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Sample records for area khorasan province

  1. Flora, life form and chorology of plants of the Helali protected area in Khorasan-e Razavi province

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    Fatemeh Sokhanvar

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available “Helali protected area” has been officially announced as a no-hunting zone since 1997 and then, became a protected area in 2006. This area with ca. 63495 hectares, is located in the west of Gonabad and southeast of Bajestan, Khorasan-e Razavi province. The area includes mountains, plains and foothills and has a dry and desert climate with warm summers and cold winters based on De Martonne’s aridity index. In investigation of the flora, 318 vascular plant species belonging to 205 genera and 53 families were identified. The most dominant families were Asteraceae, Poaceae, and Brassicaceae with 53, 30, and 26 plant species, respectively. Chorological classification of the flora showed that the majority of the species (56.3% belonged to the Irano-Turanian region. Pluri-regional, cosmopolitan and sub-cosmopolitan elements made up 14.1% of the flora which reflected a disturbance history in the area. Therophytes (47.5% and hemicryptophytes (26.1% were the most important life forms according to Raunkiaer classification.

  2. Studies of the flora in Darmian area in the Southern Khorasan province

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    Samaneh Sabaghi; Valliollah Mozaffarian; Taher Nejad-Sattari

    2014-01-01

    The basin area of the Furk and Darmian river is located in northern-east of the Southern Khorasan province. The whole area was 11137 hectares. The area is mountainous with mild weather and dry climate and the average precipitation is about 250 mm per year. In this study, 268 species belonging to 47 families were investigated and 194 genus were identified. The Asteraceae family with 44 species and 34 genera was the largest family in the area. The largest genera were Cousinia with 6 species and...

  3. Studies of the flora in Darmian area in the Southern Khorasan province

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    Samaneh Sabaghi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The basin area of the Furk and Darmian river is located in northern-east of the Southern Khorasan province. The whole area was 11137 hectares. The area is mountainous with mild weather and dry climate and the average precipitation is about 250 mm per year. In this study, 268 species belonging to 47 families were investigated and 194 genus were identified. The Asteraceae family with 44 species and 34 genera was the largest family in the area. The largest genera were Cousinia with 6 species and Astragalus and Ephorbia with 5 species.The largest life forms in the Darmian area belong to Therophytes with 43% and Hemicryptophytes 37%, Phanaerophytes 9%, Chamaephytes 6%, Bulbous Geophytes and Rhizomatous Geophytes each with 2% and Tuberous Geophytes 1%.

  4. Statistical Analysis of Long-Term Trend of Performance, Production and Cultivated Area of 17 Field Crops Khorasan Razavi Province

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    H. Zareabyaneh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Any planning for the future requires estimates of future conditions. It is possible to study changes over time series. In this study, changes of production and cultivated area of 17 field crops of Khorasan Razavi province in a 25-year period were determined with Mann - Kendall test, Sen’s Estimator Slope and linear regression. Analysis of the three tests showed that performance of 76.5% from yield, 88.2% from area under cultivation and 55.8% from agricultural production were significant at the 0.01 and 0.05 level. On the other hand, trend of yields 58.8% was increase, 17.7% was reduced and 23.5% was no significant trend. Similarly, trend of 23.5% from area under cultivation was acreage, 64.7% was reduction, and 11.8% was no significant trend. For production variable, 29.4% was significantly increased and 29.4% was significant reduction. More detailed analysis showed that performance, production and area under cultivation of three crops of cotton, grain and tomatoes increased significantly. Results of all three methods showed the highest trend of negatively performance and area under cultivation variation is related to pea and melon respectively. Furthermore, most of the positive trend in production of tomatoes and grain, performance in onions, potatoes and tomatoes and area under cultivation in tomato observed. The results showed that linear trend and the nonparametric tests of important products of province: wheat, barley, sugar beet, cotton, melons, watermelons and tomatoes in 0.01 were significant. This result shows the importance of these yields in gross state province product.

  5. Fluoride Concentration in Potable Groundwater in Rural Areas of Khaf City, Razavi Khorasan Province, Northeastern Iran

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    AA Khafajeh

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Long-term exposure to high concentrations of fluoride is associated with several adverse effects on human including dental and skeletal fluorosis. We studied all the groundwater wells located in rural areas of Khaf city, Razavi Province, northeastern Iran between 2009 and 2010. Fluoride concentration of water samples was measured by SPADNS method. We found that in rural areas the fluoride concentration ranged from 0.11 to 3.59 ppm—the level was less than the permissible limit in 31% of studied samples, higher than the permissible limit in 4% of the samples, and within the optimum limit of 1 to 1.5 ppm in 65% of water samples.

  6. Survey of Dogs’ Parasites in Khorasan Razavi Province, Iran

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    GhR Razmi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Dog is known to act as definitive host for some parasites that cause important diseases in man and animals. The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of Neospora caninum and other intestinal parasites in dogs in Khorasan Razavi Province, Iran. "nMethods: A cross-sectional study was done concerning frequency of N. canium and other in­testinal parasites in dogs in Mashhad area. Totally, 174 fecal samples from 89 farm dogs and 85 household dogs were collected from 2006 to 2007. Fecal samples were examined for de­tecting intestinal parasites by Mini Parasep®SF faecal parasite concentrator in Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran "nResults: The overall prevalence of other intestinal parasites in farm dogs and household dogs were 29.21% and 14.11%, respectively. Seven parasites were found in farm dogs as follows: Toxocara canis 17.9%, Taenia sp. 10.1% , Strongyloides stercoralis 5.6%, Hammondia Neo­spora-like oocysts (HNLO 4.4% , Isospora sp. 7.8 %, Sarcocystis sp. 7.8 % and   Giardia sp. 1.1%  and four parasite in housed dogs:  Toxocara. 4.4%, Taenia sp. 3.3 % , Isospora sp. 2.3 % and  Sarcocystis sp. 4.7 %.  The fecal samples with HNLO were examined by N. caninum -specific PCR, and two of samples were positive for N. caninum. "nConclusion: The farm and household dogs are the source of some important zoonotic and non-zoonotic diseases in Iran .

  7. Modeling Budget Optimum Allocation of Khorasan Razavi Province Agriculture Sector

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    Seyed Mohammad Fahimifard

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Stock shortage is one of the development impasses in developing countries and trough it the agriculture sector has faced with the most limitation. The share of Iran’s agricultural sector from total investments after the Islamic revolution (1979 has been just 5.5 percent. This fact causes low efficiency in Iran’s agriculture sector. For instance per each 1 cubic meter of water in Iran’s agriculture sector, less that 1 kilogram dry food produced and each Iranian farmer achieves less annual income and has less mechanization in comparison with similar countries in Iran’s 1404 perspective document. Therefore, it is clear that increasing investment in agriculture sector, optimize the budget allocation for this sector is mandatory however has not been adequately and scientifically revised until now. Thus, in this research optimum budget allocation of Iran- Khorasan Razavi province agriculture sector was modeled. Materials and Methods: In order to model the optimum budget allocation of Khorasan Razavi province’s agriculture sector at first optimum budget allocation between agriculture programs was modeled with compounding three indexes: 1. Analyzing the priorities of Khorasan Razavi province’s agriculture sector experts with the application of Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP, 2. The average share of agriculture sector programs from 4th country’s development program for Khorasan Razavi province’s agriculture sector, and 3.The average share of agriculture sector programs from 5th country’s development program for Khorasan Razavi province’s agriculture sector. Then, using Delphi technique potential indexes of each program was determined. After that, determined potential indexes were weighted using Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP and finally, using numerical taxonomy model to optimize allocation of the program’s budget between cities based on two scenarios. Required data, also was gathered from the budget and planning

  8. Site selection for Handy Craft Market in South Khorasan Province Using Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP

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    M. Karami

    2013-01-01

    sustainable industrial areas.” Journal of Cleaner Production, Vol. 17, PP. 87-100.Ghodsipoor, Seyed Hassan, (2010, Analytical Hierarchy Process, Amirkabir University (Polytechnic, Eighth Edition, Tehran, 220.Kalantari, Khalil, (2009, Planning and Regional Development, Khoshbin, third Edition, Tehran, 288.Ministry of Economy, (1972, marketing crafts / translation and regulation, the Ministry of Economy, Handicraft Center, Tehran.Omkarprasad, V. and K. Sushil, (2004, Analytic hierarchy process: An overview of applications, April.Ramanathan, R, (2001, A note on the use of the analytic hierarchy process for environmental impact assessment, Journal of Environmental Management, 27–35, doi:10.1006/jema.2001.0455, available online at http://www.idealibrary.comSepehr, Nosratolah, (2009, Ancient crafts, Cultural Heritage, Handicrafts and Tourism, Office of Public Relations, Social and Cultural Affairs - Office of Planning Publication, Tehran, 200.Tourism Master Plan in South Khorasan province, (2006, Consulting Engineers Sabz andish payesh, Institute of Cultural Heritage, Handicrafts and Tourism of South Khorasan province, Tehran.Yoam Wind, Thomas L.Saaty, (1980, Marketing applications of the analytic hierarchy process, management science, Vol, 26, No, 7, U.S.A

  9. Gully Erosion Monitoring on Shakhen Drainage Basin, Southern Khorasan Province, Iran

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    Rezaei Moghaddam, M. H.; Saghafi, M.

    In many parts of Iran gullies can be found, but few studies have reported their genesis and characteristics. This study investigates gullies under semi arid climate in the small case-study area of Southern Khorasan Province, in Iran. The objectives are to determine the spatial distribution of gullies in the study area, to measure their morphological and topographical characteristics and to reconstruct the factors that led to their development. Large deep gullies are some of the most important sediment sources in the semi-arid environment of the Shaken Basin. So, this study regards gully development in SHAKHEN drainage basin, north of BIRJAND city, taking into account environmental and social characteristics, which affect gully occurrence and its evolution. Gully erosion clearly is a threshold phenomenon. This geomorphic process occurs only when a threshold in terms of flow hydraulics, rainfall, topography, pedology and land use has been exceeded. In this study with using simple methodology the gully erosion, initiation and development concerning with main factors are monitored. Furthermore, also the role of new tectonics activity in the study area on gully development was considered. Hence, different information resources are being undertaken such as: maps, aerial photos, satellite image and field observations to determine variables in order to understand where and why gullies occurred and developed.

  10. Study and Comparison of Rural and Urban Household Income Distribution in Khorasan Province and Country during 2007-2012

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    R. Jamshidi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examined distrbution of household income in Khorasan Razavi province and the country for urban and rural areas, seprately. Using household income and expenditure statistics compiled by the Statistical Center of Iran during 2007-2012 the Gini index, Tile index, Atkinson index and the tenth docile to the first docile were applied.The study findings indicate that during the studied period income inequality in the country has been decreased. The levels of disparity in the urban areas have been usually higher than its levels in the country. , while the levels of disparity in the rural areas have been always lower than its levels in the country.. Morever, income distributions in the urban areas and the entire province have been always more uneven than what has been seen for the rural areas. Analysing the Tile and Atkinson indicies (ε=1 shows that both ascending and descending trends of the two indicies were consistent with the Gini index and thus, the three indicies are compatible and validate each other. On the other hand, analysing the Gross expenditures per capita for households and the Gini index shows that the levels of welfare in urban and rural areas of Khorasan were almost constant, however the index for the urban areas of the country has been decreased and for the rural areas has been increased. The social welfare often have been lower for the the rural areas than the social welfare for the urban areas. The results indicate significant differences in income distributions among the province, the country's rural areas and the urban areas.The sudy therefore proposes regional plannings to be considered.

  11. Compilation of geology, mineralization, geochemistry and geophysical study of IP/RS & ground magnetic survey at Roudgaz area, southeast of Gonabad, Khorasan Razavi province

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    Hossein Hajimirzajan

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Roudgaz prospect area is a Cu, Sn, Pb, Zn, and Au polymetal vein system located to the southeast of Gonabad and in the northeast of Lut block. Oxidan subvolcanic Tertiary rocks with monzonite to monzodiorite porphyry composition intruded the metamorphic rocks of middle Jurassic. The majority of intrusive bodies are affected by carbonation, argillic, sericitic, and silicification-tourmaline alteration. Mineralization in the area is controlled by fault and is present as vein with domination of NW-SE direction and 85-90º dip. Primary minerals are quartz, tourmaline, chalcopyrite, pyrite, and secondary minerals are malachite, azurite, and goethite. Geochemical sampling using chip composite method indicated high anomalies of Cu, Sn, Pb, and As (up to 10000 ppm, Zn (up to 5527 ppm, and Au (up to 325 ppb. Broad gossan zone is present in the area and is related to the oxidation of sulfide minerals. IP/RS survey was performed over the geochemical anomalies for identification of the location and extension of sulfide mineralization at depth. Generally, chargeability increases in gossan zones, veins, old workings and geochemical anomalies. Resistivity over the quartzite unit and also in locations where mineralized vein is associated with quartz has a high anomaly of up to 425 ohm-m. Due to high geochemical anomaly of Sn and its relation with reduced subvolcanic intrusives, ground magnetic survey was performed to identify the location of magnetite (oxidant and ilmenite (reduced series at depth. Variation of Total Magnetic Intensity (TMI is 335.1 Gamma in the TMI map. The highest magnetic anomalies in the RTP map are located to the north of the survey area which is related to magnetite series (hornblende biotite monzodiorite porphyry and extend to the south at depth. The lowest magnetic anomaly is located to the center of the survey area and particularly to the east of the Roudgaz village correlating the highest chargeability and geochemical anomaly. Based

  12. Yield gap analysis of cumin in nine regions of Khorasan provinces using modelling approach

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    behnam kamkar

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available There are three hierarchical steps to fill the yield gaps in agricultural systems. These steps are determination of potential yield, yield gaps and system optimization to fill yield gaps. In this study a simple mechanistic model was developed and tested to determine potential yield and yield gaps of Cumin (Cuminum cyminum in nine regions of Khorasan provinces (including Bojnourd, Qaeen, Mashhad, Neishabour, Sabzewar, Gonabad, Ferdous, Kashmar and Birjand. Collected data of related year from 228 fields were used to calculate yield gaps. Results indicated variable potential yields in different climatic conditions (the areas with cooler climate and higher radiation had higher potential yields. Also, yield gaps varied considerably between regions (from 2.42 ton.ha-1 in Bojnourd to 0.68 ton.ha-1 in Sabzewar. The highest value for potential yield belonged to Bojnourd (3.7 ton.ha-1. The collected data from studied fields and sensitivity analysis on sowing date (based on common sowing dates range showed that inappropriate sowing dates was one of the most important yield reducing factors in all regions. Results revealed that if the yield gaps can be filled based on appropriate management option, yield can be increased by two to three folds in some regions.

  13. Molecular detection of Theileria spp. in sheep and vector ticks in the North Khorasan Province, Iran.

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    Rashidi, Ahmad; Razmi, Gholamreza

    2013-01-01

    A survey was carried in North Khorasan Province, Iran in 2010-2011, designed to identify Theileria spp. infections of both sheep and ticks. The tick species were also examined. Ninety sheep from different flocks were clinically examined, and blood samples and ixodid ticks were collected. Light microscopy of blood smears revealed Theileria spp. infection in 37 (41.1 %), while 74 (82.2 %) of blood samples were positive using semi-nested PCR. Theileria ovis, Theileria lestoquardi, and mixed infection were detected in 63/90 (70 %), 5/90 (5.5 %), and 6/90 (6.6 %) of samples, respectively. Of the 434 ticks that were collected, the most prevalent species was Rhipicephalus turanicus (69.3 %) followed by Hyalomma marginatum turanicum (18.4 %), Dermacentor marginatus (6.4 %), and Rhipicephalus bursa (5.7 %). The ticks were separated into 42 tick pools, and the salivary glands were dissected out in 0.85 % (w/v) saline under a stereomicroscope and examined using semi-nested PCR. Three pools of H. marginatum turanicum salivary glands were infected with T. ovis and T. lestoquardi, and one pool of R. turanicus was infected with T. ovis. Based on these results, it is concluded that the prevalence of T. ovis is higher than T. lestoquardi and that H. marginatum turanicum and R. turanicus are likely vectors of T. lestoquardi and T. ovis in this area.

  14. The study of Willingness to Accept of Khorasan Razavi Province Farmers to Produce Greenhouse Organic Cucumber

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    Mohammad Ghorbani

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The chemical inputs threat the health of water, soil and organisms. Thus, it is essential to encourage farmers to produce products with minimum use of chemical inputs. Using the ordered logit model and a cross sectional data of 186 producers in 2012, this study attempted at investigating influential factors on willingness to accept (WTA of Khorasan Razavi province farmers to produce greenhouse organic Cucumber (GOC than the traditional product. The results showed that over 80 percent of farmers believe that the price of organic product should be at least 10 percent more than the traditional product price. Moreover, the relationship between WTA for producing GOC and some factors including cultivated area, applying advices from agricultural advisors, product insurance, average current yield of traditional Cucumber and acknowledge about international market of organic product is positive and significant. Considering the results, developing training and extension programs on the use of organic product, granting financial facilities and awards to organic product producers and insurance adjustment to reduce risk and increase agricultural production are recommended.

  15. A new karyotype of Calomyscus from the Khorasan Province, Iran

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    Esmaeeli Somayeh

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We report a new karyotype of Calomyscus from two localities of the Khorasan Province (Aghdarband, 36° 11’ 3”N, 60° 44’ 6” E and Khajemorad, 36° 8’ 5” N, 59° 41’ 58” E. Chromosomes were examined by conventional staining and C-banding techniques. The diploid chromosome number (2n and the fundamental autosomal arm number (FNa were 44 and 60 respectively. The autosomal set consisted of 12 pairs of telocentrics, 5 pairs of acrocentrics and 4 pairs of sub-metacentrics. Both heterosomes were small telocentrics. Riassunto Un nuovo cariotipo del genere Calomyscus dalla provincia di Khorasan, Iran. Si descrive un nuovo cariotipo appartenente al genere Calomyscus, scoperto in due località della provincia di Khorasan (Aghdarband, 36° 11’ 3”N, 60° 44’ 6” E e Khajemorad, 36° 8’ 5” N, 59° 41’ 58” E. I cromosomi sono stati analizzati con le tecniche standard di colorazione e bandeggio. Il numero diploide di cromosomi (2n e il numero fondamentale di bracci autosomici sono risultati pari a 44 e 60 rispettivamente. Il set di cromosomi autosomici è composto da 12 paia di telocentrici, 5 di acrocentrici e 4 di sub-metacentrici. Entrambi i cromosomi sessuali si presentano come piccoli telocentrici.

  16. Epidemiology and clinical study of phenylketonuria (PKU patients in Khorasan Province; Norteast Iran

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    Negar Morovatdar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiology and clinical study of phenylketonuria (PKU patients in Khorasan Province; Norteast Iran Background: Phenylketonuria is an autosomal recessive disease. Early diagnosis is a important public health intervention to prevent neurological impairment .This study was designed to describe characteristics of phenylketonouria patients in Khorasan ,Northeast of Iran. Methods: We included all  patients suffering from PKU in khorasan until September 2013. We gathered the variables like diagnosis age , sib of parents, cause of asking physician and screening based diagnosis or clinical based diagnosis. We use descriptive statistics for analysis. Results: The mean age of diagnosis was 19 months .80% pku patients had a positive history of consanguineous marriage in their parents. Incidence of new cases that identified by screening in 2012-2013 was 57 per 1000000 live birth. 10% patients identified with screening in first week of birth. Conclusion: Nearly all of our patients (90% had been diagnosed without screening in the first days of their life only due to clinical manifestations in the first year of their life . According to efficacy of early diagnosis and dietary treatment, enforcement of public health policy for screening is a critical public health preventive intervention.

  17. Systematics, Bioecology, and Medical Importance of Widow Spiders (Lathrodectus spp. in Khorasan Province, Iran

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    J Rafijenad

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Following the hospitalization of 195 individuals due to the spider bite in 1995 and three cases of recorded death in the year of 1993 which were referred to Emam Reza Hospital in Mashad, the present study was undertaken on bionomics and medical importance of Lathrodectus spp in Khorasan Province, during 1995-2005. A total cases of 195 bites were studied composing of 70.8 % males and 29.2% females. The most prevalence cases were observed in mid age (20-55 years old and par¬ticularly among farmers (36.4%. A total number of 216 adult widow spiders and 258 egg sacs were collected from their habitats in different localities of 15 counties in the province. The following species have been recognized: Lathrodectus tredecimgottatus (62%, L. dahli (32%, L. geometricus (5% and L. pallidus (1%. Here is the first report on the occurrence of males of L. pallidus as well as both sexes of L. trdecimgottatus and L. geometricus in the country. The sex ratio among collected specimens was 88% and 12% female and male, respectively. Summer provides the most suitable and favorable climatic condition for the activities of these spiders. However 65% of spiders were collected in this season. Among different cit¬ies, Mashad had (60% the most reported cases in the study area. Foot was more injured than other parts. 96.5% of pa¬tients exhib¬ited localized pain from which only 2% had no pain in the bitten part and 87% had a generalized pain in whole body.

  18. Systematics, Bioecology, and Medical Importance of Widow Spiders (Lathrodectus spp. in Khorasan Province, Iran

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    J Rafijenad

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Following the hospitalization of 195 individuals due to the spider bite in 1995 and three cases of recorded death in the year of 1993 which were referred to Emam Reza Hospital in Mashad, the present study was undertaken on bionomics and medical importance of Lathrodectus spp in Khorasan Province, during 1995-2005. A total cases of 195 bites were studied composing of 70.8 % males and 29.2% females. The most prevalence cases were observed in mid age (20-55 years old and par¬ticularly among farmers (36.4%. A total number of 216 adult widow spiders and 258 egg sacs were collected from their habitats in different localities of 15 counties in the province. The following species have been recognized: Lathrodectus tredecimgottatus (62%, L. dahli (32%, L. geometricus (5% and L. pallidus (1%. Here is the first report on the occurrence of males of L. pallidus as well as both sexes of L. trdecimgottatus and L. geometricus in the country. The sex ratio among collected specimens was 88% and 12% female and male, respectively. Summer provides the most suitable and favorable climatic condition for the activities of these spiders. However 65% of spiders were collected in this season. Among different cit¬ies, Mashad had (60% the most reported cases in the study area. Foot was more injured than other parts. 96.5% of pa¬tients exhib¬ited localized pain from which only 2% had no pain in the bitten part and 87% had a generalized pain in whole body.

  19. Bronchial Anthracotic Change in South Khorasan Province (Iran, Emphasizing its Association with Tuberculosis

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    Sayyed Gholamreza Mortazavi-Moghaddam

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: There are many reports on the association between anthracosis and tuberculosis. This study focuses on bronchial anthracosis and associated diseases in the province of South Khorasan-Iran. Methods: This case-series study is performed on patients referred to the Vali-e-Asre Hospital (South Khorasan-Iran for bronchoscopic evaluations during the period of 2009-2012. Written informed consents were obtained prior to bronchoscopic evaluations. The criterion for diagnosis of bronchial anthracosis was black pigmentation on direct observation of bronchus. Bronchial anthracosis was classified into simple (without deformity or complicated (with deformity. Pulmonary tuberculosis (TB was diagnosed either by acid fast staining and culture of liquid samples, or histopathology examination of biopsy. Spirometry was performed to determine the obstructive or restrictive pattern. Results: Among 279 patients who underwent bronchoscopic evaluations, 89 patients, including 34 males (38.2% and 55 (61.79% females, were diagnosed with anthracosis. Simple and complicated anthracosis were observed in 42 (48.2% and 47 (52.8% cases respectively. Mean age of patients was 72.23±9.65 years. There were 43 (48.3% cases of tuberculosis (28 cases with complicated and 15 cases with simple anthracosis (P=0.021. Chest X-ray showed consolidation/infiltration, reticular/fibrotic, and mass/nodule/hilar prominence in 57 (64%, 26 (29.21% and 6 (6.74% cases, respectively. Bronchitis was reported in 42 (%59.15 out of 79 patients whose biopsy samples were taken. Spirometric patterns were obstructive, restrictive, upper airway obstruction, and normal in 45 (50.56%, 32 (35.95%, 2 (2.24%, and 10 (11.23% patients respectively. Conclusion: Tuberculosis is the most frequent disease associated with anthracosis in South Khorasan province. Consequently, patients with anthracosis must be carefully evaluated for tuberculosis.

  20. Detection of Echinococcus multilocularis in carnivores in Razavi Khorasan province, Iran using mitochondrial DNA.

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    Molouk Beiromvand

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Echinococcus multilocularis is the source of alveolar echinococcosis, a potentially fatal zoonotic disease. This investigation assessed the presence of E. multilocularis infection in definitive hosts in the Chenaran region of Razavi Khorasan Province, northeastern Iran. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Fecal samples from 77 domestic and stray dogs and 14 wild carnivores were examined using the flotation/sieving method followed by multiplex PCR of mitochondrial genes. The intestinal scraping technique (IST and the sedimentation and counting technique (SCT revealed adult Echinococcus in the intestines of five of 10 jackals and of the single wolf examined. Three jackals were infected only with E. multilocularis but two, and the wolf, were infected with both E. multilocularis and E. granulosus. Multiplex PCR revealed E. multilocularis, E. granulosus, and Taenia spp. in 19, 24, and 28 fecal samples, respectively. Echinococcus multilocularis infection was detected in the feces of all wild carnivores sampled including nine jackals, three foxes, one wolf, one hyena, and five dogs (6.5%. Echinococcus granulosus was found in the fecal samples of 16.9% of dogs, 66.7% of jackals, and all of the foxes, the wolf, and the hyena. The feces of 16 (21.8% dogs, 7 of 9 (77.8% jackals, and all three foxes, one wolf and one hyena were infected with Taenia spp. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The prevalence of E. multilocularis in wild carnivores of rural areas of the Chenaran region is high, indicating that the life cycle is being maintained in northeastern Iran with the red fox, jackal, wolf, hyena, and dog as definitive hosts.

  1. Models to Predict Flowering Time in the Main Saffron Production Regions of Khorasan Province

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    Behdani, M. A.; Koocheki, A.; Nassiri, M.; Rezvani, P.

    The objective of this study was to develop a thermal model that can be used for prediction of saffron flowering time. For this purpose, existing data on saffron flower emergence time were collected in a wide range of temperature regimes over the saffron production regions of Khorasan province, Iran. Linear second-order polynomial and 5-parameter beta models were used and statistically compared for their ability in predicting saffron flowering time as a function of temperature. The results showed a significant delay in flowering date across the temperature gradient. While beta model had a better statistical performance but the simple linear model also showed a good predicting ability and therefore, can be used as a reliable model.

  2. Status of Exudative Pleural Effusion in Adults of South Khorasan Province, Northeast Iran: Pleural Tuberculosis Tending toward Elderly

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    Sayyed Gholam Reza Mortazavi-Moghaddam

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The causes and situation of exudative pleural effusion vary from one area to another. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 327 patients with exudative pleural effusion in South Khorasan province (Iran. The patients were older than 12 years and comprised 172 (52.6% males and 155 (47.4% females. The study commenced in 2007 with seven years duration. The Light’s criteria were used to define exudative effusion. Procedures including pleural fluid analysis, microbiological study, pleural biopsy, and systemic investigations were conducted to determine the special cause of pleural effusion. The mean age of the patients was 63.4±18.4 years. Malignancies, tuberculosis, and parapneumonia pleural exudation were diagnosed in 125 (38.2%, 48 (14.7%, and 45 (13.8% cases, respectively. Among malignant effusions, metastasis from lung cancer made 48 (38.4% of the cases. The origin of metastasis was not determined in 44 (35.2% patients. The mean age of patients was not significantly different between malignant (66.9±14.3 years and tuberculosis (63.9±19.7 years cases (P=0.16. The older age of tuberculosis patients could be a new discussion point on the overall impression created on the subject of tuberculosis pleural exudation (TB-PLE occurring in young people.

  3. GIS-based groundwater spring potential assessment and mapping in the Birjand Township, southern Khorasan Province, Iran

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    Pourtaghi, Zohre Sadat; Pourghasemi, Hamid Reza

    2014-05-01

    Three statistical models—frequency ratio (FR), weights-of-evidence (WofE) and logistic regression (LR)—produced groundwater-spring potential maps for the Birjand Township, southern Khorasan Province, Iran. In total, 304 springs were identified in a field survey and mapped in a geographic information system (GIS), out of which 212 spring locations were randomly selected to be modeled and the remaining 92 were used for the model evaluation. The effective factors—slope angle, slope aspect, elevation, topographic wetness index (TWI), stream power index (SPI), slope length (LS), plan curvature, lithology, land use, and distance to river, road, fault—were derived from the spatial database. Using these effective factors, groundwater spring potential was calculated using the three models, and the results were plotted in ArcGIS. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were drawn for spring potential maps and the area under the curve (AUC) was computed. The final results indicated that the FR model (AUC = 79.38 %) performed better than the WofE (AUC = 75.69 %) and LR (AUC = 63.71 %) models. Sensitivity and factor analyses concluded that the bivariate statistical index model (i.e. FR) can be used as a simple tool in the assessment of groundwater spring potential when a sufficient number of data are obtained.

  4. Status of Exudative Pleural Effusion in Adults of South Khorasan Province, Northeast Iran: Pleural Tuberculosis Tending toward Elderly

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    Mortazavi-Moghaddam, Sayyed Gholam Reza; Sharifzadeh, Gholam Reza; Rezvani, Mohammad Reza

    2016-01-01

    The causes and situation of exudative pleural effusion vary from one area to another. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 327 patients with exudative pleural effusion in South Khorasan province (Iran). The patients were older than 12 years and comprised 172 (52.6%) males and 155 (47.4%) females. The study commenced in 2007 with seven years duration. The Light’s criteria were used to define exudative effusion. Procedures including pleural fluid analysis, microbiological study, pleural biopsy, and systemic investigations were conducted to determine the special cause of pleural effusion. The mean age of the patients was 63.4±18.4 years. Malignancies, tuberculosis, and parapneumonia pleural exudation were diagnosed in 125 (38.2%), 48 (14.7%), and 45 (13.8%) cases, respectively. Among malignant effusions, metastasis from lung cancer made 48 (38.4%) of the cases. The origin of metastasis was not determined in 44 (35.2%) patients. The mean age of patients was not significantly different between malignant (66.9±14.3 years) and tuberculosis (63.9±19.7 years) cases (P=0.16). The older age of tuberculosis patients could be a new discussion point on the overall impression created on the subject of tuberculosis pleural exudation (TB-PLE) occurring in young people. PMID:27365554

  5. Studying Present Dairy Industry Management in the Khorasan Province of Iran

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    R Valizadeh

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The present condition and feeds utilization of dairy industry in Khorasan province was studied in 113 dairy farms based on the official data from Ministry of Agricultural-Jehad. Questioners evaluated the required parameters. The percentage proportion of lactating cows, dry cows, pregnant heifers, virgin heifers, 6-12 months old calves, under 6 months and 3 months old calves and breeding bulls were; 39, 10, 11, 6, 15, 9, 10 and 0.1 precent, respectively. Mean of milk yield was 25.5 kg/day with fat content of 3.5%. A large variation was detected in forage quality and concentrate constituents and composition. Generally, difference between feed costs in various seasons was about 30%. All group of cows were offered more nutrients than the recommended levels. The percentage of extra feed cost in comparison with the total dairy cost of feeding was 9.1, 14.3, 15.0 and 9.1 percent for the high, medium and low milk- producing and dry cows. Most of the used concentrates were prepared in the farms. Net energy of lactation (NEL and protein contents of the hand made and factory made concentrates were 1.73±0.03 Mcal per kg dry matter, 16.1±0.8% and 1.68±0.04 Mcal per kg dry matter and 15.3±1.04%, respectively. In most of the farms, silos were non-appropriately made. It was concluded that most of the utilized rations were imbalance in energy and protein ratios. Technical attention must be regarded to the ration formulation and forage quality in the province.

  6. Factors contributing to driver’s condition after fatal and injury vehicle accidents in North Khorasan province- New Year 1391

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    Javad Rezazadeh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and Aim: Injuries from traffic accidents are a major public health problem, and the third leading cause of mortality in people aged 1 to 40 years. Each year 31.8 persons per hundred thousands of Iranians are killed in car accidents. Neighboring of North Khorasan province with Razavi Khorasan, a province with a lot of pilgrims caused a large number of passengers travel via North Khorasan province. This study aimed to evaluate the road accidents and its related factors in the city of bojnurd in March 2012. Materials and Methods: this cross-sectional study was done from … to … 2012(the New Year vacation in Iran. All injured or victims from car accidents who referred to the emergency department of the Imam Ali Hospital formed the research community. Data was gathered by a questionnaire consisting vehicle specification, driver and injured characteristics. For victims and those were not able to answer, we used the family members or relatives for gathering the data. All data analysis was done in SPSS version 19.Results: during the study period, 148 injured people were admitted to the hospital. Drivers’ mean age were 33.9 with the SD of 11.9 years; among them 43.2% were used seat belt. One driver and three passengers were killed immediately, and two drivers and three passengers died in the first 24 hours of admission. Fastening seat belt by drivers reduce the hospitalization rate significantly (p-value<0.0001. 50.7% of the accidents were head-on collisions. Violation from the speed limit (41.3%, indiscretions (25.4% and drowsiness were the most common causes of accident respectively. Conclusion: training the drivers, obligation for using seat belt by driver and passengers, rest after long hours driving , and more control of traffic police especially in two way roads could reduce the car accident or in case of accident help to prevent severe damage and injury.

  7. Molecular recognition of Acanthamoeba spp from surface waters in Qaen county, north of Southern Khorasan province

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    Mahmoodreza Behravan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background& Aims of the Study: Free living amoebae (FLA are frequently distributed in environment, such as air, water, dust and soil. Some strains of Acanthamoebaspp are non-pathogen, while others are pathogenic in immunocompromised patients or even healthy persons. So, due to their medical importance, identification of free living amoeba in water resources, as a source of human infection, is necessary.The aim of this study was to isolate of Acanthamoebaspp from surface waters in Qaen county, north of Southern Khorasan province, during 2015-2016 by Morphological and molecular method. Materials and Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 40 samples were collected from different localities in Qaen county including surface waters, pools and fountains in parks and squares from November 2015 to April 2016. Each sample was filtered through a nitrocellulose membrane filters and cultured on non-nutrient agar (NNA with Escherichia coli suspension and incubated for 1 week to 2 months at room temperature.The cultures media were microscopically examined for the presence of trophozoitesand cysts ofAcanthamoeba spp. Positive cultures for amoebae were examined by PCR (polymerase chain reaction method using specific primers for the genus of Acanthamoeba. Results: Out of 40 water samples, 13 (32.5% were positive for Acanthamoebatrophozoites and cysts according to morphological criteria. In addition, Acanthamoebaspp was identified by PCR method using genus specific primers pairs in 10 (76.93% cases of positive cultures showing anearly 500bp band. Conclusion:According to prevalent of Acanthamoebaspp in surface stagnant waters in this crowded city to buy the saffron from all over the Iran and the world, more attention to the potential role of such waters in transmission of infection by the regional clinicians and health practitioners is necessary.

  8. Energy Efficiency Evaluation and Economical Analysis of Onion(Allium Cepa L. Production in Khorasan Razavi Province of Iran

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    F. Hassanzadeh Aval

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Current conventional agricultural systems using intensive energy have to be revitalized through new integrated approaches relying on renewable energy resources, which can allow farmers to stop dependence on fossil resources. The aim of this study was determining the amount of input–output energy used in onion (Allium cepa L. production in Khorasan Razavi province. For this purpose, the data was collected from 55 onion farm workers in Khorasan Razavi. Inquiries were conducted in face-to-face interviews in April-May 2011. Farm workers were selected based on random sampling method. The results indicated that total energy input was 98479 MJ.ha-1. The share of electricity and nitrogen fertilizer was 50.9 and 14.7%, respectively out of total energy input. The average onion yield under normal conditions was 73227 kg.ha-1 on irrigated farms. The net energy and energy productivity values were estimated to be 18684 MJ.ha-1 and 0.74 kg.MJ-1, respectively, and the ratio of energy output to energy input was found to be 1.19. This indicated an intensive use of input in onion production, which is not parallel to the increase in the final yield. Approximately 77.3% of the total energy input used in onion production was non-renewable (machinery, diesel, fertilizers, chemicals and electricity and only 22.7% was renewable energy form (human labor, manure, water for irrigation, seeds. Cost analysis revealed that total cost of onion production for one hectare was 79262908 Rials. Benefit–cost ratio was calculated as 1.65. Although energy efficiency of onion production in Khorasan Razavi province is low, it is economically justified.

  9. Determination of Mineralization Zones Using Interpretation of IP and RS Data in The GarmabCopper Deposit (South Khorasan province

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    Mansour Adelpour

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The Garmab copper deposit is located northeast of Qaen (South Khorasan province in the1:100,000 scale map of Abiz in the eastern tectonic zone of Iran. It is hosted by Late Paleocene-Eocene lava flows consisting mainly of andesite, trachy¬andesite, andesite-basalt and basalt lavas, as well as pyroclastic rocks, including tuffs and ignimbrites. The Lut Block has undergone intense magmatic activitywith a variety of geochemical characteristics due to changing tectonic conditions (e.g., compression during subduction followed by tensional conditions; Karimpour et al., 2012; Zarrinkoub et al., 2012. The Lut Block has a great potential for the discovery of new mineral deposits, like the Mahrabad and Khonik porphyry copper-gold deposits (Malekzadeh shafarodi, 2009, the Dehsalam porphyry copper deposit (Arjmandzadeh, 2011, high sulfidation epithermal gold deposits such as Chah Shalghami (Karimpour, 2005 and IOCG deposits such as Kuh-E-Zar and Qaleh Zari (Mazlomi et al., 2008. Materials and methods After field studies of the Garmab area, 32 thin sections and 21 polished sections were prepared for petrological and mineralogical studies.In addition, 10 least-altered and fractured samples of volcanic rocks were selected for geochemical studies. Major oxides were determined using XRF analyses at the Zarazma laboratory. Induced polarization and resistivity geophysical data were collected and correlated with geological and alteration maps. The geophysical datawere collectedfrom 420 individual points, using a dipole-dipole arrangement along five profiles separated 60m apart.This covered the study area entirely. After a change in the mineralization trend was observed,additional profileswere designed, twoon bearings of 25º and three on 75º. Results The Garmab volcanic rocks exhibit typical geochemical characteristics of subduction zone magmas including strong enrichment in LILE and depletion in HFSE. Based on the discrimination plot of Irvine and

  10. Evaluation of species, functional and structural diversity of weeds in wheat fields of Northern, Southern and Razavi Khorasan provinces

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    shahram noroz zadeh

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available To study weed species diversity and community structure in wheat fields of Khorasan province, a four-year field trial was conducted from 2003-2006 in Khorasan province, Iran. during jointing stage to heading stage of wheat. Density, frequency and homogeneity of weed species in 5-10 randomly dropped 0.5×0.5 quadrates in 259 fields of 21 cities were determined. Data were analyzed by principal component analysis and clustered by hierarchical complete linkage method. The results showed that weeds of wheat fields were belong to 26 families and 120 species. The majority of weed species were of Asteraceae (20 species and Poaceae (25 species amongst dicotyledonous and monocotyledonous, respectively. Nishabour and Nehbandan had the most and the least diversity by 52 and 4 species respectively. Mashhad and Quochan showed the highest similarity index (70% for weed diversity. Esfarayen had the highest shanon-weiner (2.93 and simpson (1 indices between the cities. however, Nehbandan had the lowest shanon-weiner (0.57 and simpson (0.71 indices. Biplot of the first two principal components (covered 61.4%, and 24.8% of variances, respectively showed that weed homogeneity and frequency had more correlation with each other than weed density. By considering 75% similarity, cities were grouped in two clusters for weed density, homogeneity and frequency in wheat fields. Nehbandan was located in one cluster and the rest of the cities were placed in another. Nehbandan had low weed density compare to the other cities because of the warm and dry climatic conditions. Key words: Species diversity, wheat, community structure, similarity index.

  11. Prevalence of congenital hypothyroidism In South Khorasan province (2006-2010

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    Kokab Namakin

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Congenital hypothyroidism (CH is among the most common endocrine disorders in children and a preventable cause of mental retardation. The present study was performed to determine the prevalence and related risk factors of hypothyroidism in neonates in South Khorasan.   Materials and Methods: This descriptive-retrospective study was conducted on the data collected through the Neonatal CH Screening Project in South Khorasan during four years (March 2006 - March 2010. Neonates whose TSH of the heel blood was ≥5 mU/L were recalled and if the serum TSH was ≥10 mU/L they were accounted as hypothyroid cases. Finally, SPSS software was used to analyze the obtained data.   Results: From 38987 neonates, 1248 cases (3.21% were recalled and serum TSH of 71 neonates was ≥10 mU/L which was a symptom of hypothyroidism. In the initial screening of hypothyroidism in neonates TSH of the heel blood in 45% was found to be 5-10 mU/L, in 20% it was 10-19.9, and in 35% it was ≥ 20. Prevalence of the disease was 1 in 549 living births. Hypothyroidism in boys was 6% more than girls.98.6% of the sick neonates' mothers did not have hypothyroidism 50.7 % of the cases lived in city.   Conclusion: Regarding the significance of the disease in developing mental retardation, it is necessary to persuade parents to have their neonates take part in neonatal hypothyroidism screening plan.

  12. A survey of aflatoxins in sesame seeds imported into Khorasan Province, Iran.

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    Hosseininia, Ali Reza; Vahabzadeh, Maryam; Rashedinia, Marziyeh; Riahi-Zanjani, Bamdad; Karimi, Gholamreza

    2014-02-01

    Sesame seed is one of the main nutrient substances which is used in the food industries of Khorasan Razavi, Iran. Because it is likely that stored sesame seeds are contaminated with mycotoxins, the levels of aflatoxins (AF) in five lots of imported sesame seeds before their distribution to the market were studied during one year. A total of 269 sub-samples were obtained from a total of 9,321 tons of sesame seeds from five importing companies. Aflatoxins at >1 μg/kg were found in 50 % of all samples, but at low levels in most cases, which is illustrated by mean AFB1 and total AF levels of 1.25 ± 3.70 and 1.43 ± 4.38 μg/kg, respectively. A few (1.9 %) samples exceeded the National Iranian Standard maximum accepted level for AFB1 (5 μg/kg) or total AF (15 μg/kg); the maximum total AF level found in one sample was 48 μg/kg. The results indicate that the risk of a violative AF contamination in imported sesame seeds is not negligible but is currently relatively low.

  13. Effect of agricultural practices on mycorrhizal diversity and abundance in winter wheat fields of Khorasan province

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    alireza koochaki

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available As a part of soil biodiversity, mycorrhiza has an important role on soil function. For assessment of agricultural practices on spore density and diversity of mycorrhiza, a study was conducted in winter wheat fields on Shirvan, Mashhad and Gonabad, three regions of Khorasan. In each region, high and low input fields of winter wheat and a natural system for comparison were selected. Use of agricultural inputs was criteria for selection of low and high input fields in each region. Soil sampling was done on fields and natural systems. Organic matter and spore density of mycorrhiza were measured in soil samples. Percent of soil organic matter in all systems was low, but in agroecosystems was greater than in natural system. Mean spore density of mycorrhiza in the soil of Shirvan, Mashhad and Gonabad was 118, 99 and 76 per gram dry soil, respectively and was affected by region and soil organic matter. Soil spore density in agroecosystems was greater than natural systems and was affected by soil organic matter and plant production. Species richness of mycorrhiza in high input and natural systems of Gonabad was 4 and in other systems were 5. Results showed that agroecosystems improved conditions for mycorrhiza and efficient use of these services. Keywords: Mycorrhiza, soil organic matter, winter wheat, agricultural systems.

  14. Investigation of Growth Analysis of Conventional and Commercial Sugar Beet (Beta vulgaris Varieties at Delayed Planting Date in Chenaran(Khorasan Razavi Province

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    R. Sadrabadi Haghighi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to study of yield, growth index and physiological traits in spring sugar beet genotypes with delayed planting date, a field experiment was carried out in Chenaran in Khorasan Razavi Province in the east of Iran in 2008 cropping season. For this experiment a complete randomized block design with 4 replications and 6 treatments was used. The experimental treatments were six improved varieties: Nagano, Brigiitta, Latitia, Flores, Dorotea and 7112. The results showed that the 7112 and Flores varies had highest leaf area Index (5.8 and lowest LAI (0.38, respectively. Nagano variety had the highest total dry weight (1600gm-2, root dry weight (1200gm-2, crop growth rate (17 gm-2.day-1 and relative growth rate (0.05g.g-1.day-1. 7112 variety had the lowest total dry weight (700 gm-2, root dry weight (560g.m-2, crop growth rate (6 g.m-2.day-1 and relative growth rate (0.036g.g-1.day-1.

  15. Endoparasites of Stray Dogs in Mashhad, Khorasan Razavi Province, Northeast Iran with Special Reference to Zoonotic Parasites

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    Amir Adinezadeh

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: To find out different species of helminthes and blood/tissue proto­zoan parasites of stray dogs and their potential role for transmission of zoonotic species to human in Mashhad, Khorasan Razavi Province, northeast Iran, during 2008-2009.Methods: Totally, 100 stray dogs were selected among Mashhad municipal collection from different sites of the city. Internal organs were examined for any parasites. Helminthes were identified based on morphological characteristics. Smears prepared from peripheral blood as well as liver, spleen and any skin lesion were stained by Giemsa and examined microscopically. Samples obtained from spleen were aseptically cultured in three culture media including NNN, Schneider’s Drosophila (HIMEDIA and RPMI1640 (GIBCO for isolation of Leishmania spp. The titer of anti-Leishmania and anti-Toxoplasma antibodies were measured by direct agglutination test (DAT and indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT, respectively.Results: 84% of dogs were infected at least with one species of intestinal helminthes. The species of parasites and rate of infection were as follows: Taenia hydatigena (61%, Dipylidium caninum (46%, Mesocestoides lineatus (19%, Echinococcus granulosus (10%, Toxascaris leonina (53% and Toxocara canis (7%. Anti-Leishmania antibodies were detected by DAT in 8 dogs (8% at 1:320 titers and higher. Forty seven dogs (47% showed anti-Toxoplasma titer at 1:10 and 17 (17% showed titer of ≥1:100. No blood parasites were found in prepared blood smears.Conclusion: The high rate of parasitic infection and presence of zoonotic species

  16. Prevalence of Obesity and Its Association with Socioeconomic Factors in Elderly Iranians from Razavi-Khorasan Province

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    Mohsen Nematy

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available There are few data regarding the prevalence of obesity and its socioeconomic determinants among elderly individuals, particularly in Iran. We wished to determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity in free-living elderly people and the relationship to nutritional and socioeconomic factors in the Razavi-Khorasan province of Iran. Free-living elderly persons (917 males/1045 females, aged ?60 years, were recruited using cluster sampling. Overweight and obesity were evaluated using body mass index (BMI and subjects were categorized as thin (BMI <18.5 kg/m2, normal (18.5–24.9 kg/m2, overweight (25–29.9 kg/m2, and obese (?30 kg/m2. The association between the prevalence of overweight or obesity with socioeconomic and demographic factors, including gender, place of residence, literacy, type of living, source of income, use of supplements during the past 3 months, and employment status, was examined using regression analysis. The distribution of BMI values indicated that 13, 46.5, 28.9, and 11.7% of the total population were thin, normal, overweight, and obese, respectively. The prevalence of central obesity was higher among Iranian women than men (63.1 vs. 18.6%, respectively. Regression analysis results indicated that gender (p < 0.001, place of residence (p < 0.001, literacy (p = 0.01, and source of income (p < 0.001 were significantly associated with the incidence of overweight or obesity. This study showed that 40.6% of elderly subjects were overweight or obese. Results reinforce the need to plan strategies for primary prevention of this fast-growing public health problem.

  17. Agro-ecological zoning for wheat (Triticum aestivum, sugar beet (Beta vulgaris and corn (Zea mays on the Mashhad plain, Khorasan Razavi province

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    Ehsan Neamatollahi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Climate is the most important factor determining the sustainability of agricultural production systems. A qualitative land evaluation was carried out for the Mashhad plain, Khorasan Razavi province, Iran, to assess the suitability of the land to grow the locally most important crops, i.e. wheat (Triticum aestivum, sugar beet (Beta vulgaris and corn (Zea mays using a Geographical Information System (GIS. The possible growing seasons were defined as early (10 September–20 June and late (10 October–20 July season for wheat, early (15 March–15 October and late (15 April–15 November season for sugar beet, and early (1 May–1 November and late (15 May–15 November season for corn. The study area covered approximately 99.915 ha−1. Climate variables were taken into account including maximum, optimum and minimum daily average temperatures and were obtained from 30 years agro-meteorological data set from 12 synoptic stations. Growing Degree Days (GDDs were determined for wheat, sugar beet, and corn crops from sowing to harvest. To produce digital elevation model for Mashhad plain two sources were used on utilization of the IRS III satellite images with resolution that is 23.5 m, and topographic maps with scale of 1:25000. Aspect and slope layers were produced by Arc GIS 9.2 software. The study identified suitable elevation, slope, and GDDs for optimal growth and indicated that high yields are possible for wheat, sugar beet, and corn on the Mashhad plain. The study also identified the most suitable regions of the Mashhad plain for each crop.

  18. Spatial and temporal patterns in Saffron (Crocus sativus L. yield of Khorasan province and their relationship with long term weather variation

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    mohamad hoseyni

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available With respect to effect of climatic changes on crop yields, study of long term trend of yields is conducted on the basis of statistical procedures that will be a suitable way to determine contribution of climatic factors affecting yield changes. As this trend of yield changes has been studied at regional and national levels in many parts of the world, conducting these studies will be necessary for Iran. So, with respect to economical importance and social aspect of saffron for Khorasan province and Iran, evaluation of yield trend of saffron in recent years and study of relationship of its changes to climatic changes have been purpose of this research. Findings show that yield reduction of saffron in Khorasan has been affected by changes in climatic indices particularly temperature and precipitation during the past ten years, so that among main cities of saffron cultivation in Khorasan 31 to 66 percent of yield variation can be explained by these climatic variables. In this research, from meteorological parameters, effect of precipitation compared with monthly temperature has been less and results show that precipitation has been effective only in Torbat-e-heidarieh while minimum and maximum monthly temperatures are considered as the most important variables affecting saffron yield. It was also concluded that temperatures of spring season and almost the first month of summer have highest effects on saffron yield. Patterns of increasing minimum and maximum temperatures of these months during the past ten years are related to trend of yield reduction in saffron, and It seems that this decreasing trend will be continued.

  19. Identifying Anophele fauna in Qayenat city in the South khorasan Province (2010-2011

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    Hossien Borna

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Biological vectors of malaria are only anopheles mosquitoes. Since the vector control without identifying them and understanding their biology is not possible, the present study was designed to identify anopheles fauna in different areas of Qayenat city and their internal or external shelters.   Materials and Methods: Larvae, pupae, and adults of anopheles mosquitoes were collected from their internal and external shelters in rural areas in plains and mountainous spots in Qayenat city during a cross-sectional and descriptive study between April 2010 and October 2011. This was done either singularly or collectively through taking samples of the larvae from various inhabitats through scooping. The caught samples were transferred to laboratory in order to determine their type using the valid key to identify adult anopheles and larvae in Iran (Shahgvdyan.   Results: A total of 2165 samples including 1711 larvae and 454 adults were collected from different parts of Qayenat city. After identification and validation of the samples 4 species of Anopheles were diagnosed. The samples were superpictus, multicolor, sacharovi, and turkhodai with the percent 72.2%, 27.9%, 0.44%, and 0.44% respectively. Most abundant Anopheles were reported to exist in the months of July and August.   Conclusion: Regarding the high frequency of superpictus anopheles in the area and its condition, it is necessary to make essential provision for a comprehensive program to control malaria In order to prevent outbreaks of the epidemic in suitable seasons of the year.

  20. Zoning vulnerability of climate change in variation of amount and trend of precipitation - Case Study: Great Khorasan province

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    Modiri, Ehsan; Modiri, Sadegh

    2015-04-01

    Climatic hazards have complex nature that many of them are beyond human control. Earth's climate is constantly fluctuating and trying to balance itself. More than 75% of Iran has arid and semi-arid climate thus assessment of climate change induced threats and vulnerabilities is essential. In order to investigate the reason for the changes in amount and trend of precipitation parameter, 17 synoptic stations have been selected in the interval of the establishment time of the station until 2013. These stations are located in three regions: Northern, Razavi and Southern Khorasan. For quality control of data in Monthly, quarterly and annual total precipitation of data were tested and checked by run test. Then probable trends in each of the areas was assessed by Kendall-tau test. Total annual precipitation of each station is the important factor that increase the sensitivity of vulnerability in the area with low rainfall. Annual amount of precipitation moving from north to south has been declining, though in different fields that they have different geomorphologic characteristics controversies occur. But clearly can be observed average of precipitation decline with decreasing latitude. There were positive trends in the annual precipitation in 6 stations, negative trends in 10 stations, as well as one station, has no trend. The remarkable notice is that all stations have a positive trend were in the northern region in the case study. These stations had been in ranging from none to Moderate classification of threats and vulnerability. After the initialization parameters to classify levels of risks and vulnerability, the two measures of mean annual precipitation and the trends of this fluctuation were combined together. This classification was created in five level for stations. Accordingly Golmakan, Ghochan, Torbate heydarieh, Bojnord and Mashhad were in none threat level. Khoor of Birjand and Boshruyeh have had complete stage of the threat level and had the greatest

  1. Petrology and geochemistry of Late Proterozoic hornblende gabbros from southeast of Fariman, Khorasan Razavi province, Iran

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    Seyed Masoud Homam

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Hornblende-bearing gabbroic rocks are quite common in subduction-related magmatic suites and considered to represent magmatic differentiation process in arc magmas (Heliker, 1995; Hickey-Vargas et al., 1995; Mandal and Ray, 2012. The presence of hornblende as an important mineral phase in gabbroic rocks of subduction zone has been considered either as an early crystallizing mineral from water-bearing mafic magmas (Beard and Borgia 1989; Mandal and Ray, 2012 or as a product of reaction of early crystallized minerals (olivine, pyroxene and plagioclase and water-rich evolved melt/aqueous fluid (Costa et al., 2002; Mandal and Ray, 2012. The careful study of petrology and geochemistry of hornblende-bearing gabbroic rocks from Chahak area, of Neoproterozoic age, can provide important information about their petrogenesis. Because of the special characteristics of Chahak hornblende gabbros according to their age and their situation in the main structural units of Iran, their study can present critical keys for the knowledge of geological history of Iran specially central Iran zone. Material and Methods This study carried out in two parts including field and laboratory works. Sampling and structural studies were carried out during field work. Geological map for the study area was also prepared. 65 thin and polished thin sections for petrographical purpose were studied. Major oxides, rare earth elements and trace elements were analyzed for 4 samples (92P-1, 92P-3, B1and B6 from hornblende gabbros on the basis of 4AB1 method using ICP-MS of ACME Laboratory from Canada. In addition, major oxides of three hornblende gabbro samples (89P-62, 89P-59 and 89P-46 were used from Partovifar (Partovifar, 2012. Results and discussion Fariman metamorphic terrains, of Proterozoic age, consist of metamorphosed sedimentary and igneous (plutonic and volcanic rocks. Hornblende gabbros of the study area include plagioclase, hornblende, biotite pyroxene and

  2. Analysis of Factors Affecting on Risk Management of Wheat Production Among Wheat Farmers (Razavieh Region, Khorasan-E-Razavi Province, Iran

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    V. Sarani

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study was to analyze the Factors Affecting on risk management in wheat production among farmers of Razavieh region (Khorasan-E-Razavi province, Iran. Statistical population of the study was 1520 farmers that they had water cultivation. By using of stratified proportional random sampling 156 respondents were selected from 8 villages. For the calculation of the risk-aversion coefficient degree among farmers, the Safety First Rule model was used. The findings revealed that the dominant respondents (65% were risk-averse. The results of exploratory factorial analysis showed that five factors determined about 74.267 % from total variance for wheat farmers' risk management that consist of: economy & marketing management factor, planting management factor, harvest management factor, infrastructure management of farming and risk-sharing management factor. From among of the above mentioned factors, the most important factor of risk management in study region was factor of economy & marketing management

  3. Prevalence of HIV and Hepatitis B, C, D Infections and Their Associated Risk Factors among Prisoners in Southern Khorasan Province, Iran.

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    Masood Ziaee

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Prison inmates are among the high risk population for dangerous infections such HIV, HBV, HCV and other contagious diseases. In spit of many data about the prevalence and risk factors for blood born diseases among prisoners in the world, such data are spares from Iran. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and associated risk factors for HIV, HBV, HCV and HDV infections among a large sample of prison inmates in Iran.In a cross-sectional study in 2009-2010, 881 inmates in three prisons of Southern Khorasan Province in Iran were selected based on a systematic, stratified random sampling method. Sera were analyzed for HBV, HDV, HCV and HIV infections by appropriate commercial ELISA kits. An anonymous questionnaire was used to collect the demographic data and information about risk factors.Overall, 881 prisoners (mean age: 34.7±11.4 years, range: 11-84 years, M/F ratio:4.5/1 were participated in this study. The prevalence of HBV and HCV infection was 6.9% and 7.7%, respectively. Among the HBsAg positive subjects, 6.6% (4/61 and 9.8% (6/61 had HDV and HCV super-infection, respectively. Only one case (0.1% had HIV infection that was co-infection with HCV. Drug abuse and history of traditional phlebotomy were associated risk factors for HBV infection (P<0.05 and history of drug injection was associated with HCV infection (P<0.05.This study show fairly higher prevalence of blood borne infections among prisoners and indicate drug abuse and phlebotomy as the associated risk factor. Implementation of appropriate screening tests and preventive programs is suggested in prisons.

  4. Mineralization and trace element distribution in pyrite using EMPA in exploration drill holes from Cheshmeh Zard gold district, Khorasan Razavi Province, Iran

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    Zahra Alaminia

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Pyrite is the most abundant sulfide mineral in low sulfidation ore deposits. Experimental studies have shown that low-temperature ( 200°C from hydrothermal or metamorphic fluids (Butler and Rickard, 2000. Framboidal pyrite mostly occurs in sedimentary environments, though it could also form during metamorphism and hydrothermal alteration (Scott et al., 2009. The pyrite formed tends to be enriched in various trace elements such as Au and As. For this study we have combined the geology, alteration, mineralization with recent studies of the description of the deposit from core logging and underground mapping and geochemistry in the CheshmehZard gold district and also investigated the compositional variation and textural differences between pyrite types. This study is based on the results of our alteration and mineralization mapping and detailed logging of 1937.8 m of drill core. Materials and Methods Geology, hydrothermal alteration and mineralization were examined in drill holes along several cross sections. Host-rock alteration minerals and veins were determined for 11 samples using standard X-ray diffraction (XRD and X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF techniques. Polished sections were studied by reflected light microscopy and backscattered electron images (BSE. In this study, the trace-element composition of pyrite samples from the Au-III vein system was obtained using electron microprobe analyzer (EMPA data. All analyseswere carried out at the department of Materials Engineering and Physics of the University of Salzburg in Austria. The EMPA measurements and BSE imaging were made using a JXA-8600 electron microprobe. Spot analyses of 30 pyrite grains from CheshmehZard are given in Table 1. Results The study area is located in the north of Khorasan Razavi Province 45 km to the south of Neyshabour. The area near CheshmehZard could become important as a site of economically significant gold mineralization. Six gold-bearing vein

  5. Geochemistry and tectonomagatic setting of Tertiary volcanic rocks of the Kangan area, northeast of Sarbisheh, southern Khorasan

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    Mahshid Malekian Dastjerdi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The study area is located 12km away from the north east of Sarbisheh at the eastern border of the Lut block (Karimpour et al., 2011; Richards et al., 2012. The magmatic activity in the Lut blockhas begun in the middle Jurassic (165-162 Ma and reached its peak in the Tertiary age (Jung et al., 1983; Karimpour et al., 2011. Volcanic and subvolcanic rocks in the Tertiary age cover over half of the Lut block with up to 2000 m thickness and they were formed due to subduction prior to the collision of the Arabian and Asian plates (Jung et al., 1983; Karimpour et al., 2011. In the Kangan area, the basaltic lavas cropped out beyond the above intermediate to acid volcanic rocks. In this area, bentonite and perlite deposits have an economic importance. The main purpose of this paper is to present a better understanding of the tectono-magmatic settings of volcanic rocks in the northeast of Sarbisheh, east of Iran based on their geochemical characteristics. Materials and methods Fifteen samples were analyzed for major elements by inductively coupled plasma (ICP technologies and trace elements by using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS, following a lithium metaborate/tetraborate fusion and nitric acid total digestion, at the Acme laboratories, Vancouver, Canada. Results The Kangan area is located at the northeast of Sarbishe, Southern Khorasan and the eastern border of the Lut block. In this area, basaltic lavas have cropped out above intermediate to acid lavas such as andesite, dacite, rhyolite (sometimes perlitic .The main minerals in the basalt are plagioclase, olivine and pyroxene, in andesite contain plagioclase, pyroxene, biotite and amphibole and in acid rocks include plagioclase, quartz, sanidine, biotite and amphibole. Intermediate to acid rocks have medium to high-K calc-alkaline nature and basalt is alkaline. Enrichment in LREE relative to HREE (Ce/Yb= 21.14-28.7, high ratio of Zr/Y(4.79- 10.81, enrichment in LILE

  6. Frequency of Thalassemia in Iran and Khorasan Razavi

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    Gholam Hasan Khodaei

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Beta-thalassemia is the most common hereditary disease in Iran. More than two million carriers of beta-thalassemia live in Iran. Since the Iranian population is a mixture of different ethnic groups, it is necessary to determine the frequency  in the different parts of the country. Materials and Methods: This descriptive study is a cross sectional study with helping by professional groups fighting diseases in Khorasan Razavi province.   Results: In Iran, according to World Health Organization, about 4 percent of the population, are carriers of the thalassemia gene. In other words, about 2-3 million people are suffering from thalassemia minor.Now, more than 18 thousand cases of thalassemia are scattered across the country in different provinces, are different. Mazandaran, Gilan, Hormozgan, Khuzestan, kohgiloyeh, Fars, Bushehr, Sistan and Baluchestan, Kerman and Isfahan, are 10 provinces with high prevalence in our country. We have 342 cases of thalassemia major in Khorasan Razavi province.   Conclusion: Prevalence  of thalassemia in our country is 3.6%  and Iran is located on the belt of thalassemia and due to a history of consanguinity, this disease has a prevalence of 0.6% among in the provinces of Khorasan Razavi.

  7. Incidence of Phenylketonuria in Southern Khorasan (2012- 2014: Short Communication

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    Zohre Saadatinasab

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Phenylketonuria (PKU., OMIM261600 is the most common genetic disorder autosomal recessive mode of inheritance and the metabolism of amino-acids, which is due to deficiency of the liver enzyme phenylalanine - hydroxylase as a result of mutations in the gene encoding it is achieved. The present study aimed at investigating the incidence of PKU n  the South Khorasan province between June 2012 and June 2014. Materials and Methods: This study uses data from a national screening for phenylketonuria in South Khorasan Province was conducted. The present study was a retrospective descriptive one. Our data gathering tool included a researcher designed questionnaire and sampling consisted of all live births in the South Khorasan Province from June 2012 to June 2014. Finally, all the data was analyzed using the software SPSS version18.0. Results: The total population screened was 30,368 people. Frequency of  confirmed cases was 32 females and 1 male, whose parents were relatives. Incidence of mental retardation in the newborns was zero at the screening time. Incidence of the mentioned disease in Iranian subjects of the province was 0.996:10000 and in all the births, i.e both Iranians and the Afghans, it was0.987: 100000. Occurrence of the disorder in Ghaen was 3.68: 10000 and in the rest of the cities of the province equal to zero. Conclusion: The results show that the incidence of phenylketonuria in the South Khorasan isvery low between 2012 and 2014, although there are considerable numbers of suspected cases. Therefore, continuing of the national screening program of newborns at birth is particularly important.

  8. The Regional Specifications of Story Telling of Khorasan

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    مشتاق مهر مشتاق مهر

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Regionalism in the contemporary Iranian story telling begins seriously in the 1930s and reaches its peak in the 1940s or 1950s. The regional stories reflect mostly the common specifications and elements, such as cultures, beliefs, rules and ceremonies in the geographical area. In the contemporary Iranian story telling, with respect to the geographical origins of writers and regional specifications reflected in their worksfive realms of regional story telling in the north, south, east (Khorasan, west (Kermanshah, and Adharbayejan are reflected After presenting the definition of regional story, This article critically counts and introduces regional stories of Khorasan and their specifications.. Key words: region, story, the manner of regional writing, Khorasan.

  9. Nosocomial infections and related factors in southern khorasan hospitals

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aim: Nosocomial infections are defined as infections occurring during a patient's stay at hospital (48-72h after admission).Nosocomial infections are one of the important problems of health. This study aimed was determine the prevalence of nosocomial infections, and related factors in hospitals with more than 100 beds in south Khorasan Province. Materials and Methods: In this crass-sectional study, an investigator-administered questionnaire was completed for each patien...

  10. Composition evaluation of the tallow and meat fatty acids of the cattle and determining their atherogenesis and thrombogenesisindexes in South Khorasan Province

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    Mohammad Malekaneh

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: It was found that the sum of trans and stearic fatty acids was more in tallow. The hypocholesterolemic fatty acids levels were higher in the meat in the whole province. The cattle’s meat had lower atherogenetic and thrombogenetic properties compared with the animals’ fat.The consumed cattle’s meat and fat in the province appear to have a proper condition.

  11. Autecology Essential Oil Composition, Antibacterial, Anti Candidacies and Ethnopharmacological Survey of Ferula Gummosa L. As Anti Infection to Treat Of Vaginal Infections in Traditional Medicine of Razavi Khorasan Province (North East of Iran

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    Mazandarani Masoumeh

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Ferula gummosa Boiss. (Apiaceae family, which has been used in traditional medicine of Iran as anti vaginal infection, anti-sinusitis, sedative, and anti-inflammation. Materials and Methods: In this research, the gums of plant root were collected from the Heidary nature reserve in Razavi Khorasan Province (Iran in August 2012. The ethnopharmacological data about traditional uses of plant were obtained from the rural healers (women 67-75 year of this region. Essential oil of the plant root gum was obtained by hydrodistillation (Clevenger apparatus and was analyzed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Antibacterial activity of plant ethanolic extract was studied in vitro against Candida albicans and 9 Gram-positive and negative bacteria using well method and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC assay. Results: Results showed that a total of 39 components have been identified in the plant sampl oil, representing 81% of the total oil and β-pinene (19.88%, guaiol (8%, shyobunone (6.96%, delta-cadinene (4.65%, α-pinene (3.16 %, β-phellandrene (3.28% and myrtenol (2.8%, were the main essential oil composition, respectively. The results from antibacterial screening (Table 2, were showed that C. albicans (25.2 ± 1.6, Staphylococcus epidermidis (23.6 ± 0.7 mm, Staphylococcus aureus (21.3 ± 0.2 mm, Escherichia coli (16.5 ± 0.8 mm, Bacillus cereus (19.5 ± 0.1 mm, Enterococcus faecalis (17.2 ± 0.8 mm and Pseudomonas aeroginosa ( 17.8 ± 0.2 mm inhibition zone and MIC (35.4-112 μg/ml were the most sensitive pathogenes to the plant extract respectively, which followed Shigella (12.3 ± 0.3 mm and Klebsiella pneumonia (12.5 ± 0.2 mm were found to be moderate sensitive bacteria and then the Salmonella typhymorium which completely was resistant to plant root extract. Conclusion: According to these results, it can be concluded that the extract of F. gummosa L. have suitable antimicrobial and anti-Candidacies activity, which can be

  12. Nosocomial infections and related factors in southern khorasan hospitals

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    Bita Bijari

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Nosocomial infections are defined as infections occurring during a patient's stay at hospital (48-72h after admission.Nosocomial infections are one of the important problems of health. This study aimed was determine the prevalence of nosocomial infections, and related factors in hospitals with more than 100 beds in south Khorasan Province. Materials and Methods: In this crass-sectional study, an investigator-administered questionnaire was completed for each patient with nosocomial infections diagnosis in hospitals with more than 100 beds in South Khorasan. This questionnaire conation demographic characteristic of patients, department, duration of admission, kind of pathogen and risk factors that was designed according to standard questionnaire of Iranian Nasocomial infections surveillance system (INIS of Center for communicable Disease Control, Ministry of Health. Data were analyzed with SPSS 16 software. Results and discussion: Number of patients with nosocomial infection was 358. The incidence of nosocomial infection was 0.9%. ICU had the highest incidence rate (17.3%. The most common nosocomial infection was pneumonia (43%, and urinary tract infection (UTI (15.1%. In 33.5% culture result were negative. In other cases, culture results showed klebsiella spp. (12.8% and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (9.8% were the most prevalent bacteria. Most factors associated with nosocomial infection in patients were urinary catheters (70.4%, suction (66.8% and tracheal tube (54.2%. 24% of patients expired. The results showed lower ratio of nosocomial infection, that the main reason is failure to detection and reporting of actual cases of nosocomial infection. Promoting detection and reporting system for Prevention and control of nosocomial infection was recommended

  13. Assessment of Patient Dose from CT Examinations in Khorasan, Iran

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    Mohammad Taghi Bahreyni Toossi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Computed Tomography scans are a very important tool for diagnosis and assessment of response to treatment in the practice of medicine. Ionizing radiation in medical imaging is undoubtedly one of the most powerful diagnostic tools in medicine. Yet, as with all medical interventions, there are potential risks in addition to the clear potential benefits. Materials and Methods Two reference dose quantities have been defined in order to promote the use of good technique in CT. These are weighted CT dose index (CTDIw in (mGy for a single slice in serial scanning or per rotation in helical scanning, and dose–length product (DLP per complete examination (mGy.cm, All measurements were performed using a pencil shaped ionization chamber introduced into polymethyl methacrylate cylindrical brain and body phantoms. This survey was performed on 7 CT scanners in Khorasan Province-Iran. Results DLP for brain, chest, abdomen and pelvic examinations had a range of 255 - 1026, 76-1277, 48-737, 69-854 mGy.cm, respectively. Conclusion The results obtained in this study show that the DLP values obtained in this province are lower than European Commission reference dose levels (EC RDL, in other words performance of all the scanners were satisfactory.

  14. Investigating the Effect of Variations in Irrigation Water Price on Cropping Pattern and Gross Margin under Uncertainty (Case Study: Khorasan Razavi

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    Mostafa Mardani

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Water shortage crisis is an issue that has led to drastic changes in different agricultural policies, especially in arid and semi-arid areas. Uncertainty in the amount of resources, e.g. water, used for agricultural production entails risk for farmers' income and cropping pattern changes. In the present study, the robust optimization model was used for optimal allocation of arable lands of Khorasan Razavi Province under uncertainty. During the allocation, the effect of water input price variations on total gross margin and cropping pattern was considered. It was found that under certain data, both parameters of total gross margin and total acreage are more than uncertain data. Given that water price variations resulted in tangible changes in wheat acreage, it is recommended to adopt appropriate policies to reduce its production risk.

  15. STRATEGY OF MAIZE'S CONCENTRATING TO ADVANTAGE AREAS IN JILIN PROVINCE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Hui-ming; GU Li-li

    2003-01-01

    Jilin Province is one of the main grain-producing provinces of China, which has dominant position in maize production, by the view of its advantages in policy, location, breed and market. And after entering WTO,some measures have been taken to enhance maize competitive ability. But there are some difficulties in concentrating production to maize advantaged areas. This paper expounds the basis that Jilin Province becomes the advantage area of maize, analyzes the problems and puts forward the supporting policy. Some strategic measures are proposed,as developing comparable advantages, carrying out the strategy of un-equilibrium development and cultivating advantaged product areas of maize to rapidly improve the international competitive ability and productivity of maize in Jilin Province, cast the agricultural predicament off and promote the agricultural development into a new stage.

  16. Hydrocarbon provinces and productive trends in Libya and adjacent areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Missallati, A.A. (Agip (N.A.M.E.)Ltd., Tripoli (Libya))

    1988-08-01

    According to the age of major reservoirs, hydrocarbon occurrences in Libya and adjacent areas can be grouped into six major systems which, according to their geographic locations, can be classified into two major hydrocarbon provinces: (1) Sirte-Pelagian basins province, with major reservoirs ranging from middle-late Mesozoic to early Tertiary, and (2) Murzog-Ghadames basins province, with major reservoirs ranging from early Paleozoic to early Mesozoic. In the Sirte-Pelagian basins province, hydrocarbons have been trapped in structural highs or in stratigraphic wedge-out against structural highs and in carbonate buildups. Here, hydrocarbon generation is characterized by the combined effect of abundant structural relief and reservoir development in the same hydrocarbon systems of the same age, providing an excellent example of hydrocarbon traps in sedimentary basins that have undergone extensive tensional fracturing in a shallow marine environment. In the Murzog-Ghadames basins province, hydrocarbons have been trapped mainly in structural highs controlled by paleostructural trends as basement arches which acted as focal points for oil migration and accumulation.

  17. Motorcycle Fatal Accidents in Khorasan Razavi Province, Iran

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    M Seyyed Nozadi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: All over the world motorcycle accident are one of the major causes of road death and injury. This study aimed to determine the pattern of Motorcycle Fatal Accidents in Mashhad-Iran. Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out in 2006 to analyze the epidemiological pattern of the mo­tor­cycle accident in Mashhad, North-Eastern Iran. Three hundred fifty cases of motorcycle accidents were included. Data gath­ering tool was a standard questionnaire. The compiled data were analyzed using SPSS11 and χ 2 test. The significance level was considered 0.05 in all statistical tests.Results: In the time span of the study, 350 cases of motorcycle accident occurred, most of which happened at 8pm to 12pm. In 119 cases, the motorcyclist was the blameful rider. Generally, 84.2% of the motorcycle riders did not have safety hel­mets. About two third of blameful motorcycle riders (63.1% were less than 25 years old. The major cause of the accidents (55.1% was due to neglecting the Yield Right of Way. Motorcycle riders endanger pedestrian, other drivers, passengers and their own life.Conclusion: Paying attention to cultural and instructional issues of correct motorcycle riding and performing appropriate monitor­ing in traffic and transportation system such as honoring our and others safety and setting limitations on using this vehi­cle by the youth is of great importance. .

  18. A taxonomic study on the genus Hymenocrater Fisch. & C. A. Mey. (Lamiaceae in Khorasan region

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    Asiyeh Esmaili

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The genus Hymenocrater (Lamiaceae, Mentheae comprises 11 species in Flora Iranica of which nine species are mostly distributed in Iran. Among Iranian species, five are found in the Razavi, North and South Khorasan provinces. Eighty morphological characters were measured in 44 herbarium specimens belonging to: H. calycinus, H. bituminosus, H. platystegius and H. elegans. The Kruskal-Wallis Test was implemented to evaluate which characters significantly differentiate the species. Thus, forty-two morphological characters were used in subsequent analyses. Taxonomic relationships were investigated using the Principal Component Analysis (PCA. H. bituminosus and H. platystegius were separated in two distinct groups. There was no sharp distinction between the two other species, H. calycinus and H. elegans. Canonical discriminant analysis (CDA was also applied to find the best discriminating traits among the species.

  19. Factors affecting on longevity in Northern Khorasan Kordish sheep

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    razieh saghi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The longevity is normally defined as the length of its productive life in the flock, which is the amount of time an animal spends producing (1. Longevity reflects the ability of ewe to avoid being culled for low production, low fertility, illness and influences the number and cost of replacements required to maintain the flock size. The benefit of increasing longevity are increased average age of the flock, having more ewes available for sale at the end of their four parity, having more ewe lambs to sell, and higher productivity from a slightly older flock age profile (2. Sheep population of Khorasan province (10. In sheep production, longevity has an important influence on the economic returns. Reliable estimates of non genetic effects of longevity are needed to aid establishing an efficient strategy for improving ewe productivity. Thus, the objective of this study was the factors affecting on longevity in Northern Khorasan Kordish sheep. We want to determine effect of environmental and non-genetic factors on longevity. Material and Methods In order to investigate on factors affecting longevity trait in Northen Khorasan Kordish sheep, records of 7469 sheep (187 sire and 2258 dam between 1990 to 2012 that were collected by breeding station of Hossein Abad in Shirvan (This city is located in the north of Mashhad were used. Flock has been kept under village system. Breeding ewes were identified in the data set as those that lambed at 2 year of age and culled at 6 to 7 year of age duo to oldness. Ram kept until a male offspring was available for replacement. In this study longevity was defined as the age of a ewe (in day when it leaves the flock. Ewes were generally removed from the flock due to poor production, low fertility, death and illness. Ewes were identified as being removed from the flock if a lambing record was present at n year of age but not at n+1 years of age. All females were culled before reaching 7 years of age

  20. Potential cultivation areas of Saffron and its economic effects on forest dwellers welfare

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    Armin Mashayekhan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The maintenance of natural forest and forest dwellers welfare are vital to biodiversity conservation. For this purpose, introducing of Saffron cultivation as innovation in agricultural activities outside of the forest could be a key factor. To achieve this goal, it is necessary to determine the agronomic suitability and the appropriate spatial pattern for the Saffron cultivation. Geographic Information System (GIS was used to identify suitable areas for Saffron cultivation in the North of Khorasan Province, Iran. Relevant environment components such as climate factors (temperature and rainfall, topography (Digital Elevation Model and slope and land-use were considered. The results of this study were specially looking for potential cultivation areas for expanding Saffron and to develop suitable map for Saffron cultivation. We found that 69% (1887 ha of agricultural land have currently suitable for Saffron cultivation in North of Khorasan, Iran. The map of land suitability for cultivation of Saffron can be practiced for improving livelihood and forest conservation.

  1. Estimating methane emissions from mangrove area in Ranong Province, Thailand

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    Suwanchai Nitisoravut

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to estimate methane emissions from the mangrove area of Ranong Province andto explore the factors affecting the emissions, as part of an attempt to evaluate methane contribution to the global methane budget. Methane was measured by using a closed chamber technique and analyzed by a gas chromatograph equipped with a flame ionization detector (FID. The results showed that the annual estimated methane emission was released at approximately 157.32 mg/m2. The amount of methane emission from this mangrove area was lower than in other previously studied areas. Emission rates varied seasonally with the highest rate in the rainy season followed by summer and cold seasons, during which the values were 0.52, 0.27, and 0.19 mg/m2/day, respectively. Seasonal variations of methane emission was related to several factors depending upon field conditions such as water conductivity, soil temperature, and water level.

  2. The marine mollusk fauna of the Virginian area as a basis for defining Zoogeographical provinces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coomans, H.E.

    1962-01-01

    The marine fauna of the American Atlantic coast between Cape Cod and Cape Hatteras, the Virginian area, is placed by zoogeographers in different provinces: in the Transatlantic, or in the Boreal province. It is sometimes considered to be a province of its own, or only a transition between the Boreal

  3. 76 FR 80870 - Notice of Determination of Pest-Free Areas in Mendoza Province, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-27

    ... additional areas as pest-free areas for Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata) in Argentina. We... that, in addition to the pest-free status for C. capitata, the Mendoza province of Argentina also...

  4. Natural radioactivity in the area of Nakhon Si Thammarat Province

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    Nuanjing, P.

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available This research work aims to study the specific activity of natural radioactivity in soil, rock, construction sand and shallow well water samples in the area of Nakhon Si Thammarat Province. Totally 161 samples were collected and analysed using gamma-ray spectrometry technique. The specific activities of Ra-226, Th-232 and K-40 in soil samples ranged from 8 to 203 (mean 96±18 Bq/kg, 12 to 236 (mean 88±23 Bq/kg and 21 to 1191 (mean 524±127 Bq/kg, in rock samples ranged from 11 to 113 (mean 46±14 Bq/kg, 3 to 113 (mean 47±16 Bq/kg and 18 to 1305 (mean 472±187 Bq/kg, in sand samples ranged from 3 to 91 (mean 42±5 Bq/kg, 14 to 91 (mean 50±5 Bq/kg and 102 to 966 (mean 509±57 Bq/kg, respectively. The radium equivalent activity of soil samples in 2 districts was found to be higher than 370 Bq/kg. The radiation hazard indices calculated for assessment of the radiation hazards arising due to the use of these rock and sand samples in the construction of dwellings were within the safety limits recommended by UNSCEAR. The mean estimated outdoor dose rates in soil and rock samples were 119±23 and 70±21 nGy/h, respectively. The mean estimated indoor dose rate in sand samples was 134±9 nGy/h. The specific activities of Ra-226 in well water samples ranged from 2 to 179 (Mean 17±7 mBq/l. Only one water sample from Muang District had the Ra-226 specific activity of 179 mBq/l, which was higher than the maximum contaminant level (111 mBq/l.

  5. Consequences of Promoting Less-Populated Rural Areas to Urban Areas: A Case Study, Bushehr Province

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    Ali Bastin

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The modified law of Iranian Administrative divisions has greatly altered the pattern of settlement in recent decades. The promotion of rural areas to urban areas has shifted from mere population standard to combined population-administrative standards. However, all censuses suggest that many rural areas reported as smaller than the minimum population standard have been promoted to urban areas. In the last two decades, this is a clearly prominent phenomenon in the urban system of Iran. This paper evaluates the effects and consequences of promoting small and sparsely populated rural areas to urban areas in the Bushehr province. The used methodology is analytic-descriptive using a questionnaire distributed among 380 members of the target population. Data analysis is conducted in physical, economic, social and urban servicing domains using one-sample T-test and the utility range. The results show that promotion of rural areas to urban areas has positive outcomes such as improved waste disposal system, improved quality of residential buildings, increased monitoring of the construction, increased income, prevented migration and improved health services. However, the results of utility range show that the negative consequences of this policy are more than its positive outcomes, which have been studied in detail.

  6. Remediation of Legacy Arsenic Mining Areas in Yunnan Province, China

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    Ian H. von Lindern

    2011-01-01

    Conclusions. The success of the demonstration project was recognized and has provided direction and momentum for a wider effort by the Province to address mining pollution and water contamination challenges. It demonstrates the success of using known techniques for environmental remediation in the US, with local partners in China responding to their communities’ health and environmental problems.

  7. Evaluation of Antibiotic Residues in Pasteurized and Raw Milk Distributed in the South of Khorasan-e Razavi Province, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghadam, Mortez Mohammadzadeh; Amiri, Mostafa; Riabi, Hamid Ramezani Awal

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The presence of antibiotic residues in milk and other products livestock is a health problem which can endanger public health. Antibiotics are used widely in animal husbandry to treat diseases related to bacterial infections. Antimicrobial drugs have been in use for decades in industry. They are commonly used in livestock facilities to treat mastitis. Aim This study aimed to investigate antibiotic residues in pasteurized milk distributed in schools, in milk collection centers, and in milk production factories in Gonabad city. Materials and Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted on 251 samples of commercial pasteurized milk packet distributed in schools (code A), raw milk collection centers in Gonabad city (code B), and pasteurized milk production factories (code C) in Gonabad city. The Copan test kit of Denmark Christian Hansen Company was used to monitor antibiotic residues in milk. The data were analysed employing Chi-square test and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) to determine significant differences using SPSS software version 20. The significant level was considered at p0.05). The highest number of milk samples (n=7) contaminated with antibiotics were related to code B (38.5%). Most positive cases were related to code A in winter. Also, there was no significant difference among the three types of contaminated milk regarding the year and month (p=0.164 and p=0.917, respectively). Conclusion Pasteurized milk supplied in the studied city has high level of contamination due to high use of antibiotics. A standard limit needs to be set for the right level of residue of antibiotics in milk to avoid the harmful effects. PMID:28208877

  8. Spatio-temporal Evolution on Geographic Boundaries of HFRS Endemic Areas in Shandong Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yan Xun; WANG Zhi Qiang; GUO Jing; TANG Fang; SUN Xiu Bin; XUE Fu Zhong; KANG Dian Min

    2013-01-01

    Objective To take effective strategies and measures for the prevention and control of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) endemic areas by investigating its dynamic geographical boundaries in Shandong Province, China. Methods The incidence of HFRS from 1982 to 2008 in Shandong Prvince, China, was detected with inverse distance weighting (IDW) interpolation based on geographical information system (GIS). Dynamic geographical boundaries of HFRS endemic areas in Shandong Province, China, were analyzed by geographical boundary analysis. Results The HTN-type endemic areas of HFRS were located in Linyi City in phase 1 (1982-1986), the SEO-type endemic areas of HFRS were located in Jining City in phase 2 (1987-2003), and the endemic areas of HFRS in Jining City gradually disappeared and the endemic areas of HFRS with mixed-types of reservoir rodents were located in Linyi City in phase 3 (2004-2008). Meanwhile, new endemic areas emerged in the northwestern Shandong province, China. Conclusion The SEO-type endemic areas of HFRS are located in western Shandong Province, China, and the HTN-type endemic areas of HFRS are located eastern Shandong Province, Chin, indicating that the endemic areas of HFRS should be vaccinated and rodents should be controlled.

  9. Study on Eco-climate Type Regionalization of Wheat Growing Areas in Yunnan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yongxin; LU; Limin; CAO; Zhongping; ZHANG; Hongbo; LI

    2013-01-01

    In order to provide an objective and scientific theoretical basis for rational distribution of wheat growth in Yunnan Province,according to the relationship between Yunnan weather conditions and wheat growth adaptability,a study on eco-climate type regionalization of wheat growing areas in Yunnan was conducted using principal component analysis and GIS technology. The results show that Yunnan Province could be divided into four types,namely southern warm and humid wheat growing area,central semi-arid wheat growing area,central semi-humid wheat growing area and north-central cold wheat growing area.

  10. Glirinae (Gliridae, Rodentia) from the type area of the Aragonian and adjacent areas (provinces of Teruel and Zaragoza, Spain)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daams, R.

    1985-01-01

    This paper, the first in a series of monographs on the mammal faunas from the type area of the Aragonian and adjacent areas in the provinces of Teruel and Zaragoza, deals with the description and palaeoenvironmental interpretation of the Glirinae (Gliridae: dormice).

  11. Epidemiology of assaultive injuries in areas of Sichuan province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG Zheng-hua; LI Lei-bo; ZHOU Xiao-rong; CHANG Yun-feng; CHEN Xiao-gang

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To scrutinize the epidemiologicalcharacteristics of assaultive injuries in Sichuan province,China.Methods: A survey of all cases of assaultive injuries reported by police was performed during 8 years in eight counties of Sichuan province, China. A total of 2862victims and 2856 offenders were registered.Results: The majority of victims and offenders were young men at the age of 20-39 and only received an education at secondary school or primary school. The largest fraction of these cases took place at farm or by-place during 10. 00-11.00 o'clock, 16.00-17.00 o'clock and 20.00-21.00 o'clock. The tangles caused by trifles were the most common factors inducing assaultive injuries and accounted for 42.1 percent of the causes of assaults. Blunt injuries were mainly caused by punching (40%) and kicking ( 17. 2 %). About 37.3 % of the lesions seriously happened in the regions of face and head. Open wounds accounted for 40.3 % of these different injuries.Conclusions: It is valuable to take some specific measures to prevent and control assaultive injuries according to their territorial characteristics.

  12. 76 FR 51934 - Determination of Pest-Free Areas in Mendoza Province, Argentina; Request for Comments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-19

    ... of that country as being free of Ceratitis capitata, Mediterranean fruit fly (Medfly). Specifically... recognize additional areas as pest-free areas for Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata) in Argentina... Ceratitis capitata, the Mendoza province of Argentina also be recognized as free of A. fraterculus. \\2\\...

  13. Stratification and analysis of housing indicators of rural areas of Isfahan province using factor and cluster analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. E. Seidaiy

    2013-01-01

    : market economy and planned economy. In view of market economy, housing problems are solved through the market mechanisms and housing needs are provided by private sector (Chadwick, 1987:88, Ziyari, et al., 210:4. In planned economy government has the role of planner, designer and manager (Aghasi, 1996:201, Chadwick, 1987:88, Shucksmith, 2003:213. In Islam's ideological system the importance of housing is as far as that the housing provision is considered as one of the bases of economic independency, and eradication of poverty in the society.3– DiscussionTo evaluate and analyze the housing indicators in the rural areas of Isfahan province, first data and the related variables are collected and based on them the desired indicators are obtained (Table-1; then, in line with goals of research, we will go through the following steps:Analysis of housing situation in rural areas of Isfahan province by using housing indicators,Determining effective factors in improving housing indicators,And stratification of rural areas based on these indicators.Applying statistical techniques (factor analysis and cluster analysis, analysis of indicators and prioritization of rural areas of the province are performed. Table 1: Housing IndicatorsROWindicatorsROWindicators1The population of rural areas12The average of infrastructure lifetime2The number of households13The share of households that have a minimum electricity4The family size14The share of households that have a minimum telephone4The number of residential units,15The share of households that have a minimum water piping5The household density in residential units16The share of households that have a minimum gas piping6The density of people in residential units17The share of households that have a minimum central heating and cooling system7The housing shortages18The share of households that have a minimum kitchen8The average of number of rooms in the household19The share of households that have a minimum bathroom9The average of number

  14. Habitation areas and funeral areas in the Neolithic of the inland Tagus basin: province of Toledo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bueno Ramírez, Primitiva

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper offers a reflection on the social, cultural and chronological implications of the funeral world of the inland Tagus basin. In particular the data of the province of Toledo, analysed from the site of the megaliths of Azutan and the burial mound of the Castillejo, allows us to propose the contemporaneity of several architectural types in the early Megalithic culture of Iberia and the association between habitats and graves. The economic niches, mainly cultivated meadows with areas for sowing grain and pasture for animals, suggest the existence of a mixed economy in a peasant society practised by groups who returned to the same places from the earliest moments of the Neolithic to the Bronze Age.

    Se plantea una reflexión sobre las implicaciones sociales, culturales y cronológicas del mundo funerario al interior del Tajo. Concretamente los datos de la provincia de Toledo; analizados desde los yacimientos del dolmen de Azután y del túmulo del Castillejo, plantean la contemporaneidad de distintas versiones arquitectónicas en el megalitismo antiguo peninsular y la asociación manifiesta entre hábitats y sepulturas. Los nichos económicos, fundamentalmente dehesas cultivadas con zonas aclaradas para la siembra de cereal y para los pastos de los animales, abogan por proponer una economía mixta en un modelo de explotación campesina protagonizado por grupos que acuden de modo recurrente a los mismos lugares desde los momentos más antiguos del Neolítico hasta la Edad del Bronce.

  15. Hydrology of area 15, Eastern Coal province, Kentucky and Tennessee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leist, David W.; Quinones, Ferdinand; Mull, D.S.; Young, Mary

    1982-01-01

    Area 15, in Eastern Kentucky and Tennessee consists of 3,095 square miles in the Cumberland, Rockcastle and Laurel River basins. The area is underlain by Permian, Pennsylvanian, Mississippian rocks. The Breathitt Formation of Pennsylvanian age crops out in about 75% of the area and contains most of the coal. About 22 million tons of coal were produced in the area in 1978, 52% from surface mines. The terrain is steep with acidic soils. Forestry and pastures are the principal land uses. Precipitation ranges from 47 to 54 inches per year, and the 24-hour 10-year frequency storm averages 4.5 inches. Flood prone areas along the rivers have been defined or can be determined from relations with drainage area and physiography. Low flows are poorly sustained, with most streams draining less than 100 square miles approaching a 7-day 10-year minimum flow of zero. Ground water is generally of good quality, although high iron concentrations are common. Sandstones are the principal aquifers. Water levels fluctuate seasonally, and yields of wells are usually less than 50 gallons per minute but range from about 1 to 250. Mine drainage affects the quality of streamflow at most sites in mined basins. Sulfate concentrations are as high as 1,000 milligrams per liter. Other constituents such as iron and manganese also occur in higher concentrations in waters of mined basins. Acid mine drainage generally is neutralized near its source. Most of the water in streams has pH values in the 7-8 range. (USGS)

  16. Hydrology of area 32, Eastern Region, Interior Coal Province, Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangsness, David J.; Miller, R.L.; Bailey, Z.C.; Crawford, Charles G.

    1981-01-01

    Hydrologic and water-quality information from the coal region in parts of 11 counties in southwestern Indiana are summarized. Pennsylvanian and Mississippian bedrock are overlain by drift and till from the Kansan, Illinoian, and Wisconsinan glaciers that covered two-thirds of the area. Most of the coal is mined from Pennsylvanian coal units. As of 1978, more than 1-billion short tons of coal had been mined from the 11 counties. More than 12-billion short tons remained in reserve. During 1978, 17.8-million short tons were mined. Coal mining disturbs less than 1% of the land in the study area. Sixty-two percent of the land use is agricultural, and 29% is forested. More coal is mined in the southern and western parts of the study area than elsewhere. Surface water in these parts had lower pH and alkalinity than water in the north and east parts. Specific conductance and concentrations of sulfate, iron, and manganese in surface water were higher in the south and west than elsewhere. (USGS)

  17. Physico-chemical and metabolomic characterization of KAMUT® Khorasan and durum wheat fermented dough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balestra, Federica; Laghi, Luca; Taneyo Saa, Danielle; Gianotti, Andrea; Rocculi, Pietro; Pinnavaia, GianGaetano

    2015-11-15

    Investigations were made in order to evaluate the influence of the flour type, chemical acidification and fermentation on characteristics of doughs obtained with durum wheat and KAMUT® Khorasan flour. Doughs were observed immediately after mixing, 90 and 360 min of leavening at 30 °C. Fundamental rheology, yeasts heat production by isothermal microcalorimetry and the interaction between water and biopolymers by means of time domain nuclear magnetic resonance were evaluated. In addition aromatic metabolite development was followed by means of the combined application of gas-chromatography and electronic nose. KAMUT® Khorasan flour was found to be more suitable than durum wheat for the fermentation processes tested, especially at acidic conditions, as shown by the increase of the volume and the metabolic heat production by yeast. In acidified dough the pattern of volatile metabolites allowed a clear distinction between the types of dough. Moreover the water/starch proton pool was characterized by higher T2 values in the KAMUT® Khorasan samples.

  18. Quaternary Geological Phenomena in Labuhan Area, Pandeglang Regency, Banten Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Lumban Batu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available DOI: 10.17014/ijog.v7i4.148Geological features in Labuhan area were studied from the middle of October to the middle of November 2011 covering seventy days. Surface and subsurface data were obtained from interpretation of landsat images and shallow hand-auger boreholes. The geological features are distinctly associated with active tectonics. The stratigraphy clearly indicates at least three phases of tectonic activities since the Late Miocene until Holocene. Tectonics of phase one occurred in the Late Miocene; phase two took place in the period from Pliocene to Late Pleistocene, while tectonics phase three is ongoing in the Holocene. Volcanic activity has intensified since the Early Pleistocene. The landsat images show an irregular outline of the northern coast line. This penomenon is interpreted to be the result of tectonic uplift. On the other hand, the southern coast is linear in plan which is interpreted to correlate with tectonic subsidence. Furthermore, stratigraphic correlation shows that depositional environment changed vertically due to a local subsidence. The northern researched area is occupied by Pleistocene volcanic eruption centres, whilst the younger ones tend to shift southward. This fact tends to indicate that the subduction zone moved southward slowly.

  19. Establish Albumin-creatinine Ratio Reference Value of Adults in the Rural Area of Hebei Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiao-jing Liang; Wen Huang; Guo-juan Zhang; Ning-li Wang

    2016-01-01

    Objective To establish albumin-creatinine ratio (ACR) reference value of the rural population in Hebei province. Methods This study enrolled 5154 participants. By excluding subjects with hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, kidney diseases, and overweight condition, as well as those with an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) Results The normal upper limit of ACR was 28.71 mg/g (3.25 mg/mmol) for males and 31.85 mg/g (3.60 mg/mmol) for females. Based on this ACR reference value, the age-gender standardized prevalence of albuminuria in the rural areas of Hebei province was 12.9%. Conclusion The ACR reference value in the rural of Hebei province is higher than that of the Western population.

  20. Investigation of environmental activity levels of bone-coal mining area in five provinces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE Ji-Da; KONG Ling-Li; LI Ying; JIANG Shan; ZHANG Liang; SHI Jin-Hua; WU Zong-Mei

    2005-01-01

    During 1991-1993,the activity levels of the bone-coal mines were investigated in Zhejiang,Hubei,Hunan,Jiangxi and Anhui Province,respectively,where the reserve of bone-coal is about 90% of our country's total reserve.The average of γ radiation doserate level measured for bone-coal, bone-coal cinder (BCC)and bone-coal cinder brick (BCCB) in these provinces is about 500 nGy/h,400 nGy/h and 700 nGy/h respectively, while that for fields,roads and houses made of BCCB in corresponding regions of these provinces is about 200 nGy/h, 260 nGy/h and 300nGy/h respectively.It is shown that the environmental activity level of bone-coal mining area is about 3 times higher than the reference spots.

  1. How to Promote the Rural Area of Shandong Province to Absorb Surplus Labor by Itself?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qujing; DAI

    2014-01-01

    This paper firstly highlights the importance of solving the problem of rural surplus labor force,and then shows the necessity and significance of the rural areas to absorb rural surplus labor on their own. Meanwhile,the paper introduces the situation of rural surplus labor in Shandong Province. At last,it proposes the solutions to promote the rural area to absorb the surplus labor by itself.

  2. Land degradation in an area of the patagonic steppe in the province of Neuquen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Ricardo Peña

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Relation among degradation, use and management of land for extensive breeding according to the type of land possession is analyzed in the present paper. The selected area is located to the East of Coloradas, Department Catan Lil in the Province of Neuquén comprising a surface of 9000 ha, part of it being privately owned, and the rest being the government land occupied by livestock breeders. The selected area is justified by the fact that it is one of the poorest and most fragile areas of the province considering its ecosystem potentialities, different forms of property possession -government or private land- and the aborigine communities. In this particular case study, private land and that occupied by livestock breeders is considered. From the analysis, it appears that the dynamics and the landscape respond to forms of management according to the type of land possession.

  3. Study on the Industrial Structure and Peasants’ Income in the Mountainous Areas in Zhejiang Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Hai-lin; WU Yun-qin

    2012-01-01

    With the constant increase of farmers’ incomes, the declining ratio of low-income farmers and the development of rural economy in the mountainous areas of Zhejiang Province, the farmers gain much more transfer income from the secondary allocation and their lives were greatly improved. But due to the uneven economic development, the agricultural development level of different land forms differs greatly and there is still a large gap between the incomes of urban and rural residents. In this paper, through an in-depth analysis of the farmers’ income, agricultural industrial structure and urban-rural income gap in different mountainous areas of Zhejiang Province, some advices were proposed to increase the farmers’ incomes.

  4. Situation of Diabetes and Related Disease Surveillance in Rural Areas of Jilin Province, Northeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Wang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Several studies have investigated the prevalence and awareness of diabetes mellitus (DM in China, but little is known about the situation of DM in the northeastern rural areas. Our present study investigated the prevalence, awareness and associated characteristics of DM in rural areas of Jilin Province, aiming to suggest more efforts for the prevention and control of DM. Methods: A multistage stratified random cluster sampling design was used in this cross-sectional study which took place in 2012. Data were collected by face-to-face interviews and physical examinations. Rao-Scott Chi-square test, t test and multivariate logistic regression analysis were used. Results: The estimated prevalence of DM in rural areas of Jilin province was 7.2%. DM was positively associated with age, Body mass index (BMI, hypotension, dyslipidemia and was high in participants with a family history of diabetes and those who exercise frequently, but low for high education level and married participants. 69.0% participants with DM were aware of their diabetes status, 88.2% of whom received treatment and 34.4% of whom had received treatment controlled their DM status. Conclusions: We observed a high prevalence and low awareness status of DM among the rural residents in Jilin Province, but the rate of effective control in those who have received treatment was considerable. The low rate of disease surveillance should draw health authority’s attention.

  5. Small area estimation (SAE) model: Case study of poverty in West Java Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhartini, Titin; Sadik, Kusman; Indahwati

    2016-02-01

    This paper showed the comparative of direct estimation and indirect/Small Area Estimation (SAE) model. Model selection included resolve multicollinearity problem in auxiliary variable, such as choosing only variable non-multicollinearity and implemented principal component (PC). Concern parameters in this paper were the proportion of agricultural venture poor households and agricultural poor households area level in West Java Province. The approach for estimating these parameters could be performed based on direct estimation and SAE. The problem of direct estimation, three area even zero and could not be conducted by directly estimation, because small sample size. The proportion of agricultural venture poor households showed 19.22% and agricultural poor households showed 46.79%. The best model from agricultural venture poor households by choosing only variable non-multicollinearity and the best model from agricultural poor households by implemented PC. The best estimator showed SAE better then direct estimation both of the proportion of agricultural venture poor households and agricultural poor households area level in West Java Province. The solution overcame small sample size and obtained estimation for small area was implemented small area estimation method for evidence higher accuracy and better precision improved direct estimator.

  6. Analysis of the Influencing Factors of Changes in Foxtail Millet Planting Area in Hebei Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meng; LIU; Yu; ZHAO; Fei; LIU; Shunguo; LI; Guirong; WANG; Xinshi; ZHANG

    2013-01-01

    Since reform and open to the outside world,foxtail millet planting area in Hebei Province has constantly reduced,and its planting region has changed from the whole province into some regions,with obvious changes. In this paper,by using qualitative and quantitative approaches like chart analysis,summarizing,Delphi method and osculating value model,the influencing factors of changes in millet growing region in Hebei Province were studied. The results showed that the changes of millet planting area were closely related to many factors,such as little investment in scientific research,weak policy support,a single consumer product demand,the rapid development of other staple crops, labor migration,relatively low comparative effectiveness and physiological characteristics of the millet itself. Then some suggestions were put forward,such as increasing research support,strengthening scientific research strength,researching and developing deeply processed products, expanding consumer groups,improving millet policy support,providing subsidies for planting the improved varieties,researching and developing various types of machinery,and increasing millet production technology training.

  7. Population-Based Seroprevalence of Malaria in Hormozgan Province, Southeastern Iran: A Low Transmission Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholam Reza Hatam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The seroepidemiological condition of malaria in three main districts of Hormozgan Province, a low transmission area in southeast of Iran, was investigated. Methods. Sera samples (803 were collected from healthy volunteers from the three main districts (Bandar Lengeh in the west, Bandar Abbas in the center, and Bandar Jask in the east of Hormozgan Province. A questionnaire was used to record the sociodemographic features of the participants during sample collecting. An in-house ELISA test, using crude antigens obtained from cell culture of Plasmodium falciparum, was adapted and used to detect anti-malaria antibodies in the sera. Results. The overall seroprevalence of malaria was 8.7% (70 out of 803 samples. A significant correlation was found between seropositivity and place of residence, where the highest rate of seropositivity was seen in Bandar Lengeh (west of the province. The highest seroprevalence of malaria (13.2% was seen in the age group of 11–20 years and also in low educated individuals. Correlation between seropositivity and gender, age, and educational levels of the participants was statistically significant (P < 0.05. Conclusion. Findings of this study indicate that the rate of seropositivity to malaria in this area is not high and this might be linked to the success of malaria control programs during the last decades in the region.

  8. MELIORATIVE DEVICES AND THEIR ROLE IN THE ECOENGINEERING AND ENVIRONMENT PROTECTION AREAS AGRICULTURAL PODLASKIE PROVINCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksander Kiryluk

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In the article presented the condition of melioration on the agricultural uses of the podlaskie province. Actually, agricultural meliorations step out on the surface approx. 360 thousand .ha in the province, what makes up 30% total surface of agricultural use. The most devices of water meliorations detailed step on grassland and on the arable soils of good classes. The weak condition of meliorative detailed devices results: they do not allow to regulate mo-istening in soils. Bad technical condition meliorative detailed devices results from the lack of the systematic their conservation and inappropriate exploitation, and also relinquishment of use of the soils of arable and grassland. Exploited practically and conserved meliorative ditches and buildings on the meliorated objects allow to the improvement of the quality of the natural environment on country areas.

  9. Association of TSHR gene polymorphisms and haplotypes with Graves’ disease in Han population from coastal areas in Shandong province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海丽

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the association of thyroid stimulating hormone receptor(TSHR)gene polymorphisms and haplotypes with Graves’disease(GD)in Han population from coastal areas in Shandong province

  10. [Tourism function zoning of Jinyintan Grassland Scenic Area in Qinghai Province based on ecological sensitivity analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Lin-sheng; Tang, Cheng-cai; Guo, Hua

    2010-07-01

    Based on the statistical data of natural ecology and social economy in Jinyintan Grassland Scenic Area in Qinghai Province in 2008, an evaluation index system for the ecological sensitivity of this area was established from the aspects of protected area rank, vegetation type, slope, and land use type. The ecological sensitivity of the sub-areas with higher tourism value and ecological function in the area was evaluated, and the tourism function zoning of these sub-areas was made by the technology of GIS and according to the analysis of eco-environmental characteristics and ecological sensitivity of each sensitive sub-area. It was suggested that the Jinyintan Grassland Scenic Area could be divided into three ecological sensitivity sub-areas (high, moderate, and low), three tourism functional sub-areas (restricted development ecotourism, moderate development ecotourism, and mass tourism), and six tourism functional sub-areas (wetland protection, primitive ecological sightseeing, agriculture and pasture tourism, grassland tourism, town tourism, and rural tourism).

  11. Mantle-derived magmatic gas releasing features at the Rehai area, Tengchong county, Yunnan Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    上官志冠; 白春华; 孙明良

    2000-01-01

    This paper deals with the chemical and isotopic compositions of escaped gases from the Rehai geothermal area in Tengchong county of Yunnan Province. Results indicate that there is the mantle-derived magmatic intrusion in shallow crust at this area. Modern mantle-derived mag-matic volatiles are being released currently in a steady stream by way of active faults. The escaped gases are mostly composed of CO2, together with subordinate amounts of H2S, N2, H2, CH4, SO2, CO and He. At the studied area, the north-south directed fault is the deepest, and it may be interlinked with the deep-seated thermal reservoir that would be directly recharged by the mantle-derived magmatic volatile. The He, C isotopic evidence reveals that the modern active magma beneath Rehai area may originate from the historical mantle-derived magma which caused the latest eruptive activity of volcanoes in that region.

  12. Biodiversities and limiting factors of Lashgardar Protected Area (LPA, Hamadan Province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAHDI REYAHI KHORAM

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Reyahi-Khoram M, Norisharikabad V (2011 Biodiversities and limiting factors of Lashgardar Protected Area (LPA, Hamadan Province, Iran. Biodiversitas 12: 216-221. Lashgardar Protected Area (LPA located in Hamadan Province in Iran, it is a mountainous and plain area and proximal to Malayer Township. In 1991, the region was known as a protected area for increasing wild animals' population. This research has been conducted during 2001 through 2009. Plant and animal species of the region were identified and statistics of the population of animal flagship species were gathered. In this research, valid academic resources were used for identification of animal and plant species. Geographic Information System (GIS has been used to evaluate the land as main tool. The software used was Arc View (version 3.2a scale was 1/50,000. Due to cold mountainous climate, the region is covered by a wide diversity of trees, shrubs, grasses and herbs. There were 18 species of mammals as well as 75 bird species in LPA. Most abundant mammalian population belongs to wild sheep (558 animals and the second abundance was related to wild goat (515 animals. Also, the most abundant bird species belong to ortolans. Result of the present study showed that construction of connection roads in vicinity the region, establishment of factories inside and around the region, military garrison, unauthorized grazing, unlawful hunting, and Ahangaran mine and rail road have all exposed put LPA to serious threat and danger.

  13. Assessment of Undiscovered Natural Gas Resources of the Arkoma Basin Province and Geologically Related Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houseknecht, David W.; Coleman, James L.; Milici, Robert C.; Garrity, Christopher P.; Rouse, William A.; Fulk, Bryant R.; Paxton, Stanley T.; Abbott, Marvin M.; Mars, John L.; Cook, Troy A.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Klett, Timothy R.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Ellis, Geoffrey S.

    2010-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean volumes of 38 trillion cubic feet (TCF) of undiscovered natural gas, 159 million barrels of natural gas liquid (MMBNGL), and no oil in accumulations of 0.5 million barrels (MMBO) or larger in the Arkoma Basin Province and related areas. More than 97 percent of the undiscovered gas occurs in continuous accumulations-70 percent in shale gas formations, 18 percent in a basin-centered accumulation with tight sandstone reservoirs, and 9 percent in coal beds. Less than 3 percent of the natural gas occurs in conventional accumulations.

  14. Distribution of ticks (Acari:Ixodidae) infesting domestic ruminants in mountainous areas of Golestan province, Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Moslem Sarani; Zakkyeh Telmadarraiy; Abdolreza Salahi Moghaddam; Kamal Azam; Mohammad Mehdi Sedaghat

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of ticks on cattle in the mountainous areas of Golestan province and their geographical distribution.Methods:collection was carried out during four seasons, twice per season over a period of 12 month from March 2009 through February 2010 in two districts, Azadshahr and Ramian. Meteorological data were obtained from Iran Meteorological Organization. The geographical points recorded using a Garmin eTrex®H GPS.Results:In total, 498 animals from 25 herds were selected to search for ticks in 2009-2010. Tick 63 goats, 99 cows and 13 camels in two districts of the mountainous area of Golestan province, including Azadshahr and Ramian. Five species of ixodid ticks were identified: Rhipicephalussanguineus A total of 255 ticks were collected from a total of 219 ruminants including 44 sheep, anatolicum (6%) and Hyalomma asiaticum (4%). The densities of infestations were calculated for sheep, goats, cows and camels 0.9, 0.79, 0.16 and 0.43 respectively. Seasonal activity of each ixodid tick infesting domestic ruminants was determined. The distribution maps showed ixodid ticks on domestic ruminants, and Rhipicephalus sanguineus were dominant species in the area.Conclusions:Such research provides necessary information for human and animal health (66.5%), Rhipicephalus bursa (4.6%), Hyalomma marginatum (19.9%), Hyalomma service mangers to have a better understanding of prevention and control of vector borne diseases especially during the outbreaks.

  15. Analysis of selenium content in hair samples of children in Kaschin-Beck Disease areas in Gansu Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康芬艳

    2013-01-01

    Objective To compare selenium content in hair samples of children in Kashin-Beck Disease (KBD) areas and control areas,and to provide academic data for KBD control and prevention.Methods In 2011,Longnan,Qingyang,Dingxi City of KDB areas in Gansu Province were selected as survey point,meanwhile,colleagues of Tianshui City and Lanzhou City were selected as control.

  16. Plants and animals diversity in Buqaty Mountain Area (BMA in Hamadan Province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAHDI REYAHI-KHORAM

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Buqaty Mountain Area (BMA is regarded as one of the genetic reserves of Hamadan province in Iran. BMA is highly important regarding variety of plant and animal species, but limited research work has been performed in this area in the field of biodiversity. Identifying the unique ecologic talents and capabilities and aesthetics of BMA is the most important objective of this study. This research was conducted during 2010 through 2011 in BMA to identify various plant and animal species through documentary and also direct field observations. With direct referring to the various regions of the studied area, plant samples were collected from different slope position and transported to field laboratory units. Sampling was made for every 20 meters increase in the height of area. Animal species of the area were identified too. Based on the results, about 44 valuable plant species, 45 species of birds as well as 7 species of mammals have been identified in BMA. It is recommended that the area be declared an A prohibited hunting area by Department of Environment (DoE of Iran for the conservation of flora and fauna in the study area.

  17. Urban nature conservation: vegetation of natural areas in the Potchefstroom municipal area, North West Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.S. Cilliers

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available This study on the natural and degraded natural vegetation of natural areas in the Potchefstroom Municipal Area, forms part of a research programme on spontaneous vegetation in urban open spaces in the North West Province, South Africa. Using a numerical classification technique (TWINSPAN as a first approximation, the classification was refined by applying Braun-Blanquet procedures. The result is a phytosociological table from which 6 plant communities were recognised, which are subdivided in sub-communities and variants, resulting in 18 vegetation units. Some of these vegetation units are similar to communities described previously in natural areas. The presence of degraded natural communities suggests huge anthropogenic influences in certain areas. An ordination (DECORANA scatter diagram shows the distribution of the plant communities along gradients which could be related to vegetation structure, altitude, soil depth, rockiness of soil surface, wetness or dryness of the habitat and number of introduced species. This study contributes to the compilation of a guideline for a conservation orientated management plan for the area, but also created a wealth of new knowledge of the reaction of indigenous plant species under disturbed conditions.

  18. Ancient wheat and health: a legend or the reality? A review on KAMUT khorasan wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordoni, Alessandra; Danesi, Francesca; Di Nunzio, Mattia; Taccari, Annalisa; Valli, Veronica

    2017-05-01

    After WWII, the industrialized agriculture selected modern varieties of Triticum turgidum spp. durum and spp. aestivum (durum wheat and common wheat) based on higher yields and technological characteristics. Nowadays, the use of whole ancient grains and pseudo cereals is considered nutritionally important. How ancient grains have positive effects is not entirely known, the fragmentation of the scientific knowledge being also related to the fact that ancient grains are not a homogeneous category. The KAMUT(®) trademark indicates a specific and ancient variety of grain (Triticum turgidum ssp. turanicum, commonly khorasan wheat), and guarantees certain attributes making studies sufficiently comparable. In this work, studies on KAMUT(®) khorasan wheat have been systematically reviewed, evidencing different aspects supporting its benefits. Although it is not possible to establish whether all ancient grains share these positive characteristics, in total or in part, this review provides further evidences supporting the consumption of ancient grains.

  19. Fission track dating of the Cenozoic uplift in Mabian area, southern Sichuan Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AN YanFen; HAN ZhuJun; WAN JingLin

    2008-01-01

    The apparent ages of samples are obtained from fission track dating of apatite samples collected from the fault zones in Mabian area, southern Sichuan Province.In addition, thermal history is simulated from the obtained data by applying AFTSolve Program, to acquire the thermal evolution history of the samples.The result shows that tectonically the Mabian area was relatively stable between 25 and 3 Ma, compared to the inner parts and other marginal areas of the Tibetan Plateau.The studied area had little response to the rapid uplift events that occurred for several times in the Tibetan Plateau during 25-3 Ma.The latest thermal event related to the activity of the Lidian fault zone (about 8 Ma) is later than that of the Ebian fault zone (18-15 Ma ) to the west, indicating to some extent that the evolution of fault activity in the Mabian area has migrated from west to east.The latest extensive tectonic uplift occurred since about 3 Ma.As compared with the Xianshuihe fault zone, the Mabian area is closer to the eastern margin of the plateau, while the time of fast cooling event in this area is later than that in the southeast segment of the Xianshuihe fault zone (3.6-3.46 Ma).It appears to support the assumption of episodic uplift and stepwise outward extension of the eastern boundary of the Tibetan Plateau in late Cenozoic.

  20. Fission track dating of the Cenozoic uplift in Mabian area, southern Sichuan Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The apparent ages of samples are obtained from fission track dating of apatite samples collected from the fault zones in Mabian area, southern Sichuan Province. In addition, thermal history is simulated from the obtained data by applying AFT Solve Program, to acquire the thermal evolution history of the samples. The result shows that tectonically the Mabian area was relatively stable between 25 and 3 Ma, compared to the inner parts and other marginal areas of the Tibetan Plateau. The studied area had little response to the rapid uplift events that occurred for several times in the Tibetan Plateau during 25-3 Ma. The latest thermal event related to the activity of the Lidian fault zone (about 8 Ma ) is later than that of the Ebian fault zone (18-15 Ma ) to the west, indicating to some extent that the evolution of fault activity in the Mabian area has migrated from west to east. The latest extensive tectonic uplift occurred since about 3 Ma. As compared with the Xianshuihe fault zone, the Mabian area is closer to the east- ern margin of the plateau, while the time of fast cooling event in this area is later than that in the southeast segment of the Xianshuihe fault zone (3.6-3.46 Ma ). It appears to support the assumption of episodic uplift and stepwise outward extension of the eastern boundary of the Tibetan Plateau in late Cenozoic.

  1. Characteristics of PM2.5 in rural areas of southern Jiangsu Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Zhen-feng; LIU Kang; WANG Xiao-rong; HUANG Shi-hong

    2005-01-01

    To understand pollution level and possible sources ofatmospheric fine particulates in rural areas of southern Jiangsu Province of China, samples of PM2.5 were collected and analyzed in Xueyan Town and Taihu Lake Station over three seasons from July 2002 to January 2003. The mass concentrations of PM2.5 and 14 principal component elements were obtained. The results showed that pollution of PM2.5 was serious and the concentration levels of S, Zn, Pb and As were similar to city. There are different seasonal distribution laws of pollutant elements in PM2.5 between two sampling sites, probably due to contribution of local sources, medium or long distance transportation of fine particulates and complicated meteorological conditions. The enrichment levels of S, Zn, Pb, As, K were high,reflecting the influence of anthropogenic activities. Particularly enrichment level of S was much higher in summer, which was probably related to meteorological condition. The result of principal components analysis showed major sources of PM2.5 included crustal resuspension, coal burning, metal processing industry or waste incineration, vehicular emission, which suggests anthropogenic activities is of important influence on PM2.5 in rural areas of southem Jiangsu Province.

  2. Charnockite Formation and Early Precambrian Crust Evolution in Yishui Area, Shandong Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Charnockite and granulite in Yishui area, Shandong Province are located in the middle part of the Tancheng-Lujiang fault zone, eastern China. Field studies have shown that the charnockites, derived from the adjacent granulites, are classified as three types: enderbite, garnet-enderbite and hypersthene-trondhjemite. In addition, two generations of minerals are present in the charnockites: the relic minerals such as garnet, hypersthene and clinopyroxene, and the neocrystallized minerals such as plagioclase and K-feldspar. The relic minerals occurring in the granulite facies stage were affected by the later partial melting. The relic minerals, irregular and usually ragged in shape, occupy the interstitial positions in the neocrystalline minerals. The neocrystalline minerals are usually euhedral-subhedral crystals. The study of petrology, mineralogy and geochemistry of charnokites concludes that the enderbite was formed by the anatexis of the two-pyroxene plagioclase granulite, that the garnet-enderbite was formed by the anatexis of sillimanite garnet gneiss, and that the hypersthene-trondhjemite was formed by the anatexis of the leucocratic two-pyroxene plagioclase granulite. The U-Pb dating of the zircon indicates that the formation of the charnockite and granulite was related to the Archean-Proterozoic upwelling of a mantle plume (hot spot)around 2 500 Ma, in Yishui area, Shandong Province.

  3. Improved Geological Interpretation Using Landsat TM Data in Lancang-Jinghong Area, Yunnan Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Landsat TM digital spectral data of Lancang-Jinghong area (Yunnan Province) has been used for the purple of geological interpretation. To neet this object, different image processing techniques including selected band color composites, principal component analysis and IHS decorrelation stretching are used to improve the discrimination of different lithological and structural features in the area. It was found that IHS decorrelation stretching images obtained from the transformation of false color composite 741 (in red, green and blue) provided the best results based on the original data. By combining the characteristics of images produced by different approaches and other canonically transformed images with available geological data and surface observations, the geological interpretation could be done with satisfactory degree of accuracy.

  4. Land cover change in Ningbo and its surrounding area of Zhejiang Province,1987~2000

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Ningbo and its surrounding area is the forefront in the rapid economic development in the Yangtse delta, and the main production area for food supplies, cotton, edible oil and hemp;and at the same time, is the main area for wetland protection in Zhejiang Province. Our objectives were to quantify land cover change in Ningbo and its surrounding area from 1987 to 2000 and to analyze the causative factors of the change. Using 30-m resolution Landsat TM/ETM+ data and maximum likelihood classification method, we classified the study area into six land cover types: forest, agriculture, urban, freshwater, seawater and bottomland.The research results showed that significant changes in land cover occurred in the study area, and that agriculture and urban land cover change dominated most of the land cover change and were main causes for the changes of other types with human activities,such as urbanization, industrialization, etc. being the main factor while it was not very obvious whether climatic conditions have any role in the land cover changes. Agriculture, bottomland and other nature dominated land cover types are undergoing significant changes due to industrialization and urbanization, which threaten the stabilization of the environment. The study conclusion called for finding reasonable ways to solve the problems between land cover change and land use.

  5. Division of forest fuel type areas of Heilongjiang Province by using GIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Eight factors, including forest coverage, fuel load, species composition, elevation, monthly mean temperature, monthly mean relative humidity, monthly mean wind velocity, and monthly mean precipitation of fire season, were considered and the methods of weight, the cumulative probability, ARC/INFO technique, and raster-to-vector conversion were adopted in division of forest fuel type area. Firstly, the electronic maps of forest distribution and administrative divisions were built, then overlaid and transformed to the real-world coordinates. Finally, the forest fuel type areas of Heilongjiang Province including 81 counties were divided into five grades, accounting for 16%, 17%, 17%, 11%, and 38% respectively. The grade Ⅰ fuel type areas with highest fire danger rating mainly distributed on Daxing'anling Mountains, Xiaoxing'anling Mountains, and Zhangguangcailing Mountains, the grade Ⅴ fuel type areas mainly centralized on Songnen Plain, Sanjiang Plain, and other Plains, and other forest fuel type areas (grades Ⅱ, Ⅲ, and Ⅳ) were situated between plains and mountainous areas.

  6. Effects of Guideline-based Hypertension Management in Rural Areas of Guangdong Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guang Li; An-Ping Cai; Yu-Jin Mo; Ji-Yan Chen; Rui-Bing Wei; Yu-Qing Huang; Song-Tao Tang

    2015-01-01

    Background:Despite the improvement in the health care industry,the rates of undetected,untreated,and uncontrolled hypertension (HTN)are still very high,especially in rural areas of China.The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy and efficiency of a guideline-based HTN management (novel therapy) in population of rural areas of Guangdong Province.Methods:Totally,3113 patients with essential HTN in a rural area of Guangdong Province were enrolled and assigned to two groups,named traditional (n =372) and novel therapeutic (n =2741) groups,respectively.Patients in the traditional group were treated routinely,and patients in the novel group were treated in a novel model characterized by regular educational programs for hypertensive populations,close monitoring of blood pressure in combination with finely tuned antihypertensive medications,strict implementation of lifestyle modification and improving medical knowledge and skill of local medical staff efficiently.After 2 years of follow-up,primary endpoints including magnitude of systolic and diastolic blood pressures (SBP and DBP) decrease,treated and controlled rates,as well as secondary endpoints,were evaluated in both groups.Results:Initially,the treated rate was significantly higher in traditional group than that of novel group (71.15% vs.64.99%,P < 0.05),while the controlled rates were comparable and insignificant difference between baseline BP in both groups (31.07% vs.26.88%,P > 0.05).Four variables were significantly different,namely smoking rate,daily vegetable consumption (VC),and serum levels of low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and fasting blood glucose between these two groups.After 2 years of follow-up,decreases in SBP and DBP were more prominent in the novel group (P < 0.001).Treated and controlled rates in both groups were both increased.Nevertheless,in comparison to the traditional group,controlled rate increased more significantly in the novel group (64.31% vs.37.85%,P

  7. The related factors to mild cognitive function impairment in community elderly people in 4 areas of Hebei Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋美

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the related factors to mild cognitive function of community elderly people above 60years in 4 areas of Hebei Province.Methods Multi-stage cluster random sampling method were used to conduct a survey of elderly people above 60 years old in four areas of Hebei Provinice form January to December 2010,

  8. Study on Rural Poverty in Ecologically Fragile Areas——A Case Study of the Tibetan Areas in Sichuan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    This article offers an overview of natural environment, economic development, and social development in the Tibetan areas in Sichuan Province. The major manifestations of the status quo of poverty in the Tibetan areas are as follows: there is a wide range of poverty and a large poor population; the poverty degree is high and it is difficult to alleviate poverty; the natural disasters are frequent and the phenomenon of poverty arising from disasters is serious. We analyze the factors responsible for poverty of farmers and herdsmen in Sichuan Province as follows: first, the natural conditions are inclement and the ecological environment is fragile; second, the social attitudes are stale and the religious influence is deep; third, the development of education lags behind, the human capital inputs are short and the self-development capacity is weak; fourth, the state poverty alleviation and development policy is weakly directed at region; fifth, the Tibetan areas are facing the dilemma of choosing resources endowments or ecological protection. Following proposals are put forward to resolve the poverty issue in the Tibetan areas of Sichuan Province: strengthen infrastructure construction, and underpin self-development capacity of the Tibetan areas in Sichuan Province; reinforce organic connection of social security and poverty alleviation and development, and promote self-development capacity of impoverished farmers and herdsmen in the Tibetan areas; strengthen policy support, and improve self-development policy and mechanism of the Tibetan areas in Sichuan Province; drive the popularization of technology and culture in the Tibetan areas, and update the development concept of farmers and herdsmen in the Tibetan areas; accelerate the development of competitive industries in Tibetan areas, and promote economic development capacity of the Tibetan areas.

  9. Study and introducing of flora of the protected area of Manesht and Qalarang in Ilam province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Darvishnia

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, flora of the protected area of Manesht and Qalarang in Ilam province, was surveyed. The area was located in 46° 18´ E to 46° 37´ E and 33° 26´ N to 33° 45´ N. The method of plant study was classical method of taxonomic studies. Using different botanical references and differerent flora, collected plants were identified as families, genera and species, herbarium specimens are deposited in herbarium of Payame Noor University of Ilam. It was shown that there were 52 families, 156 genera and 231 plant species in this area. The largest family was Compositae with 18 genera and 29 species, and the largest genus was Astragalus (Fabaceae with 11 species. According to Raunkiaer, life forms of the studied plants were categorized as: Hemicryptophytes (42%, Therophytes 32%, Cryptophytes 13%, Phanerophytes 9% and Chamaephytes 4%. High percentage of Irano-Touranian elements indicated that the area belonged to this phytochorion. This study also showed high species richness and palpable predominance of Hemicryptophytes which probably resulted from high elevation and cold climate encompassing the area. Also, high abundance of Throphytes species was probably due to high elevation and severe destruction of habitat, over-grazingand contiguity to the city of Ilam.

  10. Analysis on Temporal and Spatial Changes and Driving Forces of Poverty-Stricken Areas in Hebei Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi Xiaoli; Yuan Jinguo; Wang Wei

    2005-01-01

    This paper takes poverty-stricken county as the basic unit, and selects net income per peasant to study the poverty status in Hebei Province during 1986~2000.Temporal and spatial changes of povertystricken areas are analyzed. The result shows that poverty-stricken areas in Hebei Province distributed concentratedly and the areas decreased during 1986~2000, the net income per peasant was on the rise with an increasing speed in off-poverty counties being slightly higher than that in poverty-stricken counties, but the growth rate was extremely unstable,rising slowly in off-poverty counties while dropping in poverty-stricken counties. The main driving forces that influenced temporal and spatial changes were economic development of the whole province,ecological environment quality, infrastructure conditions and radiation of the key city. On this basis, some anti-poverty countermeasures suitable to local conditions are proposed.

  11. A socio-economic evaluation of a protected area - A case study: Hamadan province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moradpanah Haniyeh

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the socio-economic issues of a protected area and participation of the local stakeholders in conservation of the protected area. This study was conducted at 7 villages in Hamedan province in the midwest part of Iran. A questionnaire was used for data collection. Reliability of the data was determined by Cronbach's alpha. In order to investigate the relationship between the average incomes of different villages, a t-statistic test was used. Results indicated that at the 0.05 significance level, there were significant differences between most villages. Furthermore, the results indicated that there was no significant relationship between mean income of Jara and Saadat Abad villages. In order to investigate the interest for the preservation of different villages, a t-statistic test was used. Results indicated that at the 0.05 significance level of, there were significant differences between Shademaneh and Maloosan, Siyah Dare and Gheshlagh Najaf, Shademaneh and Taemeh, Taemeh and Gheshlagh Najaf villages. Results also showed that the Maloosan village has the highest income in the area and willingness to participate in conservation activities was highest at this village. The results of this study show a new approach to the protection of biodiversity of protected areas with connection to economic, biological and humanistic studies.

  12. Research on Diageneses of Cambrian Shoal Facies Carbonate Rocks in the Xiadong Area, Hubei Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张秀莲; 蒋凌志

    2001-01-01

    With continuous outcrops, developed shoal facies rocks, complete types of diagenesis and changeable diagenetic environments, Cambrian strata are well developed in the Xiadong area, Yichang, Hubei Province. Under the combined influence of numerous diageneses, secondary pores can be formed, which result in better reservoir properties of the rock strata. The Cambrian rocks in this area consist of mainly carbonate rocks and secondarily detrital rocks. The carbonate rocks are dominated by grainstones including wormkalk, calcirudite-calcarenite, oolitic limestone and oncolitic limestone. Graded bedding and cross bedding are well developed in the strata, which indicates that the formation environment is of a high-energy shoal facies. In this area, there has developed a sequence of stable Cambrian platform carbonate deposition. The evolution trend is as follows: open sea shelf facies? intertidal low-energy restricted sea facies? intertidal high-energy shoal facies? coastal shoal facies? evaporite tidal-flat facies. The diageneses that the strata have experienced mainly include dolomitization, dedolomitization and dissolution, which are constructive diageneses for the formation of secondary pores, such as intercrystal pores, intercrystal solution pores, gypsum mold pores and caverns of dolomite. The diagenetic facies intervals can be divided into the unitary and the compound ones, totalling 22 in the area. In the early atmospheric fresh-water diagenetic environment and the late epidiagenetic environment, Cambrian rocks, especially dolomite of the Middle and Upper Cambrian, experienced extensive and profound fresh water corrosion, forming pore intervals with a porosity ranging from 5% to 15%.

  13. Natural Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection in ticks from a forest area of Selenge province, Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Javkhlan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Anaplasma phagocytophilum is a zoonotic agent of public health importance, infecting both humans and animals. An investigation of the presence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum as well as Anaplasma platys was conducted in a forest area of Selenge province, Mongolia, where ticks are widely distributed and tick-borne diseases are highly endemic. Ticks were collected and tested using polymerase chain reaction based on groEL methodology. Anaplasma phagocytophilum was detected in 14 (6% of Ixodes persulcatus ticks and four (1% Dermacentor nuttalli ticks; infection of Anaplasma platys was detected in 1% of Ixodes persulcatus ticks and 10% of Dermacentor nuttalli ticks. The phylogenetic tree showed that the Anaplasma phagocytophilum clustered with the Russian group, most likely due to similar geographical locations. This finding is significant for both veterinary and public health officials given that these agents can cause both animal and human illness.

  14. Geochemical Characteristics of Danfeng Meta-Volcanic Rocks in Shangzhou Area,Shaanxi Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    The Danfeng meta-volcanics in the Shangzhou area, Shaanxi Province are characterized by oceanic island arc volcanic geochemistry. They are a suite of low-K tholeiitic series and calc-alkaline series meta-volcanic rocks derived from different sources respectively.These meta-volcanics have high Th/Ta ratios and low contents of Ni,Ta,Ti,Y and Yb, suggesting that they were influenced by the subduction zone components.Many lines of evidence show that the Danfeng meta-volcanics were produced in an oceanic island are setting of the supra-subduction zone at the southern margin of the North China Block during the Early Paleozoic.

  15. Analysis of Climatic Factors Influencing Walnut Distribution in the Main Producing Areas of Yunnan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liangjun; XIAO; Ting; MA; Delu; Ning

    2013-01-01

    Using the data of 11 climatic factors on 40 counties in the main producing areas of walnut of Yunnan Province,we analyze the impact of various climatic factors on the distribution of Yunnan walnut.The results show that Yunnan walnut has a great expectation on temperature and moisture.Temperature,including average temperature in January,average temperature in July,the average annual temperature and accumulated temperature≥10℃,has the greatest impact on the distribution of Yunnan walnut,and is the primary dominant factor;moisture,including annual rainfall and average relative humidity,has a great impact on the distribution of Yunnan walnut,and is the secondary dominant factor.

  16. Mantle xenoliths from Marosticano area (Northern Italy): a comparison with Veneto Volcanic Province lithospheric mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brombin, Valentina; Bonadiman, Costanza; Coltorti, Massimo

    2016-04-01

    The Tertiary Magmatic Province of Veneto, known as Veneto Volcanic Province (VVP), in the North-East of Italy, represents the most important volcanic distric of Adria Plate. It is composed by five volcanic bodies: Val d'Adige, Marosticano, Mts. Lessini, Berici Hills and Euganean Hills. Most of the volcanic products are relatively undifferentiated lavas and range in composition from nephelinites to tholeiites. Often VVP nephelinites and basanites carry mantle xenoliths (mainly harzburgites and lherzolite). This study reports petrological comparison between Marosticano xenoliths (new outcrop) and xenoliths from the Lessinean and Val d'Adige areas already studied by many Authors (Siena & Coltorti 1989; Beccaluva et al., 2001, Gasperini et al., 2006). Mineral major elements analyses show that the Marosticano lherzolites and harzburgites reflect "more restitic" composition than the mantle domain beneath the other VVP districts (Lessini Mts. and Val d'Adige). In fact, olivine and pyroxene of Marosticano xenoliths have the highest mg# values of the entire district (Marosticano→90-93; literature→86-92). At comparable mg# (45-85 wt%) Marosticano spinels tend to be higher in Cr2O3 (23-44 wt%) contents with respect to the other VVP sp (7-25 wt%). It is worth noting that, Ni contents of Marosticano olivines in both harzburgites and lherzolites are higher (2650-3620 ppm) than those of the Lessinean xenoliths (1500- 3450 ppm), and similar to that of Val d'Adige lherzolites (3000-3500 ppm), approaching the contents of Archean cratonic mantle (Kelemen, 1998). In turn, Lessinean olivines properly fall in the Ni-mg# Phanerozoic field. At fixed pressure of 15 kbar, the equilibration temperature of Marosticano xenoliths are similar (Brey & Köhler: 920-1120°C) to those of Lessini (O'Neill & Wall: 990-1110°C; Beccaluva et al., 2007), but higher than those of Val d'Adige (Wells: 909-956°C; Gasperini et al., 2006). Finally, Marosticano mantle fragment show similar relatively high

  17. Late Permian basalts in the Yanghe area, eastern Sichuan Province, SW China: Implications for the geodynamics of the Emeishan flood basalt province and Permian global mass extinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongbo; Zhang, Zhaochong; Santosh, M.; Lü, Linsu; Han, Liu; Liu, Wei

    2017-02-01

    We report the finding of a ∼20 m thick sequence of massive pyroxene-plagioclase-phyric basalt lava flows in the Yanghe area of the northeastern Sichuan Basin, within the Yangtze craton of SW China, which were previously considered to be located outside the Emeishan flood basalt province. This basaltic sequence above the middle Permian Maokou Formation (Fm.) is overlain by the late Permian Longtan Fm. Thus, the Yanghe basalts should be stratigraphically correlated with the Emeishan flood basalts. The Yanghe basalts show typical oceanic island basalt (OIB) affinity, and geochemically resemble Emeishan basalts, especially in the case of high-Ti (HT) basalts from the eastern domain of the Emeishan flood basalt province. The rocks have low age-corrected (87Sr/86Sr)t (t = 260 Ma) ratios (0.704158-0.704929) and Pb isotopic ratios [206Pb/204Pb(t) (18.264-18.524), 207Pb/204Pb(t) (15.543-15.58), and 208Pb/204Pb(t) (38.147-38.519)], and positive εNd(t) values (+3.15 to +3.61), suggesting that the lavas have not undergone any significant crustal contamination. The crystallization temperature of clinopyroxene is estimated to be 1368-1420 °C, suggesting anomalously thermal inputs from a mantle source and a possible plume-head origin. The fractionation of middle rare earth elements (MREE) to heavy REE (HREE) suggests that these rocks were produced by small degrees of partial melting of mantle peridotite within the garnet-spinel transition region. The stratigraphic relationships and similar geochemical signatures with the Emeishan flood basalts suggest that the Yanghe basalts are part of the Emeishan flood basalt province and can be considered as the northeastern limit of the Emeishan flood basalt province. Our finding extends the diameter of the Emeishan flood basalt province to ∼1200-1400 km, covering an area of up to ∼7 × 105 km2, two times more than previously estimated. The larger areal extent and giant eruption volume, incorporating the Sichuan Basin, lend support

  18. The Geochemical Features and Evolution of Laterite in the Karst Areas of Guizhou Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱立军; 林进也

    1996-01-01

    Guizhou is one of the dominating karst regions,where laterite is widespread,in China.Seventy-two laterite samples were taken from twelve laterite sections in the karst areas of Guizhou Province,which are possessed of typical subtropical karst geomphological and ecological environmental features and have evolved completely from dolostones and limestones.In terms of the major,trace and REE deta for thd samples this paper discusses the geochemical characteristics of laterite in the karst areas with an attempt to disclose the geochemical process and evolutionary rule of laterite formation.There have been involved three important pedogenetic geochemical precesses in the formation of laterite in the karst areas:(1)enrichment of silicon and aluminum and depletion of calcium and magnesium;(2)enrichment of iron and manganese;and(3) enrichment of aluminum and depletion of silicon.During the formation and evolution of laterite,obvious enrichment and differentiation of trace elements such as Cu,Pb,Zn,Ni,Co,Cr,Pb,F,Cl,and As can be observed,but for the rare-earth elements,their enrichment is remarkable against a weak differentiation.The REE distribution patterns in the laterite are similar to those of its parental carbonate rocks.

  19. Vulnerability assessment of storm surges in the coastal area of Guangdong Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Li

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Being bordered by the South China Sea and with long coastline, the coastal zone of Guangdong Province is often under severe risk of storm surges, as one of a few regions in China which is seriously threatened by storm surges. This article systematically analyzes the vulnerability factors of storm surges in the coastal area of Guangdong (from Yangjing to Shanwei. Five vulnerability assessment indicators of hazard-bearing bodies are proposed, which are social economic index, land use index, eco-environmental index, coastal construction index, and disaster-bearing capability index. Then storm surge vulnerability assessment index system in the coastal area of Guangdong is established. Additionally, the international general mode about coastal vulnerability assessment is improved, and the vulnerability evolution model of storm surges in the coastal area of Guangdong is constructed. Using ArcGIS, the vulnerability zoning map of storm surges in the study region is drawn. Results show that there is the highest degree of storm surge vulnerability in Zhuhai, Panyu, and Taishan; second in Zhongshan, Dongguan, Huiyang, and Haifeng; third in Jiangmen, Shanwei, Yangjiang, and Yangdong; fourth in Baoan, Kaiping, and Enping; and lowest in Guangzhou, Shunde, Shenzhen, and Longgang. This study on the risk of storm surges in these coastal cities can guide the land use of coastal cities in the future, and provide scientific advice for the government to prevent and mitigate the storm surge disasters. It has important theoretical and practical significance.

  20. Evaluation for sustainable land use in mountain areas of Northwestern Yunnan Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jian; Wang, Yanglin; Wu, Jiansheng; Chang, Qing; Zhang, Yuan

    2007-10-01

    As an important component of sustainable development in mountain areas, evaluation for sustainable land use is always one of the hotpots of researches on sustainable development. Traditional evaluation for sustainable land use mainly focuses on the sustainability of land use model and biological production on temporal scale, and overlooks the effects of land use patterns on the sustainability, while landscape ecology can be a good help to realize the spatial analysis of sustainable land use. In this study, a synthetic evaluation indexes system for sustainable land use was constructed through the application of landscape metrics. Taking Yongsheng County of Yunnan Province, China as a case study, a series of quantitative evaluation were conducted in 1996, 1999 and 2001, to monitor the temporal dynamics of regional land use sustainability. Two indicators, contributing amount of indexes, and obstacle amount of indexes, were also set up to ascertain the significance of all the evaluation indexes to the evaluation results. The results showed that, in the study phases, the land use sustainability of the whole county had been low with a stable but great spatial difference, and great changes took place in regional land use system in 1999 with the deviation from the aim of sustainable land use. It also showed that, the most important indexes contributing for the land use sustainability in the study period, were the indexes of population density and land use degree, followed by the index of landscape diversity and cropping index. And the most important indexes counteracting the land use sustainability were the indexes of per unit area total production value of industry and agriculture, per unit area yield of cereal crops, landscape fragmentation, followed by the indexes of per unit area yield of economic crops and fertilizer consume per unit area.

  1. Nutritional Status among Rural Community Elderly in the Risk Area of Liver Fluke, Surin Province, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaewpitoon, Soraya J; Namwichaisirikul, Niwatchai; Loyd, Ryan A; Churproong, Seekaow; Ueng-Arporn, Naporn; Matrakool, Likit; Tongtawee, Taweesak; Rujirakul, Ratana; Nimkhuntod, Porntip; Wakhuwathapong, Parichart; Kaewpitoon, Natthawut

    2015-01-01

    Thailand is becoming an aging society, this presenting as a serious problem situation especially regarding health. Chronic diseases found frequently in the elderly may be related to dietary intake and life style. Surin province has been reported as a risk area for liver fluke with a high incidence of cholangiocarcinma especially in the elderly. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the nutritional status and associated factors among elderly in Surin province, northeast of Thailand. A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 405 people aged 60 years and above, between September 2012 and July 2014. The participants were selected through a randomized systematic sampling method and completed a pre-designed questionnaire with general information, food recorded, weight, height, waist circumference, and behavior regarding to food consume related to liver fluke infection. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and Spearman's rank correlation coefficients. The majority of participants was female (63.5%), age between 60-70 years old (75.6%), with elementary school education (96.6%), living with their (78.9%), and having underlying diseases (38.3%). Carbohydrate (95.3%) was need to improve the consumption. The participants demonstrated under-nutrition (24.4%), over-nutrition (16.4%), and obesity (15.4%). Elderly had a waist circumference as the higher than normal level (34.0%). Gender, female, age 71-80 years old, elementary school and underlying diseases were significantly associated with poor nutritional status. The majority of them had a high knowledge (43.0%), moderate attitude (44.4%), and moderate practice (46.2%) regarding food consumption related to liver fluke infection. In conclusion, these findings data indicated that elderly age group often have an under- or over-nutritional status. Carbohydrate consumption needs to be improved. Some elderly show behavior regarding food consumption that is related to liver fluke infection hat needs

  2. Stunting and zinc deficiency among primary school children in rural areas with low soil zinc concentrations in Jiangsu Province, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qin, Yu; Boonstra, A.; Zhao, J.; Wu, M.; Hu, X.; Kok, F.J.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess stunting and zinc deficiency among primary school children in north rural area of Jiangsu Province with low soil zinc concentrations, eastern part of China. METHODS: Two data collection rounds were conducted. In the first data collection round, 2268 primary school children aged

  3. Hydrology of Area 62, Northern Great Plains and Rocky Mountain Coal Provinces, New Mexico and Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roybal, F.E.; Wells, J.G.; Gold, R.L.; Flager, J.V.

    1984-01-01

    This report summarizes available hydrologic data for Area 62 and will aid leasing decisions, and the preparation and appraisal of environmental impact studies and mine-permit applications. Area 62 is located at the southern end of the Rocky Mountain Coal Province in parts of New Mexico and Arizona and includes approximately 9,500 square miles. Surface mining alters, at least temporarily, the environment; if the areas are unreclaimed, there can be long-term environmental consequences. The land-ownership pattern in Area 62 is complicated. The checkerboard pattern created by several types of ownership makes effective management of these lands difficult. The climate generally is semiarid with average annual precipitation ranging from 10 to 20 inches. Pinons, junipers, and grasslands cover most of the area, and much of it is used for grazing by livestock. Soils vary with landscape, differing from flood plains and hillslopes to mountain slopes. The major structural features of this area were largely developed during middle Tertiary time. The main structural features are the southern San Juan Basin and the Mogollon slope. Coal-bearing rocks are present in four Cretaceous rock units of the Mesaverde Group: the Gallup Sandstone, the Dileo Coal Member, and the Gibson Coal Member of the Crevasse Canyon Formation, and the Cleary Coal Member of the Menefee Formation. Area 62 is drained by Black Creek, the Puerco River, the Zuni River, Carrizo Wash-Largo Creek, and the Rio San Jose. Only at the headwaters of the Zuni River is the flow perennial. The streamflow-gaging station network consists of 25 stations operated for a variety of needs. Streamflow changes throughout the year with variation related directly to rainfall and snowmelt. Base flow in Area 62 is zero indicating no significant ground-water discharge. Mountainous areas contribute the highest mean annual runoff of 1.0 inch. Very few water-quality data are available for the surface-water stations. Of the nine surface

  4. The Application of Criminal Reconciliation in Tibetan Areas of Sichuan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RAN Hui

    2014-01-01

    Tibetan areas in Sichuan province include Ganzi Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture , Aba Tibetan and Qiang Prefecture , Muli Tibetan Autonomous County , and some Tibetan Autono-mous Townships scattered in Mianning County , Yuexi County , Ganluo County of Liangshan Yi Autonomous Prefecture , Baoxing County of Ya ’ an District, Pingwu County and Beichuan County of Mianyang District . Among these areas , Ganzi Prefecture and Aba Prefecture are the main Tibetan areas in Sichuan province . The stability and de-velopment of Tibetan areas in Sichuan Province are important for the stability of the Tibetan Region and even for the entire country.Historically, an important cause for the bloody conflicts and insta-bility of this region was the competition over the re-sources in the grasslands and border areas . For several decades after democratic reform , the num-bers of these kinds of criminal conflicts maintained a fixed level, and did not increase .This was ob-viously due to an overall lag of national economic development together with strong governmental con-trol.However, during the recent decade , rapid economic and social development in this Tibetan area of Sichuan and the diversification of the bene-fit structure became one of the main reasons for the increase in these kinds of criminal conflicts .The cause of these conflicts include the competition o-ver resources , such as the grasslands , Chinese caterpillar fungus , matsutake mushrooms , with neighboring provinces , counties , township or vil-lages.The conflicts are also caused by environ-mental issues resulting from present economic de-velopment projects , such as hydroelectric develop-ment , sand excavation and mining explorations . There are also conflicts due to traffic accidents , medical disputes and other events .These conflicts are always followed by serious consequences , in-cluding the loss of life and personal injury , the loss of property etc .Some cases are very difficult to resolve and control .In

  5. Use of traditional veterinary medicine in Nhema communal area of the Midlands province, Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maroyi, Alfred

    2012-01-01

    This study documents the use of ethno-veterinary medicine to treat livestock in Nhema communal area in the Midlands province of Zimbabwe. This study employed oral interviews and detailed discussions with 69 smallholder farmers and 3 traditional healers. The local people use 23 plant species belonging to 16 families as ethno-veterinary remedies. Two plant families were particularly frequent in usage: Fabaceae and Solanaceae, while the most utilized plant species were Aloe chabaudii (UV = 0.69), Aloe greatheadii (UV = 0.65), Adenium multiflorum (UV = 0.63), Vernonia amygdalina (UV = 0.61), Nicotiana tabacum (UV = 56), Solanum lycopersicum (UV = 55), Capsicum annum (UV = 53) and Pouzolzia hypoleuca (UV = 51). Fourteen animal conditions were identified in the surveyed area. The major and most common animal diseases were tick-borne diseases, eye problems, retained afterbirth, fleas, lice and diarrhoea. The majority of ethno-veterinary remedies (78%) were collected from the wild, with respondents mostly using herbs (11 species, 48%), followed by 6 trees (26%), 4 shrubs (17%), and 2 climbers (9%). The most frequently used plant parts were leaves (51%), followed by bark (16%), roots (13%) and fruits (10%). These remedies were mostly administered as decoctions or infusions of single plants. These plants were used not only as alternatives to conventional veterinary drugs but also because in certain diseases they were thought to be more efficacious. In view of many and widespread uses of wild plants as ethnoveterinary remedies, further research into their pharmacological activities may prove worthwhile.

  6. Biomineralization process occurring in iron mud of coastal seepase area of Zhoushan Island, Zhejiang Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU ZiJun; JIA Nan; YUAN LinXi; SUN LiGuang

    2008-01-01

    The biomineralization process of iron oxidizing bacteria and its influence on accumulation of metals were investigated by modern biological observation techniques (i.e., SEM and TEM) and geochemical methods, in coastal area of Zhoushan Island, Zhejiang province where a thick ancient wood layers were buried, Results show that the iron mud samples mainly contain Leptothrix-like sheaths and Gal-lionella-like stalks, which are known as neutrophilic iron-oxidizing bacteria. These two bacteria are present as obviously different abundance in two sampling sites, which may be regulated by the geo-chemistry of seepage water. The biomineralization product of iron oxidizing bacteria is ferrihydrite, a poorly ordered iron oxide, and formation of amorphous mineral is affected by the factors of bacteria, minor Si and temperature preventing any further transformation into more crystalline phases. Organic functional groups, extracellular polymers and surface charges can provide favorable nucleation sites or template for formation of iron precipitates on the bacterial surface. The mineralization process of the iron oxidizing bacteria is divided into different stages,i.e., extracellular mineralization, intracellular mineralization and the whole cell mineralization. Furthermore, due to BIOS containing the bacterial organic matter, the accumulation capacity of metals specially Fe and Co is highly increased, suggest-ing that BIOS exert a degree of controlling in the cycling of metal elements in seepage area.

  7. QUALITY ASSESSMENT OF IMMUNIZATION IN RURAL AREAS COVERD BY HEALTH HOUSES IN WEST AZARBAIJAN PROVINCE, 1995

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh. Salarilak

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available Povinding quality health care services, without constant qualitative and quantitative studeies/evaluation, seem to be impossible. High rate of children immunization coverage in Iran, however, represents parts of a quality assessment of mother and child health care services in rural areas of West-Azerbaijan Province, Iran. In this cross-sectional study, LQAS method was employed for the purpose of quality assessment. Children between 10 to 36 months old from the pre-mentions areas constitute the study population of present report. Sample was selected through a multistage sampling method and a questionnaire together with a checklist was utilized for data collection. Findings demonstrate a very high rate immunization coverage of children (>96%. Mother’s knowledge about the data of next vaccination and DPT potential side effect's are estimated to be 32%, and 58%, respectively. Children's overall immunization adequacy rate, despite the high rate coverage, equalled to 59% which does not represent a high quality service in this respect. This study approves the reliability and practicality of LQAS method for quality assurance of health services.

  8. Human hair mercury levels in the Wanshan mercury mining area, Guizhou Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ping; Feng, Xinbin; Qiu, Guangle; Shang, Lihai; Li, Guanghui

    2009-12-01

    The total mercury (T-Hg) and methyl mercury (Me-Hg) concentrations in the hair were measured to evaluate mercury (Hg) exposure for the residents in Da-shui-xi Village (DSX) and Xia-chang-xi Village (XCX) in the Wanshan Hg mining area, Guizhou Province, Southwestern China. The mean concentrations in the hair of DSX residents were 5.5 ± 2.7 μg/g and 1.9 ± 0.9 μg/g for T-Hg and Me-Hg, respectively. The concentrations in the hair of XCX residents were 3.3 ± 1.4 μg/g and 1.2 ± 0.5 μg/g for T-Hg and Me-Hg, respectively. Hair Me-Hg concentrations were significantly correlated to T-Hg (r = 0.42, P < 0.01) in the two sites; on average, hair Me-Hg concentration accounted for 40 and 44% of T-Hg for DSX and XCX residents, respectively. Age has no obvious correlation with hair Hg and the hair Hg levels showed a significant gender difference, with higher T-Hg and Me-Hg concentrations in the hair from males than females. The rice collected from the two sites showed high levels of T-Hg and Me-Hg concentration. The results indicated a certain Hg exposure for the residents in DSX and XCX in the Wanshan Hg mining area.

  9. Overall-effective Measures for Sustainable Water Resources Management in the Coastal Areas of Shandong Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Baoxiang; W. F. Geiger; S. Kaden; R. Kutzner; WANG Zengliang

    2006-01-01

    In the coastal catchments of Shandong Province the water scarcity is aggravated due to saltwater intrusion, reducing the usability of water resources available. Such a situation calls for sustainable integrated water resources management (Ⅰ-WRM). The idea for the objectives and implementation of the IWRM are explained in this paper. The general objective of the planned project disscussed in the present study is to bring together German traditional expertise in water resources management and newer developments in the context of the European Water Framework Directive; the research efforts aim to relieve the desperate water scarcity situation in the costal area of Shandong Province.

  10. Analysis of the Impact of the Growing Area of Food Crops on Farmers’ Income in Yunnan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu; FENG; Chongguang; LI

    2013-01-01

    As a major agricultural province,Yunnan has always attached great importance to food production,and the proportion of the growing area of food crops to the growing area of total crops is more than one half in Yunnan Province,but the grain production efficiency has been low in recent years.Therefore,under the guidance of stabilizing food production and adjusting structure proposed by Yunnan provincial government,we analyze the impact of the growing area of food crops on farmers’ income,based on the recent trends of the growing area of food crops.Finally we put forth the following recommendations:developing the food production based on market; rationally making overall arrangement of planting structure; paying attention to the agricultural science and technology progress.

  11. Survey of radon concentrations in bone-coal mining areas and inside BCCB houses in five provinces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ying; YE Ji-Da; ZHANG Liang; JIANG Shan; KONG Ling-Li; SHI Jin-Hua

    2005-01-01

    It was investigated that the radon concentrations in bone-coal mining areas, in outside and inside BCCB houses and ordinary red-brick (ORB) houses of the reference points in Hubei, Hunan, Jiangxi, Zhejiang and Anhui Provinces. It was shown that the average annual radon concentration inside BCCB houses in the bone-coal mining areas in the five provinces ranges from 85.7 to 303 Bq/m3, with an average of 151 Bq/m3, which is 3 times that inside ORB houses at the reference points. The average annual radon concentration outside BCCB houses in the bone-coal mining areas in the five provinces ranges from 12.0 to 73.8 Bq/m3, with an average of 34.9 Bq/m3, which is 1.5 times that outside ordinary ORB at the reference points. And the radon concentration in shafts of Hubei and Zhejiang Province is 9.51 × 103 Bq/m3 and 965 Bq/m3, respectively. This report also shows the changing patterns of radon concentrations with day, season, height, etc.

  12. Factors Affecting Unwanted Pregnancies in Urban Areas of Kohgiloyeh and Boyer Ahmad Province in 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Tabeshfar

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Unwanted pregnancies and its complications are one of the most important global problems related to mothers. The aim of the present study was to determine the factors affecting unwanted pregnancies in urban areas of the Kohgiloyeh and Boyer Ahmad province. Materials & Methods: In this case – control study conducted at Yasuj University of Medical Sciences in 2008 ,350 women were chosen as the case group, and 700 women as the control group. During the study, data collection forms were completed by each group. Subsequently, the collected data was analyzed using SPSS version 16 by using the logistic regression, univariate, and multivariate analysis. Results: According to the results of univariate analysis, the variables husband’s education in primary school , age of the last child under one, uncertain prevention methods and receiving means of prevention from the private sector revealed that significant differences existed between the two groups (P Value<0/05. Finally, the multivariate analysis beetwen husband education variables, age of the last child , prevention methods, and receiving a contraceptive device, a significant correlation was observed with unwanted pregnancy(P Value<0/05. Conclusion: Results of this study determined that three variables (contraceptive method, the place of obtaining means, and level of her husband education are the most important variables which affect the chance of increasing of unwanted pregnancy in users of contraceptive methods.

  13. The Effects of Land Uses on Purplish Soil Erosion in Hilly Area of Sichuan Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Gangcai; ZHANG Jianhui; TIAN Guanglong; WEI Chaofu

    2005-01-01

    In order to evaluate the soil erosion rate for different land uses and make recommendations on land-use alternatives for erosion control in hilly and mountain areas on a Purplish soil (Regosols in FAO taxonomy), experimental data were obtained from three continuously monitored sites located at Yanting,Nanbu and Pengxi of Sichuan province. The data showed that the rank of erosion rate is farmland >unfenced grassland > fenced grassland > forestland.The erosion rate of farmland was more than 3 times higher than that of forestland and fenced grassland,indicating that restricting human activity is crucial for over-erosion. The erodibility was higher at the initial period of rainy season for all the three types of land use. The erosion rates of fenced grassland and mature afforestation land were not proportional to rainfall intensity because these land uses changed impact energy of the rainfall. This research showed that restricting human activity, intensifying the management of initial period of rainy season, and increasing the cover rate of land surface are the three major measures for soil erosion prevention. It is recommended that farmers should cease cultivation on farmland at the top of hills and steep slope land return those lands back to grassland or forestland.

  14. Early Silurian(Telychian)rugose coral fauna of Daguan area, northeast Yunnan Province,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jianqiang; HE Xinyi; TANG Lan

    2006-01-01

    Study on rugose coral fauna of the Sifengya Formation(early Telyehian)and Daluzhai Formation (mid-late Telychian)in Daguan area,northeast Yunnan Province,China was carded out.Rugose coral fauna of the Sifengya Formation included 18 genera and 34 species,while Daluzhai Formation with nine genera,ten species.We described rugose coral fauna(12 genera,19 species)including one new genus and five new species,i.e.Protoketophyllum daguanense gen.et sp.nov..Crassilasma huanggexiense sp.nov.,Pseudophaulactis heae sp.nov.,P.convolutus sp.nov.,and Shensiphyllum minor sp.nov..The characteristics and geological significance of rugose coral fauna of Sifengya Formation and Daluzhai Formation were analyzed.Particularly,mgose coral fauna of the Sifengya Formation represent early Telychian rugosan fauna in the Upper Yangtze region and improve the sequences of early Silurian(Llandovery)mgose coral assemblages in Yangtze region.It is therefore very meaningful to further analyze radiation period of rugose coral fauna in such epoch.

  15. Patterns and socioeconomic influences of tobacco exposure in tobacco cultivating rural areas of Yunnan Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cai Le

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study describes the patterns and socioeconomic influences of tobacco use among adults in tobacco-cultivating regions of rural southwest China. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 8681 adults aged ≥18 years in rural areas of Yunnan Province, China from 2010 to 2011. A standardized questionnaire was administered to obtain data about participants’ demographic characteristics, individual socioeconomic status, ethnicity, self-reported smoking habits, and exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS. The socioeconomic predictors of current smoking, nicotine addiction, and SHS exposure were analyzed using multivariate logistic regression. Results The prevalence rates of tobacco use were much higher in men compared with women (current smoking 68.5% vs. 1.3%; and nicotine dependence 85.2% vs. 72.7%. However, the rate of SHS exposure was higher in women compared with men (76.6% vs. 70.5%. Tobacco farmers had higher prevalence rates of current smoking, nicotine dependence, and SHS exposure compared with participants not engaged in tobacco farming (P Conclusions This study suggests that tobacco control efforts in rural southwest China must be tailored to address tobacco-cultivating status and socioeconomic factors.

  16. [Hydrochemistry and Dissolved Inorganic Carbon Stable Isotope of Shibing Dolomite Karst Area in Guizhou Province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Shi-zhen; Lan, Jia-cheng; Yuan, Dao-xian; Wang, Yun; Yang, Long; Ao, Xiang-hong

    2015-06-01

    Totally 49 water samples were collected in Shibing Dolomite Karst World Natural Heritage Site in Guizhou Province to analyze the characteristics and controlling factors of both the surface and underground waters, as well as the features and their origins of the dissolved inorganic carbon isotope. It was found that the pH of the study area was neutral to alkaline with low concentrations of total dissolved solids. The cations were dominated by Ca2+, Mg2 and anions by HCO3-, featured by HCO3-Ca x Mg type water. The ratios of Cl-, NO3- and SO4(2-) in the allogenic water from the shale area in the northern catchment were higher than those in autogenic water from the dolomite karst area, so did the concentration of Si. The SIc and SId of the allogenic waters in the shale area were negative. After the waters entered into and flew by the dolomite karst area, both the SIc and SId increased to over 0. It could be told by the water chemistry that the hydrochemistry was little impacted by the rainfall and human activities. The Gibbs plot revealed that the chemical composition of the waters was mainly controlled by rock weathering. The δ(13)C(DIC) of the surface waters ranged from -8.27% to -11.55% per hundred, averaging -9.45% per hundredo, while that of the underground waters ranged from -10.57% per hundred to -15.59% per hundred, averaging -12.04% per hundred, which was lighter than that of surface water. For the distribution features, it was found the δ(13)C(DIC), of the upper reaches of branches of Shangmuhe River was lighter than that of the lower reach, while that of the main river Shangmuhe River was relatively complex. Based on the mass balance of stable isotopes and the δ(13)C(DIC), the ratio of the origin of DIC of the ground water was calculated. It was found that 51.2% was from soil CO2, and 48.8% was from the rock itself.

  17. Spatial and temporal distribution characteristics of reference evapotranspiration trends in Karst area: a case study in Guizhou Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiaoli; Peng, Shizhang; Wang, Weiguang; Xu, Junzeng; Yang, Shihong

    2016-10-01

    Reference evapotranspiration (ET0) is the essential part of hydrological cycle and crop irrigation system (watering system framework). To reveal the change pattern of annual and seasonal ET0 and its corresponding dominated factors aspects of karst regions in China, daily meteorological data of 19 meteorological stations during 1959-2011 in Guizhou Province were collected. ET0 trends in seasonal and annual time series were detected by nonparametric Mann-Kendall test. The results indicated (demonstrated) that the annual ET0 for the entire Guizhou Province performed a decreasing trend by 0.4476 mm/year. The seasonal ET0 in spring and summer performed the an alike decreasing trend, while it presented an increasing trend in autumn and winter. According to the rotated empirical orthogonal function clustering method, Guizhou Province was divided into four parts. Annual ET0 performed (executed) the ascendant trend in western area, while the descendent trend occurred in middle, northwestern, and southwestern areas. The sensitivity and the attribution analysis indicated (specified) that the relative humidity was identified as the most sensitive variable to the annual ET0 and sunshine duration as the essential main thrusts for the declined annual ET0 in Guizhou Province. In addition, the more severe of karst landform development, the more obvious decreasing trend in ET0.

  18. An Empirical Study on Telecommunication Development in the Rural Areas of China's 12 Western Provinces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Hong

    2005-01-01

    This paper studied rural telecom markets in China's 12 western provinces with Seemingly Unrelated Regression (SUR) models. Using two regress analysis of telecom business income and rural telephone permeation rate in 12 western provinces, we got some new conclusions such as, the installation and usage of telephones among farmers are affected by several variables, and income is only one of them. According to our data analysis, variables influencing the installation and usage of telephones are not the same. Different variables exert different degrees of influence in the provinces.

  19. An Investigation on the Status of Implementation of Communications and Information Management System (MCI) in Khorasan Razavi Hospitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shojaei, Saeed; Farzianpour, Fereshteh; Arab, Mohammad; Foroushani, Abbas Rahimi

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives: The aim of this investigation is to determine the mean scores of the possibility of implementing the MCI standards in Khorasan Razavi hospitals, from the perspective of Managers, in order to provide a suitable model for evaluating and promoting the system. Methods: This was a Research and method (R&D) and Survey Research method, which is of the type of Cross- Sectional, descriptive-analytic Studies conducted in two steps in hospitals of Khorasan Razavi from July to December 2014. This study was approved by the Ethical Committee of Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS) in 2013/6/10. About the nature and purpose of the study was explained to the participants. Were used to apply functional assessment, based on Accreditation Model. In order to collect data, two questionnaires were used, all of which were taken from the standards of MCI. The reliability and validity of the questionnaires were approved by experts. Cronbach’s alphas for the questionnaires were obtained to be (0.95, 0.86), respectively. In order to analyze information, statistical analyses, including one way ANOVA, and Independent sample t-test were used. Results: The mean scores of the possibility of implementing the MCI standards in Khorasan Razavi hospitals, were (51.6 and 12.27), respectively. Conclusions: According to half (43.8%) of managers, the MCI standards are applicable in hospitals of Khorasan Razavi; however, their application requires greater efforts by the hospitals. PMID:26652087

  20. Current Situation of Information Demand of Farmers in Taihang Mountain Area: A Case Study of Pingshan County in Hebei Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lipeng; GUO; Haiyan; CAI

    2014-01-01

    Since the reform and opening-up,economy of mountain areas in China has realized considerable development.However,due to such factors as terrain,traffic,and individual differences,compared with plain and coastal areas,mountain areas still lag far behind.In recent years,informationization construction of China develops rapidly,but it nearly stagnates in mountain rural areas.Information has become an essential factor restricting economic development of rural areas.Based on the survey of current information demand of farmers carried out in Pingshan County in Hebei Province in 2010,this study came up with relevant recommendations,in order to speed up development of rural economic in mountain areas,narrow the regional gap,improve living condition of farmers in mountain areas,and increase income level of farmers in mountain areas.

  1. Classification of hydrogeologic areas and hydrogeologic flow systems in the basin and range physiographic province, southwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anning, David W.; Konieczki, Alice D.

    2005-01-01

    The hydrogeology of the Basin and Range Physiographic Province in parts of Arizona, California, New Mexico, Utah, and most of Nevada was classified at basin and larger scales to facilitate information transfer and to provide a synthesis of results from many previous hydrologic investigations. A conceptual model for the spatial hierarchy of the hydrogeology was developed for the Basin and Range Physiographic Province and consists, in order of increasing spatial scale, of hydrogeologic components, hydrogeologic areas, hydrogeologic flow systems, and hydrogeologic regions. This hierarchy formed a framework for hydrogeologic classification. Hydrogeologic areas consist of coincident ground-water and surface-water basins and were delineated on the basis of existing sets of basin boundaries that were used in past investigations by State and Federal government agencies. Within the study area, 344 hydrogeologic areas were identified and delineated. This set of basins not only provides a framework for the classification developed in this report, but also has value for regional and subregional purposes of inventory, study, analysis, and planning throughout the Basin and Range Physiographic Province. The fact that nearly all of the province is delineated by the hydrogeologic areas makes this set well suited to support regional-scale investigations. Hydrogeologic areas are conceptualized as a control volume consisting of three hydrogeologic components: the soils and streams, basin fill, and consolidated rocks. The soils and streams hydrogeologic component consists of all surface-water bodies and soils extending to the bottom of the plant root zone. The basin-fill hydrogeologic component consists of unconsolidated and semiconsolidated sediment deposited in the structural basin. The consolidated-rocks hydrogeologic component consists of the crystalline and sedimentary rocks that form the mountain blocks and basement rock of the structural basin. Hydrogeologic areas were

  2. Ranking provinces based on development scale in agriculture sector using taxonomy technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahram Rostampour

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to determine comparative ranking of agricultural development in different provinces of Iran using taxonomy technique. The independent variables are amount of annual rainfall amount, the number of permanent rivers, the width of pastures and forest, cultivated level of agricultural harvests and garden harvests, number of beehives, the number of fish farming ranches, the number of tractors and combines, the number of cooperative production societies, the number of industrial cattle breeding and aviculture. The results indicate that the maximum development coefficient value is associated with Razavi Khorasan province followed by Mazandaran, East Azarbayjan while the minimum ranking value belongs to Bushehr province.

  3. Uppermost Permian to Lower Triassic Conodont Zonation from Enshi area, western Hubei Province, South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Z.; Zhao, L.; Chen, Z. Q.; Ma, D.; Yan, P.; Zhan, P.

    2015-12-01

    The Permian-Triassic transition witnessed the largest biotic turnover of Earth life during the Phanerozoic history. Ecosystems in sea and on land have also experienced the most protected restoration following the end-Permian mass extinction. These biocrises were also associated with climatic and environmental extremes through the latest Permian to Middle Triassic. In order to uncover the links among these extreme events, we need to establish high-resolution biochronostratigraphy, which offers precise timescales for reconstructing event sequences and probing the possible causes. Of these, conodont biostratigraphy is an operational tool in enhancing stratigraphic resolution. Although their ancestors and phylogeny remain unclear, conodonts are a rapid evolutionary lineage and extremely abundant in the Triassic marine carbonate successions. Here, we present recent study results of the Lower Triassic conodont zonation from the Ganxi and Jianshi areas, western Hubei Province, South China, which were situated on a carbonate ramp at the southern northern margin of the Upper Yangtze Platform. Therein, the uppermost Permian to Lower Triassic successions are well exposed and yield abundant conodonts. A total of nine conodont zones was established: (1) Clarkina yini-Clarkina zhangi Zone, (2) Hindeodus changxingensis Zone, (3) Hindeodus parvus Zone, (4) Isarcicella staeschei Zone, (5) Clarkina planata Zone, (6) Neoclarkina discrete Zone, (7) Neospathodus dieneri Zone, (8) Novispathodus waageni Zone, and (9) Triassospathodus homeri Zone. The Ns. dieneri M1, Ns. dieneri M2 and Ns. dieneri M3 subzones have also been distinguished from the Ns. dieneri Zone. Both Nv. waageni eowaageni subzones and Nv. waageni waageni subzones are also recognizable from the Nv. waageni Zone. The first occurrence of H. parvus marks the Permian-Triassic boundary(PTB), while the first occurrence of Nv. waageni eowaageni defines the Induan-Olenekian boundary. These conodont zones correlate well with

  4. Genotyping and Mutation Pattern in the Overlapping MHR Region of HBV Isolates in Southern Khorasan, Eastern Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziaee, Masood; Javanmard, Davod; Sharifzadeh, Gholamreza; Hasan Namaei, Mohammad; Azarkar, Ghodsiyeh

    2016-01-01

    Background Hepatitis B virus, with 8 known distinct genotypes, is one of the most serious health problems which results to liver injuries. The surface gene of Hepatitis B virus completely overlaps with the polymerase gene. Mutations in the RT gene result in changes in the overlapping hepatitis B surface antigen. Objectives The present study aimed to evaluate the genotypes and prevalence of mutations in a segment of S and RT gene in HBV isolates in Southern Khorasan, Iran. Methods This was a population-based study comprising 5,235 randomized samples for HBV screening. A nested-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test was followed by direct sequencing, and the sequences blast with present sequences of NCBI database for genotyping. Alignment and phylogenic analysis was performed using MEGA-6 software, and mutation pattern of this segment was finally surveyed in Bioedit software. Results The mean age was 39.07 ± 14.04 years, with 52.2% female and 47.8% male. All isolates belonged to HBV genotype D, sub-genotype D1. The most amino acid substitutions of surface protein were Q129H (34.42%) and A168V (8.2%), other escape mutants observed in this study were P127L/T, S117G, T125M, S143L, D144E and E164D. In the RT gene, Q149K was the most frequently identified amino acid substitution (9.83%), followed by L122F (8.19%), N118D/T (6.55%), L157M (4.91%), and H124Y (3.27%). Conclusions This finding represents an ongoing dominancy of HBV genotype D in Eastern Iran, corresponding to other parts of Iran. There were a lot of variations in the S gene leading to an escape mutation, some of which affected the corresponding area of the RT region. PMID:27882062

  5. Ecological footprint analysis applied to a sub-national area: the case of the Province of Siena (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagliani, Marco; Galli, Alessandro; Niccolucci, Valentina; Marchettini, Nadia

    2008-01-01

    This work is part of a larger project, which aims at investigating the environmental sustainability of the Province of Siena and of its communes, by means of different indicators and methods of analysis. The research presented in this article uses ecological footprint and biocapacity as indicators to monitor the environmental conditions of the area of Siena, thus complementing previous studies carried out using Emergy, greenhouse gases balance and other methods. The calculations have been performed in such a way as to enable a disaggregation of the final results according to the classical categories of ecologically productive land and of consumption, but also according to citizen's and public administration's areas of influence. This information allows us to investigate in detail the socio-economic aspects of environmental resource use. Among the notable results, the Siena territory is characterized by a nearly breakeven total ecological balance, a result contrasting with the national average and most of the other Italian provinces. Furthermore, the analysis has been carried out at different spatial scales (province, districts and communes), highlighting an inhomogeneous territorial structure consisting of subareas in ecological deficit compensated by zones in ecological surplus.

  6. The effect of gold mining and processing on biogeochemical cycles in Muteh area, Isfahan province, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshavarzi, B.; Moore, F.

    2009-04-01

    The environmental impacts of gold mining and processing on geochemical and biogeochemical cycles in Muteh region located northwest of Esfahan province and northeast of Golpaygan city is investigated. For this purpose systematic sampling was carried out in, rock, soil, water, and sediment environments along with plant, livestocks and human hair samples. Mineralogical and Petrological studies show that ore mineral such as pyrite and arsenopyrite along with fluorine-bearing minerals like tremolite, actinolite, biotite and muscovite occur in green schist, amphibolite and lucogranitic rocks in the area. The hydrochemistry of the analysed water samples indicate that As and F display the highest concentrations among the analysed elements. Indeed arsenic has the highest concentration in both topsoil and subsoil samples when compared with other potentially toxic elements. Anthropogenic activity also have it s greatest effect on increasing arsenic concentration among the analysed samples. The concentration of the majority of the analysed elements in the shoots and leaves of two local plants of the region i.e Artemesia and Penagum is higher than their concentration in the roots. Generally speaking, Artemesia has a greater tendency for bioaccumulating heavy metals. The results of cyanide analysis in soil samples show that cyanide concentration in the soils near the newly built tailing dam is much higher than that in the vicinity of the old tailing dam. The high concentration of fluorine in the drinking water of the Muteh village is the main reason of the observed dental fluorosis symptoms seen in the inhabitants. One of the two drinking water wells which is located near the metamorphic complex and supplies part of the tap water in the village, probably has the greatest impact in this regard. A decreasing trend in fluorine concentration is illustrated with increasing distance from the metamorphic complex. Measurements of As concentration in human hair specimens indicate that As

  7. Opisthorchis viverrini Infection Among People in the Border Areas of Three Provinces, Northeast of Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaewpitoon, Soraya J; Rujirakul, Ratana; Wakkuwattapong, Rujirakul; Matrakool, Likit; Tongtawee, Taweesak; Panpimanmas, Sukij; Pengsaa, Prasit; Jomkoa, Darawan; Joosiri, Apinya; Kaewpitoon, Natthawut

    2016-01-01

    Opisthorchis viverrini is still a serious problem in Northeastern and Northern Thailand. Active surveillance is required to determine updated data for further prevention and control planning. Therefore, this study aimed to examine the prevalence and risk factors for O. viverrini in three provinces, Northeastern Thailand. A cross- sectional survey was conducted during October 2015 to March 2016 at Kaeng Sanam Nang district of Nakhon Ratchasima province, Waeng Noi district of Khon Kaen province, and Khon Sawan district of Chaiyaphum province, Thailand. Stool samples were examined by using a modified Kato-Katz Thick smear technique. From a total of 978 participants screened, O. viverrini infection was found in 1.74%, the majority opf positive cases being male (6.62%), age group 51-60 years old (4.21%), educated at primary school (8.43%), occupied with agriculture (9.62%),having an income <4,000 baht per month (4.82%), and living in Khon Sawan district (8.43%). Participants had a high knowledge level (42.43%), good attitude level (34.76%), and fair level (38.04%). The present study indicates the O. viverrini infection rate is low, but elderly males with primary school education involved in agriculture are still frequently effected particularly in Khon Sawan district. Therefore, this risk group requires behavior modification and continued monitoring.

  8. Photosynthetic characteristics of three varieties of Lilium "Oriental Hybrids" in the central areas of Yunnan Province,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei CHANG; Shuyun LI; Hong HU; Yayu FAN

    2008-01-01

    To understand the ecophysiological adapta-tion of Lilium "Oriental Hybrids", which are grown for their commercial bulbs, the gas exchange, leaf N and chlorophyll content of the three varieties were investigated in the central areas of the Yunnan Province. Among the three varieties, light-saturated photosynthetic rate at ambient CO2 (Amax) of Tiber was the highest, while that of Siberia was the lowest. The difference in the Amax was related to the carboxylation efficiency (CE), leaf mass per unit area and leaf N content per mass, which indicated that their photosynthetic capacity was influenced by the activity and/or the quantity of Rubisco. The three vari-eties had lower photosynthetic saturation points and pho-tosynthetic compensation points, but the photosynthetic rates were not decreased up to 2000 μmol.m-2s-1 of the light intensity. This indicates that the three varieties had broad adaptability to light intensity. There were signifi-cant differences in the photosynthetic optimum temper-ature among the three varieties. Siberia had the highest photosynthetic optimum temperature (25.5℃-34.9℃), and is likely to grow well in warm areas. Sorbonne had the lowest photosynthetic optimum temperature (19.3℃-25.6℃), and its growth is favored in cool areas. Tiber can maintain a high photosynthetic rate within a wide range of temperature. Therefore, Tiber is the most suitable variety for the climate in the central areas of the Yunnan Province, China.

  9. Plant nematodes in South Africa. 12. Checklist of plant nematodes of the protected areas of the Eastern Cape Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariette Marais

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Soil-inhabiting nematodes, including plant-parasitic nematodes, are considered to be the most abundant multicellular organisms in the soil, and of particular interest since they are an integral part of the interlocking chain of nutrient conversions. Because of their abundance and relative susceptibility to both physical and chemical changes, these organisms are used as indicator organisms. The National Collection of Nematodes (NCN consists of a core collection, the Meloidogyne Collection and the Juan Heyns Collection, which are housed at the Plant Protection Research Institute of the Agricultural Research Council in Pretoria. Vast amounts of biodiversity data are contained in NCN, and the digitising of the collection from 2007 to 2014 yielded unpublished locality information, especially datasets of plant nematodes reported from protected areas of the Eastern Cape. Two hundred and thirty plant nematode species belonging to 36 genera were reported from the Eastern Cape. Of these, only 80 were from protected areas, whilst 163 were from uncultivated areas (outside protected areas and 148 from cultivated areas. Ten species were described from protected areas, namely Criconemoides silvicola, Meloinema silvicola, Ogma tuberculatum, Paralongidorus cebensis, Paralongidorus hanliae, Scutellonema tsitsikamense, Trichodorus vandenbergae, Xiphinema erriae, Xiphinema ornatizulu and Xiphinema simplex. Only M. silvicola, O. tuberculatum, P. cebensis and S. tsitsikamense were not reported from other provinces, suggesting endemism.Conservation implications: The diversity of nematode fauna is not adequately protected as most nematode biodiversity in the Eastern Cape lies outside protected areas, with only 80 of the 230 plant-feeding nematode species in the province being reported from protected areas.

  10. Sustainable and integrated water resources management for the coastal areas of Shandong Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutzner, R; Zhang, B; Kaden, S; Geiger, W F

    2006-01-01

    Water scarcity and water pollution are severe problems in the Northern part of China, strongly affecting socio-economic development and standards of living and environment. The Shandong province is specifically plagued by water scarcity. In the coastal catchments of the Shandong province the water scarcity is even increased due to saltwater intrusion, reducing the usability of water resources available. The pressing water problems in the costal catchments in the Shandong province and resulting socio-economic troubles forced the Chinese authorities to implement a variety of measures to relieve water scarcity and abate saltwater intrusion. But not much has been achieved so far as the measures are not coordinated in their effects and cost-benefit relations have not been considered sufficiently. Such a situation calls for good, which means integrated, sustainable water management. The assessment of this situation in the project "Flood Control and Groundwater Recharge in Coastal Catchments" financed by the German Ministry of Research and Education is presented. Further objectives and first ideas for an IWRM-concept are explained. These ideas are based on concepts developed in Germany in the context of the fulfilment of the European Water Framework Directive.

  11. An Investigation into the Effect of Internet Banking Service Quality on Customer Satisfaction (Case Study: Khorasan Razavi Saderat Bank)

    OpenAIRE

    PEZESHKIAN, Sadegh; SADEGHI, Tooraj

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. This study aimed to investigate the effect of internet banking service quality on customer satisfaction. The study population consisted of all users of internet banking services in Khorasan Razavi Saderat Bank. In the current study, three criteria of factor loading coefficients, Cronbach's alpha and composite reliability were used to ensure the reliability of the questionnaire and also convergent validity was applied to examine its validity. Also, to evaluate the relationship among ...

  12. [Characteristics and Inputs of Cd Contamination in Paddy Soils in Typical Mining and Industrial Areas in Youxian County, Hunan Province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Min; Wang Mei-e; Chen, Wei-ping; Niu, Jun-jie

    2015-04-01

    In order to explore input pathways and pollution characteristics of Cd contamination in paddy soil in Youxian, Hunan Province, Cd contents in paddy soils, sediments of irrigation canals, typical mineral and industrial products such as coal, gangue and cement were analyzed. It was suggested that the average contents of Cd both in surface paddy soil and the corresponding natural soil were higher than the soil quality standard 0.3 mg x kg(-1). Cd contents in gangue and cement were similar as those in the corresponding natural soils. The atmosphere deposition of Cd was the highest in factory area. The profiles of Cd in 0-100 cm paddy soil and 0-40 cm in natural soils varied significantly from the upper to the lower layer. Cd contents in 0-40 cm layer in paddy soil were much higher than those in corresponding natural soils in mineral and mineral-factory areas. The potentiality for downward movement of Cd in soils in mineral area was the highest among the three studied areas. It suggested Cd contents in surface paddy soil were higher in upwind areas than those in downwind areas in mineral-factory and factory areas. It could be concluded that the main input pathways of Cd in mineral and mineral-factory. areas were from irrigation water, while contribution of atmosphere deposition in mineral-factory and factory areas was also very significant.

  13. Effects of Rainfall on Water Quality of Aquaculture along the Coastal Areas of Jiangsu Province and Countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The study aimed to decrease the effects of rainfall on water quality of aquaculture along the coastal areas of Jiangsu Province and improve the yield and quality of aquatic products.[Method] We firstly designed the methods to calculate average pH of different rainfalls,total precipitation,as well as the changes of pH and salinity in the studied pond and coastal culture zone,then analyzed the dynamic variation of precipitation,pH and salinity caused by rainfall to discuss the effects of rainfall ...

  14. Distribution and source of heavy metals in the surface sediments from the near-shore area, north Jiangsu Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Gang; Liu, Jian; Pei, Shaofeng; Kong, Xianghuai; Hu, Gang

    2014-06-15

    Samples of surface sediment and vibrocore were collected in the near-shore area of north Jiangsu Province for grain size, elements, (210)Pbexcess and (137)Cs analyses. In our study area, the diversity of metal concentration was controlled not by the grain size, but by the source. The element content of the old Yellow River Delta was used as baseline for our study area. Geoaccumulation indexes indicate that no station was polluted by Cu, Pb, Zn and As, but the Igeo values of As were close to zero in some stations. Slight pollution caused by Cd was observed in some stations. Correlation and enrichment factors suggest that Cu, Pb and Zn are lithogenic in origin, while As and Cd are mixed in origin. Especially, in some polluted stations Cd was obviously anthropogenic in origin.

  15. Characteristics of canopy and light transmittance in three types of apple orchards in Weibei areas of Shaanxi Province,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dengtao GAO; Mingyu HAN; Bingzhi LI; Linsen ZHANG; Ru BAI

    2008-01-01

    The effect of different modified tree shapes (MTS) on light reception was compared among three types of apple orchards: small-sized canopy, middle-sized canopy and large-sized canopy in Weibei areas of Shaanxi Province, China, by using WinsCanopy2004a (2002) for Hemispherical Image Analysis. The results showed that higher average values of photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) under canopy per day appeared in all tested orchards, and the number of branches per 667 m2 was lower, indicating that the modified tree shapes were effective to improve the light conditions of canopy but the pruning amount seemed to be slightly more than the appropriate level in Weibei areas. The middle-sized canopy had the maximal light penetration and the small-sized canopy had the least and the leaf area index (LAI) and the ratio of one year-old shoots to scaffold limbs were maximal in large-sized canopy orchards.

  16. Mapping of Marine Area Boundary of Central Java Province using Differential GPS Survey Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Khakhim

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of GPS (Global Positioning System technology which is measuring position by satellite, has taken a great metodology aspect of position on surface of earth. The standard GPS measurement takes an absolute positioning. To develop the accurate abd precision, it is used the differential method. Differential GPS measurement can be much more accurate than standard GPs measurement, wherever the method uses one receiver as base station/ reference and the other receiver as field station in a same time. That could reduce and eliminate drifts and errors. The aim of research is use the differential method of GPS survey to map the ocean boundary of Central Java Province. Physical data which neede are base line and base point. Base line were taken from obsrvation of longtime Landsat TM image band 5th based o opinion that shore line are clear seems and easy to interpreted at 10.00 am according to Landsat satellite reording time and the lowest tide time as base line. Location of lowest tide were selected at conspicuous place, such as cape, dry shore, etc and measured base on the BPN (Badan Pertahanan Nasional base/ reference point (orde 2 and 3 on the district, with GPS differential metod. Twelve miles distance from base line of ocean bounddary is belong to province and 1/3 of is belong to district. Characteristic of marine landform as cape, bay, estuaria, attended to international rules. Final report of the research were 1 oean boundary map of Center Java Province, 2 the location and base/ reference points (orde 2 and 3 that could be reference as a base point differential method.

  17. Natural radioactivity level of associated bone-coal mining area in Zhejiang Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE Ji-Da; ZHENG Hui-Di; SONG Wei-Li; ZENG Guang-Jian; WANG Sha-Ling; WU Zong-Mei

    2005-01-01

    The geographic distribution, γ-radiation level and specific activity of radionuclides of the bone-coal mines in Zhejiang Province were reported. The weighted average of γ-radiation dose rate of the bone-coal mines is 566 nGy/h for 107 main bone-coal mines. The weighted mean activity of 238U, 226Ra, 232Th and 40K in the samples are 949, 918, 34 and 554 Bq/kg for 171 samples of bone-coal, respectively.

  18. 75 FR 36347 - Determination of Pest-Free Areas in Mendoza Province, Argentina; Request for Comments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-25

    ... recognize additional areas as pest- free areas for Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata) in Argentina... being free of Ceratitis capitata, Mediterranean fruit fly (Medfly).\\1\\ Specifically, the Government...

  19. GIS-based spatial statistical analysis of risk areas for liver flukes in Surin Province of Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rujirakul, Ratana; Ueng-arporn, Naporn; Kaewpitoon, Soraya; Loyd, Ryan J; Kaewthani, Sarochinee; Kaewpitoon, Natthawut

    2015-01-01

    It is urgently necessary to be aware of the distribution and risk areas of liver fluke, Opisthorchis viverrini, for proper allocation of prevention and control measures. This study aimed to investigate the human behavior, and environmental factors influencing the distribution in Surin Province of Thailand, and to build a model using stepwise multiple regression analysis with a geographic information system (GIS) on environment and climate data. The relationship between the human behavior, attitudes (land use as wetland (X64), were correlated with the liver fluke disease distribution at 0.000, 0.034, and 0.006 levels, respectively. Multiple regression analysis, by equations OV=-0.599+0.005(population density (148-169 pop/km2); X73)+0.040 (human attitude (land used (wetland; X64), was used to predict the distribution of liver fluke. OV is the patients of liver fluke infection, R Square=0.878, and, Adjust R Square=0.849. By GIS analysis, we found Si Narong, Sangkha, Phanom Dong Rak, Mueang Surin, Non Narai, Samrong Thap, Chumphon Buri, and Rattanaburi to have the highest distributions in Surin province. In conclusion, the combination of GIS and statistical analysis can help simulate the spatial distribution and risk areas of liver fluke, and thus may be an important tool for future planning of prevention and control measures.

  20. Perfluorinated Compounds in Greenhouse and Open Agricultural Producing Areas of Three Provinces of China: Levels, Sources and Risk Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanwei Zhang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Field investigations on perfluoroalkyl acid (PFAA levels in various environmental matrixes were reported, but there is still a lack of PFAA level data for agricultural environments, especially agricultural producing areas, so we collected soil, irrigation water and agricultural product samples from agricultural producing areas in the provinces of Liaoning, Shandong and Sichuan in China. The background pollution from instruments was removed and C4–C18 PFAAs were detected by LC-MS/MS. The concentrations of PFAAs in the top and deep layers of soil were compared, and the levels of PFAAs in different agricultural environments (greenhouses and open agriculture were analyzed. We found the order of PFAA levels by province was Shandong > Liaoning > Sichuan. A descending trend of PFAA levels from top to deep soil and open to greenhouse agriculture was shown and perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA was considered as a marker for source analysis. Bean vegetables contribute highly to the overall PFAA load in vegetables. A significant correlation was shown between irrigation water and agricultural products. The EDI (estimated daily intake from vegetables should be of concern in China.

  1. Distribution of Selected Heavy Metals in Sediment of the River Basin of Coastal Area of Chanthaburi Province, Gulf of Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakkapan Potipat

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The sediment samples from 24 stations in coastal area of Chanthaburi Province were collected during March 2012 to March 2013 and analyzed for heavy metal contents (Pb, Cd, Cr, Fe, Cu and Zn, pH, organic matters and grain sizes. The correlation analyses showed that heavy metal concentrations were affected by the content of organic matter and the size of clay particles. The evaluation of the quality of sediment was carried out using the geoaccumulation index (Igeo and the enrichment factor (EF as well as the comparison with those in the Thailand's sediment quality guideline (SQG values. The results of the geoaccumulation index and the enrichment factor values of the heavy metals content in the sediments revealed that the study area was unpolluted and not enriched, respectively. The relationship between the heavy metals concentration and the organic matter, and the clay particle was proposed by using the multiple regression equations.

  2. The vegetation of the southern Langeberg, Cape Province. 1. The plant communities of the Boosmansbos Wilderness Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. J Mcdonald

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of the fynbos shrublands and forests of the Boosmansbos Wilderness Area, southern Langeberg, Cape Province, South Africa, is presented. Data were collected at 119 sites in mature fynbos vegetation (>10 years old and at five sites in patches of Afromontane Forest. Emphasis was placed on the fynbos shrublands and sample sites were subjectively located along a transect from south to north across the Langeberg range in the study area. This south to north orientation follows a complex gradient of changes in aspect, slope, geology, soil form and climate. Data were initially analysed using TWINSPAN and the resulting classification refined using Braun-Blanquet procedures. One forest subassociation and 12 fynbos communities were identified and described. A proposed hierarchical classification of the fynbos communities is presented.

  3. Factor Analysis on the Factors that Influencing Rural Environmental Pollution in the Hilly Area of Sichuan Province,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    By using factor analysis method and establishing analysis indicator system from four aspects including crop production,poultry farming,rural life and township enterprises,the difference,features,and types of factors influencing the rural environmental pollution in the hilly area in Sichuan Province,China.Results prove that the major factor influencing rural environmental pollution in the study area is livestock and poultry breeding,flowed by crop planting,rural life,and township enterprises.Hence future pollution prevention and control should set about from livestock and poultry breeding.Meanwhile,attention should be paid to the prevention and control of rural environmental pollution caused by rural life and township enterprise production.

  4. Opisthorchis viverrini infections and associated risk factors in a lowland area of Binh Dinh Province, Central Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dao, Thanh Thi Ha; Bui, Tuan Van; Abatih, Emmanuel Nji; Gabriël, Sarah; Nguyen, Thanh Thi Giang; Huynh, Quang Hong; Nguyen, Chuong Van; Dorny, Pierre

    2016-05-01

    Opisthorchiasis caused by Opisthorchis viverrini is a major public health problem in the Mekong Basin in South East Asia. It is associated with cholangiocarcinoma, a fatal cancer of the bile duct, which is very common in some areas of Thailand and Lao PDR. Although there is evidence of opisthorchiasis in the central and Southern provinces of Vietnam, data are scarce and Vietnam is often not considered an opisthorchiasis endemic area in the international literature. We conducted a cross-sectional survey in June 2015 in a lowland rural area of Binh Dinh Province in Central Vietnam to investigate the apparent prevalence of O. viverrini infection in the population and the associated risk factors. A total of 254 stool samples were collected and examined by the Kato Katz method. Consenting people shedding Opisthorchis-like eggs with their stools were treated with praziquantel and MgSO4 and adult worms were collected from stools for morphological and molecular identifications. Risk factors were studied with a structured questionnaire and the association with infection was evaluated by univariate and multivariate Firth's logistic regression analysis. The apparent prevalence in the investigated population determined by stool examination was 11.4% (CI: 8-16%). Infection with O. viverrini was confirmed in all 11 individuals consenting to receive praziquantel treatment and subsequent worm recovery from stools. The mean number of worms recovered after treatment/purgation was 14.5 (range 2-44). Male gender and the consumption of dishes prepared from raw small wild-caught freshwater fish (Carassius auratus) were found to be significant risk factors associated with opisthorchiasis in the area. These findings confirm the presence of O. viverrini infection in Central Vietnam related to the consumption of raw fish dishes. Awareness campaigns and control programs should be implemented in the region to combat this potentially fatal fluke infection.

  5. Investigation of the Role of Tourism Areas in Kerman Province on the Tourism Development (Case Study: Khaber National Park's tourist area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaliyah Nakhaei Mohammad Aabadi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the tourism industry is one of the major sources of income, employment and infrastructure to achieve sustainable development. Investment in tourism has economic social and even physical consequences. Hence; according to historical valuable historical monuments, inherited from ancestors in some of our ancient homeland in Iran, as well as ecotourism attractions with beautiful effects of life, an opportunity has been created for sustainable urban development based on tourism. If the opportunity is exploited properly, it brings improved urban economy,improved living standards and reduced migration. The areas of tourism attraction are a subset of tourism poles and one of the most important issues in the tourism industry. The diversity and complexity of the tourism industry according to geographical areas require special areas for tourism planning. In areas where there are high potential for tourism development, despite non favorable development, some factors should be followed that may accelerate the slow process of tourism development. One of these poles is Kheber tourism area in Kerman province that has high prospects and potentials. This paper has been prepared based on descriptive analysis and aim to identify the factors and areas of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats affecting the sustainable development of tourism using SWOT model and presents some guidelines for sustainable development of Kheber urban tourism .

  6. Ecological effect analysis of pumpkin and oil sunflower intercropping in arid area of northwest Hebei Province: I. moisture analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Junhua ZHANG; Wei HUANG; Fenglu ZHANG; Lifeng ZHANG

    2009-01-01

    Experiments were conducted during 2007-2008 at the Zhangbei Agricultural Resource and Ecological Environment Key Field Research Station, Hebei Province, China to study water-efficient pumpkin planting patterns in this area. Four treatments of pumpkin and oil sunflower intercropping were used to study the problem of water resource scarcity and inefficient water use in the plateau of northern Hebei Province. The four treatments were: pumpkin sole cropping (Sp), oil-sunflower sole cropping (So), intercropp ing one row oil sunflower (IC1) or two rows (IC2) between pumpkin rows. The results showed that oil sunflower competed for soil water with pumpkin during late growth stage of pumpkin in IC2, but there was no water competition in IC1. Total rainfall during the growing season was 201.6mm and the soil water balance differed between treatments. In all cases the water percolation was low and soil moisture storage always negative. Nearly all water loss was through evapotranspiration, which varied by treatment. The seasonal evapotranspiration of IC1 was less than So, Sp and IC2, 46.57%, 41.22% and 46.73%, respectively. Economic yield of pumpkin decreased from 30.00% (IC1) to 71.42% (IC2). However, yield per plant of intercropping oil sunflower increased from 190.71% to 241.26%. as compared with So, because oil sunflower showed remarkably partial advantage. The Land Equivalent Ratio (LER) of pumpkin-oil sunflower was 1.08-1.22, and the Water Equivalent Ratio (WER) of pumpkin-oil sunflower was 1.07-1.26. Economic value of sole pumpkin was greatest but did not differ from treatment IC1. Other treatments had significantly less economic value. In this region of rain-fed dry land farming, a sparse planting of sole pumpkin with high efficiency production could realize water resources most effectively in the Plateau of northern Hebei Province.

  7. Rice From Mercury Contaminated Areas in Guizhou Province Induces c-jun Expression in Rat Brain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN-PING CHENG; WEN-HUA WANG; LI-YA QU; JIN-PING JIA; MIN ZHENG; XIU-LING JI; TAO YUAN

    2005-01-01

    Objective Mercury (Hg), as one of the priority pollutants and also a hot topic of frontier environmental research in many countries, has been paid higher attention in the world since the middle of the last century. Guizhou Province (at N24°30′-29°13′, E103°1′-109°30′, 1 100 m above the sea level, with subtropical humid climate) in southwest China is an important mercury production center. It has been found that the mercury content in most media of aquatics, soil, atmosphere and in biomass of corns, plants and animals, is higher than the national standard.The present study aims to explore the influence of mercury pollution on the health of local citizens. Methods The effect of rice from two mercury polluted experimental plots of Guizhou Province on the expression of c-jun mRNA in rat brain and c-jun protein in cortex, hippocampus and ependyma was observed using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunocytochemical methods. Results The results showed that the mercury polluted rice induced expression of c-jun mRNA and its protein significantly. Selenium can reduce Hg uptake, an antagonism between selenium and mercury on the expression of c-jun mRNA and c-jun protein. Conclusion c-jun participates in the toxicity process of brain injury by mercury polluted rice, the expression of c- jun mRNA in brain, and c-jun protein in rat cortex and hippocampus can predict neurotoxicity of mercury polluted rice. People should be advised to be cautious in eating any kind of Hg-polluted foods. To reveal the relationship between c-jun induction and apoptosis, further examinations are required.

  8. AIR POLLUTION INVESTIGATION AND PROVIDING SYSTEM OF CONTROL IN KHORASAN STEEL COMPLEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Nouri

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available The most important environmental pollutant in steel industry is air pollution due to the process of its products. Optimise sitting for this industry, in a great extend will prevent pollutants and emissions. Khorasan Steel Company is located near some populous villages and three rivers. It is necessary to perform an investigation for providing abatement and control of air pollution, in time of planning and manufacturing of control instruments. The manufacturing company has determined air pollution reduction instruments in this site, according to the emission suspended particulate and its climatic conditions. The air pollution reducer's instruments were used back-fither. But, this offer was not agreed by the Department of the Environment of Iran. Perhaps, this disagreement was announced just for another original problem, which was the site selection of plants. This research was on the filtration which has been offered by the manufacturing company, if this selection can improve the future regional air pollution. These figures, of course, were obtained from the present data and plume rise particulate, considering Gausian distribution mode for all the rural population and rivers rounding to the site, up to 5 km. The results showed that the produced particulates were less than permissible limit and the proposed methods will improve the complex air pollution difficulties So, the proposed methods were provided for increasing the control and operating the system for conducting of cyclone before input of particulate to the back-filter.

  9. Numerical simulation for the coupling effect of local atmospheric circulations over the area of Beijing,Tianjin and Hebei Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Using the model system MM5.V3 and multi-layer grid nesting technique, we have done a multi-scale numerical simulation over the area of Beijing, Tianjin and Hebei Province to analyze the temperature and wind field there and study its local circulations. The results show a coupling effect of Urban Heat Island Circulation (UHIC), Mountain Valley Breeze (MVB) and Sea Land Breeze (SLB) occurs in this area when the synoptic system is weak. The SLB can penetrate deep into the mainland for about 200 km when it is blooming. MVB can extend to south and cover almost the whole plain area in Beijing. Both MVB and SLB are diurnal periodical; meanwhile the phase of MVB drops behind that of SLB for about six hours. As a local circulation, the UHIC weakens the two circulations above, and it also has a diurnal period. As a result, the coupling effect of circulations reveals not only different features in spring-summer period and autumn-winter period in a year but also the difference between early morn- ing to noonday and afternoon to night in a day. We noted the diffusion of contamination over the area around Beijing, and found the steady presence of a transport routine of contamination over North-China throughout the year caused by the Coupling Effect mentioned above. This find is important for studying the environment pollution in this area.

  10. Prospective study of asbestos-related diseases incidence cases in primary health care in an area of Barcelona province

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Asbestos related diseases include a number of conditions due to inhalation of asbestos fibres at work, at home or in the environment, such as pleural mesothelioma, asbestosis and calcified pleural plaques. Few epidemiological studies have established the incidence of asbestos related diseases in our area. The present proposal is based on a retrospective study externally funded in 2005 that is currently taking place in the same area and largely carried out by the same research team. The aim of the study is to achieve a comprehensive and coordinated detection of all new cases of Asbestos Related Diseases presenting to primary care practitioners. Methods/design This is a multicentre, multidisciplinary and pluri-institutional prospective study. Setting 12 municipalities in the Barcelona province within the catchment area of the health facilities that participate in the study. Sample This is a population based study, of all patients presenting with diseases caused by asbestos in the study area. Measurements A clinical and epidemiological questionnaire will be filled in by the trained researchers after interviewing the patients and examining their clinical reports. Discussion Data on the incidence of the different Asbestos Related Diseases in this area will be obtained and the most plausible exposure source and space-time-patient profile will be described. The study will also improve the standardization of patient management, the coordination between health care institutions and the development of preventive activities related with asbestos exposure and disease. PMID:20412567

  11. Investigation on natural radionucildes levels in multiple media in bone-coal mine areas of five provinces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KONG Ling-Li; ZHANG Liang; LI Ying; YE Ji-Da; JIANG Shan; SHI Jin-Hua; WU Zong-Mei

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports methods and results of the investigation of natural radionuclides levels in multiple media in the bone-coal mine areas in Hubei, Hunan, Jiangxi, Zhejiang, and Anhui Provinces. In the studied bone-coal mine areas, the specific activities of 238U and 226Ra in the soil samples were 0.37 and 0.24 Bq/g, respectively; the specific activities of 226Ra in the samples of bone-coal, bone-coal cinder and bone-coal cinder brick (BCCB) were 1.3,1.4 and 0.9 Bq/g, respectively. In the water samples collected from the bone-coal mine areas, the average concentrations of natural uranium and 226Ra were 33μg/L and 58 mBq/L, respectively, while in the water samples collected from outside the bone-coal mine areas, they were 3.4μg/L and 45 mBq/L, respectively. In addition, the specific activities of 238U and 226Ra in air aerosol samples from the bone-coal mine areas were 0.6 and 0.5 mBq/m3, respectively.

  12. Ecological footprint analysis on the traditional rice-fish agricultural area: a case study of Qingtian County, Zhejiang Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiao Wenjun; Min Qingwen; Cheng Shengkui; Zhang Dan; Sun Yehong

    2009-01-01

    Qingtian County of Zhejiang Province, China has maintained the traditional rice-fish agriculture for about 2,000 years and formed exceptional cultural heritage based on this kind of production mode, so it was selected by FAO as a pilot site for the rice-fish agricultural heritage systems in 2005.This research has applied the indicators of ecological footprint and biocapacity to monitor the environmental conditions of Qingtian County, aiming to find the impact that the traditional agricultural production mode and the local inhabitants lifestyle have placed on the local environmental conditions as well as the role they have played in maintaining ecological balance, cultural inheritance and regional sustainable development.Results show that Qingtian County is characterized by a nearly breakeven total ecological balance, as opposed to Zhejiang Province, the world and other agricultural regions.However, compared with another rice-fish agricultural region, Congjiang County which enjoys a considerable ecologtcal reserve, Qingtian County has consumed a greater amount of environmental resources.Specifically about half of the ecological footprint of Qingtian County can be attributed to the cropland (50.8%) while the CO2, area only accounts for 11.2%, which is dramatically different from that of the modern industrialized regions.And a vast of percentage of energy is caused by the combustion of fuelwood which not only requires the land to absorb the CO2 emission it has generated but also occupies the forest where it has been chopped.

  13. Periodical Press as a Means to Study Rear Area Activities in the First World War (Black Sea Province Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyubov G. Polyakova

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The article is focused on the Black Sea Province rear activity in the First World War. The article is based on the data of local and regional periodical press, such as: «Chernomorsky Kray», «Sochinsky Listok», «Chernomorskoe Poberezh’e», «Chernomorsky Listok Voyny», etc. Among the rear area activities, we can name charity for the wounded, entertainment at military hospitals, foundation of Mercy Sisters schools and Red Cross regional offices. Attention is also attached to the interaction with state institutions in charge of hospital work and the attitude of the royal family towards hospital care. Red Cross activities in the First World War are also significant. The conclusion states that cooperation between centre and outskirts in terms of help for the wounded was close in the First World War. Almost all of the work, concerning the establishment of regional (province hospitals was charity-funded. Outskirts attempted to model the supreme authority behavior, concerning this question and as a result the care for war victims had become the duty of the whole Russian community.

  14. IKONOS Image-Based Extraction of the Distribution Area of Stellera chamaejasme L. in Qilian County of Qinghai Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingzhong Li

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Stellera chamaejasme L. (S. chamaejasme is one of the primary toxic grass species (poisonous plants distributed in the alpine meadows of Qinghai Province, China. In this study, according to the distinctive phenological characteristics of S. chamaejasme, the spectral differences between S. chamaejasme in the full-bloom stage and other pasture grasses were analyzed and the red, blue, and near-infrared bands of IKONOS image were determined as the diagnostic bands of S. chamaejasme recognition. Feature indexes related to S. chamaejasme were established using the diagnostic bands, and \\(NDVI_{blue} = (\\rho_{nir} − \\rho_{blue}/(\\rho_{nir} + \\rho_{blue}\\ obtained as S. chamaejasme sensitive index based on the linear regression analysis between the indexes derived from field spectra and the actual cover fraction of S. chamaejasme communities. The distribution area of S. chamaejasme was extracted by using the index \\(NDVI_{blue}\\ derived from IKONOS multispectral image in Qilian County of Qinghai Province, China and the verified result reached an overall accuracy of 90.71%. The study indicated that high resolution multispectral satellite images (such as IKONOS images had significant potential in remote sensing recognition of toxic grass species.

  15. The comparative study of the development of Jiangxi Province and other Provinces in the middle areas of China%江西与中部省份发展状况比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭道宾

    2003-01-01

    In a common sense, a transforming process of industrial structure is the process of the economicdevelopment. Firstly, this thesis reviews the past and the current of the industrial development in thecentral China after the PRC was established. Secondly, The thesis deeply analyses the reasons thatindustrial development of Jiangxi province lays behind the others in the central China in six aspects assystem, investment, level of opening-up, and so on. Finally, after realizing Jiangxi's present situation andusing the successful experiences on industrial development of developed countries and areas for reference,we pose six suggestions and measures to focus on accelerting to deyelop economy and upgrade industrialstructure of Jiangxi Province.

  16. Using Remote Sensing Data to Delineate the Lineaments for Hydrothermal Mineral Prediction in Heqing Area, Northwest Yunnan Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Lineament extraction and analysis is one of the routine work in mapping medium and large areas using remote sensing data, most of which are satellite images. Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM) of 945×1 232 pixels subscene acquired on 21 March 2000 covering the northwestern part of Yunnan Province has been digitally processed using ER Mapper software. This article aims to produce lineament density map that predicts favorable zones for hydrothermal mineral occurrences and quantify spatial associations between the known hydrothermal mineral deposits. In the process of lineament extraction a number of image processing techniques were applied. The extracted lineaments were imported into MapGIS software and a suitable grid of 100 m×100 m was chosen. The Kriging method was used to create the lineament density map of the area. The results show that remote sensing data could be useful to extract the lineaments in the area. These lineaments are closely correlated with the faults obtained through other geological investigation methods. On comparing with field data the lineament-density map identifies two important high prospective zones, where large-scale deposits are already existing. In addition the map highlights unrecognized target areas that require follow up investigation.

  17. Trace Element Geochemistry of Tertiary Continental Alkali Basalts from the Liuhe—Yizheng Area,Jiangsu Province,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    支霞臣

    1991-01-01

    Reported in this paper are the chemical compositions and trace element (REE,Ba,Rb,Sr,Nb,Zr,Ni,Cr,V,Ga,Y,Sc,Zn,Cu,etc)abundances of Tertiary continental alkali basalts from the Liube-yizheng area,Jiangsu Province,China.The olivine basalt,alkali olivine basalt and basanite are all derived from evolved melts which were once af-fected by different degrees of fractional crystallization of olivine and clinopyroxene(1:2)under high pres-sures.The initial melts were derived from the garnet lherzolite-type mantle source through low-degree par-tial melting.The mantle source has been affected by recent mantle-enrichment events(e.g.mantle metasomatism),resulting in incompatible trace element enrichment and long-term depletion of radiogenic isotopic compositions of Sr and Nd.

  18. Interprovincial transfer of embodied energy between the Jing-Jin-Ji area and other provinces in China: A quantification using interprovincial input-output model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Weiming; Wu, Sanmang; Lei, Yalin; Li, Shantong

    2017-04-15

    Commodity trade between regions implies a large amount of energy transfer. As an important economic growth pole of China, the Jing-Jin-Ji area (Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei) is also one of the areas with the largest energy consumption in China. Moreover, the primary energy consumer goods in this area are fossil fuels, such as coal. This has led to serious air pollution in the area. Therefore, the reduction of energy consumption under the premise of maintaining sustained economic growth is an important task of the Jing-Jin-Ji area. In this study, an interprovincial input-output model was applied to quantitatively estimate the embodied energy transfer between Jing-Jin-Ji area and other provinces in China. The results indicated that the Metal and nonmetal mineral processing industry and the Electrical, gas and water industry in the Jing-Jin-Ji area exported a large amount of embodied energy to the Yangtze River Delta and the Pearl River Delta. However, the embodied energy export of the Jing-Jin-Ji area mainly exported by Hebei province. Beijing and Tianjin even have some net import of embodied energy. The embodied energy transfer between Tianjin, Hebei and other provinces was mainly driven by investment, while the main media of embodied energy transfer between Beijing and other provinces was consumption. Therefore, we suggest that the Jing-Jin-Ji area should further increase the degree of dependence on other provinces' energy-intensive products and reduce the export of energy-intensive products. In addition, there should be difference in the energy and industrial policies among Beijing, Tianjin and Hebei, and the problems of high energy consumption and high proportion of heavy industry in Hebei should be first resolved.

  19. Construction of Chaihu Selenium Industrial Demonstration Area in Zhongxiang City of Hubei Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guangzhong; DAI

    2014-01-01

    In order to develop selenium industry in Jianghan Basin,Hubei Provincial Party Committee decided to build Chaihu selenium industrial demonstration area in Zhongxiang City.This paper introduced general situation of Chaihu Town,analyzed countermeasures for construction of selenium industrial demonstration area in depth,and finally came up with 12 constructive and pertinent recommendations.

  20. New material of microfossils from the Ediacaran Doushantuo Formation in the Zhangcunping area,Yichang, Hubei Province and its zircon SHRIMP U-Pb age

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU PengJu; YIN ChongYu; GAO LinZhi; TANG Feng; CHEN ShouMing

    2009-01-01

    The Zhangcunping area is located at the north limb of the Huangling anticline in Yichang, Hubei Province. Here, the sedimentary succession of the Ediacaran Doushantuo Formation is similar with that in the Weng'an area, Guizhou Province. A large number of new microfossils (mainly acanthoacritarchs) from the Doushantuo Formation in this area are reported in this paper. The fossil assemblage shows similarity as the phosphatized biota of the Doushantuo Formation at Wang'an, Guizhou Province and the silicified biota of the Doushantuo Formation at the Yangtze Gorges, which suggests that the Zhangcunping area is a key for correlation of the Doushantuo Formation between the Weng'an area,Guizhou Province and the Yangtze Gorges. Besides, a new zircon SHRIMP U-Pb age (614.0±7.6 Ma) is first obtained from a horizon underneath the exposed surface in the middle of the Doushantuo Formation in the Zhangcunping area. This age not only provides a new datum for subdivision of the Ediacaran Doushantuo Formation, but also indicates that the age of the exposed surface in the middle of the Doushantuo Formation in the Yangtze Platform should be posterior to 614.0±7.6 Ma. Due to the horizon of the Weng'an biota situated above the exposed surface, the age of the Wang'an biota should be posterior to 614.0±7.6 Ma as well.

  1. An Organic Khorasan Wheat-Based Replacement Diet Improves Risk Profile of Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome: A Randomized Crossover Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Whittaker

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Khorasan wheat is an ancient grain with previously reported health benefits in clinically healthy subjects. The aim of this study was to examine whether a replacement diet, thereby substituting all other cereal grains, with products made with organic khorasan wheat could provide additive protective effects in reducing lipid, oxidative and inflammatory risk factors, in patients with Acute Coronary Syndromes (ACS in comparison to a similar replacement diet using products made from organic modern wheat. A randomized double-blinded crossover trial with two intervention phases was conducted on 22 ACS patients (9 F; 13 M. The patients were assigned to consume products (bread, pasta, biscuits and crackers made either from organic semi-whole khorasan wheat or organic semi-whole control wheat for eight weeks in a random order. On average, patients ingested 62.0 g dry weight (DW day−1 khorasan or control semolina; and 140.5 g DW day−1 khorasan or control flour, respectively. An eight-week washout period was implemented between the respective interventions. Blood analyses were performed both at the beginning and end of each intervention phase; thereby permitting a comparison of both the khorasan and control intervention phases, respectively, on circulatory risk factors for the same patient. Consumption of products made with khorasan wheat resulted in a significant amelioration in total cholesterol (−6.8%, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C (−8.1% glucose (−8% and insulin (−24.6% from baseline levels, independently of age, sex, traditional risk factors, medication and diet quality. Moreover, there was a significant reduction in reactive oxygen species (ROS, lipoperoxidation of circulating monocytes and lymphocytes, as well as in the levels of Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha. No significant differences from baseline in the same patients were observed after the conventional control wheat intervention phase. The present results suggest that a

  2. The enrichment characteristics and geological controlling factors of coalbed methane occurrence in Laochang area, Yunnan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Cai-fang; CHEN Zhao-ying; WANG Cong; JIANG Wei

    2012-01-01

    The enriched characters of methane content in the main coal seam of Yunnan's Laochang coal mine was analyzed through combined with the geologic conditions of the research area:structure type,hydrogeology condition,coal reservoir's macerals,ash,water content,and so on.The geology factors of controlling gas in Laochang coal mine were illustrated; and the different geology models of controlling gas of geologic condition coupling were posed.Research shows that,in the region,the methane contents of the main coal seams decrease gradually from middle to all around it; the northeast and southeast is higher than the west.In the local area,the methane content of anticline axis is higher,and the gas content is reduced to both wings and plunging crown.On macroscopic view,the distribution of methane content in coal-beds was controlled by structural type.On microscopic view,the methane content in coal-beds is mainly involved in coal reservoir's macerals,ash content,and water content.The enriched characters of CBM in the research area are mainly the result of structure-hydrogeology-petrophysics coupling controls of CBM.On the basis of above analysis,according to the distribution character of methane content in coalbeds,the research area was divided into low gas area,middle gas area,and high gas area.

  3. The relationship between managers’ emotional intelligence and organization performance (Case Study: Social Security Organization of KhorasanRazavi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoomeh Bahmadi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Emotional intelligence is some kind of process of emotional information, including detailed assessment of self and others’ emotions, appropriate expression of emotions and setting the quantitative and qualitative increase of life level. The purpose of this research is to investigate the relationship between emotional intelligence and its component with organizational performance of the managers of Social Security of KhorasanRazavi. According to the model of emotional intelligence of Daniel Goleman, emotional Intelligence includes four dimensions: self-awareness, selfmanagement, social awareness and relationship management. The research method is correlational and statistical population of the research according to Morgan Table is a sample of 35 managers ofKhorasanRazavi Social Security Organization and it was selected by simple random sampling. To collect data, the Brad Berry and Greaves Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire, 28 questions and to measure organizational performance, the rating and scales of Social Security of KhorasanRazavi were used. The reliability coefficient calculated for emotional intelligence questionnaire is obtained as equal. The validity of the questionnaire is confirmed by specialists. The questionnaire was distributed among the people by the researcher. In order for data analysis, Pearson correlation coefficient, and methods for the test of significance of the correlation was used. Results indicate that there is a direct positive relationship (with correlation coefficient of 0.652 with a significance level of 0.000 between emotional intelligence and the Social Security Organization of KhorasanRazavi performance. Also there is a positive relationship between each of the components of emotional intelligence (self-awareness and self-management, etc. and performance of Social Security Organization. Based on the obtained results, it is recommended that emotional intelligence and the importance of this component will be

  4. Prevalence of dental caries in fluorosis areas of Shantou City Guangdong Province after water improvement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏源

    2013-01-01

    Objective To analyse the relationship between children urine fluoride level,time of water supply improvement and detection rate of dental caries in fluorosis areas after water supply improvement.Methods The following

  5. Estimating Recreational Carrying Capacity of Gheisary Protected Area in Chaharmahal & Bakhtiari Province

    OpenAIRE

    Sheikh, A; Jafari, A.; Setoodeh, A

    2014-01-01

    It is now certain that to ensure a long term sustainable development, protected areas, the favored destinations for ecotourism, required a well written planning management. Each destination however has limited capability which is called “carrying capacity” to invite visitors. Physical, real (ecological) and effective (manageable) are different kinds of carrying capacity. The current study presented these varieties of carrying capacities for Gheisary protected area, stretched over 10,000 ha in...

  6. Vegetation Mapping of the Mond Protected Area of Bushehr Province (South-west Iran)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ahmadreza Mehrabian; Alireza Naqinezhad; Abdolrassoul Salman Mahiny; Hossein Mostafavi; Homan Liaghati; Mohsen Kouchekzadeh

    2009-01-01

    Add regions of the wodd occupy up to 35% of the earth's surface, the basis of various definitions of climatic conditions,vegetation types or potential for food production. Due to their high ecological value, monitoring of add regions is necessary and modem vegetation studies can help in the conservation and management of these areas. The use of remote sensing for mapping of desert vegetation is difficult due to mixing of the spectral reflectance of bright desert soils with the weak spectral response of sparse vegetation. We studied the vegetation types in the semiarid to arid region of Mond Protected Area, south-west Iran, based on unsupervised classification of the Spot XS bands and then produced updated maps.Sixteen map units covering t2 vegetation types were recognized in the area based on both field works and satellite mapping. Halocnemum strobilaceum and Suaeda fruticosa vegetation types were the dominant types and Ephedra foliata,Salicornia europaaa-Suaeda heterophylla vegetation types were the smallest. Vegetation coverage decreased sharply with the increase in salinity towards the coastal areas of the Persian Gulf. The highest vegetation coverage belonged to the riparian vegetation along the Mond River, which represents the northern boundary of the protected area. The location of vegetation types was studied on the separate soil and habitat diversity maps of the study area, which helped in final refinements of the vegetation map produced.

  7. Biological records of paleoclimate and paleoenvironment changes from Guanzhong area, Shaanxi Province during the last glacial maximum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    We have collected a suite of Paleoloxodon naumanni-Coelodonta antiquitatis fossils from a river terrace profile between Xi'an and Xianyang cities in Guanzhong Area, Shaanxi Province. A detailed examination of the fossils, together with 14C determinations and pollen analyses, have enabled us to reconstruct preliminary features of climate and environment changes and their evolutionary processes, within the last glacial maximum (LGM): about 20 ka ago, the climate was basically cool and wet, and was favourable for the existence of Paleoloxodon naumanni-Coelodonta antiquitatis fauna. This was followed by a cold, dry phase which was no longer suitable for this type of faunal suite, causing the death of a large number of mammalian assemblages. The available evidence indicates the existence of cold-dry and cool-wet climate and environment fluctuations during the LGM. The cool-wet stage within the LGM reflects a Heinrich event occurring in the high latitude areas, proving the existence of a teleconnection between polar-high latitude areas and the Loess Plateau.

  8. Discovery of the copper deposits with features of the Keweenawan type in the border area of Yunnan and Guizhou provinces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱炳泉; 胡耀国; 张正伟; 常向阳

    2003-01-01

    There existed intense Cu anomaly on the northeastern side of the geochemical boundary with NW strike in the border area between the Yunnan and Guizhou provinces. Through field observation, ore bodies of high-grade native coppers have been found. The copper mineralization was constrained by the ancient volcanic vents of Permian basalt eruption and the overlain strata of carbonaceous argillites. Native coppers with flaky, net veined and impregnated occurrences, fine-grained tenorites and massive chalcocites widely occur in volcanic breccias, tuffs, carbonaceous-siliceous argillites and siliceous bitumen rocks with bed thickness of about 15-80 m. Cu contents vary from 0.5% to 20%. The copper mineralization was tightly related to actinolite-tremolitization, zeolitization and bituminization and involved in extensive reduction environments. Continental flood basalts erupted in mantle plume environments usually have high Cu concentrations (~170 ×10-6 in the Emeishan basalts), which provided a copper source of mineralization. Thus, metallogenesis of the native copper deposits in the Yunnan-Guizhou border area is tightly associated with intensive crust-mantle and organic-inorganic interactions. The tremolitization and chalcocitization indicate that the metallogenic temperatures are in a range of 400-100℃. The geologic background and characteristics of ore and alteration for the native copper deposits in this area are somewhat similar to those of the Keweenawan native copper deposit in Michigan, USA.

  9. Tracking data from nine free-roaming Cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) collared in the Thabazimbi area, Limpopo Province, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marnewick, Kelly; Roxburgh, Lizanne; Somers, Michael J.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background In partnership with the University of Pretoria, the Endangered Wildlife Trust’s Carnivore Conservation Programme collared six male and three female free-roaming Cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) in the Thabazimbi area in Limpopo Province, South Africa. This study was undertaken to determine the spatial ecology of free-roaming Cheetahs that occur outside of formal protected areas on private ranchland, where they frequently come into conflict with, and are sometimes killed by, private landowners. The data were collected between September 2003 and November 2008, resulting in a total of 3165 location points (65 points from VHF collars and 3100 from GPS collars) for nine individual Cheetahs. New information This dataset provides distribution information about this Vulnerable species occurring outside of protected areas within South Africa. The dataset has been published to the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (www.GBIF.org) and provides the largest dataset on Cheetahs thus far, and, although it is spatially limited to a relatively small region on the African continent, it is the first study of its kind within South Africa. Also of significance is that the fate of 6 of the 9 collared Cheetahs is known, all except one of which died of anthropogenic causes. PMID:28325981

  10. Study on the extraction method of tidal flat area in northern Jiangsu Province based on remote sensing waterlines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuanyuan; Gao, Zhiqiang; Liu, Xiangyang; Xu, Ning; Liu, Chaoshun; Gao, Wei

    2016-09-01

    Reclamation caused a significant dynamic change in the coastal zone, the tidal flat zone is an unstable reserve land resource, it has important significance for its research. In order to realize the efficient extraction of the tidal flat area information, this paper takes Rudong County in Jiangsu Province as the research area, using the HJ1A/1B images as the data source, on the basis of previous research experience and literature review, the paper chooses the method of object-oriented classification as a semi-automatic extraction method to generate waterlines. Then waterlines are analyzed by DSAS software to obtain tide points, automatic extraction of outer boundary points are followed under the use of Python to determine the extent of tidal flats in 2014 of Rudong County, the extraction area was 55182hm2, the confusion matrix is used to verify the accuracy and the result shows that the kappa coefficient is 0.945. The method could improve deficiencies of previous studies and its available free nature on the Internet makes a generalization.

  11. Human exposure to methylmercury through rice intake in mercury mining areas, Guizhou province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xinbin; Li, Ping; Qiu, Guangle; Wang, Shaofeng; Li, Guanghui; Shang, Lihai; Meng, Bo; Jiang, Hongmei; Bai, Weiyang; Li, Zhonggen; Fu, Xuewu

    2008-01-01

    The toxicity of methylmercury (Me-Hg) has caused widespread public human concern as a result of several widely publicized disasters. Me-Hg is highly toxic, and the nervous system is its principal target tissue for humans. Although the general population is primarily exposed to Me-Hg through contaminated fish and marine mammals, in Hg mining areas a long history of mining activities can produce serious Hg pollution to the local environment In a study of 98 persons from the Wanshan Hg mining area, hair Me-Hg levels indicated Me-Hg exposure. Rice, the staple food of the local inhabitants also showed high total Hg (T-Hg) and Me-Hg levels. The geometric mean concentration of T-Hg and mean concentration of Me-Hg in rice samples collected from 3 villages in Wanshan Hg mining area were 36.2 (ranging from 4.9 to 214.7), and 8.5 (ranging from 1.9 to 27.6) microg/kg, respectively, which were significantly elevated compared to the rice samples collected from a reference area, where the mean T-Hg and Me-Hg concentrations were 7.0 (3.2-15.1) and 2.5 (0.8-4.3) microg/kg, respectively. Pork meat, vegetable, and drinking water samples collected in Wanshan Hg mining area contained highly elevated T-Hg, but very low levels of Me-Hg. The relationships between the estimated rice Me-Hg intake and hair Me-Hg levels (r = 0.65, p levels indeed was the main route of Me-Hg exposure for the local residents in the Wanshan Hg mining area. From our study, we can conclude that the main human exposure to Me-Hg via food consumption is not restricted to fish, but in some cases in mining areas of China to frequent rice meals.

  12. A medical geology study of an arsenic-contaminated area in Kouhsorkh, NE Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabasi, Samira; Abedi, Arezoo

    2012-04-01

    High concentrations of arsenic were determined in sediments from the Kouhsorkh area, Khorasan province, NE Iran. The main rock formations in the area consist of Tertiary volcanic rocks as Tuffaceous sandstone, polymictic conglomerate and andesite. Furthermore, some As-Sb-Au mineralization occurred in this area. Concentrations of arsenic in sediments were determined to range between 4.2 and 268.2 ppm, exceeding US EPA (2004) limits. It seems that young volcanic activity is one of the most important factors for arsenic contamination in this area. The first stage of this medical geology study was done at 2 villages in the Kouhsorkh area in which the arsenic concentration in water is high. People in this residential area suffer from skin diseases including hyperpigmentation, hypopigmentation, keratosis on head, hands, and feet. The 24-h urine specimens were tested for arsenic, the level of total arsenic in urine were determined to range between 13.66 and 75.92 μg/l day, exceeding permissible limits from 5 to 40 μg/day. More systematic studies are needed to determine the link between As exposure and its related diseases.

  13. Hydrogeochemical and spectroscopic studies of radioactive materials in Ayrakan and Cheshmeh Shotori areas, northeastern Isfahan province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Esmaeili Vardanjani

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Groundwaters hydrochemistry of Ayrakan and Cheshmeh Shotori areas and geochemistry of rare earth elements, indicate Ayrakan alkali granite as the origin of uranium and other dissolved elements in groundwaters of these areas. Geochemical and hydrogeochemical studies as well as the trend of uranium and thorium transition and mobility in aqueous environments of these areas indicate uranium adsorption by iron hydroxide (goethite as the deterrent agent against uranium transition and mobility from depth to surface. Gamma-ray spectroscopic study of sediments from Cheshmeh Shotori area by HPGe detector indicates the presence of 226Ra in high contents and as the radioactive nuclide that is the reason for high activity of these sediments. Production of 226Ra from 238U decay, shorter half-life of 226Ra compared to 238U, radium transition by groundwaters from depth to surface as well as hydrogeochemical evidences, all suggest the possibility of existence of hidden uranium deposit and uranium mineralization in depth and the distance between Ayrakan and Cheshmeh Shotori areas.

  14. Hydrology of Area 30, Eastern Region, Interior Coal Province, Illinois and Indiana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wangsness, D.J.

    1983-03-01

    This report on hydrologic conditions and identification of sources of hydrologic informaton is designed particularly for use by mine owners, mine operators, and consulting engineers. The report format consists of brief texts and supporting illustrations or tables on a series of hydrologic topics that describe the hydrology of Area 30. The physiography is characterized by lowland plains, except for small upland areas in the south and the east. Average elevation ranges from 400 feet in the south to 800 feet in the north. The major rivers draining Area 30 are the Vermilion, Embarras, and Wabash. Records of stream and river discharges indicate that the dominant factor affecting average annual flow is size of drainage area. Low flow is highly variable, depending upon the physiography and the extent of the surficial aquifer. In the absence of surficial aquifers, low flow is minimal. Yields from sand and gravel aquifers range from 5 to 3000 gallons per minute and generally exceed those from bedrock aquifers. The aquifers discharge by seepage into streams, evapotranspiration, springs, and pumping. The annual seepage rate during periods of normal precipitation is about 0.40 cubic foot per second per square mile of drainage area or less.

  15. Analysis and Countermeasures on Effective Land Use of Rural Residential Area in Jinan,Shandong Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Hong

    2006-01-01

    With the improvement of urbanization and the expansion of urban size, the cultivated land decreases gradually but the demand for urban land increases, thereby resulting in the conflict of land use. Analyzing the status quo of land use of rural residential area, this paper points out that two main problems, namely, the low degree of land use, and the waste of land resources that are prevalent in the rural residential area. Based on the above analysis,the author states that the emphasis on land use will be the plain regions in the future, and adoption of reasonable economic measures will be the new solution to the problems.

  16. Improved Geological Mapping Using Landsat-5 TM Data in Weixi Area, Yunnan Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tarik Bashir Benomar; BIAN Fuling

    2005-01-01

    Different image processing algorithms have been evaluated in the context of geological mapping using Landsat TM data.False color composites, the principal component imagery, and IHS decorrelation stretching method for Landsat-5 TM data have been found useful for delineating the regional geological features, mainly to provide the maximum geological information of the studied area .The study testifies that using which image processing yields best results for geological mapping in arid and semiarid regions by preserving morphological and spectral information.Generally, the studied area can be divided into three main geological units: Basaltic intrusive rocks, Metamorphic with varying intensities and Sedimentary rocks.

  17. Environmentally geochemical characteristics of vanadium in the topsoil in the Panzhihua mining area, Sichuan Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TENG Yanguo; JIAO Xudong; WANG Jinsheng; XU Wei; YANG Jie

    2009-01-01

    Vanadium is a trace element, which may be biologically beneficial and possibly essential but certainly harmful to human beings and some living organisms if excessive. After over 40 years of development, the mining industry has caused serious environmental problems in the Panzhihua mining area. Vanadium is significantly accu-mulated in the soil of the Panzhihua area. Human activities have intensified the pollution and release of vanadium and caused serious damages to the ecological system there. In the past few years, the authors have made investiga-tions into and assessments on the geochemical distribution, chemical speciation, adsorption characteristics and transfer behavior of vanadium in the topsoil in the Panzhihua mining area. The results showed that: (1) the difference in the contents of vanadium in soil between premonsoon and monsoon is insignificant; (2) the adsorption isotherms of vanadium on soil in the Panzhihua mining area ate well described by the Langmuir type; (3) the transfer ability of vanadium in soil is interrelated to soil properties; and (4) the chemical speciation of vanadium shows an order of insoluble residue > oxidizable=reducible > soluble component. According to the above results, some countermea-sures to control pollution of vanadium in soil should be put forward.

  18. Biodiversity and Ecological Structure of Mangrove Mature in Coastal Area of Dumai District - Riau Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EKO PRIANTO

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available This research in coastal area of Dumai has been completed in September untill Desember 2003. The aim of this research was to collect basic data of mangrove ecosystem which covered inventory of biodiversity and ecology structure by using primary and secondary data. Primary data of mangrove forest ecosystem has been collected by line transect method while secondary data was collected by study literature and previous study report. The result showed that there were 17 types of primary mangrove and 18 types of secondary mangrove. The main value indeks in every study area indicated that in the study area I and IV, Xylocarpus granatum had high value as 104,53 and 104,22 subsequently. In the study area II, III and V, Rhizophora apiculata had the high value which subsequently were 114,39, 108,81 and 110,19. There were two main extinct spesies of mangrove, which are Scyphiphora hydrophyllaceae (Cingam/Perepat Lanang and Sonneratia ovata (Kedabu, in which exceptional management is needed for sustainability of these species.

  19. The etiology of esophageal cancer in high- and low- risk areas of Jiangsu province, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, M.

    2011-01-01

        [Background]Esophageal cancer (EC) remains one of the most common and fatal malignancies worldwide. The geographic variation in EC occurrence is striking, and China is an area with one of the highest incidences of EC. A number of epidemiological studies

  20. Control status quo of drinking-water-borne endemic fluorosis in the disease affected areas in Shandong Province in 2012:an analysis of survey results

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    云中杰

    2014-01-01

    Objective To understand the schedule and effectiveness of water-improving defluoridation projects comprehensively of control of fluorosis in drinking-water-borne endemic fluorosis areas in Shandong Province,and to provide a scientific basis for making strategies for prevention and control of the disease.Methods In accordance

  1. Efficacious Factors on Sport Effectiveness in Disable's Leisures Time: Case Study in North Khorasan Province in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Rajabzade

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have been done to obtain a written pattern in order to determine auditing quality since 1981 following documentation of auditing quality according to company size by Linda De Angelo. Multiple factors such as auditing company size, tenure period of auditor and report type were applied in various investigations to determine quality. Recently, the tendency to evaluate factors affecting auditing quality has been increased among researchers due to the change of demands of auditor services. Pattern of internal studies have indicated that a company's size (organization as big and society as small and tenure period of an auditor are the main factors in studies. Divergent findings have been obtained. In this paper a company’s size is considered as auditing quality scale. We examined the two proposed hypothesis using statistical logistic regression and multivariate regression. Tests were conducted using real data related to 155 companies chosen from those companies accepted in Tehran stock exchange during (2004-2009, in these tests the known software SPSS and LISREL were used.

  2. [Responses of Picea likiangensis radial growth to climate change in the Small Zhongdian area of Yunnan Province, Southwest China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhi-Jiang; Tan, Liu-Yi; Kang, Dong-Wei; Liu, Qi-Jing; Li, Jun-Qing

    2012-03-01

    Picea likiangensis (Franch. ) Pritz. primary forest is one of the dominant forest types in the Small Zhongdian area in Shangri-La County of Yunnan Province. In this paper, the responses of P. likiangensis tree-ring width to climate change were analyzed by dendrochronological methods, and the dendrochronology was built by using relatively conservative detrending negative exponential curves or linear regression. Correlation analysis and response function analysis were applied to explore the relationships between the residual chronology series (RES) and climatic factors at different time scales, and pointer year analysis was used to explain the reasons of producing narrow and wide rings. In the study area, the radial growth of P. likiangensis and the increasing air temperature from 1990 to 2008 had definite 'abruption'. The temperature and precipitation in previous year growth season were the main factors limiting the present year radial growth, and especially, the temperature in previous July played a negative feedback role in the radial growth, while the sufficient precipitation in previous July promoted the radial growth. The differences in the temperature variation and precipitation variation in previous year were the main reasons for the formation of narrow and wide rings. P. likiangensis radial growth was not sensitive to the variation of PDSI.

  3. Prevalence and Risk Factors for Infection by Opisthorchis viverrini in an Urban Area of Mahasarakham Province, Northeast Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaiputcha, Kusumaporn; Promthet, Supannee; Bradshaw, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional analytic study was to investigate the prevalence and risk factors for Opisthorchis viverrini (OV) infection in an urban area of Northeastern Thailand. The participants were 254 household representatives aged 15 years or older living in the most urbanised part of Chiang Yuen municipality in Mahasarakham Province. All participants provided stool samples which were examined using the modified Kato-Katz procedure, and a structured interview questionnaire was used to collection demographic information, knowledge about OV infection, and the consumption of unsafely prepared freshwater fish. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and logistic regression. The overall prevalence of OV infection was 15.0%, and in the multivariate analysis male gender was found to be significantly and positively associated with OV infection (ORadj=9.75, 95%CI: 34.03-23.58) while education to secondary school level or above was a significant protective factor (ORadj=0.30, 95%CI: 0.12-0.74). The eating of unsafely prepared fish and knowledge about OV were not significantly related to infection status. The findings were discussed in terms of issues for future research, especially the need to consider the possibility of higher rates of OV infection in urban areas than might be expected and to investigate the sources of infected fish products which may well be different from those in rural villages.

  4. The Analysis of Limitation of Engel’s Coefficient——A Case Study of Rural Areas in Hebei Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    On the basis of introducing relevant theories of Engel’s coefficient,this paper analyzes the limitation of these theories in practical application currently in China,for example,continuing to use original theory,not in line with reality of China;comparison invalidity in length and breadth,is not conducive to relevant analysis;culling out the special factors easily causes distortion of conclusion.Taking rural areas in Hebei Province as an example,this paper analyzes the limitation of Engel’s coefficient in analyzing the gap of rural economy:in terms of region horizontally,Engel’s coefficient neglects the difference of consumption structure among regions,and difference of economic stages among regions;in terms of time vertically,Engel’s coefficient neglects the periodic change of consumption structure and the ratio change of different families in different periods.According to the reality of China’s rural areas,the correction model of Engel’s coefficient is established as follows.Firstly,Engel’s coefficient=Percentage of expenditure variation(food+ education+ medical service) /Percentage of total expenditure variation;Engel’s coefficient=Percentage of expenditure variation(food+ education+ medical service) /Percentage of income variation.Secondly,Engel’s coefficient=Percentage of expenditure variation of food/Percentage of variation of(total expenditure educational expenditure-medical expenditure.Thirdly,Engel’s coefficient=Percentage of expenditure variation of food/Percentage of total expenditure variation.

  5. [Lead uptake by plant in soil-plant system at lead-zinc deposit area of western Hunan province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yong-Hua; Yang, Lin-Sheng; Ji, Yan-Fang; Sun, Hong-Fei; Li, Hai-Rong; Wang, Wu-Yi

    2008-01-01

    Contents of lead in several crops as well as its uptake and distribution by paddy in typical lead-zinc deposit area of western Hunan province were studied based on field systematic sampling and laboratory analysis. The average concentration of lead in rice, maize and soy bean in the deposit was 2.4, 1.2 and 3.3 times higher than that in control area, respectively, suggesting that crops in the deposit were heavily contaminated by the element. Significant difference of the lead concentrations in crops was found among different crop species and different organs of the same crops. The average concentration of lead followed the trend: soy bean > rice > maize (among crop species), and root > haulm > seed (among organs). Paddy root exhibited strong binding and tolerant capacity to lead. Correlation analysis indicated that soil lead was main retention in paddy root, whereas the gaseous lead might be the main source for lead in the aerial part of crop. Heavy metals such as Hg, Cd as well as Pb co-enriched in crops, therefore the mechanism and health risk of the combined pollution of heavy metals in the deposit crops should be paid attention to.

  6. Appraisal and evolution of hydrochemical processes from proximity basalt and granite areas of Deccan Volcanic Province (DVP) in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonkamble, Sahebrao; Sahya, Ashalata; Mondal, N. C.; Harikumar, P.

    2012-05-01

    SummaryThis paper deals with a systematic hydrochemical study carried out at proximity basalt and granite areas of Deccan Volcanic Province (DVP) in India to assess groundwater quality and evaluate the hydrochemical processes. A total of 40 groundwater samples were collected equally from these areas and analyzed. Results showed that the groundwaters rich in alkaline earth in the basalt and alkali rich element in the granite. The dominancy of cations was observed as Ca2+ > Mg2+ > Na+ > K+ in the basalt and Na+ > Mg2+ > K+ > Ca2+ in the granite, whereas anions as HCO3->Cl>SO42- and Cl>HCO3->SO42-, respectively. Hydrochemical processes were identified with the helps of ion exchange, carbonate weathering and dissolution, multiple ionic ratios, and silicate weathering, which shown the predominance of carbonate, dolomite, calcite and silicate (anorthite) weathering in basalt, but in granite, silicate (alkali feldspar) weathering was dominated. Factor analysis also showed that there were multiple processes acting on groundwaters, were separated from the main cluster. Salinity, Sodium Absorption Ratio (SAR), Soluble Sodium Percentage (SSP), Residual Sodium Carbonate (RSC), Kelley's Ratio (KR) and Permeability Index (PI) in well samples showed that groundwater in basalt was more suitable for irrigation purposes. Further, a digital elevation model (DEM) was generated using Global mapper (8.0 version) software, which aided to decipher the thickness of basalt trap, and vertical transition zone of basaltic (trap) and granitic (basement) aquifer at this DVP comprising with the well depths and groundwater chemistry.

  7. ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY AND SCENARIOS OF URBANIZATION IN ARID AREA -- A Case Study in Wuwei City of Gansu Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YOU Fei; LI Yu; DONG Suo-cheng

    2005-01-01

    Based on data of questionnaire and field survey and two developing models of Business As Usual (BAU) and the Intensive Urbanization (IU), this article, taking Wuwei City, a medium size city and typical oasis arid area in Gansu Province with very vulnerable and sensitive natural environment but long history of oasis economy, as an example, evaluated the sustainability of its environment and analyzed the scenarios of Wuwei's household energy consumption, waste discharge in transportation industry, primary industry, secondary industry, tertiary industry, by the integration of the systematical dynamics model Stella and Polestar language to simulate the future development of the research area. The results showed that, first, the developing model ofIU was propitious to Wuwei City named for oasis economy and vulnerable natural environment. The strategy of"Intensive Urbanization" can change the structure of energy utilization, and improve the efficiency of energy utilization. Second, the proportion of domestic energy consumption will decrease with industrialization and economic development, while that of tertiary industry, secondary industry and transportation will gradually grow up according to strategy of"Intensive Urbanization". Third, the Wuwei City is facing a severe eco-environmental crisis under the conventional patterns of development and a better future under a sustainable urbanization scenario, in the next 10 to 20 years. The different developing trends were clarified and the relative countermeasures were put forward for the policy makers according to the driving forces.

  8. Three-dimensional seismic velocity tomography of the upper crust in Tengchong volcanic area, Yunnan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    楼海; 王椿镛; 皇甫岗; 秦嘉政

    2002-01-01

    Based on data collected by deep seismic sounding carried out in 1999, a three-dimensional P wave velocity structure is determined with tomographic inversion. The tomographic result shows that there is a P wave low velocity zone (LVZ) in the upper crust beneath the Tengchong volcanic area. The LVZ is in the depth of 7~8 km and may be a small magma chamber or a partial melting body. The result also shows that the LVZ is in the northeastern side of the Rehai hydrothermal field, which is located in another LVZ near the surface. The shallow LVZ may represent a well-developed fracture zone. The strong hydrothermal activity in Rehai area can attribute to the existence of fractures between two LVZs. These fractures are the channels for going upwards of the deep hot fluid.

  9. Community participation mode of ecotourism in Tibetan area of Shangri-La County, Yunnan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng Zhu

    2006-01-01

    Community participation is one of the focuses of the research on ecotourism. The research on community participative model is of great theoretical and practical significance. Based on the former experts' studies, this paper analyzes ecotourism demonstration areas in Diqing Shangri-La of Yunnan as a case study. It mainly expounds the relationship between ecotourism and community participation and puts forward such a community participative model of ecotourism in Shangri-La.

  10. [Serotype identification and antibiotic susceptibility of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in the Weishan area in Shandong Province, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, C C; Hu, B; Bi, Z W; Kou, Z Q; Fang, M; Chen, B L; Bi, Z Q

    2017-01-06

    Objective: To determine the serotypes and drug resistance profiles of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) in animal stools from the Weishan area in Shandong Province, China. To provide the basis for further study. Methods: Five hundred animal stool samples (from pigs, cattle, sheep, dogs and birds) were collected from the Weishan area and STEC strains were isolated from these samples. Strains were serotyped by a serum agglutination test, and their drug resistance profiles were determined through antimicrobial sensitivity experiments. In this study, PCR was used to detect tetracycline resistance genes (tetA, tetB, tetC, tetD) and beta-lactam resistance genes (blaSHV-1, blaCTX-M, blaTEM). Results: Sixteen strains of STEC were isolated from animal stool samples. Thirteen strains were isolated from pig stool samples, two from bovine stool samples and one from a sheep stool sample. Two of the strains were identified as E. coli O157:H7, and other 14 strains were non-O157 STEC of different serotypes. Antimicrobial sensitivity experiments showed that 15 of the strains were multidrug resistant. The rates of resistance were as follows: nalidixic acid (12/16 strains), sulfisoxazole (11/16), trimethoprim and sulphame-thoxazole (11/16), doxycycline (9/16), azithromycin (9/16), tetracycline (9/16), chloramphenicol (8/16) and streptomycin (8/16). Therefore, nalidixic acid showed the highest rate of resistance among the strains, followed by trimethoprim and sulphame-thoxazole, and sulfisoxazole. Resistance to cefepime or imipenem was not detected. In total, three types of drug resistance genes (tetA, tetB and tetC) were detected among the 16 strains. Conclusion: The results showed that STEC strains isolated from animals in the Weishan area were of a range of serotypes. The 16 strains of STEC isolated from animal stools in this area were resistant to a number of antibiotics, with many strains displaying multidrug resistance.

  11. Remote Sensing Analysis of Mineralized Alteration in the Ramand Area (Qazvin Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Abolfazl Ezzati

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The Ramand area, southwest of Buin- Zahra, about 60 kilometers from Qazvin, lies in the igneous belt of the Urmieh-Dokhtar region, the main structural zone of north-central Iran. Rhyodacite and rhyolite lava flows are the principal host rocks of mineralization and alteration of the area, most of which occurs in faulted and brecciated zones alongmaj or northwest-trending fault systems (such as Kour-Cheshmeh, Hassan Abad and their branches. Clay minerals determined from satellite images indicated principally argillic hydrothermal alteration before laboratory mineralogical analysis. According to instrumental analyses, mineralized alteration with greater amounts of argillic halos and lesser amounts of sericitic-propylitic minerals contains quartz veinlets in the vertical and lateral sections. Initially, alteration in the Ramand area was revealed in ETM images by using the SPCA technique of Crosta and Moore, 1990 (Selective Principle Component Analysis. Compared with other techniques, SPCA results have reliable spectral signatures for identifying argillic minerals and Fe-oxides as the main mineralogical association in hydrothermal environments. Subsequently, multispectral images (ASTER were analyzed using band ratios.The results indicated silicification alteration along the faulted regions in the Ramand area. Later, areas of silicification alteration were prospected for precious and base metal mineralization.Sampling results suggested that the altered areas have some potential for epithermal mineralization, according to instrumental analyses and micrographic evidence. Materials and methods 1- Collecting satellite images, geological evidence and related documents 2- Image processing to reveal and identify the mineralized alteration. 3- Sampling of the mineralized zones indicated by the remote sensing. 4- Thin- and polished section microscopic studies. 5- X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD (19 samples, inductively coupled plasma mass

  12. The Reasons for Drawing Attention to Western Iran (Kermanshah Province During the Second Half of Sassanian Era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glareh Amiri

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Historically, Iran plateau has nurtured different cultures and due to its natural and geographical characteristics, has linked east cultures to Mesopotamia, so that the civilizations related to this plateau have served considerably humanity for a period of 1000 years. Among these cultures, the ones related to the western part of Iran plateau would play significant roles. Zagros foothills which have stretched from northern to the southern west are replete with green and affluent valleys with a distinguished position for the establishment of various cultures since ancient times. Kermanshah as a region located in such western parts draw the attention of Sassanid kings at the last years of fourth century (AD (the second half of Sasanian kingdom, and Fars province became secondary to Sassanid s. Kermanshah in this period was a part of Mai or Mad located in Koust Khourbaran area, and later this region was called Kermanshah covering lands from Nahavand to Ctesiphon.There are several reasons to Sassanid kings attention in the second half of the Sassanid era to the western parts of Iran including military factors, religious beliefs, good weather, the existence of Khorasan wide road (Silk Road, tendency to gaining independence from religious centers and also commercial and economic factors. This paper, using historical documents and data and applying historical research techniques, attempts to investigate the geographical and political situation of the central Zagros region and the reasons for Sassanid kings attention to this region.

  13. Comparison of Micromorphological Features of Two Agricultural Cultivated Soils in Guanzhong Areas, Shaanxi Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    By comparing micromorphological features of irrigated and non-irrigated soils in Guanzhong areas, China, this paper tries to illustrate the influences of farming management methods on the soil-forming process. The micromorphology was observed under a petrographic microscope and its image was quantificationally measured by Nikon NISBR 2.2 software.Both irrigated and non-irrigated soils have the same soil profile pattern, AP1-Ap2- BC, but the former has a more obvious profile dissimilation. The minerals assemblage of soil profiles A and B are very similar, which is mainly composed of Q and Pl. Compared with non-irrigated soil, grains of irrigated soil remarkably decrease in length, area, eqdiameter, perimeter,elongation, roundness, and C/F10 μm ratio; voids are characterized by more regular void shape and more smooth void wall;there is more abundant residual clay and small amount of illuvial clay. All results in this study suggest that the farming management method has influences on soil profile dissimilation and micromorphology. Agricultural irrigation could strengthen the degree of weathering, make smaller and rounder soil grains, cause a significant increase of residual clay and appearance of illuvial clay. But no significant change has been observed in the minerals assemblage of coarse grains.

  14. Content and distribution of fluorine in rock, clay and water in fluorosis area Zhaotong, Yunnan Province

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, K.; Li, H.; Feng, F. (and others) [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China)

    2007-04-15

    About 160 samples of coal, pyritic coal balls, coal seam gangue, clay, corn, capsicum and drinking water were collected from the endemic fluorosis area of Zhenxiong and Weixin county, China to determine the fluorine content, distribution pattern and source in this fluorosis area. The study shows that the average fluorine content in the coal samples collected from 3 coal mines of the Late Permian coals in Zhenxiong and Weixin county, Zhaotong City, which are the main mining coals there, is 77.13 mg/kg. The average fluorine content coals collected form thee typical fluorosis villages in 72.56 mg/kg. Both of them are close to the world average and little low than the Chinese average. The fluorine content of drinking water is lower than 0.35 mg/L, the clay used as an additive for coal-burning and as a binfer in briquette-making by local residents has a high content of fluorine, ranging from 367-2,435 mg/kg, with the majority higher than 600 mg/kg and an average of 1,084.2 mg/kg. 29 refs., 5 tabs.

  15. Analysis of Coordination between the Public Service in Rural Areas and Socio-economic Development——A Case Study of Sichuan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Taking Sichuan Province as an example,by using the overall evaluation function of Sichuan’s rural public service equalization development level and rural socio-economic development level,we conduct profound analysis on coordination between public service in Sichuan’s rural areas and socio-economic development from 2003 to 2008.The results show that the coordination between rural public service and socio-economic development in Sichuan Province is not high,and the equalization phenomenon of rural public service construction and socio-economic development is very prominent.The equalization development of public service in rural areas of Sichuan Province from 2003 to 2008 lags behind socio-economic development.The coordination between public service equalization system in rural areas of Sichuan Province and socio-economic development system abates continuously;the coordination between infrastructure and socio-economic development increases slowly;the coordination between education and socio-economic development declines sharply;the coordination between public culture and socio-economic development tends to decrease;the coordination between ecological environment construction and socio-economic development decreases continuously with great amplitude;the coordination between public health and socio-economic development decreases continuously;the coordination between science and technology and socio-economic development lingers at low level;the coordination between social security and employment,and socio-economic development increases in fluctuation,but with small amplitude.

  16. Geological Characteristics of Copper Mineralization,Jiujiang—Ruichang Area,Jiangxi Province,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱小平; 裴荣富; 等

    1989-01-01

    The Jiujiang-Ruichang area in northwestern Jiangxi extends along the western part of the minerogenic belt of the middle-lower Yangtze Valley in a terrain of sediments ranging from Ordovician to Triassic in age with NEE-folda,and NW-compressive,NNW-tensile and NEE-compressive-shearing faults as the major structures .Igneous rocks are mostly intermediate-acid epizonal intrusive bodies.Typical copper mineralizations in this area include the skarn-type and stratiform Cu-bearing pyrite-type deposits at Wushan and the porphyry and breccia-pipe type copper-molybdenum deposits at Chengmenshan.Silurian strata,with a great thickness and an average copper content of 51 ppm,are considered to be the source bed of copper mineralization,as is evidenced,among other things,by the presence of an envelope which is notably impoverished in Cu aroud most of the deposits.Magmatic rocks which intruded into the Silurian strata often have relatively high alkali contents and K2O/Na2O ratios ,with extensive potash alteration.Magmatic rocks in the area are of co-melting type or mixed type.The magma assimilated a large quanity of country rocks while ascending.They are characterized by high REE contents,absence of Eu anomalies and high LREE/HREE ratios.Ancient lead and strontium isotopes were detected in feldspar megaphenocrysts from the granodiorite porphyry.Hydrothermal convective circulation systems of magmatic water of magmatic water and supergenic water was extensively developed in the magmatic and country rocks,in which copper,potassium and other ore-forming components were extracted from the country rocks and concentrated through heating,boiling and evaporating.When the ore-forming fluids found their way into the skarn zone or the unconformity between the Wutong Formation and the Huanglong Formation,ore precipitation would have occurred as a result of changing media,If the concentration of KCl exceeded 9%,copper and other ore-forming components might have been deposited in magmatic rocks

  17. nvestigati ng the E ffect of the I n - service T raining on the P erformance of Welfare O rganization E mploye e s of Khorasan Razavi P rovince

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    Sadegh J A H A N G I R I

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Organizations are composed of significant elements includin g : human force, technology and management, of which, most scholars believe that hum an force is the most important because performance of the organization is dependent on the right working of the employees. As a result, it is urgent to provide a regular and continuous system for training the personnel. This is a n application research of which society includes all permanent and contract Welfare organization employees of Khorasan province of 2010. The number of the society is 1025 people according t o the human force announcement. Using available sampling method, t he sample size was determined as 200 people. Investigation tools include three evaluation forms (learning level evaluation form , form of reporting the way respondents act toward the training program, Kirkpartick 3 - level evaluation form. In order to analyze the data, t - test and multi - variable regressi on tests of SPSS were used in this research. Totall y, the personnel of the studie d organization were satisfied by the in - service tr aining courses. Results show that the knowledge level of the personnel is raised after the training program and their performance is increased. It is also concluded that performance level of male is higher than female personnel of the studied organization.

  18. Species diversity of adult Odonata in selected areas from Misamis Occidental Province, Philippines

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    Emmarie F. Mapi-ot

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Odonata is considered an environmental indicator group of freshwater habitats. Thus there is aneed to have a good baseline data to use it for monitoring fluvial habitats. However, species composition ofOdonata in Misamis Occidental is poorly known. This study was conducted to determine the species diversityof Odonata in the municipality of Sinacaban and in the cities of Oroquieta and Ozamiz, Misamis Occidental,Philippines. Opportunistic sampling method using sweep nets was employed. There were 266 Odonataindividuals collected comprising 22 species. Seven species (31.82% are Philippine endemic. Low speciesdiversity was recorded in all the sampling sites with more or less even distribution of species. Resultsindicate that the sampled areas are already disturbed.

  19. Molecular detection of Theileria spp in sheep and vector ticks in Fasa and Kazeroun areas, Fars Province, Iran

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    Yaghfoori, S.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A molecular survey was performed for identification Theileria spp in sheep and ticks during from 2010-2011 in Fasa and Kazeroun areas, Fars province, Iran. A total of 100 sheep from different flocks were clinically examined and blood samples with ixodid ticks collected. The prepared blood smears from capillary vein of ear were stained with giemsa methods and examined by using light microscope. The collected ticks were separated into tick pools with five ticks according to their species and sex. Then, the salivary glands were dissected out in 0.85% saline solution under stereomicroscope. The boold and tick salivary glands samples were examined by using semi-nested PCR. The Theileria spp infection was observed in 46% of blood smears, while 76 % of blood samples were positive by using semi-nested PCR. T. ovis, T. lestoquardi and mixed infection were detected in 43 (43%, 3 (3% and 30 (30% of positive samples, respectively. Any significant difference was not observed between the frequency of Theileria spp infection in sheep of Kazeroun and Fasa areas. In the present study, the most prevalent ticks were R. turanicus 48.8% and followed by H. a. anatolicum 42.2% and H. marginatum 8.8%. The results were shown that one pool belong to salivary glands of H. turanicus were infected with T. ovis. Based on the obtained results, it is concluded that T. ovis have high prevalence with compared to T. lestoquardi and also, R. turanicus could be the vectors T. ovis in this area

  20. Dietary Intake and Food Habits of Pregnant Women Residing in Urban and Rural Areas of Deyang City, Sichuan Province, China

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    Elizabeth Hormann

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Micronutrient deficiencies and imbalanced dietary intake tend to occur during the reproductive period among women in China. In accordance with traditional Chinese culture, pregnant women are commonly advised to follow a specific set of dietary precautions. The purpose of this study was to assess dietary intake data and identify risk factors for nutritional inadequacy in pregnant women from urban and rural areas of Deyang region, Sichuan province of China. Cross-sectional sampling was applied in two urban hospitals and five rural clinics (randomly selected in Deyang region. Between July and October 2010, a total of 203 pregnant women in the third trimester, aged 19–42 years, were recruited on the basis of informed consent during antenatal clinic sessions. Semi-structured interviews on background information and 24-h dietary recalls were conducted. On the basis of self-reported height and pre-pregnancy weight, 68.7% of the women had a pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI within the normal range (18.5 ≤ BMI < 25, 26.3% were found to be underweight with a BMI <18.5 (20.8% in urban vs. 35.6% in rural areas, while only 5.1% were overweight with a BMI ≥30. In view of acceptable macronutrient distribution ranges (AMDRs the women’s overall dietary energy originated excessively from fat (39%, was low in carbohydrates (49.6%, and reached the lower limits for protein (12.1%. Compared to rural areas, women living in urban areas had significantly higher reference nutrient intake (RNI fulfillment levels for energy (106.1% vs. 93.4%, fat (146.6% vs. 119.7%, protein (86.9% vs. 71.6%, vitamin A (94.3% vs. 65.2%, Zn (70.9% vs. 61.8%, Fe (56.3% vs. 48%, Ca (55.1% vs. 41% and riboflavin (74.7% vs. 60%. The likelihood of pregnant women following traditional food recommendations, such as avoiding rabbit meat, beef and lamb, was higher in rural (80% than in urban (65.1% areas. In conclusion, culturally sensitive nutrition education sessions are necessary for both

  1. Health risk assessment of lead for children in tinfoil manufacturing and e-waste recycling areas of Zhejiang Province, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xiaofeng, E-mail: zjcdcwxf@gmail.com [Zhejiang Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 630 Xin Cheng Road, Binjiang District, Hangzhou 310051 (China); Centre for Environment and Population Health, Griffith School of Environment, Griffith University, 170 Kessels Road, Nathan, QLD 4111 (Australia); Miller, Greg [Centre for Environment and Population Health, Griffith School of Environment, Griffith University, 170 Kessels Road, Nathan, QLD 4111 (Australia); Ding, Gangqiang; Lou, Xiaoming; Cai, Delei; Chen, Zhijian; Meng, Jia; Tang, Jun [Zhejiang Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 630 Xin Cheng Road, Binjiang District, Hangzhou 310051 (China); Chu, Cordia [Centre for Environment and Population Health, Griffith School of Environment, Griffith University, 170 Kessels Road, Nathan, QLD 4111 (Australia); Mo, Zhe; Han, Jianlong [Zhejiang Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 630 Xin Cheng Road, Binjiang District, Hangzhou 310051 (China)

    2012-06-01

    Tinfoil manufacturing and electronic waste (e-waste) recycling remain rudimentary processes in Zhejing Province, China, which could account for elevated blood lead levels (BLLs) and health impacts on children. We assessed the potential health risks of lead in tinfoil manufacturing and e-waste recycling areas. 329 children in total aged 11-12 who lived in a tinfoil manufacturing area (Lanxi), an e-waste recycling area (Luqiao) and a reference area (Chun'an) were studied. Lead levels in children's blood were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS). Blood urea nitrogen (BUN), serum creatinine, serum calcium, {delta}-Aminolaevulinic acid ({delta}-ALA) and intelligence quotient (IQ) were also measured. Geometric mean of BLLs in Lanxi, Luqiao and Chun'an were 8.11 {mu}g/dL, 6.97 {mu}g/dL, and 2.78 {mu}g/dL respectively, with 35.1%, 38.9% and 0% of children who had BLLs above 10 {mu}g/dL. The BLLs in exposed areas were much higher than those in the control area. Lanxi children had higher creatinine and calcium than Chun'an children, and Luqiao children had higher {delta}-ALA and lower calcium than Chun'an children. No significant differences of IQ were observed between Lanxi, Luqiao and Chun'an, however a negative relationship between BLLs and IQ was shown for the study children. The results indicated that lead pollution from e-waste recycling and tinfoil processing appears to be a potential serious threat to children's health. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer No report on tinfoil processing impact on children's health before. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Few studies reported health impacts of lead from e-waste processing. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Children with blood lead levels < 10 {mu}g/dL are associated with a decrease in IQ. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Threshold appears to exist at blood lead level of about 20 {mu}g/dL for urinary {delta}-ALA.

  2. Micromorphological Features of Old Cultivated and Modern Soils in Guanzhong Areas, Shaanxi Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PANG Jiang-li; HU Xuan-er; HUANG Chun-chang; Zhang Xu

    2006-01-01

    Using the data obtained from the LGT soil profile, this article attempts to illustrate the process of modern soil formation in the Guanzhong areas and its micromorphological features. The micromorphology is observed under a petrographic microscope, and its image is quantitatively measured by LEICAL Qwin 2.6 software. Micromorphological observations of the thin sections show that the assemblage of minerals in different horizons is very similar, which is mainly composed of Q and Pl. However, there are obvious differences in C/F15μm ratio, mineral content, and coarse features. The pedofeatures is mainly composed of clay, calcite, and amorphous Fe. Ap horizon is characterized by abundant needleshaped secondary calcite,secondary clay, and earthworm fecal pellet. BC horizon is characterized by a large quantity of secondary calcite with various shapes. Bt1and Bt2 horizons are characterized by abundant clay hypocoatings and a small quantity of secondary calcite. All the results of this research suggest that Earth-cumulic Orthic Anthrosols consist of both the upper Ap horizon, which cause loessal dung and eolian dust deposition, and cultivation occurs simultaneously during the process of Ap horizon-formation,and the lower BC horizon, which is aeolian sedimentary at the time of relative aridity during late Holocene.

  3. Overwintering form of the causal agent of shot hole disease in Khorasan Razavi, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panjehkeh, N; Yosefi, A

    2011-01-01

    Shot hole disease of stone fruit trees caused by some plant pathogenic fungi is a major constraint to stone fruit production worldwide where the trees are grown. Identification of the causal agents of the disease and their overwintering forms in stone fruit trees of Khorasan Razavi was necessary for disease management programs. Buds, twigs, fallen leaves and fruits were collected from the infected peach, apricot, nectarine and almond trees in winter 2007. The samples were superficially disinfested in 1% sodium hypochlorite for 2-3 min and then in 70% ethanol for 45 sec. Two to three fragments of 4x4 mm from each tissue were separately cultured on 2% water agar and potato dextrose agar (PDA), and purified on PDA. Just a pathogenic fungal species, Wilsonomyces corpophilus was isolated from the infected buds and twigs. No microorganism was isolated from the fallen leaves and fruits collected from underneath of the infested stone fruit trees. Pathogenicity of the fungus was examined on detached shoots of current year of four varieties of stone fruit trees. Fungal discs were placed under the bark of the bud base. Control shoots were similarly treated with sterile PDA discs. Inoculated shoots were placed in a humid growth chamber at 25 degrees C. Fungal hyphae appeared at 30 days post inoculation. Control shoots were asymptomatic. Pathogenicity intensities or lesion lengths were significantly different among the four varieties tested. A completely randomised design with five replicates was employed to measure the number of spores in infested buds and twigs of each variety of stone fruit tree. The samples were sliced and placed into a glass tube of centrifuge containing 3 ml of sterile distilled water. They were mixed on a vortex mixer for 30-40 min and centrifuged at 3000 rpm for 5 min. Pelleted material from each sample was suspended in 500 microl of sterile distilled water and the spores were counted using a hemocytometre. Results revealed that the fungus overwinters

  4. Serum cytokine profiles of Khorasan veterans 23 years after sulfur mustard exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riahi-Zanjani, Bamdad; Balali-Mood, Mahdi; Mousavi, Seyed-Reza; Karimi, Gholamreza; Sadeghi, Mahmood; Shirmast, Elham; Mahmoudi, Mahmoud

    2014-12-01

    Sulfur mustard (SM) is an incapacitating chemical warfare agent that was used against Iranian soldiers during the period from 1983 to 1988. We have investigated serum cytokines profiles of Khorasan veterans who were exposed to SM >23 years earlier. Forty-four male Iranian veterans who had >40% disabilities due to delayed complications of SM poisoning and had disabilities were investigated. A total of 30 healthy male volunteers (relatives of the veterans) were selected as the control group. Cytokine levels were measured in the serum of case and control subjects using commercial ELISA kits. Hematologic parameters (white/red blood cell counts, hemoglobin levels, immune cell differentials) were also performed on blood samples from the study subjects. The results indicated that serum levels of ICAM-1 were significantly higher in the samples from SM-exposed veterans (772.8 [± 15.1] ng/ml [p=0.014] vs. control values of 710.2 [± 20.0] ng/ml). On the other hand, serum IL-1β, IL-8 levels and TNFα, were significantly lower for the veterans than the controls (IL-1β: 3.8 [± 0.1] vs. 4.3 [± 0.2] pg/ml, p=0.037; IL-8: 21.0 [± 6.1] vs. 84.6 [± 20.3] pg/ml, p=0.002; TNFα: 4.5 [± 0.1] vs. 5.5 [± 0.1] pg/ml, p=0.027). Levels of other assayed cytokines, e.g., IL-2, -4, -5, -6, -10, and -12, IFNγ, TNFβ, and sVCAM-1 were not significantly different between the study populations. None of the assayed hematologic parameters appeared to differ as well. It seems possible that dysfunctions could have been induced in the innate immune functions of the SM-exposed veterans as a result of these changes in cytokine expression and that these, in turn, may have contributed to the increased incidence of a myriad of diseases that have been documented in these veterans, including cancers. Future studies must focus on examining the significance of these changes in circulating cytokines and their potential contribution to the development of different diseases in veterans exposed to SM.

  5. Stochastic decadal climate simulations for the Berg and Breede Water Management Areas, Western Cape province, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Arthur M.; Hellmuth, Molly; Lumsden, Trevor

    2012-06-01

    A method is described for the generation of multivariate stochastic climate sequences for the Berg and Breede Water Management Areas in the Western Cape province of South Africa. The sequences, based on joint modeling of precipitation and minimum and maximum daily temperatures, are conditioned on annualized data, the aim being to simulate realistic variability on annual to decadal time scales. A vector autoregressive (VAR) model is utilized for this purpose and reproduces well those statistical attributes, including intervariable correlation and serial autocorrelation in individual variables, most relevant for the regional climate in this setting. The sequences incorporate nonlinear climate change trends, inferred using an ensemble of global climate models from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5). Subannual variability is simulated using a block resampling scheme based on the k-nearest-neighbor approach, preserving both temporal patterns and spatial correlations. Downscaling to a network of quinary-level catchments enables distributed runoff, streamflow, and crop simulations and the assessment and integration of impacts. Final output takes the form of daily sequences, structured for driving the ACRU agrohydrological model of the University of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

  6. Hantaan virus surveillance targeting small mammals at Dagmar North Training Area, Gyeonggi Province, Republic of Korea, 2001-2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Terry A; Kang, Hae Ji; Gu, Se Hun; Moon, Sungsil; Shim, So-Hee; Park, Yon Mi; Lee, Sook-Young; Kim, Heung-Chul; Chong, Sung-Tae; O'Guinn, Monica; Lee, John S; Turell, Michael J; Song, Jin-Won

    2011-12-01

    In response to a hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome case in November 2000, a seasonal rodent-borne disease surveillance program was initiated at Dagmar North Training Area (DNTA), Gyeonggi Province, Republic of Korea. From April 2001-December 2005, 1,848 small mammals were captured. Apodemus agrarius accounted for 92.5%, followed by Mus musculus (3.6%), Crocidura lasiura (2.1%), and Microtus fortis (1.1%). Three species of rodents were found to be antibody-positive (Ab+) for Hantaan virus (HTNV): A. agrarius (22.3%), M. musculus (9.1%), and M. fortis (5.0%). Ab+ rates for A. agrarius increased with increasing weight (age), except for those weighing <10 g. The peak HTNV transmission period in Korea coincided with the peak reproductive potential of A. agrarius during the fall (August/September) surveys. HTNV strains from DNTA were distinct from HTNV strains from the People's Republic of China. From these studies, more accurate risk assessments can be developed to better protect personnel from rodent-borne diseases.

  7. Clinical characteristics and risk factors of an outbreak with scrub typhus in previously unrecognized areas, Jiangsu province, China 2013.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianli Hu

    Full Text Available Scrub typhus, caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi, has emerged recently in Jingjiang City, China where the disease had not been known to exist. We analyzed epidemiological data, clinical characteristics and risk factors of scrub typhus outbreak in Jingjiang City, 2013. The 271 clinically diagnosed patients were predominantly farmers 50 to 69 years old and the peak of onset was early to mid-November. For the 187 laboratory-confirmed cases, the major clinical manifestations of the patients were fever (100%, eschar (88.2%, rash (87.7%, chills (87.7%, and headache (66.8%. A community-based case-control study was carried out to investigate the risk factors of the scrub typhus outbreak. Bundling or moving waste straw (OR=9.0, 95%CI 4.6-17.8 and living at the edge of village (OR=0.6, 95%CI 0.4-0.9 posed the highest risks through single- and multi-variable conditional logistic regression. Phylogenetic analysis of the 56-kDa TSA gene showed that the new cluster (GB-C2 and the previously reported cluster (GB-C1 of O. tsutsugamushi were associated with this outbreak. These findings are useful for the establishment of a detailed control strategy for scrub typhus infection in previously unrecognized areas of Jiangsu Province, China.

  8. Alkali feldspar syenites with shoshonitic affinities from Chhotaudepur area:Implication for mantle metasomatism in the Deccan large igneous province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K.R. Hari; N.V. Chalapathi Rao; Vikas Swarnkar; Guiting Hou

    2014-01-01

    Two petrologically distinct alkali feldspar syenite bodies (AFS-1 and AFS-2) from Chhotaudepur area, Deccan Large Igneous Province are reported in the present work. AFS-1 is characterized by hypidio-morphic texture and consists of feldspar (Or55Ab43 to Or25Ab71), ferro-pargasite/ferro-pargasite horn-blende, hastingsite, pyroxene (Wo47, En5, Fs46), magnetite and biotite. AFS-2 exhibits panidiomorphic texture with euhedral pyroxene (Wo47-50, En22-39, Fs12e31) set in a groundmass matrix of alkali feldspar (Or99Ab0.77 to Or1.33Ab98), titanite and magnetite. In comparison to AFS-1, higher elemental concentra-tions of Ba, Sr and PREE are observed in AFS-2. The average peralkaline index of the alkali feldspar syenites is w1 indicating their alkaline nature. Variation discrimination diagrams involving major and trace elements and their ratios demonstrate that these alkali feldspar syenites have a shoshonite affinity but emplaced in a within-plate and rifting environment. No evidence of crustal contamination is perceptible in the multi-element primitive mantle normalized diagram as well as in terms of trace elemental ratios. The enrichment of incompatible elements in the alkali feldspar syenites suggests the involvement of mantle metasomatism in their genesis.

  9. Mode of occurrence of arsenic in high-As coals from endemic arsenosis areas in southwestern Guizhou Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Zhen-hua; ZHENG Bao-shao; ZHUANG Min; HU Tian-dou

    2007-01-01

    The use of high As-bearing coals has caused more than 3,000 cases of arsenosis patients in southwest Guizhou Province, China. The mode of occurrence of arsenic in coal is an important key role in understanding its behavior during usage and damage pathway to human health. Coal samples from endemic arsenosis areas were analyzed with INAA, EMPA, SEM-EDX, LTA, XRD, XAFS, and sequential leaching experiment. Arsenic in pyrite is from under the limit of EMPA to 1.75%, and in most cases, the content of arsenic is lower than 0.5%. Besides pyrite and arsenopyrite, SEM-EDX combined with LTA and XRD find that sulfates, clay and phosphates also contain arsenic. XAFS shows that arsenic mainly exists in the form of As5+. More than 50% of arsenic stayes in residual solid and combined with organic matrix in two samples, but most arsenic is leached out in other samples. The occurrence of such exceptionally high As contents in coal and the fact that the arsenic is dominantly organically associated are unique observations.

  10. Detecting Springs in the Coastal Area of the Gunungsewu Karst Terrain, Yogyakarta Special Province, Indonesia, Analysis using Fractal Geometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sari Bahagiarti Kusumayudha

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The Gunungsewu area is a karst terrain with water scarcity, located in the Yogyakarta Special Province, adjacent to the open sea of Indian Ocean in the South. Shorelines of the Gunungsewu southern parts show fractal geometry phenomenon, and there can be found some groundwater outlets discharging to the Indian Ocean. One of the coastal outlets exists at the Baron Beach.The amount of water discharge from this spring reaches 20,000 l/sec in wet season, and approximately 9000 in dry season. In order to find other potential coastal springs, shoreline of the south coast is divided into some segments. By applying fractal analysis utilizing air photo of 1 : 30,000 scale, the fractal dimension of every shore line segment is determined, and then the fractal dimension value is correlated to the existence of spring in the segment being analyzed. The results inform us that shoreline segments having fractal dimension (D > 1.300 are potential for the occurrence of coastal springs.

  11. Role of Remote Sensing and Geographyc Information System Mapping for Protected Areas Land Rice Field Subak, Buffer Zones, and Area Conversion (Case Studies In Gianyar Regency, Bali Province)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanya, Indayati; Netera Subadiyasa, N.

    2016-11-01

    Conversion of rice fields in Bali 2579 ha/year, Law Number 41 of 2009 [1] and five of Government Regulation (GR), mandates the Local Government (LG) has a Regional Regulation (RR) or Rule Regent/Mayor, on the protection of agricultural land sustainable food (PALSF). Yet none provincial government of Bali has PALSF; although Subak as world cultural heritage. Similarly, Gianyar regency development strategy directed to integrate agriculture with tourism. Landsat 8 images, Word View Coverage 2015 Gianyar district and ArcGIS 10.3 software used for of rice field mapping and zoning of land protection Subak. Ten thematic maps (watersheds, land use, irrigation, relief/slope, rainfall, spatial planning, land suitability, productivity, the distance from downtown) as a variable parameter, weighted and balanced numerically. Numerical classification agricultura land using for the overlay menu and reselek. The total value of >125 as rice need to be protected, 100-125 value for buffer zone, and the value of 100, 50-100 and access road Ida Bagus Matera (Jln. Province / national) in the coastal areas of Gianyar.

  12. Diagenetic Pattern in the Citarate Carbonate Rocks, Cilograng Area, Lebak Regency, Banten Province

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    N. I. Basuki

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available DOI: 10.17014/ijog.v7i3.142The carbonate sequence overlies conformably the tuffaceous sandstone unit, and in turn is conformably underlain by the tuff-sandstone unit, both of which are members of the Citarate Formation. The Citarate carbonate rocks were deposited in an open platform back reef environment, which was temporarily drowned by local sea level rise. Regional Middle Miocene deformation formed NNE-WSW trend faults and E-W trend folds in the researched area. This paper discusses the nature of diagenetic alteration of the Citarate carbonate rocks based on petrographic analyses of twenty surface samples. Carbonate rocks from bottom to top comprise algae packstone, packstone-grainstone, coral-algae packstone, and foraminifer wackestone-packstone. Fragments of coral, coralline red algae, and large foraminifera are the dominant bioclasts in most of the observed samples, whereas echinoids and bivalves are less abundant; they are set in a recrystallized micrite matrix. Planktonic foraminifera are abundant only in few samples. Fragments of plagioclase, igneous volcanic rocks, pyroclastic rocks (tuff, and much less abundant quartz are commonly present in all the studied samples. A generalized diagenesis includes early marine cementation by fibrous aragonite, compaction, aragonite dissolution and/or neomorphism, precipitation of equant-grained calcite cement in a phreatic environment, dissolution to form moldic porosities, dolomitization, the formation of stylolites and fractures, and precipitation of late ferroan calcite during burial. Multiple carbonate cements occur as pore-filling phases, with ferroan calcite cementation taking place during later-stage burial. Secondary porosities were formed during different stages in diagenetic processes, such as dissolution, dolomitization, and stylolite and fracture formations. Although precipitation of nonferroan and ferroan calcite cement occluded porosities, porosity enhancement during early selective

  13. Mercury pollution in two typical areas in Guizhou province, China and its neurotoxic effects in the brains of rats fed with local polluted rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jinping; Yuan, Tao; Wang, Wenhua; Jia, Jinping; Lin, Xueyu; Qu, Liya; Ding, Zhenhua

    2006-12-01

    Guizhou province, which located in southwestern of China, is an important mercury (Hg) production center. This study was to investigate the environmental levels and ecological effects of mercury in two typical Hg polluted areas in Guizhou province. In addition, to improve the understanding of the neurotoxic effects of Hg, a rats based laboratory study was also carried out in this study. Samples of water, soil, plants, crops and animals collected from Wanshan mercury mine area, Guzhou province, were analyzed by mercury analyzer. The effects of Hg contaminated rice on the expression of c-jun mRNA in rat's brain and the expression of c-JUN protein in cortex, hippocampus were observed using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunocytochemical methods. The results showed that the mercury contents in most environmental samples of aquatics, soil, atmosphere and the biomass of corn, plant and animals, were higher than the national standard and the corresponding data from unpolluted area. It was found mercury pollutions were significant in soil and air. In the laboratory study, the expression of c-jun mRNA and its protein was significantly induced by Hg polluted rice collected from local area. Selenium could reduce the Hg accumulation in the body and had antagonist effect on Hg in terms of the expression of c-jun mRNA and c-JUN protein. The environmental data and Hg levels in different creatures collected in this study will facilitate the environmental and ecological risk assessment of Hg in the polluted areas. It was urged to be alert of mental health problem in human beings when any kind of Hg-polluted food was taken. More efforts should be performed to protect the local ecosystem and human health in the mercury polluted area of Wanshan, Guizhou province of China.

  14. Distribution of 222Rn concentration in an inhabited area adjacent to the Aja granitic heights of Hail Province, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinsara, Abdulraheem Abdulrahman; Shabana, El-Said Ibrahim; Abulfaraj, Waleed Hussain; Qutub, Maher Mohammad Taher

    2015-01-01

    Radon-222 has been measured in groundwater, dwellings, and atmosphere of an inhabited area adjacent to the granitic Aja heights of Hail province, Saudi Arabia. The measurements were carried out in the field using a RAD7 instrument. Twenty-eight water samples, collected from drilled wells scattered in the region, were analyzed. Radon-222 concentration ranged from 2.5-95 kBq m(-3) with an average value of about 30.3 kBq m(-3). The higher values were found in wells drawing water from granitic aquifers. Indoor 222Rn was measured in 20 dwellings of rural areas in Hail city and other towns. Concentrations ranged from 12-125.6 Bq m(-3), with an average value of 54.6 Bq m(-3). Outdoor air 222Rn was measured at 16 sites, with values ranging from 6.2-13.3 Bq m(-3), with an average value of 10.5 Bq m(-3). The estimated average effective dose due to inhalation of 222Rn released from water was 0.08 mSv y(-1). The estimated average annual effective dose due to indoor 222Rn was 1.35 mSv, which lies below the effective dose range (3-10 mSv) given as the recommended action level. Based on the average dose rate values, the excess lifetime cancer risk values were estimated as 69.8 × 10(-4) due to indoor radon and 13.4 × 10(-4) due to outdoor radon.

  15. Ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used in Arjan – Parishan protected area in Fars Province of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Dolatkhahi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Today, medicinal plants are widely used in remedies for several ailments and improvement of human health because of their pharmaceutical properties. This study aimed to document important useful medicinal plants and their medicinal characteristics for treatment of human ailments in the Arjan _ Parishan protected area in Fars province of Iran during 2010-2012. Materials and Methods: Data were obtained using direct interviews with 80 informants particularly those who were more familiar with the herbs and their medicinal properties. Collected plants were recognized and families, genera, and species determined using indispensable references. In this paper, scientific name, local name, parts used, and ways of application and ailments treated using traditional medicinal plant species have been provided. Results: We documented 85 plant species belonging to 39 families and 78 genera used for treating ailments. Among which, Asteraceae with 13 species was the most frequently used family and fruits and leaves were the favored parts for local users. Our results indicated that in this area, the highest compliance in the use of plants in treating ailments were related to the intestinal digestive system (40.8%. Conclusion: The present study is the first contribution to the ethnobotany of this region. Our results showed that some plants are used for medicinal purposes in this region, either for the same or for different purposes. Generally, the results of the present investigation can be used as a basis for selecting useful medicinal plants and also help to preserve precious information that may otherwise be lost to future generations.

  16. Geological and geochemical characteristics of high arsenic coals from endemic arsenosis areas in southwestern Guizhou Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Z.; Zheng, B.; Long, J.; Belkin, H.E.; Finkelman, R.B.; Chen, C.; Zhou, D.; Zhou, Y.

    2001-01-01

    Southwest Guizhou Province is one of the most important areas of disseminated, sediment-hosted-type Au deposits in China and is an important area of coal production. The chemistry of most of the coals in SW Guizhou is similar to those in other parts of China. Their As content is near the Chinese coal average, but some local, small coal mines contain high As coals. The highest As content is up to 3.5 wt.% in the coal. The use of high As coals has caused in excess of 3000 cases of As poisoning in several villages. The high As coals are in the Longtan formation, which is an alternating marine facies and terrestrial facies. The coals are distributed on both sides of faults that parallel the regional anticlinal axis. The As content of coal is higher closer to the fault plane. The As content of coal changes greatly in different coal beds and different locations of the same bed. Geological structures such as anticlines, faults and sedimentary strata control the distribution of high As coals. Small Au deposits as well as Sb, Hg, and Th mineralization, are found near the high As coals. Although some As-bearing minerals such as pyrite, arsenopyrite, realgar (?), As-bearing sulfate, As-bearing clays, and phosphate are found in the high As coals, their contents cannot account for the abundance of As in some coals. Analysis of the coal indicates that As mainly exists in the form of As5+ and As3+, perhaps, combined with organic compounds. The occurrence of such exceptionally high As contents in coal and the fact that the As is dominantly organically associated are unique observations. ?? 201 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  17. Comparison of characteristics between patients with H7N9 living in rural and urban areas of Zhejiang Province, China: a preliminary report.

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    Jimin Sun

    Full Text Available A total of 134 cases of H7N9 influenza infection were identified in 12 provinces of China between March 25 and September 31, 2013. Of these, 46 cases occurred in Zhejiang Province. We carried out a preliminary comparison of characteristics between rural and urban H7N9 cases from Zhejiang Province, China. Field investigations were conducted for each confirmed H7N9 case. A standardized questionnaire was used to collect information about demographics, exposure history, clinical signs and symptoms, timelines of medical visits and care after onset of illness. Of the 46 H7N9 cases in Zhejiang Province identified between March 25 and September 31, 2013, there were 16 rural cases and 30 urban cases. Compared to urban cases, there was a higher proportion of females among the rural cases [11/16 (69% vs. 6/30 (20%, P = 0.001]. Among the rural cases, 14/15 (93% with available data had a history of recent poultry exposure, which was significantly higher than that among urban cases (64%, P = 0.038. More patients from the rural group had a history of breeding poultry compared with those from the urban group [38% (6/16 vs. 10% (3/30, respectively; P = 0.025]. Interestingly, the median number of medical visits of patients from rural areas was higher than that of patients from urban areas (P = 0.046. There was no difference between the two groups in terms of age distribution, fatality rate, incubation period, symptoms, and underlying medical conditions. In conclusion, compared to patients from urban areas, more patients from rural areas were female, had an exposure history, had a history of breeding poultry, and had a higher number of medical visits. These findings indicate that there are different exposure patterns between patients living in rural and urban areas and that more rural cases were infected through backyard poultry breeding.

  18. PROPOSING AN INTEGRATIVE-PROGRESSIVE MODEL IN HANDLING TROUBLED INDONESIAN OVERSEAS WORKERS IN THE TRANSIT AREA (A SOCIO-LEGAL RESEARCH IN TANJUNG PINANG CITY, KEPULAUAN RIAU PROVINCE

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    Rina Shahriyani Shahrullah

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Tanjung Pinang City of the Riau Islands Province (Provinsi Kepulauan Riau is a transit area for the troubled Indonesian overseas workers from Singapore and Malaysia. The Indonesian National Board for the Placement and Protection of Indonesian Workers (Badan Nasional Penempatan dan Perlindungan Tenaga Kerja Indonesia/BNP2TKI reported that 15,105 troubled Indonesian overseas workers were deported from January to November 2014 via Tanjung Pinang City.  Previous research revealed that citizens of Tanjung Pinang City criticized the treatments given by the local government to the deported workers by reason that they were not the citizens of the Riau Islands Province, yet the local government has to provide shelters and funds prior to returning them to their home towns. The treatments for the deported workers in the transit area have also raised pros and cons among the stakeholders who are in charge of handling the deported workers. This circumstance may not occur if a special regional regulation of the Riau Islands Province has been issued to govern the troubled Indonesian overseas workers in the transit area.  Due to this vacuum of law, this research aims to establish a mechanism in handling the deported workers in the transit area by designing an integrative-progressive model which can be adopted by the stakeholders. The model is to link the legal and non- legal issues and as well as to provide the collaborative mechanisms for the stakeholders based on the approaches of the integrative and progressive legal theory.

  19. Low mortality in the poorest areas of Spain: adults residing in provinces with lower per capita income have the lowest mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regidor, Enrique; Vallejo, Fernando; Giráldez-García, Carolina; Ortega, Paloma; Santos, Juana M; Astasio, Paloma; de la Fuente, Luis

    2015-08-01

    The objective of this study is to ascertain whether income inequality and per capita income of area of residence show a relationship with mortality in Spain. Data are from a nation-wide prospective study with a 7-year mortality follow-up covering all persons living in Spain's 50 provinces in 2001. In total 28,944,854 subjects aged 25 years or over at baseline were studied. Rate ratio for total mortality and cause-specific mortality, according to provincial income inequality and per capita income in two age groups, 25-64 years (adult population) and 65 years and over (elderly population). Provincial income inequality was not related to total mortality or cause-specific mortality. Total mortality rate ratios among residents of the poorest versus the richest provinces were 0.89 (95% CI 0.95-0.93) in men and 0.91 (0.87-0.96) in women, among the adult population; and 1.02 (0.97-1.08) in men and 1.08 (1.02-1.16) in women, among the elderly population. With the exception of cardiovascular-disease mortality for which no association with per capita income was observed, adult residents of the poorest provinces registered the lowest mortality rate ratio for other causes of death. Elderly residents of the poorest provinces registered the highest mortality rate ratio for cardiovascular disease and the lowest mortality rate ratio for cancer and external causes. Aside from cardiovascular-disease mortality, the lowest mortality for most causes of death was registered by residents of the poorest provinces. Nevertheless, these findings need to be confirmed by similar studies using smaller areas as the unit of analysis.

  20. Mercury methylation in paddy soil: source and distribution of mercury species at a Hg mining area, Guizhou Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lei; Anderson, Christopher W. N.; Qiu, Guangle; Meng, Bo; Wang, Dingyong; Feng, Xinbin

    2016-04-01

    Rice paddy plantation is the dominant agricultural land use throughout Asia. Rice paddy fields have been identified as important sites for methylmercury (MeHg) production in the terrestrial ecosystem and a primary pathway of MeHg exposure to humans in mercury (Hg) mining areas. We compared the source and distribution of Hg species in different compartments of the rice paddy during a complete rice-growing season at two different typical Hg-contaminated mining sites in Guizhou province, China: an abandoned site with a high Hg concentration in soil but a low concentration in the atmosphere and a current-day artisanal site with a low concentration in soil but a high concentration in the atmosphere. Our results showed that the flux of new Hg to the ecosystem from irrigation and atmospheric deposition was insignificant relative to the pool of old Hg in soil; the dominant source of MeHg to paddy soil is in situ methylation of inorganic Hg (IHg). Elevated MeHg concentrations and the high proportion of Hg as MeHg in paddy water and the surface soil layer at the artisanal site demonstrated active Hg methylation at this site only. We propose that the in situ production of MeHg in paddy water and surface soil is dependent on elevated Hg in the atmosphere and the consequential deposition of new Hg into a low-pH anoxic geochemical system. The absence of depth-dependent variability in the MeHg concentration in soil cores collected from the abandoned Hg mining site, consistent with the low concentration of Hg in the atmosphere and high pH of the paddy water and irrigation water, suggested that net production of MeHg at this site was limited. We propose that the concentration of Hg in ambient air is an indicator for the risk of MeHg accumulation in paddy rice.

  1. Middle Permian Seamount from Xiahe Area, Gansu Province, Northwest China: Zircon U-Pb Age, Biostratigraphy and Tectonic Implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kou Xiaohu; Zhang Kexin; Zhu Yunhai; Chen Zhongqiang; Lin Qixiang; Chen Fenning; Huang Jinyuan

    2009-01-01

    The well-preserved seamount buildups are documented from the northwestern Qinling (秦岭) orogenic belts, Northwest China. The study sections are located in the Ganjia (甘加) area of the Xiahe (夏河) County, Gansu (甘肃) Province. The dark basalt and overlying massive reef carbonate characterize the Xiahe seamount buildup. Basalts are dominated by the olivine type of rocks and bear distinct porphyritic textures, and fumarole and amygdaloidal structures. The basaits are dominated by SiO2(up to 48.49 wt.%-52.29 wt.%) followed by (Na2O+ K2O) (3.80 wt.%-4.96 wt.%) and TiO2 (2.04 wt.%-2.52 wt.%). They are featured by considerably high content of Ti. The tholeilteseries rocks dominate the basalts, while calc-alkali-series rocks are also present. The REE of the basalts shows the LREE-enrichment type with distinct positive Eu abnormal. The trace elements of the basalts are characterized by the lack of P and high content of Ti. These geochemical signals suggest that the Xiahe basalts were formed in an ocean-island setting. The LA ICP-MS zircon U-Pb age of the basalts is 267.6±5 Ma, which is reinforced by the presnce of the fusuHnid Neoschwagerina Zone of the Wordian (Middle Permian) in the limestone interbeds of the basalts. Integration of petrological and geochemical studies of seamount basaits and lateral correlation of seamount buildups reveals that the Qinling-qilian-Kunlun orogenic belts were probably the archipelagtc oceans during the Permian.

  2. Pennsylvanian and Cisuralian palynofloras from the Los Sauces area, La Rioja Province, Argentina: Chronological and paleoecological significance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasquo, Mercedes di; Azcuy, Carlos L. [University/Organization, CONICET Institute CICyTTP, CICyTTP- CONICET Diamante - CP, Entre Rios (Argentina); Vergel, Maria del M. [INSUGEO-CONICET y Universidad Nacional de Tucuman, Facultad de Ciencias Naturales e Instituto Miguel Lillo, Miguel Lillo 205, San Miguel de Tucuman (Argentina)

    2010-08-01

    Three outcrops of the Libertad and Sauces Formations from the Los Sauces area La Rioja Province, western Argentina, yielded the nine palynoassemblages studied here. Two assemblage zones are defined on the basis of the stratigraphic distribution and ranges of seventy five species of palynomorphs (42 species of spores, 32 pollen taxa and one fungus). Only thirteen species are common to both assemblages and ten species are first records for the Paganzo Basin. Assemblage 1 from the Libertad Formation is dominated by trilete spores of Cristatisporites (lycophyte) and Punctatisporites (pteridophyte). Monosaccate pollen (Coniferales/Cordaitales) is frequently present. Pteridosperms, mostly represented by Cyclogranisporites, are especially abundant in one level together with scarce striate bisaccate pollen grains. Assemblage 2 of the Sauces Formation is dominated by trilete spores related to the Pteridophyta (e.g., Horriditriletes, Converrucosisporites, Granulatisporites) and Sphenophyta. Monosaccate (Cordaitales/Coniferales) and taeniate and non-taeniate bisaccate pollen grains (Pteridospermales/Coniferales), are equally subordinated. Monosulcate pollen (Cycadophyta) and fungi (Portalites gondwanensis) are rare. Assemblage 1 is mainly Moscovian; assemblage 2 Asselian-Sakmarian. This interpretation is based on correlation of assemblage 1 to the DMb (Mid Pennsylvanian) and assemblage 2 to the FS (Early Cisuralian) Biozones of the Paganzo Basin (Argentina). The taxonomic composition of the Ahrensisporites cristatus-Crucisaccites monoletus (Mid-Late Pennsylvanian) and the Protohaploxypinus goraiensis Subzone (Asselian-Sakmarian) of the Vittatina costabilis (Early Cisuralian) Biozones of the Parana Basin (Brazil) support this correlation. The continental freshwater depositional setting of this part of the Paganzo Basin is supported by the dominance of terrestrial palynomorphs and phytoclasts, the presence of coal and carbonaceous shales, and the occurrence of plant megafossils

  3. Molecular Analysis of Sarcocystis Spp. Isolated from Sheep (Ovis aries in Babol Area, Mazandaran Province, Northern Iran

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    Narges KALANTARI

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: To differentiate Sarcocystis macro-cyst-forming species in slaughtered sheep in Babol area, Mazandaran Province, sequence analysis of 18S rRNA gene was performed.Methods: Overall, 150 slaughtered sheep were examined macroscopically in slaughterhouse, Babol and intra-abdominal and diaphragm muscles tissues infected with macro-cyst of Sarcocystis spp. were collected in 2013. One macro-cyst was isolated from the infected muscles of each sheep. The partial 18S rRNA gene was amplified by PCR and sequenced afterward.Results: The rate of infection with macro-cyst producing Sarcocystis spp. was 33.3% (50 / 150. The partial 18S rRNA gene of Sarcocystis species was amplified at the expected PCR product size (~1100 bp from all 50 macroscopic cysts samples. From 30 sequences DNA samples, 20 samples (66.7%, six (20% and four (13.3% isolates were identified as S. gigantea, S. moulei and Sarcocystis spp., respectively. Eight and thirty-four variations in nucleotide position were seen in partial sequence of the18S rRNA gene of S. gigantea and S. moulei.Conclusion: Sheep can be considered as an alternative intermediate host for S. moulei. Furthermore, multiple alignments showed some variations in the consensus sequences of the isolates obtained in the current study compared with previously published isolates. To understand better the genetic diversity among Sarcocystis species complete sequences of the18S rRNA gene or sequence analysis of other genetic loci would be beneficial.

  4. 滇中胭脂虫虫体质量评估%Quality Assessment of Cochineal Cultivated in Middle Area of Yunnan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭元亨; 郑华; 马李一; 张弘; 李坤; 涂行浩

    2012-01-01

    为评估我国引进胭脂虫(Dactylopius coccus Costa)的质量,本研究通过比较滇中胭脂虫与秘鲁胭脂虫的堆密度、单重虫粒数、吸水率及体积膨胀率,并分析两地胭脂虫干虫体中四氯化碳提取物、乙醇提取物、石油醚提取物、总蛋白质、胭脂红酸、不溶性糖类及灰分等主要化学组分的含量,评估了我国滇中地区繁养的胭脂虫质量.结果显示,滇中胭脂虫与秘鲁胭脂虫相比,除堆密度含量差异较小外,其余物理参数和主要化学组分差异性均较大,但滇中地区繁养的胭脂虫作为生产加工胭脂红酸的原料,仍具有较高的开发利用价值.%The aim of this research was to assess the quality of the cochineal (Dactylopius coccus Costa) which cultivated in middle area of Yunnan Province. The bulk density, insect numbers per gram, water absorption and expansivity, as well as main chemical composition of the cochineal that cultivated in middle area of Yunnan Province were compared with the cochineal cualtivated in Peru. The results showed that significant differences exist between cochineal cultivated in middle area of Yunnan Province and in Peru, except bulk density. Cochineal cultivated in middle area of Yunnan Province can be also used for making carminic acid.

  5. Chronology and Geochemistry of Mesozoic Volcanic Rocks in the Linjiang Area, Jilin Province and their Tectonic Implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Yang; XU Wenliang; PEI Fuping; YANG Debin; ZHAO Quanguo

    2009-01-01

    Zircon U-Pb ages and geochemical analytical results are presented for the volcanic rocks of the Naozhigou, Ergulazi, and Sidaogou Formations in the Linjiang area, southeastern Jilin Province to constrain the nature of magma source and their tectonic settings. The Naozhigou Formation is composed mainly of andesite and rhyolite and its weighted mean 206Pb/238U age for 13 zircon grains is 2224±1 Ma. The Ergulazi Formation consists of basaltic andesite, basaltic trachyandesite, and andesite, and six grains give a weighted mean 206Pb/238U age of 131±4 Ma. The Sidaogou Formation consists mainly of trachyandesite and rhyolite, and six zircon grains yield a weighted mean 206Pb/238U age of113±4 Ma. The volcanic rocks have SiO2=60.24%-77.46%, MgO=0.36%-1.29% (Mg#=0.32-0.40) for the Naozhigou Formation, SiO2=51.60%-59.32 %, MgO=3.70 %-5.54% (Mg#=0.50-0.60) for the Ergulazi Formation, and SiO2=58.28%-76.32%, MgO=0.07%-1.20% (Mg#=0.14-0.46) for the Sidaogou Formation. The trace element analytical results indicate that these volcanic rocks are characterized by enrichment in light rare earth elements (LREEs) and large ion lithophile elements (LILEs), relative depletion in heavy rare earth elements (HREEs) and high field strength elements (HFSEs, Nb, Ta, and Ti), and negative Eu anomalies. Compared with the primitive mantle, the Mesozoic volcanic rocks in the Linjiang area have relatively high initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.7053-0.7083) and low eNd(t) values (-8.38 to -2.43), and display an EMII trend. The late Triassic magma for the Naozhigou Formation could be derived from partial melting of a newly accretional crust with the minor involvement of the North China Craton basement and formed under an extensional environment after the collision of the Yangtze Craton and the North China Craton. The Early Cretaceous volcanic rocks for the Ergulazi and Sidaogou Formations could be formed under the tectonic setting of an active continental margin related to the westward snbduction of

  6. Mutual Conversion of Land Use between Urban and Rural Area in the Process of Urbanization: A Case Study of Shandong Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Hong

    2007-01-01

    Urbanization is one of the driving forces for the land use change in type and structure, and its prominent effect is to convert rural land to urban land. This paper takes Shandong Province as an example to analyze the current situation of the mutual conversion between the urban and rural areas from the aspects of the structure of land use, the decreasing tendency of the cultivated land, the changes of land use in urban and rural residential areas. It points out that cultivated land is converted to residential area land, industrial and/or mining area land. The relationship between the urban area land and the cultivated land is more direct; meanwhile, the changes of rural residential area lag behind obviously. The decrease of the cultivated land and the decline of soil quality will be the two difficult problems in the process of urbanization.

  7. Geology and formation of titaniferous placer deposits in Upper Jogaz Valley area, Fanuj, Sistan and Baluchestan province, Iran

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    Seyed Javad Moghaddasi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The Fanuj titaniferous placer deposits are located 35 km northwest of the Fanuj, Sistan and Baluchestan province (1 . The studied area comprises a (2 small part of the late Cretaceous Fanuj-Maskutan (Rameshk ophiolite complex (Arshadi and Mahdavi, 1987. Reconnaissance and comprehensive exploration programs in the Fanuj district (East of the 1:100000 Fanuj quadrangle map,Yazdi, 2010 revealed that the Upper Jogaz Valley area has the highest concentration of titaniferous placer deposits. In this study, geology and formation of the titaniferous placer deposits in Upper Jogaz Valley area are discussed. Materials and Methods (3 Forty samples were collected from surface and drainage sediments to evaluate the potential for titaniferous placers. Mineralogical studies indicated the high Ti (ilmenite bearing areas, which led to detailed exploration by 29 shallow drill holes and 9 trenches. A total of 61 sub-surface samples were collected for heavy mineral studies and ore grade determination. The exploration studies suggest that the the Upper Jogaz Valley area in the Fanuj district has a high potential for titaniferous placer deposits. Extensive exposures of black sands in the sreambeds of this area suggested detailed sampling, so that 12 holes were drilled (2-3 m depthfrom which 26 samples were collected, and five trenches were excavated to 2-4 m depth (4. The distribution of drill holes and trenches were plotted with “Logplot” software for further interpretation. Twenty-two samples from these drill holes were analyzed for TiO2. Results The reconnaissance and comprehensive exploration in Fanuj district shows that the Upper Jogaz Valley area has the highest concentration of titaniferous placer deposits. The general geology of the region and petrology and mineralogy of collected samples suggest that the source rock of the Upper Jogaz Valley titaniferous placers is the hornblende- and olivine-gabbro unit of the Fanuj-Ramesh ophiolites. The Ti

  8. Economic and Financial Structural Adjustment at Village Level: A Case Study of Rural Areas in Guizhou Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhuping; ZHANG; Zongjian; WU; Zhongyong; YUAN; Wen; SUN

    2013-01-01

    Village-level economy is not only the important foundation for promoting grass-roots agricultural and rural modernization, but also an essential guarantee for sustainable development of small scale economy of rural farmer households. Research on this field will play a significant role in rural economic development of Guizhou Province. Taking the observation data from 1999 to 2009 in 10 fixed observation villages in Guizhou Province, we carried out empirical survey and analysis on land scale and use structure, scale and composition of fixed assets for production, level and composition of operational income, and level and composition of financial revenue and expenditure at village level. Finally, we put forward conclusions and recommendations.

  9. Research on Compensation Mechanism of Land Acquisition in Rural Areas Based on the Practice of Anhui Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huixian ZHOU; Zhongxiang YU

    2016-01-01

    With the continuous development of Chinese economy and rapid progress it has made,land demand for urban construction becomes larger and larger. Rural urbanization has a great relation to common prosperity and plays a key role in realizing the 21 st century great dream of Chinese people of all ethnic groups. Because of the complicated situation of land acquisition and compensation mechanism,we will conduct a systematic analysis on the compensation mechanism of land acquisition in Anhui Province and put forward the compensation methods to perfect the compensation mechanism according to the present compensation mechanism and the existing shortages of land acquisition in Anhui Province.

  10. Bimodal magmatism of the Tucumã area, Carajás province: U-Pb geochronology, classification and processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Fernando Fernandes da; Oliveira, Davis Carvalho de; Antonio, Paul Y. J.; D'Agrella Filho, Manoel S.; Lamarão, Claudio Nery

    2016-12-01

    (mixing), while dacite dikes can be generated in the upper crust at a lower temperature, providing a less efficient mixing process (mingling). The affinities observed between the felsic to intermediate rocks of the Rio Maria and São Felix do Xingu areas and the bimodal magmatism of the Tucumã area reinforce the hypothesis that in the Paleoproterozoic the Carajás province was affected by processes involving thermal perturbations in the upper mantle, mafic underplating, and associated crustal extension or transtension. The 1.88 Ga fissure-controlled A-type magmatism of the Tucumã area was emplaced ∼1.0 to ∼0.65 Ga after stabilization of the Archean crust. Its origin is not related to subduction processes but to the disruption of the supercontinent at the end of the Paleoproterozoic.

  11. Geochronological Significance of the Post-Orogenic Mafic-Ultramafic Rocks in the Hongqiling Area of Jilin Province, Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Guangliang; Wu Fuyuan

    2006-01-01

    Mafic-ultramafic complexes are widespread in Hongqiling in central Jinlin Province, NE China. The Hongqiling complex comprises pyroxenite, olivine websterite, lherzolite, gabbro and leucogabbro. Based on the latest geochronological results, these intrusions yield a zircon U-Pb age of about 216 Ma, implying that they emplaced in the late Triassic period and that the mafic-ultramafic complexes are post-orogenic in origin. These ages are coeval with the emplacement of A-type granites in the area, but slightly younger than syn-orogenic granitic magmatism. The composition of the parent magma during the equilibration of the accumulated olivine crystallizing is basaltic with high MgO, and it comes from depleted or juvenile lithospheric mantle, according to the results of trace elements and Sr-Nd isotopes. Amount of crustal material contaminated the magmatic source, implying that the mafic-ultramafic rocks originate from the mixing product of crust- and mantle-derived magma. Therefore, the magmatic source was contaminated by an amount of crustal material, and the subsequent crystal fractionation resulted in the Cu-Ni mineralization. Dynamic analyses indicate that, after the collision of the North China Craton and Jiamusi Massif, the lithospheric delamination during post-orogeny resulted in the upwelling of asthenosphere and the intruding of the mass and underplating of the mantle-derived magma, which led to the formation of the primary mafic-ultramafic magma due to the mantle-derived magma and partial melting of the lower crust. This result suggests that the mafic-ultramafic complexes belong to a typically important magmatic suite that evolved during post-orogenic processes, and they were exposed as maficultramafic dyke swarms that existed in the post-orogenic extension environment. It also implies that the orogenic process finished ultimately in this regional geological setting. The widespread occurrence of mafic-ultramafic complexes in the Xing'an-Mongolia Orogenic Belt

  12. Investigate the relationship between the quality of insurance services and satisfaction of retirees and pensioners of the Social Security of Khorasan Razavi

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the quality of insurance services and satisfaction of pensioners of Khorasan social security based on SERVQUAL model. Research hypotheses based on 5 SERVQUAL model indices include tangibles, reliability, responsiveness, assurance (reliability) and empathy has been set. The research method is analytical descriptive with survey method and has been implemented by field and library styles. Data is designed based on Anvari...

  13. The assessment on impact of essential drugs policy on primary health care system in rural areas of Shandong Province policy and regulation division of the Health Department of Shandong Province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhuge; Shu, Defeng; Xia, Mei; Gao, Dehai; Lu, Dan; Huang, Ning; Tian, Xiaoqing; An, Limei; Li, Shixue; Li, Sheng

    2015-01-01

    At present, China has achieved an initial establishment and gradual implementation of a framework for national essential drugs policy. With the further implementation of the national essential drugs policy, it is not clear how the policy works, whether it achieves the original intention of essential drugs policy, and what impact essential drugs policy exerts on the primary health care system. In view of it, we conducted a field research on sample areas of Shandong Province to understand the conditions of the implementation of the essential drugs policy in Shandong Province. From three perspectives of medical institutions, patients and medical staff, this thesis analyzes the impact of essential drugs policy on village-level and township-level health service system, summarizes the effectiveness of implementing essential drugs policy, discovers the problems of various aspects and conducts an in-depth analysis of the causes, and puts forward feasible suggestions to provide reference for improving the essential drugs policy. The assessment results show that the implementation of essential drugs policy in Shandong Province has played a positive role in promoting the sound development of the primary health care system, changed the situation of covering hospital expenses with medicine revenue in the past, contributed to the return of medical institutions to public welfare, and reduced the patient's economic burden of disease. But there emerge many problems as follows: impact on the doctor's diagnosis and treatment due to incompleteness of drug types, and distribution not in place, patient loss and operational difficulty of village clinic. Thus, this thesis makes recommendations of drugs catalog formulation, drug procurement, sales and use, and meanwhile points out that the supporting financial compensation policy and performance appraisal policy and other measures in place are a prerequisite for a positive role of essential drugs policy.

  14. [An epidemiological study of cardiac emergency cases in the province of Florence and the Southeast Florence Hospital area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Marinis, A; Buoncristiano, U; Pagni, E; Piacentino, V; Pailli, F; Santoro, G; Vergassola, R

    1980-05-01

    The national data provided by ANMCO in 1978 show a total of 2.5 m heart cases in Italy, including 1.5 m instances of ischaemic cardiopathy, and an annual incidence of 105,000 new cases of myocardial infarct. An assessment was made of the 1976 and 1977 pattern of "cardiological emergency cases" (ISTAT codes 402, 410-14, 427-29, 441, 450, 519, 997) in the province of Florence and two of its social and health consortia: 39 (municipalities of Dicomano, Londa, Pelago, Pontassieve, Rufina, S. Godenzo), and 51 (municipalities of Borgata Ripoli, Greve, Impruneta, S. Casciano, Tavarnelle). The records of the S. Maria Nuova, Florence Hospital were used for in-patient data, since this is the only hospital in the province with automatic filing by discharge diagnosis according to the ISTAT code. Mortality in emergency cases in the two consortia m and the province fell from 14.68% and 17.17% to 11.20% and 18.11% respectively in the two years. In both populations, the highest incidence was between 70 and 74 yr of age in 1976, and between 65 and 69 yr in 1977. In the case of infarct, mortality moved from 18.75 to 7.58% (consortia) and from 22.40% to 20.93% (province), with maximum incidences in 1976 between 70 and 74 yr (consortia and province), and in 1977 between 65 and 69 yr (province) and between 55 and 59 yr (consortia). Admissions were greatest in number on Mondays (peak hours: 11 a.m. to 4 p.m.) whereas no difference was noted between one month and another. The Hospital Resuscitation Centre, which serves the two consortia, received 45 emergency cases in 1977, including 25 infarct patients. Total mortality was 13.33% (infarct 20%). The slight numeric discrepancy between in the latter data and those held in the computer suggests that the ISTAT code may not be easy to use and not always employed by physicians in a rational manner.

  15. Assessment on the Contamination Status of Heavy Metals in Some Vegetables Growing Areas of Guangdong Province, China

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    WANG Fo-jiao

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We detected lead and cadmium in 1 465 vegetable samples of 18 vegetable species collected from 516 vegetable planting bases in Guangdong Province. The results showed that the highest average contents of lead from water spinach(Ipomoeaaquaticswas 0.11 mg·kg -1 in all species of vegetable samples. The highest average contents of cadmium from water cress(Nasturtium officinale R.Br.was 0.060 mg·kg -1 in all species of vegetable samples. The qualified rate of lead in all samples was 97.0%. The qualified rate of cadmium in all samples was 98.9%.The average pollution indexes of lead and cadmium in these species of vegetable were less than 0.7. The heavy metal security status of all veg-etables from these bases in Guangdong Province were at the excellent level.

  16. 山西城市汉族体型特点%Somatotype of Han in urban areas of Shanxi province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李咏兰; 陆舜华; 国海; 陈琛; 曹瑜; 郑思平

    2011-01-01

    目的 研究山西城市汉族体型特点.方法 采用Heath-Carter人体测量法,对山西城市汉族成人20~71岁共303例(男150例,女153例)进行了体型研究.结果 山西城市男性平均体型值为4.9-5.8-1.8,属于偏内胚层的中胚层体型;城市女性平均体型值为6.0-6.0-1.2,属于内胚层-中胚层均衡体型.在13种体型中,男女出现率最高的体型为偏内胚层的中胚层体型、内胚层-中胚层均衡体型、偏中胚层的内胚层体型.与男性体型分布相比较,女性体型分布相对集中.城市男性内因子值在40~49岁组达到最大,中因子值在30~39岁组达到最大,外因子值在20~29岁组最大.随年龄增长,城市女性内因子值、中因子值逐渐增大,均在60岁以上组达到最大,外因子值在20~29岁组最大.山西城市汉族男性与乌孜别克族、鄂温克族、加拿大人、因纽特人体型最为接近,与壮族、仡佬族、侗族、怒族体型相距最远.山西城市汉族女性与乌孜别克族、鄂温克族、蒙古族、因纽特人最为接近,与壮族、仡佬族体型距离最远.结论 山西汉族具有我国北方族群体型的共同特征.%Objective To study the somatotype of Han in urban areas of Shanxi province.Methods The somatotype of 303 urban adults ( 150males and 153 females ) of Han in county of Shanxi province is studied using the Heath-Carter somatotyping method.Results The mean somatotype values of the male and female were 4.9-5.8-1.8 and 6.0-6.0-1.2 in city districts respectively, which represented the endomorphic mesomorph category in the male and endomorph-mesomorph category in the female.The tops of Somatotypes frequency were endomorphic mesomorph category,endomorph-mesomorph category and mesomorph endomorphic category.Compared with distribution phase somatotype of male, the female' s distrihution phase somatotype was more concentrate.Urban males endomorphy reached the highest value in 40 to 49 age group, mesmorphy

  17. A sanitary cooperation project in Gorontalo province, Indonesia. Methodology to identifying critical areas, possible strengthening and improving of the health system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Reginato

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Following an agreement between UNDP (United Nations Development Program and ANAAO Assomed (Italian Hospital Doctors Association, a team of ANAAO conducted a survey of the health system of the Province of Gorontalo (Sulawesi – Indonesia. The survey was carried out following WHO methodology. This approach provided a comprehensive assessment which cut across WHO’s six technical building blocks of the health system: 1 Service delivery, 2 Health workforce, 3 Health information system, 4 Medical products (drugs etc. vaccines and technologies, 5 Health financing, 6 Leadership and governance. The team visited the hospitals and a significant number of peripheral health structures within the Province.
    Several meetings were conducted with the staff from both local political and institutions, with the aim of identifying critical areas, that would inform the development of a cooperation project to strengthen and improve the local health system.
    At the end of the survey, a workshop was conducted with the Governor of Gorontalo and representatives of
    the local institutions to identify possible areas of cooperation between ANAAO Assomed and the Gorontalo
    Province.
    The initial proposals that were developed concerned short, medium and long term projects, identifying areas
    where immediate actions were required: i Basic organization of a health system (collection of data and their use, budget, economical sector and primary health care: ii Public hygiene and preventive medicine, iii Gynaecology, to help identify at risk pregnancies and reduce the known risk of maternal mortality, iv Surgery, with regards to the re-organization of the surgical sector, training for specialized nurses and basic surgical training at the territorial health posts, v Intensive care units and emergency medicine.

  18. Alteration mineral mapping and metallogenic prediction using CASI/SASI airborne hyperspectral data in Mingshujing area of Gansu Province, NW China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yu; Zhao, Yingjun; Qin, Kai; Tian, Feng

    2016-04-01

    Hyperspectral remote sensing is a frontier of remote sensing. Due to its advantage of integrated image with spectrum, it can realize objects identification, superior to objects classification of multispectral remote sensing. Taken the Mingshujing area in Gansu Province of China as an example, this study extracted the alteration minerals and thus to do metallogenic prediction using CASI/SASI airborne hyperspectral data. The Mingshujing area, located in Liuyuan region of Gansu Province, is dominated by middle Variscan granites and Indosinian granites, with well developed EW- and NE-trending faults. In July 2012, our project team obtained the CASI/SASI hyperspectral data of Liuyuan region by aerial flight. The CASI hyperspectral data have 32 bands and the SASI hyperspectral data have 88 bands, with spectral resolution of 15nm for both. The hyperspectral raw data were first preprocessed, including radiometric correction and geometric correction. We then conducted atmospheric correction using empirical line method based on synchronously measured ground spectra to obtain hyperspectral reflectance data. Spectral dimension of hyperspectral data was reduced by the minimum noise fraction transformation method, and then purity pixels were selected. After these steps, image endmember spectra were obtained. We used the endmember spectrum election method based on expert knowledge to analyze the image endmember spectra. Then, the mixture tuned matched filter (MTMF) mapping method was used to extract mineral information, including limonite, Al-rich sericite, Al-poor sericite and chlorite. Finally, the distribution of minerals in the Mingshujing area was mapped. According to the distribution of limonite and Al-rich sericite mapped by CASI/SASI hyperspectral data, we delineated five gold prospecting areas, and further conducted field verification in these areas. It is shown that there are significant gold mineralized anomalies in surface in the Baixianishan and Xitan prospecting

  19. Discussion on Deep Tectonic Background of Moderately Strong Earthquake in Anhui Province and Its Neighboring Areas Using Results of Seismic Tomography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Jie; Shen Xiaoqi; Wang Xingzhou; Shen Yelong

    2006-01-01

    Using the latest results of seismic tomography, we studied the deep tectonic settings of the moderate and strong earthquakes in Anhui Province and its neighboring areas (28°~ 39°N,112°~ 124°E). The results are as follows: (1) There exists a certain correlation between the location of moderate-strong earthquake, the geologic structure of the surface and the partitioning of active tectonic elements with the upper-crust velocity structure. Most earthquakes recording M ≥ 6.0 occur in high-velocity zones or in the transitional areas between high-velocity and low-velocity zones in the upper crust. Seismicity in the low-velocity zone has a lesser impact. Earthquakes occuring in the high-velocity zone are distributed mainly in the velocity variation area. The boundary belts and the interior of the North China plain fault block are the main active sites of moderate-strong earthquakes. Beneath the fault basins in the western and northern sides of the block, the upper crust is characterized by a wide discontinuous distribution in the low-velocity zone, and in the transition zone from the low- to higl velocities, the moderate strong seismicity shows a zonal distribution where active faults are developed. The NW-extension Zhoukou-Hefei-Xuancheng low-velocity zone separates the high-velocity zones of Dabieshan Mountains and west Shandong-Anhui, and moderate-strong earthquakes on its northern side bordering the high-velocity zones are relatively frequent. This low-velocity zone is probably an important and deeply structured boundary between the North China and the South China tectonic provinces. (2) The frequent moderate-strong earthquake recorded in the past and the recent small earthquake activities in the Huoshan-Lu' an area are the result of a low-velocity zone in the middle crust beneath the central part of Dabieshan and the two sets of deep faults that cut through the crust. (3) In terms of deep structures, the distribution of moderate-strong earthquake in Anhui

  20. Investigation on Bryophytes in Wansan Mercury Mining Area in Guizhou Province%贵州万山汞矿区苔藓植物物种调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王美会; 龙正标; 谭琪明; 高扬

    2016-01-01

    Objective] The aim was to investigate bryophyte resources in Wanshan mercury mining area in Guizhou Province.[Method] Accord-ing to the appearance features and a variety of reference books,bryophyte resources in Wanshan mercury mining area in Guizhou Province were i-dentified.[Result] There was a total of 95 species(including subspecies and varieties),belonging to 52 genera of 27 families,comprised 84 spe-cies of moss,belonging to 45 genera of 21 families,and 11 species of liverworts,belonging to 7 genera of 11 species.[Conclusion] The diversity of bryophyte species in Wanshan mercury mining area in Guizhou is not abundant .%[目的]了解贵州万山汞矿区苔藓植物物种资源状况。[方法]根据外形特征并参考各种苔藓植物分类的工具书,对贵州万山汞矿区苔藓植物资源进行鉴定。[结果]该地区苔藓植物共有27科52属95种(包括亚种和变种),其中包括藓类21科45属84种,苔类6科7属11种。[结论]贵州万山汞矿区苔藓植物物种多样性不丰富。

  1. The Study on the Marine Protected Areas Construction in Shandong Province%山东省海洋保护区建设探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘兰

    2012-01-01

    海洋保护区是指为保护珍稀海洋资源与生态环境,以国家(或相关政府)为主体划定、以法律形式加以保护和管理的海域.将生态环境保护和社会经济发展有机地结合在一起,实现保护地区社会、经济和环境的健康持续发展是海洋保护区的根本目的.山东是一个海洋大省,海洋保护区的建设也走在了我国沿海省市的前列,其发展对全国海洋保护区的建设有着重要的借鉴作用.本文对山东省海洋保护区的建设及存在问题进行了分析,并在此基础上,有针对性地提出相关对策建议,期望能为我国沿海省市海洋保护区的发展提供借鉴.%Marine protected areas(MPAs)are sea areas delineated by government to protect the rare and endangered resources and ecological environment . The objective to construct MPS is to protect the marine environment in the process of social economic development , and to achieve harmonization of social, economic and environmental development . Shandong is a big province with the long coastal line,and its construction of MPAs is in among the best Chinas coastal provinces. It may provide some experiences in the development of MPAs. In this article, the processes and problems in construction of MPAs in Shandong Province are analyzed, and relevant countermeasures and suggestions are put forward.

  2. Altered Immune Response of the Rice Frog Fejervarya limnocharis Living in Agricultural Area with Intensive Herbicide Utilization at Nan Province, Thailand

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    Khattapan Jantawongsri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Herbicides (atrazine, glyphosate and paraquat have been intensively used in Nan Province for a long time. Prior observations indicated that herbicide contamination and adverse health effects were found on the rice frog Fejervarya limnocharis living in paddy fields at Nan Province. Contamination of herbicides may influence disease emergence by acting directly or indirectly upon the immune system of amphibian or by causing disruptions in homeostasis, it is thus interesting to investigate potential effects of herbicide contamination in Nan Province on immune responses of the rice frog living in agricultural areas. Frogs were caught from a paddy field with no history of herbicide utilization (reference site and a paddy field with intensive herbicide utilization (contaminated site during 2010-2011. After dissection, frog livers were fixed in 10% neutral buffer formalin, processed by paraffin method and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Number of melanomacrophage and melanomacrophage center (MMC were counted under a light microscope and used as markers of non-specific immune response. It was found that there was no significant sex-related difference in these numbers. However, there were significant seasonal differences in these numbers in both reference and contaminated site frogs, suggesting that seasonal difference in herbicide usage tend to affect frog's immune system in agricultural areas. Furthermore, numbers of melanomacrophage and MMC in early wet, late wet and early dry periods were markedly higher in the contaminated site frogs compared to those of the reference site frogs. The observation on amphibian's immune response to environmental contaminants could indicate the impacts of herbicide utilization on other vertebrates, as well as its role in amphibian declines.

  3. Database Management System Construction for the Evaluation Results of Intensive Land Use in the Development Areas of Hunan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mingliang; LIU

    2013-01-01

    Using spatial data integration and database technology,analyzing and integrating the assessment results in all the development zones at different time in Hunan Province,the paper is intended to construct the database and managerial system for the assessment results of land use intensity in development zones,thus formulating"one map"of Hunan Development zones and realizing the integrated management and application of the assessment results in all the development zones at any time of Hunan above the provincial level.It has been proved that the system has good application effect and promising development in land management for land management departments and development zones.

  4. Association of smoking, alcohol drinking and dietary factors with esophageal cancer in high- and low-risk areas of Jiangsu Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming Wu; Zuo-Feng Zhang; Kok J Frans; Pieter van't Veer; Jin-Kou Zhao; Xiao-Shu Hu; Pei-Hua Wang; Yu Qin; Yin-Chang Lu; Jie Yang; Ai-Min Liu; De-Lin Wu

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To study the main environmental and lifestyle factors that account for the regional differences in esophageal cancer (EC) risk in low- and high-risk areas of Jiangsu Province, China.METHODS: Since 2003, a population-based casecontrol study has been conducted simultaneously in lowrisk (Ganyu County) and high-risk (Dafeng County) areas of Jiangsu Province, China. Using identical protocols and pre-tested standardized questionnaire, following written informed consent, eligible subjects were inquired about their detail information on potential determinants of EC, including demographic information, socio-economic status, living conditions, disease history, family cancer history, smoking, alcohol drinking, dietary habits, frequency, amount of food intake, etc. Conditional logistic regression with maximum likelihood estimation was used to obtain Odds ratio (OR) and 95 % confidence interval (95% CI), after adjustment for potential confounders.RESULTS: In the preliminary analysis of the ongoing study, we recruited 291 pairs of cases and controls in Dafeng and 240 pairs of cases and controls in Ganyu,respectively. In both low-risk and high-risk areas, EC was inversely associated with socio-economic status, such as level of education, past economic status and body mass index. However, this disease was more frequent among those who had a family history of cancer or encountered misfortune in the past 10 years. EC was also more frequent among smokers, alcohol drinkers and fast eaters.Furthermore, there was a geographic variation of the associations between smoking, alcohol drinking and EC risk despite the similar prevalence of these risk factors in both low-risk and high-risk areas. The dose-response relationship of smoking and smoking related variables,such as age of the first smoking, duration and amount were apparent only in high-risk areas. On the contrary, a dose-response relationship on the effect of alcohol drinking on EC was observed only in low-risk areas

  5. The point mutation of p53 gene exon7 in hepatocellular carcinoma from Anhui Province, a non HCC prevalent area in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Liu; Yuan Wang; Qing Zhou; Shu-Yu Gui; Xu Li

    2002-01-01

    AIM: In hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) prevalent areas ofChina, the point mutation of p53 exon7 is highly correlatedwith Hepatitis B virus(HBV) infection and aflatoxin B intake.While in non-HCC-prevalent areas of China, these factorsare not so important in the etiology of HCC. Therefore, thepoint mutation of p.53 exon7 may also be different than thatin HCC-prevalent areas of China. The aim of this study is toinvestigate the status and carcinogenic role of the pointmutation of p53 gene exon7 in hepatocellular carcinoma fromAnhui Province, a non-HCC-prevalent area in China.METHODS: PCR,PCR-SSCP and PCR-RFLP were applied toanalyze the homozygous deletion and point mutation of p53exon7 in HCC samples from Anhui, which were confirmedby DNA sequencing and Genbank comparison.RESULTS: In the 38 samples of hepatocellular carcinoma, nohomozygous deletion of p53 exon7 was detected and pointmutations of p53 exon7 were found in 4 cases, which werefound to be heterozygous mutation of codon 249 With amutation rate of 10.53 %(4/38). The third base mutstion(G→T) of p53 codon 249 was found by DNA sequencing andGenbank comparison.CONCLUSION: The incidence of point mutation of p53 codon249 is lower in hepatocellular carcinoma and theheterozygous mutation of p53 exon7 found in these patientsonly indicate that they have genetic susceptibility to HCC.p53 codon 249 is a hotspot of p53 exon7 point mutation,suggesting that the point mutation of p53 exon 7 may notplay a major role in the carcinogenesis of HCC in AnhuiProvince, a non-HCC-prsvalent area in China.

  6. Analysis of regulatory uses and its connection with flood prone areas. The case of 23 counties on the coastline of the province of Buenos Aires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Inés Botana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is based on an analysis of the land and soil use regulations in the 23 counties of the basin of the rivers Paraná and de la Plata, which make up the area of study of the project in which this is framed1, bearing in mind the specific treatment of the affected areas as well as flood prevention. In order to do this, we have taken into account the following: a the analysis of the evolution of State regulations as regards soil occupancy in the greater Buenos Aires; b the updated registry of regulations connected with land demarcation and use of soil validated by the Executive Power (Regulation N§ and Validating Decree N§; c the specific regulation (Regulation N§ / Executive Power decree N§ by municipality / by content. The data to perform the study of regulatory soil use was obtained from the new Interactive Land Demarcation Map of the Province of Buenos Aires created by the Ministry of Government of the Province of Buenos Aires, Subsecretariat of Municipal Affairs. The analysis of current regulations in each of the 23 counties comprised in the study will allow us to define future intervention strategies, which will act as instruments in connection with land regulation for each municipality's management.

  7. Enumeration of Somatic and F-RNA Phages as an Indicator of Fecal Contamination in Potable Water from Rural Areas of the North West Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keitumetse Idah Nkwe

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Bacteriophages are regarded as enteric viral indicators in faecally contaminated water systems and may indicate the presence of human viral pollution. They are relatively resistant to inactivation by natural and treatment processes. In this study, the presence of somatic coliphages and F-RNA coliphages was investigated in potable water from rural areas in the North West province. Water samples were aseptically collected from boreholes and tap water from some rural communities in the North West Province. Physical parameters of the water, such as the temperature, pH and turbidity, were measured before sample collection. Double-agar layer assay was performed using ISO, (1995, 2000 standard methods. Bottled water was used as a negative control and the strains фX174 and MS2 as positive controls. Of the 16 water samples collected, 15 were positive for somatic bacteriophages while F-RNA coliphages were detected in only two samples. Amongst the positive samples 189 and three plaque forming units were obtained for both somatic and F-RNA coliphages, respectively. No coliphage was detected in water from Masamane tap 1. The rest of the samples obtained from various rural areas were positive and did not comply with national and international standards for potable water. This was a cause for concern and should be further investigated.

  8. Zircon U-Pb Ages of Bottom and Top Parts of the Zhangjiakou Formation in Lingyuan Area (West Liaoning Province) and Luanping Area (North Hebei Province) and Their Significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Hong; Liu Xiaoming; Zhang Yeqing; Yuan Honglin; Hu Zhaochu; Diwu Chunrong

    2005-01-01

    In Lingyuan region of West Liaoning Province, the Zhangjiakou Formation (J3z) and the Yixian Formation (K1y) display an angular unconformity. That is, the Lower Mesozoic strata of the Zhangjiakou Formation are ENE (near E-W) oriented, while the overlying strata of the Yixian Formation exhibit an NNE orientation. The results of LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb ages show the Zhangjiakou Formation formed from about 130 Ma to 132 Ma in Lingyuan and 135 Ma to 136 Ma in Luanping (North Hebei Province), respectively. Three conclusions can be drawn: (1) The Zhangjiakou Formation in Lingyuan is comparable to that in Luanping, with the volcanic rocks of the Zhangjiakou Formation from Lingyuan being younger than those from Luanping. (2) 5-6 Ma difference between the top of the Zhangjiakou Formation and the bottom of the Yixian Formation in Lingyuan proves the angular unconformity between the two formations; and it reflects that the 5-6 Ma interval period is the main period of the transition of tectonic framework in Mesozoic in North Hebei and West Liaoning. In the interval period, the magmatic action went up to high tide in Mesozoic in the northeast of China. Moreover, after the interval period, the "Rehe fauna" developed into "erupted" period. This reflects that the interval period is also an important biological interface in Northern Hebei and Western Liaoning. (3) The Dabeigou Formation in Luanping should correspond to the upper part of the Zhangjiakou Formation, but not to the lower part of the Yixian Formation.

  9. Contributions of different land cover types in Otindag Sandy Land and Bashang area of Hebei Province to the material source of sand stormy weather in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Hongyan; TIAN Yuhong; DING Deng

    2003-01-01

    Different land cover types in Otindag Sandy Land and Bashang area of Hebei Province are linked to a material source of sand stormy weather in Beijing based on results of field vegetation and soil survey and laboratory works. Results of grain size analysis show that dust release potential in per unit area of moving sandy land is small, while lowland meadow and meadow steppe in stony hillshave high potential of releasing dusts in per unit area during sand stormy weather occurrence. Further considering the effects of vegetation, it is inferred that the moving sandy land served as a material source of past dust storm and the possibility of dust release in per unit area is low in current time. Typical steppe in stony hills is undergoing desertification and its dust release possibility in per unit area is high. Farmland has strong potential of release dusts when they are ploughed in spring, but a large amount of therophytes grow and thus prevent dusts from release when cultivation was terminated. Potentials of dust release in per unit area in fixed sand dunes, stony mountain meadow steppe and lowland meadow are low due to high cover of perennials. Sand dune reactivation and desiccation of lakes and lowlands under estimated future climatic change will makethem serve as a future material source of sand stormy weather.

  10. Relationship between diversity of forest plant and community dynamics in eastern mountain area of Heilongjiang Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Qing-gui; XING Ya-juan; ZHOU Xiao-feng; HAN Shi-jie

    2006-01-01

    The biodiversity was studied in 26 communities with different structures in Maoershan National Park and Liangshui Natural Reserve of Northeast Forestry University in Heilongjiang Province, China. Composition index (CI) was taken as a parameter to quantify the community dynamics, which can nicely describe forest community dynamics, meanwhile, the relationship between diversity and community dynamics were also investigated and analyzed. Results showed that the total number species of community, richness, evenness, and Shannon-Wiener diversity index were obviously different in every community. The richness decreased with the increasing CI of every community, which means richness was in inverse proportion to community dynamics. The Shannon-Wiener index of every community increased from the initial stage to the middle stage of succession, and then decreased in the climax stage. The coverage weighted foliage-height diversity index increased along with the increase of CI, which was similar as the pattern diversity.

  11. An etnographic study of elementary education in the rural area of Dompu county, the province of West Nusa Tenggara

    OpenAIRE

    Nurrahmah Nurrahmah; Zamroni Zamroni; Sumarno Sumarno

    2016-01-01

    The study aims to describe: (1) public service for elementary education in rural areas; (2) the meaning of education and the implementation of elementary education in the people of rural areas; and (3) the life and meaning of poverty for people of rural areas. The study was etnographic research. The subjects were the providers and users of educational service. The research concludes that: (1) educational service in rural areas has not been coordinated and integrated both vertically and horizo...

  12. A comparative study of knowledge regarding emergency care during disaster between community health volunteers working in tsunami-affected and non-affected areas in Aceh Province, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anda Kamal

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study aimed to describe and compare the level of knowledge regarding emergency care during disaster between community health volunteers (CHVs working in the tsunami affected and non-affected areas in Aceh Province, Indonesia.Method: 144 CHVs from six districts in Aceh were studied during November 2011 to January 2012 to evaluate their level knowledge regarding emergency care during disaster between CHVs working in tsunami-affected 6-areas and non-tsunami-affected areas. The knowledge was assessed using the Community Health Volunteers’ Knowledge Regarding Emergency Care Questionnaire (CHVK-ECQ with 30 true/false statements. The composite scores of each area and the total score were calculated and transformed to percentage for ease of presentation.Results: Overall, the CHVs’ knowledge in emergency care during disaster in Aceh was at a high level in both groups. However, subjects in non-affected areas had significantly higher mean rank of the overall knowledge than those in the affected areas (p = .02. In the tsunami area, the highest mean score of knowledge was in the disaster triage dimension (M= 80.62%, and the lowest mean score was in the first aid (60.48 %. In contrast, CHVs’ knowledge in the non-tsunami areas had the highest mean score in the first aid (84.52 % and had the lowest mean score in the disaster triage (64. 38 %.Conclusion: Although both groups had high levels of overall knowledge, an education program for improved knowledge in the areas of first aid, team organization, and disaster triage should be emphasized to refresh the CHVs’ knowledge and skills for disaster management.

  13. Development processes of a master plan for flood protection and mitigation in a community area: A case study of Roi Et province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chatchai Jothityangkoon

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Development processes of a master plan formulation for flood protection and mitigation consists of the selection process of a targeted area based on risk level, developing a present and future flood inundation map and a flood risk map and identify direction and drainage capacity of the targeted area. Main causes of flooding in the area can be identified leading to designing flood protection and a flood drainage system in both structural and non-structural measures, prior to a public hearing process from stakeholders to finalize the master plan to provide maximum benefits and less negative impact. These processes are applied to Roi Et Province. Based on flood risk criteria, 24 municipalities with high risk are selected. The cause of flooding in the municipality area can be combined in 2 groups, flooding from low efficiency of storm drainage capacity and flooding from overbank flow from the Mun, Chi and Yang Rivers. Structural measures for the first and second group are the improvement of the existing system or changing a new drainage system and the improvement of existing river dikes and levees. It is also possible to design and construct a new one. Constructing a polder system for the community area, requires a budget about 3,338 million baht. To support structural measures, non-structural measures are required, for example, a flood warning system, an emergency response plan during flood disaster.

  14. Use of ethnoveterinary medicinal plants in cattle by Setswana-speaking people in the Madikwe area of the North West Province of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Van der Merwe

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Rapid Rural Appraisal (RRA methods were employed to document the use of ethnoveterinary medicinal plants in cattle by Setswana-speaking people in the Madikwe area of the North West Province of South Africa. The study indicated that Setswana-speaking people in the North West Province have a rich heritage of ethnoveterinary knowledge, which includes all aspects of ethnoveterinary medicinal plant use. Information was gathered from informants through individual interviews, group interviews, guided field walks and observations. Ethnoveterinary uses in cattle of 45 plant species representing 24 families were recorded. Plants were used in 84 % of the total number of recorded ethnoveterinary remedies. These plants were used alone (64 % or in mixtures (36 % for 29 indications. The most important indications were retained placenta, diarrhoea, gallsickness, fractures, eye inflammation, general ailments, fertility enhancement, general gastrointestinal problems, heartwater, internal parasites, coughing, redwater and reduction of tick burden. Plant materials were prepared in various ways including infusion, decoction, ground fresh material, sap expressed from fresh material, charred and dried. The most common dosage formwas a liquid for oral dosing. Other dosage forms included drops, licks, ointments, lotions and powders. Liquid remedies for oral dosing were always administered using a bottle. Medicinal plant material was preferably stored in a dried form in a cool place out of direct sunlight and wind. Lack of transfer of ethnoveterinary knowledge to younger generations puts this knowledge at risk. RRA was found to be a successful method of investigation for the study of ethnoveterinary medicine.

  15. Intradomiciliary and peridomiciliary captures of sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in the leishmaniasis endemic area of Chapare province, tropic of Cochabamba, Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballart, C; Vidal, G; Picado, A; Cortez, M R; Torrico, F; Torrico, M C; Godoy, R E; Lozano, D; Gállego, M

    2016-02-01

    In South America, cutaneous leishmaniasis is the most frequent clinical form of leishmaniasis. Bolivia is one of the countries with higher incidence, with 33 cases per 100,000 individuals, and the disease is endemic in 70% of the territory. In the last decade, the number of cases has increased, the age range has expanded, affecting children under 5 years old, and a similar frequency between men and women is found. An entomological study with CDC light traps was conducted in three localities (Chipiriri, Santa Elena and Pedro Domingo Murillo) of the municipality of Villa Tunari, one of the main towns in the Chapare province (Department of Cochabamba, Bolivia). A total of 16 specimens belonging to 6 species of the genus Lutzomyia were captured: Lu. aragaoi, Lu. andersoni, Lu. antunesi, Lu. shawi, Lu. yuilli yuilli and Lu. auraensis. Our results showed the presence of two incriminated vectors of leishmaniasis in an urbanized area and in the intradomicile. More entomological studies are required in the Chapare province to confirm the role of vector sand flies, the intradomiciliary transmission of the disease and the presence of autochthonous cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis.

  16. Geology, alteration, mineralization and geochemical study in Kalateh Taimour area, NE Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Alaminia

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The area is located 20 km northwest of Kashmar and about 4 km of Kalateh Taimour in Khorasan Razavi province. The study area is part of Tertiary volcanic-plutonic belt north of Daruneh fault and its situation in tectonic inliers between two important active faults, Doruneh and Taknar. Volcanic rocks are mainly intermediate to acid pyroclastic type. They formed during early Tertiary. The volcanic rocks of the Kalateh Taimour area are predominantly andesitic basalt, andesite, latite, trachyte, dacite and rhyodacite and are observed as lava, tuff, lapilli tuff and agglomerate. Field evidences and study show several subvolcanic bodies including quartz hornblende biotite monzodiorite porphyry, quartz biotite monzodiorite porphyry, quartz diorite porphyry and microdiorite which are intruded sometime in mid-Tertiary. In this belt, new methods of image processing were used for enhancing the alteration zones to help near infra red and short wavelength infrared and bands example band ratios and principle component method. Propylitic, sericitic and argillic are the main alteration types. Minor silicification is found in some areas. Alteration is extent but mineralization is limited. Mineralization is mainly controlled by fault system. Several mineralized faults are being discovered. Open space filling features are abundant. In the study area, disseminate and stock work mineralization are abundant. The amount of sulfide minerals is very small. Ancient mining is present in the area. Stream sediment geochemical study shows a very broad and high level of gold anomaly. Rock geochemical study show very high levels of Au, Ag, Cu, Pb, Zn and Au value is correlative to Cu, Pb, Zn and Ag values. Due to alteration modeling, non uniformity in mineralization and low abundance of sulfide mineralization suggest study in low sulphidation Au-Cu deposit.

  17. 苏北地区创新驱动发展战略研究%Research on the Innovation Driven Development in the Northern Area of Jiangsu Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈建清; 徐盈之

    2016-01-01

    苏北地区经济发展的实际揭示了实施创新驱动发展的紧迫性和必要性。大力推进创新驱动战略,既是苏北地区有效应对经济下行压力、保持经济稳中有进的重要举措,也是破解结构性矛盾、增创发展新优势的治本之策。从实施创新驱动发展的现状来看,苏北地区具备实施创新驱动发展的后发优势和比较优势,但同时科技创新发展和产业结构方面累积的矛盾和问题仍较突出,因此苏北地区未来创新驱动发展的战略重点应放在增强发展动能、加快供给侧结构性改革和构建新的创新平台上。%Regional economy development actual reveals the implementation necessity and urgency of innovation driven development in the northern area of Jiangsu province. Innovation driven development strategy is not only an effective measure to the economic downturn and maintaining economic stability, but also a great strategy to solve structural contradiction and improve development advantages. From the current situation of implementing innovation driven development, northern area of Jiangsu province has the late-developing advantage advantages and comparative advantages, while it also faces accumulated contradictions and problems in the development of science and technology innovation and industrial structure. Therefore, the future innovation driven development in northern area of Jiangsu province should focus on strengthening development momentum, accelerating structural reform of the supply front and building a new innovation platform.

  18. Preliminary results on the geochemistry and mineralogy of arsenic in mineralized coals from endemic arsenosis areas in Guizhou Province

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belkin, H.E.; Finkelman, R.B. [Geological Survey, Reston, VA (United States); Zheng, B. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guiyang, Guizhou (China). Inst. of Geochemistry; Zhou, D.

    1997-12-31

    Domestic combustion of coal for residential heating and food preparation is pervasive in the mountainous regions of Guizhou Province, SW China. The use of locally mined, high-arsenic (> 100 ppm) coals has caused an excess of 3,000 cases of arsenic poisoning restricted to several villages. Samples of several high-As coals are being studied to determine the concentrations, distributions, and form(s) of the arsenic. This information should help to determine the source of the As and better understand its behavior during the combustion process. Preliminary results from selected coal samples indicate that As contents are as high as 35,000 ppm, on a whole coal basis. The coals contain multiple As-bearing phases including arsenopyrite, As-bearing pyrite, arsenic sulfide (realgar?), Fe-As oxide, As-bearing K-Fe-sulfate (jarosite?), and As-bearing iron phosphate. Some of the organic matter appears to be suffused with organically-bound As or contains extremely fine particles of an As-rich phase, apparently an arsenate.

  19. Heavy Metals in Soil and Crops of an Intensively Farmed Area: A Case Study in Yucheng City, Shandong Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linsheng Yang

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Yucheng City is located in northwestern Shandong Province, China, and is situated on the Huang-Huai-Hai Plain, the largest alluvial plain in China. In this study, 86 surface soil samples were collected in Yucheng City and analyzed for cation exchange capacity (CEC, soil organic matter (SOM, pH, available phosphorus (avail. P, phosphorus (P, aluminum (Al, and iron (Fe. These soils were also analyzed for ‘total’ chromium (Cr, nickel (Ni, copper (Cu, zinc (Zn, arsenic (As, mercury (Hg, cadmium (Cd, and lead (Pb, together with 92 wheat samples and 37 corn samples. There was no obvious heavy metal contamination in the soil and irrigation water. But the long-term accumulation of heavy metals in soil has lead to an increase of Ni, As, Hg and Pb concentrations in some of wheat and corn samples and Cd in wheat samples. Because of the numerous sources of soil heavy metals and the lower level of heavy metal in irrigation water, there is no significant relation between soil heavy metal concentrations and irrigation water concentrations. Cr, Ni were mainly from the indigenous clay minerals according to multivariate analysis. Little contribution to soil heavy metal contents from agricultural fertilizer use was found and the local anomalies of As, Cd, Hg, Pb in wheat and corn grain are attributed to the interactive effects of irrigation and fertilizer used. Aerial Hg, however may also be the source of Hg for soil, wheat and corn.

  20. Analysis of Pathogenic Factors of Helicobacter Pylori in a High Prevalence Area of Gastric Cancer in Xinin,Qinghai Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YuanzhiXiong; WeihongYang; YingcaiMa; GuiyingYang; YonggengYang; LiliMa

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze positive rates of the specific proteins CagA, VacA, UreA and UreB of Helicobacter pylori (Hp) in people in Xinin city Qinghai Province, a district with a high prevalence of gastric carcinoma, and to examine the relationship among the incidence, gross diagnosis and pathologic diagnosis. METHODS The gastric tissue biopsy specimens taken under endoscopy were examined by CLO,WS and Western Blot to judge the condition of the Hp infection. The positive rates of Hp CagA,VacA,UreA and UreB that had infected patients were evaluated. RESULTS The positive rate of UreA was markedly lower in chronic superficial gastritis (CSG) than in duodenal ulcer (DU) and compound ulcer, and also lower than in chronic atrophic gastritis(CAG), gastric ulcer(GU) and gastric cancinoma. However the positive rate of UreB was notably lower in duodenal ulcer and gastric ulcer than in chronic superficial gastritis and atrophic gastritis. The rates of UreB found in intestinal epithelial metaplasia, atrophic gastritis and gastric carcinoma were notably lower than in other diseases, however, it was markedly increased in chronic superficial gastritis, No differences were found among CagA and VacA of specimens with different endoscopic diagnosis or pathologic diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS The UreA in Hp may be relevant to the pathogenic mechanism of severe gastric diseases. However, UreB may have some protective effect on severe gastric diseases.

  1. Antimicrobial Effect of 15 Medicinal Plant Species and their Dependency on Climatic Conditions of Growth in Different Geographical and Ecological Areas of Fars Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Abdollahi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The effects of medicinal plants are variable in different conditions. Here, the antimicrobial effect of 15 medicinal plant species and their dependency on the climatic condition of growth in different geographical and ecological areas of Fars Province were studied. Materials and Methods: In This empirical study, the antimicrobial effect of hydro-alcoholic extract of 15 medicinal plant species was examined against standard bacterial strains comparing to conventional therapeutic antibiotics using disk diffusion assay and serial broth dilution. Results: All Extracts were effective against S.aureus ATCC 25923 growth; also Peganum harmala, Myrtus communis, Mentha pulegium, Mentha spp, and Zataria multiflora extracts were observed to have antimicrobial activity against E.coli ATCC 25922. This antimicrobial activity had partially similar results, comparing to conventional antibioticsConclusion: Medicinal plants produce various amounts of antimicrobial substances under the climatic and ecological conditions of each zone, which must be considered in manufacturing herbal medicines.

  2. Nd Isotopic Composition and Material Source of Pre—and Post—Sinian Sedimentary Rocks in Xiushui Area,Jiangxi Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈谓洲; 刘继顺; 等

    1992-01-01

    Reported in this paper are the Nd isotopic compositions of the pre-Sinian and Sinian-Cambrian sedimentary rocks in the Xiushui area,Jiangxi Province.Significant differences are noticed between them in their Nd isotopic dompositions.As for the pre-Sinian lightly metmorphozed sedimentary rocks,143Nd/144Nd=0.512000-0.512214,CNd(T)=-8.04-9.99,and TDM=18332426Ma are suggested for the Sinian-Cambrian sedimentary rocks .These differences would reflect the diversity of material source for the sedimentary rocks deposited before and after the Sinian period.Mantle material ap-pears to have been involved in the formation of the pre-Sinian sedimentary rocks while the post-Sinian sedimentary rocks are composed mainly of recycled detritus from the continental crust.

  3. Study on Farmers’ Cognition and Willingness to Plant Trees during Collective Forest Right Reform Based on Data from Plain Areas of Henan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min; LIU; Shaozhou; ZHOU

    2013-01-01

    On the basis of the survey data from plain areas of Henan Province,farmers’ cognition and willingness to plant trees in collective forest right reform are studied. According to statistical analysis and regression equation of binary logistic regress analysis,it is generally believed that different participants have various attitudes to the reform,with regard to if planting trees or more,reform variables have a distinct effect,as well as income variable and loaning or lending variable. At last,some advices are put forward,that is,the government should strengthen collective forest right reform,accelerate matching reform and increase policy and financial support to forestry farmers.

  4. Estimation of conservation value of myrtle (Myrtus communis) using a contingent valuation method:a case study in a Dooreh forest area, Lorestan Province, Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Neda Amiri; Seyed F Emadian; Asghar Fallah; Kamran Adeli; Hamid Amirnejad

    2016-01-01

    Background:Around 2000 plant species occur naturally in Lorestan Province of which 250 species are medicinal and myrtle is one of them. Myrtle is a shrub whose leaves and fruits have medicinal value and thus, if managed and harvested properly, could produce sustained economic benefits. In recent years, however, over half of the myrtle site areas was destroyed, due to inappropriate management and excessive harvesting practices. Thus, coming up with a practical harvesting approach along with identifying those factors damaging the sites, seems to be very crucial. Methods:In our investigation, we calculated the conservation value per hectare of myrtle in the Dooreh forest area in Lorestan Province. Using the Contingent Valuation (CV) and Double Bounded Dichotomous Choice (DBDC) methods, we determined the willingness to pay (WTP) for myrtle conservation. The WTP was estimated with a logit model for which indices were obtained based on a maximum precision criterion. Results:The results showed that 86.67 per cent of people were willing to pay for the conservation of these myrtle sites. Average monthly WTP per family was calculated as$0.79. The annual conservation value in terms of WTP for the preservation of the myrtle sites in Dooreh was estimated as$102,525. Among the variables of the model presented, education had a positive impact, while the amount proposed for payment and family size had a negative impact on the WTP. Conclusions:Our estimate of the value of myrtle conservation should provide justification for policy makers and decision making bodies of natural resources to implement policies in order to conserve the natural sites of this species more effectively.

  5. Estimation of conservation value of myrtle (Myrtus communis using a contingent valuation method: a case study in a Dooreh forest area, Lorestan Province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neda Amiri

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Around 2000 plant species occur naturally in Lorestan Province of which 250 species are medicinal and myrtle is one of them. Myrtle is a shrub whose leaves and fruits have medicinal value and thus, if managed and harvested properly, could produce sustained economic benefits. In recent years, however, over half of the myrtle site areas was destroyed, due to inappropriate management and excessive harvesting practices. Thus, coming up with a practical harvesting approach along with identifying those factors damaging the sites, seems to be very crucial. Methods: In our investigation, we calculated the conservation value per hectare of myrtle in the Dooreh forest area in Lorestan Province. Using the Contingent Valuation (CV and Double Bounded Dichotomous Choice (DBDC methods, we determined the willingness to pay (WTP for myrtle conservation. The WTP was estimated with a logit model for which indices were obtained based on a maximum precision criterion. Results: The results showed that 86.67 per cent of people were willing to pay for the conservation of these myrtle sites. Average monthly WTP per family was calculated as $0.79. The annual conservation value in terms of WTP for the preservation of the myrtle sites in Dooreh was estimated as $102,525. Among the variables of the model presented, education had a positive impact, while the amount proposed for payment and family size had a negative impact on the WTP. Conclusions: Our estimate of the value of myrtle conservation should provide justification for policy makers and decision making bodies of natural resources to implement policies in order to conserve the natural sites of this species more effectively. Keywords: Conservation value, Myrtle, Contingent valuation method, Double Bounded Dichotomous method, Logit model

  6. Content of arsenic, selenium, mercury in the coal, food, clay and drinking water on the Zhaotong fluorosis area, eastern Yunnan Province

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo Kun-li; Li Hui-jie; Chen Tong-bin (and others) [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research

    2008-03-15

    About 160 samples of coal, corn, capsicum and drinking water were collected from the endemic fluorosis area of Zhenxiong and Weixin County, Zhaotong City of Yunnan Province, to determine the arsenic (As), selenium (Se) and mercury (Hg) content by AAF-800. The study found that the As content in the main coal seam from the Late Permian coal mines in Zhaotong City is 8.84 mg/kg and some civil coal can reach 89.09 mg/kg. The Se and Hg in the coal samples of Late Permian is lower, but Se and Hg are more concentrated in the pyritic coal balls and the pyritic gangue of the coal seam. The As content in corn and capsicum dried by coal-burning is more than 0.7 mg/kg, the natural standard amount of arsenic content permitted in food by China. The Se and Hg content in corn dried by coal-burning is lower than the natural standard of Se and Hg content in food in China but the Se and Hg content of capsicum dried by coal-burning exceeds the amount permitted by the natural standard for food in China. Clay, used as an additive for the coal-burning process and as a binder in making briquettes, contains a high content of As, generally more than 16 mg/kg. However, the Se and Hg content of clay itself are low. The As, Se and Hg content of drinking water are lower than the natural standard of As, Se and Hg content in the drinking water. So, there is high-As content coal and high-As content dried corn and capsicum in the endemic fluorosis area of Zhaotong City of Yunnan Province. The high As content of the dried corn and capsicum might have originated from the high arsenic content of burnt coal and clay. 30 refs., 4 tabs.

  7. A Study of Siliceous Pneumoconiosis in a Desert Area of Sunan County,Gansu Province,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    Three hundred and ninety five residents in a desert area were examined with chest radiographs and 28 cases with siliceous pneumoconiosis were found.The prevalence of siliceous pneumoconiosis was 7.09%,and that over 40 years of age was 21%.The histological findings of lungs from a camel living in that area for 20 years also confirmed to have siliceous pneumoconiosis.

  8. Permian/Triassic Boundary and Its Correlation in the Daxian-Xuanhan Area, Northeastern Sichuan Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Yongsheng; MOU Chuanlong; TAN Qinyin; YU Qian; WANG Ruihua

    2008-01-01

    There are different opinions about the Permian/Triassic boundary and its correlation in the Daxian- Xuanhan area because of lacking typical lithological symbols and fossil criterions. Especially,it is very hard to determine the Permian/Triassic boundary in the Daxian-Xuanhan buried areas. This brings many difficulties to geological research and oil and gas exploration. Based on field investigation and studies of well cores, newly found fossils, lithological characteristics and well log analyses, the authors discussed the Permian/Triassic boundary in the Daxian-Xuanhan area and brought forward a specific scheme for its determination and regional correlation.

  9. Impacts of Tropical Cyclones and Accompanying Precipitation on Infectious Diarrhea in Cyclone Landing Areas of Zhejiang Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengyi Deng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Zhejiang Province, located in southeastern China, is frequently hit by tropical cyclones. This study quantified the associations between infectious diarrhea and the seven tropical cyclones that landed in Zhejiang from 2005–2011 to assess the impacts of the accompanying precipitation on the studied diseases. Method: A unidirectional case-crossover study design was used to evaluate the impacts of tropical storms and typhoons on infectious diarrhea. Principal component analysis (PCA was applied to eliminate multicollinearity. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to estimate the odds ratios (ORs and the 95% confidence intervals (CIs. Results: For all typhoons studied, the greatest impacts on bacillary dysentery and other infectious diarrhea were identified on lag 6 days (OR = 2.30, 95% CI: 1.81–2.93 and lag 5 days (OR = 3.56, 95% CI: 2.98–4.25, respectively. For all tropical storms, impacts on these diseases were highest on lag 2 days (OR = 2.47, 95% CI: 1.41–4.33 and lag 6 days (OR = 2.46, 95% CI: 1.69–3.56, respectively. The tropical cyclone precipitation was a risk factor for both bacillary dysentery and other infectious diarrhea when daily precipitation reached 25 mm and 50 mm with the largest OR = 3.25 (95% CI: 1.45–7.27 and OR = 3.05 (95% CI: 2.20–4.23, respectively. Conclusions: Both typhoons and tropical storms could contribute to an increase in risk of bacillary dysentery and other infectious diarrhea in Zhejiang. Tropical cyclone precipitation may also be a risk factor for these diseases when it reaches or is above 25 mm and 50 mm, respectively. Public health preventive and intervention measures should consider the adverse health impacts from tropical cyclones.

  10. Exploration of the Causes for Forest Area Changes in Jiangxi Province%江西省林地面积变化原因探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    战金艳; 史娜娜; 闫海明; 林英志

    2011-01-01

    基于栅格面积成分数据,构建了研究林地面积变化原因的计量经济模型,采用Tobit回归分析方法估计了自然环境条件和社会经济因素对江西省林地面积变化的影响.文章遴选出了包括人口、人均GDP、区位条件等在内的影响江西省林地面积变化的主要因素,分析了各种因素驱动江西省林地面积变化的机理,提出了江西省加强林地保护、促进林地面积增加的一个重要途径--加快经济发展,特别是通过加快基础设施建设促进相对落后地区的经济发展,发挥经济增长对林地保育的积极作用.同时研究还发现,积极转移农村剩余劳动力,减少人口对周边林地的压力,也是缓解江西省毁林垦荒压力的重要手段之一.研究结论为江西省制订并实施林地资源保护与开发利用政策提供了具有参考价值的信息.%Changes of forest area in Jiangxi Province is considered to be one of the major threats to wood security and ecosystem services at regional extent. However, knowledge about the explanation of forest area changes is far from completeness. Therefore, this research integrates natural environmental information with socio-economic processes and policy changes to build the econometric model to explore the driving mechanism for forest area changes from 1988 to 2005. Tobit regression analysis was used to measure socio-economic and natural factors. The estimation results show that the influencing factors for forest area include population, per capita GDP and location factors on forest area changes. The research finds that one possible way to promote the reforestation is to improve the economic development level, particularly to quicken the pace of infrastructure construction, of less developed areas in Jiangxi Province. And promoting transfer of rural surplus labor of Jiangxi Province may also be beneficial to relieve stresses of deforestation for farmland reclamation. The research results could

  11. Investigation into the Physico-Chemical Properties of Soils of Caspian Sea Coastal Area in Mangystau Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samal Syrlybekkyzy

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the results of investigation into physico-chemical properties of coastal soils in the areas of oil fields. it has been established that the considered soils are characterized with low content of organics, alkaline reaction of soil solutions, high salinity and weak resistance against anthropogenic impacts. The obtained data can be applied for further studies and monitoring of environment in oil field areas.

  12. An etnographic study of elementary education in the rural area of Dompu county, the province of West Nusa Tenggara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurrahmah Nurrahmah

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to describe: (1 public service for elementary education in rural areas; (2 the meaning of education and the implementation of elementary education in the people of rural areas; and (3 the life and meaning of poverty for people of rural areas. The study was etnographic research. The subjects were the providers and users of educational service. The research concludes that: (1 educational service in rural areas has not been coordinated and integrated both vertically and horizontally, so that the service elements have not been maximum in providing educational service; (2 the implementation of education is influenced by the surrounding environments (policy, community, and nature so that its condition or the problems emerging in the lower level is a reflection of that in the upper level. People in rural areas regard education as a symbol of profession and self-actualization within the children’s selves in order that the children would show respect to their parents, would not destroy the nature, have noble characteristics and be smart persons for their own sake in the future; (3 physically people in rural areas might be described as a community that lacks facilities including transportation, highway systems, water, electricity, and market for trading the harvest. On the other hand, mentally, people in rural areas might be described as a community that is fond of having aids, enjoys the final products, is lazy and dependent on the nature. People in rural areas regard their poverty based on physical indicators (the possession of luxurious goods, rice fields, livestock, income, and housings and non-physical indicators (the dependency on the nature and absence of education.

  13. Susceptibility of Cultivated Plants to Sumatran Elephant (Elephas maxi,us sumatranus in The Human Elephants Conflict Area in Aceh Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaniwa Berliani

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Study on human-elephant conflict was conducted in Aceh Province in August 2013-April 2014 to assess susceptibility of farms by crop raiding elephants. The locations were determined by selected areas impacted by elephant conflict incuding Cot Girek, Mane, Meureudu, Sampoiniet, and Pantai Ceureumen. 150 respondents was interviewed to assess the variety of the commodity plants species cultivated by local community within study areas, species of damaged commodity plants, species of undamaged commodity plants, and the planting system. there were 29 species considered as commodity plants cultivated by farmers. Moreover, 5 commodity plants were considered as high risk plants damaged by elephant including areca, banana, oil palm, paddy, and rubber. on the other hand, species considered as low risk or undamaged consist of cacao, coffee, chili, candlenut, and patchioli. Those low risk or undemaged commodity plants species have a potential to be promoted as elephant-friendly crop commodities in area adjacent to elephant habitat based on the analysis and the categorization of susceptibility of cultivated plants against crop raiding elephant. One of the problem of humn-elephant conflict is crop raiding of village farms. it is a assumed that elephants might destroy a particular species therefore information on the species could assist farmers in selecting appropriate crop to be planted. there is a risk that current polyculture and monoculture planting system used by farmers will not prevent farms from crop raiding elephants.

  14. SPATIAL AND TEMPORAL DYNAMICS OF SOIL ORGANIC CARBON IN RESERVED DESERTIFICATION AREA--A Case Study in Yulin City, Shaanxi Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Shu-lan; OUYANG Hua; NIU Hai-shan; WANG Lin; ZHANG Feng; GAO Jun-qin; TIAN Yu-qiang

    2004-01-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) was considered to be a key index in evaluation of soil degradation and soil C sequestration.To discuss the spatial-temporal dynamics of SOC in arable layer in reversed desertification area,a case study was conducted in Yulin City,Shaanxi Province,China.Data of SOC were based on general soil survey in 1982 and repeated soil sampling in 2003.Soil organic carbon content (SOCC) was determined by K2Cr3O7-FeSO4titration method,and soil organic carbon density (SOCD) was calculated by arithmetic average and area weighted average method,respectively.On average,SOCC and SOCD of the arable layer in the study area from 1982 to 2003had increased 0.5 lg/kg and 0.16kg/m2,respectively.Considering main soil types,the widest distributed Arid-Sandic Entisols had lowest values and increments of SOCC and SOCD during the study period;while the second widest Los-Orthic Entisols had higher values and increments of SOCC and SOCD,compared to the mean values of the whole region.The results indicated that reversed desertification process was due to the modification of land use and management practices,such as natural vegetation recovery,planting grass,turning arable land to grassland,and soil and water conservation etc.,which can improve SOCC and SOCD and thus enhance soil C sequestration.

  15. Mental health and burnout in primary and secondary school teachers in the remote mountain areas of Guangdong Province in the People's Republic of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang L

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lulu Zhang,1 Jingping Zhao,1 Huaqing Xiao,3 Hongbo Zheng,2 Yaonan Xiao,3 Miaoyang Chen,3 Dingling Chen31Mental Health Institute of the Second Xiangya Hospital, Key Laboratory of Psychiatry and Mental Health of Hunan Province, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, 2Department of Psychiatry, Guangzhou Brain Hospital, Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, 3Department of Psychiatry, Luoding Dagang Hospital, Luoding, Guangdong, People's Republic of ChinaBackground: A growing number of studies have shown that education is a work context in which professionals (teachers seem likely to suffer from burnout that may be associated with low levels of mental health. Although there is a demonstrated need to improve the mental health and burnout levels among teachers, little is known about their mental health status, particularly with respect to graduating class teachers in remote mountain areas with undeveloped economies. The purpose of this study was to survey mental health and burnout among graduating class teachers in remote mountain areas and to examine the influence of moderating variables.Methods: We conducted a multilevel analysis of 590 graduating class teachers from 42 primary and secondary schools in remote mountain areas of Guangdong province in the People's Republic of China. The outcome variable of self-reported mental health was measured by the Symptom Checklist-90 (SCL-90, and burnout was measured by the Chinese Maslach Burnout Inventory for primary and secondary school teachers.Results: The status of both mental health and burnout among the respondents was significantly more troubling than the national norm used as a reference (P<0.05 or P<0.01. Each factor in the SCL-90 had a significant correlation with burnout (P<0.01. All factors of the SCL-90 were entered into the regression equation for each dimension of burnout (P<0.01. The factor having the greatest impact on emotional exhaustion and

  16. Morphostructural characterization of the Charco basin and its surrounding areas in the Chihuahua segment of north Mexican Basin and Range Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troiani, Francesco; Menichetti, Marco

    2014-05-01

    The Chihuahua Basin and Range (CBR) is the eastern branch of the northern Mexican Basin and Range Province that, from a morphostructural point of view, presently is one amongst the lesser-known zones of the southern portion of the North America Basin and Range Province. The study area covers an approximately 800 km2-wide portion of the CBR and encompasses the fault-bounded Charco basin and its surrounding areas. The bedrock of the area pertains to the large siliceous-igneous province of the Sierra Madre Occidental and consists of volcanoclastic rocks including Oligocene dacite, rhyolite, rhyolitic tuffs, and polimitic conglomerates. The region is characterized by a series of NW-SE oriented valleys delimited by tilted monoclinal blocks bounded by high angle, SW-dipping, normal faults. Abrupt changes in elevation, alternating between narrow faulted mountain chains and flat arid valleys or basins are the main morphological elements of the area. The valleys correspond to structural grabens filled with Plio-Pleistocene continental sediments. These grabens are about 10 km wide, while the extensional fault system extend over a distance of more than 15 km. The mountain ranges are in most cases continuous over distances that range from 10 to 70 km including different branches of the extensional and transfer faults. The morphogenesis is mainly erosive in character: erosional landforms (such as rocky scarps, ridges, strath-terraces, erosional pediment, reverse slopes, landslide scar zones, litho-structural flat surfaces) dominate the landscape. In contrast, Quaternary depositional landforms are mainly concentrated within the flat valleys or basins. The Quaternary deposits consist of wide alluvial fans extending to the foot of the main ridges, fluvial and debris-slope deposits. The morphostructural characterization of the area integrated different methodologies, including: i) geomorphological and structural field analyses; ii) remote sensing and geo-morphometric investigations

  17. How to improve early case detection in low endemic areas with pockets of leprosy: a study of newly detected leprosy patients in Guizhou Province, People's Republic of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinlan; Yang, Lili; Wang, Ying; Liu, Hang; Liu, Jie; Cross, Hugh

    2016-03-01

    Although leprosy in China is controlled at a low endemic level, the number of new cases in Guizhou province has shown no significant decrease over the past 20 years. Guizhou remains the province with the second highest prevalence in China. The authors conducted a study in which the characteristics of newly detected leprosy cases, found between 2008 and 2012 in Guizhou, were analysed. These cases represented people from pocket areas of leprosy in a generally low endemic environment. The purpose of the study was to understand characters of newly detected cases, strong points and weakness of routine detection approaches for improving the effectiveness of early case detection in the future. The analysis considered data that was collected from a 'Leprosy Management Information' report system and also from annual statistical reports of leprosy that reflect the situation throughout the province. 1274 new patients were detected in Guizhou from 2008 to 2012. That number included 58 (4.6%) children (0-14 years old). The average age of patients at diagnosis was 42.6 ± 16.5 years. The proportion of people with WHO Grade 2 disability (WHO DG2) among new patients was 35.7% and the proportion of people with Grade 1 disability (DG1) constituted 10.1%. The average delay before diagnosis after the onset of symptoms of leprosy was 41.7 ± 49.8 months. Suspect survey was a major method by which most cases were detected. Trough this method 790 (62.0%) new patients were detected. It was also in this group that the highest proportion of people with WHO DG2 359 of 790 (45.4%) was reported. Self- reporting, diagnosis at a general skin clinic, household contact examination, and spot surveys accounted for 13.0%, 11.8%, 11.5% and 1.7% of other cases detected respectively. It was generally found that cases detected through household contact examinations were earlier cases (delay to diagnosis leprosy early in low endemic situations where pockets persist was difficult to achieve. The authors

  18. Alcohol use and subsequent sex among HIV-infected patients in an ethnic minority area of Yunnan Province, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofeng Luo

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To examine alcohol use and subsequent HIV risky behaviors among a sample of predominately ethnic minority people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA in a rural community in Yunnan Province, China. METHOD: A cross-sectional study with a face-to-face questionnaire interview was conducted among eligible participants. RESULTS: In total, 455 (94.4% out of 482 eligible HIV patients participated in the study. Of them, 82.6% were ethnic minorities; 15.4% were never married; 96.5% were sexually experienced; 55.4% had used drugs, 67% were receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART. Over 65% were ever drinkers; of whom 61.5% were current drinkers. Among current drinkers, 32.4% drank daily and 41.2% were hazardous drinkers. Chinese white wine was the preferred choice. Higher level of alcohol use among drinkers in the preceding month was positively associated with being males (OR = 2.76, 95%CI: 1.03-7.43, ethnic minorities (OR Jingpo = 2.21, 95%CI: 1.06-4.59; OR other minorities = 3.20, 95%CI: 1.34-7.62, higher education (OR1-6 = 1.98, 95%CI: 0.99-3.96; OR≥7 = 2.35, 95%CI: 1.09-5.06 and being ART-naive (OR = 2.69, 95%CI: 1.67-4.32. About 39% of ever drinkers reported having engaged in sex after drinking since HIV diagnosis. Those who were younger than 46 years (OR16-25 = 7.77, 95%CI: 1.22-49.60, OR26-35 = 2.79, 95%CI: 1.06-7.35, OR36-45 = 2.96, 95%CI: 1.57-7.58, hazardous drinkers (OR = 1.99, 95%CI: 1.00-3.97 and drug users (OR = 3.01, 95%CI: 1.19-7.58 were more likely to have had sex after drinking. Approximately 56% of drug users had used drugs after drinking. CONCLUSIONS: High prevalence of alcohol use and subsequent risky behaviors including sexual engagement and drug use among HIV patients in rural Yunnan require tremendous and integrated efforts for prevention and control of alcohol and drug abuse and HIV spreading.

  19. [Landscape pattern changes at village scale using high resolution satellite images: A case study in low-slope hilly area of Dali City, Northwestern Yunnan Province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ming-yue; Peng, Jian; Liu, Yan-xu; Zhang, Tian

    2015-12-01

    Human activity is the main driving force of the change of land cover and landscape patterns. However, there are few studies focusing on the mechanism of human-induced change of land cover and landscape patterns at village scale. In this study, taking low-slope hilly area of Dali City, Northwestern Yunnan Province as a case study area, high resolution satellite images were introduced to find out the rules of land cover and landscape pattern changes, i.e. GeoEye-1 of 2009 and World- View-3 of 2014. The object-oriented and human-computer-interaction approaches were applied to interpret the images using ArcGIS 10.2 and ENVI 5.2. The results showed that, the main land cover types in the study area were forest land, paddy field and dry land in 2009, with forest, bulldozed unbuilt ground and paddy field in 2014, accounting for 82.8% and 70.9% of the total area, respectively. The land cover transition showed that, during 2009-2014, the main land cover change flows were from forest land, paddy field and dry land, to bulldozed unbuilt ground and construction land. Furthermore, the area of bulldozed but unbuilt land had increased to be 531.57 hm² in 2014, which mainly came from forest land (42.8%), dry land (21.7%), and paddy field (14.2%). Landscape pattern change was characterized as the increase of patch quantity and density, the decrease of mean patch size, the complication of patch shape, the fragmentation of landscape patches, and the diversification of landscape patterns.

  20. 黑龙江省垦区农业旅游发展战略研究%Research On Reclamation area of Heilongjiang Province Agricultural Tourism Development Strategic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏延军; 云利波; 刘晓佳; 郭文栋

    2012-01-01

      Heilongjiang reclamation area is our country's impor-tant commodity grain base, strong safeguard national food safety, after years of development modernization agriculture got great progress, especially in last few years, economic development, reclamation area economy industry structure has undergone funda-mental changes, to agricultural tourism as the leading the tertiary industry has been substantial growth, this paper analysis of reclamation area of Heilongjiang Province agricultural tourism is facing problems, combined with the characteristics of tourism development, reclamation area agriculture regionalization of types, etc., for the future of reclamation area agriculture development, tourism marketing, the respect such as the mechanism undertook discussing, put forward to develop the strategic train of thought of agricultural tourism.%  黑龙江垦区是我国重要的商品粮基地,有力保障了国家粮食安全,黑龙江垦区经过多年的发展现代化农业得到了长足的进步,尤其是近几年经济快速发展,垦区经济产业结构发生了根本性的变化,以农业旅游为主导的第三产业得到了大幅度增长,本文分析了黑龙江省垦区农业旅游面临的问题,结合垦区农业旅游发展的特点、类型、区划等多个方面,对于今后垦区农业旅游发展、营销、机制等方面进行了探讨,提出了发展农业旅游的战略思路。

  1. The Scientific and Technological area of the Programs of Curricular Diversification. Critical analysis of the available materials and a case study in Segovia province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal Insua, Maria Pilar

    This thesis is focused on the Scientific area of the Programs of Curricular Diversification, one of the Government actions for the attention to diversity in compulsory Secondary Education, established in the General Education Law (LOGSE: Ley de Ordenacion General del Sistema Educativo) of 1990. It has been carried out in Spain. In the thesis two different lines of work can be distinguished: (A) The analysis of material elaborated specifically for the mentioned area. We intent to know what materials have been elaborated and to analyze them; to this purpose we study the material spread in Congresses or Conferences, and also the articles published in magazines or specifically designed to be used in the Scientific area of the Programs of Curricular Diversification until year 2003. The analysis is made after classifying the material according to the format in which it appears (books, CDs, "Didactic Units"). (B) Two case studies, of evaluative character, carried out in two Secondary Schools in the province of Segovia (Spain), one of them in the city and another one in a rural population. The case studies are centered in the Scientific Area of the Programs of Curricular Diversification that last for two years. In the first of these Centers eight students took part in the Program; in the second, a total of seven. Throughout the investigation we observed that students who took part in the Programs obtained good academic results. Programs are proved to be effective in generating processes of academic success in pupils who were previously in situation of school failure and at risk of social exclusion. The success of these programs is fundamentally due to the following reasons: the low number of students involved, the fact that they are focused on basic knowledge, the reduced number of subjects studied. Besides, to offer the students the chance of a closer relationship with a few teachers increases their motivation and involvement in the programs. Key words: Attention to

  2. Deep-seated structure and metallogenic dynamics of the Ailaoshan polymetallic mineralization concentration area, Yunnan Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The Ailaoshan poly-metallic mineralization concentrated area (MCA) consists of the well known Ailaoshan metallogenic belt and adjacent mineral districts and/or deposits. Located in an area of several complex and intersecting tectonic units, the Ailaoshan poly-metallic MCA is controlled by deep crustal and mantle tectonism. Through interpretation of remote sensing images, we identified a large ring structure system that surrounds the MCA. This ring structure encloses regional deep-crustal faults, ductile shear zones, geothermal anomalies, magmatic rocks, and the major mineral deposits, all of which are the reflections of deep tectonic geodynamics that have been long active in this area. Geophysical data indicate that the crust is comprised of relatively stable two or three layers, with some irregular lower-velocity belts. The Moho in the ring sutures occurs as an area of local uplift. There exists an obvious transitional zone between the crust and mantle boundaries. Asthenopheric mantle shows multi-layer upwelling, which indicates multiple events during different geological epochs. It is believed that these mantle events or pulses were responsible for the formation of the regional shear zones, magmatic rocks, and polymetallic orebodies. Furthermore, an integrated metallogenic dynamics model related to the asthenopheric upwelling pulses in the MCA is established, defining events as old as Late Paleozoic.

  3. Deep-seated structure and metallogenic dynamics of the Ailaoshan polymetallic mineralization concentration area, Yunnan Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GE LiangSheng; DENG Jun; GUO XiaoDong; ZOU YiLin; LIU YinChun

    2009-01-01

    The Ailaoshan poly-metalllc mineralization concentrated area (MCA) consists of the well known Aileoshan metallogenic belt and adjacent mineral districts and/or deposits. Located in an area of sev-eral complex and intersecting tectonic units, the Ailaoshan poly-metallic MCA is controlled by deep crustal and mantle tectonism. Through interpretation of remote sensing images, we identified a large ring structure system that surrounds the MCA. This ring structure encloses regional deep-crustal faults, ductile shear zones, geothermal anomalies, magmatic rocks, and the major mineral deposits, all of which are the reflections of deep tectonic geodynamics that have been long active in this area. Geo-physical data indicate that the crust is comprised of relatively stable two or three layers, with some irregular lower-velocity belts. The Moho in the ring sutures occurs as an area of local uplift. There ex-lets an obvious transitional zone between the crust and mantle boundaries. Asthenopheric mantle shows multi-layer upwelling, which indicates multiple events during different geological epochs. It is believed that these mantle events or pulses were responsible for the formation of the regional shear zones, magmatic rocks, and polymetallic orebodies. Furthermore, an integrated metallogenic dynamics model related to the asthenopheric upwelling pulses in the MCA is established, defining events as old as Late Paleozoic.

  4. Perception of Tourist towards the Potential Development of Tumpa Mountain Area as Integrated Ecotourism, Manado, North Sulawesi Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benny Irwan Towoliu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Tumpa is the name of mountain located at the northern part of the Manado City region which bordering The National Park of Bunaken. As a mountainous region with a height of ±623m (asl, it occupies a strategic position. In addition to being adjacent to the park, it is also part of uplands owned by the city of Manado. It serves as buffer zone (green belt of water, horticultural and agricultural areas with mangrove coastal areas. Master Plan of Tourism Development Region in Manado City used as part of ecotourism products from mountain and forest, but so far there has been no in-depth study to assess the holistic perception of tourist in the development potency of the region as an integrated tourism in Tumpa Mountain area. This study was purposed to determine the tourist perception toward the potential development as integrated ecotourism. This research involved a qualitative research approach, described by using figures on the percentage. Fieldwork was used as a questionnaire survey. The analysis measurement using Likert Scale, scoring and analysis combined with the analysis of the interest rate (level of importance. This study result shows that the average respondent answered good with the score range between 3.5 until 4.2. It means the respondents have argued that every indicator; natural, social-cultural and infrastructure that exists in the region Tumpa Mount area is still in good condition. In the level of interest the respondents answered between 3.6 until 4.6 with category important. This means respondents expect that good environmental circumstances will be always maintained and linked with the development of tourist attraction which is very suitable to be developed as ecotourism. In conclusion, the indicators are considered good and important to be developed as an integrated ecotourism area. Keywords: Ecotourism, Integrated, Perception, Tourist, Tumpa Mount.

  5. 广东省沿海地区台风灾害风险评价%Risk Assessment of Typhoon Disaster of Coastal Areas in Guangdong Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尚志海; 李晓雁

    2015-01-01

    In the context of global warming and rapid urbanization ,the coastal areas of Guangdong Province are suffered from typhoon disaster ,which take place frequently and cause serious losses in these areas ,so risk assessment of typhoon disaster has important significance .Firstly ,three aspects including typhoon hazard ,exposure and vulnerability are selected as indicators according to the nature disaster sys‐tem theory .Then this paper introduces catastrophe theory ,and puts forward the evaluation index system to assess typhoon disaster risk .The data of typhoon disaster in 14 cities of Guangdong Province from 1991 to 2010 ,combined with socio-economic conditions ,are collected to assess risk by using two modes :the Cusp catastrophe formula and Swallowtail catastrophe formula of the catastrophe theory .Finally the evalu‐ation results show that typhoon disaster risk of Zhanjiang city is highest ,w hile the risk of Dongguan city is lowest ,and the risk in the coastal areas from big to small is western coastal coast ,eastern coastal coast and the Pearl River Delta .%在全球气候变暖和快速城市化的背景下,广东省沿海地区台风灾害频发,且灾害损失严重,因此开展台风灾害风险研究具有重要意义。根据自然灾害系统理论,从台风灾害危险性、暴露性和易损性三个方面选取8个指标,引入突变理论,建立了灾害风险评价指标体系,并利用1991~2010年共20年登陆广东省的台风资料,结合社会经济条件,运用突变模型中的尖点突变和燕尾突变两种模式对广东省沿海地区14个城市进行了灾害风险评价。评价结果表明,台风灾害风险最大的城市是湛江市,最小的是东莞市;沿海地区三个岸段风险从大到小依次为:粤西沿海、粤东沿海、珠江三角洲。

  6. Study on comprehensive monitoring of mouse and effect of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome vaccine in high prevalence areas of natural focus infectious disease of Zhejiang province in 1994-2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚震宇

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the comprehensive monitoring mechanism of mouse and the effect of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome(HFRS) vaccine in the high prevalence areas of natural focus infectious disease of Zhejiang province in 1994-2010. Methods The night trapping method was used to monitor the population proportion, density

  7. The environmental pollution perception of residents in coal mining areas: a case study in the Hancheng mine area, Shaanxi Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xingmin; He, Fei

    2012-10-01

    The environmental behavior of the residents depends on their perception of environmental pollution. Hence, it is important for scientific and policy experts to research on the impact of the environmental pollution perception of local residents. Owing to the richness of natural resources, Hancheng coal mine areas are abound in heavy industries, and environmental pollution is serious and typical in this area, thus, the residents are anxious about their health. Using questionnaires, this paper surveys the perception of residents living in the coal mine area. The influential factors of environmental perception were analyzed by the Rank Sum Test. The results were: (1) the majority of the residents in the coal mine area are not satisfied with their living environment. The perception order of pollution severity is: air pollution > noise pollution > sanitation > water pollution. The residents think that pollution is mainly caused by coal processing. Hence, coal mining is not the main reason of the pollution in the coal mine area. (2) Age and length of residence have significant positive effects on perceptions of air, water, and noise pollutions; whereas education has a significant negative effect on perceptions of water and noise pollutions, as well as sanitation. This phenomenon can be explained by the various cultural groups having varied perceptions on the environmental pollution. In addition, proximity to mine has significant negative effect on perceptions of water and noise pollution. In conclusion, the paper discusses the effects of demographical and social factors on the perception of environmental pollution and gives suggestions on the planning and management of the environment.

  8. [Differentiation of vegetation characteristics on slope micro-topography of fenced watershed in loess area of north Shaanxi Province, Northwest China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Zhu, Qing-Ke; Qin, Wei; Zhang, Hong-Zhi; Yun, Lei; Xie, Jing; Kuang, Gao-Ming

    2012-03-01

    Based on the investigation data of the vegetations in Hegou valley in Wuqi County of Shaanxi Province, this paper studied the vegetation characteristics on the five typical micro-topography categories including shallow gully, gully, collapse, platform, and scarp in the loess area of north Shaanxi, with the undisturbed slope as the control. There existed distinct differences in the species composition, quantitative characteristics, and species diversity of plant communities on the five typical micro-topography categories and the undisturbed slope. After twelve years of enclosure recovery, the study area formed herbaceous plant community, with Artemisia sacrorum and Artemisia giraldii as the dominant species. Among the main companion species, shrubs such as Prinsepia uniflora and Caragana korshinskii were found in scarp and gully, and hygrophyte Phragmites australis appeared in platform. The coverage, height, and biomass of the plant communities on most of the micro-topography categories, especially on the gully and collapse, were larger than those on the undisturbed slope. The Shannon index on the micro-topography categories and undisturbed slope was in the order of scarp > gully > shallow gully > undisturbed slope > platform > collapse.

  9. The Quantitative Analysis of Land Use Structure Characteristics of County in Mountainous Areas in Sichuan Province of China——A Case Study of Rong County

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Based on the data concerning detailed survey on land in the year 2009 and land change in the year 2010 in Rong County,a mountainous region of Sichuan Province,by using quantitative geographical model,we conduct quantitative analysis of the status quo of land use in Rong County in terms of land use diversification,land use centralization,land use combination type,land use geographic significance and comprehensive use degree of land use.The results show some characteristics as follows.Firstly,land use in study area displays prominent characteristic of diversification;there is a high degree of completeness land use type;there is a great similarity among towns.Secondly,there is limited combination number of land use type;mostly the combination number of the towns is 2-3;the holistic function of regional land is fragile;the proportion of farmland areas is big,reaching 40.09%;the land use type of 21 towns is farmland.Thirdly,the towns with prominent characteristic of diversification of land use in Rong County,have low degree of centralization of land use and relatively big combination number of land use type,and vice versa.Fourthly,the type and quantity of agricultural land resources with geographical significance are relatively complete with nothing missing;it abounds in untapped land,but the overall index values of land use are all smaller than 300,with low overall use degree of land.

  10. Losses Assessment of Crops due to Typhoon Disaster in China Coastal Areas —— A Case Study of Zhanjiang City, Guangdong Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, W.; Fang, W.

    2015-12-01

    Vulnerability which quantifies the loss ratio under different hazard intensity is an important feature of the natural disaster system and has important significance to natural disaster risk assessment. Agriculture is an outdoor industry with high risk of meteorological disasters. The strong winds, heavy rain and storm surge are main typhoon hazard factors to crops. To provide a quantitative research method for the loss evaluation of crops due to typhoon disaster we first revised two vulnerability curves for crops under comprehensive intensity of typhoon based on the simulated hazard data and loss data related to historical typhoon events landing on China from 1949 to 2014;and then established a storm surge vulnerability matrix of crops regarding Zhanjiang City of Guangdong Province as the study area ; finally, we put forward three storm surge fragility curves for crops representing different states of loss. The results can effectively describe the typhoon vulnerability for crops in China coastal areas so as to provide the input to post-disaster loss assessments and catastrophe modeling applications.

  11. 云南滇中地区地质灾害防治区划%Geological hazards preventing zoning in central area of Yunnan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁星妤; 戴塔根; 包从法; 普志坤

    2011-01-01

    滇中地区是云南省地质灾害的多发区之一。区内主要地质灾害类型有滑坡、泥石流、崩塌、地面塌陷及地裂缝五种。其中以滑坡和泥石流为主,灾害点分布较广且个体规模小,稳定性较差。此次通过对区内地质灾害诱因及分布现状的分析,阐述了地质灾害防治分区划分原则,将滇中地区划分为地质灾害重点防治区、次重点防治区及一般防治区三个大区,并提出了相应的防治措施。%The district of central area in Yunnan Province, is located in geological hazards easily occurring areas. There are six geological hazards, including landslide, debris flows, collapse, unstable slopes, land collapse and land fractures. Among them, landsli

  12. Al SahawaThe Awakening: Volume 3-B: Al Anbar Province Area of Operations Denver, HadithahHit Corridor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    assigned to the Hit area. A point stressed in previous volumes was that the Awakening was not only an Iraqi Awakening, but a Coalition Awakening—the...up its attacks. Two large attacks occurred simultaneously on 4 September. One suicide vehicle- borne improvised explosive device (SVBIED) was...Matt, which was really pretty good.3 Themes: As you step back and look at Hadithah, what are some of the themes that prevail? As an exam - ple, 3/4 left

  13. Primary case of human pneumonic plague occurring in a Himalayan marmot natural focus area Gansu Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengfei Ge

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A case of primary pneumonic plague (PPP caused by Yersinia pestis is reported. This case occurred in the largest plague area in China. The patient died after contact with a dog that had captured an infected marmot. Three of 151 contacts were shown to be positive for antibody against F1 antigen by indirect hemagglutination assay, but none had clinical symptoms. There was no secondary case.

  14. Primary case of human pneumonic plague occurring in a Himalayan marmot natural focus area Gansu Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Pengfei; Xi, Jinxiao; Ding, Jun; Jin, Fachang; Zhang, Hong; Guo, Limin; Zhang, Jie; Li, Junlin; Gan, Zhiqiang; Wu, Bin; Liang, Junrong; Wang, Xin; Wang, Xinhua

    2015-04-01

    A case of primary pneumonic plague (PPP) caused by Yersinia pestis is reported. This case occurred in the largest plague area in China. The patient died after contact with a dog that had captured an infected marmot. Three of 151 contacts were shown to be positive for antibody against F1 antigen by indirect hemagglutination assay, but none had clinical symptoms. There was no secondary case.

  15. Effective U.S. Aid and Assistance to Pakistan’s Federally Administered Tribal Area and Northwest Frontier Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-16

    May 2009, the NWFP government established the Emergency Response Unit ( ERU ) to act as the operational agency for relief response in the displacement...areas. Led by the NWFP Chief Secretary, the ERU adopted a decentralized approach, which enabled civilian authorities to provide relief aid to the...IDPs more rapidly. The creation of the ERU is a first for Pakistan. The Pakistan government recognized the importance of providing immediate reliefto

  16. Adverse Associations of both Prenatal and Postnatal Exposure to Organophosphorous Pesticides with Infant Neurodevelopment in an Agricultural Area of Jiangsu Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ping; Wu, Chunhua; Chang, Xiuli; Qi, Xiaojuan; Zheng, Minglan; Zhou, Zhijun

    2016-01-01

    Background: Prenatal exposure to organophosphorous (OP) pesticides has been found to be associated with adverse effects on child neurodevelopment, but evidence on potential effects induced by both prenatal and postnatal OP exposure in infants is limited. Objectives: Our aim was to investigate the associations of both prenatal and postnatal OP exposure with birth outcomes and infant neurodevelopment. Methods: Exposure to OP in 310 mother–infant pairs was assessed by measuring dimethylphosphate (DM), diethylphosphate (DE), and total dialkylphosphate (DAP) metabolites in urines from pregnant women and their children at 2 years of age. The Gesell Developmental Schedules was administered to examine neurodevelopment of 2-year-old children. Results: Based on the Gesell Developmental Schedules, the proportions of children with developmental delays were < 6%. Adverse associations between head circumference at birth and prenatal OP exposure were demonstrated. Both prenatal and postnatal OP exposure was significantly associated with increased risk of being developmentally delayed. Specifically, odds ratio (OR) value for prenatal DEs was 9.75 (95% CI: 1.28, 73.98, p = 0.028) in the adaptive area, whereas in the social area, OR values for postnatal DEs and DAPs were 9.56 (95% CI: 1.59, 57.57, p = 0.014) and 12.00 (95% CI: 1.23, 117.37, p = 0.033), respectively. Adverse associations were observed only in boys, not in girls. Conclusions: Both prenatal and postnatal OP exposure may adversely affect the neurodevelopment of infants living in the agricultural area. The present study adds to the accumulating evidence on associations of prenatal and postnatal OP exposure with infant neurodevelopment. Citation: Liu P, Wu C, Chang X, Qi X, Zheng M, Zhou Z. 2016. Adverse associations of both prenatal and postnatal exposure to organophosphorous pesticides with infant neurodevelopment in an agricultural area of Jiangsu Province, China. Environ Health Perspect 124:1637–1643; http

  17. Implement PPET Strategy and Develop Ecotourism of Minority Areas in Western China——Take Xinlong County of GanziTibetan Autonomous Prefecture in Sichuan Province as An Example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XiaGuitan

    2005-01-01

    To help the poor and to develop tourism are two mportant problems in poverty-stricken area. Howeve,they were isotated for years. The PPET strategy was put forward in this paper based on PPT. The Feasibility and the realistic meaning of the strategy in developing the ecotourism, overcoming poverty, and achieving prosperity of minority areas in western China are analyzed by taking Xinlong county of Ganzi Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture in Stchuan Province as an example.

  18. Eco-environment contribution of agroforestry to agriculture development in the plain area of China--Huai' an Prefecture, Jiangsu Province as the case study area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Hong-chang; Lu, Yong-long; Liu, Can; Meng, Qing-hua; Shi, Ya-juan

    2005-01-01

    For improving the environmental quality and ensuring supply of wood and non-timber forest products, many forests have been planted in plain areas of China. Scientists have studied their benefits, almost all of the approaches were based on fixed-point data, and few was considered on the non-efficient factors and temporal scale effects. This paper studies the positive and negative benefits at a large temporal scale, and the effects of plain afforestation on stockbreeding and rural economy. The benefits of plain afforestation, correlation coefficiency of agroforestry and production factors are analyzed via stochastic frontier modeling in Huanghuaihai Plain Area of China; elastic coefficient of agroforestry, husbandry, farming, and total output of agricultural sector are calculated through adopting partial differential equation. Some conclusions can be drawn that, plain forests have an important effect on the development of plain agriculture. But shelterbelts and small-scale forests have different effect on the development of agricultural economy. Shelterbelts have negative effect on the industries, but small-scale forest has positive effect. On the whole, contribution of forest resource to value of animal husbandry and gross production value of agriculture is positive, and to the value of farming is negative.

  19. Eco-environment contribution of agroforestry to agriculture development in the plain area of China--Huai'an Prefecture, Jiangsu Province as the case study area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN Hong-chang; LU Yong-long; LIU Can; MENG Qing-hua; SHI Ya-juan

    2005-01-01

    For improving the environmental quality and ensuring supply of wood and non-timber forest products, many forests have been planted in plain areas of China. Scientists have studied their benefits, almost all of the approaches were based on fixed-point data, and few was considered on the non-efficient factors and temporal scale effects. This paper studies the positive and negative benefits at a large temporal scale, and the effects of plain afforestation on stockbreeding and rural economy. The benefits of plain afforestation, correlation coefficiency of agroforestry and production factors are analyzed via stochastic frontier modeling in Huanghuaihai Plain Area of China; elastic coefficient of agroforestry, husbandry, farming, and total output of agricultural sector are calculated through adopting partial differential equation. Some conclusions can be drawn that, plain forests have an important effect on the development of plain agriculture. But shelterbelts and small-scale forests have different effect on the development of agricultural economy. Shelterbelts have negative effect on the industries, but small-scale forest has positive effect. On the whole, contribution of forest resource to value of animal husbandry and gross production value of agriculture is positive, and to the value of farming is negative.

  20. ECO-ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT AND ANALYSIS OF TONGLVSHAN MINING AREA IN DAYE CITY, HUBEI PROVINCE BASED ON SPATIOTEMPORAL METHODOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. M. Zhang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Mine exploitation has a significant impact on the ecological environment status of the surroundings. To analyze the impact of Tonglvshan Mining area to its surroundings, this paper adopted the spatiotemporal methodology based on the extracted Eco-environmental Quality Index (EQI to analysis the extent and degree of the effect. The spatiotemporal methodologies are based on two scales: buffers and administrative units. EQI includes Biological Abundance Index (BAI, Vegetation Index (VI, Water Network Density Index (WNDI, and Land Degradation Index (LDI. The weight of each Index was determined by the analytic hierarchy process (AHP and scores of the experts. The calculating of EQI was referenced to the standard “Technical criterion for Eco-environment Status Evaluation” (HJ/T192-2006)and the “Standards for Classification and Gradation of Soil Erosion” (SL 190-96). Considering ecological and environmental characteristics relevant to China, this method has been widely used to study the environment status of specific regions in China. The assessment based on buffers adopted the radius of 300m, 500m, 700m, 1000m, 1500m, 2000m, 2500m, 3000m, 3500m, and 4000m as the buffers in 3 typical miners respectively. The calculated result indicates that, the REI is increasing with the radius and the increasing rate becoming smaller until REI is stable. Which means the effect of miner is getting weaker with the distance to the miner is increasing and the effect is diminished when the distance is far enough. The analysis of the 3 typical miner shows that the extent and degree of the effect of miner relates not only with the area of the miner, but also with type of mineral resource, the status of mining and the ecological restoration. The assessment was also carried out by calculating the EQI in 14 administrative units in Daye city in 2000, 2005, and 2010. The study shows that the EQI is decreasing in 14 units from 2000 to 2010. The spatiotemporal

  1. Analysis of Batik Value Chain in Ethnic Minority Areas--A Case Study of Danzhai County in Guizhou Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Based on value chain analysis method,we surveyed and interviewed interest groups of batik industry in Danzhai County.From raw material production,product processing,marketing,organization and management,we discussed the supply chain of batik products in ethnic minority areas,and analyzed favorable factors of batik industry development and obstacles to interest groups developing batik industry.Finally,we put forward corresponding policy suggestions,including strengthening farmers’ ability in batik production section,enhancing capability construction of batik cooperatives and associations,increasing cultural value added of batik products,bolster policy and financial support of government departments,and promoting establishment of cooperative mechanism for handicrafts.

  2. Landslide Susceptibility Mapping Based on Particle Swarm Optimization of Multiple Kernel Relevance Vector Machines: Case of a Low Hill Area in Sichuan Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongliang Lin

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a multiple kernel relevance vector machine (RVM method based on the adaptive cloud particle swarm optimization (PSO algorithm to map landslide susceptibility in the low hill area of Sichuan Province, China. In the multi-kernel structure, the kernel selection problem can be solved by adjusting the kernel weight, which determines the single kernel contribution of the final kernel mapping. The weights and parameters of the multi-kernel function were optimized using the PSO algorithm. In addition, the convergence speed of the PSO algorithm was increased using cloud theory. To ensure the stability of the prediction model, the result of a five-fold cross-validation method was used as the fitness of the PSO algorithm. To verify the results, receiver operating characteristic curves (ROC and landslide dot density (LDD were used. The results show that the model that used a heterogeneous kernel (a combination of two different kernel functions had a larger area under the ROC curve (0.7616 and a lower prediction error ratio (0.28% than did the other types of kernel models employed in this study. In addition, both the sum of two high susceptibility zone LDDs (6.71/100 km2 and the sum of two low susceptibility zone LDDs (0.82/100 km2 demonstrated that the landslide susceptibility map based on the heterogeneous kernel model was closest to the historical landslide distribution. In conclusion, the results obtained in this study can provide very useful information for disaster prevention and land-use planning in the study area.

  3. Bioaccessibility and health risk assessment of arsenic in soil and indoor dust in rural and urban areas of Hubei province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanzhong; Ma, Junwei; Yan, Hongxia; Ren, Yuqing; Wang, Beibei; Lin, Chunye; Liu, Xitao

    2016-04-01

    Incidental oral ingestion is the main exposure pathway by which human intake contaminants in both soil and indoor dust, and this is especially true for children as they frequently exhibit hand-to-mouth behaviour. Research on comprehensive health risk caused by incidental ingestion of both soil and indoor dust is limited. The aims of this study were to investigate the arsenic concentration and to characterize the health risks due to arsenic (As) exposure via soil and indoor dust in rural and urban areas of Hubei province within central China. Soil and indoor dust samples were collected from schools and residential locations and bioaccessibility of arsenic in these samples was determined by a simplified bioaccessibility extraction test (SBET). The total arsenic content in indoor dust samples was 1.78-2.60 times that measured in soil samples. The mean As bioaccessibility ranged from 75.4% to 83.2% in indoor dust samples and from 13.8% to 20.2% in soil samples. A Pearson's analysis showed that As bioaccessibility was significantly correlated with Fe and Al in soil and indoor dust, respectively, and activity patterns of children were utilised in the assessment of health risk via incidental ingestion of soil and indoor dust. The results suggest no non-carcinogenic health risks (HQ<1) or acceptable carcinogenic health risks (1×10(-6)areas were 1.59-1.95 times those for children in rural areas. The HQ and CR values for children three to five years of age were 1.40-1.47 times those for children six to nine years of age. The health risk accounting for bioaccessibility was only 50.8-59.8% of that obtained without consideration of bioaccessibility.

  4. Personal exposure levels of PAHs in the general population in northern rural area of Jiangsu Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Wen Q; Wang, Li; Li, Rui R; Cao, Shu Y; Ye, Yu T; Li, Lei

    2014-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a group of compounds that are produced by incomplete combustion of organic matters. Studies in humans have shown associations between PAHs exposure and development of cancers. Urinary monohydroxy polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (OH-PAHs) are a class of PAH metabolites used as biomarkers for estimating human exposure to PAHs. We collected 332 urinary samples from a nonoccupational population in northern rural area of Jiangsu. Levels of 2-hydroxynathalene (2-OHN), 2-hydroxyfluorene (2-OHF) and 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) were measured as biomarkers to assess body PAHs burdens. Three PAH metabolites were detected in more than 80% of urinary samples. After being adjusted with urinary creatinine concentration, the urinary concentrations were determined as 2-OHF > 1-OHP > 2-OHN in terms. The medians of 2-OHN, 2-OHF, 1-OHP for the general population were 1.74, 30.01, 25.24 μmoL/moL creatinine, respectively. The results demonstrated that nonoccupational populations in northern rural area of Jiangsu were exposed to extremely high PAHs. The urinary concentration (median and geometric mean) of 2-OHN,2-OHF,1-OHP in males (1.90, 0.37 ± 0.46; 34.90, 1.53 ± 0.41; 27.84, 1.52 ± 0.29 μmoL/moL creatinine, respectively) was slightly higher than in females (1.56, 0.32 ± 0.42; 29.60, 1.48 ± 0.40; 23.13, 1.49 ± 0.32 μmoL/moL creatinine, respectively). However, only 2-OHN was different significantly between males and females.

  5. Petrogenesis of the Mesozoic intrusive rocks in the Tongling area, Anhui Province, China and their constraint on geodynamic process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王强; 许继峰; 赵振华; 熊小林; 包志伟

    2003-01-01

    Petrology, element and isotopic geochemistry of the Mesozoic intrusive rocks in the Tongling area were systematically investigated in this study. The intrusive rocks can be divided into two groups, one contains shoshonitic rocks with SiO2≤55%, the other consists mainly of high-potassic calc-alkaline rocks with SiO2>55%. The shoshonitic rocks (SiO2≤55%) were generated by the fractional crystallization of the primary basaltic magma sourced from an enriched mantle, then the evolved basaltic magma likely experienced low-degree contamination with the lower crust materials when they ascended. On the other hand, although the intrusive rocks with SiO2>55% show most elemental geochemical characteristics similar to an adakite, such as high Na2O, Al2O3, Sr contents, high Sr/Y and La/Yb ratios, they have isotopic compositions much different from an adakite, such as low εNd(t) (-9.16-16.55) and high (87Sr/86Sr)i(0.7068-0.7105), and some of them show relatively high Y and Yb contents than those of an adakite. We propose that the intrusive rocks with SiO2>55% were most probably produced by mixing of the mantle-derived basaltic magma and adakite-like magma derived from the melting of basaltic lower crust that was heated by the underplating mantle-derived shoshonitic magmas. The delamination of lower crust likely took place after or during the formation of these adakite-like rocks in the Tongling area.

  6. Uranium Provinces in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Three uranium provinces are recognized in China, the Southeast China uranium province, the Northeast China-lnner Mongolia uranium province and the Northwest China (Xinjiang) uranium province. The latter two promise good potential for uranium resources and are major exploration target areas in recent years. There are two major types of uranium deposits: the Phanerozoic hydrothermal type (vein type) and the Meso-Cenozoic sandstone type in different proportions in the three uranium provinces. The most important reason or prerequisite for the formation of these uranium provinces is that Precambrian uranium-enriched old basement or its broken parts (median massifs) exists or once existed in these regions, and underwent strong tectonomagmatic activation during Phanerozoic time. Uranium was mobilized from the old basement and migrated upwards to the upper structural level together with the acidic magma originating from anatexis and the primary fluids, which were then mixed with meteoric water and resulted in the formation of Phanerozoic hydrothermal uranium deposits under extensional tectonic environments. Erosion of uraniferous rocks and pre-existing uranium deposits during the Meso-Cenozoic brought about the removal of uranium into young sedimentary basins. When those basins were uplifted and slightly deformed by later tectonic activity, roll-type uranium deposits were formed as a result of redox in permeable sandstone strata.

  7. Human-induced hydrological changes and sinkholes in the gypsum karst of Lesina Marina area (Foggia Province, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidelibus, M. D.; Gutierrez, F.; Spilotro, G.

    2009-04-01

    points distributed over a large area around the canal and the results of numerical simulations, the main hydrological changes include: (1) Incorporation of new boundary conditions. The groundwater flow, previously controlled by the oscillating sea level and by the lagoon level, has been altered introducing a line of minimum potential along the canal. The water level in the canal oscillates according to the variations in the levels of the sea and the lagoon. (2) The gypsum bedrock that behaves as an anisotropic aquifer, is drained by a channel in which the flow, essentially controlled by the tidal regime, discharges two times a day towards the sea and towards the lagoon. (3) The canal that works as a drainage trench, has caused the lowering of the water table. The local distortion of the piezometric surface has modified the flow direction and increased the gradient and flow rate. At the flanks of the canal, the groundwater that used to flow towards the sea, now has been captured by the excavation and circulates towards the canal. The sense of this flow is influenced by the piezometric changes caused by the tidal variations. (4) As a consequence of the lowering of the water table (of the order of a few decimetres) near the banks of the canal, slow subhorizontal phreatic flows have been replaced by more rapid downward vadose flows. These hydrological changes have induced the reactivation-acceleration of internal erosion and collapse processes leading to the generation of a large number of sinkholes in the vicinity of the canal. The lowering in the water table involves an increase in the effective weight of the sediments previously situated in the saturated zone due to the loss of buoyancy. Additionally, downward vadose flows and more rapid water circulation in the saturated zone towards the canal favour the flushing out of the sediments filling voids and the downward migration of cover material towards the underlying paleokarst. Most likely the continuous oscillations of

  8. Geochemical Charactristics and Genesis of Topaz—Bearing Porphyries in Yangbin Area of Taishun County,Zhejiang Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王德滋; 刘昌实; 等

    1995-01-01

    The host rocks of the porphyry tin deposits in the Yangbin area are prince-pally topaz-bearing porphyry dikes about 2 km long and 2-20m wide.Three lithologic types are identified for the dikes:topaz-bearing potassium feldspar granitic porphyry,topaz-bearing monzonitic granitic porphyry and topaz-bearing quartz porphyry.The con-tent of topaz in the rocks ranges from 10 to 20 vol.%.Porphyritic texture is characteristic,with quartz,potassium feldspar and albite as main phenocryst minerals.The phenocryst occupies 10-20vol% of the rocks.The rock groundmass consists of subhedrak topaz,quartz and protolithionite.Topaz has a unit-cell parameter b=8.797(A)°,and F:OH=1.92:0.18, indicating a F-rich variety formed at high temperature .The topaz-bearing porphyries occurring in this area are strongly peraluminous (A/NKC=1.574-12.94),with high ra-tios of F/C1(146-303) and Rb/Sr(5-122).They are rich in incompatible elements (Sn,313×10-6-1042×10-6;W,6×10-6-218×10-6;Nb,27×10-6-54×10-6),but poor in compatible elements (Sr,10×10-6-28×10-6;Ba,58×10-6-73×10-6;V,3×10-6-10×10-6,Cl,150×10-6-226×10-6).The rocks are also characterized by high total REE amount (281.69×10-6-319.76×10-6);with strong Eu depletion (&Eu=0.01-0.03)and low ratio of LREE/HREE(0.78-0.84).In summary ,the authors propose propose an idea of S-type genesis for the topaz-bearing porphyries with tin mineralization,instead of I-type.

  9. Radiation Dose and Risk Assessments from Polonium-210 in Green Mussels (Perna viridis) and Seafood Consumers Living nearby the Industrial Area in Chonburi Province, Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tumnoi, Y.; Phaopeng, N. [Office of Atoms for Peace - OAP (Thailand)

    2014-07-01

    Marine environmental samples including seawater (filtered and unfiltered), suspended particles, and green mussels (Perna viridis) were collected from Sriracha and Angsira areas located in Chonburi province in order to determine Po-210 radioactivity. The former was chosen because it is generally believed that this area has been contaminated by one of the largest industrial estates in Thailand and others human-activities (non-nuclear activities) nearby such as oil refineries and Coal Power Plants. Discharges, ashes, and wastes released from these activities may result in an increase of Po-210 concentration in marine environment when compared to other areas. The later was designated to serve as a control site in this study since this area is unlikely to be impacted by industrial activities. Our results revealed that, in the filtered seawater, averaged values of Po-210 level were 0.26 + 0.14 mBq/L (Sriracha) and 0.56 + 0.42 mBq/L (Angsira) and, in the unfiltered seawater, means of Po-210 radioactivity were 2.37 + 0.32 mBq/L (Sriracha) and 4.20 + 2.78 mBq/L (Angsira). Furthermore, the suspended particles contained Po-210 concentrations with averaged values of 14.11 + 8.87 Bq/kg dw (Sriracha) and 102.21 + 51.49 Bq/kg dw (Angsira) while averaged Po-210 levels of 35.74 + 17.53 Bq/kg dw (Sriracha) and 71.12 + 62.88 Bq/kg dw (Angsira) were found in the green mussels examined. The present finding indicates that there is no radiological impact caused by those human activities to the marine environment at Sriracha. Radiation dose assessment was also performed in both the green mussels and human who consume green mussels. The results show that the green mussels farmed at Sriracha and Angsira received averaged radiation dose rates from Po-210 at 0.0007 and 0.0015 mGy/d, respectively. In addition, our results reveal that populations living in Chonburi province and ingesting the green mussels from these 2 locations received radiation dose rates from Po-210 at the means of 44.25 and

  10. Colon Cancer Risk Factors in Jiashan County of Zhe-jiang Province, the Highest Incidence Area in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XianghuiWang; ZhaoyiHe; KaiyanYao; KangChen; QilongLi

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the risk factors of colon cancer in Jiashan county, the highest incidence area in China and to provide a scientific basis for monitoring and prevention. METHODS With a population-based case-control study, 109 colon cancer patients with 1:7 matched controls were interviewed with uniform questionnaires. Conditional logistic regression was used for univariate and multivariate analysis of colon cancer. RESULTS High monthly pork consumption (OR=1.608), and high monthly animal fat consumption (OR=1.391) over a ten-year period, psychological depression (OR=9.887), negative emotion (OR=1.723), lower digestivetract diseases (OR=4.163), and history of colorectal cancer in first-degree relatives (OR=3.421) were the main risk factors of colon cancer. During that time, high monthly vegetable consumption was a protective factor for colon cancer (OR=0.422).CONCLUSIONS Colon cancer in Jiashan county was related to dietary factors. The research results support the colon cancer etiological hypothesis of "fat-bile acid" and "deficiency of dietary fibre". Psychological depression, in heritance and lower digestive tract diseases were also correlated with colon cancer.

  11. Ecological surveillance of small mammals at Dagmar North Training Area, Gyeonggi Province, Republic of Korea, 2001-2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Heung Chul; Klein, Terry A; Kang, Hae Ji; Gu, Se Hun; Moon, Sung Sil; Baek, Luck Ju; Chong, Sung Tae; O'Guinn, Monica L; Lee, John S; Turell, Michael J; Song, Jin-Won

    2011-06-01

    A seasonal rodent-borne disease surveillance program was established at Dagmar North Training Area located near the demilitarized zone, Republic of Korea, from 2001 through 2005. Selected habitats surveyed included earthen banks separating rice paddies, fighting positions along a 5 m rock-faced earthen berm, and extensive tall grasses with various degrees of herbaceous and scrub vegetation associated with dirt roads, rice paddies, ditches, ponds, or the Imjin River. Of the nine species of small mammals captured, the striped field mouse (Apodemus agrarius), the primary reservoir for Hantaan virus, was the most frequently collected, representing 92.5% of the 1,848 small mammals captured. Males were captured similarly to females during the spring and summer seasons but were captured less frequently during the fall and winter seasons. Gravid rates were highest in the fall (25.5-57.3%) with the lowest rates during the summer (0.0-2.2%). Capture rates were the lowest along earthen banks separating rice paddies (5.5%) and highest in unmanaged tall grasses and crawling vegetation (15.3-43.5%). An increased knowledge of ecological factors that impact the abundance and distribution of small mammals and the associated ectoparasites and pathogens they harbor is critical for developing accurate disease risk assessments and mitigation strategies for preventing vector- and rodent-borne diseases among soldiers training in field environments.

  12. Sm-Nd isotopic compositions of Cambrian-Ordovician strata at the Jinggangshan area in Jiangxi Province:Tectonic implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN WeiZhou; LING HongFei; SHU LiangShu; ZHANG FangRong; XIANG Lei

    2009-01-01

    Whole-rock Sm-Nd Isotopes were investigated for Cambrian-Ordovician strata from the Jinggangshan area beTween the Yangtze Block and Cathysla Block in South China. These strata were deposited as a greatly thick unit of muddy-sandy laminas with intercalated carbonate and organic carbon-bearing layers. They have low ε(t) values of -13.9 to -7.9 and old Nd model ages of 1842 to 2375 Ma. In t-tdiagram, they are far away from the concordant line but fall within the evolution zone of the Proterozoic crust of South China. This indicates that the Cambrian-Ordovician strata are mainly composed of mat-ters eroded from ancient Paleoproterozoic crust that may mainly consist of continental-derived detrital sediments with high maturity in the Cathyaia Block. However, the Ordovician Jueshangou Formation and Dui'erehi Formation have ε(t) values of -10.5 and -7.9 at the higher end of the above range and Nd model ages of 1842 to 2059 Ma at the lower end of the above range. This suggests involvement of more detritus that were eroded from the relatively juvenile crust from Late Paleoproterozoic to the Early Neoproterozoic. All the Nd model ages for the Cambrian-Ordovlcian sedimentary rocks in the Cathysia Block and the southeastern margin of the Yangtze Block are older than 1800 Ma, suggesting that no material from the Early Paleozoic depleted mantle-derived magmas was involved in these regions.

  13. Construction of Scenarios: Planning and Sustainable Development in the Northern Coastal Area of Camagüey Province, Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Figueredo Castellanos

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Beach tourism is a global phenomenon mainly in coastal areas of countries with unique and favorable shorelines. However, certain inland waterways serve same purpose of beach tourism. This research (as its objectives exposes the condition of amenities, identifies associated socio-economic benefits and reveals problems confronting the Lokoja Confluence Beach in Kogi State, Nigeria. A survey design (with the aid of questionnaires and interview guide was employed to obtain data from tourists, managers of the Confluence Beach and government officials at the State Tourism Board. Purposive sampling technique was adopted to select respondent tourists. Univariate analysis was employed to obtain relevant information from collated data. The research findings revealed the existence of a few functional amenities and some uncompleted facility projects; diverse economic benefits to residents; problems of petty crime, diversion of funds and poor sensitization. Recommendations include provision of supplementary funds by the three tiers of government, development of strategic policy on marketing/sensitization and provision of amenities for indoor games close to the beach front.

  14. Study on manganese mineralization associated with colored mélange of Neyriz ophiolite from Abadeh Tashk area, Fars province: using mineralogical and geochemical data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Ali Rajabzadeh

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Manganese ore deposits occurred in various types of syngenetic, diagenetic and epigenetic mineralization in association with radiolarian cherts in colored melange of Neyriz ophiolite in Abadeh Tashk area, eastern Fars Province. Microscopic study and XRD analyses show a simple mineralogy for manganese compounds in all types. Psylomelane and braunite are the primary manganese compounds in syngenetic type that are found as alternative bands with amorphous silica and quartz in a sedimentary environment. Braunite and bixbite occur in lens shape deposits, showing diagenetic type of mineralization that formed in fold hinges during diagenesis process. Pyrolusite, auororite and rancieite are major minerals of epigenetic type that formed during remobilization and reprecipitation of manganese compounds in radiolarian cherts from upper horizons as open space fillings by supergene processes. Manganese ores show low values of TiO2 (0.012-0.13 %, Fe/Mn (0.02-5.45 and Al2O3 (0.019-2.13 and high values of Si/Al (21.84-427.46. The ores contain low contents of Co (31-131 ppm, Cu (17-277 ppm and Ni (12-193 ppm and have negative anomalies of Ce and positive Eu, low total REE and enriched LREE compared to HREE, indicating that primary manganese compounds and host cherts formed close to mid oceanic ridges above seafloor hydrothermal fluid channels.

  15. Perceived causes, diagnosis and treatment of babesiosis and anaplasmosis in cattle by livestock farmers in communal areas of the central Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.J. Masika

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available Perceived causes, diagnosis and treatment of redwater (babesiosis and gallsickness (anaplasmosis in cattle by livestock farmers in communal areas of the central Eastern Cape Province were investigated by means of participatory methods, semi-structured interviews and a questionnaire survey. Most livestock owners relate the causes of these diseases to excessive grazing of lush green grass, which is thought to bring about an accumulation of bile in the body. The majority of livestock owners diagnose gallsickness and redwater on the basis of presenting signs and post mortem findings. Eighty nine percent of a total of 343 livestock owners participating in the study claimed to administer herbal remedies to treat the 2 tick-borne diseases; 75 % of these combine herbal remedies with conventional medicines and 25 % use herbal remedies only. Application of herbal remedies was reportedly aimed mainly at the removal of excess bile. However, some plant species used to prepare herbal remedies are reported to possess activities ranging from anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antimicrobial, anti-pyretic and purgative, and may be effective in the treatment of gallsickness and redwater. A lack of understanding of the causes and transmission of gallsickness and redwater, leading to ill-directed treatment, and widespread deviation from the directions of use when administering conventional medicines, were identified as problems that could be addressed by farmer training and the supply of appropriate information.

  16. 苏中沿海地区尾波Qc值特征研究%Characteristics of Coda Wave Qc Value in the Coastal Area of Central Jiangsu Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨云; 霍祝青

    2011-01-01

    Based on the scatter model (Sato) .using earthquake wave form data with M, .^ 2. 0 from 2000 to 2008 recorded by Sheyang and Hai'an seismic stations in the coastal areas of central Jiang-su province,the Qc values of coda with different lapse time in this region is calculated. The result indicates that this region has low Qc value, and the Qc values increase with lapse time increasing. Before Dongtai M,.4. 1 earthquake swarm in November, 2006 and Xiangshui ML4. 0 earthquake on May 6, 2007,the Qc values of coda increased apparently.%利用2000年至2008年苏中沿海地区射阳地震台和海安地震台记录到的100 km范围内ML2.0以上地震波形资料,基于Sato模型,采用不同的固定流逝时间,计算了该区域的尾波Qc值.结果表明:该区为尾波Qc值低值区域,随着流逝时间的增大尾波Qc值也变大;在2006年11月份东台ML4.1震群和2007年5月6日响水ML4.0地震前尾波Q0值有明显增大现象.

  17. Evaluation of water quality in surface water and shallow groundwater: a case study of a rare earth mining area in southern Jiangxi Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Xiuzhen; Wang, Dengjun; Wang, Peiran; Wang, Yuxia; Zhou, Dongmei

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the quality of surface water and shallow groundwater near a rare earth mining area in southern Jiangxi Province, China. Water samples from paddy fields, ponds, streams, wells, and springs were collected and analyzed. The results showed that water bodies were characterized by low pH and high concentrations of total nitrogen (total N), ammonium nitrogen (NH4 (+)-N), manganese (Mn), and rare earth elements (REEs), which was likely due to residual chemicals in the soil after mining activity. A comparison with the surface water standard (State Environmental Protection Administration & General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine of China GB3838, 2002) and drinking water sanitary standard (Ministry of Health & National Standardization Management Committee of China GB5749, 2006) of China revealed that 88 % of pond and stream water samples investigated were unsuitable for agricultural use and aquaculture water supply, and 50 % of well and spring water samples were unsuitable for drinking water. Moreover, significant cerium (Ce) negative and heavy REEs enrichment was observed after the data were normalized to the Post-Archean Australian Shales (PAAS). Principal component analysis indicated that the mining activity had a more significant impact on local water quality than terrace field farming and poultry breeding activities. Moreover, greater risk of water pollution and adverse effects on local residents' health was observed with closer proximity to mining sites. Overall, these findings indicate that effective measures to prevent contamination of surrounding water bodies from the effects of mining activity are needed.

  18. A new long-tubed subspecies of Pelargonium dipetalum (section Hoarea (Geraniaceae from the Albertinia-Swellendam area in Western Cape Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Marianne le Roux

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Field studies confirmed that unusually long-tubed populations of Pelargonium dipetalum from between Swellendam and Albertinia, Western Cape Province, South Africa, are a distinct ecotype adapted to pollination by the long-proboscid fly, Prosoeca longipennis. The geographical and morphological isolation of these populations suggests that they are reproductively isolated from short-tubed populations, which are pollinated by bees.Objectives: To determine and describe the floral variation in P. dipetalum, with a view to recognising the long-tubed populations at some taxonomic level.Method: All available collections were measured and compared.Results: Populations of P. dipetalum were segregated into a short-tubed form with hypanthium 3 mm – 24 mm long and mostly pink petals that occurs from Betty’s Bay to Knysna, and a long-tubed form with the hypanthium 34 mm – 54 mm long and consistently white petals that is restricted to a small area east of Swellendam between Suurbraak and Albertinia. We described the long-tubed form as the new subspecies P. dipetalum subsp. stenosiphon.Conclusion: The new subspecies increases our understanding of the diversity in P. dipetalum and represents a new taxon of conservation concern.

  19. Urban-rural Integration Based on Regional Economic Integration——A Case of Jiuquan-Jiayuguan Areas of Gansu Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between urban-rural integration and regional economic integration is summarized in the paper.Based on the fact,it expressed the necessity and realistic meaning of pushing forward the urban-rural integration process synchronously during Jiuquan-Jia yuguan (abbreviate:Jiu-Jia) areas economic integration.The current degree of the urban-rural integration of Jiu-Jia was analyzed by index calculation,and the related conclusions were obtained.Besides,the development concepts and the key works to accelerate the process of Jiu-Jia urban-rural integration were suggested.The results show that the overall level of urban-rural integration in Jiuquan and Jiayuguan is higher than the average level of Gansu Province,but the urban-rural economic development and social development lose the balance and the dual structure is prominent.In the end,three developmental patterns for accelerating the developmental process of urban-rural integration are put forward.Firstly,the government should find the key of the current work and coordinate the construction of infrastructure.Secondly,rural economic industrialization should be promoted.Thirdly,the urbanized social management should be promoted.

  20. Characteristics and Risk factors of Psychosomatic Symp-toms Related to Female Tubal Sterilization in Rural Area in Hunan Province, China: A Prospective Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘破资; 岳伟华; 郝伟; 杨德森; 凌天牖; 张友明; 彭光辉; 武昆; 刘红华; 苏中华; 王厚亮; 谢永标

    2002-01-01

    Objectives To study characteristics of psychosomatic symptoms related to sterilization,to find out risk factors and their roles ascribed to psychosomatic symptoms, and toestablish a mathematic model for screening out susceptible women.Methods: This study enrolled 776 women in rural area at three counties of Linxiang,Qiyang, Changsha of Hunan province in China between February 1990 and April1992. Brief Neurosis Screening Scale (BNSS), Symptom Checklist 90 (SCL-90),sensitivity to pain, suggestibility were used to indicate subjects' psychological status.Logistic regression model and retrograde discriminant analysis were applied to developa mathematical model.Results: Prevalence of psychosomatic reactions or symptoms was 54. 8% before steril-ization, 26. 6% at three months and 16. 4% at one year after operation respectively.Psychosomatic symptoms were verified to be the result of joint effects of multiple riskfactors. The following risk factors were associated with postoperative symptoms:anger-hostility (RR= 33. 71), high suggestibility (RR= 4. 53), high neuroticism (RR= 3. 44), sensitivity to pain (RR = 2. 14) and operative sites (RR = 2. 05). A mathe-matical model to estimate the probability of developing psychosomatic symptoms in ster-ilization was established.Conclusions: More than half of women suffered from psychosomatic reactions beforeoperation, and some of them did not recover after operation. The postoperative psycho-somatic symptoms are the joint effect of multiple risk factors.

  1. Jurassic tetrapods and flora of Cañadón Asfalto Formation in Cerro Cóndor area, Chubut Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio H. Escapa

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The plant and tetrapod fossil record of the Cañadón Asfalto Formation (Middle to Late Jurassic found in Cerro Cóndor area (Chubut Province is summarized here. The flora is dominated by conifers (Araucariaceae, Cupressaceae sensu lato but also includes ferns and equisetaleans. The tetrapod fauna is composed of dinosaur taxa described in the 70's as well as other remains recently described and other vertebrate groups such as amphibians, turtles, and mammals. The amphibian remains have been interpreted as representatives of a new species of Notobatrachus, considered one of the most basal members of the anuran lineage. Similarly, turtle remains have been recently recognized as a new species of basal turtle, bringing valuable information about the early evolution of this group. The dinosaur remains are largely dominated by saurischian taxa, represented by basal forms of Eusauropoda and Tetanurae. In addition, three different mammalian species have been identified and considered as early representatives of an endemic Gondwanan mammalian fauna. The fossil record of this formation represents the most completely known biota from the continental Middle to Late Jurassic of the Southern Hemisphere and one of the most complete of the entire world.

  2. Effects of modern and ancient human activities on mercury in the environment in Xi'an area, Shannxi Province, P.R. China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin Yongqing; Wang Xiaojuan [Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Life Science of Shaanxi Province, School of Chemistry and Materials Science, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi' an 710062 (China); Department of Chemistry and Biology, Ryerson University, 350 Victoria Street, Toronto, ON, M5B 2K3 (Canada); Lu Julia [Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Life Science of Shaanxi Province, School of Chemistry and Materials Science, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi' an 710062 (China); Department of Chemistry and Biology, Ryerson University, 350 Victoria Street, Toronto, ON, M5B 2K3 (Canada)], E-mail: julialu@ryerson.ca; Zhang Chengxiao [Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Life Science of Shaanxi Province, School of Chemistry and Materials Science, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi' an 710062 (China)], E-mail: cxzhang@snnu.edu.cn; Duan Qingbo [Shaanxi Archaeology Institute, Xi' an 710054 (China)

    2008-05-15

    Samples of water, soil, sediment, and pomegranate were collected from Xi'an and the Qinshihuang Mausoleum in Shaanxi Province, China to assess the effects of human activities on mercury in the environment. The total mercury concentrations ranged from 3.9 to 992.7 ng L{sup -1} for the water samples, 40.6 to 2204.0 ng g{sup -1} for the soil samples, 14.2 to 376.7 ng g{sup -1} for the sediment samples, and 0.22 to 1.74 ng g{sup -1} for the pomegranates samples. The higher values in the water samples collected from the rivers closer to and downstream of the city resulted from wastewater discharges. The effects of the mercury buried in the Qinshihuang Mausoleum thousands of years ago on the environment were neither significant nor widespread. Immediate actions should be taken to stop the direct and continuous discharges of industrial and residential wastewaters to prevent mercury and other pollutants from accumulating and spreading in the area. - Urban activities are sources of mercury to the environment and the pomegranates grown over the burial mound of the Qinshihuang Mausoleum are not mercury-contaminated.

  3. Effects of modern and ancient human activities on mercury in the environment in Xi'an area, Shannxi Province, P.R. China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yongqing; Wang, Xiaojuan; Lu, Julia; Zhang, Chengxiao; Duan, Qingbo

    2008-05-01

    Samples of water, soil, sediment, and pomegranate were collected from Xi'an and the Qinshihuang Mausoleum in Shaanxi Province, China to assess the effects of human activities on mercury in the environment. The total mercury concentrations ranged from 3.9 to 992.7ngL(-1) for the water samples, 40.6 to 2204.0ngg(-1) for the soil samples, 14.2 to 376.7ngg(-1) for the sediment samples, and 0.22 to 1.74ngg(-1) for the pomegranates samples. The higher values in the water samples collected from the rivers closer to and downstream of the city resulted from wastewater discharges. The effects of the mercury buried in the Qinshihuang Mausoleum thousands of years ago on the environment were neither significant nor widespread. Immediate actions should be taken to stop the direct and continuous discharges of industrial and residential wastewaters to prevent mercury and other pollutants from accumulating and spreading in the area.

  4. Evaluating the needs of AIDS prevention in high-prevalent areas of HIV infection in Henan province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng Yi-min; Wang Xian-mi; Li Ying; Xu Shu-qin; Zhang Lei; Guo Xin; Guan Qing-xia; Liang Chu-xia; Feng Yu-huan; Zhang Shu-ping; Zhang Hai-ling

    2004-01-01

    education of AIDS prevention.Conclusion: Even in the high-prevalent areas of AIDS epidemic, women's perception on the situation of AIDS epidemic in China is not appropriate. Women know little about the three ways of AIDS transmission. They were lacking the awareness related to risk of infecting HIV. They did not know which contraceptive method could protect themselves from HIV infection. They also had misunderstanding and misconception regarding the condom use. Such factors mentioned above resulted in a low rate of condom use and an extremely low rate of consistent use of condom.The voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) was not sufficiently adopted in the high-risk population. The needs of AIDS prevention were great and unmet in the high HIV prevalent areas. People urgently hope that FPS network could play an important role in AIDS prevention.

  5. δ13CSC values of the loess-paleosol sequence in Dali area, Shaanxi Province, China, and paleoenvironmental implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The carbon isotopic ratios of carbonate in the two profiles of the Dali area were analyzed and some new understandings on the influencing factors of the δ13CSC value of the loess-paleosol sequence and its paleoenvironmental implications were discussed preliminarily in this report. The 13CSC value of the Dali loess-paleosol sequence is synchronizing with the variance of magnetic susceptibility basically and the negative peaks of the δ13CSC curves are corresponding to the different developmental periods of the paleosol. It is believed that the intervention of the CO2 produced by plants will cause the decrease of the δ13CSC value, the amplitude of which may be relevant to the paleovegetation density and the ancient humidity. The relative biomass of C4 plants in the vegetation will affect the sublevel change of the δ13CSC. Low δ13CSC value by and large indicates the environmental conditions of the relatively abundant vegetation and humid climate. During the last 250000 years, the period with the sparsest vegetation and the most arid climate is the phase of the loess in L2 depositing and the period with the most abundant vegetation and the most humid climate is the last interglacial period. The δ13CSC curves of Dali also show that the High Temperature and Large Precipitation Event of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau during 40-30 kaBP had affected the Central Shaanxi Plain with relatively humid climate, and had apparent influence on the local vegetation and humidity.

  6. [Epidemiology of imported malaria and entomological study of breeding sites of potential risk areas in the province of Khemisset (Morocco)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larhbali, Y; Belghyti, D; El Guamri, Y; Lahlou, O; El Kharrim, K; Kirami, A; Khamri, Z

    2014-01-01

    No case of autochthonous malaria has been detected in Morocco since 2004. This achievement is due to a national strategy to combat the disease by appropriate and well-organized disease detection and treatment, as well as control of the mosquito vector of the disease, the female Anopheles mosquito. Nonetheless, imported malaria cases have been increasing (75 in 2007), due to the rise in international travel and migration from countries where the disease is endemic. This work is divided into two parts: the first part is a retrospective study of the cases of imported malaria identified by optical microscopy in the Laboratory of Medical Entomology of the Khemisset Provincial Delegation of Health from 2000 to 2010. The second part is an entomological study conducted in 2010 of the Culicidae insect family, especially the Anopheles genus. The results show that of 176,457 requests for parasite testing, 14 were positive. All positive samples came from men older than 23 years. The cases identified are imported from two African countries: the Democratic Republic of Congo (86%) and Ivory Coast (14%). The years of high incidence were 2003 with four cases and 2000, 2004 and 2006 with two cases. The species found are Plasmodium falciparum in 13 cases (93%) and Plasmodium ovale in one case (7%). The vector of autochthonous malaria, which was eliminated in 2004, is Anopheles (Anopheles) labranchiae Fallerouni 1926, and it was the dominant species found in our entomological study (424 larvae). The other species were found in breeding sites in potential at-risk locations in the study area.

  7. [Carbon emissions and low-carbon regulation countermeasures of land use change in the city and town concentrated area of central Liaoning Province, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Feng-ming; Liang, Wen-juan; Niu, Ming-fen; Wang, Jiao-yue

    2016-02-01

    Carbon emissions due to land use change have an important impact on global climate change. Adjustment of regional land use patterns has a great scientific significance to adaptation to a changing climate. Based on carbon emission/absorption parameters suitable for Liaoning Province, this paper estimated the carbon emission of land use change in the city and town concentrated area of central Liaoning Province. The results showed that the carbon emission and absorption were separately 308.51 Tg C and 11.64 Tg C from 1997 to 2010. It meant 3.8% of carbon emission. was offset by carbon absorption. Among the 296.87 Tg C net carbon emission of land use change, carbon emission of remaining land use type was 182.24 Tg C, accounting for 61.4% of the net carbon emission, while the carbon emission of land use transformation was 114.63 Tg C, occupying the rest 38.6% of net carbon emission. Through quantifying the mapping relationship between land use change and carbon emission, it was shown that during 1997-2004 the contributions of remaining construction land (40.9%) and cropland transform ation to construction land (40.6%) to carbon emission were larger, but the greater contributions to carbon absorption came from cropland transformation to forest land (38.6%) and remaining forest land (37.5%). During 2004-2010, the land use types for carbon emission and absorption were the same to the period of 1997-2004, but the contribution of remaining construction land to carbon emission increased to 80.6%, and the contribution of remaining forest land to carbon absorption increased to 71.7%. Based on the carbon emission intensity in different land use types, we put forward the low-carbon regulation countermeasures of land use in two aspects. In carbon emission reduction, we should strict control land transformation to construction land, increase the energy efficiency of construction land, and avoid excessive development of forest land and water. In carbon sink increase, we should

  8. 四川省山丘型黑热病的人群分布%Population Distribution of Leishmaniasis in Mountainous Areas of Sichuan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈闯; 丁岚利; 张富南

    2013-01-01

    reported a history of living in endemic areas at endemic seasons.Of patients as permanent residents in endemic areas,the most originated from Jiuzhaigou county,followed by Heishui and Mao county,accounting for 52.1%,23.3% and 18.6%,respectively.In agricultural population cases,the sex ratio of male to female was 1.5 ∶ 1,and patients at age under 15 years accounted for 53.4%.In non agricultural population cases,the sex ratio was 2.1 ∶ 1,patients at age above18 years accounted for 81.1%,and cadres and urban residents accounted for 59.5% together.In patients from non endemic areas,the majority acquired infection in Jiuzhaigou,Heishui county,or in other endemic areas of Gansu province,with a proportion of 31.2%,18.5% and 22.9% respectively.The sex ratio of male to female was 8.8 ∶ 1.Migrant workers in endemic areas took the major part of the patients,accounting for 76.4% (120/157),followed by travelers.Concfusion Agricultural populations at age below 15 years in endemic areas were at high risk of acquiring infection of Leishmaniasis.It is necessary to conduct education programs among cadres and urban residents.The incidence of Leishmaniasis goes up among floating populations in recent years,particularly in migrant workers in endemic areas after earthquake.

  9. Rice Growers’ Behavior of Productive Capital Input and the Influencing Factors——A Case Study of the Jiamusi Area in Heilongjiang Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    This article conducts empirical analysis of rice growers’ behavior of productive capital input and the influencing factors,using the input-output survey data concerning rice growing by 305 peasant households in 2009 in Huanan County and Huachuan County,Jiamusi City,Heilongjiang Province.I use Logit model to carry out econometric test of factors influencing the possibility of fixed productive investment.The test results show that family size,the proportion of non-agricultural employment,the average educational level of households,farmland area,household farming income,credit level,peasant households’ expectation of the minimum purchase price of rice,have significant effect on whether to conduct fixed productive investment,whether there are disasters has no significant effect on the scale of peasant households’ productive investment.Then I use Tobit model to carry out econometric test of factors influencing the scale of productive capital input.The results show that family size,the proportion of non-agricultural employment,the average educational level of households,farmland area,household farming income,credit level and family housing value,peasant households’ expectation of the minimum purchase price of rice,whether there are disasters,have significant effect on the scale of peasant households’ productive investment.On the basis of model test results,in order to promote the rice growers to increase fixed productive input and increase productive capital input,rational recommendations are put forward as follows:raising the minimum purchase price of rice,scaling up rice growing,making every effort to promote the educational level of rice growers,ensuring that the rice growers obtain productive capital input loans timely.

  10. Health access livelihood framework reveals potential barriers in the control of schistosomiasis in the Dongting Lake area of Hunan Province, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Balen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Access to health care is a major requirement in improving health and fostering socioeconomic development. In the People's Republic of China (P.R. China, considerable changes have occurred in the social, economic, and health systems with a shift from a centrally planned to a socialist market economy. This brought about great benefits and new challenges, particularly for vertical disease control programs, including schistosomiasis. We explored systemic barriers in access to equitable and effective control of schistosomiasis. METHODOLOGY: Between August 2002 and February 2003, 66 interviews with staff from anti-schistosomiasis control stations and six focus group discussions with health personnel were conducted in the Dongting Lake area, Hunan Province. Additionally, 79 patients with advanced schistosomiasis japonica were interviewed. The health access livelihood framework was utilized to examine availability, accessibility, affordability, adequacy, and acceptability of schistosomiasis-related health care. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We found sufficient availability of infrastructure and human resources at most control stations. Many patients with advanced schistosomiasis resided in non-endemic or moderately endemic areas, however, with poor accessibility to disease-specific knowledge and specialized health services. Moreover, none of the patients interviewed had any form of health insurance, resulting in high out-of-pocket expenditure or unaffordable care. Reports on the adequacy and acceptability of care were mixed. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: There is a need to strengthen health awareness and schistosomiasis surveillance in post-transmission control settings, as well as to reduce diagnostic and treatment costs. Further studies are needed to gain a multi-layered, in-depth understanding of remaining barriers, so that the ultimate goal of schistosomiasis elimination in P.R. China can be reached.

  11. Characteristics and origins of primary fluids and noble gases in mantle-derived minerals from the Yishu area,Shandong Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Fluids and noble gases of mantle-derived materials are important tracers for the mantle information. Compositions of primary fluids and noble gases in mantle-derived minerals from the Yishu area, Shandong Province, China, were tested by the methods of heat-bursting and heat-melting respectively. The fluids are mainly composed of CO2, CO and H2, which account for about 90% of the total, and are similar to the mantle-derived rocks from other areas of eastern China; ratios of 3He/4He in almost all samples range from 0.82 Ra to 2.74 Ra, whereas 40Ar/36Ar from 299.5 to 758.8. Both ranges are much lower than those of the typical ocean mantle-derived samples (such as MORB) and primarily reflect the influences of the atmospheric components and the radiogenic isotopes. Ratios of C/3He range from 27.6×109 to 1050×109, N2/Ar from 927 to 56612, and N2/3He from 2.5×109 to 27×109, similar to those in western United States and New Zealand which belong to the tectonic plate collision regions. The ratios fall in the intersect of mantle-crust-atmosphere in the comprehensive tracer-charts, reflecting the influences of the atmosphere and the crusts with organic components. Our results suggest that the composition of the primary fluids and the isotopic ratios of the noble gases may either reflect the evolution process of mantle-derived rocks connected with the rise and eruption of magma, or the influence of the ancient subduction-plate on the continental mantle of this region.

  12. Permian Radiolarians from the A’nyemaqen Mélange Zone in the Huashixia Area of Madoi County, Qinghai Province, Western China, and Their Implications on Regional Tectonism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhigang Zhao; Xing Huang; Xionghua Zhang; Bing Yang; Zhong-Qiang Chen; Fuhao Xiong

    2016-01-01

    The Huashixia area in the Madoi County, Qinghai Province, western China is one of the most important areas for the studies of the formation and evolution of the A’nyemaqen mélange zone due to the well exposed, relatively complete tectonostratigraphic successions. However, the timing and evolu-tionary process of the A’nyemaqen paleo-ocean has long been poorly understood. Recently, we obtained abundant radiolarians from the siliceous rocks of the Maerzheng Formation of this mélange zone in Huashixia. Total 19 species in 10 radiolarian genera have been identified. They belong mainly to the Al-baillellaria, Spumellaria, Entactinaria, and Latentifistularia. Four radiolarian assemblage zones are es-tablished, including: thePseudoalbaillella rhombothoracata,Pseudoalbaillella scalprata,Ruzhencevispongus uralicus,andFollicucullus bipartitus-Follicucullussp. cf.F. ventricosus zones. Radiolarian faunal correla-tions suggest a late Artinskian–early Kungurian age and late Capitanian–early Wuchiapingian age for the first two zones from the lower part and the last two zones from the upper parts of the Maerzheng Forma-tion, respectively. All radiolarians are typical of deep water elements living in deep oceans in low latitudes during the Permian. Previously, the radiolarians of Early Carboniferous to Early Permian age and fusu-linids of Early–Middle Permian age have also been reported from the A’nyemaqen mélange successions. The combination of the newly found radiolarians with the previously reported faunal and microfloral as-semblages as well as radiometric ages obtained from the same stratigraphic units indicates that the A’nyemaqen paleo-ocean may have opened initially during the Early Carboniferous, expanded from the Early–Middle Permian, reached its acme in the early Late Permian, shrunk during the latest Permian to Early Triassic, and eventually was closed in the Middle Triassic.

  13. 四川省自然保护区区域评价%Area Evaluation of Nature Reserves in Sichuan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李悦; 董川蓉; 高红

    2011-01-01

    This article evaluated the nature reserves in 21 districts of Sichuan province by using available number,available area,ratio of total region area,index of stress,index of state,index of protective requirement established by Rong ke,Ma jian zhang,et al.The results showed that the geographical differeces had serious influences on nature reserves in Sichuan.the nature reserves in Chengdu,Zigong,Neijiang et al were faced with relatively big pressure caused by the economic and people activities,while the state of nature reserves in Ganzi,Aba,Liangshan were better.%本文应用戎可、马建章等创建的自然保护区区域评价模型,主要包括区域内保护区有效数量(NE)、有效面积(AE)、有效保护区占国土面积比例(PS)、胁迫指数(IP)、状态指数(IS)、保护需求指数(CI)6个指数构成指标体系,对四川省21个市州内已建的自然保护区进行了区域评价。结果表明,保护区受地域差异影响较大,人口较多、经济繁荣的成都市、自贡市、内江市等地区保护区面临的压力较大,人口较少、经济发展较慢的甘孜州、阿坝州、凉山州保护区状态较好。

  14. The impact of 2 dipping systems on endemic stability to bovine babesiosis and anaplasmosis in cattle in 4 communally grazed areas in Limpopo Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.O. Rikhotso

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available A 12-month study was conducted in 4 communal grazing areas in the Bushbuckridge region, Limpopo Province, South Africa. The main objective was to investigate the impact of reduced acaricide application on endemic stability to bovine babesiosis (Babesia bigemina and Babesia bovis and anaplasmosis (Anaplasma marginale in the local cattle population. To this end 60 cattle in each communal grazing area were bled at the beginning and the conclusion of the experimental period and their sera were assayed for B. bovis, B. bigemina and Anaplasma antibodies. Cattle in the intensively dipped group were dipped 26 times and maintained on a 14-day dipping interval throughout the study, whereas cattle in the strategically dipped group were dipped only 13 times. Three cattle, from which adult ticks were collected, were selected from each village, while immature ticks were collected by drag-sampling the surrounding vegetation. During the dipping process, a questionnaire aimed at assessing the prevalence of clinical cases of tick-borne disease, abscesses and mortalities was completed by an Animal Health Technician at each diptank. An increase in seroprevalence to B. bovis and B. bigemina and a decrease in seroprevalence to Anaplasma was detected in the strategically dipped group while in the intensively dipped group the converse was true. Amblyomma hebraeum was the most numerous tick species on the cattle, and Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus was more plentiful than Rhipicephalus (Boophilus decoloratus. Drag samples yielded more immature stages of A. hebraeum than of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus spp. The incidence of clinical cases of tick-borne disease and of abscesses increased in the strategically dipped group at the start of the survey.

  15. Investigation on deposition condition, sedimentary environment and genesis of Mandan and Deh-Now bauxite deposits, Dehdasht area, Kohgiloye and Boyer-Ahmad province: using mineralogical studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Zarasvandi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The Mandan and Deh-Now bauxite deposits are located 40 km northeast of Dehdasht in Kohgiloye and Boyer-Ahmad province in the Zagros simply folded belt. The deposits were formed in the oldest rocks of the area of late Cretaceous age. The bauxite horizon is situated between Sarvak and Ilam formations. The aim of this study is to determine the mineralogy and texture relations of the deposits in order to determine the environment and status of bauxite mineralization. In this way, samples were selected from these bauxite deposits for mineralogical studies based on microscopic and XRD techniques. The bauxite horizon in the Mandan deposit consists of white, gray, black, pisolitic, red and yellow bauxites. The sequence was repeated in the Deh-Now without black and gray bauxites. Mineralogy is similar in all bauxitic layers and the main textures are pisolitic-ooide, ooide-spheroid, pisolitic, pelitomorphic and pseoudomorphic. Bohmite, diaspore, kaolinite and calcite are the most important minerals in both bauxitic layers of the Mandan and Deh-Now deposits. Due to bohmite mineralization in the study area, erosional and intense weathering environment in the Touronian-Cenomanian could be suggested for the deposition of bauxite in these deposits. Existence of interclasts in the pisolites and ooides indicate that these bauxites were transformed from the primary in situ environment to karstic sedimentary basin as authigenic origin. These studies indicate that there are two mineralized facies with different environmental status: (1 oxidation facies with bohmite, diaspore, kaolinite and hematite minerals and (2 reduced facies with pyrite, diaspore and chlorite mineralization. The lack of reduced condition at the Deh-Now deposit shows that the deposit formed only in oxidation status.

  16. Optimal concentration of local well brine groundwater irrigation for Bamboo willow introduced to the arid areas in northern Xinjiang province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Wei; Cao, Ling; Zhang, Ya; Cui, Kaiqiang; Wu, Shengli

    2015-04-01

    The adaptation and survive of introduced plants to local well brine groundwater irrigation is an important issue, while people introduce some plants to improve the local environment in the construction of urban greening oases in arid areas, north China. We measured some of the photosynthetic characteristics of introduced Bamboo willow irrigated by different local well brine groundwater in the wild controlled experiments, in May 2014 in Kelamayi city in north China, which to seek the most appropriate irrigation concentration of underground saline water, and to clarify the physiological ecological adaptation to the local habitat. The parameters, measured by Li-6400XT, a portable photosynthesis system, include the following ones, net photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (Gs), transpiration rate (Tr), the internal CO2 concentration (Ci) and efficiency of water application (WUE) of one-year old introduced Bamboo willow irrigated by set salinity groundwater gradient, as 0 g/L, 5 g/L and 10 g/L. the results showed that (1) In each salt water concentration, the diurnal variation curve of net photosynthetic rate showed as "bimodal curve" style, and obvious "midday depression". (2) The parameter Pn of Bamboo willow irrigated by salt water of 5g/L was highest compared with the other two, and the value Pn irrigated by salt water concentration of 10g/L down. The net photosynthetic rate would increase in the salt concentration of 10g/L. In conclusion, the salt groundwater concentration of 10g/L was the optimal concentration of local well brine groundwater irrigation for Bamboo willow introduced to the arid areas in northern Xinjiang province, China.

  17. Geology, alteration, age dating and petrogenesis of intrusive bodies in Halak Abad prospect area, NE Iran

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    Maliheh Ghourchi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The Halak Abad prospect occurs in the northeastern part of Central Iran zone (Sabzevar structural zone. In this investigation, geochemical evolution, age and source of part of northeastern Iran magmatic arc (intrusive bodies in Halak Abad area in the Khorasan Razavi province has been studied. The exposed rocks consist of volcanic rocks with andesite and dacite nature, limestone, plutonic rocks mostly diorite, quartz diorite, monzodiorite, quartz monzonite, granodiorite and granite and sedimentary rocks such as limestone, sandstone and conglomerate. Magnetic susceptibility of intrusive rocks is >100 × 10-5 SI, so they belong to the magnetite-series (oxidized. This magmatism is mainly low-K (tholeiite series and meta-aluminous. The amounts of Zr, Th, Nb and Ti show depletion compared to N-MORB. Trace elements behavior shows a nearly flat pattern. Age of granodiorite body based on U-Pb zircon dating is 99.7±1.8 Ma (Mid-Cretaceous and 87Sr/86Sr initial ratio is 0.7047. The geochemical signature and 87Sr/86Sr initial ratio in the area suggest volcanic arc magmatism in subduction zone. This magmatism has characteristic such as high Na2O (3-7 %, low K2O (0.12-1 %, high CaO (4-5.7%, low Rb (1-20 ppm, low total REE (<40 ppm, high Ba/Nb, Sm/Yb<2, (La/YbN<5, 87Sr/86Sr initial ratio < 0.7045 and εNd: +4.5 show differences with normal granitoids in subduction zones. Geochemical and petrological characteristics indicate melting in relatively low pressure (shallow depth. The lines of evidence demonstrate that formation of this granitoid needs a suprasubduction zone.

  18. Landslide susceptibility modeling in a landslide prone area in Mazandarn Province, north of Iran: a comparison between GLM, GAM, MARS, and M-AHP methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourghasemi, Hamid Reza; Rossi, Mauro

    2016-08-01

    Landslides are identified as one of the most important natural hazards in many areas throughout the world. The essential purpose of this study is to compare general linear model (GLM), general additive model (GAM), multivariate adaptive regression spline (MARS), and modified analytical hierarchy process (M-AHP) models and assessment of their performances for landslide susceptibility modeling in the west of Mazandaran Province, Iran. First, landslides were identified by interpreting aerial photographs, and extensive field works. In total, 153 landslides were identified in the study area. Among these, 105 landslides were randomly selected as training data (i.e. used in the models training) and the remaining 48 (30 %) cases were used for the validation (i.e. used in the models validation). Afterward, based on a deep literature review on 220 scientific papers (period between 2005 and 2012), eleven conditioning factors including lithology, land use, distance from rivers, distance from roads, distance from faults, slope angle, slope aspect, altitude, topographic wetness index (TWI), plan curvature, and profile curvature were selected. The Certainty Factor (CF) model was used for managing uncertainty in rule-based systems and evaluation of the correlation between the dependent (landslides) and independent variables. Finally, the landslide susceptibility zonation was produced using GLM, GAM, MARS, and M-AHP models. For evaluation of the models, the area under the curve (AUC) method was used and both success and prediction rate curves were calculated. The evaluation of models for GLM, GAM, and MARS showed 90.50, 88.90, and 82.10 % for training data and 77.52, 70.49, and 78.17 % for validation data, respectively. Furthermore, The AUC value of the produced landslide susceptibility map using M-AHP showed a training value of 77.82 % and validation value of 82.77 % accuracy. Based on the overall assessments, the proposed approaches showed reasonable results for landslide

  19. Petrogenesis of Cretaceous adakitic and shoshonitic igneous rocks in the Luzong area, Anhui Province (eastern China): Implications for geodynamics and Cu Au mineralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiang; Wyman, Derek A.; Xu, Ji-Feng; Zhao, Zhen-Hua; Jian, Ping; Xiong, Xiao-Lin; Bao, Zhi-Wei; Li, Chao-Feng; Bai, Zheng-Hua

    2006-07-01

    Both adakitic and shoshonitic igneous rocks in the Luzong area, Anhui Province, eastern China are associated with Cretaceous Cu-Au mineralization. The Shaxi quartz diorite porphyrites exhibit adakite-like geochemical features, such as light rare earth element (LREE) enrichment, heavy REE (HREE) depletion, high Al 2O 3, MgO, Sr, Sr / Y and La / Yb values, and low Y and Yb contents. They have low ɛNd( t) values (- 3.46 to - 6.28) and high ( 87Sr / 86Sr) i ratios (0.7051-0.7057). Sensitive High-Resolution Ion Microprobe (SHRIMP) zircon analyses indicate a crystallization age of 136 ± 3 Ma for the adakitic rocks. Most volcanic rocks and the majority of monzonites and syenites in the Luzong area are K-rich (or shoshonitic) and were also produced during the Cretaceous (140-125 Ma). They are enriched in LREE and large-ion lithophile elements, and depleted in Ti, and Nb and Ba and exhibit relatively lower ɛNd( t) values ranging from - 4.65 to - 7.03 and relatively higher ( 87Sr / 86Sr) i ratios varying between 0.7057 and 0.7062. The shoshonitic and adakitic rocks in the Luzong area have similar Pb isotopic compositions ( 206Pb / 204Pb = 17.90-18.83, 207Pb / 204Pb = 15.45-15.62 and 208Pb / 204Pb = 38.07-38.80). Geological data from the Luzong area suggest that the Cretaceous igneous rocks are distributed along NE fault zones (e.g., Tanlu and Yangtze River fault zones) in eastern China and were likely formed in an extensional setting within the Yangtze Block. The Shaxi adakitic rocks were probably derived by the partial melting of delaminated lower crust at pressures equivalent to crustal thickness of > 50 km (i.e., ˜1.5 GPa), possibly leaving rutile-bearing eclogitic residue. The shoshonitic magmas, in contrast, originated mainly from an enriched mantle metasomatized by subducted oceanic sediments. They underwent early high-pressure (> 1.5 GPa) fractional crystallization at the boundary between thickened (> 50 km) lower crust and lithospheric mantle and late low

  20. Sporozoan Protozoa and Enteroparasites in the Gastroenteritic Patients Referring to the Healthcare Centers of Seven Provinces of Iran

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    Nahrevanian

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Sporozoan protozoa and enteroparasites cause gastroenteritis. Sporozoa are the major cause of self-limiting diarrhea in immunocompetent patients, however they cause serious diseased in patients with immunosuppression. Objectives The current study aimed to identify the prevalence of sporozoa and enteroparasites among patients with gastroenteritis referred to the healthcare centers in seven provinces of Iran. Patients and Methods In this cross-sectional study, 4200 stool samples were randomly collected from patients with gastroenteritis in the selected hospitals of Gilan, East Azerbaijan, Qazvin, Kurdistan, Mazandaran, Tehran and Khorasan-e-Razavi provinces. Primarily samples were examined directly for enteroparasites. The samples were then filtered and concentrated using Paraseb kit. The pellets were fixed, stained by different assays including acid fast staining, Auramin Phenol Fluorescence, Giemsa and light microscopy. Results The results revealed the overall rate of infection, 3.86% (163 cases, as an indicator of parasitic enteropathogens in Iran. Among the provinces, Khorasan-e-Razavi and Mazandaran with 8.83% (53 cases and 0.34% (2 cases showed the highest and lowest rates of infection, respectively. The frequencies of sporozoa including Cryptosporidium, Microsporidium, Isospora and Cyclospora spp. were 0.1%, 0.1%, 0.07% and 0.02% respectively. Among the parasites, Giardia lambelia, Taenia saginata and Hookworms with 1.78% and 0.02% had the highest and lowest rates of infection, respectively. Regarding the age groups, the highest and the lowest rates of infection were in 0 - 10 (48% and 41 years old and above (6.7% groups, respectively. Conclusions Despite relatively low prevalence of sporozoa, giardiosis is the most prevalent agent for gastroenteritis amongst 3.86% of parasitic infections in Iran. The current study confirmed the abundance of infection in warm and wet seasons, and more frequency of infections among children than

  1. 莫桑比克共和国太特省穆恩德地区找矿前景浅析%Prospecting of the Republic of Mozambique Tete province MuEnDe area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘发旺

    2016-01-01

    通过对莫桑比克共和国太特省穆恩德地区区域地质资料、研究区地质资料、成矿条件的分析,认为太特省穆恩德地区具有较好的找矿前景。%through the analysis of Mozambique Republic Tete province MuEnDe area regional geological data, geological data in the study area, metallogenic conditions, the analysis showed that Tete Mu Ende area has a good prospecting potential.

  2. Research on Telemedicine Service Informatization Platform Construction in the Northern Area of Guangxi Province%桂北地区远程医疗服务信息化平台建设研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晓旺; 伍晓明

    2012-01-01

    分析桂北地区远程医疗建设的现状和意义,提出建设远程医疗服务信息化平台的必要性,结合目前桂北地区应用需求,阐述该信息平台的系统构成、网络架构、总体解决方案及软硬件需求等。%The paper analyzes the current status and significance of telemedicine construction in northern area of Guangxi province, puts forward the necessity of constructing telemedicine service informatization platform,combined with current application demand in northern area of Guangxi province,elaborates system constitution,network architecture,overall solutions,software and hardware demands, etc.

  3. 龙江森工国有林区棚户区改造给排水实施方案%Water -supplying And Drainage Engineering Embodiment Of Shanty Town Transformation In National Forestry Industry Area In Heilongjiang Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘振波

    2012-01-01

    由于历史原因,造成黑龙江省森工林区居住条件及给排水等基础设施发展滞后和严重不足。笔者结合黑龙江省森工林区现状,介绍了国家启动国有林区棚户区改造工程后,对龙江国有林区棚户区改造给排水部分做出的设计方案。%The residence conditions, watersupplying and drainage infrastructure in forestry industry area in tteilongjiang province are in poor conditions for history cautions. Combined with actuality status, the author introduces the design scheme of watersupplying and drainage engineering of shanty town transformation in national forestry industry area in Heilongjiang province.

  4. The emergence and maintenance of vector-borne diseases in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province (KPK and the Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA of Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan Christopher Nieto

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Human populations throughout much of the world are experiencing unprecedented changes in their relationship to the environment and their interactions with the animals with which so many humans are intimately dependent upon. These changes result not only from human induced changes in the climate, but also from population demographic changes due to wars, social unrest, behavioral changes resulting from cultural mixing, and large changes in land-use practices. Each of these social shifts can affect the maintenance and emergence of arthropod vectors disease or the pathogenic organisms themselves. A good example is the country of Pakistan, with a large rural population and developing urban economy, it also maintains a wide diversity of entomological disease vectors, including biting flies, mosquitoes, and ticks. Pathogens endemic to the region include the agents of piroplasmosis, rickettsiosis, spirocheteosis, and viral hemorrhagic fevers and encephalitis. The northwestern region of the country, including the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province (KPK, formerly the North-West Frontier Provence (NWFP, and the Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA are mountainous regions with a high degree of habitat diversity that has recently undergone a massive increase in human population density due to an immigrating refugee population from neighboring war-torn Afghanistan. Vector-borne diseases in people and livestock are common in KPK and FATA regions due to the limited use of vector control measures and access to livestock vaccines. The vast majority of people in this region live in abject poverty with >70% of the population living directly from production gained in animal husbandry. In many instances whole families live directly alongside their animal counterparts. In addition, there is little to no awareness of the threat posed by ticks and transmission of either zoonotic or veterinary pathogens. Recent emergence of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus in rural

  5. Heavy metal contamination and human health risk assessment in drinking water from shallow groundwater wells in an agricultural area in Ubon Ratchathani province, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongsasuluk, Pokkate; Chotpantarat, Srilert; Siriwong, Wattasit; Robson, Mark

    2014-02-01

    Most local people in the agricultural areas of Hua-ruea sub-district, Ubon Ratchathani province (Thailand), generally consume shallow groundwater from farm wells. This study aimed to assess the health risk related to heavy metal contamination in that groundwater. Samples were randomly collected from 12 wells twice in each of the rainy and the dry seasons and were analyzed by inductive coupled plasma spectrometry-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The concentration of detected metals in each well and the overall mean were below the acceptable groundwater standard limits for As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni and Zn, but Pb levels were higher in four wells with an overall average Pb concentration of 16.66 ± 18.52 μg/l. Exposure questionnaires, completed by face-to-face interviews with 100 local people who drink groundwater from farm wells, were used to evaluate the hazard quotients (HQs) and hazard indices (HIs). The HQs for non-carcinogenic risk for As, Cu, Zn and Pb, with a range of 0.004-2.901, 0.053-54.818, 0.003-6.399 and 0.007-26.80, respectively, and the HI values (range from 0.10 to 88.21) exceeded acceptable limits in 58 % of the wells. The HI results were higher than one for groundwater wells located in intensively cultivated chili fields. The highest cancer risk found was 2.6 × 10(-6) for As in well no. 11. This study suggested that people living in warmer climates are more susceptible to and at greater risk of groundwater contamination because of their increased daily drinking water intake. This may lead to an increased number of cases of non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic health defects among local people exposed to heavy metals by drinking the groundwater.

  6. Development of a Health Education Modification Program Regarding Liver Flukes and Cholangiocarcinoma in High Risk Areas of Nakhon Ratchasima Province Using Self-Efficacy and Motivation Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaewpitoon, Soraya J; Rujirakul, Ratana; Wakkuwattapong, Parichart; Benjaoran, Fuangfa; Norkaew, Jun; Kujapun, Jirawoot; Ponphimai, Sukanya; Chavenkun, Wasugree; Kompor, Porntip; Padchasuwan, Natnapa; Kaewpitoon, Natthawut

    2016-01-01

    A quasi-experimental study was conducted to develop a health education modification program based on self-efficacy and motivation regarding liver flukes and cholangiocarcinoma development in Keang Sanam Nang district, Nakhon Ratchasima province, Thailand. A total of 36 individuals were invited to participate in the program and were screened for population at risk of liver fluke infection and cholangiocarcinoma using SUT-OV-001 and SUT-CCA-001. Development of health education modification program regarding liver fluke and cholangiocarcinoma prevention included 3 steps: (1) preparation, (2) health education program, and (3) follow-up and evaluation. The study was implemented for 10 weeks. Pre-and-post-test knowledge was measured with questionnaires, Kuder-Richardson-20: KR-20 = 0.718,and Cronbach's Alpha Coefficient = 0.724 and 0.716 for perception and outcome expectation questionnaires. Paired and independent t-tests were applied for data analysis. The majority of the participants were female (55.6%), aged between ≤50 and 60 years old (36.1%), married (86.1%), education level of primary school (63.9%), agricultural occupation (80.6%), and income <4,000 Baht (44.4%). The results revealed that after the health education program, the experimental group had a mean score of knowledge, perception, and outcome expectation regarding liver fluke and cholangiocarcinoma prevention significantly higher than before participation and in the control group. In conclusion, this successful health education modification program for liver fluke and cholangiocarcinoma, therefore may useful for further work behavior modification in other epidemic areas.

  7. Utilising an LC-MS/MS-based multi-biomarker approach to assess mycotoxin exposure in the Bangkok metropolitan area and surrounding provinces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warth, Benedikt; Petchkongkaew, Awanwee; Sulyok, Michael; Krska, Rudolf

    2014-01-01

    Human exposures to mycotoxins through dietary intake are a major health hazard and may result in various pathophysiological effects. Although Thailand is a country at increased risk due to its climatic conditions, no comprehensive dataset is available to perform proper exposure assessment of its population with regard to mycotoxins. Therefore, this pilot study was conducted to investigate and evaluate the exposure levels of major mycotoxins (aflatoxin B₁, ochratoxin A, fumonisins, zearalenone and trichothecenes). Sixty first-morning urine samples were collected from healthy volunteers who live in the Bangkok metropolitan area and surrounding provinces (Pathumthani, Nonthaburi, Samutprakarn and Samutsakorn). Urine samples were analysed by a LC-MS/MS-based multi-biomarker method following a so-called 'dilute and shoot' approach. Results generally indicated low mycotoxin exposures in most individuals through the determination of the four biomarkers that were detected in urine samples, i.e. aflatoxin M₁, ochratoxin A (OTA), as well as the deoxynivalenol (DON) metabolites DON-3-glucuronide and DON-15-glucuronide in 10 of 60 individuals. The maximum concentrations were used to estimate the daily intake confirming that none of the individuals exceeded the tolerable daily intake (TDI) of DON (maximum 26% of TDI) or OTA (maximum 22% of TDI). However, the maximum exposure of aflatoxin B₁, estimated to be 0.91 µg (kg bw)⁻¹ day⁻¹, should raise some concerns and suggests further studies utilising a more sensitive method. Low exposure to Fusarium toxins was also confirmed by the absence of zearalenone, α-zearalanol, β-zearalanol and zearalenone-14-glucuronide as well as T-2 toxin, HT-2 toxin, nivalenol and free DON. This is the first multi-mycotoxin biomarker study performed in Southeast Asia.

  8. A human health risk assessment of rare earth elements in soil and vegetables from a mining area in Fujian Province, Southeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaofei; Chen, Zhibiao; Chen, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Yonghe

    2013-10-01

    Contaminated food through dietary intake has become the main potential risk impacts on human health. This study investigated concentrations of rare earth elements (REEs) in soil, vegetables, human hair and blood, and assessed human health risk through vegetables consumption in the vicinity of a large-scale mining area located in Hetian Town of Changting County, Fujian Province, Southeast China. The results of the study included the following mean concentrations for total and bio-available REEs of 242.92 ± 68.98 (135.85-327.56)μg g(-1) and 118.59 ± 38.49 (57.89-158.96)μg g(-1) dry weight (dw) in agricultural soil, respectively, and total REEs of 3.58 ± 5.28 (0.07-64.42)μg g(-1) dw in vegetable samples. Concentrations of total REEs in blood and hair collected from the local residents ranged from 424.76 to 1274.80 μg L(-1) with an average of 689.74 ± 254.25 μg L(-1) and from 0.06 to 1.59 μg g(-1) with an average of 0.48 ± 0.59 μg g(-1) of the study, respectively. In addition, a significant correlation was observed between REEs in blood and corresponding soil samples (R(2)=0.6556, p0.05). Mean concentrations of REEs of 2.85 (0.59-10.24)μg L(-1) in well water from the local households was 53-fold than that in the drinking water of Fuzhou city (0.054 μg L(-1)). The health risk assessment indicated that vegetable consumption would not result in exceeding the safe values of estimate daily intake (EDI) REEs (100-110 μg kg(-1)d(-1)) for adults and children, but attention should be paid to monitoring human beings health in such rare earth mining areas due to long-term exposure to high dose REEs from food consumptions.

  9. Investigation on swine Trichinella infection in Shangqiu area of Henan Province%河南省商丘地区猪旋毛虫感染调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜鹏; 丁艳霞; 姚义好; 刘莉娜; 张盾; 巫小龙; 崔晶; 王中全

    2011-01-01

    目的 了解河南省商丘地区猪的旋毛虫自然感染情况.方法 在河南商丘某县农村的3个生猪屠宰点,收集屠宰猪的膈肌样本,分别应用压片镜检法和人工消化法对肌肉样本进行旋毛虫检验.结果 273头屠宰猪均为圈养猪,肌肉样本应用镜检法与消化法的幼虫检出率分别为0(0/273)与3.30%(9/273)(x2=7.230,P<0.05),阳性肉样的平均每g肌肉虫荷(larvae per gram,lpg)为0.48.结论 河南省商丘地区农村圈养猪的旋毛虫感染率较高,但感染度较低;在旋毛虫病低度流行区应使用消化法对猪肉进行旋毛虫检验.%To investigate swine Trichinella infection in Shangqiu area of Henan Province, a total of 273 diaphragm samples were collected from the pigs slaughtered in 3 abattoirs in villages of Shangqiu, and examined for Trichinella larvae by direct microscopic examination and artificial digestion method, respectively. The 273 slaughtered pigs were indoor-raised. The detection rate of Trichinella larvae in meat samples was 0%(0/273) and 3. 30% (9/273), respectively (χ2 =7. 230,P<0. 05). The mean larvae per gram (lpg) of the infected pork samples was 0. 48. The prevalence of swine Trichinella infection in Shangqiu of Henan was high with low level of infection and the digestion method should be applied for inspection of Trichinella in pork in low endemic area of trichinellosis.

  10. Prevalence of zoonotic intestinal parasites in domestic and stray dogs in a rural area of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beiromvand, Molouk; Akhlaghi, Lame; Fattahi Massom, Seyed Hossein; Meamar, Ahmad Reza; Motevalian, Abbas; Oormazdi, Hormozd; Razmjou, Elham

    2013-04-01

    Certain zoonotic parasites are enteropathogens in dogs that cause serious human disease such as cystic echinococcosis, human alveolar echinococcosis, visceral larva migrans, and ocular larva migrans. This study investigated the prevalence of intestinal parasites in dogs in the Chenaran County, Razavi Khorasan Province, Iran. Sampling was carried out randomly in 17 villages from November 2009 to January 2010. Seventy-seven fecal samples from 28 domestic and 49 stray dogs were examined using sieving/flotation and modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining. Intestinal parasites were found in 51 of the 77 (66%) dogs most common being Toxascaris leonina (29%, 22/77), Toxocara spp. (25%, 19/77), Eimeria spp. (19%, 15/77), Taenia/Echinococcus spp. (18%, 14/77), Sarcocystis spp. (17%, 13/77), and Dicrocoelium dendriticum (14%, 11/77). Lower infection rates of parasites were observed for Trichuris vulpis (6%, 5/77), Cryptosporidium spp. (5%, 4/77), and Physaloptera spp. (3%, 2/77). Prevalence of infection by Dipylidium caninum, Capillaria spp., Cystoisospora spp., and hookworms was similar (1%, 1/77). This study is the first report of the prevalence of intestinal parasites of domestic and stray dogs in Chenaran County, Northeast Iran. The higher prevalence of zoonotic intestinal parasites such as Toxascaris leonina, Toxocara spp. and Taenia/Echinococcus spp. compared to other parasites indicates the need for control programs to minimize the risk of transmission of zoonotic disease, particularly cystic echinococcosis, alveolar echinococcosis, visceral larva migrans, and ocular larva migrans to people living in these areas.

  11. Geology and petrology of Tertiary volcanic rocks of Sarbisheh perlite mine area (eastern Iran and industrial applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seayad Sayid Mohammadi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The study area is located at northwest of Sarbisheh in South Khorasan province and eastern border of Lut block. In this area, Tertiary (Eocene-Oligocene to Pliocene volcanic rocks consisting of basaltic andesite, dacite, rhyodacite, vitreous rhyolite (perlitic in some parts, tuff and ignimbrite are exposed. In the Daghar Mountain, A, B and C perlite layers with thicknesses of 102, 7 and 58 meters respectively, occur alternatively with volcanic-pyroclastic rocks. Zoning, sieve texture and embayment of plagioclase and roundness of minerals in the lavas indicate disequilibrium conditions during magma crystallization. Chemically, these are meta-aluminous, medium to high-K calc-alkaline, enriched in LILE and negative anomaly for Nb and Ti. Chondrite-normalized Rare Earth Elements (REE plots indicate enrichment of light REE in comparison with heavy REE, (La/YbN of 9.14-12.64, low negative anomaly for Eu in basaltic andesite (Eu/Eu*=0.91 and dacite (Eu/Eu*=0.78-0.87 and strong negative anomaly for Eu in the rhyolites (Eu/Eu*=0.18-0.35. Negative anomaly for Eu indicates calc-alkaline nature for these rocks. On the basis of chemical characteristics and magnetic susceptibility, these are I-type. Tectonically, the rocks belong to subduction zone and active continental margin and their parental magma originated from partial melting of enriched mantle and then crustal contamination during differentiation process. Dacites have an initial 87Sr/86Sr between 0.7048 and 0.7050 (average 0.7049 that confirm mantle source for the magma. Volcanic glasses of rhyolitic composition altered by hydration (likely meteoric water and formed perlite. Physical tests and chemical analyses show that perlite of Sarbisheh is suitable as raw material for production of expanded perlite.

  12. 陕北窑洞民居发展对策研究%Study on Development Countermeasures of Cave Dwellings in Northern Area of Shaanxi Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程军

    2011-01-01

    针对陕北地区传统民居窑洞,从窑洞本身及其发展环境出发,分析了窑洞的建筑特色和使用价值以及它在陕北地区的发展现状,指出窑洞的发展正面临着十分尴尬的境地.运用SWOT分析法,概括了窑洞的优势、劣势、机遇、挑战,优势方面突出其作为生土建筑的生态优势,因地制宜的特征,解决黄土高原土地和能源、环境等问题的作用,以及富含乡土特色的审美价值;劣势方面突出了村落布局缺乏整体性、交通不便、室内通风采光条件欠缺、造型和空间单一呆板;机遇方面则突出了世界范围内对建筑生态学的日益重视,以及对地下民用建筑的探索和应用;挑战则在于窑洞建筑技术、窑洞民居与城市化之间的矛盾、窑洞民居与现代生活之间的矛盾、“限制”型的管理模式几个方面.在此基础上,建议陕北窑洞的发展应该通过舆论正确引导、改变人们的传统观念;从筑窑技术上努力改善窑洞的缺点;加大基础设施建设,改善窑居环境;开发具有陕北特色的窑洞文化旅游;建设具有陕北特色的社会主义新农村.%In view of traditional houses in northern area of Shaanxi Province which was cave dwellings,based on cave dwelling and its development environment, the paper had analyzed architectural characteristics and use value of cave dwelling and its development in northern area of Shaanxi Province, and then pointed out that cave dwelling development had been reduced into an awkward situation. By using SWOT analysis method,the strengths,weaknesses,opportunities and threats of cave dwellings had been summarized. In terms of strengths, cave dwelling had ecological advantage as native architecture, was constructed based on local conditions, could solve land, energy and environment problems on Loess Plateau,and abounded in aesthetic value of native feature. In terms of weaknesses,village layout lacked of integrity

  13. Phytosociological description of norite koppies in the Rustenburg area, North-West Province and refinement of the distribution of the Norite Koppies Bushveld on the national vegetation classification map of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. H. Lamprecht

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The Norite Koppies Bushveld vegetation type boasts a distinctive and contrasting topography and species composition easily distinguished from that of surrounding areas. A phytosociological study was done on the leased mining area of the Impala Platinum Mining Company north of Rustenburg in the North-West Province. Similar norite koppies, situated west of the Norite Koppies Bushveld vegetation, and not yet mapped by Mucina & Rutherford (2006, were identified in the study area and phytosociologically described. Six plant communities and two subcommunities were identified. Multivariate statistical analyses (correspondence analyses confirmed that the species composition of these areas corresponds with and does therefore form part of the Norite Koppies Bushveld vegetation type as described by Mucina & Rutherford (2006. Some of these communities contain Boscia albitrunca, a protected plant species, and should therefore be considered as areas with conservation value.

  14. In Western Liaoning province area oil shale need for geological exploration and mining development%辽西地区油页岩矿急待勘查开发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宫占全

    2011-01-01

    当前国际能源的短缺,油页岩炼制页岩油可替代石油能源.辽西地区油页岩矿分布广泛,资源储量规模巨大,综合开发利用经济价值高.为早日改变辽西的贫穷与落后,勘查开发油页岩矿迫在眉睫.%The current international energy shortage, Shale oil shale oil refining alternative energy sources. In liaoning province oil shale contains western region ore widely distributed, Contain oil shale mineral resources is very big, Contain oil shale ore comprehensive exploitation and utilization of economic value is very big. In western liaoning province area accelerate transformation of poverty and backwardness, Geology exploration and mining development including oil shale ore is imminent.

  15. Four new coccidia (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from the Plateau zokor, Myospalax baileyi Thomas (Rodentia: Myospalacinae), a subterranean rodent from Haibei area, Qinghai Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yi-Fan; Nie, Xu-Heng; Zhang, Tong-Zuo; Du, Shou-Yang; Duszynski, Donald W; Bian, Jiang-Hui

    2014-02-01

    Thirty-eight faecal samples from the Plateau zokor, Myospalax baileyi Thomas, collected in the Haibei Area, Qinghai Province, China, were examined for the presence of coccidia (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae). Seventeen of 38 faecal samples (44.7%) were found to contain coccidian oöcysts representing four new species of Eimeria Schneider, 1875, and four of 17 (23.5%) infected zokors were concurrently infected with two or three of these eimerian species. The sporulated oöcysts of Eimeria myospalacensis n. sp. are ovoidal, 9.5-17.0 × 8.0-13.0 (mean 13.0 × 10.4) μm; a polar granule is present, oöcyst residuum is absent; sporocysts are ovoidal, 4.5-7.5 × 3.0-5.0 (mean 6.3 × 4.2) μm and have both a Stieda body and residuum. Oöcysts of Eimeria fani n. sp. are ellipsoidal to cylindroidal, 12.5-16.0 × 8.0-11.0 (mean 14.6 × 9.9) μm; a polar granule is present, but micropyle and residuum are lacking; sporocysts are ovoidal, 4.5-7.5 × 3.0-5.3 (mean 6.7 × 4.4) μm; a residuum and a Steida body are present. Oöcysts of Eimeria baileyii n. sp. are ellipsoidal, 15.0-23.0 × 12.0-18.0 (mean 18.2 × 13.7) μm; a polar granule is present but oöcyst residuum is absent; sporocysts are ovoidal, 8.0-11.0 × 5.0-7.0 (mean 9.5 × 5.9) μm and have both a Stieda body and residuum. Oöcysts of Eimeria menyuanensis n. sp. are ovoidal, 12.5-21.0 × 11.0-18.0 (mean 17.1 × 14.6) μm, with a distinct micropyle c.2.5 μm wide; a polar granule is present but a residuum is absent; sporocysts are ovoidal, 8.0-12.0 × 5.0-7.0 (mean 10.2 × 6.4) μm, and have both a Stieda body and residuum.

  16. The Socio-Economic Structure of Fishery Activities and Seafood Marketing in Marmara Sea: A Case Study Along the Coastal Area of Tekirdag Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Gungor

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Marmara Sea, which has a typical inside sea characteristics, is placed all along the Turkish borders. Because of both intensive level of population living around and many industrial plants has been taken place at this area which has continuously environmental pollution. In addition to, intensive sea traffic due to tankers carrying petroleum and etc., have been causing this pollution to higher level. Since, the all negative factors mentioned above, incredible amount of fish spices (118 different spices belonging to 10 taxonomic groups were observed still alive in the Marmara Sea (Zengin et al., 2004. This situation causes to be gained at a satisfactory level of income for many fishery families and sustainable of their lives. In this study, with the aim of determining the socio-economical structure and figure out its marketing system in Tekirdağ; 263 vessels, used in the centre of province and in towns and villages on the shore, were put into an order according to their lengths and by taking their densities into consideration; they were classified into three groups as the boats of vessels 5-10 m, 10-15 m and the ones bigger than 15 m. A survey of 54 vessels, 31 of which are from small group, 18 from medium group and five from the large group has been conducted by ‗ The stratified Random Sampling Method‘. ‗Technical specialities of the vessels which were surveyed, specialities of the supporting vessels, net properties, fishing equipment, socio-economical conditions of boat owners and the crew, present problems and proposals for the solution of the problems have been studied.At the conclusion of the survey evaluation, it has been observed that the vessel owners don‘t show any socio-economical differences in respect of the size of their vessels and such problems as not having the social security, nonexistance of the Ministry of Maritime, high cost of fishing equipments, insufficiency of the inspections, underdevoloped marketing system and

  17. [Status of, and factors associated with, complementary feeding among infants and young children aged 6- 23 months in poor rural areas of Hunan Province, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, X; Fang, J Q; Luo, J Y; Wang, H; Du, Q Y; Huang, G W; Feng, B B

    2017-01-06

    Objective: To describe the status of, and to identify the factors associated with, complementary feeding among infants and young children aged 6- 23 months in poor rural areas of Hunan Province, China. Methods: A total of 8 735 infants and young children aged 6- 23 months from 30 poor rural counties in the Wuling and Luoxiao Mountains in Hunan Province were selected by township-level probability-proportional-to-size sampling in August 2015. Questionnaires were used to collect information on the feeding status of the infants in the previous 24 hours, along with personal/family information. The qualified rate of minimum dietary diversity (MDD), the minimum meal frequency (MMF) and the minimum acceptable diet (MAD) were calculated according to the WHO indicators for assessing infant and young child feeding practices. Multi non-conditional logistic regression models were used to analyze factors associated with complementary feeding among infants and young children aged 6- 23 months. Results: The findings indicated that 73.9% (6 452/8 735) of infants and young children aged 6-23 months received the minimum dietary diversity, 81.6% (7 124/8 735) of infants and young children aged 6- 23 months received the minimum meal frequency and 49.0% (4 276/8 735) of infants and young children aged 6- 23 months received an acceptable diet. Compared with the boys, the OR for the MMF and MAD for the girls were 1.15 and 1.11, respectively. Compared with the 6-11 month group, the OR for the MDD for the 12-17 month and 18-23 month groups were 0.41 and 0.38, respectively; the OR for the MMF for the 12-17 month and 18-23 month groups were 1.53 and 2.46, respectively; and the OR for the MAD for the 12-17 month and 18-23 month groups were 0.60 and 0.60, respectively. Compared with the Han ethnic group, the OR for the MDD, MMF and MAD for the Miao ethnic group were 1.43, 1.72 and 1.56, respectively; for the Tujia ethnic group were 2.21, 2.02 and 2.11, respectively; and for the Dong ethnic

  18. Water, organic matter, nitrogen and phosphorus contents in sediment of a large-scale mariculture area in the Zhelin Bay of eastern Guangdong Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Qiaoxiang; LIN Junda; SHANG Xu; LI Jin; HUANG Changjiang

    2008-01-01

    The Zhelin Bay is one of the most important bays for large-scale maricuhure in Guangdong Province,China.Owing to the increas-ing human population and the expanding marieuhure in the last two decades,the ecological environment has greatly changed with frequent harmful algal blooms.A monthly survey of water content,organic matter ( TOM ),and various forms of nitrogen and phosphorous in sediment from July 2002 to July 2003 in the bay was conducted.The results showed that the water content was cor-related significantly with TOM and various forms of nitrogen and phosphorus and can be used as proxy for quick and rough estimate of these factors in the future surveys.TOM was also correlated significantly with various forms of nitrogen and phosphorus,indica-ting that it was one of the key factors affecting the concentrations and distributions of nitrogen and phosphorus in the investigated waters. Average total Kjeldhal nitrogen (TkN) Content was( 1113.1±382.5 )μg/g and average total phosphorus (TP) content was(567.2 ± 223.3)μg/g, and both were much higher than those of similar estuaries in China and elsewhere. Average nitrogen and phosphorus tended to be higher inside than outside the bay,higher at aquaculture than non-aquacuhure areas,and higher at fish-cage culture than oyster culture areas,suggesting that large-scale mariculture inside the bay played an important role in the eutrophication of the Zhelin Bay.Various forms of nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations were higher during the warm season (July--September),which was due to the increased decomposition and concentration of organic matter resulted from the fast growth and high mortality of the cultured species.Compared with July 2002,TkN and TP contents were much higher in July 2003,in consonance with the eut~'ophication of the Zhelin Bay.Because exchangeable phosphorus ( Ex-P),iron-bounded phos-phorus (Fe-P) and organic phosphorus (OP) combined accounted for 34.3% of the TP and authigenie phosphorus (Au-P) ac

  19. Analysis on Measles Surveillance in Two Sorts of Areas of Jiangsu Province in 1999%江苏省1999年两类地区麻疹疫情监测分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶红; 陆培善; 张晋琳

    2001-01-01

    Measles surveillance in Jiangsu Province started in 1999 by dividing the province into two sorts of areas. The first sort of area is economic well-developed area where EPI is carried out well and measles incidence is lower. The cities of this area investigated included Suzhou, Wuxi, Changzhou and Zhenjiang. The second sort of area included 9 cities (Nanjing, Xuzhou, Liangyungang, Nantong, Huaiyin, Suqian, Yangcheng, Yangzhou and Taizhou) where all the conditions are not as good as that mentioned in the first sort of area. The surveillance system of the province reported in 1999 a total of 938 suspected measles cases in 13 cities, of which 684 were confirmed as measles. The notifiable reporting system reported 846 suspected measles cases and 684 cases were confirmed. This indicated that the surveillance system operated well. The measles epidemiological features in two sorts of areas were compared. In first sort of area, including Nanjing, the measles cases of ≥15 years old accounted for 66.3% of the total cases. In second sort of area, not including Nanjing, the measles cases of <15 years old accounted for 90.8% of the total cases, and 73.2% of them were patients <10 years old. In 1999, there were 10 measles outbreaks occurred in the province and 218 measles cases were reported which accounted for 31.7% of the confirmed measles cases reported by the provincial measles surveillance system. 9% the 10 outbreaks occurred in the second sort of area, the cases were preschool and primary school children. The results showed that progression of EPI work was uneven in two sorts of areas of Jiangsu Province.%江苏省在1999年分两类地区开展了麻疹监测,一类地区为经济较发达、计划免疫工作基础好、麻疹发病水平较低的苏州等4个市;而以南京、徐州等9个市为二类地区。全年麻疹监测系统报告疑似麻疹938例,而法定传染病常规报告系统报告846例,前者比后者多92例。对两类地区麻疹发病

  20. Analysis of fault occlusal deformity of Rizhao area in Shandong province%山东省日照地区错畸形调查分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    匡正; 张雪梅; 匡艳

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate and analyze the fault occlusal deformity of 600 middle school students in 10 sec-ondary schools of Rizhao area in Shandong Province. Methods 600 middle school students from 2013 half semester in 10 secondary schools of Rizhao city in shandong province were selected,the survey was conducted including male 311, female 289, combining way of questionnaires and medical professional oral cavity were taken for the children,with them in the indoor natural light,mouth inside look check and interrogation,at the same time calculation wrong occlusal mal-formation rates and gender relations were recorded,the composition of various Ann classification,all kinds of wrong oc-clusal type structure of the malformation,and various relations of poor oral habits,etc were compared. Results In 600 middle school students,normal occlusal students were 210 cases,wrong occlusal students were 390 cases,the prevalence was 65.0%.The boys with fault occlusal deformity was 198 cases,prevalence was 63.7%(198/311),girls with fault oc-clusal deformity was 178 cases,prevalence was 61.6%(178/289),the prevalence compared between male and female gen-der,there was no statistically significant difference(chi-square=1.034, P>0.05).The results of Ann classification structure showed that,390 patients with fault occlusal deformity,there were 234 cases (60.0%) of Ann Ⅰ class,98 cases (25.1%) were AnnII class,58 cases(14.9%) were AnnⅢ class.The results of fault of occlusal malformation type showed that,in the various fault type of occlusal deformity,and dental column crowded was the largest,proportion was about 35.9%,fol-lowed by upper jaw thrust forward and deep coverage,teeth dislocation or reverse,deep overburden occlusal.The results of bad oral habits showed that,390 cases with the fault occlusal deformity in the middle school students,mouth breath-ing,bite lips,partial lateral chewing,biting habit,suck and tongue habits were all more than 50.0%. Conclusion The prevalence rate of

  1. The Impact of Free Trade Area on Port Logistics in Fujian Province%自由贸易区对福建省港口物流的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李海磊

    2015-01-01

    With the establishment of China (Fujian)free trade test area,the economic cooperation between the two sides will be further deepened,and the development of port logistics in Fujian province is bound to be a new engine.Based on the free trade zone and port logistics development in Fujian Province,this paper analyzes the impact of Free Trade Zone on the port logistics in Fujian province.%随着中国(福建)自由贸易试验区的设立,两岸经济合作将进一步深化,对福建省港口物流的发展必然是一个新引擎。文中通过对自由贸易区以及福建省港口物流发展现状的介绍,分析了自贸区对福建省港口物流的影响。

  2. Serological Investigation of Swine Toxoplasmosis in Partial Area of Anhui Province%安徽部分地区猪弓形虫病的血清学调查研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    向忠菊; 段永兰; 岳新军; 陈鹏举

    2011-01-01

    In order to understand the status of toxoplasmosis infection on pigs in partial area of Anhui Province, 1 227 samples of swine serum were collected from pig farms (households) in partial regions of Anhui Province, and the toxoplasma antibodies of these serums were detected by indirect hemagglutination test (IHA). The results showed that the average positive rate was 24.29% for all of the samples, so it means that the toxoplasmosis infections were widespread in pig farms of Anhui Province, and its prevalence and occurrence related to the culture month and the culture size.%为了解安徽地区猪感染弓形虫病的情况,从安徽省部分地区养殖场(户)采取猪血清1 227份、采用间接血凝试验(IHA)检测弓形虫抗体.结果显示:平均阳性率为24.29%,表明安徽地区猪弓形虫病普遍存在.其发生与流行与养殖月份和养殖规模相关.

  3. Research on the adaptability of Elaeagnus angustifolia L.in saline sodic soil areas of Jilin province%沙枣在吉林苏打盐碱土区的适应性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈士刚; 陶晶; 秦彩云; 李青梅; 王聪慧; 赵吉胜; 杨晶

    2014-01-01

    以甘肃张掖、新疆塔城、内蒙古巴盟磴口、加拿大埃德蒙顿地区生长的沙枣为种源,在吉林省西部苏打盐碱土区经过7a引种栽培试验,结果表明:4个种源之间的物候期无明显差别,且与引种地相差不大;当年成活率达到90%以上,未发生盐害;株高、根径生长与引种地虽然存在一定差距,但差异不显著;加拿大、新疆、内蒙古种源可以自然越冬,甘肃种源越冬率在80%左右;未见明显病虫害。沙枣在吉林苏打盐碱土区具有良好的生长表现和适应性。%Elaeagnus angustifolia L.growing in Zhang ye,Gansu province, Tacheng, Xinjiang province, Bamengdengkou, Inner Mongolia and Edmonton , Canada were taken as provenances by 7 a introduction and cultivation test in saline sodic soil areas of west Jilin province .The results showed:phenophase among 4 provenances indicated no significant difference , and was also no significant difference with provenance .The survival rate of current year was more than 90%, salt damage was unhappened .There were non-significant differences of plant height and root diameter growth between cultivations and provenances;provenances of Canada , Xinjiang province and Inner Mongolia could overwinter naturally , overwintering rate of Gansu was about 80% without obviousplant diseases and insect pests .Elaeagnus angustifolia L.showed favourable growth performance and adaptability in saline sodic soil areas of Jilin province .

  4. Anemia, malnutrition and their correlations with socio-demographic characteristics and feeding practices among infants aged 0–18 months in rural areas of Shaanxi province in northwestern China: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Wenfang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The first 18 months of life are the most important for long-term childhood well-being. Anemia and malnutrition occurring in this key period have serious implications for individuals and societies, especially in rural areas in developing country. We conducted a cross-sectional study as the baseline survey to provide data for developing a policy-based approach to controlling infant anemia and malnutrition in rural areas of Shaanxi province in northwestern China. Methods We randomly sampled 336 infants aged 0–18 months in 28 rural villages from 2 counties of Shaanxi province. Anthropometric measurements and household interviews were carried out by well-trained researchers. The hemoglobin concentration was measured for 336 infants and serum concentrations of iron, zinc, and retinol (vitamin A were measured for a stratified subsample of 55 infants. Anemia was defined using World Health Organization (WHO standards combined with the Chinese standard for infants Results We found that 35.12% of infants in rural Shaanxi suffered from anemia, and the malnutrition prevalence rates were 32.14% for underweight, 39.58% for stunting, and 11.31% for wasting. Anemia was significantly associated with malnutrition (underweight, OR: 2.42, 95%CI: 1.50-3.88; stunting, OR: 1.65, 95%CI: 1.05-2.61; wasting, OR: 2.89, 95%CI: 1.45-5.76. Low birth weight, more siblings, less maternal education, low family income, crowded living conditions, and inappropriate complementary food introduction significantly increased the risk for infant anemia. Serum concentrations of iron, zinc, and retinol (vitamin A were significantly lower in anemic infants compared with non-anemic infants. Conclusions Specific socio-demographic characteristics and feeding patterns were highly associated with infant anemia in rural areas of Shaanxi province. Health education focusing on feeding practices and nutrition education could be a practical strategy for preventing anemia and

  5. 陕西省农村地区中小学体育教学现状调查%The Report for Status of Physical Education of Primary and Secondary Schools in Rural Areas in Shaanxi Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢新涛

    2011-01-01

    运用文献资料、实地走访调查,问卷调查、数理统计等社会学研究方法对陕西省农村地区中小学体育教学现状进行调查,并对存在的主要问题进行了分析.%The report through literature, field visits surveys, questionnaires, statistics and other sociological research methods in rural areas in Shaanxi province primary and secondary status of physical education of the investigation, and the main problems were analyzed.

  6. Economics Analysis on Areas Distribution for Rural Labor Transfer in Hubei Province%湖北省农村劳动力转移地区分布的经济学原因分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄宁阳; 王浙勤; 马强

    2012-01-01

    湖北省农村劳动力绝大部分向省外转移,省际转移呈现不均衡现象,其中又以东部和中等城市转移为主.从经济学原因分析湖北省农村劳动转移地区分布的成因.结果表明:农民迁移决策是理性的,符合其收益的最大化.农村劳动力转移与地区经济发展水平紧密相关,转移对收入差距的弹性有增大的趋势,省际间经济和收入差距不断扩大,直接影响到农村劳动力的迁入量.农村劳动力转移除了受机会成本的影响,还受迁入地区生活成本、两地空间距离以及农民自身因素的影响.顺应劳动力转移规律和自身经济发展状况,湖北应注重中小城市的建设,大力发展劳动密集型企业和外向型企业,增强湖北经济实力,为湖北农村劳动力转移提供更多的就业机会和就业岗位.同时进行政策与制度创新,建立农村劳动力技能培训机制、社会保障机制、信息传导机制以及统筹城乡居民的管理机制等.%The majority of rural labor in Hubei province transfer to the outside of the province. The inter-provincial transfer showed an imbalance phenomenon, the rural labors in Hubei province mainly transferred to the middle cities in the eastern China. The causes for area distribution of rural labor in Hubei province were analyzed from economics. The results showed that farmers' immigration decision is rational, which accord with maximization of theirs income. The rural labor transfer related to the developmental level of regional economy. The transfer will increase the elasticity of income gap, and the increasing gap of economy and income between provinces will directly influences the move in amount of rural labors. Besides opportunity cost, the rural labor transfer is influenced by living cost in move in area, spatial distance between two places and self-factors of farmers. Therefore, in order to provide more employment opportunities and employment posts for the rural labor

  7. Entre préservation et/ou mise en valeur de la ressource, quel avenir pour les Aires Marines Protégées en Province Nord de la Nouvelle-Calédonie ? Between preservation and / or development of the resource, what future for Marine Protected Areas in Northern Province of New Caledonia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolorès Bodmer

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Cette étude permet une approche distincte de la réflexion sur les ressources marines dans le cadre d'une aire protégée. En effet, les écosystèmes marins sont essentiels, d’autant plus, qu’ils présentent en Nouvelle-Calédonie une grande richesse, notamment en termes de patrimoine culturel. Ce sont majoritairement les Kanak qui habitent sur la Côte Est de la Province Nord, où la Collectivité et le WWF collaborent à la mise en place de plusieurs aires marines protégées (AMP. Jusqu’à présent, la gestion coutumière Kanak a permis une relative préservation de ces écosystèmes dans un secteur littoral non soumis aux pressions de l’urbanisation, du tourisme ou de la navigation. L’étude s’attache à souligner les enjeux autour de la mise en place des AMP et des perspectives de développement local, sur le milieu marin et les populations locales. Il s’agit de voir comment cette expérimentation est envisagée par les différents acteurs (État, Province Nord, associations, coutumiers etc. et de s’interroger sur les mécanismes de gouvernance.This study allows a distinct approach to thinking about the marine resources in a protected area. Indeed, marine ecosystems are essential, especially as they are in New Caledonia, particularly in terms of cultural heritage. It is mainly Kanak who live on the East Coast of the North Province, where the Community and WWF collaborate on the installation of several marine protected areas (MPAs. So far, the Kanak customary management allowed a relative preservation of these ecosystems in a coastal area not subject to the pressures of urbanization, tourism and navigation. The study aims to highlight the issues surrounding the establishment of MPAs and opportunities for local development on the marine environment and local populations. This is to see how this experiment is considered by the various actors (State, Northern Province, associations, etc. customary. And to consider the

  8. A Study on the Strategies of Promoting Sports Tourism in Fujian Province under the Development of the Western Taiwan Strait Economic Area%海西背景下福建省体育旅游发展对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄衍存

    2012-01-01

    In order to make the sports tourism in Fujian province a new growth point of economic development, this paper lyses the development of sports tourism in Fujian province under the background of the construction of Western Taiwan Strait Economic Area with the aid of document researching and logical analysis. The result shows that: sports tourism in Fujian province is of simple structure, little breadth and depth. There are little brands of sports tourism and they are of weak influence. The economy of the area is underdeveloped while the competition among sports tourism brands is severe. This paper suggests an active introduction of talent, capital and management to promote personnel training and build featured brands of coastal sports tourism and ecological sports tourism, develop sports competition tourism and promote the publicity and marketing work.%为了使体育旅游成为福建省经济发展新的增长点,运用文献资料法和逻辑分析方法,对海西建设背景下福建省开展体育旅游的情况进行了分析。结果表明:福建省体育旅游项目结构单一,开发的广度和深度不够;体育旅游品牌少,影响力弱;经济发展水平偏低,体育旅游竞争激烈。建议积极引进人才、资金和管理;推动体育旅游人才的培养;打造滨海体育旅游和生态体育旅游的特色品牌;发展赛事体育旅游;做好宣传营销工作。

  9. Contrastive Analysis of Evolution of Land Use Structure in Developed Area and Developing Area A Case Study on Suzhou of Jiangsu Province and Suzhou of Anhui Province%经济发达地区与欠发达地区土地利用结构演化比较——以江苏省苏州市和安徽省宿州市为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔伟峰; 孙在宏; 兰晓华; 王亚华

    2012-01-01

    The contrastive study on evolution of land use structure in developed area and developing area can provide theoretical basis of sustainable land use. Based on the index model of number, extent change of land use and information entropy theory, using the land survey data of Suzhou of Jiangsu Province and Suzhou of Anhui Province from 1998 to 2008, the author analyzes and contrasts the regulations and differences on evolution of the land use structure. The result shows that in these 10 years : Main land types, such as agriculture land, settlement and incompatible industry land and transportation land, have the same change direction in this two cities, but the change ranges and speed of Suzhou of Jiangsu Province are more than Suzhou of Anhui Province; even through the index of land use degree are both highly, the index of Suzhou of Jiangsu Province is increasing quickly and in a high-speed development period and the Suzhou of Anhui Province is much slow, with years going, the gap of the index have become 9.36 in 2008; information entropy increases year by year with a tendency from fast to slow and the Suzhou of Jiangsu Province increases more quickly, so that land use systems become complex and disordered in two cities. The direction of land use in the future is to improve land use structure by taking actions that suit local circumstances.%以苏州市和宿州市为代表,对经济发达地区与欠发达地区的土地利用结构演化进行比较研究。在土地利用数量、程度变化分析模型和信息熵理论支持下,分析比较了1998--2008年两市土地利用结构演化规律及其差异。结果表明:两市耕地、居民点及工矿用地和交通运输用地等主要地类的变化方向相同,且苏州市的变化幅度的绝对值和变化速度均远大于宿州市;两市的土地利用程度均较高,苏州市该指数的增长总体上维持在较高水平,处于高速发展期,宿州市则较为稳定,处于缓慢的

  10. New Record of Odonata in the Northeast Area and Jilin Province in China%中国东北地区和吉林省蜻蜓目新记录种记述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱晨; 王志明; 赵东芳

    2011-01-01

    Specimens of Odonata collected were identified, and four new records in northeast area and six new records in Jilin province were confirmed.New records in northeast area are Sympetrum ruptum Needham, Libellula basilinea McLachlan, Somatochlora dido Needham and Ischnura elegans Vander Linden.New records in Jilin province are Sympetrum ruptum Needham, Libellula basilinea McLachlan, Somatochlora dido Needham, lschnura elegans Vander Linden, S、 croceolum Selys and S.imitens Selys.%对采集的蜻蜓标本进行鉴定,确定了4个东北地区新记录种和6个吉林省新记录种.其中东北地区新记录种为双横赤蜻Sympetrum rupturm Needham,高斑蜻Libellula basilinea McLachlan,绿金光伪蜻 Somatochlora dido Needham和长叶异痣蟌Ischnura.elegans Vander Linden.吉林省新记录种除上述外还有半黄赤蜻S.croceolum Selys和黄腿赤蜻S.imitens Selys.

  11. 甘肃省农村残疾人体育和谐保障体系研究%A Study on Harmonious Security System of Sports for the Disabled in Rural Area of Gansu Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷湃; 马冬梅

    2012-01-01

      文章采用文献资料法、数理统计法对甘肃省农村残疾人体育现状进行了阐述,找出解决甘肃省农村残疾人体育滞后的原因,力求从政策法规、管理机制、认知程度、保障体系着手来研究农村残疾人体育的社会保障问题,以期使此问题得到社会更多关注,使农村残疾人体育在和谐、健康的社会环境中发展。%  Basing on the literature approach and statistical method, this paper depicts the current situations of sports for the disabled in rural area of Gansu Province. This paper detects the reasons why sports for the disabled in Gansu Province is lagging behind and tries to study the social security problems of sports for the disabled from the perspectives of governmental policies, management mechanism, people's awareness as well as security system. The study expects that sports for the disabled in rural area can get more attention from the public and it can develop in a harmonious and healthy social environments.

  12. Reconstruction of the climate in the Tianmu Mountain area, Zhejiang Province, in the last 160 years by ? 13C sequence of tree ring α-cellulose

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱君龙; 吕军; 屠其璞; 王苏民

    2002-01-01

    Based on cross-dating tree rings from the Tianmu Mountain, Zhejiang Province, the tree rings α-cellulose δ 13C time series was measured. By spectrum analysis, the variation of tree-ring δ13C sequence shows a quasi periodicity of 4.4 years, which is coincident with the standard cycle of El Nino. After removing the long-term decrease trend of the δ13C variation related to atmospheric CO2 concentration, the response of the δ13C to climate elements was analyzed using meteorology data from a nearby weather station. The results suggest that there is a distinct relativity between high-frequency variation of tree ring δ 13C series and seasonal climate parameters, e.g. Temperature and precipitation, with a significant time-lag effect. In addition, the high frequency also reflects the strength change of the East Asian Monsoon. The multiple regression method was employed to reconstruct the historical climate, and to analyze the climate change and trend in the last 160 years in the northern Zhejiang Province.

  13. Community perception of quality of (primary health care services in a rural area of Limpopo Province, South Africa: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T-AB Mashego

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to survey perceptions of quality of (primary health care services provided in rural communities in the Limpopo province. Ten focus groups discussions were held with community members chosen by convenience from public places from four villages in the central region of the Limpopo Province. The sample included 42 women and 34 men (76 participants. Results indicated perceived quality discussed within the following categories: (1 conduct of staff (reception, communication, discrimination, care and compassion, respect for privacy, (2 technical care (examination, explanation of treatment, responsiveness, treatment outcomes, (3 health care facility, (4 health care organisation, (5 drugs (availability, explanation, effectiveness, payment, and (6 waiting time. The findings suggest some satisfaction with free basic and preventive health care and social services provided but there is a need to look closely into the interpersonal dimension of the services provided, provision of medication with adequate explanation to patients on the medication given, and on structural aspects, there is need for the government to give support to the clinics to provide adequate services. Improving drug availability, interpersonal skills (including attitudes towards patients and technical care have been identified as the three main priorities for enhancing perceived quality of primary health care and health policy action.

  14. Building Core Food Area and Developing Agricultural Industrialization in Henan Province%河南省粮食核心区建设与农业产业化发展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李永东

    2011-01-01

    The building of national core food area is one major strategic choice made by our government to cope with the increasing uncertainty in the global food market and national food security issues,which provides opportunities for promoting the industrialization process of agriculture in Henan Province."National Food Program for building the core area of Henan Province" puts forward the basic ideas,goals and measures concerning how to implement the building of the core food area for Henan province.This paper discusses the status of the agricultural industrialization in Henan Province and analyzes the internal mechanism of bidirectional optimization between the building of core food area and agricultural industrialization.Then,based on two specific case studies on agricultural industrialization and the corresponding facts,it puts forward some policy recommendations about building the core food area to promote the process of agricultural industrialization.%粮食核心区建设是国家针对全球粮食市场不确定因素增加和国家粮食安全问题作出的重大战略选择,这为河南省推进农业产业化进程提供了机遇。《国家粮食核心区建设河南省规划纲要》对河南如何实施粮食核心区建设提出了基本思路、目标和措施。探讨河南省农业产业化的现状,分析实现粮食核心区建设与农业产业化双向优化的内在机制,具体研究两个农业产业化的企业案例,并根据事实提出通过粮食核心区建设推进农业产业化进程的决策建议。

  15. 陕北地区高频焊接H型钢结构住宅体系分析%Analysis of High Frequency Welding H Type Steel Structure Residential System in Northern Area of Shanxi Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫竹玲; 吴改革

    2014-01-01

    This paper combined with the characteristics and development of high frequency H steel welding structure, th- rough the analysis of the geology, climate, energy situation and other factors in Northern area of Shaanxi province, put forward the design of residential system of H type high frequency we- lding of steel structure in the Northern area of Shaanxi pr- ovince and carried out some analysis.%本文结合高频焊接H型钢结构的特点及发展,通过对陕北地区地质、气候、能源状况等各种因素的分析,提出了在陕北地区进行高频焊接 H 型钢结构住宅体系的设计,并给出了一定的分析。

  16. Cutaneous leishmaniasis in Iran:Results from an epidemiological study in urban and rural provinces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Faezeh Norouzinezhad; Fatemeh Ghaffari; Abbas Norouzinejad; Farzad Kaveh; Mohammad Mehdi Gouya

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To examine the prevalence and clinical manifestations of cutaneous leish-maniasis (CL) in Iran. Methods: This study was conducted in Iran between 2011 and 2013. Sampling, pre-paring, developing, and fixing of suspicious skin lesions were completed in healthcare centers in 31 Iranian provinces as well as in the Academic Reference Laboratory and the National Reference Laboratory. The information was then analyzed at the Ministry of Health's Information Management Center of Contagious Diseases. Results: Over a three-year period, the number of people identified with CL was 56 546. The highest incidence was reported in 2011 (27.5 per 100 000). Wet CL accounted for 43.7% of cases while 43.3% resulted from sporotrichoid leishmaniasis. The results showed that there was a higher incidence of CL due to Leishmania major (50.2%) than to Leishmania tropica. The results of this study found that the highest incidence of CL had happened respectively in Ilam, Fars and, Khorasan Razavi Provinces between 2011 and 2013. Conclusions: Although the incidence of the disease is declining, CL is still a public health concern and disease control protocols need to be established. Therefore, further studies are needed to identify the vectors, reservoirs, and disease species as well as to develop appropriate disease control strategies.

  17. Cutaneous leishmaniasis in Iran: Results from an epidemiological study in urban and rural provinces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Faezeh Norouzinezhad; Fatemeh Ghaffari; Abbas Norouzinejad; Farzad Kaveh; Mohammad Mehdi Gouya

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To examine the prevalence and clinical manifestations of cutaneous leishmaniasis(CL) in Iran.Methods: This study was conducted in Iran between 2011 and 2013. Sampling, preparing, developing, and fixing of suspicious skin lesions were completed in healthcare centers in 31 Iranian provinces as well as in the Academic Reference Laboratory and the National Reference Laboratory. The information was then analyzed at the Ministry of Health’s Information Management Center of Contagious Diseases.Results: Over a three-year period, the number of people identified with CL was 56 546.The highest incidence was reported in 2011(27.5 per 100 000). Wet CL accounted for 43.7% of cases while 43.3% resulted from sporotrichoid leishmaniasis. The results showed that there was a higher incidence of CL due to Leishmania major(50.2%) than to Leishmania tropica. The results of this study found that the highest incidence of CL had happened respectively in Ilam, Fars and, Khorasan Razavi Provinces between 2011 and 2013.Conclusions: Although the incidence of the disease is declining, CL is still a public health concern and disease control protocols need to be established. Therefore, further studies are needed to identify the vectors, reservoirs, and disease species as well as to develop appropriate disease control strategies.

  18. 黑龙江省国有林区生态环境脆弱性的变化趋势1)%Ecology Environment Vulnerability Change Trend of State-owned Forest Area in Heilongjiang Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李朝洪; 王雪霞

    2016-01-01

    在定位生态环境脆弱性内涵基础上,设置了国有林区生态环境脆弱性的评价指标体系,利用主成分分析方法对生态环境脆弱性指标进行赋权,利用灰色关联分析法监测黑龙江省国有林区2004—2014年的生态环境脆弱性变化趋势。结果表明:黑龙江省国有林区生态环境脆弱性的驱动因子,排在前10位的依次为森林火灾受害率、森林病虫鼠害受害率、营林投资力度、林业法律法规健全度、废水排放达标率、降水量、积温、水资源总量、过熟林比例、无林地比例;黑龙江省国有林区生态环境脆弱性,表现出逐年降低的趋势。%After positioning the ecology environment vulnerability connotation of state-owned forest area , we set up ecology envi-ronment vulnerability evaluation index system of state-owned forest area .We used factor analysis to calculate indictor weight and gray relational analysis to monitor ecology environment vulnerability change trend of state -owned forest area in Heilongjiang Province from 2004 to 2014.The top ten ecology environment vulnerability driving factors of state-owned forest area in Heilongjiang Province were forest fires victimization rate , forest pest and rodent victimization rate , forestry invest-ment, forestry laws soundness , wastewater discharge compliance rate , rainfall, accumulated temperature , total water re-sources, over mature forest rate, and non-forest land rate.The ecological environment vulnerability of state-owned forest in Heilongjiang Province showed constantly decreasing trend year by year .

  19. Atmospheric corrosion in subtropical areas: XRD and electrochemical study of zinc atmospheric corrosion products in the province of Santa Cruz de Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales, J. [Departamento de Quimica Fisica, Universidad de La Laguna, 38071 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain)]. E-mail: jmorales@ull.es; Diaz, F. [Departamento de Quimica Fisica, Universidad de La Laguna, 38071 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Hernandez-Borges, J. [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Nutricion y Bromatologia, Universidad de La Laguna, 38071 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Gonzalez, S. [Departamento de Quimica Fisica, Universidad de La Laguna, 38071 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain)

    2006-02-15

    In the present paper, zinc sheets have been exposed for 4 years to the action of different atmospheres in 35 test sites located in the province of Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain. Corrosion products formed on the surface of the samples have been identified by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD) for the first and second year of exposure. Zincite, hydrozincite, simonkolleite, zinc chlorohydroxysulphate, zinc oxysulphate and zinc hydroxysulphate have been identified in the test sheets. Preliminary results of an electrochemical study of the breakdown potential of zinc samples are also presented in order to test the protective effect of the film formed on the surface of the samples. It was found that the protective effect of this film increases linearly with exposure time.

  20. Virological Investigation of Enteroviruses From Healthy Children in the Border Areas of Yunnan Province, 2010%2010年云南边境地区健康儿童肠道病毒带毒调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄国斐; 丁峥嵘; 田炳均; 汤晶晶; 张杰; 赵智娴; 陆林

    2012-01-01

    Objective To virological investigate the healthy children under 15 years old who came from the border areas with Myanmar in Yunnan province in 2010. Methods The stool samples of the children aged under 15 years who came from the border areas were collected ( one child collected one stool). Virus isolation and sequencing were conducted for the 400 samples. Results Altogether, 21 non - polio viruses ( NPVs) were detected with an isolation rate of 5.3% (21/400). All the 21 strains were HEV - B viruses, no HEV - A, HEV - C, HEV - D and polioviruses was detected. Conclusion HEV - B viruses were the primary enteroviruses among the healthy children in the border areas with Myanmar in Yunnan province in 2010.%目的 对2010年云南省与缅甸接壤地区15岁以下健康儿童肠道病毒带毒情况进行调查.方法 采集边境地区15岁以下健康儿童的粪便标本(每个儿童1份),对共400份标本进行病毒分离和基因测序定型.结果 400份便标本中检测到非脊灰病毒( non - polio virus,NPV)21株,NPV分离率5.3%.21株病毒全为HEV - B组病毒,未分离到HEV - A、HEV - C、HEV - D组病毒和脊灰病毒.结论 2010年云南省边境地区健康儿童中肠道病毒以B组病毒为主.

  1. 江西省农村学校饮用水卫生现状调查%Investigation on Drinking Water Sanitation of Schools in Rural Areas of JiangXi Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李秋娟; 秦俊; 徐岷; 史丽娟

    2011-01-01

    Objective To understand drinking water sanitation of schools in rural areas of Jiangxi province. Methods Sixty schools were chosen and drinking water quality was investigated in rural areas of Nanchang, Anyi, Ruijin, Xingguo, Zixi, Chongren from April to June in 2009. Results The primary water types of rural school in Jiangxi province was groundwater, accounting for 91.67% ,the primary water supply type was centralized water supply,accounting for 65.00% ,the qualified rate of water quality was 49.15%, of which the centralized type was 64.87% and decentralized type was 22.73% (P<0.O1). Microbiological indicators exceeded the standards seriously. The qualified rate of total coliform, heat-resistant coliform and Escherichia coli was 64.41%,89.83% and 94.92% respectively. Conclusion In the schools of the investigated rural areas of Jiangxi province, drinking water has been seriously contaminated by bacteria.%目的 了解江西省农村学校饮用水的卫生现状.方法 于2009年4-6月,对南昌、安义、瑞金、兴国、资溪、崇仁6个县(市)的60所学校进行饮水安全现状调查,并对其中59所学校的饮用水水样进行检测和评价.结果 江西省农村学校水源类型以地下水为主,占91.67%;供水方式以集中式供水为主,占65.00%.共检测水样59件,合格29件,合格率为49.15%.集中式供水水样合格率为64.87%(24/37),高于分散式供水[22.73%(5/22)],差异有统计学意义(x2=9.802,P=0.002).微生物指标严重超标,其中,总大肠菌群、耐热大肠菌群、大肠埃希菌合格率仅为64.41%,89.83%,94.92%.结论 江西省农村学校饮用水受微生物污染严重.

  2. P波极性揭示的甘东南地区构造应力场特征%The Tectonic Stress Field in Southeastern Area of Gansu Province Deduced from P Wave Polarity Data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卜玉菲; 张元生; 万永革; 刘旭宙; 高见

    2013-01-01

    To determine the crustal stress field based on the basis of earthquake waves, we analyze data from fixed seismic stations in Gansu and surrounding provinces and the broadband portable seismic array in southeast Gansu province, where three blocks converge to create complex tectonic conditions. Two methods used to directly obtain such stress fields include those based on focal mechanism data and p-wave first motion data. In order effectively use small and microscale earthquake data, the latter method is used in our study. On the basis of near earthquake observation data recorded from November 1, 2010, to November 30, 2011, we use Zhang's Method to relocate earthquakes occurring in this area. As a result, 2 379 earthquakes and 12 129 p-wave polarity data are obtained through which the directions of principal stress axes are inferred. The inversion method and program are provided by Wan. Our study assumes a relative stress value of 0. 5. We calculate only the 2-D stress field because most earthquakes have occurred in the research area at depths of 5~20 km; the average depth of 12 km was chosen as the calculating depth. The direction of tectonic stress field in a 0.25°×0.25 grid in this area is presented for the first time. The orientation of P, B, and T axis azimuths are obtained by 1° × 1° × 1° grid searching. We treat these azimuths as stress flied directions when the contradictory ratio is the smallest. Results show that the maximum compressive stress axis strikes are presented in a radiated pattern; that is, they strike east-west from NEE in northern part to SEE in the east. These findings are similar to that reported in previous research, through which we can infer that the Qinghai -Tibet plateau moving to the northeast encountered the stable Ordos block and the South China block moving to the southeast; thus, the material moved southeast. The earthquakes occurring in this region were fewer and smaller than those west of 104° E; therefore, the stress field

  3. Evolution of hepatitis B virus surface gene and protein among Iranian chronic carriers from different provinces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Ramezani

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives:  Iranian chronic HBV carrier’s population has shown a unique pattern of genotype D distri- bution all around the country. The aim of this study was to explore more details of evolutionary history of carriers based on structural surface proteins from different provinces.Materials and Methods: Sera obtained from 360 isolates from 12 Different regions of country were used for amplificationand sequencing of surface proteins. A detailed mutational analysis was undertaken.Results: The total ratio for Missense/Silent nucleotide substitutions was 0.96. Sistan and Kermanshah showed the lowest rate of evolution between provinces (P = 0.055. On the other hand, Khorasan Razavi and Khoozestan contained the highest ratio (P = 0.055. The rest of regions were laid between these two extremes. Azarbayjan and Guilan showed the highest proportion of immune epitope distribution (91.3% and 96%, respectively. Conversely, Sistan and Tehran harbored the least percentage (66.6% and 68.8%, respectively. Kermanshah province contained only 5.2%, whereas Isfahan had 54.5% of B cell epitope distribution. In terms of T helper epitopes, all provinces showed a somehow homogeneity: 22.58% (Fars to 46.6% (Khuz- estan. On the other hand, distribution of substitutions within the CTL epitopes showed a wide range of variation between 6.6% (Khuzestan and 63% (Kermanshah.Conclusion: Further to low selection pressure found in Iranian population, the variations between different regions designate random genetic drift within the surface proteins. These finding would have some applications in terms of specific antiviral regimen, design of more efficient vaccine and public health issues.

  4. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Residues in Gentile Di Maiale, a Smoked Meat Product Typical of Some Mountain Areas in Latina Province (Central Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrabs, Giuseppe; Mercogliano, Raffaelina; Carosielli, Leonardo; Vollano, Lucia; Anastasio, Aniello

    2014-01-01

    Gentile di maiale is a typical meat product prepared in some traditional plants of Latina Province (Central Italy). It is obtained from dehydration, salting, smoking and ripening of swine rectum. Aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of the traditional smoking process on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) content by means of high-performance liquid chromatographic/fluorescence detection. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons detected in 8 samples of raw material (swine rectum) and samples of smoked gentile were: benzo[a]anthracene, chrisene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, benzo[a] pyrene, benzo[a,h]anthracene. Their residues were detected in all samples of finished product. European Regulation 835/2011 established two levels of PAHs content in meat products. According to first levels, in force until September 2014, only 2 out of 8 samples exceeded legal limit. According to the subsequent, more restrictive, limits all samples would be non-compliant. An improvement and a standardisation of traditional smoking procedures are recommended.

  5. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons residues in Gentile di maiale, a smoked meat product typical of some mountain areas in Latina province (Central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Carrabs

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Gentile di maiale is a typical meat product prepared in some traditional plants of Latina Province (Central Italy. It is obtained from dehydration, salting, smoking and ripening of swine rectum. Aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of the traditional smoking process on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs content by means of high-performance liquid chromatographic/fluorescence detection. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons detected in 8 samples of raw material (swine rectum and samples of smoked gentile were: benzo[a]anthracene, chrisene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, benzo[a] pyrene, benzo[a,h]anthracene. Their residues were detected in all samples of finished product. European Regulation 835/2011 established two levels of PAHs content in meat products. According to first levels, in force until September 2014, only 2 out of 8 samples exceeded legal limit. According to the subsequent, more restrictive, limits all samples would be non-compliant. An improvement and a standardisation of traditional smoking procedures are recommended.

  6. Levels and patterns of organochlorine pesticides in agricultural soils in an area of extensive historical cotton cultivation in Henan province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Beibei; Wu, Chunfa; Liu, Wuxing; Teng, Ying; Luo, Yongming; Christie, Peter; Guo, Dong

    2016-04-01

    Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) have attracted widespread concern because of their environmental persistence and toxicity. The historical influence of different agricultural land use types on soil concentrations of OCP residues was investigated by collecting a total of 52 surface soil samples from long-term cotton fields and fields with other crops in Lvdian township, Henan province, eastern central China. The concentration, composition, and possible sources of 16 OCPs were determined and a health risk assessment of these soils was conducted. Hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), heptachlor, chlordane, and dichloro diphenyl trichloroethane plus its main metabolites (DDTs) were the most frequently detected OCPs with concentrations of 2.9-56.4 ng g(-1), 4.3-14.0 ng g(-1), 18.0-1254.4 ng g(-1), and below detection limit (BDL) -206.1 ng g(-1), respectively. Analysis of variance of p,p-DDE shows significant (P cotton fields and fields containing other crops. Compositional analysis suggests that the HCH is derived mainly from the use of lindane and that there are recent inputs. Analysis of variance and compositional analysis indicate that the p,p-DDE in surface soil from long-term cotton fields is derived mainly from the aerobic biodegradation of historical residues. The sum of carcinogenic risk values of OCPs for soil samples were found to be 1.58 × 10(-6), posing a low cancer risk to the inhabitants of the region studied.

  7. Discussion on Techniques of Seedling Nursing and Transplanting of Spring Maize in Cold Areas of Shanxi Province%山西冷凉区春玉米育苗移栽技术探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Aiming at the characteristics of low accumulated temperature, less rainfall and short frost-free period in cold areas of Shanxi Province, seedling nursing and transplanting of spring maize techniques was introduced, including seedling, transplanting, field management and disease and insect control, etc. The results provided guidance for local spring maize production.%针对山西冷凉区积温低、降雨少、无霜期短的特点,介绍了春玉米育苗移栽技术,包括育苗、移栽、田间管理与病虫害防治等方面内容,为当地春玉米生产提供了指导。

  8. Economic Development of Emigration from Three Gorges Project Area to Guangdong Province%求解广东省长江三峡移民安稳致富问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚欣烈

    2014-01-01

    针对广东省三峡移民在迁入广东之后的安稳致富问题,对广东省三峡移民生产、生活现状实地调查与分析研究,在此基础上从后期扶持、移民管理和移民技能培训三方面提出广东省三峡移民安稳致富的对策建议。%Due to the development of Three Gorges project , some residents in the reservoir area emigrated to Guangdong province .Field investigation and analysis are carried out on the current status of their working and living .Suggestions are then given on their economic development , including the late -stage support , resettlement management and skill training.

  9. 2006-2011年云南省疾病监测点居民恶性肿瘤死因分析%Death causes by malignant tumor in surveillance areas of Yunnan Province from 2006-2011

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨永芳; 邵英; 肖义泽

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解2006-2011年云南省疾病监测点居民恶性肿瘤死亡水平及其变化趋势,为恶性肿瘤的防治工作提供科学依据.方法 应用死亡率、标化死亡率等对2006-2011年云南省疾病监测点死因监测资料进行统计分析.结果 2006-2011年云南省疾病监测点居民恶性肿瘤年均报告死亡率为70.80/10万,标化死亡率78.17/10万,居全死因第4位;男性高于女性,男女死亡率比为1.66;前5位恶性肿瘤死因依次是肺癌、肝癌、胃癌、结直肠癌和白血病.结论 恶性肿瘤已成为云南省疾病监测点居民的主要致死疾病之一,且死亡率呈上升趋势,应根据不同人群、不同肿瘤的特点,采取综合性的干预措施,预防或减少恶性肿瘤的发生.%[ Objective]To understand the mortality and disease trend of malignant tumor in surveillance areas of Yunnan Province from 2006-2011, and provide scientific evidence for prevention and treatment of malignant tumors . [ Methods]Mortality and standardized mortality were used to describe the surveillance data. [Results]The reported mortality of malignant tumor in Yunnan Province was 70. 80/100 000(standardized mortality was 78.17/100 000) , which ranked fourth of all death causes. The mortality ratio of malignant tumor of male to female was 1. 66. The top 5 death causes by malignant tumor was lung cancer, liver cancer, stomach cancer, colorectal cancer and leukemia. [ Conclusion]Malignant tumor has become one of the major causes of death in surveillance areas of Yunnan Province. Mortality of malignant tumor is increasing. Comprehensive intervention measure should be taken to prevent and control the malignant tumor based on different population and different tumor characteristics.

  10. 江西贫困地区口腔健康行为及医疗状况调查%Survey of oral health behavior and medical status in the poverty-stricken areas in Jiangxi province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王迪侃; 曲靖; 朱嘉; 欧晓艳

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the oral health behavior and medical status in the poverty-stricken areas in Jiangxi province,and to make suggestions for keeping oral health in the country,township,and village. Methods 198 residents were ran-domly investigated by questionnaire and examined by the free clinic in Ganfang town Jiangxi Province. Results Only less than half of the surveyed brush teeth both in the morning and in the evening every day,27.33% brush teeth with lasting 3-5 minutes,and less than 10% residents could take oral health examination on time. Conclusion Residents are lacking of oral health knowl-edge and the awareness of dental clinical treatment,and the oral medical is in bad condition in poverty-stricken areas in Jiangxi province.%目的:调查江西省贫困地区居民口腔健康行为及口腔卫生医疗状况,为贫困地区居民口腔健康维护提出指导。方法随机发放调查问卷、现场义诊检查的方式,对甘坊镇198名居民进行调查,了解其口腔健康行为及该地区医疗现状。结果仅45.67%的居民每天至少早晚各刷一次牙,27.33%的居民每次刷牙持续3-5min,不足10%的居民能定期进行口腔检查。结论江西省贫困地区居民口腔健康知识了解不足,就诊意识较差,县乡村口腔医疗状况不容乐观。

  11. 黑龙江省农村贫困人口的规模及救助对策思考%Poor Population Size in the Rural Areas of Heilongjiang Province and the Relief Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    公大勇

    2015-01-01

    As the number of poverty villages in Heilongjiang province and the poor population size is large and the poverty incidence of rural population is high, there are tremendous difficulties for the assistance and relief of the poor population. Lack of agricultural capital, weak rural infrastructure, human capital deficit and the poor anti-poverty project implementation in impoverished rural areas, and the in-sufficient assistance and relief are the main reason for the poor rural population in the province. The government should intensify poverty alleviation, focus on the accurate implementation of special poverty alleviation projects, improve the relief system in rural areas, and ensure the implementation of the poverty alleviation measures.%目前,黑龙江省贫困村数量多,农村贫困人口规模大,农村人口的贫困发生率高,黑龙江省农村贫困人口的救助工作极为艰巨.农业资本不足、农村基础设施薄弱、贫困农村人力资本不足和扶贫工作落实不到位是黑龙江省农村贫困人口产生的主要原因.黑龙江省政府应进一步加大扶贫的投入力度,推进专项扶贫措施精准落实,健全完善农村救助体系,切实加强扶贫保障措施落实,从而使黑龙江省的农村扶贫救助工作迈向新阶段.

  12. Epidemiological survey of taeniasis/cysticercosis in Puer area of Yunnan Province%云南省普洱地区猪带绦/囊虫病流行病学调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐安健; 汪丽波; 赵高潮; 乌姗娜; 靳庆娥; 谷俊朝

    2012-01-01

    Objective To understand the infectiousstatus of taeniasis/cysticercosis in Puer City in Yunnan Province. Methods The IgG antibody to taeniasis/cysticercosis in 2 870 persons randomly selected in the counties of Jingdong, Jinggu and Menglian in Pu er City in YunNan Province was detected using ELJSA. Results Anti-cysticercus IgG antibody was delected in 1 108 persons (38.61% )and there were a number of factors leasing to the prevalent of taeniasis/cysticercosis in this area. Conclusion The prevalence of taeniasis/cysticercosis is serious in Puer area and comprehensive intervention measures be taken to control the infection.%目的 了解云南省普洱地区的猪带绦/囊虫感染情况.方法 在云南省普洱地区的景东县、景谷县和孟连县随机抽查了2 870人,进行了猪带绦/囊虫IgG抗体检测,并进行了猪带绦/囊虫病的流行因素问卷调查.结果 猪带绦/囊虫IgG抗体阳性人数为1 108人,占调查总人数的38.61%.显示当地猪带绦/囊虫感染情况较为严重,而且当地存在较多的造成猪带绦/囊虫感染的流行因素.结论 云南省普洱地区的猪带绦/囊虫感染情况较为严重,应当因地制宜地对当地进行猪带绦/囊虫感染的综合防治干预.

  13. On the Poverty in the Rocky Desertification Areas of Southwest China Based on AHP: A Case Study of Liupanshui City in Guizhou Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haibin; ZHU; Xiaodong; REN

    2014-01-01

    Karst rocky desertification mountain areas are regarded as main positions to wipe out poverty for their large poverty population,wide poverty area,high rate of poverty,etc. This paper takes Liupanshui city as an example where the situation of rocky desertification is very serious. We build the indicator system of poverty alleviation and development by analyzing their poverty and using the AHP method and also find the limiting factors which restrict the development of this area then put forward the recommendations to alleviate poverty.

  14. Male circumcision, alcohol use and unprotected sex among patrons of bars and taverns in rural areas of North-West province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkosi, Sebenzile; Sikweyiya, Yandisa; Kekwaletswe, Connie T; Morojele, Neo K

    2015-01-01

    Strong research evidence has shown that medical male circumcision significantly reduces heterosexual HIV acquisition among men. However, its effectiveness is enhanced by behavioural factors such as condom use. Currently, little is known of unprotected sex associated with male circumcision (MC) among alcohol-drinking tavern-going men, or whether engagement in unprotected sex may differ between men who have been traditionally circumcised and those who have been medically circumcised. The study sought to determine the relative importance of alcohol consumption and MC as correlates of unprotected sex and to compare the risk of engaging in unprotected sex between traditionally circumcised and medically circumcised tavern-going men from two rural villages in North-West province, South Africa. Data from 314 adult men (≥18 years) were analysed. The men were recruited from four bars/taverns using systematic sampling. They responded to questions regarding their demographic characteristics, alcohol consumption, circumcision status and method (where applicable), and engagement in unprotected sex. Descriptive analyses and bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted. Age, education, relationship status, alcohol consumption and traditional male circumcision (TMC) were independently and significantly associated with unprotected sex. Specifically, probable alcohol dependence and traditional circumcision were independent risk factors for engaging in unprotected sex among tavern-going men. Traditionally circumcised men had a higher risk of engaging in unprotected sex than medically circumcised men. Interventions aimed at reducing alcohol consumption, encouraging protective behaviour among men who have undergone TMC, and increasing condom use are needed in bar/tavern settings. HIV prevention education must be urgently incorporated into TMC programmes.

  15. Archean Mass-independent Fractionation of Sulfur Isotope:New Evidence of Bedded Sulfide Deposits in the Yanlingguan-Shihezhuang area of Xintai, Shandong Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yanhe; HOU Kejun; WAN Defang; YUE Guoliang

    2008-01-01

    Multiple sulfur isotope ratios (34S/33S/32S) of Archean bedded sulfides deposits were measured in the Yanlingguan Formation of the Taishan Group in Xintai, Shandong Province, East of China; δ33S =-0.7‰ to 3.8‰,δ34S = 0.1‰-8.8‰, △33S = -2.3‰ to -0.7‰ The sulfur isotope compositions show obvious mass-independent fractionation (MIF) signatures. The presence of MIF of sulfur isotope in Archean sulfides indicates that the sulfur was from products of photochemical reactions of volcanic SO2 induced by solar UV radiation, implying that the ozone shield was not formed in atmosphere at that time, and the oxygen level was less than 10-5PAL (the present atmosphere level). The sulfate produced by photolysis of SO2 with negative △33S precipitated near the volcanic activity center; and the product of element S with positive △33S precipitated far away from the volcanic activity center. The lower △33S values of sulfide (-2.30‰ to-0.25‰) show that Shihezhuang was near the volcanic center,and sulfur was mostly from sulfate produced by photolysis. The higher △33S values (-0.5‰ to-2‰)indicate that Yanlingguan was far away from the volcanic center and that some of sulfur were from sulfate, another from element S produced by photolysis. The data points of sulfur isotope from Yanlingguan are in a line parallel to MFL (mass dependent fractionation line) on the plot of δ34S-δ33S,showing that the volcanic sulfur species went through the atmospheric cycle into the ocean, and then mass dependent fractionation occurred during deposition of sulfide. The data points of sulfur isotope from Shihezhuang represent a mix of different sulfur source.

  16. Financial Support to the Economic Development of Yangtze River Area of Anhui Province%皖江区域经济发展的金融支持研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马小雪; 冯庆水

    2012-01-01

    随着《皖江城市带承接产业转移示范区规划》的提出,皖江区域应借助这一契机,大力发展经济,因此,对皖江区域经济发展中金融支持的研究具有现实意义。对皖江区域的经济发展、产业结构、金融水平、开放合作、公共服务、社会环境六大类要素进行因子分析,并运用金融相关指标构建皖江区域金融发展和经济增长关系的计量模型,得出金融支持对皖江区域经济发展的重要性。建议从金融各个方面支持皖江区域经济的增长,促进皖江区域产业结构升级和优化。%The issuing of the industrial transfer demonstration area planning for cities along Yangtze river in Anhui Province has brought a golden opportunity for the area to develop its economy. Hence, researches into financial support to the economic development of this area have a practical significance. With an analysis of the economic growth, industrial structure, financial level, openness and cooperation, public services, and social environment of the area, and by building an econometric model of relationship between financial development and economic growth by financial related index, the paper discovers the importance of financial support to the economic development of the area. It is suggested that the economic growth of the area should get an all-around financial support, so as to facilitate the upgrading and optimizing of its industrial structure.

  17. Temporal-spatial Variations of Dynamic Source Parameters in the Capital Circle Region and Its Surrounding Areas before the 2006 Ms 5.1 Wen'an Earthquake in Hebei Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Xuezhong; Li Yan'e; Guo Xiangyun

    2012-01-01

    Source spectra, corner frequency and zero frequency amplitudes in near-source conditions were measured using waveform data from 989 earthquakes with magnitudes larger than ML2. 0 observed by the Beijing Digital Telemetry Seismic Network in the Capital Circle Region of China and its surrounding areas from January 2002 to June 2006 by the Brune model. Relevant formulas that were used for the calculation of dynamic source parameters include rupture radius, seismic moment, seismic energy, stress drop, and apparent stress. Scaling relations and characteristics of temporal-spatial variations of these dynamic parameters before the Ms5.1 Wen'an earthquake in Hebei Province that occurred on July 20, 2006 were analyzed. Results show that apparent stress, stress drop, and the ratio of seismic energy to the rupture radius had relatively high values in some areas before the Wen'an earthquake. These high-value concentration areas were mainly distributed in the North China Plain seismic zone. As is seen from the time curves, parameters, such as apparent stress, stress drop, and ratio of seismic energy to rupture radius underwent significant ascending processes before the Wen'an earthquake, but the variation in the corner frequency showed a descending trend. This result might be related to the enhancement of stress in the North China Plain seismic zone before the earthquake.

  18. 浙江沿海森林资源现状及动态分析%Analysis on Current Situation and Dynamic of the Forest Resources in the Coastal Areas of Zhejiang Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔莉; 李俊清; 向楠; 徐满

    2011-01-01

    The current situation of forest resources in the coastal areas of Zhejiang Province was analyzed from the aspects of land use structure,category of forest stand, structure of stand age, forest stock and percentage of forest cover, and on the basis of forest data during each stage of study areas, the dynamic changes of forest resources were analyzed. On this basis, constructive suggestions for the operation of forest resources in study areas were proposed.%从土地利用结构、林分的林种及林龄结构、林木蓄积量、森林覆盖率等方面分析了浙江沿海森林资源的现状,并以研究区各时期的林清数据为依据分析了森林资源变化动态,在此基础上对研究区森林资源的经营提出建设性意见.

  19. Study on Sand Flies as a Vector(s of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis by Nested PCR in Rural Areas of Damghan District, Semnan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Rasi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Cutaneous Leishmaniasis is caused by obligatory intracellular parasite of genus Lieshmania. The disease is reported from more than half of Iran's provinces. Various species of sand flies are vector of the disease. Determination of vectors and gaining knowledge about them are important for devising of control program. Materials & Methods: This survey was performed as a cross-sectional study in order to determine the vector(s of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Damghan district during 2008-2009. Sand flies were collected from indoors and outdoors by sticky traps twice in month from April to November. Head and last abdominal segments of the samples were removed and mounted in a drop of Puri’s medium and identified. The rest of the sand flies' bodies was subjected to DNA extraction for molecular detection of Leishmania parasite by Nested PCR using specific primers of minicircle kinetoplast DNAResults: Totally, 6110 sand flies in 8 species were collected. P. papatasi had high density (46.7%. Examination of 280 female sand flies by Nested PCR showed that 28 sand flies (10%include 24 specimens P.papatasi (85.7% and 4 specimens P.caucasicus(14.3%were found naturally infected with L.major. The highest rate of infected sandflies were observed in rodents burrow (42.9%. Maximum rate of sand fly infection was in September (89.3%. Conclusion: With respect to high density of P.papatasi and isolation of L.major from it, this species was the main vector of the disease. Detection of L.major from P.caucasicus shows that this species was the secondary vector in rodent burrow. The highest rate of sand leis infected was in September, so personal protection in this month is very important and necessary. Regarding to the high density of vectors and high infection rate of them taking actions to decrease the sand fly abundance and prevention of human biting are suggested.(Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2012;18(4:47-52

  20. Study on Reclamation of the Deserted Quarries in Central Area of Zhejiang Province%浙中地区废弃矿山复绿技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王蓉丽; 朱宝琦; 李绍龙; 徐明

    2011-01-01

    The central city of Zhejiang province-Jinhua has rich mineral resources, the development and utilization satisfied the needs of economic construction and social development. But many quarries have serious environmental problems and hidden dangers because of many years mining. It is urgent in the work of ecological management and reclamation of the deserted quarries. A representative selection of Wangxi quarry at the town of lingxia as research object, we determined the reclamation by environment survey, including planting material spraying, revegetation bags, substrate container seedling, vertical greening, slope toe wall backfill greening, soil dressing reclamation and landscape re-building seven technologies. Also planning for the different types of reclamation on steep slope, even steep slope, gentle slope and slope toe land. The neclamation effect was reached, the ecological environment was improved, the reference and guidance were provided for reclamation of the similar quarries.%浙中城市——金华拥有丰富的矿产资源,其开发利用保障了社会发展和经济建设的需求。然而多年的开采,许多矿山存在严重的环境问题与隐患,废弃矿山生态治理与复绿工作迫在眉睫。选择具有代表性的岭下镇王溪采石场作为研究对象,通过矿山环境现状调查,确定了PMS技术、植生袋围堰造坑植树技术、基质型容器苗种植技术、石壁藤本垂直绿化技术、坡脚挡墙回填土绿化技术、客土复垦技术和艺术景观再造技术7项复绿技术,并进行陡峻边坡、缓陡边坡、缓边坡和坡脚迹地分类复绿设计,达到了复绿效果,改善了生态环境,为同类矿山复绿工作提供借鉴和指导。

  1. Classification and description of the vegetation in the Spitskop area in the proposed Highveld National Park, North West Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahlomola E. Daemane

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the proposed Highveld National Park (HNP is to conserve a considerable area of the poorly conserved Rocky Highveld Grassland and Dry Sandy Highveld Grassveld of the western Grassland Biome in South Africa. The park has not yet been proclaimed, but is currently under the management of the North West Parks and Tourism Board. The main aim of this study was to classify and describe the vegetation in the Spitskop area in the HNP. The areas affected by soil degradation were on the midslopes, footslopes, valley bottomland and the floodplains around the Spitskop hill. The concentrated grazing around the Spitskop area was also influenced by the existing dam in the floodplains. Floristic and soil degradation data were collected and used to classify and describe the plant communities of the Spitskop area. Vegetation sampling was performed by means of the Braun-Blanquet method and a total of twenty plots were sampled. A numerical classification technique (TWINSPAN was applied to the floristic data to derive a first approximation of the main plant communities. Further refinement was achieved by Braun-Blanquet procedures. The final results of the classification procedure were presented in the form of a phytosociological table, with three major communities and three subcommunities being described. Canonical correspondence analysis was used to determine the direct correlation between plant communities and soil degradation types. Soil compaction and sheet erosion were found to be the most significant variables determining plant community composition. Rill and gully erosion were shown to be of lesser significance in explaining the variation in plant communities. Conservation implications: Grasslands are amongst the most threatened biomes in South Africa, yet less than 1.3% are currently being conserved. The HNP has significant value for biodiversity conservation and the protection of this area will contribute to the preservation of the highly

  2. Analysis on the Factors Influencing the Selection of Rural Residential Mode in Guanzhong Area of Shaanxi Province%陕西省关中农村住宅模式选择的影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱晓东; 卢梅; 周苗; 王伶俐

    2011-01-01

    在对陕西省关中部分农村进行问卷调查和实地调研的基础上,通过比较对农村住宅影响比较重要的成本、安全耐久性、内部舒适度、外部美观程度、布局设计、结构形式及低碳节能环保等因素,运用统计学方法,分析了受访者的性别、年龄、文化程度、家庭年收入及现在住宅结构等因素与将来住宅结构选择的相关性与显著性,总结出农民建房时对住宅及住宅结构选择的倾向,并根据分析结果提出在陕西省新农村建设中推广轻钢结构住宅的建议.%Based on the questionnaire survey and field investigation in some rural Guanzhong area of Shaanxi Province,and through comparing some very important influencing factors on rural residence, such as cost, security, durability, interior comfort, external beauty, housing layout design,structure,low-carbon,energy-saving,environmental protection and so on, the correlation and significance between the factors including the gender,age,education,annual household income and present residential structure of the interviewees and their choice of future residential structure were analyzed by using statistical method ,and then the farmers' tendency in constructing houses and selecting house patterns were summarized ,finally it was proposed from the analysis results that the light steel structure could be popularized during the new countryside construction of Shaanxi Province.

  3. 某铀矿富集区及其周围环境放射性现状调查%An Environment Radioactivity Survey in and around a Uranium Enrichment Area in Guangdong Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙功明; 李冠超; 白书明; 杨波; 林健

    2015-01-01

    A survey of environment radioactivity in and around a uranium enrichment area of approximately 700 km 2 in Guangdong Province has been made .The result shows that the gamma radiation dose rate is far higher than the provincial natural radioactivity level . 238 U , 232 Th , 226 Ra in some soil samples are more concen-trated than the background in Guangdong .There is a river with too higher content of radionuclide ,of which U is 15 .7 times than the reported value for Beijiang River in the province .The U concentration in effluents from some uranium ore occurrences and a hydrometallurgy factory exceeds the nuclear industrial limit .%介绍了广东省某铀矿富集区及其周边约700 km 2范围环境放射性现状调查。调查结果表明:该铀矿富集区的γ辐射剂量率明显高于广东省天然放射性水平调查值;部分地区土壤样品中238 U 、232 Th 、226 Ra 含量高于广东省天然放射性水平调查值;地表水体中有一条河流的放射性核素偏高,其铀浓度是广东省北江水系报告值的15.7倍;部分铀矿点和水冶厂的水体铀浓度超过核工业控制标准限值。

  4. Illicit Drug Use, Cigarette Smoking and Alcohol Drinking Behaviour among a Sample of High School Adolescents in the Pietersburg Area of the Northern Province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madu, Sylvester Ntomchukwu; Matla, Ma-Queen Patience

    2003-01-01

    Investigates the prevalence of illicit drug use, cigarette smoking and alcohol drinking behavior among a sample of high-school adolescents in the Pietersburg area of South Africa. Findings indicate the prevalence rate of 19.8% for illicit drug use, 10.6% for cigarette smoking and 39.1% for alcohol consumption among the participants. Implications…

  5. Analysis of nutrient content and assessment of economic value for major salt-tolerant plants in coastal areas: a case study of Dongying City,Shandong Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Salinization of soil is a worldwide problem concerning resources and ecology,especially serious in coastal areas.Testing of 26 sorts of data or parameters are carried out on leaves of 22 plant species (in 24 plant variety) of existing main salt-tolerant plant of the Yellow River Delta region.Data or parameters include the following elements:contents of K+,Na+,Ca2+,Mg2+ and Cl-,contents of protein,fat,total energy,ash and contents of 17 amino acids.The results show that these tested plants have economic values.For example,according to their uses,they can be divided into edible plants,forage plants,medicine or health plants,and some of them can be used for multipurposes.These plants have played important roles in the sustainable utilization of plant resources in coastal areas.This paper has taken evaluations on the economic uses of salt-tolerant plants and given suggestions for saline soil improvement and resource utilization in coastal areas.Based on the results of investigation and experiments,we suppose that the salt-tolerant plants in coastal areas can be grouped into 9 main groups according to their eeonomic value:pioneer plants for saline land improvement,medicine,edible and forage plants,industry material forestation,breeding material,energy plants and eco-tourism resources.

  6. SHRIMP dating of volcanic rock in the Zhangwu-Heishan area, West Liaoning province, China: Its relationship with coal-bearing strata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cai Houan; Xu Debin; Li Baofang; Shao Longyi

    2011-01-01

    The Zhangwu-Heishan area is located to the east of the Fuxin-Yixian Basin and is mostly covered with volcanic rock.At various periods,different geologists had varying opinions about their age and periods of volcanic eruptions,especially on sequences between volcanic rock and main coal-beating strata,which affect the direction of searching for coal,as well as prospecting the entire research area.During our study,we carried out detailed field investigations in this research area; observed and recorded the main representative outcrops of volcanic rock.We collected over 20 volcanic rock samples and tested the Sensitive High Resolution Ion Microprobe Ⅱ (SHRIMP Ⅱ) U-Pb isotope age of 11 samples.The age of our volcanic rock samples ranged between 56.0 ± 2.9 and 132.3 ± 2.3 Ma.After taking earlier investigations into consideration,we concluded that,except for a suite of paleogene olivine basalt,the volcanic rock in the Zhangwu-Heishan area is younger than the coal-beating Shahai Formation.It is therefore most unlikely to find coal seams equivalent to those of the early Cretaceous Shahai Formation in Fuxin Basin below volcanic rock.

  7. The Research of Impact of Returning Cultivated Land to Forests in Poverty Areas around Beijing-Tianjin on Local Economy——A Case of Shunping County in Hebei Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Taking Shunping County of Hebei Province as an example,according to the relevant survey data in the year 2008 after returning cultivated land and data in the year 2001 before returning cultivated land, the thesis analyzes the impact of implementation of project of returning cultivated land to forests on local land use structure, three industrial added value and famers’ per capita income. The results show that returning cultivated land has played a certain positive role on the local economic development and the improvement of people’s life level.However, there are also some shortcomings: although famers’ income is increasing with low growth rate, a large portion of famers still have not shaken off poverty; the farmers depends on subsidies greatly and the compensation mechanism of returning cultivated land is not considered well. China should further perfect the ecological compensation plan, and build rational ecological compensation mechanism in order to make the areas of returning cultivated land have self-blood-producing function; Shunping County should make full use of the location advantage in areas around Beijing-Tianjin, develop deep processing based on fruit trees industry, strengthen farmers’ skill training, and increase input in the agricultural infrastructure construction to propel the sustainable development of agriculture.

  8. Effects of Land Use Change on Eco-environment in Hilly Area of Central Sichuan Basin--A Case Study of Yanting County, Sichuan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luo Huai-liang; Zhu Bo; Chen Guo-jie; Gao Mei-rong

    2003-01-01

    With the artificial alder and cypress mixed forest being planted, there has been a marked land use change since 1970s' in Hilly Area of Central Sichuan Basin, China. Data from meteorological observations or posts operated over long time, measurement and calculation of NPP (net primary production) and biomass of biological community, and analysis of soil organic matter content show that the artificial alder and cypress mixed forest has outstanding eco-environmental effect: adjusting local climate, raising soil fertility, alleviating menace of drought, and raising NPP and biomass of biological community. It is very beneficial for improving ecological environment to afforest artificial alder and cypress mixed forest in populous Hilly Area of Central Sichuan Basin, China.

  9. Effects of Land Use Change on Eco-environment in Hilly Area of Central Sichuan Basin——A Case Study of Yanting County, Sichuan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LuoHuai-liang; ZhuBo; ChenGuo-jie; GaoMei-rong

    2003-01-01

    With the artificial alder and cypress mixed forest being planted, there has been a marked land use change since 1970s' in Hilly Area of Central Sichuan Basin, China. Data from meteorological observations or posts operated over long time, measurement and calculation of NPP (net primary production) and biornass of biological community, and analysis of soil organic matter content show that the artificial alder and cypress mixed forest has outstanding eco-environmental effect: adjusting local climate, raising soil fertility, alleviating menace of drought, and raising NPP and biornass of biological community. It is very beneficial for improving ecological environment to afforest artificial alder and cypress mixed forest in populous Hilly Area of Central Sichuan Basin, China.

  10. Isotope constraints on the hydraulic relationship of ground-waters between Quaternary and Tertiary aquifer in Xi’an area, Shaanxi province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦大军; 陶书华

    2001-01-01

    Isotope techniques are increasingly used in evaluating the hydraulic connections between groundwaters in different aquifers, and can improve the geological and hydrogeological database. In the Xi’an area, the upper Quaternary aquifer may have hydraulic connection with the lower aquifer, the Tertiary aquifer, based on geological analyses. δ2H, δ18O, 3H, and 14C data of groundwater samples provide further evidence for the existence of the hydraulic connection between both aquifers.

  11. The Socio-Economic Structure of Fishery Activities and Seafood Marketing in Marmara Sea: A Case Study Along the Coastal Area of Tekirdag Province

    OpenAIRE

    H. Gungor; S. S. Ozen; Gungor, G

    2007-01-01

    Marmara Sea, which has a typical inside sea characteristics, is placed all along the Turkish borders. Because of both intensive level of population living around and many industrial plants has been taken place at this area which has continuously environmental pollution. In addition to, intensive sea traffic due to tankers carrying petroleum and etc., have been causing this pollution to higher level. Since, the all negative factors mentioned above, incredible amount of fish spices (118 differe...

  12. LANDFORM MORPHOLOGIC RELATIONS BETWEEN INTER-GULLIED AND GULLIED LAND AREAS--A CASE STUDY OF THE WANGJIAGOU WATERSHED IN THE WEST OF SHANXI PROVINCE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Previous studies on erosional relations between inter-gullied and gullied lands have mainly concentrated on exploration of water and sediment relations, with few quantitative studies of evolution relations between inter-gullied land and gullied landform erosion in small catchments. This paper, using information from a 1:5000 digital orthophotomap (DOM), digital elevation model(DEM), and topographic map of the same period and of the same scale, quantitatively analyzes the impact and interactions of inter-gullied and gullied land geomorphologic characteristics on the dissected extent of a catchment using orthogonal polynomial regression analysis. Results indicate that gullies play a leading role in the catchment morphologic evolution and extent of cracked ground surface. When inter-gullied land areas are the same, a 0. 1 km2 gullied land area has the maximum effect on the erosive evolution intensity of the catchment cracked degree. The smaller the catchment area is, the greater the extent of cracked ground surface and gully intensity would be. The geomorphologic evolution mechanism of gullied catchments can be explained as a function of geomorphologic indicators of inter-gullied and gullied land characteristics.

  13. Constraint on selenium bioavailability caused by its geochemical behavior in typical Kaschin-Beck disease areas in Aba, Sichuan Province of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Yaoyao; Yu, Tao; Yang, Zhongfang; Zhao, Wanfu; Zhang, Meng; Wang, Qian

    2014-09-15

    Kaschin-Beck disease (KBD), an endemic osteoarthropathy, is distributed in the low-selenium (Se)-belt that stretches from northeast to southwest China. However, very few studies have investigated the relationship between low bioavailabitity of Se and KBD. The present study examined the behavior of Se and other elements in areas with varying levels of KBD prevalence using pedological and geochemical methods. Rhizosphere soil samples obtained from the KBD-stricken Aba area were classified into Ustic Isohumisols (J2), Udic Luvisols (L4), Stagnic Gleysols (I2), and Cryic Cambisols (M1) and the integrated constraints on selenium bioavailability in these soils were analyzed. We found that Se concentration in soil profiles from a typical KBD area ranged between 0.08 μg · g(-1) and 0.215 μg · g(-1), indicating absent and marginal bioavailability, respectively. This suggested that low Se bioavailability may be a feature that soils inherit from their Se-deficient parent materials. Moreover, the soil types examined showed different geochemical behaviors such as eluviation for soluble Se(VI), migration of Se(IV) for its adsorption on clay and sesquioxide, and extreme redox conditions. In conclusion, a higher level of Se bioavailability in environment might be related to a lower risk of KBD, and our results offer a foundation for scientific theory on ecological geochemistry and improve our understanding of KBD.

  14. Logistic Model Establishment for Prediction of Effective Irrigation Area of Liaoning Province with Grey System%Logistic 方程灰色建模预测辽宁省有效灌溉面积

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石丽忠; 陈金良

    2014-01-01

    Through grey estimation of the parameters of Logistic equation ,Logistic equation of grey forecasting model is established . The effective irrigation area of Liaoning Province is simulated by the model .The simulation results have good agreement with the a‐vailable data ,with a correlation of 0 .95 .The model predicts that the upper limit of the effective irrigation area is 1 ,587 ,700 hec‐tares ,and the effective irrigation area in 2018 will be 1583000 hectares ,which is very close to the upper limit .Thus ,there is little potential for the development of effective irrigation area ,and the structural adjustment of agricultural resources is very necessary .%应用灰色系统理论,对 Logistic 方程参数进行灰色估计,建立 Logistic 方程灰色预测模型,并对辽宁省有效灌溉面积进行了模拟和预测,模拟结果与原始资料吻合很好,相关性达到0.95。辽宁省有效灌溉面积预测模型显示:有效灌溉面积的上限是158.8万 hm2,2018年预测值为158.3万 hm2,已经非常接近界限值,有效灌溉面积的发展不大,进行农业资源的结构调整非常必要。

  15. Risk Assessment of Highly Pathogenic Avian Inlfuenza in the Chagan Lake Areas of Jilin Province%吉林省查干湖地区高致病性禽流感风险评估报告

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王栋; 李印; 谢仲伦; 张衍海; 郑增忍

    2014-01-01

    The Chagan Lake is located in Songyuan,northwest of Jilin province,an ideal place for birds to migrate and inhabit,every year nearly ten millions of migratory birds move to the lake areas,and with the development of animal husbandry in this region,there are a high HPAI virus release and exposure risks. The outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza(HPAI)in this area would have a huge impact on economy,society,environment and other aspects. The risk status of HPAI in the Chagan Lake areas is analyzed in the paper,and a series of risk management measures are proposed to reduce the HPAI spread and occurrence risks,providing references to improve the HPAI prevention and control system in the Chagan Lake areas.%查干湖位于吉林省西北部松原市境内,是鸟类栖息及迁徙的理想场所,每年有近千万只候鸟迁徙至此,加之该地区养殖业发达,因此存在较高的禽流感病毒释放和暴露风险。一旦暴发高致病性禽流感疫情,将对该地区经济、社会、环境等多方面造成巨大影响。本文深入分析了查干湖地区高致病性禽流感风险状态,提出一系列降低禽流感发生和传播的风险管理措施,以期为完善查干湖地区高致病性禽流感防控体系的提供参考。

  16. 四川省农业生态旅游功能区差异分析及发展建议%RESEARCH ON THE DIFFERENCES OF AGRICULTURAL ECOLOGICAL TOURISM AREA AND THE DEVELOPMENT PATTERNS OF SICHUAN PROVINCE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱婕

    2015-01-01

    In order to satisfy the more and more travel demands of people,agriculture ecological tourism as a new form of tourism is gradually developed,which can not only let visitors enjoy the fresh air and countryside land-scape,but also allow visitors to understand and experience human life in the countryside. As one of large agricul-ture and tourism provinces of China,Sichuan Province has certain advantages to develop agricultural ecological tourism that is an important way to promote the economic development. This paper clarified the concept of ecologi-cal tourism,agricultural ecological tourism,and tourism functional area,and analyzed the agricultural ecological tourism development of Sichuan Province. The results showed that it had some advantages of natural resource,rich source of passengers,and good policy. But it also had some problems such as lack of planning,impacting the envi-ronment,weak transportation and management. So this paper put some countermeasures to develop the agricultural ecological tourism of Sichuan Province including: (1 ) positively developing agricultural ecological tourism re-sources;(2) focusing on the design of local tourism projects;(3) promoting jointly development of agriculture and tourism;(4) Combining the development with protecting strategy.%为了满足人们越来越丰富的旅游需求,农业生态旅游已经成为一种新的旅游形式得以迅速发展起来.农业生态旅游不仅可以让游客享受新鲜空气、欣赏乡野风光,还可以使游客对乡村的民俗生活进行了解与体验.四川省作为我国的农业与旅游大省,因其个性化的地形地貌、水域及气候等特征,而具备发展农业生态旅游的天然独特优势.文章在厘清生态旅游、农业生态旅游、旅游功能区等概念的基础上,通过分析四川省农业生态旅游功能区发展现状及存在问题,其中现状是具有天然资源优势、丰富旅客来源及良好的扶持政策等差异性,问题是缺

  17. Analysis on addictive behaviors of smoking,drinking and gambling among students of plateau areas in Qinghai province%青海高原地区学生吸烟饮酒赌博成瘾行为调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹玉洁; 姬红蓉; 郭学斌; 郭晚花

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解青海省学生吸烟、饮酒及赌博现状,为相应干预措施的制定提供科学依据.方法 采用多阶段随机抽样法,抽取青海省6个地区16 484名学生进行问卷现状调查.结果 青海省学生吸烟和饮酒率分别为14.36%和36.41%.初中生、高中生、大学生的吸烟及饮酒率依次递增,且差异均有统计学意义(P值均<0.01).男生吸烟率及饮酒率分别为14.55%和 46.73%,女生吸烟率及饮酒率分别为13.38%和26.30%,男、女生问差异均有统计学意义(P值均<0.01).男、女生参与赌博率分别为21.84%和9.22%,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).学生首次吸烟、饮酒呈低龄趋势.结论 青海省学生吸烟率、饮酒率及参赌率增高状况不容忽视.应采取综合干预措施,减少对学生健康的危害.%Objective To understand the smoking,drinking and gambling status of college and middle school students in Qinghai province, in order to provide scientific basis for the health education on giving up smoking and drinking. Methods Questionnaire investigation was ronducted among 16 484 students from six areas of Qinghai province using multi-stage random sampling method. Results The smoking rate and drinking rate of the students were 14. 36% and 36.41% in Qinghai province, respectively and the rales increased progressively with gnule, and there were signifi-canl differences among junior middle school students, senior middle school students and college students (P<0. 01). The smoking rate in male students (14.55% ) was higher than that in female students (13.38%, P<0.01) ; the drinking rate in male students (46.73%) was higher than that in female students (26. 30% , P<0. 01). The prevalence of gambling in male students (21. 84% ) was different from that in female students (9.22% , P<0.01). The age of first smoking and drinking showed the tendency to decrease. Conclusion The rising rates of smoking, drinking and gambling of students are not allowed

  18. Investigating the Effect of Environmental Uncertainty on the Selection of Knowledge Management Strategies in the Field of Product (Case Study: Universities and Higher Educational Institutes in Khorasan-e-Razavi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Bafandeh Zendeh

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of environmental uncertainty on the selection of knowledge management strategies in the domain of product. However we investigated the effect of environmental uncertainty on the selection of knowledge detection strategies and knowledge revenue by testing three hypotheses. The statistical universe included chancellors and assistants of universities of Khorasan-e-Razavi that 28 universities and 48 repliers were selected as the sample of study. This study with the view of quarry was sort in applied researches and with the view of method was sort in causal researches. Hypotheses were tested by using regression model and results showed that environmental uncertainty had positive impact on knowledge detection strategies and knowledge revenue in domain of product. Also results cleared the role of knowledge management strategies in the domain of product and prepared perspectives to chancellors of universities to improve their education and research

  19. The Impact of Measles Clearance by Measles Antibody Level in Different Areas of Jiangsu Province%江苏省不同地区人群麻疹抗体水平对消除麻疹的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    须凡帆

    2013-01-01

    Objective To analyze the measles antibody level of healthy population in Jiangsu Province, to grasp the characteristics of incidence of measles in healthy population of Jiangsu Province. To understand the status and level of population immunity, explore the measles’ prevention. Method Analysis the data of measles antibody level in healthy people of different ages in different areas. Result The total number of the monitoring samples is 5072, 4749 are measles antibody positive, the positive rate was 93.63%. Compared with 87.98%positive rate in Middle Jiangsu, measles antibody level in the population of Northern Jiangsu, South of Jiangsu are a were 95.3% and 95.58%,, there is significant difference in positive rate of antibody regions (χ2=87.29, P<0.01). There were significant differences, measles antibody titer levels of population in F=7.84, P<0.0001. Among them, the measles antibody level of the population of North Jiangsu area was the highest, lowest in middle Jiangsu. Conclusion The measles antibody level of different areas of Jiangsu province and the people of al ages are not consistent. Measles immunization has significant effect on the protection of children's specific age.%  目的对江苏省健康人群麻疹抗体水平进行分析,以掌握江苏省健康人群麻疹发病的特点,了解人群免疫状况和水平,探索人群麻疹预防和控制措施。方法分年龄、分地区综合分析各地采集的健康人群麻疹抗体水平数据。结果本次监测样本共5072人,其中4749人麻疹抗体为阳性,阳性率为93.63%。苏北、苏南地区人群麻疹抗体水平分别为95.3%和95.58%,较苏中地区87.98%高,各地区人群抗体阳性率有统计学差异(χ2=87.29,P<0.01)。各地区人群麻疹抗体滴度水平有统计学差异,F=7.84,P<0.0001。其中,苏北地区抗体水平居首位,苏南地区居中,苏中地区相对最低。结论江苏省各地区、各年龄段人群麻疹抗体水

  20. Aerial imagery and structure-from-motion based DEM reconstruction of region-sized areas (Sierra Arana, Spain and Namur Province, Belgium) using an high-altitude drifting balloon platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burlet, Christian; María Mateos, Rosa; Azañón, Jose Miguel; Perez, José Vicente; Vanbrabant, Yves

    2015-04-01

    A new type of untethered balloon based mapping platform allows affordable remote sensing applications from higher altitudes and with a greater range and payload capacity than common motorized UAV's. The airborne device, called "Stratochip", is based on a dual helium balloons configuration. At a defined altitude (comprised between 1000 and 30000m), the first balloon is released, drastically reducing the platform climbing rate. The payload (up to 10kg) can then drift in a sub-horizontal trajectory until it leaves a pre-defined area of interest. Leaving the pre-defined area, the second balloon is released and the payload is recovered after a parachute landing. The predicted flight path of the Stratochip, launch site and surveyed area are calculated using both forecasted (NOAA model) and real-time (inborne instruments) meteorological data, along with the physical parameters of the balloons and parachute. The predicted recovery area can also be refined in real-time to secure and facilitate equipment retrieval. In this study, we present the results of two cartographic campaigns made in Belgium (Famennian outcrops near Beauraing, Namur Province) and Spain (karstic field in the Eastern part of Sierra Arana, Granada region). Those campaigns aimed to test the usability of the Stratochip to survey a large area at medium altitudes (3000m-8000m) and produced an updated Digital Elevation Model and orthophoto mosaic of those regions. For that purpose, the instrument installed in the Stratochip payload was constituted of a digital camera stabilized with two IMU's and two brushless motors. An automated routine then tilted the camera at predefined angles while taking pictures of the ground. This technique allowed to maximize the photogrammetric information collected on a single pass flight, and improved the DEM reconstruction quality, using structure-from-motion algorithms. Three sets of data (DEM + orthophoto) were created from those campaigns, using pictures sets collected a

  1. Evaluation of Shallow Geothermal Resources in Lubei Area of Shandong Province%山东省鲁北地区浅层地热能资源评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘刚; 杨亚宾; 马淑杰

    2014-01-01

    Heat pump technology has been applied in developing shallow geothermal energy in Lubei region since 2001 ,but shallow geothermal energy resources assessment work in this region is seriously lagging behind ,w hich has restricted development and reasonable utilization of shallow geothermal energy re‐sources in this area .In order to promote the development and utilization of shallow geothermal energy in Lubei region ,the provincial government come up with special funds to carry out shallow geothermal re‐source evaluation .In the early period ,on the basis of surveying present condition of development and utili‐zation and geological conditions ,by using AHP method ,groundwater heat exchanger and heat exchanger by the development and utilization of appropriate zoning have been carried out .Shallow geothermal capaci‐ty in the area and available heat have been calculated as well .By using volume method ,thermal storage ca‐pacity of the shallow geothermal areas have been calculated ,shallow geothermal capacity in Lubei area is 29 .386 × 1015 kJ/ ℃ .According to the result of appropriate zoning ,respectively ,available heat transfer of suitable areas and more suitable areas of groundwater type and underground pipe type source heat pump have been calculated respectively .The ground source heat pump can be used to change a heat of 0 .8489 × 1010 kW · h below 200m ,w hile underground pipe type source heat pump can exchanger a heat of 6 .5261 × 1012 kW · hbelow 200m .%鲁北地区于2001年已陆续开始应用热泵技术开发浅层地热能,但区内的浅层地热能资源评价工作却严重滞后,制约了区内浅层地热能资源的开发和合理利用。为促进鲁北地区浅层地热能的开发利用,省政府拿出专项资金,开展了鲁北地区浅层地热能的资源评价工作,前期在调查区域内开发利用现状和摸清地质条件的基础上,采用层次分析法,分别对地下水换热方

  2. Study on the Comprehensive Tourism Development Pattern in Periphery Minority Area:A Case Study of Gannan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture of Gansu Province,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Lin; Li Yu; Wang Lili

    2007-01-01

    The paper took the human-land relations as a basic point,and the theories of tourism industry system and sustainable development as the guidance,with Gannan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture(Gannan)as the case study area.From microcosmic and macroscopic viewpoints,the author carried out function orientation and evaluation to the tourism industry development,and research on the comprehensive tourism industry development pattern of Gannan.Results show that the fragile ecological environment and the traditional economic growth pattern have restricted regional sustainable development,and made Gannan to bocome a representative of the periphery minonty areas in Northwest China.Tourism development of Gannan is at the primary phase,with the characteristics of short industry chain and low economic efficiency.It iS an inevitable choice to transform the way of regional economic growth and the development pattern of tourism industry from the traditional pattern to the pattern of snstainable development.Simultaneously,Gannan's natural,uational and religious culture makes Gannan a broad prospect on the comprehensive tourism development.Gannan should choose the comprehensive tourism industry as its scientific pattern to realize sustainable development,promote harmonious social,economic and ecological development,alleviate the human-land contradictory,and realize dual goals in terms of ecology construction and economical development. For Gannan and the similar areas in China,studies on the sustainable development pattern of tourism have extremely important strategic sense with respect to tourism development and the sustainable development of regional economy.

  3. Impact of oil and gas field in sugar cane condition using landsat 8 in Indramayu area and its surrounding, West Java province, Republic of Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muji Susantoro, Tri; Wikantika, Ketut; Saskia Puspitasari, Alia; Saepuloh, Asep

    2017-01-01

    This study tried to monitor sugar cane condition surrounding of oil and gas field area. The spectral approaches were conducted for mapping sugar cane stress. As an initial stage Landsat-8 was corrected radiometrically and geometrically. Radiometric correction is an important stages for spectral approaching. Then all pixel values were transformed to the surface reflectance. Several vegetation indices were calculated to monitor vegetation stress surrounding of oil and gas field. NDVI, EVI, DVI, GVI, GRVI, GDVI and GNDVI were applied for generating tentative sugar cane stress images. The results indicated that sugar cane surrounding of oil and gas field has been influenced by oil and gas field.

  4. Characteristic Features and U—Pb Isotopic Ages of Zircons in a Middle Proterozoic Granite Pluton from Baohan Area,Hainan Province,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓铁殷; 陈毓蔚; 等

    1993-01-01

    The crystal form,chemical composition and U-Pb isotopic composition of various zircon fractions is a Middle Proterozoic granite pluton from the Baoban area suggest that the zircons are typically magmatogenic in nature,and different from those of sedimentary and epigenetic orgins.The various zircon fractions yielded and age of about 1440.87Ma,which may represent the ge of zircon crystallization.The so-called aoban-group migmatite is,as a matter of fact,a Middle Proterozoic granite pluton.

  5. 山东沿海地区成年居民超重及肥胖的流行病学调查%Epidemiologic survey of overweight and obesity in coastal areas of Shandong province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李娜; 邢士超; 王灿; 任伟; 尹丛丛; 王秀璐; 李长贵

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the prevalence of overweight and obesity among adult residents in coastal areas of Shandong province.Methods With stratified cluster randomized sampling,5 195 residents aged ≥ 18 years in many villages and communities were investigated for epidemiological investigation,Results The total prevalence rates of overweight and obesity were 40.7% and 19.1% respectively,and the prevalence rate of overweight and obesity was higher in residents of city than that of countryside (all P <0.01).The prevalence rate of overweight and obesity increased first and then decreased with age both in male and female.The prevalence rates of hypertension,hyperglycemia,dyslipidemia and hyperuricemia were higher in overweight and obesity than those in normal(all P < 0.01).Conclusion The high morbidity of overweight and obesity in coastal areas of Shandong province becomes a very serious problem and it has been hazardous to people's health in the region.%目的 了解山东沿海地区成年居民超重及肥胖的流行病学现状.方法 通过分层随机整群抽样方法抽取山东省沿海成年居民5 195例进行超重及肥胖流行病学调查.结果 山东沿海居民总体超重率及肥胖率分别为40.7%、19.1%.城市人群超重及肥胖率均显著高于农村人群(P均<0.01);无论男性还是女性,超重和肥胖率随年龄段的增加均大体呈现先增后减趋势;超重及肥胖人群高血压、高血糖、脂代谢紊乱、高尿酸血症等疾病患病率明显高于正常人群(P均<0.01).结论 山东沿海成年居民超重和肥胖率较高,主要相关疾病发病率较高.

  6. Molecular epidemiological survey of Theileria sergenti infections in cattle in part areas of Jilin province%吉林省部分地区牛瑟氏泰勒虫病流行病学调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡诗悦; 张守发; 钱年超; 贾立军; 薛书江; 孙柯楠; 林文娟

    2013-01-01

    In order to understand the prevalence of Theileria sergenti infections in cattlle in Jilin province,molecular epidemiological survey was conducted using PCR and microscopic examination method.Risk factors such as regions,grazing,geographical conditions and ages were evaluated and the data was statistically analyzed.The results showed that the T.sergenti positive rates were 53.4% (125/234),and detected by PCR and microscopic examination 12.4%(29/234),respectively.Statistical analysis showed that the positive rate was significantly different in different ages (p<0.05),while the positive rate was significant difference in different regions,feeding model and geographical conditions (p<0.01).The results of this survey indicated that Jilin province,especially Hunchun area,was the endemic area.%为了解吉林省牛瑟氏泰勒虫病的流行情况,本研究采用PCR方法和血涂片染色镜检法对采自吉林省6个地区的234份牛血液样品进行了检测,并对不同地区、不同饲养方式、不同地理条件以及不同年龄间牛瑟氏泰勒虫的感染情况进行了比较分析.结果显示,PCR方法检测的样本阳性率为53.4%(125/234),而血涂片染色镜检法检测的阳性率为12.4%(29/234).经统计学分析,不同年龄间,牛瑟氏泰勒虫感染率差异显著(P<0.05);而不同地区、不同饲养方式以及不同地理条件之间牛瑟氏泰勒虫感染率差异极显著(p<0.01);调查结果表明,吉林省是牛瑟氏泰勒虫病的流行地区,尤其珲春地区牛瑟氏泰勒虫病感染严重.本次调查为吉林省牛瑟氏泰勒虫病的防控提供了依据.

  7. Geothermal Reservoir Assessment Case Study: Northern Basin and Range Province, Leach Hot Springs Area, Pershing County, Nevada. Final report, April 1979-December 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beard, G.A.

    1981-01-01

    A Geothermal Reservoir Assessment Case Study was conducted in the Leach Hot Springs Known Geothermal Resource Area of Pershing County, Nevada. The case study included the drilling of twenty-three temperature gradient wells, a magnetotelluric survey, seismic data acquisition and processing, and the drilling of one exploratory well. Existing data from prior investigations, which included water geochemistry, gravity, photogeologic reports and a hydrothermal alteration study, was also provided. The exploratory well was drilled to total depth of 8565' with no significant mud losses or other drilling problems. A maximum temperature of 260/sup 0/F was recorded at total depth. The relatively low temperature and the lack of permeability (as shown by absence of mud loss) indicated that a current, economic geothermal resource had not been located, and the well was subsequently plugged and abandoned. However, the type and extent of rock alteration found implied that an extensive hot water system had existed in this area at an earlier time. This report is a synopsis of the case study activities and the data obtained from these activities.

  8. Implement PPET Strategy and Develop Ecotourism of Minority Areas in Western China-Take Xinlong County of Ganzi Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture in Sichuan Province as An Example%实施PPET战略,发展西部民族地区生态旅游

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏桂兰

    2005-01-01

    To help the poor and to develop tourism are two mportant problems in poverty-stricken areas. However,they were isola ted for years. The PPET strategy was put forward in this paper based on PPT. The feasibility and the realistic meaning of the strategy in developing the ecotourism, overcoming poverty, and achieving prosperity of minority areas in western China are analyzed by taking Xinlong county of Ganzi Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture in Sichuan Province as an example.

  9. 贵州东南部含金刚石钾镁煌斑岩找矿远景区预测%Ore-search Prospecting Areas of Diamond-bearing Lamproite in Southeastern Guizhou Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王亮; 陶平

    2012-01-01

    Lamproite is the mother rock of diamond,and it is the basic substance for forming pipe.This work is based on the features of the regional gravitational and magnetic anomalies in the southeast of Guizhou Province,and the clues of exposed lamproite in Zhenyuan county and adjacent counties(Shibing,Sansui,Leishan,Jianhe and Majiang) and basic-ultrabasic rocks in the Congjiang area in the south.Combining the gravitational and magnetic responses of these exposed rocks with the original mineral of diamond,placer,indicator minerals,and heavy sand abnormity distribution on the surface,we delineate several basic-ultrabasic rock bodies.Integrated with the magmatite belt,volcano institution,plate conjunction belt,and deep fault zones derived from geophysical and geological data,this work determines 6 prospecting areas for searching diamond.It is inferred that in the Taijiang-Jianhe-Jinping-Liping areas,one large-scale gravitational and magnetic positive anomaly area should be regarded as a very important target area for diamond search and a key breakthrough spot for seeking original diamond mineral with industry values.And its anomaly area G3 is very likely the critical place to find original diamond mineral in Guizhou Province as well as the favorable section to remove the mystery veil of diamond deposits with pipes.%钾镁煌斑岩是金刚石的成矿母岩、组成岩筒的基本物质。基于区内区域重磁异常分布特征,以北部镇远马坪及周边县域(施秉、三穗、雷山、剑河、麻江)出露的钾镁煌斑岩和南部从江一带镶嵌的基性-超基性岩为线索及岩体露头上的重磁场异常特征响应值为标尺,与地表出现的金刚石原生矿、砂矿、指示矿物、重砂异常分布为依据,圈定了数个基性-超基性岩体(带),结合物探资料推断的岩浆岩带、火山机构、板块结合带、深大断裂带以及地质矿产资料,共划分了6个金刚石找矿远景区。预测在台江-剑

  10. Innovation of Adult Education Supply in Rural Areas from the Aspect of Rural Public Goods——A Case Study of Quzhou City,Zhejiang Province,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Status of rural adult education in Quzhou City is analyzed from three aspects of supply main body,supply method and fund source.Problems in the rural adult education in Quzhou City are pointed out.Firstly,the top-down supply decision model can not fully meet the needs of farmers.Secondly,education resources can not be best allocated.Thirdly,both rural labor force market and employment service are not perfect.In order to promote the development of rural adult education,the education supply mode of rural adults should be established,which is "supplied by the government,coordinated by the government,participated by the society,operated according to market mechanisms".This needs to set up the leading position of government,to establish the pattern of diversified main bodies of adult education supply in rural areas,and to construct the market operation mechanism driven by interests.

  11. Phlebotomines (Diptera, Psychodidae in the Speleological Province of the Ribeira Valley: 3. Serra district - area of hostels for tourists who visit the Parque Estadual do Alto Ribeira (PETAR, state of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunice Aparecida Bianchi Galati

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Phlebotomines (Diptera, Psychodidae in the Speleological Province of the Ribeira Valley: 3. Area of hostels for tourists who visit the Parque Estadual do Alto Ribeira (PETAR, state of São Paulo, Brazil. The study characterizes some ecological aspects of the phlebotomine fauna in an endemic area of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL situated in the Serra district, Iporanga municipality where the hostels for tourists visiting the PETAR are located. Captures were undertaken on a smallholding and a small farm situated near the hostels, monthly between January/2001 and December/2003 with automatic light traps (ALT in pigsty, hen-house and veranda of a domicile at the two sites, and in peridomicile of the small farm also with black/white Shannon traps. With the ALT a total of 87,224 phlebotomines representing 19 species and also two hybrids of Nyssomyia intermedia (Lutz & Neiva and Nyssomyia neivai (Pinto and two anomalous specimens were captured. The standardized index species abundance was for Ny. intermedia = 1.0 and Ny. neivai = 0.935. The highest frequencies of the smallholding occurred in the pigsty, the Williams' mean/capture for Ny. intermedia being 63.7 specimens and for Ny. neivai 29.2, and on the small farm, in the hen-house, Ny. intermedia 402.6 and Ny. neivai 116.2. A total of 863 phlebotomines (Ny. intermedia: 75.4%; Ny. neivai: 24.3% were captured with black/white Shannon traps; females of both species being predominant in the white trap. The high frequencies of Ny. intermedia and Ny. neivai, both implicated in CL transmission, indicate the areas presenting risk of the disease.

  12. 离子型稀土残矿区桉树栽培初探%Eucalyptus cultivation tests in ionic rare earth residual mining area in southern Jiangxi province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋祥兰; 吴天明; 胡小康; 邝先松; 王兰英; 李小青

    2013-01-01

    通过在赣南离子型稀土残矿区的治理中,以栽培桉树为植被恢复模式之一进行试验研究,分析其植被恢复情况及土壤改良情况,证明桉树能够有效恢复植被并有效提高了残矿区的土壤养分,且桉树林分生物量及郁闭度较大.同时,分析了不同配比施肥对桉树高生长有显著差异,其中以N3P1K2配方最佳.对离子型稀土残矿区的治理具有推广应用价值.%The tests of planting Eucalyptus in the ionic rare earth residual mining area in southern Jiangxi province as a vegetation restoration mode were conducted. Through analyzing the effects of vegetation restoration and soil improvement, it is proved that planting Eucalyptus could effectively restore vegetation and powerfully increase soil nutrients in the residual mining area, moreover the biomass and crown density of the planted Eucalyptus forest are satisfactory. Furthermore, the differences of effects of various proportions fertilizer application to Eucalyptus height growth were remarkable, of the proportions, the batch formula N3P1K2 was the optimal to Eucalyptus growth, and the Eucalyptus planting mode to control ionic rare earth residual mining area has popularization and application values.

  13. 江西德安县地方性氟中毒区生态地球化学研究%Eco-geochemical study on the endemic fluorosis areas in De' an county, Jiangxi province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢振东; 钟达洪; 衷存堤; 张旭

    2012-01-01

    江西德安吴山地区地方性氟中毒区域存在高氟的地球化学异常。富氟的岩(矿)石为其原生源,受表生地质作用和人为活动的影响,在土壤、水和生物体中形成了富氟的生态地球化学环境系统。研究发现,该地区氟进入人体主要通过5个途径,其中食物是进人人体最主要途径,食物中的氟元素超标情况严重,其次是通过饮用水进入人体,并根据这些规律提出德安地方性氟中毒病几点防治建议。%Endemic fluorosis areas in Wushan area, De~ an County, Jiangxi province, show high iluorme geochemical anomalies. The fluorine-rich rocks(ores) are their primary source, causing to form fluorine-rich eco-geochemical environmental system in soils, water and organisms under the influence of the surface geological functions and human activities. The present study discovered that,in the Wushan area, the fluorides enter the human bodies primarily through five ways, among them, the food with extremely excessive fluorides is the most important way, secondly, they enter the human bodies through the underground drinking water. According to these important reasons, several advices to prevent endemic fluorosis in De' an were proposed.

  14. 安徽査湾自然保护区群落的种—面积关系研究%Species-Area Relationship of Community in Zhawan Nature Reserve,Anhui Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李瑞芬; 杨悦

    2012-01-01

    The species-area relationship is one of the important basis of scale conversion of biological diversity.It links the different scales of biological diversity.In this paper,three models are used to analyze the species-area relationship among 12 plots in Zhawan Nature Reserve,Anhui Province.The results show that the R2 value of the three models are large,and they all can better fit the species-area relationship.The results of RSE,AAD,AARD represent that A function Power function Logarithmic function.%指出了生物多样性尺度转换的重要依据之一是种—面积关系。它将不同尺度的生物多样性有机地结合起来,主要研究物种的数量随面积的变化而发生变化的规律。应用三种模型研究了査湾自然保护区的12块样方的种—面积关系。结果表明:三种模型的R2值都较大,均能较好地拟合群落的种—面积关系,而拟合效果检验评价指标RSE、AAD、AARD显示:一次函数模型最优,幂函数次之,对数函数最末。

  15. Association of PCB, PBDE and PCDD/F body burdens with hormone levels for children in an e-waste dismantling area of Zhejiang Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Peiwei; Lou, Xiaoming; Ding, Gangqiang; Shen, Haitao; Wu, Lizhi; Chen, Zhijian; Han, Jianlong; Han, Guangen; Wang, Xiaofeng

    2014-11-15

    Increased electronic waste (e-waste) has raised public concerns regarding exposure to numerous toxic contaminants, particularly polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). In China, the body burdens of PCBs, PBDEs and PCDD/Fs are associated with thyroid hormones in populations from e-waste dismantling sites; however, it is unclear whether this association occurs in children. In this study, we determined the serum levels of PCBs, PBDEs and PCDD/Fs and the endocrine hormones including free triiodothyronine (FT3), total triiodothyronine (TT3), free thyroxine (FT4), total thyroxine (TT4), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), cortisol and growth hormone (GH) in 21 children from an e-waste dismantling area and 24 children from a control area. The results showed that the mean levels of ∑PCBs and ∑PBDEs in the exposure group were significantly higher than in the control group (40.56 and 32.09 ng g(-1) lipid vs. 20.69 and 8.43 ng g(-1) lipid, respectively, p0.05). For the endocrine hormones, we did not find significant differences between the exposed and control groups, although the mean levels of FT3, TT3, TT4, ACTH, cortisol and GH were higher, whereas the mean levels of FT4 and TSH were lower in the exposed group. The mean level of ∑PBDEs was positively correlated with the mean levels of ∑PCBs (r=0.60, pe-waste dismantling environment increased the body burdens of PCBs and PBDEs in local children and that these contaminants released from the e-waste might contribute to abnormal changes in hormone levels.

  16. A molecular survey of febrile cases in malaria-endemic areas along China-Myanmar border in Yunnan province, People’s Republic of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Xia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Imported malaria is a major threat to neighboring malaria-eliminating countries such as P.R. China and is difficult to monitor. A molecular survey of febrile patients with a history of traveling abroad along the Myanmar-China endemic border areas from January 2008 to August 2012 was carried out. The rates of infection with species of Plasmodium and compliance of microscopy diagnosis with nested PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction results were calculated.\tResults:\tPlasmodium genus-specific nested PCR confirmed that 384 cases were positive. Further species-specific nested PCR showed that the rate of Plasmodium vivax infection was 55% (213/384; that of Plasmodium falciparum was 21% (81/384 and 17% (67/384 of cases were co-infection cases of P. vivax and P. falciparum; the remaining 6% (23/384 of cases were caused by other species, such as Plasmodium ovale, P. malaria, P. knowlesi or mixed infections of Plasmodium. In total there was 13% (50/384 false microscopy diagnosis including 6% (22/384 error in species diagnosis and 7% (28/384 undiagnosed cases in co-infection or low parasitemia malaria cases.\tConclusions: This study indicates that there are considerable numbers of malaria cases in the China-Myanmar endemic border areas that remain undiagnosed or misdiagnosed by microscopy, especially in low-level and/or complex co-infection cases. It is urgent to develop accurate rapid diagnostic tests and apply PCR confirmation for efficient surveillance.

  17. Risk factors of gastric cardia cancer in rural area of southeastern Shanxi province: a case-control study%山西东南部贲门癌危险因素病例对照研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨建洲; 纪爱芳; 魏武; 原建慧; 王金胜

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨山西省东南部地区农村居民饮食、行为等各种影响因素与贲门癌( GCC)发生的关系.方法 在山西省东南部地区,采用以人群为基础的1∶2配对病例对照研究方法,对120例GCC患者和240名对照进行问卷调查,采用单因素和多因素条件logistic回归对所获资料进行分析.结果 胃癌家族史(OR=2.83,95%CI=1.74