WorldWideScience

Sample records for area level socioeconomic

  1. Area-Level Socioeconomic Gradients in Overweight and Obesity in a Community-Derived Cohort of Health Service Users - A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Bonney

    Full Text Available Overweight and obesity lead to higher probability of individuals accessing primary care but adiposity estimates are rarely available at regional levels to inform health service planning. This paper analyses a large, community-derived clinical database of objectively measured body mass index (BMI to explore relationships with area-level socioeconomic disadvantage for informing regional level planning activities.The study included 91776 adults who had BMI objectively measured between 1 July 2009 and 30 June 2011 by a single pathology provider. Demographic data and BMI were extracted and matched to 2006 national census socioeconomic data using geocoding. Adjusted odds-ratios for overweight and obesity were calculated using sex-stratified logistic regression models with socioeconomic disadvantage of census collection district of residence as the independent variable.The prevalence of overweight or obesity was 79.2% (males and 65.8% (females; increased with age to 74 years; and was higher in rural (74% versus urban areas (71.4% (p<0.001. Increasing socioeconomic disadvantage was associated with increasing prevalence of overweight (p<0.0001, obesity (p<0.0001 and overweight or obesity (p<0.0001 in women and obesity (p<0.0001 in men. Socioeconomic disadvantage was unrelated to overweight (p = 0.2024 and overweight or obesity (p = 0.4896 in males.It is feasible to link routinely-collected clinical data, representative of a discrete population, with geographic distribution of disadvantage, and to obtain meaningful area-level information useful for targeting interventions to improve population health. Our results demonstrate novel area-level socioeconomic gradients in overweight and obesity relevant to regional health service planning.

  2. Influence of socioeconomic processes on the level of regional criminality (on the example of the Donetsk area)

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The level of regional criminality has been analyzed. The Basic factors which influence on the level of criminality in the Donetsk area have been defined. It has been proved that the increase of unemployment and migration of population leads to social tension in society and causes the growth of crimes.

  3. Socio-economic benefits from protected areas in southeastern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heagney, E C; Kovac, M; Fountain, J; Conner, N

    2015-12-01

    International case studies of protected area performance increasingly report that conservation and socio-economic outcomes are interdependent. Effective conservation requires support and cooperation from local governments and communities, which in turn requires that protected areas contribute to the economic well-being of the communities in which they are sited. Despite increasing recognition of their importance, robust studies that document the socio-economic impacts of protected areas are rare, especially in the developed world context. We proposed 3 potential pathways through which protected areas might benefit local communities in the developed world: the improved local housing value, local business stimulus, and increased local funding pathways. We examined these pathways by undertaking a statistical longitudinal analysis of 110 regional and rural communities covering an area of approximately 600,000 km(2) in southeastern Australia. We compared trends in 10 socio-economic indicators describing employment, income, housing, business development and local government revenue from 2000 to 2010. New protected areas acquisitions led to an increased number of new dwelling approvals and associated developer contributions, increased local business numbers, and increased local government revenue from user-pays services and grants. Longer-term effects of established protected areas included increased local council revenue from a variety of sources. Our findings provide support for each of our 3 proposed benefit pathways and contribute new insights into the cycling of benefits from protected areas through the economy over time. The business and legislative models in our study are typical of those operating in many other developed countries; thus, the benefit pathways reported in our study are likely to be generalizable. By identifying and communicating socio-economic benefits from terrestrial protected areas in a developed world context, our findings represent an important

  4. Drivers and socioeconomic impacts of tourism participation in protected areas.

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    Wei Liu

    Full Text Available Nature-based tourism has the potential to enhance global biodiversity conservation by providing alternative livelihood strategies for local people, which may alleviate poverty in and around protected areas. Despite the popularity of the concept of nature-based tourism as an integrated conservation and development tool, empirical research on its actual socioeconomic benefits, on the distributional pattern of these benefits, and on its direct driving factors is lacking, because relevant long-term data are rarely available. In a multi-year study in Wolong Nature Reserve, China, we followed a representative sample of 220 local households from 1999 to 2007 to investigate the diverse benefits that these households received from recent development of nature-based tourism in the area. Within eight years, the number of households directly participating in tourism activities increased from nine to sixty. In addition, about two-thirds of the other households received indirect financial benefits from tourism. We constructed an empirical household economic model to identify the factors that led to household-level participation in tourism. The results reveal the effects of local households' livelihood assets (i.e., financial, human, natural, physical, and social capitals on the likelihood to participate directly in tourism. In general, households with greater financial (e.g., income, physical (e.g., access to key tourism sites, human (e.g., education, and social (e.g., kinship with local government officials capitals and less natural capital (e.g., cropland were more likely to participate in tourism activities. We found that residents in households participating in tourism tended to perceive more non-financial benefits in addition to more negative environmental impacts of tourism compared with households not participating in tourism. These findings suggest that socioeconomic impact analysis and change monitoring should be included in nature-based tourism

  5. Drivers and socioeconomic impacts of tourism participation in protected areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Vogt, Christine A; Luo, Junyan; He, Guangming; Frank, Kenneth A; Liu, Jianguo

    2012-01-01

    Nature-based tourism has the potential to enhance global biodiversity conservation by providing alternative livelihood strategies for local people, which may alleviate poverty in and around protected areas. Despite the popularity of the concept of nature-based tourism as an integrated conservation and development tool, empirical research on its actual socioeconomic benefits, on the distributional pattern of these benefits, and on its direct driving factors is lacking, because relevant long-term data are rarely available. In a multi-year study in Wolong Nature Reserve, China, we followed a representative sample of 220 local households from 1999 to 2007 to investigate the diverse benefits that these households received from recent development of nature-based tourism in the area. Within eight years, the number of households directly participating in tourism activities increased from nine to sixty. In addition, about two-thirds of the other households received indirect financial benefits from tourism. We constructed an empirical household economic model to identify the factors that led to household-level participation in tourism. The results reveal the effects of local households' livelihood assets (i.e., financial, human, natural, physical, and social capitals) on the likelihood to participate directly in tourism. In general, households with greater financial (e.g., income), physical (e.g., access to key tourism sites), human (e.g., education), and social (e.g., kinship with local government officials) capitals and less natural capital (e.g., cropland) were more likely to participate in tourism activities. We found that residents in households participating in tourism tended to perceive more non-financial benefits in addition to more negative environmental impacts of tourism compared with households not participating in tourism. These findings suggest that socioeconomic impact analysis and change monitoring should be included in nature-based tourism management systems

  6. Individual and Area Level Socioeconomic Status and Its Association with Cognitive Function and Cognitive Impairment (Low MMSE among Community-Dwelling Elderly in Singapore

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    Liang En Wee

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES can affect cognitive function. We assessed cognitive function and cognitive impairment among community-dwelling elderly in a multi-ethnic urban low-SES Asian neighborhood and compared them with a higher-SES neighborhood. Methods: The study population involved all residents aged ≥60 years in two housing estates comprising owner-occupied housing (higher SES and rental flats (low SES in Singapore in 2012. Cognitive impairment was defined as Results: Participation was 61.4% (558/909. Cognitive impairment was found in 26.2% (104/397 of residents in the low-SES community and in 16.1% (26/161 of residents in the higher-SES community. After adjusting for other sociodemographic variables, living in a low-SES community was independently associated with poorer cognitive function (β = –1.41, SD = 0.58, p Conclusion: Living in a low-SES community is independently associated with cognitive impairment in an urban Asian society.

  7. Environmental resources of selected areas of Hawaii: Socioeconomics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saulsbury, J.W.; Sorensen, B.M.; Reed, R.M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Schexnayder, S.M. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1995-03-01

    This report has been prepared to make available and archive the background information on socioeconomic resources collected during the preparation of the environmental impact statement (EIS) for Phases 3--4 of the Hawaii Geothermal Project (HGP) as defined by the state of Hawaii in its April 1989 proposal to Congress. The USDOE published a notice withdrawing its Notice of Intent to prepare the HGP EIS. Since the state of Hawaii is no longer pursuing or planning to pursue the HGP, DOE considers the project to be terminated. This document provides background information on socioeconomic resources in Hawaii County, with particular emphasis on the Puna District. Information is being made available for use by others in conducting future socioeconomic impact assessments in this area. this report describes existing socioeconomic resources in the areas studied and does not represent an assessment of environmental impacts. The socioeconomic resources described are primarily those that would be affected by employment and population growth associated with any future large-scale development. These resource categories are population, housing, land use, economic structure, infrastructure and public services, local government revenues and expenditures, and tourism and recreation.

  8. Environmental Resources of Selected Areas of Hawaii: Socioeconomics (DRAFT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saulsbury, J.W.; Sorensen, B.M.; Schexnayder, S.M.

    1994-06-01

    This report has been prepared to make available and archive the background information on socioeconomic resources collected during the preparation of the Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for Phases 3 and 4 of the Hawaii Geothermal Project (HGP) as defined by the state of Hawaii in its April 1989 proposal to Congress. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) published a notice in the Federal Register on May 17, 1994 (Fed. Regis. 5925638), withdrawing its Notice of Intent (Fed Regis. 57:5433), of February 14, 1992, to prepare the HGPEIS. Since the state of Hawaii is no longer pursuing or planning to pursue the HGP, DOE considers the project to be terminated. This document provides background information on socioeconomic resources in Hawaii County, with particular emphasis on the Puna District (Fig. 1). Information is being made available for use by others in conducting future socioeconomic impact assessments in this area. This report describes existing socioeconomic resources in the areas studied (i.e., the affected environment) and does not represent an assessment of environmental impacts. The socioeconomic resources described are primarily those that would be affected by employment and population growth associated with any future large-scale development. These resource categories are (1) population, (2) housing, (3) land use, (4) economic structure (primarily employment and income), (5) infrastructure and public services (education, ground transportation, police and fire protection, water, wastewater, solid waste disposal, electricity, and emergency planning), (6) local government revenues and expenditures, and (7) tourism and recreation.

  9. A socioeconomic deprivation index for small areas in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meijer, Mathias; Engholm, Gerda; Grittner, Ulrike;

    2013-01-01

    parishes. Results were compared with the Townsend index and a possible modifying effect of population density was investigated. Sensitivity of the index was investigated with multilevel survival analyses evaluating the association between all-cause mortality and DANDEX, the Townsend Index, individual......-level socioeconomic factors, and population density. Results: DANDEX consists of two components measuring socioeconomic properties of all 2119 Danish parishes. The first component measures deprivation related to housing (house and car ownership) while the second component is related to classical measures...... of socioeconomic status (education, income, occupation). A clear gradient in standardised mortality ratios was seen across quintiles of both index components. Modifying effects were seen when stratifying the index components by population density. In a frailty model, DANDEX accounted for 76% of the between...

  10. Regional Inequalities in Lung Cancer Mortality in Belgium at the Beginning of the 21st Century: The Contribution of Individual and Area-Level Socioeconomic Status and Industrial Exposure.

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    Paulien Hagedoorn

    Full Text Available Being a highly industrialized country with one of the highest male lung cancer mortality rates in Europe, Belgium is an interesting study area for lung cancer research. This study investigates geographical patterns in lung cancer mortality in Belgium. More specifically it probes into the contribution of individual as well as area-level characteristics to (sub-district patterns in lung cancer mortality. Data from the 2001 census linked to register data from 2001-2011 are used, selecting all Belgian inhabitants aged 65+ at time of the census. Individual characteristics include education, housing status and home ownership. Urbanicity, unemployment rate, the percentage employed in mining and the percentage employed in other high-risk industries are included as sub-district characteristics. Regional variation in lung cancer mortality at sub-district level is estimated using directly age-standardized mortality rates. The association between lung cancer mortality and individual and area characteristics, and their impact on the variation of sub-district level is estimated using multilevel Poisson models. Significant sub-district variations in lung cancer mortality are observed. Individual characteristics explain a small share of this variation, while a large share is explained by sub-district characteristics. Individuals with a low socioeconomic status experience a higher lung cancer mortality risk. Among women, an association with lung cancer mortality is found for the sub-district characteristics urbanicity and unemployment rate, while for men lung cancer mortality was associated with the percentage employed in mining. Not just individual characteristics, but also area characteristics are thus important determinants of (regional differences in lung cancer mortality.

  11. Regional Inequalities in Lung Cancer Mortality in Belgium at the Beginning of the 21st Century: The Contribution of Individual and Area-Level Socioeconomic Status and Industrial Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagedoorn, Paulien; Vandenheede, Hadewijch; Willaert, Didier; Vanthomme, Katrien; Gadeyne, Sylvie

    2016-01-01

    Being a highly industrialized country with one of the highest male lung cancer mortality rates in Europe, Belgium is an interesting study area for lung cancer research. This study investigates geographical patterns in lung cancer mortality in Belgium. More specifically it probes into the contribution of individual as well as area-level characteristics to (sub-district patterns in) lung cancer mortality. Data from the 2001 census linked to register data from 2001-2011 are used, selecting all Belgian inhabitants aged 65+ at time of the census. Individual characteristics include education, housing status and home ownership. Urbanicity, unemployment rate, the percentage employed in mining and the percentage employed in other high-risk industries are included as sub-district characteristics. Regional variation in lung cancer mortality at sub-district level is estimated using directly age-standardized mortality rates. The association between lung cancer mortality and individual and area characteristics, and their impact on the variation of sub-district level is estimated using multilevel Poisson models. Significant sub-district variations in lung cancer mortality are observed. Individual characteristics explain a small share of this variation, while a large share is explained by sub-district characteristics. Individuals with a low socioeconomic status experience a higher lung cancer mortality risk. Among women, an association with lung cancer mortality is found for the sub-district characteristics urbanicity and unemployment rate, while for men lung cancer mortality was associated with the percentage employed in mining. Not just individual characteristics, but also area characteristics are thus important determinants of (regional differences in) lung cancer mortality.

  12. Racial and Socioeconomic Variations in Preadolescent Area-Specific and General Self-esteem

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    Hare, Bruce R.

    1977-01-01

    Discusses a study of two hundred and ten fifth-grade students, noting indications that children of varying backgrounds differ in their levels of general and area-specific self-esteem across both racial and socioeconomic lines but not significantly by sex. For availability see CS 704 480. (MH)

  13. Analysis of Coordination between the Public Service in Rural Areas and Socio-economic Development——A Case Study of Sichuan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Taking Sichuan Province as an example,by using the overall evaluation function of Sichuan’s rural public service equalization development level and rural socio-economic development level,we conduct profound analysis on coordination between public service in Sichuan’s rural areas and socio-economic development from 2003 to 2008.The results show that the coordination between rural public service and socio-economic development in Sichuan Province is not high,and the equalization phenomenon of rural public service construction and socio-economic development is very prominent.The equalization development of public service in rural areas of Sichuan Province from 2003 to 2008 lags behind socio-economic development.The coordination between public service equalization system in rural areas of Sichuan Province and socio-economic development system abates continuously;the coordination between infrastructure and socio-economic development increases slowly;the coordination between education and socio-economic development declines sharply;the coordination between public culture and socio-economic development tends to decrease;the coordination between ecological environment construction and socio-economic development decreases continuously with great amplitude;the coordination between public health and socio-economic development decreases continuously;the coordination between science and technology and socio-economic development lingers at low level;the coordination between social security and employment,and socio-economic development increases in fluctuation,but with small amplitude.

  14. Municipal health expectancy in Japan: decreased healthy longevity of older people in socioeconomically disadvantaged areas

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    Takano Takehito

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about small-area variation in healthy longevity of older people and its socioeconomic correlates. This study aimed to estimate health expectancy at 65 years (HE65 at the municipal level in Japan, and to examine its relation to area socio-demographic conditions. Methods HE65 of municipalities (N = 3361 across Japan was estimated by a linear regression formula with life expectancy at 65 years and the prevalence of those certificated as needing nursing care. The relation between HE65 and area socio-demographic indicators was examined using correlation coefficients. Results The estimated HE65 (years ranged from 13.13 to 17.39 for men and from 14.84 to 20.53 for women. HE65 was significantly positively correlated with the proportion of elderly and per capita income, and negatively correlated with the percentage of households of a single elderly person, divorce rate, and unemployment rate. These relations were stronger in large municipalities (with a population of more than 100,000 than in small and medium-size municipalities. Conclusion A decrease in healthy longevity of older people was associated with a higher percentage of households of a single elderly person and divorce rate, and lower socioeconomic conditions. This study suggests that older people in urban areas are susceptible to socio-demographic factors, and a social support network for older people living in socioeconomically disadvantaged conditions should be encouraged.

  15. Stress levels of student population in Costa Rica. Differences according to socioeconomic, academic achievement, educational level, and geographic location variables

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    Sebastien Belhumeur

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available : In this paper are described the stress levels of the student population about the variables: socioeconomic status, academic performance, academic level, geographical area and gender. For this purpose, a survey was administered to a randomized sample of 112 students of different careers from the main campus of the University of Costa Rica. Results showed that the major sources of stress in students are academic and financial pressures. Also, results showed that students whose place of origin is far from the main campus of the university have higher levels of stress and finally, women tend to handle higher levels of stress than men.

  16. Performance of Coral Reef Management within Marine Protected Areas: Integrating Ecological, Socioeconomic, Technological, and Institutional Dimensions

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    Roni Bawole

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This research studied the characteristics and approaches that contributed to the successful of coral reef management (CRM efforts.  One such characteristic occurred in most case  studies was the importance of integrating ecological, socio-economic, technological use, and  institutional dimensions during all processes. Based on a multi-dimensional analysis,  the sustainability of CRM was 56.34% cumulatively, indicating a moderate level of management. This study  further suggested the importance to improve  technology and institution to achieve an effective CRM since both dimensions have  contributed only 38.80% and 49.26% respectively.  Stakeholder involvement was also central to the success of networking development within the management of Cenderawasih Bay National Park, specifically in facilitating the integration of ecological, socioeconomic, political will, and local cultural objectives in achieving an optimum planning objectives. Compilations of baselin information (both scientific and local knowledge were important to evaluate the effectiveness of all processes and for adaptive management to increase its potential in the management strategies. Balancing the integration of all management dimensions (ecology, socio-economic, technology, and institution in the whole processes with specific attributes in each case, would lead to an adaptive management for the implementation of conservation and management process.Keywords: coral  reef, management performance,  integrated dimensions, marine protected areas.

  17. [Lipid profile from low socioeconomic level preschool children. Valencia, Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solano, Liseti; Velásquez, Emma; Naddaf, Gloria; Páez, María

    2003-01-01

    Overweight and obesity are a public health problem worldwide affecting adults and children as well. The aim of this study was to assess overweight, lipid profile and cardiovascular risk ratios in 390 preschool children from low socio-economic level from Valencia, Venezuela. Nutritional anthropometric evaluation measured by body dimensions, and serum determination of cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and cardiovascular risk factors, were determined. 95% of the children were in relative and critical poverty. 14.3% of undernutrition and 20.8% of overweight was found. Lipid profile was in normal range, with no significant differences by sex, but higher values for HDL-cholesterol and risk ratios were found in children aged 1 to 3.99 years. Even though no differences were found by nutritional status, overweight children had higher values for lipids, except HDL-cholesterol. 6.3% of overweight children had cholesterol > or =170 mg/dL, 16.5% LDL-cholesterol > or =110 mg/dL, 40.5% triglycerides > or =75mg/dL and 100% HDL-cholesterol Nutritional and educational intervention should be addressed.

  18. The Purdue Elementary Problem-Solving Inventory (PEPSI), Grade Level, and Socioeconomic Status: A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, David W.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of grade level and socioeconomic status upon Purdue Elementary Problem-Solving Inventory (PEPSI) scores were investigated with 123 elementary students. It was concluded that the PEPSI is usable with most grade two through grade six pupils at both lower and middle socioeconomic levels, and has potential utility in teaching…

  19. Are some areas more equal than others? Socioeconomic inequality in potentially avoidable emergency hospital admissions within English local authority areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asaria, Miqdad; Barratt, Helen; Raine, Rosalind; Cookson, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Reducing health inequalities is an explicit goal of England’s health system. Our aim was to compare the performance of English local administrative areas in reducing socioeconomic inequality in emergency hospital admissions for ambulatory care sensitive chronic conditions. Methods We used local authority area as a stable proxy for health and long-term care administrative geography between 2004/5 and 2011/12. We linked inpatient hospital activity, deprivation, primary care, and population data to small area neighbourhoods (typical population 1500) within administrative areas (typical population 250,000). We measured absolute inequality gradients nationally and within each administrative area using neighbourhood-level linear models of the relationship between national deprivation and age–sex-adjusted emergency admission rates. We assessed local equity performance by comparing local inequality against national inequality to identify areas significantly more or less equal than expected; evaluated stability over time; and identified where equity performance was steadily improving or worsening. We then examined associations between change in socioeconomic inequalities and change in within-area deprivation (gentrification). Finally, we used administrative area-level random and fixed effects models to examine the contribution of primary care to inequalities in admissions. Results Data on 316 administrative areas were included in the analysis. Local inequalities were fairly stable between consecutive years, but 32 areas (10%) showed steadily improving or worsening equity. In the 21 improving areas, the gap between most and least deprived fell by 3.9 admissions per 1000 (six times the fall nationally) between 2004/5 and 2011/12, while in the 11 areas worsening, the gap widened by 2.4. There was no indication that measured improvements in local equity were an artefact of gentrification or that changes in primary care supply or quality contributed to changes in

  20. Relative importance of urbanicity, ethnicity and socioeconomic factors regarding area mortality differences.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijneveld, S.A.; Verheij, R.A.; Bakker, D.H. de

    1999-01-01

    A higher mortality rate in areas with increased socioeconomic deprivation has been found in many studies. Results are difficult to compare, however, because different indicators of area deprivation have been used. USA-based studies mostly use income to measure area deprivation, whereas UK-based stud

  1. Assessment of Socioeconomic Vulnerability to Floods in the Bâsca Chiojdului Catchment Area

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    REMUS PRĂVĂLIE

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Hydrological risk phenomena such as floods are among the most costly natural disasters worldwide, effects consisting of socioeconomic damages and deaths. The Bâsca Chiojdului catchment area, by its morphometric and hydrographic peculiarities, is prone to generate these hydrological risk phenomena, so there is a high vulnerability in the socioeconomic elements. This paper is focused on the identification of the main socioeconomic elements vulnerable to hydrological risk phenomena such as floods, based on the assessment of their manifestation potential. Thus, following the delimitation of areas with the highest flood occurrence potential (susceptibility to floods, major socioeconomic factors existing in the basin, considering human settlements (constructions, transport infrastructure, and agricultural areas (the most important category, were superimposed. Results showed a high vulnerability for all three exposed socioeconomic elements especially in valley sectors, of which household structures were the most vulnerable, given both their importance and the high number of areas highly exposed to floods (approximately 2,500 houses and outbuildings, out of a total of about 10,250, intersect the most susceptible area to floods in the study area.

  2. A socio-economic evaluation of a protected area - A case study: Hamadan province, Iran

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    Moradpanah Haniyeh

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the socio-economic issues of a protected area and participation of the local stakeholders in conservation of the protected area. This study was conducted at 7 villages in Hamedan province in the midwest part of Iran. A questionnaire was used for data collection. Reliability of the data was determined by Cronbach's alpha. In order to investigate the relationship between the average incomes of different villages, a t-statistic test was used. Results indicated that at the 0.05 significance level, there were significant differences between most villages. Furthermore, the results indicated that there was no significant relationship between mean income of Jara and Saadat Abad villages. In order to investigate the interest for the preservation of different villages, a t-statistic test was used. Results indicated that at the 0.05 significance level of, there were significant differences between Shademaneh and Maloosan, Siyah Dare and Gheshlagh Najaf, Shademaneh and Taemeh, Taemeh and Gheshlagh Najaf villages. Results also showed that the Maloosan village has the highest income in the area and willingness to participate in conservation activities was highest at this village. The results of this study show a new approach to the protection of biodiversity of protected areas with connection to economic, biological and humanistic studies.

  3. The impact of individual and area characteristics on urban socioeconomic differences in health and smoking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijneveld, S.A.

    1998-01-01

    Background. In general, poor health and lifestyles occur more frequently among individuals of low socioeconomic status (SES) and in deprived areas. An explanation for the latter may simply be the on average lower SES of residents of these areas. It is possible, however, that living in a deprived are

  4. On the Laws and Causes of Socio-economic Territorial Differentiation in Minority Areas in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue Mei; Dong Suocheng

    2009-01-01

    On the basis of applying quantitative and qualitative approaches as well as GIS technology,this paper established an index system to make a comprehensive evaluation on socioeconomic development of minority areas in China.The result showed that socio-economic development in minority area presents a series of characteristics that the north is high and the south is low,center-margin pattern is obvious and the areas with middle and lower development indices are distributed centrally and continuously.However,the causes of the socioeconomic characteristics mainly include natural conditions,economic development basic,population cultural quality,regional combination and development conditions of mineral and energy resources,informal institutional factors and distribution of major traffic lines..

  5. Demographic and socio-economic determinants of post-neonatal deaths in a special project area of rural northern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabir, Zubair

    2003-07-01

    The demographic and socio-economic determinants of post-neonatal deaths (n = 475) in a special project area of rural northern India (Ballabgarh) were ascertained from 1991 to 1999 using the electronic database system of the project area for data extraction, and were compared with the eligible living children of the same age using a matched population-based case-control study design. Similar determinants were also ascertained in neonatal deaths (n = 212) using the same study design. After controlling for the potential confounders using conditional logistic regression analyses, lower caste (a proxy measure for low socio-economic conditions in rural India) was found to be significantly associated with higher post-neonatal deaths (OR = 2.21). Higher maternal age (>30 years) and fathers' lower educational levels were significantly associated with higher neonatal deaths, in addition to higher post-neonatal deaths in the same area.

  6. Socioeconomic baseline characterization for the Savannah River Plant area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-09-01

    This report presents the social and economic characteristics of the environs of the Savannah River Plant (SRP). The characterization is keyed to those areas of the social and economic environment that could be impacted by the construction and operation of major facilities at SRP. The data consists of past trends and existing characteristics of the area's land use; its demographic, social, and economic profile; regional government; community services; housing, transportation; and historical, scenic, and archeological resources. Published documents, reports, and brochures were the primary sources of all the data presented in this document. When current published data was unavailable, representatives of federal, state, and local agencies were contacted by telephone. Conversations were followed by letters of verification, which were reviewed and verified by the agency representative.

  7. Association between neuropsychological factors, cognitive processes and reading levels in children of different socioeconomic status Callao

    OpenAIRE

    Canales Gabriel, Ricardo; Facultad de Psicología, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú

    2014-01-01

    This research sought to contribute to the knowledge of the possible association between neuropsychological factors, cognitive processes and reading processes in children from two socioeconomic levels in Callao, Peru. We used a descriptive correlational design examining 60 children from private and public schools from medium/high socio-economic level (B) and low (E), with the child neuropsychological test Solovieva Quintanar, the WISC-IV (Wechsler intelligence test ) and reading Achievement Te...

  8. Socioeconomic Determinants of Urban Poverty Area Workers' Labor Force Participation and Income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinkerton, James R.

    This study examined how the socioeconomic characteristics of male workers from poverty areas in Saint Louis, Missouri, San Antonio, Texas, and Chicago, Illinois, affect their incomes, hours of employment, unemployment, and labor force participation. The research was based on statistical analysis, using an interaction model, of data from the 1970…

  9. The interdependence between biodiversity and socioeconomic variables on a local level: evidence for german counties

    OpenAIRE

    Münch, Angela; Völkl, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores possible interdependence of biodiversity and several socioeconomic and political factors at the county level. It is aimed at the empirical identification of direct and indirect effects between biodiversity (loss) and their theoretical major impact factors. To date, research shows that in addition to geography, agriculture is one major determinant of biodiversity status. However, the impact of regional socioeconomic structures on biodiversity should not be underestimated. S...

  10. Preventable avoidable mortality: evolution of socioeconomic inequalities in urban areas in Spain, 1996-2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolasco, Andreu; Melchor, Inmaculada; Pina, José A; Pereyra-Zamora, Pamela; Moncho, Joaquin; Tamayo, Nayara; García-Senchermes, Carmen; Zurriaga, Oscar; Martínez-Beneito, Miguel A

    2009-09-01

    This study describes the inequalities in preventable avoidable mortality in relation to socioeconomic levels and analyses their evolution during the period 1996-2003 in the cities of Alicante, Castellon and Valencia. Four causes of preventable avoidable mortality were analysed according to sex: malignant tumour of the trachea, bronchus and lung, cirrhosis and other chronic diseases of the liver, motor vehicle accidents and AIDS, which had caused the death of non-institutionalised residents in the three cities during the period 1996-2003. The different census tracts were grouped into three socioeconomic levels. In general, socioeconomic inequalities in preventable avoidable mortality remain constant in time, except the ones caused by AIDS in Valencia, where they increase for men. Some census tracts in the three cities where the study was carried out were found to have significantly higher preventable mortality rates, and therefore require intervention.

  11. Infestação de área urbana por Aedes aegypti e relação com níveis socioeconômicos Infestation of an urban area by Aedes aegypti and relation with socioeconomic levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Chimello Ferreira

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar a associação entre índices de infestação larvária por Aedes aegypti e fatores socioeconômicos. MÉTODOS: Foram calculados os índices de infestação na área urbana de São José do Rio Preto, São Paulo, em janeiro de 2005 e em seguida geocodificados por endereço. Os setores censitários urbanos foram agrupados por meio de análise de componentes principais, produzindo quatro áreas socioeconômicas (1-4, ordem decrescente de nível socioeconômico e um quinto agrupamento (5 com nível inferior aos demais e não pertencente aos setores censitários urbanos (bairros novos e loteamentos irregulares. Calcularam-se, para cada área, os índices de Breteau (IB, predial (IP e de recipientes (IR, e as médias de recipientes existentes e pesquisados por casa. RESULTADOS: Os valores dos índices de infestação não apresentaram diferenças significativas entre as áreas socioeconômicas 1 a 4, mas foram menores que os índices obtidos para a área 5. As médias de recipientes existentes e pesquisados foram maiores para a área 1 em relação às áreas 2 a 4, mas não apresentaram diferenças significativas em relação à 5. CONCLUSÕES: Os índices larvários não mostraram associação com os diferentes níveis socioeconômicos da área correspondente aos setores censitários urbanos. Entretanto, os bairros novos, loteamentos irregulares e locais contíguos com as piores condições de saneamento básico apresentaram os maiores valores desses indicadores.OBJECTIVE: To assess the association between Aedes aegypti larvae infestation rates and socioeconomic factors. METHODS: Infestation rates in the urban area of the city of São José do Rio Preto, Southeastern Brazil, were calculated in January of 2005 and subsequently geocoded by address. The urban census tracts were grouped by means of main component analysis, thus producing four socioeconomic clusters (1-4, in a decreasing order of socioeconomic level and a fifth

  12. The level of socioeconomic development of EU countries and the state of ISO 14001 certification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fura, Barbara; Wang, Qingfang

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between the level of socioeconomic development of the EU 28 countries and the adoption of International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 14001 environmental management system. First, through a multivariate comparative analysis of the secondary data obtained from the public statistics, a Hellwig's synthetic indicator is created to rank the level of socioeconomic development of the EU 28 countries. Then, using the total number of certificates issued in 2012 and the increase from 2011, this study has found a correlation between the level of national socioeconomic development and the adoption of ISO 14001 system in their businesses. Although there was no relationship between the number of ISO 14001 certificates in 2012 and the level of socioeconomic development at the national level, a weak negative correlation was observed between the increase of certification from 2011 to 2012 and the level of national socioeconomic development. The results suggest a higher interest in ISO 14001 adoption by the firms from the less developed countries than those from the more developed states.

  13. The Interdependence between Biodiversity and Socio-Economic Variables on a Local and Regional Level: Evidence for German Counties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Münch, Angela; Völkl, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores possible interdependence of biodiversity and several socioeconomic and political factors at the county level. It is aimed at the empirical identification of direct and indirect effects between biodiversity (loss) and their theoretical major impact factors. To date, research sh...... of regional socioeconomic structures on biodiversity should not be underestimated. Specifically, in regard to biodiversity loss, the socioeconomic structure determines political measures instituted to protect biodiversity and to change agricultural practice.......This paper explores possible interdependence of biodiversity and several socioeconomic and political factors at the county level. It is aimed at the empirical identification of direct and indirect effects between biodiversity (loss) and their theoretical major impact factors. To date, research...... shows that in addition to geography, agriculture is one major determinant of biodiversity status. In our analysis of Bavarian counties, we show that low-yield areas with low species abundance tend to attract more grassland farming with a lower degree in the intensity of the farming practice. This result...

  14. Assessment of Macro-Level Socioeconomic Factors That Impact Waterborne Diseases: The Case of Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polimeni, John M.; Almalki, Ahmad; Iorgulescu, Raluca I.; Albu, Lucian-Liviu; Parker, Wendy M.; Chandrasekara, Ray

    2016-01-01

    The Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan is an example of a country that suffers from high water scarcity. Additionally, due to the economic drivers in the country, such as phosphate and potash extraction and pharmaceutical production, the little fresh water that remains is generally polluted. The infrastructure, often antiquated in urban areas and non-existent in rural areas, also contributes to poor water conditions and to the spread of waterborne diseases. This paper examines the socioeconomic factors that contribute to diarrhea and hepatitis A on a macro level in Jordan and discusses the public-policies that government officials could use to abate those problems. Ordinary least squares time series models are used to understand the macro-level variables that impact the incidence of these diseases in Jordan. Public health expenditure has a significant impact on reducing their incidence. Furthermore, investment in sanitation facilities in rural regions is likely to reduce the number of cases of hepatitis A. Perhaps the most surprising outcome is that importation of goods and services likely results in a decrease in cases of hepatitis A. However, income has little impact on the incidence of diarrhea and hepatitis A. PMID:27898017

  15. Assessment of Macro-Level Socioeconomic Factors That Impact Waterborne Diseases: The Case of Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polimeni, John M; Almalki, Ahmad; Iorgulescu, Raluca I; Albu, Lucian-Liviu; Parker, Wendy M; Chandrasekara, Ray

    2016-11-25

    The Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan is an example of a country that suffers from high water scarcity. Additionally, due to the economic drivers in the country, such as phosphate and potash extraction and pharmaceutical production, the little fresh water that remains is generally polluted. The infrastructure, often antiquated in urban areas and non-existent in rural areas, also contributes to poor water conditions and to the spread of waterborne diseases. This paper examines the socioeconomic factors that contribute to diarrhea and hepatitis A on a macro level in Jordan and discusses the public-policies that government officials could use to abate those problems. Ordinary least squares time series models are used to understand the macro-level variables that impact the incidence of these diseases in Jordan. Public health expenditure has a significant impact on reducing their incidence. Furthermore, investment in sanitation facilities in rural regions is likely to reduce the number of cases of hepatitis A. Perhaps the most surprising outcome is that importation of goods and services likely results in a decrease in cases of hepatitis A. However, income has little impact on the incidence of diarrhea and hepatitis A.

  16. Patterns and socioeconomic influences of tobacco exposure in tobacco cultivating rural areas of Yunnan Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cai Le

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study describes the patterns and socioeconomic influences of tobacco use among adults in tobacco-cultivating regions of rural southwest China. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 8681 adults aged ≥18 years in rural areas of Yunnan Province, China from 2010 to 2011. A standardized questionnaire was administered to obtain data about participants’ demographic characteristics, individual socioeconomic status, ethnicity, self-reported smoking habits, and exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS. The socioeconomic predictors of current smoking, nicotine addiction, and SHS exposure were analyzed using multivariate logistic regression. Results The prevalence rates of tobacco use were much higher in men compared with women (current smoking 68.5% vs. 1.3%; and nicotine dependence 85.2% vs. 72.7%. However, the rate of SHS exposure was higher in women compared with men (76.6% vs. 70.5%. Tobacco farmers had higher prevalence rates of current smoking, nicotine dependence, and SHS exposure compared with participants not engaged in tobacco farming (P Conclusions This study suggests that tobacco control efforts in rural southwest China must be tailored to address tobacco-cultivating status and socioeconomic factors.

  17. METHODS OF DETERMINATION OF POTENTIAL AREAS OF FORMING SOCIO-ECONOMIC INNOVATIVE CLUSTERS IN THE REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg A. Donichev

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the main problems of formation of innovation clusters in the regions, the role and the importance of government in these issues. The characteristics of the main socio-economic and innovative performances of the region are analyzed to determine its potential for creating innovative economic cluster. The methods for detecting possible potential areas of formation of such cluster are developed.

  18. Not only climate change: mobility, vulnerability and socio-economic transformations in environmentally fragile areas in Bolivia, Senegal and Tanzania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tacoli, Cecilia

    2011-02-15

    This paper argues that migration is better defined as an adaptive response to socio-economic, cultural, political and environmental transformations, in most instances closely linked to the need to diversify income sources and reduce dependency on natural resources. Drawing on case studies in Bolivia, Senegal and Tanzania, it describes how environmental change at the local level interacts with other factors to shape migration patterns, and how such patterns in turn affect the livelihoods and resilience of individuals, households and communities in areas experiencing the impacts of climate change in the form of desertification, soil degradation, disrupted rainfall patterns and changes in temperature.

  19. Red-Shirt Heartland: Village-level socioeconomic change in Northeast Thailand between 1999 and 2008

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, E.B.P. de; Knippenberg, L.W.J.; Ayuwat, D.; Promphakping, B.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we investigate the socioeconomic changes that took place on a village level in northeast Thailand during Thaksin Shinawatra's rule as prime minister of Thailand (2001–2006). By comparing data from 1999 and 2008, we show that most households in the research villages have become wealt

  20. Red-Shirt Heartland: Village-level socioeconomic change in Northeast Thailand between 1999 and 2008

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, E.B.P. de; Knippenberg, L.W.J.; Ayuwat, D.; Promphakping, B.

    2012-01-01

    n this article, we investigate the socioeconomic changes that took place on a village level in northeast Thailand during Thaksin Shinawatra's rule as prime minister of Thailand (2001–2006). By comparing data from 1999 and 2008, we show that most households in the research villages have become wealth

  1. Childhood socioeconomic position and objectively measured physical capability levels in adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birnie, Kate; Cooper, Rachel; Martin, Richard M;

    2011-01-01

    Grip strength, walking speed, chair rising and standing balance time are objective measures of physical capability that characterise current health and predict survival in older populations. Socioeconomic position (SEP) in childhood may influence the peak level of physical capability achieved...... in early adulthood, thereby affecting levels in later adulthood. We have undertaken a systematic review with meta-analyses to test the hypothesis that adverse childhood SEP is associated with lower levels of objectively measured physical capability in adulthood....

  2. Socio-economic and ecological impacts of global protected area expansion plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visconti, Piero; Bakkenes, Michel; Smith, Robert J; Joppa, Lucas; Sykes, Rachel E

    2015-11-05

    Several global strategies for protected area (PA) expansion have been proposed to achieve the Convention on Biological Diversity's Aichi target 11 as a means to stem biodiversity loss, as required by the Aichi target 12. However, habitat loss outside PAs will continue to affect habitats and species, and PAs may displace human activities into areas that might be even more important for species persistence. Here we measure the expected contribution of PA expansion strategies to Aichi target 12 by estimating the extent of suitable habitat available for all terrestrial mammals, with and without additional protection (the latter giving the counterfactual outcome), under different socio-economic scenarios and consequent land-use change to 2020. We found that expanding PAs to achieve representation targets for ecoregions under a Business-as-usual socio-economic scenario will result in a worse prognosis than doing nothing for more than 50% of the world's terrestrial mammals. By contrast, targeting protection towards threatened species can increase the suitable habitat available to over 60% of terrestrial mammals. Even in the absence of additional protection, an alternative socio-economic scenario, adopting progressive changes in human consumption, leads to positive outcomes for mammals globally and to the largest improvements for wide-ranging species.

  3. Calcium and magnesium concentrations in mature human milk: influence of calcium intake, age and socioeconomic level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vítolo, M R; Valente Soares, L M; Carvalho, E B; Cardoso, C B

    2004-03-01

    Concentrations of calcium and magnesium were measured in mature milk, collected between 30 and 90 days after childbirth, from a group of 90 mothers between 14 and 39 years of age, exclusively breastfeeding. The group was divided into three sub-groups: low socioeconomic-level adolescents (LSAd), low socioeconomic-level adults (LSA), and high socioeconomic-level adults (HSA). Each mother's nutritional status was determined using the body-mass index (BMI) and her eating habits, obtained on the basis of a 24-h dietary recall. Adolescent and adult mothers in the low socioeconomic-level group had lower average calcium intake (LSAd = 618.4 +/- 555.2 mg and LSA = 679.4 +/- 411.4 mg) than adult mothers in the higher socioeconomic-level group (853.6 +/- 415.5 mg). The average concentration of calcium in the adolescent mothers' milk (LSAd) was significantly lower (5.30 +/- 1.42 mmol Ca/L, P = 0.01) than that of the two adult groups (LSA = 5.82 +/- 1.55 mmol Ca/L and HSA = 6.40 mmol Ca/L). The average magnesium concentrations for all groups did not show significant differences (LSAd = 1.06 +/- 0.18, LSA = 1.16 +/- 0.23 and HSA = 1.11 +/- 0.23 mmol Mg/L, for P= 0.16). These results indicate that magnesium concentrations in mature human milk do not seem to depend on maternal nutritional status. The condition of adolescence, however, associated with lower calcium intake by the mother, resulted in lower calcium concentrations in the milk secreted when compared to that of adult mothers.

  4. Increasing Area Deprivation and Socioeconomic Inequalities in Heart Disease, Stroke, and Cardiovascular Disease Mortality Among Working Age Populations, United States, 1969-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopal K. Singh, PhD

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: We examined the extent to which area- and individual-level socioeconomic inequalities in cardiovascular-disease (CVD, heart disease, and stroke mortality among United States men and women aged 25-64 years changed between 1969 and 2011. Methods: National vital statistics data and the National Longitudinal Mortality Study were used to estimate area- and individual-level socioeconomic gradients in mortality over time. Rate ratios and log-linear and Cox regression were used to model mortality trends and differentials. Results: Area socioeconomic gradients in mortality from CVD, heart disease, and stroke increased substantially during the study period. Compared to those in the most affluent group, individuals in the most deprived area group had, respectively 35%, 29%, and 73% higher CVD, heart disease, and stroke mortality in 1969, but 120-121% higher mortality in 2007-2011. Gradients were steeper for women than for men. Education, income, and occupation were inversely associated with CVD, heart disease, and stroke mortality, with individual-level socioeconomic gradients being steeper during 1990-2002 than in 1979-1989. Individuals with low education and incomes had 2.7 to 3.7 times higher CVD, heart disease, and stroke mortality risks than their counterparts with high education and income levels. Conclusions and Global Health Implications: Although mortality declined for all US groups during 1969-2011, socioeconomic disparities in mortality from CVD, heart disease and stroke remained marked and increased over time because of faster declines in mortality among higher socioeconomic groups. Widening disparities in mortality may reflect increasing temporal areal inequalities in living conditions, behavioral risk factors such as smoking, obesity and physical inactivity, and access to and use of health services. With social inequalities and prevalence of smoking, obesity, and physical inactivity on the rise, most segments of the working

  5. Does Higher Education Level the Playing Field? Socio-Economic Differences in Graduate Earnings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Crawford

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Education—and in particular higher education—is often regarded as a route to social mobility. For this to be the case, however, the link between family background and adult outcomes must be broken (or at least reduced once we take account of an individual’s education history. This paper provides new evidence on differences in graduates’ earnings by socio-economic background, exploiting rich individual-level data to account for more of the ways in which graduates from different socio-economic backgrounds differ from each other than has been possible in previous research on this topic. We continue to find significant differences between the earnings of graduates from lower and higher socio-economic backgrounds, even after accounting for a rich array of characteristics, skills and experiences from before individuals went to university, as well as their labour market experiences subsequently. These results suggest that it is not enough simply to encourage more young people to go to university, or even to ensure that they graduate with “good” degrees; policymakers interested in increasing social mobility also need to focus on what happens to them once they leave university to ensure that higher education is truly able to “level the playing field” between those from different socio-economic backgrounds.

  6. Implications of family socioeconomic level on risk behaviors in child-youth obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Villagran Pérez Sergio

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Socioeconomical status may indirectly affect the obesity prevalence. This study gathers together dietary behaviour, physical activity and sedentary lifestyle in relation to the family socioeconomic status in a sample of Spanish children. Design: Population-based cross-sectional study of 3-16 years children. Methods: Questionnaires about dietary behaviors, physical activity and sedentary lifestyles, and direct anthropometric measures. Criteria of physical activity recommended was > 5METs (metabolic equivalence during 60 min/day, and sedentary lifestyle as 120 min/day of sedentary activities, using obesity criteria from the ENKID study. We derived a single "family socioeconomic level" indicator (FSEL from the level of studies, professional category and work situation of both parents. Results: 1620 children were studied. 59.5% met the physical activity recommendations. Boys with the higher FSEL quartile tend to do more physical activity. In girls, physical activity increases with the age and degree of overweight. 57.7% of boys and 48.1% of girls were found to be sedentary, with a lower rate in families with higher FSEL. Higher FSEL quartile was related to healthy dietary habits such as having breakfast, 5 meals per day and less snacking. The FSEL was related also to the consumption of whole grains, dairy products and fruits, but not to vegetables, meat or fish. The greatest risk of excess weight was found in girls > 6 years old, with a low FSEL, sedentary habits, that snack frequently and eat few proteins. Discussion: Family socioeconomic status seems to determine the level of physical activity, sedentary lifestyle and dietary behavior. The elaboration of a simple socioeconomic indicator may be useful to study factors involved in child obesity.

  7. County-level socioeconomic status and cancer rates in Texas, 2001-2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risser, David R; Miller, Eric A; Williams, Melanie A; Foxhall, Lewis E

    2010-10-01

    Previous studies have shown that a person's socioeconomic status (SES) (a proxy measure that can incorporate income, wealth, education, and occupation) is associated with cancer incidence and mortality. Examining variation in cancer rates by SES can help identify health disparities and target areas for cancer control activities. The Texas Cancer Registry (TCR) collects data on every newly diagnosed case of cancer in Texas, including personal and demographic data, but does not collect data related directly to SES. Using a county-level measure of SES determined by the 2000 US Census, we compared cancer incidence and mortality rates for selected cancer sites by counties categorized into Low, Intermediate, and High SES. The cancers examined in this analysis included lung, colorectal, female breast, prostate, cervical, and all cancers collected by TCR combined. Consistent with other studies, most incidence and mortality rates were lowest in the High SES counties. However, in general, the highest incidence and mortality rates were found in counties categorized as Intermediate SES, but patterns differed by cancer site and by race and ethnicity. This study provides additional evidence that geographically related SES is associated with cancer incidence and mortality.

  8. Socioeconomic information, Plainsboro area, New Jersey: Supplementary documentation for an environmental assessment for the CIT (Compact Ignition Tokamak) at PPPL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bentz, L.K.; Bender, D.S.

    1987-07-01

    This report contains socioeconomic information on the Plainsboro, New Jersey, area, the proposed location of the Compact Ignition Tokamak (CIT) facility. It was prepared as supplemental information for an environmental assessment for the CIT at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL). The report contains descriptions of the demographic, economic, and community resource characteristics, and, based on information available in early 1987, considers the socioeconomic effect of the proposed facility. In all areas examined, the anticipated socioeconomic impacts of the proposed CIT facility at PPPL are negligible or minimal. 29 refs., 8 figs., 24 tabs.

  9. Renewable energy policy in remote rural areas of Western China. Implementation and socio-economic benefits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shyu, Chian-Woei

    2010-05-19

    formulation and adoption of the 'Township Electrification Program' followed a 'centralized and closed top-down' approach within China's communist political framework conditions, which ultimately resulted in pursuing political leaders' conceptions instead of the energy needs of local people. Third, the implementation of the Program possessed a technical orientation (e.g. construction of stations, installation of systems), and underestimated the financial implications (e.g. electricity tariff, households' ability to pay electricity fee, financial management) as well as human resources available (e.g. training for operators, household participation) and institutional capacity building (e.g. good governance, regulatory framework) at the local level. Fourth, there was a change of households' energy use pattern from traditional energy sources (such as candles and dry cell batteries) to electricity from solar PV power stations in the two investigated townships. But traditional energy sources were not totally substituted by electricity. This is due to the fact that the current electricity supply was not sufficient for households' needs and electricity was not provided daily on a regular basis. Households still had to rely on traditional energy sources. Fifth, the impacts of the Program on the improvement of socio-economic benefits for households, the improvement of township development, and the reduction of negative environmental impacts were limited. Lastly, based on these findings, this study suggests policy recommendations for the Chinese government as well as policy implications for developing countries. (orig.)

  10. Comparative Study of the Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites in Low Socioeconomic Areas from South Chennai, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeevitha Dhanabal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal parasites cause one of the most important health problems through their effects in causing undernourishment morbidity and incapacitation due to their behavior particularly in children compared to adults. This study was intended to state the prevalence of intestinal parasites between the slum dwellers of different areas in south Chennai. Among the total of 256 samples collected between the ages of 0–50 yrs, 194 samples were positive. Standard laboratory techniques for parasitological diagnosis were carried out for each sample. Entamoeba coli (23%, Cyclospora sp. (22.2%, Entamoeba histolytica (21.8%, Giardia intestinalis (14.4%, Ascaris lumbricoides (6.2%, Trichuris trichiura (1.1%, and Hymenolepis nana (2.7% were found in the dwellers of low socioeconomic areas. The data on the prevalence of parasites with respect to sex and age showed that the females harbored more numbers of parasites when compared to males. Further, with respect to age, children and teenagers had surplus parasites compared to old age groups. The percentage of educational status showed a reduction in the number of parasites in the higher education dwellers. These parasites could be prevented by possible grouping of better ecological design and hygiene. Conclusively, the examination of personal hygiene as well as routine medical examination and treatment is strongly recommended in the low socio-economic areas.

  11. The experience of living with stroke in low urban and rural socioeconomic areas of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Maleka

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of stroke on stroke survivors are profound and affecttheir quality of life. The aim of this study was to establish the experience of peopleliving with stroke in low socioeconomic urban and rural areas of South Africa.A qualitative study using semi-structured interviews was used to collect data.Participants were identified from stroke registers and recruited from PHC clinicsin Soweto, Gauteng and Limpopo provinces. Participants had to have had a stroke,be above the age of 18 and had lived in the community six months to a year followingtheir stroke. The researcher or research assistant conducted the interviews ofparticipants who had had strokes as well as their caregivers in the home language of the participants. The interviewswere audio taped, transcribed and translated into English. A thematic content analysis was done.Thirty two participants were interviewed, 13 from Soweto, Gauteng, and 19 from rural Limpopo provinces. Theresults suggest that the sudden, overwhelming transformation as a result of a stroke forms a background for loss ofcommunity mobility, social isolation, role reversal within the family and community, loss of role within the family andcommunity, loss of meaningful activities of daily living, loss of hope and threat to livelihood amongst stroke survivorsliving in low socioeconomic areas of South Africa.An overwhelming picture of despondency was found, with few positive stories told in both settings. The themesidentified from the interviews reflected the experience and issues that a patient with stroke has to deal with in lowsocioeconomic areas of South Africa.

  12. Socio-economic correlates of municipal-level pollution emissions on Montreal island

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Premji, S. [Quebec Univ., Montreal, PQ (Canada). COMERN Inst. of Environmental Sciences; Bertrand, F. [Science-Metrix, Montreal, PQ (Canada); Smargiassi, A. [Institut National de Sante Publique du Quebec, Montreal, PQ (Canada); Daniel, M. [Montreal Univ., PQ (Canada). Dept. of Medicine

    2007-03-15

    A study was conducted to examine the social patterning of environmental hazards, with particular reference to socio-cultural characteristics of pollution emissions and the associated higher rates of mortality for disadvantaged populations. Although differential exposure to environmental hazards is a component of the social gradient in health, there have been very few studies that have examined the link between socio-economic characteristics and environmental hazards in a Canadian context. This article presented the results of a study that assessed the relationships between pollution emissions and socio-economic characteristics for 27 municipalities on Montreal Island. Pollution emissions were determined using Environment Canada's National Pollutant Release Inventory for 1995-1996 and 2000-2001. Variables that were examined included the number of reporting industries, the average annual releases, and the average annual releases density. These data were then cross-referenced with socio-economic data from the 1996 and 2001 Canadian Censuses, respectively. It was concluded that socio-economic characteristics are associated with municipal-level pollution emissions on Montreal Island and that whether higher emissions are indicative of higher pollution exposure requires further investigation. 31 refs., 4 tabs.

  13. Child representations of disease according to age, educational level and socioeconomic status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma. Lourdes Ruda Santolaria

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The study explores child representations on the identity and origin of disease according to age, educational level and socioeconomic status. Ninety children were assessed using the Child Disease Representations Interview (CDRI inspired in seven cards graphically repre­senting the usual treatment of children with cancer. Results show that the same element of reality can be conceptualized in multiple ways and that smaller children tend to appeal to non-serious diseases whereas older children refer to more serious ones. Children represent the disease consistently with what child development literature has depicted. Within the lower socioeconomic level, there is a delay in the access to certain concepts, which is recti­fied at later stages.

  14. Analysis of Environmental and Socio-economic Determinants Affecting Population Longevity Level at County Level in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Jiehua; Wang Hongbo; Pan Yi

    2005-01-01

    Based on the current literature, this paper is mainly intended to test whether environmental factors and socio-economic factors will have direct effect on the longevity at county level in China in order to determine the major determinants affecting local longevity level. Using the multi-regression model,we find the result that factors such as temperature,climate, longitude, type of soils, as well as type of agricultural food production play a major role in shaping the longevity at county level, and that socioeconomic factors like infant mortality and gross death rate also have some direct impact on longevity, but the degree of impact is not as strong as the above environmental factors.

  15. A Review on Socioeconomic Status of Sichuan Frontier Areas in the Modern Writings of the Foreigners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIANG Yucheng

    2014-01-01

    In the 32nd year of the Guangxu period in the Qing dynasty ( 1906 ) , a position of“minister for managing frontier affairs” ( bianwu dachen) of Sichuan and Yunnan was set up .It was responsible for managing Dajianlu ting ( present day Kangding ) , that area belonging to all the tusi ( native officials) within the region , and the Kang district in Tibet.In 1912, the area was changed into jinglueshi of Sichuan Frontier .In 1914 , it was regarded as a Special District of the Sichuan Fron-tier, and in 1939, it was incorporated into Xikang province .Therefore , the “Sichuan Frontier” was an important “special district” in modern south-west China.This article, by relying on both Chi-nese and foreign documents , tries to explore the socioeconomic status of the Sichuan frontier in modern times as presented in the writings of the foreigners through the discussion four aspects: the tea trade, currency issue , Wula system of labor and socioeconomic life .

  16. SOCIOECONOMIC VARIABLES INFLUENCING BODY MASS INDEX OF ADOLESCENT GIRLS IN A RURAL AREA OF HARYANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seema

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Often health and nutritional status of adolescent girls are direct reflection of the cumulative effects of various factors. One of the important parameters that causes under nutrition in adolescent girls is their poor socio - economic status. Further low li teracy levels aggravate this dismal situation. OBJECTIVES: (a To assess nutritional status of adolescent girls; (b to study socioeconomic variables of adolescents ; and (c to find out the association of socioeconomic variables with the nutritional statu s of adolescent girls. METHODS AND MATERIALS: A cross - sectional study was carried out in Primary Health Centre, Agroha , Haryana. Sample size (273 estimation was based on the extent of under nutrition in adolescent girls. Thirty nine adolescent girls were selected by simple random sampling from each of the 7 villages covered under PHC, Agroha. A predesigned and pretested interview and examination schedule was used for recording of family and individual information. Nutritional status of study subjects was assessed on the basis of BMI. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Proportions and X 2 test. RESULTS: Two third of the adolescent girls were under nourished. Under - nutrition was significantly least in subjects with main occupation of the family as service (p<0.05. With increasing level of highest literacy in the family, literacy status of father, mother and adolescent girls, significant improvement in nutritional status was noticed. There existed significant (P<0.01 association be tween socioeconomic status and nutritional status of study subjects. CONCLUSIONS: For improvement of nutritional status of adolescent girls there is a need to develop strategies for improving adult and adolescent education.

  17. Profiling of Alzheimer’s disease patients in Puerto Rico: A comparison of two distinct socioeconomic areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho-Mercado, Clara L; Figueroa, Raúl; Acosta, Heriberto; Arnold, Steven E; Vega, Irving E

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The Latino/Hispanic community in the United States is at higher risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease than other ethnic groups. Specifically, Caribbean Hispanics showed a more severe Alzheimer’s disease symptomatology than any other ethnic group. In a previous study, we demonstrated that the mortality rate associated with Alzheimer’s disease in Puerto Rico is higher than that reported in the United States. Moreover, the mortality rate associated with Alzheimer’s disease was higher among Puerto Rican living in Puerto Rico than those in the mainland United States. There is also a differential geographical distribution of mortality rate associated with Alzheimer’s disease in Puerto Rico, which may be associated with differential socioeconomic status and/or access to healthcare. However, there is no information regarding the clinical profile of Alzheimer’s disease patients in Puerto Rico. Methods: Here, we present the results of a retrospective study directed to profile Alzheimer’s disease patients clustered into two groups based on areas previously determined with low (Metro Region) and high (Northwest-Central Region) mortality rate associated with Alzheimer’s disease in Puerto Rico. Results: Significant difference in the age-at-diagnosis and years of education was found among patients within the two studied regions. Despite these differences, both regions showed comparable levels of initial and last Mini Mental State Examination scores and rate of cognitive decline. Significant difference was also observed in the occurance of co-morbidities associated with Alzheimer’s disease. Conclusions: The differential profile of Alzheimer’s disease patients correlated with differences in socioeconomic status between these two regions, suggesting that covariant associated with social status may contribute to increased risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease. Further studies should be conducted to determine the role of socioeconomic factors and

  18. Are associations between socio-economic characteristics and exposure to air pollution a question of study area size? An example from Scania, Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harrie Lars

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Numerous studies have shown that exposure to air pollutants in the area of residence and the socio-economic status of an individual may be related. Therefore, when conducting an epidemiological study on the health effect of air pollution, socio-economy may act as a confounding factor. In this paper we examine to what extent socio-economic status and concentrations of NO2 in the county/region of Scania, southern Sweden, are associated and if such associations between these factors differ when studying them at county or city level. To perform this study we used high-resolution census data and modelled the annual exposure to NO2 using an emission database, a dispersion modelling program and a geographical information system (GIS. Results The results from this study confirm that socio-economic status and the levels of NO2 in the area of residence are associated in some cities. The associations vary considerably between cities within the same county (Scania. Even for cities of similar sizes and population bases the associations observed are different. Studying the cities together or separately yields contradictory results, especially when education is used as a socio-economic indicator. Conclusion Four conclusions have been drawn from the results of this study. 1 Adjusting for socio-economy is important when investigating the health effects of air pollution. 2 The county of Scania seems to be heterogeneous regarding the association between air pollution and socio-economy. 3 The relationship between air pollution and socio-economy differs in the five cities included in our study, depending on whether they are analysed separately or together. It is therefore inadvisable to determine and analyse associations between socio-economy and exposure to air pollutants on county level. This study indicates that the size and choice of study area is of great importance. 4 The selection of socio-economic indices (in this study: country of birth

  19. Obesity and association with area of residence, gender and socio-economic factors in Algerian and Tunisian adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madjid Atek

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The epidemiological transition has resulted in a major increase in the prevalence of obesity in North Africa. This study investigated differences in obesity and its association with area of residence, gender and socio-economic position among adults in Algeria and Tunisia, two countries with socio-economic and socio-cultural similarities. METHODS: Cross-sectional studies used stratified, three-level, clustered samples of 35-70 year old adults in Algeria, (women n = 2741, men n = 2004 and Tunisia (women n = 2964, men n = 2379. Thinness was defined as Body Mass Index (BMI = weight/height <18.5 kg/m(2, obesity as BMI ≥30, and abdominal obesity as waist circumference/height ≥0.6. Associations with area of residence, gender, age, education, profession and household welfare were assessed. RESULTS: Prevalence of thinness was very low except among men in Algeria (7.3% C.I.[5.9-8.7]. Prevalence of obesity among women was high in Algeria (30.1% C.I.[27.8-32.4] and Tunisia (37.0% C.I.[34.4-39.6]. It was less so among men (9.1% C.I.[7.1-11.0] and 13.3% C.I.[11.2-15.4].The results were similar for abdominal obesity. In both countries women were much more obesity-prone than men: the women versus men obesity Odds-Ratio was 4.3 C.I.[3.4-5.5] in Algeria and 3.8 C.I.[3.1-4.7] in Tunisia. Obesity was more prevalent in urban versus rural areas in Tunisia, but not in Algeria (e.g. for women, urban versus rural Odds-Ratio was 2.4 C.I.[1.9-3.1] in Tunisia and only 1.2 C.I.[1.0-5.5] in Algeria. Obesity increased with household welfare, but more markedly in Tunisia, especially among women. Nevertheless, in both countries, even in the lowest quintile of welfare, a fifth of the women were obese. CONCLUSION: The prevention of obesity, especially in women, is a public health issue in both countries, but there were differences in the patterning of obesity according to area of residence and socio-economic position. These specificities must

  20. As an instance of Mersin province on child rearing according to socioeconomic level

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    Musa Eroğlu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to search the parents who have children aged between 3 to 6 years in Mersin’s Toros district, and to specify how their attitudes of child care- education. At the same time this study also searches the effects of parents’ socioeconomic level of child rearing.This study has been implemented on the 232 volunteer parents who have children aged between 3 and 6 years in Mersin’s Toros district. Applied family life and child care –education scale which has been developed with Öner and Torun (1989, consisted of questionnaires which will affect the attitudes of the parents in terms of child care- education and this includes   demographic information which will introduce the parents. These surveys have been performed by the parents who have children in Toros district’s Playschools, kindergartens and day care center by one-to-one interviews. The data which is obtained from surveys by the help of the SPSS 16.0 packet program has been evaluated by using the rate per cents, arithmetic mean, standard deviation, t- test of analysis of variance and one way ANOVA.In consequence of this assessment has been seen the significant differences between participants’ ages and protectiveness dimension F (3,228 = 2,553; p<0,050], and has been seen the meaningful differences between levels of income and overprotective dimension [f (4,227 =3, 361; p<0,050]As a consequence has been seen the significance of the family’s socioeconomic level of child rearing. Child-rearing attitudes of families with low socio-economic level had significantly more protective attitude.

  1. [Tuberculosis in a primary care center in a socioeconomically depressed area: variables associated with giving up treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solá, M; Gardella, A; Llauger, M A; Muñoz, J; Birulés, M; Foz, G

    1990-06-01

    We report the features of 72 patients with tuberculosis of a low socioeconomical level, seen at the primary care center of Perecamps (Barcelona). We identify the factors associated with giving up therapy. We found a predominance of males and of the 40-59 years age group. In 1988 we found an increased rate of young patients (20-39 years) and PDA/HIV+. Twenty-five patients (35%) had had previous episodes of tuberculosis. 19 had had inadequate chemotherapy because of abandonment. The rate of follow-up losses was high (36%). A history of previous PDA/HIV+ were associated with giving up therapy. We indicate the several measures to be applied in our area to improve compliance with chemotherapy in patients with tuberculosis.

  2. [Adiposity and fat distribution in preschool children from low socioeconomic levels in Caracas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, B M; Vásquez, M; Landaeta-Jiménez, M; Rámirez, G; Ledezma, T

    1997-03-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest that body fat distribution in adults is associated with chronical nontransmissible diseases, less is known during the growing years. The current study was undertaken to explore the relationship between level of fatness, fat patterning and some socioenvironmental variables in a group of 449 children aged 3 to 6, living in Caracas, who belong to the poorest Venezuelan socio-economic stratum. Data was analyzed taking nutritional status (weight-for-age), an index of socioeconomic conditions (ICSA), sex and age, as control variables. Using a multivariate analysis we derived first, two groups of households (G1 and G2) as determined by socioeconomic variables, to which principal component analysis was applied to elicited fatness and relative fat patterning through six skinfolds. First component identify level of adiposity, second extremity/trunk fatness, and third upper/lower pattern. Comparison of normal children with those of low weight-for-age showed differences in adiposity and in the upper/lower patterning as detected by the skinfolds involved in the differences: subscapular (-0.53) and supraspinale (0.32) in children with low weight-for-age; triceps (-0.46) and thigh (0.29) in those classified as normal. We found that gender, nutritional condition, environmental variables and age, were significant predictors of the differences in adiposity level; while age and households conditions, appear to be related to upper/lower patterning. The data equally suggests that body fat is more centrally distributed in boys with low weight-for-age. Since these patterns are indicators of risk in the ongoing years, we call tha attention about environmental circumstances.

  3. Socio-economic factors affecting the level of adoption of innovations in dairy cattle enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    This research was conducted to determine the socio-economic factors which are effective in helping dairy cattleenterprises to adopt some innovations in Afyonkarahisar. The data acquired from questionnaires of 80 randomly selected enterpriseswere analyzed with chi-square test in May 2006. Enterprises those have 1-10, 11-35 and more than 35 cattle were classified as small,medium and high scale, respectively. It was found that 12% of enterprises adopt innovations at low level, 65% of them at med...

  4. [Nutritional knowledge and its association with overweight and obesity in Mexican women with low socioeconomic level].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galindo Gómez, Carlos; Juárez Martínez, Liliana; Shamah Levy, Teresa; García Guerra, Armando; Avila Curiel, Abelardo; Quiroz Aguilar, Marco Antonio

    2011-12-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the association between knowledge about nutrition with the presence of obesity or overweight in women with low income in Mexico City. Data was obtained with the Urban Food and Nutrition Survey 2002 in the Metropolitan Area of Mexico City (ENURBAL 2002), a stratified multistage and clustered design survey. An ordinal logistic regression model was used in order to estimate the probability to present obesity and overweight or obesity, in relation to nutritional knowledge, age, education, employment, socioeconomic status, and total fat consumption. The variables that were related to overweight or obesity: correct or regular nutrition knowledge (OR = 2,00; CI95% = 1,13-3,54) and (OR = 1,54; CI 95%= 1,03-2,30), respectively; age 30 years (OR = 3,00; CI 95% = 1,94-4,64), belonging to a medium- low socioeconomic status (OR = 2,04; CI 95% = 1,33-3,15), and high fat consumption (OR = 1,65; CI 95% = 1,07-2,55). For obesity was age 30 years (OR = 2,42; IC 95% = 1,48-3,94) and high fat consumption (OR = 1,67; IC 95% = 1,05-2,66). Our results helped to identify associated factors in women with obesity and overweight from low income households, mainly those concerning with nutrition knowledge. This emphasizes the importance of improving knowledge about nutrition, in planning the strategy for interventions aimed to prevent overweight and obesity.

  5. Promoting Low Socio-Economic Participation in Higher Education: A Comparison of Area-Based and Individual Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dockery, Alfred M.; Seymour, Richard; Koshy, Paul

    2016-01-01

    As with other countries, Australia has been grappling with the identification, measurement and impact of disadvantage in higher education. In particular, the measurement of socio-economic status (SES) has been of central concern. The immediate solution in Australia has been the introduction of an "area" measure in which students' SES is…

  6. A Randomized Controlled Trial Evaluation of an After-School Prosocial Behavior Program in an Area of Socioeconomic Disadvantage

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hare, Liam; Biggart, Andy; Kerr, Karen; Connolly, Paul

    2015-01-01

    A randomized controlled trial was used to evaluate the effects of a prosocial behavior after-school program called Mate-Tricks for 9- and 10-year-old children and their parents living in an area of significant socioeconomic disadvantage. The children were randomly assigned to an intervention (n = 220) or a control group (n = 198). Children were…

  7. Higher prevalence of mental disorders in socioeconomically deprived urban areas in the Netherlands : Community or personal disadvantage?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijneveld, S.A.; Schene, A.H.

    1998-01-01

    Objective. Major mental disorders occur more frequently in deprived urban areas. This study examines whether this occurs for all mental disorders, including less serious ones. It further assesses whether such a concentration can be explained by the socioeconomic status (SES) of the residents concern

  8. SOCIO-ECONOMICAL AND AGRI-ENVIRONMENTAL IMPLICATIONS OF AGRICULTURAL PRACTICES IN THE URBAN AREAS PROXIMITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Dumitrascu

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Sociological investigations regarding urbanization processes show an irreversible tendency: the number of urban residents will double in the next 35 years. Big cities rather than villages and provincial boroughs become our common habitat. Agriculture practiced in the proximity of big urban areas (intra- and peri-urban agriculture is one of the powerful and positive activities that the municipal residents can carry out in their effort to take control of their food security, aberrant social behavior and environment degradation in the urban communities. This paper approaches the central themes of the researches carried out in the field of urban agriculture: magnitude and dynamics of agricultural practices in the proximity of big urban areas, types of agriculture practiced, benefits and hazards associated to these practices, social implications and economical results of agricultural initiatives in urban sites, environmental impact of the mutual influence urban environment – agricultural sites, accessibility, cropping suitability, and ecological conversion of land in the proximity of urban areas. Socio-economical impact is analyzed, referring to the agricultural used land, its legal status, and crop structure in Bucharest municipality, social and economical motivation of agricultural producers, incomes from agricultural activities, identified constraints in the development of agricultural activities and perspectives, information sources, connection degree with the specific institutions and to the demands of ecological agriculture practice. Environment impact assessment was carried out by processing some fertility and contamination/pollution macro-indicators, which refer to the soil and ground water loading and pollution with nitrates, organochlorines, polychlorinated byphenyls (PCB, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH and heavy metals.

  9. Food insecurity and socioeconomic, food and nutrition profile of schoolchildren living in urban and rural areas of Picos, Piauí

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jailane de Souza Aquino

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to determine the prevalence of food insecurity among schoolchildren living in urban and rural areas of Picos, Piauí associated with the socioeconomic profile of families and their food intake and nutritional status. Methods: Study participants were families with children aged 7-10 years enrolled in municipal schools, totaling 342 families/schoolchildren. The study was conducted at school facilities through interviews with mothers - or guardians - using a questionnaire based on the Brazilian Food Insecurity Scale and socioeconomic variables and food frequency questionnaire. The nutritional status of children was assessed using the following indexes: weight/age, height/age and body mass index/age. Results: The prevalence of food insecurity was high and similar for rural and urban areas, 84.3% and 83.3%, respectively. In general, lower income and consumption of untreated water was associated with greater frequency of food insecurity (p≤0.01. In urban areas, higher percentage of food insecurity was associated to lower educational levels (p≤0.05. Dietary intake and nutritional status of schoolchildren were not associated with food insecurity condition of families. Conclusion: The percentage of families at food insecurity, as well as the food consumption and nutritional status of schoolchildren were similar between urban and rural areas, characterized as a homogeneous population in terms of socioeconomic conditions.

  10. Socio-economic Status to online Communication Services in Rural Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhash Singh Parihar

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available India is a developing country where agriculture is the main occupation of millions of people having several stratifications and various profiles of our social systems. The biggest proportion of population depends on it. Being a developing country, the development of agriculture is more essential as compared to other developed countries like U.S.A., Japan, U.S.S.R. and Germany etc. Our country is facing a lot of challenges in the rural sector. Majority of people belong to the downtrodden sector and have no promising source of Information. Resulting in poor decision making ability in innumerable indispensible areas of the rural society, which affects the quality of their life, since information plays a vital role to augment the agricultural production. All kinds of compatible and valuable information become helpful in decision making and planning the future strategy accordingly, meagre productions in agriculture enhance this problem profoundly. People are compelled to live in misery with fear. Uttar Pradesh is the second largest state-economy in India; It contributed 8.23 per cent to India's total Gross domestic product (GDP in the financial year 2013-2014.[1] Agriculture is a significant part of Uttar Pradesh's economy.5Study was conducted in Kanpur Dehat district of Uttar Pradesh. The district suffers from lack of rainfall, low soil fertility, traditional cropping pattern and poor communication facilities etc. Socio-economic status of respondents plays a vital role in online communication for rural development.

  11. Individual and community level socioeconomic inequalities in contraceptive use in 10 Newly Independent States: a multilevel cross-sectional analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janevic Teresa

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Little is known regarding the association between socioeconomic factors and contraceptive use in the Newly Independent States (NIS, countries that have experienced profound changes in reproductive health services during the transition from socialism to a market economy. Methods Using 2005–2006 data from Demographic Health Surveys (Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Moldova and Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Ukraine, and Uzbekistan, we examined associations between individual and community socioeconomic status with current modern contraceptive use (MCU among N = 55,204 women aged 15–49 married or in a union. Individual socioeconomic status was measured using quintiles of wealth index and education level (higher than secondary school, secondary school or less. Community socioeconomic status was measured as the percentage of households in the poorest quintile of the nationals household wealth index (0%, 0–25%, or greater than 25%. We used multilevel logistic regression to estimate associations adjusted for age, number of children, urban/rural, and socioeconomic variables. Results MCU varied by country from 14% (in Azerbaijan to 62% (in Belarus. Overall, women living in the poorest communities were less likely than those in the richest to use modern contraceptives (adjusted odds ratio (aOR = 0.82, 95% Confidence Interval = 0.76, 0.89. Similarly, there was an increasing odds of MCU with increasing individual-level wealth. Women with a lower level of education also had lower odds of MCU than those with a higher level of education (aOR = .75, 95%CI = 0.71, 0.79. In country-specific analyses, community-level socioeconomic inequalities were apparent in 4 of 10 countries; in contrast, inequalities by individual-level wealth were apparent in 7 countries and by education in 8 countries. All countries in which community-level socioeconomic status was associated with

  12. Revitalisation of spoil tips and socio-economic polarisation – a case study of Ruhr area (Germany)

    OpenAIRE

    Chmielewska Marta; Otto Marius

    2014-01-01

    The paper discusses issues about the revitalisation of spoil tips, socio-economic polarisation and social exclusion in the field of municipal recreational activities based on an example of the largest post-industrial region in Europe – the Ruhr area in Germany. Revitalisation of brownfield areas very often leads to the creation of leisure facilities of various types (with a range of entrance fees) and because of this it may mitigate, or exacerbate, the severity of these negative phenomena. In...

  13. Integrated conservation and development: evaluating a community-based marine protected area project for equality of socioeconomic impacts

    OpenAIRE

    Gurney, Georgina G.; Pressey, Robert L.; Cinner, Joshua E.; Pollnac, Richard; Stuart J Campbell

    2015-01-01

    Despite the prevalence of protected areas, evidence of their impacts on people is weak and remains hotly contested in conservation policy. A key question in this debate is whether socioeconomic impacts vary according to social subgroup. Given that social inequity can create conflict and impede poverty reduction, understanding how protected areas differentially affect people is critical to designing them to achieve social and biological goals. Understanding heterogeneous responses to protected...

  14. Integrated conservation and development: evaluating a community-based marine protected area project for equality of socioeconomic impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurney, Georgina G; Pressey, Robert L; Cinner, Joshua E; Pollnac, Richard; Campbell, Stuart J

    2015-11-05

    Despite the prevalence of protected areas, evidence of their impacts on people is weak and remains hotly contested in conservation policy. A key question in this debate is whether socioeconomic impacts vary according to social subgroup. Given that social inequity can create conflict and impede poverty reduction, understanding how protected areas differentially affect people is critical to designing them to achieve social and biological goals. Understanding heterogeneous responses to protected areas can improve targeting of management activities and help elucidate the pathways through which impacts of protected areas occur. Here, we assessed whether the socioeconomic impacts of marine protected areas (MPAs)-designed to achieve goals for both conservation and poverty alleviation-differed according to age, gender or religion in associated villages in North Sulawesi, Indonesia. Using data from pre-, mid- and post-implementation of the MPAs for control and project villages, we found little empirical evidence that impacts on five key socioeconomic indicators related to poverty differed according to social subgroup. We found suggestive empirical evidence that the effect of the MPAs on environmental knowledge differed by age and religion; over the medium and long terms, younger people and Muslims showed greater improvements compared with older people and Christians, respectively.

  15. Individual-level socioeconomic status is associated with worse asthma morbidity in patients with asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bouchard Anne

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low socioeconomic status (SES has been linked to higher morbidity in patients with chronic diseases, but may be particularly relevant to asthma, as asthmatics of lower SES may have higher exposures to indoor (e.g., cockroaches, tobacco smoke and outdoor (e.g., urban pollution allergens, thus increasing risk for exacerbations. Methods This study assessed associations between adult SES (measured according to educational level and asthma morbidity, including asthma control; asthma-related emergency health service use; asthma self-efficacy, and asthma-related quality of life, in a Canadian cohort of 781 adult asthmatics. All patients underwent a sociodemographic and medical history interview and pulmonary function testing on the day of their asthma clinic visit, and completed a battery of questionnaires (Asthma Control Questionnaire, Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire, and Asthma Self-Efficacy Scale. General Linear Models assessed associations between SES and each morbidity measure. Results Lower SES was associated with worse asthma control (F = 11.63, p Conclusions Results suggest that lower SES (measured according to education level, is associated with several indices of worse asthma morbidity, particularly worse asthma control, in adult asthmatics independent of disease severity. Results are consistent with previous studies linking lower SES to worse asthma in children, and add asthma to the list of chronic diseases affected by individual-level SES.

  16. Arterial roads and area socioeconomic status are predictors of fast food restaurant density in King County, WA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Streichert Laura C

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fast food restaurants reportedly target specific populations by locating in lower-income and in minority neighborhoods. Physical proximity to fast food restaurants has been associated with higher obesity rates. Objective To examine possible associations, at the census tract level, between area demographics, arterial road density, and fast food restaurant density in King County, WA, USA. Methods Data on median household incomes, property values, and race/ethnicity were obtained from King County and from US Census data. Fast food restaurant addresses were obtained from Public Health-Seattle & King County and were geocoded. Fast food density was expressed per tract unit area and per capita. Arterial road density was a measure of vehicular and pedestrian access. Multivariate logistic regression models containing both socioeconomic status and road density were used in data analyses. Results Over one half (53.1% of King County census tracts had at least one fast food restaurant. Mean network distance from dwelling units to a fast food restaurant countywide was 1.40 km, and 1.07 km for census tracts containing at least one fast food restaurant. Fast food restaurant density was significantly associated in regression models with low median household income (p Conclusion No significant association was observed between census tract minority status and fast food density in King County. Although restaurant density was linked to low household incomes, that effect was attenuated by arterial road density. Fast food restaurants in King County are more likely to be located in lower income neighborhoods and higher traffic areas.

  17. Socioeconomic context in area of living and risk of myocardial infarction: results from Stockholm Heart Epidemiology Program (SHEEP)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kölegård Stjärne, M; Diderichsen, F; Reuterwall, C;

    2002-01-01

    ; class structure, social exclusion and poverty. Among men, there were increased relative risks of similar magnitudes (1.28 to 1.33) in the more deprived areas according to all three dimensions of the socioeconomic context. However, when adjusting for individual exposures, the poverty factor had...... the strongest contextual impact. The contextual effects among women showed a different pattern. In comparison with women living the most affluent areas according to the class structure index, women in the rest of Stockholm metropolitan area had nearly 70% higher risk of myocardial infarction after adjustment...

  18. SOCIO-ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT PROSPECTS OF RURAL AREAS IN THE CONTEXT OF APPLICATION OF LEADER PROGRAM IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian TUREK RAHOVEANU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Rural development policy is an important component of the Common Agricultural Policy. LEADER is an innovative approach to rural development policy in the European Union to improve the quality of life in rural areas. LEADER is a very effective way to support "smart" and to increase "sustainable" and "inclusive" rural areas, encouraging rural territories to explore new ways to become competitive, to capitalize at maximum their assets and overcome difficulties encountered, encouraging the socio-economic factors to collaborate in order to produce quality goods and services in their local area

  19. Climate change and socio-economic scenarios, land use modelling implications on water resources in an inner alpine area, Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Emmanuel; Schneider, Flurina; Liniger, Hanspeter; Weingartner, Rolf; Herweg, Karl

    2014-05-01

    The MontanAqua project aims to study the water resources management in the region Sierre-Montana (Valais, Switzerland). Land use is known to have an influence on the water resources (soil moisture dynamic, soil sealing, surface runoff and deep percolation). Thus land use modelling is of importance for the water resources management. An actual land use map was produced using infrared imagery (Niklaus 2012, Fig.1). Land use changes are known to be mainly drived by socio-economic factors as well as climatic factors (Dolman et al. 2003). Potential future Land uses was separatly predicted according to 1-. socio-economic and 2-. climatic/abiotic drivers : 1. 4 socio-economic scenarios were developped with stakeholders (Schneider et al. 2013) between 2010 and 2012. We modeled those socio-economic scenarios into a GIS application using Python programming (ModelBuilder in ArcGIS 10) to get a cartographic transcription of the wishes of the stakeholders for their region in 2050. 2. Uncorrelated climatic and abiotic drivers were used in a BIOMOD2 (Georges et al. 2013) framework. 4 models were used: Maximum Entropy (MAXENT), Multiple Adaptive Regression Splines (MARS), Classification Tree Analysis (CTA) and the Flexible Discriminant Analysis (FDA) to predict grassland, alpine pasture, vineyards and forest in our study region. Climatic scenarios were then introduced into the models to predict potential land use in 2050 driven only by climatic and abiotic factors The comparison of all the outputs demonstrates that the socio-economic drivers will have a more important impact in the region than the climatic drivers (e.g. -70% grassland surface for the worst socio-economic scenario vs. -40% of grassland surface for the worst climatic models). Further analysis also brings out the sensitivity of the grassland/alpine pasture system to the climate change and to socio-economic changes. Future work will be to cross the different land use maps obtained by the two model types and to use

  20. Does school social capital modify socioeconomic inequality in mental health? A multi-level analysis in Danish schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Line; Koushede, Vibeke; Vinther-Larsen, Mathilde; Bendtsen, Pernille; Ersbøll, Annette Kjær; Due, Pernille; Holstein, Bjørn E

    2015-09-01

    It seems that social capital in the neighbourhood has the potential to reduce socioeconomic differences in mental health among adolescents. Whether school social capital is a buffer in the association between socioeconomic position and mental health among adolescents remains uncertain. The aim of this study is therefore to examine if the association between socioeconomic position and emotional symptoms among adolescents is modified by school social capital. The Health Behaviour in School-aged Children Methodology Development Study 2012 provided data on 3549 adolescents aged 11-15 in two municipalities in Denmark. Trust in the school class was used as an indicator of school social capital. Prevalence of daily emotional symptoms in each socioeconomic group measured by parents' occupational class was calculated for each of the three categories of school classes: school classes with high trust, moderate trust and low trust. Multilevel logistic regression analyses with parents' occupational class as the independent variable and daily emotional symptoms as the dependent variable were conducted stratified by level of trust in the school class. The prevalence of emotional symptoms was higher among students in school classes with low trust (12.9%) compared to school classes with high trust (7.2%) (p social capital may reduce mental health problems and diminish socioeconomic inequality in mental health among adolescents.

  1. Implications of family socioeconomic level on risk behaviors in child-youth obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Villagran Pérez Sergio; José Pedro Novalbos-Ruiz; Amelia Rodríguez-Martín; José Manuel Martínez-Nieto; Alfonso María Lechuga-Sancho

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Socioeconomical status may indirectly affect the obesity prevalence. This study gathers together dietary behaviour, physical activity and sedentary lifestyle in relation to the family socioeconomic status in a sample of Spanish children. Design: Population-based cross-sectional study of 3-16 years children. Methods: Questionnaires about dietary behaviors, physical activity and sedentary lifestyles, and direct anthropometric measures. Criteria of physical activity recommended was...

  2. Enteropathogens Associated with Acute Diarrhea in Children from Households with High Socioeconomic Level in Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Varela

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Infectious diarrhea, a common disease of children, deserves permanent monitoring in all social groups. To know the etiology and clinical manifestations of acute diarrhea in children up to 5 years of age from high socioeconomic level households, we conducted a descriptive, microbiological, and clinical study. Stools from 59 children with acute community-acquired diarrhea were examined, and their parents were interviewed concerning symptoms and signs. Rotavirus, adenovirus, and norovirus were detected by commercially available qualitative immunochromatographic lateral flow rapid tests. Salmonella, Campylobacter, Yersinia, and Shigella were investigated by standard bacteriological methods and diarrheagenic E. coli by PCR assays. We identified a potential enteric pathogen in 30 children. The most frequent causes of diarrhea were enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC, viruses, Campylobacter, Salmonella, and Shiga-toxin-producing E. coli (STEC. Only 2 patients showed mixed infections. Our data suggest that children with viral or Campylobacter diarrhea were taken to the hospital earlier than those infected with EPEC. One child infected with STEC O26 developed “complete” HUS. The microbiological results highlight the importance of zoonotic bacteria such as atypical EPEC, Campylobacter, STEC, and Salmonella as pathogens associated with acute diarrhea in these children. The findings also reinforce our previous communications about the regional importance of non-O157 STEC strains in severe infant food-borne diseases.

  3. Seroprevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection among children of low socioeconomic level in São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurea Cristina Portorreal Miranda

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Helicobacter pylori infection is mainly acquired during childhood, and is associated with significant morbidity in adults. The aim here was to evaluate the seroprevalence and risk factors of H. pylori infection among children of low socioeconomic level attended at a public hospital in São Paulo, Brazil. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study, among patients attended at an outpatient clinic. METHODS: 326 children were evaluated (150 boys and 176 girls; mean age 6.82 ± 4.07 years in a cross-sectional study. Patients with chronic diseases or previous H. pylori treatment, and those whose participation was not permitted by the adult responsible for the child, were excluded. The adults answered a demographic questionnaire and blood samples were collected. The serological test used was Cobas Core II, a second-generation test. Titers > 5 U/ml were considered positive. RESULTS: H. pylori infection was diagnosed in 116 children (35.6%. Infected children were older than uninfected children (7.77 ± 4.08 years versus 5.59 ± 3.86 years; p < 0.0001. The seroprevalence increased from 20.8% among children aged two to four years, to 58.3% among those older than 12 years. There were no significant relationships between seropositivity and gender, color, breastfeeding, number of people in the home, number of rooms, bed sharing, living in a shantytown, maternal educational level, family income or nutritional status. In multivariate analysis, the only variable significantly associated with H. pylori seropositivity was age. CONCLUSION: Infection had intermediate prevalence in the study population, and age was associated with higher prevalence.

  4. Revitalisation of spoil tips and socio-economic polarisation – a case study of Ruhr area (Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chmielewska Marta

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses issues about the revitalisation of spoil tips, socio-economic polarisation and social exclusion in the field of municipal recreational activities based on an example of the largest post-industrial region in Europe – the Ruhr area in Germany. Revitalisation of brownfield areas very often leads to the creation of leisure facilities of various types (with a range of entrance fees and because of this it may mitigate, or exacerbate, the severity of these negative phenomena. In the Ruhr area there are 104 spoil tips of different origins (mine tips, slag heaps, rubbish dumps, sizes and shapes (from conical heaps, through table mountains shaped tips and intentionally shaped for landscape tips, to major tips and state of preservation. The research has shown that it is possible to use the majority of these spoil tips in the Ruhr area (87 of them as leisure facilities as they have been changed into green areas, parks, playgrounds, locations for sports activities and tourist attractions after their restoration. Furthermore, they are mostly accessible free of charge and may serve a wide range of people – from locals to visitors, from children to senior citizens etc., regardless of their income. As such they may mitigate the socio-economic polarisation tendencies in the region.

  5. Comparison between the Suomi-NPP Day-Night Band and DMSP-OLS for Correlating Socio-Economic Variables at the Provincial Level in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Jing

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Nighttime light imagery offers a unique view of the Earth’s surface. In the past, the nighttime light data collected by the DMSP-OLS sensors have been used as an efficient means to correlate regional and global socio-economic activities. With the launch of the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (Suomi-NPP satellite in 2011, the day-night band (DNB of the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS onboard represents a major advancement in nighttime imaging capabilities, because it surpasses its predecessor DMSP-OLS in radiometric accuracy, spatial resolution and geometric quality. In this paper, four variables (total night light, light area, average night light and log average night light are extracted from nighttime radiance data observed by the VIIRS-DNB composite in 2013 and nighttime digital number (DN data from the DMSP-OLS stable dataset in 2012, respectively, and correlated with 12 socio-economic parameters at the provincial level in mainland China during the corresponding period. Background noise of DNB composite data is removed using either a masking method or an optimal threshold method. In general, the correlation of these socio-economic data with the total night light and light area of VIIRS-DNB composite data is better than with the DMSP-OLS stable data. The correlations between total night light of denoised DNB composite data and built-up area, gross regional product (GRP and power consumption are higher than 0.9 and so are the correlations between the light area of denoised DNB composite data and city and town population, built-up area, GRP, power consumption and waste water discharge. However, the correlations of socio-economic data with the average night light and log average night light of VIIRS-DNB composite data are not as good as with the DMSP-OLS stable data. To quantitatively analyze the reasons for the correlation difference, a cubic regression method is developed to correct the saturation effect of the DMSP

  6. Life-course socio-economic position, area deprivation and Type 2 diabetes: findings from the British Women's Heart and Health Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, A F; Carson, C; Watt, H C;

    2008-01-01

    Objectives We examined whether area deprivation influenced risk of Type 2 diabetes, fasting blood glucose and insulin resistance over and above the effect of individual socio-economic position (SEP) measured across the life course. Methods A cross-sectional analysis of 4286 women aged 60 to 79......-course SEP. This association was robust to adjustment for adult health behaviours and physiological risk factors. Insulin resistance [homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) score] increased by 1.90% (95% CI 0.01, 3.82, n = 2526) per quintile of area deprivation after adjustment for individual SEP, while fasting...... blood glucose increased by 0.69% (95% CI 0.16, 1.22, n = 2875) after adjustment for individual SEP. Conclusions Area level deprivation independently influences diagnosed Type 2 diabetes, insulin resistance and fasting blood glucose. Examination of more specific characteristics of places is needed...

  7. Identification of area-level influences on regions of high cancer incidence in Queensland, Australia: a classification tree approach

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    Mengersen Kerrie L

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Strategies for cancer reduction and management are targeted at both individual and area levels. Area-level strategies require careful understanding of geographic differences in cancer incidence, in particular the association with factors such as socioeconomic status, ethnicity and accessibility. This study aimed to identify the complex interplay of area-level factors associated with high area-specific incidence of Australian priority cancers using a classification and regression tree (CART approach. Methods Area-specific smoothed standardised incidence ratios were estimated for priority-area cancers across 478 statistical local areas in Queensland, Australia (1998-2007, n = 186,075. For those cancers with significant spatial variation, CART models were used to identify whether area-level accessibility, socioeconomic status and ethnicity were associated with high area-specific incidence. Results The accessibility of a person's residence had the most consistent association with the risk of cancer diagnosis across the specific cancers. Many cancers were likely to have high incidence in more urban areas, although male lung cancer and cervical cancer tended to have high incidence in more remote areas. The impact of socioeconomic status and ethnicity on these associations differed by type of cancer. Conclusions These results highlight the complex interactions between accessibility, socioeconomic status and ethnicity in determining cancer incidence risk.

  8. Socio-Economic Analysis of the Operational Impacts of Shiroro Hydropower Generation in the Lowland Areas of Middle River Niger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullateef Usman

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This study focused on the socio-economic analysis of the operational impacts of Shiroro hydroelectric power generation dam in the lowland areas of middle river Niger in Nigeria. The paper observed that more than thirty years since the conception and impoundment of water at Kanji over river Niger a number of action or inaction capable of altering the socio-economic profile of the riparian communities around the lowland areas of middle river Niger in Nigeria have taken place. The study therefore designed and administered a close-ended pre-coded instrument to conduct a survey of the dam affected communities located in the study area. The data harvested were analyzed using the Principal Component Analysis (PCA. The result obtained shows that the economic engagements of the riparian communities have been distorted. This is noticeable especially on both fish biodiversity and ecosystem with a resultant loss of fish-species. There is a dismal fall in productivity of small holder farmers and fishermen occasioned by avoidable flooding. In the same vein Strategic social and economic infrastructure have deteriorated and thus slowed down the socio and economic development in the area. In this connection a number of policy measures to mitigate the negative effect of hydropower production were suggested.

  9. Socio-economic features of commercial fishery in the bordering upper Danube River area of Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smederevac-Lalić, Marija; Pešić, Radmilo; Cvejić, Slobodan; Simonović, Predrag

    2012-05-01

    The multidisciplinary socio-economic study of fisheries in the bordering part of the Danube River between Serbia and Croatia (at the following sites: Apatin, Bačka Palanka, Bačko Novo Selo, Bezdan, and Sombor) that was performed in order to investigate various aspects of fish resource utilization (management, policy of protection and exploitation of freshwater fishery resources, present fisheries legislation, catch statistics), was realized during 2004 and 2005. Data were collected via survey with a structured interview. Socio-economic circumstances, together with ecological factors, have had an influence on the fish stock and number of commercial fishermen. Awareness of the occurring problems, both economic and ecological ones, is apparent, regardless of whether it is assessed in the field of commercial or recreational fishing. Fishery sector in Serbia is in a prolonged process of transition, with the enforcement of fishing regulations, but also the lack of control that leaves space for illegal commercial fishing. The statements, consciousness, experience and behavior of commercial fishermen represent a good basis for planning the sustainable development of fishing in this section of the Danube River.

  10. The Effect of Technology and Socioeconomic Status on Parental Involvement at the Elementary School Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsamo, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Evidence suggests that parents who extensively use technology and have a high socioeconomic status (SES) may become overly involved with their elementary school-aged children's education and school-related activities, an involvement which can create a lasting dependence of the children on their parents. The literature indicates high…

  11. Assessment of access to electricity and the socio-economic impacts in rural areas of developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanagawa, Makoto; Nakata, Toshihiko [Department of Management Science and Technology, Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, Aoba-Yama 6-6-11-815, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan)

    2008-06-15

    The purpose of this study is to reveal relations between access to electricity and advancement in a socio-economic condition in rural areas of developing countries. Recently, multi-dimensional aspects of poverty, for example, economy, education, and health, has been increasingly focused on, and access to modern energy such as electricity is one possible solution. As a case study, we have analyzed unelectrified rural areas in Assam state, India. We have developed an energy-economic model in order to analyze the possibility of electrification through dissemination of electric lighting appliances as well as applied multiple regression analysis to estimate the socio-economic condition, a literacy rate above 6 years old, in the areas. As a result of the case study, the household electrification rate, the 1000 km{sup 2} road density, and sex ratio have been chosen as the explanatory variables of the literacy rate. Moreover, the model analysis shows that complete household electrification will be achieved by the year 2012. In combination with the multiple regression and model analysis, the literacy rate in Assam may increase to 74.4% from 63.3%. (author)

  12. Incorporation of Socio-Economic Features' Ranking in Multicriteria Analysis Based on Ecosystem Services for Marine Protected Area Planning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle E Portman

    Full Text Available Developed decades ago for spatial choice problems related to zoning in the urban planning field, multicriteria analysis (MCA has more recently been applied to environmental conflicts and presented in several documented cases for the creation of protected area management plans. Its application is considered here for the development of zoning as part of a proposed marine protected area management plan. The case study incorporates specially-explicit conservation features while considering stakeholder preferences, expert opinion and characteristics of data quality. It involves the weighting of criteria using a modified analytical hierarchy process. Experts ranked physical attributes which include socio-economically valued physical features. The parameters used for the ranking of (physical attributes important for socio-economic reasons are derived from the field of ecosystem services assessment. Inclusion of these feature values results in protection that emphasizes those areas closest to shore, most likely because of accessibility and familiarity parameters and because of data biases. Therefore, other spatial conservation prioritization methods should be considered to supplement the MCA and efforts should be made to improve data about ecosystem service values farther from shore. Otherwise, the MCA method allows incorporation of expert and stakeholder preferences and ecosystem services values while maintaining the advantages of simplicity and clarity.

  13. The Potential of Solar as Alternative Energy Source for Socio-Economic Wellbeing in Rural Areas, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Rashidah Zainal; Siwar, Chamhuri; Ludin, Norasikin Ahmad

    Malaysia's energy sector is highly dependent on fossil fuels as a primary energy source. Economic growth and socio-economic wellbeing also rely on the utilization of energy in daily life routine. Nevertheless, the increasing cost for electricity and declining fossil fuels resources causes various negative impacts to the people and environment especially in rural areas. This prompted Malaysia to shift towards alternative energy sources such as solar energy to ensure social, economic and environmental benefits. The solar energy is one of the potential renewable energy sources in tropical countries particularly in Malaysia. The paper attempts to analyze the benefits and advantages related to energy efficiency of solar for sustainable energy use and socio economic wellbeing in rural areas, Malaysia. The paper uses secondary sources of data such as policies, regulations and research reports from relevant ministries and agencies to attain the objectives. As a signatory country to the UN Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol, Malaysia has taken initiatives for decreasing energy dependence on oil to reduce greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) for sustainable development. The paper shows solar energy becomes one of the promising alternative energy sources to alleviate energy poverty in Malaysia for rural areas. Finally, solar energy has increased socio-economic wellbeing and develops green potential and toward achieving energy efficiency in energy sector of Malaysia by preserving environment as well as reducing carbon emission.

  14. An analysis of Socio-economic and physical aspects of Slum areas in Ahar city

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    N. Zali

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Extended abstract1-IntroductionOver the last few decades, urban marginalization has been a major challenge in the metropolitan and large cities. After various experiences of forcible contact, what is recommended by international organizations is an empowerment approach which focuses on the empowerment of squatters instead of financial support. In this study, Ahar squatters were identified and investigated in 4 neighborhoods. Using Cochran formula, 320 samples were chosen randomly and their economic, social, physical and spatial characteristics of neighborhoods were collected by questionnaires and then analyzed by SPSS software. Besides, using SWOT approach and identifying problems, strategies of Empowerment in different dimensions was presented. Results showed that Shileboran and Nirugah neighborhoods have more problems regarding socio-economic and physical status, whereas Chalabverdi neighborhood has better situation than other neighborhoods. Ownership issue, poor housing conditions, access problems and poor sewage system were serious problems for residents of these neighborhoods. 2- Theoretical basesIn the second decades of 1980s, empowerment strategies along with improvement in informal habitat settings are recommended to overlook the poor economic condition of families and also the inability to use the collective power. Therefore, a great leap was created in modern approach which is based on the improvement of local communities and macro policies. The entity of the empowerment approach is based on the reduction of poverty and in human-oriented sustainable development it is based on the citizen participation.3– DiscussionThe problem of informal settlements in Ahar city because of its geographical location as a city in northeast of Azerbaijan province and its situation in the middle of bundles of small and big villages has been accelerated to the extent that solving the problem has been a real challenge. Investigation of the situation of

  15. Access to health care in relation to socioeconomic status in the Amazonian area of Peru

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansson, Charlotte; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Rodriguez, Hugo

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Access to affordable health care is limited in many low and middle income countries and health systems are often inequitable, providing less health services to the poor who need it most. The aim of this study was to investigate health seeking behavior and utilization of drugs...... in Yurimaguas and 793 children of the same age in Moyobamba were included in the study. Caregivers were interviewed on health care seeking strategies (public/private sectors; formal/informal providers), and medication for their children in relation to reported symptoms and socio-economic status. Self......-reported symptoms were classified into illnesses based on the IMCI algorithm (Integrated Management of Childhood Ilness). Wealth was used as a proxy indicator for the economic status. Wealth values were generated by Principal Component Analysis using household assets and characteristics. RESULTS: Significantly more...

  16. Tipping Points towards Regional Forest or Urban Transition in Stressed Rural Areas: An Agent-based Modelling Application of Socio-Economic Shifts in Rural Vermont US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Y.; Turnbull, S.; Zia, A.

    2015-12-01

    In rural areas where farming competes with urban development and environmental amenities, urban and forest transitions occur simultaneously at different locales with different rates due to the underlying socio-economic shifts. Here we develop an interactive land use transition agent-based model (ILUTABM) in which farmers' land use decisions are made contingent on expansion and location choices of urban businesses and urban residences, as well as farmers' perceived ecosystem services produced by their land holdings. The ILUTABM simulates heterogeneity in land use decisions at parcel levels by differentiating decision making processes for agricultural and urban landowners. Landowners are simulated to make land-use transition decisions as bounded rational agents that maximize their partial expected utility functions under different underlying socio-economic conditions given the category of a landowner and the spatial characteristics of the landowner's landholdings. The ILUTABM is parameterized by spatial data sets such as National Land Cover Database (NLCD), zoning, parcels, property prices, US census, farmers surveys, building/facility characteristics, soil, slope and elevation. We then apply the ILUTABM to the rural Vermont landscape, located in the Northeast Arm District of Lake Champlain and the downstream sub-watersheds of Missisquoi River, to generate phase transitions of rural land towards urban land near peri-urban areas and towards forest land near financially stressed farmlands during 2001-2051. Possible tipping point trajectories of rural land towards regional forest or urban transition are simulated under three socio-economic scenarios: business as usual (ILUTABM calibrated to 2011 NLCD), increased incentives for conservation easements, and increased incentives for attracting urban residences and businesses.

  17. Patient enablement requires physician empathy: a cross-sectional study of general practice consultations in areas of high and low socioeconomic deprivation in Scotland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercer Stewart W

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patient 'enablement' is a term closely aligned with 'empowerment' and its measurement in a general practice consultation has been operationalised in the widely used patient enablement instrument (PEI, a patient-rated measure of consultation outcome. However, there is limited knowledge regarding the factors that influence enablement, particularly the effect of socio-economic deprivation. The aim of the study is to assess the factors influencing patient enablement in GP consultations in areas of high and low deprivation. Methods A questionnaire study was carried out on 3,044 patients attending 26 GPs (16 in areas of high socio-economic deprivation and 10 in low deprivation areas, in the west of Scotland. Patient expectation (confidence that the doctor would be able to help was recorded prior to the consultation. PEI, GP empathy (measured by the CARE Measure, and a range of other measures and variables were recorded after the consultation. Data analysis employed multi-level modelling and multivariate analyses with the PEI as the dependant variable. Results Although numerous variables showed a univariate association with patient enablement, only four factors were independently predictive after multilevel multivariate analysis; patients with multimorbidity of 3 or more long-term conditions (reflecting poor chronic general health, and those consulting about a long-standing problem had reduced enablement scores in both affluent and deprived areas. In deprived areas, emotional distress (GHQ-caseness had an additional negative effect on enablement. Perceived GP empathy had a positive effect on enablement in both affluent and deprived areas. Maximal patient enablement was never found with low empathy. Conclusions Although other factors influence patient enablement, the patients' perceptions of the doctors' empathy is of key importance in patient enablement in general practice consultations in both high and low deprivation settings.

  18. Socio-Economic Statues and Physical Activity Levels of 3th Grade Students: A Case Study in Istanbul Beykoz Province

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    Pinar Salih

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The children and adolescent period is critical time to acquire positive lifestyle habits. The aim of this study is to investigate the physical activity level of children aged between 9-10 accordance with their BMI’s and socio-economic level of their school environments. This study also reviewed the articles about physical activity level of children, its relation to their socio-economic status and some other related tasks. Inactive life style sustained together with bad eating habits brings many healthy problems such as obesity and cardiovascular disease Approach: Technological development brings with it improving life style causing sedentary life for the public in developed and also developing Country. Physical activity can be viewed as a form of healthy life because it predicts functioning and adaptation and offers capabilities that enable people to live healthy. In this purposed three different socio-economic levels of six schools were determined accordance with declaration of National Education Department in Beykoz province. Each couple of school reflected one’s Socio-Economic Status (SES. Totally 250 students from three different SES were participated (low-SES, n = 92; middle-SES, n = 73; high-SES, n = 85. Student’s height and weight were measured and their Body Mass Index (BMI was determined. BMIs were classified according to Cole’s BMI tables which were underweight, normal, overweight and obese. Children Physical Activity Questionnaire (CPAQ, which is proposed by World Health Organization, was used for assessment of their Physical Activity Level (PAL. Data from the questionnaires was collected in a suitable relational database and analyzed with SPSS statistical package. Logit log linear analysis was applied to understand the trend of qualitative variables (SES, BMIs and PALs. Objective: The aim of this study is to investigate the physical activity level of children aged between 9-10 accordance

  19. Cost-analysis of an oral health outreach program for preschool children in a low socioeconomic multicultural area in Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wennhall, Inger; Norlund, Anders; Matsson, Lars

    2010-01-01

    to a comprehensive oral health outreach project for preschool children conducted in a low-socioeconomic multi-cultural urban area. The outcome was compared with historical controls from the same area with conventional dental care. The cost per minute for the various dental professions was added to the cost......The aim was to calculate the total and the net costs per child included in a 3-year caries preventive program for preschool children and to make estimates of expected lowest and highest costs in a sensitivity analysis. The direct costs for prevention and dental care were applied retrospectively...... of materials, rental facilities and equipment based on accounting data. The cost for fillings was extracted from a specified per diem list. Overhead costs were assumed to correspond to 50% of salaries and all costs were calculated as net present value per participating child in the program and expressed...

  20. Impact of Dental Fluorosis, Socioeconomic Status and Self-Perception in Adolescents Exposed to a High Level of Fluoride in Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Frechero, Nelly; Nevarez-Rascón, Martina; Nevarez-Rascón, Alfredo; González-González, Rogelio; Irigoyen-Camacho, María Esther; Sánchez-Pérez, Leonor; López-Verdin, Sandra; Bologna-Molina, Ronell

    2017-01-12

    Objective: To identify adolescents' self-perception of dental fluorosis from two areas with different socioeconomic levels. Methods: A cross-sectional, descriptive study was conducted with 15-year-old youths by applying a questionnaire designed and validated to assess self-perceptions of dental fluorosis in two areas with different socioeconomic statuses (SESs). Fluorosis was clinically evaluated by applying the Thylstrup and Fejerkov (TF) index on the upper front teeth. Results: A total of 308 adolescents were included in the study. The medium-SES population, which was exposed to 2.5 ppm of fluoride in water, and the low-SES population, which was exposed to 5.1 ppm, presented the following levels of dental fluorosis: TF 2-3 (50%), TF 4-5 (45.6%) and TF 6-7 (4.4%) for medium SES and TF 2-3 (12.3%), TF 4-5 (67.1%) and TF 67 (20.6%) for low SES. A significant association was found between self-perception and dental fluorosis in those with medium and low SESs (p dental fluorosis affect adolescents such that adolescents with a medium SES have more negative perceptions than those with a low SES. Such perceptions increase as the TF index increases.

  1. Bacterial vaginosis in women of low socioeconomic status living in slum areas in Chennai, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uma, Shanmugasundaram; Balakrishnan, Pachamuthu; Murugavel, Kailapuri G; Srikrishnan, Aylur K; Kumarasamy, Nagalingeswaran; Anand, Santhanam; Cecelia, Jebaraj Anitha; Celentano, David; Mayer, Kenneth H; Thyagarajan, Sadras P; Solomon, Suniti

    2006-12-01

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a common cause of vaginitis among women of childbearing age. This study was performed to investigate the prevalence of BV and its association with sexually transmitted infections among 487 women of low socioeconomic status. Blood, vaginal and endocervical swabs were tested for HIV, herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2), Treponema pallidum, BV, Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoea and Trichomonas vaginalis. Of the women screened for BV, 120 (25, 95% CI 20.8-28.4) were positive and 40 (8.2, 95% CI 5.8-10.6) were intermediate. Bacterial vaginosis was significantly associated with age >25 (P = 0.014) and sexual experience (P = 0.085). Bacterial vaginosis was also related to concurrent infections with T. vaginalis (relative risk (RR) = 6.6, 95% CI 2.8-15.5, P = 0.000) and HSV-2 (RR = 2, 95% CI 1.3-2.9; P = 0.0031). The role of other possible risk factors needs to be explored.

  2. Socio-Economic Considerations of Converting Food Waste into Biogas on a Household Level in Indonesia: The Case of the City of Bandung

    OpenAIRE

    Amir, Encep; Hophmayer-Tokich, Sharon; Kurnani, Tubagus

    2015-01-01

    Household waste is a serious environmental problem in Indonesia, especially in urban areas. Since 2010, biogas production from food waste has been introduced to reduce waste and provided an alternative to liquid petroleum gas (LPG) as cooking fuel in a pilot project in Bandung. Although the produced biogas is sufficient, the socio-economic aspects can hinder application. This study assesses the socio-economic feasibility of the project in Cibangkong, a typical urban area in Bandung, which inc...

  3. Socio-Economic Considerations of Converting Food Waste into Biogas on a Household Level in Indonesia: The Case of the City of Bandung

    OpenAIRE

    Amir, Encep; Hophmayer-Tockich, Sharon; Kurnani, Tubagus Benito Achmad

    2016-01-01

    Household waste is a serious environmental problem in Indonesia, especially in urban areas. Since 2010, biogas production from food waste has been introduced to reduce waste and provided an alternative to liquid petroleum gas (LPG) as cooking fuel in a pilot project in Bandung. Although the produced biogas is sufficient, the socio-economic aspects can hinder application. This study assesses the socio-economic feasibility of the project in Cibangkong, a typical urban area in Bandung, which inc...

  4. Socio-economic and ecological impacts of global protected area expansion plans

    OpenAIRE

    Visconti, Piero; Bakkenes, Michel; Smith?, Robert J.; Joppa, Lucas; Sykes, Rachel E.

    2015-01-01

    Several global strategies for protected area (PA) expansion have been proposed to achieve the Convention on Biological Diversity's Aichi target 11 as a means to stem biodiversity loss, as required by the Aichi target 12. However, habitat loss outside PAs will continue to affect habitats and species, and PAs may displace human activities into areas that might be even more important for species persistence. Here we measure the expected contribution of PA expansion strategies to Aichi target 12 ...

  5. Socio-economic, health and nutritional status of the villagers in the Nong Wai irrigation area, Khon Kaen, Northeast Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harinasuta, C; Sornamani, S; Migasena, P; Vivatanasesth, P; Pongpaew, P; Intarakao, C; Vudhivai, N

    1976-12-01

    Studies were carried out from June 1974 to May 1975 on the socio-economic status, health and nutritional status of the people in 4 villages, in the irrigation area of the Nong Wai Pioneer Agricultural Project of Khon Kaen Province, Northeast Thailand. The result obtained were compared with those in 2 non-irrigated villages in the same province, in order to identify the health and nutritional problems which might arise during the water resource development in the irrigation area. It was found that in the irrigated villages 90% of the peoples were farmers, while in the non-irrigated villages all were farmers. The socio-economic status of the people in the irrigated villages was much better than those in the non-irrigated ones. The income per family in the former was about three times greater than that in the latter. In the study of the health conditions of the villagers, the vulnerable age group including pre-school children under 7 years of age and school children in the elementary school class 1 and class 2, aged 7-9 years old, served as subjects for investigation. Haematological and physical examinations revealed many children with mild to moderate anaemia, vitamin B2 deficiency and a few cases of hepatomegaly. Anaemic children were found to be more prevalent in the non-irrigated villages than in the irrigated area. The overall parasitic infection rates in children in the irrigated and non-irrigated villages were similar with respect to severity of the infection. Hookworm infection, opisthorchiasis, strongyloidiasis and giardiasis were the leading parasitic infections, while amoebiasis was rare. Ascariasis and trichuriasis were not found. However, the first two helminthic infections had a low grade of intensity. The nutritional status of pre-school children, showed that there were more children with good growth in the irrigated villages than in the non-irrigated one. Serum proteins, albumin and globulin, and urinary urea nitrogen-creatinine ratio revealed normal

  6. Serum Retinol Levels in Pregnant Adolescents and Their Relationship with Habitual Food Intake, Infection and Obstetric, Nutritional and Socioeconomic Variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spíndola Garcêz, Laís; de Sousa Paz Lima, Geania; de Azevedo Paiva, Adriana; Maria Rebêlo Sampaio da Paz, Suzana; Lázaro Gomes, Erica Ivana; Nunes, Valéria Sutti; Cotta de Faria, Eliana; de Barros-Mazon, Sílvia

    2016-10-25

    Globally, vitamin A deficiency (VAD) affects about 19.1 million pregnant women. Its occurrence is classically associated with inadequate food intake and may also be associated with socioeconomic factors and the presence of infection. The aim of this study was to determine the factors related to serum retinol levels among pregnant teenagers. The sample consisted of 89 pregnant adolescents, from whom socioeconomic, obstetric, anthropometric, and food consumption data were collected. Serum concentrations of retinol and the supposed presence of infection were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography and C-reactive protein quantification, respectively. The serum retinol concentrations were classified according to the criteria of the World Health Organization. We adopted a 5% significance level for all statistical tests. Serum retinol levels were significantly and positively associated with sanitation (p = 0.008) and pre-gestational nutritional status (p = 0.002), and negatively with the trimester (p = 0.001). The appropriate sanitation conditions and pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) were shown to have a protective effect against VAD. Conversely, serum retinol levels were reduced with trimester progression, favoring VAD occurrence.

  7. The Evaluation of The Impact of Socio-Economic Level on The Physical Fitness in Boys by Using AAHPERD Test Battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dursun GÜLER

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of socio-economic level on the physical fitness in boys from 8 to 10 years-olds by using AAHPERD (American Alliance For Health, Physical Education, Recreation And Dance test battery.The number of the participants in the study was 566 students; 295 students from state schools of The Ministry of National Education and 271 students from private schools.In the identification of socio-economic level of the participants in the study, level of education of parents, the number of the children in the family, the living environment, whether the children have their own rooms in at home, and the level of income of the family, which are socio-economic criteria, were taken into consideration.The order of testing and measurement was as follows: the measurement of weight, the measurement of height, sit-and-reach test, skin-fold measurement, sit-up test, pull-up test and 1 mile run-and-walk test.At the statistical analyses of the data the mean, standard deviation, maximum and minimum values of AAHPERD tests applied to the subjects were obtained and Correlation Analyses (Pearson tests were used for the evaluation of the relationship among the AAHPERD tests and socio-economic level of the participants,.As a result, it was found that the socio-economic level had an impact on physical fitness of the student; and that in boys from 8 to 10 years-olds who had a higher socio-economic level, the sum of skinfold values and the strength of sit-up were higher compared to those obtained from the boys who had a lower socio-economic level; and that the boys who had a lower socio-economic level yielded higher values of flexibility, strength in pull-up and cardiovascular endurance.

  8. Socioeconomic issues for the Bear River Watershed Conservation Land Area Protection Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Catherine Cullinane; Huber, Christopher; Gascoigne, William; Koontz, Lynne

    2012-01-01

    The Bear River Watershed Conservation Area is located in the Bear River Watershed, a vast basin covering fourteen counties across three states. Located in Wyoming, Utah, and Idaho, the watershed spans roughly 7,500 squares miles: 1,500 squares miles in Wyoming; 2,700 squares miles in Idaho; and 3,300 squares miles in Utah (Utah Division of Water Resources, 2004). Three National Wildlife Refuges are currently contained within the boundary of the BRWCA: the Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge in Utah, the Bear Lake National Wildlife Refuge in Idaho, and the Cokeville Meadows National Wildlife Refuge in Wyoming. In 2010, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service conducted a Preliminary Project Proposal and identified the Bear River Watershed Conservation Area as having high-value wildlife habitat. This finding initiated the Land Protection Planning process, which is used by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to study land conservation opportunities including adding lands to the National Wildlife Refuge System. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service proposes to include part of the Bear River Watershed Conservation Area in the Refuge System by acquiring up to 920,000 acres of conservation easements from willing landowners to maintain landscape integrity and habitat connectivity in the region. The analysis described in this report provides a profile of the social and economic conditions in the Bear River Watershed Conservation Area and addresses social and economic questions and concerns raised during public involvement in the Land Protection Planning process.

  9. The Socio-Economic Structure of Fishery Activities and Seafood Marketing in Marmara Sea: A Case Study Along the Coastal Area of Tekirdag Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Gungor

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Marmara Sea, which has a typical inside sea characteristics, is placed all along the Turkish borders. Because of both intensive level of population living around and many industrial plants has been taken place at this area which has continuously environmental pollution. In addition to, intensive sea traffic due to tankers carrying petroleum and etc., have been causing this pollution to higher level. Since, the all negative factors mentioned above, incredible amount of fish spices (118 different spices belonging to 10 taxonomic groups were observed still alive in the Marmara Sea (Zengin et al., 2004. This situation causes to be gained at a satisfactory level of income for many fishery families and sustainable of their lives. In this study, with the aim of determining the socio-economical structure and figure out its marketing system in Tekirdağ; 263 vessels, used in the centre of province and in towns and villages on the shore, were put into an order according to their lengths and by taking their densities into consideration; they were classified into three groups as the boats of vessels 5-10 m, 10-15 m and the ones bigger than 15 m. A survey of 54 vessels, 31 of which are from small group, 18 from medium group and five from the large group has been conducted by ‗ The stratified Random Sampling Method‘. ‗Technical specialities of the vessels which were surveyed, specialities of the supporting vessels, net properties, fishing equipment, socio-economical conditions of boat owners and the crew, present problems and proposals for the solution of the problems have been studied.At the conclusion of the survey evaluation, it has been observed that the vessel owners don‘t show any socio-economical differences in respect of the size of their vessels and such problems as not having the social security, nonexistance of the Ministry of Maritime, high cost of fishing equipments, insufficiency of the inspections, underdevoloped marketing system and

  10. Impact of Dental Fluorosis, Socioeconomic Status and Self-Perception in Adolescents Exposed to a High Level of Fluoride in Water

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    Nelly Molina-Frechero

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify adolescents’ self-perception of dental fluorosis from two areas with different socioeconomic levels. Methods: A cross-sectional, descriptive study was conducted with 15-year-old youths by applying a questionnaire designed and validated to assess self-perceptions of dental fluorosis in two areas with different socioeconomic statuses (SESs. Fluorosis was clinically evaluated by applying the Thylstrup and Fejerkov (TF index on the upper front teeth. Results: A total of 308 adolescents were included in the study. The medium-SES population, which was exposed to 2.5 ppm of fluoride in water, and the low-SES population, which was exposed to 5.1 ppm, presented the following levels of dental fluorosis: TF 2–3 (50%, TF 4–5 (45.6% and TF 6–7 (4.4% for medium SES and TF 2–3 (12.3%, TF 4–5 (67.1% and TF 67 (20.6% for low SES. A significant association was found between self-perception and dental fluorosis in those with medium and low SESs (p < 0.05. The multiple regression model found differences between TF levels and self-perception, with a 6–7 TF level for concerns about color (OR = 1.6, smile (OR = 1.2 and appearance (OR = 3.36. Conclusions: Self-perceptions of dental fluorosis affect adolescents such that adolescents with a medium SES have more negative perceptions than those with a low SES. Such perceptions increase as the TF index increases.

  11. Impact of Dental Fluorosis, Socioeconomic Status and Self-Perception in Adolescents Exposed to a High Level of Fluoride in Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Frechero, Nelly; Nevarez-Rascón, Martina; Nevarez-Rascón, Alfredo; González-González, Rogelio; Irigoyen-Camacho, María Esther; Sánchez-Pérez, Leonor; López-Verdin, Sandra; Bologna-Molina, Ronell

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To identify adolescents’ self-perception of dental fluorosis from two areas with different socioeconomic levels. Methods: A cross-sectional, descriptive study was conducted with 15-year-old youths by applying a questionnaire designed and validated to assess self-perceptions of dental fluorosis in two areas with different socioeconomic statuses (SESs). Fluorosis was clinically evaluated by applying the Thylstrup and Fejerkov (TF) index on the upper front teeth. Results: A total of 308 adolescents were included in the study. The medium-SES population, which was exposed to 2.5 ppm of fluoride in water, and the low-SES population, which was exposed to 5.1 ppm, presented the following levels of dental fluorosis: TF 2–3 (50%), TF 4–5 (45.6%) and TF 6–7 (4.4%) for medium SES and TF 2–3 (12.3%), TF 4–5 (67.1%) and TF 67 (20.6%) for low SES. A significant association was found between self-perception and dental fluorosis in those with medium and low SESs (p < 0.05). The multiple regression model found differences between TF levels and self-perception, with a 6–7 TF level for concerns about color (OR = 1.6), smile (OR = 1.2) and appearance (OR = 3.36). Conclusions: Self-perceptions of dental fluorosis affect adolescents such that adolescents with a medium SES have more negative perceptions than those with a low SES. Such perceptions increase as the TF index increases. PMID:28085102

  12. Social Structural Influences on Healthy Aging: Community-Level Socioeconomic Conditions and Survival Probability of Becoming a Centenarian for Those Aged 65 to 69 in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong In; Kim, Gukbin

    2015-10-01

    This study estimated the associations between community-level socioeconomic conditions and survival probability of becoming a centenarian (SPBC) for those aged 65 to 69 in South Korea to determine the social structural influences on healthy aging. The indicators of socioeconomic and data of centenarians were obtained from Statistics Korea database 2014: population census and social survey. Significant positive correlations were found between SPBC and community-level socioeconomic conditions (minimum cost of living and economically active population, water supply and sewerage, pave a road with asphalt, and urbanization). SPBC male and female predictors had higher economic level and base facilities (R2)=0.578, paged 65 to 69 in South Korea. These strategies should include social structural influences on successful aging in the overall socioeconomic conditions.

  13. GIS: Geographic Information System An application for socio-economical data collection for rural area

    CERN Document Server

    Nayak, S K; Kalyankar, N V

    2010-01-01

    The country India follows the planning through planning commission. This is on the basis of information collected by traditional, tedious and manual method which is too slow to sustain. Now we are in the age of 21th century. We have seen in last few decades that the progress of information technology with leaps and bounds, which have completely changed the way of life in the developed nations. While internet has changed the established working practice and opened new vistas and provided a platform to connect, this gives the opportunity for collaborative work space that goes beyond the global boundary. We are living in the global economy and India leading towards Liberalize Market Oriented Economy (LMOE). Considering this things, focusing on GIS, we proposed a system for collection of socio economic data and water resource management information of rural area via internet.

  14. Wildlife population trends in protected areas predicted by national socio-economic metrics and body size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Megan D.; Craigie, Ian D.; Harrison, Luke B.; Geldmann, Jonas; Collen, Ben; Whitmee, Sarah; Balmford, Andrew; Burgess, Neil D.; Brooks, Thomas; Hockings, Marc; Woodley, Stephen

    2016-09-01

    Ensuring that protected areas (PAs) maintain the biodiversity within their boundaries is fundamental in achieving global conservation goals. Despite this objective, wildlife abundance changes in PAs are patchily documented and poorly understood. Here, we use linear mixed effect models to explore correlates of population change in 1,902 populations of birds and mammals from 447 PAs globally. On an average, we find PAs are maintaining populations of monitored birds and mammals within their boundaries. Wildlife population trends are more positive in PAs located in countries with higher development scores, and for larger-bodied species. These results suggest that active management can consistently overcome disadvantages of lower reproductive rates and more severe threats experienced by larger species of birds and mammals. The link between wildlife trends and national development shows that the social and economic conditions supporting PAs are critical for the successful maintenance of their wildlife populations.

  15. Overweight in men and women among urban area residents: individual factors and socioeconomic context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roseli Gomes de Andrade

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The present study aimed to evaluate factors associated with overweight among adults living in urban areas, with the income of the census tract as a context variable. The survey assessed individuals from two health districts of Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Excess weight was determined by body mass index > 25kg/m2. Multilevel logistic regression was used. The sample comprised 2,935 individuals aged 20 to 60 years. The prevalence of overweight was 52.3% (95%CI: 49.9-54.8, similar between men and women. Higher schooling proved to be protective against overweight in women and a risk for men. Living in census tracts with higher income was associated with excess weight only in males. Report of the consumption of diet soft drinks was positively associated with overweight in both sexes. The occurrence of this event seems to be influenced by different factors or to interrelate differently in men and women.

  16. Concern and practice among men about HIV/AIDS in low socioeconomic income areas of Lilongwe, Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalipeni, Ezekiel; Ghosh, Jayati

    2007-03-01

    The HIV prevalence rate in Malawi, currently estimated to be 15%, is among the highest in the world. There is a growing realization that in order to understand the underlying causes and devise more effective prevention strategies focus should be placed on economic, political, social, and cultural forces as well as perceptions of individual risk to HIV/AIDS. During 2003 we conducted field work in Lilongwe, the capital city of Malawi, to examine perceptions of individuals as to their risk to HIV infection using the structured interviews and the focus group discussions with men from five areas of Lilongwe. The discussion in this paper focuses on the perception of risk to HIV infection among men in low socioeconomic income areas that we interviewed. Our findings indicate that while knowledge about HIV/AIDS and the best ways in which one can protect oneself from getting HIV is very high, people continue to engage in at-risk behaviors without using the necessary protection. Many of the men in our sample indicated that they were indeed at risk of getting infected with HIV. In spite of this, some of the respondents in both the structured interviews and the focus group discussions pointed out that some people had began taking measures to protect themselves, such as using condoms with nonregular partners, women leaving their husbands where cheating was obvious, and, for men, reducing the number of extra-marital sexual relations.

  17. Cost-analysis of an oral health outreach program for preschool children in a low socioeconomic multicultural area in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wennhall, Inger; Norlund, Anders; Matsson, Lars; Twetman, Svante

    2010-01-01

    The aim was to calculate the total and the net costs per child included in a 3-year caries preventive program for preschool children and to make estimates of expected lowest and highest costs in a sensitivity analysis. The direct costs for prevention and dental care were applied retrospectively to a comprehensive oral health outreach project for preschool children conducted in a low-socioeconomic multi-cultural urban area. The outcome was compared with historical controls from the same area with conventional dental care. The cost per minute for the various dental professions was added to the cost of materials, rental facilities and equipment based on accounting data. The cost for fillings was extracted from a specified per diem list. Overhead costs were assumed to correspond to 50% of salaries and all costs were calculated as net present value per participating child in the program and expressed in Euro. The results revealed an estimated total cost of 310 Euro per included child (net present value) in the 3-year program. Half of the costs were attributed to the first year of the program and the costs of manpower constituted 45% of the total costs. When the total cost was reduced with the cost of conventional care and the revenue of avoided fillings, the net cost was estimated to 30 Euro. A sensitivity analysis displayed that a net gain could be possible with a maximal outcome of the program. In conclusion, the estimated net costs were displayed and available to those considering implementation of a similar population-based preventive program in areas where preschool children are at high caries risk.

  18. ASSOCIATION BETWEEN BODY COMPOSITION, SOMATOTYPE AND SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS IN CHILEAN CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS AT DIFFERENT SCHOOL LEVELS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizana, Pablo A; González, Sofia; Lera, Lydia; Leyton, Bárbara

    2017-02-27

    This study examined the association between body composition, somatotype and socioeconomic status (SES) in Chilean children and adolescents by sex and school level (grade). The cross-sectional study was conducted on 1168 schoolchildren aged 6-18 years (572 males) from Valparaíso, Chile. Body composition, as assessed by percentage body fat (BF%) and somatotype, was evaluated using Ellis equations and the Heath-Carter method, respectively. The socioeconomic status of respondents was assessed using the ESOMAR survey. Obesity was defined as BF% ≥25 for boys and ≥30 for girls; 'high endomorph' somatotype was defined as a somatotype endomorph component (EC) of at least 5.5. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the relationship between high adiposity and SES, potential confounding factors and school level. In females, the results indicated that the groups with lower SES had higher EC. At the 1st (youngest) school level (1-4th grades), males exhibited similar trends in their BF% and EC. High adiposity was associated with the female sex (BF%: OR=3.39; 95% CI 2.60, 4.41; high EC: OR=2.31; 95% CI 1.80, 2.98). In addition, low SES increased the risk of high adiposity compared with high SES (BF%: OR=2.25; 95% CI 1.40, 3.61; high EC: OR=2.19; 95% CI 1.37, 3.47). An association was observed between increased adiposity and lower SES, mainly in females, which indicates that females with low SES might be at greater risk of obesity.

  19. Associations between Area-Level Unemployment, Body Mass Index, and Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease in an Urban Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lise Gauvin

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cardiovascular Disease (CVD has been linked to "neighbourhood" socioeconomic status (nSES, often operationalized as a composite index of aggregate income, occupation and education within predefined administrative boundaries. The role of specific, non-composite socioeconomic markers has not been clearly explained. It is also unclear whether the relationship between nSES and CVD varies according to sex. We sought to determine whether area-level unemployment (ALU was associated with CVD risk, and whether this association differed by sex. Methods: 342 individuals from the Montreal Neighbourhood Survey of Lifestyle and Health provided self-reported behavioural and socioeconomic information. A nurse collected biochemical and anthropometric data. ALU, a weighted average of the proportion of persons 15-years and older available for but without work, was measured using a Geographic Information System for a 250 m buffer centred on individual residence. Generalized Estimating Equations were used to estimate the associations between ALU, body mass index (BMI and a cumulative score for total cardiometabolic risk (TCR. Results: After confounder adjustments, the mean 4th minus 1st quartile difference in BMI was 3.19 kg/m2 (95% CI: 2.39, 3.99, while the prevalence ratio for the 4th relative to 1st quartile for TCR was 2.20 (95 % CI: 1.53, 3.17. Sex interacted with ALU; women relative to men had greater mean 3.97 kg/m2 (95% CI: 2.08, 5.85 BMI and greater mean TCR 1.51 (95% CI: 0.78, 2.90, contrasted at mean ALU. Conclusions: Area-level unemployment is associated with greater CVD risk, and this association is stronger for women.

  20. Neighborhood socioeconomic status modifies the association between individual smoking status and PAH-DNA adduct levels in prostate tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rundle, Andrew; Richards, Catherine; Neslund-Dudas, Christine; Tang, Deliang; Rybicki, Benjamin A

    2012-06-01

    Interactions between smoking and neighborhood-level socioeconomic status (SES) as risk factors for higher polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) DNA adduct levels in prostate tissue were investigated. PAH-DNA adducts were measured by immunohistochemistry with staining intensity measured in optical density units by semiquantitative absorbance image analysis in tumor adjacent tissue from 400 prostatectomy specimens from the Henry Ford Health System in Detroit. For each subject, their U.S. Census tract of residence was classified as being of higher or lower SES using the median value of the distribution of the proportion of tract residents with a high-school education. Generalized estimating equation models were used to assess interactions between neighborhood-level SES and smoking status, adjusting for race, age, education level, tumor volume, primary Gleason grade and prostate specific antigen (PSA) at diagnosis. There was a statistical interaction (P = 0.004) between tract-level SES and smoking status. In lower SES tracts smoking status was not associated with adduct staining, but in higher SES tracts adduct staining intensity was 13% (P = 0.01) higher in ever-smokers as compared to never-smokers. Among never-smokers, living in a lower SES tract was associated with a 25% higher mean staining intensity (P adduct levels in prostate tissue.

  1. Seasonal variations of all-cause and cause-specific mortality by age, gender, and socioeconomic condition in urban and rural areas of Bangladesh

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    Burkart Katrin

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mortality exhibits seasonal variations, which to a certain extent can be considered as mid-to long-term influences of meteorological conditions. In addition to atmospheric effects, the seasonal pattern of mortality is shaped by non-atmospheric determinants such as environmental conditions or socioeconomic status. Understanding the influence of season and other factors is essential when seeking to implement effective public health measures. The pressures of climate change make an understanding of the interdependencies between season, climate and health especially important. Methods This study investigated daily death counts collected within the Sample Vital Registration System (VSRS established by the Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics (BBS. The sample was stratified by location (urban vs. rural, gender and socioeconomic status. Furthermore, seasonality was analyzed for all-cause mortality, and several cause-specific mortalities. Daily deviation from average mortality was calculated and seasonal fluctuations were elaborated using non parametric spline smoothing. A seasonality index for each year of life was calculated in order to assess the age-dependency of seasonal effects. Results We found distinctive seasonal variations of mortality with generally higher levels during the cold season. To some extent, a rudimentary secondary summer maximum could be observed. The degree and shape of seasonality changed with the cause of death as well as with location, gender, and SES and was strongly age-dependent. Urban areas were seen to be facing an increased summer mortality peak, particularly in terms of cardiovascular mortality. Generally, children and the elderly faced stronger seasonal effects than youths and young adults. Conclusion This study clearly demonstrated the complex and dynamic nature of seasonal impacts on mortality. The modifying effect of spatial and population characteristics were highlighted. While tropical regions have

  2. Drugs prescribed by general practitioners according to age, gender and socioeconomic status after adjustment for multimorbidity level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skoog, Jessica; Midlöv, Patrik; Beckman, Anders

    2014-01-01

    BackgroundAge, gender and socioeconomic status have been shown to be associated with the use of prescription drugs, even after adjustment for multimorbidity. General practitioners have a holistic and patient-centred perspective and our hypothesis is that this may reflect on the prescription...... of drugs. In Sweden the patient may seek secondary care without a letter of referral and the liability of the prescription of drugs accompanies the patient, which makes it suitable for this type of research. In this study we examine the odds of having prescription drug use in the population and the rates...... in the use of prescribed drugs in primary health care, even after adjustment for multimorbidity level....

  3. A cohort study evaluating the implications of biology, weight status and socioeconomic level on global self-esteem competence among female African-American adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell-Young, Yolanda M; Zabaleta, Jovanny; Velasco-Gonzalez, Cruz; Sothern, Melinda S

    2013-07-01

    The link between obesity and self-esteem among minority youth has received minimal empirical evaluation. This study aims to describe the magnitude of risk that body mass index, household income, and transitional age have on global self-esteem levels among African-American adolescents. These analyses were conducted on cross-sectional data obtained from 264 urban-dwelling African-American females between 14 and 18 years of age. Survey data on global self-esteem levels, transitory age, and socioeconomic levels were collected using self-administered questionnaires. Measured height and weight values were used to calculate and categorize weight status according to body mass index. Logistic regression models examined the probability of reporting less than average levels of global self-esteem. Adolescent African-American females residing in low-income households were 10 times more likely to report lower global self-esteem scores than those individuals from more affluent households (95% CI: 1.94, 60.19, p self-esteem among participants in this study. Household income appears to be the greatest predictor of global self-esteem levels. Further research in this area is needed to fully elucidate precursors for psychological health vulnerability and facilitate intervention development.

  4. The Role of Curricular Approach, Rural-Urban Background, and Socioeconomic Status in Second Language Learning: The Cornwall Area Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, M.; Barik, H. C.

    1978-01-01

    Presenting evaluation results of a kindergarten bilingual education program and followup program, this article indicates French immersion can be effective among rural and urban students of both middle-upper and low socioeconomic status. (JC)

  5. LAND USE CHANGE AND ITS SOCIO-ECONOMIC DRIVING FORCES UNDER STRESS OF PROJECT IN OLD RESERVOIR AREA --Case Study of Linshui Reservoir Area of Dahonghe Reservoir in Sichuan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHAO Jin-gan; HUANG Xue-qin; QU Ming; WEI Chao-fu; XIE De-ti

    2005-01-01

    The old reservoir areas built in 1950s-1970s left behind many socio-economic problems, because of the administrative backward migration and little migration fund, and all these problems would be tied to land. Based on interviewing with peasant households, combining land use survey and socio-economic statistical index, this paper analyzed land use change and its corresponding driving forces in Linshui reservoir area of Dahonghe Reservoir. Results showed that land use change in the reservoir area was mainly embodied on low-lying land submergence and migration requisition land. The former changed the land use patterns, and the latter mainly reconstructed original land property and made land over-fragmented. Cultivated land per capita was 0.041ha in this area, below the cordon of cultivated land per capita enacted by FAO. Currently, there were still 30.25% of peasant households being short of grain in trimester of one year, and there were 35.27% of people living under the poverty line. The conditions of eco-environment in Linshui Reservoir Area were worse, and healthy and sub-healthy eco-environment accounted for less proportion, composed of green belt around the reservoir area and paddy field ecosystem, and economic forest and orchard ecosystem, respectively. The stress of the reservoir project was macroscopic background to analyze the driving factors of land use change, and real underlying diving factor of the land use change in the area was the change of cultural landscape under the stress of reservoir project. The rapid increase of population was the key factor to induce the change of man-land relationship in the reservoir area, the low level of rural economy was the crucial factor to decide how migrants input for production, and the belief of migrants, influencing the land use patterns in a certain extent, was the inducing factor to keep land use stable. The low-lying submergence and infrastructure construction accompanied the reservoir project were leading

  6. Geo-statistical modeling to evaluate the socio-economic impacts of households in the context of low-lying areas conversion in Colombo metropolitan region-Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemakumara, GPTS; Rainis, Ruslan

    2015-02-01

    Living in Low-lying areas is a challenging task, but due to the lack of suitable land at affordable prices, thousands of householders have been establishing their own houses on Low-lying areas. Manipulation and conversion of low lying areas have led to an increase in the frequency and severity of micro disasters because the cumulative effect of these settlements is very high. Therefore, it is needed to examine how individual households have been emerging in Low-lying areas. This process is primarily influenced and controlled by Socio-economic factors. In the field survey conducted for this study, 388 householders were interviewed face to face to obtain the primary data. Collected data were applied to the Multivariate binary logistic Model. The Dependent variable of the model was set as Stable Houses and Non-Stable Houses based on the weighted values that were obtained from the field observations. Independent variables of this study are nine key aspects of the socio-economic conditions in these areas. Units of analysis of the study were taken as individual housing plots in the study area. The particular combination of Socio-Economic factors that exerted influence on each housing plot was measured using predicted probability value of logistic model and linked it with GIS land plot's map. Accuracy of Final Model is 86.9 % and probability level of influencing factors given a clear idea about household distribution and status while providing guidance about how the planning authorities should monitor and manage low lying areas, taking into consideration the present housing condition of these areas.

  7. Integration of data from censuses and remote sensing to measure the socio-economic and environmental evolution in urban areas: case of the city of Sherbrooke (1981-2006)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dari, Ouassini

    The urban environment is complex, heterogeneous and temporally changeable. Man is the main actor in the transformation of urban areas where he interacts with intensity. Spatial differentiation is a result of human occupation in the urban environment. This occupation may vary according to land use, population density, social and economic characteristics and environment. This leads us to say that the socio-economic and environmental indicators change according to the various locations in the urban area and through time. Our goal is to measure the socio-economic and environmental changes in the urban area of the city of Sherbrooke using remote sensing data synchronized with the censuses and that we will then integrate into the geographic information system (GIS). We have used data from the 1981 and 2006 censuses, 1983 aerial photos, 2007 orthophotos and 1983 MSS and 2006 Ikons satellite images to measure the socio-economic and environmental changes in the city of Sherbrooke. We have used spatial analysis tools to integrate image data with census data. The methods uses such as global indices, principal component analysis combined with the variation between the two dates have yielded interesting results. The first factor in principal component analysis with orthogonal rotation (Varimax) justified a substantial percentage of the variance in global indices. The use of dissemination areas resulted in detailed information on the change in the city. From the perspective of spatial distribution, we noted a major difference between the central areas and the peripheral areas in 1981 and 2006. From the perspective of evolution between 1981 and 2006, we observed that are positive and negative changes at various levels took place. We also observed the evolution of ethnicity in the Sherbrooke city and Lennoxville municipality. The study showed that the French population is prevalent in the old city of Sherbrooke as the English population is prevalent in Lennoxville. The European

  8. The role of neighborhood level socioeconomic characteristics in Salmonella infections in Michigan (1997–2007: Assessment using geographic information system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilkins Melinda

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: The majority of U.S. disease surveillance systems contain incomplete information regarding socioeconomic status (SES indicators like household or family income and educational attainment in case reports, which reduces the usefulness of surveillance data for these parameters. We investigated the association between select SES attributes at the neighborhood level and Salmonella infections in the three most populated counties in Michigan using a geographic information system. Methods: We obtained data on income, education, and race from the 2000 U.S. Census, and the aggregate number of laboratory-confirmed cases of salmonellosis (1997–2006 at the block group level from the Michigan Department of Community Health. We used ArcGIS to visualize the distribution, and Poisson regression analysis to study associations between potential predictor variables and Salmonella infections. Results: Based on data from 3,419 block groups, our final multivariate model revealed that block groups with lower educational attainment were less commonly represented among cases than their counterparts with higher education levels (Salmonella infections incidence at the block group level. Conclusion: Education plays a significant role in health-seeking behavior at the population level. It is conceivable that a reporting bias may exist due to a greater detection of Salmonella infections among high education block groups compared to low education block groups resulting from differential access to healthcare. In addition, individuals of higher education block groups who also have greater discretionary income may eat outside the home frequently and be more likely to own pets considered reservoirs of Salmonella, which increase the likelihood of contracting Salmonella infections compared to their counterparts with lower levels of education. Public health authorities should focus on improving the level of disease detection and reporting among communities with

  9. Individual and community-level socioeconomic position and its association with adolescents experience of childhood sexual abuse: a multilevel analysis of six countries in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Yahaya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Background: Childhood sexual abuse (CSA is a substantial global health and human rights problem and consequently a growing concern in sub-Saharan Africa. We examined the association between individual and community-level socioeconomic status (SES and the likelihood of reporting CSA. Methods: We applied multiple multilevel logistic regression analysis on Demographic and Health Survey data for 6,351female adolescents between the ages of 15 and 18 years from six countries in sub-Saharan Africa, between 2006 and 2008. Results: About 70% of the reported cases of CSA were between 14 and 17 years. Zambia had the highest proportion of reported cases of CSA (5.8%. At the individual and community level, we found that there was no association between CSA and socioeconomic position. This study provides evidence that the likelihood of reporting CSA cut across all individual SES as well as all community socioeconomic strata. Conclusions: We found no evidence of socioeconomic differentials in adolescents’ experience of CSA, suggesting that adolescents from the six countries studied experienced CSA regardless of their individual- and community-level socioeconomic position. However, we found some evidence of geographical clustering, adolescents in the same community are subject to common contextual influences. Further studies are needed to explore possible effects of countries’ political, social, economic, legal, and cultural impact on childhood sexual abuse.

  10. Eating disorder risk behavior in Brazilian adolescents from low socio-economic level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza Ferreira, Julia Elba; da Veiga, Gloria Valeria

    2008-09-01

    We investigated the prevalence, by gender, age and nutritional status, of eating disorder (ED) risk behavior, using a simplified self-report questionnaire in a probabilistic sample of 561, 12-19-year-old students from public schools in the metropolitan area of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Sex- and age-specific body mass index cut-offs were used to assess nutritional status. The prevalence of overweight/obesity was 16.2% and of being underweight was 2.5%; 37.3% of the adolescents studied presented symptoms of binge eating (BE) and 24.7% would go on a strict diet at least once a week, both cases more frequent in females (40.8% vs. 25.3%; 31.2% vs. 10.5%, respectively). Older students were shown to be more susceptible to binge eating and younger students more susceptible to strict dieting. Overweight adolescents were shown to be more susceptible to strict dieting than normal-weight adolescents, regardless of sex and age. The prevalence of binge eating and strict dieting was high in low-income Brazilian adolescents and females are at greater risk of developing eating disorders than males. The greater prevalence of strict dieting in younger students shows they are at nutritional risk.

  11. Trends in socioeconomic inequalities in cirrhosis mortality in an urban area of Southern Europe: a multilevel approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Dalmau-Bueno; A. García-Altés; M. Marí-Dell'olmo; K. Pérez; A. Espelt; A.E. Kunst; C. Borrell

    2010-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to analyse inequalities in cirrhosis mortality at individual and area levels, using data from Barcelona for two time periods. Methods Deaths from cirrhosis in Barcelona of men and women aged 25-74 years during the periods 1992-97 and 1998-2004 were included

  12. An Analysis of Certain Interpersonal Aspects of the Home and School in Low Socioeconomic Areas Relating to Student Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommerville, Joseph C.

    This article summarizes an investigation of factors manifested by 6th grade students in four Detroit metropolitan area schools who achieved on the Iowa Test of Basic Skills at levels significantly above and below the average. The study sample consisted of 80 students with scores divided equally above and below the average. Instruments measured…

  13. Strategic Analysis of Sustainable Socioeconomic Situation of Rural Areas in the Samara Region of the Russian Federation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belyaeva, Galina I.; Ermoshkina, Ekaterina N.; Kosyakova, Inessa V.; Pankratova, Larisa E.; Zotova, Anna S.

    2016-01-01

    On the one hand, the relevance of this problem is primarily determined by a growing gap of rural territorial entities in socioeconomic development, and on the other hand, due to their significance in such prominent aspects for the country as food security, maintaining the existing land, industrial, ecological, demographic and human potential. The…

  14. Association of food-hygiene practices and diarrhea prevalence among Indonesian young children from low socioeconomic urban areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agustina, R.; Sari, T.P.; Satroamidjojo, S.; Bovee-Oudenhoven, I.M.J.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Kok, F.J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Information on the part that poor food-hygiene practices play a role in the development of diarrhea in low socioeconomic urban communities is lacking. This study was therefore aimed at assessing the contribution of food-hygiene practice to the prevalence of diarrhea among Indonesian chil

  15. Effects of socioeconomic status on brain development, and how cognitive neuroscience may contribute to leveling the playing field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeev D S Raizada

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The study of socioeconomic status (SES and the brain finds itself in a circumstance unusual for Cognitive Neuroscience: large numbers of questions with both practical and scientific importance exist, but they are currently under-researched and ripe for investigation. This review aims to highlight these questions, to outline their potential significance, and to suggest routes by which they might be approached. Although remarkably few neural studies have been carried out so far, there exists a large literature of previous behavioural work. This behavioural research provides an invaluable guide for future neuroimaging work, but also poses an important challenge for it: how can we ensure that the neural data contributes predictive or diagnostic power over and above what can be derived from behaviour alone? We discuss some of the open mechanistic questions which Cognitive Neuroscience may have the power to illuminate, spanning areas including language, numerical cognition, stress, memory, and social influences on learning. These questions have obvious practical and societal significance, but they also bear directly on a set of longstanding questions in basic science: what are the environmental and neural factors which affect the acquisition and retention of declarative and nondeclarative skills? Perhaps the best opportunity for practical and theoretical interests to converge is in the study of interventions. Many interventions aimed at improving the cognitive development of low SES children are currently underway, but almost all are operating without either input from, or study by, the Cognitive Neuroscience community. Given that longitudinal intervention studies are very hard to set up, but can, with proper designs, be ideal tests of causal mechanisms, this area promises exciting opportunities for future research.

  16. Factor Structure of the Reactive-Proactive Aggression Questionnaire in Turkish Children and Gender, Grade-Level, and Socioeconomic Status Differences in Reactive and Proactive Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uz Bas, Asli; Yurdabakan, Irfan

    2012-01-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the factor structure of the Reactive-Proactive Aggression Questionnaire (RPQ) with Turkish children, and to investigate gender, grade-level, and socioeconomic status (SES) differences in reactive and proactive aggression. Participants consisted of 1,081 Turkish children (544 boys and 537 girls) aged 9 to 14…

  17. Demographic, behavioral, dietary, and socioeconomic characteristics related to persistent organic pollutants and mercury levels in pregnant women in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyashita, Chihiro; Sasaki, Seiko; Saijo, Yasuaki; Okada, Emiko; Kobayashi, Sumitaka; Baba, Toshiaki; Kajiwara, Jumboku; Todaka, Takashi; Iwasaki, Yusuke; Nakazawa, Hiroyuki; Hachiya, Noriyuki; Yasutake, Akira; Murata, Katsuyuki; Kishi, Reiko

    2015-08-01

    Persistent organic pollutants and mercury are known environmental chemicals that have been found to be ubiquitous in not only the environment but also in humans, including women of reproductive age. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between personal lifestyle characteristics and environmental chemical levels during the perinatal period in the general Japanese population. This study targeted 322 pregnant women enrolled in the Hokkaido Study on Environment and Children's Health. Each participant completed a self-administered questionnaire and a food-frequency questionnaire to obtain relevant information on parental demographic, behavioral, dietary, and socioeconomic characteristics. In total, 58 non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls, 17 dibenzo-p-dioxins and -dibenzofuran, and 12 dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls congeners, perfluorooctane sulfonate, perfluorooctanoic acid, and mercury were measured in maternal samples taken during the perinatal period. Linear regression models were constructed against potential related factors for each chemical concentration. Most concentrations of environmental chemicals were correlated with the presence of other environmental chemicals, especially in the case of non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls and, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and -dibezofurans and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls which had similar exposure sources and persistence in the body. Maternal smoking and alcohol habits, fish and beef intake and household income were significantly associated with concentrations of environmental chemicals. These results suggest that different lifestyle patterns relate to varying exposure to environmental chemicals.

  18. Profiles of Mathematics Performance by Students of Chilean City Schools, Based on Cognitive Ability by Socioeconomic Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Tirso Oscar Baltra San Martín

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the performance profile of Chilean city-school students from different socioeconomic strata, in relation to different sets of cognitive abilities specified in the curriculum framework for mathematics education in their country. The study is correlational and ex post facto in type, derived from the results of the math test of the System for Measuring Educational Quality (SIMCE applied to second-semester students of the 2001 school year. The percentage of students at each performance level was calculated, based on each student’s probability of correctly answering each of the test questions, using logistic function, associated with the two-parameter model of the Item Response Theory (IRT. The results show that regardless of the set of cognitive abilities in question, the performance profile follows a similar pattern. It was found that in general, there is a linear decrease in the percentage of those who achieve superior performances among students from low and medium-low strata, and exponential increases for middle-class students.

  19. Final Systems Development Report for the Clark County Socioeconomic Impact Assessment of the Proposed High-Level Nuclear Waste Repository at Yucca Mountain, NV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-06-18

    The Systems Development Report represents the third major step in the Clark County Socioeconomic Impact Assessment of the Proposed High-Level Nuclear Waste Repository at Yucca Mound Nevada. The first of these steps was to forge a Research Design that would serve as a guide for the overall research process. The second step was the construction of the Base Case, the purpose of which was to describe existing conditions in Clark County in the specified analytic areas of Economic-Demographic/Fiscal, Emergency Planning and Management, Transportation and Sociocultural analysis. The base case description will serve as a basis for assessing changes in these topic areas that might result from the Yucca Mountain project. These changes will be assessed by analyzing conditions with and without repository development in the county. Prior to performing such assessments, however, the snapshot type of data found in the base case must be operationalized or systematized to allow for more dynamic data utilization. In other words, a data system that can be used to analyze the consequences of the introduction of different variables (or variable values) in the Clark County context must be constructed. Such a system must be capable of being updated through subsequent data collection and monitoring efforts to both provide a rolling base case and supply information necessary to construct trend analyses. For example, during the Impact Assessment phase of the study process, the without repository analysis is accomplished by analyzing growth for the county given existing conditions and likely trends. These data are then compared to the with Yucca Mountain project conditions anticipated for the county. Similarly, once the emergency planning management and response needs associated with the repository are described, these needs will be juxtaposed against existing (and various future) capacity(ies) in order to determine the nature and magnitude of impacts in this analytic area. Analogous tasks

  20. Gender, socio-economic status, migration origin and neighbourhood of residence are barriers to HIV testing in the Paris metropolitan area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massari, Veronique; Lapostolle, Annabelle; Cadot, Emmanuelle; Parizot, Isabelle; Dray-Spira, Rosemary; Chauvin, Pierre

    2011-12-01

    In France, numerous HIV patients still discover their HIV status as a result of AIDS-related symptoms. We investigated factors related to the absence of any HIV testing in men and women separately, using the data from the SIRS cohort, which includes 3023 households representative of the Paris metropolitan area in 2005. The failure to use HIV testing services was studied in relation to individual socio-economic and demographic factors as well as some psychosocial characteristics. The effect of the characteristics of the residential neighbourhood was also analysed using multilevel models. In multivariate analysis, the factors associated with no history of HIV testing in women were an age >44 years, the absence of any pregnancy during the previous 15 years, a low education level, unemployment, to have had no or only one steady relationship in one's lifetime, to have a religious affiliation and to live in a poor neighbourhood. In men, factors were age 44 years, to have had no or only one steady relationship during one's lifetime, to have a religious affiliation and to perceive oneself as being at low risk of HIV infection. An association according to the "migration origin" was observed among men: foreigners and French men born to (at least) one foreign parent were more likely not to have been tested than French men born to two French parents. We conclude that gender, social and territorial differences exist in HIV testing among people living in the Paris area. More systematic proposals of HIV test in primary care would be an effective policy to overcome these persistent social stratifications.

  1. Life-course socioeconomic environment and health risk behaviours. A multilevel small-area analysis of young-old persons in an urban neighbourhood in Lausanne, Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornaz, Sarah; Taffé, Patrick; Santos-Eggimann, Brigitte

    2009-03-01

    With a life expectancy at the age of 65 of around 20 years, damaging health risk behaviours of young-old adults have become a target for preventive actions. Such risk factors necessitate an accurate understanding of the present and past socioeconomic conditions associated with health risk behaviours. The aim of our study is to assess the impact of certain life events as well as economic and environmental factors on health risk behaviours. We included 1309 participants of the Lausanne Cohort Lc65+ aged 65-70 years and employed logistic regression analyses, with individuals nested within areas. The results illustrate the influences of socioeconomic factors from childhood to young-old age. Life experiences in adulthood and economic resources in young-old age are both associated with unfavourable health behaviours. Neighbourhood is a modest determinant as well, particularly regarding alcohol consumption. Therefore, prevention against health risk behaviours should focus on population subgroups defined on the basis of their socioeconomic and living contexts.

  2. [Socioeconomic variables and fertility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arguello, O

    1980-08-01

    While making comparative analyses of data collected by the World Fertility Survey regarding Latin America, a group of investigators of CELADE (Centro Latinoamericano de Demografia) realized that the selection of economic variables for the study of fertility had serious limitations. Such limitations did not allow the elaboration of a theory which took into account the complicated process of fertility, in all its socioeconomic, cultural, and psychological manifestations. Thus, this paper intends to lay the theoretical basis for the selection of all relevant variables, distinguishing, for example, the average fertility of women according to area of residence, place of early socialization, migrant status, social status, occupation of husband, level of instruction, occupation, and all changes in occupational activities of women in fertile age.

  3. Temporal Variation and Association of Aflatoxin B₁ Albumin-Adduct Levels with Socio-Economic and Food Consumption Factors in HIV Positive Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolly, Pauline E; Akinyemiju, Tomi F; Jha, Megha; Aban, Inmaculada; Gonzalez-Falero, Andrea; Joseph, Dnika

    2015-11-30

    The association between aflatoxin exposure and alteration in immune responses observed in humans suggest that aflatoxin could suppress the immune system and work synergistically with HIV to increase disease severity and progression to AIDS. No longitudinal study has been conducted to assess exposure to aflatoxin (AF) among HIV positive individuals. We examined temporal variation in AFB₁ albumin adducts (AF-ALB) in HIV positive Ghanaians, and assessed the association with socioeconomic and food consumption factors. We collected socioeconomic and food consumption data for 307 HIV positive antiretroviral naive adults and examined AF-ALB levels at recruitment (baseline) and at six (follow-up 1) and 12 (follow-up 2) months post-recruitment, by age, gender, socioeconomic status (SES) and food consumption patterns. Generalized linear models were used to examine the influence of socioeconomic and food consumption factors on changes in AF-ALB levels over the study period, adjusting for other covariates. AF-ALB levels (pg/mg albumin) were lower at baseline (mean AF-ALB: 14.9, SD: 15.9), higher at six months (mean AF-ALB: 23.3, SD: 26.6), and lower at 12 months (mean AF-ALB: 15.3, SD: 15.4). Participants with the lowest SES had the highest AF-ALB levels at baseline and follow up-2 compared with those with higher SES. Participants who bought less than 20% of their food and who stored maize for less than two months had lower AF-ALB levels. In the adjusted models, there was a statistically significant association between follow up time and season (dry or rainy season) on AF-ALB levels over time (p = 0.04). Asymptomatic HIV-positive Ghanaians had high plasma AF-ALB levels that varied according to season, socioeconomic status, and food consumption patterns. Steps need to be taken to ensure the safety and security of the food supply for the population, but in particular for the most vulnerable groups such as HIV positive people.

  4. The influence of urban development and social mobility on socioeconomic level: The application of GIS on urban ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhaili Mansor, Nur; Zulhaidi Mohd Shafri, Helmi; Mansor, Shattri; Paradhan, Biswajeet

    2014-06-01

    Specifically, the integration between social sciences and natural science are fundamental in our understanding of the economic, social and technological transformations that have drastically changed the society. This study will be based on the municipality of Sungai Petani, Kedah as it has been most influenced by urbanization and urban development. Urban development in Sungai Petani is closely associated with a tremendous increase in demand for land, which is highly related to population growth, human movement and their social mobility. The qualitative case study taken will rely on the visual interpretation technique that would allow the researcher to develop a map of urban changes detection. The potential application of GIS information to estimate socioeconomic indicators and the modelling of socio-economic activities that are explored in this study is hoped to increase further our understanding of the impacts of development and urbanization on social life.

  5. Comparing the socioeconomic status--health gradient among adults 50 and older across rural and urban areas of Thailand in 1994 and 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer, Zachary; Prachuabmoh, Vipan

    2012-06-01

    This paper examines associations between three indicators of socioeconomic status, education, income and bank savings, as well as one composite of these three measures, and self-assessed health for adults aged 50+ across rural and urban Thailand, comparing 1994 and 2007. Between 1994 and 2007 Thailand experienced rapid social changes that could impact on health overall and across groups, including population aging, socioeconomic development and changes in health policy. This led us to test whether overall health has improved as a result and whether the SES health gradient has changed. The data come from comparable survey sources from over seventy-thousand respondents, collected by Thailand's National Statistical Office. Generalized proportional ordered logit models were run that include up to three-way interactions of SES by year by rural versus urban location of residence are run. The three-way interactions allow for testing and of whether changes over time are due to complex intertwined effects. Results indicate that a) there has been improvement in health among the population aged 50 years and older in Thailand; b) there has been a flattening in the SES - health gradient in rural areas, and c) there has been little change in the gradient in urban areas, and if anything, there has been a widening of the relationship between income and health in urban Thailand. Divergence in the way the gradient has changed across rural and urban Thailand may point to the impact of social policy that has been aimed at poorer rural residents.

  6. [Infant mortality by cause of death in the Rio de Janeiro metropolitan area, 1976-1986: association with socioeconomic, climatic and air pollution variables].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchiade, M P; Beltrao, K I

    1992-01-01

    The Metropolitan Region of Rio de Janeiro (RMR) consists of the capital (the city of Rio de Janeiro) and 13 surrounding cities. The city of Rio de Janeiro itself was divided into 24 rather heterogeneous administrative regions (RAS) based on the income level of their inhabitants, the supply of public services such as water and sewerage, and population density or air pollution. Three different socioeconomic covariables were selected in three residential zones (ZONA) or subareas: the central rich nucleus, the intermediary zone of transition, and the distant periphery. As dependent variables the specific rate of infant, neonatal, or postneonatal mortality were considered for causes. The RMRJ Civil Register mortality data were utilized. A factor of correction was estimated according to the technique of Brass using the fertility rate and the rate of delivery for specific 5-year age groups of mothers. A multivariate analysis, the adjusted generalized linear model (MLG), was used for studying associations between socioeconomic, climatic, and air pollution variables and the levels of mortality. The MLG was formulated by means of the statistical package, GLIM or Generalized Linear Interactive Modelling. Analysis of infant mortality trends during 1976-1986 for the large subareas of RMRJ and the outlying region showed that the peak months of total neonatal and perinatal mortality were March and February, while the lowest months were November and October. May and June represented maximum rates of postneonatal mortality for pneumonia, diarrhea, other respiratory infections, malnutrition, and other diseases. MLG indicated that there was a statistically significant association between the annual mortality rate for selected causes and socioeconomic indicators (INS, FS and Zona); the rates of mortality also varied depending on time (ANO and ANOQ); and the mortality rates also appeared to be associated with the variations of the log of average pollution (LPM).

  7. The coastal area of Togo: A space vulnerable to sea level rise hotly disputed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adjoussi, P. D.

    2015-12-01

    Abstract Erosion caused in the coastal area of Togo especially in the cell to the east of the harbor of Lomé some reorganization of space and a reallocation of tasks functions of the importance of existing issues. This reorganization is an important race against time between the various stakeholders which paradoxically make this area a very dynamic environment. In spite of the disaster situation in the area, it is changing. This mutation has been observed for a decade in many ways. Fishing is a traditional activity disappears causing the emergence of new activities such as the extraction of gravel, the gardening, the informal trade of any kind, installing hotels, etc.. At the socio-economic transformation is associated with a beach in state of deficit causing the decline of the coastline that reaches approximately 500 m over a few kilometers according to the old marks missing. The decline of the coastline is by undermining the beach by the waves at high tide. These issues are reshaping the land use map that passes a distribution of fishing villages on the coast in 1980 to a suburban area exposed to sea level rise corollary to anticipated climate change. Keywords: Space, Reorganization, Vulnerability, Stakeholders, Sea Level, Fishing

  8. Basic sanitation, socioeconomic conditions, and degree of risk for the presence and maintenance of malaria in a low-transmission area in the Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais Hetierre Abreu Monteiro

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTINTRODUCTION:This study aimed to evaluate basic sanitation and socioeconomic indicators, reported cases of malaria, and risk of contracting malaria in the Ananindeua municipality, State of Pará.METHODS:Data on basic sanitation and socioeconomic dimensions were taken from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics [ Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (IBGE] 2010 census. Epidemiological malaria information was taken from the Epidemiological Malaria Surveillance Information System [ Sistema de Informação de Vigilância Epidemiológica de Malária (SIVEP/Malaria], between 2003 and 2013 of the Ministry of Health and from the SIVEP/Malaria forms of the municipality's Endemic Diseases Unit for 2,013 cases.RESULTS:Our data do not confirm the correlation among indicators of basic sanitation, socioeconomic conditions, and water supply with malaria cases. Of the 1,557 cases evaluated, most were caused by Plasmodium vivax , with rare cases of Plasmodium falciparum and mixed infections. There were 756 notifications in 2003. The number of reported cases was sharply reduced between 2006 and 2012, but a 142-case outbreak occurred in 2013. Ananindeua municipality's Annual Parasite Index indicated low risk in 2003 and no risk in other years, and the 2,013 cases were predominantly male individuals aged ≥40 years.CONCLUSIONS:Our data confirm the non-endemicity of malaria in the Ananindeua municipality, as the Annual Parasite Indices described for the years 2004-2013 classify it as a risk-free area. However, the 2013 outbreak indicates the need to strengthen prevention, surveillance, and control activities to reduce the risk of new outbreaks and consequent economic and social impacts on the population.

  9. Socioeconomic development as a determinant of the levels of organochlorine pesticides and PCBs in the inhabitants of Western and Central African countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luzardo, Octavio P., E-mail: operez@dcc.ulpgc.es [Toxicology Unit, Department of Clinical Sciences, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); Boada, Luis D. [Toxicology Unit, Department of Clinical Sciences, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); Carranza, Cristina [Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine Unit, Hospital Universitario Insular de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); Medical Sciences and Surgery Department, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); Ruiz-Suárez, Norberto; Henríquez-Hernández, Luis Alberto; Valerón, Pilar F.; Zumbado, Manuel; Camacho, María [Toxicology Unit, Department of Clinical Sciences, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); Arellano, José Luis Pérez [Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine Unit, Hospital Universitario Insular de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); Medical Sciences and Surgery Department, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain)

    2014-11-01

    Several studies of environmental samples indicate that the levels of many persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are increasing in Africa, but few studies have been conducted in humans. Simultaneously, many African countries are experiencing a rapid economic growth and implementing information and communication technologies (ICT). These changes have generated high amounts of electronic waste (e-waste) that have not been adequately managed. We tested the hypothesis that the current levels of two main classes of POPs in Western and Central African countries are affected by the degree of socioeconomic development. We measured the levels of 36 POPs in the serum of recent immigrants (N = 575) who came from 19 Sub-Saharan countries to the Canary Islands (Spain). We performed statistical analyses on their anthropometric and socioeconomic data. High median levels of POPs were found in the overall sample, with differences among the countries. Organochlorine pesticide (OCP) and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) levels increased with age. People from low-income countries had significantly higher OCP levels and much lower PCB levels than those from high-income countries. We found a significant association between the implementation of ICT and PCB contamination. Immigrants from the countries with a high volume of imports of second-hand electronic equipment had higher PCB levels. The economic development of Africa and the e-waste generation have directly affected the levels of POPs. The POP legacies of these African populations most likely are due to the inappropriate management of the POPs' residues. - Highlights: • Higher levels of organochlorine pesticides in Africans from low-income countries • Higher levels of PCBs in Africans from high-income countries • Levels of PCBs are significantly higher in people from West Africa. • Significant association between implementation of ICT and PCB contamination • High volume of second-hand electronic equipment is associated

  10. Sensitivity of burned area in Europe to climate change, atmospheric CO2 levels, and demography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Minchao; Knorr, Wolfgang; Thonicke, Kirsten;

    2015-01-01

    differed notably with respect to the dominating drivers and underlying processes. Fire-vegetation interactions and socioeconomic effects emerged as important uncertainties for future burned area in some European regions. Burned area of eastern Europe increased in both models, pointing at an emerging new...

  11. [Enterobiasis among schoolchildren in a rural population from Estado Falcón, Venezuela, and its relation with socioeconomic level].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, María; Cazorla, Dalmiro; Garvett, María

    2002-09-01

    Between may and july 2001, a survey was conducted in order to investigate the prevalence and symptoms of Enterobius vermicularis infection and its relationship with the socio-economic status and household crowding of 154 schoolchildren aged 6-12 years from a rural village in Falcon State, Venezuela. The Graham technique (perianal swabs with an adhesive cellulose tape) was used to perform the parasitological diagnosis. The overall prevalence was high (57.79%). There was no difference in the prevalence between sexes (X2 = 0.005; d.f. = 1) or ages (X2 = 3.63; d.f. = 6) (p > 0.05), suggesting similar risk conditions for all individuals. Anal pruritus was the most common clinical finding (53.9%). Other less frequent manifestations were the following: perianal lesions (34.8%) and vulvovaginitis (32.6%). Graffar analysis revealed that the majority of schoolchildren belong to the poorer socioeconomic strata: IV (55.9%) and V (29.87%), with overcrowded living conditions. The correlation between E. vermicularis infection and crowding rates was found to be statistically significant (r = 0.98; p enterobiasis among schoolchildren from Sabaneta.

  12. Water levels in the Yucca Mountain Area, Nevada, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graves, R.P.

    1998-11-01

    Water levels were monitored in 24 wells in the Yucca Mountain area, Nevada, during 1996. Twenty-two wells representing 28 depth intervals were monitored periodically, generally on a monthly basis, and 2 wells representing 3 depth intervals were monitored both hourly and periodically. All wells monitor water levels in Tertiary volcanic rocks except one that monitors water levels in paleozoic carbonate rocks. Water levels were measured using either calibrated steel tapes or a pressure sensor. Mean water-level altitudes in the Tertiary volcanic rocks ranged from about 727.86 to about 1,034.58 meters above sea level during 1996. The mean water-level altitude in the well monitoring the Paleozoic carbonate rocks was about 752.57 meters above sea level during 1996. Mean water-level altitudes for 1996 were an average of about 0.06 meter lower than 1995 mean water-level altitudes and 0.03 meter lower than 1985--95 mean water-level altitudes. During 1996, water levels in the Yucca Mountain area could have been affected by long-term pumping at the C-hole complex that began on May 8, 1996. Through December 31, 1996, approximately 196 million liters were pumped from well UE-25 c{number_sign}3 at the C-hole complex. Other ground-water pumpage in the Yucca Mountain area includes annual pumpage from water-supply wells UE-25 J-12 and UE-25 J-13 of approximately 163 and 105 million liters, respectively, and pumpage from well USW G-2 for hydraulic testing during February and April 1996 of approximately 6 million liters.

  13. COUNTRY-LEVEL SOCIOECONOMIC INDICATORS ASSOCIATED WITH SURVIVAL PROBABILITY OF BECOMING A CENTENARIAN AMONG OLDER EUROPEAN ADULTS: GENDER INEQUALITY, MALE LABOUR FORCE PARTICIPATION AND PROPORTIONS OF WOMEN IN PARLIAMENTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong In; Kim, Gukbin

    2017-03-01

    This study confirms an association between survival probability of becoming a centenarian (SPBC) for those aged 65 to 69 and country-level socioeconomic indicators in Europe: the gender inequality index (GII), male labour force participation (MLP) rates and proportions of seats held by women in national parliaments (PWP). The analysis was based on SPBC data from 34 countries obtained from the United Nations (UN). Country-level socioeconomic indicator data were obtained from the UN and World Bank databases. The associations between socioeconomic indicators and SPBC were assessed using correlation coefficients and multivariate regression models. The findings show significant correlations between the SPBC for women and men aged 65 to 69 and country-level socioeconomic indicators: GII (r=-0.674, p=0.001), MLP (r=0.514, p=0.002) and PWP (r=0.498, p=0.003). The SPBC predictors for women and men were lower GIIs and higher MLP and PWP (R 2=0.508, p=0.001). Country-level socioeconomic indicators appear to have an important effect on the probability of becoming a centenarian in European adults aged 65 to 69. Country-level gender equality policies in European counties may decrease the risk of unhealthy old age and increase longevity in elders through greater national gender equality; disparities in GII and other country-level socioeconomic indicators impact longevity probability. National longevity strategies should target country-level gender inequality.

  14. Hair cortisol levels, perceived stress and body mass index in women and children living in socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhoods: the READI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olstad, Dana Lee; Ball, Kylie; Wright, Craig; Abbott, Gavin; Brown, Erin; Turner, Anne Isabella

    2016-01-01

    Disadvantaged communities provide adverse psychosocial exposures that have been linked to high levels of stress, and this may provide one explanatory pathway linking socioeconomic disadvantage to obesity. This study used hair cortisol analysis to quantify associations between stress and body mass index (BMI), and between hair cortisol and perceived psychological stress levels, in women and children living in socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhoods. Participants were a volunteer sample of 70 women from the Resilience for Eating and Activity Despite Inequality study, including 30 maternal-child pairs. Women self-reported body weight, height and perceived psychological stress using the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), and provided hair samples for themselves and their child. Children's body weight and height were measured. Following extraction, hair cortisol levels were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Multiple linear regression models examined associations between stress and BMI, and between hair cortisol and perceived stress levels in women and children. Women's hair cortisol levels were not associated with their BMI or PSS scores. Women's PSS scores were positively associated with their BMI (p = 0.015). Within maternal-child pairs, mothers and children's hair cortisol levels were strongly positively associated (p = 0.006). Maternal hair cortisol levels and PSS scores were unrelated to their child's zBMI. Children's hair cortisol levels were not associated with their zBMI or with their mother's PSS score. Findings suggest that cortisol-based and perceived psychological measures of stress may be distinct among women and children living in disadvantaged neighborhoods. Perceived psychological measures may be more important predictors of weight-related risk.

  15. Area-level poverty and preterm birth risk: A population-based multilevel analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muglia Louis A

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Preterm birth is a complex disease with etiologic influences from a variety of social, environmental, hormonal, genetic, and other factors. The purpose of this study was to utilize a large population-based birth registry to estimate the independent effect of county-level poverty on preterm birth risk. To accomplish this, we used a multilevel logistic regression approach to account for multiple co-existent individual-level variables and county-level poverty rate. Methods Population-based study utilizing Missouri's birth certificate database (1989–1997. We conducted a multilevel logistic regression analysis to estimate the effect of county-level poverty on PTB risk. Of 634,994 births nested within 115 counties in Missouri, two levels were considered. Individual-level variables included demographics factors, prenatal care, health-related behavioral risk factors, and medical risk factors. The area-level variable included the percentage of the population within each county living below the poverty line (US census data, 1990. Counties were divided into quartiles of poverty; the first quartile (lowest rate of poverty was the reference group. Results PTB th quartile (4.9%, p adjOR 1.18 (95% CI 1.03, 1.35, with a similar effect at earlier gestational ages (adjOR 1.27 (95% CI 1.06, 1.52. Conclusion Women residing in socioeconomically deprived areas are at increased risk of preterm birth, above other underlying risk factors. Although the risk increase is modest, it affects a large number of pregnancies.

  16. Report card on low level ozone in urban areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onischak, M.

    1994-12-31

    It has been four years since the Clean Air Act was amended in November of 1990. Much work has been done in this time, and the country is beginning to see real air quality benefits. Although these changes have not completely licked the urban ozone problem yet, they have made a lot of progress. All of the urban areas which have been required to reduce their ozone levels have done a good job of lowering their emissions. While the urban areas have not all been able to meet every federal deadline, the areas have all been able to achieve the control milestones before the mandatory Clean Air Act sanctions have taken effect. Some areas are even ready to declare their ozone problems solved.

  17. Musculo-skeletal pain among 40- and 45-year olds in Oslo: differences between two socioeconomically contrasting areas, and their possible explanations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hjortdahl Per

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of the study was to compare the prevalence and severity of musculo-skeletal pain between two socioeconomically contrasting areas in Oslo, Norway, and to explore possible explanatory factors. Methods Questionnaire survey, carried out as part of The Oslo Health Study in 2000–2001. Data from 821 persons (40 and 45 year old living in a less affluent inner city area (called east were compared with 854 persons living in an affluent area of the city (called west. Bivariate comparisons (chi square test and multiple regression analyses were performed to investigate differences between the samples. Results 61 % in east and 56 % in west (p Conclusion Musculo-skeletal pain is reported by 55–60 % of middle aged persons in Oslo during a four week period, and must be considered a normal phenomenon. Poor social conditions, inactivity, mental health problems and being an immigrant imply increased risk of more severe symptoms with a concomitant demand of health care.

  18. Indicadores socioeconómicos de área pequeña en el estudio de las desigualdades en salud Small area-based socio-economic indicators in the study of inequalities in health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Felícitas Domínguez-Berjón

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Valorar si dos indicadores socioeconómicos (uno simple y otro compuesto elaborados en el ámbito de sección censal permiten detectar desigualdades sociales en salud. Métodos: De la Encuesta de Salud de Barcelona de 1992 (ESB92 se han considerado el estado de salud percibido, la presencia de trastornos crónicos, el consumo de tabaco y la realización de una citología cervical preventiva, así como el nivel de estudios y la clase social. A partir del censo de 1991, como indicadores socioeconómicos de área se han calculado el porcentaje de desempleo y un índice de privación en las secciones censales. Se analiza la asociación entre las medidas socioeconómicas de área e individuales y la asociación de ambas con las variables de salud. Resultados: Existe una clara asociación positiva entre las medidas socioeconómicas de área pequeña y las individuales y, en general, con ambas se han observado similares efectos en diversos aspectos relacionados con la salud, tanto en varones como en mujeres. Con la mayoría de las variables analizadas, las diferencias son superiores con el índice de privación que con el desempleo. Así, en los varones la odds ratio ajustada por edad (ORa de tener un estado de salud regular, malo o muy malo es de 2,0 (intervalo de confianza [IC] del 95%, 1,4-2,9 en el cuartil más desfavorable de desempleo; en relación con el menos desfavorable y con el índice de privación, la ORa es de 2,7 (IC del 95%, 1,9-3,9, y en las mujeres las ORa son, respectivamente, de 1,8 (IC del 95%, 1,4-2,4 y 2,4 (IC del 95%, 1,8-3,2. Conclusiones: La clasificación por la situación socioeconómica del área de residencia, como la que permite el censo español, se puede aplicar a todos los miembros de una población y es útil para detectar las desigualdades sociales en salud.Objective: To assess whether 2 area-level socioeconomic indicators (one single and the other composite are able to detect social inequalities in health

  19. Land use pattern, socio-economic development, and assessment of their impacts on ecosystem service value: study on natural wetlands distribution area (NWDA) in Fuzhou city, southeastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yuan-Bin; Zhang, Hao; Pan, Wen-Bin; Chen, Yan-Hong; Wang, Xiang-Rong

    2013-06-01

    This paper quantifies the allocation of ecosystem services value (ESV) associated with land use pattern and qualitatively examined impacts of land use changes and socio-economic factors on spatiotemporal variation of ESV in the Natural Wetland Distribution Area (NWDA), Fuzhou city, China. The results showed that total ESV of the study area decreased from 4,332.16 × 10(6) RMB Yuan in 1989 to 3,697.42 × 10(6) RMB Yuan in 2009, mainly due to the remarkable decreases in cropland (decreased by 55.3 %) and wetland (decreased by 74.2 %). Forest, water, and wetland played major roles in providing ecosystem services, accounting for over 90 % of the total ESV. Based on time series Landsat TM/ETM+ imagery, geographic information system, and historical data, analysis of the spatiotemporal variation of ESV from 1989 to 2009 was performed. It indicated that rapid expansion of urban areas along the Minjiang River resulted in significant changes in land use types, leading to a dramatic decline in ecosystem services. Meanwhile, because of land scarcity and unique ecosystem functions, the emergency of wetland and cropland protection in built-up area has become an urgent task of local authorities to the local government. Furthermore, there was still a significant negative correlation between ESV of cropland and wetland and the GDP. The results suggest that future planning of land use pattern should control encroachment of urban areas into cropland and wetland in addition to scientific and rational policies towards minimizing the adverse effects of urbanization.

  20. Customer Satisfaction Index Model on Three Level Of Socioeconomic Status In Bogor Case Study: Customer Satisfaction on Branded Cooking Oil Product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budi Setiawan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Customer satisfaction index models have been developed in many countries, including Indonesia. Those models were commonly not focused on the socioeconomic status (SES of the customer, sothis condition could be a research gap. The aims of this research is to analyze the customer satisfaction index model of branded cooking oil product in Bogor, Indonesia based on SES established from the household monthly routine consumption. Questionnaires were used as primary data collection instrument in this study, while data analysis was carried out with variance based structural equation modeling (SEM which is also known as Partial Least Square (PLS model, and Kruskall Wallis nonparametric test. Perceived quality, perceived value and customer expectation as were significantly influencing the customer satisfaction construct in the structural model. This study also concluded that there is different level of overall customer satisfaction on the three levels of customer’s SES

  1. Differences in Human Papillomavirus Vaccination Among Adolescent Girls in Metropolitan Versus Non-metropolitan Areas: Considering the Moderating Roles of Maternal Socioeconomic Status and Health Care Access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhubart, Danielle C.; Wallington, Sherrie Flynt

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study is among the first to examine metropolitan status differences in human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine initiation and completion among United States adolescent girls and is unique in its focus on how maternal socioeconomic status and health care access moderate metropolitan status differences in HPV vaccination. Methods Using cross-sectional data from 3573 girls aged 12–17 in the U.S. from the 2008–2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, we estimate main and interaction effects from binary logistic regression models to identify subgroups of girls for which there are metropolitan versus non-metropolitan differences in HPV vaccination. Results Overall 34 % of girls initiated vaccination, and 19 % completed all three shots. On average, there were no metropolitan status differences in vaccination odds. However, there were important subgroup differences. Among low-income girls and girls whose mothers did not complete high school, those in non-metropolitan areas had significantly higher probability of vaccine initiation than those in metropolitan areas. Among high-income girls and girls whose mothers completed college, those in metropolitan areas had significantly higher odds of vaccine initiation than those in non-metropolitan areas. Moreover, among girls whose mothers experienced a medical cost barrier, non-metropolitan girls were less likely to initiate vaccination compared to metropolitan girls. Conclusions Mothers remain essential targets for public health efforts to increase HPV vaccination and combat cervical cancer. Public health experts who study barriers to HPV vaccination and physicians who come into contact with mothers should be aware of group-specific barriers to vaccination and employ more tailored efforts to increase vaccination. PMID:26511129

  2. Scenarios for european coastal areas, a promising tool for making decisions at various levels?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klijn, J.A.

    1995-01-01

    Natural coasts, especially soft coasts, in Europe are valuable landscapes, but they are under great pressure. Trends and threats have various causes of both physico-ecological and socio-economic origin. Examples of large-scale processes are given, such as sea level rise and regional processes (recla

  3. Poverty: socioeconomic characterization at tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geraldes Santos, Maria de Lourdes Sperli; Figueiredo Vendramini, Silvia Helena; Gazetta, Claudia Eli; Cruz Oliveira, Sonia Aparecida; Scatena Villa, Tereza Cristina

    2007-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the epidemiological status of Tuberculosis regarding to the socioeconomic characteristics of São José do Rio Preto between 1998 and 2004. Indexes estimated for 432 urban census tracts from the demographic census of 2000, sorted systematically according to the values of socioeconomic factors and grouped into quartiles were taken into account. The socioeconomic characterization was outlined based on Schooling, Income, and Number of Residents. The incidence rates were considered for 1998, 1999, 2003, and 2004. The socioeconomic factor accounted for 87% of the total variation. The disease prevalence is higher in the poorest areas. The incidence rate and the risk of being infected by TB in the poorest areas declined in 2003 and 2004. The results confirm that TB is determined by the population's living conditions in the city studied. It strengthens the relevance of understanding the TB conditional social factors to transform the worrisome scenario in which this population is inserted.

  4. Tour Level Mode Choice Analysis of Madison Area in Wisconsin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Miao; Cheng Yang

    2008-01-01

    This study is to investigate what factors and how they affect tours (trip chains) behavior. The key issue is the understanding and definition of tour and tour level mode. Also, these definitions should fit for the data. A semi-home based tour definition is stated, and a competing mode based tour mode is defined. Based on the definition, this study used Madison Area Data from National Household Survey to estimate a MNL structured model. It is found that travel distance could be a positive factor for car mode. Meanwhile, the number of trips is also a positive factor for choosing car.

  5. Attributable risk of psychiatric and socio-economic factors for suicide from individual-level, population-based studies: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhuoyang; Page, Andrew; Martin, Graham; Taylor, Richard

    2011-02-01

    The overall importance of a risk factor for suicide in a population is determined not only by the relative risk (RR) of suicide but also the prevalence of the risk factor in the population, which can be combined with the RR to calculate the population attributable risk (PAR). This study compares risk factors from two well studied domains of suicide research - socio-economic deprivation (relatively low RR, but high population prevalence) and mental disorders (relatively high RR risk, but low population prevalence). RR and PAR associated with suicide was estimated for high prevalence ICD-10/DSM-IV psychiatric disorders and measures of socio-economic status (SES) from individual-level, population-based studies. A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted of population-based case-control and cohort studies of suicide where relative risk estimates for males and females could be extracted. RR for any mental disorder was 7.5 (6.2-9.0) for males and 11.7 (9.7-14.1) for females, compared to RR for the lowest SES groups of 2.1 (1.5-2.8) for males and 1.5 (1.2-1.9) for females. PAR in males for low educational achievement (41%, range 19-47%) and low occupational status (33%, range 21-42%) was of a similar magnitude to affective disorders (26%, range 7-45%) and substance use disorders (9%, range 5-24%). Similarly in females the PAR for low educational achievement (20%, range 19-22%) was of a similar magnitude to affective disorders (32%, range 19-67%), substance use disorder (25%, range 5-32%) and anxiety disorder (12%, range 6-22%). The findings of the present study suggest that prevention strategies which focus on lower socio-economic strata (more distal risk factors) have the potential to have similar population-level effects as strategies which target more proximal psychiatric risk factors in the prevention and control of suicide.

  6. Area-Level and Individual-Level Factors for Teenage Motherhood: A Multilevel Analysis in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, Sachiko; Iso, Hiroyasu; Fujiwara, Takeo

    2016-01-01

    Background Teenage motherhood is strongly associated with a range of disadvantages for both the mother and the child. No epidemiological studies have examined related factors for teenage motherhood at both area and individual levels among Japanese women. Therefore, we performed a multilevel analysis of nationwide data in Japan to explore the association of area- and individual-level factors with teenage motherhood. Methods The study population comprised 21,177 mothers living in 47 prefectures who had their first, singleton baby between 10 and 17 January or between 10 and 17 July, 2001. Information on the prefecture in which the mothers resided was linked to prefecture-level variables. Primary outcomes were area-level characteristics (single-mother households, three-generation households, college enrollment, abortions, juvenile crime, and per capita income) and individual-level characteristics, and divided into tertiles or quintiles based on their variable distributions. Multilevel logistic regression analysis was then performed. Results There were 440 teenage mothers (2.1%) in this study. In addition to individual low level of education [adjusted odds ratio (OR), 7.40; 95% confidence interval (CI), 5.59–9.78], low income [4.23 (2.95–6.08)], and smoking [1.65 (1.31–2.07)], high proportions of single-mother households [1.72 (1.05–2.80)] and three-generation household [1.81 (1.17–2.78)], and per capita income [2.19 (1.06–3.81)] at an area level were positively associated, and high level of college enrollment [0.46 (0.25–0.83)] and lower crime rate [0.62 (0.40–0.98)] at area level were inversely associated with teenage motherhood compared with the corresponding women living in prefectures with the lowest levels of these variables. Conclusions Our findings suggest that encouraging the completion of higher education and reducing the number of single-mother household at an area level may be important public health strategies to reduce teenage motherhood

  7. Influence of socio-economic factors on street litter generation in the middle east: effects of education level, age, and type of residence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arafat, Hassan A; Al-Khatib, Issam A; Daoud, Raeda; Shwahneh, Hadeel

    2007-08-01

    Street littering is considered an important environmental health issue in the Middle East. This problem is growing steadily and is attracting great concerns within the communities. The purpose of this paper, which focuses on Nablus district (Palestinian Territory), is to measure the perception and opinion of residents toward littering, in addition to studying prevailing attitudes and practices on littering. This was achieved using an interview survey approach. The influence of three socio-economic factors; level of education, age, and type of residence, on the littering behaviour of individuals was studied. As a result, possible remedial actions have been suggested. The data presented in this work can be considered as one piece of information, which can be compiled with other future data to design an effective litter control programrhe for Middle Eastern countries.

  8. Low-level waste disposal in highly populated areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kowalski, E.; McCombie, C.; Issler, H. [NAGRA-Swiss National Cooperative for the Storage of Radioactive Waste, Baden (Switzerland)

    1989-11-01

    Nuclear-generated electricity supplies almost 40% of the demand in Switzerland (the rest being hydro-power). Allowing for a certain reserve and assuming an operational life-time of 40 years for each reactor, and taking into account wastes from decommissioning and from medicine, industry and research, the total amount of low-level radioactive waste to be disposed of is about 175,000 m{sup 3}. Since there are no unpopulated areas in Switzerland, and since Swiss Federal Law specifies that the safety of disposal may not depend upon supervision of the repository, no shallow-land burial has been foreseen, even for short-lived low-level waste. Instead, geological disposal in a mined cavern system with access through a horizontal tunnel was selected as the best way of meeting the requirements and ensuring the necessary public acceptance.

  9. Governance and Socioeconomic Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Vītola, A; Šenfelde, M

    2012-01-01

    There are wide discussions on the causes of the differences in the economic performance. Recent studies have stressed out the crucial role of institutions – formal and informal constraints that shape human interaction. The aim of this article is to evaluate the influence of governance – traditions and institutions by which authority in a country is exercised –on the socioeconomic development. To measure the level of governance we used World Bank’s Worldwide Governance Indicators and such indi...

  10. Hydrogeochemical characterization and Natural Background Levels in urbanized areas: Milan Metropolitan area (Northern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Caro, Mattia; Crosta, Giovanni B.; Frattini, Paolo

    2017-04-01

    Although aquifers in densely populated and industrialized areas are extremely valuable and sensitive to contamination, an estimate of the groundwater quality status relative to baseline conditions is lacking for many of them. This paper provides a hydrogeochemical characterization of the groundwater in the Milan metropolitan area, one of the most densely populated areas in Europe. First, a conceptual model of the study area based on the analysis of the spatial distribution of natural chemical species and indicator contaminants is presented. The hydrochemical facies of the study area depend on the lithology of catchments drained by the main contributing rivers and on the aquifer settings. The anthropogenic influence on the groundwater quality of superficial aquifers is studied by means of probability plots, concentration versus depth plots and spatial-temporal plots for nitrate, sulfate and chloride. These allow differentiation of contaminated superficial aquifers from deep confined aquifers with baseline water quality. Natural Background Levels (NBL) of selected species (Cl, Na, NH4, SO4, NO3, As, Fe, Mn and Zn) are estimated by means of the pre-selection (PS) and the component separation (CS) statistical approaches. The NBLs depend on hydrogeological settings of the study area; sodium, chloride, sulfate and zinc NBL values never exceed the environmental water quality standards. NBL values of ammonium, iron, arsenic and manganese exceed the environmental water quality standards in the anaerobic portion of the aquifers. On the basis of observations, a set of criteria and precautions are suggested for adoption with both PS and CS methods in the aquifer characterization of highly urbanized areas.

  11. Closing the gap between socioeconomic and financial implications of residential and community level hydrogen-based energy systems: Incentives needed for a bridge to the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verduzco, Laura E.

    The use of hydrogen as an energy carrier has the potential to decrease the amount of pollutants emitted to the atmosphere, significantly reduce our dependence on imported oil and resolve geopolitical issues related to energy consumption. The current status of hydrogen technology makes it prohibitive and financially risky for most investors to commit the money required for large-scale hydrogen production. Therefore, alternative strategies such as small and medium-scale hydrogen applications should be implemented during the early stages of the transition to the hydrogen economy in order to test potential markets and technology readiness. While many analysis tools have been built to estimate the requirements of the transition to a hydrogen economy, few have focused on small and medium-scale hydrogen production and none has paired financial with socioeconomic costs at the residential level. The computer-based tool (H2POWER) presented in this study calculates the capacity, cost and socioeconomic impact of the systems needed to meet the energy demands of a home or a community using home and neighborhood refueling units, which are systems that can provide electricity and heat to meet the energy demands of either (1) a home and automobile or (2) a cluster of homes and a number of automobiles. The financial costs of the production, processing and delivery sub-systems that conform the refueling units are calculated using cost data of existing technology and normalizing them to calculate capital and net present cost. The monetary value of the externalities (socioeconomic analysis) caused by each system is calculated by H2POWER through a statistical analysis of the cost associated to various externalities. Additionally, H2POWER calculates the financial impact of different penalties and incentives (such as net metering, low interest loans, fuel taxes, and emission penalties) on the cost of the system from the point of view of a developer and a homeowner. In order to assess the

  12. Factors associated with low consumption of fruits and vegetables by preschoolers of low socio-economic level,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia L. Valmórbida

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective:To evaluate factors associated with low consumption of fruits and vegetables among preschoolers from families treated at basic health centers in Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil.Methods:This was a cohort study nested in a randomized field trial. Data collection was performed through structured questionnaires to obtain demographic and dietary data, combined with two 24-hour recalls in the age groups 12–16 months and again at 2–3 years of age. Data on the consumption of one daily serving of fruits (80 g and vegetables (60 g were evaluated, as well as consumption of non-recommended foods such as candy, chocolate, and soft drinks. Statistical analyses were performed using Poisson regression with robust estimation.Results:A total of 388 children aged 2-3 years were evaluated; of these, 58% and 87.4% did not consume one daily serving of fruits and vegetables, respectively. The following factors were negatively associated with fruit consumption: family income higher than four minimum wages, (p = 0.024, lower paternal educational level (p = 0.03, and lower fruit consumption at 12–16 months (p = 0.002. Factors negatively associated with the consumption of vegetables were low paternal educational level (p = 0.033 and consumption of high-sugar content beverages at 12–16 months (p = 0.014.Conclusion:This study demonstrated a high prevalence of children who consumed less than one daily serving of fruit and vegetables; early feeding practices, parental education, and family income were associated with this process.

  13. A comparative study of fluoride ingestion levels, serum thyroid hormone & TSH level derangements, dental fluorosis status among school children from endemic and non-endemic fluorosis areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Navneet; Verma, Kanika Gupta; Verma, Pradhuman; Sidhu, Gagandeep Kaur; Sachdeva, Suresh

    2014-01-03

    The study was undertaken to determine serum/urinary fluoride status and comparison of free T4, free T3 and thyroid stimulating hormone levels of 8 to 15 years old children with and without dental fluorosis living in an endemic and non-endemic fluorosis area. A sample group of 60 male and female school children, with or without dental fluorosis, consuming fluoride-contaminated water in endemic fluoride area of Udaipur district, Rajasthan were selected through a school dental fluorosis survey. The sample of 10 children of same age and socio-economic status residing in non endemic areas who did not have dental fluorosis form controls. Fluoride determination in drinking water, urine and blood was done with Ion 85 Ion Analyzer Radiometer with Hall et al. method. The thyroid gland functional test was done by Immonu Chemiluminiscence Micropartical Assay with Bayer Centaur Autoanalyzer. The significantly altered FT3, FT4 and TSH hormones level in both group1A and 1B school children were noted. The serum and urine fluoride levels were found to be increased in both the groups. A significant relationship of water fluoride to urine and serum fluoride concentration was seen. The serum fluoride concentration also had significant relationship with thyroid hormone (FT3/FT4) and TSH concentrations. The testing of drinking water and body fluids for fluoride content, along with FT3, FT4, and TSH in children with dental fluorosis is desirable for recognizing underlying thyroid derangements and its impact on fluorosis.

  14. Neighbourhood socioeconomic context and self reported health and smoking: A secondary analysis of data on seven cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijneveld, S.A.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: Many studies have shown that poor health status and harmful heolth behaviour occur more frequently in deprived neighbourhoods. Most studies show modest associations between area level socioeconomic factors, the neighbourhood context, and health outcomes. However, estimates for the context

  15. The Socio-Economic Structure of Fishery Activities and Seafood Marketing in Marmara Sea: A Case Study Along the Coastal Area of Tekirdag Province

    OpenAIRE

    H. Gungor; S. S. Ozen; Gungor, G

    2007-01-01

    Marmara Sea, which has a typical inside sea characteristics, is placed all along the Turkish borders. Because of both intensive level of population living around and many industrial plants has been taken place at this area which has continuously environmental pollution. In addition to, intensive sea traffic due to tankers carrying petroleum and etc., have been causing this pollution to higher level. Since, the all negative factors mentioned above, incredible amount of fish spices (118 differe...

  16. Household dust metal levels in The Sao Paulo metropolitan area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scapin, Valdirene O.; Scapin, Marcos A.; Sato, Ivone M. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2007-07-01

    A study about household dust is being conducted to determine the level of metal contamination in the Sao Paulo Metropolitan Area (SPMA). The SPMA, with 18 million inhabitants, is one of the largest urban areas of the world, with serious environmental problems, due to the great amount of industries, heavy traffic and the disordered growth of population. The pollutants originate from a multiplicity of indoor and outdoor sources. Indoor sources are originated from residual (hair, skin scales), pets, human activities, construction materials, and furnishings as well as biological material (pollen, insect parts).and outdoor pollution, usually from the urban traffic. The pollutant mixture involved in numerous physical and chemical processes and changes its characteristics with time. Its composition and concentration depend on the strengths of indoor sources, the concentration of pollutants outside and the properties of ventilation and air-conditioning systems. It is well recognized that many metals have chronic effects on humans, in particular toddlers, who are at an higher risk compared to adults because they engage in greater hand to-mouth activity and their neurological systems are still developing. The household dust samples were collected from different localities, using vacuum cleaner, and sieved up to particle size <63 {mu}m, which were then analyzed for 7 elements by X-ray fluorescence technique. The fundamental parameters method (FP) was applied and the simple pressed powder technique for sample preparation was used. The concentrations preliminary results of metals in the household dust were Cr, 18-188 {mu}g g{sup -1}; Mn, 119-369 {mu}g g{sup -1}; Fe, 372-1464 {mu}g g{sup -1}; Ni, 33-85 {mu}g g{sup -1}; Cu, 42-303 {mu}g g{sup -1}; Zn, 156-1369 {mu}g g{sup -1} and Pb, 26-160 {mu}g g{sup -1}. (author)

  17. The Self-Concept and Aggressive Behavior among Elementary School Children from Two Socioeconomic Areas and Two Grade Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdett, Kevin; Jensen, Larry C.

    1983-01-01

    Investigated the relationship between self-concept and aggressive behavior in 229 third- and sixth-grade students. Analysis of variance revealed significantly larger aggressiveness scores among low self- concept children. Girls, while less aggressive than boys, became more aggressive with age while boys became less aggressive. No socioeconomic…

  18. Levels and drivers of fishers' compliance with marine protected areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Arias

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Effective conservation depends largely on people's compliance with regulations. We investigate compliance through the lens of fishers' compliance with marine protected areas (MPAs. MPAs are widely used tools for marine conservation and fisheries management. Studies show that compliance alone is a strong predictor of fish biomass within MPAs. Hence, fishers' compliance is critical for MPA effectiveness. However, there are few empirical studies showing what factors influence fishers' compliance with MPAs. Without such information, conservation planners and managers have limited opportunities to provide effective interventions. By studying 12 MPAs in a developing country (Costa Rica, we demonstrate the role that different variables have on fishers' compliance with MPAs. Particularly, we found that compliance levels perceived by resource users were higher in MPAs (1 with multiple livelihoods, (2 where government efforts against illegal fishing were effective, (3 where fishing was allowed but regulated, (4 where people were more involved in decisions, and (5 that were smaller. We also provide a novel and practical measure of compliance: a compound variable formed by the number illegal fishers and their illegal fishing effort. Our study underlines the centrality of people's behavior in nature conservation and the importance of grounding decision making on the social and institutional realities of each location.

  19. In situ rainwater harvesting using dead level contours in semi-arid southern Zimbabwe: Insights on the role of socio-economic factors on performance and effectiveness in Gwanda District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munamati, Muchaneta; Nyagumbo, Isaiah

    Droughts and dry spells which have characterised the past decade in Zimbabwe have seen a marked increase in the promotion and use of in situ rainwater harvesting technologies (RWHTs) as a drought mitigating strategy. A number of these technologies have been tried in recent years which include dead level contours with infiltration pits and deepened contours. Although in situ RWHTs are known to increase food security in drought prone areas, the role of socio-economic factors on their performance in terms of crop yield and scaling out is still not well understood. This study sought to investigate the socio-economic factors which influence the effectiveness of dead level contours for in situ rainwater harvesting and consequently on crop yield. The study involved 14 key informants interviews and questionnaire administration to a total of 55 respondent farmers practising in situ rainwater harvesting with dead level contours. A statistical package (Statistical Package for Social Scientists, SPSS) was used to analyse relationships between performance of RWHTs and attributes such as labour, resources, gender, experience and education. The results show a strong correlation between performance and resource status ( p = 0.004). For example, within the wealthy category, 42.1% were successful, while 14.3% and 13.8% were average and poor performers respectively. Thus within the successful category, 42.1% were wealthy, while 42.1% and 15.8% were medium-rich and resource-constrained respectively. Performance rating was also significantly correlated ( p = 0.007) to gender of household head e.g., within the most successful group 94.7% were men compared to 5.3% women. There was also a significant correlation between resource status and gender ( p = 0.039) such that within the wealthy category, 69.2% of the respondents were men compared to 30.8% women. Labour was found to have no significance on performance ( p > 0.05) even though the majority of key informants (93%) alluded that the

  20. The human core of the shared socioeconomic pathways: Population scenarios by age, sex and level of education for all countries to 2100.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kc, Samir; Lutz, Wolfgang

    2017-01-01

    This paper applies the methods of multi-dimensional mathematical demography to project national populations based on alternative assumptions on future, fertility, mortality, migration and educational transitions that correspond to the five shared socioeconomic pathways (SSP) storylines. In doing so it goes a significant step beyond past population scenarios in the IPCC context which considered only total population size. By differentiating the human population not only by age and sex-as is conventionally done in demographic projections-but also by different levels of educational attainment the most fundamental aspects of human development and social change are being explicitly addressed through modeling the changing composition of populations by these three important individual characteristics. The scenarios have been defined in a collaborative effort of the international Integrated Assessment Modeling community with the medium scenario following that of a major new effort by the Wittgenstein Centre for Demography and Global Human Capital (IIASA, OEAW, WU) involving over 550 experts from around the world. As a result, in terms of total world population size the trajectories resulting from the five SSPs stay very close to each other until around 2030 and by the middle of the century already a visible differentiation appears with the range between the highest (SSP3) and the lowest (SSP1) trajectories spanning 1.5 billion. The range opens up much more with the SSP3 reaching 12.6 billion in 2100 and SSP1 falling to 6.9 billion which is lower than today's world population.

  1. Evidence-based policies on school nutrition and physical education: Associations with state-level collaboration, obesity, and socio-economic indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, Jennifer E; Laska, Melissa N; MacLehose, Richard; Nelson, Toben F; Nanney, Marilyn S

    2017-02-13

    Despite calls for more cross-sector collaboration on obesity prevention, little is known about the role of collaborative partnerships, or groups of organizations from different sectors working together toward a shared goal, in state policy activities. This study examined associations between competitive food/beverage and physical education policies and state-level collaboration and state characteristics (obesity, socioeconomic indicators, public health funding levels) for all 50 states and the District of Columbia, USA, in 2012. We examined cross-sectional associations between evidence-based competitive food/beverage and physical education policies from the Classification of Laws Associated with School Students and state characteristics from the School Health Policies and Practices Study and other national data sources using prevalence ratios and generalized linear models. Analyses were conducted in 2016. Cross-sector collaboration (i.e., state staff reports of working together on school nutrition or physical education activities) between state-level nutrition and physical education staff and ten types of organizations was not significantly associated with having state policies. Childhood obesity (RR=1.78, 95% CI[1.11,2.85]), high-school non-completion (RR=2.35, 95% CI[1.36,4.06]), poverty (RR=1.89, 95% CI[1.16,3.09]) and proportion non-white or Hispanic residents (RR=1.75, 95% CI[1.07, 2.85]) were positively associated with the presence of elementary school competitive food/beverage policies. Fewer indicators were associated with policies for middle and high schools. The large investment of time and resources required for cross-sector collaboration demands greater research evidence on how to structure and manage collaborative partnerships for the greatest impact.

  2. Knowledge of Food Production Methods Informs Attitudes toward Food but Not Food Choice in Adults Residing in Socioeconomically Deprived Rural Areas within the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Maria; Kearney, John; Stewart-Knox, Barbara J.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Understand food choice, from the perspective of people residing in socioeconomically deprived rural neighborhoods. Methods: Focus groups (n = 7) were undertaken within a community setting involving 42 adults (2 males and 40 females) recruited through voluntary action groups. Data were recorded, transcribed verbatim, and content…

  3. Final base case community analysis: Indian Springs, Nevada for the Clark County socioeconomic impact assessment of the proposed high- level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-06-18

    This document provides a base case description of the rural Clark County community of Indian Springs in anticipation of change associated with the proposed high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. As the community closest to the proposed site, Indian Springs may be seen by site characterization workers, as well as workers associated with later repository phases, as a logical place to live. This report develops and updates information relating to a broad spectrum of socioeconomic variables, thereby providing a `snapshot` or `base case` look at Indian Springs in early 1992. With this as a background, future repository-related developments may be analytically separated from changes brought about by other factors, thus allowing for the assessment of the magnitude of local changes associated with the proposed repository. Given the size of the community, changes that may be considered small in an absolute sense may have relatively large impacts at the local level. Indian Springs is, in many respects, a unique community and a community of contrasts. An unincorporated town, it is a small yet important enclave of workers on large federal projects and home to employees of small- scale businesses and services. It is a rural community, but it is also close to the urbanized Las Vega Valley. It is a desert community, but has good water resources. It is on flat terrain, but it is located within 20 miles of the tallest mountains in Nevada. It is a town in which various interest groups diverge on issues of local importance, but in a sense of community remains an important feature of life. Finally, it has a sociodemographic history of both surface transience and underlying stability. If local land becomes available, Indian Springs has some room for growth but must first consider the historical effects of growth on the town and its desired direction for the future.

  4. Note about socio-economic calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex; Andersen, Jonas Lohmann Elkjær; Salling, Kim Bang

    2006-01-01

    these effects must be described qualitatively. This note describes the socio-economic evaluation based on market prices and not factor prices which has been the tradition in Denmark till now. This is due to the recommendation from the Ministry of Transport to start using calculations based on market prices......This note gives a short introduction of how to make socio-economic evaluations in connection with the teaching at the Centre for Traffic and Transport (CTT). It is not a manual for making socio-economic calculations in transport infrastructure projects – in this context we refer to the guidelines...... for socio-economic calculations within the transportation area (Ministry of Traffic, 2003). The note also explains the theory of socio-economic calculations – reference is here made to ”Road Infrastructure Planning – a Decision-oriented approach” (Leleur, 2000). Socio-economic evaluations of infrastructure...

  5. Estimation of stand-level leaf area for boreal bryophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond-Lamberty, Ben; Gower, Stith T

    2007-04-01

    Bryophytes dominate the carbon and nitrogen cycling of many poorly drained terrestrial ecosystems and are important in the vegetation-atmosphere exchange of carbon and water, yet few studies have estimated their leaf area at the stand scale. This study quantified the bryophyte-specific leaf area (SLA) and leaf area index (LAI) in a group of different-aged boreal forest stands in well and poorly drained soils. Species-specific SLA (for three feather mosses, four Sphagnum spp. and Aulacomnium palustre mixed with Tomentypnum nitens) was assessed by determining the projected area using a flatbed scanner and cross-sectional geometry using a dissecting microscope. The hemisurface leaf area was computed as the product of SLA and live biomass and was scaled by coverage data collected at all stands. Pleurozium schreberi dominated the spatial coverage, biomass and leaf area in the well-drained stands, particularly the oldest, while S. fuscum and A. palustre were important in the poorly drained stands. Live moss biomass ranged from 47 to 230 g m(-2) in the well-drained stands dominated by feather mosses and from 102 to 228 g m(-2) in the poorly drained stands. Bryophyte SLA varied between 135 and 473 cm(2) g(-1), for A. palustre and S. capillifolium, respectively. SLA was strongly and significantly affected by bryophyte species, but did not vary between stands; in general, there was no significant difference between the SLA of non-Sphagnum mosses. Bryophyte LAI increased with stand age, peaking at 3.1 and 3.7 in the well and poorly drained stands, respectively; this represented approximately 40% of the overstory LAI in the well-drained stands and 100-1,000% in the poorly drained stands, underscoring the important role bryophytes play in the water and carbon budgets of these boreal forests.

  6. Road Traffic Noise Level Assessment at an Institutional Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dev Swaroop

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Unplanned and rapid urbanization, industrialization, increasing number of vehicles, poor traffic management, poor road condition etc. are the major causes of higher noise levels in most of the Indian cities. Prolonged exposure to higher noise levels can lead to irreversible Noise Induced Hearing Loss (NIHL. Noise-induced hearing loss is contributing one-third to the total persons suffering from hearing loss in every country in the world. The present study aims at measuring the noise levels in the university campus to analyze the current situation and suggesting noise control measures to be adopted in University campus and along MMA Jauhar Marg. The numbers of vehicles were counted during November 17-21, 2012 and noise levels were measured at various pre decided locations. The traffic load in horizon years 2013, 2017, 2022, 2027 and 2032 on the MMA Jauhar Marg Road is predicted on the basis of observed traffic data and expected annual growth rate as 8.0% for pre Metro and 3.5% for post Metro. The noise levels were measured using Larson Davis Model 831 Class 1 Sound Level Meter on both sides of road at foot paths along MMA Jauhar Marg and at various receptor locations inside the different buildings in the university campus. Model RLS-90 is used for prediction of noise levels. The prediction of metro noise is carried out using statistical calculations. The combined noise levels were compared with standard criteria for silent zone and found on higher side. Installation of environment noise barrier is suggested as one of the noise control measure to be adopted along MMA Jauhar Marg and along metro viaduct to save students and staff from exposure of higher noise levels.

  7. Socioeconomic assessment: issues, status, and plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boryczka, M.K.

    1983-01-01

    Numerous public meetings and hearings have been held in Texas, Mississippi, Louisiana and Utah on the issue of siting a nuclear waste repository in salt. Citizens in these potential site areas have raised many questions about how this facility will affect their quality of life. Questions about population and economic changes have been of particular concern. In developing a socioeconomic program, these issues and others have been an integral part of Battelle's socioeconomic studies. The three elements of Battelle's socioeconomic program are comprised of three elements: impact assessment, impact mitigation and community development, and impact monitoring. In addition, our approach to assessing socioeconomic impacts for the environmental assessment (EA) required by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 are described. Since the EA analysis will address many of the issues raised in the site areas, these concerns will be elaborated on. Finally, various techniques for managing socioeconomic impacts will be presented. 6 references, 1 figure.

  8. Licit prescription drug use in a Swedish population according to age, gender and socioeconomic status after adjusting for level of multi-morbidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorell, Kristine; Skoog, Jessica; Zielinski, Andrzej

    2012-01-01

    There is a great variability in licit prescription drug use in the population and among patients. Factors other than purely medical ones have proven to be of importance for the prescribing of licit drugs. For example, individuals with a high age, female gender and low socioeconomic status are mor...

  9. Socioeconomic determinants of first names

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloothooft, G.; Onland, D.

    2011-01-01

    Modern naming practices in the Netherlands between 1982 and 2005 were studied on the basis of 1409 popular first names, divided into fourteen name groups determined by the common preferences of parents for the names involved. Socioeconomic variables such as family income, parents' level of education

  10. Indoor and outdoor BTX levels in Barcelona City metropolitan area and Catalan rural areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    E. Gallego; F. X. Roca; X. Guardino; M. G. Rosell

    2008-01-01

    Five aromatic hydrocarbons (benzene, toluene, and three isomeric xylenes) were monitored in indoor and outdoor air of 7 public buildings and 54 private homes, located in Barcelona City metropolitan area and in several rural areas of Catalonia. The sampling was carried out over four periods: spring-summer and winter of 2000, and summer and winter of 2001. Passive ORSA 5 Draiger samplers were used for benzene, toluene, and xylenes (BTX) adsorption. BTX were extracted with carbon disulphide and analysed using a gas chromatograph coupled to a FID detector. In Barcelona metropolitan area the outdoor average concentrations of BTX were 3.5, 34.2, and 31.3 μg/m3 in urban areas, and 1.4, 9.2, and 9.2 μg/m3 in rural areas, respectively. Average indoor air concentrations of BTX were respectively 4.3, 64.8, and 47.6 μg/m3 in urban areas and 5.8, 67.0, and 51.4 μg/m3 in rural areas, respectively. A direct connection between the house and garage was one of the most influential factors for indoor BTX concentrations in rural areas. In urban areas, diffuse traffic sources were the predominant BTX source, slightly influenced by tobacco smoke in indoor air.

  11. Educational level, socio-economic status and relationship with quality of life in elderly residents of the city of Porto Alegre/RS, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane de Fátima Colet

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to verify the index of quality of life of elderly individuals belonging to groups, from different socioeconomic strata in the city of Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul State. The research adopted a transversal model, used to collect data from the SF-36 questionnaire. The sampling is the intentional type and comprised: 61 elderly people in Class A, 80 in Class C, and 84 in Class E. The research was approved by the Committee of Ethics in Research/UFRGS. In relation to the quality of life, Class A presented higher scores than did Classes C and E on the pain, vitality, social aspect and mental health areas. The results also showed a significant difference in quality of life among university educated individuals versus the other schooling groups, on the pain, vitality, mental health and social aspect fields. Quality of life is a complex concept to study, but essential to improve the perception of health and welfare by the elderly.O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar o índice de qualidade de vida de idosos participantes de grupos de convivência, de diferentes estratos socioeconômicos do município de Porto Alegre/RS. A pesquisa seguiu um modelo de estudo transversal e utilizou para coleta de dados o questionário SF-36. A amostragem foi do tipo intencional e foi composta por: 61 idosos na classe A, 80 na classe C e de 84 na classe E. A pesquisa foi aprovada pelo Comitê de Ética em Pesquisa da UFRGS. Em relação à qualidade de vida, a classe A apresentou escores melhores que a classe C e E nos domínios dor, vitalidade, aspecto social e saúde mental. Houve diferença significativa de qualidade de vida no ensino superior completo, em relação aos demais estratos de escolaridade, nos domínios dor, vitalidade, saúde mental e aspecto social. A qualidade de vida é um conceito complexo de ser estudado, mas essencial para que haja melhora na percepção de saúde e do bem-estar pelos idosos.

  12. Principal component analysis of socioeconomic factors and their association with malaria in children from the Ashanti Region, Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adu-Sarkodie Yaw

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The socioeconomic and sociodemographic situation are important components for the design and assessment of malaria control measures. In malaria endemic areas, however, valid classification of socioeconomic factors is difficult due to the lack of standardized tax and income data. The objective of this study was to quantify household socioeconomic levels using principal component analyses (PCA to a set of indicator variables and to use a classification scheme for the multivariate analysis of children Methods In total, 1,496 children presenting to the hospital were examined for malaria parasites and interviewed with a standardized questionnaire. The information of eleven indicators of the family's housing situation was reduced by PCA to a socioeconomic score, which was then classified into three socioeconomic status (poor, average and rich. Their influence on the malaria occurrence was analysed together with malaria risk co-factors, such as sex, parent's educational and ethnic background, number of children living in a household, applied malaria protection measures, place of residence and age of the child and the mother. Results The multivariate regression analysis demonstrated that the proportion of children with malaria decreased with increasing socioeconomic status as classified by PCA (p Conclusions The socioeconomic situation is significantly associated with malaria even in holoendemic rural areas where economic differences are not much pronounced. Valid classification of the socioeconomic level is crucial to be considered as confounder in intervention trials and in the planning of malaria control measures.

  13. Free Trade Area of the Americas: A Three Level Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-01

    challenging time, the road of isolationism and protectionism may seem broad and inviting -- yet it ends in danger and decline.97...distorting subsidies to zero over a ten year period. The EU, specifically France, has historically employed much greater protectionism for its agriculture...about 25 percent without reducing the real level of protectionism . So unless the proposed cut is more than 50 percent, it may not be worth having.64

  14. A process-based land use/land cover change assessment on a mountainous area of Greece during 1945-2009: Signs of socio-economic drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xystrakis, Fotios; Psarras, Thomas; Koutsias, Nikos

    2017-06-01

    In the Mediterranean region, natural vegetation has been strongly affected by human activities for thousands of years. During the last decades, there has been a notable tendency for abandonment of marginal agricultural land that is further associated with a number of ecological consequences. In this study we recorded and mapped the temporal changes of land use/land cover (LULC) classes that were further aggregated into major process-based changes for the period 1945-2009 in Aetoloakarnania prefecture, Greece. LULC mapping was based on aerial photographs acquired in 1945, 1960, 1985-1986 and 2007-2009. Object-based image analysis allowed the classification of the region's LULC classes and, consecutively, the assessment of process-based LULC changes for each time period. The results indicated that agricultural land increased during the first post-war years while abandonment of agricultural land took place during more recent decades, especially after the period 1960-1985. The observed land abandonment is combined with a simultaneous densification of shrublands and forests. Radical socio-economic changes that took place in the 1960's include the migration of rural populations towards big cities and the beginning of the development of the tourist industry. We argue that these socio-economic changes play an important role in shaping the observed LULC changes.

  15. Socioeconomic Disparities and Prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorders and Intellectual Disability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malika Delobel-Ayoub

    Full Text Available Study of the impact of socioeconomic status on autism spectrum disorders (ASD and severe intellectual disabilities (ID has yielded conflicting results. Recent European studies suggested that, unlike reports from the United States, low socioeconomic status is associated with an increased risk of ASD. For intellectual disabilities, the links with socioeconomic status vary according to the severity. We wished to clarify the links between socioeconomic status and the prevalence of ASD (with or without ID and isolated severe ID.500 children with ASD and 245 children with severe ID (IQ <50 aged 8 years, born 1995 to 2004, were recruited from a French population-based registry. Inclusions were based on clinical diagnoses reported in medical records according to the International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision. Socioeconomic status was measured by indicators available at block census level which characterize the population of the child's area of residence. Measures of deprivation, employment, occupation, education, immigration and family structure were used. Prevalences were compared between groups of census units defined by the tertiles of socioeconomic level in the general population.Prevalence of ASD with associated ID was higher in areas with the highest level of deprivation and the highest percentage of unemployed adults, persons with no diploma, immigrants and single-parent families. No association was found when using occupational class. Regarding ASD without associated ID, a higher prevalence was found in areas with the highest percentage of immigrants. No association was found for other socioeconomic indicators. The prevalence of isolated severe ID was likely to be higher in the most disadvantaged groups defined by all indicators.The prevalence of ASD with associated ID and of severe isolated ID is more likely to be higher in areas with the highest level of deprivation.

  16. The Effect of Price and Socio-Economic Level on the Consumption of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages (SSB): The Case of Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paraje, Guillermo

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this article is to estimate the own-price, cross-price and income elasticities of demand for SSB in Ecuador, as an indispensable step for predicting a reduction in the consumption of said beverages caused by the potential implementation of taxes in Ecuador. In addition, the own-price, cross-price and income elasticities of sugar-free substitutes like mineral water and diet soft drinks and juices are also estimated. The data from the 2011-2012 ENIGHUR, which contains detailed information on household consumption and socioeconomic variables, was used. The estimates are done using Deaton's Almost Ideal Demand System (AIDS) which accounts for differences in the quality of goods purchased. This demand system is estimated for different socio-economic groups, according to total household expenditure. The results reveal own-price elasticities for SSB between -1.17 and -1.33 depending on the socio-economic group, in line with the existing evidence for developed countries. Own-price elasticity for non-SSB is between -1 and -1.24. Income elasticities reveal that both SSB and non-SSB are normal goods with elasticities decreasing for higher socio-economic groups. These results show that the consumption of SSB is sensitive to price changes, meaning that the implementation of taxes on said beverages could be effective in reducing their consumption. The fact that non-SSB are also sensitive to price changes would indicate that subsidies could be implemented for the production of some of them.

  17. Feeding practices of young children aged 12-23 months in different socio-economic settings: a study from an urban area of Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santika, Otte; Februhartanty, Judhiastuty; Ariawan, Iwan

    2016-07-01

    Poor feeding practices among young children lead to malnutrition, and the poor are at a greater risk than the better off groups. Child-feeding practices in various socio-economic strata, especially in urban settings, have not yet been well studied in Indonesia. This study aims to explore the feeding practices of 12-23 months old children from different socio-economic status (SES) groups. A cross-sectional survey was conducted, which included low (n 207), medium-high (n 205), medium-low (n 208) and high SES households (n 194) in forty-three villages within thirty-three sub-districts of Bandung city. Two non-consecutive 24 h recall and eight core indicators of child-feeding practices were assessed through interviews. The results showed that children from the high SES group were more likely to be exclusively breast-fed and to continue breast-feeding up to 1 year of age, met minimum dietary diversity and minimum acceptable diet, and also consumed Fe-rich or Fe-fortified foods. In contrast, children from low SES consumed more energy-rich food (grain) but fewer foods from the other food groups. Consumption of major nutrients differed across the SES groups. Inadequate nutrition was higher among children from the lower SES groups. Fortified foods were consumed by a larger proportion of children from the high SES group and contributed considerably to their overall nutrient intake. This study shows that young children's feeding practices were not adequate, most notably among the low SES households. However, after adjusting with potential confounders, there was not enough evidence to conclude SES as a risk factor for feeding practice.

  18. Who can afford health care? Evaluating the socio-economic conditions and the ability to contribute to health care in a post-conflict area in DR Congo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibylle Gerstl

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The Democratic Republic of the Congo is today one of the poorest countries in the world; the health status of the population ranks among the worst in Sub-Saharan Africa. Public health services charge user fees and drug prices. Since 2008, north-eastern Congo is facing a guerrilla war. Malteser International is assisting with free health care for internally displaced persons as well as the general population. Before the incursion the health system was based on user fees. The aim of this study was to determine the socio-economic conditions of the population and to assess their ability to contribute to health care. METHODOLOGY: Heads of 552 randomly selected households in 23 clusters in two health zones were interviewed using a standardised questionnaire. FINDINGS: The demographic description and socio-economic conditions of the study population were homogenous. Major source of income was agriculture (57%; 47% of the households earned less than US$ 5.5/week. Ninety-two percent of the interviewed households estimated that they would be able to contribute to consultation fees (maximum amount of US$ 0.27 and 79% to the drug prices (maximum amount of US$ 1.10. Six percent opted for free consultations and 19% for free drugs. CONCLUSIONS: Living conditions were very basic; the estimated income of the study population was low. Almost half of the population perceived their current living situation as fairly good/good. More than 90% of the study population estimated to be able to contribute to consultation fees and 80% to drug prices. As a result Malteser International suggested introducing flat-rates for health care services. Once the project ends, the population will have to pay again for their health service. One solution would be the introduction of a health care financing system with the goal to reach universal coverage to health care.

  19. Diffusion of bioenergy in urban areas: A socio-economic analysis of the Swiss wood-fired cogeneration plant in Basel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madlener, Reinhard [Institute for Future Energy Consumer Needs and Behavior (FCN), Faculty of Business and Economics / E.ON Energy Research Center, RWTH Aachen University, Templergraben 55, 52056 Aachen (Germany); Voegtli, Stefan [Waldmarketing.ch, Hoehenweg 6, 4419 Lupsingen (Switzerland)

    2008-09-15

    The municipal utilities of Basel (IWB) are in the process of building a 30 MW wood-fired cogeneration plant in the city of Basel, Switzerland, a project idea that was initially proposed by visionaries from the forest sector. Despite recent doubts about its profitability due to unforeseen major increases in investment costs, the plant is attractive both politically and from a business perspective, as several goals related to the increased use of renewable energy can be achieved simultaneously. Moreover, significant woody biomass resources are awaiting further exploitation in the Basel region, which could help to improve markedly the cost effectiveness of forest maintenance. In this paper, we study the history and some of the characteristics of the project from a socio-economic perspective. Of particular interest to our study is the early involvement of a large number of stakeholders with different interests. The project constitutes a pioneering project that could serve as an important non-Scandinavian model for similar projects in other parts of Switzerland, but also in Western and Central Europe as a whole. The lengthy decision-making and planning process offers interesting insights into the socio-economic drivers and barriers of large-scale bioenergy projects in urban settings, where wood heating systems are in general not as well established as in the countryside. We find that the interest of regional forest owners to tackle the problem of over-aged and largely unprofitable forests, coupled with a political climate that (1) favours green energy projects and (2) provides incentives for the municipal utility to produce more green energy from sources other than hydropower, have been the two main success factors for developing this particular biomass plant project. (author)

  20. Institutional and socioeconomic aspects of water supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauchenschwandtner, H.; Pachel, M.

    2012-04-01

    Institutional and socioeconomic aspects of water supply Within the project CC-WaterS the participating researchers of the Vienna University of Economics and B.A. have been responsible for the analysis of the socioeconomic aspects related to water supply and climate change, the assessment of future water demands in the City of Vienna, as well as an estimation of economic consequences of possible water shortages and possible scope for the introduction of new legal guidelines. The institutional and socioeconomic dimensions of drinking water and sanitation systems are being examined by utilisation of different prognostic scenarios in order to assess future costs of water provisioning and future demands of main water users, thus providing an information basis and recommendations for policy and decision makers in the water sector. These dimensions, for example, include EU legislation - especially the Water Framework Directive -, national legislations and strategies targeted at achieving sustainability in water usage, best practices and different forms of regulating water markets, and an analysis of the implications of demographic change. As a basis this task encompasses research of given institutional, social, and legal-political structures in the area of water supply. In this course we provide an analysis of the structural characteristics of water markets, the role of water prices, the increasing perception of water as an economic good as well as implications thereof, the public awareness in regard to climate change and water resources, as well as related legal aspects and involved actors from regional to international level; and show how water resources and the different systems of water provisioning are affected by (ideological) conflicts on various levels. Furthermore, and in order to provide a solid basis for management recommendations related to climate change and water supply, an analytical risk-assessment framework based on the concepts of new institutional

  1. ECONOMICAL AND LIVING STANDARD OF PENSIONERS, AT NATIONAL LEVEL AND IN THE JIU VALLEY AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROXANA PLEŞA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The level of pensions in Romania has been a favourite topic of debate and analysis by experts and the media, since 1990 until now. Aging and reducing the number of jobs produce structural changes in socio-economic terms over the active and inactive population. The growing number of pensioners, which exceeded the number of employees in the economy related to the level of economic and social development of our country, has led to the inability to create a social system for older people able to provide a decent income for them. The phenomenon requires concrete and concerted social action to influence developments in the sense of autonomy and welfare of life of elderly people, for a healthy aging and to ensure a good quality of life.

  2. MEDIEVAL SOCIOECONOMIC SYSTEM: FEUDALISM

    OpenAIRE

    AYDEMİR, Cahit; GENÇ, Sema YILMAZ

    2011-01-01

    Abstract In this study, marked by medieval feudalism; socio-economic aspects were examined. In this context, emerged and developed and destroyed feudalism of the medieval, feudalism, the general characteristics mentioned and after the birth, growth and destruction are discussed. Key Words: medieval, feudalism, economic, socio-economic.

  3. Output power levels from mobile phones in different geographical areas; implications for exposure assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Lonn, S; Forssen, U; P. Vecchia; Ahlbom, A; Feychting, M

    2004-01-01

    Background: The power level used by the mobile phone is one of the most important factors determining the intensity of the radiofrequency exposure during a call. Mobile phone calls made in areas where base stations are densely situated (normally urban areas) should theoretically on average use lower output power levels than mobile phone calls made in areas with larger distances between base stations (rural areas).

  4. Socioeconomic Factors and Childhood Overweight in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bammann, K.; Gwozdz, Wencke; Lanfer, A.

    2013-01-01

    What is already known about this subject. Overweight and obesity can be linked to different parental socioeconomic factors already in very young children. In Western developed countries, the association of childhood overweight and obesity and parental socioeconomic status shows a negative gradient....... Ambiguous results have been obtained regarding the association between socioeconomic factors and childhood overweight and obesity in different countries and over time. What this study adds. European regions show heterogeneous associations between socioeconomic factors and overweight and obesity in a multi...... not only of the family but also of region and country on the overweight and obesity prevalence. Objective To assess the association between different macro- and micro-level socioeconomic factors and childhood overweight. Methods Data from the IDEFICS baseline survey is used to investigate the cross...

  5. STATUS SOSIAL-EKONOMI DAN KADAR HORMON TIROTROPIN RUMAH-TANGGA PENGGUNA GARAM BERIDOIUM DI PERKOTAAN INDONESIA : ANALISIS DATA RISKESDAS 2007 (SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS AND THYROTROPIN HORMONE LEVEL OF HOUSEHOLDS USING IODIZED SALT IN INDONESIAN URBAN : ANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djoko Kartono

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Iodized salt is the long term and sustainable strategy to improve iodine intakeof the community.Level of thyroid stimulating hormone (thyrotropin hormone can be used as indicator of iodine intake adequacy. To study the socio-economic status of households using iodized salt and thyrotropin hormone level in urban areas. Riskesdas data 2007 that include 280.000 households was used.Thyrotropin hormone data include 9.457 people aged above 1 years. Variables included classification of village, rapid test on salt, education and occupation of households’ head, household expenditure and level of thyrotropin hormone. Around 80 percentof households where households’ head graduated from college/university used salt containing sufficient iodine. Only 18 percent households with households’ headworks as government workers used salt containing sufficient iodine. Around 70 percent households in 5th quintile of household’s expenditure were using salt with sufficient iodine content. Around 70 percent households in urban areas were using salt withsufficient iodine content.Among children 1-4 years, percentage of low category of thyrotropin hormon level was 3.3 percentand among 60 years of age and above was 15.8 percent. The higher the educational levelthe higher the percentage of households used salt with sufficient iodine. Percentage of households using salt with sufficient iodine was higher in urban than in rural areas. The higher the quintiles of household expenditures the higher the percentage of households using salt with sufficient iodine. There was a trend that the higher the age the higher the percentage of low category of thyrotropin hormone level. Keywords: householdsalt, education, occupation, urban, rural, expenditure, thyrotropin hormone   ABSTRAK Garam beriodium merupakan strategi jangka panjang dan berkesinambungan untuk memperbaiki asupan iodium masyarakat. Sementara itu, kadar thyroid stimulating hormone (hormon tirotropin dapat

  6. Measuring socio-economic inequality: From dwellers' perspective within Bangalore urban agglomeration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keya Chakraborty

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Planners and researchers have realized that larger regional framework of urban areas are significant in assessing various inequality aspects in a developing country like India. The framework consists of heterogeneity in spatial and demographic aspects and in quality of socio-economic development levels as well. Against this background, the present paper has proposed a methodological framework to assess socio-economic inequality within Bangalore Urban Agglomeration (BUA as governed by the composite set of Human Development Index (HDI based indicators. Assessments are based on local data of dwellers' preferences on the indicators. On the whole, this paper has tried to establish the significance of application of HDI based indicators in an assessment of socio-economic inequality within BUA. Consequently, the paper has arrived at the need for improvement of comprehensive HDI governed basic public services, amenities, and advanced facilities, across all trans-urban-area levels to ensure a holistic development within BUA.

  7. Socio-economic impacts of GKI activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutchinson, D.L.

    1979-05-01

    The purpose of this report is to assess the potential socio-economic impacts of Geokinetics, Inc. (GKI) activities on Uintah Basin. Potential impacts on socio-economic conditions in the Uintah Basin are limited by the scope of GKI operations. In 1978, the population of Uintah and Duchesne counties was nearly 30,000. GKI employees represented 0.1% of the Basin population. 1978 Gross Taxable Sales were estimated to be $167.182 million for the Uintah Basin. GKI expenditures totaled less than 1% of gross taxable sales, even if it is assumed that all expenditures went to Basin businesses. GKI employment and expenditures are likely to increase in the years ahead, but projected increases will have insignificant socio-economic impacts on local communities. However, some employees will already own and others will seek to purchase homes in the area. Resulting impacts, though insignificant, will be positive. Several years ago, Utah State University researchers developed estimates of population changes and impacts associated with employment growth in Uintah County. Their report indicated that a project increasing basic employment by 400 persons would have minor impact, but would increase the tax base of the county. It is unlikely that GKI employment will approach, let alone exceed, the threshold level of 400 employees. In addition, GKI growth will be incremental and gradual, even to commercial scale operations. This leads us to conclude that GKI operations will have minimal adverse impact upon the Uintah Basin and in fact will probably have a net positive impact on the Basin.

  8. Associação entre fatores socioeconômicos e insegurança alimentar: estudo de base populacional na Região Metropolitana do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Association between socioeconomic factors and food insecurity: a population-based study in the Rio de Janeiro metropolitan area, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Salles-Costa

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estimar a prevalência de insegurança alimentar em famílias de Duque de Caxias, município localizado na Região Metropolitana do Rio de Janeiro, e avaliar a associação entre indicadores socioeconômicos e insegurança alimentar. MÉTODOS: Desenvolveu-se estudo transversal, de base populacional, em famílias do distrito de Campos Elíseos, município de Duque de Caxias, Rio de Janeiro, que investigou amostra probabilística composta por 1.085 domicílios. As informações sobre condições socioeconômicas foram obtidas por meio de entrevista, utilizando questionário estruturado. A insegurança alimentar foi avaliada com o uso da Escala Brasileira de Insegurança Alimentar, que permite classificar as famílias em segurança alimentar ou em insegurança alimentar leve, moderada ou grave. As análises foram desenvolvidas levando em consideração o efeito do desenho da amostra. Foi estimada a prevalência de insegurança alimentar, avaliando-se sua associação com as variáveis socioeconômicas aplicando-se o teste do qui-quadrado (pOBJECTIVE: This work aims to evaluate the prevalence of food insecurity among families from Duque de Caxias, in the Rio de Janeiro Metropolitan Area and the association between socioeconomic indicators and food insecurity. METHODS: A population-based cross-sectional study investigated a probabilistic sample composed of 1,085 households from the district of Campos Elíseos, in the municipality of Duque de Caxias, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Information on socioeconomic condition was obtained using a structured questionnaire. Food insecurity was assessed by the Brazilian Food Insecurity Scale, which allows classifying the families into food security, or mild, moderate or severe food insecurity. The analyses took into account the sampling design effect. The food insecurity prevalence was estimated and its association with socioeconomic variables was assessed using the chi-square test (p<0.05. RESULTS: Food

  9. Supermarket and fast food accessibility in Copenhagen: associations with socioeconomic and demographic characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svastisalee, Chalida; Nordahl Jensen, Helene; Glümer, Charlotte;

    -economic indicators in 2006. Food business addresses were obtained from commercial and public business locators for all neighborhoods in the city of Copenhagen (n = 400). We applied area-level socio-economic and demographic information from Statistics Denmark. Counts of fast food outlets and supermarkets were...

  10. Socioeconomic status during lifetime and cognitive impairment no-dementia in late life: the population-based aging in the Chianti Area (InCHIANTI) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marengoni, Alessandra; Fratiglioni, Laura; Bandinelli, Stefania; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2011-01-01

    Thousand and twelve dementia-free elderly (60–98 years old) enrolled in the InChianti Study (Italy) were evaluated at baseline (1998–2000) and at 3-year follow-up (2001–2003) with the aim of analyzing the association of lifetime socioeconomic status (SES) with prevalent and incident cognitive impairment no-dementia (CIND). SES was defined from information on formal education, longest held occupation, and financial conditions through life. CIND was defined as age-adjusted Mini-Mental State Examination score one standard deviation below the baseline mean score of participants without dementia. Logistic regression and Cox proportional-hazards models were used to estimate the association of SES with CIND. Demographics,occupation characteristics (i.e., job stress and physical demand), cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, apolipoprotein E (APOE)genotype, smoking, alcohol consumption, depressive symptoms, and C-reactive protein were considered potential confounders.Prevalence of CIND was 17.7%. In the fully adjusted model, low education (OR = 2.1; 95% confidence intervals, CI = 1.4 to 3.2)was associated with prevalent CIND. Incidence rate of CIND was 66.0 per 1000 person-years. Low education (HR = 1.7; 95% CI = 1.04 to 2.6) and manual occupation (HR = 1.9; 95% CI = 1.0 to 3.6) were associated with incident CIND. Among covariates,high job-related physical demand was associated with both prevalent and incident CIND (OR = 1.6; 95% CI = 1.1 to 2.4 and HR= 1.5; 95% CI = 1.0 to 2.3). After stratification for education, manual occupation was still associated with CIND among participants with high education (HR = 2.2; 95% CI = 1.2 to 4.3 versus HR= 1.4; 95% CI = 0.2 to 10.4 among those with low education). Proxy markers of lifetime SES (low education, manual occupation and high physical demand) are cross-sectional correlates of CIND and predict incident CIND over a three-year follow-up.

  11. Impact of socioeconomic status on municipal solid waste generation rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, D; Kumar, A; Samadder, S R

    2016-03-01

    The solid waste generation rate was expected to vary in different socioeconomic groups due to many environmental and social factors. This paper reports the assessment of solid waste generation based on different socioeconomic parameters like education, occupation, income of the family, number of family members etc. A questionnaire survey was conducted in the study area to identify the different socioeconomic groups that may affect the solid waste generation rate and composition. The average waste generated in the municipality is 0.41 kg/capita/day in which the maximum waste was found to be generated by lower middle socioeconomic group (LMSEG) with average waste generation of 0.46 kg/capita/day. Waste characterization indicated that there was no much difference in the composition of wastes among different socioeconomic groups except ash residue and plastic. Ash residue is found to increase as we move lower down the socioeconomic groups with maximum (31%) in lower socioeconomic group (LSEG). The study area is a coal based city hence application of coal and wood as fuel for cooking in the lower socioeconomic group is the reason for high amount of ash content. Plastic waste is maximum (15%) in higher socioeconomic group (HSEG) and minimum (1%) in LSEG. Food waste is a major component of generated waste in almost every socioeconomic group with maximum (38%) in case of HSEG and minimum (28%) in LSEG. This study provides new insights on the role of various socioeconomic parameters on generation of household wastes.

  12. Situación socioeconómica de las áreas de manejo en la región de Coquimbo, Chile The socioeconomic situation in managed areas of the Coquimbo region, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Zúñiga

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio define y desarrolla un conjunto de indicadores que permite medir la situación socioeconómica de las comunidades de pescadores artesanales que operan el régimen de Áreas de Manejo y Explotación de Recursos Bentónicos (AMERB en la región de Coquimbo (Chile. Los resultados del estudio señalan que el desempeño socioeconómico de estas AMERB medido mediante indicador sintético global es regular. También, que las AMERB en una escala de 0 a 1 muestran un resultado más favorable en el aspecto institucional (0,54, seguido por el aspecto social (0,49 y finalmente por el aspecto económico (0,30. Así, el desarrollo institucional y la situación social son actualmente "buenos" a diferencia de la situación económica que es actualmente "regular o mala". A nivel global, la situación socioeconómica de las organizaciones de Peñuelas-A, Río Limarí, Apolillado, Ñagué y Totoral es "buena", mientras que para las demás organizaciones es regular o mala. Respecto a las causas del desempeño socioeconómico de las AMERB, el estudio señala que el componente más relevante es económico. En efecto, el ingreso per capita aparece altamente correlacionado con el éxito, seguido por la antigüedad de la AMERB, y el que ésta pertenezca a una zona de influencia urbana. Finalmente, las especies objetivo no son determinantes en el éxito socioeconómico, y contrario a lo que se podría suponer, las AMERB que disponen del recurso loco (Concholepas concholepas obtienen en promedio un peor resultado comparado con las organizaciones que explotan otras especies.The present study defines and develops a set of indicators able to measure the socioeconomic situation of artisanal fishing communities operating under a regime of Management and Exploitation Areas for Benthic Resources (AMERB, in Spanish in the Coquimbo region (Chile. The results of the study indicate that the socioeconomic performance of the AMERBs, as measured with a global

  13. Testing EGM2008 on Leveling Data from Scandinavia, adjacent Baltic areas, and Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strykowski, Gabriel; Forsberg, René

    2009-01-01

    We tested EGM2008 on GPS/leveling data from Scandinavia and adjacent areas. EGM2008 performs at the same level as the best regional geoid model, NKG2004. However, the direct evaluation of EGM2008 is difficult in Greenland because no leveling data are available. Nevertheless, we show on 78 GPS-MSS...

  14. The impact of socioeconomic status on growth during infancy versus puberty in a developing country

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Aly A EI-Nofely; Sahar A El-Masry

    2009-01-01

    Objective:To explore the relationship between socioeconomic status from one side and physi-cal growth and nutritional status from the other side, in infants versus adolescents in Egyptians. Methods: Three samples were investigated:a) A sample of 605 infants aged 6 months+1 week (287 girls and 318 boys). B) A sample of 992 infants of age 4-24 months (465 girls and 527 boys). C) A sample of 1864 chil-dren and adolescents aged 6-14 years of (744 girls and 1120 boys). All samples are from Big Cairo area of both urban and rural localities and of various socioeconomic strata. Body weight and length/height had been measured and body mass index (BMI) had been calculated for every subject. Assessment of the impact of pa-rental education level, locality and number of sibs, on growth and nutrition as indicated by BMI was attemp-ted. Results: a) Breastfed infants (6 months +1 week) grow bigger in low socioeconomic strata and in rural areas than artificially fed infants. The practice of breast feeding was more common and lasted longer in low so-cioeconomic stratum than in middle and high one. B) A significant positive association between body mass in-dex of infants (4-24 months) and the socioeconomic status (particularly level of father education reflecting family income) was proved. C) The socioeconomic factors had insignificant influence on BMI of school chil-dren aged 6~9 years, but it showed significant influence in the period 10~14 years. After the age of 9 years, children started the pubertal stage earlier and had higher BMI in the high socioeconomic strata as com-pared to those of low socioeconomic strata. D) In the low socioeconomic status, breast feeding compensates the deleterious influences of the environment on growth and physique of infants. Conclusion: children of educated parents have significantly low number of siblings'size in comparison to those of uneducated parents. Also chil-dren of educated parents are significantly more in number in urban areas than

  15. Testing EGM2008 on Leveling Data from Scandinavia, Adjacent Baltic Areas, and Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strykowski, Gabriel; Forsberg, René

    2010-01-01

    We tested EGM2008 on GPS/leveling data from Scandinavia and adjacent areas. EGM2008 performs at the same level as the best regional geoid model, NKG2004. However, the direct evaluation of EGM2008 is difficult in Greenland because no leveling data are available. Nevertheless, we show on 78 GPS......-MSS data that EGM2008 also performs at the same level as the best regional geoid model GOCINA04....

  16. Moving beyond the residential neighborhood to explore social inequalities in exposure to area-level disadvantage: Results from the Interdisciplinary Study on Inequalities in Smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shareck, Martine; Kestens, Yan; Frohlich, Katherine L

    2014-05-01

    The focus, in place and health research, on a single, residential, context overlooks the fact that individuals are mobile and experience other settings in the course of their daily activities. Socio-economic characteristics are associated with activity patterns, as well as with the quality of places where certain groups conduct activities, i.e. their non-residential activity space. Examining how measures of exposure to resources, and inequalities thereof, compare between residential and non-residential contexts is required. Baseline data from 1890 young adults (18-25 years-old) participating in the Interdisciplinary Study of Inequalities in Smoking, Montreal, Canada (2011-2012), were analyzed. Socio-demographic and activity location data were collected using a validated, self-administered questionnaire. Area-level material deprivation was measured within 500-m road-network buffer zones around participants' residential and activity locations. Deprivation scores in the residential area and non-residential activity space were compared between social groups. Multivariate linear regression was used to estimate associations between individual- and area-level characteristics and non-residential activity space deprivation, and to explore whether these characteristics attenuated the education-deprivation association. Participants in low educational categories lived and conducted activities in more disadvantaged areas than university students/graduates. Educational inequalities in exposure to area-level deprivation were larger in the non-residential activity space than in the residential area for the least educated, but smaller for the intermediate group. Adjusting for selected covariates such as transportation resources and residential deprivation did not significantly attenuate the education-deprivation associations. Results support the existence of social isolation in residential areas and activity locations, whereby less educated individuals tend to be confined to more

  17. Assessment of heavy metal levels in surface sediments of estuaries and adjacent coastal areas in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xianbin; Li, Deliang; Song, Guisheng

    2017-03-01

    This article investigates the variations of contamination levels of heavy metals such as copper, lead, chromium, cadmium, zinc, arsenic, and mercury over time in surface sediments of the Changjiang River Estuary (CRE), Yellow River Estuary (YRE), Pearl River Estuary (PRE), and their adjacent coastal areas in China. The contamination factor (CF), pollution load index (PLI), and geoaccumulation index ( I geo) are used to evaluate the quality of the surface sediments in the study areas. The results showed that the CRE, YRE, and their adjacent coastal areas were at a low risk of contamination in terms of heavy metals, while the PRE and its adjacent coastal area were at a moderate level. By comparison, the concentrations of heavy metals in the surface sediments of the YRE and its adjacent coastal area were relatively lower than those in the CRE, PRE, and their adjacent coastal areas.

  18. The Relationship between Dental Caries and Some Socio-economic Factors in 35- 44 Years Old Adults in Some Urban Areas of Sistan & Baluchestan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Abdolazimi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In order to improve the oral health, systematic analysis of oral health condition and related factors should be conducted. This study aimed to evaluate dental caries and some related factors in 35-44 years old men & women in five urban areas of Sistan and Baluchestan in 2009-2010. Methods: In this descriptive cross-sectional study, 550 people were chosen by random stratified clustering in five different urban areas of the province. All participants were examined and the DMFT index was determined. Demographic and social information and their oral health behaviors were registered in a questionnaire which was composed of 11 questions. The data were analyzed by SPSS (version 17 and descriptive statistic methods. Results: Statistical analysis showed that average of DMFT was 10.05 ± 7.186. DMFT in females (11.43 ± 7.5 was more than males (8.68 ± 6.6 significantly (P 0.05 Conclusion: Results of this study could be used by public health managers to plan and evaluate public health in the future. With an emphasis on improving high risk patients’ situation, appropriate interventions can be designed to achieve good results in the short and long term

  19. A socio-economic assessment of proposed road user charging schemes in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rich, Jeppe; Nielsen, Otto Anker

    2007-01-01

    of the projects depends crucially on the congestion level. With the Current traffic level, road pricing will not yet be socially expedient in Copenhagen. However, if the opening year is postponed to 2015, the two most favourable schemes will turn positive. The analyses also showed that the magnitude of demand......Road pricing. congestion charging, toll-systems and other road charging instruments are intensively discussed in many countries. Although many partial analyses of the consequences have been published, few overall socio-economic analyses have been carried out. The article presents such a socio......-economic analysis of four different proposed road pricing schemes for the Copenhagen area. The purpose was to assess all benefits and costs involved, including impacts on traffic and environment, maintenance and financing costs as well as tax distortion effects. It was concluded that the socio-economic surplus...

  20. Socio-economic baseline study: Case study: Nanggung sub-district, Bogor, Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Kusuma, W.; Suseno, B.; Roshetko, James M.

    2007-01-01

    Results of the socio-economic baseline study was summarized and discussed. The objective was to provide socio-economic data as a basis for socio-economic impact assessment of integrated vegetable-agroforestry systems. The study addressed socio-economic data, farm characteristics, gender roles, household income and consumption and labor availability. The study led to information on the physical characteristics of the sample area, the socio-economic characteristics, land 'ownership,' and farmin...

  1. Inequalities in US Life Expectancy by Area Unemployment Level, 1990–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopal K. Singh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the association between unemployment and life expectancy in the United States during 1990–2010. Census-based unemployment rates were linked to US county-level mortality data. Life expectancies were calculated by age, sex, race, and unemployment level during 1990–2010. Differences in life expectancy were decomposed by age and cause of death. Life expectancy was consistently lower in areas with higher unemployment rates. In 2006–2010, those in areas with high unemployment rates (≥9% had a life expectancy of 76.9 years, compared with 80.7 years for those in areas with low unemployment rates (<3%. The association between unemployment and life expectancy was stronger for men than for women. Life expectancy ranged from 69.9 years among black men in high unemployment areas to 90.0 years among Asian/Pacific Islander women in low unemployment areas. Disparities persisted over time. In 1990–1992, life expectancy was 4.7 years shorter in high unemployment than in low unemployment areas. In 2006–2010, the life expectancy difference between the lowest and highest unemployment areas decreased to 3.8 years. Heart disease, cancer, homicide, unintentional injuries, diabetes, HIV/AIDS, and liver cirrhosis contributed most to the lower life expectancy in high unemployment areas. High unemployment areas recorded larger gains in life expectancy than low unemployment areas, contributing to the narrowing gap during 1990–2010.

  2. Inequalities in US Life Expectancy by Area Unemployment Level, 1990-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gopal K; Siahpush, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the association between unemployment and life expectancy in the United States during 1990-2010. Census-based unemployment rates were linked to US county-level mortality data. Life expectancies were calculated by age, sex, race, and unemployment level during 1990-2010. Differences in life expectancy were decomposed by age and cause of death. Life expectancy was consistently lower in areas with higher unemployment rates. In 2006-2010, those in areas with high unemployment rates (≥9%) had a life expectancy of 76.9 years, compared with 80.7 years for those in areas with low unemployment rates (life expectancy was stronger for men than for women. Life expectancy ranged from 69.9 years among black men in high unemployment areas to 90.0 years among Asian/Pacific Islander women in low unemployment areas. Disparities persisted over time. In 1990-1992, life expectancy was 4.7 years shorter in high unemployment than in low unemployment areas. In 2006-2010, the life expectancy difference between the lowest and highest unemployment areas decreased to 3.8 years. Heart disease, cancer, homicide, unintentional injuries, diabetes, HIV/AIDS, and liver cirrhosis contributed most to the lower life expectancy in high unemployment areas. High unemployment areas recorded larger gains in life expectancy than low unemployment areas, contributing to the narrowing gap during 1990-2010.

  3. Database of groundwater levels and hydrograph descriptions for the Nevada Test Site area, Nye County, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Peggy E.; Fenelon, Joseph M.

    2010-01-01

    A database containing water levels measured from wells in and near areas of underground nuclear testing at the Nevada Test Site was developed. The water-level measurements were collected from 1941 to 2016. The database provides information for each well including well construction, borehole lithology, units contributing water to the well, and general site remarks. Water-level information provided in the database includes measurement source, status, method, accuracy, and specific water-level remarks. Additionally, the database provides hydrograph narratives that document the water-level history and describe and interpret the water-level hydrograph for each well.Water levels in the database were quality assured and analyzed. Multiple conditions were assigned to each water-level measurement to describe the hydrologic conditions at the time of measurement. General quality, temporal variability, regional significance, and hydrologic conditions are attributed to each water-level measurement.

  4. Ecological and physiological factors affecting brood patch area and prolactin levels in arctic-nesting geese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonsson, J.E.; Afton, A.D.; Alisauskas, R.T.; Bluhm, C.K.; El Halawani, M.E.

    2006-01-01

    We investigated effects of ecological and physiological factors on brood patch area and prolactin levels in free-ranging Lesser Snow Geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens; hereafter "Snow Geese") and Ross's Geese (C. rossii). On the basis of the body-size hypothesis, we predicted that the relationships between prolactin levels, brood patch area, and body condition would be stronger in Ross's Geese than in the larger Snow Geese. We found that brood patch area was positively related to clutch volume and inversely related to prolactin levels in Ross's Geese, but not in Snow Geese. Nest size, nest habitat, and first egg date did not affect brood patch area in either species. Prolactin levels increased as incubation progressed in female Snow Geese, but this relationship was not significant in Ross's Geese. Prolactin levels and body condition (as indexed by size-adjusted body mass) were inversely related in Ross's Geese, but not in Snow Geese. Our findings are consistent with the prediction that relationships between prolactin levels, brood patch area, and body condition are relatively stronger in Ross's Geese, because they mobilize endogenous reserves at faster rates than Snow Geese. ?? The American Ornithologists' Union, 2006. Printed in USA.

  5. Dietary aluminium Intake Level for Rent Animals in a Primary and Secondary Aluminium Industry Surrounding Area

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    The study was carried out in an aluminium industry surrounding area on purpose to evaluate dietary aluminium intake level for rent animals originated from fodder and water consumed by them. There were taken feed and water samples in different periods and from increasing distances from industrial platform, determined the aluminium level by atomic spectroscopy and calculated the rations for cattle and poultry. Conclusions: aluminium dietary intake level by ration depends by forage period for st...

  6. Mortality and cancer incidence in Misasa, Japan, a spa area with elevated radon levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye, Weimin; Sobue, Tomotaka; Lee, V.S.; Tanooka, Hiroshi [National Cancer Center, Tokyo (Japan). Research Inst.; Mifune, Masaaki; Suyama, Akihiko; Koga, Taeko; Morishima, Hiroshige; Kondo, Sohei

    1998-08-01

    A historical cohort study was conducted in Misasa town, Tottori prefecture, Japan, where radon spas have been operating for a long time. Misasa town was divided into an elevated radon level area and a control area, with mean indoor radon levels of about 60 and 20 Bq/m{sup 3}, respectively. In total, 3,083 subjects in the elevated radon level area and 1,248 in the control area, all aged 40 or older on January 1, 1976, were followed up until December 31, 1993, for a mean period of 14 years. The mortality rates from all causes exhibited no difference between the elevated radon level area and the control area for both sexes. No difference was observed in the incidence of all-site cancers (age, period-adjusted rate ratios by Poisson regression, RR=1.06, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.79-1.42 for males, RR=0.90, 95%CI 0.65-1.24 for females), while stomach cancer incidence seemed to decrease for both sexes (RR=0.70, 95%CI 0.44-1.11 for male, RR=0.58, 95%CI 0.34-1.00 for female) and lung cancer incidence for males only seemed to increase (RR=1.65, 95%CI 0.83-3.30 for male, RR=1.07, 95%CI 0.28-4.14 for female) in the elevated radon level area. Caution is needed in the interpretation of these findings, however, since the individual exposure level was not measured and major confounding factors, such as smoking and diet, could not be controlled in this study. (author)

  7. Estimating Radiological Doses to Predators Foraging in a Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L.Soholt; G.Gonzales; P.Fresquez; K.Bennett; E.Lopez

    2003-03-01

    Since 1957, Los Alamos National Laboratory has operated Area G as its low-level, solid radioactive waste management and disposal area. Although the waste management area is developed, plants, small mammals, and avian and mammalian predators still occupy the less disturbed and revegetated portions of the land. For almost a decade, we have monitored the concentrations of selected radionuclides in soils, plants, and small mammals at Area G. The radionuclides tritium, plutonium-238, and plutonium-239 are regularly found at levels above regional background in all three media. Based on radionuclide concentrations in mice collected from 1994 to 1999, we calculated doses to higher trophic levels (owl, hawk, kestrel, and coyote) that forage on the waste management area. These predators play important functions in the regional ecosystems and are an important part of local Native American traditional tales that identify the uniqueness of their culture. The estimated doses are compared to Department of Energy's interim limit of 0.1 rad/day for the protection of terrestrial wildlife. We used exposure parameters that were derived from the literature for each receptor, including Environmental Protection Agency's exposure factors handbook. Estimated doses to predators ranged from 9E-06 to 2E-04 rad/day, assuming that they forage entirely on the waste management area. These doses are greater than those calculated for predators foraging exclusively in reference areas, but are still well below the interim dose limit. We believe that these calculated doses represent upper-bound estimates of exposure for local predators because the larger predators forage over areas that are much greater than the 63-acre waste management area. Based on these results, we concluded that predators foraging on this area do not face a hazard from radiological exposure under current site conditions.

  8. Theory and Method for Identifying Well Water Level Anomalies in a Groundwater Overdraft Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Suxin; Zhang Ziguang; Ren Xiaoxia; Wang Xiang

    2007-01-01

    The overexploitation of underground water leads to the continuous drawdown of groundwater levels, change of water quality and dry-up in dynamic water level observation wells. Due to land subsidence, the well pipes uplift and the observation piping systems are damaged. These environmental geology problems can present serious difficulties for the identification of earthquake anomalies by groundwater level observation. Basied on hydrogeological theories and methods, the paper analyzes the relations of the water balance state of aquifers with stressstrain conditions and the water level regime, and then discusses preliminarily the theory and method for identifying well water level anomalies in a groundwater overdraft area. The result shows that we can accurately judge the nature of the anomaly according to the diffusion character of the drawdown funnel in the well area in combination with the aforementioned theory and method and multi-year variation patterns obtained from existing data. The results of the research are helpful for distinguishing the influence of single centralized water pumping from the long-term overdraft of water on the water level, correctly recognizing water level anomalies in the groundwater overdraft area and increasing the level of earthquake analysis and prediction.

  9. The Guayas Estuary and sea level corrections to calculate flooding areas for climate change scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreano, H. R.; Paredes, N.

    2011-12-01

    The Guayas estuary is the inner area of the Gulf of Guayaquil, it holds a water body of around 5000 km2 and the Puna island divides the water flow in two main streams : El Morro and Estero Salado Channel (length: 90 Km.) and Jambeli and Rio Guayas Channel (length: 125km.). The geometry of the estuarine system with the behavior of the tidal wave (semidiurnal) makes tidal amplitude higher at the head than at the mouth, whereas the wave crest at the head is delayed from one and a half to two hours from that at the mouth and sea level recorded by gages along the estuary are all different because of the wave propagation and mean sea level (msl) calculated for each gage show differences with that of La Libertad which is the base line for all altitudes on land (zero level). A leveling and calculations were made to correct such differences in a way that all gages (msl) records were linked to La Libertad and this in turn allowed a better estimates of flooding areas and draw them on topographic maps where zero level corresponds to the mean sea level at La Libertad. The procedure and mathematical formulation could be applied to any estuary or coastal area and it is a useful tool to calculate such areas especially when impacts are on people or capital goods and related to climate change scenarios.

  10. Socio-Economic Considerations of Converting Food Waste into Biogas on a Household Level in Indonesia: The Case of the City of Bandung

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amir, Encep; Hophmayer-Tockich, Sharon; Kurnani, Tubagus Benito Achmad

    2016-01-01

    Household waste is a serious environmental problem in Indonesia, especially in urban areas. Since 2010, biogas production from food waste has been introduced to reduce waste and provided an alternative to liquid petroleum gas (LPG) as cooking fuel in a pilot project in Bandung. Although the produced

  11. Landscape level analysis of disturbance regimes in protected areas of Rajasthan, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P Hari Krishna; C Sudhakar Reddy; Randeep Singh; C S Jha

    2014-04-01

    There is an urgent need to identify the human influence on landscape as disturbance regimes was realized for prioritization of the protected areas. The present study has attempted to describe the landscape level assessment of fragmentation and disturbance index in protected areas of Rajasthan using remote sensing and GIS techniques. Geospatial analysis of disturbance regimes indicates 61.75% of the total Pas are under moderate disturbance index followed by 28.64% and 9.61% under low and high, respectively. Among the 28 protected areas – National Chambal WLS, Jaisamand WLS, Kumbhalgarh WLS, Sawai Man Singh WLS, Kailadevi WLS and Bandh BarathaWLS are representing high level of disturbance. The present study has emphasized the moderate to low disturbance regimes in protected areas, which infer low biotic pressure and conservation effectiveness of PA network in Rajasthan. The spatial information generated on PAs is of valuable use for forest management and developing conservation strategies.

  12. The Land Subsidence and Relative Sea Level Rise in Chinese Delta Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YeYincan; LiuDujuan

    2004-01-01

    Based on some experts' research effort, the problems of land subsidence and relative sea level rise in three Chinese delta areas(Huanghe, Changjiang and Zhujiang Delta) are analyzed and discussed in this paper. The authors' opinion is that the land subsidence is mainly induced by human activity and has made the greater contributions to the relative sea level rise and become one of the geological hazards in these areas. In Tianjin and Shanghai areas where had ever existed serious land subsidence problem, due to the positive and effective control methods, the ratio of man-induced land subsidence to relative sea level rise decreased from 80% - 90% in 1960s - 1970s to less than 60% at present. But it is estimated that in the next tens of years this ratio will still be considerable. So human being must keep its eyes on this phenomenon and take more positive countermeasures to control the land subsidenee.

  13. Dietary aluminium Intake Level for Rent Animals in a Primary and Secondary Aluminium Industry Surrounding Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mărioara Drugă

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out in an aluminium industry surrounding area on purpose to evaluate dietary aluminium intake level for rent animals originated from fodder and water consumed by them. There were taken feed and water samples in different periods and from increasing distances from industrial platform, determined the aluminium level by atomic spectroscopy and calculated the rations for cattle and poultry. Conclusions: aluminium dietary intake level by ration depends by forage period for studied species, rations structure and distance from industrial platform and didn’t reach toxic level in any case.

  14. Factors affecting lead and cadmium levels in house dust in industrial areas of eastern Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, I; Heinrich, J; Lippold, U

    1999-08-30

    The indoor exposure of 381 women (52-59 years old) to lead and cadmium was assessed by measuring the levels of the contaminants in sedimented house dust. The study was conducted in the areas surrounding the towns of Hettstedt, a region of mining and smelting of non-ferrous ores, of Bitterfeld, a centre of chemical production and coal mining, and of Zerbst, a primarily agricultural area. Factors that were significantly associated with lead and cadmium surface loading rates included the city area of residence, urban environment of dwelling, ventilation behaviour, type of heating, year of construction of building and crowding in the sampling room. In metal-contaminated areas, the transport of heavy metals into the home from external sources and their subsequent resuspension into the air due to normal household activities are significant factors in the exposure to heavy metals, whereas in unpolluted areas indoor sources play the major role.

  15. Impact of heterogeneity and socioeconomic factors on individual behavior in decentralized sharing ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavaldà-Miralles, Arnau; Choffnes, David R; Otto, John S; Sánchez, Mario A; Bustamante, Fabián E; Amaral, Luís A N; Duch, Jordi; Guimerà, Roger

    2014-10-28

    Tens of millions of individuals around the world use decentralized content distribution systems, a fact of growing social, economic, and technological importance. These sharing systems are poorly understood because, unlike in other technosocial systems, it is difficult to gather large-scale data about user behavior. Here, we investigate user activity patterns and the socioeconomic factors that could explain the behavior. Our analysis reveals that (i) the ecosystem is heterogeneous at several levels: content types are heterogeneous, users specialize in a few content types, and countries are heterogeneous in user profiles; and (ii) there is a strong correlation between socioeconomic indicators of a country and users behavior. Our findings open a research area on the dynamics of decentralized sharing ecosystems and the socioeconomic factors affecting them, and may have implications for the design of algorithms and for policymaking.

  16. Socioeconomic Position, Rural Residence, and Marginality Influences on Obesity Status in the Adult Mexican Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Johnelle Sparks

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper assesses individual and social environment determinants of obesity in the adult Mexican population based on socioeconomic position, rural residence, and areal deprivation. Using a nationally representative health and nutrition survey, this analysis considers individual and structural determinants of obesity from a socioeconomic position and health disparities conceptual framework using multilevel logistic regression models. We find that more than thirty percent of Mexican adults were obese in 2006 and that the odds of being obese were strongly associated with an individual's socioeconomic position, gender, place of residence, and the level of marginalization (areal deprivation in the place of residence. Surprisingly, areas of the country where areal deprivation was highest had lower risks of individual obesity outcomes. We suggest that programs oriented towards addressing the health benefits of traditional food systems over high-energy dense refined foods and sugary beverages be promoted as part of a public health program aimed at curbing the rising obesity prevalence in Mexico.

  17. The development and construct validation of a Spanish version of an Academic Self-Concept scale for middle school Hispanic students from families of low socioeconomic levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menjares, P C; Michael, W B; Rueda, R

    2000-05-01

    For a sample of 305 6th, 7th and 8th grade students, of whom 95% was from economically disadvantaged Hispanic families and for whom English was their second language, evidence was sought regarding the reliability and construct validity of scores on a Spanish version of an academic self-concept measure entitled Dimensions of Self-Concept (DOSC), comprising five subscales bearing the same names as those of the five hypothesized constructs that they were intended to operationalize: Level of Aspiration, Anxiety, Academic Interest and Satisfaction, Leadership and Initiative, and Identification versus Alienation. Reliability estimates varying between .72 and .80 were judged to be reasonably satisfactory. Results from oblique factor analysis lent empirical support for the hypothesized constructs of Anxiety, Leadership and Initiative, and Identification versus Alienation. Scores associated with the subscales of Level of Aspiration and Academic Interest and Satisfaction generated a factor interpreted as a fusion of the two constructs of Level of Aspiration and Academic Interest and Satisfaction.

  18. Assessment of thermal comfort level at pedestrian level in high-density urban area of Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, J.; Ng, E.; Yuan, C.; Lai, A.

    2015-12-01

    Hong Kong is a subtropical city which is very hot and humid in the summer. Pedestrians commonly experience thermal discomfort. Various studies have shown that the tall bulky buildings intensify the urban heat island effect and reduce urban air ventilation. However, relatively few studies have focused on modeling the thermal load at pedestrian level (~ 2 m). This study assesses the thermal comfort level, quantified by PET (Physiological Equivalent Temperature), using a GIS - based simulation approach. A thermal comfort level map shows the PET value of a typical summer afternoon in the high building density area. For example, the averaged PET in Sheung Wan is about 41 degree Celsius in a clear day and 38 degree Celsius in a cloudy day. This map shows where the walkways, colonnades, and greening is most needed. In addition, given a start point, a end point, and weather data, we generate the most comfort walking routes weighted by the PET. In the simulation, shortwave irradiance is calculated using the topographic radiation model (Fu and Rich, 1999) under various cloud cover scenarios; longwave irradiance is calculated based the radiative transfer equation (Swinbank, 1963). Combining these two factors, Tmrt (mean radiant temperature) is solved. And in some cases, the Tmrt differ more than 40 degree Celsius between areas under the sun and under the shades. Considering thermal load and wind information, we found that shading from buildings has stronger effect on PET than poor air ventilation resulted from dense buildings. We predict that pedestrians would feel more comfortable (lower PET) in a hot summer afternoon when walking in the higher building density area.

  19. Low zinc serum levels and high blood lead levels among school-age children in coastal area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramono, Adriyan; Panunggal, Binar; Rahfiludin, M. Zen; Swastawati, Fronthea

    2017-02-01

    The coverage of environmental lead toxicant was quiet wide. Lead exposure recently has been expected to be associated with zinc deficiency and blood indices disturbance. Emphasizing on children, which could absorb more than 50 % of lead that enters the body. Lead became the issue on the coastal area due to it has polluted the environment and waters as the source of fisheries products. This was a cross sectional study to determined nutritional status, blood lead levels, zinc serum levels, blood indices levels, fish intake among school children in coastal region of Semarang. This study was carried out on the school children aged between 8 and 12 years old in coastal region of Semarang. Nutritional status was figured out using anthropometry measurement. Blood lead and zinc serum levels were analyzed using the Atomic Absorbent Spectrophotometry (AAS) at a wavelength of 213.9 nm for zinc serum and 283.3 nm for blood lead. Blood indices was measured using auto blood hematology analyzer. Fish intake was assessed using 3-non consecutive days 24-hours food recall. The children had high lead levels (median 34.86 μg/dl, range 11.46 - 58.86 μg/dl) compared to WHO cut off. Zinc serum levels was low (median 18.10 μg/dl, range 10.25 – 41.39 μg/dl) compared to the Joint WHO/UNICEF/IAEA/IZiNCG cut off. Approximately 26.4% of children were anemic. This study concluded that all school children had high blood lead levels, low zinc serum, and presented microcytic hypochromic anemia. This phenomenon should be considered as public health concern.

  20. Characteristics and possible causes of sea level anomalies in the Xisha sea area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hui; HAN Shuzong; FAN Wenjing; WANG Guosong; LIU Kexiu; ZHANG Zengjian

    2016-01-01

    Based on the analysis of wind, ocean currents, sea surface temperature (SST) and remote sensing satellite altimeter data, the characteristics and possible causes of sea level anomalies in the Xisha sea area are investigated. The main results are shown as follows: (1) Since 1993, the sea level in the Xisha sea area was obviously higher than normal in 1998, 2001, 2008, 2010 and 2013. Especially, the sea level in 1998 and 2010 was abnormally high, and the sea level in 2010 was 13.2 cm higher than the muti-year mean, which was the highest in the history. In 2010, the sea level in the Xisha sea area had risen 43 cm from June to August, with the strength twice the annual variation range. (2) The sea level in the Xisha sea area was not only affected by the tidal force of the celestial bodies, but also closely related to the quasi 2 a periodic oscillation of tropical western Pacific monsoon and ENSO events. (3) There was a significant negative correlation between sea level in the Xisha sea area and ENSO events. The high sea level anomaly all happened during the developing phase of La Niña. They also show significant negative correlations with Niño 4 and Niño 3.4 indices, and the lag correlation coefficients for 2 months and 3 months are–0.46 and –0.45, respectively. (4) During the early La Niña event form June to November in 2010, the anomalous wind field was cyclonic. A strong clockwise vortex was formed for the current in 25 m layer in the Xisha sea area, and the velocity of the current is close to the speed of the Kuroshio near the Luzon Strait. In normal years, there is a “cool eddy”. While in 2010, from July to August, the SST in the area was 2–3°C higher than that of the same period in the history.

  1. SOCIOECONOMIC VARIATIONS IN INDUCED ABORTION IN TURKEY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ankara, Hasan Giray

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the levels of, and socioeconomic variations in, income-related inequality in induced abortion among Turkish women. The study included 15,480 ever-married women of reproductive age (15-49) from the 2003 and 2008 waves of the Turkish Demographic and Health Survey. The measured inequalities in abortion levels and their changes over time were decomposed into the percentage contributions of selected socioeconomic factors using ordinary least square analysis and concentration indices were calculated. The inequalities and their first difference (difference in inequalities between 2003 and 2008) were decomposed using the approaches of Wagstaff et al. (2003). Higher socioeconomic characteristics (such as higher levels of wealth and education and better neighbourhood) were found to be associated with higher rates of abortion. Inequality analyses indicated that although deprived women become more familiar with abortion over time, abortion was still more concentrated among affluent women in the 2008 survey. The decomposition analyses suggested that wealth, age, education and level of regional development were the most important contributors to income-related inequality in abortion. Therefore policies that (i) increase the level of wealth and education of deprived women, (ii) develop deprived regions of Turkey, (iii) improve knowledge about family planning and, especially (iv) enhance the accessibility of family planning services for deprived and/or rural women, may be beneficial for reducing socioeconomic variations in abortion in the country.

  2. Socioeconomic factors relating to diabetes and its management in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrivastava, Usha; Misra, Anoop; Gupta, Rajeev; Viswanathan, Vijay

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes is an escalating problem in India and has major socioeconomic dimensions. Rapid dietary changes coupled with decreased levels of physical activity have resulted in increases in obesity and diabetes in rural and semi-urban areas, as well as in urban-based people living in resettlement colonies. Increasing risk has also been recorded in those who suffered from poor childhood nutrition and in rural-to-urban migrants. Social inequity manifests in disparities in socioeconomic status (SES), place of residence, education, gender, and level of awareness and affects prevention, care, and management. All these population subsets have major socioeconomic challenges: low levels of awareness regarding diabetes and prevention, inadequate resources, insufficient allotment of healthcare budgets, and lack of medical reimbursement. Unawareness and delays in seeking medical help lead to complications, resulting in many-fold increased costs in diabetes care. These costs plunge individuals and households into a vicious cycle of further economic hardship, inadequate management, and premature mortality, resulting in more economic losses. At the societal level, these are massive losses to national productivity and the exchequer. Overall, there is an immediate need to strengthen the healthcare delivery system to generate awareness and for the prevention, early detection, cost-effective management, and rehabilitation of patients with diabetes, with a focus on people belonging to the lower SES and women (with a particular focus on nutrition before and during pregnancy). Because of an enhanced awareness campaign spearheaded through the National Program on Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease, Cancer, Diabetes and Stroke (NCPCDS) initiated by Government of India, it is likely that the level of awareness and early detection of diabetes may increase.

  3. B4G local area: high level requirements and system design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Preben; Pajukoski, Kari; Raaf, Bernhard

    2012-01-01

    A next generation Beyond 4G (B4G) radio access technology is expected to become available around 2020 in order to cope with the exponential increase of mobile data traffic. In this paper, research motivations and high level requirements for a B4G local area concept are discussed. Our suggestions ...

  4. Managing Risk Areas in Software Development Offshoring: A CMMI Level 5 Case

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, John Stouby; Schlichter, Bjarne Rerup

    2015-01-01

    . Against this backdrop, we present an interpretive case study of how managers perceive and mitigate the risk areas in software development offshoring with a mature CMMI level 5 (Capability Maturity Model, Integrated) software company as the client. We find that managers perceive and mitigate most...

  5. Levels of participation and interactional issue framing in a water area planning process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Francois, G.; Dewulf, A.; Taillieu, T.

    2008-01-01

    Session 1-2 Levels of participation and their impact on interactional issue framing in a water area planning process Greet François 1, Art Dewulf 2, Tharsi Taillieu 1 1 K.U.Leuven - Research group for Work, Organisational and Personnel Psychology 2 Wageningen University - Public Administration and P

  6. Influence of Experience, Grade Level, and Subject Area on Teachers' Assessment Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bol, Linda; Stephenson, Patricia L.; O'Connell, Ann A.; Nunnery, John A.

    1998-01-01

    Explored teachers' self-reported assessment practices and the influence of teaching experience, grade level, and subject area on those practices. Surveys of 893 teachers in 34 schools indicated that they used observational assessment and performance tasks more frequently than traditional assessment. Experienced teachers, elementary teachers, and…

  7. Hair Selenium Levels of School Children in Kashin-Beck Disease Endemic Areas in Tibet, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhuo; Li, Hairong; Yang, Linsheng; Wang, Wuyi; Li, Yonghua; Gong, Hongqiang; Guo, Min; Nima, Cangjue; Zhao, Shengcheng; Wang, Jing; Ye, Bixiong; Danzeng, Sangbu; Deji, Yangzong

    2015-11-01

    Previous studies have shown that the selenium (Se) deficiency is an important factor for the etiology of Kashin-Beck disease (KBD). Although KBD is presently controlled in most regions of China, it is still active in the Tibetan Plateau. The present study aimed to assess the nutritional status of selenium in school children by using the Se level in hair as a biomarker in KBD endemic areas of Lhasa in Tibet, China. Hair samples of 155 school children aged 6-15 years were collected in both KBD areas and non-KBD areas of Lhasa in 2013. The Se level in the hair samples was determined by inductive coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The average concentration of Se in children's hair was 0.232 μg/g in KBD areas of Lhasa, which was significantly higher than the data reported decades ago. A significant difference in hair Se was observed between the boys (0.255 μg/g) and the girls (0.222 μg/g) in the studied KBD areas (P Tibet. Nevertheless, there were still 20.3 % of students with low Se status (hair Se <0.20 μg/g), which showed that Se status of school children was also partly affected by low Se environment in KBD endemic areas of Lhasa.

  8. Cu, Mn, Fe, and Zn Levels in Soils of Shika Area, Nigeria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S. A. MASHI; S. A. YARO; A. S. HAIBA

    2004-01-01

    Heavy metals presented in toxic amounts can become injurious to human health. In areas where there is a high level of human activities on soils (such as agriculture and grazing) studies are therefore required from time to time to monitor levels of such metals in the soils in order to identify the point in time when toxicity problems become real. The 英文摘要: of this paper is to determine the concentrations of some trace metals (Cu, Mn, Fe, and Zn) in soils under cultivation and grazing practices in Shika, a rural area of Kaduna state of Nigeria. Method In this study, soil samples collected from three different categories of locations (cultivated, grazed, and uncultivated/non- grazed serving as a control) across Shika area, Nigeria, were analysed for some trace metal levels (Cu, Mn, Fe, and Zn) using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. For each category, multiple sites were chosen to accommodate all possible intra-category variations, especially in terms of land use and management history and topographic characteristics. Topsoil (0-15 cm) and subsoil (20-30 cm) samples were collected from every site and analysed for the above metals. Averaged values of the metals for the three categories revealed that Zn is the most abundant metal, followed by Fe, then Mn and Cu the least. Results The results obtained indicate that the cultivation practices, and to a lesser extent grazing, in the area result in higher levels of all the metals than in the control, suggesting that crop immobilization of the metals from soils of the area is low, and that their systematic accumulation is taking place in cultivated soils of the area. Prospects of having elevated soil levels of the metals due to cultivation practices in the area therefore seem quite high. Conclusion On the basis of the results obtained, it was concluded that grazing and cultivation practices have in general caused some significant elevations in the bioavailable (i.e the plant available forms) levels of Zn, Fe, Mn

  9. Radioactivity levels in the mostly local foodstuff consumed by residents of the high level natural radiation areas of Ramsar, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathabadi, Nasrin; Salehi, Ali Akbar; Naddafi, Kazem; Kardan, Mohammad Reza; Yunesian, Masud; Nodehi, Ramin Nabizadeh; Deevband, Mohammad Reza; Shooshtari, Molood Gooniband; Hosseini, Saeedeh Sadat; Karimi, Mahtab

    2017-04-01

    Among High Level Natural Radiation Areas (HLNRAs) all over the world, the northern coastal city of Ramsar has been considered enormously important. Many studies have measured environmental radioactivity in Ramsar, however, no survey has been undertaken to measure concentrations in the diets of residents. This study determined the (226)Ra activity concentration in the daily diet of people of Ramsar. The samples were chosen from both normal and high level natural radiation areas and based on the daily consumption patterns of residents. About 150 different samples, which all are local and have the highest consumption, were collected during the four seasons. In these samples, after washing and drying and pretreatment, the radionuclide was determined by α-spectrometry. The mean radioactivity concentration of (226)Ra ranged between 5 ± 1 mBq kg(-1) wet weight (chino and meat) to 725 ± 480 mBq kg(-1) for tea dry leaves. The (226)Ra activity concentrations compared with the reference values of UNSCEAR appear to be higher in leafy vegetables, milk and meat product. Of the total daily dietary (226)Ra exposure for adults in Ramsar, the largest percentage was from eggs. The residents consuming eggs from household chickens may receive an elevated dose in the diet.

  10. Determinants of blood-lead levels in children in Callao and Lima metropolitan area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Espinoza Rocío

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To determine blood lead levels in urban populations of children (n=2 510 and women (n=874 in the early postpartum in certain districts of Lima and Callao, and to correlate those levels with particular exposures. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Between July 1998 and January 1999 cross sectional study was conducted. The study population was selected using three sampling strategies in the government operated school system and from public pediatric and maternity hospitals at Lima and Callao, Peru. Study personnel were trained to collect finger stick blood samples with a protocol that minimizes external lead contamination. Lead determinations in blood and environmental samples were performed at the study site using portable anodic striping voltamenters. To determine the simultaneous effects of different predictors on blood lead levels, multivariate regression models were used to estimate adjusted mean differences. RESULTS: The mean blood lead level in the children studied was 9.9 µg/dl ranging from I µg/dl to 64 µg/dl with 29% of the children displaying values greater than 10 µg/dl and 9.4% at levels greater than 20 µg/dl. Among the women, the mean was 3.5 µg/dl (SD=2.4 µg/dl, and 2.4% (n=21 displayed levels greater than 10 µg/dl. Important differences were observed between the sample locations, and the highest levels were documented in the port region near Callao. The mean level of blood lead in this group was 25.6 µg/dl (SD=4.6 µg/dl, while among the rest of the sample it was 7.1 µg/dl (SD=5.1 µg/dl. The presence of a mineral storage area signified a difference in exposure in excess of 13 µg/dl for children living near the port area in contrast to the other children who were not as close to such fixed sources of lead exposure. For the participants in Lima, the risk of showing levels above 10 µg/dl was associated with exposure to high vehicular traffic. CONCLUSIONS: In metropolitan Lima, we conclude that the mean blood lead levels of

  11. 324 Building radiochemical engineering cells, high-level vault, low-level vault, and associated areas closure plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnett, J.M.

    1998-03-25

    The Hanford Site, located adjacent to and north of Richland, Washington, is operated by the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (RL). The 324 Building is located in the 300 Area of the Hanford Site. The 324 Building was constructed in the 1960s to support materials and chemical process research and development activities ranging from laboratory/bench-scale studies to full engineering-scale pilot plant demonstrations. In the mid-1990s, it was determined that dangerous waste and waste residues were being stored for greater than 90 days in the 324 Building Radiochemical Engineering Cells (REC) and in the High-Level Vault/Low-Level Vault (HLV/LLV) tanks. [These areas are not Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) permitted portions of the 324 Building.] Through the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) Milestone M-89, agreement was reached to close the nonpermitted RCRA unit in the 324 Building. This closure plan, managed under TPA Milestone M-20-55, addresses the identified building areas targeted by the Tri-Party Agreement and provides commitments to achieve the highest degree of compliance practicable, given the special technical difficulties of managing mixed waste that contains high-activity radioactive materials, and the physical limitations of working remotely in the areas within the subject closure unit. This closure plan is divided into nine chapters. Chapter 1.0 provides the introduction, historical perspective, 324 Building history and current mission, and the regulatory basis and strategy for managing the closure unit. Chapters 2.0, 3.0, 4.0, and 5.0 discuss the detailed facility description, process information, waste characteristics, and groundwater monitoring respectively. Chapter 6.0 deals with the closure strategy and performance standard, including the closure activities for the B-Cell, D-Cell, HLV, LLV; piping and miscellaneous associated building areas. Chapter 7.0 addresses the

  12. [Effect of industrial and socioeconomic factors on morbidity levels with temporary work loss among workers and employees of specialized state farms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleptsov, N F

    1976-01-01

    Specialization of the agricultural industry at state farms brings changes into conditions of work, affects the disease incidence involving temporary incapacitation among state farm workers. The sick-rate among those of them who are engaged in dairy and vegetable-growing state farms is higher that among workers of the cattle breeding ones. A higher level complex mechanization of labour-consuming processes in cattle breeding and plant growing mitigates the influence exercised by specialization of the state farm agricultural production. The disease-incidence with temporary incapacitation is affected not only by occupational, but also by non-occupational factors.

  13. Empirical analysis on impact of FDI on the level of urbanization in costal areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cao Can-Ming

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: There is a close relationship between FDI and the level of urbanization. the objective of this research is to analyze the relationship between FDI and the level of urbanization in Jiangsu and Guangdong provinces in costal areas.Design/methodology/approach: The author uses the modern econometric methods by panel unit root test, cointegration test, random effects models and fixed effects models, and the data of FDI (2000-2012, urbanization rate, industrial structure and regional GDP of Nanjing, Xuzhou, Suzhou, Wuxi and other 13 cities in Jiangsu Province, Guangzhou, Shenzhen and other 19 cities in Guangdong province, researches the relationship between FDI and urbanization rate.Findings: Models show, FDI was closely correlated with urbanization rate in Jiangsu province and Guangdong province, the highly correlated with industrial structure, while it negatively correlated with the growth of GDP, and the degree of correlation is not high in Jiangsu province, but the high negative correlation in Guangdong province. The results shows the industrial structure and the urbanization rate mainly cause FDI growth.Research limitations/implications: There are many provinces in costal areas of China, this paper just research the relationship between FDI and the level of urbanization in Jiangsu province and Guangdong province, there are some limitations in the study areas and results.Originality/value: The study was the first to successfully apply on random effects model and fixed effects model to study the relationship between FDI and the level of urbanization in coastal areas by competitive analysis. Guangdong and Jiangsu province are the most developed regions, they are the most representative provinces in costal areas of China. Taking these two province as an example, we can analyze the relationship between FDI and the level of urbanization in central and western regions.

  14. Dose levels in the hot cells area ININ; Niveles de dosis en el area de celdas calientes-ININ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torre, J. De la; Ramirez, J.M. [ININ, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Solis, M.L. [UAEM, Toluca, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)]. E-mail: jto@nuclear.inin.mx

    2004-07-01

    The Laboratory of Hot Cells (LCC) located in the National Institute of Nuclear Research (ININ) is an institution, it is an area where radioactive material is managed with different activity values, in function of its original design for 10,000 curies of Co-60. Managing this materials in the installation, it implies to measure and to analyze the dose levels that the POE will receive as well as the implementation of appropriate measures of radiological protection and radiological safety, so that that is completed settled down by the concept ALARA. In this work they are carried out mensurations of the levels of the dose to receive for the POE when managing radionuclides with maximum activities that can be allowed in function of the current conditions of the cells and an evaluation of the obtained results is made comparing them with the effective international norms as well as the application of the program of surveillance and radiological protection implemented for the development of the works that are carry out in the installation. (Author)

  15. Caffeine and REM sleep deprivation: Effect on basal levels of signaling molecules in area CA1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkadhi, Karim A; Alhaider, Ibrahim A

    2016-03-01

    We have investigated the neuroprotective effect of chronic caffeine treatment on basal levels of memory-related signaling molecules in area CA1 of sleep-deprived rats. Animals in the caffeine groups were treated with caffeine in drinking water (0.3g/l) for four weeks before they were REM sleep-deprived for 24h in the Modified Multiple Platforms paradigm. Western blot analysis of basal protein levels of plasticity- and memory-related signaling molecules in hippocampal area CA1 showed significant down regulation of the basal levels of phosphorylated- and total-CaMKII, phosphorylated- and total-CREB as well as those of BDNF and CaMKIV in sleep deprived rats. All these changes were completely prevented in rats that chronically consumed caffeine. The present findings suggest an important neuroprotective property of caffeine in sleep deprivation.

  16. Groundwater level deterioration issues and suggested solution for the water curtain cultivation area in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yongcheol; Lee, Bongju; Ha, Kucheol; Yoon, Yunyeol; Moon, Sangho; Cho, Suyoung; Kim, Seongyun

    2013-04-01

    Protected water curtain cultivation system is an energy saving technique for winter season by splashing groundwater on the inner roof of the green house. But the issue is that the method results in groundwater level deterioration because it disposes the used groundwater to nearby stream. Reuse of the groundwater for water curtain cultivation is important Groundwater level, steam level, and groundwater usage rate are investigated at the five green house concentrated areas such as Cheongwon, Namyangju, Choongju, Namwon, Jinju. Groundwater usage rate is estimated using a ultrasonic flowmeter for a specific well and using the combination of pressure sensor and propeller type velocity counting equipment at a water disposal channel from November to April which is water curtain cultivating season. Groundwater usage rate ranges from 46.9m3/d to 108.0m3/d for a 10a greenhouse. Groundwater level change is strongly influenced by seasonal variation of rainfall and concentrated pumping activities in winter but the level is lower than stream level all year long resulting in all year around losing stream at Cheongwon, Namyangju, Jinju. At Nanwon, the stream is converted from losing one in winter to gaining one in summer. Groundwater level deterioration at concentrated water curtain cultivation area is found to be severe for some area where circulating water curtain cultivation system is need to be applied for groundwater restoration and sustainable cultivation in winter. Circulating water curtain cultivation system can restore the groundwater level by recharging the used groundwater through injection well and then pumping out from pumping well.

  17. Correlation of chronic periodontitis in tropical area and IFN-γ, IL-10, IL-17 levels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qi-Ya Fu; Li Zhang; Li Duan; Shi-Yun Qian; Hong-Xia Pang

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the correlation of chronic periodontitis in tropical area and IFN-γ, IL-10 and IL-17 levels. Methods: One hundred and forty-eight patients and one hundred and thirty-two healthy control subjects were included in the study. Clinical parameters (PI, GI and PD) and GCF levels of IFN-γ, IL-10 and IL-17 were measured at baseline, week 8, week 16 and week 24 after mechanical removal of dental plaque. IFN-γ and IL-10 were determined with ELISA methods and IL-17 was determined with the cytometric bead array. Results: Removal of dental plaque resulted in improvement in all clinical parameters. Meanwhile, GCF IL-17 declined to control levels, while GCF IFN-γ and IL-10 levels remained unchanged. Conclusions: The decline of GCF IL-17 levels in patients with resolution of periodontitis suggests that IL-17 is involved in the periodontal inflammatory process.

  18. Influence of the socioeconomic status on the prevalence of malocclusion in the primary dentition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiene Silva Normando

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the influence of socioeconomic background on malocclusion prevalence in primary dentition in a population from the Brazilian Amazon. METHODS: This cross-sectional study comprised 652 children (males and females aged between 3 to 6 years old. Subjects were enrolled in private preschools (higher socioeconomic status - HSS, n = 312 or public preschools (lower socioeconomic status - LSS, n = 340 in Belém, Pará, Brazil. Chi-square and binomial statistics were used to assess differences between both socioeconomic groups, with significance level set at P < 0.05. RESULTS: A high prevalence of malocclusion (81.44% was found in the sample. LSS females exhibited significantly lower prevalence (72.1% in comparison to HSS females (84.7%, particularly with regard to Class II (P < 0.0001, posterior crossbite (P = 0.006, increased overbite (P = 0.005 and overjet (P < 0.0001. Overall, malocclusion prevalence was similar between HSS and LSS male children (P = 0.36. Early loss of primary teeth was significantly more prevalent in the LSS group (20.9% in comparison to children in the HSS group (0.9%, for both males and females (P < 0.0001. CONCLUSION: Socioeconomic background influences the occurrence of malocclusion in the primary dentition. In the largest metropolitan area of the Amazon, one in every five LSS children has lost at least one primary tooth before the age of seven.

  19. A spatial model of socioeconomic and environmental determinants of dengue fever in Cali, Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delmelle, Eric; Hagenlocher, Michael; Kienberger, Stefan; Casas, Irene

    2016-12-01

    Dengue fever has gradually re-emerged across the global South, particularly affecting urban areas of the tropics and sub-tropics. The dynamics of dengue fever transmission are sensitive to changes in environmental conditions, as well as local demographic and socioeconomic factors. In 2010, the municipality of Cali, Colombia, experienced one of its worst outbreaks, however the outbreak was not spatially homogeneous across the city. In this paper, we evaluate the role of socioeconomic and environmental factors associated with this outbreak at the neighborhood level, using a Geographically Weighted Regression model. Key socioeconomic factors include population density and socioeconomic stratum, whereas environmental factors are proximity to both tire shops and plant nurseries and the presence of a sewage system (R(2)=0.64). The strength of the association between these factors and the incidence of dengue fever is spatially heterogeneous at the neighborhood level. The findings provide evidence to support public health strategies in allocating resources locally, which will enable a better detection of high risk areas, a reduction of the risk of infection and to strengthen the resilience of the population.

  20. PCB level in fish of Zadar area, Croatia and estimation its intake by critical population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovac, T.; Picer, M.; Picer, N.; Kobasic, V.H. [Rudjer Boskovic Inst., Zagreb (Croatia)

    2004-09-15

    In Croatian karst area encompassed by warfare, several cases show reasonable doubt resulting with underground water contamination. Beside roads, airports, waste landfills or large industrial plant which are typical possible contamination sources for underground waters in karst, whose damage or destruction during warfare increases contamination hazard, it is necessary to exclude damaged transformer stations, and the use of nonsanitary waste landfills. Furthermore it is necessary to give notice that inappropriate waste or contaminated soil disposal, for example in karst valley (which happens occasionally in contamination remediation purposes), may multiply underground water contamination hazard in karst terrain. Taking into account location of destroyed Zadar Electrical Transformer Stations, there is some speculation regarding the potential hazard from organohalogenated toxicants to the coastal sea around the Zadar. DDT levels in coastal sediment of the investigated area during 1997 are mostly lower, compared with results obtained in Mediterranean, the Adriatic, and Rijeka bay. However, PCB levels are significantly higher compared to DDT, and it could be said they are comparable with more contaminated areas of the Mediterranean, such as coast of Spain and France, Italy and Greece. Epibenthic fish, and even more benthic fish, do not move through wide areas, so their contamination can better indicate the level of contaminants in some narrow area. On the other hand, contaminants in those fish do not depend much on relatively small distances from a dotted source of contamination (as is the case with mussels and sediment), thus better ''integrating'' contamination status of a site. This paper shows data on PCBs detected in fish of the territorial sea ecosystem in the area of Zadar, Croatia.

  1. Butt lengths differ by area deprivation level: a field study to explore intensive smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, George; Wilson, Nick; Bushell, Lisa; Al Matar, Waseem; Ball, Bridget; Chiu, Jessie; Culliford, Nicola; Gately, Callum; Gibson, Kirsty; Hudson, Jennifer; Hunt, Paul; Rangamuwa, Kanishka; Tapp, Dylan; Wickramaratne, Hasith; Young, Vanessa

    2008-05-01

    We collected cigarette butts in a range of residential areas, to assess differences in the length of unburnt tobacco in the butts, and in proportions of roll-your-own (RYO) cigarettes. Two high, two medium, and two low deprivation areas, as classified by deciles of the New Zealand Deprivation Index, were selected for the Wellington region. Collected butts were systematically classified and measured. A mixed model of analysis, treating location clusters nested within deprivation level areas as a random effect, was used to assess differences in mean length of unburnt tobacco in the butts. A total of 6,262 cigarette butts and separate filters were collected, of which 3,509 (56.0%) were measurable manufactured cigarette butts, 1,069 were unmeasurable manufactured butts, 1,450 were RYO butts, and 236 were RYO filters. The RYO butts were not measured because of the extent of their degradation. The unburnt tobacco lengths in manufactured cigarette butts were significantly shorter in the most deprived areas, relative to the least deprived areas (p = .035). Deformed manufactured cigarette butts (i.e., that potentially were stubbed out) showed the same pattern (p = .011 between the most and least deprived areas). We found no significant difference between deprivation areas in the proportion of RYO material found. The shorter mean unburnt tobacco length in the most deprived areas is consistent with more intensive smoking among smokers in those areas. This finding is consistent with other evidence of increased price sensitivity among poorer smokers, and with basic economic theory. Further evidence on observed smoking behavior in the field is necessary to better interpret these preliminary findings.

  2. Bronchial responsiveness in children living in areas with different air pollution levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forastiere, F.; Michelozzi, P.; Agabiti, N.; Brancato, G.; Perucci, C.A. (Latium Regional Health Authority, Rome (Italy)); Corbo, G.M.; Pistelli, R.; Ciappi, G. (Catholic Univ., Rome (Italy))

    This study evaluated the prevalence of increased bronchial responsiveness (BR) in children living in two areas with different air pollution levels. A total of 1 215 methacholine challenge tests were performed among a random sample of primary school children in an industrial town polluted by oil-fired thermoelectric power plants and in a rural area chosen as a control. The two groups showed similar lung function data (forced vital capacity [FVC] and forced expiratory volume in 1 s [FEV[sub 1.0

  3. [APPROACHES TO URBAN AREA RANKING ACCORDINGLY TO THE LEVEL OF HEAVY METAL POLLUTION].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanova, N V; Valeeva, E R; Fomina, S F

    2015-01-01

    Urban area ranking was performed according to the level of the heavy metal pollution based on the data of the snow and soil chemical characteristics. With reference to cumulative rates of the snow cover and soil pollution by heavy metals in the territory of the city of Kazan there were selected four areas: I--Derbyshki; II--Teplocontrol; III--Gorki; IV--Kirovsky district. The pollution level of snow cover in the territory of the city was determined by pollution level indices calculated with the application of Maximum Permissible Concentration (MPC) of chemical substances in ambient waters for household and recreational and service facilities use. The assessment of the pollution level in soils in the city showed the total territory of Kazan to be mildly polluted by manganese, concerning other heavy metals the categories of the soil pollution vary on areas. Results of hair biological monitoring in children are an informative auxiliary tool for the evaluation of the present ecological situation concerning heavy metals in certain territories of the city.

  4. Selenium level in the environment and the population of Zhoukoudian area, Beijing, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Na [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Peking University Health Science Center, 38 Xue Yuan Road, Hai, Dian District, Beijing 100083 (China); Gao Zhidong [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Peking University Health Science Center, 38 Xue Yuan Road, Hai, Dian District, Beijing 100083 (China); Luo Degang [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Peking University Health Science Center, 38 Xue Yuan Road, Hai, Dian District, Beijing 100083 (China); Tang Xun [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Peking University Health Science Center, 38 Xue Yuan Road, Hai, Dian District, Beijing 100083 (China); Chen Dafang [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Peking University Health Science Center, 38 Xue Yuan Road, Hai, Dian District, Beijing 100083 (China); Hu Yonghua [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Peking University Health Science Center, 38 Xue Yuan Road, Hai, Dian District, Beijing 100083 (China)]. E-mail: yhhu@bjmu.edu.cn

    2007-08-01

    The objective of this study was to detect the selenium level in the environment and the population of Zhoukoudian area, Beijing, and to discuss the influence of various factors on serum selenium level. The soil, drinking water, and foodstuff samples and venous blood samples of 401 individuals were obtained to determine the selenium level by gas chromatograph equipped with a {sup 63}Ni electron capture detector (ECD). The selenium level was 0.210 {+-} 0.013 {mu}g/g in soil, 0.017 {mu}g/L {+-} 0.002 in drinking water, 0.034 {+-} 0.002 {mu}g/g in rice, and 0.034 {+-} 0.012 {mu}g/g in wheat flour. This index showed that the Zhoukoudian area of Beijing was a moderate or marginal level selenium ecological landscape. The mean serum selenium level of the population was 75.01 {+-} 28.35 {mu}g/L, ranging between 35.2 and 160.4 {mu}g/L. A total of 279 (69.6%) individuals exhibited serum selenium level below 80 {mu}g/L, which is the lowest threshold for the activity of glutathione peroxidases (GPx) in vivo. A total of 35 (8.5%) individuals exhibited serum selenium level below 45 {mu}g/L. It is widely recommended that below this value (45 {mu}g/L) there is an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and cancer. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that serum selenium level was positively associated with body mass index ({beta} = 0.137; P = 0.011), serum total cholesterol TC ({beta} = 0.785; P = 0.000), however, negatively associated with systolic blood pressure ({beta} = - 0.172; P = 0.023), serum triglyceride ({beta} = - 0.170; P = 0.007), high density lipoprotein-cholesterol ({beta} = - 0.121; P = 0.027), and low high density lipoprotein-cholesterol ({beta} = - 0.568; P = 0.027)

  5. PHYSICAL ACTIVITY PRACTICE AND THE SOCIO-ECONOMIC CONDITIONS: comparative study of children and adolescents of the municipality of Santa Cruz do Sul – RS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus Cezar Maria

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to verify possible differences in the levels of physical activity related to the socio-economic conditions of schoolchildren in the municipality of Santa Cruz do Sul-RS. It is of transversal-descriptive character, and its subjects are 350 schoolchildren, aged 7 to 17, of both genders. For data collection a previously validated and adapted questionnaire was used, while the chi-quadrat-test was used for statistical analysis. Significant statistical differences were detected in the manner of locomotion, with regard to the school level and socio-economic status, for both genders. The results showed that students from urban areas and of inferior socio-economic levels showed more active in this respect. In the practice of physical activities, the results pointed to a reverse relation of this variable with the socio-economic level. At school level, a prevalence of inactive subjects from the rural area was observed. The difference in the form of locomotion and the physical activities of the evaluated schoolchildren, both at school level and at their socio-economic level, demonstrates different profiles of schoolchildren, which should be considered in future intervention programs.

  6. Heavy Metals Concentration Levels in Soils throughout the East San Francisco Bay Area, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagan, K.; Ramirez, N.; Diaz, J.; Cuff, K.; Adarkwah, N.

    2008-12-01

    Previous studies have shown that soils near structures made of pressure treated wood created before 2003 often contain high levels of arsenic, which was widely used in the processing of such wood. One such study, conducted by student scientists affiliated with the SF ROCKS program at San Francisco State University, found high levels of arsenic in soils collected from several children's play areas in San Francisco (Negrete, et al., 2006). Due to the known health risks associated with high concentrations of arsenic, and given a general lack of data related to soils of the East San Francisco Bay Area, the current study was initiated to determine whether or not dangerously high levels of arsenic exist in soils near public schools and playgrounds located in Richmond and Oakland, California. Soil samples were collected from approximately 100 locations in and around such areas, and analyzed for arsenic and a variety of other heavy metals concentration levels using an ICP spectrometer. Preliminary results demonstrate arsenic levels that exceed the EPA's 0.4 ppm action limit in 27 of the 100 sites from which samples were collected. Also, strong correlations between arsenic and various metals in the soil were found, such as arsenic with chromium (0.7022) and nickel (0.6588). Additionally, dangerously high levels of arsenic and lead were found in soils collected along the shores of a small lake fed by Leona Creek on the campus of Mills College in the Oakland foothills, approximately 2 kilometers downstream from a former iron sulphide mine. This occurrence constitutes evidence that the owner of the mine has not complied with recent orders from a local regulatory agency to make sure that mine effluents are safe.

  7. Assessment of noise levels in clinical and laboratory areas of dental teaching institution, Ahmedabad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujal M Parkar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To measure and assess the noise levels produced by different dental equipments. Materials and Methods: Measurement of the noise level was performed in preclinics, clinics, and dental laboratory of different departments of Ahmedabad Dental College and Hospital. The noise levels were determined using a Mini sound meter (CEM USA, which was placed at the dentist′s and laboratory technician′s ear level and at a distance of 1 m from a main noise source. The level of noise was measured in decibel (dB while the instruments were at maximum running speed. Results: In dental laboratory, the nosiest dental equipment was gypsum lathe trimmer with the noise level ranging from 87.36 to 98.3 dB. In preclinical area, the sound produced by low-speed air-rotor ranges from 66.68 to 69.28 dB. In clinical areas, the highest noise produced was by high-speed air-rotor (73.36 to 81.8 dB. The noise created by suction pump when in contact with mucosa was in range from 73.1 to 80.32 dB. The noise levels generated during cutting were significantly higher (P < 0.05 than those of noncutting, which was proved in the course of the measurements. Conclusion: At the end of the study it can be concluded that the sound levels are below that causes damage to the human ear (85 dB. However, dental technicians and other personnel working all day in noisy laboratories could be at risk of Noise-Induced Hearing Loss if they did not choose not to wear ear protection.

  8. Progress in Implementing the Sustainable Development Concept into Socioeconomic Development in Poland Compared to other Member States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazur-Wierzbicka Ewa

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable development-related issues have been discussed in the public discourse worldwide since the 1960’s. The socioeconomic development theme is one of the key themes in sustainable development singled out by the European Union with a special attention paid to three crucial areas, namely: economic development, competitiveness, innovation and eco-efficiency as well as employment. Therefore, the aim of this article is to assess the implementation level of the sustainable development concept in the area of socioeconomic development in Poland compared to other Member States. In order to achieve the articles aim the following two research tasks were performed: sustainable development in terms of socioeconomic development in the EU strategic documents has been described and the sustainable development concept in the area of socioeconomic concept in Poland compared to other Member States has been analysed. The analysis showed that the gap between Poland and the ‘old’ EU has been narrowed since 2004; however, the progress in implementing the sustainable development concept into socioeconomic development was still slow comparing to both the EU-10 and EU-15. This article is based on the available reference, government documents and the analysis was conducted on the basis of secondary data provided by Eurostat.

  9. How do socio-economic factors and distance predict access to prevention and rehabilitation services in a Danish municipality?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hindhede, Anette Lykke; Bonde, Ane; Schipperijn, Jasper;

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim was to explore the extent to which a Danish prevention centre catered to marginalised groups within the catchment area. We determined whether the district’s socio-economic vulnerability status and distance from the citizens’ residential sector to the centre influenced referrals......, ethnicity, and education) as well as the health care systems (resource availability and cultural acceptability). Methods: A total of 347 participants referred to the centre during a 10-month period were included. For each of 44 districts within the catchment area, the degree of socio-economic vulnerability...... was estimated based on the citizens’ educational level, ethnicity, income, and unemployment rate. A socio-economic vulnerability score (SE-score) was calculated. Logistic regression was used to calculate the probability that a person was referred to the centre, attended the initial appointment, and completed...

  10. Derived concentration guideline levels for Argonne National Laboratory's building 310 area.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamboj, S., Dr.; Yu, C ., Dr. (Environmental Science Division)

    2011-08-12

    The derived concentration guideline level (DCGL) is the allowable residual radionuclide concentration that can remain in soil after remediation of the site without radiological restrictions on the use of the site. It is sometimes called the single radionuclide soil guideline or the soil cleanup criteria. This report documents the methodology, scenarios, and parameters used in the analysis to support establishing radionuclide DCGLs for Argonne National Laboratory's Building 310 area.

  11. Improving the AODV Protocol to Satisfy the Required Level of Reliability for Home Area Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Jafari Pozveh

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available For decades, the structure of existing power grids has not changed. It is an old structure that depends heavily on fossil fuel as an energy source, and in the future, this is likely to be critical in the field of energy. To solve these problems and to make optimal use of energy resources, a new concept is proposed, called Smart Grid. Smart Grid is an electric power distribution automation system, which can provide a two-way flow of electricity and information between power plants and consumers. The Smart Grid communications infrastructure consists of different network components, such as Home Area Network (HAN, Neighborhood Area Network (NAN and Wide Area Network (WAN. Achieving the required level of reliability in the transmission of information to all sections, including the HAN, is one of the main objectives in the design and implementation of Smart Grid. This study offers a routing protocol by considering the parameters and constraints of HAN, which, by improving AODV routing protocol, achieves the level of required reliability for data transmission in this network. These improvements include: making table-driven AODV routing protocol, extending the routing protocol to compute multiple paths in a route discovery, simplification and providing the effect of HAN parameters. The results of the NS2 simulation indicate that applying this improved routing protocol in the HAN, satisfies the required level of reliability of the network, which is over 98%.

  12. Socio-economic inequality of immunization coverage in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauridsen, Jørgen; Pradhan, Jalandhar

    2011-08-05

    To our knowledge, the present study provides a first time assessment of the contributions of socioeconomic determinants of immunization coverage in India using the recent National Family Health Survey data. Measurement of socioeconomic inequalities in health and health care, and understanding the determinants of such inequalities in terms of their contributions, are critical for health intervention strategies and for achieving equity in health care. A decomposition approach is applied to quantify the contributions from socio-demographic factors to inequality in immunization coverage. The results reveal that poor household economic status, mother's illiteracy, per capita state domestic product and proportion of illiterate at the state level is systematically related to 97% of predictable socioeconomic inequalities in full immunization coverage at the national level. These patterns of evidence suggest the need for immunization strategies targeted at different states and towards certain socioeconomic determinants as pointed out above in order to reduce socioeconomic inequalities in immunization coverage.JEL Classification: I10, I12.

  13. REM sleep loss associated changes in orexin-A levels in discrete brain areas in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Rachna; Khanday, Mudasir Ahmad; Mallick, Birendra Nath

    2015-03-17

    Rapid eye movement sleep (REMS) serves house-keeping function of the brain and its loss affects several pathophysiological processes. Relative levels of neurotransmitters including orexin A (Orx-A) in various parts of the brain in health and diseases are among the key factors for modulation of behaviors, including REMS. The level of neurotransmitter in an area in the brain directly depends on number of projecting neurons and their firing rates. The locus coeruleus (LC), the site of REM-OFF neurons, receives densest, while the pedunculo-pontine area (PPT), the site of REM-ON neurons receives lesser projections from the Orx-ergic neurons. Further, the Orx-ergic neurons are active during waking and silent during REMS and NREMS. Therefore, the level of Orx-A in discrete regions of the brain is likely to be different during normal and altered states, which in turn is likely to be responsible for altered behaviors in health and diseases, including in relation to REMS. Therefore, in the present study, we estimated Orx-A level in LC, cortex, posterior hypothalamus (PH), hippocampus, and PPT after 96 h REMSD, in post-deprivation recovered rats and in control rats. This is the first report of estimation of Orx-A in different brain regions after prolonged REMSD. It was observed that after REMSD the Orx-A level increased significantly in LC, cortex and PH which returned to normal level after recovery; however, the level did not change in the hippocampus and PPT. The Orx-A induced modulation of REMS could be secondary to increased waking.

  14. Study on Some Socio-Economic and Demographic Variables and Communication Effect on The Marital Adjustment

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    This research, which was conducted in theprovince of Ankara carried out to determine andcompare the various subjects in the economic,managerial and psychosocial activation areas and themarital adjustment of the man and woman in the viewpoint of demographic and socioeconomic variablessuch as their education levels, marriage ages,marriage duration and monthly income amount. 413married personnel and their spouses whom werechosen in accordance with the “Random SamplingMethod” by the personnel who...

  15. Spatial ascariasis risk estimation using socioeconomic variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valencia, Luis Iván Ortiz; Fortes, Bruno de Paula Menezes Drumond; Medronho, Roberto de Andrade

    2005-12-01

    Frequently, disease incidence is mapped as area data, for example, census tracts, districts or states. Spatial disease incidence can be highly heterogeneous inside these areas. Ascariasis is a highly prevalent disease, which is associated with poor sanitation and hygiene. Geostatistics was applied to model spatial distribution of Ascariasis risk and socioeconomic risk events in a poor community in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Data were gathered from a coproparasitologic and a domiciliary survey in 1550 children aged 1-9. Ascariasis risk and socioeconomic risk events were spatially estimated using Indicator Kriging. Cokriging models with a Linear Model of Coregionalization incorporating one socioeconomic variable were implemented. If a housewife attended school for less than four years, the non-use of a home water filter, a household density greater than one, and a household income lower than one Brazilian minimum wage increased the risk of Ascariasis. Cokriging improved spatial estimation of Ascariasis risk areas when compared to Indicator Kriging and detected more Ascariasis very-high risk areas than the GIS Overlay method.

  16. Investigation of environmental activity levels of bone-coal mining area in five provinces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE Ji-Da; KONG Ling-Li; LI Ying; JIANG Shan; ZHANG Liang; SHI Jin-Hua; WU Zong-Mei

    2005-01-01

    During 1991-1993,the activity levels of the bone-coal mines were investigated in Zhejiang,Hubei,Hunan,Jiangxi and Anhui Province,respectively,where the reserve of bone-coal is about 90% of our country's total reserve.The average of γ radiation doserate level measured for bone-coal, bone-coal cinder (BCC)and bone-coal cinder brick (BCCB) in these provinces is about 500 nGy/h,400 nGy/h and 700 nGy/h respectively, while that for fields,roads and houses made of BCCB in corresponding regions of these provinces is about 200 nGy/h, 260 nGy/h and 300nGy/h respectively.It is shown that the environmental activity level of bone-coal mining area is about 3 times higher than the reference spots.

  17. Field-measured drag area is a key correlate of level cycling time trial performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James E. Peterman

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Drag area (Ad is a primary factor determining aerodynamic resistance during level cycling and is therefore a key determinant of level time trial performance. However, Ad has traditionally been difficult to measure. Our purpose was to determine the value of adding field-measured Ad as a correlate of level cycling time trial performance. In the field, 19 male cyclists performed a level (22.1 km time trial. Separately, field-determined Ad and rolling resistance were calculated for subjects along with projected frontal area assessed directly (AP and indirectly (Est AP. Also, a graded exercise test was performed to determine $\\dot {V}{O}_{2}$V̇O2 peak, lactate threshold (LT, and economy. $\\dot {V}{O}_{2}$V̇O2 peak ($\\mathrm{l}~\\min ^{-1}$lmin−1 and power at LT were significantly correlated to power measured during the time trial (r = 0.83 and 0.69, respectively but were not significantly correlated to performance time (r = − 0.42 and −0.45. The correlation with performance time improved significantly (p < 0.05 when these variables were normalized to Ad. Of note, Ad alone was better correlated to performance time (r = 0.85, p < 0.001 than any combination of non-normalized physiological measure. The best correlate with performance time was field-measured power output during the time trial normalized to Ad (r = − 0.92. AP only accounted for 54% of the variability in Ad. Accordingly, the correlation to performance time was significantly lower using power normalized to AP (r = − 0.75 or Est AP (r = − 0.71. In conclusion, unless normalized to Ad, level time trial performance in the field was not highly correlated to common laboratory measures. Furthermore, our field-measured Ad is easy to determine and was the single best predictor of level time trial performance.

  18. A detection-level hazardous waste ground-water monitoring compliance plan for the 200 areas low-level burial grounds and retrievable storage units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-02-01

    This plan defines the actions needed to achieve detection-level monitoring compliance at the Hanford Site 200 Areas Low-Level Burial Grounds (LLBG) in accordance with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Compliance will be achieved through characterization of the hydrogeology and monitoring of the ground water beneath the LLBG located in the Hanford Site 200 Areas. 13 refs., 20 figs.

  19. Predicting fuel poverty at a small-area level in England

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fahmy, Eldin, E-mail: eldin.fahmy@bris.ac.uk [School for Policy Studies, University of Bristol, 8 Priory Road, Bristol BS8 1TZ (United Kingdom); Gordon, David; Patsios, Demi [School for Policy Studies, University of Bristol, 8 Priory Road, Bristol BS8 1TZ (United Kingdom)

    2011-07-15

    This paper describes the development of a series of models for predicting the incidence of fuel poverty in England at a small-area level and examines the adequacy of the modelled results in informing our understanding of the geography of fuel poverty. This paper summarises the development of alternative approaches to model specification based upon different approaches to the treatment of household income. Since 2003 small-area fuel poverty estimates have been widely used to inform affordable warmth policies and local targeting of fuel poverty programs. Whilst improvements in data sources and methods in recent years provide an opportunity to better understand the spatial distribution of fuel poverty, these analyses suggest that our understanding of the incidence and spatial distribution of fuel poverty is highly sensitive to the way in which household incomes are measured. - Highlights: > The proposed models estimate fuel poverty incidence at a small-area level. > This is necessary in order to accurately target local fuel poverty interventions. > Fuel poverty estimates are highly sensitive to differences in income measurement. > Fewer children and more pensioners are fuel poor using EHCS income measures. > More children and fewer pensioners are fuel poor using HBAI income measures.

  20. The effect of organizational level and practice area on managerial work in hospital dietetic services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacio, J P; Spears, M C; Vaden, A G; Dayton, A D

    1985-07-01

    All areas of practice in hospital dietetic services include a management component; however, the nature of the managerial role in various areas of dietetic practice has not been identified clearly. The definition of dietetic practice in the Conceptual Framework for the Profession of Dietetics supports the importance of managerial skills. The effect of organizational level and practice area on managerial activities and roles of professional staff in hospital dietetic services was examined in this study. The nationwide sample included professionals in hospitals with 300+ beds. A total of 3,280 dietetic professionals participated. Five groups were defined: low administrative, low clinical, middle administrative, middle clinical, and upper administrative. Mintzberg identified 10 managerial roles and categorized them as interpersonal, informational, or decisional. The 10 roles were used as the basis for developing an 80-item instrument on which respondents rated each item for importance and time demand. Perceived importance of managerial activities tended to be greater at higher organizational levels. The managerial aspects of the lower clinical and upper administrative position were the most clearly defined. The lower clinical group tended to rate all of the managerial roles as significantly less important than did those in other positions; however, the middle clinical position included a substantial managerial responsibility.

  1. Evaluation of High Level Environmental Background Radiation Areas and its Variation in Ramsar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayyeb Allahverdi Pourfallah

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The exposure of human beings to ionizing radiation from natural sources is a continuing and inescapable feature of life on earth. For most individuals, this exposure exceeds that from all man-made sources combined. Materials and Methods In this study, the annual effective dose in high level environmental background radiation areas (HLEBRAs of northern city of Ramsar in Iran was determined. For dosimetry, a gamma radiation dosimeter was used. Measurements were performed in more than 90 points in five districts with HLEBR around and near hot springs. Results In some areas, the annual effective dose from outdoor external gamma radiation in HLEBRAs (30 mSv/y exceeded the annual effective dose limit for radiation workers. Our results are evident that the population dose from normal background radiation in HLEBRAs is 200 times higher than corresponding values in Ramsar sea shore. To estimate the cosmic ray contribution, dose measurements were performed on the sea surface one km off the sea shore. Conclusion The observed differences over locations and measured doses between this study and the others revealed the dynamic nature of this phenomenon, and necessitate performing the periodic studies in these areas. Moreover, cytogenetic and immunologic researches for studying the long term effects of these high level environmental radiations on the residents of these HLEBRAs are necessary.

  2. Hydrogeology of the 200 Areas low-level burial grounds: An interim report: Volume 1, Text

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Last, G.V.; Bjornstad, B.N.; Bergeron, M.P.; Wallace, D.W.; Newcomer, D.R.; Schramke, J.A.; Chamness, M.A.; Cline, C.S.; Airhart, S.P.; Wilbur, J.S.

    1989-01-01

    This report presents information derived from the installation of 35 ground-water monitoring wells around six low-level radioactive/hazardous waste burial grounds located in the 200 Areas of the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. This information was collected between May 20, 1987 and August 1, 1988. The contents of this report have been divided into two volumes. This volume contains the main text. Volume 2 contains the appendixes, including data and supporting information that verify content and results found in the main text. This report documents information collected by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory at the request of Westinghouse Hanford Company. Presented in this report are the preliminary interpretations of the hydrogeologic environment of six low-level burial grounds, which comprise four waste management areas (WMAs) located in the 200 Areas of the Hanford Site. This information and its accompanying interpretations were derived from sampling and testing activities associated with the construction of 35 ground-water monitoring wells as well as a multitude of previously existing boreholes. The new monitoring wells were installed as part of a ground-water monitoring program initiated in 1986. This ground-water monitoring program is based on requirements for interim status facilities in compliance with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (1976).

  3. Socioeconomic and Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Cancer Mortality, Incidence, and Survival in the United States, 1950–2014: Over Six Decades of Changing Patterns and Widening Inequalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopal K. Singh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed socioeconomic and racial/ethnic disparities in US mortality, incidence, and survival rates from all-cancers combined and major cancers from 1950 to 2014. Census-based deprivation indices were linked to national mortality and cancer data for area-based socioeconomic patterns in mortality, incidence, and survival. The National Longitudinal Mortality Study was used to analyze individual-level socioeconomic and racial/ethnic patterns in mortality. Rates, risk-ratios, least squares, log-linear, and Cox regression were used to examine trends and differentials. Socioeconomic patterns in all-cancer, lung, and colorectal cancer mortality changed dramatically over time. Individuals in more deprived areas or lower education and income groups had higher mortality and incidence rates than their more affluent counterparts, with excess risk being particularly marked for lung, colorectal, cervical, stomach, and liver cancer. Education and income inequalities in mortality from all-cancers, lung, prostate, and cervical cancer increased during 1979–2011. Socioeconomic inequalities in cancer mortality widened as mortality in lower socioeconomic groups/areas declined more slowly. Mortality was higher among Blacks and lower among Asian/Pacific Islanders and Hispanics than Whites. Cancer patient survival was significantly lower in more deprived neighborhoods and among most ethnic-minority groups. Cancer mortality and incidence disparities may reflect inequalities in smoking, obesity, physical inactivity, diet, alcohol use, screening, and treatment.

  4. Prediction of China's Submerged Coastal Areas by Sea Level Rise due to Climate Change

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZUO Juncheng; YANG Yiqiu; ZHANG Jianli; CHEN Meixiang; XU Qing

    2013-01-01

    Based on the simulation with the Ocean-Atmosphere Coupled Model CCSM and Ocean Model POP under the greenhouse gas emission scenario of the IPCC SRES A2 (IPCC,2001),and on the earth crust subsidence and glacier melting data,the relative sea level change is obtained along the coast of China in the 21 st century.Using the SRTM elevation data the submergence of coastal low land is calculated under the extreme water level with a 100-year return period.The total flooding areas are 98.3× 103 and 104.9× 103 km2 for 2050 and 2080,respectively.For the three regions most vulnerable to extreme sea level rise,i.e.,the coast of Bohai Bay,the Yangtze River Delta together with neighboring Jiangsu Province and northern Zhejiang Province,and the Pearl River Delta,the flooded areas are 5.0 × 103,64.1 × 103 and 15.3 × 103 km2 in 2050 and 5.2 × 103,67.8 × 103 and 17.2 × 103 km2 in 2080,respectively.

  5. E AREA LOW LEVEL WASTE FACILITY DOE 435.1 PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilhite, E

    2008-03-31

    This Performance Assessment for the Savannah River Site E-Area Low-Level Waste Facility was prepared to meet requirements of Chapter IV of the Department of Energy Order 435.1-1. The Order specifies that a Performance Assessment should provide reasonable assurance that a low-level waste disposal facility will comply with the performance objectives of the Order. The Order also requires assessments of impacts to water resources and to hypothetical inadvertent intruders for purposes of establishing limits on radionuclides that may be disposed near-surface. According to the Order, calculations of potential doses and releases from the facility should address a 1,000-year period after facility closure. The point of compliance for the performance measures relevant to the all pathways and air pathway performance objective, as well as to the impact on water resources assessment requirement, must correspond to the point of highest projected dose or concentration beyond a 100-m buffer zone surrounding the disposed waste following the assumed end of active institutional controls 100 years after facility closure. During the operational and institutional control periods, the point of compliance for the all pathways and air pathway performance measures is the SRS boundary. However, for the water resources impact assessment, the point of compliance remains the point of highest projected dose or concentration beyond a 100-m buffer zone surrounding the disposed waste during the operational and institutional control periods. For performance measures relevant to radon and inadvertent intruders, the points of compliance are the disposal facility surface for all time periods and the disposal facility after the assumed loss of active institutional controls 100 years after facility closure, respectively. The E-Area Low-Level Waste Facility is located in the central region of the SRS known as the General Separations Area. It is an elbow-shaped, cleared area, which curves to the northwest

  6. E AREA LOW LEVEL WASTE FACILITY DOE 435.1 PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilhite, E

    2008-03-31

    This Performance Assessment for the Savannah River Site E-Area Low-Level Waste Facility was prepared to meet requirements of Chapter IV of the Department of Energy Order 435.1-1. The Order specifies that a Performance Assessment should provide reasonable assurance that a low-level waste disposal facility will comply with the performance objectives of the Order. The Order also requires assessments of impacts to water resources and to hypothetical inadvertent intruders for purposes of establishing limits on radionuclides that may be disposed near-surface. According to the Order, calculations of potential doses and releases from the facility should address a 1,000-year period after facility closure. The point of compliance for the performance measures relevant to the all pathways and air pathway performance objective, as well as to the impact on water resources assessment requirement, must correspond to the point of highest projected dose or concentration beyond a 100-m buffer zone surrounding the disposed waste following the assumed end of active institutional controls 100 years after facility closure. During the operational and institutional control periods, the point of compliance for the all pathways and air pathway performance measures is the SRS boundary. However, for the water resources impact assessment, the point of compliance remains the point of highest projected dose or concentration beyond a 100-m buffer zone surrounding the disposed waste during the operational and institutional control periods. For performance measures relevant to radon and inadvertent intruders, the points of compliance are the disposal facility surface for all time periods and the disposal facility after the assumed loss of active institutional controls 100 years after facility closure, respectively. The E-Area Low-Level Waste Facility is located in the central region of the SRS known as the General Separations Area. It is an elbow-shaped, cleared area, which curves to the northwest

  7. Impact of wood combustion on particle levels in a residential area in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glasius, Marianne; Ketzel, Matthias; Wåhlin, Peter;

    2006-01-01

    The influence of residential wood-combustion on local air quality was studied during two periods in 2002 and 2003/04 in a small rural town with widespread use of wood combustion for heating. During one 6-week winter period, particle levels (PM2.5) in the residential area were about 4 μg m-3 higher...... local heating sources. Particle size distributions showed highest volume concentrations of particles with diameters of 400-500 nm, and the diurnal variation of particle volume was similar to PM2.5. The particle measurements were supported by measurements of combustion gases in both the residential area...... and at a background site. Receptor modelling and source apportionment of the results confirmed that the most important sources to particles were long-range transport (both organic and inorganic compounds) and local heating (particularly organic compounds) in addition to regional traffic emissions. Local wood...

  8. An evaluation of supervised classifiers for indirectly detecting salt-affected areas at irrigation scheme level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Sybrand Jacobus; van Niekerk, Adriaan

    2016-07-01

    Soil salinity often leads to reduced crop yield and quality and can render soils barren. Irrigated areas are particularly at risk due to intensive cultivation and secondary salinization caused by waterlogging. Regular monitoring of salt accumulation in irrigation schemes is needed to keep its negative effects under control. The dynamic spatial and temporal characteristics of remote sensing can provide a cost-effective solution for monitoring salt accumulation at irrigation scheme level. This study evaluated a range of pan-fused SPOT-5 derived features (spectral bands, vegetation indices, image textures and image transformations) for classifying salt-affected areas in two distinctly different irrigation schemes in South Africa, namely Vaalharts and Breede River. The relationship between the input features and electro conductivity measurements were investigated using regression modelling (stepwise linear regression, partial least squares regression, curve fit regression modelling) and supervised classification (maximum likelihood, nearest neighbour, decision tree analysis, support vector machine and random forests). Classification and regression trees and random forest were used to select the most important features for differentiating salt-affected and unaffected areas. The results showed that the regression analyses produced weak models (<0.4 R squared). Better results were achieved using the supervised classifiers, but the algorithms tend to over-estimate salt-affected areas. A key finding was that none of the feature sets or classification algorithms stood out as being superior for monitoring salt accumulation at irrigation scheme level. This was attributed to the large variations in the spectral responses of different crops types at different growing stages, coupled with their individual tolerances to saline conditions.

  9. Protocol for the E-Area Low Level Waste Facility Disposal Limits Database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swingle, R

    2006-01-31

    A database has been developed to contain the disposal limits for the E-Area Low Level Waste Facility (ELLWF). This database originates in the form of an EXCEL{copyright} workbook. The pertinent sheets are translated to PDF format using Adobe ACROBAT{copyright}. The PDF version of the database is accessible from the Solid Waste Division web page on SHRINE. In addition to containing the various disposal unit limits, the database also contains hyperlinks to the original references for all limits. It is anticipated that database will be revised each time there is an addition, deletion or revision of any of the ELLWF radionuclide disposal limits.

  10. Hydrogeology of the 200 Areas low-level burial grounds: An interim report: Volume 2, Appendixes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Last, G.V.; Bjornstad, B.N.; Bergeron, M.P.; Wallace, D.W.; Newcomer, D.R.; Schramke, J.A.; Chamness, M.A.; Cline, C.S.; Airhart, S.P.; Wilbur, J.S.

    1989-01-01

    This report presents information derived form the installation of 35 ground-water monitoring wells around six low-level radioactive/hazardous waste burial grounds located in the 200 Areas of the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. This information was collected between May 20, 1987 and August 1, 1988. The contents of this report have been divided into two volumes. Volume 1 contains the main text. This Volume contains the appendixes, including data and supporting information that verify content and results found in the main text.

  11. Energy Efficient Four Level Cooperative Opportunistic Communication for Wireless Personal Area Networks (WPAN)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohokale, Vandana M.; Inamdar, Sandeep; Prasad, Neeli R.;

    2013-01-01

    For wireless sensor networks (WSN),energy is a scarce resource. Due to limited battery resources, the energy consumption is the critical issue for the transmission as well as reception of the signals in the wireless communication. WSNs are infrastructure-less shared network demanding more energy...... consumption due to collaborative transmissions. This paper proposes a new cooperative opportunistic four level model for IEEE 802.15.4 Wireless Personal Area Network (WPAN).The average per node energy consumption is observed merely about 0.17mJ for the cooperative wireless communication which proves...... the proposed mechanism to be energy efficient. This paper further proposes four levels of cooperative data transmission from source to destination to improve network coverage with energy efficiency....

  12. Socio-economic correlates of contraceptive knowledge among women in Kuala Lumpur and Petaling Jaya, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salleh, N M; Peng, T N; Arshat, H

    1986-12-01

    Knowledge about contraception was examined in relation to selected socioeconomic variables. A total of 2567 currently married women aged 15-49 years residing in Kuala Lumpur and Petaling Jaya were interviewed. The majority of the women knew of at least 1 contraceptive method. An index termed Contraceptive Knowledge Score (CKS) was used to measure the level of knowledge about contraception. The CKS achieved differed significantly by age, area of residence and ethnic group. The other socioeconomic variables significantly associated with CKS are schooling, occupation, income, childhood residence and age at marriage. These relationships persisted even after adjusting for differences in age, ethnicity and area of residence. Overall the CKS attained have a wide range and there is no significant difference of the mean CKS attained, between users and non-users of contraceptives.

  13. Assessing Natural Background Levels of aquifers in the Metropolitan Area of Milan (Lombardy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Caro, Mattia; Crosta, Giovanni; Frattini, Paolo

    2016-04-01

    The European Water Framework Directive (WFD 2000/60/CE) requires Member States to evaluate the status of groundwater bodies in order to reach a good water quality for human consumption. One of the preliminary steps for defining the status of groundwater bodies consists in the definition and evaluation of the so-called Natural Background Levels (NBL). The NBL or Baseline level can be defined as "the range of concentration of a given element, isotope or chemical compound in solution, derived entirely from natural, geological, biological or atmospheric sources, under conditions not perturbed by anthropogenic activity" (Edmund and Shand, 2009). The qualitative analysis for a large area (ca 4500 Km2) of the Po Plain around the Milan Metropolitan area (Lombardy, Italy) is presented in this study. Despite the aquifers in the Milan metropolitan area are an incredible groundwater resource for a very large population (3.195.629 inhabitants in the metropolitan area, data at November 2014) and a highly industrialized area, a groundwater baseline characterization is still missing. In order to attain the hydro-geochemical characterization a complete geodatabase was built (120.655 chemical samples from 1980 to 2014). This database has been explored by classical and multivariate statistical analyses to provide relationships among the more influential lithological, hydrogeological and hydro-chemical variables. Finally, the NBLs of different chemical species which may be anthropogenic sensitive (Na, Cl, K, NO3, SO4, NH4, As, Fe, Cr, Fe, Mn, Zn) and for multiple aquifer bodies (phreatic, semi-confined and confined aquifer) are evaluated. Two different approaches are applied: the Pre-Selection method (BRIDGE, 2006) and the Component-Separation method. The first one (PS) consists in the exclusion of samples from the available dataset that could indicate human activities then deriving the NBL as the 90th percentile of the remaining data. The second one (CS) consists in the fitting of

  14. Reef Fishes at All Trophic Levels Respond Positively to Effective Marine Protected Areas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    German A Soler

    Full Text Available Marine Protected Areas (MPAs offer a unique opportunity to test the assumption that fishing pressure affects some trophic groups more than others. Removal of larger predators through fishing is often suggested to have positive flow-on effects for some lower trophic groups, in which case protection from fishing should result in suppression of lower trophic groups as predator populations recover. We tested this by assessing differences in the trophic structure of reef fish communities associated with 79 MPAs and open-access sites worldwide, using a standardised quantitative dataset on reef fish community structure. The biomass of all major trophic groups (higher carnivores, benthic carnivores, planktivores and herbivores was significantly greater (by 40% - 200% in effective no-take MPAs relative to fished open-access areas. This effect was most pronounced for individuals in large size classes, but with no size class of any trophic group showing signs of depressed biomass in MPAs, as predicted from higher predator abundance. Thus, greater biomass in effective MPAs implies that exploitation on shallow rocky and coral reefs negatively affects biomass of all fish trophic groups and size classes. These direct effects of fishing on trophic structure appear stronger than any top down effects on lower trophic levels that would be imposed by intact predator populations. We propose that exploitation affects fish assemblages at all trophic levels, and that local ecosystem function is generally modified by fishing.

  15. Human hair mercury levels in the Wanshan mercury mining area, Guizhou Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ping; Feng, Xinbin; Qiu, Guangle; Shang, Lihai; Li, Guanghui

    2009-12-01

    The total mercury (T-Hg) and methyl mercury (Me-Hg) concentrations in the hair were measured to evaluate mercury (Hg) exposure for the residents in Da-shui-xi Village (DSX) and Xia-chang-xi Village (XCX) in the Wanshan Hg mining area, Guizhou Province, Southwestern China. The mean concentrations in the hair of DSX residents were 5.5 ± 2.7 μg/g and 1.9 ± 0.9 μg/g for T-Hg and Me-Hg, respectively. The concentrations in the hair of XCX residents were 3.3 ± 1.4 μg/g and 1.2 ± 0.5 μg/g for T-Hg and Me-Hg, respectively. Hair Me-Hg concentrations were significantly correlated to T-Hg (r = 0.42, P < 0.01) in the two sites; on average, hair Me-Hg concentration accounted for 40 and 44% of T-Hg for DSX and XCX residents, respectively. Age has no obvious correlation with hair Hg and the hair Hg levels showed a significant gender difference, with higher T-Hg and Me-Hg concentrations in the hair from males than females. The rice collected from the two sites showed high levels of T-Hg and Me-Hg concentration. The results indicated a certain Hg exposure for the residents in DSX and XCX in the Wanshan Hg mining area.

  16. Reduction Expansion Synthesis as Strategy to Control Nitrogen Doping Level and Surface Area in Graphene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell Canty

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Graphene sheets doped with nitrogen were produced by the reduction-expansion (RES method utilizing graphite oxide (GO and urea as precursor materials. The simultaneous graphene generation and nitrogen insertion reactions are based on the fact that urea decomposes upon heating to release reducing gases. The volatile byproducts perform two primary functions: (i promoting the reduction of the GO and (ii providing the nitrogen to be inserted in situ as the graphene structure is created. Samples with diverse urea/GO mass ratios were treated at 800 °C in inert atmosphere to generate graphene with diverse microstructural characteristics and levels of nitrogen doping. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM and transmission electron microscopy (TEM were used to study the microstructural features of the products. The effects of doping on the samples structure and surface area were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD, Raman Spectroscopy, and Brunauer Emmet Teller (BET. The GO and urea decomposition-reduction process as well as nitrogen-doped graphene stability were studied by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA coupled with mass spectroscopy (MS analysis of the evolved gases. Results show that the proposed method offers a high level of control over the amount of nitrogen inserted in the graphene and may be used alternatively to control its surface area. To demonstrate the practical relevance of these findings, as-produced samples were used as electrodes in supercapacitor and battery devices and compared with conventional, thermally exfoliated graphene.

  17. Environmental Lead Pollution and Elevated Blood Lead Levels Among Children in a Rural Area of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Sihao; Yu, Ignatius Tak Sun; Tang, Wenjuan; Miao, Jianying; Li, Jin; Wu, Siying; Lin, Xing

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated environmental lead pollution and its impact on children's blood lead levels (BLLs) in a rural area of China. Methods. In 2007, we studied 379 children younger than 15 years living in 7 villages near lead mines and processing plants, along with a control group of 61 children from another village. We determined their BLLs and collected environmental samples, personal data, and information on other potential exposures. We followed approximately 86% of the children who had high BLLs (> 15 μg/dL) for 1 year. We determined factors influencing BLLs by multivariate linear regression. Results. Lead concentrations in soil and household dust were much higher in polluted villages than in the control village, and more children in the polluted area than in the control village had elevated BLLs (87%, 16.4 μg/dL vs 20%, 7.1 μg/dL). Increased BLL was independently associated with environmental lead levels. We found a significant reduction of 5 micrograms per deciliter when we retested children after 1 year. Conclusions. Our data show that the lead industry caused serious environmental pollution that led to high BLLs in children living nearby. PMID:21421950

  18. Assessment of daytime outdoor comfort levels in and outside the urban area of Glasgow, UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, Eduardo; Drach, Patricia; Emmanuel, Rohinton; Corbella, Oscar

    2013-07-01

    To understand thermal preferences and to define a preliminary outdoor comfort range for the local population of Glasgow, UK, an extensive series of measurements and surveys was carried out during 19 monitoring campaigns from winter through summer 2011 at six different monitoring points in pedestrian areas of downtown Glasgow. For data collection, a Davis Vantage Pro2 weather station equipped with temperature and humidity sensors, cup anemometer with wind vane, silicon pyranometer and globe thermometer was employed. Predictions of the outdoor thermal index PET (physiologically equivalent temperature) correlated closely to the actual thermal votes of respondents. Using concurrent measurements from a second Davis Vantage Pro2 weather station placed in a rural setting approximately 15 km from the urban area, comparisons were drawn with regard to daytime thermal comfort levels and urban-rural temperature differences (∆Tu-r) for the various sites. The urban sites exhibited a consistent lower level of thermal discomfort during daytime. No discernible effect of urban form attributes in terms of the sky-view factor were observed on ∆Tu-r or on the relative difference of the adjusted predicted percentage of dissatisfied (PPD*).

  19. Determinants of blood lead levels in an adult population from a mining area in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastos Paoliello, M. M.; Mello de Capitani, E.; Gonçalves da Cunha, F.; Carvalho, M. De Fatima; Matsuo, T.; Sakuma, A.; Ribeiro Figueiredo, B.

    2003-05-01

    During the last fifty year the Ribeira river valley, Brazil, had been under the influence of the full activity of a huge lead refinery and mining along the riverside. The plant completely stopped all kind of industrial activities at the end of 1995, and part of the worker population and their families still remain living nearby in smal communities. The objective of the present study was to assess the deterninants of blood lead levels (BLL) in these nining areas, where residual environmental contamination from the past industrial activity still remains. Blood samples of 350 adults aged 15 to 70, residing in areas around the mine and the refinery were collected. A questionnaire was given in order to gather information on food habits, current and former residential places occupationnal activities, among other variables. Blood lead concentrations were analysed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry using Zeeman background correction. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to examine the independent contribution of selected variables in predicting BLL in those subjects. The following variables showed significant association with high BLL: residential area close to the lead refinery, former dwelling at the refinery village, male gender, smoking habits, and consume of fruits from home back yard.

  20. TRAVEL PLANNING PROPOSALS SKI AREA IN NORTH OLTENIA TO INCREASE VISIBILITY AT NATIONAL LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CONSTANŢA ENEA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Mountain tourism potential is complex and varied in structure, size and spatial distribution, which is related to massive expansion, differentiation altitude, geological composition, configuration and specific geological landforms, fragmentation, vegetation cover and peculiarities of the river system, etc. Therefore under the mountain in northern Oltenia highlights some differences in the regions in terms of structure, volume, value, capitalizing on opportunities in tourism mountain tourism potential. Mountain tourism is one of the traditional forms of tourism in affirming Romanian tourism internationally, both through natural potential available by the low level of degradation of landscapes and through investment efforts that were made in the specific offer. European alpine countries (France, Switzerland, Austria, Italy, etc. attaches great importance to the potential of mountain tourism available and submitted in this regard, special efforts for the development of mountain resorts attract millions of tourists annually amateur ski of sports winter mountain in general. Romania has a great value ski area that can compete successfully with the ski areas of central and Western Europe. What are the strengths and weaknesses of Romanian mountain tourism potential in comparability with famous country ski area for winter sports will see throughout this paper.

  1. Technology campuses and cities: A study on the relation between innovation and the built environment at the urban area level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia Teresa de Jesús Curvelo Magdaniel

    2016-08-01

    conceptual model bearing  a hypothesis and five propositions closely linked to empirical evidence.The answer to the main research question is that the built environment is a catalyst for innovation in technology campuses demonstrated by location decisions and interventions facilitating five interdependent conditions required for innovation. The following propositions explain how the built environment facilitates each of the five conditions for innovation:Location decisions and area development facilitate the long-term concentration of innovative organisations in cities and regions.Interventions enabling the transformation of the built environment at area and building levels facilitate the climate for adaptation along changing technological trajectories over time.Large-scale real estate interventions facilitate the synergy among university, industry and governments.Location decisions and interventions supporting image and accessibility define the innovation area by emphasising its distinct identity, scale and connectivity features.Real estate interventions enabling access to amenities increase the diversity of people & chances for social interaction regardless the distinct geographical settings in which the concentration of innovative activities takes place.This research acknowledges that the location decisions of some technology-driven organisations have coincidentally determined the concentration of innovative research activities in  particular  places.  Over the years, the accommodation of  the  research  activities  of  these  organisations  has  co-  evolved  with  particular socio-economic processes in their hosting cities creating unique conditions for innovation. The concentration of innovative organisations can be considered as  a  primal  condition enabling the co-existence of the other four conditions for innovation. Similarly,  this  research acknowledges the following interventions facilitating conditions for innovation at the area level and

  2. Individual and Area Level Factors Associated with Prenatal, Delivery, and Postnatal Care in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budhwani, Henna; Hearld, Kristine Ria; Harbison, Hanne

    2015-10-01

    This research examines individual and area level factors associated with maternal health care utilization in Pakistan. The 2012-2013 Pakistan Demographic and Health Surveys data was used to model five outcomes: prenatal care within the first trimester, four plus prenatal visits, birth attendance by a skilled attendant, birth in a medical facility, and receipt of postnatal care. Less than half of births were to mothers receiving prenatal care in the first trimester, and approximately 57 % had trained personnel at delivery. Over half were born to mothers who received postnatal care. Evidence was found to support the positive effect of individual level variables, education and wealth, on the utilization of maternal health care across all five measures. Although, this study did not find unilateral differences between women residing in rural and urban settings, rural women were found to have lower odds of utilizing prenatal services as compared to mothers in urban environments. Additionally, women who cited distance as a barrier, had lower odds of receiving postnatal health care, but still engaged in prenatal services and often had a skilled attendant present at delivery. The odds of utilizing prenatal care increased when women resided in an area where prenatal utilization was high, and this variability was found across measures across provinces. The results found in this paper highlight the uneven progress made around improving prenatal, delivery, and postnatal care in Pakistan; disparities persist which may be attributed to factors both at the individual and community level, but may be addressed through a consorted effort to change national policy around women's health which should include the promotion of evidence based interventions such as incentivizing health care workers, promoting girls' education, and improving transportation options for pregnant women and recent mothers with the intent of ultimately lowering the Maternal Mortality Rate as recommended in the U

  3. School Socioeconomic Composition and Adolescent Sexual Initiation in Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinho

    2015-09-01

    Numerous studies have documented the determinants of sexual behavior among adolescents in less-developed countries, yet relatively little is known about the influence of social contexts such as school and neighborhood. Using two waves of data from a school-based longitudinal survey conducted in Malawi from 2011-13, this study advances our understanding of the relationship between school-level socioeconomic contexts and adolescents' sexual activity. The results from two-level multinomial logistic regression models suggest that high socioeconomic composition of the student body in school decreases the odds of initiation of sexual activity, independent of other important features of schools and individual-level characteristics. This study also finds that the association between school socioeconomic composition and sexual activity is statistically significant among male adolescents but not female adolescents, suggesting that schools' socioeconomic contexts may be more relevant to male adolescents' initiation of sexual activity.

  4. Magnetic storms and variations in hormone levels among residents of North Polar area - Svalbard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breus, Tamara; Zenchenko, Tatiana; Boiko, Evgeni

    geomagnetic activity leads to a significant change in the level of secretion of several hormones in residing at high latitudes area healthy individuals, indicating that they revealed the type of adaptive stress reaction in reply on GMA disturbance. 1. Breus T.K. and Rapoport S.I. Magnetic storms. Medico- biological aspects (in Russian), Publ.Co Soviet Sport,.Moscow, 2003, 271p.

  5. Association between Blood Dioxin Level and Chronic Kidney Disease in an Endemic Area of Exposure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Yuan Huang

    Full Text Available Dioxin is an industrial pollutant related to various diseases, but epidemiological data on its effects on the kidney are limited. Therefore, we conducted a study to evaluate the association between dioxin exposure and chronic kidney disease (CKD and identify the related factors.We conducted a community-based cross-sectional study and recruited participants from an area where the residents were exposed to dioxin released from a factory. We defined a "high dioxin level" as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs ≥ 20 pg WHO98-TEQDF/g lipid in the serum and defined CKD as having an estimated glomerular filtration rate (e-GFR ≤ 60 mL/min/1.73m2 or a diagnosis of CKD by a physician. The renal function was assessed between 2005 and 2010, and we excluded those who had had kidney diseases before the study started. Comparisons between patients of CKD and those who did not have CKD were made to identify the risk factors for CKD.Of the 2898 participants, 1427 had high dioxin levels, and 156 had CKD. In the univariate analyses, CKD was associated with high dioxin levels, age, gender, metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and high insulin and uric acid levels. After adjusting for other factors, we found high dioxin levels (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.76, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.04-2.99, female gender (AOR = 1.74, 95%CI: 1.20-2.53, hypertension (AOR = 1.68, 95%CI: 1.17-2.42, high insulin levels (AOR = 2.14, 95% CI: 1.26-3.61, high uric acid levels (AOR = 4.25, 95% CI: 2.92-6.20, and older age (AOR = 4.66, 95% CI: 1.87-11.62 for 40-64 year and AOR = 26.66, 95% CI: 10.51-67.62 for age ≥ 65 year were independent predictors of CKD.A high dioxin level was associated with an increased prevalence of CKD. Therefore, the kidney function of populations with exposure to dioxin should be monitored.

  6. Indigenous health and socioeconomic status in India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S V Subramanian

    2006-10-01

    populations, reiterating the overall importance of socioeconomic status for reducing population-level health disparities, regardless of indigeneity.

  7. Breast Milk Lead and Cadmium Levels in Suburban Areas of Nanjing,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kang-sheng Liu; Jia-hu Hao; Yu-qing Xu; Xiao-qi Gu; Juan Shi; Chun-fang Dai; Fei Xu; Rong Shen

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate levels of lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) in the breast milk in the second post-partum month,to investigate the relationship between Pb/Cd levels in breast milk and some sociodemo-graphic parameters,and to explore whether these levels affect the infants' physical status or the mothers' psychological status (postpartum depression). Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted between November 2009 and December 2010. Al-together 170 healthy mothers were enrolled from Nanjing Maternity and Child Health Care Hospital. The inclusion criteria were: voluntary to participate in this study,healthy,with no chronic disease,breastfeeding in the second postpartum month,living in a suburban but not non-industrial area of Nanjing,and not occupa-tionally exposed to toxic metals. All the mothers completed a questionnaire and were evaluated based on the Edinburgh Postpartum Depression Scale (EPDS) to identify the risk of postpartum depression. Pb and Cd levels in breast milk were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. The infants of these mothers were examined for their z scores of weight for age,length for age,head circumference for age,and body mass index for age. Results The median breast milk levels of Pb and Cd were 40.6 μg/L and 0.67 μg/L,respectively. In 164 (96.5%) of the 170 samples,Pb levels were higher than the limit reported by the World Health Or-ganization (> 5 μg/L). Breast milk Cd level was > 1 μg/L in 54 (31.8%) mothers. The mothers with a his-tory of anemia had a higher breast milk Pb level than those without a history of anemia (41.1 μg/L vs. 37.9 μg/L,P = 0.050). The median breast milk Cd level in those who were active and passive smokers dur-ing pregnancy was significantly higher than that in non-smokers (0.88 μg/L vs. 0.00 μg/L,P = 0.025). The breast milk Cd level in the mothers not taking iron and vitamin supplements for 2 months postpartum was higher than in those taking the supplements (iron supplement: 0.74

  8. The cost and benefit analysis of a contaminated area remediation: case study of dose level selection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauria, D.C. [Instituto de Radioproteccion e Dosimetria- IRD/CNEN, Av. Salvador Allende s/n, Barra de Tijuca, Rio de Janeiro- RJ (Brazil)]. e-mail: dejanira@ird.gov.br

    2006-07-01

    In recent years there has been an increasing awareness of the radiological impact of non-nuclear industries that extract and/or process ores and minerals containing naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). Without radiological rules, these industrial activities may result in significant radioactive contamination of installations and sites. Depending on the potential hazardous to the environment and public health, the radioactive contaminated sites may require remediation. The extent of the site cleanup is a function of the size, localization, complexity, potential risks and on possible future uses envisioned for the site. Since worker and public health, public anxiety and economics factors are involved; the selection of an appropriate dose level can be quite complicated. This paper discusses the selection of a dose level criterion to remedy a site, which was contaminated by wastes from monazite processing. The site is located in the Sao Paulo city; the most densely populated Brazilian City. In its 60,000 square meters of area, a preliminary survey showed contaminated zones covering an area of 6,500 square meters. In some places, contamination was found below the superficial layer of the soil, being the radionuclide vertical distribution not uniform. The {sup 228} Ra soil activity concentration reached values up to 33,000 Bq/kg while those for {sup 226} Ra reached values up to 6,700 Bq/kg. Based on pathway analysis model and considering both the current land use and a hypothetical residential scenario, the residual contamination levels of radionuclides in soil have been derived for dose values of 10 mSv/y (dose level for intervention), 5 mSv/y, 3 mSv/y, 1 mSv/y (dose limit for practices) and 0.3 mSv/y (dose constraint for practices). An optimized value o f annual dose of about 5 mSv/y would be a good option for intervention level, but taking into account the public concern and anxiety, the site location and size, and the remediation costs, it is suggested

  9. Influence of reconstruction water-bearing levels on surface displacement of post-mining areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milczarek, Wojciech; Blachowski, Jan; Grzempowski, Piotr

    2014-05-01

    The phenomenon of secondary deformation characteristic of the post-mining areas is not sufficiently recognized. For ground surfaces phenomenon may be continuous or discontinuous. There is no sufficient information that describes behavior of the rock mass in the long term after end of exploitation. It is considered that this phenomenon is gradually disappears with end of exploitation. Reliable quantitative data comes only from the analysis of direct measurements in selected areas: geodetic and satellites measurements. Analyzing current situation of operating mines can be said that in the near years, more centers will limit the mining of coal mining. This will contribute to separation further of post-mining areas, in which will be required to maintaining a permanent monitoring and making predictions on the impact of ended exploitation of the rock mass surface. This will be particularly important for highly urbanized areas. This study used finite element method (FEM) to describe phenomenon of reconstruction water-bearing levels and its impact on displacement on the ground surface. It was assumed that significant factors that influence the occurrence and size of secondary deformations are: reconstruction of water-bearing levels in the prior drainer rock mass, size of past exploitation, spatial distribution of coal seams and geological and tectonic structure has been assumed. The transversally isotropic model of six elastic constants: E1 = E2, E3, ν = ν12, ν13, G12, G13 has been assumed to describe of rock mass in the numerical calculations. Geometrical models used in the numerical calculations have been developed using GIS tools. For the study two-dimensional and three-dimensional models characterized by different geological conditions and different configuration of mining data have been developed. The results obtained displacements of the ground surface for the period of mining activity has been verified with the results based on the Knothe theory. The results of

  10. Association between Blood Dioxin Level and Chronic Kidney Disease in an Endemic Area of Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chien-Yuan; Wu, Cheng-Long; Wu, Jin-Shang; Chang, Jung-Wei; Cheng, Ya-Yun; Kuo, Yau-Chang; Yang, Yi-Ching

    2016-01-01

    Background Dioxin is an industrial pollutant related to various diseases, but epidemiological data on its effects on the kidney are limited. Therefore, we conducted a study to evaluate the association between dioxin exposure and chronic kidney disease (CKD) and identify the related factors. Methods We conducted a community-based cross-sectional study and recruited participants from an area where the residents were exposed to dioxin released from a factory. We defined a “high dioxin level” as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) ≥ 20 pg WHO98-TEQDF/g lipid in the serum and defined CKD as having an estimated glomerular filtration rate (e-GFR) ≤ 60 mL/min/1.73m2 or a diagnosis of CKD by a physician. The renal function was assessed between 2005 and 2010, and we excluded those who had had kidney diseases before the study started. Comparisons between patients of CKD and those who did not have CKD were made to identify the risk factors for CKD. Results Of the 2898 participants, 1427 had high dioxin levels, and 156 had CKD. In the univariate analyses, CKD was associated with high dioxin levels, age, gender, metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and high insulin and uric acid levels. After adjusting for other factors, we found high dioxin levels (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.76, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.04–2.99), female gender (AOR = 1.74, 95%CI: 1.20–2.53), hypertension (AOR = 1.68, 95%CI: 1.17–2.42), high insulin levels (AOR = 2.14, 95% CI: 1.26–3.61), high uric acid levels (AOR = 4.25, 95% CI: 2.92–6.20), and older age (AOR = 4.66, 95% CI: 1.87–11.62 for 40–64 year and AOR = 26.66, 95% CI: 10.51–67.62 for age ≥ 65 year) were independent predictors of CKD. Conclusion A high dioxin level was associated with an increased prevalence of CKD. Therefore, the kidney function of populations with exposure to dioxin should be monitored. PMID:26963719

  11. Postglacial relative sea-level history of the Prince Rupert area, British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letham, Bryn; Martindale, Andrew; Macdonald, Rebecca; Guiry, Eric; Jones, Jacob; Ames, Kenneth M.

    2016-12-01

    This paper presents a history of relative sea level (RSL) change for the last 15,000 years in the Prince Rupert region on the northern coast of British Columbia, Canada. One hundred twenty-three radiocarbon ages of organic material from isolation basin cores, sediment sequence exposures, and archaeological sites having a recognized relation to past sea levels constrain postglacial RSL. The large number of new measurements relating to past sea-level provides a well constrained RSL curve that differs in significant ways from previously published results. After deglaciation following the Last Glacial Maximum, the region experienced an isostatically-induced rapid RSL drop from as much 50 m asl to as low as -6.3 m asl in as little as a few centuries between 14,500 BP and 13,500 BP. After a lowstand below current sea level for about 2000 years during the terminal Pleistocene, RSL rose again to a highstand at least 6 m asl after the end of the Younger Dryas. RSL slowly dropped through the Holocene to close to its current position by 2000-1500 BP, with some potential fluctuations between 3500 and 1500 BP. This study highlights variation in RSL histories across relatively short distances, which must be accounted for by local RSL reconstructions such as this one. This RSL curve aided in the identification of an 8000-9000 year old archaeological site on a 10-12 m asl terrace, which is currently the earliest dated archaeological site in the area, and it provides guidance for searching for even older archaeological remains. We highlight the utility and potential of this refined RSL history for developing surveys for other archaeological sites associated with paleoshorelines.

  12. Allowable residual-contamination levels for decommissioning facilities in the 100 areas of the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Napier, B.A.

    1983-07-01

    This report contains the results of a study sponsored by UNC Nuclear Industries to determine Allowable Residual Contamination Levels (ARCL) for five generic categories of facilities in the 100 Areas of the Hanford Site. The purpose of this study is to provide ARCL data useful to UNC engineers in conducting safety and cost comparisons for decommissioning alternatives. The ARCL results are based on a scenario/exposure-pathway analysis and compliance with an annual dose limit for three specific modes of future use of the land and facilities. These modes of use are restricted, controlled, and unrestricted. The information on ARCL values for restricted and controlled use provided by this report is intended to permit a full consideration of decommissioning alternatives. ARCL results are presented both for surface contamination remaining in facilities (in dpm/100 cm/sup 2/), and for unconfined surface and confined subsurface soil conditions (in pCi/g). Two confined soil conditions are considered: contamination at depths between 1 and 4 m, and contamination at depths greater than or equal to 5 m. A set of worksheets are presented in an appendix for modifying the ARCL values to accommodate changes in the radionuclide mixture or concentrations, to consider the impacts of radioactive decay, and to predict instrument responses. Finally, a comparison is made between the unrestricted release ARCL values for the 100 Area facilities and existing decommissioning and land disposal regulations. For surface contamination, the comparison shows good agreement. For soil contamination, the comparison shows good agreement if reasonable modification factors are applied to account for the differences in modeling soil contamination and licensed low-level waste.

  13. Geomechanical Studies on Granite Intrusions in Alxa Area for High-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Cheng

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Geological storage is an important concept for high-level radioactive waste (HLW disposal, and detailed studies are required to protect the environment from contamination by radionuclides. This paper presents a series of geomechanical studies on the site selection for HLW disposal in the Alxa area of China. Surface investigation in the field and RQD analyses on the drill cores are carried out to evaluate the rock mass quality. Laboratory uniaxial and triaxial compressive tests on the samples prepared from the drill cores are conducted to estimate the strength properties of the host rock. It is found that the NRG sub-area has massive granite intrusions, and NRG01 cored granite samples show the best rock quality and higher peak strength under various confinements (0–30 MPa. NRG01 granite samples are applied for more detailed laboratory studies considering the effects of strain rate and temperature. It is observed that the increasing strain rate from 1.0 × 10−5–0.6 × 10−2·s−1 can lead to a limited increase on peak strength, but a much more violent failure under uniaxial compressive tests on the NRG01 granite samples, and the temperature increasing from 20 °C–200 °C may result in a slight increase of UCS, as well as more ductile post-peak behavior in the triaxial compressive tests.

  14. Levels and source apportionment of volatile organic compounds in southwestern area of Mexico City

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodolfo Sosa, E. [Centro de Ciencias de la Atmosfera, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Circuito Exterior, Ciudad Universitaria, C.P. 04510, D.F. (Mexico); Humberto Bravo, A. [Centro de Ciencias de la Atmosfera, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Circuito Exterior, Ciudad Universitaria, C.P. 04510, D.F. (Mexico)], E-mail: hbravo@servidor.unam.mx; Violeta Mugica, A. [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Azcapotzalco, D.F. (Mexico); Pablo Sanchez, A. [Centro de Ciencias de la Atmosfera, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Circuito Exterior, Ciudad Universitaria, C.P. 04510, D.F. (Mexico); Emma Bueno, L. [Centro Nacional de Investigacion y Capacitacion Ambiental, Instituto Nacional de Ecologia (Mexico); Krupa, Sagar [Department of Plant Pathology, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN 55108 (United States)

    2009-03-15

    Thirteen volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were quantified at three sites in southwestern Mexico City from July 2000 to February 2001. High concentrations of different VOCs were found at a Gasoline refueling station (GS), a Condominium area (CA), and at University Center for Atmospheric Sciences (CAS). The most abundant VOCs at CA and CAS were propane, n-butane, toluene, acetylene and pentane. In comparison, at GS the most abundant were toluene, pentane, propane, n-butane, and acetylene. Benzene, a known carcinogenic compound had average levels of 28, 35 and 250 ppbC at CAS, CA, and GS respectively. The main contributing sources of the measured VOCs at CA and CAS were the handling and management of LP (Liquid Propane) gas, vehicle exhaust, asphalt works, and use of solvents. At GS almost all of the VOCs came from vehicle exhaust and fuel evaporation, although components of LP gas were also present. Based on the overall results possible abatement strategies are discussed. - Volatile organic compounds were quantified in order to perform their source apportionment in southwestern area of Mexico City.

  15. SSRG Socioeconomic Panel

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data set contains trip-level and annual expense and revenue variables. The trip-level survey collects information about dockside revenues and operating costs...

  16. SPECIAL ANALYSIS AIR PATHWAY MODELING OF E-AREA LOW-LEVEL WASTE FACILITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiergesell, R.; Taylor, G.

    2011-08-30

    This Special Analysis (SA) was initiated to address a concern expressed by the Department of Energy's Low Level Waste Disposal Facility Federal Review Group (LFRG) Review Team during their review of the 2008 E-Area Performance Assessment (PA) (WSRC, 2008). Their concern was the potential for overlapping of atmospheric plumes, emanating from the soil surface above SRS LLW disposal facilities within the E-Area, to contribute to the dose received by a member of the public during the Institutional Control (IC) period. The implication of this concern was that the dose to the maximally-exposed individual (MEI) located at the SRS boundary might be underestimated during this time interval. To address this concern a re-analysis of the atmospheric pathway releases from E-Area was required. In the process of developing a new atmospheric release model (ARM) capable of addressing the LFRG plume overlap concern, it became obvious that new and better atmospheric pathway disposal limits should be developed for each of the E-Area disposal facilities using the new ARM. The scope of the SA was therefore expanded to include the generation of these new limits. The initial work conducted in this SA was to develop a new ARM using the GoldSim{reg_sign} program (GTG, 2009). The model simulates the subsurface vapor diffusion of volatile radionuclides as they release from E-Area disposal facility waste zones and migrate to the land surface. In the process of this work, many new features, including several new physical and chemical transport mechanisms, were incorporated into the model. One of the most important improvements was to incorporate a mechanism to partition volatile contaminants across the water-air interface within the partially saturated pore space of the engineered and natural materials through which vapor phase transport occurs. A second mechanism that was equally important was to incorporate a maximum concentration of 1.9E-07 Ci/m{sup 3} of {sup 14}CO{sub 2} in the air

  17. Socioeconomic Status, IQ, and Delinquency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffitt, Terrie E.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Results from two Danish prospective longitudinal studies are presented to support the view that IQ bears a causal relationship to delinquency that is independent of the effects of socioeconomic status (SES). (CL)

  18. Nutritional status of children in India: household socio-economic condition as the contextual determinant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanjilal Barun

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite recent achievement in economic progress in India, the fruit of development has failed to secure a better nutritional status among all children of the country. Growing evidence suggest there exists a socio-economic gradient of childhood malnutrition in India. The present paper is an attempt to measure the extent of socio-economic inequality in chronic childhood malnutrition across major states of India and to realize the role of household socio-economic status (SES as the contextual determinant of nutritional status of children. Methods Using National Family Health Survey-3 data, an attempt is made to estimate socio-economic inequality in childhood stunting at the state level through Concentration Index (CI. Multi-level models; random-coefficient and random-slope are employed to study the impact of SES on long-term nutritional status among children, keeping in view the hierarchical nature of data. Main findings Across the states, a disproportionate burden of stunting is observed among the children from poor SES, more so in urban areas. The state having lower prevalence of chronic childhood malnutrition shows much higher burden among the poor. Though a negative correlation (r = -0.603, p Conclusion In spite of the declining trend of chronic childhood malnutrition in India, the concerns remain for its disproportionate burden on the poor. The socio-economic gradient of long-term nutritional status among children needs special focus, more so in the states where chronic malnutrition among children apparently demonstrates a lower prevalence. The paper calls for state specific policies which are designed and implemented on a priority basis, keeping in view the nature of inequality in childhood malnutrition in the country and its differential characteristics across the states.

  19. Natural radioactivity levels (K, Th and Ra in some areas of Punjab, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Sanjeev

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Radioactivity, natural and man-made, is omnipresent in the earth's crust in different amounts. Natural radioactive materials under certain conditions can reach hazardous radiological levels. So, it becomes necessary to study the natural radioactivity levels in soil to assess the dose for the population in order to know the health risks and to have a baseline for future changes in the environmental radioactivity due to human activities. 226Ra, 232Th and 40K analysis has been carried out in soil samples collected from some areas of Punjab, India using gamma-ray spectrometry. Phe technique of gamma ray spectrometry was applied using high purity germanium gamma-ray detector and a PC based MCA. Radium equivalent activities are calculated for the analyzed samples to assess radiation hazards arising due to the use of these soil samples in construction of dwellings. Phe measured activity in the soil ranges from 23.17 to 57.87 Bq kg−1, 59.03 to 160.40 Bq kg−1 and 228.06 to 501.03 Bq kg−1 for 226Ra, 232Ph and 40K with mean values of 37.93, 84.47 and 351.17Bqkg−1 respectively. It has been observed that on the average the outdoor terrestrial gamma air absorbed dose rate is about 84.65nGyh−1.

  20. Haemoglobin status of adult women of two ethnic groups living in a peri-urban area of Kolkata city, India: a micro-level study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Rohini; Bharati, Premananda

    2003-01-01

    A micro level study on the haemoglobin status of 127 Munda (a tribe) and 174 Poundrakshatriya (Pod) (caste) women were conducted in the peri-urban area of Kolkata City, India. The two ethnic groups were selected in order to find out whether populations residing in the same habitat, with similar medical and health care facilities have similar haemoglobin status. Results indicate that there exists very high percentage of anaemia in both the ethnic groups and 100 percent anaemia was observed among the Munda. Mean haemoglobin level was higher among the women of both the ethnic groups, consuming calorie, protein, iron and folic acid, above the recommended value (Indian Council of Medical Research, 2000). Women below the age of 30 years were found to be more anaemic. Education (P ethnic groups was found to increase with increase in Body Mass Index. Low socioeconomic condition, very low literacy rates, poverty and higher live births may have lowered the haemoglobin level of the women of the Munda population. However, women of both the ethnic groups were found to be anaemic in higher percentage than the state of West Bengal and all India (NFHS, 2000). Linear regression analysis indicated that expenditure on food had positive effect on the haemoglobin level (Pfood expenditure on the haemoglobin level was noticed among the Pod women (Pfood sharing within the households. Thus populations residing with similar medical and health care facilities revealed differences in the haemoglobin level. Differential expenditure pattern and food sharing practice seems to be the major factors responsible for the differences in haemoglobin status among the adult women in this present study. Very low intake of iron and heavy workload may be the reasons for this high percentage of anaemia. Moreover, hookworm infections need to be analyzed, as its prevalence is very high in India and South Asia. One hundred percent anaemia among Munda women is also very alarming. The results suggest that

  1. Changes induced by sea level rise on network properties of restoration areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Mirian; Castanedo, Sonia; Zhou, Zeng; Coco, Giovanni; Medina, Raúl

    2015-04-01

    Human actions have been reducing the natural domain of estuarine systems for centuries. In the past, estuaries were perceived as unhealthy areas, source of diseases, which were adapted to human use by drainage and heavy engineering. Our current understanding shows that estuaries are not sources of disease, but rich ecosystems that cover important ecosystem functions. They need to be restored to their natural state. However, restoration actions may induce morphological changes that may change the estuary current behavior. It is thus of the utmost importance to understand the morphodynamic changes induced by restoration actions, more so when the final aim is to predict these changes. Dikes have been the most used mean to enclose and drain areas of estuaries. In this work, we focus our attention on dike removal as a means to restore the areas enclosed by these dikes. Dikes may be removed completely, or only partially (opening one or several breaches), to allow the tidal flow to enter into the area to be restored. Morphodynamic effects of dike removal are simulated numerically using Delft3d. Different dike removal configurations are studied and their effect on the recovery of the estuary quantified. Estuarine tidal networks are characterized by means of a new approach that links network connectivity to the spatial hydrodynamic fields developed in the estuary. The impact of different restorations strategies in the drainage properties of the network has been studied in the short term (5 -10 years) and in the long term (100 years) allowing the connectivity to evolve with time. Results show, for different scenarios, differences not only in the spatial distribution of the tidal network but also in statistical characteristics after different dike removal actions. The new distribution of channels will have implications for the location of the tidal flats, flood patterns and thus biological environments within the tidal networks. These changes in the morphological properties

  2. Levels, Composition and Sources of PM in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area During the MILAGRO Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Querol, X.; Pey, J.; Minguillon, M. C.; Perez, N.; Alastuey, A.; Moreno, T.; Bernabe, R.; Blanco, S.; Cardenas, B.

    2007-05-01

    Particle air pollution in urban agglomerations comes mostly from anthropogenic sources, mainly traffic, industrial processes, energy production, domestic and residential emissions, construction, but also a minor contribution from natural sources may be expected (bioaerosols, soil dust, marine aerosol). Once emitted into the atmosphere, this complex mixture of pollutants may be transformed as a function of the ambient conditions and the interaction among the different PM components, and also between PM components and gaseous pollutants. This system is especially complex in mega-cities due to the large emission volumes of PM components and gaseous precursors, the high variability and broad distribution of emission sources, and the possible long range transport of the polluted air masses. Speciation studies help to identify major sources of PM components with the end objective of applying plans and programs for PM pollution abatement. In this framework, concentration levels and compositions of particulate matter (PM2.5, PM10 and TSP) have been measured simultaneously at two sites in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (T0 and CENICA) and at one site 50 km away from Mexico City (T1) during the MILAGRO campaign (1st to 31st March 2006). Spatial and time (day and night) variations have been analysed. Coarse fraction levels were higher at T1 than at CENICA and T0, contrary to what was expected. This was due to the important soil re-suspension at T1, contributing significantly to the crustal load. Moreover, crustal levels were higher during daytime than during nights at all sites, while some secondary compounds (sulphate and ammonium) presented an opposite trend. Regarding trace elements, levels of Pb, Zn and Cd were higher at T0 than at CENICA and T1, probably due to traffic contribution. Arsenic levels did not show a clear pattern, being alternatively higher at CENICA and T0. Two intense episodes of Hg particulate have been recorded, more noticeable at T1 than at the urban

  3. Socioeconomic Impact on Farmers in Malaysia: A Case Study on Integrated Agricultural Development Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nor D.M. Idris

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Integrated Agricultural Development Project (IADP is a platform for rural socioeconomic improvement. This initiative has raised the income of farmers by creating a large scale fruits producer in Sarawak. Therefore, the objective of this study was to identify the direct impact of the agricultural development project on socioeconomic improvement in the Samarahan area. Approach: This study involved 14 villages and is located in the Mid-Samarahan and Upper Samarahan areas. A total of 220 households were interviewed during December 2005-February 2006 to collect information on yield and household income. The paired t-test analysis showed that the project had a positive impact on in-farm and other incomes of farmers. Results: It was also revealed that the poverty level of Sarawak state was reduced from the poverty line, from 77% in 1986-19.5% in 2005. The percentage of hard core poverty fell from 30.9% in 2000-6.4% in 2005. Conclusion: The project was generally implemented as an appraisal to increase the incomes of rural population through fruit cultivation as a main economic activity. It was concluded that this project is efficient as a tool to combat poverty and improved the socioeconomic level and income generating activities among the rural community.

  4. All-cause and cause-specific mortality among US youth: socioeconomic and rural-urban disparities and international patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gopal K; Azuine, Romuladus E; Siahpush, Mohammad; Kogan, Michael D

    2013-06-01

    We analyzed international patterns and socioeconomic and rural-urban disparities in all-cause mortality and mortality from homicide, suicide, unintentional injuries, and HIV/AIDS among US youth aged 15-24 years. A county-level socioeconomic deprivation index and rural-urban continuum measure were linked to the 1999-2007 US mortality data. Mortality rates were calculated for each socioeconomic and rural-urban group. Poisson regression was used to derive adjusted relative risks of youth mortality by deprivation level and rural-urban residence. The USA has the highest youth homicide rate and 6th highest overall youth mortality rate in the industrialized world. Substantial socioeconomic and rural-urban gradients in youth mortality were observed within the USA. Compared to their most affluent counterparts, youth in the most deprived group had 1.9 times higher all-cause mortality, 8.0 times higher homicide mortality, 1.5 times higher unintentional-injury mortality, and 8.8 times higher HIV/AIDS mortality. Youth in rural areas had significantly higher mortality rates than their urban counterparts regardless of deprivation levels, with suicide and unintentional-injury mortality risks being 1.8 and 2.3 times larger in rural than in urban areas. However, youth in the most urbanized areas had at least 5.6 times higher risks of homicide and HIV/AIDS mortality than their rural counterparts. Disparities in mortality differed by race and sex. Socioeconomic deprivation and rural-urban continuum were independently related to disparities in youth mortality among all sex and racial/ethnic groups, although the impact of deprivation was considerably greater. The USA ranks poorly in all-cause mortality, youth homicide, and unintentional-injury mortality rates when compared with other industrialized countries.

  5. [FOOD CONSUMPTION PATTERN AT A FAMILY LEVEL OF URBAN AREAS OF ANZOÁTEGUI, VENEZUELA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekmeiro Salvador, Jesús; Moreno Rojas, Rafael; García Lorenzo, María; Cámara Martos, Fernando

    2015-10-01

    In order to assess the qualitative pattern of food consumption in urban families of Anzoátegui, Venezuela, 300 domestic groups that combined a total of 1 163 people were studied. The domestic dietary pattern was addressed by the method of qualitative frequency of food consumption, which applied a structured survey that yielded the usual frequency of intake of a food or food group over a given period. The information was obtained through an interview with the person responsible for the procurement of food in every home, and included basic data for the socioeconomic and nutritional profile of the families studied. The qualitative analysis of the diet was obtained by comparing the different food groups that constitute the actual consumption pattern of the population studied, with official feeding guidelines suggested for the Venezuelan population. The present study showed that the qualitative pattern of food consumption in the urban population evaluated is characterized by slightly adjusted to the promotion of health and control of diet-related diseases. The family food proved to be far from the guidelines established by the dietary guidelines for Venezuela and consumption patterns are fairly homogeneous in the different socioeconomic strata. The foods most consumed daily were salt, coffee, dressing and precooked corn flour as well as beef, chicken and the higher weekly food consumption pastas. 90% of the food consumed daily is technologically processed. The results contribute to increase knowledge about the food situation of the Venezuelan population, and technically could direct the efforts of the authorities to reconcile the development of the productive sector and food supply, whereas a pattern qualitatively inadequate intake directly affects the individual biological functioning, and results in the collective conditioning of unfavorable health states.

  6. Study on the change rule of groundwater level and its impacts on vegetation at arid mining area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LEI Shao-gang; BIAN Zheng-fu; ZHANG Ri-chen; LI Lin

    2007-01-01

    The shallow groundwater in Shendong mining area was broken because of large-scale underground mining activities. Selecting 32201 working-face as research area,analyzed the change rule of groundwater level and aquifer thickness under mining impact with a large number of water level observation data. Then, the impacts of groundwater level change on vegetation were analyzed by the relationship theory of arid area groundwater and vegetation. The results show that the aquifer structure and the water condition of supply flow and drainage are changed by the water proof mining. The groundwater level recovere only a little compared with the original groundwater level in two years. But the great change of groundwater level do not have notable influences on vegetation of this mining area, and further study indicates that there are certain conditions where groundwater level change impacted on vegetation. When the influence of groundwater level change was evaluated, the plant ecological water level, warning water level and spatial distribution character of original groundwater and mining-impacted groundwater-level change should be integrated.

  7. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Ground Level Area Sources in Dairy and Cattle Feedyard Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calvin B. Parnell

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A protocol that consisted of an isolation flux chamber and a portable gas chromatograph was used to directly quantify greenhouse gas (GHG emissions at a dairy and a feedyard operation in the Texas Panhandle. Field sampling campaigns were performed 5 consecutive days only during daylight hours from 9:00 am to 7:00 pm each day. The objective of this research was to quantify and compare GHG emission rates (ERs from ground level area sources (GLAS at dairy and cattle feedyard operations during the summer. A total of 74 air samples using flux chamber were collected from the barn (manure lane and bedding area, loafing pen, open lot, settling basin, lagoons, and compost pile within the dairy operation. For the cattle feedyard, a total of 87 air samples were collected from four corner pens of a large feedlot, runoff holding pond, and compost pile. Three primary GHGs (methane, carbon dioxide, and nitrous oxide were measured and quantified from both operations. The aggregate estimated ERs for CH4, CO2, and N2O were 836, 5573, 3.4 g hd−1 d−1 (collectively 27.5 kg carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e hd−1 d−1, respectively, at the dairy operation. The aggregate ERs for CH4, CO2, and N2O were 3.8, 1399, 0.68 g hd−1 d−1 (1.7 kg CO2e hd−1 d−1, respectively, from the feedyard. The estimated USEPA GHG ERs were about 13.2 and 1.16 kg CO2e hd−1 d−1, respectively, for dairy and feedyard operations. Aggregate CH4, CO2 and N2O ERs at the dairy facility were about 219, 4 and 5 times higher, respectively, than those at the feedyard. At the dairy, average CH4 ERs estimated from the settling basin, primary and secondary lagoons were significantly higher than those from the other GLAS, contributing about 98% of the aggregate CH4 emission. The runoff holding pond and pen surface of the feedyard contributed about 99% of the aggregate CH4 emission. Average CO2 and N2O ERs estimated from the pen surface area were significantly higher than those estimated from

  8. Seismic activations of different level in Altay-Sayan mounting area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emanov, Dr.; Emanov, A. A.; Leskova, E. V.

    2009-04-01

    example of non-stationary seismic regime of local area. For the short time (two months) here the number of events with Ms=2÷3.5, considerably exceeded the background regime were recorded. Detail research of this activation showed that earthquakes occurred in inside part of Earth's crust block, and the largest deep faults, bounding this block, were aseismatic in this period. Seismic activations of small level are investigated for the purpose of understanding of rise conditions and interrelation with large earthquakes of region. Distinctions of rise conditions of small activations in geological structures are studied where large earthquakes happened or not.

  9. LEVEL OF ADOPTION AND CONSTRAINTS OF SCIENTIFIC BACKYARD POULTRY REARING PRACTICES IN RURAL TRIBAL AREAS OF SIKKIM, INDIA

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    A study was conducted on level of adoption and constraints of backyard poultry rearing practices in rural tribal areas of Sikkim. The data were collected from 125 respondents of Dzongu area, North Sikkim through personal interview with the help of questionnaire. From the present study it was found that 64.8% respondents were medium level adopters followed by high level (19.2%) and low level (16%) adopters. Housing (43.2%) were highly adopted followed by feeding and watering (41.6%), marketing...

  10. Socioeconomic determinants of regional mortality differences in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spijker, Jeroen Johannes Anthonius

    2004-01-01

    This thesis has attempted to assess the importance of various socioeconomic and other factors in mortality at the population level in three different settings: in Europe at the country level, and in the Czech Republic and the Netherlands at the regional level. Each analysis was conducted from a diff

  11. Water-level changes and directions of ground-water flow in the shallow aquifer, Fallon area, Churchill County, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiler, R.L.; Allander, K.K.

    1993-01-01

    The Truckee-Carson-Pyramid Lake Water Rights Settlement Act of 1990 directed the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to acquire water rights for wetland areas in the Carson Desert, Nevada. The public is concerned that htis acquisition of water rights and delivery of the water directly to wildlife areas would result in less recharge to the shallow ground water in the Fallon area and cause domestic wells to go dry. In January 1992, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, began a study of the shallow ground-water system in the Fallon area in Churchill County, Nevada. A network of 126 wells in the study area was monitored. Between January and November 1992, water levels in most wells declined, usually less than 2 feet. The maximum measured decline over this period was 2.68 feet in a well near Stillwater Marsh. Between April and July, however, water levels rose in irrigated areas, typically 1 to 2 feet. Newlands Project water deliveries to the study area began soon after the turn of the century. Since then, water levels have risen more than 15 feet across much of the study area. Water lost from unlined irrigtiaon canals caused the stage in Big Soda Lake to rise nearly 60 feet; ground-water levels near the lake have risen 30 to 40 feet. The depth to water in most irrigated areas is now less than 10 feet. The altitude of the water table ranges from 4.025 feet above sea level 11 miles west of Fallon to 3,865 feet in the Stillwater Marsh area. Ground water flows eastward and divides; some flow goes to the northeast toward the Carson Sink and Stillwater areas, and some goes southeastward to Carson Lake.

  12. Interim Status Groundwater Monitoring Plan for Low-Level Waste Management Areas 1 to 4, RCRA Facilities, Hanford,Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dresel, P Evan

    2004-10-25

    This document describes the monitoring plan to meet the requirements for interim status groundwater monitoring at Hanford Site low-level waste burial grounds as specified by 40 CFR 265, incorporated by reference in WAC 173-303-400. The monitoring will take place at four separate low-level waste management areas in the 200-West and 200-East Areas, in the central part of the site. This plan replaces the previous monitoring plan.

  13. [The relation between socio-economic class and demographic factors in the occurrence of temporomandibular joint dysfunction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Ronald Jefferson; Garcia, Alício Rosalino; Garbin, Cléa Adas Saliba; Sundefeld, Maria Lúcia Marçal Mazza

    2008-12-01

    Different factors like stress and occlusion can decrease the adaptive capacity of the stomatognathic system and lead to the occurrence of temporomandibular dysfunction (TMD). The objective of this study was to verify the relation of the variables socio-economic level, schooling, sex and age with the occurrence of temporomandibular dysfunction. The population of this study consisted of a statistically significant sample of subjects of both sexes belonging to different socio-economic classes living in the urban area of the city of Piacatu, São Paulo, Brazil. The Criterion of Economic Classification Brazil (CCEB) was used for the economic stratification of the population. Fonseca's Questionnaire was applied to samples collected from each extract to verify the level of TMD. The data collected were statistically analyzed using the Chi-square Test, with a significance level of 5%. In total, 354 heads of families participated in the research. No statistically significant relation was found between socio-economic class, schooling, age group and temporomandibular dysfunction (TMD). There was a relation between sex and TMD (p<0.02). The variables socio-economic class, schooling and age group had no influence upon the occurrence of TMD, however there is a significant relation with the sex of the individual.

  14. A survey of low-level radioactive waste treatment methods and problem areas associated with commercial nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jolley, R.L.; Rodgers, B.R.

    1987-01-01

    A survey was made (June 1985) of technologies that were currently being used, those that had been discontinued, and those that were under consideration for treatment of low-level radioactive waste from the commercial nuclear power plants in the United States. The survey results included information concerning problems areas, areas needing research and development, and the use of mobile treatment facilities.

  15. Socioeconomic and demographic drivers of red and processed meat consumption: implications for health and environmental sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clonan, Angie; Roberts, Katharine E; Holdsworth, Michelle

    2016-08-01

    Red and processed meat (RPM) intake varies widely globally. In some high-income countries (HIC) the last decade has witnessed an overall decline or stabilisation in the consumption of RPM, in contrast to emerging economies where its consumption continues to increase with rising income and rapid urbanisation. The production and consumption of RPM have become major concerns regarding the environmental impacts of livestock in particular, but also because of associations between high RPM consumption and diet-related non-communicable disease. Therefore, it is important to identify socioeconomic and demographic drivers of the consumption of RPM. This paper explores how consumption of RPM differs with age, gender, socioeconomic status and in different global contexts. There are some key socioeconomic and demographic patterns in RPM consumption. Men tend to consume RPM more often and in higher quantities, and there is evidence of a social gradient in HIC, with lower socioeconomic groups consuming RPM more often and in larger quantities. Patterns for consumption with age are less clear cut. It is apparent that consumers in HIC are still consuming high levels of RPM, although the downward shifts in some socioeconomic and demographic groups is encouraging and suggests that strategies could be developed to engage those consumers identified as high RPM consumers. In low- and middle-income countries, RPM consumption is rising, especially in China and Brazil, and in urban areas. Ways of encouraging populations to maintain their traditional healthy eating patterns need to be found in low- and middle-income countries, which will have health, environmental and economic co-benefits.

  16. Variability in ambient noise levels and call parameters of North Atlantic right whales in three habitat areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Susan E; Urazghildiiev, Ildar; Clark, Christopher W

    2009-02-01

    The North Atlantic right whale inhabits the coastal waters off the east coasts of the United States and Canada, areas characterized by high levels of shipping and fishing activities. Acoustic communication plays an important role in the social behavior of these whales and increases in low-frequency noise may be leading to changes in their calling behavior. This study characterizes the ambient noise levels, including both natural and anthropogenic sources, and right whale upcall parameters in three right whale habitat areas. Continuous recordings were made seasonally using autonomous bottom-mounted recorders in the Bay of Fundy, Canada (2004, 2005), Cape Cod Bay, (2005, 2006), and off the coast of Georgia (2004-2005, 2006-2007). Consistent interannual trends in noise parameters were found for each habitat area, with both the band level and spectrum level measurements higher in the Bay of Fundy than in the other areas. Measured call parameters varied between habitats and between years within the same habitat area, indicating that habitat area and noise levels alone are not sufficient to predict variability in call parameters. These results suggest that right whales may be responding to the peak frequency of noise, rather than the absolute noise level in their environment.

  17. Widening Socioeconomic and Racial Disparities in Cardiovascular Disease Mortality in the United States, 1969-2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopal K. Singh, PhD

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study examined trends and socioeconomic and racial/ethnic disparities in cardiovascular disease (CVD mortality in the United States between 1969 and 2013. Methods: National vital statistics data and the National Longitudinal Mortality Study were used to estimate racial/ethnic and area- and individual-level socioeconomic disparities in CVD mortality over time. Rate ratios and log-linear regression were used to model mortality trends and differentials. Results: Between 1969 and 2013, CVD mortality rates decreased by 2.66% per year for whites and 2.12% for blacks. Racial disparities and socioeconomic gradients in CVD mortality increased substantially during the study period. In 2013, blacks had 30% higher CVD mortality than whites and 113% higher mortality than Asians/Pacific Islanders. Compared to those in the most affluent group, individuals in the most deprived area group had 11% higher CVD mortality in 1969 but 40% higher mortality in 2007-2011. Education, income, and occupation were inversely associated with CVD mortality in both men and women. Men and women with low education and incomes had 46-76% higher CVD mortality risks than their counterparts with high education and income levels. Men in clerical, service, farming, craft, repair, construction, and transport occupations, and manual laborers had 30-58% higher CVD mortality risks than those employed in executive and managerial occupations. Conclusions and Global Health Implications: Socioeconomic and racial disparities in CVD mortality are marked and have increased over time because of faster declines in mortality among the affluent and majority populations. Disparities in CVD mortality may reflect inequalities in the social environment, behavioral risk factors such as smoking, obesity, physical inactivity, disease prevalence, and healthcare access and treatment. With rising prevalence of many chronic disease risk factors, the global burden of cardiovascular diseases is

  18. Sleep in adolescents of different socioeconomic status: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érico Pereira Gomes Felden

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the sleep characteristics in adolescents from different socioeconomic levels. Data source: Original studies found in the MEDLINE/PubMed and SciELO databases without language and period restrictions that analyzed associations between sleep variables and socioeconomic indicators. The initial search resulted in 99 articles. After reading the titles and abstracts and following inclusion and exclusion criteria, 12 articles with outcomes that included associations between sleep variables (disorders, duration, quality and socioeconomic status (ethnicity, family income, and social status were analyzed. Data synthesis: The studies associating sleep with socioeconomic variables are recent, published mainly after the year 2000. Half of the selected studies were performed with young Americans, and only one with Brazilian adolescents. Regarding ethnic differences, the studies do not have uniform conclusions. The main associations found were between sleep variables and family income or parental educational level, showing a trend among poor, low social status adolescents to manifest low duration, poor quality of sleeping patterns. Conclusions: The study found an association between socioeconomic indicators and quality of sleep in adolescents. Low socioeconomic status reflects a worse subjective perception of sleep quality, shorter duration, and greater daytime sleepiness. Considering the influence of sleep on physical and cognitive development and on the learning capacity of young individuals, the literature on the subject is scarce. There is a need for further research on sleep in different realities of the Brazilian population.

  19. Road traffic crash circumstances and consequences among young unlicensed drivers: A Swedish cohort study on socioeconomic disparities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laflamme Lucie

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Young car drivers run a higher risk of road traffic crash and injury not only because of their lack of experience but also because of their young age and their greater propensity for adopting unsafe driving practices. Also, low family socioeconomic position increases the risk of crash and of severe crash in particular. Whether this holds true for young unlicensed drivers as well is not known. Increasing attention is being drawn to the prevalence and practice of unlicensed driving among young people as an important contributor to road traffic fatalities. Methods This is a population-based cohort study linking Swedish national register data for a cohort of 1 616 621 individuals born between 1977 and 1991. Crash circumstances for first-time road traffic crash (RTC were compared considering licensed and unlicensed drivers. The socioeconomic distribution of injury was assessed considering household socioeconomic position, social welfare benefits, and level of urbanicity of the living area. The main outcome measure is relative risk of RTC. Results RTCs involving unlicensed drivers were over-represented among male drivers, suspected impaired drivers, severe injuries, crashes occurring in higher speed limit areas, and in fair road conditions. Unlicensed drivers from families in a lower socioeconomic position showed increased relative risks for RTC in the range of 1.75 to 3.25. Those living in rural areas had an increased relative risk for a severe RTC of 3.29 (95% CI 2.47 - 4.39 compared to those living in metropolitan areas. Conclusions At the time of the crash, young unlicensed drivers display more risky driving practices than their licensed counterparts. Just as licensed drivers, unlicensed young people from low socioeconomic positions are over-represented in the most severe injury crashes. Whether the mechanisms lying behind those similarities compare between these groups remains to be determined.

  20. Elderly care in daily living in rural Vietnam: Need and its socioeconomic determinants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoi Le V

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The proportion of older people is increasing rapidly in Vietnam. The majority of the elderly live in rural areas. Their health status is generally improving but this is less pronounced among the most vulnerable groups. The movement of young people for employment and the impact of other socioeconomic changes leave more elderly on their own and with less family support. This study aims to assess the daily care needs and their socioeconomic determinants among older people in a rural setting. Methods In 2007, people aged 60 years and older, living in 2,240 households, were randomly selected from the FilaBavi Demographic Surveillance System (DSS. They were interviewed using structured questionnaires to assess needed support in activities of daily living (ADLs. Individuals were interviewed about the presence of chronic illnesses that had been diagnosed by a physician. Participant socioeconomic characteristics were extracted from the FilaBavi repeat census. The repeat census used a repeat of the same survey methods and questions as the original FilaBavi DSS. Distributions of study participants by socioeconomic group, supports needed, levels of support received, types of caregivers, and the ADL index were described. Multivariate analyses were performed to identify socioeconomic determinants of the ADL index. Results The majority of older people do not need of support for each specific ADL item. Dependence in instrumental or intellectual ADLs was more common than for basic ADLs. People who need total help were less common than those who need some help in most ADLs. Over three-fifths of those who need help receive enough support in all ADL dimensions. Children and grandchildren are the main caregivers. Age group, sex, educational level, marital status, household membership, working status, household size, living arrangement, residential area, household wealth, poverty status, and chronic illnesses were determinants of daily care needs

  1. Time trends in the association of ESRD incidence with area-level poverty in the US population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrity, Bridget H; Kramer, Holly; Vellanki, Kavitha; Leehey, David; Brown, Julia; Shoham, David A

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the temporal trends of the association between area-level poverty status and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) incidence. We hypothesized that the association between area-level poverty status and ESRD incidence has increased significantly over time. Patient data from the United States Renal Data System were linked with data from the 2000 and 2010 US census. Area-level poverty was defined as living in a zip code-defined area with ≥20% of households living below the federal poverty line. Negative binomial regression models were created to examine the association between area-level poverty status and ESRD incidence by time period in the US adult population while simultaneously adjusting for the distribution of age, sex, and race/ethnicity within a zip code. Time was categorized as January 1, 1995 through December 31, 2004 (Period 1) and January 1, 2005 through December 31, 2010 (Period 2). The percentage of adults initiating dialysis with area-level poverty increased from 27.4% during Period 1 to 34.0% in Period 2. After accounting for the distribution of age, sex, and race/ethnicity within a zip code, area-level poverty status was associated with a 1.24 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.22, 1.25)-fold higher ESRD incidence. However, this association differed by time period with 1.04-fold (95% CI 1.02, 1.05) higher ESRD incidence associated with poverty status for Period 2 compared with the association between ESRD and poverty status in Period 1. Area-level poverty and its association with ESRD incidence is not static over time.

  2. Impact of fertilizers on background radioactivity level in two newly developed desert areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Fawzia

    A survey of soils and plants was carried out to determine the environmental gamma background radiation levels in two newly developed desert areas. The materials and the standards were analyzed by gamma spectroscopy; a shielded high purity germanium detector was used to measure the natural concentration of 238U, 232Th and 40K activities in the samples. The radionuclide content in some commercial fertilizers was determined. The results of the analysis of specific activities in the fertilizers under study were 1.27-950.09 Bq/kg for 238U, 0.73-162.16 Bq/kg for 232Th and 10.22-23845.24 Bq/kg for 40K. All natural soil samples showed low-activity concen-trations. The concentrations of 238U (6.13-38.84 Bq/kg) and 232Th (2.58-25.69 Bq/kg) are quite similar, whereas that of 40K (113.91-9314.11 Bq/kg) are much higher for plant samples. Some of the results obtained are larger than the permissible international radioactivity levels. It is suitable in this regard to compare the activity values of the imported fertilizers and that fabricated in Egypt. The absorbed dose rate was found to be 1.91-1027 nGy/h and the radium equivalent activity concentration was 4.02-1840.98 Bq/kg for fertilizer samples. Soil and plant sample results were 11.86-415E29 nGy/h and 24.20-750.52 Bq/kg for the absorbed dose rate and the radium equivalent activity concentration, respectively. Banana plant contains the largest values. This article presents actual data from investigations of the soil-plant transfer of the primordial radionuclides for some fruits growing on these soils. The transfer factors of 0.35-1.821 for 238U, 0.227-0.480 for 232Th and 1.95-31.85 for 40K were obtained. The increase of the transfer of 40K reflects its great uptake to the fruits. Observed soil-plant factors vary widely, mainly as a result of different soil, vegetation types and environmental conditions. Taking into account the transfer factors of 137Cs to plants, the measured activity concentrations of this isotope should not

  3. Socioeconomic inequality of cancer mortality in the United States: a spatial data mining approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lam Nina SN

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study was to demonstrate the use of an association rule mining approach to discover associations between selected socioeconomic variables and the four most leading causes of cancer mortality in the United States. An association rule mining algorithm was applied to extract associations between the 1988–1992 cancer mortality rates for colorectal, lung, breast, and prostate cancers defined at the Health Service Area level and selected socioeconomic variables from the 1990 United States census. Geographic information system technology was used to integrate these data which were defined at different spatial resolutions, and to visualize and analyze the results from the association rule mining process. Results Health Service Areas with high rates of low education, high unemployment, and low paying jobs were found to associate with higher rates of cancer mortality. Conclusion Association rule mining with geographic information technology helps reveal the spatial patterns of socioeconomic inequality in cancer mortality in the United States and identify regions that need further attention.

  4. Rebuilt risk: involuntary return, voluntary migration, and socioeconomic segregation in post-tsunami Aceh

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaughey, Jamie; Daly, Patrick; Mundzir, Ibnu; Mahdi, Saiful; Patt, Anthony

    2016-04-01

    In light of growing coastal populations and rising relative sea levels, understanding the consequences of infrequent, high-impact coastal hazards for human migration is a key ingredient for meeting the challenges of sustainable development. Using new quantitative and qualitative evidence from 1160 households and 121 village leaders, we examine longer-term migration in the city of Banda Aceh, Indonesia, following the devastating 2004 tsunami and an international aid response that offered most survivors only resettlement back in the tsunami-affected area. While many survivors wanted to return, some preferred to relocate further from the coast but did not have the chance to do so. Since that time, selective out-migration by those with the means and socioeconomic sorting of newcomers have led to a new socioeconomic segregation of the tsunami-affected parts of the city. More broadly, these findings suggest that short-distance socioeconomic sorting into and out from vulnerable areas may be an important migratory response to a newly recognized risk.

  5. Effect of Wrist Deviation on Median Nerve Cross-Sectional Area at Proximal Carpal Tunnel Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Yeap LOH

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS is one of the most common musculoskeletal disorders among computer users. Computer users exhibit various wrist angles while typing. Dynamic changes of wrist angle may cause different degrees of median nerve compression. The objective of this study was thus to investigate the effects of the combination of wrist flexion-extension with wrist deviation on median nerve cross-sectional area (MNCSA.Methods:  Eight right-handed participants were recruited in this study. Both wrists were examined by sonographic ultrasound (US at the proximal carpal tunnel level in the transverse plane. A total of nine wrist positions were examined, including wrist neutral (WN, wrist flexion (WF30°, and wrist extension (WE30°, together with three wrist deviation conditions, namely, without radial deviation (RD and ulnar deviation (UD, with maximal RD and with maximal UD. MNCSA was measured by tracing method with ImageJ.Results: Paired t-test showed a significant difference of WN MNCSA between the dominant hand (7.93 ± 0.63 mm2 and the non-dominant hand (6.98 ± 0.42 mm2 (P<0.001. Two-way repeated-measures ANOVA (handedness as an independent factor showed that WF30° and WE30° caused significant differences of MNCSA when compared with WN (P<0.001. However, wrist RD/UD did not have a significant interaction with the changes of MNCSA in WN, WF and WE positions.Conclusion: The results indicate a significant reduction of MNCSA when WN changed to WF and WE. Wrist RD and UD did not cause significant changes of MNCSA at different wrist positions. Keywords: Median nerve, Ultrasound, Wrist active holding, Nerve deformation

  6. 20 CFR 666.310 - What levels of performance apply to the indicators of performance in local areas?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... indicators of performance in local areas? 666.310 Section 666.310 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING... Local Measures of Performance § 666.310 What levels of performance apply to the indicators of... Governor and reach agreement on the local levels of performance for each indicator identified under §...

  7. Evaluation of prolactin levels in patients with newly diagnosed pemphigus vulgaris and its correlation with pemphigus disease area index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahideh Lajevardi, MD

    2016-06-01

    Conclusion: In our study, 22% of patients had hyperprolactinemia, which was greater among females. The highest PRL level was detected in mucocutaneous group. Although serum PRL levels were higher in patients with a greater Pemphigus Disease Area Index, it did not reach statistical significance.

  8. Groundwater-level change and evaluation of simulated water levels for irrigated areas in Lahontan Valley, Churchill County, west-central Nevada, 1992 to 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David W.; Buto, Susan G.; Welborn, Toby L.

    2016-09-14

    The acquisition and transfer of water rights to wetland areas of Lahontan Valley, Nevada, has caused concern over the potential effects on shallow aquifer water levels. In 1992, water levels in Lahontan Valley were measured to construct a water-table map of the shallow aquifer prior to the effects of water-right transfers mandated by the Fallon Paiute-Shoshone Tribal Settlement Act of 1990 (Public Law 101-618, 104 Stat. 3289). From 1992 to 2012, approximately 11,810 water-righted acres, or 34,356 acre-feet of water, were acquired and transferred to wetland areas of Lahontan Valley. This report documents changes in water levels measured during the period of water-right transfers and presents an evaluation of five groundwater-flow model scenarios that simulated water-level changes in Lahontan Valley in response to water-right transfers and a reduction in irrigation season length by 50 percent.Water levels measured in 98 wells from 2012 to 2013 were used to construct a water-table map. Water levels in 73 of the 98 wells were compared with water levels measured in 1992 and used to construct a water-level change map. Water-level changes in the 73 wells ranged from -16.2 to 4.1 feet over the 20-year period. Rises in water levels in Lahontan Valley may correspond to annual changes in available irrigation water, increased canal flows after the exceptionally dry and shortened irrigation season of 1992, and the increased conveyance of water rights transferred to Stillwater National Wildlife Refuge. Water-level declines generally occurred near the boundary of irrigated areas and may be associated with groundwater pumping, water-right transfers, and inactive surface-water storage reservoirs. The largest water-level declines were in the area near Carson Lake.Groundwater-level response to water-right transfers was evaluated by comparing simulated and observed water-level changes for periods representing water-right transfers and a shortened irrigation season in areas near Fallon

  9. Identification of a system of ecologically homogeneous areas and of priority intervention levels for forest plantation planning in Sicily

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pizzurro GM

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Afforestation and reforestation activities in Sicily have been widespreaded in the last century. The results of forestation activities indicate the need to adopt a operational tools to promote the extension of forest surface at regional and sub-regional levels. In this view, with the aim to produce useful tools for forest plantation planning, the entire regional area was analysed and ecologically homogeneous areas have been identified to join and target arboriculture and/or forestation plantation activities, to choose tree and shrub species for different environments and to identify priority areas of intervention. The map of Rivas-Martinez bioclimate and the map of litological types were used as basic information layers to map pedo-climatic homogeneous areas. In order to mitigate disruptive hydrogeological effects and to reduce desertification risk and forest fragmentation, the Corine Land Cover map (CLC2000, the hydrogeological bond map and the desertification risk map were used to identify areas characterized by urgent need of forest activities at high priority level. A total of 23 ecologically homogeneous areas have been identified in Sicily, while more than a quarter of the regional surface has been characterized as highest priority intervention level. At sub-regional level, the target of the analysis was carried out at administrative province and at hydrographic basin level.

  10. Socioeconomic status and fertility decline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dribe, Martin; Breschi, Marco; Gagnon, Alain

    2017-01-01

    America to analyse the relationship between socio-economic status and fertility during the fertility transition. Using comparable analytical models and class schemes for each population, we examined the changing socio-economic differences in marital fertility and related these to common theories...... on fertility behaviour. Our results do not provide support for the hypothesis of universally high fertility among the upper classes in pre-transitional society, but do support the idea that the upper classes acted as forerunners by reducing their fertility before other groups. Farmers and unskilled workers...

  11. Nonfatal childhood and their association with socioeconomic and gender structures: an ecological study of 14 Swedish municipalities (2000–2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard A. Dale

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract:
    Background: Injuries are the major cause of death and disability in European children. This study explored socioeconomic and gender structures in association with nonfatal childhood injury rates by sex and age groups in Sweden. Methods: Six indicators of socioeconomic structure and three indicators of gender structure were combined using principal component analysis. Sex- and age-specific mean annual injury rates of fourteen Swedish municipalities were estimated (2000–2005. The associations were analysed with Pearson’s correlation coefficients. Results: Narrow gender ratio in unskilled occupations and in politics was positively associated with injuries in girls 6–17 years (r ≥ 0.7 and with fractures in boys 6–12 years of age (r = 0.5. Wider income distribution was negatively associated (r ≥ -0.4 with boys’ injuries and positively associated with fractures in girls 13–17 years (r = 0.5. Relative wealth and male manager dominance was negatively associated with injuries in children 0–5 years (r = -0.4. Relative poverty was not associated with nonfatal childhood injuries. Conclusions: The strength of the associations between socioeconomic and gender structures and nonfatal childhood injury rates varied by sex, age group and type of injury. Childhood injury preventive interventions should consider the local gender structure, area-level wealth and area-level income distribution, and not only area-level poverty.

  12. Income inequality, area-level poverty, perceived aversion to inequality, and self-rated health in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshio, Takashi; Kobayashi, Miki

    2009-08-01

    In this study we conduct a multilevel analysis to investigate the association between regional income inequality and self-rated health in Japan, based on two nationwide surveys. We confirm that there is a significant association between area-level income inequality and individual-level health assessment. We also find that health assessment tends to be more sensitive to income inequality among lower income individuals, and to degree of area-level poverty, than income inequality for the society as a whole. In addition, we examine how individuals are averse to inequality, based on the observed association between inequality and self-rated health.

  13. The Risk Assessment Research on the Sea Level Rise of Tianjin and Hebei Coastal Areas%津冀沿海地区海平面上升的风险评估研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李响; 段晓峰; 刘克修; 陈满春; 张增健

    2014-01-01

    气候变化引起的海平面上升将给沿海地区社会经济发展和生态环境带来严重的影响。津冀沿海地区地势低平极易受到海平面上升的直接影响,该文以津冀沿海地区为例,对海平面上升风险评估方法进行示范应用,评估该地区海平面上升的风险,区划海平面上升风险,并提出风险管理的建议。结果表明,天津滨海新区、河北黄骅市等地面临的海平面上升风险较高,在沿海发展规划和重大工程建设中应充分考虑海平面上升因素。%Sea level rise which caused by climate change will bring serious affect to the socio-economic devel-opment and ecological environment of coastal areas.The low-lying coastal areas of Tianjin and Hebei province are vulnerable to the direct impact of the sea level rise.The coastal areas of Tianjin and Hebei are taken as an example to demonstrate the application of the risk assessment methods of the sea level rise,zoning the risk of the sea level rise ,and to give the recommendations of the risk management.The results show that,Tianjin Binhai New Area and Huang Hua have high risk of sea level rise,the factor of sea level rise should be fully considered in the coastal de-velopment planning and major construction projects.

  14. A Survey Level Report of the Johns Creek Drainage Canal Wetlands Permit Area, Shelby County, Tennessee

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-03-01

    Mississippi and the southwestern Tennessee area as "vassal provinces" to the’Late Mississippian Nodena cultura of northeastern Arkansas. Chronological... Clovis material (40SY7). Most of what Peterson (1979a) has defined as Paleo for this area is actually best considered to be affiliated with the late Paleo

  15. The Identification of Reading Skills Essential for Learning in Seven Content Areas at Postelementary Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Beverly

    A questionnaire was designed to give content area teachers an opportunity to review 35 reading/learning skills that are necessary for vocabulary development, the comprehension of written materials, and the efficient use of study time. Over 400 secondary school teachers in seven content areas (English/language arts, social studies, science,…

  16. Special Analysis for Disposal of High-Concentration I-129 Waste in the Intermediate-Level Vaults at the E-Area Low-Level Waste Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collard, L.B.

    2000-09-26

    This revision was prepared to address comments from DOE-SR that arose following publication of revision 0. This Special Analysis (SA) addresses disposal of wastes with high concentrations of I-129 in the Intermediate-Level (IL) Vaults at the operating, low-level radioactive waste disposal facility (the E-Area Low-Level Waste Facility or LLWF) on the Savannah River Site (SRS). This SA provides limits for disposal in the IL Vaults of high-concentration I-129 wastes, including activated carbon beds from the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF), based on their measured, waste-specific Kds.

  17. Vulnerable areas and adapation measures for sea level rise along the coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chauhan, O.S.; Unnikrishnan, A.S.; Menezes, A.A.A.; Jagtap, T.G.; Suneethi, J.; Furtado, R.

    to the global climatic changes, the available historical mean sea level data between 1920-1999 at 10 locations was evaluated. There is a large contrast in the deduced sea level changes. The sea level rise along the Gulf of Kachchh and the coast of West Bengal...

  18. Impact of coal gangue on the level of main trace elements in the shallow groundwater of a mine reclamation area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Wei; Chen Longqian; Zhou Tianjian; Tang Qibao; Zhang Ting

    2011-01-01

    Coal gangue is the most used filling material during reclamation of areas suffering subsidence from mining.Main trace element levels (F,As,Hg,and Pb) in shallow groundwater in the reclamation area may be affected by leaching from the gangue.This can has an impact on the application of the water for agricultural irrigation or use as drinking water.Therefore,it is of great significance to understand the effect coal gangue has on the shallow groundwater of a reclaimed area.We studied the effect of coal gangue on fluorine,arsenic,mercury,and lead levels in the shallow groundwater of a reclamation area by testing the water and the coal gangue.One well near the reclamation area was used as a control well and element levels in water from this well and from the soil next to the well were also measured.The results show that the levels of these elements are increasing in the reclamation area over time.The increase in fluorine,arsenic,mercury,and lead in monitor wells varies from 7.42% to 8.26%,from 7.13% to 7.90%,from 4.85% to 6.48%,and from 4.69% to 6.42%,respectively.Fluorine and arsenic levels are lower in monitor wells than in the control water.The other elements are found in greater concentration than in the control.The Nemerow index also indicates that the shallow groundwater in the reclamation area Ⅰ is moderately affected by the back-filling coal gangue,while the shallow groundwater in the reclamation area Ⅱ and Ⅲ are slightly affected by the back-filling coal gangue.This shallow groundwater could be used for agricultural irrigation or for drinking.

  19. High Levels of Proinflammatory Cytokines, but Not Markers of Tissue Injury, in Unaffected Intestinal Areas from Patients with IBD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto J. León

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal alterations in IBD are triggered and maintained by an overexpression of proinflammatory cytokines. Additionally, increased immune activation has been found in the adjacent intestinal areas without displaying any apparent histological alterations, however, the regulatory environment is not well established. Biopsy specimens from patients with ulcerative colitis (UC and Crohn's disease (CD, from both affected and unaffected areas, and also from a group of colonic biopsies from healthy controls, were included in our study. Cytokines and markers of mucosal damage were analyzed by real-time PCR, and some of the results confirmed by western-blot and ELISA. Levels of IFNγ, TNFα, IL-6, IL-15, IL-18, and IL-23 were increased (above healthy controls in both affected and unaffected areas from IBD. IL-1β, IL-6, IL-12, and IL-27 were higher in affected areas compared to unaffected ones in UC but not CD. In general, a correlation was observed between mRNA levels of these cytokines and both iNOS and Granzyme B. SOCS-2 and SOCS-3 were also increased in the affected areas. In conclusion, the unaffected areas from IBD show increased levels of a restricted set of cytokines that may exert immune activating roles in these areas without being able to trigger tissue damage.

  20. Lake Storage Measurements For Water Resources Management: Combining Remotely Sensed Water Levels and Surface Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brakenridge, G. R.; Birkett, C. M.

    2013-12-01

    Presently operating satellite-based radar altimeters have the ability to monitor variations in surface water height for large lakes and reservoirs, and future sensors will expand observational capabilities to many smaller water bodies. Such remote sensing provides objective, independent information where in situ data are lacking or access is restricted. A USDA/NASA (http://www.pecad.fas.usda.gov/cropexplorer/global_reservoir/) program is performing operational altimetric monitoring of the largest lakes and reservoirs around the world using data from the NASA/CNES, NRL, and ESA missions. Public lake-level products from the Global Reservoir and Lake Monitor (GRLM) are a combination of archived and near real time information. The USDA/FAS utilizes the products for assessing international irrigation potential and for crop production estimates; other end-users study climate trends, observe anthropogenic effects, and/or are are involved in other water resources management and regional water security issues. At the same time, the Dartmouth Flood Observatory (http://floodobservatory.colorado.edu/), its NASA GSFC partners (http://oas.gsfc.nasa.gov/floodmap/home.html), and associated MODIS data and automated processing algorithms are providing public access to a growing GIS record of the Earth's changing surface water extent, including changes related to floods and droughts. The Observatory's web site also provide both archival and near real time information, and is based mainly on the highest spatial resolution (250 m) MODIS bands. Therefore, it is now possible to provide on an international basis reservoir and lake storage change measurements entirely from remote sensing, on a frequently updating basis. The volume change values are based on standard numerical procedures used for many decades for analysis of coeval lake area and height data. We provide first results of this combination, including prototype displays for public access and data retrieval of water storage

  1. Coal mining in socioeconomic aspect

    OpenAIRE

    ZALOZNOVA YU. S.

    2014-01-01

    The article investigate the correlation of economic and social factors in the development of coal mining on example of vertically integrated companies with both domestic and foreign assets. The effect of socioeconomic aspects which have led to the American paradox of coal is studied to understand the essence of the coal mining industry at the present stage of the global economic management.

  2. Práticas educativas coercitivas de mães de diferentes níveis socioeconômicos Coercive childrearing practices in mothers from different socioeconomic levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Henrique Barbosa do Carmo

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo comparou o uso de práticas coercitivas em mães de diferentes níveis socioeconômicos. Participaram do estudo 40 mães com filhos na faixa etária de 5 a 6 anos de ambos os sexos. Vinte mães eram de nível socioeconômico baixo e 20 mães eram de nível socioeconômico médio/alto de acordo com os critérios de Hollingshead. As mães responderam uma ficha de dados sociodemográficos e uma entrevista estruturada sobre práticas educativas maternas. Os resultados indicaram que as mães de nível socioeconômico baixo apresentaram maior frequência média de respostas na categoria punição física. Discutem-se as relações entre as variáveis sociodemográficas e as práticas coercitivas, destacando-se o efeito da escolaridade na maior variabilidade de repertório materno para a regulação do comportamento infantil.The present study compared coercive childrearing practices between mothers of different socioeconomic status. Participants in the study were 40 mothers of children of both sexes, aged 5 to 6 years. Twenty mothers were of low socioeconomic status, and twenty mothers were of medium/high socioeconomic status according to the criteria established by Hollingshead. The mothers were administered a sociodemographic data form and were interviewed about childrearing practices. The results indicated that the mothers of low socioeconomic status exhibited a greater average frequency of responses in the corporal punishment category. The relations between sociodemographic variables and coercive practices are discussed, emphasizing the effects of schooling on the greater variability in the maternal repertoire for regulating child behavior.

  3. Residential segregation of socioeconomic variables and health indices in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Saeed Hashemi Nazari

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: Correlation of segregation of determinants of socioeconomic status with segregation of health indices is an indicator of existence of hot zones of health problems across some provinces. Further studies using multilevel modeling and individual data in health outcomes at individual level and segregation measures at appropriate geographic levels are required to confirm these relations.

  4. Application of Supercomputer Technologies for Simulation Of Socio-Economic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Valentinovich Okrepilov

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available To date, an extensive experience has been accumulated in investigation of problems related to quality, assessment of management systems, modeling of economic system sustainability. The performed studies have created a basis for development of a new research area — Economics of Quality. Its tools allow to use opportunities of model simulation for construction of the mathematical models adequately reflecting the role of quality in natural, technical, social regularities of functioning of the complex socio-economic systems. Extensive application and development of models, and also system modeling with use of supercomputer technologies, on our deep belief, will bring the conducted research of socio-economic systems to essentially new level. Moreover, the current scientific research makes a significant contribution to model simulation of multi-agent social systems and that is not less important, it belongs to the priority areas in development of science and technology in our country. This article is devoted to the questions of supercomputer technologies application in public sciences, first of all, — regarding technical realization of the large-scale agent-focused models (AFM. The essence of this tool is that owing to the power computer increase it has become possible to describe the behavior of many separate fragments of a difficult system, as socio-economic systems are. The article also deals with the experience of foreign scientists and practicians in launching the AFM on supercomputers, and also the example of AFM developed in CEMI RAS, stages and methods of effective calculating kernel display of multi-agent system on architecture of a modern supercomputer will be analyzed. The experiments on the basis of model simulation on forecasting the population of St. Petersburg according to three scenarios as one of the major factors influencing the development of socio-economic system and quality of life of the population are presented in the

  5. Optimized two-level placement of test points for multi-objective air monitoring of the Three Gorges Reservoir area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Dong-hai; TAN Chun-lu; WANG Jun-qiang; ZHONG Yuan-chang

    2007-01-01

    To fit the complicated geographic conditions of the Three Gorges Reservoir area, a two-level multi-objective monitoring system was developed to monitor the atmosphere of the area. Statistical analysis of environmental monitoring data and the macro control principle were employed to configure the upper layer. The lower layer was designed by the application of the thumb rule to a local terrain and specific point sources of pollution therein. The optimized two-level system comprises an upper layer of 16 monitoring stations distributed at places of diverse geographical, ecological, economical and social characteristics, and a lower layer of 16 sub-machines at each monitoring station of the upper layer. This optimal outcome fits the complicated conditions of the Three Gorges Reservoir area, substantially cuts down the installation cost and the operation cost, and provides accurate monitoring data of atmosphere over the entire area with a high resolution.

  6. Contextual effects of socioeconomic level on academic achievement in obligatory secondary education in the Basque Autonomous Community (Spain. Differential study about socioeconomic level of families and school centers. El efecto contextual del nivel socioeconómico sobre el rendimiento académico en la educación secundaria obligatoria en la Comunidad Autónoma Vasca (España. Estudio diferencial del nivel socioeconómico familiar y el del centro escolar.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Lizasoain

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze the contextual effect of the socioeconomic status (SES on the academic achievement in Mathematics and Language in Compulsory Secondary Education at the Basque Autonomous Community (Spain. We have carried out a differential study taking into account family SES and school SES in a multi-level study context. First, via tested hierarchical models, the hypothesis of the contextual effects (i.e., double jeopardy is accepted, showing that the academic achievement of students from low SES families tend to worsen when they attend low SES schools. In order to illustrate the different effect of both SES, a new variable is generated so that, for each student, it combines the values of the previously categorized family and school SES. Using statistical segmentation techniques (regression and classification trees, CART, the present study has found that low family SES students attending high SES schools obtain the best academic achievement results, only outperformed by high family SES students who are studying at high SES schools, and also, even better than the sample subgroups who were expected to get much better scores. The study ends with some explanatory hypotheses about the findings and with some suggestions for further research. El objetivo de este trabajo es analizar el efecto contextual del nivel socioeconómico (SES sobre el rendimiento académico en Matemáticas y Lengua en la Educación Secundaria Obligatoria (ESO en la Comunidad Autónoma Vasca (España, realizando un estudio diferencial del nivel socioeconómico familiar (SESF y el del centro escolar (SESC. Para ello, en primer lugar, se verifica dicho efecto contextual mediante modelos jerárquicos lineales y se acepta la hipótesis de doble riesgo en el sentido de que los estudiantes de nivel socioeconómico familiar bajo obtienen un rendimiento académico aún más bajo cuando estudian en centros escolares de nivel socioeconómico bajo. Para estudiar con m

  7. Breast milk lead and cadmium levels from suburban areas of Ankara

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oruen, Emel, E-mail: emelorun@hotmail.com [Department of Pediatrics, Fatih University Hospital, Ankara (Turkey); Yalcin, S. Songuel, E-mail: siyalcin@hacettepe.edu.tr [Social Pediatric Unit, Hacettepe University Ihsan Dogramaci Children Hospital, Ankara (Turkey); Aykut, Osman; Orhan, Guennur; Morgil, Goeksel Koc [Analytic Toxicology Laboratory, Refik Saydam National Public Health Agency, Ankara (Turkey); Yurdakoek, Kadriye [Social Pediatric Unit, Hacettepe University Ihsan Dogramaci Children Hospital, Ankara (Turkey); Uzun, Ramazan [Analytic Toxicology Laboratory, Refik Saydam National Public Health Agency, Ankara (Turkey)

    2011-06-01

    The objectives of this study were (1) to evaluate levels of lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) in the breast milk at 2 months postpartum, (2) to investigate the relationship between Pb and Cd levels in breast milk and some sociodemographic parameters and (3) to detect whether these levels have any influence on the infant's physical status or on postpartum depression in the mothers. Pb and Cd levels in breast milk were determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS). The median breast milk concentrations of Pb and Cd were 20.59 and 0.67 {mu}g/l, respectively. In 125 (87%) of 144 samples, Pb levels were higher than the limit in breast milk reported by the World Health Organization (WHO) (> 5 {mu}g/l). Breast milk Cd levels were > 1 {mu}g/l in 52 (36%) mothers. The mothers with a history of anemia at any time had higher breast milk Pb levels than those without a history of anemia (21.1 versus 17.9 {mu}g/l; p = 0.0052). The median breast milk Cd levels in active and passive smokers during pregnancy were significantly higher than in non-smokers (0.89, 0.00 {mu}g/l, respectively; p = 0.023). The breast milk Cd levels of the mothers who did not use iron and vitamin supplements for 2 months postpartum were found to be higher than in those who did use the supplements (iron: 0.73, 0.00 {mu}g/l, p = 0.023; vitamin: 0.78, 0.00 {mu}g/l, p = 0.004, respectively). Breast milk Cd levels at the 2nd month were correlated negatively with the z scores of head circumference and the weight for age at birth (r = - 0.257, p = 0.041 and r = - 0.251, p = 0.026, respectively) in girls. We found no correlation between the breast milk Pb and Cd levels and the Edinburgh Postpartum Depression Scale scores. Breast milk monitoring programs should be conducted that have tested considerable numbers of women over time in view of the high levels of Pb in breast milk in this study. - Research highlights: {yields} Breast milk Pb levels were higher than the advised safety limits. {yields

  8. Lead exposure in the general population of the Metropolitan Area of Barcelona. Blood levels and related factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sole, E. [Pediatrics Service, Hospital Universitari Arnau de Vilanova, Lleida (Spain); Ballabriga, A.; Dominguez, C. [Centre d`Investigacions en Bioquimica y Biologia Molecular, Vall d`Hebron Hospitals, School of Medicine, Pediatrics Department, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain)

    1998-12-11

    A cross-sectional was conducted on 254 individuals not occupationally exposed to lead to determine the degree of lead exposure in the general population of the Metropolitan Area of Barcelona. Blood lead levels (BPb) were analysed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry and zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) by haemofluorimetry. Blood lead levels were analysed with respect to individuals` age, sex, area of residence, the season of the year the blood was drawn and ZPP. Mean blood lead in our series was 0.22{+-}0.011 {mu}mol/l (mean{+-}S.E.); no significant differences were found with respect to area of residence, sex or season. A linear relationship was observed between BPb and individuals` age (BPb=0.08+0.05xage; r=0.37). The prevalence of lead intoxication (BPb>0.48 {mu}mol/l) was 7.1%. No linear relationship was observed between BPb and ZPP. ZPP determination does not appear to be a good screening method for lead intoxication since it presents low specificity and sensitivity values with an area below the ROC curve similar to the null value line (area below the curve=0.5052, IC 95%=0.443-0.568). We conclude that lead exposure does not constitute a serious health problem in the area studied, since BPb levels found are far below the toxic limit and the prevalence of intoxication is similar to that reported in other studies conducted in other developed countries

  9. [Levels of lead, cadmium and mercury in the hair of inhabitants of the Nantes and Grenoble areas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boiteau, H L; Stoklov, M; Remond, D; Buffet, H; Metayer, C; Vincent, F; Corneteau, H; Faure, J

    1983-11-01

    Lead, cadmium and mercury were measured in the air of 398 inhabitants of the Grenoble area and 341 inhabitants of the Nantes area. The hair was washed with hor solution of EDTA, dissolved in nitric acid and analyzed by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. The average concentrations are 6,23 micrograms/g for lead, 0,40 microgram/g for cadmium and 1,06 microgram/g for mercury. There is no difference between found data of the two areas for lead and cadmium. Mercury levels are higher in the Nantes area. Lead content is higher in male hair than in female hair, but the difference is not significant. In the Grenoble area, mercury levels are higher in males than in females; the process is reversed in the Nantes area. We have found no relation between metal levels and age of persons, but lead content is high in the hair of people under ten. Artisans and mechanics have lead content higher than the general people, though exposed people to occupational risks is excluded. We have found to relation between metal in the hair and the size of the town. It seems that the use of tobacco is without influence. Mercury content is related to the eating of fish. It is not increased in the population because of dental amalgams.

  10. Levels of thoron and progeny in high background radiation area of southeastern coast of Odisha, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramola, R C; Gusain, G S; Rautela, B S; Sagar, D V; Prasad, G; Shahoo, S K; Ishikawa, T; Omori, Y; Janik, M; Sorimachi, A; Tokonami, S

    2012-11-01

    Exposure to radon, (222)Rn, is assumed to be the most significant source of natural radiation to human beings in most cases. It is thought that radon and its progeny are major factors that cause cancer. The presence of thoron, (220)Rn, was often neglected because it was considered that the quantity of thoron in the environment is less than that of radon. However, recent studies have shown that a high thoron concentration was found in some regions and the exposure to (220)Rn and its progeny can equal or several time exceed that of (220)Rn and its progeny. The results of thoron and its progeny measurements in the houses of high background radiation area (HBRA) of the southeastern coast of Odisha, India presented here. This area is one of the high background radiation areas in India with a large deposit of monazite sand which is the probable source of thoron. Both active and passive methods were employed for the measurement of thoron and its progeny in cement, brick and mud houses in the study area. Thoron concentration was measured using RAD-7 and Raduet. A CR-39 track detector was employed for the measurement of environmental thoron progeny, both in active and passive modes. Thoron and its progeny concentrations were found to be comparatively high in the area. A comparison between the results obtained with various techniques is presented in this paper.

  11. ROMANIAN VS. EUROPEAN SOCIO-ECONOMIC “IDEAS”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serbanica Cristina

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper highlights the role of socio-economic research in the European Research Area, while putting focus on emerging trends in the field. In the meantime, the paper presents and analysis the projects that won the “Ideas” competition: ERC Advanced Inve

  12. Prediction and prevention of the impacts of sea level rise on the Yangtze River Delta and its adjacent areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施雅风; 朱季文; 谢志仁; 季子修; 蒋自巽; 杨桂山

    2000-01-01

    The Yangtze River Delta region is characterized by high density of population and rapidly developing economy. There are low lying coastal plain and deltaic plain in this region. Thus, the study area could be highly vulnerable to accelerated sea level rise caused by global warming. This paper deals with the scenarios of the relative sea level rise in the early half period of the 21st century in the study area. The authors suggested that relative sea level would rise 25-50 cm by the year 2050 in the study area, of which the magnitude of relative sea level rise in the Yangtze River Delta would double the perspective worldwide average. The impacts of sea level rise include: (i) exacerbation of coastline recession in several sections and vertical erosion of tidal flat, and increase in length of eroding coastline; (ii) decrease in area of tidal flat and coastal wetland due to erosion and inundation; (iii) increase in frequency and intensity of storm surge, which would threaten the coastal protection works; (i

  13. Sensitivity of burned area in Europe to climate change, atmospheric CO2 levels, and demography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Minchao; Knorr, Wolfgang; Thonicke, Kirsten;

    2015-01-01

    model. Applying a range of future projections that combine different scenarios for climate changes, enhanced CO2 concentrations, and population growth, we investigated the individual and combined effects of these drivers on the total area and regions affected by fire in the 21st century. The two models......Global environmental changes and human activity influence wildland fires worldwide, but the relative importance of the individual factors varies regionally and their interplay can be difficult to disentangle. Here we evaluate projected future changes in burned area at the European and sub...... fire-prone region that should gain further attention for future fire management....

  14. Mediating Effects of Emotional Resilience on Relationship between Family Socioeconomic Status and Borderline ;Personality Level of Adolescents%情绪弹性在家庭社会经济地位与青少年边缘人格水平关系中的中介作用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈涛; 项锦晶; 邢怡伦; 裴欢昌; 王鹏翀; 罗捷

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨情绪弹性在家庭社会经济地位与青少年边缘人格水平关系中的中介作用。方法于2013年9—11月,采用整群随机抽样的方法,在北京地区三所中学以班级为单位抽取中学生683例。在删除人格诊断问卷诈病数据以及信息不完整样本后,确定本研究的样本量为509例。采用人格诊断问卷中边缘性人格障碍( BPD)分量表测量青少年的边缘人格水平;采用青少年情绪弹性问卷测量青少年的情绪弹性;采用自编人口学调查表测量青少年的家庭社会经济地位:以父母受教育水平作为青少年家庭社会经济地位的衡量指标,将受教育水平在大专及以上者归为高家庭社会经济地位组(n=294),将受教育水平在大专以下者归为低家庭社会经济地位组(n=215)。结果高家庭社会经济地位组青少年边缘人格水平低于低家庭社会经济地位组,积极情绪得分及情绪弹性总分高于低家庭社会经济地位组,差异有统计学意义( P﹤0.05);而两组情绪恢复得分间差异无统计学意义( P﹥0.05)。家庭社会经济地位与青少年边缘人格水平呈负相关(rs =-0.10,P﹤0.05),而与情绪弹性总分呈正相关(rs =0.11,P﹤0.05)。情绪弹性总分与青少年边缘人格水平呈负相关(rs =-0.47,P﹤0.01)。青少年情绪弹性在家庭社会经济地位与青少年边缘人格水平的关系之间起完全中介作用,中介效应占总效应的39.7%。结论情绪弹性在家庭社会经济地位与青少年边缘人格水平关系中具有完全中介作用。%Objective To investigate mediating effects of emotional resilience on relationship between family socioeconomic status and borderline personality level of adolescents. Methods From September to November in 2013, by applying cluster sampling method,683 middle school students from three middle schools in Beijing were enrolled

  15. Motor Proficiency and Body Mass Index of Preschool Children: In Relation to Socioeconomic Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mülazimoglu-Balli, Özgür

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the correlation between motor proficiency and body mass index and to assess the socioeconomic status differences in motor proficiency and body mass index of preschool children. Sixty preschool children in the different socioeconomic status areas of central Denizli in Turkey participated in the study. The…

  16. Socioeconomic differences in risk of myocardial infarction 1971-1994 in Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallqvist, J; Lundberg, Mats; Diderichsen, Finn;

    1998-01-01

    The general trend in incidence of myocardial infarction (MI) in the Stockholm area changed from increasing to decreasing around 1980. The objective of this study is to examine time trends in incidence in major socioeconomic strata, relative risk between socioeconomic groups and population risk...

  17. Miíases associadas com alguns fatores sócio-econômicos em cinco áreas urbanas do Estado do Rio de Janeiro Myiasis associated with some socioeconomic factors in five urban areas of the State of Rio de Janeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Teixeira Marquez

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Trata-se de um estudo epidemiológico descritivo com o objetivo de avaliar a ocorrência de miíases humanas em áreas urbanas de quatro municípios do Estado do Rio de Janeiro. Foram analisados 71 pacientes que procuraram espontaneamente o atendimento em Postos de Saúde, no período de outubro de 1999 a outubro de 2003. Maior prevalência da doença foi encontrada em adultos e idosos acima de 51 anos (42,3% e em menores de 10 anos (33,8%. Do total dos casos estudados, 62% incluíam-se no nível sócio-econômico baixo; 60,6% eram do sexo masculino e 33,8% dos indivíduos infestados, sem profissão. Nos casos analisados as espécies bioagentes foram Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel, 1858; Dermatobia hominis (Linnaeus Jr, 1781 e Cochliomyia macellaria (Fabricius, 1775. Os resultados apontam para a associação da doença com as condições de vida e de higiene dos pacientes, sinalizando para a necessidade de atenção mais específica à saúde dos grupos mais vulneráveis.This was a descriptive epidemiological study with the aim of evaluating the occurrence of human myiasis in urban areas of four municipalities in the State of Rio de Janeiro. Seventy-one patients who spontaneously sought attendance at primary healthcare units between October 1999 and October 2003 were examined. The disease was more prevalent among adults, including in individuals more than 51 years old (42.3%, and among children less than 10 years old (33.8%. From all the cases studied, 62% were of low socioeconomic level; 60.6% were male; and 33.8% of the infested individuals were unemployed. In the cases analyzed, the bioagent species were Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel, 1858, Dermatobia hominis (Linnaeus Jr, 1781 and Cochliomyia macellaria (Fabricius, 1775. The results point towards an association between the disease and the patients’ living and hygiene conditions. This indicates the need for more specific healthcare among more vulnerable groups.

  18. [Influence of industrial pollution with mercury on levels of its accumulation in populated area objects and foods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amreeva, K E; Teryokhin, S P; Krashanovskaya, T R

    2015-01-01

    The article deals with results of study covering influence of industrial pollution with mercury on its accumulation level in populated area objects and foods. Mercury content was measured in ambient air, snow, water, bed silt and regional foods of vegetable and animal origin--that is a potential health hazard for Central Kazakhstan population. The data obtained prove that high levels of mercury were detected in all the studied objects.

  19. [Migration and socioeconomic changes in the community of Zoogocho, Oaxaca].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos Pioquinto, D

    1991-01-01

    "This study of migration and the socioeconomic dynamics of the community of Zoogocho in the state of Oaxaca [Mexico] is an example of what happens in rural areas when Indian-campesinos establish contacts with foreign parts. The penetration of alien socioeconomic and cultural values alters both family and communal structures to such an extent that available resources prove insufficient in competing with the colliding external society. This leads to increasingly more complex movements of the population, the manifestations, causes and consequences of which vary through time not only in the places of origin but also in destinations." (SUMMARY IN ENG)

  20. Resilience of Infrastructure Systems to Sea-Level Rise in Coastal Areas: Impacts, Adaptation Measures, and Implementation Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Azevedo de Almeida

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Expansive areas of low elevation in many densely populated coastal areas are at elevated risk of storm surges and flooding due to torrential precipitation, as a result of sea level rise. These phenomena could have catastrophic impacts on coastal communities and result in the destruction of critical infrastructure, disruption of economic activities and salt water contamination of the water supply. The objective of the study presented in this paper was to identify various impacts of sea level rise on civil infrastructures in coastal areas and examine the adaptation measures suggested in the existing literature. To this end, a systemic review of the existing literature was conducted in order to identify a repository of studies addressing sea level rise impacts and adaptation measures in the context of infrastructure systems. The study focused on three infrastructure sectors: water and wastewater, energy, and road transportation. The collected information was then analyzed in order to identify different categories of sea level rise impacts and corresponding adaptation measures. The findings of the study are threefold: (1 the major categories of sea level rise impacts on different infrastructure systems; (2 measures for protection, accommodation, and retreat in response to sea level rise impacts; and (3 challenges related to implementing adaptation measures.

  1. Socioeconomic position and survival after cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibfelt, E H; Kjær, S K; Høgdall, C;

    2013-01-01

    In an attempt to decrease social disparities in cancer survival, it is important to consider the mechanisms by which socioeconomic position influences cancer prognosis. We aimed to investigate whether any associations between socioeconomic factors and survival after cervical cancer could...... be explained by socioeconomic differences in cancer stage, comorbidity, lifestyle factors or treatment....

  2. Perfil de risco: método multivariado de classificação sócio-econômica de microáreas urbanas - os setores censitários da região metropolitana do Rio de Janeiro Risk profile: multivariate cluster analysis of urban small areas based on socioeconomic indicators - census tracts from the Greater Rio de Janeiro Metropolitan Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilia Sá Carvalho

    1997-10-01

    lower income; (C poor; (D low schooling and income; (E low-level access to sanitation. The existing inequality in each of the geopolitical established areas was clearly identified. The proposed method allowed for the construction of compound indices to evaluate quality of life, based on widespread and easily obtained data (the census. Moreover, the method contributed to the detection of socioeconomic inequality, identifying, not only the larger poor regions but also the small excluded areas.

  3. Using Small-Area Analysis to Estimate County-Level Racial Disparities in Obesity Demonstrating the Necessity of Targeted Interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy D'Agostino-McGowan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Data on the national and state levels is often used to inform policy decisions and strategies designed to reduce racial disparities in obesity. Obesity-related health outcomes are realized on the individual level, and policies based on state and national-level data may be inappropriate due to the variations in health outcomes within and between states. To examine county-level variation of obesity within states, we use a small-area analysis technique to fill the void for county-level obesity data by race. Five years of Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data are used to estimate the prevalence of obesity by county, both overall and race-stratified. A modified weighting system is used based on demographics at the county level using 2010 census data. We fit a multilevel reweighted regression model to obtain county-level prevalence estimates by race. We compare the distribution of prevalence estimates of non-Hispanic Blacks to non-Hispanic Whites. For 25 of the 26 states included in our analysis there is a statistically significant difference between within-state county-level average obesity prevalence rates for non-Hispanic Whites and non-Hispanic Blacks. This study provides information needed to target disparities interventions and resources to the local areas with greatest need; it also identifies the necessity of doing so.

  4. Does socioeconomic inequality in health persist among older people living in resource-poor urban slums?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkingham, Jane C; Chepngeno-Langat, Gloria; Kyobutungi, Catherine; Ezeh, Alex; Evandrou, Maria

    2011-06-01

    Using self-reported health that assesses functionality or disability status, this paper investigates whether there are any differences in health status among older people living in a deprived area of Nairobi, Kenya. Data from a cross-sectional survey of 2,037 men and women aged 50 years and older are used to examine the association between socioeconomic position and self-reported health status across 6 health domains. Education, occupation, a wealth index, and main source of livelihood are used to assess the presence of a socioeconomic gradient in health. All the indicators showed the expected negative association with health across some, but not all, of the disability domains. Nonetheless, differences based on occupation, the most commonly used indicators to examine health inequalities, were not statistically significant. Primary level of education was a significant factor for women but not for men; conversely, wealth status was associated with lower disability for both men and women. Older people dependent on their own sources of livelihood were also less likely to report a disability. The results suggest the need for further research to identify an appropriate socioeconomic classification that is sensitive in identifying poverty and deprivation among older people living in slums.

  5. Environmental, Demogrphic and Socioeconomic Factors Influencing Adoption of Fisheries Conservation Measures in Niger Delta, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.A. Akankali

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine Environmental, Demogrphic and Socioeconomic factors influencing adoption of artisanal fisheries resources conservation measures based on the perspectives of Artisanal fishers in Delta, Rivers and Bayelsa states, Niger Delta, Nigeria. The study was conducted for a period of one year (January 2008 to Decmber 2008. With the aid of well-structured questionnaires the desired information were collected and analyzed. A total sample size of 1,200 respondents within the study area, were selected using random sampling technique. Logistic regression technique was used to determine the impact of the independent variables on willingness to adopt fisheries conservation measures. The regression analysis result show that eleven (11 independent variables (Public Enlightenment, Regulatory pressure, Environmental stewardship, Severity of pollutants, Economic circumstances, Institutional Support, Information access, Highest Education, Fishing Experience, Legal Structure and Age were factors that influence willingness to adopt conservation measures by the fishers. However, the level of influence was found to vary differently in the three states studied depending on the socioeconomic and educational status and other peculiarities of each of the state. Generally, based on the result of the logit analysis of the perspectives of the artisanal fisher respondents, it is therefore inferred that the willingness to adopt fisheries resources conservation measures in the Niger Delta by the Artisanal Fishers, is significantly a function of the studied demographic, socioeconomic, psychological, institutional and environmental factors as specified by the eleven variables.

  6. Correlation of sense of coherence with oral health behaviors, socioeconomic status, and periodontal status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kommuri Sahithi Reddy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The sense of coherence (SOC has been suggested to be highly applicable concept in the public health area because a strong SOC is stated to decrease the likelihood of perceiving the social environment as stressful. This reduces the susceptibility to the health-damaging effect of chronic stress by lowering the likelihood of repeated negative emotions to stress perception. Materials and Methods: The demographic data and general information of subjects' oral health behaviors such as frequency of cleaning teeth, aids used to clean teeth, and dental attendance were recorded in the self-administered questionnaire. The SOC-related data were obtained using the short version of Antonovsky's SOC scale. The periodontal status was recorded based on the modified World Health Organization 1997 pro forma. Results: The total of 780 respondents comprising 269 (34.5% males and 511 (65.5% females participated in the study. A significant difference was noted among the subjects for socioeconomic status based on gender (P = 0.000. The healthy periodontal status (community periodontal index [CPI] code 0 was observed for 67 (24.9% males and 118 (23.1% females. The overall SOC showed statistically negative correlation with socioeconomic status scale (r = −0.287. The CPI and loss of attachment (periodontal status were significantly and negatively correlated with SOC. Conclusion: The present study concluded that a high level of SOC was associated with good oral health behaviors, periodontal status, and socioeconomic status.

  7. Is the "Glasgow effect" of cigarette smoking explained by socio-economic status?: A multilevel analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leyland Alastair H

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Glasgow area has elevated levels of deprivation and is known for its poor health and associated negative health-related behaviours, which are socially patterned. Of interest is whether high smoking rates are explained by the area's socio-economic profile. Methods Data on age, sex, current/previous smoking status, area deprivation, social class, education, economic activity, postcode sector, and health board region were available from Scottish Health Surveys conducted in 1995, 1998 and 2003. Multilevel logistic regression models were applied by sex, unadjusted and adjusted for age, survey year, and socio-economic factors, accounting for geographical hierarchy and missing data. Results Compared with the rest of Scotland, men living in Greater Glasgow were 30% and women 43% more likely to smoke [odds ratio (OR = 1.30, (95% CI = 1.08–1.56 and (OR = 1.43, CI = 1.22–1.68, respectively] before adjustment. In adjusted results, the association between living in Greater Glasgow and current smoking was attenuated [OR = 0.92, CI = 0.78–1.09 for men, and OR = 1.08, CI = 0.94–1.23 for women; results based on multiply imputed data to account for missing values remained borderline significant for women]. Accounting for individuals who had been told to give up smoking by a medical person/excluding ex-smokers did not alter results. Conclusion High levels of smoking in Greater Glasgow were attributable to its poorer socio-economic position and the strong social patterning of smoking. Tackling Glasgow's, and indeed Scotland's, poor health must involve policies to alleviate problems associated with poverty.

  8. Could be some day a classless society? The complex relationship between general cognitive ability and socioeconomic level [¿Habrá algún día una sociedad sin clases? La compleja relación entre habilidad cognitiva general y nivel socioeconómico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén Ardila

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Relationships between socio-economic level (SEL and general cognitive ability have been complex and multifaceted. Research findings are presented in the context of societies that are in the transition period from a traditional model to a contemporary globalized model. Problems associated with so- cial climbing, the search for opportunities and the philosophy of equality are analized from the psychological perspective. Cases are presented from developing world societies. The role of education, social stratification, and the development of specific aptituds, are analized in detail.

  9. Factors Influencing Low Level of Women Participation in Literacy Programme in Maiha Local Government Area of Adamawa State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Aminchi

    2015-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the extent to which poverty, gender stereotype, socio-cultural belief and lack of awareness influence low level of women participation in literacy programme in Maiha Local Government Area of Adamawa State. Survey designed was adopted for the study and a sample consisting of three hundred (300) women who were…

  10. Propagation of subcycle pulses in a two-level medium: Area-theorem breakdown and pulse shape

    CERN Document Server

    Novitsky, Denis

    2013-01-01

    We solve the problem of ultrashort pulse propagation in a two-level medium beyond the rotating-wave (RWA) and slowly-varying-envelope approximations. The method of solution is based on the Maxwell--Bloch equations represented in the form that allows one to switch between RWA and general (non-RWA) cases in the framework of a single numerical algorithm. Using this method, the effect of a subcycle pulse (containing less than a single period of field oscillations) on the two-level medium was analyzed. It is shown that for such short pulses, the clear breakdown of the area theorem occurs for the pulses of large enough area. Moreover, deviations from the area theorem appear to be strongly dependent on the pulse shape that cannot be observed for longer few-cycle pulses.

  11. The Catastrophe Theory as a Conceptual and Methodological Basis for Assessing the Stability of Socio-Economic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergienko Olena A.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available There has been proposed a conceptual approach to studying the instability of main indicators of socio-economic development of Ukraine’s economy aimed at solving problems of assessment, analysis and forecasting the state of territorial systems and providing for the implementation of three major steps: assessment of the dynamics of socio-economic indicators of territorial development and the extent of their relationship, building catastrophe models of dynamics of socio-economic indicators of territorial development, analysis of instability of socio-economic systems. A study of the development dynamics of Ukraine’s economy in terms of the most significant macroeconomic indicators characterizing the state of industrial production, construction, employment, and demographic processes have been carried out. There revealed the instability and non-linearity of their relationship, occurrence of bifurcations and a high probability of catastrophes in the following research areas: dependence of the GDP on the volume of construction works, which makes it possible to determine the presence of the construction crisis in the economy; dependence of the GDP on the level of migration and natural increase in the population of Ukraine, which presents objective information about the demographic crisis in the country. The analytical results obtained can serve a basis for of the concept of regional policy transformation, implementation of investment and strategic programs aimed at stimulating investment of progressive structural changes in the regional and territorial perspective and crisis management.

  12. Soil mercury levels in the area surrounding the Cerro Prieto geothermal complex, MEXICO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastrana-Corral, M A; Wakida, F T; García-Flores, E; Rodriguez-Mendivil, D D; Quiñonez-Plaza, A; Piñon-Colin, T D J

    2016-08-01

    Even though geothermal energy is a renewable energy source that is seen as cost-effective and environmentally friendly, emissions from geothermal plants can impact air, soil, and water in the vicinity of geothermal power plants. The Cerro Prieto geothermal complex is located 30 km southeast of the city of Mexicali in the Mexican state of Baja California. Its installed electricity generation capacity is 720 MW, being the largest geothermal complex in Mexico. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether the emissions generated by the geothermal complex have increased the soil mercury concentration in the surrounding areas. Fifty-four surface soil samples were collected from the perimeter up to an approximate distance of 7660 m from the complex. Additionally, four soil depth profiles were performed in the vicinity of the complex. Mercury concentration in 69 % of the samples was higher than the mercury concentration found at the baseline sites. The mercury concentration ranged from 0.01 to 0.26 mg/kg. Our results show that the activities of the geothermal complex have led to an accumulation of mercury in the soil of the surrounding area. More studies are needed to determine the risk to human health and the ecosystems in the study area.

  13. Rising Seas: Threat to Coastal Areas, A General Study about the Sea Level Rises on Coastal Areas of Earth, its Consequences and Preventive Measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataria, A.

    2015-12-01

    Scientific research indicates that sea levels worldwide have been rising at a rate of 3 millimeters per year since the early 1990s (IPCC), which is much higher than the previous century. The recent measurements (march 2015; NASA) tells us that the present rise of sea level is 64.4 mm. Most recent satellite measurements and tide gauge readings (NASA) tell us that present rate sea level rise is 3.20 mm per year. A recent study says we can expect the oceans to rise between 2.5 and 6.5 feet (0.8 and 2 meters) by 2100. The two main causes of rising seas are thermal expansion and glacier melting which further corresponds to the root cause of sea level rise: Green House effect. For every degree Celsius that global average temperature rises, we can expect 2.3 meters of sea-level rise sometime over the ensuing 2,000 years. The main consequence of Sea level rise is increase in oceanic acidity as it releases the entrapped carbon dioxide in between the glaciers. The problem goes from bad to worse when we take into consideration that one third of the world population lives in a 60 km range from the coast. In the event of a flood, this massive population would have to move away from the coasts. The main objective of research is to find all the most vulnerable areas, to make people aware about the consequences and to take proper measurements to fight with such natural calamities. The rise in sea level would inevitably cause massive migration like never seen before. Over 25% of the world population could disappear if sea levels continues to rise with same or faster rate as present. The oceans, sea life and life of people at coastal areas will get extremely effected unless there are considerable cuts in the carbon dioxide emissions. What we need to do is just to apply all the methods and measurements in our daily life that can help reduce the green house gases emissions. Also we need to plan that how to prevent all these cities in case of such natural hazards.

  14. DECISION LEVEL FUSION OF LIDAR DATA AND AERIAL COLOR IMAGERY BASED ON BAYESIAN THEORY FOR URBAN AREA CLASSIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Rastiveis

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR generates high-density 3D point clouds to provide a comprehensive information from object surfaces. Combining this data with aerial/satellite imagery is quite promising for improving land cover classification. In this study, fusion of LiDAR data and aerial imagery based on Bayesian theory in a three-level fusion algorithm is presented. In the first level, pixel-level fusion, the proper descriptors for both LiDAR and image data are extracted. In the next level of fusion, feature-level, using extracted features the area are classified into six classes of “Buildings”, “Trees”, “Asphalt Roads”, “Concrete roads”, “Grass” and “Cars” using Naïve Bayes classification algorithm. This classification is performed in three different strategies: (1 using merely LiDAR data, (2 using merely image data, and (3 using all extracted features from LiDAR and image. The results of three classifiers are integrated in the last phase, decision level fusion, based on Naïve Bayes algorithm. To evaluate the proposed algorithm, a high resolution color orthophoto and LiDAR data over the urban areas of Zeebruges, Belgium were applied. Obtained results from the decision level fusion phase revealed an improvement in overall accuracy and kappa coefficient.

  15. Utility of the Measurement of Carboxyhemoglobin Level at the Site of Acute Carbon Monoxide Poisoning in Rural Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makoto Onodera

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study examined the hypothesis that correlations exist between the carbon monoxide exposure time and the carboxyhemoglobin concentration at the site of carbon monoxide poisoning, using a pulse carbon monoxide oximeter in rural areas or the carboxyhemoglobin concentration measured at a given medical institution. Background. In previous studies, no definitive relationships between the arterial blood carboxyhemoglobin level and the severity of carbon monoxide poisoning have been observed. Method. The subjects included patients treated for acute carbon monoxide poisoning in whom a medical emergency team was able to measure the carboxyhemoglobin level at the site of poisoning. We examined the relationship between the carboxyhemoglobin level at the site of poisoning and carbon monoxide exposure time and the relationships between the arterial blood carboxyhemoglobin level and carbon monoxide exposure time. Results. A total of 10 patients met the above criteria. The carboxyhemoglobin levels at the site of poisoning were significantly and positively correlated with the exposure time (rs = 0.710, p=0.021, but the arterial blood carboxyhemoglobin levels were not correlated with the exposure time. Conclusion. In rural areas, the carboxyhemoglobin level measured at the site of carbon monoxide poisoning correlated with the exposure time.

  16. The role of socioeconomic status in longitudinal trends of cholera in Matlab, Bangladesh, 1993-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Root, Elisabeth Dowling; Rodd, Joshua; Yunus, Mohammad; Emch, Michael

    2013-01-01

    There has been little evidence of a decline in the global burden of cholera in recent years as the number of cholera cases reported to WHO continues to rise. Cholera remains a global threat to public health and a key indicator of lack of socioeconomic development. Overall socioeconomic development is the ultimate solution for control of cholera as evidenced in developed countries. However, most research has focused on cross-county comparisons so that the role of individual- or small area-level socioeconomic status (SES) in cholera dynamics has not been carefully studied. Reported cases of cholera in Matlab, Bangladesh have fluctuated greatly over time and epidemic outbreaks of cholera continue, most recently with the introduction of a new serotype into the region. The wealth of longitudinal data on the population of Matlab provides a unique opportunity to explore the impact of socioeconomic status and other demographic characteristics on the long-term temporal dynamics of cholera in the region. In this population-based study we examine which factors impact the initial number of cholera cases in a bari at the beginning of the 0139 epidemic and the factors impacting the number of cases over time. Cholera data were derived from the ICDDR,B health records and linked to socioeconomic and geographic data collected as part of the Matlab Health and Demographic Surveillance System. Longitudinal zero-inflated Poisson (ZIP) multilevel regression models are used to examine the impact of environmental and socio-demographic factors on cholera counts across baris. Results indicate that baris with a high socioeconomic status had lower initial rates of cholera at the beginning of the 0139 epidemic (γ(01) = -0.147, p = 0.041) and a higher probability of reporting no cholera cases (α(01) = 0.156, p = 0.061). Populations in baris characterized by low SES are more likely to experience higher cholera morbidity at the beginning of an epidemic than populations in high

  17. The impact of industrial oil development on a protected area landscape: A case study on human population growth and landscape level change in Murchison Falls Conservation Area, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowhaniuk, Nicholas; Hartter, Joel; Congalton, Russell G.; Palace, Michael W.; Ryan, Sadie J.

    2016-04-01

    Protected areas in Sub-Saharan Africa are sanctuaries for rich biodiversity and are important economic engines for African nations, but they are becoming increasingly threatened by discoveries of mineral deposits within and nearby their boundaries. In 2006, viable oil reserves were discovered in Murchison Falls Conservation Area (MFCA) in northern Uganda. Exploratory and appraisal activities concluded in 2014, and production is expected to begin in 2016. The oil development is associated with a substantial increase in human population outside MFCA, with people seeking jobs, land, and economic opportunity. Concomitant with this change is increased truck traffic, a sprawling and denser road network, and infrastructure within the park, which could have large impacts on both the flora and fauna. We examined the broader protected area landscape and the potential feedbacks from resource development on the ecosystem and local livelihoods. Our analysis combines a land cover analysis using Object Based Image Analysis of Landsat data (2002 and 2014), migration patterns and population change (1959-2014), and qualitative interview data. Our results suggest that most of the larger-scale impacts on the landscape and people are occurring in the western and northern sections, both inside and outside of the park. Additionally, oil development is not the only factor in the region influencing population growth and landscape change. Post conflict regrowth in the north, sugarcane production in the south, and migration to this region from conflict-ridden neighboring countries are also playing a vital role in human migration shaping the MFCA Landscape. Understanding the social and environmental changes and impacts in the MFCA and its surrounding areas will add to limited literature on the impacts of resource extraction on local, subsistence communities and landscape level change, which will be important as access and pressure for oil and minerals within protected areas continues to rise.

  18. Classroom-Level Positive Behavior Supports in Schools Implementing SW-PBIS: Identifying Areas for Enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinke, Wendy M.; Herman, Keith C.; Stormont, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the use of classroom-level behavior management strategies that align with School-Wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (SW-PBIS). Direct observations of universal classroom management strategies were conducted across 33 elementary classrooms in elementary schools implementing SW-PBIS with high fidelity. Findings…

  19. A Genetic Algorithm for the Bi-Level Topological Design of Local Area Networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José-Fernando Camacho-Vallejo

    Full Text Available Local access networks (LAN are commonly used as communication infrastructures which meet the demand of a set of users in the local environment. Usually these networks consist of several LAN segments connected by bridges. The topological LAN design bi-level problem consists on assigning users to clusters and the union of clusters by bridges in order to obtain a minimum response time network with minimum connection cost. Therefore, the decision of optimally assigning users to clusters will be made by the leader and the follower will make the decision of connecting all the clusters while forming a spanning tree. In this paper, we propose a genetic algorithm for solving the bi-level topological design of a Local Access Network. Our solution method considers the Stackelberg equilibrium to solve the bi-level problem. The Stackelberg-Genetic algorithm procedure deals with the fact that the follower's problem cannot be optimally solved in a straightforward manner. The computational results obtained from two different sets of instances show that the performance of the developed algorithm is efficient and that it is more suitable for solving the bi-level problem than a previous Nash-Genetic approach.

  20. Closure Plan for the E-Area Low-Level Waste Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, J.R.

    2000-10-30

    A closure plan has been developed to comply with the applicable requirements of the U.S. Department of Energy Order 435.2 Manual and Guidance. The plan is organized according to the specifications of the Format and Content Guide for U.S. Department of Energy Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility Closure Plans.

  1. Socio-economic and environmental sustainability estimate of ENEL project for the S. Maria in Brasimone basin area; Valutazione della sostenibilita' socio-economica e ambientale del progetto ENEL per l'area del bacino di S. Maria del Brasimone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Padovani, L; Beone, F.; Carrabba, P. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente; Lorenzelli, E.; Cialani, C.

    1999-07-01

    During preparatory activities of National Conference on Energy and Environment (CNEA), which took place in Rome in November 1998, the ENEA Biological Diversity Group and ENEL signed an agreement to lead a socio-economic and environmental sustainability analysis of a tourism valorisation project about an ENEL vacant, marginal, fragile or abandoned site. The activities had also the aim to be an effective contribution to individuation of future guidelines on sustainable tourism which the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) will discuss and issue, if possible. This work has the purpose of proposing a territorial dialogue example between many parties, which would start a local development that was sustainable, respecting local traditions. Actions proposed by ENEA are: 1. integration of a project based on environmental valorisation to tourist purpose, adding elements of respect and sustainable use of local biological diversity. 2. Analysis, through a series of medium/long term statistic model, both of the interventions proposed by ENEL and of the possible integrations suggested by ENEA. 3. Collaboration in searching for institutional funds (UE), for the achievement of the demonstrative project on sustainable tourism as regards of local biological diversity. The analysis conducts by ENEA allowed the following conclusions: the cost-benefit analysis, for the period taken into account, highlight as the project could have a positive result only if it is possible to rely on Regional or European funds. The possibility to obtain these types of funds in the fields of tourism is proportional to the consideration given into the project to the environment, to the rural development and the diversification of the income in the rural areas. Moreover, the authors suggests that the ENEL project should be wider, inclusive of more interventions, as i.e. the restoration of old building to turn into agritourism, recreational centres and hotels: the improvement of particular local

  2. A framework for evaluating the impact of obesity prevention strategies on socioeconomic inequalities in weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backholer, Kathryn; Beauchamp, Alison; Ball, Kylie; Turrell, Gavin; Martin, Jane; Woods, Julie; Peeters, Anna

    2014-10-01

    We developed a theoretical framework to organize obesity prevention interventions by their likely impact on the socioeconomic gradient of weight. The degree to which an intervention involves individual agency versus structural change influences socioeconomic inequalities in weight. Agentic interventions, such as standalone social marketing, increase socioeconomic inequalities. Structural interventions, such as food procurement policies and restrictions on unhealthy foods in schools, show equal or greater benefit for lower socioeconomic groups. Many obesity prevention interventions belong to the agento-structural types of interventions, and account for the environment in which health behaviors occur, but they require a level of individual agency for behavioral change, including workplace design to encourage exercise and fiscal regulation of unhealthy foods or beverages. Obesity prevention interventions differ in their effectiveness across socioeconomic groups. Limiting further increases in socioeconomic inequalities in obesity requires implementation of structural interventions. Further empirical evaluation, especially of agento-structural type interventions, remains crucial.

  3. Preoperative 3T high field blood oxygen level dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging for glioma involving sensory cortical areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Shao-wu; WANG Jiang-fei; JIANG Tao; LI Shou-wei; ZHANG Wen-bo; LI Zi-xiao; ZHANG Zhong; DAI Jian-ping; WANG Zhong-cheng

    2010-01-01

    Background Localization of sensory cortical areas during the operation is essential to preserve the sensory function.Intraoperative direct electrostimulation under awake anesthesia is the golden standard but time-consuming. We applied 3T high field blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to identify the relationship between glioma and cortical sensory areas preoperatively and to guide intraoperative direct electrostimulation for quick and precise localization.Methods Five glioma patients with sensory cortex involvement by or next to the lesion had preoperative BOLD fMRI to determine the spatial relationship of cortical sensory areas to the tumours. Bilateral hand opposite movement was performed by these patients for fMRI. Precentral and postcentral gyri were identified by electrical stimulation during the operation. Karnofsky Performance Status scores of the patients' pre- and postoperative and the role of BOLD fMRI were evaluated.Results The cortical sensory areas were all activated in five glioma patients involving postcentral gyrus areas by BOLDf MRI with bilateral hand opposite movement. The detected activation areas corresponded with the results from cortical electrical stimulation.Conclusions The relationship between cortical sensory areas and tumour can be accurately shown by BOLD fMRI before operation. And the information used to make the tumour resection could obtain good clinical results.

  4. Prediction and prevention of the impacts of sea level rise on the Yangtze River Delta and its adjacent areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The Yangtze River Delta region is characterized by high density of population and rapidly developing economy. There are low lying coastal plain and deltaic plain in this region. Thus, the study area could be highly vulnerable to accelerated sea level rise caused by global warming. This paper deals with the scenarios of the relative sea level rise in the early half period of the 21st century in the study area. The authors suggested that relative sea level would rise 25 50 cm by the year 2050 in the study area, of which the magnitude of relative sea level rise in the Yangtze River Delta would double the perspective worldwide average. The impacts of sea level rise include: (i) exacerbation of coastline recession in several sections and vertical erosion of tidal flat, and increase in length of eroding coastline; (ii) decrease in area of tidal flat and coastal wetland due to erosion and inundation; (iii) increase in frequency and intensity of storm surge, which would threaten the coastal protection works; (iv) reduction of drainage capacity due to backwater effect in the Lixiahe lowland and the eastern lowland of Taihu Lake region, and exacerbation of flood and waterlogging disasters; and (v) increase in salt water intrusion into the Yangtze Estuary. Comprehensive evaluation of sea level rise impacts shows that the Yangtze River Delta and eastern lowland of Taihu Lake region, especially Shanghai Municipality, belong in the district in the extreme risk category and the next is the northern bank of Hangzhou Bay, the third is the abandoned Yellow River delta, and the district at low risk includes the central part of north Jiangsu coastal plain and Lixiahe lowland.

  5. Assessment of heavy metal and pesticide levels in soil and plant products from agricultural area of Belgrade, Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marković, Mirjana; Cupać, Svjetlana; Durović, Rada; Milinović, Jelena; Kljajić, Petar

    2010-02-01

    This study was aimed to assess the levels of selected heavy metals and pesticides in soil and plant products from an agricultural area of Belgrade, Serbia and to indicate possible sources and risks of contamination. Soil, vegetable, and fruit samples from the most important agricultural city areas were collected from July to November of 2006. Metal contents were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry, whereas pesticide residues were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry after extraction performed using solid-phase microextraction technique. Soil characterization based on the determination of selected physical and chemical properties revealed heterogeneous soils belonging to different soil groups. The concentrations of lead, cadmium, copper, and zinc in soil samples do not exceed the limits established by national and international regulations. Residues of the herbicide atrazine were detected in three soil samples, with levels lower than the relevant limit. The presence of other herbicides, namely prometryn, chloridazon, acetochlor, flurochloridone, and napropamide, was registered in some soil samples as well. Among the insecticides investigated in the soil, fenitrothion and chlorpyrifos were the only ones detected. In most of the investigated vegetable samples from the Obrenovac area, Pb and Cd contents are higher in comparison with the maximum levels, indicating the emission of coal combustion products from local thermal power plants as a possible source of contamination. Residue levels of some herbicides and insecticides (metribuzin, trifluralin, pendimethalin, bifenthrin, chlorpyrifos, and cypermethrin) determined in tomato, pepper, potato, and onion samples from Slanci, Ovca, and Obrenovac areas are even several times higher than the maximum residue levels. Inappropriate use of these plant protection products is considered to be the most probable reason of contamination. Because increased levels of heavy metals and pesticide residues found in

  6. Near-field dynamics of broad area diode laser at very high pump levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Hempel

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Near-field properties of the emission of broad area semiconductor diode lasers under extremely high pumping of up to ∼50 times the threshold are investigated. A transition from a gain to thermally-induced index guiding is shown under operation with single pulses of 300 ns duration. At highest output powers, catastrophic optical damage is observed which is studied in conjunction with the evolution of time-averaged filamentary near-field properties. Dynamics of the process is resolved on a picosecond time scale.

  7. Monitoring leaf area index at watershed level through NDVI from Landsat-7/ETM+ data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Alexandre Cândido

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Leaf area index (LAI is an important parameter of the vegetation canopy, and is used, for instance, to estimate evapotranspiration, an important component of the hydrological cycle. This work analyzed the relationship between LAI, measured in field, and NDVI from four dates (derived from Landsat-7/ETM+ data, and with such vegetation index, to generate and analyze LAI maps of the study area for the diverse dates. LAI data were collected monthly in the field with LAI-2000 equipment in stands of sugar cane, pasture, corn, eucalypt, and riparian forest. The relationships between LAI and NDVI were adjusted by a potential model; 57% to 72% of the NDVI variance were explained by the LAI. LAI maps generated by empirical relationships between LAI and NDVI showed reasonable precision (standard error of LAI estimate ranged from 0.42 to 0.87 m² m-2. The mean LAI value of each monthly LAI map was shown to be related to the total precipitation in the three previous months.

  8. Socioeconomic and environmental determinants of adolescent asthma in urban Latin America: an ecological analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattore, Gisel Lorena; Santos, Carlos Antonio de Souza Teles; Barreto, Mauricio Lima

    2015-11-01

    The prevalence of asthma is high in urban areas of many Latin-American countries where societies show high levels of inequality and different levels of development. This study aimed to examine the relationship between asthma symptoms prevalence in adolescents living in Latin American urban centers and socioeconomic and environmental determinants measured at the ecological level. Asthma prevalence symptoms were obtained from the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) phase III. A hierarchical conceptual framework was defined and the explanatory variables were organized in three levels: distal, intermediate, proximal. Linear regression models weighed by sample size were undertaken between asthma prevalence and the selected variables. Asthma prevalence was positively associated with Gini index, water supply and homicide rate, and inversely associated with the Human Development Index, crowding and adequate sanitation. This study provides evidence of the potential influence of poverty and social inequalities on current wheezing in adolescents in a complex social context like Latin America.

  9. Nutritional status and the impact of socioeconomic factors on pregnant women in Kamrup district of Assam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahanta, Lipi B; Roy, Tanusree Deb; Dutta, Rongmili Gogoi; Devi, Arundhuti

    2012-01-01

    Pregnancy is a critical time in the course of life, having both health and social impacts for individuals, family, and society. The prevalence of undernutrition among pregnant women in a rural area of Assam, India, was examined using anthropometric and biochemical assessments. Key socioeconomic factors that affect nutritional status were examined. A cross-sectional study with a sample of 285 women from all three trimesters was done. The results found that 48% of the women were below normal for Body Mass Index (BMI), indicating a high level of undernutrition. The age of the mother and husband's occupation showed a strong positive correlation with BMI, while family size and income level showed a negative correlation. The results of the biochemical analysis showed that 62% of the women were anemic, and copper and zinc levels were 29% and 12% below normal levels, respectively. The study findings indicate that undernutrition is far higher than national and global standards.

  10. Conference on Environmental Assessment of Socioeconomic Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ittelson, William

    1978-01-01

    Neglect of the relation between the socio-economic system and its natural environment has had detrimental consequences in the past, for example - the pollution of the natural environment (water, air and soil) by producing, using and consuming the products of our industrialized economy, - the forseeable exhaustion of natural resources by continuing the increase of industrial production. Most of the recent activities, both in research and in adminis­ tration, against these impacts have been technically oriented, with the aim of stimulating and introducing new technologies of produc­ tion and new products to diminish the environmental pollution. But these efforts, which are of course necessary, cannot be successful in approaching the aim - which should and must in the long-term view be defined as the development of society in balance with the natural environment. Therefore, in addition to an assess­ ment of technologies, emphasis should be put on an assessment of socio-economic systems. On di~~erent levels, i...

  11. Socioeconomic Status and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zafer Kartaloglu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Socioeconomic status (SES measured by educational and income levels has long been known to be associated with mortality from some diseases. Many studies from developed countries suggested that SES is associated with lung function and COPD exacerbation, prevalence and mortality. Socioeconomic disadvantage is an independent risk factor for COPD. The impact of low SES on respiratory disease in general has been attributed to poorer housing, more hazardous occupational exposure, poorer diet, a higher prevalence of smoking and respiratory infections in childhood. It was found that there was a significant negative correlation between lung function and SES. Childhood SES may influence pulmonary function in adulthood. Pulmonary functions decline earlier and faster for individual with lower childhood SES. It was reported that hospital admission rates for COPD in low SES group were higher than in the high SES group. There was not adequate data about relationship between SES and COPD in our country. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2013; 12(1.000: 87-96

  12. Modeling the Travel Behavior Impacts of Micro-Scale Land Use and Socio-Economic Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houshmand Ebrahimpour Masoumi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The effects of neighborhood-level land use characteristics on urban travel behavior of Iranian cities are under-researched. The present paper examines such influences in a microscopic scale. In this study the role of socio-economic factors is also studies and compared to that of urban form. Two case-study neighborhoods in west of Tehran are selected and considered, first of which is a centralized and compact neighborhood and the other is a sprawled and centerless one. A Multinomial Logit Regression model is developed to consider the effects of socio-economic and land use factors on urban travel pattern. In addition, to consider the effective factors, cross-sectional comparison between the influences of local accessibility and attractiveness of the neighborhood centers of the two case-study areas are undertaken. Also the causality relationships are considered according to the findings of the survey. The findings indicate significant effects of age and household income as socio-economic factors on transportation mode choice in neighborhoods with central structure. One the other hand, no meaningful association between socio-economic or land use variables are resulted by the model for the sprawled case. The most effective land use concept in micro-scale is considered to be satisfaction of entertainment facilities of the neighborhood. Also the descriptive findings show that the centralized neighborhood that gives more local accessibility to shops and retail generates less shopping trips. In considering the causal relations, the study shows that providing neighborhood infrastructures that increase or ease the accessibility to neighborhood amenities can lead to higher shares of sustainable transportation modes like walking, biking, or public transportation use.

  13. Immigration and Internal Migration "Flight" from US Metropolitan Areas: Toward a New Demographic Balkanisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, William H.

    1995-01-01

    Examines migration dynamics for metropolitan areas that suggest immigration and internal migration processes are leading to a greater demographic balkanization--a spatial segmentation of the population by race, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status across metropolitan areas. A brief overview of migration at the state level is also provided. (GR)

  14. Technical area status report for low-level mixed waste final waste forms. Volume 2, Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayberry, J.L.; Huebner, T.L. [Science Applications International Corp., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Ross, W. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Nakaoka, R. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Schumacher, R. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Cunnane, J.; Singh, D. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Darnell, R. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Greenhalgh, W. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1993-08-01

    This report presents information on low-level mixed waste forms.The descriptions of the low-level mixed waste (LLMW) streams that are considered by the Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP) are given in Appendix A. This information was taken from descriptions generated by the Mixed Waste Treatment Program (MWTP). Appendix B provides a list of characteristic properties initially considered by the Final Waste Form (FWF) Working Group (WG). A description of facilities available to test the various FWFs discussed in Volume I of DOE/MWIP-3 are given in Appendix C. Appendix D provides a summary of numerous articles that were reviewed on testing of FWFS. Information that was collected by the tests on the characteristic properties considered in this report are documented in Appendix D. The articles reviewed are not a comprehensive list, but are provided to give an indication of the data that are available.

  15. Aggregating high-priority landscape areas to the parcel level: an easement implementation tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strager, Michael P; Rosenberger, Randall S

    2007-01-01

    Landscape characteristics and parcel ownership information are often collected on different spatial scales leading to difficulties in implementing land use plans at the parcel level. This study provides a method for aggregating highly resolute landscape planning information to the parcel level. Our parcel prioritization model directly incorporates a Land Trust's conservation goals in the form of a compromise programming model. We then demonstrate the use of our approach for implementation decisions, including parcel selection under a budget constraint and the estimation of a total conservation budget necessary to meet specific conservation goals. We found that these cost constraints significantly alter the composition of the 'best' parcels for conservation and can also provide guidance for implementation. The model's results were integral to a local Land Trust's ability to further define and achieve their goals.

  16. THE LEVEL OF CROP PLANTS CONTAMINATION BY HEAVY METALS FROM THE HISTORICAL MINES AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ján Tomáš

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, we focused on monitoring the total content of heavy metals ( Cd , Pb , Cu , Cr in selected crops (spring barley, wheat, oilseed rape, maize and oats, grown on contaminated land in an iron-ore mining company in Spišská Nová Ves, plant Rudňany. Samples of plant material were collected at the stage of technological maturity with well-defined sampling points using the GPS. In mineralized samples we used the F - AAS on a VARIAN 240 FS performed analyzes to determine the content of heavy metals monitored. The results observed contents of risk elements point to a relatively high level of contamination of harvested agricultural production, which is used for food purposes. Exceeding the maximum levels was recorded fot Cd, Pb and Cr using the Codex Alimentarius. In the case of Cu, we exceeded HPL for each crop group recorded.

  17. Performance assessment for the disposal of low-level waste in the 200 east area burial grounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, M.I., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-15

    A performance assessment analysis was completed for the 200 East Area Low-Level Burial Grounds (LLBG) to satisfy compliance requirements in DOE Order 5820.2A. In the analysis, scenarios of radionuclide release from the 200 East Area Low-Level waste facility was evaluated. The analysis focused on two primary scenarios leading to exposure. The first was inadvertent intrusion. In this scenario, it was assumed that institutional control of the site and knowledge of the disposal facility has been lost. Waste is subsequently exhumed and dose from exposure is received. The second scenario was groundwater contamination.In this scenario, radionuclides are leached from the waste by infiltrating precipitation and transported through the soil column to the underlying unconfined aquifer. The contaminated water is pumped from a well 100 m downstream and consumed,causing dose. Estimates of potential contamination of the surrounding environment were developed and the associated doses to the maximum exposed individual were calculated. The doses were compared with performance objective dose limits, found primarily in the DOE order 5850.2A. In the 200 East Area LLBG,it was shown that projected doses are estimated to be well below the limits because of the combination of environmental, waste inventory, and disposal facility characteristics of the 200 East Area LLBG. Waste acceptance criteria were also derived to ensure that disposal of future waste inventories in the 200 East Area LLBG will not cause an unacceptable increase in estimated dose.

  18. On area-specific underground research laboratory for geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju Wang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Underground research laboratories (URLs, including “generic URLs” and “site-specific URLs”, are underground facilities in which characterisation, testing, technology development, and/or demonstration activities are carried out in support of the development of geological repositories for high-level radioactive waste (HLW disposal. In addition to the generic URL and site-specific URL, a concept of “area-specific URL”, or the third type of URL, is proposed in this paper. It is referred to as the facility that is built at a site within an area that is considered as a potential area for HLW repository or built at a place near the future repository site, and may be regarded as a precursor to the development of a repository at the site. It acts as a “generic URL”, but also acts as a “site-specific URL” to some extent. Considering the current situation in China, the most suitable option is to build an “area-specific URL” in Beishan area, the first priority region for China's high-level waste repository. With this strategy, the goal to build China's URL by 2020 may be achieved, but the time left is limited.

  19. On area-specific underground research laboratory for geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ju Wang

    2014-01-01

    Underground research laboratories (URLs), including “generic URLs” and “site-specific URLs”, are un-derground facilities in which characterisation, testing, technology development, and/or demonstration activities are carried out in support of the development of geological repositories for high-level radio-active waste (HLW) disposal. In addition to the generic URL and site-specific URL, a concept of “area-specific URL”, or the third type of URL, is proposed in this paper. It is referred to as the facility that is built at a site within an area that is considered as a potential area for HLW repository or built at a place near the future repository site, and may be regarded as a precursor to the development of a repository at the site. It acts as a “generic URL”, but also acts as a “site-specific URL” to some extent. Considering the current situation in China, the most suitable option is to build an“area-specific URL”in Beishan area, the first priority region for China’s high-level waste repository. With this strategy, the goal to build China’s URL by 2020 may be achieved, but the time left is limited.

  20. Low- and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe, Denmark. Location studies for potential disposal areas. Report no. 6. Characterization and description of areas. Sjaelland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gravesen, P.; Nilsson, B.; Schack Pedersen, S.A.; Binderup, M.

    2011-07-01

    The low and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe: the nuclear reactor buildings, different types of material from the research periods and waste from hospitals and research institutes have to be stored in a final disposal in Denmark for at least 300 years. The task is to locate and recognize sediments or rocks with low permeability which can isolate the radioactive waste from the surrounding deposits, the groundwater resources, the recipients and from human activities. The sediments or rocks shall also act as a protection if the waste disposal leaks radioactive material to the surroundings. This goal can be reached by low water flow possibilities, strong sorption capacity for many radionuclides and self-sealing properties. The investigation of geological deposits as potential waste disposals for high radioactive waste from nuclear power plants has earlier focused on deep seated salt deposits and basement rocks. Nevertheless, the Tertiary clays were mapped as well. The salt diapirs and the salt deposits are not included in the present study. The task is to find approximately 20 areas potentially useful for a waste disposal. The 20 areas have to be reduced to 1-3 most potential locations where detailed field investigations of the geological, hydrogeological - hydrochemical and geotechnical conditions will be performed. The present report describes the areas 5 and 6 on Zealand. (LN)

  1. Low- and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe, Denmark. Location studies for potential disposal areas. Report no. 7. Characterization and description of areas. Langeland, Taasinge and Fyn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gravesen, P.; Nilsson, B.; Schack Pedersen, S.A.; Binderup, M.

    2011-07-01

    The low and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe: the nuclear reactor buildings, different types of material from the research periods and waste from hospitals and research institutes have to be stored in a final disposal in Denmark for at least 300 years. The task is to locate and recognize sediments or rocks with low permeability which can isolate the radioactive waste from the surrounding deposits, the groundwater resources, the recipients and from human activities. The sediments or rocks shall also act as a protection if the waste disposal leaks radioactive material to the surroundings. This goal can be reached by low water flow possibilities, high sorption capacity for many radionuclides and self-sealing properties. The investigation of geological deposits as potential waste disposals for high radioactive waste from nuclear power plants has earlier focused on deep seated salt deposits and basement rocks. Nevertheless, the Tertiary clays were mapped as well. The salt diapirs and the salt deposits are not included in the present study. The task is to find approximately 20 areas where a waste disposal potentially can be located. The 20 areas have to be reduced to 1-3 most potential locations where detailed field investigations of the geological, hydrogeological - hydrochemical and geotechnical conditions will be performed. The present report describes the areas 7,8,9,10, and 11 on the islands Langeland, Taasinge and Funen. (LN)

  2. Low- and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe, Denmark. Location studies for potential disposal areas. Report no. 8. Characterization and description of areas. OEstjylland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gravesen, P.; Nilsson, B.; Schack Pedersen, S.A.; Binderup, M.

    2011-07-01

    The low and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe: the nuclear reactor buildings, different types of material from the research periods and waste from hospitals and research institutes have to be stored in a final disposal in Denmark for at least 300 years. The task is to locate and recognize sediments or rocks with low permeability which can isolate the radioactive waste from the surrounding deposits, the groundwater resources, the recipients and from human activities. The sediments or rocks shall also act as a protection if the waste disposal leaks radioactive material to the surroundings. This goal can be reached by low water flow possibilities, high sorption capacity for many radionuclides and self-sealing properties. The investigation of geological deposits as potential waste disposals for high radioactive waste from nuclear power plants has earlier focused on deep seated salt deposits and basement rocks. Nevertheless, the Tertiary clays were mapped as well. The salt diapirs and the salt deposits are not included in the present study. The task is to find approximately 20 areas where a waste disposal potentially can be located. The 20 areas have to be reduced to 1-3 most potential locations where detailed field investigations of the geological, hydrogeological - hydrochemical and geotechnical conditions will be performed. The present report describes the areas 12,13,14 and 15 in Eastern Jutland. (LN)

  3. Low- and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe, Denmark. Location studies for potential disposal areas. Report no. 4. Characterization and description of areas. Bornholm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gravesen, P.; Nilsson, B.; Schack Pedersen, S.A.; Binderup, M.

    2011-07-01

    The low - and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe: the nuclear reactor buildings, different types of material from the research periods and waste from hospitals and research institutes have to be stored in a final disposal in Denmark for at least 300 years. The task is to locate and recognize sediments or rocks with low permeability which can isolate the radioactive waste from the surrounding deposits, the groundwater resources, the recipients and from human activities. The sediments or rocks shall also act as a protection if the waste disposal leaks radioactive material to the surroundings. This goal can be reached by low water flow possibilities and high sorption potentials of the sediments or rocks. The investigation of geological deposits as potential waste disposals for high radioactive waste from nuclear power plants has earlier been focused on deep seated salt deposits and basement rocks, but the Tertiary clays were also mapped. The salt diapirs and the salt deposits are not included in the present study. The task is to find approximately 20 areas where a waste disposal potentially can be located. The 20 areas have to be reduced to 2-3 more precise locations, where detailed field investigations of the geological, hydrogeological-hydrochemical and technical conditions will be performed. The present report describes areas 1 and 2 on Bornholm, East Denmark. (LN)

  4. Low- and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe, Denmark. Location studies for potential disposal areas. Report no. 5. Characterization and description of areas. Falster and Lolland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gravesen, P.; Nilsson, B.; Schack Pedersen, S.A.; Binderup, M.

    2011-07-01

    The low and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe: the nuclear reactor buildings, different types of material from the research periods and waste from hospitals and research institutes have to be stored in a final disposal in Denmark for at least 300 years. The task is to locate and recognize sediments or rocks with low permeability which can isolate the radioactive waste from the surrounding deposits, the groundwater resources, the recipients and from human activities. The sediments or rocks shall also act as a protection if the waste disposal leaks radioactive material to the surroundings. This goal can be reached by low water flow possibilities, strong sorption capacity for many radionuclides and self-sealing properties. The investigation of geological deposits as potential waste disposals for high radioactive waste from nuclear power plants has earlier focused on deep seated salt deposits and basement rocks. Nevertheless, the Tertiary clays were mapped as well. The salt diapirs and the salt deposits are not included in the present study. The task is to find approximately 20 areas potentially useful for a waste disposal. The 20 areas have to be reduced to 1-3 most potential locations where detailed field investigations of the geological, hydrogeological, hydrochemical and geotechnical conditions will be performed. The present report describes areas 3 and 4 on Falster and Lolland. (LN)

  5. Low- and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe, Denmark. Location studies for potential disposal areas. Report no. 9. Characterization and description of areas. Limfjorden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gravesen, P.; Nilsson, B.; Schack Pedersen, S.A.; Binderup, M.

    2011-07-01

    The low and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe: the nuclear reactor buildings, different types of material from the research periods and waste from hospitals and research institutes have to be stored in a final disposal in Denmark for at least 300 years. The task is to locate and recognize sediments or rocks with low permeability which can isolate the radioactive waste from the surrounding deposits, the groundwater resources, the recipients and from human activities. The sediments or rocks shall also act as a protection if the waste disposal leaks radioactive material to the surroundings. This goal can be reached by low water flow possibilities, strong sorption capacity for many radionuclides and self-sealing properties. The investigation of geological deposits as potential waste disposals for high radioactive waste from nuclear power plants has earlier focused on deep seated salt deposits and basement rocks. Nevertheless, the Tertiary clays were mapped as well. The salt diapirs and the salt deposits are not included in the present study. The task is to find approximately 20 areas potentially useful for a waste disposal. The 20 areas have to be reduced to 1-3 most potential locations where detailed field investigations of the geological, hydrogeological, hydrochemical and geotechnical conditions will be performed. The present report describes the areas 16,17,18,19,20 and 21 around Limfjorden. (LN)

  6. Low- and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe, Denmark. Location studies for potential disposal areas. Report no. 10. Characterization and description of areas. Nordjylland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gravesen, P.; Nilsson, B.; Schack Pedersen, S.A.; Binderup, M.

    2011-07-01

    The low and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe: the nuclear reactor buildings, different types of material from the research periods and waste from hospitals and research institutes have to be stored in a final disposal in Denmark for at least 300 years. The task is to locate and recognize sediments or rocks with low permeability which can isolate the radioactive waste from the surrounding deposits, the groundwater resources, the recipients and from human activities. The sediments or rocks shall also act as a protection if the waste disposal leaks radioactive material to the surroundings. This goal can be reached by low water flow possibilities, strong sorption capacity for many radionuclides and self-sealing properties. The investigation of geological deposits as potential waste disposals for high radioactive waste from nuclear power plants has earlier focused on deep seated salt deposits and basement rocks. Nevertheless, the Tertiary clays were mapped as well. The salt diapirs and the salt deposits are not included in the present study. The task is to find approximately 20 areas potentially useful for a waste disposal. The 20 areas have to be reduced to 1-3 most potential locations where detailed field investigations of the geological, hydrogeological, hydrochemical and geotechnical conditions will be performed. The present report describes the area 22 in Northern Jutland. (LN)

  7. Mortality and socio-economic differences in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, Jakob Roland; Svarer, Michael

    2005-01-01

    This paper explores how mortality is related to such socio-economic factors as education, occupation, skill level and income for the years 1992-1997 using an extensive sample of the Danish population. We employ a competing risks proportional hazard model to allow for different causes of death. Th......, early retirement prolongs survival for men, and homeownership increases life expectancy in general....

  8. Socioeconomic evaluation of vagus stimulation: A controlled national study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jennum, Poul; Sabers, Anne; Christensen, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: We aimed to determine the health costs and social outcomes in terms of education, employment and income level after insertion of a vagus nerve stimulator (VNS) in patients with epilepsy. METHODS: This is a case-control study using Danish health care and socioeconomic register data...

  9. Simulation Models for Socioeconomic Inequalities in Health: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niko Speybroeck

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The emergence and evolution of socioeconomic inequalities in health involves multiple factors interacting with each other at different levels. Simulation models are suitable for studying such complex and dynamic systems and have the ability to test the impact of policy interventions in silico. Objective: To explore how simulation models were used in the field of socioeconomic inequalities in health. Methods: An electronic search of studies assessing socioeconomic inequalities in health using a simulation model was conducted. Characteristics of the simulation models were extracted and distinct simulation approaches were identified. As an illustration, a simple agent-based model of the emergence of socioeconomic differences in alcohol abuse was developed. Results: We found 61 studies published between 1989 and 2013. Ten different simulation approaches were identified. The agent-based model illustration showed that multilevel, reciprocal and indirect effects of social determinants on health can be modeled flexibly. Discussion and Conclusions: Based on the review, we discuss the utility of using simulation models for studying health inequalities, and refer to good modeling practices for developing such models. The review and the simulation model example suggest that the use of simulation models may enhance the understanding and debate about existing and new socioeconomic inequalities of health frameworks.

  10. Geomorphological & Geoarchaeological Indicators of the Holocene Sea-Level Changes on Ras El Hekma Area, NW Coast of Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torab, Magdy

    2016-02-01

    Ras El Hekma area is a part of the NW coast of Egypt. It is located on the Egyptian Mediterranean Coast, approximately 220 km West of Alexandria City. It is shaped as a triangle with its headland extending into the Mediterranean sea for about 15 km, and is occupied by sedimentary rocks belonging to the Tertiary and Quaternary Eras. Its western coastline consists of Pleistocene Oolitic limestone ridges with separated steep scarps, while the eastern coastline consists of sandy beaches, coastal spits, coastal bars, tombolos and bays. The objective of this paper is to define some geomorphological and geoarchaelological indicators of The Holocene sea-level changes in the study area, especially the geomorphic landforms such as: marine notches, cliffs, sea caves and benches. This is to add to some archaeological remains that have been discovered by the paper's author under the current sea level. These remains include: submerged ruins of Greek and Roman harbors, wells and fish tanks near the coastline (Leuke Akte, Hermaea, Phoinikous and Zygris), in addition to an ancient Roman harbor used during the World War II in Tell El Zaytun area (Site #6). Evaluations of the discovered archaeological remains help our understanding of the evolution of the sea level during the Holocene. This study is based on observation of the relative sea-level curves drawn of the Holocene, detailed geomorphological and Geoarchaelogical surveying, sampling, dating and mapping as well as satellite image interpretation and GIS techniques.

  11. Socio-economic Classification and its Scope in Crafting Rural Segments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rinalini Pathak Kakati

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available With the liberalization of the Indian Economy in the mid 1990’s, substantial growth has been seen in the rural areas. Rural India which comprises around 70% of the total population of the country has become an emerging area for marketers. This study tries to identify key market variables that can help in crafting rural market segments. The socio-economic classification (SEC 2011 which segments the market based on education level and possession of consumer durables. This study examines income as another key market variable together with education in the creation of distinct segments or hybrid segments. It then further identifies important criteria like technical, promotional and social in influencing consumers’ behaviour in the context of the purchase of consumer durables which can thereby help to create segments. The study concludes that the increase in education level has higher impact than increase in income on the important identified purchase criteria.

  12. REDUCING THE IMPACT OF RADIATION FACTORS IN AREAS WITH HIGH LEVEL OF RISK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Zaredinov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the modern problems of radioecology. The study reveals the problems of radioecological situation in some regions of the Republic of Uzbekistan. The main attention of the authors is paid to the ecologically hazardous objects in the uranium mining industry. The characteristics of wastes from uranium mining and stages of development of the mining industry are described. The historical background of the accumulation of the wastes in dumps, the ore-bearing rocks, and other off-balance ores is given. The practical experience and directions radio-ecological safety are generalized, achieving improvements of the environmental quality in areas with high risk. In conclusion, the authors recommend carrying out some measures to reduce an impact of the radiation factor on human health and to stabilize the radioecological situation at the studied regions.

  13. Composite analysis for low-level waste disposal in the 200 area plateau of the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kincaid, C.T.; Bergeron, M.P.; Cole, C.R. [and others

    1998-03-01

    This report presents the first iteration of the Composite Analysis for Low-Level Waste Disposal in the 200 Area Plateau of the Hanford Site (Composite Analysis) prepared in response to the U.S. Department of Energy Implementation Plan for the Defense Nuclear Facility Safety Board Recommendation 94-2. The Composite Analysis is a companion document to published analyses of four active or planned low-level waste disposal actions: the solid waste burial grounds in the 200 West Area, the solid waste burial grounds in the 200 East Area, the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility, and the disposal facilities for immobilized low-activity waste. A single Composite Analysis was prepared for the Hanford Site considering only sources on the 200 Area Plateau. The performance objectives prescribed in U.S. Department of Energy guidance for the Composite Analysis were 100 mrem in a year and examination of a lower dose (30 mrem in a year) to ensure the {open_quotes}as low as reasonably achievable{close_quotes} concept is followed. The 100 mrem in a year limit was the maximum allowable all-pathways dose for 1000 years following Hanford Site closure, which is assumed to occur in 2050. These performance objectives apply to an accessible environment defined as the area between a buffer zone surrounding an exclusive waste management area on the 200 Area Plateau, and the Columbia River. Estimating doses to hypothetical future members of the public for the Composite Analysis was a multistep process involving the estimation or simulation of inventories; waste release to the environment; migration through the vadose zone, groundwater, and atmospheric pathways; and exposure and dose. Doses were estimated for scenarios based on agriculture, residential, industrial, and recreational land use. The radionuclides included in the vadose zone and groundwater pathway analyses of future releases were carbon-14, chlorine-36, selenium-79, technetium-99, iodine-129, and uranium isotopes.

  14. Neighborhood-Level Factors Related to Asthma in Children Living in Urban Areas: An Integrative Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    DePriest, Kelli; Butz, Arlene

    2017-01-01

    Asthma disproportionately affects children who are non-White and of low socioeconomic status. One innovative approach to address these health disparities is to investigate the child's neighborhood environment and factors influencing asthma symptoms. The purpose of this integrative review is to critique research investigating the relationships…

  15. Investigation into the relationship between the socio-economic and health status of the Coloured people of the Western Cape in an urban setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EL Stellenberg

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available A descriptive non-experimental approach was applied to investigate and describe the prevalence of factors influencing the health status of the Coloured people of the Western Cape in an urban setting as a dissertation for a doctorate degree. For the purpose of this article the relationship between the socio-economic and health status of the Coloured people of the Western Cape in an urban setting are described. The study only included economically active persons < 21 ^ 50 years. The objective was to determine the relationship between the health status and the socio-economic status of economically active Coloured people in an urban area as defined. The objectives set for the study were reached through a cross sectional study. The hypothesis, an association between the health status and the socio-economic status of the Coloured people of an urban area in the Western Cape was tested using the chi square statistical test. A purposeful stratified sample of 353 participants was drawn from the residential areas as defined for the purpose of the study. All social classes were well represented in the suburbs. Statistical associations on a 95% confidence interval were shown between the socio-economic status (i.e. educational level, income and occupation social habits, diet, and money available for food, exercise and the health status of the respondents. Recommendations were made based on the scientific evidence obtained through the study.

  16. Assessing the Environmental and Socio-Economic Impacts of Artisanal Gold Mining on the Livelihoods of Communities in the Tarkwa Nsuaem Municipality in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obiri, Samuel; Mattah, Precious A D; Mattah, Memuna M; Armah, Frederick A; Osae, Shiloh; Adu-kumi, Sam; Yeboah, Philip O

    2016-01-26

    Gold mining has played an important role in Ghana's economy, however the negative environmental and socio-economic effects on the host communities associated with gold mining have overshadowed these economic gains. It is within this context that this paper assessed in an integrated manner the environmental and socio-economic impacts of artisanal gold mining in the Tarkwa Nsuaem Municipality from a natural and social science perspective. The natural science group collected 200 random samples on bi-weekly basis between January to October 2013 from water bodies in the study area for analysis in line with methods outlined by the American Water Works Association, while the social science team interviewed 250 residents randomly selected for interviews on socio-economic issues associated with mining. Data from the socio-economic survey was analyzed using logistic regression with SPSS version 17. The results of the natural science investigation revealed that the levels of heavy metals in water samples from the study area in most cases exceeded GS 175-1/WHO permissible guideline values, which are in tandem with the results of inhabitants' perceptions of water quality survey (as 83% of the respondents are of the view that water bodies in the study area are polluted). This calls for cost-benefits analysis of mining before new mining leases are granted by the relevant authorities.

  17. Assessing the Environmental and Socio-Economic Impacts of Artisanal Gold Mining on the Livelihoods of Communities in the Tarkwa Nsuaem Municipality in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Obiri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Gold mining has played an important role in Ghana’s economy, however the negative environmental and socio-economic effects on the host communities associated with gold mining have overshadowed these economic gains. It is within this context that this paper assessed in an integrated manner the environmental and socio-economic impacts of artisanal gold mining in the Tarkwa Nsuaem Municipality from a natural and social science perspective. The natural science group collected 200 random samples on bi-weekly basis between January to October 2013 from water bodies in the study area for analysis in line with methods outlined by the American Water Works Association, while the social science team interviewed 250 residents randomly selected for interviews on socio-economic issues associated with mining. Data from the socio-economic survey was analyzed using logistic regression with SPSS version 17. The results of the natural science investigation revealed that the levels of heavy metals in water samples from the study area in most cases exceeded GS 175-1/WHO permissible guideline values, which are in tandem with the results of inhabitants’ perceptions of water quality survey (as 83% of the respondents are of the view that water bodies in the study area are polluted. This calls for cost-benefits analysis of mining before new mining leases are granted by the relevant authorities.

  18. A dual Atkinson measure of socioeconomic inequality of health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erreygers, Guido

    2013-04-01

    The Atkinson index of income inequality is based on a comparison of the average income with the equivalent income, where the equivalent income is defined as the level of income that, if given to everyone, would generate the same social welfare as the existing distribution of income. This paper explores the possibility of extending this approach to the measurement of socioeconomic inequality of health. It assumes a social evaluation function that depends upon two variables: socioeconomic status as well as health status. With a general form of this function, an Atkinson measure is derived, which gives exactly the same result when applied to the socioeconomic variable and when applied to the health variable. The paper examines the properties of the index and suggests various extensions.

  19. Natural radioactivity level of associated bone-coal mining area in Zhejiang Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE Ji-Da; ZHENG Hui-Di; SONG Wei-Li; ZENG Guang-Jian; WANG Sha-Ling; WU Zong-Mei

    2005-01-01

    The geographic distribution, γ-radiation level and specific activity of radionuclides of the bone-coal mines in Zhejiang Province were reported. The weighted average of γ-radiation dose rate of the bone-coal mines is 566 nGy/h for 107 main bone-coal mines. The weighted mean activity of 238U, 226Ra, 232Th and 40K in the samples are 949, 918, 34 and 554 Bq/kg for 171 samples of bone-coal, respectively.

  20. Do outdoor environmental noise and atmospheric NO2 levels spatially overlap in urban areas?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenailleau, Quentin M; Bernard, Nadine; Pujol, Sophie; Parmentier, Anne-Laure; Boilleaut, Mathieu; Houot, Hélène; Joly, Daniel; Mauny, Frédéric

    2016-07-01

    The urban environment holds numerous emission sources for air and noise pollution, creating optimum conditions for environmental multi-exposure situations. Evaluation of the joint-exposure levels is the main obstacle for multi-exposure studies and one of the biggest challenges of the next decade. The present study aims to describe the noise/NO2 multi-exposure situations in the urban environment by exploring the possible discordant and concordant situations of both exposures. Fine-scale diffusion models were developed in the European medium-sized city of Besançon (France), and a classification method was used to evaluate the multi-exposure situations in the façade perimeter of 10,825 buildings. Although correlated (Pearson's r = 0.64, p noise and NO2 around buildings do not overlap, and 30% of the buildings were considered to be discordant in terms of the noise and NO2 exposure levels. This discrepancy is spatially structured and associated with variables describing the building's environment. Our results support the presence of several co-existing, multi-exposure situations across the city impacted by both the urban morphology and the emission and diffusion/propagation phases of each pollutant. Identifying the mechanisms of discrepancy and convergence of multi-exposure situations could help improve the health risk assessment and public health.

  1. Food frequency consumption and lipoproteins serum levels in the population of an urban area, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fornés Nélida Schmid

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To identify the association between food group consumption frequency and serum lipoprotein levels among adults. METHODS: The observations were made during a cross-sectional survey of a representative sample of men and women over 20 years old living in Cotia county, S. Paulo, Brazil. Data on food frequency consumption, serum lipids, and other covariates were available for 1,045 adults. Multivariate analyses adjusted by age, gender, body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio, educational level, family income, physical activity, smoking, and alcohol consumption were performed. RESULTS: Consumption of processed meat, chicken, red meat, eggs and dairy foods were each positively and significantly correlated with LDL-C, whereas the intake of vegetables and fruits showed an inverse correlation. Daily consumption of processed meat, chicken, red meat, eggs, and dairy foods were associated with 16.6 mg/dl, 14.5 mg/dl, 11.1 mg/dl, 5.8 mg/dl, and 4.6 mg/dl increase in blood LDL-C, respectively. Increases of daily consumption of fruit and vegetables were associated with 5.2 mg/dl and 5.5 mg/dl decreases in LDL-C, respectively. Alcohol beverage consumption showed a significant positive correlation with HDL-C. CONCLUSIONS: Dietary habits in the study population seem to contribute substantially to the variation in blood LDL and HDL concentrations. Substantially CHD risk reduction could be achieved with dietary changes.

  2. Vulnerability assessment of southern coastal areas of Iran to sea level rise: evaluation of climate change impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Goharnejad

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent investigations have demonstrated global sea level rise as being due to climate change impact. Probable changes in sea level rise need to be evaluated so that appropriate adaptive strategies can be implemented. This study evaluates the impact of climate change on sea level rise along the Iranian south coast. Climatic data simulated by a GCM (General Circulation Model named CGCM3 under two-climate change scenarios A1b and A2 are used to investigate the impact of climate change. Among the different variables simulated by this model, those of maximum correlation with sea level changes in the study region and least redundancy among themselves are selected for predicting sea level rise by using stepwise regression. Two Discrete Wavelet artificial Neural Network (DWNN models and a Discrete Wavelet Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference system (DWANFIS are developed to explore the relationship between selected climatic variables and sea level changes. In these models, wavelets are used to disaggregate the time series of input and output data into different components. ANFIS/ANN are then used to relate the disaggregated components of predictors and predictand (sea level to each other. The results show a significant rise in sea level in the study region under climate change impact, which should be incorporated into coastal area management.

  3. Socioeconomic inequalities in adolescent health 2002-2010 : A time-series analysis of 34 countries participating in the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elgar, Frank J.; Pförtner, Timo Kolja; Moor, Irene; De Clercq, Bart; Stevens, Gonneke W J M; Currie, Candace

    2015-01-01

    Background Information about trends in adolescent health inequalities is scarce, especially at an international level. We examined secular trends in socioeconomic inequality in five domains of adolescent health and the association of socioeconomic inequality with national wealth and income inequalit

  4. Environmental and socio-economic risk modelling for Chagas disease in Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Mischler

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Accurately defining disease distributions and calculating disease risk is an important step in the control and prevention of diseases. Geographical information systems (GIS and remote sensing technologies, with maximum entropy (Maxent ecological niche modelling computer software, were used to create predictive risk maps for Chagas disease in Bolivia. Prevalence rates were calculated from 2007 to 2009 household infection survey data for Bolivia, while environmental data were compiled from the Worldclim database and MODIS satellite imagery. Socio-economic data were obtained from the Bolivian National Institute of Statistics. Disease models identified altitudes at 500-3,500 m above the mean sea level (MSL, low annual precipitation (45-250 mm, and higher diurnal range of temperature (10-19 °C; peak 16 °C as compatible with the biological requirements of the insect vectors. Socio-economic analyses demonstrated the importance of improved housing materials and water source. Home adobe wall materials and having to fetch drinking water from rivers or wells without pump were found to be highly related to distribution of the disease by the receiver operator characteristic (ROC area under the curve (AUC (0.69 AUC, 0.67 AUC and 0.62 AUC, respectively, while areas with hardwood floors demonstrated a direct negative relationship (-0.71 AUC. This study demonstrates that Maxent modelling can be used in disease prevalence and incidence studies to provide governmental agencies with an easily learned, understandable method to define areas as either high, moderate or low risk for the disease. This information may be used in resource planning, targeting and implementation. However, access to high-resolution, sub-municipality socio-economic data (e.g. census tracts would facilitate elucidation of the relative influence of poverty-related factors on regional disease dynamics.

  5. Environmental and socio-economic risk modelling for Chagas disease in Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mischler, Paula; Kearney, Michael; McCarroll, Jennifer C; Scholte, Ronaldo G C; Vounatsou, Penelope; Malone, John B

    2012-09-01

    Accurately defining disease distributions and calculating disease risk is an important step in the control and prevention of diseases. Geographical information systems (GIS) and remote sensing technologies, with maximum entropy (Maxent) ecological niche modelling computer software, were used to create predictive risk maps for Chagas disease in Bolivia. Prevalence rates were calculated from 2007 to 2009 household infection survey data for Bolivia, while environmental data were compiled from the Worldclim database and MODIS satellite imagery. Socio-economic data were obtained from the Bolivian National Institute of Statistics. Disease models identified altitudes at 500-3,500 m above the mean sea level (MSL), low annual precipitation (45-250 mm), and higher diurnal range of temperature (10-19 °C; peak 16 °C) as compatible with the biological requirements of the insect vectors. Socio-economic analyses demonstrated the importance of improved housing materials and water source. Home adobe wall materials and having to fetch drinking water from rivers or wells without pump were found to be highly related to distribution of the disease by the receiver operator characteristic (ROC) area under the curve (AUC) (0.69 AUC, 0.67 AUC and 0.62 AUC, respectively), while areas with hardwood floors demonstrated a direct negative relationship (-0.71 AUC). This study demonstrates that Maxent modelling can be used in disease prevalence and incidence studies to provide governmental agencies with an easily learned, understandable method to define areas as either high, moderate or low risk for the disease. This information may be used in resource planning, targeting and implementation. However, access to high-resolution, sub-municipality socio-economic data (e.g. census tracts) would facilitate elucidation of the relative influence of poverty-related factors on regional disease dynamics.

  6. Socio-economic database online

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Tamisier

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The SEDO project develops a flexible and reusable platform combining fast access, user freedom, and coherence of the results for presenting socio-economic data. Its first aim is to deliver on the Net the results of longitudinal surveys about the life in Luxemburg. Several search methods are available: hierarchical browsing, engine query, and top down navigation with minimal clicks for quick access to the main trends. Without the use of statistical tools nor expertise in the domain the user can perform advanced statistical calculations. Last, a modular architecture guarantees the portability of the application.

  7. Food Security in Rural Areas of Vaishali District, India: A Household Level Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haroon Sajjad

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Food security has been one of the major developmental objectives in India. Though India has sufficient food production yet the achievement did not percolate down to households.This paper reports on an investigation into the food security status in Vaishali district of Bihar. Data were gathered across 16 administrative divisions in the district and eventually959 farmers’ households were sampled using stratified random sampling techniques. This allowed computing composite food security index to assess the relative status of foodsecurity of the sampled farmers. The findings revealed that 75 % of the sampled households have low food security. Within farmers’ categories, most of the large farmers had high food security. Medium farmers experienced moderate food security while semimedium, small and marginal farmers were having low food security. Bivariate regression analyses between food security and its components of all the farmers shows foodavailability has a major impact on food security as 93 % variation in food security is explained by variation in food availability. The study suggested that priority should be accorded for creating rural employment opportunities, providing infrastructure forincreasing production and creating awareness of education for long term sustainability of food security in the study area.Key words : Food security components, Food security, India

  8. [Nutrient spatial variability of tobacco soil restoration area and fertility suitability level evaluation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Da-Bing; Deng, Jian-Qiang; Liu, Dong-Bi; Si, Guo-Han; Peng, Cheng-Lin; Yuan, Jia-Fu; Zhao, Shu-Jun; Wang, Rui

    2014-03-01

    By using geographic information system technology (GIS) and geostatistics methods, this paper studied the spatial variability of soil properties and available nutrients in the new regulation area units located in Qingjiangyuan modern tobacco agriculture science and technology park (Enshi, Hubei), suburb of Enshi City and the Baiyang base of Lichuan City, and further evaluation of the soil fertility suitability index (SFI) was carried out by use fuzzy mathematics. The results indicated that the effects of land restoration on the soil available phosphorus content variability and spatial distribution were very obvious, possibly due to the landform characteristics and restoration extent. The effect of land restoration on soil pH was small, however, serious soil acidification was detected in the soil sampled from Baiyang (pH soils taken from the suburb, Baiyang and Qingjiangyuan, respectively. In conclusion, attentions should be paid on soil acidification in Baiyang, soil fertility and equalization in the suburb, and soil fertility in the region of Qingjiangyuan with low SFI.

  9. LEVEL OF ADOPTION AND CONSTRAINTS OF SCIENTIFIC BACKYARD POULTRY REARING PRACTICES IN RURAL TRIBAL AREAS OF SIKKIM, INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.G. NATH

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted on level of adoption and constraints of backyard poultry rearing practices in rural tribal areas of Sikkim. The data were collected from 125 respondents of Dzongu area, North Sikkim through personal interview with the help of questionnaire. From the present study it was found that 64.8% respondents were medium level adopters followed by high level (19.2% and low level (16% adopters. Housing (43.2% were highly adopted followed by feeding and watering (41.6%, marketing (40.0%, general management (39.2%, health care practices (36.8% and breeding practice (33.6%. The overall adoption of different backyard poultry rearing practices showed medium level adoption. Non availability of backyard poultry chicks, non-availability of medicine, high incidence of diseases, lack of knowledge about scientific practices, lack of market, attack of predators etc. were the major constraints faced by backyard poultry farmers. The study also pointed some suggestions for solving the constraints regarding backyard poultry rearing practices in Dzongu, North Sikkim.

  10. Perfluorinated Compounds in Greenhouse and Open Agricultural Producing Areas of Three Provinces of China: Levels, Sources and Risk Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanwei Zhang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Field investigations on perfluoroalkyl acid (PFAA levels in various environmental matrixes were reported, but there is still a lack of PFAA level data for agricultural environments, especially agricultural producing areas, so we collected soil, irrigation water and agricultural product samples from agricultural producing areas in the provinces of Liaoning, Shandong and Sichuan in China. The background pollution from instruments was removed and C4–C18 PFAAs were detected by LC-MS/MS. The concentrations of PFAAs in the top and deep layers of soil were compared, and the levels of PFAAs in different agricultural environments (greenhouses and open agriculture were analyzed. We found the order of PFAA levels by province was Shandong > Liaoning > Sichuan. A descending trend of PFAA levels from top to deep soil and open to greenhouse agriculture was shown and perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA was considered as a marker for source analysis. Bean vegetables contribute highly to the overall PFAA load in vegetables. A significant correlation was shown between irrigation water and agricultural products. The EDI (estimated daily intake from vegetables should be of concern in China.

  11. Feasibility of hair sampling to assess levels of organophosphate metabolites in rural areas of Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knipe, D.W.; Jayasumana, C.; Siribaddana, S.; Priyadarshana, C.; Pearson, M.; Gunnell, D.; Metcalfe, C.; Tzatzarakis, M.N.; Tsatsakis, A.M.

    2016-01-01

    Measuring chronic pesticide exposure is important in order to investigate the associated health effects. Traditional biological samples (blood/urine) are difficult to collect, store and transport in large epidemiological studies in settings such as rural Asia. We assessed the acceptability of collecting hair samples from a rural Sri Lankan population and found that this method of data collection was feasible. We also assessed the level of non-specific metabolites (DAPS) of organophosphate pesticides in the hair samples. The median concentration (pg/mg) of each DAP was: diethyl phosphate: 83.3 (IQI 56.0, 209.4); diethyl thiophosphate: 34.7 (IQI 13.8, 147.9); diethyl dithiophosphate: 34.5 (IQI 23.4, 55.2); and dimethyl phosphate: 3 (IQI 3, 109.7). Total diethylphosphates were recovered in >80% of samples and were positively correlated with self-reported pesticide exposure. PMID:26894816

  12. Performance assessment for the disposal of low-level waste in the 200 West Area Burial Grounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, M.I.; Khaleel, R.; Rittmann, P.D.; Lu, A.H.; Finfrock, S.H.; DeLorenzo, T.H. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Serne, R.J.; Cantrell, K.J. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-06-01

    This document reports the findings of a performance assessment (PA) analysis for the disposal of solid low-level radioactive waste (LLW) in the 200 West Area Low-Level Waste Burial Grounds (LLBG) in the northwest corner of the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. This PA analysis is required by US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5820.2A (DOE 1988a) to demonstrate that a given disposal practice is in compliance with a set of performance objectives quantified in the order. These performance objectives are applicable to the disposal of DOE-generated LLW at any DOE-operated site after the finalization of the order in September 1988. At the Hanford Site, DOE, Richland Operations Office (RL) has issued a site-specific supplement to DOE Order 5820.2A, DOE-RL 5820.2A (DOE 1993), which provides additiona I ce objectives that must be satisfied.

  13. Levels, spatial variation and compartmentalization of trace elements in brown algae Cystoseira from marine protected areas of Crimea (Black Sea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravtsova, Alexandra V; Milchakova, Nataliya A; Frontasyeva, Marina V

    2015-08-15

    Levels of Al, Sc, V, Co, Ni, As, Br, Rb, Sr, Ag, Sb, I, Cs, Ba, Th and U that were rarely or never studied, as well as the concentrations of classically investigated Mn, Fe and Zn in brown algae Cystoseira barbata C. Ag. and Cystoseira crinita (Desf.) Bory from the coastal waters of marine protected areas (Crimea, Black Sea), were determined using neutron activation analysis. Spatial variation and compartmentalization were studied for all 19 trace elements (TE). Concentrations of most TE were higher in "branches" than in "stems". Spatial variations of V, Co, Ni and Zn can be related to anthropogenic activities while Al, Sc, Fe, Rb, Cs, Th and U varied depending on chemical peculiarities of the coastal zone rocks. TE concentrations in C. crinita from marine protected areas near Tarkhankut peninsula and Cape Fiolent, identified as the most clean water areas, are submitted as the background concentrations.

  14. Quantitative Analysis of Dynamic Behaviours of Rural Areas at Provincial Level Using Public Data of Gross Domestic Product

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Yi; Zhang, Guangfeng; Li, Yiyang;

    2013-01-01

    A spatial approach that incorporates three economic components and one environmental factor has been developed to evaluate the dynamic behaviours of the rural areas at a provincial level. An artificial fish swarm algorithm with variable population size (AFSAVP) is proposed for the spatial problem......, and the results have shown that the modelling method based on GDP data can assess the spatial dynamic behaviours and can be taken as an operational tool for the policy planners....

  15. Addendum to Composite Analysis for Low-Level Waste Disposal in the 200 Area Plateau of the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergeron, Marcel P.; Freeman, Eugene J.; Wurstner, Signe K.; Kincaid, Charles T.; Coony, Mike M.; Strenge, Dennis L.; Aaberg, Rosanne L.; Eslinger, Paul W.

    2001-09-28

    This report summarizes efforts to complete an addendum analysis to the first iteration of the Composite Analysis for Low-Level Waste Disposal in the 200 Area Plateau of the Hanford Site (Composite Analysis). This document describes the background and performance objectives of the Composite Analysis and this addendum analysis. The methods used, results, and conclusions for this Addendum analysis are summarized, and recommendations are made for work to be undertaken in anticipation of a second analysis.

  16. Microbiological monitoring in two areas with different levels of conservation in the mangroves of an Ecological Station, Vitoria, ES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano de Oliveira Barbirato

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Mangroves are classified as permanent preservation areas and regarded as natural nurseries. However, they have suffered several anthropogenic stresses, resulting in their decline. In the light of that, comes the importance of researching their environmental characteristics and revealing possible factors that have led to the degradation of this important ecosystem. The aim of this study was to evaluate the environmental quality of different areas in the mangroves of Ilha do Lameirão Ecological Station through microbiological analyzes of sediment and interstitial water along ten (10 sites, distributed in two areas with different conservation levels (Canal dos Escravos (CE and Maria Ortiz (MO between 2010 and 2012. The microbiological analyzes revealed that MO region, in all seasons of the year, achieved total coliform and thermo-tolerant coliform values above those permitted by the CONAMA Resolution 357/05, fitting the Class 2 conservation standard. The presence of high levels of total and thermo-tolerant coliforms in MO is a strong indicator of impacts originated from the human population and, consequently, the decline of the mangrove itself and the health of human communities surrounding that area.

  17. Assessment of natural radioactivity levels in soil samples from some areas in Assiut, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Gamal, Hany; Farid, M El-Azab; Abdel Mageed, A I; Hasabelnaby, M; Hassanien, Hassanien M

    2013-12-01

    The natural radioactivity of soil samples from Assiut city, Egypt, was studied. The activity concentrations of 28 samples were measured with a NaI(Tl) detector. The radioactivity concentrations of (226)Ra, (232)Th, and (40)K showed large variations, so the results were classified into two groups (A and B) to facilitate the interpretation of the results. Group A represents samples collected from different locations in Assiut and characterized by low activity concentrations with average values of 46.15 ± 9.69, 30.57 ± 4.90, and 553.14 ± 23.19 for (226)Ra, (232)Th, and (40)K, respectively. Group B represents samples mainly collected from the area around Assiut Thermal Power Plant and characterized by very high activity concentrations with average values of 3,803 ± 145, 1,782 ± 98, and 1,377 ± 78 for (226)Ra, (232)Th, and (40)K, respectively. In order to evaluate the radiological hazard of the natural radioactivity, the radium equivalent activity (Raeq), the absorbed dose rate (D), the annual effective dose rate (E), the external hazard index (H ex), and the annual gonadal dose equivalent (AGDE) have been calculated and compared with the internationally approved values. For group A, the calculated averages of these parameters are in good agreement with the international recommended values except for the absorbed dose rate and the AGDE values which are slightly higher than the international recommended values. However, for group B, all obtained averages of these parameters are much higher by several orders of magnitude than the international recommended values. The present work provides a background of radioactivity concentrations in the soil of Assiut.

  18. Descriptive analysis of childbirth healthcare costs in an area with high levels of immigration in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sala Maria

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to estimate the cost of childbirth in a teaching hospital in Barcelona, Spain, including the costs of prenatal care, delivery and postnatal care (3 months. Costs were assessed by taking into account maternal origin and delivery type. Methods We performed a cross-sectional study of all deliveries in a teaching hospital to mothers living in its catchment area between October 2006 and September 2007. A process cost analysis based on a full cost accounting system was performed. The main information sources were the primary care program for sexual and reproductive health, and hospital care and costs records. Partial and total costs were compared according to maternal origin and delivery type. A regression model was fit to explain the total cost of the childbirth process as a function of maternal age and origin, prenatal care, delivery type, maternal and neonatal severity, and multiple delivery. Results The average cost of childbirth was 4,328€, with an average of 18.28 contacts between the mother or the newborn and the healthcare facilities. The delivery itself accounted for more than 75% of the overall cost: maternal admission accounted for 57% and neonatal admission for 20%. Prenatal care represented 18% of the overall cost and 75% of overall acts. The average overall cost was 5,815€ for cesarean sections, 4,064€ for vaginal instrumented deliveries and 3,682€ for vaginal non-instrumented deliveries (p Conclusions Neither immigration nor prenatal care were associated with a substantial difference in costs. The most important predictors of cost were delivery type and neonatal severity. Given the impact of cesarean sections on the overall cost of childbirth, attempts should be made to take into account its higher cost in the decision of performing a cesarean section.

  19. Technology and entrepreneurial orientation at the organisational level in the Johannesburg area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Urban

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: The 21st century is tilting towards an economy that is primarily driven by technology and knowledge, where entrepreneurs have to recognise and anticipate high-technology opportunities so as to join the ranks of future entrepreneurial leaders.Research purpose: This study examines entrepreneurship and its relation with technology, which is often conceptualised as entrepreneurial orientation (EO and technology orientation (TO. The study is further contextualised by measuring environmental dynamism and hostility.Motivation for the study: Despite the weight of positive empirical findings and observations that EO and TO are strategic imperatives, there is a danger that firms in Africa are lagging behind and subsequently a study of this nature aids in understanding these imperatives.Research design, approach and method: A survey is used to collect data from a population of diverse businesses in the Johannesburg area (n = 1600, yielding a sample of 236 firms. Instruments were subjected to principal component factor analysis and descriptive statistics were calculated. The hypotheses were tested using correlational analysis, with their significance reported in terms of Pearson correlation coefficients.Main finding: Findings reveal significant correlations between EO and environment hostility and dynamism, but not between EO and TO.Practical and managerial implications: The study offers some solutions towards understanding how TO and EO may promote firm innovation, which encourages the diffusion, adoption and application of the very latest technologies. This is particularly relevant in cases where a lot of potential exists in developing countries to ‘import and adapt’ technologies developed in industrialised countries.Contribution of study: Research on firm innovation in the African context may be considered valuable, as very few empirical studies that have been conducted previously focus on innovation and technology in the context of an

  20. Technical area status report for low-level mixed waste final waste forms. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayberry, J.L.; DeWitt, L.M. [Science Applications International Corp., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Darnell, R. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)] [and others

    1993-08-01

    The Final Waste Forms (FWF) Technical Area Status Report (TASR) Working Group, the Vitrification Working Group (WG), and the Performance Standards Working Group were established as subgroups to the FWF Technical Support Group (TSG). The FWF TASR WG is comprised of technical representatives from most of the major DOE sites, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), the EPA Office of Solid Waste, and the EPA`s Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory (RREL). The primary activity of the FWF TASR Working Group was to investigate and report on the current status of FWFs for LLNM in this TASR. The FWF TASR Working Group determined the current status of the development of various waste forms described above by reviewing selected articles and technical reports, summarizing data, and establishing an initial set of FWF characteristics to be used in evaluating candidate FWFS; these characteristics are summarized in Section 2. After an initial review of available information, the FWF TASR Working Group chose to study the following groups of final waste forms: hydraulic cement, sulfur polymer cement, glass, ceramic, and organic binders. The organic binders included polyethylene, bitumen, vinyl ester styrene, epoxy, and urea formaldehyde. Section 3 provides a description of each final waste form. Based on the literature review, the gaps and deficiencies in information were summarized, and conclusions and recommendations were established. The information and data presented in this TASR are intended to assist the FWF Production and Assessment TSG in evaluating the Technical Task Plans (TTPs) submitted to DOE EM-50, and thus provide DOE with the necessary information for their FWF decision-making process. This FWF TASR will also assist the DOE and the MWIP in establishing the most acceptable final waste forms for the various LLMW streams stored at DOE facilities.

  1. The fear of crime and area differences in health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandola, T

    2001-06-01

    A number of studies have shown that major health inequalities exist between different areas within the UK. However, there has been some debate about the mechanisms underlying area differences in health. One of the mechanisms which could explain area differences in health is the fear of crime in the local area or neighbourhood. This study examines data from the 1996 British Crime Survey (N=16,090). The fear of crime was found to be associated with self-rated health even after adjusting for health behaviours and a number of individual and household level socio-economic factors. Area differences in self-rated health were reduced to non-significance after health behaviours, socio-economic factors and the fear of crime were adjusted for in the regression model. There is some evidence that fear of crime is associated with health and it may have an important role in explaining area differences in health.

  2. Oxygen Level and LFP in Task-Positive and Task-Negative Areas: Bridging BOLD fMRI and Electrophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, William J; Li, Jingfeng M; Snyder, Abraham Z; Raichle, Marcus E; Snyder, Lawrence H

    2016-01-01

    The human default mode network (DMN) shows decreased blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signals in response to a wide range of attention-demanding tasks. Our understanding of the specifics regarding the neural activity underlying these "task-negative" BOLD responses remains incomplete. We paired oxygen polarography, an electrode-based oxygen measurement technique, with standard electrophysiological recording to assess the relationship of oxygen and neural activity in task-negative posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), a hub of the DMN, and visually responsive task-positive area V3 in the awake macaque. In response to engaging visual stimulation, oxygen, LFP power, and multi-unit activity in PCC showed transient activation followed by sustained suppression. In V3, oxygen, LFP power, and multi-unit activity showed an initial phasic response to the stimulus followed by sustained activation. Oxygen responses were correlated with LFP power in both areas, although the apparent hemodynamic coupling between oxygen level and electrophysiology differed across areas. Our results suggest that oxygen responses reflect changes in LFP power and multi-unit activity and that either the coupling of neural activity to blood flow and metabolism differs between PCC and V3 or computing a linear transformation from a single LFP band to oxygen level does not capture the true physiological process.

  3. Analysis of survival in HIV-infected subjects according to socio-economic resources in the HAART era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liotta, G; Caleo, G M; Mancinelli, S

    2008-01-01

    Availability of Highly Active Anti-Retroviral Treatment (HAART) has modified the natural history of HIV infection, resulting in increase of seropositive subjects survival. The aim of the study was to assess patients' survival in relation to socio-economic status in HAART era using Functional Multidimensional Evaluation questionnaire. A three-level Socio-Economic Index (SEI) combining results from self-perception of unmet needs and objective data from the assessment of the two dimensions has been set up by the authors. Of the 382 subjects interviewed, 102 had been lost to follow-up. SEI showed that 66.4% of the sample faced unmet social or economic needs and 17.1% had unmet needs in both areas. There was a significant relationship between the self-sufficiency in performing Activities of Daily Living (ADL), Clinical Staging, CD4 cell count, SEI and risk of death. The lowest level of SEI was associated with a doubled risk of death compared to SEI upper level. Availability of social and economics support have a positive effect upon survival in patients with HIV infection, also in case of availability of HAART. The combination of subjective and objective assessment of socio-economic resources allows a better understanding of their impact on survival.

  4. Using Principal Component Analysis to Identify Priority Neighbourhoods for Health Services Delivery by Ranking Socioeconomic Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesen, Christine Elizabeth; Seliske, Patrick; Papadopoulos, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. Socioeconomic status (SES) is a comprehensive indicator of health status and is useful in area-level health research and informing public health resource allocation. Principal component analysis (PCA) is a useful tool for developing SES indices to identify area-level disparities in SES within communities. While SES research in Canada has relied on census data, the voluntary nature of the 2011 National Household Survey challenges the validity of its data, especially income variables. This study sought to determine the appropriateness of replacing census income information with tax filer data in neighbourhood SES index development. Methods. Census and taxfiler data for Guelph, Ontario were retrieved for the years 2005, 2006, and 2011. Data were extracted for eleven income and non-income SES variables. PCA was employed to identify significant principal components from each dataset and weights of each contributing variable. Variable-specific factor scores were applied to standardized census and taxfiler data values to produce SES scores. Results. The substitution of taxfiler income variables for census income variables yielded SES score distributions and neighbourhood SES classifications that were similar to SES scores calculated using entirely census variables. Combining taxfiler income variables with census non-income variables also produced clearer SES level distinctions. Internal validation procedures indicated that utilizing multiple principal components produced clearer SES level distinctions than using only the first principal component. Conclusion. Identifying socioeconomic disparities between neighbourhoods is an important step in assessing the level of disadvantage of communities. The ability to replace census income information with taxfiler data to develop SES indices expands the versatility of public health research and planning in Canada, as more data sources can be explored. The apparent usefulness of PCA also contributes to the improvement

  5. Intestinal helminthiases in Ecuador: the relatíonship between prevalence, genetic, and socioeconomic factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip J. Cooper

    1993-09-01

    Full Text Available Prevalence of infection with the intestinal helminths, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Ancylostoma duodenale and Strongyloides stercoralis was examinedin 632 residents of communities in Esmeraldas province of Ecuador. These communities were divided into two groups according to area of habitation which reflected different socioeconomic circumstances. Attempts were made to correlate infection status with race and ABO blood group phenotype. The racial groups included blacks, Chachi amerindians, and mixed-race mestizos. Greater prevalences of infection were seen in the area oflower socioeconomic status. No racial or blood group associations with helminth infection were seen controlling for socioeconomic status.

  6. Screen-level non-GTS data assimilation in a limited-area mesoscale model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Milelli

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The forecast in areas of very complex topography, as for instance the Alpine region, is still a challenge even for the new generation of numerical weather prediction models which aim at reaching the km-scale. The problem is enhanced by a general lack of standard observations, which is even more evident over the southern side of the Alps. For this reason, it would be useful to increase the performance of the mathematical models by locally assimilating non-conventional data. Since in ARPA Piemonte there is the availability of a great number of non-GTS stations, it has been decided to assimilate the 2 m temperature, coming from this dataset, in the very-high resolution version of the COSMO model, which has a horizontal resolution of about 3 km, more similar to the average resolution of the thermometers. Four different weather situations have been considered, ranging from spring to winter, from cloudy to clear sky. The aim of the work is to investigate the effects of the assimilation of non-GTS data in order to create an operational very high-resolution analysis, but also to test the option of running in the future a very short-range forecast starting from these analyses (RUC or Rapid Update Cycle. The results, in terms of Root Mean Square Error, Mean Error and diurnal cycle of some surface variables such as 2 m temperature, 2 m relative humidity and 10 m wind intensity show a positive impact during the assimilation cycle which tends to dissipate a few hours after the end of it. Moreover, the 2 m temperature assimilation has a slightly positive or neutral impact on the vertical profiles of temperature, eventhough some calibration is needed for the precipitation field which is too much perturbed during the assimilation cycle, while it is unaffected in the forecast period. So the stability of the planetary boundary layer, on the one hand, has not been particularly improved by the new-data assimilation, but, on the other hand, it has not been destroyed

  7. Retrieval of effective leaf area index (LAIe) and leaf area density (LAD) profile at individual tree level using high density multi-return airborne LiDAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yi; West, Geoff

    2016-08-01

    As an important canopy structure indicator, leaf area index (LAI) proved to be of considerable implications for forest ecosystem and ecological studies, and efficient techniques for accurate LAI acquisitions have long been highlighted. Airborne light detection and ranging (LiDAR), often termed as airborne laser scanning (ALS), once was extensively investigated for this task but showed limited performance due to its low sampling density. Now, ALS systems exhibit more competing capacities such as high density and multi-return sampling, and hence, people began to ask the questions like-"can ALS now work better on the task of LAI prediction?" As a re-examination, this study investigated the feasibility of LAI retrievals at the individual tree level based on high density and multi-return ALS, by directly considering the vertical distributions of laser points lying within each tree crown instead of by proposing feature variables such as quantiles involving laser point distribution modes at the plot level. The examination was operated in the case of four tree species (i.e. Picea abies, Pinus sylvestris, Populus tremula and Quercus robur) in a mixed forest, with their LAI-related reference data collected by using static terrestrial laser scanning (TLS). In light of the differences between ALS- and TLS-based LAI characterizations, the methods of voxelization of 3D scattered laser points, effective LAI (LAIe) that does not distinguish branches from canopies and unified cumulative LAI (ucLAI) that is often used to characterize the vertical profiles of crown leaf area densities (LADs) was used; then, the relationships between the ALS- and TLS-derived LAIes were determined, and so did ucLAIs. Tests indicated that the tree-level LAIes for the four tree species can be estimated based on the used airborne LiDAR (R2 = 0.07, 0.26, 0.43 and 0.21, respectively) and their ucLAIs can also be derived. Overall, this study has validated the usage of the contemporary high density multi

  8. Lifetime socio-economic position and depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osler, Merete; Bruunsgaard, Helle; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2015-01-01

    Background: Little is known about the influence of lifetime socio-economic position (SEP) on adult depression. We examined the association of SEP during the life course with depressive mood in late midlife and explored whether cognitive function at age 20, health-related behaviour and inflammatory...... biomarkers explained any associations. Methods: A cohort of 2482 Danish men born in 1953 with information from birth, and conscript board examinations was followed-up with assessment of depressive mood and blood sampling in 2010. Simple and multiple linear regression were used to investigate associations...... among variables. Results: Social circumstances during the life course were associated with depressive mood. Further, low lifetime SEP was associated with lower cognitive score, smoking, alcohol use, high body mass index (BMI) and increased level of high sensitive ProReactive Protein and Interleukin-6...

  9. Investigation on natural radionucildes levels in multiple media in bone-coal mine areas of five provinces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KONG Ling-Li; ZHANG Liang; LI Ying; YE Ji-Da; JIANG Shan; SHI Jin-Hua; WU Zong-Mei

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports methods and results of the investigation of natural radionuclides levels in multiple media in the bone-coal mine areas in Hubei, Hunan, Jiangxi, Zhejiang, and Anhui Provinces. In the studied bone-coal mine areas, the specific activities of 238U and 226Ra in the soil samples were 0.37 and 0.24 Bq/g, respectively; the specific activities of 226Ra in the samples of bone-coal, bone-coal cinder and bone-coal cinder brick (BCCB) were 1.3,1.4 and 0.9 Bq/g, respectively. In the water samples collected from the bone-coal mine areas, the average concentrations of natural uranium and 226Ra were 33μg/L and 58 mBq/L, respectively, while in the water samples collected from outside the bone-coal mine areas, they were 3.4μg/L and 45 mBq/L, respectively. In addition, the specific activities of 238U and 226Ra in air aerosol samples from the bone-coal mine areas were 0.6 and 0.5 mBq/m3, respectively.

  10. A STUDY OF DEPRESSION LEVEL AMONG ELDERLY PEOPLE IN THE RURAL AREA OF BIJAPUR, INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh D

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: “Population ageing” was one of the most distinctive demographic events of the twentieth century. Growth in the elderly population has led to an increase in age related diseases and mainly depression affecting quality of life. Depression in old age is an emerging public health problem leading to morbidity and disability worldwide. In India there is acute scarcity of adequately trained mental health professionals. In this context , there is need to study the level of depression in old age and an effective screening tool which can be used to detect and treat depression. OBJECTIVES: 1 To assess the prevalence of depression in elderly using the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS. 2 To examine the socio - demographic fac tors associated with depression among elderly people. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross - sectional , community based study was conducted in Shivanagi village of Bijapur District , Karnataka. A random sample of 388 elderly people was taken for the study. GDS was used to assess depression. Those with any psychiatric morbidity and without consent were excluded. Data was analyzed using Chi Square test of association , tests of difference between mean , and standard deviation with SPSS software. RESULTS: The magnitude o f mild or severe depression was 34 percent on GDS scale. The prevalence of depression was found to be more among women , and it was statistically significantly positively associated with increasing age , illiteracy , a low socio - economic status , those who wer e living alone , those who were economically partially dependent and those who were totally dependent for the activities of daily living. CONCLUSION: These findings could guide community - based program managers to devise and implement effective and timely me ntal health interventions for older adults in order to prevent geriatric depression and develop comprehensive strategy for its early diagnosis

  11. Mid-level Providers Working in a Low-acuity Area are More Productive than in a High-acuity Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silberman, Michael

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Mid-level providers (MLP are extensively used in staffing emergency departments (ED. We sought to compare the productivity of MLPs staffing a low-acuity and high-acuity area of a community ED.Methods: This is a retrospective review of MLP productivity at a single center 42,000-volume community ED from July 2009 to September 2010. MLPs staffed day shifts (8AM-6PM or 10AM-10PM in high- and low-acuity sections of the ED. We used two-tailed T-test to compare patients/hour, relative value units (RVUs/hour, and RVUs/patient between the 2 MLP groups. Results: We included 49 low-acuity and 55 high-acuity shifts in this study. During the study period, MLPs staffing low-acuity shifts treated a mean of 2.7 patients/hour (confidence interval [CI] +/- 0.23, while those staffing high-acuity shifts treated a mean of 1.56 patients/hour (CI +/- 0.14, P < 0.0001. MLPs staffing low-acuity shifts generated a mean of 4.45 RVUs/hour (CI +/- 0.34 compared to 3.19 RVUs/hour (CI +/-0.29 for those staffing high-acuity shifts (P < 0.0001. MLPs staffing low-acuity shifts generated a mean of 1.68 RVUs/patient (CI +/- 0.06 while those staffing high-acuity shifts generated a mean RVUs/patient of 2.05 (CI +/- 0.09, P < 0.0001. Conclusion: MLPs staffing a low-acuity area treated more patients/hour and generated more RVUs/hour than when staffing a high-acuity area. [West J Emerg Med.2013;14(6:598–601.

  12. A Widening Gap? Changes in Multiple Lifestyle Risk Behaviours by Socioeconomic Status in New South Wales, Australia, 2002-2012.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ding Ding

    Full Text Available Socioeconomic inequalities in health outcomes have increased over the past few decades in some countries. However, the trends in inequalities related to multiple health risk behaviours have been infrequently reported. In this study, we examined the trends in individual health risk behaviours and a summary lifestyle risk index in New South Wales, Australia, and whether the absolute and relative inequalities in risk behaviours by socioeconomic positions have changed over time.Using data from the annual New South Wales Adult Population Health Survey during the period of 2002-2012, we examined four individual risk behaviours (smoking, higher than recommended alcohol consumption, insufficient fruit and vegetable intake, and insufficient physical activity and a combined lifestyle risk indicator. Socioeconomic inequalities were assessed based on educational attainment and postal area-level index of relative socio-economic disadvantage (IRSD, and were presented as prevalence difference for absolute inequalities and prevalence ratio for relative inequalities. Trend tests and survey logistic regression models examined whether the degree of absolute and relative inequalities between the most and least disadvantaged subgroups have changed over time.The prevalence of all individual risk behaviours and the summary lifestyle risk indicator declined from 2002 to 2012. Particularly, the prevalence of physical inactivity and smoking decreased from 52.6% and 22% in 2002 to 43.8% and 17.1% in 2012 (p for trend<0.001. However, a significant trend was observed for increasing absolute and relative inequalities in smoking, insufficient fruit and vegetable consumption, and the summary lifestyle risk indicator.The overall improvement in health behaviours in New South Wales, Australia, co-occurred with a widening socioeconomic gap.Governments should address health inequalities through risk factor surveillance and combined strategies of population-wide and targeted

  13. 青海湖地区生态系统服务价值变化分析%Quantitative Analysis of the Impacts of Climate and Socio-economic Driving Factors of Land Use Change on the Ecosystem Services Value in the Qinghai Lake Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李惠梅; 张安录; 高泽兵; 卓玛措

    2012-01-01

    采用生态系统服务估值、Matlab7.0多元线性回归分析和敏感性分析等研究方法,定量分析了生态系统服务价值的变化及其与气候、GDP、个人储蓄、城市化水平等驱动因子之间的相关性和敏感性,以识别影响青海湖生态环境的主要影响因素,以期为该区域生态保护调控和管理提供依据。研究结果表明:①2000-2008年青海湖地区生态系统服务价值平均为119.226亿元,2008年比2000年下降3.98%;②2000-2008年生态系统服务价值变化与气温和社会经济发展因素存在显著的负相关,对气温、GDP和城镇化率的弹性系数分别为0.896、0.249和0.2988;③2000-2008年,生态系统服务价值变化对城市化率和气温具有很大的敏感性,敏感性系数分别为4.979和1.712。研究表明,青海湖地区的生态系统服务下降是气候暖干化和经济发展的综合作用结果。青海湖地区应该关注农牧民生计,实施生态补偿机制以实现可持续的生态保护战略。%By calculating the value of ecosystem services for wetland, grassland, forestland and farmland in the Qinghai Lake area from 200