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Sample records for area monitoring dosimeter

  1. Area monitoring dosimeter program for the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory: Results for CY 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In January 1993, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) established an area monitoring dosimeter program in accordance with Article 514 of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Radiological Control Manual (RCM). The purpose of the program was to minimize the number of areas requiring issuance of personnel dosimeters and to demonstrate that doses outside Radiological Buffer Areas are negligible. In accordance with 10 CFR Part 835.402 (a) (1)--(3) and Article 511.1 of the RCM, personnel dosimetry shall be provided to (1) radiological workers who are likely to receive at least 100 mrem annually, and (2) declared pregnant workers, minors, and members of the public who are likely to receive at least 50 mrem annually. Program results for calendar years (CY) 1993--1996 confirmed that personnel dosimetry was not needed for individuals located in areas monitored by the program. A total of 93 area thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) were placed in PNNL facilities during CY 1997. The TLDs were exchanged and analyzed quarterly. All routine area monitoring TLD results were less than 50 mrem annually after correcting for worker occupancy. The results support the conclusions that personnel dosimeters are not necessary for staff, declared pregnant workers, minors, or members of the public in these monitored areas

  2. Area Monitoring Dosimeter Program for the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory: Results for CY 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bivins, Steven R.; Stoetzel, Gregory A.

    2006-06-21

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) established an area monitoring dosimeter program in accordance with Article 514 of the Department of Energy (DOE) Radiological Control Manual (RCM) in January 1993. This program is to minimize the number of areas requiring issuance of personnel dosimeters and to demonstrate that doses outside Radiological Buffer Areas are negligible. In accordance with 10 CFR Part 835.402 (a)(1)-(4) and Article 511.1 of the PNNL Radiological Control Program Description, personnel dosimetry shall be provided to (1) radiological workers who are likely to receive at least 100 mrem annually, and (2) declared pregnant workers, minors, and members of the public who are likely to receive at least 50 mrem annually. Program results for calendar years 1993-2005 confirm that personnel dosimetry is not needed for individuals located in areas monitored by the program

  3. Area Monitoring Dosimeter Program for the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory: Results for CY 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bivins, Steven R.; Stoetzel, Gregory A.

    2007-07-19

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) established an area monitoring dosimeter program in accordance with Article 514 of the Department of Energy (DOE) Radiological Control Manual (RCM) in January 1993. This program is to minimize the number of areas requiring issuance of personnel dosimeters and to demonstrate that doses outside Radiological Buffer Areas are negligible. In accordance with 10 CFR Part 835.402 (a)(1)-(4) and Article 511.1 of the PNNL Radiological Control Program Description, personnel dosimetry shall be provided to 1) radiological workers who are likely to receive at least 100 mrem annually, and 2) declared pregnant workers, minors, and members of the public who are likely to receive at least 50 mrem annually. Program results for calendar years 1993-2005 confirm that personnel dosimetry is not needed for individuals located in areas monitored by the program.

  4. Area Monitoring Dosimeter Program for the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory: results for CY 1993 and CY 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In January 1993, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) established an area monitoring dosimeter program in accordance with Article 514 of the Department of Energy (DOE) Radiological Control Manual (RCM)(DOE 1994). The purpose of the program was to minimize the number of areas requiring issuance of personnel dosimeters and to demonstrate that doses outside Radiological Buffer Areas are negligible. Article 51 1. la of the RCM requires issuance of personnel dosimeters if individuals are likely to receive a dose of at least 100 mrem annually. The area monitoring TLD program was a useful tool in determining exposure trends in work areas located outside of radiological areas. In several situations, the information obtained from this program was used to relocate staff or radioactive material resulting in potential dose reductions for staff

  5. Development of area dosimeter based on TLD badges used in personal monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Area monitoring is important for not only demonstrating safe working conditions but also for ensuring it in a radiation facility. The area monitoring based on the survey of the facility provides instantaneous radiation field is generally used for ensuring safe working condition. However it may not be able to demonstrate the safe working condition over a long period for the facilities where the radiation field is non uniform over the time. In addition, there are circumstances where, it is required to reconstruct the individual dose of the radiation worker over a period based on the area radiation level. In such situations, integrating type area survey meters would not only demonstrate the working condition but also would be more useful for dose reconstruction. A method involving CaSO4: Dy Teflon based TLD badges used for personal monitoring, has been developed for application as area monitoring. The paper presents the area dosemeter based on personal monitoring TLD badges. The study shows that the Personal monitoring system may effectively be used as integrating area monitoring device by adopting an approach different from personal monitoring. The method provides estimate of transit dose which may be negligible for the facility having its own Personal monitoring labs. It may work as a backup for the active monitoring system

  6. Behavior of reusable dosimeters in personnel monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besides an individual calibration, reusable dosimeters, like TLD, need a further periodical control because of the possibility of ageing effects and defects intervening by use. Both calibration and periodical control can consist in verifying that the response of the dosimeters to a determined dose lies between two fixed limits. The alternative method, based on the attribution of a calibration factor to each sensitive element of every dosimeter, has become practically possible using a computer for the management of the control. This technique has the following advantages: better monitoring of the long-term dosimeters behavior; possibility to establish a precise ratio between the signals of two different elements in order to provide more information about the type and energy of the radiation; optimized utilisation of the dosimeters by a more selective exclusion. The registration, besides the calibration factors, of the accumulated dose and the number of use of each dosimeter allows to study the correlation between these quantities and the ageing effects. The results obtained by monitoring the behavior of 3000 dosimeters will be presented and discussed

  7. Modern phosphate glass dosimeters - the alternative in personal monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After a pattern approval by the PTB a new automatic photoluminescence dosimetry (PLD) system has been recently introduced as an official dosimeter into routine monitoring. As an example this dosimeter characterizes the recent developments in personal dosimetry. The paper describes the dosimetric properties of the flat glass dosimeter using the readout system Toshiba FGD-10 and aspects of application in comparison to other dosimeter types. The flat glass dosimeter is today an attractive alternative to the still used film and thermoluminescence dosimeters. (orig.)

  8. Evaluation of environmental monitoring thermoluminescent dosimeter locations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geostatistics, particularly kriging, has been used to assess the adequacy of the existing NTS thermoluminescent dosimeter network for determination of environmental exposure levels. (Kriging is a linear estimation method that results in contour plots of both the pattern of the estimated gamma radiation over the area of measurements and also of the standard deviations of the estimated exposure levels.) Even though the network was not designed as an environmental monitoring network, ft adequately serves this function in the region of Pahute and Rainier Mesas.. The Yucca Flat network is adequate only if a reasonable definition of environmental exposure levels is required; R is not adequate for environmental monitoring in Yucca Flat if a coefficient of variation of 10 percent or less is chosen as the criterion for network design. A revision of the Yucca Flat network design should be based on a square grid pattern with nodes 5000 feet (about one mile) apart, if a 10 percent coefficient of variation criterion is adopted. There were insufficient data for southern and western sections of the NTS to perform the geostatistical analysis. A very significant finding was that a single network design cannot be used for the entire NTS, because different areas have different variograms. Before any design can be finalized, the NTS management must specify the exposure unit area and coefficient of variation that are to be used as design criteria

  9. A Combined Lithium Borate and Lithium Fluoride Thermoluminescence Dosimeter for Routine Personal Monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hot-pressed, 25 mg lithium-7 fluoride dosimeters (Harshaw) and sintered, 25 mg lithium borate dosimeters were compared and studied for application to routine personal monitoring. The lithium borate phosphor was prepared at Risö from lithium tetraborate with small additions of manganese and quartz and it was formed into tablets by means of an automatic tabletting machine. The sensitivity ratio LiF/Li2B4O7:Mn, Si was measured to be 3/1 with an Sb/Cs photomultiplier tube. The study of the two dosimeter types covered fading, annealing requirements, energy dependence on photon and beta radiation, re-use, neutron sensitivity, sensitivity to light, precision of low-dose measurements, etc. Plastic capsules each containing two 7LiF and two Li2B4O7: Mn, Si dosimeters were worn as personal dosimeters, In addition to their film dosimeters, by people working in reactor facilities and other areas. Good agreement between the two types of TL dosimeters was obtained for dose measurements in neutron-free areas. In reactor buildings a small overdose effect caused by neutrons was shown by the borate. The data showed poor agreement between TL and film dosimeters. A personnel dosimetry system consisting of two Li2B4O7: Mn dosimeters for normal routine beta and gamma monitoring and one 7L1F dosimeter used as a long-term dosimeter and as a safeguard against false readings due to thermal neutrons seems to make the most of the advantages of both Li2B4O7:Mn (low production cost, no annealing requirements after the read-out process) and 7LiF (no fading, good accuracy, low sensitivity to thermal neutrons). The three dosimeteis were assembled In a badge intended for routine personal monitoring, and the system was investigated for its energy and angular dependence with photon and beta radiation. (author)

  10. Environmental gamma monitoring in high background radiation areas of Orissa using CaSO4:Dy TL dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naturally occurring radionuclides are the major contributor to the total effective dose of ionizing radiation received by the population. In India, there are quite a few monazite sand bearing placer deposits causing high background radiation along its long coastline. Chatrapur, Orissa is one of the high background areas of India. The beach sand of this area contains natural mineral Monazite abundantly. Maximum and minimum dose were found 1202. 1 μGy in spring and 483.8 μGy in monsoon at Port School and Gopalpur respectively. In spring, summer, monsoon and winter season the dose ranges were observed 1202.1-520.3, 1154.7-503.6, 1066.3-483.8 and 1141.7-508.5 μG respectively. (author)

  11. NRC TLD [thermoluminescent dosimeter] Direct Radiation Monitoring Network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provides the status and results of the NRC Thermoluminescent Dosimeter (TLD) Direct Radiation Monitoring Network. It presents the radiation levels measured in the vicinity of NRC licensed facilities throughout the country for the second quarter of 1990

  12. A new design of TLD dosimeter card for personnel monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The personnel monitoring service for the occupationally exposed radiation workers to the external radiation is carried out in India by using Personnel Monitoring Film and Thermo-Luminescent Dosimeter (TLD) systems. The TLD system of monitoring in India is based on three dosimeter discs of CaSO4:Dy in Teflon matrix clipped on nickel plated aluminium card. TLD system besides having other technical advantages over film has got the advantage of reusability. The contact heating system based on electrical resistance limits the useful life of the Teflon based TL dosimeters hence increasing the cost per readout. The hot gas heating system along with the sandwiching of TLD-Teflon discs in stainless steel plates gives the TL dosimeter card a very large life i.e. it can be used for more than 100 cycles of reuse thus bringing down the cost of monitoring considerably. (author)

  13. The dosimeter personal use in controlled area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The discovery of X-rays revolutionized medicine because it allowed a patient to be examined internally with no surgery. But also caused damage to health professionals and patients due, its oxidizing action. In the beginning of its discovery, many doctors were exposed and exposed beams to their patients for long periods of time, therefore, they developed diseases caused by radiation and the medical community realized that something was wrong. Then created a radiological protection commission to regulate its use in humans and so limit your exposure. Today we know that many companies still did not fit the standards of radiation protection. So we evaluate the technical professionals in radiology regarding the correct use of personal dosimeter, through a descriptive study with a quantitative approach, we used the information collection technique based on a questionnaire developed for this purpose which was delivered and collected personally. From this survey, we sought to assess the knowledge of the basic guidelines of radiological protection. He concluded that the majority of respondents know the rules of use of the personal dosimeter, but do not use it properly, due mainly to lack of supervision by the company, overwork and neglect. (author)

  14. An optical dosimeter for monitoring heavy metal ions in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mignani, Anna G.; Regan, Fiona; Leamy, D.; Mencaglia, A. A.; Ciaccheri, L.

    2005-05-01

    This work presents an optochemical dosimeter for determining and discriminating nickel, copper, and cobalt ions in water that can be used as an early warning system for water pollution. An inexpensive fiber optic spectrophotometer monitors the sensor's spectral behavior under exposure to water solutions of heavy metal ions in the 1-10 mg/l concentration range. The Principal Component Analysis (PCA) method quantitatively determines the heavy metals and discriminates their type and combination.

  15. Intercomparison of radiation dosimeters for individual monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Co-ordinated Research Programme on Intercomparison for Individual Monitoring was established to provide participants with an opportunity to assess (1) their ability to measure external photon radiation fields and (2) the potential impact of introduction of the new operational quantities on their dosimetry programmes. Twenty-four laboratories from 18 IAEA Member States and three international organizations, including the IAEA, participated. The results of phase II of the CRP are presented in this document, which includes a compilation of the presentations and conclusions from the meeting. Refs, figs and tabs

  16. Area monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The exposure of individuals to ionizing radiation is normally subject to legal controls which specify limits, and restriction, of doses that both occupational workers and members of the public are exposed to. The dose limits recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), and adopted by many countries are specified in terms of body dose equivalents, sometimes referred to as limiting quantities. However these quantities are not measurable since they are defined as average doses in organs and tissues of the human body. Thus for the same physical radiation field the dose delivered to an individual will not have a fixed value but will depend upon each individual's sex, age and physical construction as well as upon their orientation in the field. Ionizing radiation, also, cannot be detected by a person's physical senses of sight, smell, hearing and touch. Thus to control the levels of radiation to which individuals are exposed, special operational quantities are used and quantitative measurements have to be made using personal dosemeters or area monitoring equipment. This report describes the operational quantities that are being increasingly used worldwide for area monitoring. It provides information on the international standards that are available on the performance requirements for monitoring equipment designed to measure these operational quantities. It also reviews the recent international standards that have been published on the calibration and type testing of area monitors and gives an example of legislative requirements on area monitoring equipment. (author)

  17. NRC TLD [thermoluminescent dosimeter] Direct Radiation Monitoring Network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Direct Radiation Monitoring Network is operated by the NRC in cooperation with participating states to provide continuous measurement of the ambient radiation levels around licensed NRC facilities, primarily power reactors. Ambient radiation levels result from naturally occurring radionuclides present in the soil, cosmic radiation constantly bombarding the earth from outer space, and the contribution, if any, from the monitored facilities and other man-made sources. The Network is intended to measure radiation levels during routine facility operations and to establish background radiation levels used to assess the radiological impact of an usual condition, such as an accident. This report presents the radiation levels measured around all facilities in the Network for the first quarter of 1990. A complete listing of the site facilities monitored is included. In some instances, two power reactor facilities are monitored by the same set of dosimeters

  18. Qualification of the monitor Pug-7N like dosimeter for neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By means of an inter-comparison method, the monitor for neutrons Pug-7N was enabled like dosimeter for neutrons of two magnitudes: the environmental equivalent dose, H*(10), and the H equivalent dose. The monitor Pug-7N has a plastic detector of scintillation Pns-20 that can be used inside or outside of its polyethylene cylindrical moderator. This designed to detect the neutrons presence that is shown in ana logical form by means of a fast count. Although the instrument is useful to detect the neutrons presence its design it does not allow to estimate the dose. With the purpose of enabling it as dosimeter for neutrons, their response was compared with the response of the area monitor for neutrons Bert hold Lb 6411 and Eberline NRD model Asp-1. Under the same irradiation conditions the 3 instruments were exposed to a source of 241AmBe of 3.7E(9) Bq (100 mCi) of activity whose spectrum and dosimetric magnitudes were determined with a spectrometric system of Bonner spheres with scintillator of 6Lil(Eu) and the NSDUAZ code. Conversion factors of H*(10)/cpm and H/cpm were obtained for the two options of the monitor detector Pug-7N, with this procedure the monitor Pug-7N besides determining the presence of neutrons, it has been enabled for their use as dosimeter for neutrons. (Author)

  19. NRC [Nuclear Regulatory Commission] TLD [thermoluminescent dosimeter] direct radiation monitoring network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provides the status and results of the NRC Thermoluminescent Dosimeter (TLD) Direct Radiation Monitoring Network. It presents the radiation levels measured in the vicinity of NRC licensed facility sites throughout the country for the second quarter of 1989

  20. Applications of Neutron Bubble Dosimeters for Neutron Dose Monitoring in Mixed n-γ Fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>Bubble dosimeter is a promising technology in the field of neutron dosimetry. It provides real-time monitoring of neutron dose, stable energy response over wide range of neutron energy, and a very low

  1. Evaluation of performance of electronic dosimeters for individual monitoring: tests in laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electronic dosimeters based on direct ion storage technology are being widely used in many countries for individual monitoring in many applications of ionizing radiation. However, their use as routine dosimeter has been established in a few countries due to lack of accreditation or intercomparison programs. The objective of this study is to evaluate the performance of two direct íon storage dosimeters model available in the international market: the Miriom-Instadose-1 and RADOS DIS-1 to be eventually accepted for individual monitoring in Brazil. (author)

  2. Environmental gamma radiation monitoring at Visakhapatnam using Thermoluminescence dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The external background radiation levels at Visakhapatnam have been measured. The measurements were performed using CaSO4: Dy thermoluminescence dosimeters at 15 locations in and around Visakhapatnam at one meter above the ground. The range of annual average dose rate measured was 0.79-1.86 mGy/year in air based on the analysis of thermoluminescence dosimeters. Spot readings of the background radiation levels were taken using hand held radiation survey meter. (author)

  3. NRC TLD [Nuclear Regulatory Commission thermoluminescent dosimeter] direct radiation monitoring network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the results of the NRC Direct Radiation Monitoring Network for the fourth quarter of 1989. It provides the ambient radiation levels measured in the vicinity of 75 sites throughout the United States. In addition, it describes the equipment used, monitoring station selection criteria, characterization of the dosimeter response, calibration procedures, statistical methods, intercomparison, and quality assurance program

  4. NRC TLD [thermoluminescent dosimeter] Direct Radiation Monitoring Network: Progress report, October--December 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the results of the NRC Direct Radiation Monitoring Network for the fourth quarter of 1988. It provides the ambient radiation levels measured in the vicinity of 75 sites throughout the United States. In addition, it describes the equipment used, monitoring station selection criteria, characterization of the dosimeter response, calibration procedures, statistical methods, intercomparison, and quality assurance program. 4 tabs

  5. Provision of dosimeters by official monitoring services for eye lens dose estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent epidemiological studies are implying that the radio sensitivity of the eye lens is much higher than supposed in the past. International recommendations and standards demand to lower down the annual limit of the eye lens organ dose to 20 mSv. Since about 10 years German monitoring services offer partial-body dosimeters fixed on the head or on glasses for monitoring the eye lens dose. These dosimeters are optimized to measure the (surface) personal dose equivalent Hp(0,07) from 0,5 mSv up to 10 Sv, which clearly overestimate the organ dose of the eye lens. With special features like different calibrations partial-body dosimeters should be applicable for legal dosimetry to avoid the development of special Hp(3) dosimeters. Accepting the right way for wearing these dosimeters it is important to get the right results. Practical experiences are shown with measuring results and the difficulties of rounding the exact measuring values to discrete dose steps. Closing this article we point to still missing legal basis and open questions regarding to type testing procedures. (orig.)

  6. Qualification of the monitor Pug-7N like dosimeter for neutrons; Habilitacion del monitor PUG-7N como dosimetro para neutrones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benites R, J. L. [Centro Estatal de Cancerologia de Nayarit, Av. Enfermeria, Fracc. Fray Junipero Serra, 63000 Tepic, Nayarit (Mexico); Vega C, H. R.; Murillo O, R. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Calle Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas (Mexico); Velazquez F, J. B., E-mail: jlbenitesr@prodigy.net.mx [Universidad Autonoma de Nayarit, Postgrado CBAP, Carretera Tepic Compostela Km. 9, Xalisco, Nayarit (Mexico)

    2011-10-15

    By means of an inter-comparison method, the monitor for neutrons Pug-7N was enabled like dosimeter for neutrons of two magnitudes: the environmental equivalent dose, H*(10), and the H equivalent dose. The monitor Pug-7N has a plastic detector of scintillation Pns-20 that can be used inside or outside of its polyethylene cylindrical moderator. This designed to detect the neutrons presence that is shown in ana logical form by means of a fast count. Although the instrument is useful to detect the neutrons presence its design it does not allow to estimate the dose. With the purpose of enabling it as dosimeter for neutrons, their response was compared with the response of the area monitor for neutrons Bert hold Lb 6411 and Eberline NRD model Asp-1. Under the same irradiation conditions the 3 instruments were exposed to a source of {sup 241}AmBe of 3.7E(9) Bq (100 mCi) of activity whose spectrum and dosimetric magnitudes were determined with a spectrometric system of Bonner spheres with scintillator of {sup 6}Lil(Eu) and the NSDUAZ code. Conversion factors of H*(10)/cpm and H/cpm were obtained for the two options of the monitor detector Pug-7N, with this procedure the monitor Pug-7N besides determining the presence of neutrons, it has been enabled for their use as dosimeter for neutrons. (Author)

  7. Result of the investigation on performance of new type dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate the new type dosimeter to prepare for renewal of the present TLD in the near future. We hope the new dosimeter to be able to adopt to a radiation working environment in the ODC's radiation control area and be more useful to carry out the personal exposure monitoring. The objects of investigation are TLD, OSL dosimeter, Glass dosimeter, Electric pocket dosimeter and Solid state track detector. And this report have made using technical data presented by each maker. As a result of investigation, we recognize that The TLD's performance is so good that we can continue to use for personal exposure monitoring even if it is compared with other recently new type dosimeter. If we pursue the rationalization and convenience in the operation of dosimeter more and more, then we will recommend the electric pocket dosimeter positively. We recognize obviously that the electric pocket dosimeter can provide us available function and good artificial operation. (author)

  8. Programmable Zone Dosimeter for Operational Monitoring and Measurement of External Gamma Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo, René; Osorio, Juan Fco.; López, Ernesto; Claro, Leodibel Pablo; Galván, José

    2002-08-01

    The ZONE DOSIMETER is a high technology portable device, designed on the base of strict quality requirements. It uses real-time digital techniques in order to enhance the quality of monitoring. The dosimeter measures the dose rate of external γ (gamma) radiation, which allows determining the dose of radiation to which the personal is exposed. In this manner, the accomplishment of the regulations of radiological protection and security in institutions where ionizing radiations are used is assured. The dosimeter is commercialized with a fixed pre-calibration; nevertheless, it is up to the user to obtain all the certifications required by the national legislations for its operation within the system of radiological security. It may also be used in Laboratories of Nuclear Medicine.

  9. Programmable zone dosimeter for operational monitoring and measurement of external gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ZONE DOSIMETER is a high technology portable device, designed on the base of strict quality requirements. It uses real-time digital techniques in order to enhance the quality of monitoring. The dosimeter measures the dose rate of external γ (gamma) radiation, which allows determining the dose of radiation to which the personal is exposed. In this manner, the accomplishment of the regulations of radiological protection and security in institutions where ionizing radiations are used is assured. The dosimeter is commercialized with a fixed pre-calibration; nevertheless, it is up to the user to obtain all the certifications required by the national legislations for its operation within the system of radiological security. It may also be used in Laboratories of Nuclear Medicine

  10. Environmental monitoring using LiMgPO4:Tb,B based OSL dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) has emerged as a popular dosimetric technique during the past 10 years, after the development of crystalline α-Al2O3:C phosphor. OSL based dosimeter is being used increasingly due to the fact that it has various advantages over TL based dosimeter. Al2O3:C was proposed as a sensitive OSL dosimeter (OSLD) for rapid assessment of environmental dose rates. Environment dose measurement using the Al2O3:C based OSL dosimeter was carried out in Japan. In an effort to find alternative OSL phosphor to alumina α-Al2O3:C), LiMgPO4:Tb,B (LMP) was found to be a sensitive OSL phosphor and has the potential to be used as an alternative to Al2O3:C. In this paper we report the results of the environmental monitoring carried out in the environs of Kakrapar Atomic Power Station (KAPS) in India using LMP based environmental OSLDs. These results are compared with the dose measured using conventional TL based environmental dosimeters in the same environment

  11. Design of prototype two element optically stimulated luminescence dosimeter badge for eye lens monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A prototype two element eye lens dosimeter badge based on highly sensitive α-Al2O3: C optically stimulated luminescence dosimeters (OSLDs) was designed and developed. The badge consists of a plastic card in which two thin α-Al2O3: C optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) discs are placed. The OSLDs in the plastic card (when inserted into plastic cassette) are covered with energy compensation filters made up of 0.3 mm thick Cu and 1.35 mm thick Teflon discs positioned symmetrically on both sides of the dosimeter. The OSLD badge is useful for monitoring doses from photons and beta particles. In this paper, theoretical studies using Monte Carlo method as well as using the analytical technique have been performed to study the energy response of the bare α-Al2O3: C based disc dosimeters. These dosimeter discs have been found to exhibit over-response by a factor of ∼ 3.4 at ∼ 33 keV photon energy, whereas, beyond 80 keV photon energy, the response is nearly energy independent. Studies have also been performed to find the energy response of the α-Al2O3: C disc dosimeters under different metal filters, viz., Al, Cu, Sn etc., and under various thicknesses of Teflon. From theoretical simulations, it has been found that 0.3 mm thick Cu is sufficient to correct the over-response in lower energy region within acceptable limits. Further, Teflon disc (DuPont, USA) having thickness of 1.35 mm is found to be the optimized choice as filter for the second dosimeter disc. It is worth mentioning that the ratio of the response of the OSL disc under Teflon to that under Cu filter indicates average energy of X-ray photons and same is used to correct the over-response as well as to estimate the quantity Hp(3). Also for higher photon energy region, the readout of the dosimeter disc under Teflon filter directly measures the quantity Hp(3). Same holds true for beta particles having maximum beta energy, Emax beyond 0.7 MeV. (author)

  12. Characterization of TLD-100 dosimeter for monitoring the extremities of workers in nuclear medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nascimento, Natalia C.E.S.; Oliveira, Mercia L.; Vilela, Eudice C., E-mail: mercial@cnen.gov.br [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Occupational exposure to ionizing radiation can occur due to various human activities, such as exposure during different stages of the nuclear fuel cycle, medical applications, research and all occupations that involve handling with radionuclides. This work aims to characterize extremity dosemeters based on LiF: Mg, Ti (TLD-100) for use in nuclear medicine. For this, we used the dosimetric system EXT-RAD XD-100, associated with an the adjustable ring to the finger of workers. The dosimeters were irradiated on a PMMA phantom finger and standard radiation beams using a source of {sup 137}Cs. The calibration of the dosimeters was carried in terms of Hp (0.07). In order to analyze the performance of the dosimetric system used, tests were made for the individual sensitivity, batch homogeneity, reproducibility, beta and photon energy response and angular response, according to the recommendations of the ISO 12794. The batch of dosimeters used in this study showed a value of homogeneity better than 6.9% and reproducibility better than 4.8%. The study of angular response of the dosimeters showed variation of the response less than 15%. The energy response test showed the variation of TL response below 50% in the energy range considered. Considering the results, we can conclude that the EXT-RAD dosimetric system meets the necessary requirements for application in extremity monitoring of individuals occupationally exposed in nuclear medicine. (author)

  13. Thermoluminescent dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A dosimeter of the type in which two plates of plastics material are bonded together with a layer of thermoluminescent material trapped between is described. The device is made by sprinkling granular thermoluminescent material over areas of a plastics plate which has adhesive on it, removing excess material and then applying a second layer of plastics material over the first layer, and over the thermoluminescent material, and bonding it to complete the dosimeter. (author)

  14. Possibility of ozone depletion monitoring in conditions of opaque atmosphere using D-dosimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terenetskaya, Irina P.

    2002-01-01

    Variations of solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation by clouds and aerosols that have a comparable effect on UVB (280-315 nm) caused by variations in stratospheric ozone hinder accurate detecting mid-latitude UVB trends. In this connection it is desirable to use a UVB dosimeter that has at least two independent parameters, namely, a parameter responding to the integral intensity of UVB radiation and an additional one exclusively sensitive to the short wavelength variations in solar UV spectrum related to ozone depletion. The desired spectral selectivity is intrinsic in D-dosimeter that was recently introduced for an in situ monitoring of vitamin D synthetic capacity of solar UVB radiation. D-dosimeter is based on an in vitro model of vitamin D synthesis. The photoreaction rate (decay of provitamin D and formation of previtamin D) depends upon the integral UV intensity whereas maximum achievable concentration of previtamin D is solely dictated by the spectral position of the short-wave edge of solar spectrum. This makes it possible to reveal ozone depletion under conditions of opaque atmosphere when clouds and aerosols attenuate solar UV flux like a gray filter.

  15. Calculation of the correction factors considering the characteristics of the dosimeters in noble gas areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The majority of the nuclides of noble gases is Xe-133 at reactor building in nuclear power plant, an it emit 4.3∼81kev low energy gamma photons. But generally, responding energy of gamma survey-meters is about 50kev, most of the survey-meters don't respond to gamma-rays emitted by noble gases. Therefore, correction factor is obtained and propriety of it is verified by the information of 81kev gamma-rays to the dosimeters(ADR) and the survey-meters based on a technical standard of reading of dosimeters and the TLD dose which is satisfied with the performance test, and it's propriety is verified by comparing the accumulated dose of the employee in noble gas areas

  16. Performance characteristics of CaSO4 :Dy based indigenous thermoluminescent dosimeters for environmental radiation monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dysprosium doped calcium sulphate based Thermoluminescent Dosimeter (TLD) cards, generally used for personal dosimetry applications in India were redesigned and modified to suit the environmental gamma radiation monitoring applications. Characteristics of the new TLDs, necessary for environmental gamma radiation monitoring were studied and found to be satisfactory in every respect. The TLDs were field tested together with the calcium fluoride powder based capsule TLDs and the results were found to be very satisfactory. This report describes the design parameters, characteristics of the TLDs and results of comparison studies between the two systems that were carried out in all the DAE installations where the environmental gamma radiation monitoring is being carried out for more than three decades. (author)

  17. Glycol ethers--validation procedures for tube/pump and dosimeter monitoring methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langhorst, M L

    1984-06-01

    Methods were developed and validated for personal monitoring of exposures to airborne glycol ethers, both short-term and long-term time-weighted-averages. Either a 600 mg charcoal tube or a 780 mg silica gel tube is recommended for monitoring nine glycol ethers, depending upon the humidity and other organic compounds to be monitored. The charcoal tube allows maximum sensitivity and is unaffected by high humidity conditions. Two-phase solvent desorption with CS2 and water allows aqueous phase recoveries of DOWANOL EM, PM, EE, DM, DPM, and TM glycol ethers. DOWANOL EB, DB and TPM glycol ethers are partitioned between the two layers, necessitating chromatographic analysis of both layers. The silica gel tube method can be used to monitor all nine glycol ethers tested, but is affected by high humidity conditions, resulting in significant breakthrough of the more volatile glycol ethers. The 3M organic vapor monitor can accurately and conveniently determine exposure concentrations for DOWANOL EM, EE, and PM glycol ethers, but sensitivities may be inadequate for sampling periods less than one hour. These methods were validated at levels down to 0.1 times the Dow internal exposure guidelines for those substances with Dow exposure guidelines and well above the current ACGIH and OSHA guidelines. This paper also illustrates validation procedures for tube/pump and dosimeter methods, allowing good definition of method accuracy and precision. Some screening experiments are described for diffusional dosimeters to check the most important parameters in a minimum of time. This methodology will allow assessment of human airborne exposures relative to the new toxicology data available on animals. PMID:6331145

  18. Comparative study of sensitivity of different albedo dosimeters and readout corrections at the U-400 cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work we studied sensitivity of different albedo dosimeters placed in different positions with respect to the U-400M cyclotron: in the experimental area and behind the shield. It was shown that the ratio of albedo dosimeters (AD) and combined personal dosimeters (KID) to that of DVGN-01 dosimeters is constant within 25%. This allows us to use results obtained earlier with AD and KID dosimeters for the readout correction of the DVGN-01 dosimeters being used in the personal radiation monitoring. Values of correction coefficients for DVGN-01 behind the U-400M shield are obtained

  19. Measurements of radon and thoron concentrations in high radiation background area using pin-hole dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In present investigation, newly designed twin cup pin-hole dosimeter with LR-115 track detector has been used for the integrated measurements of radon and thoron in the environmental air of a high background radiation area in coastal Orissa. The twin cup dosimeters were calibrated before installation in the field. The calibration experiment was made in an inter calibration exercise at NIRS, Chiba, Japan. The resulting calibration factors were used to obtain the values of radon and thoron in the study area. Radon and thoron concentrations in the houses of study area were found to vary from 24 Bq/m3 to 98 Bq/m3 and 46 Bq/m3 to 689 Bq/m3, respectively. The indoor and outdoor gamma dose rates in the study area vary from 0.124 μGy/h to 0.257 μGy/h and 0.109 μGy/h to 0.361 μGy/h, respectively. The annual effective dose due to the exposure to indoor radon and progeny was found to vary from 0.70 mSv to 2.84 mSv with an average value of 1.73 mSv. However, the annual effective dose due to the exposure to thoron and progeny was found to vary from 1.16 mSv to 17.36 mSv with an average value of 7.36 mSv. Thoron concentration and gamma dose rate were found relatively higher in the area. - Highlights: • Results of a newly designed twin cup pin-hole dosimeter are reported in this paper. • Radon and thoron were measured in high background radiation area of India. • Concentration of thoron and resulting effective dose were found higher in the area. • The indoor and outdoor gamma dose rates were also relatively higher in the area. • The resulting dose to the people living in the area was estimated

  20. New miniaturized alpha/beta spectrometric systems for the surface contamination monitoring and radon personal dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on a new miniaturized alpha/beta spectrometric system. This cheque cart 12 bit SARAD spectra 5011 spectrometric system we can combine with a new developed detector, preamp and forming unit. A very important application of this new measuring system is the alpha nuclidspecific surface contamination monitoring. Especially in old nuclear power station it is very important in the decommissioning process to know the nuclide vector. We report of applications to use this new technology to measure the nuclide vector in old lead cells or construction elements in old nuclear reactors. We measure surface contamination in the order of 1 Bq/cm2 of Pu-239 very easy. A other modification of this cheque cart spectrometer is the radon personal dosimeter. In this case we have integrated on a cheque cart a 8 bit spectrometer, a 1cm2 silicon detector, the signal processing, AD-conversion, data storage and transponder system for the data transfer. Using this transponder system we can also use a local resoluted dosimetry. The main application of this system is the radon dosimetry on workplaces, for instance water works, mines, show caves and other work places with high radon levels. This easy system can replace the passive screening methods and also the nuclear track etch dosimeters. Because the low price and the easy data read out the amortisation of such a electronic system is in the order of two years

  1. Tracking and Monitoring with Dosimeter-Enabled ARG-US RFID System - 12009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Automated monitoring and tracking of materials with radio frequency identification (RFID) technology can significantly improve both the operating efficiency of radiological facilities and the application of the ALARA (as low as reasonably achievable) principle in them. One such system, called ARG-US, has been developed by Argonne National Laboratory for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Packaging and Certification Program to use in managing sensitive nuclear and radioactive materials. Several ARG-US systems are in various stages of deployment and advanced testing across DOE sites. ARG-US utilizes sensors in the tags to continuously monitor the state of health of the packaging and promptly disseminates alarms to authorized users. In conjunction with global positioning system (GPS) tracking provided by TRANSCOM, the system can also monitor and track packages during transport. A compact dosimeter has been incorporated in the ARG-US tags via an onboard universal asynchronous receiver/transmitter interface. The detector has a wide measurement range for gamma radiation - from 0.1 mSv/h to 8 Sv/h. The detector is able to generate alarms for both high and low radiation and for a high cumulative dose. In a large installation, strategically located dosimeter-enabled tags can yield an accurate, real-time, 2D or 3D dose field map that can be used to enhance facility safety, security, and safeguards. This implementation can also lead to a reduced need for manned surveillance and reduced exposure of personnel to radiation, consistent with the ALARA principle at workplaces. (authors)

  2. Tracking and Monitoring with Dosimeter-Enabled ARG-US RFID System - 12009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, J.; Lee, H.; De Lurgio, P.; Kearney, C.M.; Craig, B.; Soos, I.H.; Tsai, H.; Liu, Y. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Shuler, J. [U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, D.C. 20585 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Automated monitoring and tracking of materials with radio frequency identification (RFID) technology can significantly improve both the operating efficiency of radiological facilities and the application of the ALARA (as low as reasonably achievable) principle in them. One such system, called ARG-US, has been developed by Argonne National Laboratory for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Packaging and Certification Program to use in managing sensitive nuclear and radioactive materials. Several ARG-US systems are in various stages of deployment and advanced testing across DOE sites. ARG-US utilizes sensors in the tags to continuously monitor the state of health of the packaging and promptly disseminates alarms to authorized users. In conjunction with global positioning system (GPS) tracking provided by TRANSCOM, the system can also monitor and track packages during transport. A compact dosimeter has been incorporated in the ARG-US tags via an onboard universal asynchronous receiver/transmitter interface. The detector has a wide measurement range for gamma radiation - from 0.1 mSv/h to 8 Sv/h. The detector is able to generate alarms for both high and low radiation and for a high cumulative dose. In a large installation, strategically located dosimeter-enabled tags can yield an accurate, real-time, 2D or 3D dose field map that can be used to enhance facility safety, security, and safeguards. This implementation can also lead to a reduced need for manned surveillance and reduced exposure of personnel to radiation, consistent with the ALARA principle at workplaces. (authors)

  3. Radiation Protection Instrumentation for Personnel Dosimetry, Area and Environmental Monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Personnel dosimetry presents several problems for the instrument designer. For example, it is not possible to determine accurately the dose absorbed from external γ-radiation using personal dosimeters. However, their design and calibration should minimize the uncertainty of dose estimation. Several kinds-of personal dosimeter exist and their performance is reviewed in the light of requirements for an ideal instrument. Area monitoring is the measurement of radiation and radioactivity in an area to determine the hazards to which workers there are exposed. Portable and fixed area monitors suffer from different limitations and their use is complementary, The nature of the uncertainties in assessing the hazard is important in the interpretation of the data obtained. The requirements of portable instruments are reviewed and the extent to which they are met in one example is described. Environmental monitoring provides a classic example of the need to discriminate against background. When the principle of keeping the environmental doses as low as reasonably achievable is adopted the γ doses to be measured may be smaller than the fluctuations in natural background. In this case it is necessary to discriminate between man-made and natural radiation on the bases of temporal fluctuation and photon energy differences. Where permitted environmental doses are larger than the fluctuations in natural backgrounds, certain types of thermoluminescent dosimeters provide a cheaper and reliable alternative measuring system. (author)

  4. Use of multi-element TL dosimeters for β and mixed β/γ personnel monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method for personnel β dosimetry using multi-element TL dosimeters was tested experimentally. Several β sources were used for the irradiations, and the dose rates from these sources were calibrated by an extrapolation chamber. The β dose received by the dosimeters were calculated using the readings of two of the elements in each dosimeter. The calculated doses compared fairly well with the calibration measurements

  5. External radiation monitoring in the environs of KAPS region using thermoluminescent dosimeters, 1986-2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the results of gamma radiation background survey, over the past fourteen years, carried out using Thermoluminescent Dosimeters (TLDs), in the environs of Kakrapar Atomic Power Station (KAPS). The survey comprises of measurement of soil radioactivity, seven-year pre-operational radiation levels and a regular TLD monitoring survey after the power station became operational. The data were analysed to study long-term trends in the radiation levels of the region. It is observed that the average annual air dose in the Kakrapar region, before KAPS became operational, was in the range 387 - 649 μGy/y as monitored by TLDs. This agrees well with the dose estimated from the soil radioactivity data. The radiation levels monitored after the KAPS became operational are in the range of 475 - 645 μGy/y in the region within 5 -15 km radius. This points to the fact that there has been no detectable increase in the environmental radiation levels due to the KAPS operations. The details are discussed in the paper. (author)

  6. Area monitoring intelligent system - SIMA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The area monitoring intelligent system (SIMA) is an equipment to be used in radioprotection. SIMA has the function of monitoring the radiation levels of determined areas of the installations where radioactive materials are handled. (Author)

  7. Analysis of area monitoring options for Westinghouse Hanford Company

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In June 1992, the Department of Energy issued DOE N 5480.6, Radiological Control Manual, which established practices for conducting radiological control activities at all DOE and DOE-funded sites that manage radiation or radioactive materials. To implement the RCM, each DOE facility was required to develop and approve their own radiological control manual, which described a phased approach to implementing the RCM over a period of time. This document, for the Hanford Site, is called the Hanford Site Radiological Control Manual. The HSRCM was issued in December 1992 (RL 1992). This project relates to Article 514 in the RCM, which discusses establishing and maintaining a comprehensive area monitoring program for minimizing the number of areas requiring the issuance of personnel dosimeters and for verifying that doses next to Radiological Buffer Areas are negligible. Three specific items in this article address the use of area monitoring dosimeters to (1) record and document radiation levels in routinely occuPied areas adjacent to areas where radiation or operations with radiation exist, (2) support dosimetry investigations, and (3) supplement the existing monitoring programs in Controlled Areas in the event of an emergency

  8. NASA Crew Personal Active Dosimeters (CPADs): Leveraging Novel Terrestrial Personal Radiation Monitoring Capabilities for Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitgab, Martin; Semones, Edward; Lee, Kerry

    2016-01-01

    The NASA Space Radiation Analysis Group (SRAG) is developing novel Crew Personal Active Dosimeters (CAPDs) for upcoming crewed space exploration missions and beyond. To reduce the resource footprint of the project a COTS dosimeter base is used for the development of CPADs. This base was identified from evaluations of existing COTS personal dosimeters against the concept of operations of future crewed missions and tests against detection requirements for radiation characteristic of the space environment. CPADs exploit operations efficiencies from novel features for space flight personal dosimeters such as real-time dose feedback, and autonomous measuring and data transmission capabilities. Preliminary CPAD design, results of radiation testing and aspects of operational integration will be presented.

  9. Characterization of the personal dosimeter Rn-disk for monitoring radon exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rn-disk is a new passive device for measuring occupational exposure to radon 222, are presented the results of tests for the characterization of the dosimeter as a tool for estimating the individual dose for workers.

  10. Use of multi-element TL dosimeters for beta and mixed beta/gamma personnel monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Applied experience as well as theoretical considerations make it clear that traditional two-element TL dosimeters are not adequate for use in personnel dosimetry involving beta radiation fields. The principal shortcoming of such dosimeters is that the TL element measuring the beta dose normally under responds, and the readings of such elements must be multiplied by a correction factor, called the beta factor, to obtain the dose. The beta factor, however, is not a constant but varies with variations in the beta spectrum incident on the dosimeter. Experimental tests carried out using a number of multi-element TL dosimeter designs have shown that the element readouts can be used in conjunction with a suitable algorithm to determine a suitable beta factor for use under a variety of irradiation conditions. The precision attainable in calculating the beta factor in this manner depends on a number of dosimeter design parameters and is often quite poor unless special care is exercised both in the design of the dosimeter and also in the operation of the readout system

  11. Android Based Area Web Monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Kanigoro Bayu; Salman Afan Galih; Moniaga Jurike V; Chandra Eric; Chandra Zein Rezky

    2014-01-01

    The research objective is to develop an application that can be used in the monitoring of an area by using a webcam. It aims to create a sense of security on the user's application because it can monitor an area using mobile phone anywhere. The results obtained in this study is to create an area with a webcam monitoring application that can be accessed anywhere as long as the monitoring results have internet access and can also be accessed through Android Based Mobile Phone.

  12. Android Based Area Web Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanigoro, Bayu; Galih Salman, Afan; Moniaga, Jurike V.; Chandra, Eric; Rezky Chandra, Zein

    2014-03-01

    The research objective is to develop an application that can be used in the monitoring of an area by using a webcam. It aims to create a sense of security on the user's application because it can monitor an area using mobile phone anywhere. The results obtained in this study is to create an area with a webcam monitoring application that can be accessed anywhere as long as the monitoring results have internet access and can also be accessed through Android Based Mobile Phone.

  13. Android Based Area Web Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanigoro Bayu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The research objective is to develop an application that can be used in the monitoring of an area by using a webcam. It aims to create a sense of security on the user's application because it can monitor an area using mobile phone anywhere. The results obtained in this study is to create an area with a webcam monitoring application that can be accessed anywhere as long as the monitoring results have internet access and can also be accessed through Android Based Mobile Phone.

  14. A real time scintillating fiber dosimeter for gamma and neutron monitoring on radiotherapy accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartesaghi, G. [INFN Sez. di Milano and Universita dell' Insubria, Como (Italy)]. E-mail: giacomobartesaghi@libero.it; Conti, V. [INFN Sez. di Milano and Universita dell' Insubria, Como (Italy); Prest, M. [INFN Sez. di Milano and Universita dell' Insubria, Como (Italy); Mascagna, V. [Universita dell' Insubria, Como (Italy); Scazzi, S. [Universita dell' Insubria, Como (Italy); Cappelletti, P. [Ospedale Sant' Anna, Como (Italy); Frigerio, M. [Ospedale Sant' Anna, Como (Italy); Gelosa, S. [Ospedale Sant' Anna, Como (Italy); Monti, A. [Ospedale Sant' Anna, Como (Italy); Ostinelli, A. [Ospedale Sant' Anna, Como (Italy); Mozzanica, A. [INFN Sez. di Pavia and Universita di Brescia (Italy); Bevilacqua, R. [Universita di Trieste and INFN sez. di Trieste (Italy); Giannini, G. [Universita di Trieste and INFN sez. di Trieste (Italy); Totaro, P. [Universita di Trieste and INFN sez. di Trieste (Italy); Vallazza, E. [INFN Sez. di Trieste (Italy)

    2007-03-01

    The quality of the radiotherapic treatment depends strongly on the capability to measure the dose released in the treated volume and the one absorbed by the surrounding volumes, which is mainly due to the scattered radiation produced by the primary beam interaction with the accelerator collimating system. Radiotherapy linear accelerators produce electron (6-20MeV) and photon (6, 18MV) irradiating fields up to 40x40cm{sup 2}. Photons with energies greater than 8MeV generate neutrons via photoproduction which are being studied for possible BNCT applications. We have developed a prototype of a real time dosimeter with 1mm diameter scintillating and clear fibers readout by multianode photomultipliers. For neutron applications, the fibers have been coupled with boron loaded scintillator. We will describe the dosimeter and the results of the tests comparing them to the ones obtained with the standard dosimeters.

  15. Passive neutron area monitor with pairs of TLDs as neutron detector

    OpenAIRE

    Vega-Carrillo, Héctor René; Guzmán-García, Karen Arlete; Gallego Díaz, Eduardo F.; Lorente Fillol, Alfredo

    2014-01-01

    A passive neutron area monitor has been designed using Monte Carlo methods; the monitor is a polyethylene cylinder with pairs of thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD600 and TLD700) as thermal neutron detector. The monitor was calibrated with a bare and a thermalzed 241AmBe neutron sources and its performance was evaluated measuring the ambient dose equivalent due to photoneutrons produced by a 15 MV linear accelerator for radiotherapy and the neutrons in the output of a TRIGA Mark III radial bea...

  16. Performance and type testing of selected dosimeters used for individual monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study describes calibration and performance testing carried out for a set of 14 electronic personal dosimeters (EPDs) and thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLDs ) at the Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory of Sudan. Also the conversion coefficients from air kerma have been determined. Dosimeters tested are belonging to three manufactures representing most commonly used types in Sudan. Calibrations were carried out at three X-ray qualities: 80, 120 and 150 kV, ISO 'narrow' spectra and for ''1''3''7Cs, ''60Co gamma rays. The experiments were carried out using ICRU Slab phantom with dimension 30x30x15 cm. Secondary standard ionization chamber was used to measure the personal dose equivalent, Hp(10) as standard dosimetric quantity of interest. parameters tested include: The variation of response with radiation energy and angle of incident in addition to dose rate dependence. The angular dependence factors have been experimentally determined for the same qualities and for different angles (0, ±20, ±40, ±60u) + were performed in accordance to the relevant international standards. Excellent energy, angular and dose rate response was demonstrated for 662 137 Cs, 1250 60 Co beam and (118, 100,65 keV) x-ray beam qualities exception the EPD at PM1203M are slightly larger but still with the acceptable. The response of electronic dosimeters were found to in limits of acceptable performance. For the mean response of all energies is range of EPDs Type RADOS 60, Greatz ED 150, Polimaster PM1203M, TLD were (0.75 ±0.08- 1.13±0.13), (0.83±0.29 -1.06±0.07), (1.08±0.14-1.27±0.09), (0.99±0.05 - 1.14±0.13) respectively. The majority of the dosimeters tested showed good energy and angular response. (Author)

  17. Development and application of extremity dosimeter using the thermoluminescent dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An extremity dosimeter using thermoluminescent dosimeters was developed for practical measurement of beta and gamma doses. This dosimeter is composed of three TL elements and some filters. The TL element is CaSO4(Tm) thin disc and the structure is a type of finger ring. The performance characteristics of this dosimeter was studied by irradiation data of standard sources. Minimum detectable amount of this dosimeter is about 100 mrem for both beta and gamma rays in the mixed radiation field. Also β-ray maximum energy could be estimated by the ratio of the thermoluminescences measured by two TLD discs in this dosimeter. This extremity dosimeter has been used in routine personnel monitoring since 1979 in PNC Tokai Works. (author)

  18. Development of a personal digital dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A compact size personal dosimeter was developed using electronic parts mainly available locally with the aim of having a low cost dosimeter capable of operating in local ambient conditions with ease of maintenance. Besides, the use of CMOS IC's reduces power consumption considerably. The dosimeter has a measuring range of 0-9999 mR using 7 segment LED display clearly readable even in the illuminated area. It is also equipped with alarm system to monitor presentable dose accumulation, dose rate at each 1 mR, saturation of GM detector at high level dose and the radiation surpassing levels selectable in steps of 2.5, 10 and 25 mR/hr. The dosimeter has a size of 7.4x12x3 cm3 with a weight of 300 g and is powered with four 1.2 V AAA size rechargeable Ni-Cd batteries with an energy capacity of 180 Ah each. A miniature GM tube for gamma and X-ray measurement is used as radiation detector. The results of performance testing and calibration show that the dosimeter can measure a dose rate up to 2.5 R/hr with an error less than of +-20% in energy range of 100-1330 keV. Using Cs-137 standard calibration source, the accuracy and precision of the dosimeter at dose limit of 2.5 R/hr are +-14% and 3% respectively. The dosimeter can be continuously operated for 7 hours with fully charged batteries at 300 mW power consumption, while at the lowest operational battery voltage of 4.53 V the dosimeter shows an error less than +-15%

  19. Examination of external radiation exposure assessment method of plant incineration workers with electronic dosimeter in disaster area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A large amount of radioactive materials were emitted by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident that was caused by the Great East Japan Earthquake. Decontamination work has been continued to reduce the radioactive contamination in disaster area. The amount of decontamination waste is very large, and the volume is needed to be reduced by incineration process. Therefore, the assessment of radiation exposure level in incineration plants are indispensable. In this research, assessment of external exposure of plant workers was carried out by measuring air dose rate and integral dose of working environment with NaI scintillator and electronic dosimeters. (author)

  20. External gamma radiation monitoring in the environs of KAPS region using thermoluminescent dosimeters, during the years 1986-2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report discusses the results of gamma radiation-monitoring programme in the Kakrapar Atomic Power Station, situated near Surat, Gujrat. The monitoring, during the period 1986-2003, was carried out using thermoluminescent dosimeters at nineteen locations and covered the pre-operational period during 1986-1992 and operational period during 1992-2003. The report discusses the soil radioactivity contents in the region during the pre-operational period, prevalent gamma radiation levels and the comparison of these radiation levels during the period 1992-2003. Long term analyses on the data to assess the contribution of the power station to radiation levels in the environment of KAPS are discussed using correlation between the stack releases and thc doses recorded by TLD. Frequency distribution study and extreme value probability analysis, carried out on the data are also discussed in the report. (author)

  1. Characteristics Of Dosimeter TL CaSO4:Dy Glass Capillaries For Environmental Radiation Dose Monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    research on the characteristic of dosimeter TL CaSO4 : Dy glass capillaries for environmental dose radiation have been carried out. The results obtained are uniform response and reproducibility during three cycles consumption with average percentage standard deviation of 7.31 % and 5.45%. The response dose is linear and has a minimum detectable dose of 0.01 mGy, sunshine effect with non-penetrating light capsule of 4.65%, humidity effects is not significant by using non-penetrating light capsule. Radiation dose information during 30 days are fading 25%

  2. Provision of dosimeters by official monitoring services for eye lens dose estimation; Die Bereitstellung von Dosimetern durch die amtlichen Messstellen zur Abschaetzung der Augenlinsendosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engelhardt, J.; Martini, E. [Landesanstalt fuer Personendosimetrie und Strahlenschutzausbildung Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Berlin (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    Recent epidemiological studies are implying that the radio sensitivity of the eye lens is much higher than supposed in the past. International recommendations and standards demand to lower down the annual limit of the eye lens organ dose to 20 mSv. Since about 10 years German monitoring services offer partial-body dosimeters fixed on the head or on glasses for monitoring the eye lens dose. These dosimeters are optimized to measure the (surface) personal dose equivalent H{sub p}(0,07) from 0,5 mSv up to 10 Sv, which clearly overestimate the organ dose of the eye lens. With special features like different calibrations partial-body dosimeters should be applicable for legal dosimetry to avoid the development of special H{sub p}(3) dosimeters. Accepting the right way for wearing these dosimeters it is important to get the right results. Practical experiences are shown with measuring results and the difficulties of rounding the exact measuring values to discrete dose steps. Closing this article we point to still missing legal basis and open questions regarding to type testing procedures. (orig.)

  3. Radiation dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A radiation dosimeter is a device, instrument or system that measures or evaluates, either directly or indirectly, the quantities exposure, kerma, absorbed dose or equivalent dose, or their time derivatives (rates), or related quantities of ionizing radiation. A dosimeter along with its reader is referred to as a dosimetry system. Measurement of a dosimetric quantity is the process of finding the value of the quantity experimentally using dosimetry systems. The result of a measurement is the value of a dosimetric quantity expressed as the product of a numerical value and an appropriate unit. To function as a radiation dosimeter, the dosimeter must possess at least one physical property that is a function of the measured dosimetric quantity and that can be used for radiation dosimetry with proper calibration. In order to be useful, radiation dosimeters must exhibit several desirable characteristics. For example, in radiotherapy exact knowledge of both the absorbed dose to water at a specified point and its spatial distribution are of importance, as well as the possibility of deriving the dose to an organ of interest in the patient. In this context, the desirable dosimeter properties will be characterized by accuracy and precision, linearity, dose or dose rate dependence, energy response, directional dependence and spatial resolution. Obviously, not all dosimeters can satisfy all characteristics. The choice of a radiation dosimeter and its reader must therefore be made judiciously, taking into account the requirements of the measurement situation

  4. Performance characteristics of newly modified CaSO4. Dy based indigenous thermoluminescent dosimeters for environmental radiation monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental gamma radiation monitoring around the nuclear installations in India is being carried out for over three decades. This programme was essentially based on powder based Thermoluminescent Dosimeters (TLDs) using naturally occurring calcium fluoride (Fluorite) powder. Being powder based, it was labor intensive and to cater to the increasing demand for monitoring new stations, it was necessary to go for automatic TLD reader system. This was achieved by modifying the TLD cards suitably and using the automated PC based TLD badge TLD reader system indigenously developed and being used for personal dosimetry in India. This paper discusses the modifications that were carried out to make the TLDs suitable for environmental gamma monitoring using TLDs. Performance characterisation of the TLDs like accuracy, precision and energy dependence etc were carried out to see the efficacy of the system for use in the environmental gamma radiation monitoring. In addition, inter-comparison with the existing TLD system, both deployed simultaneously in the field was also carried out. It was found that the new TLD exhibit the accuracy of 89-96% of the various delivered doses in the laboratory while the precision was observed to be within 4% for all the doses delivered. The gamma radiation levels as measured using two TLD systems were found to match very well with each other. The paper also discusses the results. (author)

  5. Thermoluminescent Dosimeter as the Gamma Component of a Nuclear Accident Dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various types of gamma dosimeters have been employed as the gamma-measuring component of accident dosimeters. These have included various types of glass dosimeters, film, chemical dosimeters and polymerization dosimeters. The thermoluminescent dosimeter has notable advantages over these other types. The wide range of the thermoluminescent dosimeter permits it to be used both as a daily monitor for radiation protection purposes and as an accident dosimeter. This concept eliminates the need for special instrumentation for accident dosimeters and allows the well-calibrated instrumentation in daily use to be utilized in the accident dosimeter system. Commonly, the thermoluminescent dosimeter's inherent range is from 5 mr to 100 000 r, with a reproducibility of ± 10%. A single-type calcium fluoride dosimeter and associated readout equipment has been designed and manufactured to cover 5 mr to 5000 r. Readout of the dosimeter is accomplished by heating the phosphor and measuring the light output. Six decade readout instruments are available and completely automated systems have been designed. None of the readout equipment requires more than 20 seconds per dosimeter. Another advantage of the thermoluminescent dosimeter is the low neutron response. The neutron response will vary with the type of container and the type of phosphor. One type of calcium fluoride dosimeter has a neutron response of 0.27 x 10-9 rad per n/cm2. Two physical forms of the thermoluminescent dosimeter are considered. The first is an internally heated evacuated dosimeter contained in a glass envelope. This dosimeter is about 3/8-in diam.x 2½-in long. The second type consists of a small-bore glass tube with the phosphor sealed inside. This dosimeter is 0.8-mm diam. x 6-mm long. Energy response correction shields have been designed for both types of dosimeter. (author)

  6. Copper doped borate dosimeters revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We render a panoramic overview on copper (Cu) doped borate dosimeters. Preparing a dosimeter by mixing specific materials with precise weights and methods is a never-ending quest. The recommended composition is highly decisive for accurate estimation of the absorbed dose, prediction of the biological outcome, determination of the treatment dose for radiation therapy and facilitation of personal monitoring. Based on these principles, the proposed dosimeter must cover a series of dosimetric properties to realize the exact results and assessment. The doped borate dosimeters indeed demonstrate attractive thermoluminescence (TL) features. Several dedicated efforts are attempted to improve the luminescence properties by doping various transition metals or rare-earth elements. The Cu ion being one of the preferred activators shows excellent TL properties as revealed via detail comparison with other dosimeters. Two oxide states of Cu (Cu+ and Cu++) with reasonable atomic number allow easy interaction with boron network. Interestingly, the intrinsic luminescent centers of borate lattice are in cross linked with that of Cu+ ions. Thus, the activation of borate dosimeter with Cu ions for the enhancement of the TL sensitivity is recognized. These dosimeters reveal similar glow curves as the standard TLD-100 (LiF:Mg,Ti) one irrespective of the use of modifiers and synthesis techniques. They display high sensitivity, low fading, dose response linearity over wide range and practical minimum detectable dose. Furthermore, the effective atomic number being the most beneficial aspect (equivalent to that of human tissue) of borate dosimeters do not show any change due to Cu ion activations. The past development, major challenges, excitement, applications, recent progress and the future promises of Cu doped borate TL dosimeters are highlighted. - Highlights: • The manuscript gives a panoramic overview on copper doped borate dosimeters. • Cu ions activated technique in borate

  7. Copper doped borate dosimeters revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alajerami, Y.S.M. [Department of Physics, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Skudai, Johor (Malaysia); Department of Medical Radiography, Al-Azhar University, Gaza Strip, Palestine (Country Unknown); Hashim, S., E-mail: suhairul@utm.my [Department of Physics, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Skudai, Johor (Malaysia); Oncology Treatment Centre, Sultan Ismail Hospital, 81100 Johor Bahru (Malaysia); Ghoshal, S.K. [Department of Physics, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Skudai, Johor (Malaysia); Bradley, D.A. [Centre for Nuclear and Radiation Physics, Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Mhareb, M. [Department of Physics, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Skudai, Johor (Malaysia); Saleh, M.A. [Department of Physics, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Skudai, Johor (Malaysia); National Atomic Energy Commission (NATEC), Sana' a (Yemen)

    2014-11-15

    We render a panoramic overview on copper (Cu) doped borate dosimeters. Preparing a dosimeter by mixing specific materials with precise weights and methods is a never-ending quest. The recommended composition is highly decisive for accurate estimation of the absorbed dose, prediction of the biological outcome, determination of the treatment dose for radiation therapy and facilitation of personal monitoring. Based on these principles, the proposed dosimeter must cover a series of dosimetric properties to realize the exact results and assessment. The doped borate dosimeters indeed demonstrate attractive thermoluminescence (TL) features. Several dedicated efforts are attempted to improve the luminescence properties by doping various transition metals or rare-earth elements. The Cu ion being one of the preferred activators shows excellent TL properties as revealed via detail comparison with other dosimeters. Two oxide states of Cu (Cu{sup +} and Cu{sup ++}) with reasonable atomic number allow easy interaction with boron network. Interestingly, the intrinsic luminescent centers of borate lattice are in cross linked with that of Cu{sup +} ions. Thus, the activation of borate dosimeter with Cu ions for the enhancement of the TL sensitivity is recognized. These dosimeters reveal similar glow curves as the standard TLD-100 (LiF:Mg,Ti) one irrespective of the use of modifiers and synthesis techniques. They display high sensitivity, low fading, dose response linearity over wide range and practical minimum detectable dose. Furthermore, the effective atomic number being the most beneficial aspect (equivalent to that of human tissue) of borate dosimeters do not show any change due to Cu ion activations. The past development, major challenges, excitement, applications, recent progress and the future promises of Cu doped borate TL dosimeters are highlighted. - Highlights: • The manuscript gives a panoramic overview on copper doped borate dosimeters. • Cu ions activated

  8. Portable personal digital dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The specifications, circuit structure and operating mechanism of a new protable personal digital dosimeter have been presented. The ingenious designs and high ratio of performance price make it an ideal monitoring apparatus for the personnel working at the environment of X and γ radiation

  9. Offsite environmental monitoring report: Radiation monitoring around United States nuclear test areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the Offsite Radiation Safety Program conducted during 1990 by the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory -- Las Vegas. This laboratory operates an environmental radiation monitoring program in the region surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and at former test sites in Alaska, Colorado, Mississippi, Nevada, and New Mexico. The surveillance program is designed to measure levels and trends of radioactivity, if present, in the environment surrounding testing areas to ascertain whether current radiation levels and associated doses to the general public are in compliance with existing radiation protection standards. The surveillance program additionally has the responsibility to take action to protect the health and well being of the public in the event of any accidental release of radioactive contaminants. Offsite levels of radiation and radioactivity are assessed by sampling milk, water, and air; by deploying thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) and using pressurized ion chambers (PICs); and by biological monitoring of animals, food crops, and humans. Personnel with mobile monitoring equipment are placed in areas downwind from the test site prior to each nuclear weapons test to implement protective actions, provide immediate radiation monitoring, and obtain environmental samples rapidly after any occurrence of radioactivity release

  10. To the attention of all dosimeter users

    CERN Multimedia

    Dosimetry Service

    2006-01-01

    Many regular users of CERN personal dosimeters do not respect the safety regulations, which include the compulsory monthly read-out of the dosimeter. We would therefore like to remind everybody that if the dosimeter is not read for a period of 3 months or more, we will ask for a return or replacement of the dosimeter, which has a value of CHF 350,-. We would like to emphasise that the dosimeter must be read even if you have not entered controlled areas. Staff members or CERN users who enter controlled areas only occasionally may exchange their regular dosimeter for a short-term visitor dosimeter (VCT). This dosimeter has a limited validity period but does not require a periodic read-out. For further information please contact dosimetry.service@cern.ch Thank you for your cooperation. Dosimetry Service - Bldg. 24 E 011 - http://cern.ch/rp-dosimetry

  11. To the attention of all dosimeter users

    CERN Multimedia

    Dosimetry Service

    2005-01-01

    Many regular users of CERN personal dosimeters do not respect the safety regulations, which include the compulsory monthly read-out of the dosimeter. Therefore we would like to remind everybody that if the dosimeter is not read for a period of 3 months or more, we will ask for a return or replacement of the dosimeter, which has a value of CHF 350.-. We would like to emphasise that the dosimeter must be read even if you have not entered controlled areas. Staff members or CERN users who enter controlled areas only occasionally may exchange their regular dosimeter for a short term visitor dosimeter (VCT). This dosimeter has a limited validity period but without for a compulsory periodic read-out. For further information please contact dosimetry.service@cern.ch Thank you for your cooperation. Dosimetry Service Bld 24 E 011 http://cern.ch/rp-dosimetry

  12. To the attention of all dosimeter users

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    Many regular users of CERN personal dosimeters do not respect the safety regulations, which include a compulsory monthly read-out of the dosimeter. Therefore we would like to remind everybody that if the dosimeter is not read for a period of 3 months or more, we will ask for a return or replacement of the dosimeter, which has a value of CHF 350.-. We would like to emphasise that the dosimeter must be read even if you have not entered controlled areas. Staff members or CERN users who enter controlled areas only occasionally may exchange their regular dosimeter for a short term visitor dosimeter (VCT). This dosimeter has a limited validity period but without for a compulsory periodic read-out. For further information please contact dosimetry.service@cern.ch Thank you for your cooperation. Dosimetry Service Bldg. 24 E 011 http://cern.ch/rp-dosimetry

  13. Measurement of individual doses of radiation by personal dosimeter is important for the return of residents from evacuation order areas after nuclear disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orita, Makiko; Hayashida, Naomi; Taira, Yasuyuki; Fukushima, Yoshiko; Ide, Juichi; Endo, Yuuko; Kudo, Takashi; Yamashita, Shunichi; Takamura, Noboru

    2015-01-01

    To confirm the availability of individual dose evaluation for the return of residents after the accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP), we evaluated individual doses of radiation as measured by personal dosimeters in residents who temporarily stayed in Evacuation Order Areas in Kawauchi village, which is partially located within a 20 km radius of the FNPP. We also compared individual doses with the external radiation doses estimated from the ambient dose rates and with doses estimated from the concentrations of radionuclides in the soil around each individual's house. Individual doses were significantly correlated with the ambient doses in front of the entrances to the houses (r = 0.90, pradionuclides in soil samples ranged from 0.03 to 23.42 mSv/y. The individual doses were moderately correlated with external effective doses in the backyards (r = 0.38, pradionuclides and the decontamination of contaminated soil. Long-term follow-up of individual doses as well as internal-exposure doses, environmental monitoring and reconstruction of infrastructure are needed so that residents may return to their hometowns after a nuclear disaster. PMID:25806523

  14. Cell-phone interference with pocket dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accurate reporting of personal dose is required by regulation for hospital personnel that work with radioactive material. Pocket dosimeters are commonly used for monitoring this personal dose. We show that operating a cell phone in the vicinity of a pocket dosimeter can introduce large and erroneous readings of the dosimeter. This note reports a systematic study of this electromagnetic interference. We found that simple practical measures are enough to mitigate this problem, such as increasing the distance between the cell phone and the dosimeter or shielding the dosimeter, while maintaining its sensitivity to ionizing radiation, by placing it inside a common anti-static bag. (note)

  15. System for continuous real time air monitoring by means of gamma spectrometry with germanium dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Design of automatic system for real time air monitoring of radioactive particulates are relate. Recommendations are made for design and operation of sampling conduits to minimize losses. By means of experimental equipment loss of particles in long sampling conduits, minimum detectable activity and efficiency of gamma radiation detectable are evaluated. (author)

  16. Thermoluminescence slab dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1953 F. Daniels et al. used the property of thermoluminescence in dosimetry for the first time. Since then, numerous thermoluminescence dosimeter (TLD) have been developed. 2D TLD was investigated for the first time in 1972 by P Broadhead. However, due to excessive fading, difficulties with handling and the time required for measurements, development stalled. At the current time, the majority of TLD are used in small scale, localized dosimetry with a wide dynamic range and personal dosimeters for exposure management. Urushiyama et. al. have taken advantage of the commoditization of charge-coupled devices (CCD) cameras in recent years -making large area, high resolution imaging easier- to introduce and develop a 2D TLD. It is expected that these developments will give rise to a new generation of applications for 2D thermoluminescence (TL) dosimetry. This paper introduces the ''TL Slab Dosimeter'' developed jointly by Urushiyama et. al. and our team, its measurement system and several typical usage scenarios. (author)

  17. Passive neutron area monitor with pairs of TLDs as neutron detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A passive neutron area monitor has been designed using Monte Carlo methods; the monitor is a polyethylene cylinder with pairs of thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD600 and TLD700) as thermal neutron detector. The monitor was calibrated with a bare and a thermalzed 241AmBe neutron sources and its performance was evaluated measuring the ambient dose equivalent due to photoneutrons produced by a 15 MV linear accelerator for radiotherapy and the neutrons in the output of a TRIGA Mark III radial beam port. - Highlights: • A passive neutron area monitor was built and evaluated. • The monitor uses pairs of TLD 600 and TLD700. • It was evaluated in the beam port of a TRIGA Mark III reactor. • The performance was also evaluated in a 15 MV LINAC

  18. Evaluation of personal integrating dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this work is to analyze the different types of dosimeters present in the international market that are used to provide personal dose monitoring, specifically for external gamma and beta radiation, Hp(10) and Hp (0,07), as well as to add comments of advances in the field of passive and operative dosimetry, and the changes that are being produced in the regulating policy in other countries regarding the use of this devices. The technical specification of each dosimeter has been extracted of different catalogues of products. To conclude, the importance has been stressed in a proper selection of dosimeters with its advantages and disadvantages before its use. (author)

  19. Calibration of beta dosimeter and personal dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper introduces ISO standard ISO 6980 which prepared especially for the calibration of beta dosimeter and personal dosimeter. The standard has three aspects including method of production of reference beta particle radiations, calibration fundamentals related to basic quantities characterizing the radiation field, and calibration of area and personal dosemters and the determination of their response as a function of beta radiation energy and angle of incidence. Here particular emphasis is placed on the determination of basic quantity of tissue absorbed dose at a depth of 0.07 mm in the tissue slab phantom and calibration procedure by mean of the calibration quantity of directional dose equivalent H'(0.07, Ω) and personal dose equivalent Hp (0.07, Ω). Finally, combined standard uncertainty for the determination of absorbed dose rate and component uncertainties of calibration is given as examples. (authors)

  20. Offsite environmental monitoring report: Radiation monitoring around United States nuclear test areas, calendar year 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the Offsite Radiation Safety Program conducted during 1991 by the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory-Las Vegas. This laboratory operates an environmental radiation monitoring program in the region surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and at former test sites in Alaska, Colorado, Mississippi, Nevada, and New Mexico. The surveillance program is designed to measure levels and trends of radioactivity, if present, in the environment surrounding testing areas to ascertain whether current radiation levels and associated doses to the general public are in compliance with existing radiation protection standards. The surveillance program additionally has the responsibility to take action to protect the health and well being of the public in the event of any accidental release of radioactive contaminants. Offsite levels of radiation and radioactivity are assessed by sampling milk, water, and air; by deploying thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) and using pressurized ion chambers (PICs); and by biological monitoring of animals, food crops, and humans. Personnel with mobile monitoring equipment are placed in areas downwind from the test site prior to each nuclear weapons test to implement protective actions, provide immediate radiation monitoring, and obtain environmental samples rapidly after any occurrence of radioactivity release. Comparison of the measurements and sample analysis results with background levels and with appropriate standards and regulations indicated that there was no radioactivity detected offsite by the various EPA monitoring networks and no exposure above natural background to the population living in the vicinity of the NTS that could be attributed to current NTS activities. Annual and long-term trends were evaluated in the Noble Gas, Tritium, Milk Surveillance, Biomonitoring, TLD, PIC networks, and the Long-Term Hydrological Monitoring Program

  1. Offsite environmental monitoring report: Radiation monitoring around United States nuclear test areas, calendar year 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaloud, D.J.; Dicey, B.B.; Mullen, A.A.; Neale, A.C.; Sparks, A.R.; Fontana, C.A.; Carroll, L.D.; Phillips, W.G.; Smith, D.D.; Thome, D.J.

    1992-01-01

    This report describes the Offsite Radiation Safety Program conducted during 1991 by the Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s) Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory-Las Vegas. This laboratory operates an environmental radiation monitoring program in the region surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and at former test sites in Alaska, Colorado, Mississippi, Nevada, and New Mexico. The surveillance program is designed to measure levels and trends of radioactivity, if present, in the environment surrounding testing areas to ascertain whether current radiation levels and associated doses to the general public are in compliance with existing radiation protection standards. The surveillance program additionally has the responsibility to take action to protect the health and well being of the public in the event of any accidental release of radioactive contaminants. Offsite levels of radiation and radioactivity are assessed by sampling milk, water, and air; by deploying thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) and using pressurized ion chambers (PICs); and by biological monitoring of animals, food crops, and humans. Personnel with mobile monitoring equipment are placed in areas downwind from the test site prior to each nuclear weapons test to implement protective actions, provide immediate radiation monitoring, and obtain environmental samples rapidly after any occurrence of radioactivity release. Comparison of the measurements and sample analysis results with background levels and with appropriate standards and regulations indicated that there was no radioactivity detected offsite by the various EPA monitoring networks and no exposure above natural background to the population living in the vicinity of the NTS that could be attributed to current NTS activities. Annual and long-term trends were evaluated in the Noble Gas, Tritium, Milk Surveillance, Biomonitoring, TLD, PIC networks, and the Long-Term Hydrological Monitoring Program.

  2. Thermoluminescence dosimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zendle, Robert

    1985-01-01

    A thermoluminescence dosimeter having a very small rate of decline of sensitivity during subsequent uses after heating is disclosed. The dosimeter includes a detector crystal and a glass enclosure in which the detector crystal is located. The glass enclosure is air tight and is filled with a super dry inert fill gas. The inert fill gas is nonreactive with the detector crystal when the detector crystal is heated to thermoluminescence. The fill gas is selected from the group consisting of air, nitrogen, and argon, suitable admixed with 5 to 25 percent helium. The detector crystal consists essentially of calcium fluoride. The fill gas is preferably contained at a subatmospheric pressure in the glass enclosure.

  3. A cyanocobalamin dosimeter for monitoring gamma-radiation doses of 0.1-2 kGy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maged, A. F.; Hamza, M. S. A.; Saad, E. A.

    1997-08-01

    A simple dosimeter is described for measuring gamma-ray doses useful for insect sterilization, seed-sprouting inhibition and food shelf-life extensions. The red aqueous solution of cyanocobalamin (B 12) before irradiation, assumes a stable yellow color when irradiated. It shows a linear response of absorbance decrease with the dose over the range of 0.1-2.0 kGy when the concentration of cyanocobalamin is equal 0.09 mM. The radiation-induced color is analyzed spectrophotometrically at the maximum absorption band (361 nm). The absorption spectra, dose response and post-irradiation stability of the dosimeter are discussed.

  4. Offsite environmental monitoring report: Radiation monitoring around United States nuclear test areas, calendar year 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the Offsite Radiation Safety Program conducted during 1993 by the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory - Las Vegas (EMSL-LV). This laboratory operates an environmental radiation monitoring program in the region surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and at former test sites in Alaska, Colorado, Mississippi, Nevada, and New Mexico. The surveillance program is designed to measure levels and trends of radioactivity, if present, in the environment surrounding testing areas to ascertain whether current radiation levels and associated doses to the general public are in compliance with existing radiation protection standards. The surveillance program additionally has the responsibility to take action to protect the health and well being of the public in the event of any accidental release of radioactive contaminants. Offsite levels of radiation and radioactivity are assessed by sampling milk, water, and air; by deploying thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) and using pressurized ionization chambers (PICs); by biological monitoring of foodstuffs including animal tissues and food crops; and by measurement of radioactive material deposited in humans

  5. Offsite environmental monitoring report: Radiation monitoring around United States nuclear test areas, calendar year 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaloud, D.J; Daigler, D.M.; Davis, M.G. [and others

    1996-06-01

    This report describes the Offsite Radiation Safety Program conducted during 1993 by the Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s) Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory - Las Vegas (EMSL-LV). This laboratory operates an environmental radiation monitoring program in the region surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and at former test sites in Alaska, Colorado, Mississippi, Nevada, and New Mexico. The surveillance program is designed to measure levels and trends of radioactivity, if present, in the environment surrounding testing areas to ascertain whether current radiation levels and associated doses to the general public are in compliance with existing radiation protection standards. The surveillance program additionally has the responsibility to take action to protect the health and well being of the public in the event of any accidental release of radioactive contaminants. Offsite levels of radiation and radioactivity are assessed by sampling milk, water, and air; by deploying thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) and using pressurized ionization chambers (PICs); by biological monitoring of foodstuffs including animal tissues and food crops; and by measurement of radioactive material deposited in humans.

  6. Offsite environmental monitoring report: Radiation monitoring around United States nuclear test areas, calendar year 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, M.G.; Flotard, R.D.; Fontana, C.A.; Hennessey, P.A.; Maunu, H.K.; Mouck, T.L.; Mullen, A.A.; Sells, M.D.

    1999-01-01

    This report describes the Offsite Radiological Environmental Monitoring Program (OREMP) conducted during 1997 by the US Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPAs), Radiation and Indoor Environments National Laboratory, Las Vegas, Nevada. This laboratory operated an environmental radiation monitoring program in the region surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and at former test sites in Alaska, Colorado, Mississippi, Nevada, and New Mexico. The surveillance program is designed to measure levels and trends of radioactivity, if present, in the environment surrounding testing areas to ascertain whether current radiation levels and associated doses to the general public are in compliance with existing radiation protection standards. The surveillance program additionally has the responsibility to take action to protect the health and well being of the public in the event of any accidental release of radioactive contaminants. Offsite levels of radiation and radioactivity are assessed by sampling and analyzing milk, water, and air; by deploying and reading thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs); and using pressurized ionization chambers (PICs) to measure ambient gamma exposure rates with a sensitivity capable of detecting low level exposures not detected by other monitoring methods.

  7. Offsite environmental monitoring report. Radiation monitoring around United States nuclear test areas, calendar year 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the Offsite Radiological Environmental Monitoring Program (OREMP) conducted during 1997 by the US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPAs), Radiation and Indoor Environments National Laboratory, Las Vegas, Nevada. This laboratory operated an environmental radiation monitoring program in the region surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and at former test sites in Alaska, Colorado, Mississippi, Nevada, and New Mexico. The surveillance program is designed to measure levels and trends of radioactivity, if present, in the environment surrounding testing areas to ascertain whether current radiation levels and associated doses to the general public are in compliance with existing radiation protection standards. The surveillance program additionally has the responsibility to take action to protect the health and well being of the public in the event of any accidental release of radioactive contaminants. Offsite levels of radiation and radioactivity are assessed by sampling and analyzing milk, water, and air; by deploying and reading thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs); and using pressurized ionization chambers (PICs) to measure ambient gamma exposure rates with a sensitivity capable of detecting low level exposures not detected by other monitoring methods

  8. 300 area TEDF permit compliance monitoring plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BERNESKI, L.D.

    1998-11-20

    This document presents the permit compliance monitoring plan for the 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF). It addresses the compliance with the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit and Department of Natural Resources Aquatic Lands Sewer Outfall Lease.

  9. 300 area TEDF permit compliance monitoring plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document presents the permit compliance monitoring plan for the 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF). It addresses the compliance with the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit and Department of Natural Resources Aquatic Lands Sewer Outfall Lease

  10. Monitoring System for ALICE Surface Areas

    CERN Document Server

    Demirbasci, Oguz

    2016-01-01

    I have been at CERN for 12 weeks within the scope of Summer Student Programme working on a monitoring system project for surface areas of the ALICE experiment during this period of time. The development and implementation of a monitoring system for environmental parameters in the accessible areas where a cheap hardware setup can be deployed were aim of this project. This report explains how it was developed by using Arduino, Raspberry PI, WinCC OA and DIM protocol.

  11. Operation of Personal Electronic Dosimeters at NRCN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the recent years, electronic personal dosimeters (EPD's) are increasingly being used at NRCN, replacing the old direct reading dosimeters that are still widely used. The most significant advantage of the new dosimeters is the real time alarm in a radiation field exceeding a pre-determined threshold. The EPD dosimeters are more precise and can measure γ, β and x rays of a wide range of energies. In addition, the electronic dosimeters collects and stores the reading at a fixed pattern (every 10 seconds) and keeps the data until it is downloaded from the dosimeter. This feature gives the ability to build a personal time-dependent exposure report for each worker who carries this device and to analyze, identify and measure the exact dose, time and duration of any exposure event he was involved in. Designing and building a personal electronic dosimeter became possible as a result of the massive technological improvements of semi conductor detectors and the minimization processes of microprocessors and low energy electronic devices. The main purpose for personal electronic dosimeters was to monitor on-line doses for radiation workers.A special reader device enables to download data and upload operational settings of the dosimeters. By means of this communication channel, one can save the data acquired by the dosimeter, clear the dosimeter memory and set the dosimeter operational parameters. There are two possible working patterns. The first is to read and set all the dosimeters at a central point, normally a dosimetry laboratory (single reader) and the second and more expensive one, is to build a network of readers covering the plant for obtaining on-line communication

  12. Current developments in personnel monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Personnel monitoring is being carried out using devices which range from conventional passive dosimeters like the film badge and the TLD, to sophisticated Electronic Personal Dosimeters (EPD) for integrated gamma, beta and neutron dose measurement. In the passive category, OSL dosimeters are posing a serious challenge to TLD dosimeters with their advantages over TLD such as superiority in lower detection limits, comparatively simpler readout unit with optical stimulation, re-readability, etc. The latest evolution of Electronic Personal Dosimeters (EPD) has reached a technical level fulfilling the requirements of the IEC and ANSI standards for approval as legal or official dosimeter. There are a number of serious contenders to the conventional Si semiconductor diode detectors. The MOSFET dosimeter, direct ion storage dosimeter and the CCD dosimeter are some of the promising alternatives. The neutron personal dosimeters are based on measuring a physical or (bio) chemical effect with properties similar to the deposition of dose equivalent in tissue, measuring LET spectra and folding them over the quality factor, or designing a device with an energy dependence of the response resembling the fluence-to-dose equivalent conversion coefficient. Most neutron EPDs, virtually all commercial ones, are based on the last method. The paper discusses the current developments and future trends in the area of personnel monitoring instruments and devices. (author)

  13. [Thermoluminescence Slab Dosimeter].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinsho, Kiyomitsu; Koba, Yusuke; Tamatsu, Satoshi; Sakurai, Noboru; Wakabayashi, Genichiro; Fukuda, Kazusige

    2013-01-01

    In 1953 F. Daniels et al. used the property of thermoluminescence in dosimetry for the first time. Since then, numerous TLD have been developed. 2D TLD was investigated for the first time in 1972 by P Broadhead. However, due to excessive fading, difficulties with handling and the time required for measurements, development stalled. At the current time, the majority of TLD are used in small scale, localized dosimetry with a wide dynamic range and personal dosimeters for exposure management. Urushiyama et. al. have taken advantage of the commoditization of CCD cameras in recent years--making large area, high resolution imaging easier--to introduce and develop a 2D TLD. It is expected that these developments will give rise to a new generation of applications for 2D TL dosimetry. This paper introduces the "TL Slab Dosimeter" developed jointly by Urushiyama et. al. and our team, its measurement system and several typical usage scenarios. PMID:24893451

  14. External gamma radiation monitoring in the environs of Kaiga Generating Station (KGS), using thermoluminescent dosimeters, during the period 1989-2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication reports the results of external gamma radiation monitoring using Thermoluminescent Dosimeters (TLDs), in the environs of Kaiga Generating Station (KGS) during its preoperational survey between October 1989 and June 1998. The report also presents quarterly and annual values of air dose during the operational phase of the station between July 1998 and Dec. 2003 around the environmcnt of KGS. The results of TLD analysis, during the period October 1989-June 1998, indicate that the average annual air dose for the locations monitored, was 502± 91 μGy/a. The general background of the environs around Kaiga during the operational period, i.e. July 1998 and Dec. 2003, between 2.3 km. to 32km. has been found to be 509±74 μGy/a. The report discusses the methodology and different analyses carried out. (author)

  15. A microcontroller based smart area monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A micro-controller based smart area monitor has been developed using a GM counter for area monitoring of gamma radiation levels around radioactive source storage and instrument calibration rooms. The area monitor can be programmed to store the radiation levels in a built-in memory module every half or one hour along with the real time. The memory module has a capacity for storage of 1000 readings and hence hourly data for one month can be stored. The monitor has also a RS232C interface for connection to a PC and the stored data can be readily down loaded in to the PC for dose profile analysis, investigation of any over exposure cases and checking radioactive source usage and movement. The monitor has also an alarm function wherein a buzzer is activated when the exposure exceeds an user settable level. The time of occurrence of the alarm condition and the alarm level are also stored in the memory. The monitor covers a range 1mR/h to 100mR/hr. The other features of the monitor are built-in self diagnosis for failure of G.M Counter, EHT, or memory and low power mains operation with rechargeable battery backup for uninterrupted functioning. The design details are discussed. (author)

  16. Measurement of individual doses of radiation by personal dosimeter is important for the return of residents from evacuation order areas after nuclear disaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makiko Orita

    Full Text Available To confirm the availability of individual dose evaluation for the return of residents after the accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP, we evaluated individual doses of radiation as measured by personal dosimeters in residents who temporarily stayed in Evacuation Order Areas in Kawauchi village, which is partially located within a 20 km radius of the FNPP. We also compared individual doses with the external radiation doses estimated from the ambient dose rates and with doses estimated from the concentrations of radionuclides in the soil around each individual's house. Individual doses were significantly correlated with the ambient doses in front of the entrances to the houses (r = 0.90, p<0.01, in the backyards (r = 0.41, p<0.01 and in the nearby fields (r = 0.80, p<0.01. The maximum cumulative ambient doses in the backyards and fields around the houses were 6.38 and 9.27 mSv/y, respectively. The maximum cumulative individual dose was 3.28 mSv/y, and the median and minimum doses were 1.35 and 0.71 mSv/y. The estimated external effective doses from concentrations of artificial radionuclides in soil samples ranged from 0.03 to 23.42 mSv/y. The individual doses were moderately correlated with external effective doses in the backyards (r = 0.38, p<0.01 and in the fields (r = 0.36, p<0.01; however, the individual doses were not significantly correlated with the external effective doses in front of the entrances (r = 0.01, p = 0.92. Our study confirmed that individual doses are low levels even in the evacuation order area in Kawauchi village, and external effective dose levels are certainly decreasing due to the decay of artificial radionuclides and the decontamination of contaminated soil. Long-term follow-up of individual doses as well as internal-exposure doses, environmental monitoring and reconstruction of infrastructure are needed so that residents may return to their hometowns after a nuclear disaster.

  17. Offsite environmental monitoring report; radiation monitoring around United States nuclear test areas, Calendar Year 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, M.G.; Flotard, R.D.; Fontana, C.A.; Huff, P.A.; Maunu, H.K.; Mouck, T.L.; Mullen, A.A.; Sells, M.D.

    1997-08-01

    This report describes the Offsite Radiation Safety Program. This laboratory operated an environmental radiation monitoring program in the region surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and at former test sites in Alaska, Colorado, Mississippi, Nevada, and New Mexico. The surveillance program is designed to measure levels and trends of radioactivity, if present, in the environment surrounding testing areas to ascertain whether current radiation levels and associated doses to the general public are in compliance with existing radiation protection standards. The surveillance program additionally has the responsibility to take action to protect the health and well being of the public in the event of any accidental release of radioactive contaminants. Offsite levels of radiation and radioactivity are assessed by sampling milk, water, and air; by deploying thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs); and using pressurized ionization chambers (PICs). No nuclear weapons testing was conducted in 1996 due to the continuing nuclear test moratorium. During this period, R and IE personnel maintained readiness capability to provide direct monitoring support if testing were to be resumed and ascertained compliance with applicable EPA, DOE, state, and federal regulations and guidelines. Comparison of the measurements and sample analysis results with background levels and with appropriate standards and regulations indicated that there was no airborne radioactivity from diffusion or resuspension detected by the various EPA monitoring networks surrounding the NTS. There was no indication of potential migration of radioactivity to the offsite area through groundwater and no radiation exposure above natural background was received by the offsite population. All evaluated data were consistent with previous data history.

  18. Offsite environmental monitoring report; radiation monitoring around United States nuclear test areas, Calendar Year 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the Offsite Radiation Safety Program. This laboratory operated an environmental radiation monitoring program in the region surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and at former test sites in Alaska, Colorado, Mississippi, Nevada, and New Mexico. The surveillance program is designed to measure levels and trends of radioactivity, if present, in the environment surrounding testing areas to ascertain whether current radiation levels and associated doses to the general public are in compliance with existing radiation protection standards. The surveillance program additionally has the responsibility to take action to protect the health and well being of the public in the event of any accidental release of radioactive contaminants. Offsite levels of radiation and radioactivity are assessed by sampling milk, water, and air; by deploying thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs); and using pressurized ionization chambers (PICs). No nuclear weapons testing was conducted in 1996 due to the continuing nuclear test moratorium. During this period, R and IE personnel maintained readiness capability to provide direct monitoring support if testing were to be resumed and ascertained compliance with applicable EPA, DOE, state, and federal regulations and guidelines. Comparison of the measurements and sample analysis results with background levels and with appropriate standards and regulations indicated that there was no airborne radioactivity from diffusion or resuspension detected by the various EPA monitoring networks surrounding the NTS. There was no indication of potential migration of radioactivity to the offsite area through groundwater and no radiation exposure above natural background was received by the offsite population. All evaluated data were consistent with previous data history

  19. REMOTE AREA RADIATION MONITORING (RARM) ALTERNATIVES ANALYSIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Remote Area Radiation Monitoring (RARM) system will be used to provide real-time radiation monitoring information to the operations personnel during tank retrieval and transfer operations. The primary focus of the system is to detect potential anomalous (waste leaks) or transient radiological conditions. This system will provide mobile, real-time radiological monitoring, data logging, and status at pre-selected strategic points along the waste transfer route during tank retrieval operations. The system will provide early detection and response capabilities for the Retrieval and Closure Operations organization and Radiological Control personnel

  20. Miniature personal UV solar dosimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, R. R.; Macconochie, I. O.; Poole, B. D., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Small light-powered meter measures accumulated radiation in ultraviolet or other selected regions. Practical advantages are device's low cost, small size, accuracy, and adaptability to specific wave-band measurements. Medical applications include detection of skin cancer, vitamin D production, and jaundice. Dosimeter also measures sunlight for solar energy designs, agriculture and meteorology, and monitors stability of materials and environmental and occupational lighting.

  1. The development of web monitoring digital area monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As CCTV and radiation area monitor have been used separately to date, there have existed inconveniences in managing the view images and radiation dose rates from them. Thus we became to develop the web monitoring digital area monitor which incorporated the existing two factors, CCTV and radiation area monitor, into one. As incorporated with digitalisation, this device will usually become linked with PC, so that the view image and radiation dose rate can be concurrently identified in convenience. These measured figures automatically become data-based on PC by SW program, and become displayed in various format. Moreover, they can be monitored in remote and real time basis in the internet environment. Its local unit uses the cost-effective GM tube and CMOS image sensor, and has the small LCD which directly indicates the measured dose rate. The image sensor is designed to be operated with pan and tilt motion, thus can eliminate the dead view zone. It is thought that the developed device at this time could make the radiation safety management of each work field be done with low cost-high efficiency manner, making role of the CCTV inspection system

  2. Development of a scintillating fiber-optic dosimeter for measuring the entrance surface dose in diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a direct method, a scintillating fiber-optic dosimeter (SFOD) was fabricated using an organic scintillator, a plastic optical fiber, and a photomultiplier tube (PMT) to measure entrance surface doses (ESDs) in diagnostic radiology. In this study, we measured the scintillating lights, which are altered by to the exposure parameters, such as the tube potential, current-time product, and focus-surface distance (FSD), with an SFOD placed on the top of an acrylic and aluminum chest phantom to provide a backscatter medium. The scintillating light signals of the SFOD were compared with the ESDs obtained using conventional dosimeters. The ESDs that were measured using the dose-area product (DAP) meter, as an indirect method, and a semiconductor dosimeter, as a direct method, were distinguished according to differences in the measurement position and the method used. In the case of the two direct methods with the SFOD and the semiconductor dosimeter, the output light signals of the SFOD were similar to the ESDs of the semiconductor dosimeter. It is expected that the SFOD will be a useful dosimeter for diagnostic radiology due to its many advantages, including its small size, lightweight, substantial flexibility, remote sensing, real-time monitoring, and immunity to electromagnetic interference (EMI). - Highlights: ► Fabrication of a scintillating fiber-optic dosimeter for use in diagnostic radiology. ► Measurements of the scintillating light according to the exposure parameters. ► Comparison of the entrance surface doses obtained using conventional dosimeters

  3. An improved dosimeter having constant flow pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A dosemeter designed for individual use which can be used to monitor toxic radon gas and toxic related products of radon gas in mines and which incorporates a constant air stream flowing through the dosimeter is described. (U.K.)

  4. The shelf life of dyed polymethylmethacrylate dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The long-term stability of the radiation response of Harwell Red 4034 and Amber 3042 Perspex Dosimeters has been monitored for more than 15 years, and the resulting data used in the justification of their shelf-life specifications

  5. Monitoring of Shellfish Growing Areas - 1993

    OpenAIRE

    Nixon, E; Rowe, A.; Smith, M.; McLoughlin, D; Silke, J

    1994-01-01

    During 1993, water and shellfish from 19 major growing areas were monitored for chemical parameters in accordance with the 1979 Council Directive 79/923/EC. At each site temperature, salinity, pH, dissolved oxygen and suspended solids measurements were taken and shellfish samples were returned to the laboratory for metal, chlorinated hydrocarbon and algal biotoxin determinations. Generally, water quality in all areas was good and conformed to the guidelines of the Directive. The highest...

  6. A New High-Sensitivity Thermoluminescent Dosimeter for Short-Term Personnel Dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new dosimeter is described which is capable of dose measurement down to sufficiently low levels for personnel to be monitored on a daily or hourly basis if required. However, unlike other low-level dosimeters previously in use the fading of the stored signal is small enough for this effect to be neglected in routine use. Applications of the new dosimeter include the assessment of doses received by visitors to a nuclear site before they have left the site boundary with very much greater accuracy and reliability than is possible using conventional condensor chambers (Q.F.E.'s). The new dosimeter consists of a dispersion of calcium sulphate: dysprosium thermoluminescent dosimetry phosphor in Teflon (PTFH). The resulting dosimeter can detect doses of less than 1 mrad and has acceptable fading of the stored signal at environmental temperatures. Data are presented on the precision of the dosimeter at various dose levels, the linearity of the response with dose, the fading of the stored signal as a function of time and temperature, and the sensitivity to natural and artificial light levels. An installation is described suitable for use by unskilled personnel which would permit monitoring of visitors to a nuclear site or a nuclear area. The main feature of the installation is the capability to immediately measure actual doses received down to meaningful levels for an exposure of only a few hours at low dose levels. (author)

  7. Low and high dose measurement by Agfa personal monitoring film and FD-III-B badge dosimeter system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the measurement of the dose equivalent Hp(10) to low (0.005-1) mSv and high (20-1000) mSv doses by exposure at 241Am and 173Cs radiation sources of the halide film with FB-III-D dosimeter system. Accuracy of measurements, standard error of the dose mean value (SEM) and some comments about ability to reread of dosimetric films were determined. A good accuracy was obtained over the important dose ranges. In the low dose range, under 0.1 mSv, the SEM values of the 241Am doses, recorded on the film under plastic filter, are between -21.36% and +47.51%. For 0.1-500 mSv 137Cs dose range the SEM values are from -9.55% to +7.24%.

  8. Radiation monitoring at Pakistan research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Area radiation monitoring is accomplished by using Tracer Lab. radiation monitor. Personnel monitoring is carried out using film badges, TLDs (Thermoluminescent Dosimeters) and pocket dosimeters. For the evaluation of monthly accumulated doses of radiation workers film badges/TLDs and for instantaneous/short term dose measurement in higher radiation zones pocket dosimeters are used in addition to film badge/TLD. Environmental monitoring is necessary to check the PARR operation effect on background radiation level in the vicinity of PINSTECH. (A.B.). 4 refs

  9. Using a thermoluminescent dosimeter to evaluate the location reliability of the highest–skin dose area detected by treatment planning in radiotherapy for breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acute skin reaction during adjuvant radiotherapy for breast cancer is an inevitable process, and its severity is related to the skin dose. A high–skin dose area can be speculated based on the isodose distribution shown on a treatment planning. To determine whether treatment planning can reflect high–skin dose location, 80 patients were collected and their skin doses in different areas were measured using a thermoluminescent dosimeter to locate the highest–skin dose area in each patient. We determined whether the skin dose is consistent with the highest-dose area estimated by the treatment planning of the same patient. The χ2 and Fisher exact tests revealed that these 2 methods yielded more consistent results when the highest-dose spots were located in the axillary and breast areas but not in the inframammary area. We suggest that skin doses shown on the treatment planning might be a reliable and simple alternative method for estimating the highest skin doses in some areas

  10. Remote display of neutron area monitor readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For monitoring neutron radiation during accelerator operation, a large number of neutron detectors are installed at various locations in the accelerator hall and user areas. The neutrons are detected using BF3 gas filled proportional counters (Vbias=1.1 kV) and the measured count rate is displayed locally on an analog meter. It is desirable to have a neutron count rate display at the accelerator console to enable a swift corrective action, if required. With this motivation a PIC18F4520 microcontroller based remote display unit for neutron area monitors is developed. The remote display unit is compact and is mounted on the existing neutron area monitor panel. The signal from the neutron detector is processed and digitized by the controller. The digitized count rate and status is also displayed locally using a LCD panel. An audible alarm is triggered at local units if the count rate exceeds pre-set limit. Each remote display unit has an unique IP address and acts as a server to the client PC. The digitized data is sent through a dedicated LAN network using a serial Ethernet server. Using LabVIEWTM with TCP/IP, data can be communicated to multiple gateways. The GUI based on LabVIEW makes the system user friendly and expandable. This inexpensive and simple remote display unit can be adopted to any facility. (author)

  11. Wireless monitoring system for personal dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuji Electric has developed a system for the higher radiation controlled area in nuclear power plants, in which exposure dose data measured on the wearer's chest, hands, and legs are transferred by wireless to the data control equipment so that the exposure dose can be controlled in real time. The system using a specified low-power radio wave causes no interference to the other types of dosimeters. The data control equipment automatically saves data received from the dosimeters and also has functions of calibration of dosimeters and maintenance of the wireless system. This paper describes the wireless monitoring system that consists of chest and parts dosimeters and data control equipment. (author)

  12. Wide-area continuous offender monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshen, Joseph; Drake, George; Spencer, Debra D.

    1997-02-01

    The corrections system in the U.S. is supervising over five million offenders. This number is rising fast and so are the direct and indirect costs to society. To improve supervision and reduce the cost of parole and probation, first generation home arrest systems were introduced in 1987. While these systems proved to be helpful to the corrections system, their scope is rather limited because they only cover an offender at a single location and provide only a partial time coverage. To correct the limitations of first- generation systems, second-generation wide area continuous electronic offender monitoring systems, designed to monitor the offender at all times and locations, are now on the drawing board. These systems use radio frequency location technology to track the position of offenders. The challenge for this technology is the development of reliable personal locator devices that are small, lightweight, with long operational battery life, and indoors/outdoors accuracy of 100 meters or less. At the center of a second-generation system is a database that specifies the offender's home, workplace, commute, and time the offender should be found in each. The database could also define areas from which the offender is excluded. To test compliance, the system would compare the observed coordinates of the offender with the stored location for a given time interval. Database logfiles will also enable law enforcement to determine if a monitored offender was present at a crime scene and thus include or exclude the offender as a potential suspect.

  13. Area radiation monitoring on ISS Increments 17 to 22 using PADLES in the Japanese Experiment Module Kibo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The measurement of radiation environmental parameters in space is essential to support radiation risk assessments for astronauts and establish a benchmark for space radiation models for present and future human space activities. The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) is performing a continuous area radiation monitoring experiment using the “PAssive Dosimeters for Lifescience Experiments in Space” (PADLES) system inside the Japanese Experiment Module Kibo on board the International Space Station (ISS). The PADLES dosimeter consists of thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) and CR-39 plastic nuclear track detectors (PNTDs). JAXA has run the Area PADLES experiment since the Kibo module was attached to the ISS in June 2008, using 17 dosimeters in fixed locations on the Pressurized Module (PM) and the Experiment Logistics Module-Pressurized Section (ELM-PS) of Kibo, which are replaced every 6 months or every Increment, respectively. For three monitoring periods, known as Area PADLES experiment series no. 1 to no. 3, of 301, 180, and 232 days in June 2008 to April 2010 over ISS Increments 17 to 22, the average absorbed dose (dose equivalent) rates of 12 positions in the PM of Kibo were 319 ± 30 μGy/day (618 ± 102 μSv/day), 276 ± 30 μGy/day (608 ± 94 μSv/day), and 293 ± 33 μGy/day (588 ± 84 μSv/day), respectively. The radiation measurement in the ELM-PS was conducted in only Area PADLES experiment series no. 3 from August 2009 to April 2010 (232 days) over ISS Increments 21 to 22, the average absorbed dose (dose equivalent) rates of 5 positions was 297 ± 28 μGy/day (661 ± 65 μSv/day). The directional dependence of the radiation field was also investigated by installing PADLES dosimeters located in the zenith of ELM-PS of Kibo. -- Highlights: • This article shows the first results of dose measurement inside the Japanese Experiment Module Kibo with the PADLES system. • Generating spatial dose distribution data with the PADLES system are key

  14. Area monitoring using neutron albedo thermoluminescence dosemeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermoluminescence dosemeters (TLD) were used for area monitoring around neutron sources applying the moderating sphere technique and the albedo technique in which LiF, 6LiF, 7LiF as well TLD-200 were used as TLD. Experimental results indicated that the thermoluminescence (TL) output for moderating sphere system is five times the TL output of the albedo system. In order to increase the TL output for the albedo system a paraffin slab was placed close to the albedo system. (author)

  15. Printed Thin Layer Photocatalytic Dosimeter

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Veselý, M.; Dzik, P.; Veselá, M.; Klusoň, Petr

    - : -, 2014, O5. ISBN N. [Pannonian Symposium on Catalysis /12./. Třešť (CZ), 16.09.2014-20.09.2014] Grant ostatní: GA MŠMT(CZ) LD14131 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : dosimeter * vitamin D * monitoring Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry http://pannonia2014.icpf.cas.cz/wp-content/uploads/2014/09/abstrakty_final.pdf

  16. Comparison of electronic digital alarm dosimeter with TLD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Control of exposure of radiation workers on day to day basis has been made easy by use of semiconductor based electronic digital dosimeter. Additional dose constraints of 10 mSv for occupational radiation workers have made it essential to use such type of digital personal monitoring devices. In addition to conventional ionisation chamber based direct reading dosimeters, additional 35 semiconductor based digital dosimeters model MGP DMC 2000 S were used for the monitoring of personal exposure of radiation workers in a spent fuel reprocessing plant. Though better least count and good performance over a wide range of dose rate are claimed by the manufacture, before making use of such dosimeter on large scale, validation of its performance is required to be checked. In this paper, an effort is made to determine the performance of digital dosimeters, by exposing these digital dosimeters in combination with TLDs at different radiation levels and obtained results were compared and analysed

  17. Modbus based smart radiation monitoring network of area gamma monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the advent of Low cost microprocessors/micro controllers and VLSI based ASIPs, the field of instrumentation is undergoing a rapid change. Connectivity of a remote computer to the instruments for accessing the data and other diagnostic information has become one of the important requirements of all modern instruments, in addition to providing accurate measurement data. This is more so, in case of those instruments, which are located in some hostile environments such as radioactive zones of nuclear power reactor. The details of a network of Area Gamma Monitors (AGM) using the modbus protocol, are presented in this paper. The paper highlights the details of the AGM, protocol implementation and the windows based graphical user interface, implemented on a PC that can act as a master node, for interacting with various AGMs on the network. (author)

  18. Development of colored alumilite dosimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Obara, K; Yagi, T; Yokoo, N

    2003-01-01

    In the ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor), in-vessel components such as blanket and divertor, which are installed in the vacuum vessel of the ITER, are maintained by remote handling equipment (RH equipment). The RH equipment for maintenance is operated under sever environmental conditions, such as high temperature (50 approx 100 degC), high gamma-ray radiation (approx 1 kGy/h) in an atmosphere of inert gas or vacuum; therefore many components of the RH equipment must have a suitable radiation resistance efficiency for long time operation (10 approx 100 MGy). Typical components of the RH equipment have been extensively tested under an intensive gamma-ray radiation. Monitoring of the radiation dose of the components of the RH equipment is essential to control the operation period of the RH equipment considering radiation resistance. However, the maximum measurable radiation dose of the conventional dosimeters, such as ionization chamber, liquid, glass and plastic dosimeters are limited to b...

  19. Radiation monitoring around United States nuclear test areas, calendar year 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-05-01

    This report describes the Offsite Radiation Safety Program conducted during 1989 by the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory-Las Vegas (EMSL-LV). This laboratory operates an environmental radiation monitoring program in the region surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and at former test sites in Alaska, Colorado, Mississippi, Nevada, and New Mexico. The surveillance program is designed to measure levels, and trends of radioactivity, if present, in the environment surrounding testing areas to ascertain whether the testing is in compliance with existing radiation protection standards, and to take action to protect the health and well being of the public in the event of any accidental release of radioactive contaminants. Offsite levels of radiation and radioactivity are assessed by sampling milk, water, and air; by deploying thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) and using pressurized ion chambers (PICs); and by biological monitoring of both animals and humans. To implement protective actions, provide immediate radiation monitoring, and obtain environmental samples rapidly after any release of radioactivity, personnel with mobile monitoring equipment are placed in areas downwind from the test site prior to each test. Comparison of the measurements and sample analysis results with background levels and with appropriate standards and regulations indicated that there was no radioactivity detected offsite by the various EPA monitoring networks and no exposure above natural background to the population living in the vicinity of the NTS that could be attributed to NTS activities. Trends were evaluated in the Noble Gas and Tritium, Milk Surveillance, TLD, and PIC networks, and the Long-Term Hydrological Monitoring Program. 35 refs., 68 figs., 32 tabs.

  20. Radiation monitoring around United States nuclear test areas, calendar year 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the Offsite Radiation Safety Program conducted during 1989 by the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory-Las Vegas (EMSL-LV). This laboratory operates an environmental radiation monitoring program in the region surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and at former test sites in Alaska, Colorado, Mississippi, Nevada, and New Mexico. The surveillance program is designed to measure levels, and trends of radioactivity, if present, in the environment surrounding testing areas to ascertain whether the testing is in compliance with existing radiation protection standards, and to take action to protect the health and well being of the public in the event of any accidental release of radioactive contaminants. Offsite levels of radiation and radioactivity are assessed by sampling milk, water, and air; by deploying thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) and using pressurized ion chambers (PICs); and by biological monitoring of both animals and humans. To implement protective actions, provide immediate radiation monitoring, and obtain environmental samples rapidly after any release of radioactivity, personnel with mobile monitoring equipment are placed in areas downwind from the test site prior to each test. Comparison of the measurements and sample analysis results with background levels and with appropriate standards and regulations indicated that there was no radioactivity detected offsite by the various EPA monitoring networks and no exposure above natural background to the population living in the vicinity of the NTS that could be attributed to NTS activities. Trends were evaluated in the Noble Gas and Tritium, Milk Surveillance, TLD, and PIC networks, and the Long-Term Hydrological Monitoring Program. 35 refs., 68 figs., 32 tabs

  1. Characteristics of OSL dosimeters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Akifumi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Ito, Masashi [Nagase Landauer Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2001-02-01

    Optically Stimulated Luminescence (hereafter OSL) dosimeter system is the method for radiation dose measurements by detecting light emitted when the luminescence material, which is exposed to radiation, is stimulated with visible light. Recently, this system has been developed as an advanced method for personal radiation dosimetry and has already been adopted in some countries such as U.S.A., Canada and others. Some basic characteristics (linearity for dose, energy response, angular dependence, dose evaluation performance on mixed irradiation field, fading and so on) required for the practical application of the {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} OSL dosimeter were investigated. It is shown that the OSL dosimeter has excellent good enough to performance for the measurement of {gamma}, X and {beta} doses and is good enough for practical use as personal dosimeter. This paper describes the basic characteristics of the OSL dosimeter obtained by the investigation. (author)

  2. Preparation of thermoluminescent dosimeters of LiF: Mg, Cu, P + Ptfe for environmental radiological monitoring and radiodiagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The necessity of finding a thermoluminescent material for measuring gamma and X radiation in applications like environmental monitoring, personnel dosimetry and biomedical sciences (radiotherapy and radiodiagnosis), but with special characteristics such as low umbral detection, independence of the energy of radiation and equivalency with the tissue. This made us think in lithium fluoride activated with magnesium, copper and phosphorous (LiF: Mg, Cu, P). In this thesis I developed this material chips like shape embedded in polytetrafluoroethylene (LiF: Mg, Cu, P+Ptfe). The chapter 1 and 2 talk about the atom is conformed and the interaction of the radiation with the matter. The requirements of Tl material, types of dosimetry system, biological effects and units of measurements are discussed in chapter 3 as well as the recommended limits of the International Commission on Radiological Protection ICRP. Chapter 4 shows aspects of the thermoluminescence phenomenon and describes, at the same time, the determination of the most important thermoluminescent parameters (kinetic order, energy or trap depth and the frequency factor). Chapter 5 describes the major characteristics and properties of Tl materials and its requirements for dosimetric use. Chapter 6 deals with the preparations of LiF: Mg, Cu, P+Ptfe chips and some tests for improving its sensitivity, describes the dosimetric tests and requirements proposed by American National Standard Institute ANSI-N545 Like: umbral of detection, homogeneity, fading, repeatability, linearity, effects of UV and fluorescent light etc. Finally in chapter 7 I do a report about analysis of results, conclusions and some recommendations. (Author)

  3. Development of chemical dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A chemical dosimeter is a system that measures the energy by virtue of chemical changes from ionizing absorbed radiation produced unit when it is exposed to ionizing radiation. In all chemical dosimeters radiation induced chemical reaction produces at least one, initially absent species, which is properties long lived enough to determine its quantity or the change in the initial systems. Different types of chemical dosimeters were discussed such as aqueous, gaseous and solid, but the great consideration was given to aqueous systems because of their vital role in setting many processes.(Author)

  4. Design of movable fixed area γ dose rate monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Movable fixed area γ dose rate monitor has not only the characteristics of fixed area γ dose rate monitor, but that of portable meter as well. Its main function is to monitor the areas where dose rate would change without orderliness to prevent unplanned radiation exposure accidents from happening. The design way of the monitor, the main indicators description, the working principle and the comprising of software and hardware are briefly introduced. The monitor has the characteristics of simple installation, easy maintenance, little power consumption, wide range, notability of visual and audible alarm and so on. Its design and technique have novelty and advancement. (authors)

  5. Mortality study among veterans with dosimeter monitoring during the French nuclear tests in the Pacific; Etude de mortalite des veterans ayant beneficie d'une surveillance dosimetrique lors des essais nucleaires francais dans le Pacifique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedrono, G.; Pachol, H.; Segala, C. [SEPIA-sante, 31, rue de Pontivy, 56150 Baud (France)

    2011-06-15

    Background: A mortality study was carried out in a cohort of veterans present on the sites of the French nuclear experiments center in the Pacific (CEP) from 1966 to 1996, and for whom external dosimeter monitoring recordings were available. Methods: The cohort included 32,550 veterans having had at least one dosimetry recording. Current vital status was collected from the National Register of Identification of Physical People and causes of death data from the national causes of death database. Total mortality and mortality by cause were compared with mortality of the French population using standardized mortality ratios (SMR). To test the effect of a dosimeter recording higher than the threshold (0.2 mSv), i.e., no null dosimetry, the mortality of veterans was compared inside the cohort, using standardized ratios and Poisson regression models. Results: The mortality analysis was performed among 26,524 men, of whom 8% had had at least one non-null dosimeter. Five thousand four hundred and ninety-two (21%) veterans died before December 31, 2008 and causes were available for nearly 97% of these deaths. Comparing the mortality between the cohort and the French population highlighted a deficit of mortality, for all causes, by cancer and for radiation-induced pathologies; these results were related to the 'healthy worker effect'. The data showed that all causes mortality and cancer mortality of the cohort of veterans with no null dosimeter were not different from those of other veterans, but also showed an excess of hematological malignancies in this sub-population: this excess was significant in the regression model (RR = 1.82; CI 95% [1.6-2.0]). Conclusion: Among veterans with an external dosimeter monitoring recording, presence on the sites of CEP from 1966 to 1996 does not constitute a factor of increased mortality compared with the national population. However, an increased risk was observed for mortality by hematological malignancies among veterans with

  6. Spectroscopic Dosimeter Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Analysis of Phase I test data demonstrates that the Photogenics Spectroscopic Dosimeter will detect neutron energies from 0.8 up to 600 MeV. The detector...

  7. Angular response characteristic of pyramid shape fast neutron dosimeter using CR-39 films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CR-39 is a highly sensitive etched track detector for neutron monitoring and dosimetry applications but its dose equivalent response is strongly direction dependent with respect to the incident neutrons. This is considered to be a major drawback for their use. In the present study, an attempt has been made to develop a pyramid shaped dosimeter, which consists of polyethylene material of thickness 1 mm with the provision to hold three CR-39 films at an angle of 35 deg. to each other. The response of CR-39 in this configuration under optimum electrochemical etching at elevated temperature have been found nearly angular independent and therefore the dosimeter can be used for neutron monitoring, i.e. personnel as well as area monitoring

  8. Development of colored alumilite dosimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obara, Kenjiro; Shibanuma, Kiyoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment; Yagi, Toshiaki [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment; Yokoo, Noriko [Radiation Application Development Association, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2003-03-01

    In the ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor), in-vessel components such as blanket and divertor, which are installed in the vacuum vessel of the ITER, are maintained by remote handling equipment (RH equipment). The RH equipment for maintenance is operated under sever environmental conditions, such as high temperature (50{approx}100 degC), high gamma-ray radiation ({approx}1 kGy/h) in an atmosphere of inert gas or vacuum; therefore many components of the RH equipment must have a suitable radiation resistance efficiency for long time operation (10{approx}100 MGy). Typical components of the RH equipment have been extensively tested under an intensive gamma-ray radiation. Monitoring of the radiation dose of the components of the RH equipment is essential to control the operation period of the RH equipment considering radiation resistance. However, the maximum measurable radiation dose of the conventional dosimeters, such as ionization chamber, liquid, glass and plastic dosimeters are limited to be approximately 1MGy which is too low to monitor the RH equipment for the ITER. In addition, these conventional dosimeters do not involve sufficient radiation resistance against the high gamma-ray radiation as well as are not easy handling and low cost. Based on the above backgrounds, a new dosimeter with bleaching of an azo group dye to be applied to a radiation monitor has been developed for high gamma-ray radiation use. The colored alumilite dosimeter is composed of the azo group dye (-N=N-) in an anodic oxidation layer of aluminum alloy (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}). It can monitor the radiation dose by measuring the change of the bleaching of azo dye in the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} layer due to gamma-ray irradiation. The degree of bleaching is measured as the change of hue (color) and brightness based on the Munsell's colors with a three dimensional universe using spectrophotometer. In the tests, the dependencies such as colors, anodized layer thickness, type of azo

  9. Tissue-Equivalent Radiation Dosimeter-On-A-Chip Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Available digital dosimeters are bulky and unable to provide real-time monitoring of dose for space radiation. The complexity of space-flight design requires...

  10. ICPP digital wide area portal monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A portal montior is described which is used to check personnel for contamination. The monitor is extremely sensitive. In addition to personnel contamination control, it serves as an extremely effective SNM detector capable of detecting U-235 in half the quantities specified in Federal Standards

  11. Guidance on Monitoring of Changes in Forest Area

    OpenAIRE

    ACHARD Frederic; G. P. Asner; DeFries, Ruth; Herold, Martin; Mollicone, Danilo; PANDEY Devendra; Souza, Carlos

    2009-01-01

    Chapter 2.1 presents the state of the art for data and approaches to be used for monitoring forest area changes at the national scale in tropical countries using remote sensing imagery. It includes approaches and data for monitoring changes of forest areas (i.e. deforestation and reforestation) and for monitoring of changes within forest land (i.e. forest land remaining forests land, e.g. degradation). It includes general recommendations (e.g. for establishing historical reference scenarios) ...

  12. Effective Monitoring of Odor Pollution in Urban Area

    OpenAIRE

    Park Chan Jin

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the methods of making more comfortable air quality in urban area, the effective methods of monitoring odor pollution were compared to suggest most adequate solution. At first, the definitions of odor concentration with sensor intensity and odor dilution ratio were explained and the on line monitoring of instrumental analysis with the defined odor components were explained. Three different methods of on-line monitoring various odor sources especially to make instant monitoring w...

  13. Automated Calibration of Dosimeters for Diagnostic Radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calibration of dosimeters for diagnostic radiology includes current and charge measurements, which are often repetitive. However, these measurements are usually done using modern electrometers, which are equipped with an RS-232 interface that enables instrument control from a computer. This paper presents an automated system aimed to the measurements for the calibration of dosimeters used in diagnostic radiology. A software application was developed, in order to achieve the acquisition of the electric charge readings, measured values of the monitor chamber, calculation of the calibration coefficient and issue of a calibration certificate. A primary data record file is filled and stored in the computer hard disk. The calibration method used was calibration by substitution. With this system, a better control over the calibration process is achieved and the need for human intervention is reduced. the automated system will be used in the calibration of dosimeters for diagnostic radiology at the Cuban Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory of the Center for Radiation Protection and Hygiene. (Author)

  14. Using Raman scattering for water areas monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timchenko, E. V.; Timchenko, P. E.; Platonov, I. A.; Tregub, N. V.; Asadova, A. A.; Mukhanova, I. M.

    2016-04-01

    The results of studies on the effects of heavy metals on aquatic plants using the method of Raman spectroscopy (RS). Introduced optical coefficient, reflecting changes in chlorophyll and carotinoids in relation to the hemicellulose under the influence of heavy metals, defined as the ratio of the intensities of the RS on the wavenumbers 1547 cm-1, 1522 cm-1 to the intensity of the line 1734 cm-1. Was monitored waters of the Samara region on the basis of this coefficient.

  15. Type KF606B Rn/γ personal dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A kind of Rn/γ passive personal dosimeter named type KF606B has been developed in BRICEM. The dosimeter adopts CR39 for Rn measurement and TLD(Mg, Cu, P) for γ measurement. Some special designs of the dosimeter have been made including Rn switch (to proof environmental Rn exposure while not in use), water and dust proof, etc. The dosimeter was tested in laboratory and in underground mines, some advantages are presented of suitable sensitivity, lower detection limit, wide environment applicability, pocket size and easy to use, etc. The dosimeter has widely been applying to personal dose monitoring for Uranium miners, coal miners and radon survey in dwellings in China. (authors)

  16. Technical Basis Document for PFP Area Monitoring Dosimetry Program

    CERN Document Server

    Cooper, J R

    2000-01-01

    This document describes the phantom dosimetry used for the PFP Area Monitoring program and establishes the basis for the Plutonium Finishing Plant's (PFP) area monitoring dosimetry program in accordance with the following requirements: Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), part 835, ''Occupational Radiation Protection'' Part 835.403; Hanford Site Radiological Control Manual (HSRCM-1), Part 514; HNF-PRO-382, Area Dosimetry Program; and PNL-MA-842, Hanford External Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual.

  17. Wide Area Wind Field Monitoring Status & Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alan Marchant; Jed Simmons

    2011-09-30

    Volume-scanning elastic has been investigated as a means to derive 3D dynamic wind fields for characterization and monitoring of wind energy sites. An eye-safe volume-scanning lidar system was adapted for volume imaging of aerosol concentrations out to a range of 300m. Reformatting of the lidar data as dynamic volume images was successfully demonstrated. A practical method for deriving 3D wind fields from dynamic volume imagery was identified and demonstrated. However, the natural phenomenology was found to provide insufficient aerosol features for reliable wind sensing. The results of this study may be applicable to wind field measurement using injected aerosol tracers.

  18. Facility effluent monitoring plan determinations for the 400 Area facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan determination resulted from an evaluation conducted for the Westinghouse Hanford Company 400 Area facilities on the Hanford Site. The Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan determinations have been prepared in accordance with A Guide for Preparing Hanford Site Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans. Two major Westinghouse Hanford Company facilities in the 400 Area were evaluated: the Fast Flux Test Facility and the Fuels Manufacturing and examination Facility. The determinations were prepared by Westinghouse Hanford Company. Of these two facilities, only the Fast Flux Test Facility will require a Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan. 7 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs

  19. Personal neutron dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To introduce the principle, structure and character of a new personal neutron dosimeter. Methods: In combination with relative documents, the dosimeter datum measured on neutron and γ rays emitted by 241Am-Be source, when 6LiF (Mg, Cu, P) and 7LiF(Mg, Cu, P) are disposed, are evaluated. Results: Its measurement results showed good linear relationship and can be repeated. The sensitivity of neutron detection is 0.72 times of 60Co γ rays and this result is similar to that to be reported previously. Conclusion: The measurement results of this dosimeter has been satisfied with the requirement of personal dose measurement in n or n-γ radiation field under 4.4 MeV energy

  20. Small Active Radiation Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badhwar, Gautam D.

    2004-01-01

    A device, named small active radiation monitor, allows on-orbit evaluations during periods of increased radiation, after extravehicular activities, or at predesignated times for crews on such long-duration space missions as on the International Space Station. It also permits direct evaluation of biological doses, a task now performed using a combination of measurements and potentially inaccurate simulations. Indeed the new monitor can measure a full array of radiation levels, from soft x-rays to hard galactic cosmic-ray particles. With refinement, it will benefit commercial (nuclear power-plant workers, airline pilots, medical technicians, physicians/dentists, and others) and military personnel as well as the astronauts for whom thermoluminescent dosimeters are inadequate. Civilian and military personnel have long since graduated from film badges to thermoluminescent dosimeters. Once used, most dosimeters must be returned to a central facility for processing, a step that can take days or even weeks. While this suffices for radiation workers for whom exposure levels are typically very low and of brief duration, it does not work for astronauts. Even in emergencies and using express mail, the results can often be delayed by as much as 24 hours. Electronic dosimeters, which are the size of electronic oral thermometers, and tattlers, small electronic dosimeters that sound an alarm when the dose/dose rate exceeds preset values, are also used but suffer disadvantages similar to those of thermoluminescent dosimeters. None of these devices fully answers the need of rapid monitoring during the space missions. Instead, radiation is monitored by passive detectors, which are read out after the missions. Unfortunately, these detectors measure only the absorbed dose and not the biologically relevant dose equivalent. The new monitor provides a real-time readout, a time history of radiation exposures (both absorbed dose and biologically relevant dose equivalent), and a count of the

  1. TNX Area 1994 Annual Groundwater Monitoring Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During 1994, samples from selected wells of well cluster P 26 and the TBG, TNX, XSB, and YSB well series at the TNX Area were analyzed for selected heavy metals, indicator parameters, radionuclides, volatile organic compounds, and other constituents. Six parameters exceeded the final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS). Nitrate and trichloroethylene exceeded the final PDWS most frequently. Five wells in this area currently are part of the Purge Water Containment Program due to high trichloroethylene concentrations. Carbon tetrachloride, gross alpha, nonvolatile beta, and tetrachloroethylene were elevated sporadically in one or more wells during the year. Groundwater flow directions and rates in the Unconfined Aquifer were similar from quarter to quarter during the year

  2. TNX-Area groundwater monitoring report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During 1993, samples from well cluster P 26 and the TBG, TNX, XSB, and YSB well series at the TNX Area were analyzed for selected heavy metals, indicator parameters, radionuclides, volatile organic compounds, and other constituents. Seven parameters exceeded the final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS). Dichloromethane (methylene chloride), a common laboratory contaminant, nitrate, and trichloroethylene exceeded PDWS most frequently. Four wells in this area currently are part of the Purge Water Contaminant Program due to high trichloroethylene concentrations. Carbon tetrachloride, gross alpha, lead, and tetrachloroethylene were elevated sporadically in one or more wells during the year. Groundwater flow directions and rates in the Unconfined Aquifer were similar from quarter to quarter during the year

  3. TNX Area 1994 Annual Groundwater Monitoring Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chase, J.A.

    1995-05-01

    During 1994, samples from selected wells of well cluster P 26 and the TBG, TNX, XSB, and YSB well series at the TNX Area were analyzed for selected heavy metals, indicator parameters, radionuclides, volatile organic compounds, and other constituents. Six parameters exceeded the final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS). Nitrate and trichloroethylene exceeded the final PDWS most frequently. Five wells in this area currently are part of the Purge Water Containment Program due to high trichloroethylene concentrations. Carbon tetrachloride, gross alpha, nonvolatile beta, and tetrachloroethylene were elevated sporadically in one or more wells during the year. Groundwater flow directions and rates in the Unconfined Aquifer were similar from quarter to quarter during the year.

  4. Central Nevada Test Area Monitoring Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Water level measurements were performed and water samples collected from the Central Nevada Test Area model validation wells in September 2006. Hydraulic head measurements were compared to previous observations; the MV wells showed slight recovery from the drilling and testing operation in 2005. No radioisotopes exceeded limits set in the Corrective Action Decision Document/Corrective Action Plan, and no significant trends were observed when compared to previous analyses

  5. H-Area Seepage Basins groundwater monitoring report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During first quarter 1992, tritium, nitrate, nonvolatile beta, total alpha-emitting radium (radium-224 and radium-226), gross alpha, antimony, mercury, lead, tetrachloroethylene, arsenic, and cadmium exceeded the US Environmental Protection Agency Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) in groundwater samples from monitoring wells at the H-Area Seepage Basins (HASB) at the Savannah River Site. This report presents and discusses the groundwater monitoring results in the H-Area for first quarter 1992

  6. Personnel exposure control system with auto thermoluminescence dosimeter in Shimane Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the past, film badges and pocket dosimeters were put on the persons who enter a controlled area in a nuclear power station to measure the external radiation exposure. For these, read out error or mistake, delay in taking out the result, trouble for monitoring many persons, etc. were problems. To solve these problems, the auto thermoluminescence dosimeter (ATLD) system has been introduced in Shimane Nuclear Power Station in place of pocket dosimeters since the second half of fiscal 1978. The outline of the system and the composition and software of the TLD automatic readout system are described. For the control of access to controlled areas, workers are forced to pass the check point where watchmen check everyone's ID card, and subjected to the check-up with the TLD automatic readout device. The checking items in the case of entering the areas are: (1) confirmation of licensee, (2) confirmation of the term of validity for the medical examination on ionizing radiation, (3) checking for exposure dose compared to the controlled exposure level, (4) confirmation of time limit to stay in controlled areas, and (5) TLD element annealing condition. The checking items in the case of leaving the areas are: (1) checking for identifying the TLD element that the personnel has brought in, (2) exposure dose compared to the controlled exposure level, (3) time for which the personnel stayed in controlled areas. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  7. Monitoring of radiocaesium in Norwegian natural areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cesium-137 is analysed in plants and animals sampled in various areas in Norway, in addition to samples of jaws of moose, deer and reindeer. A few of the results are given. Radiocesium in mosses and lichens show little seasonal variation. Species of lichens from extremely exposed ridges show a steady decrease over the years. It is suggested that this is because the species had a varying content of water in their thalli at the time of fallout. Snow covered lichens were water saturated at the thaw when melt water containing pollution hit them. The ecological half-life for these species is 5-7 years. There were large differences in measurements of cesium between sites, from 4500 Bq/m2 to 50000 Bq/m2. Mosses and lichens overall have a much higher value than vasculars which have a controlled absorption of cesium in root hairs whilst mosses and lichens absorb throughout their whole surface. (AB)

  8. Response of a neutron monitor area with TLDs pairs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guzman G, K. A.; Borja H, C. G.; Valero L, C.; Hernandez D, V. M.; Vega C, H. R. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Calle Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas (Mexico); Gallego, E.; Lorente, A., E-mail: ing_karen_guzman@yahoo.com.mx [Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Departamento de Ingenieria Nuclear, Jose Gutierrez Abascal 2, E-28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2011-10-15

    The response of a passive neutron monitor area has been calculated using the Monte Carlo code MCNP5. The response was the amount of n({sup 6}Li, T){alpha} reactions occurring in a TLD-600 located at the center of a cylindrical polyethylene moderator. Fluence, (n, a) and H*(10) responses were calculated for 47 monoenergetic neutron sources. The H*(10) relative response was compared with responses of commercially available neutron monitors being alike. Due to {sup 6}Li cross section (n, {alpha}) reactions are mainly produced by thermal neutrons, however TLD-600 is sensitive to gamma-rays; to eliminate the signal due to photons monitor area was built to hold 2 pairs of TLD-600 and 2 pairs of TLD-700, thus from the difference between TLD-600 and TLD-700 readouts the net signal due to neutrons is obtained. The monitor area was calibrated at the Universidad Politecnica de Madrid using a {sup 241}AmBe neutron source; net TLD readout was compared with the H*(10) measured with a Bert hold Lb-6411. Performance of the neutron monitor area was determined through two independent experiments, in both cases the H*(10) was statistically equal to H*(10) measured with a Bert hold Lb-6411. Neutron monitor area with TLDs pairs can be used in working areas with intense, mixed and pulsed radiation fields. (Author)

  9. Response of a neutron monitor area with TLDs pairs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The response of a passive neutron monitor area has been calculated using the Monte Carlo code MCNP5. The response was the amount of n(6Li, T)α reactions occurring in a TLD-600 located at the center of a cylindrical polyethylene moderator. Fluence, (n, a) and H*(10) responses were calculated for 47 monoenergetic neutron sources. The H*(10) relative response was compared with responses of commercially available neutron monitors being alike. Due to 6Li cross section (n, α) reactions are mainly produced by thermal neutrons, however TLD-600 is sensitive to gamma-rays; to eliminate the signal due to photons monitor area was built to hold 2 pairs of TLD-600 and 2 pairs of TLD-700, thus from the difference between TLD-600 and TLD-700 readouts the net signal due to neutrons is obtained. The monitor area was calibrated at the Universidad Politecnica de Madrid using a 241AmBe neutron source; net TLD readout was compared with the H*(10) measured with a Bert hold Lb-6411. Performance of the neutron monitor area was determined through two independent experiments, in both cases the H*(10) was statistically equal to H*(10) measured with a Bert hold Lb-6411. Neutron monitor area with TLDs pairs can be used in working areas with intense, mixed and pulsed radiation fields. (Author)

  10. Survey monitoring of environmental radioactivity in Daejeon area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jun, Jae Shik.; Noh, Hyung Ah [Taejon Radiation Monitoring Station, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-12-15

    Systematic understanding of the distribution of environmental radioactivity and radiation level in Taejon, including Chungchung area, in normal circumstance, and rapid detection of unusual variation of the radiation level in emergency situation thereby ensure public safety are the objectives of this project to be carried out. This report summarizes and interprets environmental radiation/radioactivity monitoring data obtained at Taejon Radiation Monitoring Station in 2000. In conclusion, the natural environmental radiation level in Taejon area has been preserved as usual and no significant artificial enhancement in environmental radioactivity was observed during the course of this survey and monitoring period.

  11. Survey monitoring of environmental radioactivity in Daejeon area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jun, Jae Shik; Noh, Hyung Ah [Daejon Radiation Monitoring Station, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-12-15

    Systematic understanding of the distribution of environmental radioactivity and radiation level in Daejeon, including Chungchung area, in normal circumstance, and rapid detection of unusual variation of the radiation level in emergency situation thereby ensure public safety are the objectives of this project to be carried out. This report summarizes and interprets environmental radiation/radioactivity monitoring data obtained at Daejeon Radiation Monitoring Station in 2002. In conclusion, the natural environmental radiation level in Daejeon area has been preserved as usual and no significant artificial enhancement in environmental radioactivity was observed during the course of this survey and monitoring period.

  12. First concept for a tropical area monitoring project

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    The first concept of a tropical area monitoring project is presented. The project would develop an operational system capable of monitoring land areas by machine processing of satellite data. LANDSAT images would be processed within a controlled isolable unit to detect changes in forest cover, rangeland, soil integrity, and other factors important to conservation of tropical ecology. An introductory developmental effort is described to demonstrate the use of LANDSAT data in this application. The independent unit, which functions as a user organization within the development project, assures that the technology will be transferable to a user organization through well defined, easily monitored interfaces with the rest of the world.

  13. Survey monitoring of environmental radioactivity in Daejeon area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jun, Jae Sik; Noh, Hyung Ah [Daejon Radiation Monitoring Station, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-12-15

    Systematic understanding of the distribution of environmental radioactivity and radiation level in Daejeon, including Chungchung area, in normal circumstance, and rapid detection of unusual variation of the radiation level in emergency situation thereby ensure public safety are the objectives of this project to be carried out. This report summarizes and interprets environmental radiation/radioactivity monitoring data obtained at Daejeon Radiation Monitoring Station in 2001. In conclusion, the natural environmental radiation level in Daejeon area has been preserved as usual and no significant artificial enhancement in environmental radioactivity was observed during the course of this survey and monitoring period.

  14. Nevada Test 1999 Waste Management Monitoring Report, Area 3 and Area 5 radioactive waste management sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental monitoring data were collected at and around the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). These monitoring data include radiation exposure, air, groundwater, meteorology, vadose zone, and biota data. Although some of these media (radiation exposure, air, and groundwater) are reported in detail in other Bechtel Nevada reports (Annual Site Environmental Report [ASER], the National Emissions Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants [NESHAP] report, and the Annual Groundwater Monitoring Report), they are also summarized in this report to provide an overall evaluation of RWMS performance and environmental compliance. Direct radiation monitoring data indicate that exposure at and around the RWMSs is not above background levels. Air monitoring data indicate that tritium concentrations are slightly above background levels, whereas radon concentrations are not above background levels. Groundwater monitoring data indicate that the groundwater in the alluvial aquifer beneath the Area 5 RWMS has not been affected by the facility. Meteorology data indicate that 1999 was a dry year: rainfall totaled 3.9 inches at the Area 3 RWMS (61 percent of average) and 3.8 inches at the Area 5 RWMS (75 percent of average). Vadose zone monitoring data indicate that 1999 rainfall infiltrated less than one foot before being returned to the atmosphere by evaporation. Soil-gas tritium data indicate very slow migration, and tritium concentrations in biota were insignificant. All 1999 monitoring data indicate that the Area 3 and Area 5 RWMSs are performing as expected at isolating buried waste

  15. Evaluation of the implementation and use of active personal dosimeters for neutrons in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work was conducted through of a field research based on a questionnaire sent to users of active personal dosimeters. A retrospective study of the last six years was also carried out of the services in the Neutron Metrology Laboratory (2008-2013) referent to the active personal dosimeters, taking into consideration the standards ISO-8529-3 and IEC-61526. The active personal dosimeters are defined as any instrument of individual monitoring with direct reading capacity, used by individuals exposed to ionizing radiation fields. Through research was verified that the active personal dosimeters work associated with other dosimeter types. Considering all dosimeters declared in the questionnaire, only two dosimeters (MGP brand Dmc 2000-GN model and the brand ATOMTEX model AT2503A) have conformity declaration with the international standard IEC-61526: 2005 reported by the manufacturers. (author)

  16. Estimation of mean-glandular dose from monitoring breast entrance skin air kerma using a high sensitivity metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) dosimeter system in mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estimation of mean-glandular dose (MGD) has been investigated in recent years due to the potential risks of radiation-induced carcinogenesis associated with the mammographic examination for diagnostic radiology. In this study, a new technique for immediate readout of breast entrance skin air kerma (BESAK) using high sensitivity MOSFET dosimeter after mammographic projection was introduced and a formula for the prediction of tube output with exposure records was developed. A series of appropriate conversion factors was applied to the MGD determination from the BESAK. The study results showed that signal response of the high sensitivity MOSFET exhibited excellent linearity within mammographic dose ranges, and that the energy dependence was less than 3% for each anode/filter combination at the tube potentials 25-30 kV. Good agreement was observed between the BESAK and the tube exposure output measurement for breasts thicker than 30 mm. In addition, the air kerma estimated from our prediction formula provided sufficient accuracy for thinner breasts. The average MGD from 120 Asian females was 1.5 mGy, comparable to other studies. Our results suggest that the high sensitivity MOSFET dosimeter system is a good candidate for immediately readout of BESAK after mammographic procedures

  17. Development and evaluation of polycrystalline cadmium telluride dosimeters for accurate quality assurance in radiation therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, K.; Han, M.; Kim, K.; Heo, Y.; Moon, C.; Park, S.; Nam, S.

    2016-02-01

    For quality assurance in radiation therapy, several types of dosimeters are used such as ionization chambers, radiographic films, thermo-luminescent dosimeter (TLD), and semiconductor dosimeters. Among them, semiconductor dosimeters are particularly useful for in vivo dosimeters or high dose gradient area such as the penumbra region because they are more sensitive and smaller in size compared to typical dosimeters. In this study, we developed and evaluated Cadmium Telluride (CdTe) dosimeters, one of the most promising semiconductor dosimeters due to their high quantum efficiency and charge collection efficiency. Such CdTe dosimeters include single crystal form and polycrystalline form depending upon the fabrication process. Both types of CdTe dosimeters are commercially available, but only the polycrystalline form is suitable for radiation dosimeters, since it is less affected by volumetric effect and energy dependence. To develop and evaluate polycrystalline CdTe dosimeters, polycrystalline CdTe films were prepared by thermal evaporation. After that, CdTeO3 layer, thin oxide layer, was deposited on top of the CdTe film by RF sputtering to improve charge carrier transport properties and to reduce leakage current. Also, the CdTeO3 layer which acts as a passivation layer help the dosimeter to reduce their sensitivity changes with repeated use due to radiation damage. Finally, the top and bottom electrodes, In/Ti and Pt, were used to have Schottky contact. Subsequently, the electrical properties under high energy photon beams from linear accelerator (LINAC), such as response coincidence, dose linearity, dose rate dependence, reproducibility, and percentage depth dose, were measured to evaluate polycrystalline CdTe dosimeters. In addition, we compared the experimental data of the dosimeter fabricated in this study with those of the silicon diode dosimeter and Thimble ionization chamber which widely used in routine dosimetry system and dose measurements for radiation

  18. Development and evaluation of polycrystalline cadmium telluride dosimeters for accurate quality assurance in radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For quality assurance in radiation therapy, several types of dosimeters are used such as ionization chambers, radiographic films, thermo-luminescent dosimeter (TLD), and semiconductor dosimeters. Among them, semiconductor dosimeters are particularly useful for in vivo dosimeters or high dose gradient area such as the penumbra region because they are more sensitive and smaller in size compared to typical dosimeters. In this study, we developed and evaluated Cadmium Telluride (CdTe) dosimeters, one of the most promising semiconductor dosimeters due to their high quantum efficiency and charge collection efficiency. Such CdTe dosimeters include single crystal form and polycrystalline form depending upon the fabrication process. Both types of CdTe dosimeters are commercially available, but only the polycrystalline form is suitable for radiation dosimeters, since it is less affected by volumetric effect and energy dependence. To develop and evaluate polycrystalline CdTe dosimeters, polycrystalline CdTe films were prepared by thermal evaporation. After that, CdTeO3 layer, thin oxide layer, was deposited on top of the CdTe film by RF sputtering to improve charge carrier transport properties and to reduce leakage current. Also, the CdTeO3 layer which acts as a passivation layer help the dosimeter to reduce their sensitivity changes with repeated use due to radiation damage. Finally, the top and bottom electrodes, In/Ti and Pt, were used to have Schottky contact. Subsequently, the electrical properties under high energy photon beams from linear accelerator (LINAC), such as response coincidence, dose linearity, dose rate dependence, reproducibility, and percentage depth dose, were measured to evaluate polycrystalline CdTe dosimeters. In addition, we compared the experimental data of the dosimeter fabricated in this study with those of the silicon diode dosimeter and Thimble ionization chamber which widely used in routine dosimetry system and dose measurements for radiation

  19. New thermoluminescent dosimeter reader for low-exposure measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new thermoluminescent dosimeter reader for environmental monitoring has been developed. A description of the instrument is presented, together with a summary of preliminary laboratory tests which indicate that the l sigma reading precision is 0.9% at 3 mR and above, 2% at l mR, and 11% at 100μR using commercially-available CaF2:Mn bulb dosimeters

  20. An approved personal dosimetry service based on an electronic dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the Second Conference on Radiation Protection and Dosimetry a paper was presented which, in part, announced the development of an electronic dosimeter to be undertaken in the UK by the National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB) and Siemens Plessey Controls Ltd. This dosimeter was to be of a standard suitable for use as the basis of an approved personal dosimetry service for photon and beta radiations. The project has progressed extremely well and dosimeters and readers are about to become commercially available. The system and the specification of the dosimeter are presented. The NRPB is in the process of applying for approval by the Health and Safety Executive (HSE) to operate as personal monitoring service based on this dosimeter. As part of the approval procedure the dosimeter is being type tested and is also undergoing an HSE performance test and wearer trials. The tests and the wearer trials are described and a summary of the results to date presented. The way in which the service will be organized and operated is described and a comparison is made between the running of the service and others based on passive dosimeters at NRPB

  1. New Neutron Dosimeter

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    CERN has been operating an Individual Dosimetry Service for neutrons for about 35 years. The service was based on nuclear emulsions in the form of film packages which were developed and scanned in the Service. In 1999, the supplier of theses packages informed CERN that they will discontinue production of this material. TIS-RP decided to look for an external service provider for individual neutron dosimetry. After an extensive market survey and an invitation for tender, a supplier that met the stringent technical requirements set up by CERN's host states for personal dosimeters was identified. The new dosimeter is based on a track-etching technique. Neutrons have the capability of damaging plastic material. The microscopic damage centres are revealed by etching them in a strong acid. The resulting etch pits can be automatically counted and their density is proportional to dose equivalent from neutrons. On the technical side, the new dosimeter provides an improved independence of its response from energy and th...

  2. Groundwater monitoring plan for the 300 Area process trenches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document describes the groundwater monitoring program for the Hanford Site 300 Area Process Trenches (300 APT). The 300 APT are a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) regulated unit. The 300 APT are included in the Dangerous Waste Portion of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Permit for the Treatment, Storage, and Disposal of Dangerous Waste, Permit No. WA890008967, and are subject to final-status requirements for groundwater monitoring. This document describes a compliance monitoring program for groundwater in the uppermost aquifer system at the 300 APT. This plan describes the 300 APT monitoring network, constituent list, sampling schedule, statistical methods, and sampling and analysis protocols that will be employed for the 300 APT. This plan will be used to meet groundwater monitoring requirements from the time the 300 APT becomes part of the Permit and through the postclosure care period until certification of final closure

  3. Radiation dosimeters for medical use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The several personal radiation dosimeter types for medical use, which look like promising for this kind of application, as pMOS (RADFET) dosimeter, direct ion storage (DIS) dosimeters, thermoluminescent (TL) and optically stimulated luminescent (OSL) dosimeters, are described, and their advantages and disadvantages are analyzed. The p-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor (pMOS) dosimetric transistors allow dose measurements in vivo in real time, and they are especially important for radiotherapy. Direct ion storage (DIS) dosimeters are a hybrid of ion chamber and floating gate MOSFETs (FGMOSFETs), show very high sensitivity. Radiative processes that happen during the exposure of crystal to radiation are classified as prompt luminescence or radioluminescence (RL). In the case of an emission during stimulation, this phenomenon is referred to thermoluminescence or optically stimulated luminescence depending on whether the stimulation source is heat or light. TL and OSL dosimeters are natural or synthetic materials, which the intensity of emitted light is proportional to the irradiation dose. (Author)

  4. 2002 Waste Management Monitoring Report Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Y. E. Townsend

    2003-06-01

    Environmental, subsidence, and meteorological monitoring data were collected at and around the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS)(refer to Figure 1). These monitoring data include radiation exposure, air, groundwater,meteorology, vadose zone, subsidence, and biota data. Although some of these media (radiation exposure, air, and groundwater) are reported in detail in other Bechtel Nevada (BN) reports (Annual Site Environmental Report [ASER], the National Emissions Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants [NESHAP] report, and the Annual Groundwater Monitoring Report), they are also summarized in this report to provide an overall evaluation of RWMS performance and environmental compliance. Direct radiation monitoring data indicate that exposure at and around the RWMSs is not above background levels. Air monitoring data indicate that tritium concentrations are slightly above background levels. Groundwater monitoring data indicate that the groundwater in the uppermost aquifer beneath the Area 5 RWMS has not been affected by the facility. Meteorological data indicate that 2002 was a dry year: rainfall totaled 26 mm (1.0 in) at the Area 3 RWMS and 38 mm (1.5 in) at the Area 5 RWMS. Vadose zone monitoring data indicate that 2002 rainfall infiltrated less than 30 cm (1 ft) before being returned to the atmosphere by evaporation. Soil-gas tritium monitoring data indicate slow subsurface migration, and tritium concentrations in biota were lower than in previous years. Special investigations conducted in 2002 included: a comparison between waste cover water contents measured by neutron probe and coring; and a comparison of four methods for measuring radon concentrations in air. All 2002 monitoring data indicate that the Area 3 and Area 5 RWMSs are performing within expectations of the model and parameter assumptions for the facility Performance Assessments (PAs).

  5. Calibration and performance testing of electronic personal dosimeters (EPD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In modern radiation protection practices, active personal dosimeters are becoming absolutely necessary operational tools for satisfying the ALARA principle. The aim of this work was to carry out calibration and performance testing of ten electronic personal dosimeters (EPD) used for the individual monitoring. The EPDs were calibrated in terms of operation radiation protection quantity, personal dose equivalent, Hp (10). Calibrations were carried out at three of x-ray beam qualities described in ISO 4037 namely 60, 100 and 150 kV in addition to Cs-137 gamma ray quality. The calibrations were performed using polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) phantom with dimensions 20*20*15 cm3. Conversion coefficient Hp (10)/K air for the phantom was also calculated. The response and linearity of the dosimeter at the specified energies were also tested. The EPDs tested showed that the calibration coefficient ranged from 0.60 to 1.31 and an equivalent response for the specified energies that ranged from 0.76 to 1.67. The study demonstrated the possibility of using non standard phantom for calibrating dosimeters used for individual monitoring. The dosimeters under study showed a good response in all energies except the response in quality 100 kV. The linearity of the dosimeters was within ±15%, with the exception of the quality 100 kV where this limit was exceeded.(Author)

  6. Intercomparison of extremity dosimeters in beta, photon and medical realistic fields. Performance of ring dosimeters in typical medical fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The EURADOS Working Group 9 is presently coordinating research activities on the assessment of occupational exposures at workplaces in therapeutic and diagnostic radiology as well as in nuclear medicine. A recent literature review showed that extremity doses, especially in nuclear medicine and interventional radiology, can be quite high. However, the use of extremity dosimeters in hospitals is still not very common. Furthermore, there is very little information on the performance of these dosimeter s in typical medical fields. Within this framework, EURADOS organized an intercomparison of ring dosimeters aimed at assessing the technical capabilities of available extremity dosimeter s and focusing on their performance at workplaces with potentially high extremity doses. 24 services from 16 European countries participated in the intercomparison. The dosimeter s represented in this study are used to monitor over 30,000 workers. The dosimeter s were exposed to reference photon (137Cs) and beta (147Pm, 85Kr and 90Sr/90Y) fields as well as to realistic interventional radiology (direct and scattered radiation) and nu clear medicine fields (99mTc and 18F). This report presents the main results of the intercomparison. It is shown that most dosimeters provided satisfactory measurements of Hp(0.07) for photon radiation, both in reference and realistic fields. However, only four dosimeter s fulfilled the requirements given by the trumpet curves for all tested radiation qualities. The main difficulties were found for the measurement of low energy beta radiation. A clear correlation between filter and detector thickness and response to beta particles was found, thus highlighting the need for appropriate dosimeter design for these fields. Finally, the results also showed a general under response of detectors to 18F, which was attributed to the difficulties of the dosimetric systems to measure the positron contribution to the dose. (author)

  7. Conservation and monitoring of invertebrates in terrestrial protected areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melodie A. McGeoch

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Invertebrates constitute a substantial proportion of terrestrial and freshwater biodiversity and are critical to ecosystem function. However, their inclusion in biodiversity monitoring and conservation planning and management has lagged behind better-known, more widely appreciated taxa. Significant progress in invertebrate surveys, systematics and bioindication, both globally and locally, means that their use in biodiversity monitoring and conservation is becoming increasingly feasible. Here we outline challenges and solutions to the integration of invertebrates into biodiversity management objectives and monitoring in protected areas in South Africa. We show that such integration is relevant and possible, and assess the relative suitability of seven key taxa in this context. Finally, we outline a series of recommendations for mainstreaming invertebrates in conservation planning, surveys and monitoring in and around protected areas.Conservation implications: Invertebrates constitute a substantial and functionally significant component of terrestrial biodiversity and are valuable indicators of environmental condition. Although consideration of invertebrates has historically been neglected in conservation planning and management, substantial progress with surveys, systematics and bioindication means that it is now both feasible and advisable to incorporate them into protected area monitoring activities.

  8. H-Area Seepage Basins groundwater monitoring report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During second quarter 1992, tritium, nitrate, nonvolatile beta, total alpha-emitting radium (radium-224 and radium-226), gross alpha, mercury, lead, tetrachloroethylene, arsenic, and cadmium exceeded the US Environmental Protection Agency Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) in groundwater samples from monitoring wells at the H-Area Seepage Basins (HASB) at the Savannah River Plant. This report gives the results of the analyses of groundwater from the H-Area Seepage Basin

  9. Hanford personnel dosimeter supporting studies FY-1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report examined specific functional components of the routine external personnel dosimeter program at Hanford. Components studied included: dosimeter readout; dosimeter calibration; dosimeter field response; dose calibration algorithm; dosimeter design; and TLD chip acceptance procedures. Additional information is also presented regarding the dosimeter response to light- and medium-filtered x-rays, high energy photons and neutrons. This study was conducted to clarify certain data obtained during the FY-1980 studies

  10. Portable system for periodical verification of area monitors for neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Neutrons Laboratory develops a project viewing the construction of a portable test system for verification of functioning conditions of neutron area monitors. This device will allow to the users the verification of the calibration maintenance of his instruments at the use installations, avoiding the use of an inadequate equipment related to his answer to the neutron beam response

  11. Investigation of the energy dependence of dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on the results of investigations of the energy dependence of the detectors in the VA-J-18, 27012 (M 2300), DRG-01 and DKS-05 dosimeters. Each of the dosimeters is provided with several ionization chambers; one of the ionization chambers with a volume of ca 600-1000 cm3 is designated for measuring low radiation levels, i.e., for monitoring the quality of radiation shields. The investigations were made on reference units reproducing the unit of the exposure dose, the exposure dose rate, and the energy flux of x-ray and gamma radiation. The parameters of the instruments examined are presented. The instruments can be used as reference means of measurements and the error of dosimetric measurements can be reduced as the reliability of the instruments has been increased

  12. Optical Fibre Dosimeter for SASE FEL Undulators

    CERN Document Server

    Körfer, M

    2003-01-01

    Single pass Free Electron Lasers (FELs) based on self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) are developed for high brightness and short wavelength applications. They use permanent magnet undulators which are radiation sensitive devices. During accelerator commissioning beam losses can appear anywhere along the undulator line. To avoid damage of the permanent magnets due to radiation, an optical fibre dosimeter system can be used. The increase of absorption caused by ionizing radiation is measured in radiation sensitive optical fibers. The dose system enables relatively fast particle loss tuning during accelerator operation and allows the monitoring of the accumulated dose. Dose measurements in narrow gaps which are inaccessible for any other (online) dosimeter type become possible. The electromagnetic insensitivity of optical fibre sensor is an advantage of applications in strong magnetic undulator fields. At each location the light absorption is measured by using an optical power-meter. The dynamic range is ...

  13. Scintillation counter based radiation dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    environmental radiation. The operation mechanism is quite simple. First step is scintillation in scintillator. Second step is conversion from photon to charge in photodiode. Third step is signal amplification in charge amplifier. Fourth step is pulse shaping for discrimination in shaping amp. Fifth step is reduction of noise pulse in discriminator. Final step is pulse counting in counter. This new radiation detection system can give reliable radiation dose data as low cost. So we can supply this new radiation dosimeter to the area near radiation and nuclear facilities. I will hope this new radiation dosimeter can contribute to the public acceptance on radiation use and nuclear facilities

  14. Junction-FET dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The performance of a new junction-FET dosimeter and its application to the beam profile measurement are presented. One of the two junction FET's making up an astable multivibrator is used as a small-size (approx.0.4x0.4 mm) high-level dose detector. The irradiated dose can be estimated by the amount of the decrease of the oscillator period of the multivibrator. The distinct advantages in its small size and superior resistive property to radiation effect enable us to measure the cross-sectional profile of the electron beam from a linac with high spatial resolution of about 0.4 mm

  15. P-Area Reactor 1993 annual groundwater monitoring report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groundwater was sampled and analyzed during 1993 from wells monitoring the water table at the following locations in P Area: well P 24A in the eastern section of P Area, the P-Area Acid/Caustic Basin, the P-Area Coal Pile Runoff Containment Basin, the P-Area Disassembly Basin, the P-Area Burning/Rubble Pit, and the P-Area Seepage Basins. During 1993, pH was above its alkaline standard in well P 24A. Specific conductance was above its standard in one well each from the PAC and PCB series. Lead exceeded its 50 μg/L standard in one well of the PDB series during one quarter. Tetrachloroethylene and trichloroethylene were detected above their final primary drinking water standards in one well of the PRP well series. Tritium was consistently above its DWS in the PDB and PSB series. Also during 1993, radium-228 exceeded the DWS for total radium in three wells of the PAC series and one well of the PCB series; total alpha-emitting radium exceeded the same standard in a different PCB well. These results are fairly consistent with those from previous years. Unlike results from past years, however, no halogenated volatiles other than trichloroethylene and tetrachloroethylene exceeded DWS in the PRP well series although gas chromatographic volatile organic analyses were performed throughout the year. Some of the regulated units in P Area appear to need additional monitoring by new wells because there are insufficient downgradient wells, sometimes because the original well network, installed prior to regulation, included sidegradient rather than downgradient wells. No monitoring wells had been installed through 1993 at one of the RCRA/CERCLA units named in the Federal Facilities Agreement, the Bingham Pump Outage Pits

  16. P-Area Reactor 1993 annual groundwater monitoring report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-11-01

    Groundwater was sampled and analyzed during 1993 from wells monitoring the water table at the following locations in P Area: well P 24A in the eastern section of P Area, the P-Area Acid/Caustic Basin, the P-Area Coal Pile Runoff Containment Basin, the P-Area Disassembly Basin, the P-Area Burning/Rubble Pit, and the P-Area Seepage Basins. During 1993, pH was above its alkaline standard in well P 24A. Specific conductance was above its standard in one well each from the PAC and PCB series. Lead exceeded its 50 {mu}g/L standard in one well of the PDB series during one quarter. Tetrachloroethylene and trichloroethylene were detected above their final primary drinking water standards in one well of the PRP well series. Tritium was consistently above its DWS in the PDB and PSB series. Also during 1993, radium-228 exceeded the DWS for total radium in three wells of the PAC series and one well of the PCB series; total alpha-emitting radium exceeded the same standard in a different PCB well. These results are fairly consistent with those from previous years. Unlike results from past years, however, no halogenated volatiles other than trichloroethylene and tetrachloroethylene exceeded DWS in the PRP well series although gas chromatographic volatile organic analyses were performed throughout the year. Some of the regulated units in P Area appear to need additional monitoring by new wells because there are insufficient downgradient wells, sometimes because the original well network, installed prior to regulation, included sidegradient rather than downgradient wells. No monitoring wells had been installed through 1993 at one of the RCRA/CERCLA units named in the Federal Facilities Agreement, the Bingham Pump Outage Pits.

  17. The high dose response and functional capability of the DT-702/Pd lithium fluoride thermoluminescent dosimeter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawlor, Tyler M; Talmadge, Molly D; Murray, Mark M; Nelson, Martin E; Mueller, Andrew C; Romanyukha, Alexander A; Fairchild, Gregory R; Grypp, Matthew D; Williams, Anthony S

    2015-05-01

    The United States Navy monitors the dose its radiation workers receive using the DT-702/PD thermoluminescent dosimeter, which consists of the Harshaw 8840 holder and the four-element Harshaw 8841 card. There were two main objectives of this research. In the first objective, the dosimeters were exposed to 100 Gy using electron and x-ray beams and found to respond approximately 30-40% lower than the delivered dose. No significant effect on the under-response was found when dose rate, radiation type, dosimeter position on the phantom, and dosimeter material were varied or when the card was irradiated while enclosed in its holder. Since the current naval policy is to remove from occupational use any thermoluminescent dosimeter with an accumulated deep dose equivalent of 0.05 Sv or greater, the functionality of the dosimeter was also investigated at deep dose equivalents of 0.05, 0.15, and 0.25 Sv using 60Co and 137Cs sources as the second main objective. All dosimeters were annealed following exposure and then exposed to 5.0 mSv from a 90Sr source. In all cases, the dosimeters responded within 3% of the delivered dose, indicating that the dosimeters remained functional as defined by naval dosimetry requirements. However, the anneal time required to clear the thermoluminescent dosimeter's reading was found to increase approximately as the cube root with the delivered dose. PMID:25811149

  18. Wide-area monitoring of interconnected power systems

    CERN Document Server

    Messina, Arturo Román

    2015-01-01

    This book provides a compact yet comprehensive treatment of advanced data-driven signal processing techniques for the analysis and characterization of both ambient power system data and transient oscillations resulting from major disturbances. Inspired by recent developments in multi-sensor data fusion, multi-temporal data assimilation techniques for power system monitoring are proposed and tested in the context of modern wide-area monitoring system architectures. Recent advances in understanding and modeling nonlinear, time-varying power system processes are reviewed and factors affecting the

  19. P-Area Acid/Caustic Basin Groundwater Monitoring Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During fourth quarter 1993, samples from the six PAC monitoring wells at the P-Area Acid/Caustic Basin were collected and analyzed for indicator parameters, groundwater quality parameters, parameters characterizing suitability as a drinking water supply, and other constituents. Monitoring results that exceeded the final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or the Savannah River Site (SRS) flagging criteria or turbidity standard during the quarter are discussed in this report. During fourth quarter 1993, no constituents exceeded the final PDWS. Aluminum and iron exceeded the SRS Flag 2 criteria in five wells. Manganese exceeded its Flag 2 criterion in three wells, while specific conductance exceeded its Flag 2 criterion in one well

  20. Personal noise dosimeters: Accuracy and reliability in varied settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheri Lynn Cook-Cunningham

    2014-01-01

    during a day in the life of college music students. Three participants each wore two types of dosimeters for an 8-h period during a normal school day. Descriptive statistical analyzes including means, standard deviation and Pearson product-moment correlation. The primary finding is that the dosimeters in this study recorded results within ±2 dB of either a reference measurement or within dosimeters in all four conditions examined. All dosimeters studied measured steady noise source accurately and consistently, with strong positive correlations across all instruments. Measurements acquired during choral rehearsals indicated a maximum of 1.5 dB difference across dosimeters. The Etymotic research personal noise dosimeters (ER200D could provide individuals and schools of music with a relatively inexpensive tool to monitor sound doses. Findings from this study suggest that the three brands of dosimeters tested will provide reliable Leq levels and hearing dosages in both PN and natural settings.

  1. Personal noise dosimeters: accuracy and reliability in varied settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook-Cunningham, Sheri Lynn

    2014-01-01

    a day in the life of college music students. Three participants each wore two types of dosimeters for an 8-h period during a normal school day. Descriptive statistical analyzes including means, standard deviation and Pearson product-moment correlation. The primary finding is that the dosimeters in this study recorded results within ±2 dB of either a reference measurement or within dosimeters in all four conditions examined. All dosimeters studied measured steady noise source accurately and consistently, with strong positive correlations across all instruments. Measurements acquired during choral rehearsals indicated a maximum of 1.5 dB difference across dosimeters. The Etymotic research personal noise dosimeters (ER200D) could provide individuals and schools of music with a relatively inexpensive tool to monitor sound doses. Findings from this study suggest that the three brands of dosimeters tested will provide reliable Leq levels and hearing dosages in both PN and natural settings. PMID:24953879

  2. Performance testing of extremity dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Health Physics Society Standing Committee (HPSSC) Working Group on Performance Testing of Extremity Dosimeters has issued a draft of a proposed standard for extremity dosimeters. The draft standard proposes methods to be used for testing dosimetry systems that determine occupational radiation dose to the extremities and the performance criterion used to determine compliance. The draft standard has been evaluated by testing the performance of existing processors of extremity dosimeters against the standard's proposed criterion. The proposed performance criterion is: absolute value of B + S ≤ 0.35, where B is the bias (calculated as the average of the performance quotients) of 15 dosimeter measurements and S is the standard deviation of the performance quotients. Dosimeter performance was tested in seven irradiation categories: low-energy photons (general and accident dosimetry), high-energy photons (general and accident dosimetry), beta particles, neutrons, and a mixture category. Twenty-one types of extremity dosimeters (both finger ring and wrist/ankle dosimeters) were received from 11 processors. The dosimeters were irradiated by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to specific dose levels in one or more of the seven categories as specified in the draft standard and were returned to the processors. The processors evaluated the doses and returned the results to PNL for analysis. The results were evaluated against the performance criterion specified in the draft standard. The results indicate that approximately 60% of both the finger ring and the wrist/ankle dosimeters met the performance criterion. Two-thirds of the dosimeters that did not meet the performance criterion had large biases (ranging from 0.25 to 0.80) but small standard deviations (less than 0.15). 21 refs., 3 figs., 20 tabs

  3. Mayak Film Dosimeter Response Studies, Part I: Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Mayak Worker Dosimetry study is a joint Russian/US project to evaluate doses received by workers at the Mayak Production Association facilities from 1948-1972. A key investigation in this project is the characterization of responses of the three types of film dosimeters used to monitor workers during this time period. Experimental irradiations of the dosimeters were performed in the radiation calibration laboratories at the National Research Center for Environment and Health (GSF) in Munich, Germany. The irradiations used photon sources from X-ray beams with ten different energy distributions and with 60Co and 137Cs isotopic gamma sources. Irradiations were performed with the dosimeters on phantoms and free-in-air. The dosimeters and phantoms were also positioned at varying angles to the radiation beam. The result of the experiments was a thorough characterization of the dosimeter response as a function of photon energy and as a function of angle for energy and angular ranges that cover the conditions encountered in the Mayak workplaces. The characterization data were then available for use in developing correction factors which could be applied to worker dosimeter readings to provide a more accurate assessment of worker dose and estimates of doses to organs

  4. F-Area Acid/Caustic Basin Groundwater Monitoring Report. Fourth Quarter 1994, Groundwater Monitoring Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During fourth quarter 1994, samples from the FAC monitoring wells at the F-Area Acid/Caustic Basin were collected and analyzed for herbicides/pesticides, indicator parameters, metals, nitrate, radionuclide indicators, volatile organic compounds, and other constituents. Piezometer FAC 5P was dry and could not be sampled. New monitoring wells FAC 9C, 10C, 11C, and 12C were sampled for the first time during third quarter

  5. Survey monitoring of environmental radioactivity in Daegu area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, H. D.; Lee, S. Y. [Kyungpook National Univ., Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-01-15

    The objectives of the project are to monitor an abnormal radiation level in Taegu and Kyungpook region, and to enhance our ability to prepare for the radiological emergency situation by establishing the radioactivity monitoring system in Taegu and Kyungpook region. Gross beta activities were measured and gamma radionuclides were analysed for the environmental samples of air-borned dust. precipitation. fallout and drinking water collected in Taegu radioactivity monitoring center. and gamma exposure rates were also measured. To establish the basic data base on the environmental radioactivity, gamma radionuclide analyses were carried out for the samples of soil, drinking water, grain, vegetable, milk, and fish which were obtained from 31 different areas, and the spatial gamma exposure rates from 61 different points were also measured in Taegu and Kyungpook region. In conclusion, it didn't appear any evidence for newly pollution of artificial radioactivity in Taegu and Kyungpook region.

  6. How should work the thyroid monitoring for inhabitants of the destroyed area and its adjacent areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The general method of the exposure dose evaluation and the thyroid monitoring for it are explained and stressed. The vast area environmental contamination around the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station accident brought about the anxiety of health risks for the inhabitants, especially probabilistic outbreak of cancer owing to radiation exposure. The report concludes that for the post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) mental care and thyroid monitoring are necessary. (S. Ohno)

  7. Area monitor for neutrons with thin sheet of Au

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A passive area monitor for neutrons with an activation detector was designed and constructed to be used in sites where the radiation field is mixed, intense and pulsed, like happens in the radiotherapy rooms that use lineal accelerators of medical use or in enclosures with cyclotrons for PET, or where the field is mixed and intense as in the nuclear power plants. This equipment is useful for the exposition cases of the patients or workers that receive not counted radiation dose, generating harmful effects to the health, for what is necessary to take the pertinent measures for the radiological protection. The design of the area monitor was realized using the MCNP5 code, where was considered an activation detector and therefore thin sheets of Au-197 located in the moderator center were used. The moderator was designed as a polyethylene cylindrical to moderate the neutrons. The gold was used like detector for its high cross section and its physical and chemical characteristics. The response of the monitor is maxim for energies from 1 to 20 MeV, region where the flowing coefficients and dose are majors. Therefore, the designed and constructed monitor can be used in sites with high, mixed and pulsed radiation fields. (Author)

  8. UAV-based hyperspectral monitoring of small freshwater area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pölönen, I.; Puupponen, H.-H.; Honkavaara, Eija; Lindfors, A.; Saari, H.; Markelin, L.; Hakala, T.; Nurminen, K.

    2014-10-01

    Recent development in compact, lightweight hyperspectral imagers have enabled UAV-based remote sensing with reasonable costs. We used small hyperspectral imager based on Fabry-Perot interferometer for monitoring small freshwater area in southern Finland. In this study we shortly describe the utilized technology and the field studies performed. We explain processing pipeline for gathered spectral data and introduce target detection-based algorithm for estimating levels of algae, aquatic chlorophyll and turbidity in freshwater. Certain challenges we faced are pointed out.

  9. 300 Area TEDF NPDES Permit Compliance Monitoring Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This monitoring plan describes the activities and methods that will be employed at the 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF) in order to ensure compliance with the National Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit. Included in this document are a brief description of the project, the specifics of the sampling effort, including the physical location and frequency of sampling, the support required for sampling, and the Quality Assurance (QA) protocols to be followed in the sampling procedures

  10. Unobstructive Body Area Networks (BAN) for Efficient Movement Monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    António Pereira; Florentino Fdez-Riverola; Filipe Felisberto; Nuno Costa

    2012-01-01

    The technological advances in medical sensors, low-power microelectronics and miniaturization, wireless communications and networks have enabled the appearance of a new generation of wireless sensor networks: the so-called wireless body area networks (WBAN). These networks can be used for continuous monitoring of vital parameters, movement, and the surrounding environment. The data gathered by these networks contributes to improve users’ quality of life and allows the creation of a knowledge ...

  11. Wildlife Monitoring and Conservation in a West African Protected Area

    OpenAIRE

    Burton, Andrew Cole

    2010-01-01

    Global declines in biological diversity are increasingly well documented and threaten the welfare and resilience of ecological and human communities. Despite international commitments to better assess and protect biodiversity, current monitoring effort is insufficient and conservation targets are not being met (e.g., Convention on Biological Diversity 2010 Target). Protected areas are a cornerstone of attempts to shield wildlife from anthropogenic impact, yet their effectiveness is uncertain....

  12. 1998 Comprehensive TNX Area Annual Groundwater and Effectiveness Monitoring Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chase, J.

    1999-06-02

    Shallow groundwater beneath the TNX Area at the Savannah River Site has been contaminated with chlorinated volatile organic compounds such as trichloroethylene and carbon tetrachloride. The Interim Action T-1 Air Stripper System began operation on September 16, 1996. A comprehensive groundwater monitoring program was initiated to measure the effectiveness of the system. The Interim Action is meeting its objectives and is capable of continuing to do so until the final groundwater remedial action is in place.

  13. Energy technology monitoring - New areas and in-depth investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This comprehensive report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a project that examined long-term trends in the energy technology area in order to provide information that is to form the basis for political action and the distribution of energy research funding in Switzerland. Energy-technology areas examined include variable-speed electrical drives, ventilation systems for low-energy-consumption buildings, membrane technology and the use of plastics in lightweight automobiles. Examples are quoted and the current state of the appropriate technologies and market aspects are examined. Also, the potential and future developments in the areas listed are looked at. The consequences for energy policy and future developments in the technology-monitoring area are considered

  14. L-Area Reactor - 1993 annual - groundwater monitoring report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groundwater was sampled and analyzed during 1993 from wells monitoring the water table at the following locations in L Area: the L-Area Acid/Caustic Basin (four LAC wells), L-Area Research Wells in the southern portion of the area (outside the fence; three LAW wells), the L-Area Oil and Chemical Basin (four LCO wells), the L-Area Disassembly Basin (two LDB wells), the L-Area Burning/Rubble Pit (four LRP wells), and the L-Area Seepage Basin (four LSB wells). During 1993, tetrachloroethylene was detected above its drinking water standard (DWS) in the LAC, LAW, LCO, and LDB well series. Lead exceeded its 50 μg/L standard in the LAW, LDB, and LRP series, and tritium was above its DWS in the LAW, LCO, and LSB series. Apparently anomalous elevated levels of the common laboratory contaminant bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate were reported during first quarter in one well each in the LAC series and LCO series, and during third quarter in a different LCO well. Extensive radionuclide analyses were performed during 1993 in the LAC, LAW, and LCO well series. No radionuclides other than tritium were reported above DWS or Flag 2 criteria

  15. L-Area Reactor - 1993 annual - groundwater monitoring report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chase, J.A.

    1994-09-01

    Groundwater was sampled and analyzed during 1993 from wells monitoring the water table at the following locations in L Area: the L-Area Acid/Caustic Basin (four LAC wells), L-Area Research Wells in the southern portion of the area (outside the fence; three LAW wells), the L-Area Oil and Chemical Basin (four LCO wells), the L-Area Disassembly Basin (two LDB wells), the L-Area Burning/Rubble Pit (four LRP wells), and the L-Area Seepage Basin (four LSB wells). During 1993, tetrachloroethylene was detected above its drinking water standard (DWS) in the LAC, LAW, LCO, and LDB well series. Lead exceeded its 50 {mu}g/L standard in the LAW, LDB, and LRP series, and tritium was above its DWS in the LAW, LCO, and LSB series. Apparently anomalous elevated levels of the common laboratory contaminant bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate were reported during first quarter in one well each in the LAC series and LCO series, and during third quarter in a different LCO well. Extensive radionuclide analyses were performed during 1993 in the LAC, LAW, and LCO well series. No radionuclides other than tritium were reported above DWS or Flag 2 criteria.

  16. Angular energy response of personnel thermoluminescent dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The angular energy dependence of the response of two commercial thermoluminescent dosimeter systems was investigated. The first personnel dosimeter investigated was the Radi-Guard which is a multi-area LiF (TLD-700) locked in Teflon matrix and incorporated with a PB-2 holder developed by Teledyne Isotopes. The second one was the BG-7 which is comprised of two LiF (TLD-700) chips developed by Harshaw, but the TH-2 holder was fabricated at National Tsing Hua University. The angle of incidence was varied from perpendicular to parallel for 90Sr-90Y β radiation, 241Am and 60Co γ radiation. Experimental results are presented and discussed

  17. The intelligence of dosimeter for ionization radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The connection of dosimeter with microcomputer system is described, which has the functions of sampling, data handling, display and printing dose values in legal units of measurement. The accuracy and speed of measurement for dosimeters are also raised, thereby the dosimeters are made to have intelligence and the application range of dosimeter is enlarged

  18. Direct reading dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This invention is a direct reading dosimeter which is light, small enough to be worn on a person, and measures both dose rates and total dose. It is based on a semiconductor sensor. The gate threshold voltage change rather than absolute value is measured and displayed as a direct reading of the dose rate. This is effected by continuously switching the gate of an MOS transistor from positive to negative bias. The output can directly drive a digital readout or trigger an audible alarm. The sensor device can be a MOSFET, bipolar transistor, or MOSFET capacitor which has its electrical characteristics change due to the trapped charge in the insulating layer of the device

  19. DNA adducts as molecular dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is compelling evidence that DNA adducts play an important role in the actions of many pulmonary carcinogens. During the last ten years sensitive methods (antibodies and 32P-postlabeling) have been developed that permit detection of DNA adducts in tissues of animals or humans exposed to low levels of some genotoxic carcinogens. This capability has led to approaches designed to more reliably estimate the shape of the dose-response curve in the low dose region for a few carcinogens. Moreover, dosimetry comparisions can, in some cases, be made between animals and humans which help in judging the adequacy of animal models for human risk assessments. There are several points that need to be considered in the evaluation of DNA adducts as a molecular dosimeter. For example, DNA adduct formation is only one of many events that are needed for tumor development and some potent carcinogens do not form DNA adducts; i.e., TCDD. Other issues that need to be considered are DNA adduct heterogeneity, DNA repair, relationship of DNA adducts to somatic mutation and cell specificity in DNA adduct formation and persistence. Molecular epidemiology studies often require quantitation of adducts in cells such as lymphocytes which may or may not be reliable surrogates for adduct concentrations in target issues. In summary, accurate quantitation of low levels of DNA adducts may provide data useful in species to species extrapolation of risk including the development of more meaningful human monitoring programs

  20. Offsite environmental monitoring report. Radiation monitoring around United States nuclear test areas, calendar year 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, S. C.; Grossman, R. F.; Mullen, A. A.; Potter, G. D.; Smith, D. D. [comps.

    1983-07-01

    A principal activity of the Offsite Radiological Safety Program is routine environmental monitoring for radioactive materials in various media and for radiation in areas which may be affected by nuclear tests. It is conducted to document compliance with standards, to identify trends, and to provide information to the public. This report summarizes these activities for CY 1982.

  1. Offsite environmental monitoring report. Radiation monitoring around United States nuclear test areas, calendar year 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A principal activity of the Offsite Radiological Safety Program is routine environmental monitoring for radioactive materials in various media and for radiation in areas which may be affected by nuclear tests. It is conducted to document compliance with standards, to identify trends, and to provide information to the public. This report summarizes these activities for CY 1982

  2. Heater design for reading radiation dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nichrome heating element of a conventional dosimeter reading apparatus has been redesigned to include a flat-bottomed depression big enough to hold a thermoluminescent dosimeter. A thin glass plate is positioned in the recess on top of the dosimeter to retain it in the recess during the heating and reading process. This technique of securing the dosimeter in contact with the heating element avoids physical scratching or damage to the dosimeter

  3. Recall of Personal Dosimeters Not Presently in Use

    CERN Multimedia

    SC Unit

    2008-01-01

    The Dosimetry Service requests all persons who do not require access to radiation areas in the foreseeable future to return their personal dosimeter to the Dosimetry Service. This concerns, for example, experimental physicists whose beam time is over until 2009, or persons whose work profile has changed and therefore no longer need regular access to radiation areas. When regular access to radiation areas is needed again at a later date, a new dosimeter can be attributed if the prerequisites (medical fitness certificate, RP course) are met. This recall will allow personal dosimeters to be attributed to personnel who will soon be working in newly created radiation areas at the LHC. Thank you for your understanding and collaboration. Thomas Otto on behalf of the Dosimetry Service Radiation Protection Group

  4. An advanced open path atmospheric pollution monitor for large areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, L.; Suhre, D.; Mani, S. [and others

    1996-12-31

    Over 100 million gallons of radioactive and toxic waste materials generated in weapon materials production are stored in 322 tanks buried within large areas at DOE sites. Toxic vapors occur in the tank headspace due to the solvents used and chemical reactions within the tanks. To prevent flammable or explosive concentration of volatile vapors, the headspace are vented, either manually or automatically, to the atmosphere when the headspace pressure exceeds preset values. Furthermore, 67 of the 177 tanks at the DOE Hanford Site are suspected or are known to be leaking into the ground. These underground storage tanks are grouped into tank farms which contain closely spaced tanks in areas as large as 1 km{sup 2}. The objective of this program is to protect DOE personnel and the public by monitoring the air above these tank farms for toxic air pollutants without the monitor entering the tanks farms, which can be radioactive. A secondary objective is to protect personnel by monitoring the air above buried 50 gallon drums containing moderately low radioactive materials but which could also emit toxic air pollutants.

  5. H-Area Acid/Caustic Basin Groundwater Monitoring Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The four monitoring wells at the H-Area Acid/Caustic Basin are sampled quarterly as part of the Savannah River Site (SRS) Groundwater Monitoring Program and to comply with a consent decree signed May 26, 1988, by the US District Court (District of South Carolina, Aiken Division). During fourth quarter 1993, samples from the monitoring wells received comprehensive analyses. Monitoring results that exceeded the final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS), the SRS flagging criteria, or the SRS turbidity standard are the focus of this report. During fourth quarter 1993, tritium exceeded the final PDWS in all four HAC wells, with activities between 3.8E + 01 and 4.6E + 01 pCi/mL. Aluminum exceeded its Flag 2 criterion in wells HAC 2, 3, and 4. Iron exceeded its Flag 2 criterion in wells HAC 1, 2, and 3. Specific conductance was elevated in well HAC 2, total organic halogens exceeded its Flag 2 criterion in wells HAC 2 and 3, and manganese was elevated in wells HAC 3 and 4. No well samples exceeded the SRS turbidity standard

  6. Radiation monitoring instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation exposure to humans can be broadly classified as internal and external exposure. Sealed sources, which are unlikely to cause internal exposure, are used almost exclusively in radiotherapy. This chapter deals with the monitoring of external exposures. 1) External exposure monitoring refers to measuring: Radiation levels in and around work areas; Radiation levels around radiotherapy equipment or source containers; . Equivalent doses received by individuals working with radiation. 2) Radiation monitoring is carried out: to assess workplace conditions and individual exposures; To ensure acceptably safe and satisfactory radiological conditions in the workplace; to keep records of monitoring, over a long period of time, for the purposes of regulation or good practice. 3) Radiation monitoring instruments are used both for area monitoring and for individual monitoring. The instruments used for measuring radiation levels are referred to as area survey meters (or area monitors) and the instruments used for recording the equivalent doses received by individuals working with radiation are referred to as personal dosimeters (or individual dosimeters). All instruments must be calibrated in terms of the appropriate quantities used in radiation protection

  7. Real-time optical fiber dosimeter probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croteau, André; Caron, Serge; Rink, Alexandra; Jaffray, David; Mermut, Ozzy

    2011-03-01

    There is a pressing need for a passive optical fiber dosimeter probe for use in real-time monitoring of radiation dose delivered to clinical radiation therapy patients. An optical fiber probe using radiochromic material has been designed and fabricated based on a thin film of the radiochromic material on a dielectric mirror. Measurements of the net optical density vs. time before, during, and after irradiation at a rate of 500cGy/minute to a total dose of 5 Gy were performed. Net optical densities increased from 0.2 to 2.0 for radiochromic thin film thicknesses of 2 to 20 μm, respectively.

  8. Wallac automatic alarm dosimeter type RAD21

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Automatic Alarm Dosimeter type RAD 21 is a batterypowered personal dosemeter and exposure rate alarm monitor, designed to be worn on the body, covering an exposure range from 0.1 to 999.9 mR and has an audible alarm which can be pre-set over the range 1 mR h-1 to 250 mR h-1. The instrument is designed to measure x- and γ radiation over the energy range 50 keV to 3 MeV. The facilities and controls, the radiation, electrical, environmental and mechanical characteristics, and the manual, have been evaluated. (U.K.)

  9. K-Area Acid/Caustic Basin groundwater monitoring report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During fourth quarter 1992, samples from the KAC monitoring wells at the K-Area Acid/Caustic Basin were analyzed for indicator parameters, groundwater quality parameters, parameters indicating suitability as drinking water, and other constituents. New wells KAC 8 and 9 also were sampled for GC/MS VOA (gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer volatile organic analyses). Monitoring results that exceeded the final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or the Savannah River Site (SRS) flagging criteria or turbidity standard during the quarter are discussed in this report. Iron exceeded the Flag 2 criterion in wells KAC 6 and 7, and specific conductance exceeded the Flag 2 criterion in new well KAC 9. No samples exceeded the SRS turbidity standard

  10. H-Area Acid/Caustic Basin Groundwater Monitoring Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During fourth quarter 1992, samples from the four HAC monitoring wells at the H-Area Acid/Caustic Basin received comprehensive analyses. Monitoring results that exceeded the final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or the Savannah River Site (SRS) flagging criteria or turbidity standard during the quarter are the focus of this report. Tritium exceeded the final PDWS in wells HAC 1, 2, 3, and 4 during fourth quarter 1992. Tritium activities in upgradient well HAC 4 were similar to tritium levels in wells HAC 1, 2, and 3. Iron was elevated in well HAC 1, 2, and 3. Specific conductance and manganese were elevated in one downgradient well each. No well samples exceeded the SRS turbidity standard. During 1992, tritium was the only constituent that exceeded the final PDWS. It did so consistently in all four wells during all four quarters, with little variability in activity

  11. Review of Fricke gel dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The innovation of adding a gel matrix to the traditional Fricke dosimeter to stabilize geometric information established the field of gel dosimetry for radiation therapy. A discussion of Fricke gels provides an overview of the issues that determine the dose response of all gel dosimeters in general. In this paper we review some of the features of Fricke systems to illustrate these issues and, in addition, to motivate renewed clinical interest in Fricke gels

  12. UAV photogrammetry for topographic monitoring of coastal areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, J. A.; Henriques, R.

    2015-06-01

    Coastal areas suffer degradation due to the action of the sea and other natural and human-induced causes. Topographical changes in beaches and sand dunes need to be assessed, both after severe events and on a regular basis, to build models that can predict the evolution of these natural environments. This is an important application for airborne LIDAR, and conventional photogrammetry is also being used for regular monitoring programs of sensitive coastal areas. This paper analyses the use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) to map and monitor sand dunes and beaches. A very light plane (SwingletCam) equipped with a very cheap, non-metric camera was used to acquire images with ground resolutions better than 5 cm. The Agisoft Photoscan software was used to orientate the images, extract point clouds, build a digital surface model and produce orthoimage mosaics. The processing, which includes automatic aerial triangulation with camera calibration and subsequent model generation, was mostly automated. To achieve the best positional accuracy for the whole process, signalised ground control points were surveyed with a differential GPS receiver. Two very sensitive test areas on the Portuguese northwest coast were analysed. Detailed DSMs were obtained with 10 cm grid spacing and vertical accuracy (RMS) ranging from 3.5 to 5.0 cm, which is very similar to the image ground resolution (3.2-4.5 cm). Where possible to assess, the planimetric accuracy of the orthoimage mosaics was found to be subpixel. Within the regular coastal monitoring programme being carried out in the region, UAVs can replace many of the conventional flights, with considerable gains in the cost of the data acquisition and without any loss in the quality of topographic and aerial imagery data.

  13. Cooperative communications for sleep monitoring in wireless body area networks

    OpenAIRE

    Shimly, Samiya; Movassaghi, Samaneh; Smith, David

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the performance of cooperative receive diversity, for the wireless body area network (WBAN) radio channel, compliant with the IEEE 802.15.6 Standard, in the case of monitoring a sleeping person. Extensive WBAN measurements near the 2.4 GHz ISM band were used. Up to 7 dB and 20% improvement for two-hop communications with the use of relays are empirically demonstrated with respect to outage probability and outage duration, with 3-branch cooperative selection combining a...

  14. Study of a plastic detector as a neutron dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies were carried out through nuclear reactions (n, p); (n, heavy ion), and (n,α) of the dosimetric properties of CR 39 commercial brand polymers. A system was devised for calculating the number of neutron induced nuclear reactions and geometric absolute efficiency factors. Feasibility of the utilization of CR 39 in monitoring and in personnel dosimeters is also discussed. (author)

  15. LiBe-14: A novel microdosimeter using LiF and BeO thermoluminescence dosimeter pairs for clinical and aerospace applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ratio of thermoluminescence light outputs (TLO) of Beryllium Oxide (BeO) and Lithium Fluoride (LiF) dosimeters increases with increasing LET (Linear Energy Transfer) of the impinging particles on the dosimeter chips. This unique phenomenon was utilized to develop a microdosimeter using the common LiF (TLD-700) and BeO (American Beryllia-CF5427-000) dosimeter chips. The dosimeter pairs were exposed to complex mixed radiation fields produced by bombarding a polystyrene plate phantom with therapeutic proton beams of energies from 81 to 231 MeV at the West German Proton Therapy Centre Essen (WPE), Germany. The linear energy transfer (LET) and quality factor (Q) of the secondary radiation fields were simultaneously estimated using a REM 500B tissue equivalent proportional counter (TEPC). The TLD chips were evaluated and the corresponding LET and Q values were plotted as linear functions of the ratio of the TL-glow curve areas within 100–250 °C of TLD-700 and BeO chips. The TLD pairs embody a passive, solid-state, tissue-equivalent, microdosimeter that enable the delivery of dose equivalent (DE), dose-average LET and Q within a broad dynamic range for a given mixed-radiation field relevant to particle therapy, long haul aviation dose monitoring and human space exploration. - Highlights: • A polystyrene phantom bombarded with energetic protons from a medical cyclotron. • This results in production of secondary mixed radiation fields. • Pairs of TLD-700 (7LiF:Ti,Mg) and BeO dosimeter chips and a TEPC are exposed. • Ratio of main TL glow-peak areas expressed as functions of average LET, Q and H. • LiF and BeO dosimeter pairs constitute a simple passive-microdosimeter

  16. R-Area Reactor 1993 annual groundwater monitoring report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groundwater was sampled and analyzed during 1993 from wells monitoring the following locations in R Area: Well cluster P20 east of R Area (one well each in the water table and the McBean formation), the R-Area Acid/Caustic Basin (the four water-table wells of the RAC series), the R-Area Ash Basin/Coal Pile (one well of the RCP series in the Congaree formation and one in the water table), the R-Area Disassembly Basin (the three water-table wells of the RDB series), the R-Area Burning/Rubble Pits (the four water-table wells of the RRP series), and the R-Area Seepage Basins (numerous water-table wells in the RSA, RSB, RSC, RSD, RSE, and RSF series). Lead was the only constituent detected above its 50μg/L standard in any but the seepage basin wells; it exceeded that level in one B well and in 23 of the seepage basin wells. Cadmium exceeded its drinking water standard (DWS) in 30 of the seepage basin wells, as did mercury in 10. Nitrate-nitrite was above DWS once each in two seepage basin wells. Tritium was above DWS in six seepage basin wells, as was gross alpha activity in 22. Nonvolatile beta exceeded its screening standard in 29 wells. Extensive radionuclide analyses were requested during 1993 for the RCP series and most of the seepage basin wells. Strontium-90 in eight wells was the only specific radionuclide other than tritium detected above DWS; it appeared about one-half of the nonvolatile beta activity in those wells

  17. R-Area Reactor 1993 annual groundwater monitoring report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    Groundwater was sampled and analyzed during 1993 from wells monitoring the following locations in R Area: Well cluster P20 east of R Area (one well each in the water table and the McBean formation), the R-Area Acid/Caustic Basin (the four water-table wells of the RAC series), the R-Area Ash Basin/Coal Pile (one well of the RCP series in the Congaree formation and one in the water table), the R-Area Disassembly Basin (the three water-table wells of the RDB series), the R-Area Burning/Rubble Pits (the four water-table wells of the RRP series), and the R-Area Seepage Basins (numerous water-table wells in the RSA, RSB, RSC, RSD, RSE, and RSF series). Lead was the only constituent detected above its 50{mu}g/L standard in any but the seepage basin wells; it exceeded that level in one B well and in 23 of the seepage basin wells. Cadmium exceeded its drinking water standard (DWS) in 30 of the seepage basin wells, as did mercury in 10. Nitrate-nitrite was above DWS once each in two seepage basin wells. Tritium was above DWS in six seepage basin wells, as was gross alpha activity in 22. Nonvolatile beta exceeded its screening standard in 29 wells. Extensive radionuclide analyses were requested during 1993 for the RCP series and most of the seepage basin wells. Strontium-90 in eight wells was the only specific radionuclide other than tritium detected above DWS; it appeared about one-half of the nonvolatile beta activity in those wells.

  18. Locations of criticality alarms and nuclear accident dosimeters at Hanford

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-08-01

    Hanford facilities that contain fissionable materials capable of achieving critical mass are monitored with nuclear accident dosimeters (NADS) in compliance with the requirements of DOE Order 5480.11, Chapter XI, Section 4.c. (DOE 1988). The US Department of Energy (DOE) Richland Field Office (RL) has assigned the responsibility for maintaining and evaluating the Hanford NAD system to the Instrumentation and External Dosimetry (I ED) Section of Pacific Northwest Laboratory's (PNL's) Health Physics Department. This manual provides a description of the Hanford NAD, criteria and instructions for proper NAD placement, and the locations of these dosimeters onsite.

  19. Locations of criticality alarms and nuclear accident dosimeters at Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanford facilities that contain fissionable materials capable of achieving critical mass are monitored with nuclear accident dosimeters (NADS) in compliance with the requirements of DOE Order 5480.11, Chapter XI, Section 4.c. (DOE 1988). The US Department of Energy (DOE) Richland Field Office (RL) has assigned the responsibility for maintaining and evaluating the Hanford NAD system to the Instrumentation and External Dosimetry (I ampersand ED) Section of Pacific Northwest Laboratory's (PNL's) Health Physics Department. This manual provides a description of the Hanford NAD, criteria and instructions for proper NAD placement, and the locations of these dosimeters onsite

  20. The structure of water quality monitoring in the disaster area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Described are monitoring systems of water environment at usual times and after the 2011 Tohoku Earthquake and Tsunami Disaster, and measures taken by the Ministry of the Environment (ME) for radioactive substances in the water environment. At usual times, the monitoring of hazardous substance in water environment is conducted by local governments. At/after the Disaster, ME conducted the monitoring investigation concerning the environmental quality standards and toxicants like dioxins in the river, sea and groundwater from late May to late July, 2011 because undesirable effects on health and life of the residents had been feared due to possible leak of hazardous substances in public water area and underground water of victim prefectures, Aomori, Iwate, Miyagi, Fukushima and Ibaraki. As the results, no high contamination due to the Disaster was found, and a part of regions exhibited the slight chemical contamination, where continuous and additional monitoring was to be kept locally with guidance of drinking the concerned well water. ME measured radioactive iodine and cesium at 29 places of Fukushima rivers to find <65 and <30,000 Bq/kg, respectively, of 4 spots of river bed material alone (late May); then Cs 32 Bq/L in water at 1 spot and <26,000 Bq/kg in bed at all places after rain (early July). In groundwater, no radioactive nuclides above were detected in any of 111 places of Fukushima Prefecture (late June to early August). Cs was not found in sea water of 9 places of concerned prefectures, but was in the sea bottom soil, <1,380 Bq/kg (middle June). As well, local governments measured those two radioactive nuclides in water and ambient dose rate of 551 sea bathing beaches (late May to early Oct.) and found only one beach (Iwaki City, Fukushima) inappropriate for swimming play. Hereafter, ME is still to investigate the bed material of public water area and to continue to monitor the marine environment in cooperation with related authorities. (T.T.)

  1. MONITORING OF LARGE INSTABLE AREAS: system reliability and new tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leandro, G.; Mucciarelli, M.; Pellicani, R.; Spilotro, G.

    2009-04-01

    The monitoring of unstable or potentially unstable areas is a necessary operation every time you can not remove the conditions of risk and apply to mitigation measures. In Italian Apennine regions there are many urban or extra-urban areas affected by instability, for which it is impracticable to remove hazard conditions, because of size and cost problems. The technological evolution exportable to the field of land instability monitoring is particularly lively and allows the use of warning systems unthinkable just few years ago. However, the monitoring of unstable or potentially unstable areas requires a very great knowledge of the specific problems, without which the reliability of the system may be dangerously overestimated. The movement may arise, indeed, in areas not covered by instrumentation, or covered with vegetation that prevents the acquisition of both reflected signals in the multi-beam laser techniques and radar signals. Environmental conditions (wind, concentrated sources of light, temperature changes, presence of animals) may also invalidate the accuracy of the measures, by introducing modulations or disturbance at a level well above the threshold of alarm signal, leading consequently to raise the values of the warning threshold. The Authors have gained long experience with the observation and monitoring of some large landslides in the Southern Apennine (Aliano, Buoninventre, Calciano, Carlantino, etc.) and unstable areas also at regional scale. One of the most important experiences is about the case of landslides of extensive areas, where unstable and stables zones coexist along transverse and longitudinal axis. In many of these cases you need the accurate control of the movement at selected points to evaluate the trend of displacement velocity, which can be achieved by means of a single-beam laser. The control of these movements, however, does not provide information on stress pattern into the stable areas. Among the sensitive precursors, acoustic

  2. The Calvet calorimetric dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes a dosimeter based on the conduction calorimetry principle, and designed to operate in swimming-pool type nuclear reactors. The properties of the apparatus are as follows: 1 - the measurement is independent of the specific heat of the calorimetric elements; 2 - each calorimetric element is fitted with an electrical calibration; 3 - the apparatus is made up of two independent calorimetric elements; 4 - the nature of the calorimetric elements makes it possible to analyse the radiation received; 5 - the measurable intensities of the absorbed radiation vary from 4 to 4000 M/rads per hour; 6 - the sensitive part of the apparatus is fitted inside a cylinder 5 cm high and 2 cm in diameter. One pre-production unit made up of graphite and beryllium cores has been tried out in the reactor Siloe with radiation intensities of about 1 to 2 watts per gram. It absorbed an accumulated dose of 1.2*1O12 rads without any weaknesses appearing. (authors)

  3. H-Area Seepage Basins groundwater monitoring report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During fourth quarter 1992, the groundwater at the H-Area Seepage Basins (HASB) was monitored in compliance with South Carolina Hazardous Waste Management Regulations, R61-79.265, Subpart F. Samples were collected from 130 wells that monitor the three separate hydrostratigraphic units that make up the uppermost aquifer beneath the HASB. A detailed description of the uppermost aquifer is included in the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Part B Post-Closure Care Permit Application for the H-Area Hazardous Waste Management Facility submitted to the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control in December 1990. Historically, as well as currently, tritium, nitrate, total alpha-emitting radium, gross alpha, and mercury have been the primary constituents observed above final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) in groundwater at the HASB. Isoconcentration/isoactivity maps included in this report indicate both the concentration/activity and extent of the primary contaminants in each of the three hydrostratigraphic units during first and fourth quarter 1992. Water-level maps indicate that the groundwater flow rates and directions at the HASB have remained relatively constant since the basins ceased to be active in 1988

  4. Survey monitoring of environmental radioactivity in Chuncheon area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byung Ki.; Hwang, Sang Kyu [Chuncheon Regional Radioactivity Monitoring Station, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-12-15

    Gross beta radioactivities in airborne dust, fallout, precipitation and tap water, and gamma exposure rates have been monitored periodically in 2001 at Chunchon Regional Radioactivity Monitoring Station. The concentrations of radioactive nuclide of {sup 7}Be and {sup 137}Cs on airborne dust, and {sup 7}Be, {sup 40}K and {sup 137}Cs on fallout, precipitation have been analyzed monthly. The {sup 7}Be, {sup 40}K, {sup 137}Cs and {sup 226}Ra etc. concentrations in the 23 foodstuffs(potato, sweet potato, bean sprout, onion, pumpkin, spinach, welsh onion, radish leaves, red pepper, garlic, lettuce, apple, persimmon, orange, pear, grape, mackerel, Alaska pollack, hairtail, squid oyster, baby clam, mussel) and 5 tap water sampled in Youngseo area of Kangwon-do have also been measured. No significant changes from the previous years have been found in gross beta radioactivities in environmental samples and gamma exposure rates. The concentrations of {sup 7}Be, {sup 40}K, and {sup 137}Cs nuclide in the foodstuffs sampled in Youngseo area are less(or slightly higher in some cases) than the MDA values, except {sup 40}K nuclide. All the concentrations of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 226}Ra nuclides in the water are less than the MDA values.

  5. Survey monitoring of environmental radioactivity in Chuncheon area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byung Ki.; Hwang, Sang Kyu [Chuncheon Regional Radioactivity Monitoring Station, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-12-15

    Gross beta radioactivities in airborne dust, fallout, precipitation and tap water, and gamma exposure rates have been monitored periodically in 2000 at Chunchon Regional Radioactivity Monitoring Station. The concentrations of radioactive nuclide of {sup 7}Be and {sup 137}Cs on airborne dust, and {sup 7}Be, {sup 40}K and {sup 137}Cs on fallout, precipitation have been analyzed monthly. The {sup 7}Be, {sup 40}K, {sup 137}Cs and {sup 226}Ra etc. concentrations in the 23 foodstuffs(potato, sweet potato, bean sprout, onion, pumpkin, spinach, welsh onion, radish leaves, red pepper, garlic, lettuce, apple, persimmon, orange, pear, grape, mackerel, Alaska pollack, hairtail, squid oyster, baby clam, mussed) and 5 tap water sampled in Youngsoe area of Kangwon-do have also been measured. No significant changes from the previous years have been found in gross beta radioactivities in environmental samples and gamma exposure rates. The concentrations of {sup 7}Be, {sup 40}K, and {sup 137}Cs nuclide in the foodstuffs sampled in Youngseo area are less(or slightly higher in some cases) than the MDA value, except {sup 40}K nuclide. The concentrations of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 226}Ra nuclide in tap water are less(or is slightly higher in one sample) than the MDA value.

  6. Unobstructive Body Area Networks (BAN for Efficient Movement Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    António Pereira

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The technological advances in medical sensors, low-power microelectronics and miniaturization, wireless communications and networks have enabled the appearance of a new generation of wireless sensor networks: the so-called wireless body area networks (WBAN. These networks can be used for continuous monitoring of vital parameters, movement, and the surrounding environment. The data gathered by these networks contributes to improve users’ quality of life and allows the creation of a knowledge database by using learning techniques, useful to infer abnormal behaviour. In this paper we present a wireless body area network architecture to recognize human movement, identify human postures and detect harmful activities in order to prevent risk situations. The WBAN was created using tiny, cheap and low-power nodes with inertial and physiological sensors, strategically placed on the human body. Doing so, in an as ubiquitous as possible way, ensures that its impact on the users’ daily actions is minimum. The information collected by these sensors is transmitted to a central server capable of analysing and processing their data. The proposed system creates movement profiles based on the data sent by the WBAN’s nodes, and is able to detect in real time any abnormal movement and allows for a monitored rehabilitation of the user.

  7. Unobstructive Body Area Networks (BAN) for efficient movement monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felisberto, Filipe; Costa, Nuno; Fdez-Riverola, Florentino; Pereira, António

    2012-01-01

    The technological advances in medical sensors, low-power microelectronics and miniaturization, wireless communications and networks have enabled the appearance of a new generation of wireless sensor networks: the so-called wireless body area networks (WBAN). These networks can be used for continuous monitoring of vital parameters, movement, and the surrounding environment. The data gathered by these networks contributes to improve users' quality of life and allows the creation of a knowledge database by using learning techniques, useful to infer abnormal behaviour. In this paper we present a wireless body area network architecture to recognize human movement, identify human postures and detect harmful activities in order to prevent risk situations. The WBAN was created using tiny, cheap and low-power nodes with inertial and physiological sensors, strategically placed on the human body. Doing so, in an as ubiquitous as possible way, ensures that its impact on the users' daily actions is minimum. The information collected by these sensors is transmitted to a central server capable of analysing and processing their data. The proposed system creates movement profiles based on the data sent by the WBAN's nodes, and is able to detect in real time any abnormal movement and allows for a monitored rehabilitation of the user. PMID:23112726

  8. A/M Area Vadose Zone Monitoring Plan (U)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Characterization and monitoring data from implementation and the first two and one half years of vadose zone remediation operations indicate that this activity has substantially improved the performance of the A/M Area Groundwater Corrective Action Program. During this period, vadose zone remediation removed approximately 225, 000 lbs (100,000 Kg) of chlorinated solvents (CVOCs) from the subsurface. Further, vadose zone remediation system operation increased the overall CVOC removal rate of the A/M Area Groundwater Corrective Action by 300% to 500% during this period versus the groundwater pump and treat system along. Various support activities have been performed to support operation and documentation of performance of the vadose zone remediation system. These activities address performance of existing systems (contaminant distributions, zone of influence, and process monitoring data), evaluation of suspect sources, evaluation of alternative/enhancement technologies, and initial development of remediation goals. In particular, the most recent A/M vadose zone remediation support activities (described in WSRC-RP-97-109) were completed and the results provide key documentation about system performance

  9. Survey monitoring of environmental radioactivity in Chuncheon area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Moon Hoe.; Hwang, Sang Gyu [Chuncheon Regional Radioactivity Monitoring Station, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-12-15

    Gross beta radioactivities in airborne dust, fallout, precipitation and tap water, and gamma exposure rates have been monitored periodically in 2003 at Chunchon Regional Radioactivity Monitoring Station. The concentrations of radioactive nuclide of {sup 7}Be and {sup 137} Cs on airborne dust, and {sup 7}Be, {sup 40}K and {sup 137}Cs on fallout, precipitation have been analyzed monthly. The {sup 7}Be, {sup 40}K, {sup 137}Cs etc. concentrations in the 22 foodstuffs(peanut, chestnut, walnut, pine nut acorn, oak mushroom, western mushroom, winter mushroom, oyster mushroom, coffee, green tea, ginseng tea, soils, cereals, vegetable, indicator plant) and 10 tap water sampled in Youngseo area of Kangwon-do have also been measured. No significant changes from the previous years have been found in gross beta radioactivities in environmental samples and gamma exposure rates. The concentrations of {sup 7}Be, {sup 40}K, and {sup 137}Cs nuclide in the foodstuffs sampled in Youngseo area are less(or slightly higher in some cases) than the MDA values, except {sup 40}K nuclide. All the concentrations of {sup 137}Cs nuclides in the water are less than the MDA values.

  10. Whole-body monitor, hand-feet monitor, gaseous effluent, area monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The following gaseous (iodine, noble gases and aerosols) effluents monitoring equipment developed by INVAP may be installed in any nuclear facility with a ventilation system that expels air through a chimney. Should the facility fail to have such a ventilation system - hence the extraction chimney - INVAP can offer an alternative system: a portable gaseous-effluent measuring equipment which can be installed, for example, in the hall of the reactor. Basically, the system consists of forcing, by means of an aspiration pump, a known and fixed air flow fraction from the chimney (or the hall) and to retain the aerosols continuously in a glass microfiber filter. Aerosols are thus measured according to a specially-designed geometry which confronts the filter with the plastic scintillator. The gas thus obtained is free from aerosols. It then passes through a carbon-activated filter which retains iodine. This filter has a coaxial geometry, lodging inside an INa (Tl) gamma radiation-sensitive scintillator. Both scintillators are optically coupled to their respective photomultipliers. Their pulses are processed with a load preamplifier and a discriminating amplifier in order to store them in counters to be periodically read by the intelligent controller. Actual monitoring will be carried out by means of independent measuring channels for iodine and aerosols, with each channel featuring remote reading and alarms (for instance, at the Control Room). Data thus acquired will be processed by an intelligent controller (INVAP Mod. SAPP-09) which will perform the following functions: - Calculation and unit conversion in order to inform in a TRC total and incremental activity released by the installation during a pre-set period established by the operator. - Calculation, including statistical errors, to determine whether incremental alarm values and pre-set totals are adequate or whether they have been exceeded, providing the results. - Process-control operations (counting failure

  11. Study on the angular dependence of personal exposure dosimeter - Focus on thermoluminescent dosimeter and photoluminescent dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation management departments place more emphasis on the accuracy of measurements than on the increase in the average dose and personal exposure dose from the use of radiation equipment and radioactive isotopes. Although current measurements are taken using devices, such as film badge dosimeters, pocket dosimeters and thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs), this study compared the angular dependence between the widely used TLDs and photoluminescent dosimeter (PLDs) in order to present primary data and evaluate the utility of PLD as a new dosimeter device. For X-ray fluoroscopy, a whole body phantom was placed on a table with a setting for the G-I technical factors fixed at a range of approximately 40 cm with a range of ±90o at an interval scale of 15o from the center location of an average radiological worker for PLDs (GD-450) and TLDs (Carot). This process was repeated 10 times, and at each time, the cumulative dosage was interpreted from 130 dosimeters using TLDs (UD-710R, Panasonic) and PLDs (FGD-650). The TLD and PLD showed a 52% and 23% decrease in the depth dosage from 0o to -90o, respectively. Therefore, PLDs have a lower angular dependence than TLDs.

  12. Study on the angular dependence of personal exposure dosimeter - Focus on thermoluminescent dosimeter and photoluminescent dosimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Kyung-Rae [Department of Radiological Technology, Gwangju Health College University (Korea, Republic of); Department of Nuclear Engineering, Chosun University (Korea, Republic of); Kweon, Dae Cheol [Department of Radiologic Science, Shin Heung College University (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Woon-Kwan, E-mail: wkchung@chosun.ac.kr [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Chosun University (Korea, Republic of); Goo, Eun-Hoe [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital (Korea, Republic of); Department of Physics, Soonchunhyang University (Korea, Republic of); Dieter, Kevin [Department of Physical Therapy, Gwangju Health College University (Korea, Republic of); Choe, Chong-Hwan [Department of White Memorial Medical Center (United States)

    2011-02-15

    Radiation management departments place more emphasis on the accuracy of measurements than on the increase in the average dose and personal exposure dose from the use of radiation equipment and radioactive isotopes. Although current measurements are taken using devices, such as film badge dosimeters, pocket dosimeters and thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs), this study compared the angular dependence between the widely used TLDs and photoluminescent dosimeter (PLDs) in order to present primary data and evaluate the utility of PLD as a new dosimeter device. For X-ray fluoroscopy, a whole body phantom was placed on a table with a setting for the G-I technical factors fixed at a range of approximately 40 cm with a range of {+-}90{sup o} at an interval scale of 15{sup o} from the center location of an average radiological worker for PLDs (GD-450) and TLDs (Carot). This process was repeated 10 times, and at each time, the cumulative dosage was interpreted from 130 dosimeters using TLDs (UD-710R, Panasonic) and PLDs (FGD-650). The TLD and PLD showed a 52% and 23% decrease in the depth dosage from 0{sup o} to -90{sup o}, respectively. Therefore, PLDs have a lower angular dependence than TLDs.

  13. Offsite environmental monitoring report. Radiation monitoring around United States nuclear test areas, calendar year 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report covers the routine radiation monitoring activities conducted by the Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory-Las Vegas in areas which may be affected by nuclear testing programs of the Department of Energy. This monitoring is conducted to document compliance with standards, to identify trends in environmental radiation, and to provide such information to the public. It summarizes these activities for calendar year 1983. No radioactivity attributable to NTS activities was detectable offsite by the monitoring networks. Using recorded wind data and Pasquill stability categories, atmospheric dispersion calculations based on reported radionuclide releases yield an estimated dose of 5 x 10-5 man-rem to the population within 80 km of the Nevada Test Site during 1983. World-wide fallout of Kr-85, Sr-90, Cs-137, and Pu-239 detected by the monitoring networks would cause maximum exposure to an individual of less than 0.2 mrem per year. Plutonium and krypton in air were similar to 1982 levels while cesium and strontium in other samples were near the detection limits. An occasional net exposure to offsite residents has been detected by the TLD network. On investigation, the cause of such net exposures has been due to personal habits or occupational activities, not to NTS activities. 29 references, 35 figures, 30 tables

  14. An improved HarshawTLDTM extremity dosimeter - DXTRAD beta ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An improved HarshawTLDTM extremity dosimeter system that is rugged in design and easy to wear is presented. This dosimeter is improved from the earlier version (2008) for personnel beta monitoring while still having full range photon performance. The dosimeter style, referred to as DXTRAD, is small in size and has identification by means of a circular barcode. It consists of a detector composed of a thin 7 mg cm-2 monolayer of HarshawTLD-700H (7LiF:Mg,Cu,P) powder and a ring cap with a 3.3 mg cm-2 entrance window. The use of the TLD-700H TLD material provides a good beta energy response as well as a flat energy response from low energy x-rays to high energy gamma rays. A new assembly tool that improves the consistency of dosimeter geometry and ruggedness for warm and cold sterilization is also developed. With the optimized design, this dosimeter is capable of meeting the stringent energy and angular response requirements of the Physikalisch Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) for both betas and photons. Presented in this paper are the ISO-12974 and PTB type tests as well as additional operational tests, such as residue, reuse, warm and cold sterilization, and environmental leakage.

  15. Design, construction and characterization of a dosimeter for neutron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An individual dosimeter for neutron-gamma mixed field dosimetry was design and developed aiming monitoring the increasing number of workers potentially exposed to neutrons. The proposed dosimeter was characterized to an Americium-Beryllium source spectrum and dose range of radiation protection interest (up to 20 mSv). Thermoluminescent albedo dosimetry and nuclear tracks dosimetry, traditional techniques found in the international literature, with materials of low cost and national production, were used. A commercial polycarbonate, named SS-1, was characterized for solid state tack detector application. The chemical etching parameters and the methodology of detectors evaluation were determined. The response of TLD-600, TLD-700 and SS-1 were studied and algorithms for dose calculation of neutron and gamma radiation of Americium- Beryllium sources were proposed. The ratio between thermal, albedo and fast neutrons responses, allows analyzing the spectrum to which the dosimeter was submitted and correcting the track detector response to variations in the radiation incidence angle. The new dosimeter is fully characterized, having sufficient performance to be applied as neutron dosimeter in Brazil. (author)

  16. Energy technology monitoring - New areas and in-depth investigations; Technologie-Monitoring - Weitere Bereiche - Vertiefungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rigassi, R.; Eicher, H. [Dr. Eicher und Pauli AG, Liestal (Switzerland); Steiner, P.; Ott, W. [Econcept AG, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2005-07-01

    This comprehensive report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a project that examined long-term trends in the energy technology area in order to provide information that is to form the basis for political action and the distribution of energy research funding in Switzerland. Energy-technology areas examined include variable-speed electrical drives, ventilation systems for low-energy-consumption buildings, membrane technology and the use of plastics in lightweight automobiles. Examples are quoted and the current state of the appropriate technologies and market aspects are examined. Also, the potential and future developments in the areas listed are looked at. The consequences for energy policy and future developments in the technology-monitoring area are considered.

  17. Electronic dosimeter characteristics and new developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electronic dosimeters are very much more versatile than existing passive dosimeters such as TLDs and film badges which have previously been the only type of dosimeters approved by national authorities for the legal measurement of doses to occupationally exposed workers. Requirements for the specifications and testing of electronic dosimeters are given in the standards produced by the International Electrotechnical Commission Working Group IEC SC45B/B8. A description is given of these standards and the use of electronic dosimeters as legal dosimeters is discussed. (author)

  18. Use of an electronic personal dosimeter for determination of the dose received by radiotherapy patients in areas off the central ionizing radiation beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiotherapy patients receive a significant dose outside the irradiated area. In this work, such irradiated areas were represented by the prostate, head and neck. It was found that when irradiating the head or neck, the dose received by the chest is about 2 - 6 times higher than when irradiating the prostate. The relative inter-patient dispersion variance, however, is similar (about 9 - 14 %). (orig.)

  19. Brachytherapy dosimeter with silicon photomultipliers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moutinho, L.M., E-mail: moutinho@ua.pt [i3N, Physics Department, University of Aveiro (Portugal); Castro, I.F.C. [i3N, Physics Department, University of Aveiro (Portugal); Peralta, L. [Faculdade de Ciências da Universidade de Lisboa (Portugal); Laboratório de Instrumentação e Física Experimental de Partículas (LIP), Lisboa (Portugal); Abreu, M.C. [Laboratório de Instrumentação e Física Experimental de Partículas (LIP), Lisboa (Portugal); Veloso, J.F.C.A. [i3N, Physics Department, University of Aveiro (Portugal)

    2015-07-01

    In-vivo and in-situ measurement of the radiation dose administered during brachytherapy faces several technical challenges, requiring a very compact, tissue-equivalent, linear and highly sensitive dosimeter, particularly in low-dose rate brachytherapy procedures, which use radioactive seeds with low energy and low dose deposition rate. In this work we present a scintillating optical fiber dosimeter composed of a flexible sensitive probe and a dedicated electronic readout system based on silicon photomultiplier photodetection, capable of operating both in pulse and current modes. The performance of the scintillating fiber optic dosimeter was evaluated in low energy regimes, using an X-ray tube operating at voltages of 40–50 kV and currents below 1 mA, to assess minimum dose response of the scintillating fiber. The dosimeter shows a linear response with dose and is capable of detecting mGy dose variations like an ionization chamber. Besides fulfilling all the requirements for a dosimeter in brachytherapy, the high sensitivity of this device makes it a suitable candidate for application in low-dose rate brachytherapy. According to Peralta and Rego [1], the BCF-10 and BCF-60 scintillating optical fibers used in dosimetry exhibit high variations in their sensitivity for photon beams in the 25–100 kVp energy range. Energy linearity for energies below 50 keV needs to be further investigated, using monochromatic X-ray photons.

  20. Brachytherapy dosimeter with silicon photomultipliers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moutinho, L. M.; Castro, I. F. C.; Peralta, L.; Abreu, M. C.; Veloso, J. F. C. A.

    2015-07-01

    In-vivo and in-situ measurement of the radiation dose administered during brachytherapy faces several technical challenges, requiring a very compact, tissue-equivalent, linear and highly sensitive dosimeter, particularly in low-dose rate brachytherapy procedures, which use radioactive seeds with low energy and low dose deposition rate. In this work we present a scintillating optical fiber dosimeter composed of a flexible sensitive probe and a dedicated electronic readout system based on silicon photomultiplier photodetection, capable of operating both in pulse and current modes. The performance of the scintillating fiber optic dosimeter was evaluated in low energy regimes, using an X-ray tube operating at voltages of 40-50 kV and currents below 1 mA, to assess minimum dose response of the scintillating fiber. The dosimeter shows a linear response with dose and is capable of detecting mGy dose variations like an ionization chamber. Besides fulfilling all the requirements for a dosimeter in brachytherapy, the high sensitivity of this device makes it a suitable candidate for application in low-dose rate brachytherapy. According to Peralta and Rego [1], the BCF-10 and BCF-60 scintillating optical fibers used in dosimetry exhibit high variations in their sensitivity for photon beams in the 25-100 kVp energy range. Energy linearity for energies below 50 keV needs to be further investigated, using monochromatic X-ray photons.

  1. Monitoring for global change in Alaska research natural areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The prospect of a significant shift in climatic equilibria and changes in atmospheric composition raises concerns about the potential decline of important natural resources and threats to the survival of the complete range of natural diversity. Three elements are needed in any program with a focus on such concerns: (1) a network of sites containing examples of all or most of the diversity; (2) testable hypotheses of mechanisms by which global change effects will occur in real ecosystems; and (3) a monitoring program robust enough to detect the changes at the sites. With such a program, hypotheses of global change effects can be accepted, rejected, or modified. The Alaska Research Natural Area (RNA) network has been selected to encompass natural diversity. It contains sites and some modest data sets that offer insights into possible effects and outcomes of global warming. Geothermally heated soils at Clear Creek Hot Springs and Big Windy Hot Springs RNAs offer a possible model of forest growth under a warmer climate. On the other hand, a warmer climate may allow greater winter survival of forest insects and increase in forest mortality, similar to that which killed 19% of the trees in a forest reference monitoring plot in 1989 in a mature white spruce stand in the Bonanza Creek Long-Term Ecological Research site. Even if global warming proves to be modest, the program of selecting and monitoring natural diversity according to global change hypotheses is justified because it will contribute greatly to an improved understanding of functioning and linkages among earth systems and because widespread, human-caused reductions in biological diversity have already occurred and are accelerating

  2. Use of local area networks in radioisotopic monitoring systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the spring of 1988, Canberra's Nuclear Data Systems Division introduced a device that performed the basic data acquisition functions of a multichannel analyzer (MCA) but was interfaced to an Institute of electrical and Electronics Engineers standard 802.2/802.3 Ethernet local area network1,2 (LAN). The device, known as the 556 acquisition interface module (AIM), includes 64K channels of spectral memory and can handle two analog-to-digital converter (ADC) modules running an aggregate acquisition rate of up to 1 MHz. The AIM can transfer data and accept commands over the 10M bit/s LAN, making it suitable for real-time applications. Subsequent advancements in software and hardware display technology have expanded the capabilities of spectroscopy analysis systems by providing remote real-time spectral displays. The paper presents a system architecture review and discusses applicability for radiation monitoring

  3. Long term continuous radon monitoring in a seismically active area

    CERN Document Server

    Piersanti, A; Galli, G

    2015-01-01

    We present the results of a long term, continuous radon monitoring experiment started in April 2010 in a seismically active area, affected during the 2010-2013 data acquisition time window by an intense micro seismic activity and by several small seismic events. We employed both correlation and cross-correlation analyses in order to investigate possible relationship existing between the collected radon data, seismic events and meteorological parameters. Our results do not support the feasibility of a robust one-to-one association between the small magnitude earthquakes characterizing the local seismic activity and single radon measurement anomalies, but evidence significant correlation patterns between the spatio-temporal variations of seismic moment release and soil radon emanations, the latter being anyway dominantly modulated by meteorological parameters variations.

  4. Survey monitoring of environmental radioactivity in Gangneung area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae Hwa; An, Mi Jung [Gangnung Regional Radiation Monitoring Station, Gangneung (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-12-15

    The objectives of the project are to get a systematic data for the distribution of environmental radioactivity levels in Gangnung provinces, and use them as a baseline data for the health of the peoples. To monitor the environmental radiation/radioactivity, gross beta activities and gamma exposure rate in the airborne-dust, fallout, precipitation and tap water were measured in Gangnung province during the period of January 1 - December 31, 2003. Waters from drinking water reservoirs, agricultural and marine products were sampled and measured by the HPGe(High Purity Ge)detector for the analysis from some selected areas to make sure of the effect of the fallout due to the atmospheric weapons test. The radioactivity in Kangnung was all about the past data.

  5. F-Area Acid/Caustic Basin Groundwater Monitoring Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During fourth quarter 1993, samples from the six FAC monitoring wells at the F-Area Acid/Caustic Basin were collected and analyzed for indicator parameters, groundwater quality parameters, parameters indicating suitability as drinking water, and other constituents. One of the FAC piezometers was scheduled for these analyses but was dry. Analytical results that exceeded the final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or the Savannah River Site (SRS) flagging criteria or turbidity standard during the quarter are the focus of this report. Gross alpha exceeded the final PDWS in two wells. Aluminum exceeded its Flag 2 criterion in five wells. Iron exceeded standards in four wells, manganese exceeded standards in two wells, and total organic halogens exceeded standards in one well. Turbidity exceeded the SRS standard in well FAC 3

  6. Long term continuous radon monitoring in a seismically active area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Piersanti

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We present the results of a long term, continuous radon monitoring experiment started in April 2010 in a seismically active area, affected during the 2010-2013 data acquisition time window by an intense micro seismic activity and by several small seismic events. We employed both correlation and cross-correlation analyses in order to investigate possible relationship existing between the collected radon data, seismic events and meteorological parameters. Our results do not support the feasibility of a robust one-to-one association between the small magnitude earthquakes characterizing the local seismic activity and single radon measurement anomalies, but evidence significant correlation patterns between the spatio-temporal variations of seismic moment release and soil radon emanations, the latter being anyway dominantly modulated by meteorological parameters variations.

  7. Neutron radiation area monitoring system for proton therapy facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A neutron radiation area monitoring system has been developed for proton accelerator facilities dedicated to cancer therapy. The system comprises commercial measurement equipment, computer hardware and a suite of software applications that were developed specifically for use in a medical accelerator environment. The system is designed to record and display the neutron dose-equivalent readings from 16 to 24 locations (depending on the size of the proton therapy centre) throughout the facility. Additional software applications provide for convenient data analysis, plotting, radiation protection reporting, and system maintenance and administration tasks. The system performs with a mean time between failures of >6 months. Required data storage capabilities and application execution times are met with inexpensive off-the-shelf computer hardware. (authors)

  8. Reproducibility Experiment of OSL and TL Dosimeter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>Reproducibility is an important property of personal dosimeter. It not only can indicate the stability of dosimeter, appraise the precision and accuracy of measured value, but also can evaluate the

  9. Performance evaluation of lithium formate dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lithium formate dosimeter system is being developed for the dose range 50-1250 Gy. The performance of this dosimeter for use in radiation processing dosimetry was investigated by carrying out dose mapping in product box of Food Package Irradiator and comparing the doses measured by the system with that of Fricke dosimeters placed at identical positions in the product box. It is clear that the maximum difference between the dose values measured by Fricke and lithium formate dosimeters for identical dosimeter position was found to be ± 8 %. As the maximum difference between the dose values measured by lithium formate dosimeters and Fricke dosimeters for identical dosimeter position is within ± 10% (1σ), this dosimetry system qualifies for radiation processing dosimetry as per the limits specified by International Dose Assurance Services of IAEA

  10. Mexican gems as thermoluminescent dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possibility of using naturally ocurring mexican gems as thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD) was investigated. Twelve types of gems were irradiated with X and gamma rays in order to determinate their dosimetric properties. Three of these gems showed favorable thermoluminescent characteristics compared with commercial thermoluminescent dosimeters. The plots of their thermoluminescent response as a function of gamma dose are straight lines on full log paper in the dose range 10-2 to 102 Gy. The energy dependence is very strong to low energies of the radiation. Their fading was found to be about 5%/yr. and they may be annealed as reused without loss in sensitivity. Therefore, these gems can be used as X and gamma radiation dosimeters. (author)

  11. Neutron dosimeter utilizing CR-39

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A personnel neutron dosimeter has been developed with discretization in a wide range of energies of real interest, utilizing the CR-39 polymer, to detect recoil protons in the fast range, and alpha particles in the thermal and epithermal ranges, with possibility to be disposed in the IRD/CNEN's conventional film badge suport. They are presented, abstractly, the difficulties and importance of the neutron dosimetry, beyond the general objectives that motivated this work execution. The details of the materials utilized in the dosimeter confection, and the experimental methodology employed to obtain the performance curves are presented. The results about linearity response of the dosimeter with respect to equivalent dose, in a wide range of doses, and about the verified angular dependence are analysed. (author)

  12. Development of personal dose monitoring system using wireless data transmission device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation workers working in radiation controlled area in nuclear power plants etc., are required to carry a dosimeters by regulation law. The workers are controlled daily on personal exposure dose by reading out the exposure dose information of the dosimeters with an area access control gate installed at the entrance of the radiation controlled area. This type of personal dose monitoring system has a problem that each worker can get his personal dose data only at the entrance of the radiation controlled area several times a day. We developed a system to get the real-time acquisition of personal dose data especially for workers working in a high dose area. This system is generally composed of a dosimeter with a wireless attachment, relay station, and monitor. Some relay stations set in main work places in the radiation controlled area can collect real-time personal dose data of each dosimeter carried by workers at the work place with the relay stations, and transmit it to the monitor to get personal dose data of individual workers. A wireless communication system between dosimeters and relay stations is applied to collect efficiently all personal dose data in the work place. (author)

  13. Experiences with electronic personal dosimeters at Dukovany Nuclear Power Plant-Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Dukovany Nuclear Power Plant operates four WWER-440 type reactors. Unit 1 has been operating since 1985, Unit 2 and Unit 3 since 1986, Unit 4 was connected to the grid in 1987. At Dukovany NPP occupational dosimetry is performed by approved Personal Dosimetry Service. The basic facilities for measuring external exposure are film badge (legal dosimeter), electronic personal dosimeter (EPD) and radio-photoluminescent dosimeter (RPL) as operational dosimeter, TLD for measuring doses to the extremities and TLD albedo dosimeter as neutron dosimeter. The presentation is based on the experiences with electronic personal dosimeters gathered at Dukovany NPP for the last three years. Electronic Personal Dosimetry System (EPDS) was developing by Czech company VF, a.s. and from 2002 year is also used at Temelin NPP (Czech Republic), SE VYZ Bohunice (Slovakia) and SE Mochovce NPP (Slovakia) as well. EPDS is designed for Merlin Gerin, Siemens and RADOS electronic dosimeters. Application SW for data analysis is used for daily monitoring of personal doses and for evaluation of collective doses during outages. System gives information about collective doses on devices and collective doses for select work tasks during outages. In addition EPDS allows the calculation of dose indexes ID. (ID is the ratio of the relevant collective dose and the number of equivalent working hours). This information is applicable for planning doses on special working activities for next outages and allows a detection radiation sources also

  14. OFF-SITE ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING REPORT: RADIATION MONITORING AROUND UNITED STATES NUCLEAR TEST AREAS, CALENDAR YEAR 1987

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report covers the routine radiation monitoring activities conducted by the Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory-Las Vegas in areas which may be affected by nuclear testing programs of the Department of Energy. This monitoring is conducted to document compliance with s...

  15. OFF-SITE ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING REPORT: RADIATION MONITORING AROUND UNITED STATES NUCLEAR TEST AREAS, CALENDAR YEAR 1984

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report covers the routine radiation monitoring activities conducted by the Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory-Las Vegas in areas which may be affected by nuclear testing programs of the Department of Energy. This monitoring is conducted to document compliance with s...

  16. A fast responding continuous tritium-in-air monitor with multi stream sampling for area monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A fast responding Tritium-in-Air monitor with multi stream sampling up to a maximum of 8 lines has been developed and field tested for continuous area monitoring in Pressurised Heavy Water Reactors (PHWR) and other tritium handling facilities. The instrument has built in electronic compensation for external gamma and gaseous radionuclide 133Xe (FPNG). The monitor is based on plastic scintillator detector prepared from 5μm thick scintillator film of surface area (each side) of about 250 cm2. Four such films of each weighing 150 mg are packed in a flow cell of 6.3 cm3 volume, made of stainless steel body and Teflon window. The flow cell is coupled face to face to a matched pair of photomultipliers. Measurement is made in coincidence mode of counting. The complete monitor consists of electronic counting system, the detector probe assembly, a diaphragm type of air sampling pump, a particulate filter trap and a rotometer for controlling the air flow rate. For multi stream sampling an external solenoid driver cum isolation unit has been integrated with the system. The efficiency for Tritium vapour for direct passage of sample air through the detector is ∼22%. The instrument records 0.2 cps under normal gamma background of 0.1 - 0.2 μSv/hr, without shielding. With the detector fully shielded (∼ 10 cm thick lead), the instrument does not register significant increase in the background counts with 200 μSv/hr ambient gamma field. Under conditions of gaseous radionuclide interference such as 133Xe (26 MBq/m3 concentrations) the MDA rises to ∼1 DAC for a counting time of 300 s. The MDA under ideal conditions is found to be 0.2 DAC for Tritium vapour. The sensitivity of the system is 0.4 CPS per DAC. The instrument response time is 10 minutes. (author)

  17. Recent developments on electronic dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potential replacements of the aging Film and TLD by passive and active electronic dosimetry systems are emerging. Such devises offer, at equally high dosimetric performance, additional features, such as direct readout and dose rate warnings. Today, a large number of electronic dosimeters is commercially available, but only very few comply with international standards and national requirements. Nevertheless, the first electronic dosimetry systems for photon and beta radiation have recently been approved for legal dosimetry. In neutron dosimetry, research projects on electronic dosimeters are still going on and some devices are already commercially available. (author)

  18. 1997 Comprehensive TNX Area Annual Groundwater and Effectiveness Monitoring Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shallow groundwater beneath the TNX Area at the Savannah River Site (SRS) has been contaminated with chlorinated volatile organic compounds (CVOCs) such as trichloroethylene (TCE) and carbon tetrachloride. In November 1994, an Interim Record of Decision (IROD) was agreed to and signed by the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the South Carolina Department of Health ampersand Environmental Control (SCDHEC). The Interim Record of Decision requires the installation of a hybrid groundwater corrective action (HGCA) to stabilize the plume of groundwater contamination and remove CVOCs dissolved in the groundwater. The hybrid groundwater corrective action included a recovery well network, purge water management facility, air stripper, and an airlift recirculation well. The recirculation well was dropped pursuant to a test that indicated it to be ineffective at the TNX Area. Consequently, the groundwater corrective action was changed from a hybrid to a single action, pump-and-treat approach. The Interim Action (IA) T-1 air stripper system began operation on September 16, 1996. a comprehensive groundwater monitoring program was initiated to measure the effectiveness of the system. As of December 31, 1997, the system has treated 32 million gallons of contaminated groundwater removed 32 pounds of TCE. The recovery well network created a 'capture zone' that stabilized the plume of contaminated groundwater

  19. 1997 Comprehensive TNX Area Annual Groundwater and Effectiveness Monitoring Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chase, J.

    1998-04-01

    Shallow groundwater beneath the TNX Area at the Savannah River Site (SRS) has been contaminated with chlorinated volatile organic compounds (CVOCs) such as trichloroethylene (TCE) and carbon tetrachloride. In November 1994, an Interim Record of Decision (IROD) was agreed to and signed by the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the South Carolina Department of Health {ampersand} Environmental Control (SCDHEC). The Interim Record of Decision requires the installation of a hybrid groundwater corrective action (HGCA) to stabilize the plume of groundwater contamination and remove CVOCs dissolved in the groundwater. The hybrid groundwater corrective action included a recovery well network, purge water management facility, air stripper, and an airlift recirculation well. The recirculation well was dropped pursuant to a test that indicated it to be ineffective at the TNX Area. Consequently, the groundwater corrective action was changed from a hybrid to a single action, pump-and-treat approach. The Interim Action (IA) T-1 air stripper system began operation on September 16, 1996. a comprehensive groundwater monitoring program was initiated to measure the effectiveness of the system. As of December 31, 1997, the system has treated 32 million gallons of contaminated groundwater removed 32 pounds of TCE. The recovery well network created a `capture zone` that stabilized the plume of contaminated groundwater.

  20. Monitoring of occupationally exposed workers in a PET-centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A PET-Centre is jointly run with the technical university Dresden (TUD) at the research location Rossendorf. The deployed, short-lived positron emitters are also produced on the location. Apart from the medical applications extensive research projects take place. Workers in this area are occupationally exposed. About 35 persons which are directly involved in the production, processing and application of the radioactive substances, are monitored by official film dosimeters organised by the department of radiation protection-person / Incorporation Surveillance Station. In addition to the workers from the research centre, those operating in the PET-centre of the TUD are routinely monitored by means of operational, self-reading dosimeters, partial-body dosimeters (hands) and incorporation surveillance. The corresponding working areas require well adapted monitoring methods. While direct radiation is the main contributor to the exposure during the production process in the PET-Cyclotron (film dosimeter values), the main attention during the processing and application has to be focussed on partial-body exposure. Investigations on the local distribution of exposure confirmed a conversion factor 2 between dosimeter location and site of greatest exposure as derived in former in previous investigations. Continued repeated operations can cause exposures close to the dose limit of 500 mSv for the hands. According to experiences up to now, incorporations (determined both by random measurements and measurements after interventions, semi-annually at the accelerator) will cause negligible contributions to the exposure in the routine operation. (orig.)

  1. Development of a high range TLD dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ICN Dosimetry Service has had many requests over the past few years for a dosimeter that would measure radiation dose in the kGy range. These requests came from customers who wanted both an economical and timely product; including 24 hour turnaround for both receipt of the monitor after request, and analysis of the results upon return to ICN. The size of the product was also very important to most users, in that many are researchers, interested in the dose delivered from a 1 cm2 beam for example. In response to this ICN has developed the High Range Dosimeter presented here. To best respond to all of the customer's needs, we developed the product around materials and equipment we already had on site. This optimized the turnaround time, by making it part of our routine processing, and also reduced costs by not having to invest in new equipment and basic research. Additionally the TLD chips in our inventory were of reasonable size, 2 mm2, and available in various configurations

  2. F-Area Seepage Basins groundwater monitoring report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This progress report from the Savannah River Plant for second quarter 1992 includes discussion on the following topics: description of facilities; hydrostratigraphic units; monitoring well nomenclature; integrity of the monitoring well network; groundwater monitoring data; analytical results exceeding standards; tritium, nitrate, and pH time-trend data; water levels; groundwater flow rates and directions; upgradient versus downgradient results

  3. F-Area Seepage Basins groundwater monitoring report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This progress report from the Savannah River Plant for first quarter 1992 includes discussion on the following topics: description of facilities; hydrostratigraphic units; monitoring well nomenclature; integrity of the monitoring well network; groundwater monitoring data; analytical results exceeding standards; tritium, nitrate, and pH time-trend data; water levels; groundwater flow rates and directions; upgradient versus downgradient results

  4. F-Area Seepage Basins groundwater monitoring report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During fourth quarter 1992, the groundwater at the F-Area Seepage Basins (FASB) was monitored in compliance with South Carolina Hazardous Waste Management Regulations, R61-79.265, Subpart F. Eighty-five wells provided samples from the three hydrostratigraphic units that make up the uppermost aquifer beneath the FASB. A detailed description of the uppermost aquifer is included in the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Part B Post-Closure Care Permit Application for the F-Area Hazardous Waste Management Facility submitted to the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control in December 1990. Historically, as well as currently, tritium, nitrate, gross alpha, total alpha-emitting radium, cadmium, and lead are the primary constituents observed above final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) in groundwater at the FASB. Nonvolatile beta has consistently exceeded its drinking water screening level. Other radionuclides and hazardous constituents also have exceeded the final PDWS in the groundwater at the FASB. The elevated constituents are found primarily in Aquifer Zone IIB2 (Water Table) and Aquifer Zone IIB1, (Barnwell/McBean) wells. However, several Aquifer Unit IIA (Congaree) wells also contain elevated levels of constituents, primarily tritium. Isoconcentration/isoactivity maps included in this report indicate both the concentration/ activity and extent of the primary contaminants in each of the three hydrostratigraphic units for first and fourth quarters 1992. Water-level maps indicate that the groundwater flow rates and directions at the FASB have remained relatively constant since the basins ceased to be active in 1988

  5. Quality in Public Spaces: Monitoring Green Areas in Milan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzzetti, F.; Pasquinelli, A.; Privitera, A.

    2013-05-01

    The city of Milan gained a lot of experience in management and conservation of urban green spaces: the set goal is to come to a high quality standard of the green areas, to be realized not only downtown, but all over the city. All the activities related to this issue has been outsourced to a specific Consortium through three-yearly contracts based on a Global Service model and the management structure implemented since 2004 has been set up on GIS technologies and open source applications: this structure has evolved over the years following an increasingly integration of the different operative phases and paying close attention to the update of the geographical data. With the contribution of the academic world and the support of technical experts in webGIS applications field, Milan today can count on a management system in which cartographical aspects are perfectly integrated with maintenance activities executed by operators on site and check inspections carried out by municipal controllers, ensuring a high level of the geo-database updating. The focus now is on the arrangement of a performance monitoring system, aimed to control the achievement of the quality standard fixed by contract with the Consortium. In the research here introduced we want to describe how the unification of the workflows - related to the upkeep schedules on the one hand and to the control activities on the other hand- together with the use of GPS technologies contributed in improving efficiency in practical intervention in case of warnings sent by controllers, in daily works and data update, producing as a consequence an enhancement of the maintenance service provided. In this way the "Green GIS" can now be used for further qualitative upgrade in management of green areas in Milan, with new challenges related to the concept of "smart city".

  6. Multiple-Purpose Personal Dosimeter Suitable for Dosimetry of High Accidental Exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper describes the personal dosimeter designed by the Commissariat à l'énergie atomique to permit evaluation of the doses received by workers liable to high accidental exposures. It consists of a film dosimeter plus a glass, threshold and activation detector pack. The film dosimeter consists of a case fitted with screens demarcating seven different areas of the film. The latter, which provides density measurements by reflection, consists of three emulsions of different sensitivities on a common base, so that a single development covers the dose range between 20 mr and 800 r. An NTA nuclear-emulsion, fast-neution dosimeter can be added. Two glass dosimeters of different characteristics are included to permit separate evaluation of gamma and thermal neutron radiation. The unit also possesses conventional threshold and activation detectors. (author)

  7. Radio chromic dosimeter for nuclear emergency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: There is an ongoing and critical need for a dosimeter, either individually or attached to other dosimeters and especially when the threat of radiological terrorism is high which is (1) instant (2) simple and self indicating without additional reader system (3) light weight (4) inexpensive and disposable (5) withstand severe environmental conditions (6) tissue equivalent (7) cumulative dose (8) wide dose range (9) independent of dose rate and energy (10) monitoring all kinds of harmful ionizing nuclear radiations and (11) monitors wide dose range 10 cGy to 1000 cGy. Defence Laboratory, Jodhpur has initiated indigenous development of radiochromic film first time in India in 2008. The film develops a distinctive and characteristic color upon exposure to ionizing radiation. The film is tissue equivalent, dose-rate independent. It does not require calibration or maintenance, have no electronics or batteries, and are small and light. A quick visual observation of film allows anyone to assess the absorbed dose. Once an exposure is visually evident, a fully quantitative measurement to confirm the radiation dose can be performed, if required, by optically using reflectance optical densitometer. The film develops a distinctive and characteristic color upon exposure to ionizing radiation. The paper describes the preliminary experimental results of radiochromic dosimeter (under development) including dose response, dose rate response, shelf life including effects of UV and sun exposure. The radiation sensitive diacetylene monomer dispersed in a polymer matrix. The developed films are exposed at different dose and dose rates using cobalt-60 gamma source. The irradiation facility is accredited under ISO-170025. When the active monomer polymer strip is exposed to ionizing radiation, a polymerization reaction immediately produces an intensely colored dye polymer that changes the appearance of the dosimeter. The amount of dye produced is proportional to the radiation

  8. Evaluation of the Science Applications International Corporation PD-4 electronic dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The SAIC PD-4 electronic dosimeter was tested against the criteria given in ANSI N13.27 and for stability and angular response. Based on the results of the testing, the SAIC PD-4 electronic dosimeter is considered acceptable as a supplemental dosimeter for use at the Hanford Site with the following limitations. Though the dosimeter has a rate mode, it may not be used to establish worker dose rates. The dosimeter underresponds at high dose rates and may not be used in dose rate fields that exceed 600 R/h. The dosimeter also underresponds to photon energies less than 70 KeV and should not be used in areas where the external photon dose would be primarily from plutonium and its decay products. Because of the transmitter, the dosimeter has a relatively short battery life. The batteries should be replaced with fresh batteries by trained personnel each time the dosimeter is used (or once each day if used continuously). The requirement that an instrument be returned to the calibration facility for battery changes is waived for this instrument

  9. SSDL Preparation for Implementation of the Use of OSL Dosimeters in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the early 1980's, film badge has been widely used as a device of personal dose monitoring in Malaysia. Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory (SSDL), as a service center for film badge has obtained the supply of personal monitoring film from Agfa Gevaert, Belgium every year. As the uses of film badge have some weaknesses, it has prompted SSDL to find an alternative dosimeter to replace the film badge. Based on the studies that have been conducted, SSDL has selected OSL dosimeter (Optically Stimulated Luminescent Dosimeter) to replace the film badge and is expected to be fully operational by middle of 2015. This paper aims to explain the selection of OSL dosimeter and planning carried out to ensure the success of their application in Malaysia. (author)

  10. Nevada Test Site 2001 Waste Management Monitoring Report Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Y. E. Townsend

    2002-06-01

    Environmental monitoring data, subsidence monitoring data, and meteorology monitoring data were collected at and around the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) (refer to Figure 1). These monitoring data include radiation exposure, air, groundwater, meteorology, vadose zone, subsidence, and biota data. Although some of these media (radiation exposure, air, and groundwater) are reported in detail in other Bechtel Nevada (BN) reports (Annual Site Environmental Report [ASER], the National Emissions Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants [NESHAP] report, and the Annual Groundwater Monitoring Report), they are also summarized in this report to provide an overall evaluation of RWMS performance and environmental compliance. Direct radiation monitoring data indicate that exposure at and around the RWMSs is not above background levels. Air monitoring data indicate that tritium concentrations are slightly above background levels. Groundwater monitoring data indicate that the groundwater in the uppermost aquifer beneath the Area 5 RWMS has not been affected by the facility. Meteorology data indicate that 2001 was an average rainfall year: rainfall totaled 150 mm (5.9 in) at the Area 3 RWMS and 120 mm (4.7 in) at the Area 5 RWMS. Vadose zone monitoring data indicate that 2001 rainfall infiltrated less than one meter (3 ft) before being returned to the atmosphere by evaporation. Soil-gas tritium monitoring data indicate slow subsurface migration, and tritium concentrations in biota were lower than in previous years. All 2001 monitoring data indicate that the Area 3 and Area 5 RWMSs are performing within expectations of the model and parameter assumptions for the facility performance assessments.

  11. Nevada Test Site 2001 Waste Management Monitoring Report Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental monitoring data, subsidence monitoring data, and meteorology monitoring data were collected at and around the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) (refer to Figure 1). These monitoring data include radiation exposure, air, groundwater, meteorology, vadose zone, subsidence, and biota data. Although some of these media (radiation exposure, air, and groundwater) are reported in detail in other Bechtel Nevada (BN) reports (Annual Site Environmental Report[ASER], the National Emissions Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants[NESHAP] report, and the Annual Groundwater Monitoring Report), they are also summarized in this report to provide an overall evaluation of RWMS performance and environmental compliance. Direct radiation monitoring data indicate that exposure at and around the RWMSs is not above background levels. Air monitoring data indicate that tritium concentrations are slightly above background levels. Groundwater monitoring data indicate that the groundwater in the uppermost aquifer beneath the Area 5 RWMS has not been affected by the facility. Meteorology data indicate that 2001 was an average rainfall year: rainfall totaled 150 mm (5.9 in) at the Area 3 RWMS and 120 mm (4.7 in) at the Area 5 RWMS. Vadose zone monitoring data indicate that 2001 rainfall infiltrated less than one meter (3 ft) before being returned to the atmosphere by evaporation. Soil-gas tritium monitoring data indicate slow subsurface migration, and tritium concentrations in biota were lower than in previous years. All 2001 monitoring data indicate that the Area 3 and Area 5 RWMSs are performing within expectations of the model and parameter assumptions for the facility performance assessments

  12. The design and implementation of gamma radiation dosimeter based on LabVIEW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design of γ radiation dosimeter based on LabVIEW is introduced. The dosimeter uses G-M counter as the detector, and a microcontroller is used to process the γ radiation dose data. The processed data is then transferred to upper computer and an application program based on LabVIEW is designed so that the upper computer can monitor the real-time γ radiation dose. (authors)

  13. The responses of three kinds of passive dosimeters to secondary cosmic rays in the lower atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhen; Chen, Bo; Zhuo, Weihai; Fan, Dunhuang; Zhao, Chao; Zhang, Yu

    2015-12-01

    For accurate measurements of the secondary cosmic rays by using passive dosimeters, the relative responses of the thermoluminescence dosimeter (TLD), optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dosimeter, and radiophotoluminescent glass dosimeter (RPLGD) were studied. The cosmic-ray shower generator was used to simulate the secondary cosmic rays at the sea level. Monte Carlo simulations were performed to calculate the air kerma and absorbed doses in each kind of dosimeter. The results showed that compared with their responses to gamma rays of 137Cs, the relative responses of the TLD, OSL, and RPLGD were 0.786, 0.707, and 0.735 to the hard component of cosmic rays, respectively, and the values were 0.904, 0.838, and 0.857 to the soft component of cosmic rays, respectively. To verify the simulations results, an in situ measurement with the three kinds of dosimeters was performed at the same place. The results indicated that the secondary cosmic rays monitored with the three kinds of dosimeters were well consistent with each other provided their relative responses were taken into account.

  14. The responses of three kinds of passive dosimeters to secondary cosmic rays in the lower atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Zhen; Chen, Bo, E-mail: bochenfys@fudan.edu.cn; Zhuo, Weihai; Fan, Dunhuang; Zhang, Yu [Institute of Radiation Medicine, Fudan University, 2094 Xietu Road, Shanghai 200032 (China); Zhao, Chao [Shanghai Institute of Measurement and Testing Technology, 1500 Zhangheng Road, Shanghai 201203 (China)

    2015-12-15

    For accurate measurements of the secondary cosmic rays by using passive dosimeters, the relative responses of the thermoluminescence dosimeter (TLD), optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dosimeter, and radiophotoluminescent glass dosimeter (RPLGD) were studied. The cosmic-ray shower generator was used to simulate the secondary cosmic rays at the sea level. Monte Carlo simulations were performed to calculate the air kerma and absorbed doses in each kind of dosimeter. The results showed that compared with their responses to gamma rays of {sup 137}Cs, the relative responses of the TLD, OSL, and RPLGD were 0.786, 0.707, and 0.735 to the hard component of cosmic rays, respectively, and the values were 0.904, 0.838, and 0.857 to the soft component of cosmic rays, respectively. To verify the simulations results, an in situ measurement with the three kinds of dosimeters was performed at the same place. The results indicated that the secondary cosmic rays monitored with the three kinds of dosimeters were well consistent with each other provided their relative responses were taken into account.

  15. Research on Monitoring Area Division of Quality Grade Changes in County Cultivated Land and Technology of Deploying Monitoring Point

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei; WEI; Lijun; LIAO; Jianxin; YU

    2013-01-01

    It is an important means in management of improving both the quality and quantity of cultivated land to monitor grade changes in cultivated land quality. How to deploy monitoring network system and its point reasonably and roundly are the key to the technology of monitoring grade changes in cultivated land quality by monitoring grade changes in cultivated land quality dynamically in order to obtain the information to the index of cultivated land quality and its changes based on the existing achievements of farmland classification and grading. Spatial analysis method is used to demarcate monitoring area and deploy monitoring point according to ARCGIS,of which the result can meet the demand for monitoring grade changes in cultivated land.

  16. Survey monitoring of environmental radioactivity in Jeju area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U, Zang Kual; Kang, Tae Woo; Park, Won Pyo [Jeju National Univ., Jeju (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-12-15

    The project is carried out to monitor the change of environmental radioactivity in Jeju, and to provide a systematic data for radiation monitoring and counter measurement at a radiological emergency situation. Also the survey of natural environmental radioactivities in the samples was conducted to make the reliable data base for evaluation of internal exposure and environmental contamination of radiation. This report contains the data of gamma exposure rates and radioactivities of airborne dust, fallout, precipitation and tap water which were analyzed periodically by Jeju Regional Monitoring Station in 2001. Also it contains the data of natural radioactivity levels of food stuff such as agricultural and marine products, including drinking waters.

  17. Radiation sensitive polymer gel dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Radiation sensitive gels are studied for their potential to retain a permanent 3D dose distribution for applications in radiotherapy. Co-monomers dissolved in a tissue-equivalent hydrogel undergo a polymerization reaction upon absorption of ionizing radiation. The polymer formed influences the local spin-spin relaxation time (T2) of the dosimeter that can be determined using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The relationship between T2 and the absorbed dose was studied for different initial chemical compositions. The aim was to find a model linking the changes in T2 with absorbed dose to the initial composition of the dosimeter. It is believed this will help designing new gel dosimeters having desired properties to minimize the uncertainty in the determination of the dose distribution. 1H, 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and FT-Raman spectroscopy were used to quantify the amount of monomers still remaining after the absorption of a given dose of radiation. This data is used to model the changes of T2 as a function of the absorbed dose. A model of fast exchange of magnetization between three proton pools was used, where the fraction of protons (fxH ) in the xth pool is obtained from the chemical composition of the dosimeter and the apparent T2 of each pool is determined for a given composition. Initially, the protons are contained in two pools; a mobile (mob), which contains the water protons and the monomers protons, and a gelatin (gela) proton pool. The mobile pool is partially depleted as polymer is formed, the protons are transferred into the polymer (pol) pool. In the figure, the experimental data along with the calculated values are plotted for three different monomer concentrations, with the gelatin concentration fixed. The model is seen to provide a good fit to the experimental data

  18. Approving of personal dosimeter services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Swedish regulation SSI FS 98:5 requires that radiological workers of category A use dosemeters from an approved personal dosimetry service. The regulation also includes certain specific dosimeter requirements, which are based on those presented in the Technical Recommendations by the European Commission (Report EUR 14852 EN, 1994). All services have been tested for their ability to determine Hp(10) and some of them to determine Hp(0.07) at one radiation quality. The test was performed in the interval 0.2 mSv to 100 mSv at three different dose equivalents unknown to the system owner. The 11 services operating in Sweden at the moment use 5 different types of dosimeters. The five unique systems have been tested regarding the angular and energy dependence of the response of the dosimeters. The dosimeters were irradiated to a personal dose equivalent of about 1 mSv at three photon energies and at four angles (0, 20, 40 and 60 deg. resp. ) both vertically and horizontally rotated. Only 2 of the services determine Hp(0.07) for beta and gamma radiation and were tested for this quantity. The test results for Hp(10) are all except two within the trumpet curve. For the unique systems it is shown that the uncertainty related to angular response at a specified energy is within the required ±40 % except for the lowest X-ray quality at 40 kV. The response is more dependent on photon energy than on the direction of the photon radiation and the choice of radiation quality for the calibration is of great importance for the system performance

  19. Doses monitoring in radiology: calibration of air kerma-area product (PKA meters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Andrade Terini

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective The authors have sought to study the calibration of a clinical PKA meter (Diamentor E2 and a calibrator for clinical meters (PDC in the Laboratory of Ionizing Radiation Metrology at Instituto de Energia e Ambiente - Universidade de São Paulo. Materials and Methods Different qualities of both incident and transmitted beams were utilized in conditions similar to a clinical setting, analyzing the influence from the reference dosimeter, from the distance between meters, from the filtration and from the average beam energy. Calibrations were performed directly against a standard 30 cm3 cylindrical chamber or a parallel-plate monitor chamber, and indirectly against the PDC meter. Results The lowest energy dependence was observed for transmitted beams. The cross calibration between the Diamentor E2 and the PDC meters, and the PDC presented the greatest propagation of uncertainties. Conclusion The calibration coefficient of the PDC meter showed to be more stable with voltage, while the Diamentor E2 calibration coefficient was more variable. On the other hand, the PDC meter presented greater uncertainty in readings (5.0% than with the use of the monitor chamber (3.5% as a reference.

  20. Development of prototype fiber optics dosimeter for remote radiation measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Optical fiber dosimetry has been studied as an emerging method of monitoring radiation remotely in difficult to access and hazardous areas and is suitable for use in confined environments that may be inaccessible using existing dosimeters. Being light weight and non intrusive, optical fibers provide several advantages in the field of dosimetry like resistant to electromagnetic interferences. An extrinsic architecture, where the radiation-sensing component is spliced or coupled to an optical fiber, is employed in this work. A prototype single channel fiber optic based remote radiation measurement system with BaFBr:Eu sensor, which has a wide linear dose response, is developed at Radiological Safety Division, IGCAR. High sensitive BaFBr:Eu2+ storage phosphor of 10 mm dia and 4 mm thickness has been successfully synthesized using high temperature solid state diffusion route in a reducing atmosphere. Optical characteristics of the BaFBr:Eu pellet were studied by taking Photoluminescence (PL) and Photo stimulated luminescence (PSL) measurements. PL emission wavelength is measured to be 390 nm. The BaFBr:Eu is irradiated for various absorbed doses in a gamma chamber at 213 Gy/hr using 60Co standard source (BRIT make) available at RSD, IGCAR

  1. Design of the reader of dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the Real-Time Supervision System of Personal Dose, the Reader' s main function is to communicate between Dosimeter and Supervision Software in computer. The Dosimeter measure the personal dose and rate, and transmit them to the Supervision Software by Reader. The Supervision Software using Reader to set and assign dosimeter, also do the Entry/Exit control management. The brief introduction of main function and system design of the Reader are presented in the paper. (authors)

  2. Development of the exposure and access control dosimeter system for nuclear facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Si Young; Lee, B. J.; Kim, B. H.; Kim, J. S.; Lee, K. C.; Kang, B. H.; Kim, C. K.; Ham, C. S.; Kwon, K. C.; Park, W. M.; Kim, C. H.; Kim, J. T.; Koo, C. H.; Park, S. J.; Kim, T. W

    1999-12-01

    In this paper an electronic personal dosimeter(EPD) adopt in a PIN type silicon semiconductor as a radiation detector has been developed, designed and a prototype dosimeter has been manufactured. A series of performance test of this EPD on reference radiation field has been carried out. A dosimeter reader which reads the radiation dose from EPD and make a real time access control in connection with the entrance door to radiation controlled area has been developed, designed and manufactured. S/W program supporting hangul (Korean language) has been developed to operate the EPD and reader system with a personal computer. (author)

  3. Development of the exposure and access control dosimeter system for nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper an electronic personal dosimeter(EPD) adopt in a PIN type silicon semiconductor as a radiation detector has been developed, designed and a prototype dosimeter has been manufactured. A series of performance test of this EPD on reference radiation field has been carried out. A dosimeter reader which reads the radiation dose from EPD and make a real time access control in connection with the entrance door to radiation controlled area has been developed, designed and manufactured. S/W program supporting hangul (Korean language) has been developed to operate the EPD and reader system with a personal computer. (author)

  4. Z-Area Saltstone Disposal Facility groundwater monitoring report. First and second quarters 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    This report contains groundwater monitoring results from the Z-Area Saltstone Disposal Facility at the Savannah River Site. Appendix A contains the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control proposed groundwater monitoring standards and final primary drinking water standards. Appendix B contains the Savannah River Site Environmental Protection Department/Environmental Monitoring Section flagging criteria for groundwater constituents.

  5. Current approaches in the area of components monitoring and diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This communication presents a general view about some important parameters to be monitored and monitoring methods. There are discussed some aspects related to data collection and Data Base requirements. The list of appropriate monitoring methods and devices is given for pressure tubes examination, for pipes, for Stream Generator Tubes, for structures, for pumps, valves and for electrical components. The benefit on plant safety and plant life assurance is also discussed. Collection of all operating (chemical, thermal cycles, vibrations, seismic movements) and conclusions of maintenance in an Ageing Data Base should permit a correct judgment and a good comparison between predicted and real component status. By combining the requirements for components ageing monitoring with other plant inspection programs it is possible to elaborate a general plant surveillance program for safety assurance. In this way plant condition could be monitored and its status evaluated from safety and availability point of view. Based on the result of these evaluations the plant engineer could decide WHEN to repair and WHAT to repair, thus assuring continued plant safety. (authors)

  6. Monitoring and mapping leaf area index of rubber and oil palm in small watershed area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Existing conventional methods to determine LAI are tedious and time consuming for implementation in small or large areas. Thus, raster LAI data which are available free were downloaded for 4697.60 km2 of Sungai Muar watershed area in Johor. The aim of this study is to monitor and map LAI changes of rubber and oil palm throughout the years from 2002 to 2008. Raster datasets of LAI value were obtained from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) website of available years from 2002 to year 2008. These data, were mosaicked and subset utilizing ERDAS Imagine 9.2. Next, the LAI raster dataset was multiplied by a scale factor of 0.1 to derive the final LAI value. Afterwards, to determine LAI values of rubber and oil palms, the boundaries of each crop from land cover data of the years 2002, 2006 and 2008 were exploited to overlay with LAI raster dataset. A total of 5000 sample points were generated utilizing the Hawths Tool (extension in ARcGIS 9.2) within these boundaries area and utilized for extracting LAI value of oil palm and rubber. In integration, a wide range of literature review was conducted as a guideline to derive LAI value of oil palm and rubber which range from 0 to 6. The results show, an overall mean LAI value from year 2002 to 2008 as decremented from 4.12 to 2.5 due to land cover transition within these years. In 2002, the mean LAI value of rubber and oil palm is 2.65 and 2.53 respectively. Meanwhile in 2006, the mean LAI value for rubber and oil palm is 2.54 and 2.82 respectively. In 2008, the mean LAI value for both crops is 0.85 for rubber and 1.04 for oil palm. In conclusion, apart from the original function of LAI which is related to the growth and metabolism of vegetation, the changes of LAI values from year 2002 to 2008 also capable to explain the process of land cover changes in a watershed area

  7. New instruments for plant area and personnel monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gammage, R. B.; Hawthorne, A. R.; Vo-Dinh, T.; Schuresko, D. D.

    1980-01-01

    Advances in portable monitoring instruments and simple luminescence techniques for analyzing polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PNAs) are reported. A small, derivative ultra-violet absorption spectrometer is suitable for multipollutant real-time monitoring of several mono- and bicyclic aromatic vapors. A non-compound selective fluorescence spill spotter and lightpipe luminoscope are active instruments for measuring general surface and skin contamination, respectively. A small passive integrating filter paper exposure device that responds to PNA vapors such a pyrene is a very promising and recent development. Synchronous luminescence and room temperature phosphoresence are two attractive and simple to use analytical methodologies for the rapid assaying of major PNA compounds. Their potential for analyzing the cyclohexane extract of particulate matter, or incorporation into a device for the continuous monitoring of select PNAs in aerosols in near-real-time, are discussed.

  8. Survey monitoring of environmental radioactivity in Daegu area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Hee Dong; Lee, Hae Young; Yang, Chan Sun [Kyungpook National Univ., Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-12-15

    The objectives of the project are to monitor an abnormal radiation level in Taegu and Kyungpook region, and to enhance our ability to prepare for the radiological emergency situation by establishing the radioactivity monitoring system in Taegu and Kyungpook region. In this report, we summarized a gamma exposure rates, a gross beta and gamma radionuclide activities for the environmental samples of airborned-dust. precipitation, fallout and tap water collected in Taegu radioactivity monitoring center, and a gamma radionuclide activities for the 28 grocery samples, such as tea, nut and mushroom, rice, chinese cabbage, wormwood and pine needles, soil and drinking water which were obtained from Taegu and Kyungpook region to establish the basic data base for estimating the internal exposure. In conclusion, it didn't appear any evidence for newly pollution of artificial radioactivity in Taegu and Kyungpook region.

  9. Characterization of a Tissue-Equivalent Dosimeter based on CMOS Solid-State Photomultipliers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Erik; Benton, Eric; Stapels, Christopher; Chrsitian, James; Jie Chen, Xiao

    Available digital dosimeters are bulky and unable to provide real-time monitoring of dose from space radiation. The complexity of space-flight design requires reliable, fault-tolerant equip-ment capable of providing real-time dosimetry during a mission, which is not feasible with the existing thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) technology, especially during extravehicular activity (EVA). Real-time monitoring is important for low-Earth orbiting spacecraft and inter-planetary space flight to alert the crew when Solar Particle Events (SPE) increase the particle flux of the spacecraft environment. A dosimeter-on-a-chip for personal dosimetry is comprised of a tissue-equivalent scintillator coupled to a solid-state photomultiplier (SSPM) built using CMOS technology. The radiation sensitive component of the dosimeter is coupled to analog signal processing components and a microprocessor, which can maintain processing fidelity up to 5x105 events per second. The dynamic range of the dosimeter has been verified from 1-GeV protons (0.22 keV/µm in H20) to 420 MeV/n Fe (201.1 keV/µm in H20). The dosimeter confirmed doses to within 3

  10. Development of Radiochromic Film Used for Label Dosimeters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN; Min; CAI; Zhan-fan; YE; Hong-sheng; XIA; Wen; XIAO; Zhen-hong

    2012-01-01

    <正>Label dosimeters are a type of dosimeters, which indicate an abrupt visible color change after being exposed to a definite dose of ionizing irradiation. A label dosimeter usually has a multilayer structure, in

  11. Nevada Test Site 2008 Waste Management Monitoring Report Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2009-06-23

    Environmental monitoring data were collected at and around the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) at the Nevada Test Site. These data are associated with radiation exposure, air, groundwater, meteorology, vadose zone, subsidence, and biota. This report summarizes the 2008 environmental data to provide an overall evaluation of RWMS performance and to support environmental compliance and performance assessment (PA) activities.

  12. F-Area Acid/Caustic Basin groundwater monitoring report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This progress report for fourth quarter 1991 and 1992 summary from the Savannah River Plant includes discussion on the following topics: groundwater monitoring data; analytical results exceeding standards; upgradient versus downgradient results; turbidity results exceeding standards; water elevations, flow directions, and flow rates

  13. MONITORING THE POLLUTION OF GROUNDWATER IN THE AREA OF INDUSTRIAL WASTE

    OpenAIRE

    De Luca, M.; Balan, R.; A. MANESCU

    2011-01-01

    Monitoring of the underground water pollution in the deposit of waste inindustrial area. The paper presents the monitoring of the pollution phenomenon ofunderground water in the industrial landfill area. Industrial landfill causes pronouncedunderground water pollution in the operation phase, but also in the conservation phase.The pollution monitoring is carried out on all environmental components: air, soil andunderground water. Pollution phenomenon is analyzed in time by using a tracking and...

  14. Thermoluminescent dosimeter-direct reading dosimeter dose discrepancy: studies on the role of beta radiation fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dosimetry studies pertaining to thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) and direct reading dosimeter (DRD) have been performed for photons, beta fields and mixed field of photons and beta particles. In lab conditions, for pure photon radiation fields, the doses estimated using DRD and TLD match within the acceptable limits whereas in the mixed fields of photons and high energy beta particles, it has been found that the DRD doses are always higher than the corresponding whole body doses estimated by the TLD. This is due to the fact that DRD responds to high energy beta particles and the typical response of the DRD to high energy beta particles is observed to be in the range of 15-30%. This may lead to TLD-DRD dose discrepancy at workplaces where the skin doses received by the radiation workers from high energy beta sources in a given monitoring period are significant. The paper also provides a comparison of three different TLD-DRD discrepancy identification criteria available in literature for exposure conditions with a significant dose due to beta radiations. In addition, estimate of threshold beta dose which may lead to discrepancy as per the criteria have been studied. The results reported in this paper would be helpful in understanding the discrepancy arising out of variable response of DRD to beta radiations and will be useful in resolving the discrepancy in such cases. (author)

  15. Procedure for the delivering of personal short-term visitor dosimeters

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    Update of the administrative procedure for delivering a personal short-term visitor dosimeter to associated members of CERN’s personnel.   Associated members of the CERN personnel may request a short term visitor dosimeter if working only in Supervised Radiation Areas and for a period of less than two months in a calendar year. Such a dosimeter is delivered without the need to provide the usual regular documents: radiation passport, certificate from the home institute or medical certificate. Periodic verification will ensure that holders of these personal dosimeters do not exceed the maximum allowed personal dose for this type of dosimeter, which is the same as the limit for members of the public at 1 mSv per year. From now on, the two-month period can be spread over a calendar year, offering greater flexibility to users coming to CERN for multiple short periods. Please return unused dosimeters Persons leaving CERN for a period of more than one month should return their dosimeter to the D...

  16. SU-D-213-07: Initial Characterization of a Gel Patch Dosimeter for in Vivo Dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: In vivo dosimetry, despite being the most direct method for monitoring the dose delivered during radiation therapy and being recommended by several national and international organizations (AAPM, ICRU, NACP), is underutilized in the clinic due to issues associated with dose sensitivity, feasibility, and cost. Given the increasing complexity of radiation therapy modern treatments, there is a compelling need for a robust, affordable in vivo dosimetry option. In this work we present the initial characterization of a novel gel patch in vivo dosimeter. Methods: DEFGEL (6%T) was used to make 1-cm thick small cylindrical patch dosimeters. The optical density of each dosimeter was read before and after irradiation by an in-house laser densitometer. The dosimeters were irradiated using a Varian Clinac EX linac. Three separate batches of gel patches were used to create dose response curves and evaluate repeatability. The development time of the dosimeter was also evaluated. Results: The dose response of the dosimeter was found to be linear from a range of approximately 1-Gy to 20-Gy, which is a larger window of linearity compared to other in vivo dosimeters. At doses below 1-Gy, the cumulative uncertainties were on the order of the measured data. When compared, the three batches demonstrated repeatability from 1-Gy to approximately 13-Gy, with some variation at higher doses. For doses of >8-Gy, the dosimeter reached full optical density after 4-hours, whereas low doses developed within an hour. Conclusion: Initial results indicate that the gel patch dosimeter is a reliable and simple way to measure a large range of doses, including high doses such as those delivered during hypofractionated treatments (e.g. SBRT or MR-guided radiotherapy). The simple fabrication method for the dosimeter and the use of a laser densitometer would allow for the dosimeter to used and read in-house, cheaply and easily

  17. SU-D-213-07: Initial Characterization of a Gel Patch Dosimeter for in Vivo Dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matrosic, C; Culberson, W; Rosen, B; Madsen, E; Frank, G; Bednarz, B [Univ of Wisc Madison, Madison, WI (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: In vivo dosimetry, despite being the most direct method for monitoring the dose delivered during radiation therapy and being recommended by several national and international organizations (AAPM, ICRU, NACP), is underutilized in the clinic due to issues associated with dose sensitivity, feasibility, and cost. Given the increasing complexity of radiation therapy modern treatments, there is a compelling need for a robust, affordable in vivo dosimetry option. In this work we present the initial characterization of a novel gel patch in vivo dosimeter. Methods: DEFGEL (6%T) was used to make 1-cm thick small cylindrical patch dosimeters. The optical density of each dosimeter was read before and after irradiation by an in-house laser densitometer. The dosimeters were irradiated using a Varian Clinac EX linac. Three separate batches of gel patches were used to create dose response curves and evaluate repeatability. The development time of the dosimeter was also evaluated. Results: The dose response of the dosimeter was found to be linear from a range of approximately 1-Gy to 20-Gy, which is a larger window of linearity compared to other in vivo dosimeters. At doses below 1-Gy, the cumulative uncertainties were on the order of the measured data. When compared, the three batches demonstrated repeatability from 1-Gy to approximately 13-Gy, with some variation at higher doses. For doses of >8-Gy, the dosimeter reached full optical density after 4-hours, whereas low doses developed within an hour. Conclusion: Initial results indicate that the gel patch dosimeter is a reliable and simple way to measure a large range of doses, including high doses such as those delivered during hypofractionated treatments (e.g. SBRT or MR-guided radiotherapy). The simple fabrication method for the dosimeter and the use of a laser densitometer would allow for the dosimeter to used and read in-house, cheaply and easily.

  18. Improvement of electronic circuit and performance of electronic dosimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, S. Y.; Lee, B. J.; Kim, B. H.; Kim, J. S.; Lee, K. C. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)

    2001-03-01

    An electronic personnal dosimeter(EPD) adopting a PIN type Silicon semiconductor as a radiation detector has been designed and manufactured. A hybrid type design of electronic circuit for processing a radiation signal has been adopted not only to improve the EPD response to radiation detection but also to reduce a size as well as a weight. The EPD can be independently used as an individual personal dosimeter for exposure monitoring if necessary after setting some variables by operator. The performance of this EPD has been tested and finally accredited by Korea Testing Laboratory(KTL) through a series of performance test under international criteria given in IEC61526 standard on the mechanical, electronical and radiation performance. The EPD reader which can interface an EPD with entrance door for proper access control has been designed and manufactured. A hangul is supported in this EPD reader in operational display menu for the user convenience. 10 refs., 30 figs., 5 tabs. (Author)

  19. Monte Carlo design for TLD personal neutron dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The monitor of neutron personal dose to professional worker become more and more important with the development of nuclear industry,nuclear plant and nuclear radiation cure. The design and calculation of TLD-albedo personal dosimeter were taken by using MCNP-3B Monte Carlo code. After the present of neutron and photon fluence response, the method to determine the field correction factor was introduced. The calculated results showed that TLD-albedo personal dosimeter could work well for photon with energy: from 33 keV to 1.5 MeV and for neutron with energy from thermo-neutron to 10 MeV, and corresponding energy response deviation could be less than 30% and 60% respectively. (authors)

  20. Monte Carlo calculation for TLD personal neutron dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The monitor of neutron personal dose to professional worker become more and more important with the development of nuclear industry, nuclear plant and nuclear radiation cure. In this paper, the design and calculation of TLD-albedo personal dosimeter were taken by using MCNP-3B Monte Carlo code. After the present of neutron and photon fluence response, the method to determine the field correction factor was introduced. The calculated result showed that TLD-albedo personal dosimeter could work well for photon with energy: from 33 keV to 1.5 MeV and for neutron with energy from thermo-neutron to 10 MeV, and corresponding energy response error could be less than 30% and 60% respectively. (authors)

  1. Nevada Test Site, 2006 Waste Management Monitoring Report, Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David B. Hudson

    2007-06-30

    Environmental monitoring data were collected at and around the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) at the Nevada Test Site. These data are associated with radiation exposure, air, groundwater, meteorology, vadose zone, subsidence, and biota. This report summarizes the 2006 environmental data to provide an overall evaluation of RWMS performance and to support environmental compliance and performance assessment (PA) activities. Some of these data (e.g., radiation exposure, air, and groundwater) are presented in other reports (U.S. Department of Energy, 2006; Warren and Grossman, 2007; National Security Technologies, LLC, 2007). Direct radiation monitoring data indicate that exposure levels around the RWMSs are at or below background levels. Air monitoring data at the Area 3 and Area 5 RWMSs indicate that tritium concentrations are slightly above background levels. There is no detectable man-made radioactivity by gamma spectroscopy, and concentrations of americium and plutonium are only slightly above detection limits at the Area 3 RWMS. Measurements at the Area 5 RWMS show that radon flux from waste covers is no higher than natural radon flux from undisturbed soil in Area 5. Groundwater monitoring data indicate that the groundwater in the uppermost aquifer beneath the Area 5 RWMS is not impacted by facility operations. Precipitation during 2006 totaled 98.6 millimeters (mm) (3.9 inches [in.]) at the Area 3 RWMS and 80.7 mm (3.2 in.) at the Area 5 RWMS. Soil-gas tritium monitoring continues to show slow subsurface migration consistent with previous results. Moisture from precipitation at Area 5 remains at the bottom of the bare-soil weighing lysimeter, but this same moisture has been removed from the vegetated weighing lysimeter by evapotranspiration. Vadose zone data from the operational waste pit covers show that evaporation continues to slowly remove soil moisture that came from the heavy precipitation in the fall of 2004 and the spring of

  2. Survey monitoring of environmental radioactivity in Gunsan area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At Regional Radioactivity Monitoring Station in Kunsan have been measured priodically in 2000 gross beta activities in the airborne dust, fallout, precipitation and tap water and gamma exposure rates. Artificial radionuclide of 137Cs in airborne dust, fallout and precipitation have also been monitored at the station. As a part of environmental radiation/radioactivity distribution survey around Jeon-buk, vegetables, fishes, shellfishes, drinking water (total 33ea) samples were taken from sampling sites which were selected by KINS. We analysis gamma isotope for all. No significant Changes from the previous survey have been found in both beta activities and gamma exposure rates. As the results of analyzig an artificial nuclide concentration in living environmental sample in Jeon-buk are I fee of radiological contaminants

  3. Survey monitoring of environmental radioactivity in Gunsan area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Byoung Ho; Ro, Jeong Suk [Kunsan Regional Radioactivity Monitoring Station, Gunsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-12-15

    At Regional Radioactivity Monitoring Station in Kunsan have been measured priodically in 2002 gross beta activities in the airborne dust, fallout, precipitation and tap water and gamma exposure rates. Artificial radionuclide of {sup 137}Cs in airborne dust, fallout and precipitation have also been monitored at the station. As a part of environmental radiation/radioactivity distribution survey around Jeon-buk, vegetables, fishes, shellfishes, drinking water (total 33ea) samples were taken from sampling sites which were selected by KINS. We analysis gamma isotope for all. No significant changes from the previous survey have been found in both beta activities and gamma exposure rates. As the results of analyzig an artificial nuclide concentration in living environmental sample in Jeon-buk are fee of radiological contaminants.

  4. Survey monitoring of environmental radioactivity in Busan area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Han Soeb; Jang, Young A [Busan Regional Monitoring Station, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-12-15

    At Regional Radioactivity Monitoring Station in Busan have been measured periodically in 2002 gross beta activities in the airborne dust, fallout, precipitation and tap water and gamma exposure rates. Gamma nuclides in airborne dust, fallout and precipitation have also been monitored at the station. As a part of environmental radiation/radioactivity distribution survey around Pusan foodstuffs, dust, drinking water (total 24ea) samples were taken from sampling sites which were selected by KINS. We analysis gamma nuclide for all. No significant changes from the previous survey have been found in both beta activities and gamma exposure rates. As the results of analyzing an gamma nuclide concentration in environmental samples in Pusan are fee of radiological contaminants.

  5. Survey monitoring of environmental radioactivity in Gunsan area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Byoung Ho; Ro, Jeong Suk [Kunsan Regional Radioactivity Monitoring Station, Gunsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-01-15

    At Regional Radioactivity Monitoring Station in Kunsan have been measured priodically in 2000 gross beta activities in the airborne dust, fallout, precipitation and tap water and gamma exposure rates. Artificial radionuclide of {sup 137}Cs in airborne dust, fallout and precipitation have also been monitored at the station. As a part of environmental radiation/radioactivity distribution survey around Jeon-buk, vegetables, fishes, shellfishes, drinking water (total 33ea) samples were taken from sampling sites which were selected by KINS. We analysis gamma isotope for all. No significant Changes from the previous survey have been found in both beta activities and gamma exposure rates. As the results of analyzig an artificial nuclide concentration in living environmental sample in Jeon-buk are I fee of radiological contaminants.

  6. Survey monitoring of environmental radioactivity in Seoul area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jai Ki; Chung, Ok Sun; Kim, Hong Suk [Seoul Monitoring Station, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-12-15

    The following results were obtained through the environmental radiation monitoring in 2002 at the Seoul Monitoring Station: gamma exposure rate : 10.8 - 13.3 {mu}R/h, mean gross beta activity in airborne dust : 84.1 {+-} 46.2 mBq/m{sup 3}, mean gross beta activity in fallout dust : 11.9 {+-} 5.6 MBq/km{sup 2} - 30 days, meab gross beta activity in precipitation : 317 {+-} 465 mBq/L, mean gross beta activity in tap water : 71.2 {+-} 23.0 mBq/L. All the monitored variables remained in the corresponding normal ranges, which implies that there were no abnormal situations of environmental radiation in the Seoul-Gyunggi districts in 2002. Radioactivity contents in foodstuffs consumed in Seoul and Gyunggi districts were analyzed for use in assessment of population doses via dietary intakes. Samples include 16 foodstuffs (peanut, walnut, pine seeds, chessnut, acorn, sesame, perilla seeds, oak mushroom, meadow mushroom, velvet foot, oyster mushroom, instant coffee, green tea leaves, ginseng tea, rice and Chinese cabbage). Two indicator samples, pine needle and mug wort, were also included. Relatively higher concentrations of {sup 137}Cs, a man-made nuclide, were found in coffee and oak mushroom(0.554 and 0.480 Bq/kg, respectively). A few hundreds Bq/kg of {sup 40}K were found in most of the foodstuffs with higher concentrations in coffee and green tea leaves(786 and 574 Bq/kg, respectively)

  7. Earthquake Monitoring and Study in the Jingpohu Volcano Cluster Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Zhi; Duan Yonghong; Xu Zhaofan; Yuan Qinxi; Yang Jian; Zhou Xuesong

    2008-01-01

    Seismicity in the Jingpohu volcanic area was investigated based on the seismic data recorded by the mobile seismic network consisting of 14 stations equipped with 24-bit broad-band 3- component seismographs around Crater Forest. Results show that there appears certain seismicity in Jingpohu and its adjacent areas with a low activity level and most of the recorded earthquakes are the volcanic-tectonic ones. The results of location indicate a dominant focal depth of 10km - 30km, most of the earthquakes are smaller than ML>2.0, and are concentrated in the area of "Crater Forest" and on the Dunhua-Mishan fault which runs through the volcanic area. At station No.2, which has better observation conditions, two types of events, likely associated to volcanism, were recorded; their waveform characteristics are somewhat similar to that of the long-period volcanic event and the volcanic tremor, but with different feature of frequencies.

  8. A Fire Detector for Monitoring Inaccessible Areas in Aircrafts Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — En'Urga Inc. will evaluate the feasibility of utilizing reflected, multi-wavelength, near infrared radiation for detecting fires in inaccessible areas within...

  9. Study on multiple channel radiation dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An intelligent radiation dosimeter, with multiple channel signal collection and data processing, storing, printing and display, has been developed. It can measure doses at six different positions at one time. The device consists of six micro-semiconductors. This dosimeter can be used in irradiation experiments by 60Co source, radiotherapeutic facilities and radiation processing

  10. A PC based thin film dosimeter system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, A.; Hargittai, P.; Kovacs, A.

    2000-01-01

    A dosimeter system based on the Riso B3 dosimeter film, an office scanner for use with PC and the associated software is presented. The scanned image is analyzed either with standard software (Paint Shop Pro 5 or Excel) functions or with the computer code "Scanalizer" that allows presentation...

  11. Survey monitoring of environmental radioactivity in Gwangju area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of the environmental samples counted by Kwangju Regional Monitoring Station were as follows : the year average of the gross-β radioactivity on the airborn dust was 108.5 mBq/m2 (after 5 hours) and 7.74 mBq/m2 (after 48 hours): on the fallout, precipitation and tap water, it was 2.4 MBq/km2 30 days, 54.2 Bq/L and 18.2 Bq/L respectively. Through this study, γ - spectrometric analysis showed there is no artificial radioactivity. The result the environmental radiation monitor counted for all year showed a range of 10.4 μ - 13.6 μR/h. There is no abnormality concerned with electronical unstability, machine disorder, atomic accidents or nuclear tests. To examine the basic data on the environmental radiation/radioactivity, radiational density of 137Cs on soil and tap water sources wasn't calculated throughout the region. On the rice and Chinese cabbage sample, they measured N.D - 33.6 Bq/Kg.dry. On the samples of milk and fish, they measured N.D.. In addition, on 60 sites, the environmental radiation monitor's analysis using a portable survey meter resulted in a mean of 6.72 - 14.4 μR/h. On the results of the gross- β radioactivity's analysis and γ-spectrometric analysis of the samples on com, Chinese cabbage, milk and fish, there was no significant abnormality to be considered. 137Cs appeared in almost all samples; however the amount 137Cs, which had been distributed allover Asia due to a nuclear test performed in China in 1970, was not serious

  12. Survey monitoring of environmental radioactivity in Seoul area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jai Ki; Kim, Hong Suk [Seoul Monitoring Station, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-12-15

    The following results were obtained through the environmental radiation monitoring in 2003 at the Seoul monitoring station : gamma exposure rate : 10.8 - 13.3 {mu}R/h, mean gross beta activity in airborne dust : 4.31 {+-} 2.01 mBq/m{sup 3} (after 48 hours), mean gross beta activity in fallout dust : 11.5 {+-} 4.3 MBq/km{sup 2} - 30 days, meab gross beta activity in precipitation : 230 {+-} 246 mBq/L, mean gross beta activity in tap water : 69.3 {+-} 15.7 mBq/L. All the monitored variables remained in the corresponding normal ranges, which implies that there were no abnormal situations of environmental radiation in the Seoul district in 2003. Radioactivity contents in foodstuffs consumed in Seoul and northern part of Gyunggi district were analyzed for use in assessment of population doses via dietary intakes. Samples include 16 foodstuffs(peanut, walnut, pine seeds, chessnut, acorn, sesame, perilla seeds, oak mushroom, meadow mushroom, velvet foot, oyster mushroom, instant coffee, green tea leaves, ginseng tea, rice and Chinese cabbage). Two indicator samples, pine needle and mugwort, were also included. Relatively higher concentrations of {sup l37}Cs, a man-made nuclide, were found in coffee and oak mushroom(0.733 and 0.339 Bq/kg{center_dot}fresh, respectively). A few hundreds Bq/kg{center_dot}fresh of {sup 40}K were found in most of the foodstuffs with higher concentrations in coffee and green tea leaves (1300 and 579 Bq/kg{center_dot}fresh, respectively)

  13. Citizen radiation monitoring program for the TMI area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baratta, A.J.; Gricar, B.G.; Jester, W.A.

    1981-07-01

    The purpose of the program was to develop a system for citizens to independently measure radiation levels in and around their communities. This report describes the process by which the Program was developed and operated. It also presents the methods used to select and train the citizens in making and interpreting the measurements. The test procedures used to select the equipment for the program are described as are the results of the testing. Finally, the actual monitoring results are discussed along with the citizens' reactions to the program.

  14. Citizen radiation monitoring program for the TMI area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the program was to develop a system for citizens to independently measure radiation levels in and around their communities. This report describes the process by which the Program was developed and operated. It also presents the methods used to select and train the citizens in making and interpreting the measurements. The test procedures used to select the equipment for the program are described as are the results of the testing. Finally, the actual monitoring results are discussed along with the citizens' reactions to the program

  15. Nevada Test Site 2005 Waste Management Monitoring Report Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David B. Hudson, Cathy A. Wills

    2006-08-01

    Environmental monitoring data were collected at and around the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) at the Nevada Test Site. These data are associated with radiation exposure, air, groundwater, meteorology, vadose zone, subsidence, and biota. This report summarizes the 2005 environmental data to provide an overall evaluation of RWMS performance and to support environmental compliance and performance assessment activities. Some of these data (e.g., radiation exposure, air, and groundwater) are presented in other reports (U.S. Department of Energy, 2005; Grossman, 2005; Bechtel Nevada, 2006). Direct radiation monitoring data indicate that exposure levels around the RWMSs are at or below background levels. Air monitoring data at the Area 3 and Area 5 RWMSs indicate that tritium concentrations are slightly above background levels. There is no detectable man-made radioactivity by gamma spectroscopy, and concentrations of americium and plutonium are only slightly above detection limits at the Area 3 RWMS. Measurements at the Area 5 RWMS show that radon flux from waste covers is no higher than natural radon flux from undisturbed soil in Area 5. Groundwater monitoring data indicate that the groundwater in the uppermost aquifer beneath the Area 5 RWMS is not impacted by facility operations. Precipitation during 2005 totaled 219.1 millimeters (mm) (8.63 inches [in.]) at the Area 3 RWMS and 201.4 mm (7.93 in.) at the Area 5 RWMS. Soil-gas tritium monitoring continues to show slow subsurface migration consistent with previous results. Moisture from precipitation at Area 5 has percolated to the bottom of the bare-soil weighing lysimeter, but this same moisture has been removed from the vegetated weighing lysimeter by evapotranspiration. Vadose zone data from the operational waste pit covers show that precipitation from the fall of 2004 and the spring of 2005 infiltrated past the deepest sensors at 188 centimeters (6.2 feet) and remains in the pit cover

  16. Nevada Test Site 2005 Waste Management Monitoring Report Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental monitoring data were collected at and around the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) at the Nevada Test Site. These data are associated with radiation exposure, air, groundwater, meteorology, vadose zone, subsidence, and biota. This report summarizes the 2005 environmental data to provide an overall evaluation of RWMS performance and to support environmental compliance and performance assessment activities. Some of these data (e.g., radiation exposure, air, and groundwater) are presented in other reports (U.S. Department of Energy, 2005; Grossman, 2005; Bechtel Nevada, 2006). Direct radiation monitoring data indicate that exposure levels around the RWMSs are at or below background levels. Air monitoring data at the Area 3 and Area 5 RWMSs indicate that tritium concentrations are slightly above background levels. There is no detectable man-made radioactivity by gamma spectroscopy, and concentrations of americium and plutonium are only slightly above detection limits at the Area 3 RWMS. Measurements at the Area 5 RWMS show that radon flux from waste covers is no higher than natural radon flux from undisturbed soil in Area 5. Groundwater monitoring data indicate that the groundwater in the uppermost aquifer beneath the Area 5 RWMS is not impacted by facility operations. Precipitation during 2005 totaled 219.1 millimeters (mm) (8.63 inches [in.]) at the Area 3 RWMS and 201.4 mm (7.93 in.) at the Area 5 RWMS. Soil-gas tritium monitoring continues to show slow subsurface migration consistent with previous results. Moisture from precipitation at Area 5 has percolated to the bottom of the bare-soil weighing lysimeter, but this same moisture has been removed from the vegetated weighing lysimeter by evapotranspiration. Vadose zone data from the operational waste pit covers show that precipitation from the fall of 2004 and the spring of 2005 infiltrated past the deepest sensors at 188 centimeters (6.2 feet) and remains in the pit cover

  17. Development of prototype fiber optics dosimeter for remote radiation level measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurement of radiation levels in difficult-to-access and hazardous areas, such as hot cells, high active source storage areas, require refined and sensitive remote radiation level measurement techniques. Optical fiber dosimetry has been studied as an emerging method of monitoring radiation remotely and is suitable for use in confined environments that may be inaccessible using existing conventional electronic dosimeters or radiation survey meters. Being light weight and nonintrusive, optical fibers based dosimeters provide several advantages in the field of remote radiation dosimetry and in-vivo medical applications. A prototype fiber optic dosimetry system with extrinsic architecture is designed and developed using optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) technique at Radiological Safety Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research. The fiber optic dosimetry system uses OSL material like BaFBr: Eu to detect radiation and a bifurcated optical cable to illuminate the sensor with the suitable light source and also to guide the light from the sensor to the detector. Indigenously developed hardware is used for pulse processing and application software of the system is developed in Microsoft Visual Basic.Net. This paper depicts the characterization of the dosimetric material, development of hardware and software for the system and calibration of the system using standard source. The system uses Advantech APAX 5570 base controller with suitable modular add-on cards for data acquisition and controlling. Indigenously developed electronics is used for processing the pulses from the sensor attached to the tip of the bifurcated optical cable. The acquisition of the counts from the electronic circuit and illumination and bleaching time for the sensor pellet is controlled by application software developed in VB.Net. The system is calibrated by irradiating the pellet with different absorbed doses. The system explores the possibility of remote radiation monitoring using

  18. Individual External Dose Monitoring of All Citizens of Date City by Passive Dosimeter 5 to 52 Months After the Fukushima NPP Accident (series): 1. Comparison of Individual Dose with Ambient Dose Rate Monitored by Aircraft Surveys

    CERN Document Server

    Hayano, Ryugo

    2016-01-01

    Date (d\\textschwa 'te) City in Fukushima Prefecture has conducted a population-wide individual dose monitoring program after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident, which provides a unique and comprehensive data set of the individual doses of citizens. The relationship between the individual doses and the corresponding ambient doses assessed from airborne surveys was examined. The results show that the individual doses were about 0.15 times the ambient doses, which were a quarter of the value employed by the Japanese government, throughout the period of the airborne surveys used. The knowledge obtained in this study could enable the prediction of individual doses in the early phase of future radiological accidents involving large-scale contamination.

  19. Geoinformatics and environmental monitoring and rehabilitation in mining areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, X.; Guo, D.; Sheng, Y. [Ministry of Coal Industry (China). Dept. of Science and Education

    1997-08-01

    Geoinformatics, of which remote sensing, global positioning system and geographical information system are kernel components, has developed rapidly and become applicable in the last ten years. In this paper, the recent development and advantages of geoinformatics are introduced; some achievements and understanding in applications for environmental protection in mining areas are also described. 7 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Direct Penetrating Radiation Monitoring Systems: Technical Evaluation for Use at Area G, Los Alamos National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent advances and commercialization of electret-ion-chamber (EIC) technology for photon measurements prompted us to consider EKs as a replacement for our TLD system. After laboratory tests indicated that both systems gave adequate results for controlled exposures, throughout 1998 we conducted field tests with paired TLDs and EICS, in LANL technical areas and in public areas. We had approximately 30 paired sampling sites at Area G. At each sampling site, we deployed three TLDs and three EICS. The EICS were contained in air-tight jars, each of which was placed in a Tyvek envelope and hung about 1 m above the ground. The dosimeters were read (and, if necessary, replaced) every three months. At the sites outside Area G, the TLD readings for the first two quarters were statistically significantly higher than those of the EICS: group average exposures were 38 and 36, compared with 33 mR (both quarters) for the EICS; during quarter 3, the EIC average (40 mR) was higher than the TLD average (34 mR); and during quarter 4, the two systems were statistically the same: EIC = 42, TLD = 41 with a p-value of 0.61. We are still evaluating these differences and performing additional laboratory studies to determine causes. At the Area G sites,we noticed that several of the TLDs gave much higher readings than their co-located EICS; we believe that the TLDs were over-responding by ∼50% to the low-energy (60-keV) gamma radiation associated with 241Am, whereas the EICS were responding accurately. We conclude that EICS are more accurate at a wide range of gamma energies and are preferable to TLDs in environments where a significant fraction of the photons are low energy

  1. Monitoring gamma radioactivity over large land areas using portable equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The principal objective of this research has been to provide information on cost-effective techniques to detect localized areas of gamma-emitting radionuclides. This objective has been achieved by determining the time required to scan unit area as a function of depth of the gamma source below the site surface, the activity of the gamma source, the energy of the emitted gamma-ray, and the gamma transport properties of the site material. A comparison between survey and sampling techniques is made, and the advantages of using survey techniques to detect localized gamma-ray sources are discussed. A survey technique based on an adaptive moving array detector system is described. A field experiment has been carried out to verify the results of calculations of the sensitivity of the techniques described

  2. APPLICATION OF LANDUSE CHANGE MODELING FOR PROTECTED AREA MONITORING

    OpenAIRE

    Jaafari, Shirkou; Shabani, Afshin Alizadeh; Danehkar, Afshin; Nazarisamani, Aliakbar

    2014-01-01

    Globally, land use change impacts biodiversity, water and radiation budgets, emission of green house gases, carbon cycling, and livelihoods. The study of LUCC and its dynamics is crucial for environmental management, especially with regard to sustainable agriculture and forestry. Different models, in terms of structure and application, have been used to understand LUCC dynamics. The present study aims to simulate the spatial pattern of land use change in Varjin protected area, Iran. Land cove...

  3. Dynamic Monitoring and Displaying Noise Levels in Populated Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Kovačević, Marija; Pović, Dario; Keser, Tomislav; Mesarić, Dalibor

    2013-01-01

    Noise is every unwanted sound that surrounds us. Noise has many sources and lately it has become a large-scale problem. Traffic is one of the most important causes of noise. According to its impact on human health, there are regulations that designate maximum permissible noise levels in areas where people work and live. Related work mainly refers to theoretical knowledge applied in numerous scientific papers. There are many states and cities such as Finland, Mexico City, etc., where noise con...

  4. Portable system for periodical verification of area monitors for neutrons; Sistema portatil para verificacao periodica de monitores de area para neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Luciane de R.; Leite, Sandro Passos; Lopes, Ricardo Tadeu, E-mail: rluciane@ird.gov.b [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (PEN/COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Programa de Energia Nuclear; Patrao, Karla C. de Souza; Fonseca, Evaldo S. da; Pereira, Walsan W., E-mail: karla@ird.gov.b [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. Nacional de Metrologia das Radiacoes Ionizantes (LNMRI). Lab. de Neutrons

    2009-07-01

    The Neutrons Laboratory develops a project viewing the construction of a portable test system for verification of functioning conditions of neutron area monitors. This device will allow to the users the verification of the calibration maintenance of his instruments at the use installations, avoiding the use of an inadequate equipment related to his answer to the neutron beam response

  5. Pocket dosimeter with alarm 'REM-Master-S'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pocket dosimeters with alarm presently used in nuclear power stations, laboratories, hospitals and so on are mainly of GM counter type, and have such problems as short service life and large characteristic fluctuation. Fuji Electric developed a new type of the dosimeters with alarm ''REM MASTER-S'', which adopted semiconductor detectors and has such features as the measuring range is wider than conventional type, the service life is long, and the size is small and convenient to carry. It is provided with data transmitting and reading functions by opto-electronic communication method so that the exposure dose of individuals can be efficiently controlled. For the development of this new type of dosimeters, Fuji Electric used its technology and experience accumulated in the manufacture of radiation monitors for years. The specifications are as follows. Type: NRS, sensor: silicon semiconductor detector, type S 104S, kind of radiation: X-ray and gamma-ray from 100 keV to 3 MeV, energy dependence: within +-20% from 100 keV to Co-60 (1.3 MeV), integrated calibration accuracy: within +-10% at 100 mR/h with Cs-137 source, linearity of dosage ratio: within +-15% from 10 mR/h to 10 R/h with Cs-137 source, display: 4-digit digital indicator from 0 to 9999 mR, and so on. The application range is shown. (Kako, I.)

  6. Litterfall and Leaf Area Index in the CONECOFOR Permanent Monitoring Plots

    OpenAIRE

    Cutini, Andrea

    2002-01-01

    Forest canopies are more sensitive and react more promptly to abiotic and biotic disturbances than other stand structural components. Monitoring crown and canopy characteristics is therefore a crucial issue for intensive and continuous monitoring programs of forest ecosystem status. These observations formed the basis for the measurement of annual litter production and leaf area index (LAI) in the Italian permanent monitoring plots (CONECOFOR program) established within the EC-UN/ECE program ...

  7. Results of the Separations Area ground-water monitoring network for 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes and interprets the results of the Separations Area ground-water monitoring program for calendar year 1981. The Separations Area ground-water monitoring program satisfies US Department of Energy requirements that all onsite discharges be monitored. There are 105 water quality monitoring wells in the 1981 Separations Area monitoring network. Samples from the water quality monitoring wells were collected at monthly or semiannual intervals. These samples were analyzed selectively for total alpha, total beta, 60Co, 106Ru, 137Cs, 90Sr, tritium, uranium, and nitrate. Review of 1981 results indicated few changes from 1980. The 3000-pCi/mL tritium guideline was exceeded in three wells that monitor two active sites: Well 299-E24-2 monitors the 216-A-10 Crib, and Wells 299-E25-18 and 299-E25-20 monitor 219-A-37 Crib. Sample concentrations reflect plume migrations of active sites. With the exception of tritium, all contamination greater than 10% of Table II guidelines in the ground water under the Separations Area was caused by past disposal to inactive sites. The only samples with contamination that exceeded Table II guidelines were collected from Wells 299-W22-1, 299-E28-23, and 299-E33-27, which monitor the inactive 216-S-1 and -2 Crib, 216-B-5 Reverse Well, and 216-BX Tank Farm. However, the zone of contamination appears stable and highly localized for these sites. Analysis of contamination plumes within the Separations Area indicates that contamination levels in ground water migrating out of the Separations Area at this time are less than the DOE Table II guidelines

  8. Air quality monitoring Edson and Hinton area September 1999 to June 2000 : Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Edson and Hinton areas of Alberta were the subject of a mobile, ambient air quality monitoring survey. The monitoring involved four surveys of a week each, over four seasons, for one year. This area had been selected for monitoring to meet three major objectives: the determination of concentrations of air pollutants representative of the monitored locations in the survey area, to establish a comparison of air pollutant levels to data from other locations in the province of Alberta, and to provide a comparison of air pollutant levels to Alberta's air quality guidelines. These surveys formed an integral part of the air quality monitoring program of Alberta Environment. Using the Mobile Air Monitoring Laboratory (MAML), personnel from Alberta Environment appear on location unannounced. Carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen, ozone, particulates, hydrocarbons, sulphur dioxide, hydrogen sulphide, total reduced sulphur and ammonia are the substances measured and monitored. Eighteen sites in the Edson and Hinton area were selected, as well as downwind of industrial facilities in the Edson area, and air quality was monitored using the mobile lab for twenty days. To allow comparison to the air quality guidelines, monitoring was conducted for a minimum of one hour at each location. As a result, approximately 152 hours of air quality monitoring information was obtained, providing data in the vicinity of both populated and industrial areas. The periods comprised September 13-16, 1999 (Fall), February 7-9, 2000 (Winter), April 18-19, 25-27, 2000 (Spring), and June 4-5, 13-16, 2000 (Summer). The results were provided in this report. Most results were below the Alberta Ambient Air Quality Guidelines. refs., 16 tabs., 18 figs

  9. Survey monitoring of environmental radioactivity in Gwangju area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woo, Jeong Ju; Na, Jeong Yeun [Chonnam National Univ., Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-12-15

    The objectives of this project are to detect radiation abnormalities in its early stage, to survey the regional environmental radiation/radioactivity levels and the variations of the levels, to prepare the capability of managing the radiological emergencies, and finally to extabish the protective and defence systems against the radiological hazards for the general publics. This report presents the levels of the external gamma dose rates, the gross {beta} - activities in the natural samples, such as airborne dust, fallout, precipitation, and tap water, which were continuously monitored at the environmental research institute at CNU in 2000, and also the levels of the {gamma} - activities in food samples and drinking water which were measured to collect the basic data of the regional environmental radioactivity levels around the Kwangju city and Chonnam province. The levels of the {gamma} - and gross {beta} - activities in the natural samples didn't any significant abnormality in 2000 and were similar to the results obtained in the past years. Also levels of the {gamma} - activities of Cs-137 in those samples were below the MDA values. The {gamma} - activities in almost all food samples, except for a few food samples, and drinking water samples were measured to be below the MDA values.

  10. TNX area groundwater monitoring report. 1996 Annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-04-01

    During 1996, samples from selected wells of well cluster P 26 and the TBG, TIR, TNX, TRW, XSB, and YSB well series at the TNX Area of the Savannah River Plant were analyzed for selected heavy metals, indicator parameters, radionuclides, volatile organic compounds, and other constituents. Sixteen parameters exceeded the final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS). Trichloroethylene exceeded the final PDWS most frequently. Antimony, arsenic beryllium, carbon tetrachloride, chloroform, chromium, copper, dichloromethane, gross alpha, lead, mercury, nitrate, nitrate-nitrite, tetrachloroethylene, or trichloroethylene were evaluated in one or more wells during the year. Groundwater flow directions and rates in the Unconfined Aquifer were similar from quarter to quarter during the year.

  11. Area γ radiation monitoring network systems based on totally integrated automation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It introduces a kind of Area γ Radiation Monitoring Network Systems based on Totally Integrated Automation. It features simple and safe process control, easy integration of information network, field bus and field instrumentation, modular design and powerful system expansion, implements management and control integration, is positive importance for localization of Radiation Monitoring System. (authors)

  12. Pollen monitoring of the mountain areas of the Czech Republic in the years 1996 - 2006

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Svitavská-Svobodová, Helena

    Riga : University of Latvia, 2007 - (Kalnina, L.; Lukševičs, E.), s. 77-78 ISBN 9984-802-60-4. [Pollen Monitoring programme, 6th International meeting. Jurmala (LV), 03.06.2007-09.06.2007] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : pollen monitoring * mountain areas * Czech Republic Subject RIV: EF - Botanics

  13. Nevada Test Site 2009 Waste Management Monitoring Report Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Radioactive Waste

    2010-06-23

    Environmental monitoring data were collected at and around the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). These data are associated with radiation exposure, air, groundwater, meteorology, vadose zone, subsidence, and biota. This report summarizes the 2009 environmental data to provide an overall evaluation of RWMS performance and to support environmental compliance and performance assessment (PA) activities. Some of these data (e.g., radiation exposure, air, and groundwater) are presented in other reports. Direct radiation monitoring data indicate exposure levels at the RWMSs are within the range of background levels measured at the NTS. Air monitoring data at the Area 3 and Area 5 RWMSs indicate that tritium concentrations are slightly above background levels. All gamma spectroscopy results for air particulates collected at the Area 3 and Area 5 RWMS were below the minimum detectable concentrations, and concentrations of americium and plutonium are only slightly above detection limits. The measured levels of radionuclides in air particulates and moisture are below derived concentration guides for these radionuclides. Radon flux from waste covers is well below regulatory limits. Groundwater monitoring data indicate that the groundwater in the uppermost aquifer beneath the Area 5 RWMS is not impacted by facility operations. The 87.6 millimeters (mm) (3.45 inches [in.]) of precipitation at the Area 3 RWMS during 2009 is 43 percent below the average of 152.4 mm (6.00 in.), and the 62.7 mm (2.47 in.) of precipitation at the Area 5 RWMS during 2009 is 49 percent below the average of 122.5 mm (4.82 in.). Soil-gas tritium monitoring at borehole GCD-05 continues to show slow subsurface migration consistent with previous results. Water balance measurements indicate that evapotranspiration from the vegetated weighing lysimeter dries the soil and prevents downward percolation of precipitation more effectively than evaporation

  14. Nevada Test Site 2009 Waste Management Monitoring Report Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental monitoring data were collected at and around the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). These data are associated with radiation exposure, air, groundwater, meteorology, vadose zone, subsidence, and biota. This report summarizes the 2009 environmental data to provide an overall evaluation of RWMS performance and to support environmental compliance and performance assessment (PA) activities. Some of these data (e.g., radiation exposure, air, and groundwater) are presented in other reports. Direct radiation monitoring data indicate exposure levels at the RWMSs are within the range of background levels measured at the NTS. Air monitoring data at the Area 3 and Area 5 RWMSs indicate that tritium concentrations are slightly above background levels. All gamma spectroscopy results for air particulates collected at the Area 3 and Area 5 RWMS were below the minimum detectable concentrations, and concentrations of americium and plutonium are only slightly above detection limits. The measured levels of radionuclides in air particulates and moisture are below derived concentration guides for these radionuclides. Radon flux from waste covers is well below regulatory limits. Groundwater monitoring data indicate that the groundwater in the uppermost aquifer beneath the Area 5 RWMS is not impacted by facility operations. The 87.6 millimeters (mm) (3.45 inches (in.)) of precipitation at the Area 3 RWMS during 2009 is 43 percent below the average of 152.4 mm (6.00 in.), and the 62.7 mm (2.47 in.) of precipitation at the Area 5 RWMS during 2009 is 49 percent below the average of 122.5 mm (4.82 in.). Soil-gas tritium monitoring at borehole GCD-05 continues to show slow subsurface migration consistent with previous results. Water balance measurements indicate that evapotranspiration from the vegetated weighing lysimeter dries the soil and prevents downward percolation of precipitation more effectively than evaporation

  15. Exposure dose and personal dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concept of measuring the occupational exposure dose and of its management is explained. The Law Concerning Prevention from Radiation Hazards enacted in Japan in 1957, has been the basis of radiation protection with modifications like the incorporation of ICRP recommendations. Three sorts of radiological quantity (dose) are defined as physical, protective and practical ones. As well, the administrative quantity regards the protective quantity as the practical one. Thereby, the practical 1 cm dose equivalent is administrative effective dose, comparable to the protective effective dose limit. The practical dose equivalent subjected to measurement in the aligned and expanded radiation field involves 3 states of ambient, directional and personal ones. The personal dose equivalent is defined to be at d depth in the human body by ICRP but actually in the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurement (ICRU) tissue equivalent slab phantom, and pragmatically measured with a personal dosimeter. Two kinds of radiation effects are known as deterministic and stochastic. The purpose of radiation protection is to suppress the former effect and to set the acceptable level for the latter, for which the equivalent dose limit and effective dose limit, respectively, are defined. Personal exposure dose of a man working at the aligned and expanded radiation field is measured with a survey-meter. Passive-type personal dosimeters have functions of the dose quantification, energy detection, discrimination of radiation sort and 1 cm/70 mc-m dose equivalent calculation. Total personal dose/y of a man must undergo the evaluation and acceptance from aspects of administrative effective dose limit defined. (T.T.)

  16. Fiber-type dosimeter with improved illuminator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, R.J.

    1985-12-23

    A single-piece, molded plastic, Cassigrainian-type condenser arrangement is incorporated in a tubular-shaped personal pocket dosimeter of the type which combines an ionization chamber with an optically-read fiber electrometer to provide improved illumination of the electrometer fiber. The condenser routes incoming light from one end of the dosimeter tubular housing around a central axis charging pin assembly and focuses the light at low angles to the axis so that it falls within the acceptance angle of the electrometer fiber objective lens viewed through an eyepiece lens disposed in the opposite end of the dosimeter. This results in improved fiber illumination and fiber image contrast.

  17. Nevada Test Site 2007 Waste Management Monitoring Report Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2008-06-01

    Environmental monitoring data were collected at and around the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) at the Nevada Test Site. These data are associated with radiation exposure, air, groundwater, meteorology, vadose zone, subsidence, and biota. This report summarizes the 2007 environmental data to provide an overall evaluation of RWMS performance and to support environmental compliance and performance assessment (PA) activities. Some of these data (e.g., radiation exposure, air, and groundwater) are presented in other reports (National Security Technologies, LLC, 2007a; 2008; Warren and Grossman, 2008). Direct radiation monitoring data indicate exposure levels at the RWMSs are at background levels. Air monitoring data at the Area 3 and Area 5 RWMSs indicate that tritium concentrations are slightly above background levels. A single gamma spectroscopy measurement for cesium was slightly above the minimum detectable concentration, and concentrations of americium and plutonium are only slightly above detection limits at the Area 3 RWMS. The measured levels of radionuclides in air particulates are below derived concentration guides for these radionuclides. Radon flux from waste covers is well below regulatory limits. Groundwater monitoring data indicate that the groundwater in the uppermost aquifer beneath the Area 5 RWMS is not impacted by facility operations. The 136.8 millimeters (mm) (5.39 inches [in.]) of precipitation at the Area 3 RWMS during 2007 is 13 percent below the average of 158.1 mm (6.22 in.), and the 123.8 mm (4.87 in.) of precipitation at the Area 5 RWMS during 2007 is 6 percent below the average of 130.7 mm (5.15 in.). Soil-gas tritium monitoring at borehole GCD-05U continues to show slow subsurface migration consistent with previous results. Water balance measurements indicate that evapotranspiration from the vegetated weighing lysimeter dries the soil and prevents downward movement percolation of precipitation more effectively

  18. Nevada Test Site 2007 Waste Management Monitoring Report Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental monitoring data were collected at and around the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) at the Nevada Test Site. These data are associated with radiation exposure, air, groundwater, meteorology, vadose zone, subsidence, and biota. This report summarizes the 2007 environmental data to provide an overall evaluation of RWMS performance and to support environmental compliance and performance assessment (PA) activities. Some of these data (e.g., radiation exposure, air, and groundwater) are presented in other reports (National Security Technologies, LLC, 2007a; 2008; Warren and Grossman, 2008). Direct radiation monitoring data indicate exposure levels at the RWMSs are at background levels. Air monitoring data at the Area 3 and Area 5 RWMSs indicate that tritium concentrations are slightly above background levels. A single gamma spectroscopy measurement for cesium was slightly above the minimum detectable concentration, and concentrations of americium and plutonium are only slightly above detection limits at the Area 3 RWMS. The measured levels of radionuclides in air particulates are below derived concentration guides for these radionuclides. Radon flux from waste covers is well below regulatory limits. Groundwater monitoring data indicate that the groundwater in the uppermost aquifer beneath the Area 5 RWMS is not impacted by facility operations. The 136.8 millimeters (mm) (5.39 inches [in.]) of precipitation at the Area 3 RWMS during 2007 is 13 percent below the average of 158.1 mm (6.22 in.), and the 123.8 mm (4.87 in.) of precipitation at the Area 5 RWMS during 2007 is 6 percent below the average of 130.7 mm (5.15 in.). Soil-gas tritium monitoring at borehole GCD-05U continues to show slow subsurface migration consistent with previous results. Water balance measurements indicate that evapotranspiration from the vegetated weighing lysimeter dries the soil and prevents downward movement percolation of precipitation more effectively

  19. OFFSITE ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING REPORT: RADIATION MONITORING AROUND UNITED STATES NUCLEAR TEST AREAS, CALENDAR YEAR 1980

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory in Las Vegas continued its Offsite Radiological Safety Program for the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and other sites of past underground nuclear tests. For each test, the Laboratory provided airborne ...

  20. Research on fiber-based portable large area surface contamination monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Large area portable surface contamination monitor is suitable searching the hot point, especially in the situations of large contamination area such as work site radioactive monitoring, nuclear facility decommissioning or nuclear emergency response. This paper focus on beta radioactive surface contamination. Through researching upon the detector which is made of large area plastic scintillation coupled with fibers, the first large area plastic scintillation surface contamination monitor was established. The effective area of detector reaches 1200 cm2. The verifying experiments indicates that the detection efficiency to 90Sr-90Y plate source comes to 7%. The results show this kind of detector is competent for beta radioactive surface contamination. This work laid a foundation for research and development of the relative instrument. (authors)

  1. Nevada National Security Site 2011 Waste Management Monitoring Report, Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2012-07-31

    Environmental monitoring data are collected at and around the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). These data are associated with radiation exposure, air, groundwater, meteorology, and vadose zone. This report summarizes the 2011 environmental data to provide an overall evaluation of RWMS performance and to support environmental compliance and performance assessment (PA) activities. Some of these data (e.g., radiation exposure, air, and groundwater) are presented in other reports. Direct radiation monitoring data indicate exposure levels at the RWMSs are within the range of background levels measured at the NNSS. Slightly elevated exposure levels outside the Area 3 RWMS are attributed to nearby historical aboveground nuclear weapons tests. Air monitoring data show tritium concentrations in water vapor and americium and plutonium concentrations in air particles are only slightly above detection limits and background levels. The measured levels of radionuclides in air particulates and moisture are below derived concentration guides for these radionuclides. During the last 2 weeks of March 2011, gamma spectroscopy results for air particles showed measurable activities of iodine-131 (131I), cesium-134 (134Cs), and cesium-137 (137Cs). These results are attributed to the release of fission products from the damaged Fukushima Daiichi power plant in Japan. The remaining gamma spectroscopy results for air particulates collected at the Area 3 and Area 5 RWMS were below minimum detectable concentrations. Groundwater monitoring data indicate the groundwater in the uppermost aquifer beneath the Area 5 RWMS is not impacted by RWMS operations. Results of groundwater analysis from wells around the Area 5 RWMS were all below established investigation levels. The 86.3 millimeters (mm) (3.40 inches [in.]) of precipitation at the Area 3 RWMS during 2011 is 44% below the average of 154.1 mm (6.07 in.), and the 64.8 mm

  2. Air quality in the Greater Madrid area. Monitoring campaign in November 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Growing concern about air quality in the greater area has initiated local authorities to undertake a series of investigations. Supplementing a long-term monitoring campaign with NO sup 2 diffusion tubes, a monitoring survey on pollutants distribution in the area took place in November 1990 when the meteorological conditions were expected to be favourable to an accumulation of pollutants released by fumes from traffic and from domestic heating. Measurements acquired by a specially equipped mobile unit in different quarters of the city enabled us to get a detailed view of pollutant distribution, thus adding information for better siting of monitoring stations within the network. 58 figs., 5 tabs

  3. Design and implementation on wireless transmission platform of area radiation monitoring data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To solve data transmission problems of radiation area monitoring system, Wireless transmission platform is built based on ZigBee module, thus wireless transmission between the radiation area central node and the monitoring points is achieved. It introduces the framework of ZigBee protocol, APL applications between FFD and RFD module, FFD, module and central node host, and RFD module and monitoring equipment, are developed using simplified protocol stack. Wireless network is set up using a FFD module and two RFD modules, the results show that RSSI are above 50, and the data communication is normal for the transmission distance of 60 m. (authors)

  4. The monitoring technology of geological hazards in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area and its prospects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN Song; JIANG De-yi; YANG Chun-he; GUO Wei

    2007-01-01

    It summarized current application statuses of the monitoring technology of geological hazard in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area. Considering the defects of the current monitoring technology of geological hazard, the new remote and centralized monitoring system of geological hazard based on the Internet was established. It also introduced its theory, structure, application and prospect in detail. The new monitoring system can prevent the geologic disaster from happening, and control the danger of it, and improve upon the level of management, and gather head the ability of preventing disaster, and reduce the running cost of the system.

  5. Evaluation of the implementation and use of active personal dosimeters for neutrons in Brazil; Evaluacion de la implementacion y del uso de los dosimetros individuales activos para neutrones en el Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro B, C. P.; Wagner P, W.; De Souza P, K. C., E-mail: karla@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria, Av. Salvador Allende s/n, Recreio Bandeirantes, 22780-160 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2014-08-15

    This work was conducted through of a field research based on a questionnaire sent to users of active personal dosimeters. A retrospective study of the last six years was also carried out of the services in the Neutron Metrology Laboratory (2008-2013) referent to the active personal dosimeters, taking into consideration the standards ISO-8529-3 and IEC-61526. The active personal dosimeters are defined as any instrument of individual monitoring with direct reading capacity, used by individuals exposed to ionizing radiation fields. Through research was verified that the active personal dosimeters work associated with other dosimeter types. Considering all dosimeters declared in the questionnaire, only two dosimeters (MGP brand Dmc 2000-GN model and the brand ATOMTEX model AT2503A) have conformity declaration with the international standard IEC-61526: 2005 reported by the manufacturers. (author)

  6. Environmental Monitoring Plan for Waste Area Grouping 6 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document presents the Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) for Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 6 at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Based on the results of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Facility Investigation (RFI) and on subsequent discussions with regulators, a decision was made to defer implementing source control remedial measures at the WAG. The alternative selected to address the risks associated with WAG 6 involves maintenance of site access controls prevent public exposure to on-site contaminants, continued monitoring of contaminant releases determine if source control measures are required, and development of technologies that could support the final remediation of WAG 6. Although active source control measures are not being implemented at WAG 6, environmental monitoring is necessary to ensure that any potential changes in contaminant release from the WAG are identified early enough to take appropriate action. Two types of environmental monitoring will be conducted: baseline monitoring and annual routine monitoring. The baseline monitoring will be conducted to establish the baseline contaminant release conditions at the WAG, confirm the site-related chemicals of concern (COCs), and gather data to confirm the site hydrologic model. The baseline monitoring is expected to begin in 1994 and last for 12--18 months. The annual routine monitoring will consist of continued sampling and analyses of COCs to determine off-WAG contaminant flux and risk, identify mills in releases, and confirm the primary contributors to risk. The annual routine monitoring will continue for ∼ 4 years after completion of the baseline monitoring

  7. Environmental Monitoring Plan for Waste Area Grouping 6 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    This document presents the Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) for Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 6 at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Based on the results of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Facility Investigation (RFI) and on subsequent discussions with regulators, a decision was made to defer implementing source control remedial measures at the WAG. The alternative selected to address the risks associated with WAG 6 involves maintenance of site access controls prevent public exposure to on-site contaminants, continued monitoring of contaminant releases determine if source control measures are required, and development of technologies that could support the final remediation of WAG 6. Although active source control measures are not being implemented at WAG 6, environmental monitoring is necessary to ensure that any potential changes in contaminant release from the WAG are identified early enough to take appropriate action. Two types of environmental monitoring will be conducted: baseline monitoring and annual routine monitoring. The baseline monitoring will be conducted to establish the baseline contaminant release conditions at the WAG, confirm the site-related chemicals of concern (COCs), and gather data to confirm the site hydrologic model. The baseline monitoring is expected to begin in 1994 and last for 12--18 months. The annual routine monitoring will consist of continued sampling and analyses of COCs to determine off-WAG contaminant flux and risk, identify mills in releases, and confirm the primary contributors to risk. The annual routine monitoring will continue for {approximately} 4 years after completion of the baseline monitoring.

  8. Monitoring Plan for Fiscal Year 1999 Borehole Logging at 200 East Area Specific Retention Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Hanford Groundwater Monitoring Project's vadose zone monitoring effort for fiscal year (FY) 1999 involves monitoring 30 boreholes for moisture content and gamma-ray emitting radionuclides. The boreholes are associated with specific retention trenches and cribs in the 200 East Area of the Hanford Site. The facilities to be monitored are the 216-A-2, -4, and -7 cribs, the 216-A-18 trench, the 216-B-14 through -19 cribs, the 216-B-20 through -34, -53A, and -58 trenches, the 216-B-35 through -42 trenches, and the 216-C-5 crib. This monitoring plan describes the facilities and the vadose zone at the cribs and trenches to be monitored; the field activities to be accomplished; the constituents of interest and the monitoring methods, including calibration issues; and the quality assurance and quality control requirements governing the monitoring effort. The results from the FY 1999 monitoring will show the current configuration of subsurface contamination and will be compared with past monitoring results to determine whether changes in contaminant distribution have occurred since the last monitoring effort

  9. Groundwater Monitoring Plan for the Z-Area Saltstone Disposal Facility, Revision 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groundwater monitoring has been conducted at the Z-Area Saltstone Disposal Facility since 1987. At that time, groundwater monitoring was not required by the industrial landfill regulations, but a modest monitoring program was required by the operating permit. At the time of the 1996 permit renewal, it was determined that a more robust monitoring program was needed. The draft permit required new monitoring wells within 25 feet of each active disposal cell. As an alternative, SRS proposed a program based on direct push sampling. This program called for biennial direct push sampling within 25 feet of each waste-containing cell with additional samples being taken in areas where excessive cracking had been observed. The direct push proposal was accepted by The South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC), and was incorporated by reference into the Z-Area Saltstone Industrial Solid Waste Permit, No.025500-1603. The Industrial Solid Waste Landfill Regulations were revised in 1998 and now include specific requirements for groundwater monitoring. SRS's plan for complying with those regulations is discussed below. The plan calls for a return to traditional monitoring with permanent wells. It also proposes a more technically sound monitoring list based on the actual composition of saltstone

  10. Impact of the Fukushima nuclear accident on background radiation doses measured by control dosimeters in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanyukha, Alexander; King, David L; Kennemur, Lisa K

    2012-05-01

    After the 9.0 magnitude earthquake and subsequent massive tsunami on 11 March 2011 in Japan, several reactors at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant suffered severe damage. There was immediate participation of U.S. Navy vessels and other United States Department of Defense (DoD) teams that were already in the area at the time of the disaster or arrived shortly thereafter. The correct determination of occupational dose equivalent requires estimation of the background dose component measured by control dosimeters, which is subsequently subtracted from the total dose equivalent measured by personal dosimeters. The purpose of the control dosimeters is to determine the amount of radiation dose equivalent that has accumulated on the dosimeter from background or other non-occupational sources while they are in transit or being stored. Given the release of radioactive material and potential exposure to radiation from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant and the process by which the U.S. Navy calculates occupational exposure to ionizing radiation, analysis of pre- and post-event control dosimeters is warranted. Several hundred historical dose records from the Naval Dosimetry Center (NDC) database were analyzed and compared with the post-accident dose equivalent data of control dosimeters. As result, it was shown that the dose contribution of the radiation and released radiological materials from the Fukushima nuclear accident to background radiation doses is less than 0.375 μSv d for shallow and deep photon dose equivalent. There is no measurable effect on neutron background exposure. The latter has at least two important conclusions. First, the NDC can use doses measured by control dosimeters at issuing sites in Japan for determination of personnel dose equivalents; second, the dose data from control dosimeters prior to and after the Fukushima accident may be used to assist in dose reconstruction of non-radiological (non-badged) personnel at these locations

  11. Nevada National Security Site 2010 Waste Management Monitoring Report Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2011-06-01

    Environmental monitoring data were collected at and around the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). These data are associated with radiation exposure, air, groundwater, meteorology, vadose zone, subsidence, and biota. This report summarizes the 2010 environmental data to provide an overall evaluation of RWMS performance and to support environmental compliance and performance assessment (PA) activities. Some of these data (e.g., radiation exposure, air, and groundwater) are presented in other reports (National Security Technologies, LLC, 2010a; 2010b; 2011). Direct radiation monitoring data indicate exposure levels at the RWMSs are within the range of background levels measured at the NNSS. Air monitoring data at the Area 3 and Area 5 RWMSs indicate that tritium concentrations are slightly above background levels. All gamma spectroscopy results for air particulates collected at the Area 3 and Area 5 RWMS were below the minimum detectable concentrations, and concentrations of americium and plutonium are only slightly above detection limits. The measured levels of radionuclides in air particulates and moisture are below derived concentration guides for these radionuclides. Groundwater monitoring data indicate that the groundwater in the uppermost aquifer beneath the Area 5 RWMS is not impacted by facility operations. The 246.9 millimeters (mm) (9.72 inches [in.]) of precipitation at the Area 3 RWMS during 2010 is 56 percent above the average of 158.7 mm (6.25 in.), and the 190.4 mm (7.50 in.) of precipitation at the Area 5 RWMS during 2010 is 50 percent above the average of 126.7 mm (4.99 in.). Soil-gas tritium monitoring at borehole GCD-05 continues to show slow subsurface migration consistent with previous results. Water balance measurements indicate that evapotranspiration from the vegetated weighing lysimeter dries the soil and prevents downward percolation of precipitation more effectively than

  12. Nevada National Security Site 2010 Waste Management Monitoring Report Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental monitoring data were collected at and around the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). These data are associated with radiation exposure, air, groundwater, meteorology, vadose zone, subsidence, and biota. This report summarizes the 2010 environmental data to provide an overall evaluation of RWMS performance and to support environmental compliance and performance assessment (PA) activities. Some of these data (e.g., radiation exposure, air, and groundwater) are presented in other reports (National Security Technologies, LLC, 2010a; 2010b; 2011). Direct radiation monitoring data indicate exposure levels at the RWMSs are within the range of background levels measured at the NNSS. Air monitoring data at the Area 3 and Area 5 RWMSs indicate that tritium concentrations are slightly above background levels. All gamma spectroscopy results for air particulates collected at the Area 3 and Area 5 RWMS were below the minimum detectable concentrations, and concentrations of americium and plutonium are only slightly above detection limits. The measured levels of radionuclides in air particulates and moisture are below derived concentration guides for these radionuclides. Groundwater monitoring data indicate that the groundwater in the uppermost aquifer beneath the Area 5 RWMS is not impacted by facility operations. The 246.9 millimeters (mm) (9.72 inches [in.]) of precipitation at the Area 3 RWMS during 2010 is 56 percent above the average of 158.7 mm (6.25 in.), and the 190.4 mm (7.50 in.) of precipitation at the Area 5 RWMS during 2010 is 50 percent above the average of 126.7 mm (4.99 in.). Soil-gas tritium monitoring at borehole GCD-05 continues to show slow subsurface migration consistent with previous results. Water balance measurements indicate that evapotranspiration from the vegetated weighing lysimeter dries the soil and prevents downward percolation of precipitation more effectively than

  13. 105KE Basin Area Radiation Monitor System (ARMS) Acceptance Test Procedure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KINKEL, C.C.

    1999-12-14

    This procedure is intended for the Area Radiation Monitoring System, ARMS, that is replacing the existing Programmable Input-Output Processing System, PIOPS, radiation monitoring system in the 105KE basin. The new system will be referred to as the 105KE ARMS, 105KE Area Radiation Monitoring System. This ATP will ensure calibration integrity of the 105KE radiation detector loops. Also, this ATP will test and document the display, printing, alarm output, alarm acknowledgement, upscale check, and security functions. This ATP test is to be performed after completion of the 105KE ARMS installation. The alarm outputs of the 105KE ARMS will be connected to the basin detector alarms, basin annunciator system, and security Alarm Monitoring System, AMS, located in the 200 area Central Alarm Station (CAS).

  14. 105KE Basin Area Radiation Monitor System (ARMS) Acceptance Test Procedure

    CERN Document Server

    Kinkel, C C

    1999-01-01

    This procedure is intended for the Area Radiation Monitoring System, ARMS, that is replacing the existing Programmable Input-Output Processing System, PIOPS, radiation monitoring system in the 105KE basin. The new system will be referred to as the 105KE ARMS, 105KE Area Radiation Monitoring System. This ATP will ensure calibration integrity of the 105KE radiation detector loops. Also, this ATP will test and document the display, printing, alarm output, alarm acknowledgement, upscale check, and security functions. This ATP test is to be performed after completion of the 105KE ARMS installation. The alarm outputs of the 105KE ARMS will be connected to the basin detector alarms, basin annunciator system, and security Alarm Monitoring System, AMS, located in the 200 area Central Alarm Station (CAS).

  15. Prospects for the implementation and integration of information-analytical systems for environmental monitoring area of building construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana Cigikalo

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the prospects for the introduction and implementation of information-analytical systems for environmental monitoring area of building construction. The article describes the current problems in the field of environmental monitoring areas of building construction. As a solution to these problems, proposed creation of an information system implementing a comprehensive environmental monitoring areas of building construction.

  16. Passive dosimeter characteristics and new developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The characteristics of the various personal dosimeters presently used by the national dosimetry services are reviewed Recent developments in this field are also presented, including the Direct Ion Storage technique. (author)

  17. Miniature Active Space Radiation Dosimeter Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Space Micro will extend our Phase I R&D to develop a family of miniature, active space radiation dosimeters/particle counters, with a focus on biological/manned...

  18. Intercomparison measurements with albedo neutron dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the introduction of the albedo dosimeter as the official personal neutron dosimeter the dosimetry services concerned have participated in intercomparison measurements at the PTB. Their albedo dosimeters were irradiated in reference fields produced by unmoderated and D2O-moderated 252Cf neutron sources in the standard irradiation facility of the PTB. Six fields with fluences different in energy and angle distribution could be realised in order to determine the response of the albedo dosimeter. The dose equivalent values evaluated by the services were compared with the reference values of the PTB for the directional dose equivalent H'(10). The results turned out to be essentially dependent on the evaluation method and the choice of the calibration factors. (orig.)

  19. Refinement of the list of constituents for groundwater monitoring at M-area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For several years Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) has been examining ways of reducing monitoring costs. Most of these efforts have been aimed at reducing the number of wells sampled or reducing sample frequency. With regards to monitoring around the M-Area Settling Basin, we are now examining a possible reduction in the number of constituents analyzed. Constituents that can be dropped entirely are nonhazardous inorganics generally referred to as water quality indicators. Monitoring for these parameters is sensible when a facility is in detection monitoring, but it is much less useful at a facility like the M-Area Basin. The water quality indicators are helpful in detecting whether or not a facility has impacted the environment. But their concentrations are not important in themselves. At M-Area, it is well documented that the facility has impacted groundwater quite seriously with a known group of hazardous constituents. So the concentrations of the nonhazardous constituents are of little interest. At M-Area there are 41 Point of Compliance (POC) wells monitoring an area of about .25 square miles and about 236 plume definition wells monitoring the surround 4 square miles. The POC wells form a picket line around the facility and are intended to detect any constituents leaching from it. They are also intended to determine whether such constituents exceed action levels. Plume definition wells are added to define the plume created a particular set or subset of contaminants. The M-Area plume definition wells were installed in several phases over a ten year time span as SRS struggled to define the extent of a large plume of TCE and PCE. These wells were not located for the purpose of monitoring the numerous inorganics and radionuclides on the unit's monitoring list. Many of the inorganics and radionuclides are relatively immobile in groundwater and cannot be expected to appear in the widely scattered TCE/PCE plume definition wells

  20. Nevada National Security Site 2013 Waste Management Monitoring Report Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudson, D. B.

    2014-08-19

    Environmental monitoring data are collected at and around the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) within the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). These data are associated with radiation exposure, air, groundwater, meteorology, and vadose zone. This report summarizes the 2013 environmental data to provide an overall evaluation of RWMS performance and to support environmental compliance and performance assessment (PA) activities. Some of these data (e.g., radiation exposure, air, and groundwater) are presented in other reports (National Security Technologies, LLC, 2013; 2014a; 2014b). Direct radiation monitoring data indicate exposure levels at the RWMSs are within the range of background levels measured at the NNSS. Slightly elevated exposure levels outside the Area 3 RWMS are attributed to nearby historical aboveground nuclear weapons tests. Air monitoring data show tritium concentrations in water vapor and americium and plutonium concentrations in air particles are close to detection limits and background levels. The measured levels of radionuclides in air particulates and moisture are below Derived Concentration Standards for these radionuclides. Groundwater monitoring data indicate the groundwater in the uppermost aquifer beneath the Area 5 RWMS is not impacted by RWMS operations. Results of groundwater analysis from wells around the Area 5 RWMS were all below established investigation levels. Leachate samples collected from the leachate collection system at the mixed low-level waste cell were below established contaminant regulatory limits. The 105.8 millimeters (mm) (4.17 inches [in.]) of precipitation at the Area 3 RWMS during 2013 is 30% below the average of 150.3 mm (5.92 in.), and the 117.5 mm (4.63 in.) of precipitation at the Area 5 RWMS during 2013 is 5% below the average of 123.6 mm (4.86 in.). Water balance measurements indicate that evapotranspiration from the vegetated weighing lysimeter dries the soil and prevents

  1. Nevada National Security Site 2012 Waste Management Monitoring Report Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudson, David B.

    2013-09-10

    Environmental monitoring data are collected at and around the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). These data are associated with radiation exposure, air, groundwater, meteorology, and vadose zone. This report summarizes the 2012 environmental data to provide an overall evaluation of RWMS performance and to support environmental compliance and performance assessment (PA) activities. Some of these data (e.g., radiation exposure, air, and groundwater) are presented in other reports (National Security Technologies, LLC, 2012; 2013a; 2013b). Direct radiation monitoring data indicate exposure levels at the RWMSs are within the range of background levels measured at the NNSS. Slightly elevated exposure levels outside the Area 3 RWMS are attributed to nearby historical aboveground nuclear weapons tests. Air monitoring data show tritium concentrations in water vapor and americium and plutonium concentrations in air particles are only slightly above detection limits and background levels. The measured levels of radionuclides in air particulates and moisture are below Derived Concentration Standards for these radionuclides. Groundwater monitoring data indicate the groundwater in the uppermost aquifer beneath the Area 5 RWMS is not impacted by RWMS operations. Results of groundwater analysis from wells around the Area 5 RWMS were all below established investigation levels. Leachate samples collected from the leachate collection system at the mixed low-level waste cell were below established contaminant regulatory limits. The 133.9 millimeters (mm) (5.27 inches [in.]) of precipitation at the Area 3 RWMS during 2012 is 12% below the average of 153.0 mm (6.02 in.), and the 137.6 mm (5.42 in.) of precipitation at the Area 5 RWMS during 2012 is 11% below the average of 122.4 mm (4.82 in.). Water balance measurements indicate that evapotranspiration from the vegetated weighing lysimeter dries the soil and prevents

  2. Z-Area saltstone disposal facility groundwater monitoring report. First and second quarters 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    This report presents the results of groundwater sampling during the first and second quarters of 1997 in the Z-Area Saltstone Disposal Facility. This report presents only the data for sampling during the first half of 1997 as required by industrial Solid Waste Permit No. 025500-1603. For a detailed discussion of groundwater monitoring in the Z-Area Saltstone Disposal Facility, consult the 1996 Z-Area Saltstone Disposal Annual Report. Appendix A presents the proposed South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Proposed Groundwater Monitoring Standards. Flagging criteria are described in Appendix B. In May 1997 SCDHEC granted approval for seven hydrocone sampling.

  3. Production of new thermoluminescent mini-dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method of producing CaSO4:Dy thermoluminescent mini-dosimeters was reported in 1986 by B W Wessels for determination of the in vivo absorbed dose in radioimmunotherapy, a field in which absorbed dose gradients are important. These dosimeters, which undergo dissolution when used in a liquid environment, showed a sensitivity loss of up to 30% after 4 days of immersion in our tests. Moreover, several studies have shown that biocompatibility problems can occur during in vivo studies in animals. This paper describes the production and testing of a new type of thermoluminescent mini-dosimeter obtained by microextrusion of a mixture of LiF:Mg,Cu,P polypropylene and plastic adjuvants. These dosimeters, in the form of long 400 μm diameter filaments, can be cut to the desired length. The production process allows an LiF:Mg,Cu,P load of up to 50%. Results obtained in external irradiation indicate that these new miniature LiF:Mg,Cu,P dosimeters have good sensitivity (about 1.6 times that of CaSO4:Dy mini-TLDs), homogeneous response within a production batch (mean ±%), response stability in water (0.7% of variation in sensitivity after 2 weeks of immersion) and stability in aqueous solutions at different pH. LiF:Mg,Cu,P mini-dosimeters appear to be highly promising for internal dosimetry, and evaluation is in progress in animals. (author)

  4. Artificial intelligence applications in fixed area monitor for TRIGA reactor building and service building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This system is intended for the protection of personnel working in those areas of the Reactor Building and Service Building where high gamma radiation fields are expected. A detector, sensitive to gamma radiation, is installed in each of the areas to be monitored. The detector will send a signal, proportional to the radiation level in the area, to a corresponding electronic module (Alarm Unit), where the signal will be amplified and checked against alarm set points for possible alarming conditions. In case the field exceeds the alarm set values, the Alarm Unit will produce a signal that will trigger the field alarms (Horn and Beacon) located in the area where the condition occurred. Each Alarm Unit will send a numerical input to central computer command. he system is required to accomplish the following tasks: - Monitors the level of gamma radiation in those areas of the Station where high radiation fields are expected; - Provides a continuous and centralized display of the radiation level in each of the monitored areas. The display shall be in exposure rate units (R/h); - Provides a visual and audible alarm in each monitored areas; Allows the control room operator to check at any time the radiation levels and alarm conditions in each of the monitored areas; - Control room operator shall be alerted of any alarm conditions that occurs in the Station. A typical monitoring loop is composed of the following components: Detector Assembly type: CI-MA - 522 two channels, two ranges; Horn and Beacon Assembly; Remote Indicating Meter with Warning Lights; Central computer; common equipment for all 40 loops. (authors)

  5. Off-site environmental monitoring report: radiation monitoring around United States nuclear test areas, calendar year 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report covers the routine radiation monitoring activities conducted by the Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory-Las Vegas in areas which may be affected by nuclear testing programs of the Department of Energy. This monitoring is conducted to document compliance with standards, to identify trends in environmental radiation, and to provide such information to the public. It summarizes these activities for calendar year 1984. No radioactivity attributable to NTS activities was detectable offsite by the monitoring networks. Using recorded wind data and Pasquill stability categories, atmospheric dispersion calculations based on reported radionuclides releases yield an estimated dose of 1 x 10-3 person-rem to the population within 80 km of the Nevada Test Site during 1983. World-wide fallout of Kr-85, Sr-90, Cs-137, and Pu-239 detected by the monitoring networks would cause maximum exposure to an individual of less than 0.6 mrem per year. Plutonium in air was still detectable along with krypton-85, which continued its gradual increase, as has been reported previously. Cesium and strontium in air were near their detection limits. An occasional net exposure to offsite residents has been detected by the TLD network. On investigation, the cause of such net exposures has been due to personal habits or occupational activities, not to NTS activities. 32 refs., 36 figs., 27 tabs

  6. Source area identification with observation from limited monitor sites for air pollution episodes in industrial parks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zihan; Wang, Yuan; Yu, Qi; Ma, Weichun; Zhang, Yan; Chen, Limin

    2015-12-01

    Air pollution episodes of unknown origins are often detected by online equipment for air quality monitoring in industrial parks in China. The number of monitors available to provide observation data, as well as the source information, is often very limited. In such case, the identification of a potential source area is more practical than the precise back-calculation of the real source. The potential source area which can be deduced from the observation data from limited monitors was concerned in this paper. In order to do the source area identification, two inverse methods, a direct method and a statistical sampling method, were applied with a Gaussian puff model as the forward modeling method. The characteristic of the potential source area was illustrated by case studies. Both synthetic and real cases were presented. The distribution of the source locations and its variation with the other unknown source parameters were mainly focused in the case study. As a screening method, source area identification can be applied not only when the number of effective monitors is limited but also when an ideal number of monitors are available as long as the source information is almost uncertain.

  7. Groundwater quality monitoring well installation for waste area grouping 7 and solid waste storage area 1, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this report is to document the drilling and installation of the groundwater quality monitoring (GQM) wells on the perimeter of Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 7 and at Solid Waste Storage Area (SWSA) 1, which is a part of WAG 1. Installation of GQM wells was required at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for regulatory compliance. Data obtained from these wells will be used to characterize and assess groundwater quality at the perimeter of each WAG in accordance with applicable Department of Energy, state, and Environmental Protection Agency regulatory requirements. The wells in WAG 7 and SWSA 1 were drilled and developed during the period from June 1989 to March 1990

  8. Locations of criticality alarms and nuclear accident dosimeters at Hanford. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-08-01

    Hanford facilities that contain fissionable materials capable of achieving critical mass are monitored with nuclear accident dosimeters (NADS) in compliance with the requirements of DOE Order 5480.11, Chapter XI, Section 4.c. (DOE 1988). The US Department of Energy (DOE) Richland Field Office (RL) has assigned the responsibility for maintaining and evaluating the Hanford NAD system to the Instrumentation and External Dosimetry (I&ED) Section of Pacific Northwest Laboratory`s (PNL`s) Health Physics Department. This manual provides a description of the Hanford NAD, criteria and instructions for proper NAD placement, and the locations of these dosimeters onsite.

  9. Offsite environmental monitoring report. Radiation monitoring around United States nuclear test areas, calendar year 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, S.C.; Grossman, R.F.; Mullen, A.A.; Potter, G.D.; Smith, D.D.; Hopper, J.L. (comps.)

    1982-08-01

    This report, prepared in accordance with the guidelines in DOE/E-0023 (DOE 1981), covers the program activities conducted around Nevada Test Site (NTS) for calendar year 1981. It contains descriptions of pertinent features of the NTS and its environs, summaries of the dosimetry and sampling methods, analytical procedures, and the analytical results from environmental measurements. Where applicable, dosimetry and sampling data are compared to appropriate guides for external and internal exposures of humans to ionizing radiation. The monitoring networks detected no radioactivity in the various media which could be attributed to US nuclear testing. Small amounts of fission products were detected in air samples as a result of the People's Republic of China nuclear test and atmospheric krypton-85 increased, following the trend beginning in 1960, due to increased use of nuclear technology. Strontium-90 in milk and cesium-137 in meat samples continued the slow decline as observed for the last several years.

  10. Offsite environmental monitoring report. Radiation monitoring around United States nuclear test areas, calendar year 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report, prepared in accordance with the guidelines in DOE/E-0023 (DOE 1981), covers the program activities conducted around Nevada Test Site (NTS) for calendar year 1981. It contains descriptions of pertinent features of the NTS and its environs, summaries of the dosimetry and sampling methods, analytical procedures, and the analytical results from environmental measurements. Where applicable, dosimetry and sampling data are compared to appropriate guides for external and internal exposures of humans to ionizing radiation. The monitoring networks detected no radioactivity in the various media which could be attributed to US nuclear testing. Small amounts of fission products were detected in air samples as a result of the People's Republic of China nuclear test and atmospheric krypton-85 increased, following the trend beginning in 1960, due to increased use of nuclear technology. Strontium-90 in milk and cesium-137 in meat samples continued the slow decline as observed for the last several years

  11. Air pollution monitoring network on Milan district area structure and results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavallaro, A.; Gualdi, R.; Tebaldi, G.

    1977-01-01

    A discussion of air pollution surveillance in the Milan area covers the geographic and winter characteristics of the Milan area; the monitoring network established by the Provincial Laboratory of Hygiene and Prophylaxis, including 25 sulfur dioxide monitors, 3 automatic dust monitors, 6 weather stations, 2 nitrogen oxide monitors, 3 airport noise sensors, and a coordination center; the statistical procedures used to analyze sulfur dioxide concentration data for each month during the period Oct.-Mar. of the winters of 1970-71 through 1974-75; and concludes that the reduction in sulfur dioxide levels is caused by either the reduction in fuel sulfur content (from 1.77Vertical Bar3< to 1.27Vertical Bar3< in the interval under study) or to improved management of heating plants.

  12. Radiochromic blue tetrazolium film dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The colourless radiochromic chloride salt of blue tetrazolium (BT2+) is reduced radiolytically to the deep violet-coloured formazan. Dosimeter films of this radiation sensor can be produced by dissolving polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) in a heated aqueous solution of the salt, and, upon cooling, by casting the solution on a horizontal glass plate. In the present development, the resulting flexible transparent film is readily stripped from the plate, with a thickness of 0.045 mm. Upon irradiation with gamma rays or electron beams, a permanent image is produced with a broad absorption band in the visible spectrum. The radiation response is approximately a linear function in terms of the increase in optical absorbance (ΔA) measured at λmax 552 nm wavelength versus absorbed dose (D) over the range 5 to 50 kGy. The radiochromic image has a relatively high spatial resolution and can be used to register dose distributions and beam profiles. The value of ΔA shows a gradual increase for the first 24 hours after irradiation but is stable thereafter. The variation of response with irradiation temperature is negligible over the temperature range -20 deg. C to +30 deg. C, but displays a pronounced positive temperature dependence at higher temperatures. The response to gamma radiation shows negligible dose-rate dependence as long as the radiochromic sensor concentration in the PVA matrix is sufficiently high (> 6 % by weight). (author)

  13. F-Area Acid/Caustic Basin groundwater monitoring report: Second quarter 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During second quarter 1992, samples from the six FAC monitoring wells at the F-Area Acid/Caustic Basin were analyzed for herbicides, indicator parameters, major ions, pesticides, radionuclides, turbidity, volatile organic compounds, and other constituents. Monitoring results that exceeded the US Environmental Protection Agency's Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or the Savannah River Site flagging criteria or turbidity standards during the quarter are the focus of this report

  14. F-Area Acid/Caustic Basin groundwater monitoring report: Second quarter 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, C.Y.

    1992-09-01

    During second quarter 1992, samples from the six FAC monitoring wells at the F-Area Acid/Caustic Basin were analyzed for herbicides, indicator parameters, major ions, pesticides, radionuclides, turbidity, volatile organic compounds, and other constituents. Monitoring results that exceeded the US Environmental Protection Agency's Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or the Savannah River Site flagging criteria or turbidity standards during the quarter are the focus of this report.

  15. F-Area Acid/Caustic Basin groundwater monitoring report: Second quarter 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, C.Y.

    1992-09-01

    During second quarter 1992, samples from the six FAC monitoring wells at the F-Area Acid/Caustic Basin were analyzed for herbicides, indicator parameters, major ions, pesticides, radionuclides, turbidity, volatile organic compounds, and other constituents. Monitoring results that exceeded the US Environmental Protection Agency`s Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or the Savannah River Site flagging criteria or turbidity standards during the quarter are the focus of this report.

  16. K-Area Acid/Caustic Basin Groundwater Monitoring Report. Fourth Quarter 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During fourth quarter 1994, samples from the KAC monitoring wells at the K-Area Acid/Caustic Basin were collected and analyzed for herbicides/pesticides, indicator parameters, metals, nitrate, radionuclide indicators, and other constituents. Monitoring results that exceeded the final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS), other Savannah River Site (SRS) Flag 2 criteria, or the SRS turbidity standard are provided in this report

  17. GROUND DEFORMATION MONITORING IN QINGDAO COASTAL AREAS BY TIME-SERIES TERRASAR-X IMAGES

    OpenAIRE

    Hou, A. Y.; Qiao, X.; Li, D.

    2016-01-01

    As a new generation of high resolution and short revisit period of radar satellite, TerraSAR-X is not only able to meet the requirements of monitoring large scale surface subsidence, but also make it possible to monitor the small deformation of the short period. This articles takes the coastal areas of the west coast of Qingdao as the research object. With Small baselines subsets interferometry synthetic aperture radar (SBASI), this paper obtained the period the average annual rate of change ...

  18. Performance evaluation of a Wireless Body Area sensor network for remote patient monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Jamil Y; Yuce, Mehmet R; Karami, Farbood

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, interests in the application of Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN) have grown considerably. A WBAN can be used to develop a patient monitoring system which offers flexibility and mobility to patients. Use of a WBAN will also allow the flexibility of setting up a remote monitoring system via either the internet or an intranet. For such medical systems it is very important that a WBAN can collect and transmit data reliably, and in a timely manner to the monitoring entity. In this paper we examine the performance of an IEEE802.15.4/Zigbee MAC based WBAN operating in different patient monitoring environment. We study the performance of a remote patient monitoring system using an OPNET based simulation model. PMID:19162897

  19. Development of a photogrammetry technique for large-area deformation monitoring in coal mining areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The investigations of ground movements in coal mining areas during the past 10 years have been performed by methods of aerial photogrammetry. The ground points used for the determination of the movement in urban areas are manhole covers. The measurements must be repeated every three or four years. These facts have motivated the development of a new automatic method for measuring photo coordinates. This method is implemented on the Rollei RS1 (Reseau-Scanner Monocomparator. The approximate photo coordinates that are needed for this instrument can be computed from the old ground coordinates of each point. The manhole cover will be first recognised with a sort of template matching. Its central point will then be computed by using an ellipse operator. (orig.)

  20. Facility effluent monitoring plan for K Area Spent Fuel. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The scope of this document includes program plans for monitoring and characterizing radioactive and nonradioactive hazardous materials discharged in the K Area effluents. This FEMP includes complete documentation for both airborne and liquid effluent monitoring systems that monitor radioactive and nonradioactive hazardous pollutants that could be discharged to the environment under routine and/or upset conditions. This documentation is provided for each K Area facility that uses, generates, releases, or manages significant quantities of radioactive and nonradioactive hazardous materials that could impact public and employee safety and the environment. This FEW describes the airborne and liquid effluent paths and the associated sampling and monitoring systems of the K Area facilities. Sufficient information is provided on the effluent characteristics and the effluent monitoring systems so that a compliance assessment against requirements may be performed. Adequate details are supplied such that radioactive and hazardous material source terms may be related to specific effluent streams which are, in turn, related to discharge points and finally compared to the effluent monitoring system capability

  1. Development of a portable system to test area monitors for neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective is to develop a portable system to test the reliability in terms of calibration of area monitors for neutrons. For the production of this system, thickness and location of the source within the system were simulated using the code of radiation transport MCNP5. The thicknesses were set for a 241Am-Be source with an activity of 395 mCi, which will be in a polyethylene cylinder which will provide a ambient dose equivalent rate chosen through the points of calibration settings' used by the Laboratory of Neutrons (IRD / CNEN). The results obtained in this study show the feasibility of mounting the portable system as a tool to test the area monitors for neutrons, which will provide the user of neutron area monitors to check the instrument's response in the same field of operation, thus avoiding the use of an inadequate equipment. (author)

  2. MONITORING THE POLLUTION OF GROUNDWATER IN THE AREA OF INDUSTRIAL WASTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. LUCA

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring of the underground water pollution in the deposit of waste inindustrial area. The paper presents the monitoring of the pollution phenomenon ofunderground water in the industrial landfill area. Industrial landfill causes pronouncedunderground water pollution in the operation phase, but also in the conservation phase.The pollution monitoring is carried out on all environmental components: air, soil andunderground water. Pollution phenomenon is analyzed in time by using a tracking anddata reception characteristic control section. The data taken is processed and interpreted toachieve the best environmental measures in the area of the landfill site. By usingsimulation models provides a forecast of the pollution in different periods of time. Thesimulation model is applicable to the operating period taking into account the change inquantities and concentrations of pollutants. This paper presents remediation measuresappropriate to the type of industrial landfill analyzed. The results obtained allow modelingof environmental protection measures and especially the subsoil and groundwater.

  3. INNOVATIVE REMEDIATION AND MONITORING SYSTEM INSIDE AN AREA USED FOR PAPER SLUDGE RECOVERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerio Marroni

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available An innovative bioremediation technology and strategy were applied to a former-quarry area in Imola (BO – Italy concerned by an incorrect environmental restoration of paper sludge, with subsequent uncontrolled biogas production and migration to the adjacent area. An Emergency Plan was implemented by the isolation of the buried sludge area and a characterization project was performed to define an appropriate permanently safe recovery. An innovative biological in situ treatment, avoiding paper sludge removal, was adopted; it was based on the use of tailored compost and enzymes to reduce methane production and concentration. This was integrated by specific monitoring piezometers for both biogas (CH4, CO2 and oxygen monthly measurements, and also the application of a respirometric technique application to buried sludge for assessing its stabilisation under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. This communication describes the strategy used, the treatment and monitoring system and the results of 3 years field pilot application. Monitoring work is still in progress.

  4. THE MONITORING OF SURFACE WATER BODIES (RIVERS) FROM TISA CATCHMENT AREA - MARAMUREŞ COUNTY IN 2014

    OpenAIRE

    GABRIELA ANDREEA DESPESCU; S. NACU; BĂTINAŞ R

    2016-01-01

    This study is focused on the monitoring and evaluation of river’s water bodies from Maramureş County, using the methodology associated with the EU Water Framework Directive 60/2000. Thus, in the first part are defined the theoretical terms of monitoring activities related to the water bodies’ quality and the specific features of those we can find in the studied area. There are presented the water bodies’ features, quality indicators and the monitoring frequencies for the rivers situated in th...

  5. First and second quarters 1999 -- TNX Area groundwater and effectiveness monitoring strategy data only report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chase, J.

    1999-12-17

    This report presents data of groundwater monitoring conducted during the first and second quarters of 1999 in support of the Interim Remedial Action. The data is from groundwater monitoring wells described in this report as the primary, secondary, and recovery wells of the initial operation of the Effectiveness Monitoring Strategy (EMS) as stipulated in Revision 1.3 (WSRC, 1996), the proposed wells for the full operation of the EMS as described in Revision 1.5 (WSRC, 1999), and general wells pertinent to the report. Also included are data from SRTC projects in the TNX Area that are deemed useful for groundwater characterization.

  6. Electromagnetic interference of wireless local area network on electrocardiogram monitoring system: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Seungmin; Yi, Joohee; Park, Seung Woo

    2013-03-01

    Electromagnetic interference (EMI) can affect various medical devices. Herein, we report the case of EMI from wireless local area network (WLAN) on an electrocardiogram (ECG) monitoring system. A patient who had a prior myocardial infarction participated in the cardiac rehabilitation program in the sports medicine center of our hospital under the wireless ECG monitoring system. After WLAN was installed, wireless ECG monitoring system failed to show a proper ECG signal. ECG signal was distorted when WLAN was turned on, but it was normalized after turning off the WLAN. PMID:23613696

  7. The importance of using the dosimeter in medical professionals in the hemodynamic service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the medical exposure to ionizing radiation of X type in a interventional radiology service, of an university hospital, making a correlation with the importance of using dosimeters for monitoring the effective dose in individuals occupationally exposed (IOE). It was performed an analysis of radiation doses in two stages: the first there was not guidance on the need of using dosimeters; in the second time the professionals performed all procedures carrying the dosimeter. The result showed an average effective dose of professionals / year of 8.60 mSv at first moment, against a dose of 27.41 mSv in the second time after the routine of use the dosimeters, surpassing, in this second phase, the annual dose rate allowed by current radiation protection legislation, which calls for 20 mSv / year for professional. The comparison result in an increase of effective dose of professionals in nearly 300%. It is concluded that the implementation a continuing education project, including awareness of the importance in daily use dosimeter, shows up as a solution for optimizing the dose of these occupationally exposed individuals

  8. Influence of the exposure time in the area monitors at radiodiagnostic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leyton, Fernando, E-mail: leyton.fernando@gmail.com [Faculty of Health and Odontology, Diego Portales University, Santiago, Chile and Study Center in Radiological Sciences (CECRAD), Tarapaca University, Arica (Chile); Navarro, Marcus; Macedo, Eric; Navarro, Valeria; Garcia, Igor; Pereira, Lara [Instituto Federal da Bahia (LABPROSAUD/IFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Laboratorio de Produtos para a Saude; Ferreira, Mario [Universidade do Estado da Bahia (UNEB), Salvador, BA (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Area monitoring ensures radiation exposure at an acceptable level, which must be lower than the legal limit. Experimental measurements were taken in a ionizing radiation calibration laboratory. The specified reference radiation to radiation protection N80 was used. Five area monitors were used. The ranges of dose rate inaccuracy measured in rate mode for times ≤ 2 and ≥ 3 s were from 10 to 48 % and from 1 to 15 %, respectively. The inaccuracy ranges measured in integrated mode for times ≤ 2 and ≥ 3 s were from 4 to 8 % and from 0 to 22 %, respectively. (author)

  9. K-Area Acid/Caustic Basin groundwater monitoring report. First quarter 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During first quarter 1995, samples from the KAC monitoring wells at the K-Area Acid/Caustic Basin were collected and analyzed for herbicides/pesticides, indicator parameters, metals, nitrate, radionuclide indicators, and other constituents. Monitoring results that exceeded the final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS), other Savannah River Site (SRS) Flag 2 criteria, or the SRS turbidity standard are provided in this report. No constituents exceeded the final PDWS in the KAC wells. Aluminum and iron exceeded other SRS flagging criteria in one or more of the downgradient wells. Groundwater flow direction and rate in the water table beneath the K- Area Acid/Caustic Basin were similar to past quarters

  10. An RF dosimeter for independent SAR measurement in MRI scanners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The monitoring and management of radio frequency (RF) exposure is critical for ensuring magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) safety. Commercial MRI scanners can overestimate specific absorption rates (SAR) and improperly restrict clinical MRI scans or the application of new MRI sequences, while underestimation of SAR can lead to tissue heating and thermal injury. Accurate scanner-independent RF dosimetry is essential for measuring actual exposure when SAR is critical for ensuring regulatory compliance and MRI safety, for establishing RF exposure while evaluating interventional leads and devices, and for routine MRI quality assessment by medical physicists. However, at present there are no scanner-independent SAR dosimeters. Methods: An SAR dosimeter with an RF transducer comprises two orthogonal, rectangular copper loops and a spherical MRI phantom. The transducer is placed in the magnet bore and calibrated to approximate the resistive loading of the scanner's whole-body birdcage RF coil for human subjects in Philips, GE and Siemens 3 tesla (3T) MRI scanners. The transducer loop reactances are adjusted to minimize interference with the transmit RF field (B1) at the MRI frequency. Power from the RF transducer is sampled with a high dynamic range power monitor and recorded on a computer. The deposited power is calibrated and tested on eight different MRI scanners. Whole-body absorbed power vs weight and body mass index (BMI) is measured directly on 26 subjects. Results: A single linear calibration curve sufficed for RF dosimetry at 127.8 MHz on three different Philips and three GE 3T MRI scanners. An RF dosimeter operating at 123.2 MHz on two Siemens 3T scanners required a separate transducer and a slightly different calibration curve. Measurement accuracy was ∼3%. With the torso landmarked at the xiphoid, human adult whole‑body absorbed power varied approximately linearly with patient weight and BMI. This indicates that whole-body torso SAR is on average

  11. Coloration mechanism of the CTA film dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been studied what species are responsible for the optical density change (ΔOD) at 280 nm before and after irradiation of the CTA film dosimeter. The ΔOD (280) vs. storage time after irradiation curve, when irradiated in air at room temperature, indicates that the coloration occurs not only during irradiation (in situ coloration) but also after irradiation (post coloration), the former consisting of unstable and stable components. The species responsible for the unstable component of the in situ coloration are ascribed to the CTA radicals on the basis of decay characteristics of the UV and ESR spectra. The stable component, on the other hand, is due to the radiolysis products from both CTA and triphenyl phosphate (TPP) contained in the dosimeter. The post coloration, observed in the dosimeter irradiated in air, does not occur when the dosimeter is irradiated in O2, N2, or vacuo, whereas it proceeds in additive-free CTA film irradiated in air. Therefore, the post coloration may arise from the reaction of NO2 produced by irradiation of air with CTA and TPP. Evidence for this view is provided by an adsorption experiment of NO2 on the CTA film dosimeter. (author)

  12. Statistical evaluation of effluent monitoring data for the 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF) consists of a pair of infiltration basins that receive wastewater originating from the 200 West and 200 East Areas of the Hanford Site. TEDF has been in operation since 1995 and is regulated by State Waste Discharge Permit ST 4502 (Ecology 1995) under the authority of Chapter 90.48 Revised Code of Washington (RCW) and Washington Administrative Code (WAC) Chapter 173-216. The permit stipulates monitoring requirements for effluent (or end-of-pipe) discharges and groundwater monitoring for TEDF. Groundwater monitoring began in 1992 prior to TEDF construction. Routine effluent monitoring in accordance with the permit requirements began in late April 1995 when the facility began operations. The State Waste Discharge Permit ST 4502 included a special permit condition (S.6). This condition specified a statistical study of the variability of permitted constituents in the effluent from TEDF during its first year of operation. The study was designed to (1) demonstrate compliance with the waste discharge permit; (2) determine the variability of all constituents in the effluent that have enforcement limits, early warning values, and monitoring requirements (WHC 1995); and (3) determine if concentrations of permitted constituents vary with season. Additional and more frequent sampling was conducted for the effluent variability study. Statistical evaluation results were provided in Chou and Johnson (1996). Parts of the original first year sampling and analysis plan (WHC 1995) were continued with routine monitoring required up to the present time

  13. Statistical evaluation of effluent monitoring data for the 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CJ Chou; VG Johnson

    2000-04-04

    The 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF) consists of a pair of infiltration basins that receive wastewater originating from the 200 West and 200 East Areas of the Hanford Site. TEDF has been in operation since 1995 and is regulated by State Waste Discharge Permit ST 4502 (Ecology 1995) under the authority of Chapter 90.48 Revised Code of Washington (RCW) and Washington Administrative Code (WAC) Chapter 173-216. The permit stipulates monitoring requirements for effluent (or end-of-pipe) discharges and groundwater monitoring for TEDF. Groundwater monitoring began in 1992 prior to TEDF construction. Routine effluent monitoring in accordance with the permit requirements began in late April 1995 when the facility began operations. The State Waste Discharge Permit ST 4502 included a special permit condition (S.6). This condition specified a statistical study of the variability of permitted constituents in the effluent from TEDF during its first year of operation. The study was designed to (1) demonstrate compliance with the waste discharge permit; (2) determine the variability of all constituents in the effluent that have enforcement limits, early warning values, and monitoring requirements (WHC 1995); and (3) determine if concentrations of permitted constituents vary with season. Additional and more frequent sampling was conducted for the effluent variability study. Statistical evaluation results were provided in Chou and Johnson (1996). Parts of the original first year sampling and analysis plan (WHC 1995) were continued with routine monitoring required up to the present time.

  14. Review of contamination monitoring systems based on large area plastic scintillation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses the applicability of wide area plastic scintillation detectors for contamination monitoring in radiation facilities. Plastic scintillation detectors have proved themselves to be more compliant for beta/gamma contamination monitoring. The detector discussed in this paper has an area of ∼ 500 cm2 and is coupled to matching light guide with an embedded 2 pi sensitive photomultiplier tube. Three systems based on these detectors have been developed and evaluated for their performance. These are (i) Ground surface contamination monitor; (ii) Hand and Foot contamination monitor and (iii) Handheld contamination monitor. A brief review of the experience gained in this development work has been described. The contamination monitoring systems developed with the plastic scintillation detectors are very effective for estimation of contamination in all radiation facilities where beta/gamma contamination levels on ground surfaces, hands and feet of radiation workers as well as their clothes and shoes are to be assessed. The systems equipped with a user friendly interface and high degree of personal comfort to the user serve to help check beta/gamma contamination associated radiation risks. The systems provide a visual alarm to flag contamination levels much lower than the limits fixed by the regulatory authorities

  15. Landslide monitoring at hillside residential area using GPS static and inclinometer techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, Z.; Wan Aziz, W. A.; Anuar, A.

    2012-04-01

    Landslide is one of prominent geohazards that continuously affecting the tropical countries including Malaysia. Frequent occurrences of landslides at hillslopes during the heavy rainy periods have resulted in public fear for the safety of their life and properties. For the past 25 years, many landslides have occurrences have been reported in Klang Valley especially at the hilly terrain residential areas. A landslide monitoring scheme is therefore very crucial and should be carried out continuously. Various studies have been conducted to monitor landslide activities such as conventional geotechnical and geodetic techniques. Each of these techniques has its own advantages and limitations. Therefore, this study focuses on the effectiveness of the combination approach of GPS technology and inclinometer techniques for landslide monitoring. The study area is located at residential area Section 5, Wangsa Maju, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The inclinometer instrument has been placed at five (5) selected monitoring points and three (3) epochs of inclinometer measurements were made. At the same time, the GPS observations have also been carried out for three (3) epochs separately using GPS static techniques. This GPS network consists of four (4) control points and eleven (11) monitoring points. The GPS observations data were validated, processed and adjusted using two (2) adjustment software namely Trimble Geomatic Office (TGO) version 1.6, and GPS Adjustment and Deformation Analysis (GADA). The results have shown that the GPS technique can be implemented with inclinometer technique to detect horizontal displacements up to +/- 30 mm and vertical displacements less than +/- 50 mm.

  16. Nevada Test Site 2000 Annual Data Report: Groundwater Monitoring Program Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is a compilation of the calendar year 2000 groundwater sampling results from the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS). Contamination indicator data are presented in control chart and tabular form with investigation levels (IL) indicated. Gross water chemistry data are presented in graphical and tabular form. Other information in the report includes, the Cumulative Chronology for Area 5 RWMS Groundwater Monitoring Program, a brief description of the site hydrogeology, and the groundwater sampling procedure

  17. Personnel and working area monitoring at the Department of Nuclear Science, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Personnel (staff and student) and working area absorbed dose monitoring at the Department of Nuclear Science from 1984 until September 1993 is reported. Generally average absorbed dose received by the staff and working area were less than 0.5 and 2.0 mSv/yr respectively. The application of low activity of radioactive materials and complying the UKM (Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia) and LPTA (AELB) - Atomic Energy Licensing Board regulations contributing to the low rate recorded. (author)

  18. M-Area hazardous waste management facility groundwater monitoring report -- first quarter 1994. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the groundwater monitoring and corrective action program at the M-Area Hazardous Waste Management Facility (HWMF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) during first quarter 1994 as required by South Carolina Hazardous Waste Permit SC1-890-008-989 and section 264.100(g) of the South Carolina Hazardous Waste Management Regulations. During first quarter 1994, 42 point-of-compliance (POC) wells at the M-Area HWMF were sampled for drinking water parameters

  19. Assessment of radiation exposure of nuclear medicine staff using personal TLD dosimeters and charcoal detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez, F.; Garcia-Talavera, M.; Pardo, R.; Deban, L. [Valladolid Univ., Dept. de Quimica Analitica, Facultad de Ciencias (Spain); Garcia-Talavera, P.; Singi, G.M.; Martin, E. [Hospital Clinico Univ., Servicio de Medicina Nuclear, Salamanca (Spain)

    2006-07-01

    Although the main concern regarding exposure to ionizing radiation for nuclear medicine workers is external radiation, inhalation of radionuclides can significantly contribute to the imparted doses. We propose a new approach to assess exposure to inhalation of {sup 131}I based on passive monitoring using activated charcoal detectors. We compared the inhalation doses to the staff of a nuclear medicine department, based on the measurements derived from charcoal detectors placed at various locations, and the external doses monitored using personal TLD dosimeters. (authors)

  20. Online measurement of the BEPCII background using RadFET dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To monitor the integral dose deposited in the BESIII electromagnetic calorimeter whose performance degrades due to exposure to the BEPC II background, a 400 nm IMPL RadFET dosimeter-based integral dose online monitor system is built. After calibration with the 60Co source and verification with TLD in the pulse radiation fields, an experiment was arranged to measure the BEPC II background online. The results are presented. (authors)

  1. THE MONITORING OF SURFACE WATER BODIES (RIVERS FROM TISA CATCHMENT AREA - MARAMUREŞ COUNTY IN 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GABRIELA ANDREEA DESPESCU

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study is focused on the monitoring and evaluation of river’s water bodies from Maramureş County, using the methodology associated with the EU Water Framework Directive 60/2000. Thus, in the first part are defined the theoretical terms of monitoring activities related to the water bodies’ quality and the specific features of those we can find in the studied area. There are presented the water bodies’ features, quality indicators and the monitoring frequencies for the rivers situated in the Tisa catchment area. The results have shown the actual ecological and chemical state of those water bodies, in relation with the standard values mentioned through the Water Framework Directive.

  2. Radioactivity monitoring of areas near nuclear installations in Baden-Wuerttemberg. Annual report 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the results of radioactivity monitoring in the vicinity of nuclear installations in the year 2004. Monitoring activities comprise the measurement of local gamma dose rates, aerosols and precipitation in the surrounding area, as well as examinations on soil, vegetation, vegetable foods, milk and dairy products, surface waters, sediments, fish and drinking water. Samples are collected year round or seasonally, depending on the medium in question. Due consideration is given to the particular features of a region such as tobacco or wine growing. All data obtained are in the safe range and as far as public radiation exposure is concerned negligible. Newly included in the monitoring programme since 2002 are interim repositories that are required for storing spent fuel elements on the premises of the nuclear power plants in Philippsburg and Neckarwestheim. The programme as well as the monitoring results are attached to this report. Local gamma and neutron dose rates are either below or only slightly above detection threshold

  3. Off-site environmental monitoring report: Radiation monitoring around United States Nuclear Test areas, Calendar year 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The principal activity at the NTS is testing of nuclear devices, though other related projects are also conducted. The principal activities of the Off-Site Radiological Safety Program are routine environmental monitoring for radioactive materials in various media and for radiation in areas which may be affected by nuclear tests; and protective actions in support of the nuclear testing program. These are conducted to document compliance with standards, to identify trends, and to provide information to the public. 28 refs., 37 figs., 30 tabs

  4. A microprocessor based area monitor system for neutron and gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The conventional electronics of the area monitors at the MPI-Heidelberg accelerators have been replaced by a microprocessor system consisting of individual detector-microprocessors and a central microcomputer. The detector microprocessors convert the count rates of BF3 and GM counter tubes into dose rates and control three different radiation thresholds (failure, low and high level). Different warning signals are operated directly by the detector processors, whereas the dose rates are transferred to the central microcomputer. Here the data are processed for recording on tape and displaying on TV monitors. The detector as well as the central processors have been developed on the basis of a 16-bit microprocessor. In the control rooms the dose rates of the individual monitors are displayed and on an indicator board showing the different locations, the high radiation level and the state of the doors (open, locked, and closed, locked but open) are sianaled by different LED. If a high radiation threshold is surpassed, the doors adjacent to that area can be locked either by switches on the indicator board or automatically. Within the experimental area, the low and high radiation level is indicated by acoustic and light signals. The whole concept permits keeping the absorbed doses of the personnel as low as possible without affecting the flexibility of the experimental operations. The independence of the microprocessor driven area monitors guarantees a high reliability. Compared to conventional electronics the advantages of the system are its reliability and cost. (Author)

  5. [2011 after-service customer satisfaction survey of monitoring devices in Shanghai area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lijun; Li, Bin; Qian, Jianguo; Cao, Shaoping; He, Dehua; Zheng, Yunxin

    2013-01-01

    In 2011, Shanghai Medical Equipment Management Quality Control Center launched the fifth after-sale service satisfaction survey for medical devices in Shanghai area. There are 8 classes medical devices involving in the survey. This paper demonstrates the investigation results of monitoring devices which are from different manufacturers. PMID:23668048

  6. Characterization of large-area reference sources for the calibration of beta-contamination monitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janßen, H.; Klein, R.

    1996-02-01

    A method has been developed whereby the activity of a large-area reference source for the calibration of beta-contamination monitors can be determined from a series of measured countrates in a suitable detection system as a function of the distance between the surface of the source and the front face of the detector.

  7. A Study on the Estimation Method of Risk Based Area for Jetty Safety Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byeong-Wook Nam

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the importance of safety-monitoring systems was highlighted by the unprecedented collision between a ship and a jetty in Yeosu. Accordingly, in this study, we introduce the concept of risk based area and develop a methodology for a jetty safety-monitoring system. By calculating the risk based areas for a ship and a jetty, the risk of collision was evaluated. To calculate the risk based areas, we employed an automatic identification system for the ship, stopping-distance equations, and the regulation velocity near the jetty. In this paper, we suggest a risk calculation method for jetty safety monitoring that can determine the collision probability in real time and predict collisions using the amount of overlap between the two calculated risk based areas. A test was conducted at a jetty control center at GS Caltex, and the effectiveness of the proposed risk calculation method was verified. The method is currently applied to the jetty-monitoring system at GS Caltex in Yeosu for the prevention of collisions.

  8. A Low-Cost Sensing System for Cooperative Air Quality Monitoring in Urban Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Brienza

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Air quality in urban areas is a very important topic as it closely affects the health of citizens. Recent studies highlight that the exposure to polluted air can increase the incidence of diseases and deteriorate the quality of life. Hence, it is necessary to develop tools for real-time air quality monitoring, so as to allow appropriate and timely decisions. In this paper, we present uSense, a low-cost cooperative monitoring tool that allows knowing, in real-time, the concentrations of polluting gases in various areas of the city. Specifically, users monitor the areas of their interest by deploying low-cost and low-power sensor nodes. In addition, they can share the collected data following a social networking approach. uSense has been tested through an in-field experimentation performed in different areas of a city. The obtained results are in line with those provided by the local environmental control authority and show that uSense can be profitably used for air quality monitoring.

  9. Revised ground-water monitoring compliance plan for the 300 area process trenches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schalla, R.; Aaberg, R.L.; Bates, D.J.; Carlile, J.V.M.; Freshley, M.D.; Liikala, T.L.; Mitchell, P.J.; Olsen, K.B.; Rieger, J.T.

    1988-09-01

    This document contains ground-water monitoring plans for process-water disposal trenches located on the Hanford Site. These trenches, designated the 300 Area Process Trenches, have been used since 1973 for disposal of water that contains small quantities of both chemicals and radionuclides. The ground-water monitoring plans contained herein represent revision and expansion of an effort initiated in June 1985. At that time, a facility-specific monitoring program was implemented at the 300 Area Process Trenches as part of a regulatory compliance effort for hazardous chemicals being conducted on the Hanford Site. This monitoring program was based on the ground-water monitoring requirements for interim-status facilities, which are those facilities that do not yet have final permits, but are authorized to continue interim operations while engaged in the permitting process. The applicable monitoring requirements are described in the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), 40 CFR 265.90 of the federal regulations, and in WAC 173-303-400 of Washington State's regulations (Washington State Department of Ecology 1986). The program implemented for the process trenches was designed to be an alternate program, which is required instead of the standard detection program when a facility is known or suspected to have contaminated the ground water in the uppermost aquifer. The plans for the program, contained in a document prepared by the US Department of Energy (USDOE) in 1985, called for monthly sampling of 14 of the 37 existing monitoring wells at the 300 Area plus the installation and sampling of 2 new wells. 27 refs., 25 figs., 15 tabs.

  10. Water equivalence of polymer gel dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the water equivalence and radiation transport properties of polymer gel dosimeters over the wide range of photon and electron energies 14 different types of polymer gels were considered. Their water equivalence was evaluated in terms of effective atomic number (Zeff), electron density (ρe), photon mass attenuation coefficient (μ/ρ), photon mass energy absorption coefficient (μen/ρ) and total stopping power (S/ρ)tot of electrons using the XCOM and the ESTAR database. The study showed that the effective atomic number of polymer gels were very close (en/ρ for all polymer gels were in close agreement (tot of electrons in polymer gel dosimeters were within 1% agreement with that of water. From the study we conclude that at lower energy (<80keV) the polymer gel dosimeters cannot be considered water equivalent and study has to be carried out before using the polymer gel for clinical application

  11. Progress in quality control of alanine dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ESR/alanine system has been used for different applications, over several years, as a classical routine dosimetry service. This service is based on alanine dosimeters constituted by pellets manufactured by our laboratory, which are presented with some specifications of use and different parameters bound to the intrinsic quality of the dosimeter itself. These parameters were obtained through the strict application of a production protocol and a validation protocol created, tested and validated under a quality assurance system. Every year, one batch of photon dosimeters is produced and controlled using these protocols and the specifications associated with it are checked. Two categories of data are considered separately: physical parameters and experimental data obtained by measurement on our ESR system are given with their associated standard deviation. (author)

  12. Groundwater Monitoring and Assessment Plan for the 100-K Area Fuel Storage Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    changes to the sampling and analysis schedule involve increases to the number of wells monitored, addition of several key indicator constituents, and a decrease in frequency of sampling for wells adjacent to each basin. Sampling is now conducted on a quarterly or semiannual basis, depending on well location. Monitoring locations near the river have been added to the schedule; these locations are sampled annually and include riverbank seepage sites and aquifer sampling tubes. Data evaluation, interpretation, and reporting subtasks continue as in previous years. A biweekly review of all new analytical results for the 100-K Area is performed. The Hanford Groundwater Monitoring Project provides quarterly interpretive reports via electronic mail to personnel at the Spent Nuclear Fuels Project and the U.S. Department of Energy. A comprehensive description of groundwater conditions is prepared annually as part of the Hanford Groundwater Monitoring Project's fiscal year report

  13. Interim Status Groundwater Monitoring Plan for Low-Level Waste Management Areas 1 to 4, RCRA Facilities, Hanford,Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dresel, P Evan

    2004-10-25

    This document describes the monitoring plan to meet the requirements for interim status groundwater monitoring at Hanford Site low-level waste burial grounds as specified by 40 CFR 265, incorporated by reference in WAC 173-303-400. The monitoring will take place at four separate low-level waste management areas in the 200-West and 200-East Areas, in the central part of the site. This plan replaces the previous monitoring plan.

  14. An automatic evaluation system for NTA film neutron dosimeters

    CERN Document Server

    Müller, R

    1999-01-01

    At CERN, neutron personal monitoring for over 4000 collaborators is performed with Kodak NTA films, which have been shown to be the most suitable neutron dosimeter in the radiation environment around high-energy accelerators. To overcome the lengthy and strenuous manual scanning process with an optical microscope, an automatic analysis system has been developed. We report on the successful automatic scanning of NTA films irradiated with sup 2 sup 3 sup 8 Pu-Be source neutrons, which results in densely ionised recoil tracks, as well as on the extension of the method to higher energy neutrons causing sparse and fragmentary tracks. The application of the method in routine personal monitoring is discussed. $9 overcome the lengthy and strenuous manual scanning process with an optical microscope, an automatic analysis system has been developed. We report on the successful automatic scanning of NTA films irradiated with /sup 238/Pu-Be source $9 discussed. (10 refs).

  15. Calibration of an Electronic Radon Gas Personnel Dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The monitoring of radon exposure at working places is of great importance. Up to now passive measurement systems for the registration of radon gas were used. Recently an Electronic Radon Gas Personal Dosimeter as an active measurement system for the registration of the radon exposure came into the market (DOSEman; Sarad GmbH, Dresden, Germany) In this personal monitor the radon gas diffuses through a membrane into a measurement chamber. A silicon detector system records spectroscopically the alpha decays of the radon gas and of the short-lived progeny 218Po and 214Po gathered onto the detector by an electrical field. The calibration was tested and the following parameters specified for this equipment were checked: diffusion behaviour of the radon gas into the measurement chamber, susceptibility to thoron, efficiency, influence of humidity, accuracy and the detection limit. (author)

  16. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory 300 area facility liquid effluent monitoring: 1994 and 1995 field tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, R.G.; Thompson, C.J.; Damberg, E.G.; Ballinger, M.Y.

    1997-07-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Effluent Management Services manages liquid waste streams from some of the 300 Area buildings on the Hanford Site near Richland, Washington, to ensure liquid discharges to the Columbia River are in compliance with permit requirements. The buildings are owned by the U.S. Department of Energy and operated by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. In fiscal year (FY) 1994 and FY 1995, three field tests were conducted to gather information that could be used to (1) increase the understanding of 300 Area building liquid waste streams based on the characterization and monitoring data collected during calendar year (CY) 1994 and CY 1995 and (2) establish improved methods for evaluating facility releases. The three field tests were (1) an evaluation of a continuous monitoring/event-triggered sampling system, (2) a volatile organic compound hold-time study, and (3) an investigation of the dilution and retention properties of the 300 Area process sewer. The results from the first field test showed that future characterization and monitoring of 300 Area facility liquid waste streams could benefit significantly from augmenting continuous monitoring with event-triggered sampling. Current continuous-monitoring practices (i.e., monitoring of pH, conductivity, and flow) cannot detect discharges of organic pollutants. Effluent control effectiveness would be enhanced by incorporating a continuous total organic carbon analyzer in the system to detect events involving releases of organic compounds. In the second field test, sample hold times were shown to have a significant effect on volatile organic compound data. Samples analyzed in the field within 1 hour of collection generally had 1.5 to 3 times higher volatile organic compound concentrations than those analyzed 1.5 to 4 weeks later at on-site and off-site laboratories, respectively. The number of volatile organic compounds detected also decreased with increasing hold times.

  17. Design of ecoregional monitoring in conservation areas of high-latitude ecosystems under contemporary climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beever, Erik A.; Woodward, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    Land ownership in Alaska includes a mosaic of federally managed units. Within its agency’s context, each unit has its own management strategy, authority, and resources of conservation concern, many of which are migratory animals. Though some units are geographically isolated, many are nevertheless linked by paths of abiotic and biotic flows, such as rivers, air masses, flyways, and terrestrial and aquatic migration routes. Furthermore, individual land units exist within the context of a larger landscape pattern of shifting conditions, requiring managers to understand at larger spatial scales the status and trends in the synchrony and spatial concurrence of species and associated suitable habitats. Results of these changes will determine the ability of Alaska lands to continue to: provide habitat for local and migratory species; absorb species whose ranges are shifting northward; and experience mitigation or exacerbation of climate change through positive and negative atmospheric feedbacks. We discuss the geographic and statutory contexts that influence development of ecological monitoring; argue for the inclusion of significant amounts of broad-scale monitoring; discuss the importance of defining clear programmatic and monitoring objectives; and draw from lessons learned from existing long-term, broad-scale monitoring programs to apply to the specific contexts relevant to high-latitude protected areas such as those in Alaska. Such areas are distinguished by their: marked seasonality; relatively large magnitudes of contemporary change in climatic parameters; and relative inaccessibility due to broad spatial extent, very low (or zero) road density, and steep and glaciated areas. For ecological monitoring to effectively support management decisions in high-latitude areas such as Alaska, a monitoring program ideally would be structured to address the actual spatial and temporal scales of relevant processes, rather than the artificial boundaries of individual land

  18. Diffusion measurement in ferrous infused gel dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: The compositions of Ferrous sulphate, Agarose and Xylenol orange dye and Ferrous sulphate, Gelatin and Xylenol orange dye in solution of distilled water and sulphuric acid are two tissue-equivalent gel dosimeters. Ionizing radiation causes oxidation of Fe2+ ion to Fe3+ ions which diffuse through the gel matrix and blur the image of absorbed dose over a period of hours after irradiation. Materials and methods: 25 m M sulphuric acid, 0.4 mm ferrous ammonium sulphate, 0.2 mm xylenol orange dye and 1% by weight agarose in distilled water named Agarose and Xylenol orange dye and 0.1 mm ferrous ammonium sulphate, 0.1 mm xylenol orange dye, 50 mm sulphuric acid and 5% by weight gelatin in distilled water named Gelatin and Xylenol orange dye are used as two gel dosimeters. All chemicals were supplied by Sigma Ald ridge Company, Germany. The gels were poured in Perspex casts and were irradiated to a beam of X ray from linear accelerators or X ray machine. Results: In this study diffusion coefficients of Agarose and Xylenol orange dye and Gelatin and Xylenol orange dye dosimeters have been measured through a computer program for different temperature. The ferric ion diffusion coefficient (D) for the Agarose and Xylenol orange dye and Gelatin and Xylenol orange dye dosimeters were measured as (1.19.±0.03) x 10-2 cm2.hr -1 and (0.83±0.03) x 10-2 cm2.hr-1 respectively at room temperature. Conclusion: For both dosimeters the diffusion coefficients decreased with gel storage temperatures down to 6 digC. Gelatin and Xylenol orange dye dosimeters have advantage of lower diffusion coefficient for a specified temperature

  19. The study of remote sensing dynamic monitoring for coalfield fire area in Shuixigou, Xinjiang

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dynamic monitoring of fire area is particularly important in the controlling of underground coalfield fire. This paper took the Xinjiang Shuixigou coalfield fire area as an example, through the normalized processing of the multi-temporal thermal infrared images a generalized single-channel algorithm was used to retrieval the surface temperature. Combined with the method of single band optimal density split Sec-segmentation followed by dividing the fire area into the background region, serious combust region and more serious combust region. Thermal anomaly information in the coalfield fire area and analyse the spatial and temporal dynamics change of underground coalfield were calculated as follows:(1)fire area increased 2.03 times between 1990 and 2011, the annual average degree of dynamic changes was 1.28 in the first ten years and increased to 4.57 in the last ten years;(2)the gravity of the little serious area of the coalfield fire integrally moved north to northwest from 1990 to 2001, then northeast from 2001 to 2011;(3)there were three original independent child fire area A, B and C, but A and B merged between 1990 to 2001, C also trended close A and B until 2011. Remote sensing technology provides a feasible method for the dynamic monitoring of coalfield fire area and provides theory basis and scientific guidance for the prevention of coalfield fire disaster and implementation of coalfield fires fighting engineering

  20. Monitoring the expansion of built-up areas in Seberang Perai region, Penang State, Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapid urbanization has caused land use transformation and encroachment of built environment into arable agriculture land. Uncontrolled expansion could bring negative impacts to society, space and the environment. Therefore, information on expansion and future spatial pattern of built-up areas would be useful for planners and decision makers in formulating policies towards managing and planning for sustainable urban development. This study demonstrates the usage of Geographic Information System in monitoring the expansion of built-up area in Seberang Perai region, Penang State, Malaysia. Built-up area has increased by approximately 20% between 1990 and 2001 and further increased by 12% between 2001 and 2007. New development is expected to continue encroach into existing open space and agriculture area since those are the only available land in this study area. The information on statistics of the expansion of built-up area and future spatial pattern of urban expansion were useful in planning and managing urban spatial growth

  1. NONLINEAR RESPONSES OF GAMMA —RAY DOSIMETERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗达玲; 杨健明; 等

    1994-01-01

    Either sublinear or supralinear responses of dosimeters to γ-ray can be described by a response function derived from statistical Poisson distribution.The characteristic parameters of the function determine linearity,sublinearity and supralinearlty in their responses.The experimental data of gamma dose-responses of alanine ESR dosimeters film dosimeters.LiF(Mg,Cu,P) and LiF(Mg,Ti) thermoluminescence dosimeters are used to test the response function.

  2. Calibrating pen dosimeters with and without a phantom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nonato, Fernanda B.C.; Cescon, Claudinei T.; Caldas, Linda V.E., E-mail: fbnonato@ipen.b, E-mail: ctcescon@ipen.b, E-mail: lcaldas@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Thirty one direct reading dosimeters (pen dosimeters) were calibrated and tested in standard beams of gamma radiation, with and without the use of a phantom. The calibration was performed with a Co-60 source and tested with a Cs-137 source. The dose-response curves of the pen dosimeters and their calibration factors for a Co-60 source, with and without the use of a phantom were obtained. The results show the need to calibrate the pen dosimeters with a phantom. (author)

  3. High dose potassium-nitrate chemical dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This dosimeter is used to control 10 kGY-order doses (1 Mrad). Nitrate suffers a radiolitic reduction phenomena, which is related to the given dose. The method to use potassium nitrate as dosimeter is described, as well as effects of the temperature of irradiation, pH, nitrate concentration and post-irradiation stability. Nitrate powder was irradiated at a Semi-Industrial Plant, at Centro Atomico Ezeiza, and also in a Gammacell-220 irradiator. The dose rates used were 2,60 and 1,80 KGY/hour, and the given doses varied between 1,0 and 150 KGY. The uncertainty was +-3% in all the range. (author)

  4. A personal radio-frequency dosimeter with cumulative-dose recording capabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radio-frequency (rf) dosimeter developed by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory is a portable, pocket-sized cumulative-dose recording device designed to detect and record the strengths and durations of electric fields present in the work areas of naval vessels. The device measures an integrated dose and records the electric fields that exceed the permissible levels set by the American National Standards Institute. Features of the rf dosimeter include a frequency range of 30 MHz to 10 GHz and a three-dimensional sensor. Data obtained with the rf dosimeter will be used to determine the ambient field-strength profile for shipboard personnel over an extended time. Readings are acquired and averaged over a 6-min period corresponding to the rise time of the core body temperature. These values are stored for up to 6 months, after which the data are transferred to a computer via the dosimeter's serial port. The rf dosimeter should increase knowledge of the levels of electric fields to which individuals are exposed. 13 refs., 16 figs., 2 tabs

  5. Chemical dosimeter system for mixed neutron and gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    G-values for the Fricke dosimeter and the FeCu dosimeter have been calculated for moderated fission neutrons. By combining these two chemical dosimeters, the fast neutron and gamma doses can be measured separately in a mixed field. (author). 7 refs, 2 tabs

  6. Study of monitoring mining subsidence in coal mining area by D-InSAR technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PEI Liang; LI Wen-jie; TAN Yang

    2008-01-01

    Along with the increasing demand for coal and the great importance attached to mine safety, gaining the information of mine surface distortion timely has already become an urgent need to guarantee the safety of mine production. D-InSAR technology is a new measure which can provide the information of surface distortion in mining areas at centi-meter level through the processing of SAR image gained from radar satellite. In addition, this technology has the advantage of monitoring large areas with no weather limit. Intro-duced the basic principle and data processing steps of D-InSAR systematically and ac-quired the differential interferometry based on case study data. The advantages of D-InSAR and it's usability in monitoring mining subsidence in coal mining areas were proved.

  7. Study of monitoring mining subsidence in coal mining area by D-InSAR technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PEI Liang; LI Wen-jie; TAN Yang

    2008-01-01

    Along with the increasing demand for coal and the great importance attached to mine safety,gaining the information of mine surface distortion timely has already become an urgent need to guarantee the safety of mine production.D-InSAR technology is a new measure which can provide the information of surface distortion in mining areas at centimeter level through the processing of SAR image gained from radar satellite.In addition,this technology has the advantage of monitoring large areas with no weather limit.Introduced the basic principle and data processing steps of D-InSAR systematically and acquired the differential interferometry based on case study data.The advantages of D-InSAR and it's usability in monitoring mining subsidence in coal mining areas were proved.

  8. Forest soil inventory and permanent forest soil monitoring areas in Bavaria - Results in higher mountaneous regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Bavarian forest soil inventory and permanent forest soil monitoring areas programme are important constituents of the Bavarian concept of preventive environmental protection. They afford information on nutrition and pollution of soils in forests, chemical composition of the soil and pollution with heavy metals and radionucleids. Relations between the state of the forests, nutrition and characteristic values of soil chemistry are to are to be elucidated. 46 forest areas and 14 areas under permanent monitoring are located in the peak regions of the Bavarian Alps. Needles of fir trees often display a lack of nitrogen and phosphor. Ph-values, exchange capacities and alkaline saturation are naturally high in lime locations and lower on rocks rich in quartz and silicate. Nitrogen and magnesium reserves in the soil are clearly above average whereas phosphor and sodium reserves are clearly below. Relations between bad conditions of tree tops and low needle level values can be statistically proven for nitrogen only. (orig./EW)

  9. On the application of DInSAR to deformation monitoring in desert areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Xiao-Tao; Guo, Jin-Yun; Zhang, Yong-Hong; Wang, Xiao-Qing

    2011-03-01

    The DInSAR technique is used for monitoring the desert height changes to study sandstorms. Hunshandake Sandy Land, as the test area, is one of the main sources of sandstorms in Beijing. In order to study the sandstorm source and its impact, a pair of EnviSat ASAR images of Oct. 11, 2005, and Oct. 26, 2004, is processed on the basis of analysis of six ERS-2 and EnviSat radar images. After the image configuration, flat earth effect correction, data filtering, phase unwrapping, and geo-coding, a deformation model over Hunshandake desert is built. According to the results, the height decreased in most areas and increased in a few areas, which basically coincides with the strong sandstorm appearing in Beijing in the Spring of 2005. The results show DInSAR has an important role in monitoring of desert surface deformation.

  10. Open hardware, low cost, air quality stations for monitoring ozone in coastal area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Marco; Donzella, Davide; Pintus, Fabio; Fedi, Adriano; Ferrari, Daniele; Massabò, Marco

    2014-05-01

    Ozone concentrations in urban and coastal area are a great concern for citizens and, consequently regulator. In the last 20 years the Ozone concentration is almost doubled and it has attracted the public attention because of the well know harmful impacts on human health and biosphere in general. Official monitoring networks usually comprise high precision, high accuracy observation stations, usually managed by public administrations and environmental agency; unfortunately due to their high costs of installation and maintenance, the monitoring stations are relatively sparse. This kind of monitoring networks have been recognized to be unsuitable to effectively characterize the high variability of air quality, especially in areas where pollution sources are various and often not static. We present a prototype of a low cost station for air quality monitoring, specifically developed for complementing the official monitoring stations improving the representation of air quality spatial distribution. We focused on a semi-professional product that could guarantee the highest reliability at the lowest possible cost, supported by a consistent infrastructure for data management. We test two type of Ozone sensor electrochemical and metal oxide. This work is integrated in the ACRONET Paradigm ® project: an open-hardware platform strongly oriented on environmental monitoring. All software and hardware sources will be available on the web. Thus, a computer and a small amount of work tools will be sufficient to create new monitoring networks, with the only constraint to share all the data obtained. It will so possible to create a real "sensing community". The prototype is currently able to measure ozone level, temperature and relative humidity, but soon, with the upcoming changes, it will be able also to monitor dust, carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide, always through the use of commercial sensors. The sensors are grouped in a compact board that interfaces with a data

  11. Recent developments in personal monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: Throughout the years there have been new developments in the field of personal radiation dose monitoring, from film dosimetry, to Thermoluminescence and Optically Stimulated Luminescence, Electronic Personal Dosimeters, and Radiophotoluminescent Dosimeters, to the present day Direct Ion Storage. This paper will discuss the progression of personal dosimetry from the film age up to the digital age with the new Instadose Direct Ion Storage personal dosimeter. Dosimeter Theory: A comparison of the different dosimeter theories including methods for analyzing and reporting doses. Test Data Review: A comparison of the various dosimeter types will be discussed including recent data from film, TLD, and DIS as well as published data from OSL and RPL. Tests include: Energy response tests; Angularity response tests; Response at various temperatures; Drop Tests; Computer USB Power tests (DIS only); Low Dose Tests; Pulsed radiation tests; Dose Rate Tests; Dose Linearity. This paper will discuss the results of each of these tests. Operational Experiences with the new DIS Instadose dosimeter: Since InstadoseTM utilizes a unique form for receiving personal radiation exposure by having the individual wearer perform the reading, there have been some operational experiences that were learned over the last couple years of implementation. Some of these include: How to ensure wearers read their dosimeter; PC related issues (i.e. firewalls, proxy servers, USB ports), Temperature effects on the InstadoseTM dosimeter Details of each will be highlighted and discussed.

  12. The use of different types of thermoluminescent dosimeters to measure extremity doses in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Depth–dose curves in LiF detectors of different effective thicknesses, together with their responses, were calculated for typical nuclear medicine radiation fields with 99mTc, 18F and 90Y sources. Responses were analysed in function of the radionuclide, detector effective thickness and irradiation geometry. On the other hand the results of the nuclear medicine measurement campaign of the ORAMED project were presented focussing on the dose distribution across the hand and on the appropriate position to wear the dosimeter. According to the results, thin LiF detectors provide better responses in all cases. Its use is essential for 18F, since thick dosimeters can underestimate Hp(0.07) up to a 50% because of the very inhomogeneous dose deposition on the active layer. The preliminary results of the measurement campaign showed that the index tip of the non-dominant hand is usually the most exposed position among the 22 monitored positions. It was also found that, in average, wrist dosimeters are likely to underestimate the maximum skin dose by a factor of the order of 20. This factor is reduced to around 6 for a ring dosimeter worn on the base of the index of the non-dominant hand. Thus, for typical nuclear medicine procedures, the base of the index of the non-dominant hand is recommended as the best monitoring option.

  13. Comparison of laboratory and in situ evaluation of environmental TL dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The passive environmental gamma-radiation dosimetry is mainly based on TL (thermoluminescent) dosimetry. This method offers considerable advantages due to its high precision, low cost, wide range, etc.. At the same time its application involves uncertainty caused by the dose collected during the transport from the point of annealing to the place of exposure and back to the place of evaluation. Should an accident occur read-out is delayed due to the need to transport to a laboratory equipped with a TLD reader. A portable reader capable of reading out the TL dosimeter at the place of exposure (in situ TLD reader) eliminates the disadvantages mentioned above. A microprocessor based portable TLD reader was developed by us for monitoring environmental gamma-radiation doses. Using a portable reader for in situ evaluation there are several disadvantages as well. The method requires the transport of the reader instead of dosimeters. The portable reader should be battery operated with low power consumption. Due to this requirement the temperature stabilization of the reader requests different solution as in laboratory type devices. Comparison of recently developed in situ and traditional laboratory evaluation methods of environmental TL dosimeters is given in recent paper. The comparison was made in the same conditions. The most characteristic - for environmental monitoring - numerical TL data (dose range, reproducibility, fading, self dose etc.) are given for manufactured by us CaSO4:Dy bulbs (portable reader) and very advantageous, high sensitive Al2O3:C dosimeters (laboratory evaluation). (author)

  14. Improved capabilities for area environmental monitoring at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent increased concern for environmental safety hazards resulting from releases of radioactivity and other hazardous materials have necessitated the installation of improved monitoring instruments and methods at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Over the past several years a number of important instrument projects have been initiated to improve plant monitoring systems (both inside the Laboratory and in adjacent East Tennessee areas) and to enhance operational capabilities for detecting releases of hazardous and/or radioactive materials. These measures will significantly modernize and increase the number of monitoring stations measuring activity levels in (1) plant effluent gases, (2) plant effluent liquid wastes, and (3) local streams and rivers. Monitoring instruments within the operating buildings of the Laboratory are being upgraded, and three instrumented meteorological towers are in service to provide information for calculating deposition patterns over surrounding areas. Advanced, on-line central data collection systems supply continuous information for programmable alarm-level circuits, for display at remote terminals throughout ORNL, and for scientific long-term data base purposes. When these improvements are completed in about two years, the number of environmentally derived signals will significantly exceed 750 monitored values

  15. Monitoring of a steep rockfall area experiencing fast displacements in Kåfjord, Northern Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreiås Majala, Gudrun; Harald Blikra, Lars; Skrede, Ingrid; Kristensen, Lene

    2016-04-01

    An unstable rockfall area in Kåfjord, Northern Norway, was recognized during periodic monitoring campaigns in July and early September 2015. The LiSALab ground based Interferometric Synthethic Aperture Radar (GB InSAR) from Ellegi were used. A relatively sharply defined steep area of 1200 m2 (6.000 - 12.000 m3) was documented to be in movement. Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Directorate (NVE) was at this point performing mitigation work in terms of an embarkment within the rockfall run-out area. The monitoring system was reinstalled and adjusted to perform continuous monitoring with an early-warning aim. The section for rockslide management in NVE was responsible for the monitoring and the warning to the municipality and Police. The displacements increased from about 1 mm/day in July to 3 cm/day in mid September. People were evalcuated due to increased velocities the 16th of September. The displacements continued to increase in several stages, and with a distinct accelleration the 2nd of October. The velocity peaked in a short window to more than 200 cm/day, and it ended with a partly frontal and sideway collapse of the unstable area. However, large parts of the area stabilized again, and the run-out lengths from the small rockfalls were limited. The GB InSAR system operated exceptionally well during the event, and were able to follow continuously the displacements during the accelleration stage until collapse as the processing time window was frequently adjusted to the changes in velocity. We were also able to follow inidividual rockfalls from the images - primarily as the rockfall impact points on the slope below showed up clearly on the radar images. The area continued to stabilize due to falling temperatures, and the mitigation work were finished during the fall. The displacements seem to be correlated to the increasing temperatures in late summer and precipitation events.

  16. Definition of priority areas for monitoring of gamma radiation on the surroundings of the CDTN installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To demonstrate compliance with regulations and legal requirements, the Environmental Monitoring Program of the - Development Center of Nuclear Technology - PMA/CDTN was created in 1985. However, at that time, no data was available to represent the background - the natural level for the pre operational period in terms of Gamma radiation. Thus, the lowest value obtained among the sentinel point sites from the early period of the environmental monitoring was adopted as benchmark. As these measurements were performed by procedures and conditions other than that currently in use, this reference value may not correspond to reality. Therefore, it may not be appropriate to use it as background in assessing the possible environmental impact generated by the activities of the facilities. The goal of this study is to propose an area of geographic distribution for 12 monitoring points, outside the CDTN facilities, so that the real natural Gamma radiation levels can be accurately measured without the interference of the radioactivity levels originating from the institution, enabling the determination of the most representative values of the natural gamma radiation in the area. This survey of the natural radiation determination in the study area, with the use of modern equipment and the application of methodology taking into account historical data, as well the geological, geomorphological and geographical studies of the region, pointed to an average background value of 0.095μSv/h. This result, together with other studies, indicated a maximum range of 25m beyond the CDTN boundaries to distribute the monitoring points. (author)

  17. K-Area and Par Pond Sewage Sludge Application Sites Groundwater Monitoring Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During fourth quarter 1992, samples from the three monitoring wells at the K-Area site (KSS series) and the three monitoring wells at the Par Pond site (PSS series) were analyzed for constituents required by South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Construction Permit 13, 173 and for other constituents as part of the Savannah River Site (SRS) Groundwater Monitoring Program. This report describes monitoring results that exceeded the final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or the SRS flagging criteria. During fourth quarter 1992, no constituents analyzed exceeded the PDWS or the SRS Flag 2 criteria at the K-Area and Par Pond Sewage Sludge Application Sites. In the KSS well series, the field measurement for alkalinity ranged as high as 26 mg/L in well KSS 1D. Alkalinity measurements were zero in the PSS wells. Historical and current water-level elevations at the K-Area and Par Pond Sewage Sludge Application Site indicate that the groundwater flow directions are south to southwest (SRS grid coordinates)

  18. Operational aspects of the direct ion storage dosimeter system: 18 months of experience at CERN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CERN, the European Organization for Nuclear Research, operates a dosimetry service for external exposure. The service monitors approximately 5000 Staff, scientific visitors and contractors personnel working on the organizations sites with personal dosimeters for personal dose equivalent (Hp(10), Hp(0.07)) from gamma, beta and neutron radiation. The dosimetry service is approved by the Swiss Federal Health Office, the competent authority for radiation protection. In 2004, the R.A.D.O.S. D.I.S. -1 dosemeter has been introduced to CERN as a gamma-beta dosemeter. Technical characteristics of this dosimeter, based on the direct ion storage technology, are high sensitivity, excellent linearity of the personal dose response with respect to radiation energy or dose, and long-term physical storage of personal dose-related information without the risk of fading. One important technical feature of the dosemeter is its 'instant reading' capability: the user himself can evaluate the received personal dose nondestructively on specific reader stations. This information is digitized, centralized by the CERN-wide network and stored in a database. The consequence of the 'instant reading' capability is a break with in the traditional organisation of a dosimetry service. The personal dosimeters are no longer exchanged periodically for evaluation, but a monthly value of personal dose is calculated from the readings initiated by the user. After a wearing period of one year, users are invited to exchange the dosimeter against a new, recently calibrated unit. The introduction of the D.I.S.-1 dosimeter has profoundly changed the type of work in CERN dosimetry service. Technical and laboratory work (development of film dosimeters, densitometric evaluation) have made place for computer-based procedures and database management. (authors)

  19. H-Area, K-Area, and Par Pond Sewage Sludge Application Sites groundwater monitoring report. Third quarter 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groundwater samples from the three wells at the H-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site (HSS wells) are analyzed quarterly for constituents as required by South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) Construction Permit 12,076. Samples from the three wells at the K-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site (KSS wells) and the three wells at the quired by SCDHEC Construction Permit 13,173. All samples are also analyzed as requested for other constituents as part of the Savannah River Site (SRS) Groundwater Monitoring Program. Annual analyses for other constituents, primarily metals, also are required by the permits. No constituents exceeded the SCDHEC final Primary Drinking Water Standard in any well from the H-Area, K-Area, and Par Pond Sewage Sludge Application Sites. Aluminum and iron were above Flag 2 criteria in one or more wells in the three sites during third quarter 1994. These constituents were not analyzed during the previous quarter. Third quarter results are similar to results for first quarter 1994

  20. Environmental monitoring plan for Waste Area Grouping 6 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document presents an Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) for Waste Area Grouping (WAG 6) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). This document updates a draft monitoring plan developed in 1993. The draft plan was never finalized awaiting resolution of the mechanisms for addressing RCRA concerns at a site where the CERCLA process resulted in a decision to defer action, i.e., postpone closure indefinitely. Over the past two years the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC), US Department of Energy (DOE), and US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region IV, have agreed that RCRA authority at the site will be maintained through a post- closure permit; ''closure'' in this case referring to deferred action. Both a Revised Closure Plan (DOE 1995a) and a Post-Closure Permit Application (DOE 1995b) have been developed to document this agreement; relevant portions of the EMP will be included in the RCRA Post-Closure Permit Application. As the RCRA issues were being negotiated, DOE initiated monitoring at WAG 6. The purpose of the monitoring activities was to (1) continue to comply with RCRA groundwater quality assessment requirements, (2) install new monitoring equipment, and (3) establish the baseline conditions at WAG 6 against which changes in contaminant releases could be measured. Baseline monitoring is scheduled to end September 30, 1995. Activities that have taken place over the past two years are summarized in this document

  1. Environmental monitoring plan for Waste Area Grouping 6 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    This document presents an Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) for Waste Area Grouping (WAG 6) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). This document updates a draft monitoring plan developed in 1993. The draft plan was never finalized awaiting resolution of the mechanisms for addressing RCRA concerns at a site where the CERCLA process resulted in a decision to defer action, i.e., postpone closure indefinitely. Over the past two years the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC), US Department of Energy (DOE), and US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region IV, have agreed that RCRA authority at the site will be maintained through a post- closure permit; ``closure`` in this case referring to deferred action. Both a Revised Closure Plan (DOE 1995a) and a Post-Closure Permit Application (DOE 1995b) have been developed to document this agreement; relevant portions of the EMP will be included in the RCRA Post-Closure Permit Application. As the RCRA issues were being negotiated, DOE initiated monitoring at WAG 6. The purpose of the monitoring activities was to (1) continue to comply with RCRA groundwater quality assessment requirements, (2) install new monitoring equipment, and (3) establish the baseline conditions at WAG 6 against which changes in contaminant releases could be measured. Baseline monitoring is scheduled to end September 30, 1995. Activities that have taken place over the past two years are summarized in this document.

  2. On-line Detection of Inter-area Oscillations using Forgetting Approach for Power Systems Monitoring

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sidorov, D.; Grishin, Y.; Šmídl, Václav

    Singapore : IEEE, 2010, s. 1-4. ISBN 978-1-4244-5585-0. [2nd International Conference on Computer and Automation Engineering. Singapore (SG), 26.02.2010-28.02.2010] R&D Projects: GA ČR GP102/08/P250 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : oscillation detection * power system s monitoring * exponential forgetting Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2010/AS/smidl-on-line detection of inter-area oscillations using forgetting approach for power system s monitoring.pdf

  3. Indicators and protocols for monitoring impacts of formal and informal trails in protected areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marion, Jeffrey L.; Leung, Yu-Fai

    2011-01-01

    Trails are a common recreation infrastructure in protected areas and their conditions affect the quality of natural resources and visitor experiences. Various trail impact indicators and assessment protocols have been developed in support of monitoring programs, which are often used for management decision-making or as part of visitor capacity management frameworks. This paper reviews common indicators and assessment protocols for three types of trails, surfaced formal trails, unsurfaced formal trails, and informal (visitor-created) trails. Monitoring methods and selected data from three U.S. National Park Service units are presented to illustrate some common trail impact indicators and assessment options.

  4. Dose evaluation of fuel storage pond using TL and OSL dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Normally, the underwater dose rate measurement for fuel storage ponds is carried out using direct reading dosimeters (DRD's). The thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD's) are recommended for underwater dose measurements for high dose rate measurements. In the recent past, optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) is becoming increasingly popular for the radiation dosimetry applications due to simplicity of operation and lower detection limits. In India, CaSO4:Dy based TLD's are regularly used for radiation dosimetry applications and Al2O3:C based OSL phosphors have been recently developed for the similar applications. Both the TL and OSL phosphors cover a wide dynamic dose range of 50 μGy to 10 Gy. In this connection, we felt it appropriate to evaluate the newly developed OSL dosimeters for the underwater dose measurements. The aim of the paper was to evaluate the dose profile of the fuel storage tank and in the surrounding area by simultaneously using TL and OSL phosphor dosimeters. The OSL is tried for the first time as a secondary mode of measurement. It has also helped in the evaluation of dosimeters for high dose rate measurements in underwater conditions. The dosimeter pairs consisting of a TL and OSL discs were triply sealed in a PVC sheet and irradiated to 2.0-3.5 Gy/h dose rate at a 15 feet deep under water fuel storage pond for different time durations of 5-40 minutes to get a range of doses 0.2 to 2.0 Gy. For the radiation level of < 5.0 mGy/h, TL/OSL pairs were exposed for 4-20 hrs in order to get doses of 2.0 to 100 mGy by irradiation for time ranges from 3 hrs to 34 hrs. The TLD and OSL dosimeter discs were read using the in-house developed reader systems. The measured values of the dose using OSL dosimeters were found to be within 5-10 % of the TLD values. The calculated values were comparable with the measured values. Thus, the use of indigenously developed OSL dosimeters in measuring exposures of 2.0 to 100 mGy in air and 0.2 to 2.0 Gy underwater were

  5. Remote and terrestrial ground monitoring techniques integration for hazard assessment in mountain areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinellato, Giulia; Kenner, Robert; Iasio, Christian; Mair, Volkmar; Mosna, David; Mulas, Marco; Phillips, Marcia; Strada, Claudia; Zischg, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    In high mountain regions the choice of appropriate sites for infrastructure such as roads, railways, cable cars or hydropower dams is often very limited. In parallel, the increasing demand for supply infrastructure in the Alps induces a continuous transformation of the territory. The new role played by the precautionary monitoring in the risk governance becomes fundamental and may overcome the modeling of future events, which represented so far the predominant approach to these sort of issues. Furthermore the consequence of considering methodologies alternative to those more exclusive allow to reduce costs and increasing the frequency of measurements, updating continuously the cognitive framework of existing hazard condition in most susceptible territories. The scale factor of the observed area and the multiple purpose of such regional ordinary surveys make it convenient to adopt Radar Satellite-based systems, but they need to be integrated with terrestrial systems for validation and eventual early warning purposes. Significant progress over the past decade in Remote Sensing (RS), Proximal Sensing and integration-based sensor networks systems now provide technologies, that allow to implement monitoring systems for ordinary surveys of extensive areas or regions, which are affected by active natural processes and slope instability. The Interreg project SloMove aims to provide solutions for such challenges and focuses on using remote sensing monitoring techniques for the monitoring of mass movements in two test sites, in South Tyrol (Italy) and in Grisons Canton (Switzerland). The topics faced in this project concern mass movements and slope deformation monitoring techniques, focusing mainly on the integration of multi-temporal interferometry, new generation of terrestrial technologies for differential digital terrain model elaboration provided by laser scanner (TLS), and GNSS-based topographic surveys, which are used not only for validation purpose, but also for

  6. Performance testing of personnel extremity dosimeters by Korean LiF: Mg, Cu, Na, Si TLD(KLT-300)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: As the needs and opportunities for utilization of atomic energy and radiation are increasing, the related industries, medicines, environments are developing and the relevant organizations and companies are also becoming diverse. In result, the types and kinds of the radiation related to occupational environments are becoming diversified. For the whole body dosimeters, the methodology and criteria for the performance evaluation and safety regulations and laws have been prepared in some detail, but for the extremity dosimeters, those are not prepared yet in Korea. The extremity dosimeters are required when the extremity part of our body, such as hand, elbow, and arm below the elbow, the foot, knee, and leg below the knee are exposed to the radiation in specific work environments. The dosimeter irradiation conditions are clearly discriminated between the whole body exposure condition and the extremity exposure condition. By the investigation and analysis of the management status and dose evaluation methods of the extremity dosimeters for the local absorbed dose, the personnel monitoring system of the extremity dosimeter services in Korea can be diagnosed, and the performance testing criteria and procedures can be established. Therefore, this study presents the performance testing results of extremity dosimeters on the finger and arm/leg phantoms by the procedures recommended in the ANSI (American National Standard) N13.32 using KLT-300 TL materials (LiF:Mg,Cu,Nas,Si) which were developed in Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI). The results show that the performance index for the two types of phantoms are sufficiently satisfied with the prescribed tolerance level in the all of the test categories listed in the ANSI N13.32. These results and procedures used in this study can be applicable for regulatory body to establish the standard criteria for acceptable performance and testing conditions for personnel extremity dosimeters services in the

  7. Mapping and monitoring geomorphological processes in mountainous areas using PSI data: Central Pyrenees case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Herrera

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the Stable Point Network technique, an established Persistent Scatterer InSAR (PSI technique, (SPN, has been applied for the first time to the analysis of several geomorphological processes present in the Gállego river basin (Central Pyrenees, Spain. The SPN coherence based approach has been used to process three different SAR images datasets covering two temporal periods: 1995 to 2001 and 2001 to 2007. This approach has permitted the detection of more than 40 000 natural ground targets or Persistent Scatterers (PSs in the study area, characterised by the presence of vegetation and a low urban density. Derived displacement maps have permitted the detection and monitoring of deformations in landslides, alluvial fans and erosive areas. In the first section, the study area is introduced. Then the specifics of the SPN processing are presented. The deformation results estimated with the SPN technique for the different processed datasets are compared and analysed with previous available geo-information. Then several detailed studies are presented to illustrate the processes detected by the satellite based analysis. In addition, a comparison between the performance of ERS and ENVISAT satellites with terrestrial SAR has demonstrates that these are complementary techniques, which can be integrated in order to monitor deformation processes, like landslides, that over the same monitoring area may show very different ranges of movement. The most relevant conclusions of this work are finally discussed.

  8. Silicon Diode Dosimeter for Fast Neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The change of the current-voltage characteristics of a small silicon diode is used as a measure of fast neutron dose in the Fast Neutron Dosimeter 5422. This change is permanent and therefore it is possible to integrate doses over a long period of time. Doses from some rad up to 1000 rad can be measured and the information stored is not destroyed during readout. Considerable research work in this field has previously been carried out by the Swedish Institute for National Defence in collaboration with the Institute of Semiconductor Research Stockholm. The present investigation has been made in order to establish the possibilities of the dosimeter for practical applications and to study the variations of important parameters as a function of the production process. In particular the following parameters have been studied: - dose sensitivity, - energy dependence; - fading effect; - temperature influence; - maximum measurable dose. In general one might conclude that the dosimeter 5422 well fulfills requirements usually specified for a dosimeter for field service. Temperature influence and fading effect are of little practical importance within the recommended range of measurement

  9. Hanford Personnel Dosimeter supporting studies FY-1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Separate abstracts were prepared for the 10 sections of this report which describe fundamental characteristics of the Hanford multipurpose personnel dosimeter (HMPD). Abstracts were not prepared for Appendix A and Appendix B which deal with calculated standard deviations for 100 mrem mixed field exposures and detailed calculations of standard deviations, respectively

  10. Z-Area Saltstone Disposal Facility groundwater monitoring report. 1996 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Z-Area Saltstone Disposal Facility is located in the Separations Area, north of H and S Areas, at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The facility permanently disposes of low-level radioactive waste. The facility blends low-level radioactive salt solution with cement, slag, and flyash to form a nonhazardous cementitious waste that is pumped to aboveground disposal vaults. Z Area began these operations in June 1990. Samples from the ZBG wells at the Z-Area Saltstone Disposal Facility are analyzed for constituents required by South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) Industrial Solid Waste Permit number-sign 025500-1603 (formerly IWP-217). During second quarter 1996, lead was reported above the SCDHEC-proposed groundwater monitoring standard in one well. No other constituents were reported above SCDHEC-proposed groundwater monitoring standards for final Primary Drinking Water Standards during first, second, or third quarters 1996. Antimony was detected above SRS flagging criteria during third quarter 1996. In the past, tritium has been detected sporadically in the ZBG wells at levels similar to those detected before Z Area began radioactive operations

  11. Z-Area Saltstone Disposal Facility groundwater monitoring report. 1996 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    The Z-Area Saltstone Disposal Facility is located in the Separations Area, north of H and S Areas, at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The facility permanently disposes of low-level radioactive waste. The facility blends low-level radioactive salt solution with cement, slag, and flyash to form a nonhazardous cementitious waste that is pumped to aboveground disposal vaults. Z Area began these operations in June 1990. Samples from the ZBG wells at the Z-Area Saltstone Disposal Facility are analyzed for constituents required by South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) Industrial Solid Waste Permit {number_sign}025500-1603 (formerly IWP-217). During second quarter 1996, lead was reported above the SCDHEC-proposed groundwater monitoring standard in one well. No other constituents were reported above SCDHEC-proposed groundwater monitoring standards for final Primary Drinking Water Standards during first, second, or third quarters 1996. Antimony was detected above SRS flagging criteria during third quarter 1996. In the past, tritium has been detected sporadically in the ZBG wells at levels similar to those detected before Z Area began radioactive operations.

  12. Role of gel dosimeters in boron neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gel dosimeters have acquired a unique status in radiotherapy, especially with the advent of the new techniques in which there is a need for three-dimensional dose measurement with high spatial resolution. One of the techniques in which the use of gel dosimeters has drawn the attention of the researchers is the boron neutron capture therapy. Exploring the history of gel dosimeters, this paper sets out to study their role in the boron neutron capture therapy dosimetric process. - Highlights: • Gel dosimeters have been investigated. • Conventional dosimetric proses of BNCT has been investigated. • Role of gel dosimeters in BNCT has been investigated

  13. 2008 Groundwater Monitoring Report Central Nevada Test Area, Corrective Action Unit 443

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-03-01

    This report presents the 2008 groundwater monitoring results collected by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) for the Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA) Subsurface Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 443. Responsibility for the environmental site restoration of the CNTA was transferred from the DOE Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM) to DOE-LM on October 1, 2006. The environmental restoration process and corrective action strategy for CAU 443 are conducted in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO 2005) entered into by DOE, the U.S. Department of Defense, and the State of Nevada. The corrective action strategy for the site includes proof-of-concept monitoring in support of site closure. This report summarizes investigation activities associated with CAU 443 that were conducted at the site during fiscal year 2008. This is the second groundwater monitoring report prepared by DOE-LM for the CNTA.

  14. Mapping air pollution by biological monitoring in the metropolitan Tel Aviv area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavi, Aya; Potchter, Oded; Omer, Itzhak; Fireman, Elizabeth

    2016-06-01

    Conventional environmental monitoring is not surrogate of personal exposure. In contrast, biomonitoring provides information on the presence of substances in the human body, making it highly relevant to the assessment of exposure to toxic substances. Induced sputum (IS) is a noninvasive technique for detecting inflammation and reflecting particulate matter content in the airways. In this study, we mapped particulate matter dispersion in metropolitan Tel Aviv by both biomonitoring techniques employing IS samples and by environmental monitoring. All adults referred to the Pulmonary Lab for respiratory symptom evaluation in 2007 and in 2009 were enrolled. Pulmonary function tests were performed by conventional methods. Particulate size distribution in IS was analyzed, and maps of air pollution were created. Biomonitoring was more informative and enabled mapping of wider areas. Integration of biomonitoring and environmental monitoring should be considered in forming public health policy on containment of airborne particles of toxic substances. PMID:26600473

  15. 2010 Groundwater Monitoring Report Project Shoal Area, Corrective Action Unit 447

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2011-02-01

    This report presents the 2010 groundwater monitoring results collected by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) at the Project Shoal Area (PSA) Subsurface Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 447 in Churchill County, Nevada. Responsibility for the environmental site restoration of the PSA was transferred from the DOE Office of Environmental Management to LM on October 1, 2006. The environmental restoration process and corrective action strategy for CAU 447 are conducted in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO 1996, as amended March 2010) entered into by DOE, the U.S. Department of Defense, and the State of Nevada. The corrective action strategy for the site includes monitoring in support of site closure. This report summarizes the results from the groundwater monitoring program during fiscal year 2010.

  16. 2008 Groundwater Monitoring Report Project Shoal Area, Corrective Action Unit 447

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-03-01

    This report presents the 2008 groundwater monitoring results collected by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) at the Project Shoal Area (PSA) Subsurface Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 447 located in Churchill County, Nevada. Responsibility for the environmental site restoration of the PSA was transferred from the DOE Office of Environmental Management to LM on October 1, 2006. The environmental restoration process and corrective action strategy for CAU 447 are conducted in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO 1996, as amended February 2008) entered into by DOE, the U.S. Department of Defense, and the State of Nevada. The corrective action strategy for the site includes proof of concept monitoring in support of site closure. This report summarizes investigation activities associated with CAU 447 that were conducted at the site during 2008. This is the second groundwater monitoring report prepared by LM for the PSA

  17. Subsurface Contaminant Focus Area: Monitored Natural Attenuation (MNA)--Programmatic, Technical, and Regulatory Issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krupka, Kenneth M.; Martin, Wayne J.

    2001-07-23

    Natural attenuation processes are commonly used for remediation of contaminated sites. A variety of natural processes occur without human intervention at all sites to varying rates and degrees of effectiveness to attenuate (decrease) the mass, toxicity, mobility, volume, or concentration of organic and inorganic contaminants in soil, groundwater, and surface water systems. The objective of this review is to identify potential technical investments to be incorporated in the Subsurface Contaminant Focus Area Strategic Plan for monitored natural attenuation. When implemented, the technical investments will help evaluate and implement monitored natural attenuation as a remediation option at DOE sites. The outcome of this review is a set of conclusions and general recommendations regarding research needs, programmatic guidance, and stakeholder issues pertaining to monitored natural attenuation for the DOE complex.

  18. Subsurface Contaminant Focus Area: Monitored Natural Attenuation (MNA)--Programmatic, Technical, and Regulatory Issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natural attenuation processes are commonly used for remediation of contaminated sites. A variety of natural processes occur without human intervention at all sites to varying rates and degrees of effectiveness to attenuate (decrease) the mass, toxicity, mobility, volume, or concentration of organic and inorganic contaminants in soil, groundwater, and surface water systems. The objective of this review is to identify potential technical investments to be incorporated in the Subsurface Contaminant Focus Area Strategic Plan for monitored natural attenuation. When implemented, the technical investments will help evaluate and implement monitored natural attenuation as a remediation option at DOE sites. The outcome of this review is a set of conclusions and general recommendations regarding research needs, programmatic guidance, and stakeholder issues pertaining to monitored natural attenuation for the DOE complex

  19. Site-specific landslide assessment in Alpine area using a reliable integrated monitoring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeo, Saverio; Di Matteo, Lucio; Kieffer, Daniel Scott

    2016-04-01

    Rockfalls are one of major cause of landslide fatalities around the world. The present work discusses the reliability of integrated monitoring of displacements in a rockfall within the Alpine region (Salzburg Land - Austria), taking into account also the effect of the ongoing climate change. Due to the unpredictability of the frequency and magnitude, that threatens human lives and infrastructure, frequently it is necessary to implement an efficient monitoring system. For this reason, during the last decades, integrated monitoring systems of unstable slopes were widely developed and used (e.g., extensometers, cameras, remote sensing, etc.). In this framework, Remote Sensing techniques, such as GBInSAR technique (Groung-Based Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar), have emerged as efficient and powerful tools for deformation monitoring. GBInSAR measurements can be useful to achieve an early warning system using surface deformation parameters as ground displacement or inverse velocity (for semi-empirical forecasting methods). In order to check the reliability of GBInSAR and to monitor the evolution of landslide, it is very important to integrate different techniques. Indeed, a multi-instrumental approach is essential to investigate movements both in surface and in depth and the use of different monitoring techniques allows to perform a cross analysis of the data and to minimize errors, to check the data quality and to improve the monitoring system. During 2013, an intense and complete monitoring campaign has been conducted on the Ingelsberg landslide. By analyzing both historical temperature series (HISTALP) recorded during the last century and those from local weather stations, temperature values (Autumn-Winter, Winter and Spring) are clearly increased in Bad Hofgastein area as well as in Alpine region. As consequence, in the last decades the rockfall events have been shifted from spring to summer due to warmer winters. It is interesting to point out that

  20. Personal monitoring in the mine Rozna I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mine Rozna I. is the last uranium mine in operation in the Czech Republic. Annual production of uranium ore is about 133 kt. There work in controlled areas of the mine about 370 miners. Personal dosimeters ALGADE have been used for personal monitoring of miners in the Rozna 1 uranium mine (Division GEAM of DIAMO state enterprise). These dosimeters allow evaluation of effective dose from extemal gamma radiation, intake of daughter products of radon decay and intake from inhalation of long-life radionuclide mixtures emitting alpha radiation in uranium-radium decay series. The personal effective doses are evaluated on monthly bases. Based on the comparison between personal dose and investigative/intervention levels according to approved monitoring programme, the control and regulation of workers is performed. The results obtained from personal dosimetry carried out by dosimeters ALGADE are summarized in tables and graphs. The graphs show that the utmost part of the uranium mine workers effective dose is an intake from inhalation of long-life radionuclide mixtures emitting alpha radiation in uranium-radium decay series. It can be stated that, that due to the control and regulation of workers in the underground the limits given in the Notice of the State Office for Nuclear Safety No. 307/2002 Coll., on radiation protection were not exceeded. (authors)

  1. A multi-disciplinary approach for the structural monitoring of Cultural Heritages in a seismic area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabrizia Buongiorno, Maria; Musacchio, Massimo; Guerra, Ignazio; Porco, Giacinto; Stramondo, Salvatore; Casula, Giuseppe; Caserta, Arrigo; Speranza, Fabio; Doumaz, Fawzi; Giovanna Bianchi, Maria; Luzi, Guido; Ilaria Pannaccione Apa, Maria; Montuori, Antonio; Gaudiosi, Iolanda; Vecchio, Antonio; Gervasi, Anna; Bonali, Elena; Romano, Dolores; Falcone, Sergio; La Piana, Carmelo

    2014-05-01

    In the recent years, the concepts of seismic risk vulnerability and structural health monitoring have become very important topics in the field of both structural and civil engineering for the identification of appropriate risk indicators and risk assessment methodologies in Cultural Heritages monitoring. The latter, which includes objects, building and sites with historical, architectural and/or engineering relevance, concerns the management, the preservation and the maintenance of the heritages within their surrounding environmental context, in response to climate changes and natural hazards (e.g. seismic, volcanic, landslides and flooding hazards). Within such a framework, the complexity and the great number of variables to be considered require a multi-disciplinary approach including strategies, methodologies and tools able to provide an effective monitoring of Cultural Heritages form both scientific and operational viewpoints. Based on this rationale, in this study, an advanced, technological and operationally-oriented approach is presented and tested, which enables measuring and monitoring Cultural Heritage conservation state and geophysical/geological setting of the area, in order to mitigate the seismic risk of the historical public goods at different spatial scales*. The integration between classical geophysical methods with new emerging sensing techniques enables a multi-depth, multi-resolution, and multi-scale monitoring in both space and time. An integrated system of methodologies, instrumentation and data-processing approaches for non-destructive Cultural Heritage investigations is proposed, which concerns, in detail, the analysis of seismogenetic sources, the geological-geotechnical setting of the area and site seismic effects evaluation, proximal remote sensing techniques (e.g. terrestrial laser scanner, ground-based radar systems, thermal cameras), high-resolution aerial and satellite-based remote sensing methodologies (e.g. aeromagnetic surveys

  2. Design of a geothermal monitoring network in a coastal area and the evaluation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohan Shim, Byoung; Lee, Chulwoo; Park, Chanhee

    2016-04-01

    In Seockmodo Island (area of 48.2 km2) located at the northwest of South Korea, a renewable energy development project to install photovoltaic 136 kW and geothermal 516.3 kW is initiated. Since the 1990s, more than 20 deep geothermal wells for hot springs, greenhouse and aquaculture have been developed along coastal areas. The outflow water of each site has the pumping capacity between 300 and 4,800 m3/day with the salinity higher than 20,000 mg/l, and the maximum temperature shows 70 ?C. Because of the required additional well drillings, the increased discharge rate can cause serious seawater intrusion into freshwater aquifers, which supply groundwater for drinking and living purposes from 210 wells. In order to manage the situation, advanced management skills are required to maintain the balance between geothermal energy development and water resources protection. We designed real-time monitoring networks with monitoring stations for the sustainable monitoring of the temperature and salinity. Construction of borehole temperature monitoring for deep and shallow aquifer consists with the installation of automated temperature logging system and cellular telemetry for real-time data acquisition. The DTS (distributed temperature sensing) system and fiber optic cables will be installed for the logging system, which has enough temperature resolution and accuracy. The spatial distribution and the monitoring points can be determined by geological and hydrological situations associated with the locations of current use and planned facilities. The evaluation of the temperature and salinity variation will be conducted by the web-based monitoring system. The evaluation system will be helpful to manage the balance between the hot water development and the fresh water resources conservation.

  3. Best management practices plan for environmental monitoring in Waste Area Grouping 6 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Best Management Practices (BMP) Plan has been developed as part of the environmental monitoring program at Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 6. The BMP Plan describes the requirements for personnel training, spill prevention and control, environmental compliance, and sediment/erosion control as they relate to environmental monitoring activities and installation of Monitoring Station 4 at WAG 6

  4. Characteristic Analysis of Dosimeter Model Constructed with Scintillator and Optical Fiber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ion chambers are often used to remotely monitor the real time radiation dose in a high level radiation field such as in a gamma irradiator. For medical purposes, MOSFET(Metal Oxide Effect Semiconductor Transistor) dosimeters are widely used. The ion chamber is generally known to be most accurate in measuring the gamma exposure dose. However, it is very vulnerable to the ambient conditions since its measurement depends on minute ionization currents generated in the chamber. Furthermore, it usually takes a long time to have a malfunction fixed since almost all of the ion chambers are imported and their malfunctions are in most cases handled by their manufacturers. The MOSFET dosimeter is very useful for simultaneously measuring radiation doses at multiple points, and has high spatial resolution since its sensing head is very small. However, it is impractical to use it in a high radiation field since its lifetime is exhausted very fast. As a means to overcome the drawbacks of the aforementioned dosimeters, a dosimeter type composed of a small piece of scintillator jointed an optical fiber can be a good option. Inorganic scintillators have high gamma sensitivities since they have high densities and are composed of high-atomic-number elements. The lights generated in the scintillator can be transmitted through a plastic or glass optical fiber to a remote place where they are measured by a photo sensor. This type of radiation dosimeter can have several additional merits such as flexibility in positioning, high spatial resolution and easiness in manufacturing in addition to the characteristics of remote and realtime measurement. A number of works has been carried out in relation to this subject. A. S. Beddar, proposed a miniature 'scintillator-fiberoptic-PMT' detector system for the dosimeter of small fields in stereotactic radiosurgery. Nowotny, proposed a tissue equivalent dosimeter model base on LiF:W scintillator head and plastic optical fiber to be applied in

  5. FARMLAND AND URBAN AREA DYNAMICS MONITORING IN CHINA USING REMOTE SENSING AND SPATIAL STATISTICS METHODOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    With the need in the global change research project for the land -use/land-cover change information, most international and regional research organization or groups have put amounts of efforts to improve of the dynamics monitoring and database updating techniques. With the pressure on nature environment from increasing population and decreasing farmland becoming significant more and more in China, the farmland urban dynamics in historical and current times, even the change trends in the future, should be monitored and analyzed serving for regional and national social, economic and environmental sustainable development in the long future. Based on spatial and temporal series of land -use/land-cover database resources, Chinese Academy of Sciences designed a sampling framework for monitoring farmland and urban area dynamics in regional and national level. In order to test the accuracy of the sampling schema for national and regional level, we took two provinces area into overall covered change detecting process with TM images data through being interpreted by digitalization on the screen. The result shows that our stratified random sampling schema is suitable for monitoring land -use/land-cover change at national and regional level with quick response, high accuracy and low expenses. The land-use/land-cover change (LUCC) information can update the LUTEA database for global change research during certain period so that the forecasting process and evaluating analysis on land resources and environment under human and natural driving force will get essential data and produce valuable conclusions.

  6. P-Area Acid/Caustic Basin groundwater monitoring report: Third quarter 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During third quarter 1994, groundwater from the six PAC monitoring wells at the P-Area Acid/Caustic Basin was analyzed for herbicides/pesticides, indicator parameters, metals, nitrate, radionuclide indicators, and other constituents. Monitoring results that exceeded the final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or the Savannah River Site (SRS) flagging criteria or turbidity standard during the quarter are discussed in this report. During third quarter 1994, no constituents exceeded the final PDWS. Aluminum exceeded its SRS Flag 2 criterion in all six PAC wells. Iron and manganese exceeded Flag 2 criteria in three wells, while turbidity was elevated in one well. Groundwater flow direction and rate in the water table beneath the P-Area Acid/Caustic Basin were similar to past quarters

  7. K-Area Acid/Caustic Basin groundwater monitoring report. Third quarter 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During third quarter 1994, samples from the KAC monitoring wells at the K-Area Acid/Caustic Basin were collected and analyzed for herbicides/pesticides, indicator parameters, metals, nitrate, radionuclide indicators, and other constituents. Monitoring results that exceeded the final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS), other Savannah River Site (SRS) Flag 2 criteria, or the SRS turbidity standard are provided in this report. No constituents exceeded the final PDWS in the KAC wells. Aluminum and iron exceeded other SRS flagging criteria in one or more of the downgradient wells. Groundwater flow direction and rate in the water table beneath the K-Area Acid/Caustic Basin were similar to past quarters

  8. Ground Deformation Monitoring in Qingdao Coastal Areas by Time-Series Terrasar-X Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, A. Y.; Qiao, X.; Li, D.

    2016-06-01

    As a new generation of high resolution and short revisit period of radar satellite, TerraSAR-X is not only able to meet the requirements of monitoring large scale surface subsidence, but also make it possible to monitor the small deformation of the short period. This articles takes the coastal areas of the west coast of Qingdao as the research object. With Small baselines subsets interferometry synthetic aperture radar (SBASI), this paper obtained the period the average annual rate of change from the time series analysis of TerraSAR-X data from April 2015 to October 2014.In order to enrich the historical deformation data of the study area, it analyse the time series of ALOS images from December 2010 to October 2008 with the same method. Finally,it analyse and demonstrate the experimental results.

  9. P-Area Acid/Caustic Basin groundwater monitoring report. First quarter 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During first quarter 1995, groundwater from the six PAC monitoring wells at the P-Area Acid/Caustic Basin was analyzed for herbicides/pesticides, indicator parameters, metals, nitrate, adionuclide indicators, and other constituents. Monitoring results that exceeded the final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or the Savannah River Site (SRS) flagging criteria or turbidity standard during the quarter are discussed in this report. During first quarter 1995, no constituents exceeded the final PDWS. Aluminum exceeded its SRS Flag 2 criterion in all six PAC wells. Iron and manganese exceeded Flag 2 criteria in three wells, while turbidity was elevated in one well. Groundwater flow direction and rate in the water table beneath the P-Area Acid/Caustic Basin were similar to past quarters

  10. F-Area Acid/Caustic Basin groundwater monitoring report. Second quarter 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During second quarter 1994, samples from the FAC monitoring wells at the F-Area Acid/Caustic Basin were collected and analyzed for herbicides/pesticides, indicator parameters, metals, nitrate, radionuclide indicators, volatile organic compounds, and other constituents. Piezometer FAC 5P and monitoring well FAC 6 were dry and could not be sampled. Analytical results that exceeded final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS), other Savannah River Site (SRS) Flag 2 criteria, or the SRS turbidity standard of 50 NTU during the quarter were as follows: gross alpha exceeded the final PDWS and aluminum, iron, manganese, and total organic halogens exceeded the SRS Flag 2 criteria in one or more of the FAC wells. Turbidity exceeded the SRS standard in well FAC 3. Groundwater flow direction and rate in the water table beneath the F-Area Acid/Caustic Basin were similar to past quarters

  11. Monitoring, analyzing and simulating of spatial-temporal changes of landscape pattern over mining area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Pei; Han, Ruimei; Wang, Shuangting

    2014-11-01

    According to the merits of remotely sensed data in depicting regional land cover and Land changes, multi- objective information processing is employed to remote sensing images to analyze and simulate land cover in mining areas. In this paper, multi-temporal remotely sensed data were selected to monitor the pattern, distri- bution and trend of LUCC and predict its impacts on ecological environment and human settlement in mining area. The monitor, analysis and simulation of LUCC in this coal mining areas are divided into five steps. The are information integration of optical and SAR data, LULC types extraction with SVM classifier, LULC trends simulation with CA Markov model, landscape temporal changes monitoring and analysis with confusion matrixes and landscape indices. The results demonstrate that the improved data fusion algorithm could make full use of information extracted from optical and SAR data; SVM classifier has an efficient and stable ability to obtain land cover maps, which could provide a good basis for both land cover change analysis and trend simulation; CA Markov model is able to predict LULC trends with good performance, and it is an effective way to integrate remotely sensed data with spatial-temporal model for analysis of land use / cover change and corresponding environmental impacts in mining area. Confusion matrixes are combined with landscape indices to evaluation and analysis show that, there was a sustained downward trend in agricultural land and bare land, but a continues growth trend tendency in water body, forest and other lands, and building area showing a wave like change, first increased and then decreased; mining landscape has undergone a from small to large and large to small process of fragmentation, agricultural land is the strongest influenced landscape type in this area, and human activities are the primary cause, so the problem should be pay more attentions by government and other organizations.

  12. Analyzing Non-Functional Capabilities of ICT Infrastructures Supporting Power System Wide Area Monitoring and Control

    OpenAIRE

    Chenine, Moustafa

    2013-01-01

    The strain on modern electrical power systems has led to an ever-increasing utilization of new information and communication technologies (ICT) to improve their efficiency and reliability. Wide area monitoring and control (WAMC) systems offer many opportunities to improve the real-time situational awareness in the power system. These systems are essen-tially SCADA systems but with continuous streaming of measurement data from the power system. The quality of WAMC systems and the applications ...

  13. A Novel Intrusion Detection System for Wireless Body Area Network in Health Care Monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    T.V.P.Sundararajan; Shanmugam, A

    2010-01-01

    Problem statement: Health monitoring, telemedicine, military, interactive entertainment and portable audio/video systems were most promising applications where WBANs can be used. However, designers of such systems face a number of challenging tasks, as they need to address often quite conflicting requirements for size, operating time, precision and reliability. Network security is very important in Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN) since the vital human life might be jeopardized, unless manag...

  14. WIDE AREA MONITORING, PROTECTION AND CONTROL IN THE FUTURE GREAT BRITAIN POWER SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Cai, Deyu

    2012-01-01

    The growing issue of power-grid congestion and a global increase in disturbances have emphasized the need to enhance electrical power networks using Wide Area Monitoring, Protection, and Control (WAMPAC). This is a cost-effective solution for improving power system planning and operation. In addition to these existing issues, the Great Britain (GB) power system is facing significant changes, in terms of both power transmission technology and the nature of the generation mix, that will cause t...

  15. Z-Area Saltstone Disposal Facility Groundwater Monitoring Report. 1997 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roach, J.L. Jr. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States)

    1997-12-01

    Samples from the ZBG wells at the Z-Area Saltstone Disposal Facility are analyzed for constituents required by South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) Industrial Solid Waste Permit {number_sign}025500-1603 (formerly IWP-217). No constituents were reported above SCDHEC-proposed groundwater monitoring standards or final Primary Drinking Water Standards during first or third quareters 1997. No constituents were detected above SRS flagging criteria during first or third quarters 1997.

  16. Expert-derived monitoring thresholds for impacts of megaherbivores on vegetation cover in a protected area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smit, Izak P J; Landman, Marietjie; Cowling, Richard M; Gaylard, Angela

    2016-07-15

    Monitoring is meant to inform conservation authorities, yet managers often don't know when to respond to monitoring results. One of the reasons is that management often lacks consensus on monitoring thresholds for intervention. This results in aimless monitoring without a clear directive on when monitoring indicates a trajectory towards an unacceptable state or impending change, which possibly necessitates intervention. Although experts rarely provide simple, measureable and quantifiable monitoring thresholds as required by management, they are often more comfortable expressing opinions on whether a specific area is desirable or not. This allows thresholds to be reverse engineered: by getting experts to identify sites as desirable and undesirable, field variables can subsequently be measured to derive the boundary between subjectively identified desirable and undesirable states. Such a boundary provides a defendable point for management to assess and consider intervention. Here we describe the identification of monitoring thresholds by defining the limits of desirable canopy cover, derived from expert stakeholder preferences, in the Sundays Spekboom Thicket vegetation of the Addo Elephant National Park, South Africa. The park has experienced variable utilization intensity by large herbivores, especially elephant. For years managers have grappled with the question of what percentage shrub canopy cover is desirable as a management target, but science has failed to provide this. Using experts to assess pre-selected sites as desirable or undesirable across a range of canopy covers, we showed that a canopy cover of ∼65% (±15%) would be desirable for expert stakeholders. We then used satellite imagery to map canopy cover, providing managers for the first time with a large-scale map of canopy cover, indicating desirability status. This approach was useful for facilitating joint-decision making between conservation agencies and stakeholders on tangible indicators of

  17. Reliable Communication in Wireless Body Area Sensor Network for Health Monitoring

    CERN Document Server

    Bahanfar, Saeid; Kousha, Helia; Babaie, Shahram

    2011-01-01

    Now days, interests in the application of Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN) have grown considerably. A number of tiny wireless sensors, strategically placed on the human body, create a wireless body area network that can monitor various vital signs, providing real-time feedback to the user and medical personnel. This communication needs to be energy efficient and highly reliable while keeping delays low. In this paper we present hardware and software architecture for BAN and also we offer reliable communication and data aggregation.

  18. MONITORING OF GLACIER VOLUME VARIATION FROM MULTI-SOURCE DATA OVER GELADANDONG AREA

    OpenAIRE

    Y. Zhang; Wu, H; Jin, S.; Wang, H.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a research on monitoring of glacier volume variation over the Geladandong area in Qinghai-Tibet plateau between 2000 and 2007 by integrating Landsat5 TM images, multi-source Digital Elevation Models (DEM) and the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) data from NASA Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat). Landsat TM images acquired in 2000 and 2007 respectively are used to extract glacial area of the two dates. SRTM DEM and the national 1:50 000 DEM a...

  19. Reliable Communication in Wireless Body Area Sensor Network for Health Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid Bahanfar

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Now days, interests in the application of Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN have grown considerably. A number of tiny wireless sensors, strategically placed on the human body, create a wireless body area network that can monitor various vital signs, providing real-time feedback to the user and medical personnel. This communication needs to be energy efficient and highly reliable while keeping delays low. In this paper we present hardware and software architecture for BAN and also we offer reliable communication and data aggregation.

  20. GFM-II large area surface monitor for alpha beta contamination

    CERN Document Server

    Du Xiang Yang; Han Shu Ping; Zhang Xia

    2002-01-01

    GFM-II large area surface monitor for alpha/beta contamination is equipped with four independent detecting channels, each channel consists one probe and one charge sensitive amplifier. The pancake probe is flow gas proportional counter tubes array. Total active area of the instrument is 1000 cm sup 2. This instrument has an rolling frame, so it can move rapidly on flat ground. Its characteristics is that: 1) Use flow gas proportional counter array instead of single counter, 2) Lower working voltage, 3) Simultaneously rapid measurement for alpha/beta

  1. GFM-II large area surface monitor for α β contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GFM-II large area surface monitor for α/β contamination is equipped with four independent detecting channels, each channel consists one probe and one charge sensitive amplifier. The pancake probe is flow gas proportional counter tubes array. Total active area of the instrument is 1000 cm2. This instrument has an rolling frame, so it can move rapidly on flat ground. Its characteristics is that: 1) Use flow gas proportional counter array instead of single counter, 2) Lower working voltage, 3) Simultaneously rapid measurement for α/β

  2. Physical Monitoring in Daily Life by Remote Body Area Network System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To spend daily life in high QOL, it is important to keep our health condition. Physical diseases are caused by various body parameters. People must get body parameter in daily life. Therefore people need wearable body area network system for getting body parameter in daily life. Authors made wearable body area network system which can get heart rate, SpO2, body temperature, skin temperature, air temperature, impact and acceleration of waist, shoulder, both ankles and wrist. Moreover authors made some applications by using these parameters. This paper describes the wearable sensing network system, host system to monitor dynamic physical conditions of user at remote location and applications

  3. Z-Area Saltstone Disposal Facility groundwater monitoring report, Fourth quarter 1995 and 1995 summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coward, L.S.

    1996-03-01

    Samples from the ZBG wells at the Z-Area Saltstone Disposal Facility are analyzed quarterly for constituents required by South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Industrial Waster Permit IWP-217 and for other constituents as part of the Savannah River Site Groundwater Monitoring Program. During fourth quarter 1995, no constituents were reported above final Primary Drinking Water Standards or SRS flagging criteria. In the past, tritium has been detected sporadically in the ZBG wells at levels similar to those detected before Z Area began radioactive operations.

  4. F- and H-area Sewage Sludge Application Sites: Groundwater monitoring report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samples from the four wells at the F-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site (FSS wells) and the three wells at the H-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site (HSS wells) are analyzed quarterly for constituents as required by South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Construction Permit 12,076 and, as requested, for other constituents as part of the Savannah River Site Groundwater Monitoring Program. Annual analyses for other constituents, primarily metals, also are required by the permit. Currently, no permit-required analytes exceed standards at the F- and H-Area Sewage Sludge Application Sites. Tritium and aluminum have been the primary nonpermit constituents exceeding standards at the F-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site. These constituents were not analyzed second quarter 1993. Other constituents also have exceeded standards at this site, but only sporadically, and none of those were analyzed second quarter 1993

  5. F- and H-Area Sewage Sludge Application Sites groundwater monitoring report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-07-01

    Samples from the four wells at the F-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site (FSS wells) and the three wells at the H-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site (HSS wells) are analyzed quarterly for constituents as required by South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Construction Permit 12,076 and, as requested, for other constituents as part of the Savannah River Site Groundwater Monitoring Program. Annual analyses for other constituents, primarily metals, also are required by the permit. Historically and currently, no permit-required analytes exceed standards at the F- and H-Area Sewage Sludge Application Sites except iron, lead, and manganese, which occur in elevated concentrations frequently in FSS wells and occasionally in HSS wells. Tritium and aluminum are the primary nonpermit constituents that exceed standards at the F-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site. Other constituents also exceed standards at this site but only sporadically.

  6. F- and H-area Sewage Sludge Application Sites: Groundwater monitoring report. Second quarter 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-01

    Samples from the four wells at the F-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site (FSS wells) and the three wells at the H-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site (HSS wells) are analyzed quarterly for constituents as required by South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Construction Permit 12,076 and, as requested, for other constituents as part of the Savannah River Site Groundwater Monitoring Program. Annual analyses for other constituents, primarily metals, also are required by the permit. Currently, no permit-required analytes exceed standards at the F- and H-Area Sewage Sludge Application Sites. Tritium and aluminum have been the primary nonpermit constituents exceeding standards at the F-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site. These constituents were not analyzed second quarter 1993. Other constituents also have exceeded standards at this site, but only sporadically, and none of those were analyzed second quarter 1993.

  7. Optimized two-level placement of test points for multi-objective air monitoring of the Three Gorges Reservoir area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Dong-hai; TAN Chun-lu; WANG Jun-qiang; ZHONG Yuan-chang

    2007-01-01

    To fit the complicated geographic conditions of the Three Gorges Reservoir area, a two-level multi-objective monitoring system was developed to monitor the atmosphere of the area. Statistical analysis of environmental monitoring data and the macro control principle were employed to configure the upper layer. The lower layer was designed by the application of the thumb rule to a local terrain and specific point sources of pollution therein. The optimized two-level system comprises an upper layer of 16 monitoring stations distributed at places of diverse geographical, ecological, economical and social characteristics, and a lower layer of 16 sub-machines at each monitoring station of the upper layer. This optimal outcome fits the complicated conditions of the Three Gorges Reservoir area, substantially cuts down the installation cost and the operation cost, and provides accurate monitoring data of atmosphere over the entire area with a high resolution.

  8. Chipmunk IV: development of and experience with a new generation of radiation area monitors for accelerator applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The operation of a high-energy accelerator complex presents challenging problems for radiation monitoring during 'beam-on' conditions. As a response to these needs, Fermilab has developed several families of radiation monitoring instruments intended for use under beam-on conditions. One of these instruments is a tissue equivalent, ion chamber based, area monitor called a 'Chipmunk'. This article describes the latest version of these monitors, specifically the Chipmunk IV, as developed at Fermilab

  9. Chipmunk IV: development of and experience with a new generation of radiation area monitors for accelerator applications

    CERN Document Server

    Krüger, F

    2002-01-01

    The operation of a high-energy accelerator complex presents challenging problems for radiation monitoring during 'beam-on' conditions. As a response to these needs, Fermilab has developed several families of radiation monitoring instruments intended for use under beam-on conditions. One of these instruments is a tissue equivalent, ion chamber based, area monitor called a 'Chipmunk'. This article describes the latest version of these monitors, specifically the Chipmunk IV, as developed at Fermilab.

  10. Development of one way entry and multiple pinholes based 222Rn - 220Rn discriminating dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simultaneous measurement of radon and thoron concentration in an environment is of great importance in the context of estimating correct inhalation dose and for epidemiological investigation. Track detector based cup dosimeter systems are widely used in dwellings environment for radon and thoron measurement due its cost effectiveness, portability and easy to use nature. In India, LR-115 detector based twin cup dosimeters developed by Eappen and Mayya have been used in dwelling for the last few decades for measurement of radon and thoron concentration in several places such as High Background Radiation Areas, Kerala. This dosimeter system has two cups, one exclusively for radon detection and other for both radon and thoron detection with two different entries for each cup. The cup detecting only radon uses a membrane to cut-off thoron transmission and thoron is determined using subtraction technique. However a key issue in this dosimeter system is that of arriving sometimes at a negative thoron concentration in the process of calculation. One of the reasons for this unwanted result can be attributed to the assumption of the entry of same amount of radon and thoron gas per unit time, in both cups. This assumption may not hold true sometimes, due to reasons like atmospheric turbulence. Another drawback of this dosimeter is that there is a very limited scope for optimization of radon and thoron transmission through the membrane discriminator. In this paper, we present a new design of 'Pin holes based twin cup dosimeter' with single entry and based on technique for discriminating the radon-thoron gases using multiple pinholes

  11. Characterization of a medical X-ray machine for testing the response of electronic dosimeters in pulsed radiation fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electronic personal dosimeters (EPD) based on solid state detectors have been used for personnel monitoring for radiation protection purpose; their use has been extended to practices with pulsed radiation beams although their performance is not well known. Deficiencies in the EPD response in pulsed radiation fields have been reported; they were not detected before since type tests and calibrations of EPDs were established in terms of continuous X and gamma reference radiations. An ISO working group was formed to elaborate a standard for test conditions and performance requirements of EPDs in pulsed beams; the PTB/Germany implemented a special X-ray facility for generating the reference pulsed radiation beams. In this work, an 800 Plus VMI medical X-ray machine of the Dosimeter Calibration Laboratory of CDTN/CNEN was characterized to verify its feasibility to perform EPD tests. Characterization of the x-ray beam was done in terms of practical peak voltage, half-value layer, mean energy and air kerma rate. Reference dosimeters used for air kerma measurements were verified as far their metrological coherence and a procedure for testing EDPs was established. - highlights: • Electronic personal dosimeters (EPD) have been used for personnel monitoring. • EPD use has been extended to pulsed radiation beams. • Deficiencies in the EPD response in pulsed beams have been reported. • The feasibility of using a medical X-ray machine to perform EPD tests was studied. • Reference dosimeters were verified and EPD testing procedure was established

  12. Development of a Fixed Wing Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV for Disaster Area Monitoring and Mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gesang Nugroho

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of remote sensing technology offers the ability to perform real-time delivery of aerial video and images. A precise disaster map allows a disaster management to be done quickly and accurately. This paper discusses how a fixed wing UAV can perform aerial monitoring and mapping of disaster area to produce a disaster map. This research was conducted using a flying wing, autopilot, digital camera, and data processing software. The research starts with determining the airframe and the avionic system then determine waypoints. The UAV flies according to the given waypoints while taking video and photo. The video is transmitted to the Ground Control Station (GCS so that an operator in the ground can monitor the area condition in real time. After obtaining data, then it is processed to obtain a disaster map. The results of this research are: a fixed wing UAV that can monitor disaster area and send real-time video and photos, a GCS equipped with image processing software, and a mosaic map. This UAV used a flying wing that has 3 kg empty weight, 2.2 m wingspan, and can fly for 12-15 minutes. This UAV was also used for a mission at Parangtritis coast in the southern part of Yogyakarta with flight altitude of 150 m, average speed of 15 m/s, and length of way point of around 5 km in around 6 minutes. A mosaic map with area of around 300 m x 1500 m was also obtained. Interpretation of the mosaic led to some conclusions including: lack of evacuation routes, residential area which faces high risk of tsunami, and lack of green zone around the shore line.

  13. In situ ion-beam-induced luminescence analysis for evaluating a micrometer-scale radio-photoluminescence glass dosimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabata, Shunsuke; Kada, Wataru; Parajuli, Raj Kumar; Matsubara, Yoshinori; Sakai, Makoto; Miura, Kenta; Satoh, Takahiro; Koka, Masashi; Yamada, Naoto; Kamiya, Tomihiro; Hanaizumi, Osamu

    2016-06-01

    Micrometer-scale responses of radio-photoluminescence (RPL) glass dosimeters to focused ionized particle radiation were evaluated by combining ion-beam-induced luminescence (IBIL) and proton beam writing (PBW) using a 3 MeV focused proton microbeam. RPL phosphate glass dosimeters doped with ionic Ag or Cu activators at concentrations of 0.2 and 0.1% were fabricated, and their scintillation intensities were evaluated by IBIL spectroscopy under a PBW micropatterning condition. Compared with the Ag-doped dosimeter, the Cu-doped dosimeter was more tolerant of the radiation, while the peak intensity of its luminescence was lower, under the precise dose control of the proton microprobe. Proton-irradiated areas were successfully recorded using these dosimeters and their RPL centers were visualized under 375 nm ultraviolet light. The reproduction of the irradiated region by post-RPL imaging suggests that precise estimation of irradiation dose using microdosimeters can be accomplished by optimizing RPL glass dosimeters for various proton microprobe applications in organic material analysis and in micrometer-scale material modifications.

  14. L-325 Sagebrush Habitat Mitigation Project: Final Compensation Area Monitoring Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durham, Robin E.; Becker, James M.

    2013-09-26

    This document provides a review and status of activities conducted in support of the Fluor Daniel Hanford Company (Fluor), now Mission Support Alliance (MSA), Mitigation Action Plan (MAP) for Project L-325, Electrical Utility Upgrades (2007). Three plantings have been installed on a 4.5-hectare mitigation area to date. This review provides a description and chronology of events, monitoring results, and mitigative actions through fiscal year (FY) 2012. Also provided is a review of the monitoring methods, transect layout, and FY 2012 monitoring activities and results for all planting years. Planting densities and performance criteria stipulated in the MAP were aimed at a desired future condition (DFC) of 10 percent mature sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata ssp wyomingensis) cover. Current recommendations for yielding this DFC are based upon a conceptual model planting of 1000 plants/ha (400/ac) exhibiting a 60-percent survival rate after 5 monitoring years (DOE 2003). Accordingly, a DFC after 5 monitoring years would not be less than 600 plants/ha (240/ac). To date, about 8700 sagebrush plants have been grown and transplanted onto the mitigation site. Harsh site conditions and low seedling survival have resulted in an estimated 489 transplants/ha on the mitigation site, which is 111 plants/ha short of the target DFC. Despite this apparent shortcoming, 71, 91, and 24 percent of the surviving seedlings planted in FY 2007 and FY 2008 and FY 2010, respectively, showed signs of blooming in FY 2012. Blooming status may be a positive indication of future sagebrush recruitment, and is therefore a potential source for reaching the target DFC of 600 plants/ha on this mitigation site over time. Because of the difficulty establishing small transplants on this site, we propose that no additional plantings be considered for this mitigation area and to rely upon the potential recruitment by established seedlings to achieve the mitigation commitment set forth in the MAP of 600 plants/ha.

  15. On-line hybrid radiation dosimeter for the nuclear mobile robot (KAEROT/m2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electronics of a mobile robot in nuclear facilities is required to satisfied the relibility to sustain survival in its radiation environment. To know how much radiation the robot has been encountered to replace sensitive electronic parts, a dosimeter to measure total accumulated does is necessary. Among many radiation dosimeters or detectors, semiconductor radiation sensors have advantages in terms of power requirements and their sizes over conventional detectors. This paper describes the use of the radiation-induced threshold voltage change of a commercial power pMOSFET as an accumulated radiation dose monitoring mean and that of the photo-current of a commercial PIN Diode as a dose-rate measurement mean. Commercial p-type power MOSFETs and PIN Diodes were tested in a Co-60 gamma irradiation facility to see their capabilities as radiation sensors. We found an inexpensive commercial power pMOSFET that shows good linearity in their threshold voltage shift with radiation dose and a PIN diode that shows good linearity in its photo-current change with dose-rate. According to these findings, a radiation hardened hybrid electronic radiation dosimeter for nuclear robots has been developed for the first time. This small hybrid dosimeter has also an advantage in the point of view of reliability improvement by using a diversity concept

  16. Radiation dosimetry of polymer gel dosimeters using Raman microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: For several years polyacrylamide gels (PAGs) have been used for radiation therapy gel dosimetry. More recently FT-Raman spectroscopy has provided direct measurements of the concentration of monomers, post-irradiation, as a function of absorbed radiation dose. Adapting this work to Raman microscopy is an attractive proposition as it may enable dose to be measured to spatial resolutions of one micron. The composition of the PAG dosimeter was 3% acrylamide, 3% N,N'- methylene-bis-acrylamide, 5% gelatin and 89% water by weight. The PAG was irradiated from one end of a quartz glass slide of dimensions, 8 mm γ 38 mm γ 0.2 mm using electrons from a 6 MeV linear accelerator. Raman spectra were obtained using a Renishaw Raman microprobe with a nominal resolution of one micron. A helium neon laser operating at 8 mW and 633 nm was used for excitation. The depth dose measurement using the Raman microprobe compared to a calibrated ion chamber is illustrated. Raman microscopy of PAG dosimeters shows great potential in determining dose distributions with high spatial resolution and may have potential in areas such as cardiovascular brachytherapy. Copyright (2000) Australasian College of Physical Scientists and Engineers in Medicine

  17. 2012 Groundwater Monitoring Report Central Nevada Test Area, Subsurface Corrective Action Unit 443

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-04-01

    The Central Nevada Test Area was the site of a 0.2- to 1-megaton underground nuclear test in 1968. The surface of the site has been closed, but the subsurface is still in the corrective action process. The corrective action alternative selected for the site was monitoring with institutional controls. Annual sampling and hydraulic head monitoring are conducted as part of the subsurface corrective action strategy. The site is currently in the fourth year of the 5-year proof-of-concept period that is intended to validate the compliance boundary. Analytical results from the 2012 monitoring are consistent with those of previous years. Tritium remains at levels below the laboratory minimum detectable concentration in all wells in the monitoring network. Samples collected from reentry well UC-1-P-2SR, which is not in the monitoring network but was sampled as part of supplemental activities conducted during the 2012 monitoring, indicate concentrations of tritium that are consistent with previous sampling results. This well was drilled into the chimney shortly after the detonation, and water levels continue to rise, demonstrating the very low permeability of the volcanic rocks. Water level data from new wells MV-4 and MV-5 and recompleted well HTH-1RC indicate that hydraulic heads are still recovering from installation and testing. Data from wells MV-4 and MV-5 also indicate that head levels have not yet recovered from the 2011 sampling event during which several thousand gallons of water were purged. It has been recommended that a low-flow sampling method be adopted for these wells to allow head levels to recover to steady-state conditions. Despite the lack of steady-state groundwater conditions, hydraulic head data collected from alluvial wells installed in 2009 continue to support the conceptual model that the southeast-bounding graben fault acts as a barrier to groundwater flow at the site.

  18. NRC TLD Direct Radiation Monitoring Network. Progress report, July--September 1994: Volume 14, Number 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Direct Radiation Monitoring Network is operated by the NRC in cooperation with participating states to provide continuous measurement of the ambient radiation levels around licensed NRC facilities, primarily power reactors. The Network is intended to measure radiation levels during routine facility operations and to establish background radiation levels used to assess the radiological impact of an unusual condition, such as an accident. This report presents the radiation levels measured around all facilities in the Network for the third quarter of 1994. A complete listing of the site facilities monitored is included. In some instances, two power reactor facilities are monitored by the same set of dosimeters. All radiation measurements are made using small, passive detectors called thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs), which provide a quantitative measurement of the radiation levels in the area in which they are placed

  19. Characterization of lithium formate EPR dosimeters for high dose applications – comparison with alanine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waldeland, Einar; Helt-Hansen, Jakob; Malinen, Eirik

    2011-01-01

    Lithium formate and l-α-alanine (alanine) EPR dosimeters were irradiated to doses from 100 Gy to 100 kGy. The irradiations were mainly performed at a Gammacell irradiator with dose rate of approximately 5.5 kGy h−1. Both the peak-to-peak amplitude of the first derivative EPR spectrum and the area...... dosimeters irradiated to 1 kGy at temperatures from 11ºC to 40ºC were analyzed. By fitting an ‘exponential rise to maximum'-function to the dependence of the area under the EPR absorption spectrum on the dose, saturation doses of 53 kGy and 87 kGy for lithium formate and alanine, respectively, were found...... dosimeter signal per ºC change in irradiation temperature) were 0.154 % K−1 and 0.161 % K−1 for lithium formate and alanine, respectively. This work demonstrates that lithium formate EPR dosimeters may be suitable for high dose applications, but their signals saturate at lower doses than alanine. The...

  20. Geothermal resource areas database for monitoring the progress of development in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence, J.D.; Lepman, S.R.; Leung, K.; Phillips, S.L.

    1981-01-01

    The Geothermal Resource Areas Database (GRAD) and associated data system provide broad coverage of information on the development of geothermal resources in the United States. The system is designed to serve the information requirements of the National Progress Monitoring System. GRAD covers development from the initial exploratory phase through plant construction and operation. Emphasis is on actual facts or events rather than projections and scenarios. The selection and organization of data are based on a model of geothermal development. Subjects in GRAD include: names and addresses, leases, area descriptions, geothermal wells, power plants, direct use facilities, and environmental and regulatory aspects of development. Data collected in the various subject areas are critically evaluated, and then entered into an on-line interactive computer system. The system is publically available for retrieval and use. The background of the project, conceptual development, software development, and data collection are described here. Appendices describe the structure of the database in detail.