CVM). The ecological compensation object and its benefit and gambling for the Wuxijiang River water source area are also analyzed in this paper. According to the results of a CVM survey, the ecological compensation standard for the Wuxijiang River was determined by the CVM, and the amount of compensation was estimated. Fifteen blocks downstream of the Wuxijiang River and 12 blocks in the water source area were used as samples to administer a survey that estimated the willingness to pay (WTP) and the willingness to accept (WTA) the ecological compensation of Wuxijiang River for both nonparametric and parametric estimation. Finally, the theoretical value of the ecological compensation amount was estimated. Without taking other factors into account, the WTP of residents in the Wuxi River water source was 297.48 yuan per year, while the WTAs were 3864.48 yuan per year. The theoretical standard of ecological compensation is 2294.39-2993.81 yuan per year. Under the parameter estimation of other factors, the WTP of residents in the Wuxi River water source area was 528.72 yuan per year, while the WTA was 1514.04 yuan per year. The theoretical standard of ecological compensation is 4076.25-5434.99 yuan per year. The main factors influencing the WTP ecological compensation in the Wuxi River basin are annual income and age. The

  9. Games between stakeholders and the payment for ecological services: evidence from the Wuxijiang River reservoir area in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Shu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A gambling or “game” phenomenon can be observed in the complex relationship between sources and receptors of ecological compensation among multiple stakeholders. This paper investigates the problem of gambling to determine payment amounts, and details a method to estimate the ecological compensation amount related to water resources in the Wuxijiang River reservoir area in China. Public statistics and first-hand data obtained from a field investigation were used as data sources. Estimation of the source and receptor amount of ecological compensation relevant to the water resource being investigated was achieved using the contingent valuation method (CVM. The ecological compensation object and its benefit and gambling for the Wuxijiang River water source area are also analyzed in this paper. According to the results of a CVM survey, the ecological compensation standard for the Wuxijiang River was determined by the CVM, and the amount of compensation was estimated. Fifteen blocks downstream of the Wuxijiang River and 12 blocks in the water source area were used as samples to administer a survey that estimated the willingness to pay (WTP and the willingness to accept (WTA the ecological compensation of Wuxijiang River for both nonparametric and parametric estimation. Finally, the theoretical value of the ecological compensation amount was estimated. Without taking other factors into account, the WTP of residents in the Wuxi River water source was 297.48 yuan per year, while the WTAs were 3864.48 yuan per year. The theoretical standard of ecological compensation is 2294.39–2993.81 yuan per year. Under the parameter estimation of other factors, the WTP of residents in the Wuxi River water source area was 528.72 yuan per year, while the WTA was 1514.04 yuan per year. The theoretical standard of ecological compensation is 4076.25–5434.99 yuan per year. The main factors influencing the WTP ecological compensation in the Wuxi River basin are

  10. Games between stakeholders and the payment for ecological services: evidence from the Wuxijiang River reservoir area in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    A gambling or “game” phenomenon can be observed in the complex relationship between sources and receptors of ecological compensation among multiple stakeholders. This paper investigates the problem of gambling to determine payment amounts, and details a method to estimate the ecological compensation amount related to water resources in the Wuxijiang River reservoir area in China. Public statistics and first-hand data obtained from a field investigation were used as data sources. Estimation of the source and receptor amount of ecological compensation relevant to the water resource being investigated was achieved using the contingent valuation method (CVM). The ecological compensation object and its benefit and gambling for the Wuxijiang River water source area are also analyzed in this paper. According to the results of a CVM survey, the ecological compensation standard for the Wuxijiang River was determined by the CVM, and the amount of compensation was estimated. Fifteen blocks downstream of the Wuxijiang River and 12 blocks in the water source area were used as samples to administer a survey that estimated the willingness to pay (WTP) and the willingness to accept (WTA) the ecological compensation of Wuxijiang River for both nonparametric and parametric estimation. Finally, the theoretical value of the ecological compensation amount was estimated. Without taking other factors into account, the WTP of residents in the Wuxi River water source was 297.48 yuan per year, while the WTAs were 3864.48 yuan per year. The theoretical standard of ecological compensation is 2294.39–2993.81 yuan per year. Under the parameter estimation of other factors, the WTP of residents in the Wuxi River water source area was 528.72 yuan per year, while the WTA was 1514.04 yuan per year. The theoretical standard of ecological compensation is 4076.25–5434.99 yuan per year. The main factors influencing the WTP ecological compensation in the Wuxi River basin are annual income and age

  11. Three reciprocally monophyletic mtDNA lineages elucidate the taxonomic status of Grant's gazelles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Eline Deidre; Arctander, Peter; Siegismund, Hans Redlef

    2008-01-01

    are discussed in reference to the four currently recognised subspecies. We suggest Grant's gazelles be raised to the superspecies Nanger (granti) comprising three taxonomic units corresponding to the three mtDNA lineages. There was no evidence of gene flow between the notata and granti lineages, despite...... their geographic proximity, suggesting reproductive isolation. These constitute evolutionary significant units within the adaptive evolutionary framework. Due to its restricted geographic distribution and genetic and morphological distinctiveness, we suggest the petersii lineage be raised to the species Nanger...

  12. Composition and hygroscopicity of aerosol particles at Mt. Lu in South China: Implications for acid precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weijun; Chi, Jianwei; Shi, Zongbo; Wang, Xinfeng; Chen, Bin; Wang, Yan; Li, Tao; Chen, Jianmin; Zhang, Daizhou; Wang, Zifa; Shi, Chune; Liu, Liangke; Wang, Wenxing

    2014-09-01

    Physicochemical properties of aerosol particles were studied at Mt. Lu, an elevated site (115°59‧E, 29°35‧N, 1165 m) within the acid precipitation area. Northeast winds transport copious amounts of air pollutants and water vapor from the Yangtze River Delta into this acid precipitation area. NH4+ and SO42- are the dominant ions in PM2.5 and determine aerosol acidity. Individual particle analysis shows abundant S-rich and metals (i.e. Fe-, Zn-, Mn-, and Pb-rich) particles. Unlike aerosol particles in North China and urban areas, there are little soot and mineral particles at Mt. Lu. Lack of mineral particles contributed to the higher acidity in precipitation in the research area. Nano-sized spherical metal particles were observed to be embedded in 37% of S-rich particles. These metal particles were likely originated from heavy industries and fired-power plants. Hygroscopic experiments show that most particles start to deliquesce at 73-76% but organic coating lowers the particle deliquescence relative humidity (DRH) to 63-73%. The DRHs of these aerosol particles are clearly smaller than that of pure ammonium sulfate particles which is 80%. Since RH in ambient air was relatively high, ranging from 65% to 85% during our study period, most particles at our sampling site were in liquid phase. Our results suggest that liquid phase reactions in aerosol particles may contribute to SO2 to sulfuric acid conversion in the acid precipitation area.

  13. Evidence for cortical encoding specificity in episodic memory: memory-induced re-activation of picture processing areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidya, Chandan J; Zhao, Margaret; Desmond, John E; Gabrieli, John D E

    2002-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to examine whether neural pathways used to encode pictures into memory were re-activated during retrieval of those memories. At encoding, subjects semantically classified common objects presented as pictures or words. At retrieval, subjects performed yes/no recognition memory judgments on words that had been encoded as pictures or as words. The retrieval test probed memory for the encoded item, but not memory for the modality of the encoded item (picture/word). Results revealed that a subset of the brain regions involved specifically in encoding of pictures were also engaged during recognition memory for the encoded pictures. Specifically, encoding of pictures relative to words engaged bilateral extrastriate visual cortex, namely fusiform, lingual, middle occipital, and inferior temporal gyri (Broadman area (BA) 18/19/37). Recognition memory judgments about words that were encoded as pictures relative to those that were encoded as words activated fusiform and inferior temporal gyri primarily in the left hemisphere. Thus, cortical areas originally involved in perception of a visual experience become part of the long-term memory trace for that experience. These findings suggest a neural basis for encoding specificity and transfer appropriate processing in human memory.

  14. The Effects of Greenbelt Policies on Land Development: Evidence from the Deregulation of the Greenbelt in the Seoul Metropolitan Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haoying Han

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Greenbelt policies are important urban containment policies. On the one hand, they can effectively control the disorderly growth of a city; on the other hand, they can cause other social problems because of their strict control over land development. This paper uses data from 2000 and 2010 and the difference-in-differences (DID method to evaluate the effects of greenbelt deregulation policies on urban land development in the Seoul metropolitan area (SMA through a quasi-natural experiment. The results show that first, the deregulation of the greenbelt has significantly furthered urban land development that was not caused by economic development or other factors. Second, the greenbelt deregulation had no significant effects on urban land development in the city centers, but has furthered urban land development near the boundary of Seoul City and greenbelt boundaries. Third, in terms of the effects on land development, the greenbelt deregulation has resulted in regional heterogeneity. Specifically, the greenbelt deregulation has had a significant impact on the urban land development in the southern section of the Han River, whereas the effects of the greenbelt deregulation in the northern area of the Han River are not as obvious.

  15. Cenozoic exhumation history of South China: A case study from the Xuefeng Mt. Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yannan; Zhang, Jin; Zhang, Beihang; Zhao, Heng

    2018-01-01

    New apatite fission track (AFT) dating was applied to the Xuefeng Mt. Range and Yuanma Basin to constrain the Cenozoic exhumation process of the southeastern Yangtze Block, South China. The analyzed samples in this study have AFT ages ranging from 27.9 ± 2.5 to 61.5 ± 5.9 Ma, which are younger than the deposition or crystallization ages of the host rocks. The AFT analysis and thermal history modeling indicate that both the Xuefeng Mt. Range and the Yuanma Basin underwent significant exhumation during the early Cenozoic (ca. 60-40 Ma). These samples were rapidly exhumed to near the surface during this period. Our results suggest that an important tectonic event occurred along or near regional fault zones (e.g., the Qinhang Fault) in South China during the early Cenozoic (ca. 60-40 Ma). However, it is difficult to relate this event to the Eastern Sichuan fold belt, which is much older and is characterized by large-scale folding and thrusting. Combined with fieldwork in the Yuanma, Xupu, and Xinning basins, we refute the Cretaceous "Pan-Yangtze Basin" that was proposed to have been separated by the uplifted Xuefeng Mt. Range after the Late Cretaceous. The exhumation stage from ca. 60 Ma to 40 Ma was an important period during which plate movements across the eastern Asian and Pacific regions were reorganized. The early Cenozoic tectonothermal event in South China can be attributed to a change in the direction and speed of the subduction of the Pacific Plate beneath the Eurasian Plate. An Oligocene-Miocene cooling event was also recorded in the eastern Xuefeng Mt. Range, which we tentatively attribute to the activity of dextral faults in this area as a far-field effect of the collision between the Indian and Eurasian plates.

  16. Sedimentological and geochronological evidences of anthropogenic impacts on river basins in the Northern Latium coastal area (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piazzolla, Daniele; Paladini de Mendoza, Francesco; Scanu, Sergio; Marcelli, Marco

    2015-04-01

    In this work we aimed to compare sedimentological and geochronological data from three sediment core samples (MIG50, MRT50, and GRT50) taken in the Northern Latium (Italy) coastal area, at -50 m depth, to data regarding rainfall, river flows and the land use in the three most important hydrographic basins (Mignone, Marta and Fiora) and in the coastal area. Different trends of sediment mass accumulation rate (MAR) are detected in the three cores: a strongly increasing trend was identified in MIG50 and MRT50 cores while GRT50 doesn't show significant variation. Data from the sedimentological analysis of GRT50 core identify a progressive decrease in the sandy component, which declined from about 30% to the current level of 7% over the last 36 years, while MRT50 and MIG50 cores (mainly composed by pelitic fraction > 95%) showed slight variations of textural ratio between silt and clay. According to the general decrease of pluviometric trend observed in Italy, related to teleconnection pattern tendency (NAO), the statistical analysis of rain identified significative decrease only in the Fiora river basin, whereas in the other two locations the decrease was not as significant. Regarding the Fiora river flow, a significative decreasing trend of average flow is detected, while the flood regime remained unaffected over the past 30 years. The analysis of the land use shows that the human activities are increased of 6-10% over the available time steps (1990 - 2006) in Fiora and Mignone river basins, while the Marta river basin has a strong human impact since 1990 highligting more than 80% of artificial soil covering. The largest variation is observed on the Fiora basin (10%) where the antrhopic activities have expanded to an area of about 85 Km2. Moreover, in the last ten years a large beach nourishment in 2004 (570000 m3) and dredging activities in the early second half of 2000s (1000000 m3 moved) were performed in Marina di Tarquinia beach and in front of the Torrevaldaliga

  17. Melatonin receptors MT1 and MT2 are expressed in spermatozoa from several seasonal and nonseasonal breeder species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Arto, Marta; Vicente-Carrillo, Alejandro; Martínez-Pastor, Felipe; Fernández-Alegre, Estela; Roca, Jordi; Miró, Jordi; Rigau, Teresa; Rodríguez-Gil, Joan E; Pérez-Pé, Rosaura; Muiño-Blanco, Teresa; Cebrián-Pérez, José A; Casao, Adriana

    2016-11-01

    Melatonin is a ubiquitous and multipurpose molecule, and one of its roles is to regulate reproduction in some seasonal mammals. Our group has previously reported the variation in the melatonin levels in ram seminal plasma along the year and identified MT1 and MT2 receptors in ram spermatozoa. The objective of this study was to elucidate whether the presence of melatonin receptors (MT1 and MT2) in the sperm plasma membrane, and melatonin in the seminal plasma is related to seasonal breeding. For this purpose, the presence of melatonin receptors and the levels of melatonin in seminal plasma have been examined in several species: donkey and stallion as long-day breeders; red deer as a wild, short-day, highly seasonal breeder (epididymal spermatozoa); bull as a conventional nonseasonal breeder; boar as a seasonal breeder under management techniques; and dog as possible a seasonal breeder not regulated by melatonin. We have detected measurable levels of melatonin in the seminal plasma of all ejaculated semen samples (from donkey, stallion, boar, bull, and dog). Also, and for the first time, we have demonstrated the presence of MT1 and MT2 melatonin receptors in the spermatozoa of all these species, regardless their type of reproduction or sperm source (ejaculated or epididymal), using indirect immunofluorescence techniques and Western blotting. Our findings suggest that melatonin and melatonin receptors may be universally distributed in the reproductive system of mammals and that the sperm melatonin receptors cells may not be necessarily related with seasonal reproduction. Furthermore, the presence of MT1 at the cytoplasmic droplet in immature ejaculated stallion spermatozoa found in one sample and epididymal red deer spermatozoa suggests that melatonin may be involved in specific functions during spermatogenesis and sperm maturation, like protecting spermatozoa from oxidative damage, this activity being mediated through these receptors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc

  18. The 2016 Seismic sequence in central Italy: a multi-method approach to constrain the geometry of the Mt. Vettore - Mt. Bove fault system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luiso, Paola; Paoletti, Valeria; Gaudiosi, Germana; Nappi, Rosa; Cella, Federico; Fedi, Maurizio

    2017-04-01

    Since August 24, 2016 a destructive seismic sequence has been occurring in Central Italy, between the Amatrice and Norcia towns. The seismic sequence started with the event of Mw 6.0 that was followed one hour later by the Mw 5.4 earthquake and by thousands of aftershocks along the NW-SE fault system extended for about 30 km. On October 26 the Mw=5.9 seismic event struck the area, followed by the strong Mw 6.5 earthquake on the October 30, at a depth of 9 km with epicenter located between the Norcia and Visso towns. The three months of seismicity activated the nearby 60 km long normal fault system of Mt. Vettore - Mt. Porche - Mt. Bove. The area was struck by several moderate to large earthquakes in historical times. In detail, in the Amatrice sector we mention the earthquakes of 1627 (Io=7-8 MCS, Mw 5.3), 1639 (Io=9-10 MCS, Mw=6.2), 1672 (Io=7-8 MCS, Mw=5.3) A.D. The main historical earthquakes of Valnerina, the area closest to the epicentre of the October 30 2016 earthquake, occurred in 1328 (Io=10 MCS, Mw=6.5), 1719 (Io= 8 MCS, Mw=5.6), 1730 (Io =9 MCS, Mw=6) 1859 (Io=8-9 MCS, Mw= 5.7) A.D. It is important also to remember the complex sequence of the 1703 A.D. (January 14, Valnerina, Io=11, Mw= 6.9; February 2, Aquilano, Io 10, Mw= 6.7) that had a considerably devastating impact on the area. Nevertheless, the historical seismicity correlated with the more external fault system of the Umbria-Marche-Abruzzi Apennine ridge is characterized by absence of strong energy seismicity along the Mt. Bove - Mt. Vettore- Vettoretto sector, suggesting that the fault system was "silent" until the 2016 seismic sequence. Our study consists in a multiparametric data analysis in GIS (Geographic Information System) environment which integrates tectonic, seismic and gravimetric datasets with the aim of investigating the neotectonic activity of the area. The gravimetric dataset contains the Multiscale Derivative Analysis (MDA) data of the gravity field, in which each maximum

  19. How are interbank and sovereign debt markets linked? Evidence from 14 OECD countries, the Euro area and Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stolbov Mikhail

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper explores causal linkages between interbank and sovereign bond markets in 14 OECD countries, the Euro area and Russia during the 2008-2009 crisis and post-crisis period. The analysis has been carried out for individual countries and in a multivariate framework. It enables to identify systemically important countries in both markets. The USA, Switzerland, Australia, South Korea and Russia are of particular significance in the interbank lending market. Switzerland, the UK, Poland, Australia and Canada play a pivotal role in the public debt market. The analysis under the multivariate framework reveals substantial heterogeneity in the network structure of both markets. Only 12% of causal relationships coincide, which may fuel financial contagion. Volatility spillovers underlie the causal linkages. They are estimated by means of dynamic volatility indices based on rolling correlation matrices and help identify the transformation of the international banking turmoil into the sovereign debt crisis.

  20. Biothermal conditions on Mt. Zlatibor based on thermophysiological indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pecelj Milica

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents part of the research in the field of human bioclimatology and refers to biothermal conditions in different geographical environments in Serbia: an urban area and a mountain of medium height. The goal of the paper was to show bioclimatic differences during the summer between the city of Belgrade (116 m a.s.l. and the mountain resort of Zlatibor (1498 m a.s.l.. The basic principle of bioclimatic analysis is the human heat balance between man and environment. This methodological approach is a combination of physiological and meteorological parameters that result in thermophysiological bioclimatic indices: heat load (HL in man and the Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI. For this analysis, weather data for July, as the warmest month, was obtained, using daily meteorological data for the decade from 2000 to 2010. Results for July indicate a considerable difference between the two abovementioned environments. HL in Belgrade was dominated by degrees of comfort “hot” and “extremely hot, with the highest value of 4.540, while for Zlatibor the dominant degree of comfort was “warm”. The UTCI in Belgrade has dominated by strong heat stress and moderate heat stress, compared to Zlatibor where the UTCI is dominated by moderate heat stress. In addition, a significant part of the monitored decade on Mt. Zlatibor was without heat stress, with the exception of 2006 and 2007, indicating favorable biothermal characteristics. Therefore, compared to Belgrade, with its considerably lower overall heat stress Zlatibor has the characteristics of a site with favorable bioclimatic qualities.

  1. World coal trade to reach 662 mt by the year 2010. El comercio mundia de carbon alcanzara los 662 M/T en el ano 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-10-01

    World coal trade will increase from 375 mt in 1988 to 505 mt in the year 2000 and will reach 662 mt by 2010, according to the annual report recently issued by the US Department of Energy in Washington. 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  2. Nuclear collapse observed during the eruption of Mt. Usu

    CERN Document Server

    Matsumoto, T A

    2002-01-01

    Mt. Usu which was located about 70 km southwest from Sapporo in Hokkaido (the north island of Japan) began to erupt on March 31 in 2000. A nuclear emulsion was placed on a foot of Mt. Usu to catch small atomic clusters which were expected to be emitted during the eruption. Curious atomic clusters and their reaction products were successfully observed on surfaces of the nuclear emulsion. By comparing them with similar products which were obtained in previous experiments of discharge and electrolysis, it was concluded that micro Ball Lightning was really emitted during the eruption of Mt. Usu and that explosive reactions by nuclear collapse could have been involved to contribute to energy of the eruption. (author)

  3. Nuclear collapse observed during the eruption of Mt. Usu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, Taka-aki [Hokkaido Univ., Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Sapporo, Hokkaido (Japan)

    2002-09-01

    Mt. Usu which was located about 70 km southwest from Sapporo in Hokkaido (the north island of Japan) began to erupt on March 31 in 2000. A nuclear emulsion was placed on a foot of Mt. Usu to catch small atomic clusters which were expected to be emitted during the eruption. Curious atomic clusters and their reaction products were successfully observed on surfaces of the nuclear emulsion. By comparing them with similar products which were obtained in previous experiments of discharge and electrolysis, it was concluded that micro Ball Lightning was really emitted during the eruption of Mt. Usu and that explosive reactions by nuclear collapse could have been involved to contribute to energy of the eruption. (author)

  4. MtDNA ancestry of Rio de Janeiro population, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardo, Suellen; Hermida, Rose; Desidério, Márcia; Silva, Dayse A; de Carvalho, Elizeu F

    2014-01-01

    Polymorphism studies concerning HVI and HVII regions of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) have improved the understanding of the admixture genetic process related to the occupation of the continents by human population groups. We have analyzed the mtDNA lineages of 190 healthy and maternally unrelated individuals born in the metropolitan region of the Rio de Janeiro city, the capital of the State of Rio de Janeiro, southeastern Brazil. The data showing that 57.9, 25.3 and 16.8 % of the matrilineages found in Rio de Janeiro come from African, Amerindian and European population groups. They are, respectively, in close agreement with historical records which indicate that the admixture population of Brazil is the resulting of interethnic asymmetry crosses between individuals from those population groups. The high proportion of African mtDNA lineages in the population of Rio de Janeiro is in accordance with studies related to other Brazilian states.

  5. Using groundwater age distributions to understand changes in methyl tert-butyl ether (MtBE) concentrations in ambient groundwater, northeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, Bruce; Ayotte, Joseph; Jurgens, Bryant; DeSimone, Leslie

    2017-01-01

    Temporal changes in methyl tert-butyl ether (MtBE) concentrations in groundwater were evaluated in the northeastern United States, an area of the nation with widespread low-level detections of MtBE based on a national survey of wells selected to represent ambient conditions. MtBE use in the U.S. peaked in 1999 and was largely discontinued by 2007. Six well networks, each representing specific areas and well types (monitoring or supply wells), were each sampled at 10 year intervals between 1996 and 2012. Concentrations were decreasing or unchanged in most wells as of 2012, with the exception of a small number of wells where concentrations continue to increase. Statistically significant increasing concentrations were found in one network sampled for the second time shortly after the peak of MtBE use, and decreasing concentrations were found in two networks sampled for the second time about 10 years after the peak of MtBE use. Simulated concentrations from convolutions of estimates for concentrations of MtBE in recharge water with age distributions from environmental tracer data correctly predicted the direction of MtBE concentration changes in about 65 percent of individual wells. The best matches between simulated and observed concentrations were found when simulating recharge concentrations that followed the pattern of national MtBE use. Some observations were matched better when recharge was modeled as a plume moving past the well from a spill at one point in time. Modeling and sample results showed that wells with young median ages and narrow age distributions responded more quickly to changes in the contaminant source than wells with older median ages and broad age distributions. Well depth and aquifer type affect these responses. Regardless of the timing of decontamination, all of these aquifers show high susceptibility for contamination by a highly soluble, persistent constituent.

  6. CREDIT RATIONING OF FARM HOUSEHOLDS AND AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION: EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE IN THE RURAL AREAS OF CENTRAL SULAWESI, INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nunung Nuryartono

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false st1\\:*{behavior:url(#ieooui } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} The agricultural sector provides the highest contribution to economic development in the Central Sulawesi Province, Indonesia. On average, the share of agriculture in the Product Domestic Regional Bruto (GRDP is more than 40% (2003. However, poverty is a widespread problem found in this area, as indicated by almost 46% of the total household are categorized as poor and most of them are farmers. Smallholders and poor farmers may perpetually be trapped in poverty due to lack of finance needed to undertake productive investment. This is indicated by lower rate of advance agricultural technology adoption, which results the productivity of some agricultural products in this area is lower compared to the national average.This paper addresses the question of whether greater access of financial services increase agricultural production. Specific research question addressed are as follow: (1 How many household have access to formal credit markets? (2 How many households are credit constrained? (3 What factors influence that households are credit constrained? (4 How does credit rationing influences agricultural production?As many studies have shown, many rural households lack access to either formal or informal credit institutions. In the rural areas of Central Sulawesi Province, particularly in the vicinity of the Lore Lindu National Park only 21.5% of the household have access to formal credits. The results also show that under certain conditions, only 18.1% of the households are not

  7. Household, Personal and Environmental Correlates of Rural Elderly’s Cycling Activity: Evidence from Zhongshan Metropolitan Area, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Zhang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Cycling is an important form of active transport and physical activity to provide substantial health benefits to the elderly. Among voluminous physical activity-related literature, few studies have investigated the correlates of active transport of the rural elderly in China. This study was the first attempt to investigate the impact of the household, personal, and environmental attributes on rural elderly’s cycling activity with data collected in 102 rural neighborhoods of Zhongshan Metropolitan Area, China. The negative binomial regression models suggest that, all else being equal, living in a neighborhood with low proportion of elderly population (over 60, abundant bike lanes, and a compact urban form related to high density and mixed development, are associated with the increase of frequency and duration of the rural elderly’s cycling trips. The models also detect that attitude towards cycling and household bicycle and motorized vehicle ownership are strongly related to cycling trips of the rural elderly in Zhongshan. The findings provide insights for transportation and public health agencies, practitioners, and researchers into the effective design of interventions from the prospective of attitudes, social and built environment on health promotion of the rural elderly in China.

  8. Changes in Prices After an Excise Tax to Sweetened Sugar Beverages Was Implemented in Mexico: Evidence from Urban Areas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Arantxa Colchero

    Full Text Available In 2014 an excise tax to non-alcoholic sweetened beverages (SSB was implemented in Mexico. The objective of this paper is to study whether and to what degree these taxes passed-through onto SSB prices in urban areas overall and by region, type of beverage and package size. Prices were obtained from the National Institute of Statistics and Geography from 2011 to 2014. We applied a pre-post quasi-experimental approach using fixed effects models. In sensitivity analysis we applied other model specifications to test the robustness of the findings and we also present weighted estimations based on household purchases. The dependent variables are real prices of a specific beverage category; the main independent variables are dummies for each month of 2014, and the models adjust for time trends and seasonality. Results suggest that the SSB tax passed along to consumers for all SSBs and we found overshifting for the carbonated SSBs. A greater effect is seen among the small package sizes, and we see heterogeneous effects by region. Estimating the effect of the tax on prices is important to understand the potential effect on consumption.

  9. Correlations between Socioeconomic Drivers and Indicators of Urban Expansion: Evidence from the Heavily Urbanised Shanghai Metropolitan Area, China

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    Jinghui Li

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Rapid urban expansion resulting in increased impervious surfaces causes a series of urban environmental problems, e.g., the urban heat island and urban forest fragmentation. Urban expansion is a serious threat to human quality of life and living environments. It has been studied from a variety of aspects, but its driving factors and time series expansion characteristics (i.e., expansion intensity, pattern and direction need to be better explained in order to devise more effective management strategies. This study examined how social and economic factors are linked in driving urban expansion. Based on multi-temporal aerial images, a rapid urban expansion period, 2000–2010, in Shanghai was analysed. The urban area expanded from 1770.36 to 2855.44 km2 in the period, with a mean annual expansion rate of 108.51 km2. Urban expansion in 2000–2005 (40.42% was much faster than in 2005–2010 (14.86%, and its direction was southeast, southwest and south. The main pattern was edge expansion in both sub-periods. Social factors, especially population density, significantly affected urban expansion. These findings can help understand the urban expansion process and its driving factors, which has important implications for urban planning and management in Shanghai and similar cities.

  10. Contiguity principle for geographic units: evidence on the quantity, degree, and location of Public Use Microdata Area (PUMA fragmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Siordia

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Social scientists investigating how context varies by geographical location and/or how macro-level phenomenon affects individual outcomes often make use of U.S. Census Bureau Public Use Microdata Sample (PUMS files where micro-units can only be geographically located to Public Use Microdata Area (PUMA polygons. Most spatial analysis investigations with PUMAs ignore the fact that many of them are multipart polygons—spatially separated polygons that share the same attribute and are stored as a single feature in a vector file. We briefly discuss the theoretical premises of how geographical boundaries are created for macro units and investigate the quantity, degree, and location of PUMA fragmentation. We argue that the basic contiguity principle (the assumption that spatial analysis uses polygon centroids for solid and contiguous geographic units in spatial dependence analysis is being violated with many PUMAs in the U.S. mainland—where Texas, California, Tennessee, and Illinois merit special attention. Future research should outline a method for handling multipart polygons in spatial and hierarchical analyses.

  11. Brain size and white matter content of cerebrospinal tracts determine the upper cervical cord area: evidence from structural brain MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engl, Christina; Arsic, Milan; Boucard, Christine C.; Biberacher, Viola; Nunnemann, Sabine; Muehlau, Mark [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Department of Neurology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Munich (Germany); Technische Universitaet Muenchen, TUM-Neuroimaging Center, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Munich (Germany); Schmidt, Paul [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Department of Neurology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Munich (Germany); Ludwig-Maximilians-University Muenchen, Department of Statistics, Munich (Germany); Roettinger, Michael [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Department of Radiology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Munich (Germany); Muenchner Institut fuer Neuroradiologie, Munich (Germany); Etgen, Thorleif [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Department of Neurology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Munich (Germany); Klinikum Traunstein, Department of Neurology, Traunstein (Germany); Koutsouleris, Nikolaos; Meisenzahl, Eva M. [Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Munich (Germany); Reiser, Maximilian [Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet, Department of Radiology, Munich (Germany)

    2013-08-15

    Measurement of the upper cervical cord area (UCCA) from brain MRI may be an effective way to quantify spinal cord involvement in neurological disorders such as multiple sclerosis. However, knowledge on the determinants of UCCA in healthy controls (HCs) is limited. In two cohorts of 133 and 285 HCs, we studied the influence of different demographic, body-related, and brain-related parameters on UCCA by simple and partial correlation analyses as well as by voxel-based morphometry (VBM) across both cerebral gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM). First, we confirmed the known but moderate effect of age on UCCA in the older cohort. Second, we studied the correlation of UCCA with sex, body height, and total intracranial volume (TIV). TIV was the only variable that correlated significantly with UCCA after correction for the other variables. Third, we studied the correlation of UCCA with brain-related parameters. Brain volume correlated stronger with UCCA than TIV. Both volumes of the brain tissue compartments GM and WM correlated with UCCA significantly. WM volume explained variance of UCCA after correction for GM volume, whilst the opposite was not observed. Correspondingly, VBM did not yield any brain region, whose GM content correlated significantly with UCCA, whilst cerebral WM content of cerebrospinal tracts strongly correlated with UCCA. This latter effect increased along a craniocaudal gradient. UCCA is mainly determined by brain volume as well as by WM content of cerebrospinal tracts. (orig.)

  12. A furin inhibitor downregulates osteosarcoma cell migration by downregulating the expression levels of MT1-MMP via the Wnt signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bingshan; Li, Guojun; Wang, Xiao; Liu, Yang

    2014-04-01

    This study aimed to explore the exact mechanism of the effect of a furin inhibitor on the migration and invasion of MG-63 and Saos-2 osteosarcoma cells. MG-63 and Saos-2 osteosarcoma cells were treated with regular culture medium in the presence or absence of 480 nM α1-antitrypsin Portland (α1-PDX). Wound-healing and Transwell assays were used for the detection of the effects of α1-PDX on MG-63 and Saos-2 osteosarcoma cell migration and invasion. Western blot analysis and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction were performed to detect the expression levels of membrane type I matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP), Wnt and β-catenin. A chromatin immunoprecipitation assay was used for detection of the levels of MT1-MMP gene transcription activity. The results showed that α1-PDX treatment significantly reduced the migration and invasion ability of the cells. Notably, the expression levels of MT1-MMP decreased evidently upon α1-PDX treatment, paralleled with reductions in the expression levels of Wnt and β-catenin. Further analysis of the transcriptional activity of MT1-MMP revealed that the α1-PDX-induced downregulation of the levels of MT1-MMP was mediated by the Wnt signaling pathway. These data suggest that α1-PDX plays a vital role in inhibiting MG-63 and Saos-2 osteosarcoma cell migration and invasion by downregulating the expression levels of MT1-MMP via the Wnt signaling pathway.

  13. Rat striatal muscarinic receptors coupled to the inhibition of adenylyl cyclase activity: potent block by the selective m4 ligand muscarinic toxin 3 (MT3).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olianas, M C; Adem, A; Karlsson, E; Onali, P

    1996-05-01

    1. In rat striatal membranes, muscarinic toxin 3 (MT3), a selective ligand of the cloned m4 receptor subtype, antagonized the acetylcholine (ACh) inhibition of forskolin- and dopamine D1 receptor-stimulated adenylyl cyclase activities with pA2 values of 8.09 and 8.15, respectively. 2. In radioligand binding experiments, MT3 increased the Kd but did not change the Bmax value of [3H]-N-methylscopolamine (3H]-NMS) binding to rat striatal muscarinic receptors. The toxin displaced the major portion of the [3H]-NMS binding sites with a Ki of 8.0 nM. 3. In rat myocardium, MT3 antagonized the ACh inhibition of adenylyl cyclase with a Ki value of 860 nM. 4. In rat cerebral cortical membranes prelabelled with [3H]-myo-inositol, MT3 counteracted the methacholine stimulation of [3H]-inositol phosphates formation with a Ki value of 113 nM. 5. The present study shows that MT3 is a potent antagonist of the striatal muscarinic receptors coupled to inhibition of adenylyl cyclase activity. This finding provides strong evidence for the classification of these receptors as pharmacologically equivalent to the m4 gene product (M4). On the other hand, the weaker potencies of MT3 in antagonizing the muscarinic responses in cerebral cortex and in the heart are consistent with the reported lower affinities of the toxin for the cloned m1 and m2 receptor subtypes, respectively.

  14. Impacts of Climatic Hazards on the Small Wetland Ecosystems (ponds: Evidence from Some Selected Areas of Coastal Bangladesh

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    Lucy Faulkner

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Most climate related hazards in Bangladesh are linked to water. The climate vulnerable poor—the poorest and most marginalized communities living in remote villages along Bangladesh’s coastal zone that are vulnerable to climate change impacts and who possess low adaptive capacity are most affected by lack of access to safe water sources. Many climate vulnerable poor households depend on small isolated wetlands (ponds for daily drinking water needs and other domestic requirements, including cooking, bathing and washing. Similarly, the livelihoods of many of these households also depend on access to ponds due to activities of small-scale irrigation for rice farming, vegetable farming and home gardening. This is particularly true for those poorest and most marginalized communities living in Satkhira, one of the most vulnerable coastal districts in south-west Bangladesh. These households rely on pond water for vegetable farming and home gardening, especially during winter months. However, these pond water sources are highly vulnerable to climate change induced hazards, including flooding, drought, salinity intrusion, cyclone and storm surges, erratic rainfall patterns and variations in temperature. Cyclone Sidr and Cyclone Aila, which hit Bangladesh in 2007 and 2009 respectively, led to a significant number of such ponds being inundated with saline water. This impacted upon and resulted in wide scale implications for climate vulnerable poor households, including reduced availability of safe drinking water, and safe water for health and hygiene practices and livelihood activities. Those households living in remote areas and who are most affected by these climate impacts are dependent on water being supplied through aid, as well as travelling long distances to collect safe water for drinking purposes.

  15. Association between HIV infection and socio-economic status: evidence from a semirural area of southern Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pons-Duran, Clara; González, Raquel; Quintó, Llorenç; Munguambe, Khatia; Tallada, Joan; Naniche, Denise; Sacoor, Charfudin; Sicuri, Elisa

    2016-12-01

    To analyse the association between socio-economic status (SES) and HIV in Manhiça, a district of Southern Mozambique with one of the highest HIV prevalences in the world. Data were gathered from two cross-sectional surveys performed in 2010 and 2012 among 1511 adults and from the household census of the district's population. Fractional polynomial logit models were used to analyse the association between HIV and SES, controlling for age and sex and taking into account the nonlinearity of covariates. The inequality of the distribution of HIV infection with regard to SES was computed through a concentration index. Fourth and fifth wealth quintiles, the least poor, were associated with a reduced probability of HIV infection compared to the first quintile (OR = 0.595, P-value = 0.009 and OR = 0.474, P-value < 0.001, respectively). Probability of HIV infection peaked at 36 years and then fell, and was always higher for women regardless of age and SES. HIV infection was unequally distributed across the SES strata. Despite the high HIV prevalence across the entire population of Manhiça, the poorest are at greatest risk of being HIV infected. While women have a higher probability of being HIV positive than men, both sexes showed the same infection reduction at higher levels of SES. HIV interventions in the area should particularly focus on the poorest and on women without neglecting anyone else, as the HIV risk is high for everyone. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. EVIDENCE FOR LADINIAN (MIDDLE TRIASSIC PLATFORM PROGRADATION IN THE GYULAKESZI AREA, TAPOLCA BASIN, WESTERN HUNGARY: MICROFACIES ANALYSIS AND BIOSTRATIGRAPHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZSOLT RÓBERT NAGY

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A shallowing-upward carbonate sequence was studied from the outcrop at Gyulakeszi, Tapolca Basin (western Hungary, and it is interpreted as a Middle Triassic (Curionii or younger platform progradation. Two lithostratigraphic units are distinguished. Microfacies analysis and micropaleontological investigation conducted on the red nodular, cherty limestone (Vászoly and Buchenstein formations suggest that the lower unit was deposited during the Reitzi and the Secedensis ammonoid zones. The overlying white platform limestone (upper unit is typical of a prograding platform and includes gravity-driven deposits at the base followed by periplatform facies deposited in shallow marine warm waters around the fair-weather wave base. The section at Gyulakeszi was unaffected by fabric-destructive dolomitization, which is uncharacteristic of similar platform facies in the Balaton Highland. Isopachous and radiaxial fibrous calcite cement found in the grainstone and boundstone facies are indicative of early lithification and diagenesis in the marine phreatic zone. “Evinospongiae”-type cement is described for the first time from the Balaton Highland and it is similar to the outer platform cements published previously from the Alps (Italy and Austria. The progradation could have advanced over the pelagic limestones as early as the Curionii zone, which is an undocumented event in the Veszprém Plateau. Similar event, however, is well known from the Western Dolomites, where aggradation was followed by intense progradation during the Gredleri and Archelaus ammonoid zones. The length of this progradation event at Gyulakeszi, however, is ambiguous since proven Ladinian (Longobardian rocks are not exposed in the study area and were not penetrated by boreholes in the Tapolca Basin.

  17. Evidence of a role for the lateral hypothalamic area juxtadorsomedial region (LHAjd in defensive behaviors associated with social defeat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel J Rangel

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Our understanding of the extrinsic connections of the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA has deepened in recent years. In particular, a series of studies using neural pathway-tracing methods to investigate the macroconnections of histologically differentiated LHA regions, have revealed that the neural connections of these regions are substantially distinct, and have robust connections with neural circuits controlling survival behaviors. To begin testing functional associations suggested by the distinct LHA region neural connections, the present study has investigated the role of the LHA juxtadorsomedial region (LHAjd in the control of social defeat (a socially-relevant defensive behavior. Male rats received bilateral cytotoxic lesions targeted to the LHAjd. A resident-intruder paradigm was then employed to investigate the effect of these lesions on defensive behavioral responses. Behavioral data were collected during three phases of testing: 1 pre-encounter habituation to testing context, 2 encounter with a dominant conspecific in the testing context, and 3 post-encounter context. Statistical analysis of behavioral measures revealed a significant decrease in risk assessment behaviors during post-encounter context testing in lesioned intruders compared to sham-lesioned and intact rats. However, changes in defensive behavioral measures during the habituation, or during resident-intruder encounters, did not reach significance. We discuss these data in relation to LHAjd (and neighboring LHA region neural connections, and in relation to current advances in understanding of the neural control of defensive behaviors. A refined model for the neural circuits that are central to the control of socially-relevant defensive behaviors is outlined. We also consider possible broader implications of these data for disorders of behavioral control.

  18. Evidence of a Role for the Lateral Hypothalamic Area Juxtadorsomedial Region (LHAjd) in Defensive Behaviors Associated with Social Defeat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangel, Miguel J; Baldo, Marcus V C; Canteras, Newton S; Hahn, Joel D

    2016-01-01

    Our understanding of the extrinsic connections of the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) has deepened in recent years. In particular, a series of studies using neural pathway-tracing methods to investigate the macroconnections of histologically differentiated LHA regions, have revealed that the neural connections of these regions are substantially distinct, and have robust connections with neural circuits controlling survival behaviors. To begin testing functional associations suggested by the distinct LHA region neural connections, the present study has investigated the role of the LHA juxtadorsomedial region (LHAjd) in the control of social defeat (a socially-relevant defensive behavior). Male rats received bilateral cytotoxic lesions targeted to the LHAjd. A resident-intruder paradigm was then employed to investigate the effect of these lesions on defensive behavioral responses. Behavioral data were collected during three phases of testing: (1) pre-encounter habituation to testing context; (2) encounter with a dominant conspecific in the testing context; and (3) post-encounter context. Statistical analysis of behavioral measures revealed a significant decrease in risk assessment behaviors during post-encounter context testing in lesioned intruders compared to sham-lesioned and intact rats. However, changes in defensive behavioral measures during the habituation, or during resident-intruder encounters, did not reach significance. We discuss these data in relation to LHAjd (and neighboring LHA region) neural connections, and in relation to current advances in understanding of the neural control of defensive behaviors. A refined model for the neural circuits that are central to the control of socially-relevant defensive behaviors is outlined. We also consider possible broader implications of these data for disorders of behavioral control.

  19. How food insecurity contributes to poor HIV health outcomes: Qualitative evidence from the San Francisco Bay Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittle, Henry J; Palar, Kartika; Seligman, Hilary K; Napoles, Tessa; Frongillo, Edward A; Weiser, Sheri D

    2016-12-01

    Food-insecure people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHIV) consistently exhibit worse clinical outcomes than their food-secure counterparts. This relationship is mediated in part through non-adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART), sub-optimal engagement in HIV care, and poor mental health. An in-depth understanding of how these pathways operate in resource-rich settings, however, remains elusive. We aimed to understand the relationship between food insecurity and HIV health among low-income individuals in the San Francisco Bay Area using qualitative methods. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with 34 low-income PLHIV receiving food assistance from a non-profit organization. Interviews explored experiences with food insecurity and its perceived effects on HIV-related health, mental health, and health behaviors including taking ART and attending clinics. Thematic content analysis of transcripts followed an integrative inductive-deductive approach. Food insecurity was reported to contribute to poor ART adherence and missing scheduled clinic visits through various mechanisms, including exacerbated ART side effects in the absence of food, physical feelings of hunger and fatigue, and HIV stigma at public free-meal sites. Food insecurity led to depressive symptoms among participants by producing physical feelings of hunger, aggravating pre-existing struggles with depression, and nurturing a chronic self-perception of social failure. Participants further explained how food insecurity, depression, and ART non-adherence could reinforce each other in complex interactions. Our study demonstrates how food insecurity detrimentally shapes HIV health behavior and outcomes through complex and interacting mechanisms, acting via multiple socio-ecological levels of influence in this setting. The findings emphasize the need for broad, multisectoral approaches to tackling food insecurity among urban poor PLHIV in the United States. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  20. Active Holiday in Mt. Zlatibor County

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    Jovan Plavša

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Active holiday presents a new stream in tourism development of Serbia. The most interesting types of active holiday in Serbia are: free and mountain biking, rafting, hiking, mountaineering, free climbing, orienteering, fishing, sailing, rowing, paragliding, cave exploring, skiing, survival in nature, zorbing, horse riding, etc. Zlatibor district is almost perfect area for developing active holiday, due to the nature beauties and diversity of landscape. The most atractive parts for developing active holiday in Zlatibor district are: Tara Mountain and Drina River Gorge, Zlatibor Mountain, Uvac River Gorge and Zlatar Mountain, Lim River Valley and Pester Highlands.

  1. The AFRL MITLL WMT16 News Translation Task System: We put NMT in your MT Rescoring so you can MT while you MT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-07

    Neural Machine Translation , additional out-of-vocabulary transliteration techniques, and morphol- ogy generation. Preliminary results are denoted with...ments to both our systems from IWSLT2015 (Kazi et al., 2015) and WMT15 (Gwinnup et al., 2015), the introduction of Neural Machine Translation rescoring...transliterated 28.45* Table 3: Neural Transliteration via Backoff PTs 2.7 Neural MT We describe a Neural Machine Translation system we developed and

  2. mt1 Melatonin receptor in the primate adrenal gland: inhibition of adrenocorticotropin-stimulated cortisol production by melatonin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Farfan, Claudia; Richter, Hans G; Rojas-García, Pedro; Vergara, Marcela; Forcelledo, María L; Valladares, Luis E; Torrealba, Fernando; Valenzuela, Guillermo J; Serón-Ferré, María

    2003-01-01

    The pineal hormone melatonin participates in circadian, seasonal, and reproductive physiology. The presence of melatonin binding sites in human brain and peripheral tissues is well documented. However, in the mammalian adrenal gland, low-affinity melatonin binding sites have been detected only in the rat by some but not all authors. Conflicting evidence for a regulatory role of melatonin on adrenal cortisol production, prompted us to investigate this possibility in a New World primate, the capuchin monkey. Expression of melatonin receptors in the adrenal cortex was demonstrated through pharmacological characterization and autoradiographic localization of 2-[125I]iodomelatonin binding sites (dissociation constant = 96.9 +/- 15 pM; maximal binding capacity = 3.8 +/- 0.4 fmol/mg protein). The mt1 identity of these receptors was established by cDNA sequencing. Melatonin treatment of dispersed cells and explants from adrenal gland did not affect basal cortisol production. However, cortisol production stimulated by 100 nM ACTH was significantly inhibited by low melatonin concentrations (0.1-100 nM); this inhibitory effect was reversed by the mt1/MT2 melatonin antagonist luzindole. Melatonin also inhibited dibutyril-cAMP-stimulated cortisol production, suggesting that melatonin acts through a cAMP-independent signaling pathway. The present data demonstrate that the primate adrenal gland cortex expresses functional mt1 melatonin receptors and shows that melatonin inhibits ACTH-stimulated cortisol production.

  3. Possible mechanism of molten sulfur eruption: Implications from near-surface structures around of a crater on a flank of Mt. Shiretokoiozan, Hokkaido, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Mutsunori; Goto, Tada-nori; Kiji, Michio

    2017-10-01

    Shiretokoiozan volcano in northern Japan is well known for its eruptions, which eject huge amounts of molten sulfur. Watanabe (1940) reported details of the 1936 eruption, but its mechanisms, and how and where the huge amount of sulfur is produced and pushed out remain unknown. The aim of this study is to elucidate the near-surface underground structure of this area and the mechanisms of the molten sulfur eruption. We implemented aerial photographic observations, geological surveys, hot spring analysis, Self-Potential survey and DC resistivity surveys at the western flank of Mt. Shiretokoiozan. The geology of this area is mostly composed of hydrothermally altered boulders, gravels, sand, and clay. Some areas of fumaroles are covered by sulfur cement. Chemical analyses revealed that SO42 - and Cl- are rich in hot water, which imply an area with upwelling hot water/gas below the surface. Results of DC resistivity surveys conducted at several sites show extremely low resistivity, suggesting an aquifer several meters below the surface. Compiling this evidence, we infer a possible mechanism of molten sulfur eruption: the sulfur has been produced and stored in an aquifer located at the eastern hill from Crater I for several decades by chemical reactions of volcanic gases; it gushes out when volcanic activity becomes high.

  4. Mt. Etna: rationale and implementation of a Supersite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puglisi, Giuseppe

    2017-04-01

    Mt. Etna is one of the most active volcanoes on Earth and, in the past few decades, has erupted virtually every year. The volcanism of Mt. Etna results from the interaction between magma ascent in the rather complex plumbing feeding system and the local tectonic regime controlled by the volcano edifice's eastern flank instability, whose driving conditions (e.g., structural setting, tectonic forces) and cause-effect relationships are not yet completely understood. At the surface, the combination of the two factors produces eruptions that might consist of either strongly explosive (e.g., 2002; 2011) and produce volcanic ash plumes likely to disrupt air traffic for hours to weeks (e.g., 5 January 2012), including powerful summit paroxysms in the 2012-2013 time span or lava flows capable of invading the populated sectors, that can threat human property and vital infrastructures. Mt. Etna presents many characteristics that make it prone to be a Geohazard Supersite. The volcano consists of an open-vent system characterised by continuous degassing from the volcano summit craters and frequent eruptive summit and flank eruptions. Eruptions can be of different kinds passing from violent short-lasting explosive events to long-lasting lava output, thus producing different kinds of impacts on the surrounding environment, and especially on the large number of people living around the volcano foot. Over time, the frequency and variety of Mt. Etna's eruptive activity have made the volcano one of the most well-studied and monitored worldwide. At Mt. Etna volcanic activity produces a wide spectrum of signals, spanning from seismic and geodetic to geochemical and radiometric signals, which are tracked in continuous and in real-and quasi-real time by the automatic multi-disciplinary monitoring systems deployed by INGV. The huge amount of ground-based collected data sets enforces the vision of Mt. Etna supersite as a Geohazard Supersite where applying the overarching criteria of the

  5. Water hardness in selected karst features of Žumberačka gora Mt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nenad Buzjak

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In the paper are published the results of deteremination of total, Calcium and Magnesium water hardness from four caves, one karst spring and one sinking creek in the area of Žumberačka Gora Mt. in NW Croatia. Water hardness is a measure of carbonate rocks dissolution and corrosion. Besides, it can give a hint of undergorund water courses since the stream that flows from dolomite has higher Magnesium content and one that flows from limestone has higher Calcium ions content. Geological, geomorphological and hydrological characteristics of all features from which water samples were taken are also described.

  6. Lahar flow simulation using Laharz_py program: Application for the Mt. Halla volcano, Jeju, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, C.; Yun, S. H.; Yi, W.

    2017-12-01

    Lahar, one of catastrophic events, has the potential to cause the loss of life and damage to infrastructure over inhabited areas. This study using Laharz_py, was performed schematic prediction on the impact area of lahar hazards at the Mt. Halla volcano, Jeju island. In order to comprehensively address the impact of lahar for the Mt. Halla, two distinct parameters, H/L ratio and lahar volume, were selected to influence variable for Laharz_py simulation. It was carried out on the basis of numerical simulation by estimating a possible lahar volumes of 30,000, 50,000, 70,000, 100,000, 300,000, 500,000 m3 according to H/L ratios (0.20, 0.22 and 0.25) was applied. Based on the numerical simulations, the area of the proximal hazard zone boundary is gradually decreased with increasing H/L ratio. The number of streams which affected by lahar, tended to decrease with increasing H/L ratio. In the case of H/L ratio 0.20, three streams (Gwangryeong stream, Dogeun stream, Han stream) in the Jeju-si area and six streams (Gungsan stream, Hogeun stream, Seohong stream, Donghong stream, Bomok stream, Yeong stream-Hyodon stream) in the Seogwipo-si area are affected. In the case of H/L ratio 0.22, two streams (Gwangryeong stream and Han stream) in the Jeju-si area and five streams (Gungsan stream, Seohong stream, Donghong stream, Bomok stream, Yeong stream-Hyodon stream) in the Seogwipo-si area are affected. And in the case of H/L ratio 0.25, two streams (Gwangryeong stream and Han stream) in the Jeju-si area and one stream (Yeong stream-Hyodon stream) in the Seogwipo-si area are affected. The results of this study will be used as basic data to create a risk map for the direct damage that can be caused due to volcanic hazards arising from Mt. Halla. This research was supported by a grant [MPSS-NH-2015-81] through the Disaster and Safety Management Institute funded by Ministry of Public Safety and Security of Korean government.

  7. Expression of the MT1 Melatonin Receptor in Ovarian Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Jablonska

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Ovarian cancer (OC is the leading cause of death among women with genital tract disorders. Melatonin exhibits oncostatic properties which it may effect through binding to its membrane receptor, MT1. The aim of this study was to determine the expression of MT1 in OC cells and to correlate this with clinical and pathological data. Immunohistochemistry was performed on 84 cases of OC. Normal ovarian epithelial (IOSE 364 and OC (SK-OV-3, OVCAR-3 cell lines were used to examine the MT1 expression at protein level using the western blot and immunofluorescence technique. The expression of MT1 was observed as cytoplasmic-membrane (MT1CM and membrane (MT1M reactions. A positive correlation between MT1CM and MT1M was found in all the studied cases. There were no significant differences between the expression of MT1CM, MT1M, and histological type, staging, grading, presence of residual disease, or overall survival time. Immunofluorescence showed both MT1M and MT1CM expression in all the tested cell lines. Western blot illustrated the highest protein level of MT1 in IOSE 364 and the lowest in the OVCAR-3. The results indicate the limited prognostic significance of MT1 in OC cells.

  8. Function of Metallothionein-3 in Neuronal Cells: Do Metal Ions Alter Expression Levels of MT3?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bousleiman, Jamie; Pinsky, Alexa; Ki, Sohee; Su, Angela; Morozova, Irina; Kalachikov, Sergey; Wiqas, Amen; Silver, Rae; Sever, Mary; Austin, Rachel Narehood

    2017-01-01

    A study of factors proposed to affect metallothionein-3 (MT3) function was carried out to elucidate the opaque role MT3 plays in human metalloneurochemistry. Gene expression of Mt2 and Mt3 was examined in tissues extracted from the dentate gyrus of mouse brains and in human neuronal cell cultures. The whole-genome gene expression analysis identified significant variations in the mRNA levels of genes associated with zinc homeostasis, including Mt2 and Mt3. Mt3 was found to be the most differentially expressed gene in the identified groups, pointing to the existence of a factor, not yet identified, that differentially controls Mt3 expression. To examine the expression of the human metallothioneins in neurons, mRNA levels of MT3 and MT2 were compared in BE(2)C and SH-SY5Y cell cultures treated with lead, zinc, cobalt, and lithium. MT2 was highly upregulated by Zn2+ in both cell cultures, while MT3 was not affected, and no other metal had an effect on either MT2 or MT3. PMID:28587098

  9. MtDNA diversity among four Portuguese autochthonous dog breeds: a fine-scale characterisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santa-Rita Pedro

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The picture of dog mtDNA diversity, as obtained from geographically wide samplings but from a small number of individuals per region or breed, has revealed weak geographic correlation and high degree of haplotype sharing between very distant breeds. We aimed at a more detailed picture through extensive sampling (n = 143 of four Portuguese autochthonous breeds – Castro Laboreiro Dog, Serra da Estrela Mountain Dog, Portuguese Sheepdog and Azores Cattle Dog-and comparatively reanalysing published worldwide data. Results Fifteen haplotypes belonging to four major haplogroups were found in these breeds, of which five are newly reported. The Castro Laboreiro Dog presented a 95% frequency of a new A haplotype, while all other breeds contained a diverse pool of existing lineages. The Serra da Estrela Mountain Dog, the most heterogeneous of the four Portuguese breeds, shared haplotypes with the other mainland breeds, while Azores Cattle Dog shared no haplotypes with the other Portuguese breeds. A review of mtDNA haplotypes in dogs across the world revealed that: (a breeds tend to display haplotypes belonging to different haplogroups; (b haplogroup A is present in all breeds, and even uncommon haplogroups are highly dispersed among breeds and continental areas; (c haplotype sharing between breeds of the same region is lower than between breeds of different regions and (d genetic distances between breeds do not correlate with geography. Conclusion MtDNA haplotype sharing occurred between Serra da Estrela Mountain dogs (with putative origin in the centre of Portugal and two breeds in the north and south of the country-with the Castro Laboreiro Dog (which behaves, at the mtDNA level, as a sub-sample of the Serra da Estrela Mountain Dog and the southern Portuguese Sheepdog. In contrast, the Azores Cattle Dog did not share any haplotypes with the other Portuguese breeds, but with dogs sampled in Northern Europe. This suggested that the

  10. Sattelite Landsat for eruption of Mt. Sinabung

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tampubolon, T.; Yanti, J.

    2017-07-01

    Volcano eruption at the moment and will still last one of them is the eruption of Mount Sinabung. Sinabung eruption many lives that need to be done on disaster mitigation in order to provide early information about when the eruption would occur and could predict when the eruption would take place. Mount Sinabung had geographic coordinates 3°10'12 ″N 98°23'31″ E with an altitude of 2,460 meters above sea level. The research methodology used remote sensing technology as well as data such as satellite images Landsat with the output data of June 7th, 2013, March 6th 2014, 21 February 2015, 29 June 2015. The results determined the distribution pattern of temperatures that could steer which direction the larva as well as determined areas that need to be done evacuation or disaster mitigation in order to avoid the danger of eruption.

  11. Evidence and suggested therapeutic approach in psoriasis of difficult-to-treat areas: Palmoplantar psoriasis, nail psoriasis, scalp psoriasis, and intertriginous psoriasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilendu Sarma

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Psoriasis is resistant to treatment and it shows frequent relapse; systemic treatment is often associated with toxicities, and long-term safety data are lacking for most of the newer drugs like biologics. Moreover, some body areas such as hands, feet, intertriginous areas, scalp, and nails are even more resistant. Frequently, systemic treatments are necessary considering the higher psychological impact on the patient. There is a lack of agreement on the best therapeutic modalities in the management of psoriasis involving difficult-to-treat locations. At present, there are no Indian guidelines for these conditions. Available literature has been reviewed extensively on the treatment of psoriasis involving difficult-to-treat locations; level of evidence has been evaluated as per the Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine 2011 guideline, and therapeutic suggestions have been developed. Best care has been employed to consider socioeconomic, cultural, genetic, and ethnic factors to prepare a therapeutic suggestion that is appropriate and logical to be used among Indian population and people of similar ethnic and socioeconomic background.

  12. Automatic Solar Seeing Observations at Mt. Wumingshan in Western China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, T. F.; Wen, Y. M.; Liu, Y.; Elmhamdi, A.; Kordi, A. S.; Zhao, M. Y.; Zhang, X. F.; Li, X. B.; Wang, J. X.; Fu, Y.; Cheng, X. M.; Xu, F. Y.

    2018-02-01

    Mountain Wumingshan (Mt. WMS) is located in the southeastern foot of the Tibet Plateau with an altitude of 4,800 m. It is one of the candidate sites to place China's next-generation large-scale solar telescope. A temporary observation platform has been built at Mt. WMS, but there is still a great need of a stable solar-seeing monitoring for long-term observations. Based on the preliminary studies on the Solar Differential Image Motion Monitor (SDIMM) of the Yunnan Observatories, we built an improved version of this early prototype, which is called Wumingshan Mountain Automated Solar Differential Image Motion Monitor (WMA-SDIMM). We develop the automatic system of the WMA-SDIMM, investigate the reliability and precision of our measurements by error analysis and comparison testing, and present the statistical results from October 2016 to September 2017 at Mt. WMS. WMA-SDIMM works very well at Mt. WMS and is quite suitable for long-period daytime seeing observations.

  13. Ezra Pound and Du Fu: Gazing at Mt. Tai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kent Su

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Confined to a six-by-six-foot outdoor steel cage, Ezra Pound saw a series of mountain hills from a few miles to the east of Pisa. The poet compared one of these small 800-metre hills to the sacred Chinese Mt. Tai, which becomes the most common geographical name in The Pisan Cantos. Pound’s poetic summoning of this particular mountain is related to the fact that Mt. Tai is historically and culturally connected to the philosophy of Confucius, who personally ascended the mountain several times. Pound, as a devout Confucian disciple, closely follows the philosophical doctrines and attempts to mentally trace the footsteps of Confucius. This paper will argue how Pound’s poetic evocation of the mountain shares a striking similarity to an eighth-century Chinese poem called “Gazing at Mt. Tai,” which was written by the famous literatus - Du Fu 杜甫(712 – 770 . In spite of living in two completely different eras and countries, Pound’s and Du Fu’s reference to Mt. Tai demonstrates the confluence of their poetic spirits. Neither of them ascended mountain personally. They instead made use of their poetic imagination to follow the paths of Confucius and perceived the mountain as an earthly paradise, one which represents tranquillity and serenity away from the moral and physical corruption of the external world.

  14. Physical Volcanology of Pyroclastic Tephra Deposit at Batoke Mt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this contribution, we report an overview of the physical attributes of pyroclastic deposit at the foot of Mt. Cameroon, West Africa. In the deposit three facies types; which are the lava flow, the lapilli and ash are common. The ash is the dominant facies and occurs irregularly in alternation with the lapilli. The most common ...

  15. Chemical compositions of snow from Mt. Yulong, southeastern ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2Key Laboratory of Western China's Environmental Systems (Ministry of Education), College of Earth and Environmental Sciences ... The snow and ice in Mt. Yulong offer a unique opportunity to investigate changes in climate and large scale atmospheric .... chamber in the laboratory at Lanzhou until mea- surements were ...

  16. Neuropathic pain: targeting the melatonin MT 2 receptor | Smith ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    More recently, melatonin, commonly known as the neurohormone that regulates the circadian rhythm, has come to light as a therapeutic treatment option in the neuropathic pain setting. Early clinical trials showed a link between melatonin and chronic pain, which includes neuropathic pain. The MT2 receptor has also been ...

  17. Ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used by sabaots of Mt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Though the majority of people in Kenya and at Kopsiro Division in species to manage human ailments, the indigenous knowledge largely remains undocumented. Therefore, an ethnobotanical study was conducted on medicinal plant species used to manage human ailments at Kopsiro Division Mt. Elgon District Kenya.

  18. 76 FR 9991 - Television Broadcasting Services; Kalispell, MT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-23

    ... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 [DA 11-224; MB Docket No. 11-20; RM-11619] Television Broadcasting Services; Kalispell, MT AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Proposed... 73 Television, Television broadcasting. For the reasons discussed in the preamble, the Federal...

  19. 76 FR 27914 - Television Broadcasting Services; Kalispell, MT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-13

    ... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 [MB Docket No. 11-20; RM-11619, DA 11-750] Television Broadcasting Services; Kalispell, MT AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Final rule... U.S.C. 801(a)(1)(A). [[Page 27915

  20. 76 FR 40322 - Mt. Hood Meadows Ski Resort Parking Improvements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-08

    ... also minimizing environmental impact from parking lot construction and maintenance; and, Separate the... an environmental impact statement. SUMMARY: The Mt. Hood National Forest (Forest) will prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) to document and disclose the potential environmental effects of improving...

  1. Human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) types in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lian, L.H.; Koh, C.L.; Lim, M.E.

    2000-01-01

    Each human cell contains hundreds of mitochondria and thousands of double-stranded circular mtDNA. The delineation of human mtDNA variation and genetics over the past decade has provided unique and often startling insights into human evolution, degenerative diseases, and aging. Each mtDNA of 16,569 base pairs, encodes 13 polypeptides essential to the enzymes of the mitochondrial energy generating pathway, plus the necessary tRNAs and rRNAs. The highly polymorphic noncoding D-(displacement) loop region, also called the control region, is approximately 1.2 kb long. It contains two well-characterized hypervariable (HV-) regions, HV1 and HV2. MtDNA identification is usually based on these sequence differences. According to the TWTGDAM (Technical Working Group for DNA Analysis Methods), the minimum requirement for a mtDNA database for HV1 is from positions 16024 to 16365 and for HV2, from positions 00073 to 00340. The targeted Malaysian population subgroups for this study were mainly the Malays, Chinese, Indians, and indigenous Ibans, Bidayuhs, Kadazan-Dusuns, and Bajaus. Research methodologies undertaken included DNA extraction of samples from unrelated individuals, amplification of the specific regions via the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and preparation of template DNA for sequencing by using an automated DNA sequencer. Sufficient nucleotide sequence data were generated from the mtDNA analysis. When the sequences were analyzed, sequence variations were found to be caused by nucleotide substitutions, insertions, and deletions. Of the three causes of the sequence variations, nucleotide substitutions (86.1%) accounted for the vast majority of polymorphism. It is noted that transitions (83.5%) were predominant when compared to the significantly lower frequencies of transversions (2.6%). Insertions (0.9%) and deletions (13.0%) were rather rare and found only in HV2. The data generated will also form the basis of a Malaysian DNA sequence database of mtDNA D

  2. Neural stem cells express melatonin receptors and neurotrophic factors: colocalization of the MT1 receptor with neuronal and glial markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McMillan Catherine R

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to optimize the potential benefits of neural stem cell (NSC transplantation for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders, it is necessary to understand their biological characteristics. Although neurotrophin transduction strategies are promising, alternative approaches such as the modulation of intrinsic neurotrophin expression by NSCs, could also be beneficial. Therefore, utilizing the C17.2 neural stem cell line, we have examined the expression of selected neurotrophic factors under different in vitro conditions. In view of recent evidence suggesting a role for the pineal hormone melatonin in vertebrate development, it was also of interest to determine whether its G protein-coupled MT1 and MT2 receptors are expressed in NSCs. Results RT-PCR analysis revealed robust expression of glial cell-line derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF and nerve growth factor (NGF in undifferentiated cells maintained for two days in culture. After one week, differentiating cells continued to exhibit high expression of BDNF and NGF, but GDNF expression was lower or absent, depending on the culture conditions utilized. Melatonin MT1 receptor mRNA was detected in NSCs maintained for two days in culture, but the MT2 receptor was not seen. An immature MT1 receptor of about 30 kDa was detected by western blotting in NSCs cultured for two days, whereas a mature receptor of about 40 – 45 kDa was present in cells maintained for longer periods. Immunocytochemical studies demonstrated that the MT1 receptor is expressed in both neural (β-tubulin III positive and glial (GFAP positive progenitor cells. An examination of the effects of melatonin on neurotrophin expression revealed that low physiological concentrations of this hormone caused a significant induction of GDNF mRNA expression in NSCs following treatment for 24 hours. Conclusions The phenotypic characteristics of C17.2 cells suggest that they are

  3. Defining mtDNA origins and population stratification in Rio de Janeiro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simão, Filipa; Ferreira, Ana Paula; de Carvalho, Elizeu Fagundes; Parson, Walther; Gusmão, Leonor

    2018-02-06

    The genetic composition of the Brazilian population was shaped by interethnic admixture between autochthonous Native Americans, Europeans settlers and African slaves. This structure, characteristic of most American populations, implies the need for large population forensic databases to capture the high diversity that is usually associated with admixed populations. In the present work, we sequenced the control region of mitochondrial DNA from 205 non-related individuals living in the Rio de Janeiro metropolitan region. Overall high haplotype diversity (0.9994 ± 0.0006) was observed, and pairwise comparisons showed a high proportion of haplotype pairs with more than one-point differences. When ignoring homopolymeric tracts, pairwise comparisons showed no differences 0.18% of the time, and differences in a single position were found with a frequency of 0.32%. A high percentage of African mtDNA was found (42%), with lineages showing a major South West origin. For the West Eurasian and Native American haplogroups (representing 32% and 26%, respectively) it was not possible to evaluate a clear geographic or linguistic affiliation. When grouping the mtDNA lineages according to their continental origin (Native American, European and African), differences were observed for the ancestry proportions estimated with autosomal ancestry-informative markers, suggesting some level of genetic substructure. The results from this study are in accordance with historical data where admixture processes are confirmed with a strong maternal contribution of African maternal ancestry and a relevant contribution of Native American maternal ancestry. Moreover, the evidence for some degree of association between mtDNA and autosomal information should be considered when combining these types of markers in forensic analysis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. On the role of MT1-MMP, a matrix metalloproteinase essential to collagen remodeling, in murine molar eruption and root growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beertsen, Wouter; Holmbeck, Kenn; Niehof, Anneke; Bianco, Paolo; Chrysovergis, Kaliiopi; Birkedal-Hansen, Henning; Everts, Vincent

    2002-01-01

    Although the connective tissues of the periodontium are subject to a high turnover rate, no conclusive evidence has yet emerged that periodontal collagen turnover is essential for the eruption of teeth or for root elongation. These processes were studied in mice deficient in MT1-MMP, a membrane type

  5. Application of magnetotelluric method to hydrocarbon exploration. Case study of MT survey in Yurihara oil and gas field, Akita prefecture; MT ho no kokunai sekiyu tanko eno tekiyo. Akitaken Yurihara chiiki ni okeru jikken chosa kekka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitsuhata, Y.; Matsuo, K.; Ishikawa, H.; Tanaka, H.; Nakagami, K. [Japan National Oil Corp., Tokyo (Japan). Technology Research Center

    1996-10-01

    The experiment and survey were carried out to verify the effectiveness and limitation of MT method. The previous seismic reflection method is unsuitable for steep terrain and over-folded complicated geological structure. In such difficult areas, application of MT method is increasing as complement or substitution for the reflection method. However, the evaluation of resistivity structure interpretation for every area is slightly difficult because of lack of data, poor quality of data, and no verification data at boreholes. Consequently, the survey was again carried out in well-known Yurihara oil and gas field, Akita prefecture whose geological structure has been surveyed in detail at boreholes, by adding new 32 sites, 22 sites on the south side and 10 sites on the north side of the measuring line extending from east to west. As a result, it was clarified that the lower high-resistivity layer found by MT method is equal to the Nishikurosawa basaltic layer, and basalt extends to the west in the north area. This result can`t be simply compared with the previous geological profile. 8 refs., 8 figs.

  6. Vascular flora of the Prometanj site (Mokra Gora, northern Prokletije Mt.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radak Boris Đ.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Floristic research of the Prometanj site, located in the northwestern part of Mokra Gora Mt. along the right bank of the Ibar River, was conducted during 2011. A total of 340 species and five subspecies of vascular plant taxa were registered. Families with the largest number of species were Asteraceae, Fabaceae, Rosaceae, Lamiaceae, Ranunculaceae, while the most numerous genera were Trifolium, Acer, Campanula, Geranium, Veronica, Ranunculus and Vicia. Floral elements of analyzed plant taxa were grouped into ten areal types, with domination of Central European and Eurasian and significant participation of Mediterranean-Submediterranean. The biological spectrum was characterized by the dominance of hemicryptophytes. Five strictly protected and 43 protected species were registered. Prometanj is the only remaining locality in Serbia for tertiary species Adenophora liliifolia. Floristic research of Prometanj should be extended to entire area of Mokra Gora Mt. together with the Ibar River gorge, in order to explore the whole botanical richness of this area. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 173030

  7. Evidence-based recommendations for musculoskeletal kinematic 4D-CT studies using wide area-detector scanners: a phantom study with cadaveric correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gondim Teixeira, Pedro Augusto; Formery, Anne-Sophie; Blum, Alain [CHRU-Nancy Hopital Central, Service d' Imagerie Guilloz, Nancy (France); Hossu, Gabriela [Universite de Lorraine, IADI U947, Nancy (France); INSERM, CIC-IT 1433, Nancy (France); Winninger, Daniel [IDCmem, Nancy (France); Batch, Toufik [Hopital de Mercy, Service de Radiologie, Metz (France); Gervaise, Alban [Legouest Military Instruction Hospital, Medical Imaging Department, Metz (France)

    2017-02-15

    To establish evidence-based recommendations for musculoskeletal kinematic 4D-CT on wide area-detector CT. In order to assess factors influencing image quality in kinematic CT studies, a phantom consisting of a polymethylmethacrylate rotating disk with round wells of different sizes was imaged with various acquisition protocols. Cadaveric acquisitions were performed on the ankle joint during motion in two different axes and at different speeds to allow validation of phantom data. Images were acquired with a 320 detector-row CT scanner and were evaluated by two readers. Motion artefacts were significantly correlated with various parameters (movement axis, distance to centre, rotation speed and volume acquisition speed) (p < 0.0001). The relation between motion artefacts and distance to motion fulcrum was exponential (R{sup 2} 0.99). Half reconstruction led to a 23 % increase in image noise and a 40 % decrease in motion artefacts. Cadaveric acquisitions confirmed phantom data. Based on these findings, high tube rotation speed and half reconstruction are recommended for kinematic CT. The axis of motion significantly influences image artefacts and should be considered in patient training and evaluation of acquisition protocol suitability. This study provides evidence-based recommendations for musculoskeletal kinematic 4D-CT. (orig.)

  8. New evidence of homoplasy within the African genus Varicorhinus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    New evidence of homoplasy within the African genus Varicorhinus (Cyprinidae): an independent origin of specialized scraping forms in the adjacent drainage systems of Ethiopia inferred from mtDNA analysis.

  9. COLLABORATIVE PARENT COUNSELING in MUSIC THERAPY (CPCiMT) FOR PARENTS OF CHILDRN WITH AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDER

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gottfried, Tali

    challenges and often causes stress (Dempsey et al. 2009). The role of music therapy in the treatment of children with ASD has a long history, and is an evidence-based field (Geretsegger et al. 2012; Gold, Wigram & Elefant, 2006; Holck, 2004); In recent years, this field has expanded beyond the setting......Abstract Collaborative Parent Counseling in Music Therapy (PCiMT) for parents of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder is a clinical approach, in which the music therapist conducts both the individual MT sessions for the child as well as the counseling sessions for the parents. This practice...... is now being tested in my PhD research. Description Early parent-child relationship, represented commonly by reciprocal musical-wise interaction (Stern, 1985), is interrupted by organic impairments, sourced at the core of the Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Parenting a child with ASD involves great...

  10. Depletion of atmospheric gaseous elemental mercury by plant uptake at Mt. Changbai, Northeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Fu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available There exists observational evidence that gaseous elemental mercury (GEM can be readily removed from the atmosphere via chemical oxidation followed by deposition in the polar and sub-polar regions, free troposphere, lower stratosphere, and marine boundary layer under specific environmental conditions. Here we report GEM depletions in a temperate mixed forest at Mt. Changbai, Northeast China. The strong depletions occurred predominantly at night during the leaf-growing season and in the absence of gaseous oxidized mercury (GOM enrichment (GOM  <  3 pg m−3. Vertical gradients of decreasing GEM concentrations from layers above to under forest canopy suggest in situ loss of GEM to forest canopy at Mt. Changbai. Foliar GEM flux measurements showed that the foliage of two predominant tree species is a net sink of GEM at night, with a mean flux of −1.8 ± 0.3 ng m2 h−1 over Fraxinus mandshurica (deciduous tree species and −0.1 ± 0.2 ng m2 h−1 over Pinus Koraiensis (evergreen tree species. Daily integrated GEM δ202Hg, Δ199Hg, and Δ200Hg at Mt. Changbai during 8–18 July 2013 ranged from −0.34 to 0.91 ‰, from −0.11 to −0.04 ‰ and from −0.06 to 0.01 ‰, respectively. A large positive shift in GEM δ202Hg occurred during the strong GEM depletion events, whereas Δ199Hg and Δ200Hg remained essentially unchanged. The observational findings and box model results show that uptake of GEM by forest canopy plays a predominant role in the GEM depletion at Mt. Changbai forest. Such depletion events of GEM are likely to be a widespread phenomenon, suggesting that the forest ecosystem represents one of the largest sinks ( ∼ 1930 Mg of atmospheric Hg on a global scale.

  11. Geochemical studies of rocks, water, and gases at Mt. Hood, Oregon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wollenberg, H.A.; Bowen, R.E.; Bowman, H.R.; Strisower, B.

    1979-02-01

    Mr. Hood, a composite andesitic volcano, located near Portland, Oregon, is one of several large eruptive centers which dominate the Cascade Mountains of the western United States. As part of a program of geologic, geophysical and geochemical studies to examine Mt. Hood's geothermal resource potential, samples of warm-and cold-spring water, water from a geothermal test well in Old Maid Flat, fumarolic gases, and rocks were collected and analyzed for major chemical constituents and trace elements. The only warm-spring area on Mt. Hood is Swim Springs, located on the south flank. Orifices at Swim were sampled repeatedly with little overall change noted in water chemistry between summer and winter. Oxygen and hydrogen isotope data and mixing calculations based on analyses of Swim Springs and numerous cold springs, indicate that a large component of the warm water at Swim is from near-surface runoff. Chemical geothermometry suggests that temperatures at depth in the Swim Springs system are within the range 104 to 170/sup 0/C; the temperature of unmixed hot water may exceed 200/sup 0/C. Higher-than-background chloride contents and specific conductances of cold springs on the south flank of the mountain suggest that there is a small component of thermal water in these sources. A geothermal model of Mt. Hood is proposed wherein snow- and glacier-melt water near the summit comes in close promimity to the hot central neck of the mountain, manifested by the summit-crater fumaroles.Iridium was detected in warm and cold spring waters and in a sample of altered andesite.

  12. Imagery of a moving object: the role of occipital cortex and human MT/V5+.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaas, Amanda; Weigelt, Sarah; Roebroeck, Alard; Kohler, Axel; Muckli, Lars

    2010-01-01

    Visual imagery--similar to visual perception--activates feature-specific and category-specific visual areas. This is frequently observed in experiments where the instruction is to imagine stimuli that have been shown immediately before the imagery task. Hence, feature-specific activation could be related to the short-term memory retrieval of previously presented sensory information. Here, we investigated mental imagery of stimuli that subjects had not seen before, eliminating the effects of short-term memory. We recorded brain activation using fMRI while subjects performed a behaviourally controlled guided imagery task in predefined retinotopic coordinates to optimize sensitivity in early visual areas. Whole brain analyses revealed activation in a parieto-frontal network and lateral-occipital cortex. Region of interest (ROI) based analyses showed activation in left hMT/V5+. Granger causality mapping taking left hMT/V5+ as source revealed an imagery-specific directed influence from the left inferior parietal lobule (IPL). Interestingly, we observed a negative BOLD response in V1-3 during imagery, modulated by the retinotopic location of the imagined motion trace. Our results indicate that rule-based motion imagery can activate higher-order visual areas involved in motion perception, with a role for top-down directed influences originating in IPL. Lower-order visual areas (V1, V2 and V3) were down-regulated during this type of imagery, possibly reflecting inhibition to avoid visual input from interfering with the imagery construction. This suggests that the activation in early visual areas observed in previous studies might be related to short- or long-term memory retrieval of specific sensory experiences.

  13. Exercise Intolerance and Myoglobinuria Associated with a Novel Maternally Inherited MT-ND1 Mutation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rafiq, Jabin; Duno, Morten; Østergaard, Elsebet

    2016-01-01

    The most common clinical phenotype caused by a mtDNA mutation in complex I of the mitochondrial respiratory chain is Leber hereditary optic neuropathy. We report a family with a novel maternally inherited homoplasmic mtDNA m.4087A>G mutation in the ND1 gene (MT-ND1) associated with isolated myopa...

  14. Exchangeable cations in some soils of Mt. Stara planina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belanović Snežana

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Land use in forest and pasture ecosystems requires the respecting of ecological and economic interactions between the individual components of these ecosystems. The content of nutrition elements in the soil solution depends on soil types, climate conditions and vegetation species, i.e., it is conditioned by their cycling in the ecosystem. This paper studies the cation exchange capacity in pasture and forest soils of Mt. Stara Planina.

  15. The shallow magma pathway geometry at Mt. Etna volcano

    OpenAIRE

    Patanè, D.; Di Grazia, G.; Cannata, A.; Montalto, P.; Boschi, E.

    2008-01-01

    A fundamental goal of volcano seismology is to understand the dynamics of active magmatic systems in order to assess eruptive behavior and the associated hazard. Imaging of magma conduits, quantification of magma transport and investigation of long-period seismic sources, together with their temporal variations, are crucial for the comprehension of eruption-triggering mechanisms. At Mt. Etna volcano, several intense episodes of tremor activity were recorded during 2007, in association wit...

  16. MT survey in the Minaminoshiro oil field; Minaminoshiro chiiki ni okeru MT ho ni yoru sekiyu tanko (sanjigen MT ho chosa no kento). 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuo, K.; Minegishi, M. [Japan National Oil Corp., Tokyo (Japan). Technology Research Center

    1997-10-22

    Preliminary experiment, investigation, and study are conducted prior to an experimental 3-D MT (magnetotelluric) survey planned to be carried out in the Minaminoshiro district, Akita Prefecture. In the preliminary investigation, MT measurements were performed at nine locations. It was anticipated that national highways, waste treatment plants, high-voltage power lines, and railways in presence in the district would act as noise sources. Although the impact of such noise was detected in the single site treatment result, yet it was found that it would be mostly eliminated by use of the remote reference treatment. It was learned that the resistivity structure in this district was quite low in contrast or 1 ohm/m against 30 ohm/m, but the result of 3-D model calculation indicated that a sufficient analysis would be possible even in such a low contrast case. Furthermore, as the result of the study of the density of observation stations in the magnetic field, it was found that changes in the response of magnetic field to the resistivity structure would be approximately 2% at the maximum and that the ill effect on the result of measurement would be of the negligible magnitude even when a single magnetic field observation station is deployed against plural electric field observation stations. 6 refs., 7 figs.

  17. A Medicago truncatula H+-pyrophosphatase gene, MtVP1, improves sucrose accumulation and anthocyanin biosynthesis in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J W; Wang, H Q; Xiang, W W; Chai, T Y

    2014-05-09

    We recently cloned MtVP1, a type I vacuolar-type H(+)-translocating inorganic pyrophosphatase from Medicago truncatula. In the present study, we investigated the cellular location and the function of this H(+)-PPase in Arabidopsis and potato (Solanum tuberosum L.). An MtVP1::enhanced green fluorescent protein fusion was constructed, which localized to the plasma membrane of onion epidermal cells. Transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana overexpressing MtVP1 had more robust root systems and redder shoots than wild-type (WT) plants under conditions of cold stress. Furthermore, overexpression of MtVP1 in potato accelerated the formation and growth of vegetative organs. The tuber buds and stem base of transgenic potatoes became redder than those of WT plants, but flowering was delayed by approximately half a month. Interestingly, anthocyanin biosynthesis was promoted in transgenic Arabidopsis seedlings and potato tuber buds. The sucrose concentration of transgenic potato tubers and tuber buds was enhanced compared with that of WT plants. Furthermore, sucrose concentration in tubers was higher than that in tuber buds. Although there was no direct evidence to support Fuglsang's hypothetical model regarding the effects of H(+)-PPase on sucrose phloem loading, we speculated that sucrose concentration was increased in tuber buds owing to the increased concentration in tubers. Therefore, overexpressed MtVP1 enhanced sucrose accumulation of source organs, which might enhance sucrose transport to sink organs, thus affecting anthocyanin biosynthesis.

  18. Exploration of High elevation liana colonies on Mt. Slamet, Central Java, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WS Hoover

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available One hundred forty–five individual lianas were distributed on 2 East facing ridges on the second highest mountain on Java, Mt. Slamet (3418 m., Central Java, Indonesia. Twenty one colonies were observed on small flat areas on ridges. The liana species observed include: Embelia pergamacea, Toddalia asiatica, Elaeagnus latifolia, Schefflera lucida, Vaccinium laurifolium and Lonicera javanica. Diameter of each liana was measured and liana density/flat area calculated. Floristic collecting was under- taken within the elevational gradient of liana distribution. Data suggest an ecotone transition from lower to upper mon- tane forest is observed between 2200 and 2300 m, though forest types are difficult to determine due to disturbance caused by fire at the upper elevations. Observing lianas at these unusuall high elevations with near pluvial rainfall, con- tradict established scientific theory concerning global distribution and abundance of lianas.  

  19. Adjusting MtDNA Quantification in Whole Blood for Peripheral Blood Platelet and Leukocyte Counts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurtado-Roca, Yamilee; Ledesma, Marta; Gonzalez-Lazaro, Monica; Moreno-Loshuertos, Raquel; Fernandez-Silva, Patricio; Enriquez, Jose Antonio; Laclaustra, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Alterations of mitochondrial DNA copy number (mtDNAcn) in the blood (mitochondrial to nuclear DNA ratio) appear associated with several systemic diseases, including primary mitochondrial disorders, carcinogenesis, and hematologic diseases. Measuring mtDNAcn in DNA extracted from whole blood (WB) instead of from peripheral blood mononuclear cells or buffy coat may yield different results due to mitochondrial DNA present in platelets. The aim of this work is to quantify the contribution of platelets to mtDNAcn in whole blood [mtDNAcn(WB)] and to propose a correction formula to estimate leukocytes' mtDNAcn [mtDNAcn(L)] from mtDNAcn(WB). Blood samples from 10 healthy adults were combined with platelet-enriched plasma and saline solution to produce artificial blood preparations. Aliquots of each sample were combined with five different platelet concentrations. In 46 of these blood preparations, mtDNAcn was measured by qPCR. MtDNAcn(WB) increased 1.07 (95%CI 0.86, 1.29; pleukocyte count should also be taken into account as mtDNAcn(WB) was inversely associated with leukocyte count; it increased 1.10 (95%CI 0.95, 1.25, pleukocyte counts. If hematological measurements are available, subtracting 1.10 the platelets/leukocyte ratio from mtDNAcn(WB) may serve as an estimation for mtDNAcn(L). Both platelet and leukocyte counts in the sample are important sources of variation if comparing mtDNAcn among groups of patients when mtDNAcn is measured in DNA extracted from whole blood. Not taking the platelet/leukocyte ratio into account in whole blood measurements, may lead to overestimation and misclassification if interpreted as leukocytes' mtDNAcn.

  20. Magnetotelluric investigation of the Toender area, Denmark. ALTKUL project report part 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasmussen, T.M.; Thorning, L. [GEUS, Copenhagen (Denmark); Pedersen, L.B.; Shan, C. [Uppsala Univ., Dept. of Earth Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2012-10-15

    hydrocarbons in the Toender area. The resistivity variations clearly reflect the presence of salt tectonics in the survey area. Another achievement from the test is the information on electromagnetic noise sources. The noise in the survey area was highly variable both spatially and with time. At some MT stations high quality data could be obtained. Other MT stations did not provide data of sufficiently quality to be included in the modelling. Some tentative comments with respect to interpretation of the acquired MT data are provided. We do not enter into an in-depth interpretation of the data and derived model, but we conclude that the MT data provide valuable information on the regional variations of resistivity. A number of anomalies are evident which point to significant variations in resistivity laterally. Some inconsistencies in relation to information from deep wells are noted with respect to depth to stratigraphic units. This is particularly the case at the location of the Borg-1 well. The salt pillow around at Toender is mapped well by the MT data. The reporting of the test is structured as follows: after a short introduction (with some basic information on MT for readers unfamiliar with the method) follows the report by L.B. Pedersen and J. Shan, Uppsala University, which represents the core of the test. It includes a description of field work, noise conditions and data quality, data processing techniques and modelling. The report by Pedersen and Shan and accompanying appendix is included as chapter 3 in this report. The last part of this report places the modelling results in context with geological information and other geophysical data publically available from the survey area. The purpose of this last part of the report is to provide information and considerations useful for further interpretation on the acquired new data. A section on the geology of the area is included with some key references and finally, another section includes displays of the model derived

  1. Coping Strategies for Landslide and Flood Disasters: A Qualitative Study of Mt. Elgon Region, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osuret, Jimmy; Atuyambe, Lynn M; Mayega, Roy William; Ssentongo, Julius; Tumuhamye, Nathan; Mongo Bua, Grace; Tuhebwe, Doreen; Bazeyo, William

    2016-07-11

    The occurrence of landslides and floods in East Africa has increased over the past decades with enormous Public Health implications and massive alterations in the lives of those affected. In Uganda, the Elgon region is reported to have the highest occurrence of landslides and floods making this area vulnerable. This study aimed at understanding both coping strategies and the underlying causes of vulnerability to landslides and floods in the Mt. Elgon region. We conducted a qualitative study in three districts of Bududa, Manafwa and Butalejja in the Mt. Elgon region in eastern Uganda. Six Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) and eight Key Informant Interviews (KIIs) were conducted. We used trained research assistants (moderator and note taker) to collect data. All discussions were audio taped, and were transcribed verbatim before analysis. We explored both coping strategies and underlying causes of vulnerability. Data were analysed using latent content analysis; through identifying codes from which basis categories were generated and grouped into themes. The positive coping strategies used to deal with landslides and floods included adoption of good farming methods, support from government and other partners, livelihood diversification and using indigenous knowledge in weather forecasting and preparedness. Relocation was identified as unsustainable because people often returned back to high risk areas. The key underlying causes of vulnerability were; poverty, population pressure making people move to high risk areas, unsatisfactory knowledge on disaster preparedness and, cultural beliefs affecting people's ability to cope. This study revealed that deep rooted links to poverty, culture and unsatisfactory knowledge on disaster preparedness were responsible for failure to overcome the effects to landslides and floods in disaster prone communities of Uganda. However, good farming practices and support from the government and implementation partners were shown to be effective

  2. Palmitoylation at Cys574 is essential for MT1-MMP to promote cell migration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anilkumar, Narayanapanicker; Uekita, Takamasa; Couchman, John R

    2005-01-01

    of the palmitoylated cysteine relative to LLY573, a motif that interacts with mu2 subunit of adaptor protein 2, is critical for the cell motility-promoting activity of MT1-MMP and its clathrin-mediated internalization. Taken together, palmitoylation of MT1-MMP is one of the key posttranslational modifications......MT1-MMP is a type I transmembrane proteinase that promotes cell migration and invasion. Here, we report that MT1-MMP is palmitoylated at Cys574 in the cytoplasmic domain, and this lipid modification is critical for its promotion of cell migration and clathrin-mediated internalization...... that determines MT1-MMP-dependent cell migration....

  3. Remote reference processing in MT survey using GPS clock; MT ho ni okeru GPS wo mochiita jikoku doki system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamane, K.; Inoue, J.; Takasugi, S. [Geothermal Energy Research and Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Kosuge, S. [DRICO Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-05-01

    A report is given about the application of a synchronizing system using clock signals from GPS satellites to a remote reference method which is a technique to reject noise from the MT method. This system uses the C/A code out of the L1 band waves from NAVSTAR/GPS satellites. The new system was operated in MT method-using investigations conducted at China Peninsula, Aichi Prefecture, and Izu Peninsula, Shizuoka Prefecture, with the reference points placed several 100km away in Iwate Prefecture on both occasions. It was found as the result that it is basically possible to catch signals from the GPS at any place, that the signals are accurate enough to be applied to time synchronization for the MT method, and that the signals assure a far remote reference method with a separation of several 100km between the sites involved. The referencing process at high frequencies whose feasibility had been doubted proved a success when highly correlated signals were exchanged between two stations over a distance of several 100km. 5 refs., 9 figs.

  4. Hepatitis E virus infection in central China reveals no evidence of cross-species transmission between human and swine in this area.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Zhang

    central China was confirmed by Dot-blot assay. In conclusion, although all the HEV strains prevalent in central China belonged to genotype 4, there is no evidence of cross-species transmission between human and swine in this area.

  5. Evidence that agricultural use of pesticides selects pyrethroid resistance within Anopheles gambiae s.l. populations from cotton growing areas in Burkina Faso, West Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aristide Sawdetuo Hien

    Full Text Available Many studies have shown the role of agriculture in the selection and spread of resistance of Anopheles gambiae s.l. to insecticides. However, no study has directly demonstrated the presence of insecticides in breeding sources as a source of selection for this resistance. It is in this context that we investigated the presence of pesticide residues in breeding habitats and their formal involvement in vector resistance to insecticides in areas of West Africa with intensive farming. This study was carried out from June to November 2013 in Dano, southwest Burkina Faso in areas of conventional (CC and biological cotton (BC growing. Water and sediment samples collected from breeding sites located near BC and CC fields were submitted for chromatographic analysis to research and titrate the residual insecticide content found there. Larvae were also collected in these breeding sites and used in toxicity tests to compare their mortality to those of the susceptible strain, Anopheles gambiae Kisumu. All tested mosquitoes (living and dead were analyzed by PCR for species identification and characterization of resistance genes. The toxicity analysis of water from breeding sites showed significantly lower mortality rates in breeding site water from biological cotton (WBC growing sites compared to that from conventional cotton (WCC sites respective to both An. gambiae Kisumu (WBC: 80.75% vs WCC: 92.75% and a wild-type strain (49.75% vs 66.5%. The allele frequencies L1014F, L1014S kdr, and G116S ace -1R mutations conferring resistance, respectively, to pyrethroids and carbamates / organophosphates were 0.95, 0.4 and 0.12. Deltamethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin were identified in the water samples taken in October/November from mosquitoes breeding in the CC growing area. The concentrations obtained were respectively 0.0147ug/L and 1.49 ug/L to deltamethrin and lambdacyhalothrin. Our results provided evidence by direct analysis (biological and chromatographic tests

  6. Evidence that agricultural use of pesticides selects pyrethroid resistance within Anopheles gambiae s.l. populations from cotton growing areas in Burkina Faso, West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hien, Aristide Sawdetuo; Soma, Dieudonné Diloma; Hema, Omer; Bayili, Bazoma; Namountougou, Moussa; Gnankiné, Olivier; Baldet, Thierry; Diabaté, Abdoulaye; Dabiré, Kounbobr Roch

    2017-01-01

    Many studies have shown the role of agriculture in the selection and spread of resistance of Anopheles gambiae s.l. to insecticides. However, no study has directly demonstrated the presence of insecticides in breeding sources as a source of selection for this resistance. It is in this context that we investigated the presence of pesticide residues in breeding habitats and their formal involvement in vector resistance to insecticides in areas of West Africa with intensive farming. This study was carried out from June to November 2013 in Dano, southwest Burkina Faso in areas of conventional (CC) and biological cotton (BC) growing. Water and sediment samples collected from breeding sites located near BC and CC fields were submitted for chromatographic analysis to research and titrate the residual insecticide content found there. Larvae were also collected in these breeding sites and used in toxicity tests to compare their mortality to those of the susceptible strain, Anopheles gambiae Kisumu. All tested mosquitoes (living and dead) were analyzed by PCR for species identification and characterization of resistance genes. The toxicity analysis of water from breeding sites showed significantly lower mortality rates in breeding site water from biological cotton (WBC) growing sites compared to that from conventional cotton (WCC) sites respective to both An. gambiae Kisumu (WBC: 80.75% vs WCC: 92.75%) and a wild-type strain (49.75% vs 66.5%). The allele frequencies L1014F, L1014S kdr, and G116S ace -1R mutations conferring resistance, respectively, to pyrethroids and carbamates / organophosphates were 0.95, 0.4 and 0.12. Deltamethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin were identified in the water samples taken in October/November from mosquitoes breeding in the CC growing area. The concentrations obtained were respectively 0.0147ug/L and 1.49 ug/L to deltamethrin and lambdacyhalothrin. Our results provided evidence by direct analysis (biological and chromatographic tests) of the role

  7. Spatial distribution of soil radon as a tool to recognize active faulting on an active volcano: the example of Mt. Etna (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neri, Marco; Giammanco, Salvatore; Ferrera, Elisabetta; Patanè, Giuseppe; Zanon, Vittorio

    2011-09-01

    This study concerns measurements of radon and thoron emissions from soil carried out in 2004 on the eastern flank of Mt. Etna, in a zone characterized by the presence of numerous seismogenic and aseismic faults. The statistical treatment of the geochemical data allowed recognizing anomaly thresholds for both parameters and producing distribution maps that highlighted a significant spatial correlation between soil gas anomalies and tectonic lineaments. The seismic activity occurring in and around the study area during 2004 was analyzed, producing maps of hypocentral depth and released seismic energy. Both radon and thoron anomalies were located in areas affected by relatively deep (5-10 km depth) seismic activity, while less evident correlation was found between soil gas anomalies and the released seismic energy. This study confirms that mapping the distribution of radon and thoron in soil gas can reveal hidden faults buried by recent soil cover or faults that are not clearly visible at the surface. The correlation between soil gas data and earthquakes depth and intensity can give some hints on the source of gas and/or on fault dynamics. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Evaluation of asbestos exposures during firewood-harvesting simulations in Libby, MT, USA--preliminary data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Julie F; Ward, Tony J; Spear, Terry M; Crispen, Kelly; Zolnikov, Tara R

    2007-11-01

    Research was conducted in order to assess potential exposure to asbestos while harvesting firewood from amphibole-contaminated trees near Libby, MT, USA. Three firewood-harvesting simulations took place in the summer and fall of 2006 in the Kootenai Forest inside the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) restricted zone surrounding the former W.R. Grace vermiculite mine. Another simulation was conducted near Missoula, MT, USA, which served as the control. The work practices following each simulation were consistent throughout each trial. Personal breathing zone (PBZ) asbestos concentrations were measured by phase contrast microscopy (PCM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Surface wipe samples of personal protective clothing were measured by TEM. The mean (n = 12) PBZ PCM sample time-weighted average (TWA) concentration was 0.29 fibers per milliliter, standard deviation (SD = 0.54). A substantial portion (more than five fibers per sample) of non-asbestos fibers (cellulose) was reported on all PBZ samples (excluding field blanks) when analyzed by TEM. The mean (n = 12) PBZ TEM sample TWA concentration for amphibole fibers 5-microm long was 0.07 fibers per milliliter (SD = 0.08). Substantial amphibole fiber concentrations were revealed on Tyvek clothing wipe samples. The mean concentration (n = 12) was 29 826 fibers per square centimeter (SD = 37 555), with 91% (27 192 fibers per square centimeter) comprised fibers firewood-harvesting activities in asbestos-contaminated areas and that the potential for exposure exists during such activities.

  9. Ecological and Socio-Economic Contribution of Mt. Elgon Forest Park, Eastern Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buyinza Mukadasi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the ecological and socio-economic contribution of Mt. Elgon forest park, eastern Uganda. An effort was taken to evaluate the importance of Mt. Elgon forest park resources to the local people by using the local plant knowledge to value the forest park resources. An integrated approach of participatory rural appraisal (PRA, Participatory Resource Valuation (PRV, household survey, group discussions and forest walks were conducted during the months of June to December, 2008 in Mutushet and Kortek Parishes, Kapchorwa District. Using random sampling methods, 120 respondents were selected and interviewed. Ten forest uses were identified with the highest dependence being in the supply of timber for income and domestic building poles, the latter having the highest average annual household value of UGx. 67919 (US$37. The forest use most valued in both Mutushet and Koterk was medicine with an average annual household value of UGx. 60,371 (US$ 33 and UGx. 75,464 (US$ 42 respectively. The forest provision of medicine, domestic building materials, soil conservation, bush meat, charcoal and timber was more valued in Koterk, while provision of firewood, honey and pasture were more valued in Mutushet. The forest’s provision of food was valued equally in the two areas with an average annual value of UGx. 30,186 per household. Forest park resources accounted for 55% of the household income. Participatory valuation approaches are ecommended for estimation of forest park resources’ value in a non-cash economy.

  10. Mapping and monitoring Mt. Graham Red Squirrel habitat with GIS and thematic mapper imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatten, James R.; Koprowski, John L.; Sanderson, H. Reed; Koprowski, John L.

    2009-01-01

    To estimate the Mt. Graham red squirrel (MGRS) population, personnel visit a proportion of middens each year to determine their occupancy (Snow in this vol.). The method results in very tight confidence intervals (high precision), but the accuracy of the population estimate is dependent upon knowing where all the middens are located. I hypothesized that there might be areas outside the survey boundary that contained Mt. Graham red squirrel middens, but the ruggedness of the Pinaleno Mountains made mountain-wide surveys difficult. Therefore, I started exploring development of a spatially explicit (geographic information system [GIS]-based) habitat model in 1998 that could identify MGRS habitat remotely with satellite imagery and a GIS. A GIS-based model would also allow us to assess changes in MGRS habitat between two time periods because Landsat passes over the same location every 16 days, imaging the earth in 185 km swaths (Aronoff 1989). Specifically, the objectives of this analysis were to (1) develop a pattern recognition model for MGRS habitat, (2) map potential (predicted/modeled) MGRS habitat, (3) identify changes in potential MGRS habitat between 1993 and 2003, and (4) evaluate the current location of the MGRS survey boundary.

  11. Investigation of Potential Volcanic Risk from Mt. Baekdu by DInSAR Time Series Analysis and Atmospheric Correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung-Rack Kim

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Mt. Baekdu is a volcano near the North Korea-Chinese border that experienced a few destructive eruptions over the course of its history, including the well-known 1702 A.D eruption. However, signals of unrest, including seismic activity, gas emission and intense geothermal activity, have been occurring with increasing frequency over the last few years. Due to its close vicinity to a densely populated area and the high magnitude of historical volcanic eruptions, its potential for destructive volcanic activity has drawn wide public attention. However, direct field surveying in the area is limited due to logistic challenges. In order to compensate for the limited coverage of ground observations, comprehensive measurements using remote sensing techniques are required. Among these techniques, Differential Interferometric SAR (DInSAR analysis is the most effective method for monitoring surface deformation and is employed in this study. Through advanced atmospheric error correction and time series analysis, the accuracy of the detected displacements was improved. As a result, clear uplift up to 20 mm/year was identified around Mt. Baekdu and was further used to estimate the possible deformation source, which is considered as a consequence of magma and fault interaction. Since the method for tracing deformation was proved feasible, continuous DInSAR monitoring employing upcoming SAR missions and advanced error regulation algorithms will be of great value in monitoring comprehensive surface deformation over Mt. Baekdu and in general world-wide active volcanoes.

  12. The expanded mtDNA phylogeny of the Franco-Cantabrian region upholds the pre-neolithic genetic substrate of Basques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Cardoso

    Full Text Available The European genetic landscape has been shaped by several human migrations occurred since Paleolithic times. The accumulation of archaeological records and the concordance of different lines of genetic evidence during the last two decades have triggered an interesting debate concerning the role of ancient settlers from the Franco-Cantabrian region in the postglacial resettlement of Europe. Among the Franco-Cantabrian populations, Basques are regarded as one of the oldest and more intriguing human groups of Europe. Recent data on complete mitochondrial DNA genomes focused on macrohaplogroup R0 revealed that Basques harbor some autochthonous lineages, suggesting a genetic continuity since pre-Neolithic times. However, excluding haplogroup H, the most representative lineage of macrohaplogroup R0, the majority of maternal lineages of this area remains virtually unexplored, so that further refinement of the mtDNA phylogeny based on analyses at the highest level of resolution is crucial for a better understanding of the European prehistory. We thus explored the maternal ancestry of 548 autochthonous individuals from various Franco-Cantabrian populations and sequenced 76 mitogenomes of the most representative lineages. Interestingly, we identified three mtDNA haplogroups, U5b1f, J1c5c1 and V22, that proved to be representative of Franco-Cantabria, notably of the Basque population. The seclusion and diversity of these female genetic lineages support a local origin in the Franco-Cantabrian area during the Mesolithic of southwestern Europe, ~10,000 years before present (YBP, with signals of expansions at ~3,500 YBP. These findings provide robust evidence of a partial genetic continuity between contemporary autochthonous populations from the Franco-Cantabrian region, specifically the Basques, and Paleolithic/Mesolithic hunter-gatherer groups. Furthermore, our results raise the current proportion (≈ 15% of the Franco-Cantabrian maternal gene pool with a

  13. Finding a "disappearing" nontimber forest resource: using grounded visualization to explore urbanization impacts on sweetgrass basketmaking in greater Mt. Pleasant, South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick T. Hurley; Angela C. Halfacre; Norm S. Levine

    2008-01-01

    Despite growing interest in urbanization and its social and ecological impacts on formerly rural areas, empirical research remains limited. Extant studies largely focus either on issues of social exclusion and enclosure or ecological change. This article uses the case of sweetgrass basketmaking in Mt. Pleasant, South Carolina, to explore the implications of...

  14. Monitoring and Inhibiting MT1-MMP during Cancer Initiation and Progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Pahwa

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Membrane-type 1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP is a zinc-dependent type-I transmembrane metalloproteinase involved in pericellular proteolysis, migration and invasion. Numerous substrates and binding partners have been identified for MT1-MMP, and its role in collagenolysis appears crucial for tumor invasion. However, development of MT1-MMP inhibitors must consider the substantial functions of MT1-MMP in normal physiology and disease prevention. The present review examines the plethora of MT1-MMP activities, how these activities relate to cancer initiation and progression, and how they can be monitored in real time. Examination of MT1-MMP activities and cell surface behaviors can set the stage for the development of unique, selective MT1-MMP inhibitors.

  15. Late Pleistocene human skeleton and mtDNA link Paleoamericans and modern Native Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatters, James C; Kennett, Douglas J; Asmerom, Yemane; Kemp, Brian M; Polyak, Victor; Blank, Alberto Nava; Beddows, Patricia A; Reinhardt, Eduard; Arroyo-Cabrales, Joaquin; Bolnick, Deborah A; Malhi, Ripan S; Culleton, Brendan J; Erreguerena, Pilar Luna; Rissolo, Dominique; Morell-Hart, Shanti; Stafford, Thomas W

    2014-05-16

    Because of differences in craniofacial morphology and dentition between the earliest American skeletons and modern Native Americans, separate origins have been postulated for them, despite genetic evidence to the contrary. We describe a near-complete human skeleton with an intact cranium and preserved DNA found with extinct fauna in a submerged cave on Mexico's Yucatan Peninsula. This skeleton dates to between 13,000 and 12,000 calendar years ago and has Paleoamerican craniofacial characteristics and a Beringian-derived mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup (D1). Thus, the differences between Paleoamericans and Native Americans probably resulted from in situ evolution rather than separate ancestry. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  16. Population genetic structure of Santa Ynez rainbow trout – 2001 based on microsatellite and mtDNA analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Jennifer L.; Zimmerman, Christian E.; Olsen, Jeffrey B.; Wiacek, Talia; Kretschmer, E.J.; Greenwald, Glenn M.; Wenburg, John K.

    2003-01-01

    Microsatellite allelic and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplotype diversity are analyzed in eight rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) collections: two from tributaries flowing into the upper Santa Ynez River watershed at Gibraltar Reservoir (Camuesa and Gidney creeks); three from tributaries between Gibraltar and Jameson reservoirs (Fox, Blue Canyon, and Alder creeks); one from a tributary above Jameson Reservoir (Juncal Creek); Jameson Reservoir; and one from the mainstem Santa Ynez River above the Jameson Reservoir. Both analyses reveal a high degree of population structure. Thirteen microsatellite loci are amplified from 376 fish. Population pairwise comparisons show significant differences in allelic frequency among all populations with the exception of Juncal Creek and Jameson Reservoir (p = 0.4). Pairwise Fst values range from 0.001 (Juncal Creek and Jameson Reservoir) to 0.17 (Camuesa and Juncal creeks) with an overall value of 0.021. Regression analyses (Slatkin 1993) supports an isolation-bydistance model in the five populations below Jameson Reservoir (intercept = 1.187, slope = -0.41, r2 = 0.67). A neighbor-joining bootstrap value of 100% (based on 2000 replicate trees) separates the populations sampled above and below Juncal Dam. Composite haplotypes from 321 fish generated using mtDNA sequence data (Dloop) reveal four previously described haplotypes (MYS1, MYS3, MYS5 and MYS8; Nielsen et al. 1994a), and one (MYS5) was found in all populations. Mean haplotype diversity is 0.48. Pairwise Fst values from mtDNA range from -0.019 to 0.530 (0.177 over all populations) and are larger than those for microsatellites in 26 of 28 pairwise comparisons. In addition, the mtDNA and microsatellites provide contrasting evidence of the relationship of Fox and Alder creeks to the other six populations. Discrepancies between the two markers are likely due to the unique properties of the two marker types and their value in revealing historic (mtDNA) versus contemporary

  17. Retinal afferents synapse with relay cells targeting the middle temporal area in the pulvinar and lateral geniculate nuclei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire E Warner

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Considerable debate continues regarding thalamic inputs to the middle temporal area (MT of the visual cortex that bypass the primary visual cortex (V1 and the role they might have in the residual visual capability following a lesion of V1. Two specific retinothalamic projections to area MT have been speculated to relay through the medial portion of the inferior pulvinar nucleus (PIm and the koniocellular layers of the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN. Although a number of studies have demonstrated retinal inputs to regions of the thalamus where relays to area MT have been observed, the relationship between the retinal terminals and area MT relay cells has not been established. Here we examined direct retino-recipient regions of the marmoset monkey (Callithrix jacchus pulvinar nucleus and the LGN following binocular injections of anterograde tracer, as well as area MT relay cells in these nuclei by injection of retrograde tracer into area MT. Retinal afferents were shown to synapse with area MT relay cells as demonstrated by colocalization with the presynaptic vesicle membrane protein synaptophysin. We also established the presence of direct synapes of retinal afferents on area MT relay cells within the PIm, as well as the koniocellular K1 and K3 layers of the LGN, thereby corroborating the existence of two disynaptic pathways from the retina to area MT that bypass V1.

  18. Seasonality of stable isotope composition of atmospheric water input at the southern slopes of Mt. Kilimanjaro, Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otte, Insa; Detsch, Florian; Gutlein, Adrian; Scholl, Martha A.; Kiese, Ralf; Appelhans, Tim; Nauss, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    To understand the moisture regime at the southern slopes of Mt. Kilimanjaro, we analysed the isotopic variability of oxygen (δ18O) and hydrogen (δD) of rainfall, throughfall, and fog from a total of 2,140 samples collected weekly over 2 years at 9 study sites along an elevation transect ranging from 950 to 3,880 m above sea level. Precipitation in the Kilimanjaro tropical rainforests consists of a combination of rainfall, throughfall, and fog. We defined local meteoric water lines for all 3 precipitation types individually and the overall precipitation, δDprec = 7.45 (±0.05) × δ18Oprec + 13.61 (±0.20), n = 2,140, R2 = .91, p research site. We found an altitude effect of δ18Orain = −0.11‰ × 100 m−1, which varied according to precipitation type and season. The relatively weak isotope or altitude gradient may reveal 2 different moisture sources in the research area: (a) local moisture recycling and (b) regional moisture sources. Generally, the seasonality of δ18Orain values follows the bimodal rainfall distribution under the influences of south- and north-easterly trade winds. These seasonal patterns of isotopic composition were linked to different regional moisture sources by analysing Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory backward trajectories. Seasonality of dexcess values revealed evidence of enhanced moisture recycling after the onset of the rainy seasons. This comprehensive dataset is essential for further research using stable isotopes as a hydrological tracer of sources of precipitation that contribute to water resources of the Kilimanjaro region.

  19. World Natural Heritage sites and regional development – the cases of Mt Kenya and Mt Kilimanjaro

    OpenAIRE

    Katharina Conradin; Miriam Chiyumba; Boniface Kiteme; Simon N. Mwaura; Karina Liechti

    2015-01-01

    The popularity of World Heritage status continues apace – more sites are included in the List every year. World Natural Heritage sites in particular are increasingly discussed as a promising strategy for reconciling conservation and sustainable development. By means of two case studies from East Africa – which are embedded in a global survey on the effects of World Heritage Status – this report analyses what actually happens in situ when World Heritage status is granted to an area. The studie...

  20. A reduced number of mtSNPs saturates mitochondrial DNA haplotype diversity of worldwide population groups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Salas

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The high levels of variation characterising the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA molecule are due ultimately to its high average mutation rate; moreover, mtDNA variation is deeply structured in different populations and ethnic groups. There is growing interest in selecting a reduced number of mtDNA single nucleotide polymorphisms (mtSNPs that account for the maximum level of discrimination power in a given population. Applications of the selected mtSNP panel range from anthropologic and medical studies to forensic genetic casework. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This study proposes a new simulation-based method that explores the ability of different mtSNP panels to yield the maximum levels of discrimination power. The method explores subsets of mtSNPs of different sizes randomly chosen from a preselected panel of mtSNPs based on frequency. More than 2,000 complete genomes representing three main continental human population groups (Africa, Europe, and Asia and two admixed populations ("African-Americans" and "Hispanics" were collected from GenBank and the literature, and were used as training sets. Haplotype diversity was measured for each combination of mtSNP and compared with existing mtSNP panels available in the literature. The data indicates that only a reduced number of mtSNPs ranging from six to 22 are needed to account for 95% of the maximum haplotype diversity of a given population sample. However, only a small proportion of the best mtSNPs are shared between populations, indicating that there is not a perfect set of "universal" mtSNPs suitable for all population contexts. The discrimination power provided by these mtSNPs is much higher than the power of the mtSNP panels proposed in the literature to date. Some mtSNP combinations also yield high diversity values in admixed populations. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The proposed computational approach for exploring combinations of mtSNPs that optimise the discrimination power of a given

  1. A reduced number of mtSNPs saturates mitochondrial DNA haplotype diversity of worldwide population groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas, Antonio; Amigo, Jorge

    2010-05-03

    The high levels of variation characterising the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) molecule are due ultimately to its high average mutation rate; moreover, mtDNA variation is deeply structured in different populations and ethnic groups. There is growing interest in selecting a reduced number of mtDNA single nucleotide polymorphisms (mtSNPs) that account for the maximum level of discrimination power in a given population. Applications of the selected mtSNP panel range from anthropologic and medical studies to forensic genetic casework. This study proposes a new simulation-based method that explores the ability of different mtSNP panels to yield the maximum levels of discrimination power. The method explores subsets of mtSNPs of different sizes randomly chosen from a preselected panel of mtSNPs based on frequency. More than 2,000 complete genomes representing three main continental human population groups (Africa, Europe, and Asia) and two admixed populations ("African-Americans" and "Hispanics") were collected from GenBank and the literature, and were used as training sets. Haplotype diversity was measured for each combination of mtSNP and compared with existing mtSNP panels available in the literature. The data indicates that only a reduced number of mtSNPs ranging from six to 22 are needed to account for 95% of the maximum haplotype diversity of a given population sample. However, only a small proportion of the best mtSNPs are shared between populations, indicating that there is not a perfect set of "universal" mtSNPs suitable for all population contexts. The discrimination power provided by these mtSNPs is much higher than the power of the mtSNP panels proposed in the literature to date. Some mtSNP combinations also yield high diversity values in admixed populations. The proposed computational approach for exploring combinations of mtSNPs that optimise the discrimination power of a given set of mtSNPs is more efficient than previous empirical approaches. In contrast to

  2. TM & MT na tradução técnica globalizada – tendências e conseqüências.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Johannes Weininger

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews some consequences of Machine Translation (MT and Translation Memories (TM in the field of technical translation and reports trends and developments in this area. There is convergence between the apparently opposite approaches of MT and TM as far as a both integrate complex tools associated with their counterpart, b they are used in combination and c by the trend to use Controlled Natural Language (CNL in both, be it a priori and explicitly or a posteriori and implicitly. The article also discusses root causes for problems in TM use detected by other authors and defends that there is a tendency of fusion between original and translated text in technical translation, be it via introduction of sophisticated CNL systems or by using Authoring Memories (AM. Keywords: CAT, Machine Translation, MT, Translation Memories, TM, Controlled Language, CNL.

  3. Evidence for late Holocene relative sea-level fall from reconnaissance stratigraphical studies in an area of earthquake-subsided intertidal deposits, Isla Chiloé, southern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frostick, L.E.; Steel, R.J.; Bartsch-Winkler, S.; Schmoll, H.R.

    1993-01-01

    indeterminable.Dead forests still mark some locations that subsided into the intertidal zone during the 1960 earthquake, particularly at Río Pudeto and southern coastal Chiloé. There is little evidence of post-1960 growth in any of these subsided areas. Tree-ring counts and tree-diameter measurements provide evidence that these trees survived the 1837 earthquake, and probably survived the 1737 earthquake, strongly suggesting that these earthquakes were of smaller magnitude than the 1960 event, or that the epicentre locations were further removed than the 1960 epicentre from Isla Chiloé, and that earthquake-induced relative sea-level changes differed from those occurring in 1960.

  4. Stratospheric dynamics following the eruption of Mt. Pinatubo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Match, Aaron; Abalos, Marta; Sheng, Jianxiong; Stenke, Andrea; Paynter, David; Fueglistaler, Stephan

    2016-04-01

    Large volcanic eruptions at low latitudes such as that of Mt. Pinatubo in June 1991 can lead to massively enhanced stratospheric aerosol loading for up to about two years. The enhanced aerosol loading leads to a global cooling in the troposphere as a result of the larger albedo. In the lower stratosphere, the enhanced aerosol leads to a warming of several Kelvins as a result of enhanced absorbed radiation. It has been argued that the characteristic temperature change from volcanic aerosols in the stratosphere - a warming of the low latitudes relative to the high latitudes - tends to induce a more stable polar vortex, and as such a reduced residual circulation. More recently, however, a number of studies have presented calculations of the residual circulation from meteorological reanalyses that suggest that the residual circulation may have been anomalously strong following the Mt. Pinatubo eruption. Similarly, unexpected ozone anomalies in the Southern Hemisphere stratosphere have been linked to a stronger residual circulation. Here, we will present General Circulation Model results, using models ranging in complexity from a primitive equation model to Chemistry-Climate Models, in combination with reanalysis data that aim to provide a mechanistic understanding of the anomalous stratospheric state following the eruption of Mt. Pinatubo. Of particular interest are the impact on model results of the relatively large differences in heating rate perturbations between different data sets of stratospheric aerosol, and the responses in atmospheric dynamics arising from, on the one hand, the specific sea surface temperature pattern of that period and, on the other hand, the response arising from the stratospheric radiative heating perturbation. Our model results suggest that the adjustment in the stratospheric state in response to the in-situ radiative heating perturbation from the volcanic aerosol is probably insufficient to explain the enhanced residual circulation seen

  5. First measurements of gas output from bubbling pools in a mud volcano at the periphery of Mt Etna (Italy): methodologies and implications for monitoring purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federico, Cinzia; Giudice, Gaetano; Liuzzo, Marco; Pedone, Maria; Cosenza, Paolo; Riccobono, Giuseppe

    2014-05-01

    angles. The positions of both laser source and retro-reflectors were chosen so to have the target CO2 plume in between retro-reflectors and the GasFinder, and to realize the complete coverage of the degassing area. We therefore explored the possibility to combine the available path-integrated CO2 concentration data to derive a two-dimensional mapping of CO2 over the mud volcano. The periodic survey of total CO2 output in a subset of vigorously degassing pools, paralleled to the chemical and isotopic measurements routinely performed in selected pools, would offer a robust monitoring tool in a peripheral sector of the volcano. Chiodini G., D'Alessandro W. and Parello F. (1996) Geochemistry of gases and water discharged by the mud volcanoes at Paternò, Mt. Etna (Italy). Bull. Volcanol. 58, 51-58. Paonita A., Caracausi A., Iacono-Marziano G., Martelli M., Rizzo A. (2012) Geochemical evidence for mixing between fluids exsolved at different depths in the magmatic system of Mt Etna (Italy). Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 84 (2012) 380-394.

  6. Participation of MT3 melatonin receptors in the synergistic effect of melatonin on cytotoxic and apoptotic actions evoked by chemotherapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pariente, Roberto; Bejarano, Ignacio; Espino, Javier; Rodríguez, Ana B; Pariente, José A

    2017-11-01

    Melatonin has antitumor activity via several mechanisms including its antiproliferative and proapoptotic effects in addition to its potent antioxidant actions. Therefore, melatonin may be useful in the treatment of tumors in association with chemotherapy drugs. This study was performed to study the role of melatonin receptors on the cytotoxicity and apoptosis induced by the chemotherapeutic agents cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil in two tumor cell lines, such as human colorectal cancer HT-29 cells and cervical cancer HeLa cells. We found that both melatonin and the two chemotherapeutic agents tested induced a decrease in HT-29 and HeLa cell viability. Furthermore, melatonin significantly increased the cytotoxic effect of chemotherapeutic agents, particularly, in 5-fluorouracil-challenged cells. Stimulation of cells with either of the two chemotherapeutic agents in the presence of melatonin further increased caspase-3 activation. Concomitant treatments with melatonin and chemotherapeutic agents augmented the population of apoptotic cells compared to the treatments with chemotherapeutics alone. Blockade of MT1 and/or MT2 receptors with luzindole or 4-P-PDOT was unable to reverse the enhancing effects of melatonin on both cytotoxicity, caspase-3 activation and the amount of apoptotic cells evoked by the chemotherapeutic agents, whereas when MT3 receptors were blocked with prazosin, the synergistic effect of melatonin with chemotherapy on cytotoxicity and apoptosis was reversed. Our findings provided evidence that in vitro melatonin strongly enhances chemotherapeutic-induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis in two tumor cell lines, namely HT-29 and HeLa cells and, this potentiating effect of melatonin is mediated by MT3 receptor stimulation.

  7. Tree-ring stable carbon isotope-based April-June relative humidity reconstruction since ad 1648 in Mt. Tianmu, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu; Ta, Weiyuan; Li, Qiang; Song, Huiming; Sun, Changfeng; Cai, Qiufang; Liu, Han; Wang, Lu; Hu, Sile; Sun, Junyan; Zhang, Wenbiao; Li, Wenzhu

    2018-03-01

    Based on accurate dating, we have determined the stable carbon isotope ratios (δ13C) of five Cryptomeria fortunei specimens from Mt. Tianmu, a subtropical area in southern China. The five δ13C time series records are combined into a single representative δ13C time series using a "numerical mix method." These are normalized to remove temporal variations of δ13 C in atmospheric CO2 to obtain a carbon isotopic discrimination (Δ13C) time series, in which we observe a distinct correlation between Δ13C and local April to June mean relative humidity ( RH AMJ ) (n = 64, r = 0.858, p < 0.0001). We use this relationship to reconstruct RH AMJ variations from ad 1648 to 2014 at Mt. Tianmu. The reconstructed sequence show that over the past 367 years, Mt. Tianmu area was relatively wet, but in the latter part of the twentieth century, under the influence of increasing global warming, it has experienced a sharp reduction in relative humidity. Spatial correlation analysis reveals a significant negative correlation between RH AMJ at Mt. Tianmu and Sea Surface Temperature (SSTs) in the western equatorial Pacific and Indian Ocean. In other words, there is a positive correlation between tree-ring δ13C in Mt. Tianmu and SSTs. Both observed and reconstructed RH AMJ show significant positive correlations with East Asian and South Asian monsoons from 1951 to 2014, which indicate that RH AMJ from Mt. Tianmu reflects the variability of the Asian summer monsoon intensity to a great extent. The summer monsoon has weakened since 1960. However, an increase in relative humidity since 2003 implies a recent enhancement in the summer monsoon.

  8. Mt. Apo geothermal project : a learning experience in sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ote, Leonardo M.; De Jesus, Agnes C.

    1997-01-01

    The Mt. Apo geothermal project, a critical component of the Philippine energy program met stiff opposition from 1988-1991. Seemingly unresolvable legal, environmental and cultural issues between the government developer, the Philippine National Oil Company-Energy Development Corporation (PNOC-EDC) and various affected sectors delayed the project for two years. The paper discusses the efforts undertaken by the developer to resolve these conflicts through a series of initiatives that transformed the project into a legally, environmentally and socially acceptable project. Lastly, the PNOC-EDC experience has evolved a new set of procedures for the environmental evaluation of development project in the Philippines. (author)

  9. A miniature VGA SWIR camera using MT6415CA ROIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eminoglu, Selim; Yilmaz, S. Gokhan; Kocak, Serhat

    2014-06-01

    This paper reports the development of a new miniature VGA SWIR camera called NanoCAM-6415, which is developed to demonstrate the key features of the MT6415CA ROIC such as high integration level, low-noise, and low-power in a small volume. The NanoCAM-6415 uses an InGaAs Focal Plane Array (FPA) with a format of 640 × 512 and pixel pitch of 15 μm built using MT6415CA ROIC. MT6415CA is a low-noise CTIA ROIC, which has a system-on-chip architecture, allows generation of all the required timing and biases on-chip in the ROIC without requiring any external components or inputs, thus enabling the development of compact and low-noise SWIR cameras, with reduced size, weight, and power (SWaP). NanoCAM-6415 camera supports snapshot operation using Integrate-Then-Read (ITR) and Integrate-While-Read (IWR) modes. The camera has three gain settings enabled by the ROIC through programmable Full-Well-Capacity (FWC) values of 10.000 e-, 20.000 e-, and 350.000 e- in the very high gain (VHG), high-gain (HG), and low-gain (LG) modes, respectively. The camera has an input referred noise level of 10 e- rms in the VHG mode at 1 ms integration time, suitable for low-noise SWIR imaging applications. In order to reduce the size and power of the camera, only 2 outputs out of 8 of the ROIC are connected to the external Analog-to-Digital Converters (ADCs) in the camera electronics, providing a maximum frame rate of 50 fps through a 26-pin SDR type Camera Link connector. NanoCAM-6415 SWIR camera without the optics measures 32 mm × 32 mm × 35 mm, weighs 45gr, and dissipates less than 1.8 W using a 5 V supply. These results show that MT6415CA ROIC can successfully be used to develop cameras for SWIR imaging applications where SWaP is a concern. Mikro-Tasarim has also developed new imaging software to demonstrate the functionality of this miniature VGA camera. Mikro-Tasarim provides tested ROIC wafers and also offers compact and easy-to-use test electronics, demo cameras, and hardware

  10. Field- to nano-scale evidence for weakening mechanisms along the fault of the 2016 Amatrice and Norcia earthquakes, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeraglia, Luca; Billi, Andrea; Carminati, Eugenio; Cavallo, Andrea; Doglioni, Carlo

    2017-08-01

    In August and October 2016, two normal fault earthquakes (Mw 6.0 and Mw 6.5, respectively) struck the Amatrice-Norcia area in the central Apennines, Italy. The mainshocks nucleated at depths of 7-9 km with the co-seismic slip propagating upward along the Mt. Gorzano Fault (MGF) and Mt. Vettore Fault System (MVFS). To recognize possible weakening mechanisms along the carbonate-hosted seismogenic faults that generated the Amatrice-Norcia earthquakes, the fresh co-seismic fault exposure (i.e., "nastrino") exposed along the Mt. Vettoretto Fault was sampled and analyzed. This exposed fault belongs to the MVFS and was exhumed from 2-3 km depth. Over the fresh fault surface, phyllosilicates concentrated and localized along mm- to μm-thick layers, and truncated clasts and fluid-like structures were found. At the nano-scale, instead of their common platy-lamellar crystallographic texture, the analyzed phyllosilicates consist of welded nm-thick nanospherules and nanotubes similar to phyllosilicates deformed in rotary shear apparatus at seismic velocities or altered under high hydrothermal temperatures (> 250 °C). Moreover, the attitude of the Mt. Vettoretto Fault and its kinematics inferred from exposed slickenlines are consistent with the co-seismic fault and slip vectors obtained from the focal mechanisms computed for the 2016 mainshocks. All these pieces of evidence suggest that the Mt. Vettoretto Fault slipped seismically during past earthquakes and that co-seismic slip was assisted and facilitated at depths of synoptic picture of co-seismic processes and weakening mechanisms that may occur in carbonate-hosted seismogenic faults.

  11. Expression of melatonin receptor MT1 in cells of human invasive ductal breast carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jablonska, Karolina; Pula, Bartosz; Zemla, Agata; Owczarek, Tomasz; Wojnar, Andrzej; Rys, Janusz; Ambicka, Aleksandra; Podhorska-Okolow, Marzena; Ugorski, Maciej; Dziegiel, Piotr

    2013-04-01

    In humans, two main types of membrane melatonin receptors have been identified, MT1 and MT2. Expression of MT1 in neoplastic cells seems to increase the efficacy of melatonin's oncostatic activity. The purpose of this study was to determine the distribution and the intensity of MT1 expression in breast cancer cells and to correlate it with clinicopathological factors. Immunohistochemical studies (IHC) were conducted on 190 cases of invasive ductal breast carcinomas (IDC) and molecular studies were performed on 29 cases of frozen tumor fragments and selected breast cancer cell lines. Most of the studied tumors manifested a membranous/cytoplasmic IHC expression of MT1. In IDC, the MT1 expression was higher than in fibrocystic breast disease. MT1 expression was higher in estrogen receptor positive (ER+) and HER2 positive (HER2+) tumors. Triple negative tumors (TN) manifested the lowest MT1 expression level. The lowest MT1 protein expression level was noted in the TN breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 compared with ER+ cell lines MCF-7 and SK-BR-3. MT1 mRNA expression was negatively correlated with the malignancy grade of the studied IDC cases. Moreover, higher MT1 expression was associated with patients' longer overall survival (OS) in the group of ER+ breast cancers and treated with tamoxifen. Multivariate analysis indicated that MT1 was an independent prognostic factor in the ER+ tumors for OS and event-free survival in the ER+ tumors. The results of this study may point to a potential prognostic and therapeutic significance of MT1 in IDC. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. 2D data-space cross-gradient joint inversion of MT, gravity and magnetic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pak, Yong-Chol; Li, Tonglin; Kim, Gang-Sop

    2017-08-01

    We have developed a data-space multiple cross-gradient joint inversion algorithm, and validated it through synthetic tests and applied it to magnetotelluric (MT), gravity and magnetic datasets acquired along a 95 km profile in Benxi-Ji'an area of northeastern China. To begin, we discuss a generalized cross-gradient joint inversion for multiple datasets and model parameters sets, and formulate it in data space. The Lagrange multiplier required for the structural coupling in the data-space method is determined using an iterative solver to avoid calculation of the inverse matrix in solving the large system of equations. Next, using model-space and data-space methods, we inverted the synthetic data and field data. Based on our result, the joint inversion in data-space not only delineates geological bodies more clearly than the separate inversion, but also yields nearly equal results with the one in model-space while consuming much less memory.

  13. Finite element modeling of ground deformation and gravity field at Mt. Etna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Ganci

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available An elastic 3-D axi-symmetric model based on Finite Element Method (FEM is proposed to compute ground deformation and gravity changes caused by overpressure sources in volcanic areas. The numerical computations are focused on the modeling of a complex description of Mt Etna in order to evaluate the effect of topography, medium heterogeneities and source geometries. Both ground deformation and gravity changes are investigated by solving a coupled numerical problem considering a simplified ground surface profile and a multi-layered crustal structure inferred from seismic tomography. The role of the source geometry is also explored taking into account spherical and ellipsoidal volumetric sources. The comparison between numerical results and those predicted by analytical solutions disclosed significant discrepancies. These differences constrain the applicability of simple spherical source and homogeneous half-space hypotheses, which are usually implicitly assumed when analytical solutions are applied.

  14. The mtDNA legacy of the Levantine early Upper Palaeolithic in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivieri, Anna; Achilli, Alessandro; Pala, Maria; Battaglia, Vincenza; Fornarino, Simona; Al-Zahery, Nadia; Scozzari, Rosaria; Cruciani, Fulvio; Behar, Doron M; Dugoujon, Jean-Michel; Coudray, Clotilde; Santachiara-Benerecetti, A Silvana; Semino, Ornella; Bandelt, Hans-Jürgen; Torroni, Antonio

    2006-12-15

    Sequencing of 81 entire human mitochondrial DNAs (mtDNAs) belonging to haplogroups M1 and U6 reveals that these predominantly North African clades arose in southwestern Asia and moved together to Africa about 40,000 to 45,000 years ago. Their arrival temporally overlaps with the event(s) that led to the peopling of Europe by modern humans and was most likely the result of the same change in climate conditions that allowed humans to enter the Levant, opening the way to the colonization of both Europe and North Africa. Thus, the early Upper Palaeolithic population(s) carrying M1 and U6 did not return to Africa along the southern coastal route of the "out of Africa" exit, but from the Mediterranean area; and the North African Dabban and European Aurignacian industries derived from a common Levantine source.

  15. DIAGNOSIS OF EGG MARKETING CONDITION IN SINOP - MT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ribeiro

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The eggs, when manipulated in inadequate sanitary conditions, are considered as ways for development and multiplication of spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms. Thus, the objective was to evaluate the microbiological quality of eggs marketed out at Sinop – MT, through the identification of Salmonella spp., count of aerobic mesophile bacteria and enterobacteria. We collected 12 eggs from each establishment, three supermarkets and three fairs. Were not identified Salmonella spp. in egg shells and internal content. Escherichia coli was isolated from the internal contents of eggs come from an street fair. In aerobic mesophilic counts were obtained from eggs supermarkets counts CFU/g/egg shell of 5,8 x 105, 1,21 x 105 e 4,7 x 103. In relation to the fairs, the counts were 7,2 x 104, 5,66 x 104 e 8,7 x 103. The absence of Salmonella spp. the evaluated eggs classifies them as fit for consumption for compliance with current legislation. However, the presence of E. coli and the values of aerobic mesophilic counts and Enterobacteriaceae highlight the need to establish measures to reduce bacterial contamination of shell eggs sold out at Sinop, MT.

  16. Natural radioactivity in volcanic ash from Mt. Pinatubo eruption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duran, E.B.; De Vera, C.M.; Garcia, T.Y.; Dela Cruz, F.M.; Esguerra, L.V.; Castaneda, S.S.

    1992-01-01

    Last June 15, 1991, a major pyroclastic eruption occurred from Mt. Pinatubo volcano located in Zambales, Central Luzon. The radiological impact of this eruption was assessed based on the concentrations of the principal naturally occurring radionuclides observed in volcanic ash. The volcanic ash samples were collected from locations which are within 50-km radius of Mt. Pinatubo at various times after the eruption. The mean activity concentrations in Bq/kg wet weight of the natural radionuclides in volcanic ash were as follows: 12.6 for 238 U, 14.0 for 232 Th and 330 for 40 K. These values are significantly higher than the mean activity concentrations of these radionuclides observed in topsoil in the same provinces before the eruption. This suggests that with the deposition of large quantities of volcanic ash and lahar in Central Luzon and concomitant topographic changes, the distribution and quantities of radionuclides which gave rise to terrestrial radiation may have also changed. Outdoor radon concentrations measured three days and later after the eruption were within normal background values. (auth.). 4 refs.; 5 tabs.; 1 fig

  17. Structure and composition of subalpine summit habitats on Mt. Gede-Pangrango complex, Cibodas Biosphere Reserve, West Java, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asep Sadili

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available SADILI, A., KARTAWINATA, K., KARTONEGORO, A., SOEDJITO, H. & SUMADIJAYA, A. 2009. Structure and composition of subalpine summit habitats on Mt. Gede-Pangrango complex, Cibodas Biosphere Reserve, West Java, Indonesia. Reinwardtia 12 (5: 391–404. — We undertook a phytosociological analysis of the subalpine herbaceous and shrubby vegetation at the Mandalawangi and Suryakencana meadows and the scrub at the Crater Side at the tops of Mt. Gede and Mt. Pangrango in the Cibodas Biosphere Reserve. We recorded 30 species of 18 families of saplings, shrubs, seedlings and herbs in 78 quadrats with a total area of 7,800 m2. Anaphalis javanica, a woody tall herb and long-lived pioneer was the dominant species in the sapling and shrub stratum, while Isachne pangerangensis, Tripogon exiguus and Carex verticillata were prevalent in the seedling and herb stratum at Mandalawangi and Suryakencana. Stunted shrub is Vaccinium varingaeifolium, dominant in the Crater Side scrub. Based on the importance values, the Mandalawangi meadow may be designated as the Anaphalis javanica-Isachne pangerangensis community type, the Suryakencana meadow as Anaphalis javanica-Tripogon exiguus community type and the Crater Side scrub as Vaccinium varingiaefolium-Seliguea feei community type. The similarity indices between Mandalawangi and Suryakencana community types were very high (>75 % while those between the Crater Side and Mandalawangi and the Crater Side and Suryakencana were very low (<10 %. Poor soil conditions and fire seem responsible for the perpetual existence of A. javanica.

  18. Circumpolar diversity and geographic differentiation of mtDNA in the critically endangered Antarctic blue whale (Balaenoptera musculus intermedia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela L Sremba

    Full Text Available The Antarctic blue whale (Balaenoptera musculus intermedia was hunted to near extinction between 1904 and 1972, declining from an estimated initial abundance of more than 250,000 to fewer than 400. Here, we describe mtDNA control region diversity and geographic differentiation in the surviving population of the Antarctic blue whale, using 218 biopsy samples collected under the auspices of the International Whaling Commission (IWC during research cruises from 1990-2009. Microsatellite genotypes and mtDNA sequences identified 166 individuals among the 218 samples and documented movement of a small number of individuals, including a female that traveled at least 6,650 km or 131° longitude over four years. mtDNA sequences from the 166 individuals were aligned with published sequences from 17 additional individuals, resolving 52 unique haplotypes from a consensus length of 410 bp. From this minimum census, a rarefaction analysis predicted that only 72 haplotypes (95% CL, 64, 86 have survived in the contemporary population of Antarctic blue whales. However, haplotype diversity was relatively high (0.968±0.004, perhaps as a result of the longevity of blue whales and the relatively recent timing of the bottleneck. Despite the potential for circumpolar dispersal, we found significant differentiation in mtDNA diversity (F(ST = 0.032, p<0.005 and microsatellite alleles (F(ST = 0.005, p<0.05 among the six Antarctic Areas historically used by the IWC for management of blue whales.

  19. In search of the genetic footprints of Sumerians: a survey of Y-chromosome and mtDNA variation in the Marsh Arabs of Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivieri Anna

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For millennia, the southern part of the Mesopotamia has been a wetland region generated by the Tigris and Euphrates rivers before flowing into the Gulf. This area has been occupied by human communities since ancient times and the present-day inhabitants, the Marsh Arabs, are considered the population with the strongest link to ancient Sumerians. Popular tradition, however, considers the Marsh Arabs as a foreign group, of unknown origin, which arrived in the marshlands when the rearing of water buffalo was introduced to the region. Results To shed some light on the paternal and maternal origin of this population, Y chromosome and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA variation was surveyed in 143 Marsh Arabs and in a large sample of Iraqi controls. Analyses of the haplogroups and sub-haplogroups observed in the Marsh Arabs revealed a prevalent autochthonous Middle Eastern component for both male and female gene pools, with weak South-West Asian and African contributions, more evident in mtDNA. A higher male than female homogeneity is characteristic of the Marsh Arab gene pool, likely due to a strong male genetic drift determined by socio-cultural factors (patrilocality, polygamy, unequal male and female migration rates. Conclusions Evidence of genetic stratification ascribable to the Sumerian development was provided by the Y-chromosome data where the J1-Page08 branch reveals a local expansion, almost contemporary with the Sumerian City State period that characterized Southern Mesopotamia. On the other hand, a more ancient background shared with Northern Mesopotamia is revealed by the less represented Y-chromosome lineage J1-M267*. Overall our results indicate that the introduction of water buffalo breeding and rice farming, most likely from the Indian sub-continent, only marginally affected the gene pool of autochthonous people of the region. Furthermore, a prevalent Middle Eastern ancestry of the modern population of the marshes of

  20. Genetic dysfunction of MT-ATP6 causes axonal Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Pitceathly, Robert D S

    2012-09-11

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease is the most common inherited neuromuscular disorder, affecting 1 in 2,500 individuals. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations are not generally considered within the differential diagnosis of patients with uncomplicated inherited neuropathy, despite the essential requirement of ATP for axonal function. We identified the mtDNA mutation m.9185T>C in MT-ATP6, encoding the ATP6 subunit of the mitochondrial ATP synthase (OXPHOS complex V), at homoplasmic levels in a family with mitochondrial disease in whom a severe motor axonal neuropathy was a striking feature. This led us to hypothesize that mutations in the 2 mtDNA complex V subunit encoding genes, MT-ATP6 and MT-ATP8, might be an unrecognized cause of isolated axonal CMT and distal hereditary motor neuropathy (dHMN).

  1. Regulation of anthocyanin and proanthocyanidin biosynthesis by Medicago truncatula bHLH transcription factor MtTT8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Penghui; Chen, Beibei; Zhang, Gaoyang; Chen, Longxiang; Dong, Qiang; Wen, Jiangqi; Mysore, Kirankumar S; Zhao, Jian

    2016-05-01

    The MYB- basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH)-WD40 complexes regulating anthocyanin and proanthocyanidin (PA) biosynthesis in plants are not fully understood. Here Medicago truncatula bHLH MtTT8 was characterized as a central component of these ternary complexes that control anthocyanin and PA biosynthesis. Mttt8 mutant seeds have a transparent testa phenotype with reduced PAs and anthocyanins. MtTT8 restores PA and anthocyanin productions in Arabidopsis tt8 mutant. Ectopic expression of MtTT8 restores anthocyanins and PAs in mttt8 plant and hairy roots and further enhances both productions in wild-type hairy roots. Transcriptomic analyses and metabolite profiling of mttt8 mutant seeds and M. truncatula hairy roots (mttt8 mutant, mttt8 mutant complemented with MtTT8, or MtTT8 overexpression lines) indicate that MtTT8 regulates a subset of genes involved in PA and anthocyanin biosynthesis. MtTT8 is genetically regulated by MtLAP1, MtPAR and MtWD40-1. Combinations of MtPAR, MtLAP1, MtTT8 and MtWD40-1 activate MtTT8 promoter in yeast assay. MtTT8 interacts with these transcription factors to form regulatory complexes. MtTT8, MtWD40-1 and an MYB factor, MtPAR or MtLAP1, interacted and activated promoters of anthocyanidin reductase and anthocyanidin synthase to regulate PA and anthocyanin biosynthesis, respectively. Our results provide new insights into the complex regulation of PA and anthocyanin biosynthesis in M. truncatula. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  2. Magnetotelluric Investigations of Convergent Margins and of Incipient Rifting: Preliminary Results from the EarthScope MT Transportable Array and MT FlexArray Deployments in Cascadia and in the North American Mid-Continent Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, A.; Bedrosian, P.; Key, K.; Livelybrooks, D.; Egbert, G. D.; Bowles-martinez, E.; Wannamaker, P. E.

    2014-12-01

    We report on preliminary analyses of data from the EarthScope MT Transportable Array, and from two high-resolution EarthScope MT studies in Cascadia. The first of these, iMUSH, is acquiring wideband MT data at 150 sites, as well as active and passive seismic data in SW Washington (including Mounts Saint Helens, Adams and Rainier). iMUSH seeks to determine details of crustal magma transport and storage, and to resolve major tectonic controls on volcanism along the arc. iMUSH may help to settle a debate over the origin of the SW Washington Crustal Conductor (SWCC), which covers ~5000 km2and that has alternately been attributed to accreted Eocene metasediments or to an extensive region of partial melt in the lower crust beneath the three volcanoes. The iMUSH array is continguous with an amphibious ~150 station MT experiment (MOCHA) onshore and offshore of the Washington and Oregon forearc. MOCHA iwill image the crust and upper mantle of the subduction system in 3D, constraining the fluid input to the system from offshore and the distribution of fluids released from the down-going slab, including along the transitional zone where Episodic Tremor and Slip occurs. Our goal is to refine our understanding of the segmentation, structure and fluid distribution along the convergent margin segments, and their relationship to the spatial pattern of ETS. In contrast to the active Cascadia margin, the Mid-Continent Rift (MCR) is the trace of a massive igneous event that nearly split North America 1.1 billion years ago. Initial results from 3D inversion of MT Transportable Array data show less fine-scale heterogeneity in the upper mantle (250 km depth) than is evident in western, tectonic North America, but a division at the base of thick lithosphere, with higher conductivities beneath and immediately south of the Great Lakes, than to the south. From the base of the lithosphere to the Moho, this high conductivity feature narrows, ultimately disappearing in the mid-crust. In the

  3. MT2-D inversion analysis in Kakkonda geothermal field; Kakkonda chinetsu chiiki ni okeru MT ho nijigen kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamane, K.; Takasugi, S. [Geothermal Energy Research and Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Miyazaki, S. [Japan Metals and Chemicals Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Uchida, T. [New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo, (Japan)

    1996-05-01

    Data, collected from an MT method-assisted survey conducted in the Kakkonda geothermal region in 1987, was re-examined, and a new structure was found. The review was carried out by use of a 2D analysis in the TM mode. According to the 1D analysis of 1987 and the geological data gathered then, it is estimated that the resistivity structure of this region runs in the northwest-southeast direction. A northeast-southwest traverse line was set for this analysis, orthogonal to the strike, and the impedance at each observation spot was caused to rotate to this direction across the whole range of frequency. Furthermore, in 1994-95, surveys were conducted using arrayed CSMT/MT methods. All these sum up to indicate that a high-resistivity region extends northwest in the southwestern part of the Kakkonda river but that there exists a low-resistivity region of several 10 Ohm m centering about the B traverse line. The high-resistivity region deep in the ground being the target of excavation in the Kakkonda region, to collect knowledge about this high-resistivity is important, and here the effectiveness of the 2d analysis has been verified. 5 refs., 11 figs.

  4. Exogenous melatonin reduced blood pressure in late-term ovine fetus via MT1/MT2 receptor pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Jianying; Lv, Juanxiu; Li, Weisheng; Zhang, Pengjie; Mao, Caiping; Xu, Zhice

    2016-09-01

    Melatonin is involved in the regulation of blood pressure through the receptor dependent or independent route. However, the effect of melatonin on fetal blood pressure is unknown. This study investigated the effect of melatonin on blood pressure of the late-term ovine fetus in utero. Melatonin and/or antagonists were intravenously administered into the fetuses. Mean arterial pressure and heart rate were recorded. Fetal blood samples were analyzed for biochemical parameters and hormones, including cortisol, angiotensin I, angiotensin II, aldosterone, atrial natriuretic peptide, corticotrophin-releasing hormone, adrenocorticotropic hormone, and endothelin. Fetal blood pressure was decreased following administration of melatonin, whereas it was increased following administration of luzindole, but not prazosin. Plasma level of endothelin was decreased by melatonin, which was blocked by luzindole. Our study suggested that melatonin reduced fetal blood pressure via MT1/MT2 receptors and possibly involving release of endothelin. Copyright © 2016 Society for Biology of Reproduction & the Institute of Animal Reproduction and Food Research of Polish Academy of Sciences in Olsztyn. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  5. Melatonin acts through MT1/MT2 receptors to activate hypothalamic Akt and suppress hepatic gluconeogenesis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Juliana A; Kinote, Andrezza; Ignacio-Souza, Letícia M; de Araújo, Thiago M; Razolli, Daniela S; Doneda, Diego L; Paschoal, Lívia B; Lellis-Santos, Camilo; Bertolini, Gisele L; Velloso, Lício A; Bordin, Silvana; Anhê, Gabriel F

    2013-07-15

    Melatonin can contribute to glucose homeostasis either by decreasing gluconeogenesis or by counteracting insulin resistance in distinct models of obesity. However, the precise mechanism through which melatonin controls glucose homeostasis is not completely understood. Male Wistar rats were administered an intracerebroventricular (icv) injection of melatonin and one of following: an icv injection of a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor, an icv injection of a melatonin receptor (MT) antagonist, or an intraperitoneal (ip) injection of a muscarinic receptor antagonist. Anesthetized rats were subjected to pyruvate tolerance test to estimate in vivo glucose clearance after pyruvate load and in situ liver perfusion to assess hepatic gluconeogenesis. The hypothalamus was removed to determine Akt phosphorylation. Melatonin injections in the central nervous system suppressed hepatic gluconeogenesis and increased hypothalamic Akt phosphorylation. These effects of melatonin were suppressed either by icv injections of PI3K inhibitors and MT antagonists and by ip injection of a muscarinic receptor antagonist. We conclude that melatonin activates hypothalamus-liver communication that may contribute to circadian adjustments of gluconeogenesis. These data further suggest a physiopathological relationship between the circadian disruptions in metabolism and reduced levels of melatonin found in type 2 diabetes patients.

  6. Machine translation (MT): qualità, produttività, customer satisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    Fellet, Anna

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present research is to examine the impact of recent technological developments in machine translation (MT) in the language industry. The objectives are: 1. To define the value of MT in terms of suitability and convenience in meeting expressed requirements in those cases where MT is demanded; 2. To examine the potential increase in productivity through a conscious use of the tool; 3. To analyse those activities aimed at satisfying the customer’s explicit and impli...

  7. Metabolic rescue in pluripotent cells from patients with mtDNA disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hong; Folmes, Clifford D L; Wu, Jun; Morey, Robert; Mora-Castilla, Sergio; Ocampo, Alejandro; Ma, Li; Poulton, Joanna; Wang, Xinjian; Ahmed, Riffat; Kang, Eunju; Lee, Yeonmi; Hayama, Tomonari; Li, Ying; Van Dyken, Crystal; Gutierrez, Nuria Marti; Tippner-Hedges, Rebecca; Koski, Amy; Mitalipov, Nargiz; Amato, Paula; Wolf, Don P; Huang, Taosheng; Terzic, Andre; Laurent, Louise C; Izpisua Belmonte, Juan Carlos; Mitalipov, Shoukhrat

    2015-08-13

    Mitochondria have a major role in energy production via oxidative phosphorylation, which is dependent on the expression of critical genes encoded by mitochondrial (mt)DNA. Mutations in mtDNA can cause fatal or severely debilitating disorders with limited treatment options. Clinical manifestations vary based on mutation type and heteroplasmy (that is, the relative levels of mutant and wild-type mtDNA within each cell). Here we generated genetically corrected pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) from patients with mtDNA disease. Multiple induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cell lines were derived from patients with common heteroplasmic mutations including 3243A>G, causing mitochondrial encephalomyopathy and stroke-like episodes (MELAS), and 8993T>G and 13513G>A, implicated in Leigh syndrome. Isogenic MELAS and Leigh syndrome iPS cell lines were generated containing exclusively wild-type or mutant mtDNA through spontaneous segregation of heteroplasmic mtDNA in proliferating fibroblasts. Furthermore, somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) enabled replacement of mutant mtDNA from homoplasmic 8993T>G fibroblasts to generate corrected Leigh-NT1 PSCs. Although Leigh-NT1 PSCs contained donor oocyte wild-type mtDNA (human haplotype D4a) that differed from Leigh syndrome patient haplotype (F1a) at a total of 47 nucleotide sites, Leigh-NT1 cells displayed transcriptomic profiles similar to those in embryo-derived PSCs carrying wild-type mtDNA, indicative of normal nuclear-to-mitochondrial interactions. Moreover, genetically rescued patient PSCs displayed normal metabolic function compared to impaired oxygen consumption and ATP production observed in mutant cells. We conclude that both reprogramming approaches offer complementary strategies for derivation of PSCs containing exclusively wild-type mtDNA, through spontaneous segregation of heteroplasmic mtDNA in individual iPS cell lines or mitochondrial replacement by SCNT in homoplasmic mtDNA-based disease.

  8. Regionalized pathology correlates with augmentation of mtDNA copy numbers in a patient with myoclonic epilepsy with ragged-red fibers (MERRF-syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Brinckmann

    Full Text Available Human patients with myoclonic epilepsy with ragged-red fibers (MERRF suffer from regionalized pathology caused by a mutation in the mitochondrial DNA (m.8344A→G. In MERRF-syndrome brain and skeletal muscles are predominantly affected, despite mtDNA being present in any tissue. In the past such tissue-specificity could not be explained by varying mtDNA mutation loads. In search for a region-specific pathology in human individuals we determined the mtDNA/nDNA ratios along with the mutation loads in 43 different post mortem tissue samples of a 16-year-old female MERRF patient and in four previously healthy victims of motor vehicle accidents. In brain and muscle we further determined the quantity of mitochondrial proteins (COX subunits II and IV, transcription factors (NRF1 and TFAM, and VDAC1 (Porin as a marker for the mitochondrial mass. In the patient the mutation loads varied merely between 89-100%. However, mtDNA copy numbers were increased 3-7 fold in predominantly affected brain areas (e.g. hippocampus, cortex and putamen and in skeletal muscle. Similar increases were absent in unaffected tissues (e.g. heart, lung, kidney, liver, and gastrointestinal organs. Such mtDNA copy number increase was not paralleled by an augmentation of mitochondrial mass in some investigated tissues, predominantly in the most affected tissue regions of the brain. We thus conclude that "futile" stimulation of mtDNA replication per se or a secondary failure to increase the mitochondrial mass may contribute to the regionalized pathology seen in MERRF-syndrome.

  9. Microsatellite and mtDNA analysis of lake trout, Salvelinus namaycush, from Great Bear Lake, Northwest Territories: impacts of historical and contemporary evolutionary forces on Arctic ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Les N; Howland, Kimberly L; Kowalchuk, Matthew W; Bajno, Robert; Lindsay, Melissa M; Taylor, Eric B

    2013-01-01

    Resolving the genetic population structure of species inhabiting pristine, high latitude ecosystems can provide novel insights into the post-glacial, evolutionary processes shaping the distribution of contemporary genetic variation. In this study, we assayed genetic variation in lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) from Great Bear Lake (GBL), NT and one population outside of this lake (Sandy Lake, NT) at 11 microsatellite loci and the mtDNA control region (d-loop). Overall, population subdivision was low, but significant (global FST θ = 0.025), and pairwise comparisons indicated that significance was heavily influenced by comparisons between GBL localities and Sandy Lake. Our data indicate that there is no obvious genetic structure among the various basins within GBL (global FST = 0.002) despite the large geographic distances between sampling areas. We found evidence of low levels of contemporary gene flow among arms within GBL, but not between Sandy Lake and GBL. Coalescent analyses suggested that some historical gene flow occurred among arms within GBL and between GBL and Sandy Lake. It appears, therefore, that contemporary (ongoing dispersal and gene flow) and historical (historical gene flow and large founding and present-day effective population sizes) factors contribute to the lack of neutral genetic structure in GBL. Overall, our results illustrate the importance of history (e.g., post-glacial colonization) and contemporary dispersal ecology in shaping genetic population structure of Arctic faunas and provide a better understanding of the evolutionary ecology of long-lived salmonids in pristine, interconnected habitats. PMID:23404390

  10. Estimates of Continental Ancestry Vary Widely among Individuals with the Same mtDNA Haplogroup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, Leslie S.; Magnaye, Kevin M.; Bigham, Abigail W.; Akey, Joshua M.; Bamshad, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    The association between a geographical region and an mtDNA haplogroup(s) has provided the basis for using mtDNA haplogroups to infer an individual’s place of origin and genetic ancestry. Although it is well known that ancestry inferences using mtDNA haplogroups and those using genome-wide markers are frequently discrepant, little empirical information exists on the magnitude and scope of such discrepancies between multiple mtDNA haplogroups and worldwide populations. We compared genetic-ancestry inferences made by mtDNA-haplogroup membership to those made by autosomal SNPs in ∼940 samples of the Human Genome Diversity Panel and recently admixed populations from the 1000 Genomes Project. Continental-ancestry proportions often varied widely among individuals sharing the same mtDNA haplogroup. For only half of mtDNA haplogroups did the highest average continental-ancestry proportion match the highest continental-ancestry proportion of a majority of individuals with that haplogroup. Prediction of an individual’s mtDNA haplogroup from his or her continental-ancestry proportions was often incorrect. Collectively, these results indicate that for most individuals in the worldwide populations sampled, mtDNA-haplogroup membership provides limited information about either continental ancestry or continental region of origin. PMID:25620206

  11. Control of muscle mitochondria by insulin entails activation of Akt2-mtNOS pathway: implications for the metabolic syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Finocchietto

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In the metabolic syndrome with hyperinsulinemia, mitochondrial inhibition facilitates muscle fat and glycogen accumulation and accelerates its progression. In the last decade, nitric oxide (NO emerged as a typical mitochondrial modulator by reversibly inhibiting citochrome oxidase and oxygen utilization. We wondered whether insulin-operated signaling pathways modulate mitochondrial respiration via NO, to alternatively release complete glucose oxidation to CO(2 and H(2O or to drive glucose storage to glycogen. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We illustrate here that NO produced by translocated nNOS (mtNOS is the insulin-signaling molecule that controls mitochondrial oxygen utilization. We evoke a hyperinsulinemic-normoglycemic non-invasive clamp by subcutaneously injecting adult male rats with long-lasting human insulin glargine that remains stable in plasma by several hours. At a precise concentration, insulin increased phospho-Akt2 that translocates to mitochondria and determines in situ phosphorylation and substantial cooperative mtNOS activation (+4-8 fold, P<.05, high NO, and a lowering of mitochondrial oxygen uptake and resting metabolic rate (-25 to -60%, P<.05. Comparing in vivo insulin metabolic effects on gastrocnemius muscles by direct electroporation of siRNA nNOS or empty vector in the two legs of the same animal, confirmed that in the silenced muscles disrupted mtNOS allows higher oxygen uptake and complete (U-(14C-glucose utilization respect to normal mtNOS in the vector-treated ones (respectively 37+/-3 vs 10+/-1 micromolO(2/h.g tissue and 13+/-1 vs 7.2+/-1 micromol (3H(2O/h.g tissue, P<.05, which reciprocally restricted glycogen-synthesis by a half. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These evidences show that after energy replenishment, insulin depresses mitochondrial respiration in skeletal muscle via NO which permits substrates to be deposited as macromolecules; at discrete hyperinsulinemia, persistent mtNOS activation could

  12. MtB versus VAIC in measuring intellectual capital: Empirical evidence from Italian listed companies

    OpenAIRE

    Forte, W.; Matonti, G.; Tucker, J.; Nicolo, G.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose – Grounded in the extant theoretical and empirical literature, the purpose of this paper is to compare two of the most employed methods measuring IC value in order to find the most suitable in the context of Italian listed firms. Moreover, this paper also investigates the relationship between Intellectual Capital (IC), measured in terms of the Market to Book (MTB) ratio, and the Value Added Intellectual Coefficient (VAIC), and potential key determinants of IC value including intangibl...

  13. Organic molecular compositions and temporal variations of summertime mountain aerosols over Mt. Tai, North China Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Pingqing; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Okuzawa, Kazuhiro; Aggarwal, Shankar Gopala; Wang, Gehui; Kanaya, Yugo; Wang, Zifa

    2008-10-01

    Total suspended particles (TSP) were collected at the summit of Mt. Tai (1534 m above sea level) on a daytime and nighttime basis during a summertime campaign (May-June 2006) and were characterized for organic molecular compositions using solvent extraction/derivatization and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry technique. The n-Alkanes, fatty acids, fatty alcohols, sugars, glycerol and polyacids, and phthalate esters were found as major organic compound classes, whereas lignin and resin products, sterols, aromatic acids, hopanes, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were detected as minor classes. Sugars (49.8-2115 ng m-3, average 640 ng m-3 in daytime; 18.1-4348 ng m-3, 799 ng m-3 in nighttime) were found to be the dominant compound class. Levoglucosan, a specific cellulose pyrolysis product, was detected as the most abundant single compound, followed by C28 fatty alcohol, diisobutyl and di-n-butyl phthalates, C29n-alkane, C16 and C28 fatty acids, and malic acid. By grouping organic compounds based on their sources, we found that emission of terrestrial plant waxes was the most significant source (30-34%) of the TSP, followed by biomass burning products (25-27%) (e.g., levoglucosan and lignin and resin products), soil resuspension (15-18%) due to agricultural activities, secondary oxidation products (8-10%), plastic emission (3-10%), marine/microbial sources (6%), and urban/industrial emissions from fossil fuel use (4%). However, low molecular weight dicarboxylic acids (such as oxalic acid) of photochemical origin were not included in this study. Malic acid was found to be much higher than those reported in the ground level, suggesting an enhanced photochemical production in the free troposphere over mountain areas. Temporal variations of biomass burning tracers (e.g., levoglucosan, galactosan, mannosan) and some higher plant wax derived compound classes suggested that there were two major (E1 and E2) and one minor (E3) biomass-burning events during this

  14. Investigation of new particle formation at the summit of Mt. Tai, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Ganglin; Sui, Xiao; Chen, Jianmin; Jayaratne, Rohan; Mellouki, Abdelwahid

    2018-02-01

    To date, few comprehensive field observations of new particle formation (NPF) have been carried out at mountaintop sites in China. In this study, simultaneous measurements of particle size distribution, trace gases, meteorological parameters, and mass concentration and chemical composition of PM2.5 were performed at the summit of Mt. Tai (1534 m a.s.l.) from 25 July to 24 August 2014 (Phase I), 21 September to 9 December 2014 (Phase II), and 16 June to 7 August 2015 (Phase III) to investigate characteristics and favorable conditions of NPF in a relatively clean mountaintop environment. The NPF events were identified based on particle size distribution measured by the neutral cluster and air ion spectrometer (NAIS), and 66 such events were observed during a period of 164 days - corresponding to an occurrence frequency of 40 %. The formation rates of 3 nm particles (J3) and growth rates were in the ranges of 0.82-25.04 cm-3 s-1 and 0.58-7.76 nm h-1, respectively. On average, the condensation sink (CS), O3 concentration, air temperature, and relative humidity were lower, whereas the SO2 concentration was higher on NPF days than that on non-NPF days. The CS on Mt. Tai was at a low level and lower CS was critical for NPF. NPF events were common when wind came from the east-southeast and west-southwest, which was probably associated with relatively lower CS in the east-southeast and higher SO2 concentration in the west-southwest. O3 was not a governing factor for NPF in this study, and a high level of NOx concentration might be responsible for the decreased O3 concentration on NPF days. Three categories of backward trajectories were classified, among which the continental air mass was the majority. The continental air mass passing through more polluted areas (denoted as Type I) favored NPF because of enhanced SO2 concentration and potential ammonia with it. An in-depth analysis of SO2 indicated that sulfuric acid was a dominant precursor on Mt. Tai; meanwhile, biogenic

  15. Remembering visual motion: neural correlates of associative plasticity and motion recall in cortical area MT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlack, Anja; Albright, Thomas D

    2007-03-15

    The pictorial content of visual memories recalled by association is embodied by neuronal activity at the highest processing stages of primate visual cortex. This activity is elicited by top-down signals from the frontal lobe and recapitulates the bottom-up pattern normally obtained by the recalled stimulus. To explore the generality and mechanisms of this phenomenon, we recorded motion-sensitive neurons at an early stage of cortical processing. After monkeys learned to associate directions of motion with static shapes, these neurons exhibited unprecedented selectivity for the shapes. This emergent shape selectivity reflects activation of neurons representing the motion stimuli recalled by association, and it suggests that recall-related activity may be a general feature of neurons in visual cortex.

  16. Mt. Pinatubo SO2 Column Measurements From Mauna Loa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, A.; Murcray, F. J.; Rinsland, C. P.; Blatherwick, R. D.; David, S. J.; Murcray, F. H.; Murcray, D. G.

    1992-01-01

    Absorption features of the nu(sub 1) band of SO2 have been identified in high resolution infrared solar absorption spectra recorded from Mauna Loa, Hawaii, on July 9 and 12, 1991, shortly after the arrival of the first eruption plume from the Mt. Pinatubo volcano in the Phillipines. A total SO2 vertical column amount of (5.1 +/- 0.5) x 10(exp 16) molecules/sq cm on July 9 has been retrieved based on nonlinear least- squares spectral fittings of 9 selected SO2 absorption features with an updated set of SO2 spectral parameters. A SO2 total column upper limit of 0.9 x 10(esp 16) molecules/sq cm deduced from measurements on September 20-24, 1991, is consistent with the dispersion of the SO2 cloud and the rapid conversion of the SO2 vapor into volcanic aerosol particles.

  17. Analfabetismo na terceira idade: pesquisa do analfabetismo em Sinop - MT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucimar Menegon de Arruda

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo procura analisar a relação entre o analfabetismo e a terceira idade. É relatado no corpo do artigo a pesquisa realizada na cidade de Sinop - MT, no Clube da Terceira Idade Dom Henrique, onde através dessas entrevistas podemos juntar dados do IBGE e do Pnad com a realidade de nossa cidade. Em seguida apresenta as pesquisas feitas com os idosos e como eles lidam com o analfabetismo, explicará também o porquê da evasão escolar e qual é a relação nos dias de hoje com a educação e alfabetização de seus filhos. Palavras-chave: analfabetismo; idosos; índice; terceira idade.

  18. QUALITY CONTROL OF HYDROCHLOROTHIAZIDE TABLETS MARKETED IN SINOP-MT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. K. Órfão

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The thiazide diuretics are of the classes of drugs most frequently used for the treatment of hypertension. Hydrochlorothiazide is the representative of this class and is found in tablet form in doses of 25 and 50 mg. It is marketed in three different categories of drugs: reference, similar and generic. According to the regulator in Brazil, the National Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA, before pharmaceuticals are released for use, the pharmaceutical industry must meet product quality specifications, but the consumption of counterfeit drugs, contraband or without registration with government laws It is growing in Brazil, which affect the entire drug production chain affecting the health of those who use these medicines. In view of the reported problems about the quality of marketed drugs and being the state of Mato Grosso considered a fake gateway drug, due to its proximity to Bolivia, this study aimed to assess the quality of tablets containing hydrochlorothiazide is already one of the most widely used drugs in the treatment of hypertension in Sinop-MT municipality according local search. Samples from five laboratories that produce hydrochlorothiazide tablets at a dose of 25 mg, and the most market in the municipality of Sinop / MT were analyzed as stablished in the Brazilian Pharmacopoeia. It was found that four of the five samples of drugs in Mato Grosso, performed all the requirements for approval in quality testing, with the exception of a product that has lower hardness values than recommended, which can lead to problems drug presentation as well as directly affect the absorption, bioavailability and action of the therapeutic drug. It was concluded that medicinal products containing hydrochlorothiazide showed adequate quality, ensuring their effectiveness.

  19. 3D Marine MT Modeling for a Topographic Seafloor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, B., Sr.; Yin, C.; Ren, X.; Liu, Y.; Huang, X.; Liu, L.

    2017-12-01

    As an effective geophysical tool, marine magnetotelluric (MMT) exploration has been widely used in offshore oil and gas exploration. Accordingly, the MMT forward modelling has made big progress. However, most of the researches are focused on a flat seafloor. In this paper, we present a 3D finite-element (FE) algorithm for marine MT forward modelling based on unstructured grids that can accurately model the MMT responses for a topographic seafloor. The boundary value problem for the forward modelling is described by an Helmholtz equation together with the boundary conditions derived by assuming the electrical polarizations respectively along the x- and y-direction on the top surface of the modelling domain. Applying the Galerkin method to the boundary value problem and substituting the unstructured finite-element vector shape function into the equation, we derive the final large linear system for the two polarizations, from which the EM fields is obtained for the calculation of impedance apparent resistivities and phases. To verify the effectiveness of our algorithm, we compare our modelling results with those by Key's (2013) 2D marine MT open source code of Scripps Institution of Oceanography (Figure 1). From Figure 1, one sees that the two agree well, implying that our 3D modelling method based unstructured FE is an effective modelling tool for topographic seafloor. From the MMT modelling responses for other topographic seafloor models (not shown here), we further observe that 1) the apparent resistivities have a similar profile pattern to the topography at the seafloor; 2) at the edges of the topography, there exist sharp changes; 3) the seafloor topography may dominate the responses from the abnormal bodies under the seafloor. This paper is supported by Key Program of National Natural Science Foundation of China (41530320), China Natural Science Foundation for Young Scientists (41404093), and Key National Research Project of China (2016YFC0303100, 2017YFC0601900)

  20. Spine growth and seismogenic faulting at Mt. Unzen, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornby, Adrian J.; Kendrick, Jackie E.; Lamb, Oliver D.; Hirose, Takehiro; De Angelis, Silvio; von Aulock, Felix W.; Umakoshi, Kodo; Miwa, Takahiro; Henton De Angelis, Sarah; Wadsworth, Fabian B.; Hess, Kai-Uwe; Dingwell, Donald B.; Lavallée, Yan

    2015-06-01

    The concluding episode of activity during the recent eruption of Mt. Unzen (October 1994 to February 1995) was characterized by incremental spine extrusion, accompanied by seismicity. Analysis of the seismic record reveals the occurrence of two dominant long-period event families associated with a repeating, nondestructive source mechanism, which we attribute to magma failure and fault-controlled ascent. We obtain constraints on the slip rate and distance of faulting events within these families. That analysis is complemented by an experimental thermomechanical investigation of fault friction in Mt. Unzen dacitic dome rock using a rotary-shear apparatus at variable slip rates and normal stresses. A power density threshold is found at 0.3 MW m-2, above which frictional melt forms and controls the shear resistance to slip, inducing a deviation from Byerlee's frictional law. Homogenized experimentally generated pseudotachylytes have a similar final chemistry, thickness, and crystal content, facilitating the construction of a rheological model for particle suspensions. This is compared to the viscosity constrained from the experimental data, to assess the viscous control on fault dynamics. The onset of frictional melt formation during spine growth is constrained to depths below 300 m for an average slip event. This combination of experimental data, viscosity modeling, and seismic analysis offers a new description of material response during conduit plug flow and spine growth, showing that volcanic pseudotachylyte may commonly form and modify fault friction during faulting of dome rock. This model furthers our understanding of faulting and seismicity during lava dome formation and is applicable to other eruption modes.

  1. Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli MT78 invades chicken fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matter, Letícia Beatriz; Barbieri, Nicolle Lima; Nordhoff, Marcel; Ewers, Christa; Horn, Fabiana

    2011-02-24

    Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) are responsible for extraintestinal diseases, called colibacillosis, in avian species. The most severe manifestation of the disease is colisepticemia that usually starts at the respiratory tract and may result in bird death. However, it is not yet clear how APEC cross the respiratory epithelium and get into the bloodstream. In this work, we studied the interaction between 8 APEC strains (UEL31, UEL17, UEL13, UEL29, MT78, IMT5155, IMT2470, A2363) and a chicken non-phagocytic cell, the fibroblast CEC-32 cell line. We investigated the association profile, the invasion capability, the cytotoxicity effect and the induction of caspase-3/7 activation in an attempt to understand the way the pathogen gains access to the host bloodstream. Association to cells was determined after 1 h of infection, while cell invasion was determined after 4 and 24 h of infection. The cytotoxic effect of bacterial infection was measured by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release and the activation of the apoptotic program was verified by caspase-3/7 activation. Also, the presence of genes for adhesins, invasins and other related virulence-associated factors was verified by PCR. All bacterial strains showed similarity in relation to adhesion, LDH release and caspase-3/7 activation. However, one APEC strain, MT78, showed high invasion capability, comparable to the invasive Salmonella typhimurium strain SL1344. Since an APEC strain was capable of invading non-phagocytic cells in vitro, the same may be happening with the epithelial cells of the avian respiratory tract in vivo. CEC-32 monolayers can also provide a useful experimental model to study the molecular mechanisms used by APEC to invade non-phagocytic cells. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Lysophosphatidic Acid Up-regulates MT1-MMP Expression through a Gi –dependent Pathway in Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells

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    Po-Wei Lin

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA is a low molecular weight lysophospholipid (LPL. Through binding to its specific G protein-coupled receptor family, LPA regulates various cellular functions, including proliferation, migration, invasion, and differentiation. Matrix-metalloproteinases (MMPs are zinc-dependent protease and play important roles in regulating the interaction between cells and extracellular matrix (ECM. Among these MMPs, membrane type 1-metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP not only degrades ECM protein but also activates metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2, Gelatinase A, which are important to endothelial cell migration. Our previous study showed that LPA enhances MMP-2 expression and activity in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs. In this study, we further revealed that LPA also induce MT1-MMP mRNA and protein expressions in HUVECs through real-time PCR and Western blotting, respectively. Furthermore, by applying chemical inhibitors, we found that LPA-induced MT1-MMP expression is mainly through a Gi- and partially through a Gq-dependent pathway. Our results provide new evidence that LPA might modulate ECM through regulating the expression of MT1-MMP.

  3. Evidence of human-induced morphodynamic changes along the Campania coastal areas (southern Italy) since the 3rd-4th cent. AD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo Ermolli, Elda; Romano, Paola; Liuzza, Viviana; Amato, Vincenzo; Ruello, Maria Rosaria; Di Donato, Valentino

    2014-05-01

    the first archaic settlement (late 6th cent. BC) was unearthed. The Graeco-Roman town expanded downhill, exploiting the growth of a coastal plain, where occasional phases of flooding coexisted with the life of the citizens [6]. The onset of the 3rd cent. AD was characterized by phases of extreme floods which also occurred during the 4th and 5th cent. AD leading to several meters of ground-level aggradation and the burial of buildings [6, 7]. Although the three investigated sites are located in rather different morphological context, they show the evidence of a disequilibrium in the morphodynamics which started in the 3rd-4th cent. AD. The vast amount of collected data strongly suggest that this disequilibrium is a clear sign of a socio-economic decline which affected the Roman Empire during this period rather than the consequence of a climatic deterioration towards dryer conditions, for which no detailed data are available in the Mediterranean area [8]. The abandonment of the towns and their surroundings triggered increased soil erosion on the slopes suffering deforestation and in the farmlands for reduced maintenance, enhancing accumulation rates at the foothills and along coastal areas. References [1] D'Agostino, B., Giampaola, D., 2005. Osservazioni storiche e archeologiche sulla fondazione di Neapolis, in: Harris, W.V., Lo Cascio, E. (Eds.), Noctes Campanae, studi di storia antica e archeologia dell'Italia pre-romana e romana in memoria di Martin W. Frederiksen, Napoli, 63-72. [2] Giampaola, D., Carsana, V., Boetto, G., Bartolini, M., Capretti, C., Galotta, G., Giachi, G., Macchioni, N., Nugari, M. P., Pizzo, B., 2006. La scoperta del porto di Neapolis: dalla ricostruzione topografica allo scavo e al recupero dei relitti. Arch. Mar. Medit., Int. J. Underwat. Arch. 2, 47-91, Ist. Ed. Poligr.Int. MMVI, Pisa - Roma. [3] Allevato, E., Russo Ermolli, E., Boetto, G., Di Pasquale, G., 2010. Pollen-wood analysis at the Neapolis harbour site (1st-3rd century AD, southern

  4. Investigation of local-dimensional galvanic distortion on MT data in the central part of Northeastern Japan; Tohoku chiho no MT data ni mirareru kyokushoteki sanjigensei no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawakami, N.; Takasugi, S. [GERD Geothermal Energy Research and Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Fujinawa, Y. [National Research Institute for Disaster Prevention, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1996-10-01

    Groom-Bailey decomposition analysis was carried out to investigate regional 3-D galvanic distortion on MT data in the central part of Northeastern Japan. Measuring sites were located nearly along the east-west line crossing Northeastern Japan. Three measuring lines (A, B, C) from the north to the south were prepared, and only data on the C line were analyzed in this paper. As a result, twist and shear were estimated to be not zero depending on local distortion in most of the sites. It was thus clarified that this method is not always perfect. This method was effective for regional 2-D structures, however, its application was doubtful to complicated 3-D underground structures in Japan. In order to obtain more accurate results, 2-D analysis using the impedance including no local distortion effect was necessary after the preliminary Groom-Bailey decomposition analysis. The direction of the wide area geological structure of Northeastern Japan was estimated to be N-S direction near NNW-SSE one. 6 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Preliminary assessment of moss flora in Mt. Nebo, Valencia City, Bukidnon Philippines

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    Alven A. Manual

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Description and identification of the morphological characters of moss flora in Mt. Nebo, Valencia Bukidnon Philippines was conducted. Alpha taxonomy across the vicinity of Malingon Falls was employed. Diagnostic characteristics such as habitat, plant habit, leaf features (leaf arrangement, costa, base, apex, margin, cells, alar cells and sporophyte characters through microscopic examination were also conducted. Forty-two (42 species, twenty eight (28 genera and sixteen (16 families of moss in Mt.Nebo were recorded. Of these, family Hypnaceae is the most species-rich among the sixteen families with six (6 species namely: Ectropothecium buitenzorgii (Bel. Mitt., E. ferrugineum (C. Mull. Jaeg., E. striatulum Dix. ex Bartr., Isopterygium minutirameum (C. Mull. Jaeg., Isopterygium sp. and Trachythecium micropyxis (Broth. Bartr. Family Neckeraceae followed next with five (5 species collected: Himantocladium plumula (Nees Fleisch., Homaliodendron microdendron (Mont. Fleisch., Neckeropis gracilenta (Bosch & Lac. Fleisch., Neckeropis lepineana (Mont. Fleisch. and Pinatella ambigua (Bosch & Lac. Fleisch. Family Entodontaceae revealed four (4 species of mosses: Campylodontium flavescens (Hook. Bosch & Lac., Entodon bandongiae (C.Mull. Jaeg, Entodon sp., Erythrodontium julaceum (Schwaegr. Par.. Family Fissidentaceae, Leucobryaceae and Pottiaceae revealed three (3 species and two (2 species for the family Bartramiaceae, Meteoriaceae, Polytrichaceae, Pterobryaceae, Sematophyllaceae and Thuidiaceae. Family Mniaceae, Orthotrichaceae, Phylloginiaceae and Racopilaceae are families with only one (1 species. Fifty percent (50% of the moss species collected were confined in tree trunk, twenty-four percent (24% were confined in moist rock respectively. The least habitat preferences were observed hanging (epiphytic to different substrate comprising five (5% of the total species collected in the area.

  6. Changes in heat released by hydrothermal circulation monitored during an eruptive cycle at Mt. Etna (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diliberto, I. S.; Gagliano Candela, E.; Morici, S.; Pecoraino, G.; Bellomo, S.; Bitetto, M.; Longo, M.

    2018-04-01

    The shallow vertical temperature profile has been measured in the proximity of an eruptive fissure far about 4 km north-northeast from Mt. Etna central craters. The monitoring site was a steam-heated soil lying between a group of flank fractures on the upper northeast flank of Mt. Etna (Italy), i.e., on the northeast rift. We chose this area because it was close to an eruptive fissure, that opened in 2002 and extended from about 2500 to about 1500 m a.s.l., with our aim being to determine a connection between this fracture system and the ongoing volcanic activity. Heat flux anomalies from the ground from September 2009 to September 2012 were evaluated. Changes in the hydrothermal release—which can be related to variations in volcanic activity—are discussed and compared to the published geophysical data. The heat flux ranges varied during the pre-eruptive (from about 7 to 38 W × m-2), syn-eruptive (from about 3 to 49 W × m-2), and post-eruptive phases, with the heat released being lowest at the latter phase (from about 1 to 20 W × m-2). Moreover, the heat flux time variation was strongly correlated with the eruption rate from the new southeast crater between January 2011 and April 2012. The migration of magma through active conduits acts as a changing heating source for steam-heated soils located above the active fractures. Our findings suggest that tracking the heat flux above active fractures constitutes a useful investigation field for low-cost thermal monitoring of volcanic activity. Time variations in their emissions could highlight the relationship between a hydrothermal circuit and the local network of fractures, possibly indicating variation in the structural weakness of a volcanic edifice. Continuous monitoring of heat flux, combined with a realistic model, would contribute to multidisciplinary investigations aimed at evaluating changes in volcano dynamics.

  7. SRTM Perspective View with Landsat Overlay: Mt. Pinos and San Joaquin Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Ask any astronomer where the best stargazing site in Southern California is, and chances are they'll say Mt. Pinos. In this perspective view generated from SRTM elevation data the snow-capped peak is seen rising to an elevation of 2,692 meters (8,831 feet), in stark contrast to the flat agricultural fields of the San Joaquin valley seen in the foreground. Below the summit, but still well away from city lights, the Mt. Pinos parking lot at 2,468 meters (8,100 feet) is a popular viewing area for both amateur and professional astronomers and astro-photographers. For visualization purposes, topographic heights displayed in this image are exaggerated two times.The elevation data used in this image was acquired by SRTM aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of Earth's land surface. To collect the 3-D SRTM data, engineers added a mast 60 meters (about 200 feet)long, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the NASA, the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense, and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise,Washington, D.C. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.Distance to Horizon: 176 kilometers (109 miles) Location: 34.83 deg. North lat., 119.25 deg. West lon. View: Toward the Southwest Date Acquired: February 16, 2000 SRTM, December 14, 1984 Landsat

  8. Thirty years of precise gravity measurements at Mt. Vesuvius: an approach to detect underground mass movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Berrino

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Since 1982, high precision gravity measurements have been routinely carried out on Mt. Vesuvius. The gravity network consists of selected sites most of them coinciding with, or very close to, leveling benchmarks to remove the effect of the elevation changes from gravity variations. The reference station is located in Napoli, outside the volcanic area. Since 1986, absolute gravity measurements have been periodically made on a station on Mt. Vesuvius, close to a permanent gravity station established in 1987, and at the reference in Napoli. The results of the gravity measurements since 1982 are presented and discussed. Moderate gravity changes on short-time were generally observed. On long-term significant gravity changes occurred and the overall fields displayed well defined patterns. Several periods of evolution may be recognized. Gravity changes revealed by the relative surveys have been confirmed by repeated absolute measurements, which also confirmed the long-term stability of the reference site. The gravity changes over the recognized periods appear correlated with the seismic crises and with changes of the tidal parameters obtained by continuous measurements. The absence of significant ground deformation implies masses redistribution, essentially density changes without significant volume changes, such as fluids migration at the depth of the seismic foci, i.e. at a few kilometers. The fluid migration may occur through pre-existing geological structures, as also suggested by hydrological studies, and/or through new fractures generated by seismic activity. This interpretation is supported by the analyses of the spatial gravity changes overlapping the most significant and recent seismic crises.

  9. Rampant nuclear insertion of mtDNA across diverse lineages within Orthoptera (Insecta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hojun Song

    Full Text Available Nuclear mitochondrial pseudogenes (numts are non-functional fragments of mtDNA inserted into the nuclear genome. Numts are prevalent across eukaryotes and a positive correlation is known to exist between the number of numts and the genome size. Most numt surveys have relied on model organisms with fully sequenced nuclear genomes, but such analyses have limited utilities for making a generalization about the patterns of numt accumulation for any given clade. Among insects, the order Orthoptera is known to have the largest nuclear genome and it is also reported to include several species with a large number of numts. In this study, we use Orthoptera as a case study to document the diversity and abundance of numts by generating numts of three mitochondrial loci across 28 orthopteran families, representing the phylogenetic diversity of the order. We discover that numts are rampant in all lineages, but there is no discernable and consistent pattern of numt accumulation among different lineages. Likewise, we do not find any evidence that a certain mitochondrial gene is more prone to nuclear insertion than others. We also find that numt insertion must have occurred continuously and frequently throughout the diversification of Orthoptera. Although most numts are the result of recent nuclear insertion, we find evidence of very ancient numt insertion shared by highly divergent families dating back to the Jurassic period. Finally, we discuss several factors contributing to the extreme prevalence of numts in Orthoptera and highlight the importance of exploring the utility of numts in evolutionary studies.

  10. Rampant nuclear insertion of mtDNA across diverse lineages within Orthoptera (Insecta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hojun; Moulton, Matthew J; Whiting, Michael F

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear mitochondrial pseudogenes (numts) are non-functional fragments of mtDNA inserted into the nuclear genome. Numts are prevalent across eukaryotes and a positive correlation is known to exist between the number of numts and the genome size. Most numt surveys have relied on model organisms with fully sequenced nuclear genomes, but such analyses have limited utilities for making a generalization about the patterns of numt accumulation for any given clade. Among insects, the order Orthoptera is known to have the largest nuclear genome and it is also reported to include several species with a large number of numts. In this study, we use Orthoptera as a case study to document the diversity and abundance of numts by generating numts of three mitochondrial loci across 28 orthopteran families, representing the phylogenetic diversity of the order. We discover that numts are rampant in all lineages, but there is no discernable and consistent pattern of numt accumulation among different lineages. Likewise, we do not find any evidence that a certain mitochondrial gene is more prone to nuclear insertion than others. We also find that numt insertion must have occurred continuously and frequently throughout the diversification of Orthoptera. Although most numts are the result of recent nuclear insertion, we find evidence of very ancient numt insertion shared by highly divergent families dating back to the Jurassic period. Finally, we discuss several factors contributing to the extreme prevalence of numts in Orthoptera and highlight the importance of exploring the utility of numts in evolutionary studies.

  11. Beaver Evidence - Historical Range of Beaver in the State of California, with an emphasis on areas within the range of coho salmon and steelhead trout

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project examines historical, archaeological, and geological evidence to re-evaluate the existing management paradigm that beaver are non-native to most of...

  12. Dark Oligotrophic Volcanic Ecosystems (DOVEs) in Fumarolic Ice Caves of Mt. Erebus Volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staudigel, H.; Anitori, R.; Davis, R.; Connell, L.; Tebo, B. M.

    2011-12-01

    (II) were also identified in the caves. The overall phylum and class-level composition of the cave libraries displayed certain similarities to other cave communities, with a notable exception being the dominance of Ktedonobacteria (63% of the Warren cave 16S rDNA library), a recently described, filamentous bacterial lineage. A large fraction of the database matches for the cave libraries were to uncultured or cultured bacteria from environments with one or more similarities to the Mt. Erebus ice caves, i.e, associated with volcanic rocks and soils, alpine soil types, glaciers, caves and other cold environments. A functional analysis of microbes from these caves (Anitori et al., this session) shows good evidence for chemolithotrophic metabolisms, autotrophic carbon fixation as well as nitrogen fixation. These studies validate fumarolic ice caves at Mt Erebus as viable experimental study sites for chemolithotrophic microbial communities in DOVEs.

  13. Optimized mtDNA Control Region Primer Extension Capture Analysis for Forensically Relevant Samples and Highly Compromised mtDNA of Different Age and Origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayra Eduardoff

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA has proven useful in forensic genetics and ancient DNA (aDNA studies, where specimens are often highly compromised and DNA quality and quantity are low. In forensic genetics, the mtDNA control region (CR is commonly sequenced using established Sanger-type Sequencing (STS protocols involving fragment sizes down to approximately 150 base pairs (bp. Recent developments include Massively Parallel Sequencing (MPS of (multiplex PCR-generated libraries using the same amplicon sizes. Molecular genetic studies on archaeological remains that harbor more degraded aDNA have pioneered alternative approaches to target mtDNA, such as capture hybridization and primer extension capture (PEC methods followed by MPS. These assays target smaller mtDNA fragment sizes (down to 50 bp or less, and have proven to be substantially more successful in obtaining useful mtDNA sequences from these samples compared to electrophoretic methods. Here, we present the modification and optimization of a PEC method, earlier developed for sequencing the Neanderthal mitochondrial genome, with forensic applications in mind. Our approach was designed for a more sensitive enrichment of the mtDNA CR in a single tube assay and short laboratory turnaround times, thus complying with forensic practices. We characterized the method using sheared, high quantity mtDNA (six samples, and tested challenging forensic samples (n = 2 as well as compromised solid tissue samples (n = 15 up to 8 kyrs of age. The PEC MPS method produced reliable and plausible mtDNA haplotypes that were useful in the forensic context. It yielded plausible data in samples that did not provide results with STS and other MPS techniques. We addressed the issue of contamination by including four generations of negative controls, and discuss the results in the forensic context. We finally offer perspectives for future research to enable the validation and accreditation of the PEC MPS

  14. Seawater quality assessment and identification of pollution sources along the central coastal area of Gabes Gulf (SE Tunisia): Evidence of industrial impact and implications for marine environment protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Zrelli, Radhouan; Rabaoui, Lotfi; Ben Alaya, Mohsen; Daghbouj, Nabil; Castet, Sylvie; Besson, Philippe; Michel, Sylvain; Bejaoui, Nejla; Courjault-Radé, Pierre

    2018-02-01

    Temperature, pH and trace elements (F, P, Cr, Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb) contents were determined in 16 stations as well as in 2 industrial and 2 domestic discharge sources, in the central coastal area of the Gulf of Gabes. Compared to the northern and southern areas of the study area, the highest contents of contaminants were reached in the central area which hosts the coastal industrial complex. The seawater in this central area was also found to be acid and of higher temperature. Based on the Water Pollution Index results, an increasing degradation gradient of the seawater quality was revealed from northern and/or southern stations to central ones, categorized as 'strongly to seriously affected'. Phosphogypsum wastes dumped by the Tunisian Chemical Group (GCT) seem to have continuously degraded the seawater quality in the study area. A rapid intervention is needed to stop the effects on the marine environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Morphological changes at Mt. Etna detected by TanDEM-X

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegmuller, Urs; Bonforte, Alessandro; De Beni, Emanuela; Guglielmino, Francesco; Strozzi, Tazio

    2014-05-01

    We produced a DEM of the Mt. Etna volcano using TanDEM-X data collected on October 9, 2012. The TanDEM-X data were acquired in bistatic mode with TSX as master sensor and TDX as receive only sensor. The pre-existing SRTM DEM was used for geometrical reference (geocoding, initial height model, large scale reference). The interferogram was computed with 4 looks in range and 4 looks in azimuth. After compensation of the SRTM heights, the differential TanDEM-X interferogram looked overall quite flat but showed local deviations related to noise (e.g. over the sea), topographic effects related to the low resolution of the SRTM DEM, and deviations related to actual changes of the topography, as observed in the Mount Etna peak region. After phase unwrapping, addressed with a minimum-cost flow algorithm and slight spatial filtering, the unwrapped phases were converted to relative heights. In order to move to absolute heights the SRTM height reference was used under the assumption that the deviation from the SRTM DEM is zero at large scale and without any linear trend. Finally, the height model was resampled into geographical coordinates. In the framework of the MED-SUV project, and thanks to the availability of a dense GPS network of more than 100 benchmarks periodically measured by INGV_OE, the TanDEM-X model has been validated. By computing the difference of the elevations provided by TanDEM-X with those measured by GPS we obtained a mean difference of 0.7 m and a standard deviation of 5.2 m. These values are biased by a few GPS benchmarks located in steep areas unfavorable illuminated by the radar. Without considerations of the two more unfavorable GPS stations, the height mean difference and a standard deviation are 0.6 m and 4.3 m respectively. We also performed correlation analyses of the height differences with respect to topography, latitude and longitude and we could exclude any elevation-related errors or geometrical ramp distortions. In the following, we compared

  16. Replication Errors Made During Oogenesis Lead to Detectable De Novo mtDNA Mutations in Zebrafish Oocytes with a Low mtDNA Copy Number.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otten, Auke B C; Stassen, Alphons P M; Adriaens, Michiel; Gerards, Mike; Dohmen, Richard G J; Timmer, Adriana J; Vanherle, Sabina J V; Kamps, Rick; Boesten, Iris B W; Vanoevelen, Jo M; Muller, Marc; Smeets, Hubert J M

    2016-12-01

    Of all pathogenic mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations in humans, ∼25% is de novo, although the occurrence in oocytes has never been directly assessed. We used next-generation sequencing to detect point mutations directly in the mtDNA of 3-15 individual mature oocytes and three somatic tissues from eight zebrafish females. Various statistical and biological filters allowed reliable detection of de novo variants with heteroplasmy ≥1.5%. In total, we detected 38 de novo base substitutions, but no insertions or deletions. These 38 de novo mutations were present in 19 of 103 mature oocytes, indicating that ∼20% of the mature oocytes carry at least one de novo mutation with heteroplasmy ≥1.5%. This frequency of de novo mutations is close to that deducted from the reported error rate of polymerase gamma, the mitochondrial replication enzyme, implying that mtDNA replication errors made during oogenesis are a likely explanation. Substantial variation in the mutation prevalence among mature oocytes can be explained by the highly variable mtDNA copy number, since we previously reported that ∼20% of the primordial germ cells have a mtDNA copy number of ≤73 and would lead to detectable mutation loads. In conclusion, replication errors made during oogenesis are an important source of de novo mtDNA base substitutions and their location and heteroplasmy level determine their significance. Copyright © 2016 by the Genetics Society of America.

  17. Differential expression of the MT-1E gene in estrogen-receptor-positive and -negative human breast cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedline, J A; Garrett, S H; Somji, S; Todd, J H; Sens, D A

    1998-01-01

    The goal of this study was to determine which of the 10 functional metallothionein (MT) genes are expressed in four human breast cancer cell lines and whether expression varies among the cell lines. Using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) technology, it was shown that there was no expression of mRNA for the MT-1A, MT-1B, MT-1F, MT-1G, MT-1H, MT-3, and MT-4 genes in any of the four cell lines. All four cell lines were shown to express mRNA for the MT-2A and MT-1X genes. The expression level of mRNA for the MT-2A gene demonstrated modest differences among the cell lines, whereas expression of the MT-1X gene was consistent. In contrast, mRNA for the MT-1E gene was expressed in only two of the four cell lines and expression correlated to the estrogen receptor status of the cell lines. The two estrogen-receptor-positive cell lines showed no mRNA expression for the MT-1E gene. In the two estrogen-receptor-negative cell lines, mRNA expression for the MT-1E gene was elevated with expression levels similar to the housekeeping gene, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase. The cellular content of MT protein was also shown to be elevated in the estrogen-receptor-negative cell lines that express MT-1E mRNA. These results suggest a possible relationship between estrogen receptor status and MT-1E gene expression in human breast cancer.

  18. mtDNA and Y-chromosome diversity in Aymaras and Quechuas from Bolivia: different stories and special genetic traits of the Andean Altiplano populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayà-Vidal, Magdalena; Moral, Pedro; Saenz-Ruales, Nancy; Gerbault, Pascale; Tonasso, Laure; Villena, Mercedes; Vasquez, René; Bravi, Claudio M; Dugoujon, Jean-Michel

    2011-06-01

    Two Bolivian samples belonging to the two main Andean linguistic groups (Aymaras and Quechuas) were studied for mtDNA and Y-chromosome uniparental markers to evaluate sex-specific differences and give new insights into the demographic processes of the Andean region. mtDNA-coding polymorphisms, HVI-HVII control regions, 17 Y-STRs, and three SNPs were typed in two well-defined populations with adequate size samples. The two Bolivian samples showed more genetic differences for the mtDNA than for the Y-chromosome. For the mtDNA, 81% of Aymaras and 61% of Quechuas presented haplogroup B2. Native American Y-chromosomes were found in 97% of Aymaras (89% hg Q1a3a and 11% hg Q1a3*) and 78% of Quechuas (100% hg Q1a3a). Our data revealed high diversity values in the two populations, in agreement with other Andean studies. The comparisons with the available literature for both sets of markers indicated that the central Andean area is relatively homogeneous. For mtDNA, the Aymaras seemed to have been more isolated throughout time, maintaining their genetic characteristics, while the Quechuas have been more permeable to the incorporation of female foreigners and Peruvian influences. On the other hand, male mobility would have been widespread across the Andean region according to the homogeneity found in the area. Particular genetic characteristics presented by both samples support a past common origin of the Altiplano populations in the ancient Aymara territory, with independent, although related histories, with Peruvian (Quechuas) populations. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Hypervariable region polymorphism of mtDNA of recurrent oral ulceration in Chinese.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mao Sun

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: MtDNA haplogroups could have important implication for understanding of the relationship between the mutations of the mitochondrial genome and diseases. Distribution of a variety of diseases among these haplogroups showed that some of the mitochondrial haplogroups are predisposed to disease. To examine the susceptibility of mtDNA haplogroups to ROU, we sequenced the mtDNA HV1, HV2 and HV3 in Chinese ROU. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: MtDNA haplogroups were analyzed in the 249 cases of ROU patients and the 237 cases of healthy controls respectively by means of primer extension analysis and DNA sequencing. Haplogroups G1 and H were found significantly more abundant in ROU patients than in healthy persons, while haplogroups D5 and R showed a trend toward a higher frequency in control as compared to those in patients. The distribution of C-stretch sequences polymorphism in mtDNA HV1, HV2 and HV3 regions was found in diversity. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: For the first time, the relationship of mtDNA haplogroups and ROU in Chinese was investigated. Our results indicated that mtDNA haplogroups G1 and H might constitute a risk factor for ROU, which possibly increasing the susceptibility of ROU. Meanwhile, haplogroups D5 and R were indicated as protective factors for ROU. The polymorphisms of C-stretch sequences might being unstable and influence the mtDNA replication fidelity.

  20. Expression of the rgMT gene, encoding for a rice metallothionein ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    However, the precise function of the metallothionein-like proteins such as the one coded for rgMT gene isolated from rice (Oryza sativa L.) is not completely understood. The whole genome analysis of rice (O. sativa) showed that the rgMT gene is homologue to the Os11g47809 on chromosome 11 of O. sativa sp. japonica ...

  1. Oxidants and not alkylating agents induce rapid mtDNA loss and mitochondrial dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furda, Amy M.; Marrangoni, Adele M.; Lokshin, Anna; Van Houten, Bennett

    2013-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is essential for proper mitochondrial function and encodes 22 tRNAs, 2 rRNAs and 13 polypeptides that make up subunits of complex I, III, IV, in the electron transport chain and complex V, the ATP synthase. Although mitochondrial dysfunction has been implicated in processes such as premature aging, neurodegeneration, and cancer, it has not been shown whether persistent mtDNA damage causes a loss of oxidative phosphorylation. We addressed this question by treating mouse embryonic fibroblasts with either hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) or the alkylating agent methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) and measuring several endpoints, including mtDNA damage and repair rates using QPCR, levels of mitochondrial- and nuclear-encoded proteins using antibody analysis, and a pharmacologic profile of mitochondria using the Seahorse Extracellular Flux Analyzer. We show that a 60 min treatment with H2O2 causes persistent mtDNA lesions, mtDNA loss, decreased levels of a nuclear-encoded mitochondrial subunit, a loss of ATP-linked oxidative phosphorylation and a loss of total reserve capacity. Conversely, a 60 min treatment with 2 mM MMS causes persistent mtDNA lesions but no mtDNA loss, no decrease in levels of a nuclear-encoded mitochondrial subunit, and no mitochondrial dysfunction. These results suggest that persistent mtDNA damage is not sufficient to cause mitochondrial dysfunction. PMID:22766155

  2. [Whole Genome Sequencing of Human mtDNA Based on Ion Torrent PGM™ Platform].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Y; Zou, K N; Huang, J P; Ma, K; Ping, Y

    2017-08-01

    To analyze and detect the whole genome sequence of human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) by Ion Torrent PGM™ platform and to study the differences of mtDNA sequence in different tissues. Samples were collected from 6 unrelated individuals by forensic postmortem examination, including chest blood, hair, costicartilage, nail, skeletal muscle and oral epithelium. Amplification of whole genome sequence of mtDNA was performed by 4 pairs of primer. Libraries were constructed with Ion Shear™ Plus Reagents kit and Ion Plus Fragment Library kit. Whole genome sequencing of mtDNA was performed using Ion Torrent PGM™ platform. Sanger sequencing was used to determine the heteroplasmy positions and the mutation positions on HVⅠ region. The whole genome sequence of mtDNA from all samples were amplified successfully. Six unrelated individuals belonged to 6 different haplotypes. Different tissues in one individual had heteroplasmy difference. The heteroplasmy positions and the mutation positions on HVⅠ region were verified by Sanger sequencing. After a consistency check by the Kappa method, it was found that the results of mtDNA sequence had a high consistency in different tissues. The testing method used in present study for sequencing the whole genome sequence of human mtDNA can detect the heteroplasmy difference in different tissues, which have good consistency. The results provide guidance for the further applications of mtDNA in forensic science. Copyright© by the Editorial Department of Journal of Forensic Medicine

  3. Infantile presentation of the mtDNA A3243G tRNA(Leu (UUR)) mutation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Okhuijsen-Kroes, E.J.; Trijbels, J.M.F.; Sengers, R.C.A.; Mariman, E.C.M.; Heuvel, L.P.W.J. van den; Wendel, U.A.H.; Koch, G.; Smeitink, J.A.M.

    2001-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) disorders are clinically very heterogeneous, ranging from single organ involvement to severe multisystem disease. One of the most frequently observed mtDNA mutations is the A-to-G transition at position 3243 of the tRNA(Leu (UUR)) gene. This mutation is often related to

  4. Distinct radiation responses after in vitro mtDNA depletion are potentially related to oxidative stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gisbergen, Marike W.; Voets, An M.; Biemans, Rianne; Hoffmann, Roland F.; Drittij-Reijnders, Marie-Jose; Haenen, Guido R. M. M.; Heijink, Irene H.; Rouschop, Kasper M. A.; Dubois, Ludwig J.; Lambin, Philippe

    2017-01-01

    Several clinically used drugs are mitotoxic causing mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variations, and thereby influence cancer treatment response. We hypothesized that radiation responsiveness will be enhanced in cellular models with decreased mtDNA content, attributed to altered reactive oxygen species

  5. Effectiveness of the Area-wide Pest Management Program to Control Asian Tiger Mosquito in New Jersey: Evidence from a Household Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Households’ behaviors can both mitigate and measure the spread of urban mosquitos. Beginning in 2009, a comprehensive area-wide pest management (AWPM) project to control Aedes albopictus was implemented in 4 areas in Monmouth and Mercer Counties, New Jersey. Including other activities, the project f...

  6. Effectiveness of the area wide pest management program to control asian tiger mosquito in New Jersey: evidence from a household survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Households’ behaviors can both mitigate and measure the spread of urban mosquito species. Beginning in 2009, an area-wide pest management (AWPM) project to control Ae. Albopictus was implemented in 6 areas in Monmouth and Mercer counties, NJ. Including other activities, the project focused on increa...

  7. Mesozoic-Cenozoic tectonic evolution and its relation to sandstone-type uranium mineralization in northern Tarim area--Evidence from apatite fission track

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Hongxu; Dong Wenming; Liu Zhangyue; Chen Xiaolin

    2009-01-01

    The apatite fission track dating and inversion result of geological thermal history of four rock specimens from Sawafuqi area and Talike area in northern Tarim Basin show that two areas uplifted at different ages. The apatite fission track ages of Sawafuqi range from 3.5 to 3.9 Ma, while the ages of Talike range from 53 to 59 Ma. The thermal history recorded by rock samples reveals that there are at least three prominent cooling phases since Late Cretaceous epoch. Detailed study was made on the division of uplifting stages during Mesozoic and Cenozoic tectonic evolution with the existing data in northern Tarim area. And new ideas on tectonic evolution and sandstone-type uranium mineralization have been put forward by combining with the sandstone-type uranium mineralization ages in this area.(authors)

  8. Study of Mountain Waves in Middle and Upper Atmosphere by Airglow Imaging beside Mt Fuji in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuda, M.; Ishii, S.; Suzuki, H.

    2017-12-01

    The objective of this study is to understand propagation and generation mechanisms of mountain waves which play a major role in middle and upper atmospheric dynamics. An airglow imaging observations have been conducted to capture the signatures of mountain waves in the upper mesosphere since Nov. 2015 at Kawasaki (35.6°N, 139.5°E), Japan. Since the observation site located at the center of the Kanto plain which is sandwiched by mountain rich area (including Mt. Fuji) and the Pacific Ocean, occurrence of abundant numbers of mountain wave events would be expected. OH Meinel (7-3) band in the near infrared wavelength ( 890 nm) is chosen for the imaging observation to reduce the contaminations caused by artificial lights from the central area of Tokyo. The data on clear nights from Nov. 2015 to the present have been checked. However, only two events of a wave structure with zero apparent horizontal phase speed (i.e. mountain wave) have been identified during the period. To verify the observation results, a ray-tracing calculation have been conducted. In the ray-tracing, we assume that the highest mountain, Mt. Fuji as an excitation source of mountain waves. A re-analysis meteorological data, MERRA-2 is adopted as a background atmosphere. As a result, it is found that mountain waves generated by Mt. Fuji with shorter horizontal wavelength ( 20 km) can reach the OH layer, especially in March and October. Therefore, re-analysis of the imaging data by focusing on longer wavelength components (>20km) would increase the detection numbers of mountain wave events.

  9. Characterization of a Dairy Gyr herd with respect to its mitochondrial DNA (mt DNA origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anibal Eugênio Vercesi Filho

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Zebu breeds were introduced in Brazil mainly in the last century by imports from the Indian subcontinent. When the Zebu cattle arrived, the national herd suffered a significative change by backcrossing the national cows of taurine origin with Zebu sires. These processes created a polymorphism in the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA in the Zebu animals with are in a major part derived from backcrossing and sharing mtDNA of taurine origin. To verify the maternal origin of cows belonging to the Dairy Gyr herd of APTA, Mococa 60 females were analyzed and 33 presented mtDNA from Bos taurus origin and 27 presented mtDNA from Bos indicus origin. None of these animals presented patterns of both mtDNA origins, indicating absence of heteroplasmy for these mitochondrial genotypes.

  10. A reevaluation of the Native American mtDNA genome diversity and its bearing on the models of early colonization of Beringia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson J R Fagundes

    Full Text Available The Americas were the last continents to be populated by humans, and their colonization represents a very interesting chapter in our species' evolution in which important issues are still contentious or largely unknown. One difficult topic concerns the details of the early peopling of Beringia, such as for how long it was colonized before people moved into the Americas and the demography of this occupation. A recent work using mitochondrial genome (mtDNA data presented evidence for a so called "three-stage model" consisting of a very early expansion into Beringia followed by approximately 20,000 years of population stability before the final entry into the Americas. However, these results are in disagreement with other recent studies using similar data and methods. Here, we reanalyze their data to check the robustness of this model and test the ability of Native American mtDNA to discriminate details of the early colonization of Beringia. We apply the Bayesian Skyline Plot approach to recover the past demographic dynamic underpinning these events using different mtDNA data sets. Our results refute the specific details of the "three-stage model", since the early stage of expansion into Beringia followed by a long period of stasis could not be reproduced in any mtDNA data set cleaned from non-Native American haplotypes. Nevertheless, they are consistent with a moderate population bottleneck in Beringia associated with the Last Glacial Maximum followed by a strong population growth around 18,000 years ago as suggested by other recent studies. We suggest that this bottleneck erased the signals of ancient demographic history from recent Native American mtDNA pool, and conclude that the proposed early expansion and occupation of Beringia is an artifact caused by the misincorporation of non-Native American haplotypes.

  11. The M-T hook structure is critical for design of HIV-1 fusion inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Huihui; Yao, Xue; Sun, Jianping; Qiu, Zonglin; Zhang, Meng; Waltersperger, Sandro; Wang, Meitian; Cui, Sheng; He, Yuxian

    2012-10-05

    CP621-652 is a potent HIV-1 fusion inhibitor peptide derived from the C-terminal heptad repeat of gp41. We recently identified that its N-terminal residues Met-626 and Thr-627 adopt a unique hook-like structure (termed M-T hook) thus stabilizing the interaction of the inhibitor with the deep pocket on the N-terminal heptad repeat. In this study, we further demonstrated that the M-T hook structure is a key determinant of CP621-652 in terms of its thermostability and anti-HIV activity. To directly define the structure and function of the M-T hook, we generated the peptide MT-C34 by incorporating Met-626 and Thr-627 into the N terminus of the C-terminal heptad repeat-derived peptide C34. The high resolution crystal structure (1.9 Å) of MT-C34 complexed by an N-terminal heptad repeat-derived peptide reveals that the M-T hook conformation is well preserved at the N-terminal extreme of the inhibitor. Strikingly, addition of two hook residues could dramatically enhance the binding affinity and thermostability of 6-helix bundle core. Compared with C34, MT-C34 exhibited significantly increased activity to inhibit HIV-1 envelope-mediated cell fusion (6.6-fold), virus entry (4.5-fold), and replication (6-fold). Mechanistically, MT-C34 had a 10.5-fold higher increase than C34 in blocking 6-helix bundle formation. We further showed that MT-C34 possessed higher potency against T20 (Enfuvirtide, Fuzeon)-resistant HIV-1 variants. Therefore, this study provides convincing data for our proposed concept that the M-T hook structure is critical for designing HIV-1 fusion inhibitors.

  12. mtDNA mutation C1494T, haplogroup A, and hearing loss in Chinese

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Chengye; Kong Qingpeng; Yao Yonggang; Zhang Yaping

    2006-01-01

    Mutation C1494T in mitochondrial 12S rRNA gene was recently reported in two large Chinese families with aminoglycoside-induced and nonsyndromic hearing loss (AINHL) and was claimed to be pathogenic. This mutation, however, was first reported in a sample from central China in our previous study that was aimed to reconstruct East Asian mtDNA phylogeny. All these three mtDNAs formed a subclade defined by mutation C1494T in mtDNA haplogroup A. It thus seems that mutation C1494T is a haplogroup A-associated mutation and this matrilineal background may contribute a high risk for the penetrance of mutation C1494T in Chinese with AINHL. To test this hypothesis, we first genotyped mutation C1494T in 553 unrelated individuals from three regional Chinese populations and performed an extensive search for published complete or near-complete mtDNA data sets (>3000 mtDNAs), we then screened the C1494T mutation in 111 mtDNAs with haplogroup A status that were identified from 1823 subjects across China. The search for published mtDNA data sets revealed no other mtDNA besides the above-mentioned three carrying mutation C1494T. None of the 553 randomly selected individuals and the 111 haplogroup A mtDNAs was found to bear this mutation. Therefore, our results suggest that C1494T is a very rare event. The mtDNA haplogroup A background in general is unlikely to play an active role in the penetrance of mutation C1494T in AINHL

  13. Inhibition of Pre-Supplementary Motor Area by Continuous Theta Burst Stimulation Leads to More Cautious Decision-making and More Efficient Sensory Evidence Integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosun, Tuğçe; Berkay, Dilara; Sack, Alexander T; Çakmak, Yusuf Ö; Balcı, Fuat

    2017-08-01

    Decisions are made based on the integration of available evidence. The noise in evidence accumulation leads to a particular speed-accuracy tradeoff in decision-making, which can be modulated and optimized by adaptive decision threshold setting. Given the effect of pre-SMA activity on striatal excitability, we hypothesized that the inhibition of pre-SMA would lead to higher decision thresholds and an increased accuracy bias. We used offline continuous theta burst stimulation to assess the effect of transient inhibition of the right pre-SMA on the decision processes in a free-response two-alternative forced-choice task within the drift diffusion model framework. Participants became more cautious and set higher decision thresholds following right pre-SMA inhibition compared with inhibition of the control site (vertex). Increased decision thresholds were accompanied by an accuracy bias with no effects on post-error choice behavior. Participants also exhibited higher drift rates as a result of pre-SMA inhibition compared with the vertex inhibition. These results, in line with the striatal theory of speed-accuracy tradeoff, provide evidence for the functional role of pre-SMA activity in decision threshold modulation. Our results also suggest that pre-SMA might be a part of the brain network associated with the sensory evidence integration.

  14. Phylogeography of mtDNA haplogroup R7 in the Indian peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shukla Parul

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human genetic diversity observed in Indian subcontinent is second only to that of Africa. This implies an early settlement and demographic growth soon after the first 'Out-of-Africa' dispersal of anatomically modern humans in Late Pleistocene. In contrast to this perspective, linguistic diversity in India has been thought to derive from more recent population movements and episodes of contact. With the exception of Dravidian, which origin and relatedness to other language phyla is obscure, all the language families in India can be linked to language families spoken in different regions of Eurasia. Mitochondrial DNA and Y chromosome evidence has supported largely local evolution of the genetic lineages of the majority of Dravidian and Indo-European speaking populations, but there is no consensus yet on the question of whether the Munda (Austro-Asiatic speaking populations originated in India or derive from a relatively recent migration from further East. Results Here, we report the analysis of 35 novel complete mtDNA sequences from India which refine the structure of Indian-specific varieties of haplogroup R. Detailed analysis of haplogroup R7, coupled with a survey of ~12,000 mtDNAs from caste and tribal groups over the entire Indian subcontinent, reveals that one of its more recently derived branches (R7a1, is particularly frequent among Munda-speaking tribal groups. This branch is nested within diverse R7 lineages found among Dravidian and Indo-European speakers of India. We have inferred from this that a subset of Munda-speaking groups have acquired R7 relatively recently. Furthermore, we find that the distribution of R7a1 within the Munda-speakers is largely restricted to one of the sub-branches (Kherwari of northern Munda languages. This evidence does not support the hypothesis that the Austro-Asiatic speakers are the primary source of the R7 variation. Statistical analyses suggest a significant correlation between

  15. 75 FR 16731 - Young Dodge SEIS; Kootenai National Forest, Lincoln County, MT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-02

    ... insufficient evidence or rationale to explain why an analysis of potential effects on the goshawk was not... boat ramp, parking area, and restroom to provide access on the west shore of Koocanusa Reservoir; (7... a small parking area; (8) Renovation of the Robinson Mountain Lookout to include it in the cabin...

  16. Are health inequalities between differently deprived areas evident at different ages? A longitudinal study of census records in England and Wales, 1991-2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Paul; Boyle, Paul

    2014-03-01

    The notion that mortality inequalities between differently deprived areas vary by age is logical since not all causes of death increase in risk with age and not all causes of death are related to the gradient of deprivation. In addition to the cause-age and cause-deprivation relationships, population migration may redistribute the population such that the health-deprivation relationship varies by age. We calculate cross-sectional all cause mortality and self-reported limiting long-term illness (LLTI) rate ratios of most to least deprived areas to demonstrate inequalities at different ages. We use longitudinal data to investigate whether there are changes in the distribution of cohorts between differently deprived areas over time and whether gradients of LLTI with deprivation also change. We find similar deprivation inequalities by age for all cause mortality and self-reported health with less inequality for young adults and the elderly but the greatest inequalities during mid life. Over time there are systematic movements of cohorts between differently deprived areas and associated increases and decreases in the gradient of LLTI across deprivation. It seems likely that population migration does influence inequalities by age. Further work should investigate whether the situation exists for other morbidities and, to better inform public health policy, whether restricting summary measures of area health to ages between 30 and 60 when inequalities are greatest will highlight between area differences. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. GPS tomography tests for DInSAR applications on Mt. Etna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Aranzulla

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Tropospheric artifacts of SAR images in a volcanic area like Mt. Etna cause ambiguity in the interpretation of deformations with such technique. It would be useful to measure the delay caused by tropospheric anomalies in synthetic aperture radar (SAR satellite signals (phase of the back-scattered radar wave that could be interpreted as deformation. From the delay estimated through the GPS data processing, the tropospheric tomography of electromagnetic waves refractivity, has been performed using the SIMULps12 software. The aim of this study was to perform software synthetic tests by using SIMULps12 applied to atmospheric tomography and to verify the influence of the different GPS geodetic network configurations on obtaining a reliable tomography. Three different anomalies of increasing complexity have been investigated in order to understand the representative parameters of a correct tomography, the best spatial resolution and the portions of space in which the tomography is reliable. The tests also focused on fixing/establishing the a-priori atmospheric model and the critical values of the main parameters involved in the tomographic inversion. To this end, we made a random choice of two days, necessary to define the tomographic problem. Three different network configurations with 15, 30 and 90 GPS receivers were studied. The results indicate that the well-resolved area of tomographic images increases with the number of GPS receivers not linearly, and that the actual GPS network of 42 receivers is capable of revealing/detecting the atmospheric anomalies.

  18. Urania in the Marketplace: The Selling of Mt. Palomar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumstay, Kenneth S.

    2016-01-01

    The 200-inch Hale telescope atop Mt. Palomar is one of the most iconic scientific facilities ever constructed. The world's largest optical telescope for over a quarter-century, it served as a symbol of hope for America during the Great Depression and in the post-war years. In 2016 we celebrate the eightieth anniversaries of the completion of the mirror blank, the start of construction of the dome and mounting, and the beginning of astronomical research at Palomar Observatory by Fritz Zwicky (with the 18-inch Schmidt camera).During its construction, and for many years after "first light" in 1949, the Hale telescope was prominently featured in numerous magazine advertisements. Most of these represented companies directly involved in its construction, notably Corning Glass Works, which was justly proud of its magnificent accomplishment. But companies only vaguely linked to the project, or not at all, also co-opted the mystique of "the World's Largest Eye" to promote their goods or services. Surprisingly, in light of the fact that it bore responsibility for fabricating the complex and innovative mounting, the Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Company appears to have run only a single advertisement (in The National Geographic Magazine) touting its contribution to the project.Examples of magazine advertisements spanning the period 1936 to 1959 are presented.This work was supported by a faculty scholarship grant from Valdosta State University.

  19. Multiple essential MT1-MMP functions in tooth root formation, dentinogenesis, and tooth eruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, H; Snider, T N; Wimer, H F; Yamada, S S; Yang, T; Holmbeck, K; Foster, B L

    2016-01-01

    Membrane-type matrix metalloproteinase 1 (MT1-MMP) is a transmembrane zinc-endopeptidase that breaks down extracellular matrix components, including several collagens, during tissue development and physiological remodeling. MT1-MMP-deficient mice (MT1-MMP(-/-)) feature severe defects in connective tissues, such as impaired growth, osteopenia, fibrosis, and conspicuous loss of molar tooth eruption and root formation. In order to define the functions of MT1-MMP during root formation and tooth eruption, we analyzed the development of teeth and surrounding tissues in the absence of MT1-MMP. In situ hybridization showed that MT1-MMP was widely expressed in cells associated with teeth and surrounding connective tissues during development. Multiple defects in dentoalveolar tissues were associated with loss of MT1-MMP. Root formation was inhibited by defective structure and function of Hertwig's epithelial root sheath (HERS). However, no defect was found in creation of the eruption pathway, suggesting that tooth eruption was hampered by lack of alveolar bone modeling/remodeling coincident with reduced periodontal ligament (PDL) formation and integration with the alveolar bone. Additionally, we identified a significant defect in dentin formation and mineralization associated with the loss of MT1-MMP. To segregate these multiple defects and trace their cellular origin, conditional ablation of MT1-MMP was performed in epithelia and mesenchyme. Mice featuring selective loss of MT1-MMP activity in the epithelium were indistinguishable from wild type mice, and importantly, featured a normal HERS structure and molar eruption. In contrast, selective knock-out of MT1-MMP in Osterix-expressing mesenchymal cells, including osteoblasts and odontoblasts, recapitulated major defects from the global knock-out including altered HERS structure, short roots, defective dentin formation and mineralization, and reduced alveolar bone formation, although molars were able to erupt. These data

  20. Do the Four Clades of the mtDNA Haplogroup L2 Evolve at Different Rates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torroni, Antonio; Rengo, Chiara; Guida, Valentina; Cruciani, Fulvio; Sellitto, Daniele; Coppa, Alfredo; Calderon, Fernando Luna; Simionati, Barbara; Valle, Giorgio; Richards, Martin; Macaulay, Vincent; Scozzari, Rosaria

    2001-01-01

    Forty-seven mtDNAs collected in the Dominican Republic and belonging to the African-specific haplogroup L2 were studied by high-resolution RFLP and control-region sequence analyses. Four sets of diagnostic markers that subdivide L2 into four clades (L2a–L2d) were identified, and a survey of published African data sets appears to indicate that these clades encompass all L2 mtDNAs and harbor very different geographic/ethnic distributions. One mtDNA from each of the four clades was completely sequenced by means of a new sequencing protocol that minimizes time and expense. The phylogeny of the L2 complete sequences showed that the two mtDNAs from L2b and L2d seem disproportionately derived, compared with those from L2a and L2c. This result is not consistent with a simple model of neutral evolution with a uniform molecular clock. The pattern of nonsynonymous versus synonymous substitutions hints at a role for selection in the evolution of human mtDNA. Regardless of whether selection is shaping the evolution of modern human mtDNAs, the population screening of L2 mtDNAs for the mutations identified by our complete sequence study should allow the identification of marker motifs of younger age with more restricted geographic distributions, thus providing new clues about African prehistory and the origin and relationships of African ethnic groups. PMID:11595973

  1. The Efficacy and Pharmacological Mechanism of Zn7MT3 to Protect against Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wei; Xu, Qiming; Cheng, Hao; Tan, Xiangshi

    2017-10-23

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is one of the leading causes of death for people over 65 years. Worse still, no completely effective therapeutic agent is available so far. One important pathological hallmark of AD is accumulated amyloid-β (Aβ) plaques with dysregulated metal homeostasis. Human metallothionin 3 (MT3), a regulator of metal homeostasis, is downregulated at least 30% in AD brain. So far, some in vitro studies demonstrated its multiple functions related to AD. However, it is a great pity that systematic in vivo studies of MT3 on AD model animals are still a blank so far. In this study, we treated APP/PS1 mice with sustained drug release of Zn 7 MT3 directly to the central nervous system, and investigated the role and molecular mechanism of Zn 7 MT3 to protect against AD mice systematically. The results demonstrated that Zn 7 MT3 can significantly ameliorate cognitive deficits, regulate metal homeostasis, abolish Aβ plaque load, and reduce oxidative stress. Additionally, it has been confirmed that MT3 is penetrable to the blood brain barrier of AD mice. All these results support that Zn 7 MT3 is an effective AD suppressing agent and has potential for applications in Alzheimer's disease therapy.

  2. Gravitational sliding of the Mt. Etna massif along a sloping basement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, John B.; van Wyk de Vries, Benjamin; Pitty, Andy; Sargent, Phil; Wooller, Luke

    2018-04-01

    Geological field evidence and laboratory modelling indicate that volcanoes constructed on slopes slide downhill. If this happens on an active volcano, then the movement will distort deformation data and thus potentially compromise interpretation. Our recent GPS measurements demonstrate that the entire edifice of Mt. Etna is sliding to the ESE, the overall direction of slope of its complex, rough sedimentary basement. We report methods of discriminating the sliding vector from other deformation processes and of measuring its velocity, which averaged 14 mm year-1 during four intervals between 2001 and 2012. Though sliding of one sector of a volcano due to flank instability is widespread and well-known, this is the first time basement sliding of an entire active volcano has been directly observed. This is important because the geological record shows that such sliding volcanoes are prone to devastating sector collapse on the downslope side, and whole volcano migration should be taken into account when assessing future collapse hazard. It is also important in eruption forecasting, as the sliding vector needs to be allowed for when interpreting deformation events that take place above the sliding basement within the superstructure of the active volcano, as might occur with dyke intrusion or inflation/deflation episodes.

  3. Regional Variation in mtDNA of the Lesser Prairie-Chicken

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, Christian A.; Pitman, James C.; Sandercock, Brett K.; Wolfe, Don H.; Robel, Robel J.; Applegate, Roger D.; Oyler-McCance, Sara J.

    2010-01-01

    Cumulative loss of habitat and long-term decline in the populations of the Lesser Prairie-Chicken (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus) have led to concerns for the species' viability throughout its range in the southern Great Plains. For more efficient conservation past and present distributions of genetic variation need to be understood. We examined the distribution of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation in the Lesser Prairie-Chicken across Kansas, Colorado, Oklahoma, and New Mexico. Throughout the range we found little genetic differentiation except for the population in New Mexico, which was significantly different from most other publications. We did, however, find significant isolation by distance at the rangewide scale (r=0.698). We found no relationship between haplotype phylogeny and geography, and our analyses provide evidence for a post-glacial population expansion within the species that is consistent with the idea that speciation within Tympanuchus is recent. Conservation actions that increase the likelihood of genetically viable populations in the future should be evaluated for implementation.

  4. Area-level unemployment and perceived job insecurity: evidence from a longitudinal survey conducted in the Australian working-age population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner, Allison; Kavanagh, Anne; Krnjacki, Lauren; Bentley, Rebecca; LaMontagne, Anthony D

    2014-03-01

    RESEARCH SIGNIFICANCE: Job insecurity, the subjective individual anticipation of involuntary job loss, negatively affects employees' health and their engagement. Although the relationship between job insecurity and health has been extensively studied, job insecurity as an 'exposure' has received far less attention, with little known about the upstream determinants of job insecurity in particular. This research sought to identify the relationship between self-rated job insecurity and area-level unemployment using a longitudinal, nationally representative study of Australian households. Mixed-effect multi-level regression models were used to assess the relationship between area-based unemployment rates and self-reported job insecurity using data from a longitudinal, nationally representative survey running since 2001. Interaction terms were included to test the hypotheses that the relationship between area-level unemployment and job insecurity differed between occupational skill-level groups and by employment arrangement. Marginal effects were computed to visually depict differences in job insecurity across areas with different levels of unemployment. Results indicated that areas with the lowest unemployment rates had significantly lower job insecurity (predicted value 2.74; 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.71-2.78, P unemployment (predicted value 2.81; 95% CI 2.79-2.84, P unemployment and job insecurity among precariously and fixed-term employed workers than permanent workers. These findings demonstrate the independent influences of prevailing economic conditions, individual- and job-level factors on job insecurity. Persons working on a casual basis or on a fixed-term contract in areas with higher levels of unemployment are more susceptible to feelings of job insecurity than those working permanently.

  5. The 26 May 2006 magnitude 6.4 Yogyakarta earthquake south of Mt. Merapi volcano: Did lahar deposits amplify ground shaking and thus lead to the disaster?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, T. R.; Wang, R.; Luehr, B.-G.; Wassermann, J.; Behr, Y.; Parolai, S.; Anggraini, A.; Günther, E.; Sobiesiak, M.; Grosser, H.; Wetzel, H.-U.; Milkereit, C.; Sri Brotopuspito, P. J. K.; Harjadi, P.; Zschau, J.

    2008-05-01

    Indonesia is repeatedly unsettled by severe volcano- and earthquake-related disasters, which are geologically coupled to the 5-7 cm/a tectonic convergence of the Australian plate beneath the Sunda Plate. On Saturday, 26 May 2006, the southern coast of central Java was struck by an earthquake at 2254 UTC in the Sultanate Yogyakarta. Although the magnitude reached only M w = 6.4, it left more than 6,000 fatalities and up to 1,000,000 homeless. The main disaster area was south of Mt. Merapi Volcano, located within a narrow topographic and structural depression along the Opak River. The earthquake disaster area within the depression is underlain by thick volcaniclastic deposits commonly derived in the form of lahars from Mt. Merapi Volcano, which had a major influence leading to the disaster. In order to more precisely understand this earthquake and its consequences, a 3-month aftershock measurement campaign was performed from May to August 2006. We here present the first location results, which suggest that the Yogyakarta earthquake occurred at 10-20 km distance east of the disaster area, outside of the topographic depression. Using simple model calculations taking material heterogeneity into account we illustrate how soft volcaniclastic deposits may locally amplify ground shaking at distance. As the high degree of observed damage may have been augmented by the seismic response of the volcaniclastic Mt. Merapi deposits, this work implies that the volcano had an indirect effect on the level of earthquake destruction.

  6. Regulation of bone mass through pineal-derived melatonin-MT2 receptor pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharan, Kunal; Lewis, Kirsty; Furukawa, Takahisa; Yadav, Vijay K

    2017-09-01

    Tryptophan, an essential amino acid through a series of enzymatic reactions gives rise to various metabolites, viz. serotonin and melatonin, that regulate distinct biological functions. We show here that tryptophan metabolism in the pineal gland favors bone mass accrual through production of melatonin, a pineal-derived neurohormone. Pineal gland-specific deletion of Tph1, the enzyme that catalyzes the first step in the melatonin biosynthesis lead to a decrease in melatonin levels and a low bone mass due to an isolated decrease in bone formation while bone resorption parameters remained unaffected. Skeletal analysis of the mice deficient in MT1 or MT2 melatonin receptors showed a low bone mass in MT2-/- mice while MT1-/- mice had a normal bone mass compared to the WT mice. This low bone mass in the MT2-/- mice was due to an isolated decrease in osteoblast numbers and bone formation. In vitro assays of the osteoblast cultures derived from the MT1-/- and MT2-/- mice showed a cell intrinsic defect in the proliferation, differentiation and mineralization abilities of MT2-/- osteoblasts compared to WT counterparts, and the mutant cells did not respond to melatonin addition. Finally, we demonstrate that daily oral administration of melatonin can increase bone accrual during growth and can cure ovariectomy-induced structural and functional degeneration of bone by specifically increasing bone formation. By identifying pineal-derived melatonin as a regulator of bone mass through MT2 receptors, this study expands the role played by tryptophan derivatives in the regulation of bone mass and underscores its therapeutic relevance in postmenopausal osteoporosis. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Pineal Research Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. 2014-2016 Mt. Etna Ground deformation imaged by SISTEM approach using GPS and SENTINEL-1A/1B TOPSAR data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonforte, Alessandro; Guglielmino, Francesco; Puglisi, Giuseppe

    2017-04-01

    In the frame of the EC FP7 MED-SUV project (call FP7 ENV.2012.6.4-2), and thanks to the GEO-GSNL initiative, GPS data and SENTINEL 1A/1B TOPSAR acquired on Mt. Etna between October 2014 and November 2016 were analyzed. The SENTINEL data were used in order to combine and integrate them with GPS, and detail the ground deformation recorded by GPS on Mt. Etna, during the last two-year's volcanic activity. The Sentinel data were processed by GAMMA software, using a spectral diversity method and a procedure able to co-register the SENTINEL pairs with extremely high precision (new software architecture based on the hypervisor virtualization technology for the x64 versions of Windows has been implemented. The DInSAR results are analysed and successively used as input for the time series analysis using the StaMPS package. On December 28, 2014 eruptive activity resumed at Mt. Etna with a fire fountain activity feeding two lava flows spreading on the eastern and south-western upper flanks of the volcano, producing evident deformation at the summit of the volcano. GPS displacements and Sentinel-1A ascending interferogram were calculated in order to image the ground deformation pattern accompanying the eruption. The ground deformation pattern has been perfectly depicted by the GPS network, mainly affecting the uppermost part of the volcano edifice, with a strong decay of the deformation, according to a very shallow and strong dyke intrusion. The Sentinel 1A SAR data, covering the similar time spanning, confirmed that most of displacements are related to the dike intrusion, and evidenced a local gravity-driven motion of the western wall of the Valle del Bove, probably related to the dike intrusion. To monitor the temporal successive evolution of ground deformation, we performed an A-DInSAR SENTINEL analysis using the Small BAseline Subset (SBAS) approach included with the StaMPS processing package. The April 2015-December 2015, SBAS Time series, shown a volcano inflation, with

  8. Phosphate Stability in Diagenetic Fluids Constrains the Acidic Alteration Model for Lower Mt. Sharp Sedimentary Rocks in Gale Crater, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, J. A.; Schmidt, M. E.; Izawa, M. R. M.; Gellert, R.; Ming, D. W.; Rampe, E. B.; VanBommel, S. J.; McAdam, A. C.

    2016-01-01

    The Mars rover Curiosity has encountered silica-enriched bedrock (as strata and as veins and associated halos of alteration) in the largely basaltic Murray Fm. of Mt. Sharp in Gale Crater. Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer (APXS) investigations of the Murray Fm. revealed decreasing Mg, Ca, Mn, Fe, and Al, and higher S, as silica increased (Fig. 1). A positive correlation between SiO2 and TiO2 (up to 74.4 and 1.7 wt %, respectively) suggests that these two insoluble elements were retained while acidic fluids leached more soluble elements. Other evidence also supports a silica-retaining, acidic alteration model for the Murray Fm., including low trace element abundances consistent with leaching, and the presence of opaline silica and jarosite determined by CheMin. Phosphate stability is a key component of this model because PO4 3- is typically soluble in acidic water and is likely a mobile ion in diagenetic fluids (pH less than 5). However, the Murray rocks are not leached of P; they have variable P2O5 (Fig. 1) ranging from average Mars (0.9 wt%) up to the highest values in Gale Crater (2.5 wt%). Here we evaluate APXS measurements of Murray Fm. bedrock and veins with respect to phosphate stability in acidic fluids as a test of the acidic alteration model for the Lower Mt. Sharp rocks.

  9. Tracing the phylogeography of human populations in Britain based on 4th-11th century mtDNA genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Töpf, A L; Gilbert, M T P; Dumbacher, J P; Hoelzel, A R

    2006-01-01

    Some of the transitional periods of Britain during the first millennium A.D. are traditionally associated with the movement of people from continental Europe, composed largely of invading armies (e.g., the Roman, Saxon, and Viking invasions). However, the extent to which these were migrations (as opposed to cultural exchange) remains controversial. We investigated the history of migration by women by amplifying mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) from ancient Britons who lived between approximately A.D. 300-1,000 and compared these with 3,549 modern mtDNA database genotypes from England, Europe, and the Middle East. The objective was to assess the dynamics of the historical population composition by comparing genotypes in a temporal context. Towards this objective we test and calibrate the use of rho statistics to identify relationships between founder and source populations. We find evidence for shared ancestry between the earliest sites (predating Viking invasions) with modern populations across the north of Europe from Norway to Estonia, possibly reflecting common ancestors dating back to the last glacial epoch. This is in contrast with a late Saxon site in Norwich, where the genetic signature is consistent with more recent immigrations from the south, possibly as part of the Saxon invasions.

  10. 19 years of tilt data on Mt. Vesuvius: state of the art and future perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciro Ricco

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Mt. Vesuvius, located along the SW border of the Campania Plane graben, is one of the most studied volcanoes worldwide, from both the volcanological and the geophysical, geochemical and geodetic point of view. In order to better understand its dynamics, the deformation of the volcano has been already studied since the early ’70s by setting up levelling lines and, since a few years later, through trilateration networks, whereas ground tilt monitoring started in 1993. Tilt variations were recorded by an automatic surface station set up at the Osservatorio Vesuviano (O.V. bunker (OVO and data recorded were transmitted to the O.V. Surveillance Centre in Naples. Afterwards, in 1996 two more identical stations were set up close to Torre del Greco (CMD, and close to Trecase (TRC. In 2002 the data acquisition system was replaced, while at the end of 2011 a Lily borehole sensor was set up at 26 m depth, replacing the old TRC tilt station. The paper describes in details the tilt network of Mt. Vesuvius, its development over time and the data processing procedure; moreover, the ground deformation pattern is discussed, as inferred from the study of 19 years of data and its change during the seismic crises of 1995-1996 and 1999-2000. From the information obtained from the tiltmetric monitoring, a complex deformation pattern can be deduced, strongly dependent on the position of the sites in which the sensors were set up with respect to the morphology of the volcanic edifice and its structural outlines. If we consider the signals as they were recorded, although previously corrected for the influences of the thermo-elastic strain on the sensors, the tilting occurs mainly in the SW direction with rates of about 11 µradians/year on both the western and eastern flanks and of about 13 µradians/year on the southern one. Because tilt vectors point in the long term outward from the summit and towards the subsiding area, this supports the hypothesis of a southern

  11. 78 FR 65963 - Foreign-Trade Zone 44-Mt. Olive, New Jersey; Authorization of Production Activity; Givaudan...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board [B-67-2013] Foreign-Trade Zone 44--Mt. Olive, New... Products); Mt. Olive, New Jersey On June 11, 2013, Givaudan Fragrances Corporation submitted a notification... of FTZ 44 in Mt. Olive, New Jersey. The notification was processed in accordance with the regulations...

  12. A Parietal-Temporal Sensory-Motor Integration Area for the Human Vocal Tract: Evidence from an fMRI Study of Skilled Musicians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pa, Judy; Hickok, Gregory

    2008-01-01

    Several sensory-motor integration regions have been identified in parietal cortex, which appear to be organized around motor-effectors (e.g., eyes, hands). We investigated whether a sensory-motor integration area might exist for the human vocal tract. Speech requires extensive sensory-motor integration, as does other abilities such as vocal…

  13. Honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae) of African origin exist in non-africanized areas of the southern United States: evidence from mitochondrial DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.A. Pinto; W.S. Sheppard; J.S. Johnston; W.L. Rubink; R.N. Coulson; N.M. Schiff; I. Kandemir; J.C. Patton

    2007-01-01

    Descendents of Apis mellifera scutellata Lepeletier (Hymenoptera: Apidae) (the Africanized honey bee) arrived in the United States in 1990. Whether this was the first introduction is uncertain. A survey of feral honey bees from non-Africanized areas of the southern United States revealed three colonies (from Georgia, Texas, and New Mexico) with a...

  14. DNA Extraction Procedures Meaningfully Influence qPCR-Based mtDNA Copy Number Determination

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Wen; Jiang, Lan; Bhasin, Shalender; Khan, Shaharyar M.; Swerdlow, Russell H.

    2009-01-01

    Quantitative real time PCR (qPCR) is commonly used to determine cell mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number. This technique involves obtaining the ratio of an unknown variable (number of copies of an mtDNA gene) to a known parameter (number of copies of a nuclear DNA gene) within a genomic DNA sample. We considered the possibility that mtDNA: nuclear DNA (nDNA) ratio determinations could vary depending on the method of genomic DNA extraction used, and that these differences could substantively...

  15. A Linguistic Evaluation of Rule-Based, Phrase-Based, and Neural MT Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burchardt Aljoscha

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we report an analysis of the strengths and weaknesses of several Machine Translation (MT engines implementing the three most widely used paradigms. The analysis is based on a manually built test suite that comprises a large range of linguistic phenomena. Two main observations are on the one hand the striking improvement of an commercial online system when turning from a phrase-based to a neural engine and on the other hand that the successful translations of neural MT systems sometimes bear resemblance with the translations of a rule-based MT system.

  16. Hydrogen isotope exchange experiments with Mt Mazama ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, G. S.; Bindeman, I. N.; Palandri, J. L.

    2011-12-01

    The 2H/H ratio in hydrous minerals and volcanic glass are routinely used as paleo proxies to infer ∂2H value of meteoric waters and thus paleo-climate conditions. There is a widely held assumption that once environmental water is taken up by the ash to ~3-4 wt%, hydrogen isotopes preserve original hydrologic environmental conditions through time. We report a series of 2H -H aqueous exposure experiments of 7600BP Mt Mazama ash from the Crater Lake eruption. Native Mt. Mazama ash, ~69% SiO2 contains ~3.75% H2O with ∂2H -145 %. Water exposure experiments for this ash were done at 70, 40 and 25°C, time from 0 to >7000 h, to evaluate rates of hydrogen uptake from deuterated waters (650 % to pure D2O). Measurements were performed on 1-2 mg of ash using TCEA-MAT253 GSMS. We also employ a KBr pellet technique with infrared spectroscopy to measure total water and molecular water peaks. In this fashion an estimation of the distribution of water vs. SiOH is possible. Time series experiments aided by infrared measurements demonstrate the following new results: 1) Depending on exposure time and temperature we observe 5 to >100 % 2H uptake in dried samples positively correlated with temperature. In as little as 48 hours approximately 5% ∂2H increases are seen in samples incubated at 70 °C with 650 % water. At this rate the ash at 70 °C would take ~2.9 years to fully react with 2H. Other separate samples reacted with pure D2O develop a clear infrared signal at ~ 2600 cm-1 due to OD bond stretching. 2) Step heating experiments on native ash indicate the ∂2H of the remaining water does not change until the ash is heated to past 200-220 °C. 3) A sample immersed in 650 % ∂2H water for >300 days at 70 °C degassed and sampled at increasing temperature intervals as above shows an enrichment ranging from 250 % at no water lost to 20 % at .10 % water when compared to native ash. 4) Ash dried under vacuum at ~130 °C shows mostly (~80%) loss of molecular water accompanied by

  17. Black Carbon at the Mt. Bachelor Observatory Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaffe, Dan A. [Univ. of Washington, Bothell, WA (United States); Sedlacek, Arthur [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Laing, James R. [Univ. of Washington, Bothell, WA (United States)

    2017-03-01

    This campaign was initiated to measure refractory black carbon (rBC, as defined in Schwarz et al. (2010)) at the Mt. Bachelor Observatory (MBO) using the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility single-particle soot photometer (SP2; unit 54). MBO is a high-elevation site located on the summit of Mt. Bachelor in central Oregon, USA (43.979°N, 121.687°W, 2,763 meters ASL). This site is operated by Professor Dan Jaffe’s group at the University of Washington Bothell and has been used continuously as an atmospheric observatory for the past 12 years (Jaffe et al., 2005; Gratz et al., 2014). The location of MBO allows frequent sampling of the free troposphere along with a wide array of plumes from regional and distant sources. MBO is currently supported with funding from the National Science Foundation (NSF) to the Principal Investigator (PI; D. Jaffe) via the project “Influence of Free Tropospheric Ozone and PM on Surface Air Quality in the Western U.S.” (#1447832) covering the period 03/15/2015 to 02/28/2018. The SP2 instrument from Droplet Measurement Technologies provides particle-resolved measurements of rBC mass loading, size and mass distributions, and mixing state. The SP2 was installed at MBO on 6/27/2016 and ran through 9/23/2016. Additional measurements at MBO during this campaign included carbon monoxide (CO), fine particulate matter (PM1), aerosol light scattering coefficients (σscat) at three wavelengths using a TSI nephelometer, aerosol absorption coefficients (σabs) with the Brechtel tricolor absorption photometer (TAP), aerosol number size distributions with a scanning mobility particle sizer spectrometer (SMPS), and black carbon (eBC) with an aethalometer. BC data from this campaign have been submitted to the ARM Data Archive. Black carbon (BC) is the predominant light-absorbing aerosol constituent in the atmosphere, and is estimated to exert a positive radiative forcing second only to CO

  18. Climatic Effects of the 1991 Mt. Pinatubo Volcanic Eruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robock, A.; Stenchikov, G. L.

    2001-12-01

    Following the June 1991 Mt. Pinatubo eruption in the Philippines, the winter of 1991-1992 was very warm over most of North America, Europe, and Siberia, and cold over Greenland and the eastern Mediterranean. It snowed in Jerusalem that winter and corals at the bottom of the Red Sea died because of the cold surface waters. During the next summer of 1992 continental regions of North America and Eurasia were unusually cold. Global warming halted for several years as the planet cooled temporarily. All these climatic effects were due to the response to sulfate aerosols in the stratosphere from the Pinatubo eruption. In this talk we review the climatic response to volcanic eruptions using Pinatubo as a prime example. Both observational studies and general circulation model experiments support these conclusions. By scattering some solar radiation back to space, the stratospheric aerosols cool the surface, but by absorbing both solar and terrestrial radiation, the aerosol layer heats the stratosphere. For a tropical eruption, this heating is larger in the tropics than in the high latitudes, producing an enhanced pole-to-equator temperature gradient, especially in winter. Together with the forcing from ozone depletion and surface cooling in the subtropics, the dynamical response of the climate system produces temperature changes due to anomalous advection which dominate over the radiative effects in the winter. This atmospheric circulation pattern corresponds to the positive phase of the Arctic Oscillation. In spite of the decrease in surface solar heating, surface air temperature increases in high and midlatitudes of the Northern Hemisphere in the winter because of changes in tropospheric circulation caused by stratosphere-troposphere dynamical coupling. This new understanding will allow us to produce better seasonal forecasts for the Northern Hemisphere winter following the next large tropical eruption. It also shows that stratospheric forcing of the climate system must

  19. Ophthalmodynamometry for ICP prediction and pilot test on Mt. Everest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bennett Michael

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A recent development in non-invasive techniques to predict intracranial pressure (ICP termed venous ophthalmodynamometry (vODM has made measurements in absolute units possible. However, there has been little progress to show utility in the clinic or field. One important application would be to predict changes in actual ICP during adaptive responses to physiologic stress such as hypoxia. A causal relationship between raised intracranial pressure and acute mountain sickness (AMS is suspected. Several MRI studies report that modest physiologic increases in cerebral volume, from swelling, normally accompany subacute ascent to simulated high altitudes. Objectives 1 Validate and calibrate an advanced, portable vODM instrument on intensive patients with raised intracranial pressure and 2 make pilot, non-invasive ICP estimations of normal subjects at increasing altitudes. Methods The vODM was calibrated against actual ICP in 12 neurosurgical patients, most affected with acute hydrocephalus and monitored using ventriculostomy/pressure transducers. The operator was blinded to the transducer read-out. A clinical field test was then conducted on a variable data set of 42 volunteer trekkers and climbers scaling Mt. Everest, Nepal. Mean ICPs were estimated at several altitudes on the ascent both across and within subjects. Results Portable vODM measurements increased directly and linearly with ICP resulting in good predictability (r = 0.85. We also found that estimated ICP increases normally with altitude (10 ± 3 mm Hg; sea level to 20 ± 2 mm Hg; 6553 m and that AMS symptoms did not correlate with raised ICP. Conclusion vODM technology has potential to reliably estimate absolute ICP and is portable. Physiologic increases in ICP and mild-mod AMS are separate responses to high altitude, possibly reflecting swelling and vasoactive instability, respectively.

  20. Geology of Mt. Taylor uranium mine, Grants, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alief, M.H.; Kern, R.A.

    1989-01-01

    The Mt. Taylor uranium mine is located 25 mi due northeast of Grants, New Mexico. Gulf Mineral Resources attained interest in the property in 1971. Surface drilling outlined several orebodies extending for 7 mi and containing over 120 million lb of uranium oxide (U 3 O 8 ). Gulf sank two shafts and developed the orebody in Sec. 24, T13N, R8W. Due to depressed markets, the mine was shut down in 1982. Chevron reopened the mine in 1985 following the 1984 Gulf-Chevron merger. The uranium ore occurs in the Westwater Canyon Sandstone Member of the Jurassic Morrison Formation. The Westwater Canyon member was deposited as part of a braided-stream channel system. Mineralization was emplaced following the deposition and possibly prior to consolidation of the host. Uranium is intimately associated with carbonaceous matter that may have been deposited as humates prior to and/or contemporaneous with the uranium mineralization. Mineralization coats sand grains and fills intergranular voids. Since 1985, Chevron has produced more than 5 million lb of U 3 O 8 , most of it from Sec. 24 and Sec. 19 (T13N, R7W). Plans are to complete extraction in these sections and to continue southeasterly into Sec. 25 (T13N, R8W) and Sec. 30 (T13N, R7W). More than 40 million lb of U 3 O 8 may be mined from the present facilities. At the current mining rate of 1.5 million lb/year, supplies should take them well beyond the year 2000

  1. Distribution of cause of death in rural Bangladesh during 2003–2010: evidence from two rural areas within Matlab Health and Demographic Surveillance site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Alam

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study used the InterVA-4 computerised model to assign probable cause of death (CoD to verbal autopsies (VAs generated from two rural areas, with a difference in health service provision, within the Matlab Health and Demographic Surveillance site (HDSS. This study aimed to compare CoD by gender, as well as discussing possible factors which could influence differences in the distribution of CoD between the two areas. Design: Data for this study came from the Matlab the HDSS maintained by the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (icddr,b since 1966. In late 1977, icddr,b divided HDSS and implemented a high-quality maternal, newborn and child health and family planning (MNCH-FP services project in one half, called the icddr,b service area (SA, in addition to the usual public and private MNCH-FP services that serve the other half, called the government SA. HDSS field workers registered 12,144 deaths during 2003–2010, and trained interviewers obtained VA for 98.9% of them. The probabilistic model InterVA-4 probabilistic model (version 4.02 was used to derive probable CoD from VA symptoms. Cause-specific mortality rates and fractions were compared across gender and areas. Appropriate statistical tests were applied for significance testing. Results: Mortality rates due to neonatal causes and communicable diseases (CDs were lower in the icddr,b SA than in the government SA, where mortality rates due to non-communicable diseases (NCDs were lower. Cause-specific mortality fractions (CSMFs due to CDs (23.2% versus 18.8% and neonatal causes (7.4% versus 6% were higher in the government SA, whereas CSMFs due to NCDs were higher (58.2% versus 50.7% in the icddr,b SA. The rank-order of CSMFs by age group showed marked variations, the largest category being acute respiratory infection/pneumonia in infancy, injury in 1–4 and 5–14 years, neoplasms in 15–49 and 50–64 years, and stroke in 65+ years. Conclusions

  2. Distribution of cause of death in rural Bangladesh during 2003–2010: evidence from two rural areas within Matlab Health and Demographic Surveillance site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Nurul; Chowdhury, Hafizur R.; Ahmed, Ali; Rahman, Mahfuzur; Streatfield, P. Kim

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study used the InterVA-4 computerised model to assign probable cause of death (CoD) to verbal autopsies (VAs) generated from two rural areas, with a difference in health service provision, within the Matlab Health and Demographic Surveillance site (HDSS). This study aimed to compare CoD by gender, as well as discussing possible factors which could influence differences in the distribution of CoD between the two areas. Design Data for this study came from the Matlab the HDSS maintained by the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (icddr,b) since 1966. In late 1977, icddr,b divided HDSS and implemented a high-quality maternal, newborn and child health and family planning (MNCH-FP) services project in one half, called the icddr,b service area (SA), in addition to the usual public and private MNCH-FP services that serve the other half, called the government SA. HDSS field workers registered 12,144 deaths during 2003–2010, and trained interviewers obtained VA for 98.9% of them. The probabilistic model InterVA-4 probabilistic model (version 4.02) was used to derive probable CoD from VA symptoms. Cause-specific mortality rates and fractions were compared across gender and areas. Appropriate statistical tests were applied for significance testing. Results Mortality rates due to neonatal causes and communicable diseases (CDs) were lower in the icddr,b SA than in the government SA, where mortality rates due to non-communicable diseases (NCDs) were lower. Cause-specific mortality fractions (CSMFs) due to CDs (23.2% versus 18.8%) and neonatal causes (7.4% versus 6%) were higher in the government SA, whereas CSMFs due to NCDs were higher (58.2% versus 50.7%) in the icddr,b SA. The rank-order of CSMFs by age group showed marked variations, the largest category being acute respiratory infection/pneumonia in infancy, injury in 1–4 and 5–14 years, neoplasms in 15–49 and 50–64 years, and stroke in 65+ years. Conclusions Automated

  3. Distribution of cause of death in rural Bangladesh during 2003-2010: evidence from two rural areas within Matlab Health and Demographic Surveillance site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Nurul; Chowdhury, Hafizur R; Ahmed, Ali; Rahman, Mahfuzur; Streatfield, P Kim

    2014-01-01

    This study used the InterVA-4 computerised model to assign probable cause of death (CoD) to verbal autopsies (VAs) generated from two rural areas, with a difference in health service provision, within the Matlab Health and Demographic Surveillance site (HDSS). This study aimed to compare CoD by gender, as well as discussing possible factors which could influence differences in the distribution of CoD between the two areas. Data for this study came from the Matlab the HDSS maintained by the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (icddr,b) since 1966. In late 1977, icddr,b divided HDSS and implemented a high-quality maternal, newborn and child health and family planning (MNCH-FP) services project in one half, called the icddr,b service area (SA), in addition to the usual public and private MNCH-FP services that serve the other half, called the government SA. HDSS field workers registered 12,144 deaths during 2003-2010, and trained interviewers obtained VA for 98.9% of them. The probabilistic model InterVA-4 probabilistic model (version 4.02) was used to derive probable CoD from VA symptoms. Cause-specific mortality rates and fractions were compared across gender and areas. Appropriate statistical tests were applied for significance testing. Mortality rates due to neonatal causes and communicable diseases (CDs) were lower in the icddr,b SA than in the government SA, where mortality rates due to non-communicable diseases (NCDs) were lower. Cause-specific mortality fractions (CSMFs) due to CDs (23.2% versus 18.8%) and neonatal causes (7.4% versus 6%) were higher in the government SA, whereas CSMFs due to NCDs were higher (58.2% versus 50.7%) in the icddr,b SA. The rank-order of CSMFs by age group showed marked variations, the largest category being acute respiratory infection/pneumonia in infancy, injury in 1-4 and 5-14 years, neoplasms in 15-49 and 50-64 years, and stroke in 65+ years. Automated InterVA-4 coding of VA to determine probable Co

  4. The influence of evidence volatility on choice, reaction time and confidence in a perceptual decision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zylberberg, Ariel; Fetsch, Christopher R; Shadlen, Michael N

    2016-01-01

    Many decisions are thought to arise via the accumulation of noisy evidence to a threshold or bound. In perception, the mechanism explains the effect of stimulus strength, characterized by signal-to-noise ratio, on decision speed, accuracy and confidence. It also makes intriguing predictions about the noise itself. An increase in noise should lead to faster decisions, reduced accuracy and, paradoxically, higher confidence. To test these predictions, we introduce a novel sensory manipulation that mimics the addition of unbiased noise to motion-selective regions of visual cortex, which we verified with neuronal recordings from macaque areas MT/MST. For both humans and monkeys, increasing the noise induced faster decisions and greater confidence over a range of stimuli for which accuracy was minimally impaired. The magnitude of the effects was in agreement with predictions of a bounded evidence accumulation model. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.17688.001 PMID:27787198

  5. New Insights on Mt. Etna's Crust and Relationship with the Regional Tectonic Framework from Joint Active and Passive P-Wave Seismic Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Moreno, A.; Barberi, G.; Cocina, O.; Koulakov, I.; Scarfì, L.; Zuccarello, L.; Prudencio, J.; García-Yeguas, A.; Álvarez, I.; García, L.; Ibáñez, J. M.

    2018-01-01

    In the Central Mediterranean region, the production of chemically diverse volcanic products (e.g., those from Mt. Etna and the Aeolian Islands archipelago) testifies to the complexity of the tectonic and geodynamic setting. Despite the large number of studies that have focused on this area, the relationships among volcanism, tectonics, magma ascent, and geodynamic processes remain poorly understood. We present a tomographic inversion of P-wave velocity using active and passive sources. Seismic signals were recorded using both temporary on-land and ocean bottom seismometers and data from a permanent local seismic network consisting of 267 seismic stations. Active seismic signals were generated using air gun shots mounted on the Spanish Oceanographic Vessel `Sarmiento de Gamboa'. Passive seismic sources were obtained from 452 local earthquakes recorded over a 4-month period. In total, 184,797 active P-phase and 11,802 passive P-phase first arrivals were inverted to provide three different velocity models. Our results include the first crustal seismic active tomography for the northern Sicily area, including the Peloritan-southern Calabria region and both the Mt. Etna and Aeolian volcanic environments. The tomographic images provide a detailed and complete regional seismotectonic framework and highlight a spatially heterogeneous tectonic regime, which is consistent with and extends the findings of previous models. One of our most significant results was a tomographic map extending to 14 km depth showing a discontinuity striking roughly NW-SE, extending from the Gulf of Patti to the Ionian Sea, south-east of Capo Taormina, corresponding to the Aeolian-Tindari-Letojanni fault system, a regional deformation belt. Moreover, for the first time, we observed a high-velocity anomaly located in the south-eastern sector of the Mt. Etna region, offshore of the Timpe area, which is compatible with the plumbing system of an ancient shield volcano located offshore of Mt. Etna.

  6. ILSI Brazil International Workshop on Functional Foods: a narrative review of the scientific evidence in the area of carbohydrates, microbiome, and health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie E. Latulippe

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available To stimulate discussion around the topic of ‘carbohydrates’ and health, the Brazilian branch of the International Life Sciences Institute held the 11th International Functional Foods Workshop (1–2 December 2011 in which consolidated knowledge and recent scientific advances specific to the relationship between carbohydrates and health were presented. As part of this meeting, several key points related to dietary fiber, glycemic response, fructose, and impacts on satiety, cognition, mood, and gut microbiota were realized: 1 there is a need for global harmonization of a science-based fiber definition; 2 low-glycemic index foods can be used to modulate the postprandial glycemic response and may affect diabetes and cardiovascular outcomes; 3 carbohydrate type may influence satiety and satiation; glycemic load and glycemic index show links to memory, mood, and concentration; 4 validated biomarkers are needed to demonstrate the known prebiotic effect of carbohydrates; 5 negative effects of fructose are not evident when human data are systematically reviewed; 6 new research indicates that diet strongly influences the microbiome; and 7 there is mounting evidence that the intestinal microbiota has the ability to impact the gut–brain axis. Overall, there is much promise for development of functional foods that impact the microbiome and other factors relevant to health, including glycemic response (glycemic index/glycemic load, satiety, mood, cognition, and weight management.

  7. Evidence of a posterior cingulate involvement (Brodmann area 31) in dyslexia: a study based on source localization algorithm of event-related potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoitsis, John; Giannakakis, Giorgos A; Papageorgiou, Charalabos; Nikita, Konstantina S; Rabavilas, Andreas; Anagnostopoulos, Dimitris

    2008-04-01

    The study investigates the differences regarding the position of intracranial generators of P50 component of ERPs in 38 dyslexic children aged 11.47+/-2.12 years compared with their 19 healthy siblings aged 12.21+/-2.25. The dipoles were extracted by solving the inverse electromagnetic problem according to the recursively applied and projected multiple signal classification (RAP-MUSIC) algorithm approach. For improved localization of the main dipole the solutions were optimized using genetic algorithms. The statistical analysis revealed differences regarding the position of intracranial generators of low frequency of P50. Particularly, dyslexics showed main activity being located at posterior cingulate cortex (Brodmann's area 31) while controls exhibited main activity being located at retrosplenial cortex (Brodmann's area 30). These results may indicate a role for the posterior cingulate cortex in the pre-attentive processing operation of dyslexia beyond of its traditional function in terms of spatial attention and motor intention.

  8. Why choose Random Forest to predict rare species distribution with few samples in large undersampled areas? Three Asian crane species models provide supporting evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunrong Mi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Species distribution models (SDMs have become an essential tool in ecology, biogeography, evolution and, more recently, in conservation biology. How to generalize species distributions in large undersampled areas, especially with few samples, is a fundamental issue of SDMs. In order to explore this issue, we used the best available presence records for the Hooded Crane (Grus monacha, n = 33, White-naped Crane (Grus vipio, n = 40, and Black-necked Crane (Grus nigricollis, n = 75 in China as three case studies, employing four powerful and commonly used machine learning algorithms to map the breeding distributions of the three species: TreeNet (Stochastic Gradient Boosting, Boosted Regression Tree Model, Random Forest, CART (Classification and Regression Tree and Maxent (Maximum Entropy Models. In addition, we developed an ensemble forecast by averaging predicted probability of the above four models results. Commonly used model performance metrics (Area under ROC (AUC and true skill statistic (TSS were employed to evaluate model accuracy. The latest satellite tracking data and compiled literature data were used as two independent testing datasets to confront model predictions. We found Random Forest demonstrated the best performance for the most assessment method, provided a better model fit to the testing data, and achieved better species range maps for each crane species in undersampled areas. Random Forest has been generally available for more than 20 years and has been known to perform extremely well in ecological predictions. However, while increasingly on the rise, its potential is still widely underused in conservation, (spatial ecological applications and for inference. Our results show that it informs ecological and biogeographical theories as well as being suitable for conservation applications, specifically when the study area is undersampled. This method helps to save model-selection time and effort, and allows robust and rapid

  9. New Evidence of Regional Geological Structures Inferred from Reprocessing and Resistivity Data Interpretation in the Chingshui-Sanshing-Hanchi Area of Southwestern Ilan County, NE Taiwan

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    Gong-Ruei Ho

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Ilan Plain is located at the southwestern tip of the back arc basin of the Okinawa Trough, which propagates westward into the Taiwan orogen. A long discussed issue concerns whether the opening normal-fault system of the Okinawa Trough propagates and transforms into the thrust-fault system of the Taiwan orogen. We have reprocessed and inverted resistivity measurements from a series of surveys conducted in the 1970s around the Chingshui-Sanshing-Hanchi area of southwestern Ilan County. The 2D and 3D inverted resistivity images reveal the regional structures. A major conductive structure dipping toward the northwest at an angle of 30° - 40° is located at the expected site of the Niudou Fault separating the Early Miocene Szeleng and Kangkou Formations from the Lushan Formation in the Sanshing area, which dip direction of two conductive structures with a dipping angle of 50° - 70° were coinciding with the dip direction of normal faults identified from the field surveys. In addition three high-angle discontinuity structures, dipping toward the north with an angle of 60° - 80° can be identified in the resistivity profile along Hanchi. We tend to suggest these structures as the extended portions of the normal faults that have been identified under the unconsolidated sediments in the Ilan Plain. Resistivity profiles from the Chingshuichi area reveal the existence of the vertical Chingshuichi, the Dachi, and the Xiaonanauo Fault. Hot springs were found in the junction area of the Chingshuichi and the Xiaonanauo Fault. The junction region of these two fault systems is the potential Chingshui geothermal field that provides fluid geothermals from the deep.

  10. Why choose Random Forest to predict rare species distribution with few samples in large undersampled areas? Three Asian crane species models provide supporting evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Chunrong; Huettmann, Falk; Guo, Yumin; Han, Xuesong; Wen, Lijia

    2017-01-01

    Species distribution models (SDMs) have become an essential tool in ecology, biogeography, evolution and, more recently, in conservation biology. How to generalize species distributions in large undersampled areas, especially with few samples, is a fundamental issue of SDMs. In order to explore this issue, we used the best available presence records for the Hooded Crane ( Grus monacha , n  = 33), White-naped Crane ( Grus vipio , n  = 40), and Black-necked Crane ( Grus nigricollis , n  = 75) in China as three case studies, employing four powerful and commonly used machine learning algorithms to map the breeding distributions of the three species: TreeNet (Stochastic Gradient Boosting, Boosted Regression Tree Model), Random Forest, CART (Classification and Regression Tree) and Maxent (Maximum Entropy Models). In addition, we developed an ensemble forecast by averaging predicted probability of the above four models results. Commonly used model performance metrics (Area under ROC (AUC) and true skill statistic (TSS)) were employed to evaluate model accuracy. The latest satellite tracking data and compiled literature data were used as two independent testing datasets to confront model predictions. We found Random Forest demonstrated the best performance for the most assessment method, provided a better model fit to the testing data, and achieved better species range maps for each crane species in undersampled areas. Random Forest has been generally available for more than 20 years and has been known to perform extremely well in ecological predictions. However, while increasingly on the rise, its potential is still widely underused in conservation, (spatial) ecological applications and for inference. Our results show that it informs ecological and biogeographical theories as well as being suitable for conservation applications, specifically when the study area is undersampled. This method helps to save model-selection time and effort, and allows robust and rapid

  11. Is the health of people living in rural areas different from those in cities? Evidence from routine data linked with the Scottish Health Survey

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    Teckle P

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To examine the association between rurality and health in Scotland, after adjusting for differences in individual and practice characteristics. Methods Design: Mortality and hospital record data linked to two cross sectional health surveys. Setting: Respondents in the community-based 1995 and 1998 Scottish Health Survey who consented to record-linkage follow-up. Main outcome measures: Hypertension, all-cause premature mortality, total hospital stays and admissions due to coronary heart disease (CHD. Results Older age and lower social class were strongly associated with an increased risk of each of the four health outcomes measured. After adjustment for individual and practice characteristics, no consistent pattern of better or poorer health in people living in rural areas was found, compared to primary cities. However, individuals living in remote small towns had a lower risk of a hospital admission for CHD and those in very remote rural had lower mortality, both compared with those living in primary cities. Conclusion This study has shown how linked data can be used to explore the possible influence of area of residence on health. We were unable to find a consistent pattern that people living in rural areas have materially different health to that of those living in primary cities. Instead, we found stronger relationships between compositional determinants (age, gender and socio-economic status and health than contextual factors (including rurality.

  12. Thermotolerant coliform loadings to coastal areas of Santa Catarina (Brazil) evidence the effect of growing urbanisation and insufficient provision of sewerage infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbossa, Luis H P; Souza, Robson V; Campos, Carlos J A; Vanz, Argeu; Vianna, Luiz F N; Rupp, Guilherme S

    2017-01-01

    Thermotolerant coliform (TC) loadings were quantified for 49 catchments draining into the North and South Bays of Santa Catarina (SC, southeastern Brazil), an area known for its tourism and aquaculture. TC loadings were calculated based on flow measurements taken in 26 rivers. TC concentrations ere quantified based on surface water samples collected at 49 catchment outlets in 2012 and 2013. Median TC loads ranged from 3.7 × 10 3 to 6.8 × 10 8 MPN s -1 . TC loadings in the catchments increased in proportion to increases in resident human population, population density and percentage of urbanised area. Catchments with more than 60% of area covered by wastewater collection and treatment systems had higher TC loads per person than catchments with less than 25%. Based on the study catchments, these results indicate that current sewerage infrastructure is ineffective in reducing contamination of faecal origin to surface waters. These findings have important implications for the management of microbiological health hazards in bathing, recreational and shellfish aquaculture waters in the North and South Bays of Santa Catarina Island.

  13. Observation of atmospheric aerosols at Mt. Hua and Mt. Tai in central and east China during spring 2009 – Part 1: EC, OC and inorganic ions

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    G. Wang

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available PM10 and size-segregated samples were simultaneously collected at Mt. Hua (2060 m a.s.l. and Mt. Tai (1545 m a.s.l. in central and east coastal China during spring, 2009 including an intensive dust storm event occurring on 24 April, and determined for EC, OC and inorganic ions. During the non-dust storm period particles, EC, OC and ions except for SO42− were 2–10 times more abundant at Mt. Tai than at Mt. Hua. SO42− (13 ± 7.1 μg m−3 at Mt. Hua was the dominant ion, followed by NO3 (5.0 ± 3.9 μg m−3, NH4+ (2.5 ± 1.3 μg m−3 and Ca2+ (1.6 ± 0.8 μg m−3. In contrast, at Mt. Tai NO3 was most abundant (20 ± 14 μg m−3, followed by SO42− (16 ± 13 μg m−3, NH4+ (12 ± 8.9 μg m−3 and Ca2+ (3.9 ± 2.1 μg m−3. The fact of NO3 exceeding over SO42− at Mt. Tai may suggest the changes in chemical composition of the atmosphere over east China due to sharply increasing vehicle emission. pH values of the water-extracts of PM10 samples indicate that at the two mountain sites aerosols transported from the south regions are more acidic than those from the north and more acidic at Mt. Tai than at Mt. Hua during the non-dust storm period. During the dust storm event particle mass, OC, Na+, K+, Mg2+ and Ca2+ at both sites increased by a factor of 1–9, while EC, NO3 and NH4+ decreased by 20–80 %. However, SO42− concentrations (13 ± 7.7 μg m−3 at Mt. Hua and 15 ± 5.6 μg m−3 at Mt. Tai, respectively at the two sites during the episode were comparable and

  14. Organ-specific shifts in mtDNA heteroplasmy following systemic delivery of a mitochondria-targeted restriction endonuclease.

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    Bacman, S R; Williams, S L; Garcia, S; Moraes, C T

    2010-06-01

    Most pathogenic mtDNA mutations are heteroplasmic and there is a clear correlation between high levels of mutated mtDNA in a tissue and pathology. We have found that in vivo double-strand breaks (DSBs) in mtDNA lead to digestion of cleaved mtDNA and replication of residual mtDNA. Therefore, if DSB could be targeted to mutations in mtDNA, mutant genomes could