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Sample records for area helsinki finland

  1. Alternative energies. Keeping cool in Helsinki, Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gatermann, R.

    2009-09-15

    For more than fifty years the combination of power generation with district heating has been the norm in Helsinki, Finland. A few years ago Helsinki Energy decided to integrate district cooling into the system, with great success. It showed that Helsinki is an excellent example of how the efficient use of fossil fuels can be environmentally friendly.

  2. Biomonitoring the effects of air pollution on forest ecosystems in an urban area, Helsinki, Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maekinen, A.; Pihlstroem, M. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Ecology and Systematics

    1995-12-31

    Single bioindicators have been used for a long time in air pollution monitoring in the Helsinki area (e.g. lichen studies since 1933). In the mid-eighties local authorities became aware of the need for regular integrated monitoring. Important objectives were: (a) to collect timeseries for the evaluation of natural variation e.g. weather in different parameters (b) to detect small, gradual, changes resulting from pollution control measures. The intensive monitoring of coniferous forests in the metropolitan area of Helsinki started in 1988. (author)

  3. Comparison of Collection Schemes of Municipal Solid Waste Metallic Fraction: The Impacts on Global Warming Potential for the Case of the Helsinki Metropolitan Area, Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kari Heiskanen

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In this research article the sustainability of different practices to collect the metal fraction of household waste in the Helsinki metropolitan area, Finland is examined. The study is carried out by calculating and comparing the greenhouse gas reduction potential of optional practices for collecting the metal fraction of household waste in the Helsinki metropolitan area, Finland. In order to locate the greenhouse gas reduction potential of the separate collection of the metallic fraction of municipal solid waste (MSW collected from residential sources, a comparative carbon footprint analysis using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA on six different waste management scenarios is carried out. The modeled system consisted of a waste collection system, transportation, and different waste management alternatives, including on-site separation, separation at the waste management facility as well as metallurgical recovery of separated scrap. The results show that, in terms of greenhouse gas emissions, separate collection and recycling of the metallic fraction of solid MSW at residential properties is the preferable option compared to a scenario with no source sorting and incineration of everything. According to this research scenario where the metal fraction of solid household waste was not source-separated or collected separately have clearly higher greenhouse gas emissions compared to all the other scenarios with separate collection for metals. In addition, metal recycling by regional collection points has considerably lower greenhouse gas emission potential than metal recycling by collection directly from residential properties.

  4. Measurements of aerosol charging states in Helsinki, Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gagné

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The charging state of aerosol populations was measured with an Ion-DMPS in Helsinki, Finland between December 2008 and February 2010. Based on the charging states, we calculated the ion-induced nucleation fraction to be around 0.8 % ± 0.9 %. We review the role of ion-induced nucleation and propose different explanations for a low ion-induced nucleation participation in urban areas. We present a new method to retrieve the average charging state for an event, and a given size. We also use a new theoretical framework that allows for different concentrations of small cluster ions for different polarities (polarity asymmetry. We extrapolate the ion-induced fraction using polarity symmetry and asymmetry. Finally, a method to calculate the growth rates from the variation of the charging state as a function of the particle diameter using polarity symmetry and asymmetry is presented and used on a selection of new particle formation events.

  5. A Business Plan of Teahouse in Helsinki, Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Zelu

    2013-01-01

    By studying what is a business plan, this paper introduces how to make a business plan with a real life case, starting a teashop business in Helsinki, Finland. It was started by studying how to make a business plan, which includes the structure of a business plan, such as operational planning, marketing planning and financial planning. It is the internal and external analysis that determines the corporate strategy, corporate strategy determines marketing strategy and operational strategy, ope...

  6. Helsinki Metropolitan Area Climate Change Adaptation Strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    The Helsinki Metropolitan Area Climate Change Adaptation Strategy has been prepared in close cooperation with the four cities of the metropolitan area (Helsinki, Espoo, Vantaa and Kauniainen), the Helsinki Region Environmental Services Authority HSY and other municipal, regional and state level organisations. In the strategy, strategic starting points and policies with which the metropolitan area prepares for the consequences of climate change, are compiled. The Helsinki Metropolitan Area adaptation strategy concentrates on the adaptation of the built and urban environment to the changing climate. The vision of the strategy is climate proof city - the future is built now. The strategy aims to (1) assess the impacts of climate change in the area, (2) prepare for the impacts of climate change and to extreme weather events and (3) to reduce the vulnerabilities of the area to climate variability and change. The target is to secure the well-being of the citizens and the functioning of the cities also in the changing climate conditions. The preparation of the adaptation strategy started in 2009 by producing the background studies. They include the regional climate and sea level scenarios, modelling of river floods in climate change conditions and a survey of climate change impacts in the region. Also, existing programmes, legislation, research and studies concerning adaptation were collected. The background studies are published in a report titled 'The Helsinki metropolitan area climate is changing - Adaptation strategy background studies' (in Finnish) (HSY 2010). HSY coordinated the strategy preparation. The work was carried out is close cooperation with the experts of the metropolitan area cities, regional emergency services, Ministry of the Environment, Helsinki Region Transport Authority and other regional organisations. The strategy work has had a steering group that consists of representatives of the cities and other central cooperation partners. The

  7. Atmospheric pressure and suicide attempts in Helsinki, Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiltunen, Laura; Ruuhela, Reija; Ostamo, Aini; Lönnqvist, Jouko; Suominen, Kirsi; Partonen, Timo

    2012-11-01

    The influence of weather on mood and mental health is commonly debated. Furthermore, studies concerning weather and suicidal behavior have given inconsistent results. Our aim was to see if daily weather changes associate with the number of suicide attempts in Finland. All suicide attempts treated in the hospitals in Helsinki, Finland, during two separate periods, 8 years apart, were included. Altogether, 3,945 suicide attempts were compared with daily weather parameters and analyzed with a Poisson regression. We found that daily atmospheric pressure correlated statistically significantly with the number of suicide attempts, and for men the correlation was negative. Taking into account the seasonal normal value during the period 1971-2000, daily temperature, global solar radiation and precipitation did not associate with the number of suicide attempts on a statistically significant level in our study. We concluded that daily atmospheric pressure may have an impact on suicidal behavior, especially on suicide attempts of men by violent methods ( P suicide attempts. Men seem to be more vulnerable to attempt suicide under low atmospheric pressure and women under high atmospheric pressure. We show only statistical correlations, which leaves the exact mechanisms of interaction between weather and suicidal behavior open. However, suicidal behavior should be assessed from the point of view of weather in addition to psychiatric and social aspects.

  8. Atmospheric pressure and suicide attempts in Helsinki, Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiltunen, Laura; Ruuhela, Reija; Ostamo, Aini; Lönnqvist, Jouko; Suominen, Kirsi; Partonen, Timo

    2012-11-01

    The influence of weather on mood and mental health is commonly debated. Furthermore, studies concerning weather and suicidal behavior have given inconsistent results. Our aim was to see if daily weather changes associate with the number of suicide attempts in Finland. All suicide attempts treated in the hospitals in Helsinki, Finland, during two separate periods, 8 years apart, were included. Altogether, 3,945 suicide attempts were compared with daily weather parameters and analyzed with a Poisson regression. We found that daily atmospheric pressure correlated statistically significantly with the number of suicide attempts, and for men the correlation was negative. Taking into account the seasonal normal value during the period 1971-2000, daily temperature, global solar radiation and precipitation did not associate with the number of suicide attempts on a statistically significant level in our study. We concluded that daily atmospheric pressure may have an impact on suicidal behavior, especially on suicide attempts of men by violent methods (P atmospheric pressure and women under high atmospheric pressure. We show only statistical correlations, which leaves the exact mechanisms of interaction between weather and suicidal behavior open. However, suicidal behavior should be assessed from the point of view of weather in addition to psychiatric and social aspects.

  9. The effects of de-icing in Helsinki urban streams, southern Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruth, O

    2003-01-01

    The environmental effects of road salt have been studied in Finland mainly in order to monitor and reduce groundwater contamination. In urban areas the road salt used for road maintenance in winter ends up in the storm water drains and receiving water bodies. We report here on water samples taken in 1998-1999 from three urban streams with catchments varying in area 1.7 to 24.4 km2 in different parts of the City of Helsinki. Despite efforts to reduce the amount of road salt, high concentrations were found in the urban stream water. Sudden variations in water quality were very marked during the spring flood period, with sodium and chloride concentrations varying over nine-fold within one day. Some 35-50% of the salt used on the roads in Helsinki passes into natural streams and from there into the sea. The significant positive correlation between NaCl and dissolved zinc in stream water was observed. The results show that it is important to monitor water quality, especially at the beginning of the spring flood period, when road salt and other contaminant levels are markedly high in urban streams.

  10. 25th International Conference on the History of Cartography (ICHC2013, Helsinki, Finland, June 30 – July 5, 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Viličić

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The 25th International Conference on the History of Cartography was held in the Marina congress centre in Helsinki, capital of Finland, from June 30 to July 5, 2013. The conference was organized by the Cartographic Society of Finland in collaboration with Imago Mundi Ltd. Partners in organization were the National Land Survey of Finland, National Library of Finland, John Nurminen Foundation, University of Helsinki, Aalto University, National Archives of Finland, Geographical Society of Finland, National Museum of Finland, Chartarum Amici, University of Jyväskylä, City of Helsinki and City of Espoo. The conference theme was Four Elements – The Essentials of the History of Cartography. In ancient times, Universe was thought to consist of four elements. Earth, air, fire and water, as main themes, symbolize basic elements in the history of cartography and its importance in representing nature and our worldview.

  11. Education of radiochemistry in the University of Helsinki, Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laboratory of Radiochemistry is one of the seven laboratories in the Department of Chemistry, University of Helsinki. In the department there are altogether 220 employees of which 25 work in the Laboratory of Radiochemistry. Laboratory of Radiochemistry is the only radiochemical institute within Finnish universities. It gives teaching in a wide range of topics including most areas of radiochemistry. Teaching in radiochemistry is given at the master's level. Prior to taking radiochemistry as their major students have studied two to three years of chemistry and other fields of sciences. Compulsory courses in radiochemistry are: (1) Principles of radioactivity and radiochemistry (8 credit units), includes two weeks' laboratory course. (2) Radiation safety (2 cu), includes one day laboratory work. (3) Detection and measurement of radiation (5 cu), includes two weeks' laboratory course. (4) Chemistry and analysis of radionuclides (5 cu), includes two weeks' laboratory course. There are several optional courses of which students have to take at least three: (1) Chemistry of the nuclear fuel cycle (3 cu), students write an essay. (2) Environmental radioactivity (3 cu), students write an essay and give a seminar lecture. (3) Radiopharmaceutical chemistry (3 cu), includes one week laboratory course. (4) Radioactive tracer techniques (3 cu), includes one week laboratory course. (5) Radiation chemistry (3 cu), includes one week laboratory course. (6) Chemistry of uranium series in the environment (3 cu). (7) Atmospheric radioactivity (3 cu), students write an essay. After finalising the required radiochemistry courses, and other studies (40 cu), students make their project work and write a master's thesis (together 40 cu). Project work and master's thesis are done in one of the research projects of the laboratory. The research projects are working in the following fields: 1) migration and retention of radionuclides in the geo sphere, 2) selective separation of radionuclides

  12. Education of radiochemistry in the University of Helsinki, Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laboratory of Radiochemistry is one of the seven laboratories in the Department of Chemistry, University of Helsinki. In the department there are altogether 220 employees of which 25 work in the Laboratory of Radiochemistry. Laboratory of Radiochemistry is the only radiochemical institute within Finnish universities. It gives teaching in a wide range of topics including most areas of radiochemistry. Teaching in radiochemistry is given at the master's level. Prior to taking radiochemistry as their major students have studied two to three years of chemistry and other fields of sciences. Compulsory courses in radiochemistry are: Principles of radioactivity and radiochemistry (8 credit units), includes two weeks' laboratory course. Radiation safety (2 cu), includes one day laboratory work. Detection and measurement of radiation (5 cu), includes two weeks' laboratory course. Chemistry and analysis of radionuclides (5 cu), includes two weeks' laboratory course There are several optional courses of which students have to take at least three: Chemistry of the nuclear fuel cycle (3 cu), students write an essay. Environmental radioactivity (3 cu), students write an essay and give a seminar lecture. Radiopharmaceutical chemistry (3 cu), includes one week laboratory course. Radioactive tracer techniques (3 cu), includes one week laboratory course. Radiation chemistry (3 cu), includes one week laboratory course. Chemistry of uranium series in the environment (3 cu). Atmospheric radioactivity (3 cu), students write an essay. After finalising the required radiochemistry courses, and other studies (40 cu), students make their project work and write a master's thesis (together 40 cu). Project work and master's thesis are done in one of the research projects of the laboratory. The research projects are working in the following fields: 1) migration and retention of radionuclides in the geo sphere, 2) selective separation of radionuclides from nuclear waste effluents, 3

  13. LIFE EXPERIENCES OF AFGHAN WOMEN IN FINLAND : a study of everyday life experiences of Afghan women in Helsinki Region

    OpenAIRE

    Ghaffar, Sumbal; Lama, Smriti Madonna

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Sumbal, Ghaffar and Smriti, Madonna Lama, Life of Afghan Women in Finland, A Study of everyday life experiences of Afghan Women living in Helsinki Region, Diak south, Helsinki, Spring 2014 Language: English, Helsinki-- pages, 47, Appendices, 7. Diaconia University of Applied Sciences, Degree program in Social Services and Community Development, Degree: Bachelor of Social Services. The aim of the research was to show and highlight the everyday life experiences of Afghan wom...

  14. Studying the Business Prospects of a Potential Handmade Chocolate Shop in Helsinki, Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Fei; Fu, Lu

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to concentrate on assessing the possibilities of establishing a handmade chocolate shop in Helsinki, Finland. The research is mainly a marketing research and concentrates on meeting the marketing demand, the potential customers’ expectations. By the further analysis and research of survey, the basic elements of establishing handmade chocolate shop will be listed. Based on this the basic principle of a business model can be formulated. The study involved resou...

  15. Outsourcing Housekeeping: An insight into two cleaning companies, SOL and N-Clean, in Helsinki, Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Hussain, Samra

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the author was to find to get an insight into the cleaning companies, in Helsin-ki, Finland, which the hotel industry is using as an external supplier for their housekeeping de-partment. The author has looked into the cleaning companies training process for the cleaning staff, employee demographics, quality control and process of handling complaints. The ad-vantages and disadvantages of outsourcing housekeeping in the hotel sector are also investi-gated. The research method...

  16. Radioactivity size distributions of ambient aerosols in Helsinki, Finland during May 1986 after Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambient aerosol size distributions oof 131I, 103Ru, 132Te and 137Cs radionuclides were measured in Helsinki, Finland during May 7 - 14, 1986. Radioactivity size distributions were unimodal. Geometric mean diameter of 131I was in the size range 0.33 - 0.57 μm a.e.d.. Other isotopes had geometric mean diameters in the size range 0.65 - 0.93 μm a.e.d.. (author)

  17. Regional simulation of urban evapotranspiration over Helsinki, Finland in 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, M.; Spano, D.; Snyder, R. L.; Paw U, K.; Marras, S.; Pyles, D.

    2012-12-01

    The number of urban metabolism studies has increased in recent years, due to the important impact that energy, water and carbon exchange over urban areas have on climate change. Urban modeling is therefore crucial in the future design and management of cities. This study presents the ACASA model coupled to the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF-ARW) mesoscale model to simulate urban area evapotranspiration, surface energy budget terms, and carbon exchange estimates at a horizontal resolution of 600 meters for urban areas of roughly 20 by 20 km. As part of the European Project "BRIDGE", these regional simulations were used in combination with remotely sensed data to provide constraints on the land surface types and mass and energy exchange of urban centers. Land surface-atmosphere mass and energy exchanges LE were simulated using the Advanced Canopy Atmosphere Soil Algorithm (ACASA). The WRF-ACASA coupled model was used to scale up to a regional domain to better simulate the evolution of the urban atmosphere exchange at regional scale: we used a sequence of 6 nested domains with feedback for WRF-ACASA (dx = 48.6, 16.4, 5.2, 1.8, and 0.6 km) using NNRP reanalysis data in combination with CLC land cover data. Our results show that the model performed well compared with the observations both for the surface energy fluxes as well as the surface carbon exchange. The model can generally account for 45-72% of half-hourly variations of observed fluxes. Generally the partitioning of energy fluxes was on par with other urban model performances. On a biweekly time scale we compared the average diurnal course of LE (latent energy flux) of the model against observations. The model was able to resolve 91-92% of the variation of observed fluxes on this aggregate scale with a slope of the linear regression of 0.92 for LE. Simulations yielded spatially consistent results according to land use distribution and location of the urban center. Keywords: Urban metabolism, surface

  18. Spatial and temporal variability of turbulent vertical fluxes in Helsinki, Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Järvi, L.; Nordbo, A.; Haapanala, S.; Moilanen, J.; Vesala, T.

    2012-04-01

    The eddy-covariance technique has been widely used above vegetated surfaces to measure the turbulent exchange of momentum, heat and gases between the surface and the atmosphere. Above an urban surface, however, observations are scarce and complex measurement surroundings bring challenges to the measurements and the representativeness of the fluxes in a city scale. The fluxes of sensible (QH) and latent heat (QE), and CO2 (Fc) have been measured at three sites in Helsinki, Finland. At the SMEAR III station the measurements have been ongoing since December 2005 and the site is located next to a busy road about 4 km from downtown Helsinki. Two of the sites, Erottaja Fire Station (EFS) and Hotel Torni (HT), are located in downtown within a distance of 400 meters from each other. In EFS, the measurements have been carried out in June 2010 - January 2011, while in HT, the measurements have been ongoing since September 2010. The present dataset allows the studying of the inter-site variability of the exchange processes. Simultaneous measurements from all three sites cover four months in autumn/winter time. The high-latitude location allows a detailed examination of the effect of seasonal variation to the exchange processes. QH tends to be higher in city centre than in SMEAR III and a difference of 50 W m-2 is observed in winter. During the simultaneous measurements, stable atmospheric stratification is observed half of the time at SMEAR III whereas the occurrence in the city centre is less than 5%. This is a result of the urban heat island effect which is stronger in downtown than in the outside region. On the other hand, higher QE is measured in SMEAR III than in downtown particularly during spring and summer months when a difference of 100 W m-2 is observed. In downtown the low fraction of green areas limits the evaporation. Despite the short distance there are also differences between the two downtown sites. Both the median QH and QE are 7 W m-2 smaller in EFS than in

  19. Innovative Service Perspectives: Proceedings from the AMA SERVSIG International Service Research Conference, Helsinki, Finland, June 7-9 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Mickelsson, Jacob; Helkkula, Anu

    2012-01-01

    The 7th AMA SERVSIG International Service Research conference was held at Hanken School of Economics in Helsinki, Finland on June 7-9, 2012. The conference was organized by the CERS Centre for Relationship Marketing and Service Management, and attracted over 250 participants from 29 countries. The first SERVSIG conference was held in 1999, and the event has since been hosted in a different country and by a different school every two years. The Services Special Interest Group (SERVSIG) was fou...

  20. Anthropogenic and biogenic influence on VOC fluxes at an urban background site in Helsinki, Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rantala, Pekka; Järvi, Leena; Taipale, Risto; Laurila, Terhi K.; Patokoski, Johanna; Kajos, Maija K.; Kurppa, Mona; Haapanala, Sami; Siivola, Erkki; Petäjä, Tuukka; Ruuskanen, Taina M.; Rinne, Janne

    2016-07-01

    We measured volatile organic compounds (VOCs), carbon dioxide (CO2) and carbon monoxide (CO) at an urban background site near the city centre of Helsinki, Finland, northern Europe. The VOC and CO2 measurements were obtained between January 2013 and September 2014 whereas for CO a shorter measurement campaign in April-May 2014 was conducted. Both anthropogenic and biogenic sources were identified for VOCs in the study. Strong correlations between VOC fluxes and CO fluxes and traffic rates indicated anthropogenic source of many VOCs. The VOC with the highest emission rate to the atmosphere was methanol, which originated mostly from traffic and other anthropogenic sources. The traffic was also a major source for aromatic compounds in all seasons whereas isoprene was mostly emitted from biogenic sources during summer. Some amount of traffic-related isoprene emissions were detected during other seasons but this might have also been an instrumental contamination from cycloalkane products. Generally, the observed VOC fluxes were found to be small in comparison with previous urban VOC flux studies. However, the differences were probably caused by lower anthropogenic activities as the CO2 fluxes were also relatively small at the site.

  1. Lead, cadmium, and mercury contents of fungi in the Helsinki area and in unpolluted control areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuusi, T.; Liukkonen-Lilja, H.; Piepponen, S.; Laaksovirta, K.; Lodenius, M.

    1981-10-01

    More than 40 species of wild-growing fungi in Finland have been investigated with regard to their contents of lead, cadmium and mercury. A total of 326 samples was studied, 242 being from the urban area of Helsinki and 84 from unpolluted rural areas. The lead content ranged from < 0.5 to 78 mg/kg of dry matter. In the control areas the mean contents for the different species ranged from < 0.5 to 13 mg/kg, and in the urban area from 0.5 to 16.8 mg/kg. The cadmium content ranged from < 0.2 to 101 mg/kg of dry matter. In the control areas the mean contents for the different species ranged from < 0.2 to 16.8 mg/kg, and in the urban area from < 0.2 to 17.3 mg/kg. The mercury content ranged from < 0.01 to 95 mg/kg of dry matter. In the rural areas the mean contents for the diferent species ranged from 0.03 to 4.2 mg/kg, and in the urban area from 0.02 to 14.1 mg/kg. In conclusion, consumption of those fungi that grow in unpolluted rural areas carries no risk, particularly when they belong to mycorrhizal species. In urban areas the risk is somewhat greater. The Agaricus species show the highest contents of the metals studied and their use as food requires caution.

  2. Senior expert symposium on electricity and the environment, Helsinki, Finland, 13-17 May 1991. Key issues papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume contains the four Key Issues Papers prepared as background papers by international expert groups for the Senior Expert Symposium on Electricity and the Environment held in Helsinki, Finland in May 1991. The papers are on topics selected as the central themes of the symposium: energy and electricity supply and demand - implications for the global environment; energy sources and technologies for electricity generation; comparative environmental and health effects of different energy systems for electricity generation; and the incorporation of environmental and health impacts into policy, planning and decision making for the electricity sector. The four papers have been indexed separately. Refs, figs and tabs

  3. Abstracts of the 4th International MELODI Workshop 12 -14 September 2012, Helsinki, Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sulonen, N. (ed.)

    2012-08-15

    The Fourth International MELODI Workshop is organized by STUK - Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority in Helsinki, Finland, on 12-14 September 2012. The workshop offers an update of recent low-dose research issues, and an opportunity to participate in the MELODI Low Dose Research Platform, a major step in the long term goals that the European Low-Dose Risk research intends to achieve. The main goal of MELODI is to develop and maintain a Strategic Research Agenda (SRA) in the field of low-dose radiation research, and to actively promote its implementation. DoReMi Network of Excellence funded by the European Commission is supporting the setting up of the Platform and addressing some of its research needs. In line with one of the main SRA goals, a major aim of the workshop was to set all topics in an interdisciplinary context. The Workshop abstracts cover plenary lectures as well as poster presentations related to topical discussions in breakout sessions. The theme of the first day 'Low dose risk research - state of the art' provides an introduction to the MELODI activities and the SRA and an update on recent epidemiological studies and dosimetric aspects of low dose studies. Potential implications of cardiovascular disease risk for radiation protection are also addressed. Discussion on the state-of-the art of MELODI SRA took place in three break-out groups addressing epidemiological approaches, cancer mechanisms and models and infrastructures and knowledge management. The second day 'Emerging scientific challenges' features the development of science and novel technologies, covering topics such as epigenetics, systems biology, stem cells as well as biomarkers that could be potentially used in molecular epidemiological studies. The associated breakout sessions explore the roadmap for future research, covering themes on biomarkers and biobanks, non-cancer effects, as well as low dose dosimetry and dose concept. The third day 'Integrating the

  4. Cost-benefit analysis of green roofs in urban areas : case study in Helsinki

    OpenAIRE

    Nurmi, VÀinö; Votsis, Athanasios; Perrels, Adriaan; LehvÀvirta, Susanna

    2013-01-01

    Abstract This report presents a green roof cost-benefit analysis. Green roofs are roofs that are partially (or almost completely) covered with vegetation; between the roofing membrane and the vegetation there may be several technical layers. In this report we discuss the benefits and costs of lightweight self-sustaining vegetated roofs that do not require structural modifications from the building. The costs and benefits have been analysed in Helsinki, Finland. Green roofs o...

  5. DHC in Helsinki - The Ultimate Heating and Cooling Solution for a Large Urban Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wirgentius, Niko; Riipinen, Marko

    2010-09-15

    Since the 1950s there has been successful district energy business in Helsinki. It has been the main factor for superior energy efficiency and low CO2 emissions both in heating and cooling as well as providing clean air for the metropolitan area. The system has been grown by commercial basis based on customers' own willingness to select district energy solution. It also provided a profitable energy business to local energy company, Helsinki Energy. Helsinki DHC system is a good example of ultimate urban energy solution that provides benefits for the customer, energy company, metropolitan area and for the whole society as well.

  6. Air quality in the Helsinki metropolitan area in 2010; Ilmanlaatu paeaekaupunkiseudulla vuonna 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malkki, M.; Lounasheimo, J.; Niemi, J.; Myllynen, M.; Loukkola, K.

    2011-06-15

    fine particles did not exceed the limit value, but the annual guideline based on health effects given by WHO was exceeded at the monitoring sites and in Helsinki city centre. Long-range transport of fine particles caused high concentrations from time to time in the whole metropolitan area. Also emissions of local traffic and small scale wood burning caused high daily concentrations occasionally. Emissions from small scale wood burning cause high concentrations of benzo(a)pyrene and its target value is estimated to be exceeded locally near emission sources in many areas with densely built detached houses. In 2008 the target value was exceeded in Itae-Hakkila area of detached housing. In the measurements done in 2009 and 2010 no exceedances were observed at Vartiokylae monitoring station, which is not as densely built as Itae-Hakkila. The annual average concentration of black carbon was in Vartiokylae 0.8 mug/m3 in 2009. In 2010 the annual average in Toeoeloentulli monitoring site was 2.6 mug/m3, which is the highest result in all measurements carried out in urban environments in Finland. Ozone concentrations were below the target value for protection of human health, but exceeded the long-term objective over the whole area. The concentrations of sulphur dioxide, carbon monoxide, benzene, and lead were low and did not exceed the limit values in 2010. In the long run the concentrations of air pollutants have decreased except for those of ozone and fine particles. However, the concentrations of nitrogen dioxide have no longer decreased during the past years. In 2010 the emissions of nitrogen oxides increased due to increased need for district heating energy and energy production. The emissions of sulphur dioxide, particles, carbon monoxide and volatile organic compounds decreased, however. The share of natural gas, which is a cleaner fuel than coal, increased in fuels used for energy production. In the long run the total emissions of different pollutants have decreased in

  7. Gay-friendly Helsinki: Case Helsinki Pride

    OpenAIRE

    Kinnunen, Emmi

    2012-01-01

    This thesis is done for Helsinki City Tourism & Convention Bureau and the task was to research Helsinki Pride event in a perspective of gay-friendly tourism. Helsinki Pride is the largest LGBT event organised in Finland. It is organised every summer and in this year’s (2011) weeklong event there were about 30 000 participants all together. The most visible part of the event is the Gay Pride parade and Party in the Park. Helsinki Pride is organised by human rights organisation Helsingin seudun...

  8. A 5-year follow-up study on the prosthetic rehabilitation of the elderly in Helsinki, Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevalainen, M J; Närhi, T O; Ainamo, A

    2004-07-01

    In 1990, 364 elderly (76-86 years) inhabitants of Helsinki, Finland, attended a dental and oral examination study that was conducted as part of the Helsinki Aging Study. In spring 1996, these subjects were recalled for a 5-year follow-up. Between the baseline and follow-up examinations, 114 (31%) subjects had deceased (86 women and 28 men), whereas 134 had either moved, were too ill, or refused to participate in the follow-up. Follow-up examination was conducted for 113 subjects (79 women and 34 men), with the participating rate being 46%. Five subjects became edentulous during the follow-up. Of the subjects, 61% had 1-32 teeth at follow-up. In these subjects, the mean number of teeth decreased from 14.9 (+/-8.3) to 13.5 (+/-8.6) (P Prosthetic status changed in 40% of the elderly dentate people: 25% received new prostheses whereas 15% lost prostheses that were not replaced. New fixed partial dentures were made in five maxillae and in nine mandibles during the follow-up. Acrylic removable partial dentures (ARPD) were most frequently used: 35% of dentate subjects had an ARPD. Subjects with removable prostheses had higher levels of salivary microbes and higher root caries incidence than those with natural teeth. Furthermore, the presence of removable prostheses at baseline, together with the male gender, was clearly associated with tooth loss during follow-up. This study indicates that fixed rather than removable prostheses should be used in elderly patients. The need for a removable denture ought to be carefully considered.

  9. Changes in the food habits of Chinese students after migration to Helsinki, Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Ting

    2010-01-01

    Elintarvike ja ympÀristötieteiden laitos, ravitsemustiede Globalization encourages migration all over the world. Dietary acculturation, the process of adopting the dietary practices of the host country, has become an interesting issue in community nutrition and nutritional anthropology. This is the first study on Chinese immigrants and dietary acculturation in Finland. In this study, the KoctÌrk model is used as conceptual framework which had showed its usefulness to structure the vario...

  10. Looking for the role of nature experiences in planning and decision making: a perspective from the Helsinki Metropolitan Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maija Faehnle

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Public experiences of everyday environments influence well-being and quality of life and effective planning for these environments can promote social sustainability. This article discusses how residents’ values related to urban nature areas are as important as ecological and technical issues and can inform urban nature planning and decision making. We first provide a generic review of residents’ values and meanings regarding urban nature. We then outline practices for obtaining data on these values and meanings and present examples from the Helsinki (Finland Metropolitan Area. The article concludes with a discussion of the challenges that nature experiences bring to planning and decision making and highlights why and how insights generated as a result of residents’ participation should be included in the knowledge base for planning decisions.

  11. Underground space planning in Helsinki

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ilkka Vhaho

    2014-01-01

    This paper gives insight into the use of underground space in Helsinki, Finland. The city has an under-ground master plan (UMP) for its whole municipal area, not only for certain parts of the city. Further, the decision-making history of the UMP is described step-by-step. Some examples of underground space use in other cities are also given. The focus of this paper is on the sustainability issues related to urban underground space use, including its contribution to an environmentally sustainable and aesthetically acceptable landscape, anticipated structural longevity and maintaining the opportunity for urban development by future generations. Underground planning enhances overall safety and economy effi-ciency. The need for underground space use in city areas has grown rapidly since the 21st century;at the same time, the necessity to control construction work has also increased. The UMP of Helsinki reserves designated space for public and private utilities in various underground areas of bedrock over the long term. The plan also provides the framework for managing and controlling the city’s underground con-struction work and allows suitable locations to be allocated for underground facilities. Tampere, the third most populated city in Finland and the biggest inland city in the Nordic countries, is also a good example of a city that is taking steps to utilise underground resources. Oulu, the capital city of northern Finland, has also started to‘go underground’. An example of the possibility to combine two cities by an 80-km subsea tunnel is also discussed. A new fixed link would generate huge potential for the capital areas of Finland and Estonia to become a real Helsinki-Tallinn twin city.

  12. Underground space planning in Helsinki

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilkka Vähäaho

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives insight into the use of underground space in Helsinki, Finland. The city has an underground master plan (UMP for its whole municipal area, not only for certain parts of the city. Further, the decision-making history of the UMP is described step-by-step. Some examples of underground space use in other cities are also given. The focus of this paper is on the sustainability issues related to urban underground space use, including its contribution to an environmentally sustainable and aesthetically acceptable landscape, anticipated structural longevity and maintaining the opportunity for urban development by future generations. Underground planning enhances overall safety and economy efficiency. The need for underground space use in city areas has grown rapidly since the 21st century; at the same time, the necessity to control construction work has also increased. The UMP of Helsinki reserves designated space for public and private utilities in various underground areas of bedrock over the long term. The plan also provides the framework for managing and controlling the city's underground construction work and allows suitable locations to be allocated for underground facilities. Tampere, the third most populated city in Finland and the biggest inland city in the Nordic countries, is also a good example of a city that is taking steps to utilise underground resources. Oulu, the capital city of northern Finland, has also started to ‘go underground’. An example of the possibility to combine two cities by an 80-km subsea tunnel is also discussed. A new fixed link would generate huge potential for the capital areas of Finland and Estonia to become a real Helsinki-Tallinn twin city.

  13. Leadership credibility - Perceptions of female leaders on credibility in tourism industry in Helsinki metropolitan area

    OpenAIRE

    Kauppila, Kati

    2013-01-01

    This thesis discusses perceptions of female leaders on credibility in tourism industry in Helsinki metropolitan area and it is done between September 2012 - January 2013. The topic was chosen by the author, since she is personally interested in leadership studies and she also thinks that the topic is important and should be researched further. This thesis tries to found out how female leaders feel about leader’s credibility, whether there are differences in leadership credibility between male...

  14. Report of the ninth meeting of the Baltic Marine Environment Protection Commission - Helsinki Commission (HELCOM). Convention on the Protection of the Marine Environment of the Baltic Sea Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is the report of the ninth meeting of the Baltic Marine Environment Protection Commission - the Helsinki Commission - held in Helsinki 15-19 February 1988. The Commission is composed of the representatives of Denmark, Finland, Federal Republic of Germany, Poland, Sweden and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics as well as national, regional and international organizations. The Meeting made a number of proposals and recommendations on the protection of the marine environment

  15. Underground space planning in Helsinki

    OpenAIRE

    Ilkka Vähäaho

    2014-01-01

    This paper gives insight into the use of underground space in Helsinki, Finland. The city has an underground master plan (UMP) for its whole municipal area, not only for certain parts of the city. Further, the decision-making history of the UMP is described step-by-step. Some examples of underground space use in other cities are also given. The focus of this paper is on the sustainability issues related to urban underground space use, including its contribution to an environmentally sustainab...

  16. Fireplaces and use of firewood in Helsinki area; Tulisijojen vaehaepaeaestoeinen kaeyttoe. Tietoa ja tuloksia paeaekaupunkiseudulta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makkonen, J.

    2010-07-01

    This fact sheet is focused on fireplaces and fine particle emissions. Short theory of clean combustion and practical advices are given, because the fireplace user has a remarkable affect on emissions. Results from a recent fireplace study in Helsinki area are also reported in the text. According to the study over 90 percent of detached houses had at least one fireplace. Only 10 percent of respondents didn't have any kind of burning device. Sauna stoves made up over 20 percent of all fireplaces. The most common fireplace in the accommodation was a fireplace with doors and a capability to store heat. The second common was an open fireplace. Among the respondents who used oil heating open fireplace was slightly more frequent than the fireplace with doors. Use of fireplaces was concentrated on weekends (Saturday) and in evenings (6-9 pm). Use of Finnish stove was low in summer time and sauna stoves were used almost constantly during the year. The percentage in figures means how many fireplaces were used in relation to all fireplaces. In 2009 TTS Research made a study concerning fireplaces and the use of chopped firewood in the Helsinki metropolitan area. The inventory was commissioned by the Helsinki Metropolitan Area Council (YTV). The target group was detached house owners. The results were analysed from the perspective of primary heating systems, which were electric heating (direct and accumulator), oil heating and district heating. The aim was to gather background information in order to estimate emissions. The study method was a postal questionnaire which was carried out in February 2008 and 2009

  17. Activity pattern of a selected group of school occupants and their family members in Helsinki-Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Tareq; Paasonen, Pauli; Kulmala, Markku

    2012-05-15

    The daily time-spent in different environments is an important factor in calculation of personal exposure to air pollutants. Despite this importance, the amount of research done on this topic is rather limited, especially in North Europe where the climate is rather cold. In this study, we gathered detailed information via a standard questionnaire to report the residence time and place of 167 subjects (between 2 and 93 years old) lived in Helsinki during three time periods in winter and spring 2009. Subjects spent 81%-92% of their time indoors and up to ~15% of their time outdoors. The daily time-spent in different environments was affected by several factors: ambient temperature, type of day (workday or weekend/holiday), gender, and age. Therefore, the differences occur individually and can be explained by these factors. For example, subjects spent more time at home on weekends than workdays because obviously the majority of our subjects did not have work on weekends. The time-spent at kindergarten/school/work increased with age until retirement. Females spent more time at home than males. After all, the activity pattern found in this study is rather similar to those previously reported in Germany and North America. PMID:22464956

  18. Use of atmospheric elemental size distributions in estimating aerosol sources in the Helsinki area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pakkanen, T.A.; Kerminen, V.-M.; Korhonen, C.H.; Hillamo, R.E. [Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki (Finland); Aarnio, P.; Koskentalo, T. [Helsinki Metropolitan Area Council, Helsinki (Finland); Maenhaut, W. [University of Ghent, Gent (Belgium). Institute for Nuclear Sciences

    2001-07-01

    In June 1996-June 1997 Berner impactors were used in the Helsinki area to measure size distribution of atmospheric aerosols simultaneously at an urban and at a rural site. Ten sample pairs were collected in the size range of 0.03-15.7{mu}m of equivalent aerodynamic diameter (EAD). Average size distributions at the two sites were calculated for 29 elements, particulate mass, and sulphate. At both sites especially sulphate, As, B, Cd, Bi, Tl, and V were enriched in fine particles (EAD < 2.3{mu}m). In order to estimate local fine-particle sources of the various chemical components, the similarities and dissimilarities in the accumulation-mode parameters were studied separately for both sites. It was observed that often in different samples, different components had similar accumulation modes. At both sites, particulate mass, As, and Pb had similar accumulation modes to sulphate which suggests that long-range transport (LRT) is important for these components. V, Ni, Mo, and Co formed another group of similar accumulation modes at both sites suggesting that these elements largely originated from local and regional oil combustion. In addition, other groups of similar accumulation modes were observed but these groups were different between the sites. The meteorological parameters indicated that seven sample pairs formed a subset of the data in which the local emissions of the Helsinki area were transported to the urban site but not to the rural site. For this subset the rural fine-particle concentrations were considered to represent an upper limit estimate for the LRT. These upper limit LRT estimations were further improved by utilising the quantitative relative size distributions (QRSD) method at the rural site. The QRSD method supposes that in the fine-particle size range the LRT fractions of all chemical components have a similar shape in their size distributions. Fine-particle sulphate is typically long-range transported, and was therefore selected as the model

  19. Greenhouse Gas Implications of Urban Sprawl in the Helsinki Metropolitan Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanna Ala-Mantila

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Suburban households living in spacious detached houses and owing multiple cars are often seen as main culprits for negative greenhouse consequences of urban sprawl. Consequently, the effects of sprawl have been mostly studied from the viewpoints of emissions from home energy consumption and private driving. Little attention has been paid to the changes in other consumption. In this paper, urban sprawl is linked to the proliferation of semi-detached and detached housing, described as a low-rise lifestyle, at the expense of apartment house living i.e., high-rise lifestyle. We analyze differences between the low-rise and the high-rise lifestyles and their environmental effects in the Helsinki Metropolitan Area, taking into account all consumption activities. Environmental effects are assessed by combining greenhouse gas intensities from a consumption-based environmentally-extended input-output (EE I-O model with expenditure data. Then these carbon footprints are further elucidated with regression analysis. We find that low-rise lifestyles causes approximately 14% more emissions than high-rise lifestyles. However, the relative contributions of emissions from different sources, whether direct or indirect, are almost equal for both. Furthermore, when controlling the level of expenditure, the differences between the two lifestyles unexpectedly disappear and in certain cases are even reversed. We believe that our consumption-based approach facilitates the understanding of sprawling lifestyles and offers important insights for sustainable policy-design and urban planning.

  20. Geophysical investigations in the Kivetty area, Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heikkinen, E. (ed.); Ahokas, H. (Fintact Ky, Helsinki (Finland)); Paananen, M. (Geological Survey of Finland, Espoo (Finland)); Oehberg, A. (Saanio and Riekkola Consulting Engineers, Helsinki (Finland)); Front, K.; Okko, O.; Pitkaenen, P. (Technical Research of Finland, Espoo (Finland). Road, Traffic and Geotechnical Lab.); Cosma, C.; Heikkinen, P.; Keskinen, J.; Korhonen, R. (Vibrometric Oy, Perttula

    1992-09-01

    Investigations were carried out at Kivetty site in Konginkangas, in central Finland, by geological, geophysical, geohydrological and geochemical methods in 1987-1991 to determine the suitability of the bedrock for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. Airborne, ground and borehole geophysical methods were used to study the rock type distribution, fracturing and hydraulic conductivity of the bedrock to a depth of one kilometre.

  1. Geophysical investigations in the Kivetty area, Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Investigations were carried out at Kivetty site in Konginkangas, in central Finland, by geological, geophysical, geohydrological and geochemical methods in 1987-1991 to determine the suitability of the bedrock for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. Airborne, ground and borehole geophysical methods were used to study the rock type distribution, fracturing and hydraulic conductivity of the bedrock to a depth of one kilometre

  2. Empowerment Experiences of Kenyan Mothers living in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Ndungu, Lucy

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT Ndungu Lucy. Empowerment experiences of Kenyan mothers living in Finland. Järvenpää, Spring 2010, 41 p., 2 appendices. Diaconia University of Applied Sciences, Diak South, Järvenpää Unit, Degree programme in Social Services. (UAS) The research was carried out in Helsinki area in Finland and it is based on Kenyan mothers' experiences. The aim of the study is to gain from opportunities Kenyan mothers attain in Finland, as empowerment tools to change Kenyans living standar...

  3. School Performance, School Segregation, and Stress-Related Symptoms: Comparing Helsinki and Stockholm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modin, Bitte; Karvonen, Sakari; Rahkonen, Ossi; Östberg, Viveca

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates cross-cultural differences in the interrelation between school performance, school segregation, and stress-related health among 9th-grade students in the greater Stockholm and Helsinki areas. Contrary to the Swedish case, it has been proposed that school performance in Finland is largely independent of the specific school…

  4. Sources and chemical composition of atmospheric fine and coarse particles in the Helsinki area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pakkanen, T.A.; Loukkola, K.; Korhonen, C.H. [Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki (FI)] (and others)

    2001-07-01

    During April 1996 - June 1997 size-segregated atmospheric aerosol particles were collected at an urban and a rural site in the Helsinki area by utilising virtual impactors (VI) and Berner low-pressure impactors (BLPI). In addition, VI samples were collected at a semi-urban site during October 1996 - May 1997. The average PM{sub 2.3} (fine particle) concentrations at the urban and rural sites were 11.8 and 8.4 {mu}g/m{sup 3}, and the PM{sub 2.3}-{sub 15} (coarse particle) concentrations were 12.8 and about 5{mu}g/m{sup 3}, respectively. The difference in fine particle mass concentrations suggests that on average, more than one third of the fine mass at the urban site is of local origin. Evaporation of fine particle nitrate from the VI Teflon filters during sampling varied similarly at the three sites, the average evaporation being about 50-60 per cent. The average fine particle concentrations of the chemical components (25 elements and 13 ions) appeared to be fairly similar at the three sites for most components, which suggests that despite the long-range transport, the local emissions of these components were relatively evenly distributed in the Helsinki area. Exceptions were the average fine particles Ba, Fe, Sb and V concentrations that were clearly highest at the urban site pointing to traffic (Ba, Fe, Sb) and to combustion of heavy fuel oil (V) as the likely sources. The average coarse particle concentrations for most components were highest at the urban site and lowest at the rural site. Average chemical composition of fine particles was fairly similar at the urban and rural sites: non-analysed fraction (mainly carbonaceous material and water) 43 per cent and 37 per cent, sulphate 21 per cent and 25 per cent, crustal matter 12 per cent and 13 per cent, nitrate 12 per cent and 11 per cent, ammonium 9 per cent and 10 per cent and sea-salt 2.5 per cent and 3.2 per cent, respectively. At the semi-urban site also, the average fine particle composition was similar

  5. Impact of production method and production area on energy balance of rye consumed in Helsinki

    OpenAIRE

    Sinkkonen, Marko

    2002-01-01

    The results of the study show that production of fertilizers is the biggest factor in the rye production chain. Therefore organic rye tillage is not as intensive in energy usage as conventional practices. The energy consumed for transportation does not play a big role in total energy consumption of rye consumed in Helsinki.

  6. The municipal continuum: Research on maritime water pollution in Helsinki in the 20th century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurila, S. K. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Social History; Laakkonen, S. J. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Social Policy

    2004-07-01

    In general, the history of environmental research is not known very well. Our study contributes to filling this gap by focusing on the history of the methods that were used during the 20th century to study the state of the urban sea area in Helsinki, Finland. From the beginning of the past century, the methodological basis of municipal water pollution studies in Helsinki was broad, involving the use of physical, chemical, hygienic and biological methods. Since 1904, municipal laboratories have overseen and conducted most physico-chemical and bacteriological studies of pollution of urban watercourses, and they have done regular annual sampling since 1947. In the 1920s and 1930s, the municipal laboratories cooperated with the University of Helsinki and, secondarily, with the Helsinki University of Technology in order to develop the skills and manpower that were required in order to conduct pollution studies. Statutory monitoring was initiated in the mid-1960s, and it continues today. (orig.)

  7. Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-10-01

    In 1985, Finland's population stood at 4,913,300, with an annual growth rate of 0.35%. The 1984 infant mortality rate was 6.6/1000 and life expectancy was 70.4 years for males and 78.8 years for females. Finland's literacy rate approaches 100%. Of the labor force of 2,437,000, 11.5% are engaged in agriculture; 45.5% are employed in industry, commerce, and finance; 28% are in the service sector; 5.1% work for the government; and 7.6% work in the transport sector. The gross domestic product (GDP) was US$54 billion in 1985, with an annual growth rate of 2.8% and a per capita income of $1,007. Industry accounts for 28% of the GDP. An extensive social welfare system, comprising 20% of the national income, includes a variety of pension and assistance programs and a comprehensive health insurance program covering the entire Finnish population. Finland's proportional representation system of government encourages a multitude of political parties and has resulted in several coalition governments. Finland's industrial economy is based on capital investment and new technology. PMID:12178064

  8. Urban and rural ultrafine (PM{sub 0.1}) particles in the Helsinki area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pakkanen, Tuomo A.; Kerminen, Veli-Matti; Korhonen, Christina H.; Hillamo, Risto E. [Finnish Meteorological Inst., Helsinki (Finland); Aarnio, Paeivi; Koskentalo, Tarja [Helsinki Metropolitan Area Council, Helsinki (Finland); Maenhaut, Willy [Institute for Nuclear Sciences, Gent (Belgium)

    2001-07-01

    In June 1996-June 1997 Berner low-pressure impactors were used at an urban and at a rural site in the Helsinki area for sampling ultrafine particles (UFP, PM{sub 0.1}). Ten samples pairs, each pair measured simultaneously, were collected in the size range of 0.03-15{mu}m of particle aerodynamic diameter. More than 40 chemical components were measured. Surprisingly, the average UFP mass concentration was higher at the rural site (520ng/m{sup 3}) than at the urban site (490ng/m{sup 3}). The average chemical composition of UFP was similar at the two sites. The most abundant of the measured components were sulphate (32 and 40ng/m{sup 3} for the urban and rural sites, respectively), ammonium (22 and 25ng/m{sup 3}), nitrate (4 and 11ng/m{sup 3}) and the Ca{sup 2+} ion (5 and 7ng/m{sup 3}). The most important metals at both sites were Ca, Na, Fe, K and Zn with concentrations between 0.7 and 5ng/m{sup 3}. Of the heavy metals, Ni, V, Cu, and Pb were important with average ultrafine concentrations between about 0.1 and 0.2ng/m{sup 3}. Also the organic anions oxalate (urban 2.1ng/m{sup 3} and rural 1.9ng/m{sup 3}) and methanesulphonate (1.3 and 1.7ng/m{sup 3}) contributed similarly at both sites. The measured species accounted for only about 15-20% of the total ultrafine mass. The fraction that was not measured includes mainly carbonaceous material and water. It was estimated that the amount of water was about 10% (50ng/m{sup 3}) and that of carbonaceous material about 70% (350ng/m{sup 3}) at both sites. Aitken modes were observed for most components with the average mass mean mode diameters being between about 0.06 and 0.12{mu}m. The average concentrations in the Aitken mode differed from those in the UFP for several components. The average contributions of ultrafine mass to the fine particle mass (PM{sub 2.5}) was about 7% at the urban site and 8.5% at the rural site. At both sites the contribution of ultrafine to fine was especially high for Se, Ag, B and Ni (10-20%) and

  9. Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document provides information on the status of institutional and financial arrangements in Finland for the long term management of HLW and SNF, It includes the following elements: A consistent set of requirements for the technical and legal infrastructure including: funding, liability, institutional control, records management, and research activities; An organizational structure with clearly defined responsibilities; and Provisions for participation by interested parties in decisions and outcomes

  10. Geophysical investigations of the Romuvaara area, Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the study area of Romuvaara, investigations have been carried out during 1987 - 90 with the aim of finding out whether the polyphasically deformed Precambrian gneiss complex is suitable for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. The bedrock has been studied by geological, geophysical, geohydrological and geochemical methods. Airborne, ground and borehole geophysical surveys were used in studying the rock type distribution, fracturing and hydraulic conductivity of the bedrock to a depth of one kilometre. Airborne surveys (magnetic, radiometric and two electromagnetic methods) and ground surveys (VLF and VLF-R, magnetic and soil radar methods) were useful in distinguishing the metadiabases, amphibolites and granodiorites from the less magnetized migmatites. The electromagnetic and seismic refraction surveys were used in locating crushed and fractured zones. The rock type distribution was studied by single-hole logging of susceptibility, natural γ radiation and radiometric γ-γ -density. Electrical and acoustic logging served the mapping of fractures and the interpretation of water injection tests. The flow conditions in the boreholes were studied by fluid logging and tube-wave sounding. The rock volume surrounding the boreholes was mapped by borehole radar with a frequency of 22 MHz. The upper parts of the boreholes were also studied by vertical radar profiling (VRP). Larger volumes of rock were mapped by vertical seismic profiling (VSP) using 4 - 5 transmitter shotholes per borehole

  11. Using monosaccharide anhydrides to estimate the impact of wood combustion on fine particles in the Helsinki Metropolitan Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saarnio, K.; Saarikoski, S. [Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki (Finland); Niemi, J.V. [HSY Helsinki Region Environmental Services Authority, Helsinki (Finland)

    2012-11-01

    The spatiotemporal variation of ambient particles under the influence of biomass burning emissions was studied in the Helsinki Metropolitan Area (HMA) in selected periods during 2005-2009. Monosaccharide anhydrides (MAs; levoglucosan, mannosan and galactosan), commonly known biomass burning tracers, were used to estimate the wood combustion contribution to local particulate matter (PM) concentration levels at three urban background sites close to the city centre, and at three suburban sites influenced by local small-scale wood combustion. In the cold season (October-March), the mean MAs concentrations were 115-225 ng m{sup -3} and 83-98 ng m{sup -} {sup 3}at the suburban and urban sites, respectively. In the warm season, the mean MAs concentrations were low (19-78 ng m{sup -3}), excluding open land fire smoke episodes (222-378 ng m{sup -}3{sup )}. Regionally distributed wood combustion particles raised the levels over the whole HMA while particles from local wood combustion sources raised the level at suburban sites only. The estimated average contribution of wood combustion to fine particles (PM{sub 2.5}) ranged from 18% to 29% at the urban sites and from 31% to 66% at the suburban sites in the cold season. The PM measurements from ambient air and combustion experiments showed that the proportions of the three MAs can be utilised to separate the wildfire particles from residential wood combustion particles. (orig.)

  12. Reclassification and reconstruction of urban areas in Eindhoven and Rijswijk. Lecture presented at Helsinki University, Helsinki, Finland, May 16th 1985.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraay, J.H.

    1985-01-01

    The increased ownership of cars has on the one hand extended the range of travel for a great part of the population, while on the other hand it has created new problems. The crux of the problem is that motorised traffic occupies an unproportionally large part of public space, increasing the dange

  13. Association of ozone and particulate air pollution with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in Helsinki, Finland: evidence for two different etiologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Frank S; Kuisma, Markku; Lanki, Timo; Hussein, Tareq; Boyd, James; Halonen, Jaana I; Pekkanen, Juha

    2013-01-01

    Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) has been previously associated with exposure to particulate air pollution. However, there is uncertainty about the agents and mechanisms that are involved. We aimed to determine the association of gases and particulates with OHCA, and differences in pollutant effects on OHCAs due to acute myocardial infarction (AMI) vs those due to other causes. Helsinki Emergency Medical Services provided data on OHCAs of cardiac origin (OHCA_Cardiac). Hospital and autopsy reports determined whether OHCAs were due to AMI (OHCA_MI) or other cardiac causes (OHCA_Other). Pollutant data was obtained from central ambient monitors. A case-crossover analysis determined odds ratios (ORs) for hourly lagged exposures (Lag 0-3) and daily lagged exposures (Lag 0d-3d), expressed per interquartile range of pollutant level. For OHCA_Cardiac, elevated ORs were found for PM(2.5) (Lag 0, 1.07; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.01-1.13) and ozone (O(3)) (Lag 2d, 1.18; CI: 1.03-1.35). For OHCA_MI, elevated ORs were found for PM(2.5) (Lag 0, 1.14; CI: 1.03-1.27; Lag 0d, 1.17; CI: 1.03-1.33), accumulation mode particulate (Acc) (Lag 0d, 1.19; CI: 1.04-1.35), NO (Lag 0d, 1.07; CI: 1.01-1.13), and ultrafine particulate (Lag 0d, 1.27; CI: 1.05-1.54). For OHCA_Other, elevated ORs were found only for O(3) (Lag 1d, 1.26; CI: 1.07-1.48; Lag 2d, 1.30; CI: 1.11-1.53). Results from two-pollutant models, with one of the pollutants either PM(2.5) or O(3), suggested that associations were primarily due to effects of PM(2.5) and O(3), rather than other pollutants. The results suggest that air pollution triggers OHCA via two distinct modes: one associated with particulates leading to AMI and one associated with O(3) involving etiologies other than AMI, for example, arrhythmias or respiratory insufficiency.

  14. Chemical and physical characterization of traffic particles in four different highway environments in the Helsinki metropolitan area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enroth, Joonas; Saarikoski, Sanna; Niemi, Jarkko; Kousa, Anu; Ježek, Irena; Močnik, Griša; Carbone, Samara; Kuuluvainen, Heino; Rönkkö, Topi; Hillamo, Risto; Pirjola, Liisa

    2016-05-01

    Traffic-related pollution is a major concern in urban areas due to its deleterious effects on human health. The characteristics of the traffic emissions on four highway environments in the Helsinki metropolitan area were measured with a mobile laboratory, equipped with state-of-the-art instrumentation. Concentration gradients were observed for all traffic-related pollutants, particle number (CN), particulate mass (PM1), black carbon (BC), organics, and nitrogen oxides (NO and NO2). Flow dynamics in different environments appeared to be an important factor for the dilution of the pollutants. For example, the half-decay distances for the traffic-related CN concentrations varied from 8 to 83 m at different sites. The PM1 emissions from traffic mostly consisted of organics and BC. At the most open site, the ratio of organics to BC increased with distance to the highway, indicating condensation of volatile and semi-volatile organics on BC particles. These condensed organics were shown to be hydrocarbons as the fraction of hydrocarbon fragments in organics increased. Regarding the CN size distributions, particle growth during the dilution was not observed; however the mass size distributions measured with a soot particle aerosol mass spectrometer (SP-AMS), showed a visible shift of the mode, detected at ˜ 100 nm at the roadside, to a larger size when the distance to the roadside increased. The fleet average emission factors appeared to be lower for the CN and higher for the NO2 than ten years ago. The reason is likely to be the increased fraction of light-duty (LD) diesel vehicles in the past ten years. The fraction of heavy-duty (HD) traffic, although constituting less than 10 % of the total traffic flow, was found to have a large impact on the emissions.

  15. Mapping of Acid Sulfate Soils in Finland: determining of areas of risks and compiling guidelines for environmental protection and safe land use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupila, Juho

    2013-04-01

    Acid sulfate soils (ASS), also referred to as the "nastiest soils in the world", are soils that contain or have contained metal sulfides that oxidize under aerobic conditions and, subsequently, typically produce very severe acidity and metal pollution. In Finland, for example, the discharge of several metals to water courses from ASS is greater than that from the entire Finnish industry, and due to the acidity these metals largely occur in a soluble toxic form. In Europe, the largest occurrences of acid sulfate soils are located in Finland. It has been estimated that coverage of these harmful soils is approximately 1000 - 1500 km2 along the coastal areas of Finland. Sulfide-bearing fine-grained sediments were deposited in the sea between Finland and Sweden after the melting of the latest continental ice sheet, about 10,000 years ago. In places, the formation of such sediments is still going on today. The rapid isostatic land uplift (more than 200 m after the latest glacial period, currently up to 8 mm/year) after the retreat of the continental ice sheet has lifted these sediments above sea level. In Finland, systematic mapping and classification of acid sulfate soils started in 2009 with Geological Survey of Finland (GTK) as the leading partner, together with Åbo Akademi University and University of Helsinki. The definition of a risk classification of Finnish acid sulfate soils has been developed during the project. The observations, measurements and analyses have been used to produce e.g. probability maps of integrated catchment areas (at the scale 1:250 000), reports of the areas and guides for the identification of ASS and their environments. The main users of the results have been authorities at governmental, regional and local levels, organizations and actors in agriculture and forestry, peat production and earthwork companies and consultants concerned with soil and construction. The mapping project carried out by GTK is still in process and should be

  16. Geophysical investigations in the Kivetty area, Finland. Summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heikkinen, E. [ed.; Ahokas, H. [Fintact Ky, Helsinki (Finland); Paananen, M. [Geological Survey of Finland, Espoo (Finland); Oehberg, A. [Saanio and Riekkola Consulting Engineers, Helsinki (Finland); Front, K.; Okko, O.; Pitkaenen, P. [Technical Research of Finland, Espoo (Finland). Road, Traffic and Geotechnical Lab.; Cosma, C.; Heikkinen, P.; Keskinen, J.; Korhonen, R. [Vibrometric Oy, Perttula (Finland)

    1992-09-01

    Investigations were carried out at Kivetty site in Konginkangas, in central Finland, by geological, geophysical, geohydrological and geochemical methods in 1987-1991 to determine the suitability of the bedrock for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. Airborne, ground and borehole geophysical methods were used to study the rock type distribution, fracturing and hydraulic conductivity of the bedrock to a depth of one kilometre.

  17. The Helsinki Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babel: Journal of the Australian Federation of Modern Language Teachers' Associations, 1977

    1977-01-01

    A reprint of sections of the Helsinki agreement dealing with foreign languages and civilization, and cooperation and exchanges in the field of education. The agreement supports wider knowledge of foreign languages and promotes exchanges, cooperation, lexicography, and specialized programs in adult education. (AMH)

  18. American Studies in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Jopi Nyman

    2005-01-01

    Since its establishment in 1996, the Finnish American Studies Association has sought to promote the field of American Studies in Finland by organizing conferences, events and by increasing networking amongst its scattered membership (ca. 35) working at various universities and other higher education institutions. The current President of the Association is Dr Jopi Nyman (University of Joensuu) and its Secretary is Dr Ari Helo (University of Helsinki). While currently only the University of He...

  19. Mapping and characterising children’s daily mobility in urban residential areas in Turku, Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Nora Charlotta Fagerholm; Anna Broberg

    2011-01-01

    Independent mobility in a local environment is crucial for a child’s development and physical activity, contributing to overall health and well-being. This methodological article describes a study capturing children’s daily mobility in two residential areas in Turku, southwestern Finland, by combining the methods of GPS tracking, mobility diaries, interviews and questionnaires. Geographical positioning data enables analysis of spatial characteristics of children’s mobility, e.g. the compariso...

  20. Helsinki market entry opportunity for a Vegan & Raw Danish restaurant chain 42˚RAW

    OpenAIRE

    Yablokova, Anna

    2015-01-01

    For those who follow and are interested in the vegan lifestyle, the scarce number of restaurants which offer suchlike products in Helsinki is evident. Comparing the local market with cities around the globe this impression can be proven with statistical data. Despite the world growing trend of healthy eating and living, Finland is still far behind even the neighbouring Nordic countries on the level of niche vegan industry. The purpose of this thesis was to research the Helsinki market and fin...

  1. Law Company ERP Software Market Analysis of St. Petersburg and Stockholm - CASE: CSI Helsinki Oy

    OpenAIRE

    Miettinen, Marko; Hämäläinen, Mikko

    2010-01-01

    This study is a part of bachelor studies in Laurea University of Applied Sciences and was commissioned by the case company, CSI Helsinki. CSI Helsinki provides enterprise resource planning (ERP) and customer relationship management (CRM) solutions for the leading consulting businesses in Finland and focuses on leading law companies abroad. Since the first ERP systems were developed in the 1960s they have been used by companies to improve management of business functions and gain competiti...

  2. Perspectives on prescribing in nursing homes in Helsinki

    OpenAIRE

    Hosia-Randell, Helka

    2010-01-01

    Prescribing for older patients is challenging. The prevalence of diseases increases with advancing age and causes extensive drug use. Impairments in cognitive, sensory, social and physical functioning, multimorbidity and comorbidities, as well as age-related changes in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics all add to the complexity of prescribing. This study is a cross-sectional assessment of all long-term residents aged ≥ 65 years in all nursing homes in Helsinki, Finland. The residen...

  3. Black carbon concentration trends in Helsinki during 1996–2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Pakkanen

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The black carbon (BC concentration trends were studied during ten years in Helsinki, Finland. Measurements were made in three campaigns between 1996 and 2005 at an urban area locating two kilometres from the centre of Helsinki. The first campaign was from November 1996 to June 1997, the second from September 2000 to May 2001 and the third from March 2004 to October 2005. In this study, only data from winter and spring months was analysed. The effect of traffic and meteorological variables on the measured BC concentrations was studied by means of a multiple regression analysis, where the meteorological data was obtained from a meteorological pre-processing model (MPP-FMI. During the ten years, the campaign median BC concentrations were found to decrease slightly from 1.11 to 1.00 μg m−3. The lowest campaign median concentration (0.93 μg m−3 was measured during the second campaign in 2000–2001, when also the lowest traffic rates were measured. The strongest decrease between campaigns 1 and 3 was observed during weekday daytimes, when the traffic rates are highest. The variables affecting the measured BC concentrations most were traffic, wind speed and mixing height. On weekdays, traffic had clearly the most important influence and on weekends the effect of wind speed diluted the effect of traffic. The affecting variables and their influence on the BC concentration were similar in winter and spring. The separate examination of the three campaigns showed that the effect of traffic on the BC concentrations had decreased during the studied years. This reduction was caused by cleaner emissions from vehicles, since between years 1996 and 2005 the traffic rates had increased. A rough estimate gave that vehicle number-scaled BC mass concentrations have decreased from 0.0028 to 0.0020 μg m−3 between campaigns 1 and 3.

  4. Establishment of national emission measurement activity in neighbouring areas of Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aunela, L.; Larjava, K.; Jormanainen, P. [VTT Chemical Technology, Espoo (Finland). Environmental Technology; Muurinen, M. [Enemi Ltd, Lahti (Finland); Hietamaeki, M. [Ministry of the Environment, Helsinki (Finland)

    1995-12-31

    Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania (the Baltic countries) and the Republic State of Carelia, Russia belong to the so-called nearby areas of Finland. All being part of the former Soviet Union, they are now undergoing the establishment of their own environment- managing systems. Finland has shown a great amount of interest in supporting the efforts of these areas to solve their environmental problems. In 1993 VTT started, at the request of the East European Project of the Finnish Ministry of the Environment, a four year project aiming at the establishment of national atmospheric emission measurement systems in the Baltic countries and the Republic state of Carelia (later: the counterpart countries). Proper national emission measurement systems were regarded important in order to provide reliable data on the emission situation for national and international use. The main target of the work is to raise the level of the emission measurements in the counterpart countries to the international level. Two aspects were considered to be required to achieve this goal; (1) delivery of proper emission measurement equipment, (2) training of the emission measurement personnel. It was estimated that within three to four years these counterpart countries could join the Finnish quality assurance system in emission measurements if desired. (author)

  5. What was behind the bark? : An assessment of decay among urban Tilia, Betula and Acer trees felled as hazardous in the Helsinki City area

    OpenAIRE

    Terho, Minna

    2009-01-01

    Old trees growing in urban environments are often felled due to symptoms of mechanical defects that could be hazardous to people and property. The decisions concerning these removals are justified by risk assessments carried out by tree care professionals. The major motivation for this study was to determine the most common profiles of potential hazard characteristics for the three most common urban tree genera in Helsinki City: Tilia, Betula and Acer, and in this way improve management pract...

  6. Spent fuel encapsulation and verification. Safequards workshop in Helsinki, Finland, 19-20 December 2000. Phase II interim report on Task FIN C1184 of the Finnish Support Programme to IAEA safeguards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honkamaa, T. (ed.)

    2001-03-01

    According the present plans the final disposal of spent fuel will begin in Finland in 2020. The construction of the encapsulation facility will begin five years earlier. Preliminary design of encapsulation facility has already been presented by Finnish nuclear waste management company Posiva ltd. In order to avoid unnecessary costs and delays in implementation of safeguards regime in the facility, the safeguards-related aspects should be taken into account in early phase. This requires open communication between the operator, regulators and expert bodies. In December 2000, Finnish Support Programme to IAEA safeguards arranged a workshop to facilitate the communication between the operators, regulators and experts. Due to the new concept, the open discussion is beneficial and necessary for all parties. One goal of the workshop was also to provide basis for further designing of the facility. The goals for the meeting were achieved. The discussions were conducted in very good and fruitful atmosphere. The conclusions and recommendations of the workshop were discussed and written down by the chair of the final session. The draft document was distributed to the participants and all comments were taken into account, This report, representing the views of the participants, gives also recommendations for further work. It was tentatively agreed that parties will meet again in 2001 to review and discuss, in an informal atmosphere, facility design developments and potential safeguards measures. Action to convene the meeting is on the FINSP (orig.)

  7. Dispersion model computations of urban air pollution in Espoo, Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valkonen, E.; Haerkoenen, J.; Kukkonen, J.; Rantakrans, E.; Jalkanen, L.

    1997-12-31

    This report presents the numerical results of air quality studies of the city of Espoo in southern Finland. This city is one of the four cities in the Helsinki metropolitan area, having a total population of 850 000. A thorough emission inventory was made of both mobile and stationary sources in the Helsinki metropolitan area. The atmospheric dispersion was evaluated using an urban dispersion modelling system, including a Gaussian multiple-source plume model and a meteorological pre-processing model. The hourly time series of CO, NO{sub 2} and SO{sub 2} concentrations were predicted, using the emissions and meteorological data for the year 1990. The predicted results show a clear decrease in the yearly mean concentrations from southeast to northwest. This is due in part to the denser traffic in the southern parts of Espoo, and in part to pollution from the neighbouring cities of Helsinki and Vantaa, located east of Espoo. The statistical concentration parameters found for Espoo were lower than the old national air quality guidelines (1984); however, some occurrences of above-threshold values were found for NO{sub 2} in terms of the new guidelines (1996). The contribution of traffic to the total concentrations varies spatially from 30 to 90 % for NO{sub 2} from 1 to 65 % for SO{sub 2} while for CO it is nearly 100 %. The concentrations database will be further utilised to analyse the influence of urban air pollution on the health of children attending selected day nurseries in Espoo. The results of this study can also be applied in traffic and city planning. In future work the results will also be compared with data from the urban measurement network of the Helsinki Metropolitan Area Council. (orig.) 19 refs.

  8. Soil acidity status in polluted and non-polluted areas in southern Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From 359 study plots on coniferous forest soil in southern Finland, 232 humus and 359 mineral soil (top 5 cm) samples were taken in 1991 and analyzed for their cation exchange capacity, base saturation, pH, total S content (humus samples only), and extractable Al, Fe and Mn concentrations in order to assess the impact of acidic air pollution on soil acidity. The main sources of local air pollutants (SO2 and NOx) were from the capital region and an oil refinery. Although concentrations of S in the humus layer were 8% higher near the emission sources, it was concluded that air pollution has not resulted in a detectable increase in soil acidity. Mean values for humus layer pH (BaCl2), cation exchange capacity (CEC), base saturation, and extractable Al concentration for the overall study area were 2.9 (0.2), 310 (50) meq kg-1, 48 (12)% of CEC, and 530 (340) mg kg-1. The respective values for the mineral soil layer were 3.3 (0.3), 56 (19) meq kg-1, 13 (8)% of CEC, and 320 (130) mg kg-1. Standard deviations are given in parentheses. 24 refs, 2 figs, 5 tabs

  9. Everyday Discoveries in Helsinki and Dublin: How PIVOT Dublin and the Institute of Designers in Ireland Engaged in an Open and Participative Competition as Part of World Design Capital 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Sheehan, Barry

    2012-01-01

    Design Forum Finland invited the Institute of Designers in Ireland (IDI) to take part in the International Design House Exhibition as part of World Design Capital Helsinki 2012. The IDI was asked to work with Design Forum Finland and Imu Design in the event that takes place during Helsinki Design Week 2012. In 2010 Dublin City Council formed a group called PIVOT Dublin to bid for World Design Capital 2014. Dublin has been investigating different ways of utilizing design to make changes and...

  10. Mapping and characterising children’s daily mobility in urban residential areas in Turku, Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Charlotta Fagerholm

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Independent mobility in a local environment is crucial for a child’s development and physical activity, contributing to overall health and well-being. This methodological article describes a study capturing children’s daily mobility in two residential areas in Turku, southwestern Finland, by combining the methods of GPS tracking, mobility diaries, interviews and questionnaires. Geographical positioning data enables analysis of spatial characteristics of children’s mobility, e.g. the comparison to land use structure and analysis of the travel speed, while the qualitative data sets reveal how, why and with whom the travel was realised and the level of children’s independence in mobility.The results show that children’s mobility is clustered around homes and schools and evident gender differences exist; boys travel longer distances and at higher speeds than girls. The children in Turku are relatively independent and have extensive mobility licenses. However, the travel undertaken to practise hobbies or participate in organised leisure activities is realised in adult company and significantly dominated by car transportation. The results strengthen the observation that Finnish children are allowed to travel rather independently and to explore the surrounding environment without adult company, using active forms of transportation. The significant level of independence is a consequence of the high perception of safety, both from the children and the parents in the residential areas. The described mixed methods approach, combining objective measurement of actual mobility with qualitative data sets, is applicable for further mobility studies and the results offer implications for planning child-friendly urban environments.

  11. Does diurnal temperature range influence seasonal suicide mortality? Assessment of daily data of the Helsinki metropolitan area from 1973 to 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holopainen, Jari; Helama, Samuli; Partonen, Timo

    2014-08-01

    Several studies show a peak in suicide rates during springtime and suggest differences in the seasonal variation of suicides. However, the seasonal distribution of the temperature impact on suicide is less clear. This study investigated the relationship between diurnal temperature range (DTR) on suicide mortality. Daily temperature and suicide data for Helsinki were analyzed for the period of 1973-2010 inclusive. Overall, DTR reached its maximum during the spring from mid-April to mid-June, which is also the season with highest suicide mortality in the study region. Specifically, the seasonal timing and maxima for both DTR and suicides vary from year to year. Time series analysis of DTR and suicide records revealed a significant ( P BAT) over-activity. Activation of BAT through the winter improves cold tolerance at the cost of heat tolerance. This might trigger anxiety and psychomotor agitation, affecting mood in a negative way. As a hypothesis, the compromised heat tolerance is suggested to increase the risk of death from suicide.

  12. Finland country report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rantamaeki, Karin [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland (Finland)

    2008-07-01

    engineering at Helsinki (TKK) and Lappeenranta (LUT) Universities of Technology; - Radiochemistry: University of Helsinki (UH); - Some activities in other universities too; - Finnish specialty in all technical areas is close connection of students with industry, research institutes and the authorities; Summer trainees; Diploma (Master's) theses; Special course at professional level after graduation covering whole area of nuclear safety: - For new staff and recruits from other fields (5 times, 270 participants), - Organised jointly by the Ministry of Employment and the Economy and all institutes in nuclear energy. 'Radiant Women' Seminar in 2007: For female decision makers and opinion leaders; Some 70 participants; Theme 'The climate changes - changes in everyday life'; Opening speech by Ms. Sirkka Hautojaervi, Permanent Secretary of the Ministry of the Environment; 'Finland and its adaptation to the climate change', senior researcher Susanna Kankaanpaeae, the Finnish Environment Institute; 'Prevention of climate change in everyday life', communications director Paeivi Laitila from Motiva; 'CO{sub 2}-studies and the effect of the sea on the climate change', senior researcher Heidi Pettersson, the Marine Research Institute. Christmas party in January for Energy Channel members who visited the research department of the Radiation and Nuclear Safety authority STUK. Number of Energy Channel members: {approx}80.

  13. Finland country report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    engineering at Helsinki (TKK) and Lappeenranta (LUT) Universities of Technology; - Radiochemistry: University of Helsinki (UH); - Some activities in other universities too; - Finnish specialty in all technical areas is close connection of students with industry, research institutes and the authorities; Summer trainees; Diploma (Master's) theses; Special course at professional level after graduation covering whole area of nuclear safety: - For new staff and recruits from other fields (5 times, 270 participants), - Organised jointly by the Ministry of Employment and the Economy and all institutes in nuclear energy. 'Radiant Women' Seminar in 2007: For female decision makers and opinion leaders; Some 70 participants; Theme 'The climate changes - changes in everyday life'; Opening speech by Ms. Sirkka Hautojaervi, Permanent Secretary of the Ministry of the Environment; 'Finland and its adaptation to the climate change', senior researcher Susanna Kankaanpaeae, the Finnish Environment Institute; 'Prevention of climate change in everyday life', communications director Paeivi Laitila from Motiva; 'CO2-studies and the effect of the sea on the climate change', senior researcher Heidi Pettersson, the Marine Research Institute. Christmas party in January for Energy Channel members who visited the research department of the Radiation and Nuclear Safety authority STUK. Number of Energy Channel members: ∼80

  14. Book Review: Sustainable Innovation : A New Age of Innovation and Finland's Innovation Policy by Hautamäki A.

    OpenAIRE

    Del Arco Herrera, Ignacio

    2010-01-01

    Kirja-arvostelu/Book Review kirjasta: Hautamäki, A. (2010). Sustainable Innovation: A New Age of Innovation and Finland’s Innovation Policy [Sitra Reports 87]. Helsinki, Finland: Sitra and Edita Prima, Ltd. 144 pages.

  15. Turbulent vertical fluxes and air quality measured in urban air in Helsinki

    OpenAIRE

    JÀrvi, Leena

    2009-01-01

    There is a growing need to understand the exchange processes of momentum, heat and mass between an urban surface and the atmosphere as they affect our quality of life. Understanding the source/sink strengths as well as the mixing mechanisms of air pollutants is particularly important due to their effects on human health and climate. This work aims to improve our understanding of these surface-atmosphere interactions based on the analysis of measurements carried out in Helsinki, Finland. The v...

  16. World Medical Association Declaration of Helsinki Ethical Principles for Medical Research Involving Human Subjects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@Adopted by the 18th WMA General Assembly, Helsinki, Finland, June 1964; amended by the 29th WMA General Assembly, Tokyo, Japan, October 1975; 35th WMA General Assembly, Venice, Italy, October 1983; 41st WMA General Assembly, Hong Kong, September 1989; 48th WMA General Assembly, Somerset West, Republic of South Africa, October 1996, and the 52nd WMA General Assembly, Edinburgh, Scotland, October 2000.

  17. Russian Tourists Overnighting in Helsinki: Information Search and Use of Social Media

    OpenAIRE

    Liikanen, Taika

    2013-01-01

    Russian tourism to Finland is a constantly growing phenomenon. This Bachelor’s thesis focuses on researching consumer behavior of Russian tourists overnighting in Helsinki. In this research, consumer behavior regarding information search and social media behavior are highlighted in order to answer the research targets set by the commissioner, Hotel Arthur. In today’s travel industry, the changes towards online booking and domination of large online travel agents force hotels to find ways to d...

  18. Finland 1993

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørstrup, Finn Rude

    1993-01-01

    Kompendium udarbejdet til en studierejse til Finland maj 1998 Kunstakademiets Arkitektskole, Institut 3H......Kompendium udarbejdet til en studierejse til Finland maj 1998 Kunstakademiets Arkitektskole, Institut 3H...

  19. The birth rate of hypospadias in the Turku area in Finland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Virtanen, H E; Kaleva, M; Haavisto, A M;

    2001-01-01

    Reports based on national registers of congenital malformations have suggested that the birth rate of hypospadias has increased during the last few decades. Register-based information may, however, have pitfalls because of changes in diagnostics, reporting accuracy and registration system. The aim...... of this study was to determine the current birth rate of hypospadias in Turku University Central Hospital (TUCH) in Finland. This was a prospective study on live-born boys born in TUCH from 1997 to 1999. In the total birth cohort (n=5,798) as well as in a special subcohort group (n=1,505) 0.3% of boys had...... hypospadias. Only one scrotal hypospadias was found in a boy who had a chromosomal anomaly. Other hypospadias were glandular or coronal. No increase was found in the birth rate of hypospadias when comparing our result with register-based data of boys born in Finland during the years 1970 to 1986...

  20. Mycorrhizal mushroom biodiversity in PAH-polluted areas : Case Somerharju, Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Yemelyanova, Marina

    2016-01-01

    Presence of mycorrhizal fungi affects the phytoremediation efficiency on PAH-polluted soils: fungi participate in the soil bioremediation per se and, as symbionts with living trees, help the trees to survive under the pollution and other harsh environmental conditions. This thesis initiates a study of a mycorrhizal mushroom community on the Somerharju phytoremediation project site in Finland. An inventory of the mycorrhizal mushrooms concerning mushroom abundance, species richness and bi...

  1. Mortality and air pollution in Helsinki.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pönkä, A; Savela, M; Virtanen, M

    1998-01-01

    In Helsinki, Finland, from 1987 to 1993, the authors studied the associations between daily concentrations of sulphur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, ozone, total suspended particulates, and particulates with aerodynamic diameters less than 10 microm (PM10), and the daily number of deaths from all causes and from cardiovascular causes. Investigators used Poisson regressions to conduct analyses in two age groups, and they controlled for temperature, relative humidity, day of the week, month, year, long-term trend, holidays, and influenza epidemics. The PM10 levels were associated significantly with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality among persons under the age of 65 y of age. In the less-than-65-y age group, sulfur dioxide and ozone were also associated significantly with cardiovascular mortality. The effect of ozone was independent of the PM10 effect, whereas sulfur dioxide became nonsignificant when modeled with PM10. An increase of 10 microg/m3 in PM10 resulted in increases in total mortality and cardiovascular mortality of 3.5% (95% confidence interval=1.0, 5.8) and 4.1% (95% confidence interval=0.4, 10.3), respectively. A 20 microg/m3 increase in ozone was associated with a 9.9% (95% confidence interval=1.1, 19.5) increase in cardiovascular mortality; however, ozone results were inconsistent. Moreover, in addition to their separate effects, high concentrations of PM10, ozone, and nitrogen dioxide had a further harmful additive effect. Typically, PM10 was a better indicator of particulate pollution than total suspended particulates. The authors' findings suggest that (a) even low levels of particulates are related to an increase in cardiovascular mortality; (b) ozone--even in low concentrations--is associated, independently, with cardiovascular mortality; and (c) PM10, ozone, and nitrogen dioxide--the essential components of summertime pollution--have harmful interactions at high concentrations. PMID:9709992

  2. The geochemical characteristics of the bottom sediment in the pockmark area of the eastern part of the Gulf of Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanova V. V.; Kirievskaya D. V.; Bolotov A. Ye.

    2011-01-01

    It is the first time pockmark-like structures have been detected in the south-eastern part of the Gulf of Finland with the help of a side-scan sonar and a profile recorder. The analysis of the distribution of microcomponents in the bottom sediment indicates that the pockmark area is located in the geochemical barrier border zone where the reducing medium of the incoming mineralized solution meets the highly oxidizing sea water medium. The hydrodynamic and geochemical processes in the pockmark...

  3. Customer Service and Customer Satisfaction Level of CheapSleep Hostels, Helsinki

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen Thi Vu, Hoa

    2016-01-01

    This bachelor thesis was commissioned by CheapSleep hostels, Helsinki. CheapSleep is a young budget hostel having operated for 3,5 years located in Vallila, Helsinki. CheapSleep has recently considered opening a new business in Helsinki, as well as the metropolitan area. The aim of this dissertation is to examine the service concept and identify the customer satisfaction level by conducting a customer satisfaction survey while the author was working at the reception in CheapSleep hostels. ...

  4. Report on joint ecogeochemical mapping and monitoring in the West Murmansk Region and the contiguous areas of Finland and Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A series of meetings between the Central Kola Survey Expedition, Geological Survey of Finland and Geological Survey of Norway in 1991-1992 led to the implementation of a pilot project of a joint ecogeochemical study of the impacts of industrial activities on the terrestrial systems of West Kola Peninsula and adjacent areas in Finland and Norway. The main aims of this pilot project were to harmonize methods of sampling, preparation, analysis, data treatment and interpretation, focusing on heavy metals and radionuclides. A small area in the three-country field, including Nikel, Zapoljarny and Kirkenes was chosen as test territory. Experiences of the pilot project should form a base for planning a major project to cover some 170000 km2 in the three countries. Snow cover, terrestrial moss, A0-horizon, A0+2-horizon, C-horizon, stream water, stream sediments and overbank sediments were used as sampling medias, with 15 sites in each country. A data quality assessment was carried out, and maps of pollutant elements clearly delineate patterns similar to those found by other workers. There is no indication that C-horizon is affected, but results of overbank sediments indicate that there are abnormal conditions with regards to the sediment transport and chemistry in the ''industrial desert''. Results of 134,137Cs determinations in the uppermost 5 cm of the soil profile show no alarming levels. An attempt at modelling the flux of contaminants has also been made. 29 refs., 54 figs., 9 tabs

  5. Towards environmental sustainability. Report of the Peer review of the city of Helsinki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dictus, J.; Creedy, A. (eds)

    2009-07-01

    In the peer review of Helsinki, the city's actions are evaluated from the perspective of ecological sustainability. This peer review is the latter part of the two-part evaluation of the environmental management of the city. The topics of the peer review were sustainable traffic, air quality, noise, climate and energy policy, water supply and sewerage, soil, and leadership in environmental affairs. The peer review is a performance evaluation, meaning a considered evaluation conducted by professionals on the performance of Helsinki in terms of the requirements presented in the benchmark model. The ideal model developed has been planned to include criteria originating from legislation as well as best practice criteria that are achievable from the viewpoint of the ecological sustainability of the cities but which aim to raise the bar. The peer review was conducted by evaluating differences or deficiencies which occur between the actual activities of Helsinki and the ideal model. The evaluators have defined the competence of the city based on one hand on the self assessment report drafted by the City of Helsinki and on the other hand the interview replies which the peer review group received on its review visit. In terms of the sustainability of traffic, it was commented that even though Helsinki has excellent public transportation, a traffic policy which integrates environmental viewpoints should also include much more. Even though Helsinki's air quality problems are not as considerable as in many other European cities, the city's air protection programme is of a very high quality. In particular, the health impact assessment is an exemplary best practice. However, the problem with the air protection programme lies in its implementation. In energy saving, the energy efficient aims set for new buildings are a good start, but they were considered modest compared with other European cities. In many cities, residential areas are already being developed to

  6. Regionale Meeresschutzkooperation und die EU-Gratwanderung der Helsinki-Kommission imOsterweiterungsprozess der EU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imhoff, Heike

    1999-12-01

    The purpose of the lecture is to describe the role of regional marine protection cooperation in the context of international cooperation. My intention is to provide evidence that regional forms of cooperation are an indispensable instrument, in particular against the backdrop of the EU enlargement to the east. Signed at times when the iron curtain still existed, the Baltic Marine Environment Protection Convention was the basis of a first reluctant cooperation between Western and Eastem states bordering on the Baltic Sea. As a result of the fall of the iron curtain and of the accession of Finland and Sweden to the European Union there was a shift in the political structure of the Baltic Sea cooperation. 4 EU member states are represented in the Helsinki Commission. As there is a total of 10 Parties (one of them the Commission of the European Communities) this means that EU countries currently already make up 50% of the Commission. The regulatory instruments of the Helsinki Commission (legally non-binding, yet politically appellative recommendations) and of the EU (directives, regulations etc. which are binding by international law) make it clear that there are serious differences. From the point of view of regional marine protection cooperation, the EC Commission’s involvement in issues of regional marine protection has been linked to both advantages and disadvantages. The pressure created by the EC’s involvement in certain issues can be considered an advantage, since it requires that certain issues are continually addressed in the framework of regional marine protection cooperation. For example, in the wake of the adoption of the nitrates directive special rules were established in the framework of the Helsinki Commission. However, the exclusive competence for individual areas (e.g. fisheries) claimed by the EC Commission sometimes has negative effects. Those member states of the Helsinki Commission which are also EU member states may formally only accept rules

  7. Land uplift and relative sea-level changes in the Loviisa area, southeastern Finland, during the last 8000 years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miettinen, A.; Eronen, M.; Hyvaerinen, H. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Geology

    1999-09-01

    Southeastern Finland belongs to the area covered by the Weichselian ice sheet, where the release of the ice load caused a rapid isostatic rebound during the postglacial time. While the mean overall apparent uplift is of the order of 2 mm/yr today, in the early Holocene time it was several times higher. A marked decrease in the rebound rate occurred around 8500 BP, however, since then the uplift rate has remained high until today, with a slightly decreasing trend towards the present time. According to current understanding there have neither been temporary increases nor decreases in the rate of uplift during the postglacial time. Even so, it is not known for sure whether there are regional irregularities on the rebound in Finland. Concurrently with land uplift, relative sea-level changes in the Baltic basin were also strongly affected by the global eustatic rise of sea-level. During the early Litorina Sea stage on the southern coast of Finland around 7000 BP, the rise in sea-level exceeded the rate of land uplift, and resulted in a short-lived transgression. The most accurate information on relative sea-level changes in an uplifting area may be obtained from radiocarbon dated events of isolation in small lake basins, as they were cut off from larger bodies of water. The isolations of such basins from the sea may be reliably determined by the recorded changes in the diatom flora in the sediment sequences, at horizons which may be radiometrically dated. In the present study, the isolation-horizons of 13 basins were dated by 26 conventional and 2 AMS radiocarbon dates. According to the available sets of dates, the time span of emergence extends from 8300 BP to the past few hundred years, for lakes from c. 30 m to 1.1 m above the present sea-level. Due to the global rise in sea-level, during the period of 7500-6500 BP, the sea-level rise clearly exceeded the rate of uplift, and resulted in the Litorina transgression, which had an amplitude of around one metre. The

  8. Land uplift and relative sea-level changes in the Loviisa area, southeastern Finland, during the last 8000 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Southeastern Finland belongs to the area covered by the Weichselian ice sheet, where the release of the ice load caused a rapid isostatic rebound during the postglacial time. While the mean overall apparent uplift is of the order of 2 mm/yr today, in the early Holocene time it was several times higher. A marked decrease in the rebound rate occurred around 8500 BP, however, since then the uplift rate has remained high until today, with a slightly decreasing trend towards the present time. According to current understanding there have neither been temporary increases nor decreases in the rate of uplift during the postglacial time. Even so, it is not known for sure whether there are regional irregularities on the rebound in Finland. Concurrently with land uplift, relative sea-level changes in the Baltic basin were also strongly affected by the global eustatic rise of sea-level. During the early Litorina Sea stage on the southern coast of Finland around 7000 BP, the rise in sea-level exceeded the rate of land uplift, and resulted in a short-lived transgression. The most accurate information on relative sea-level changes in an uplifting area may be obtained from radiocarbon dated events of isolation in small lake basins, as they were cut off from larger bodies of water. The isolations of such basins from the sea may be reliably determined by the recorded changes in the diatom flora in the sediment sequences, at horizons which may be radiometrically dated. In the present study, the isolation-horizons of 13 basins were dated by 26 conventional and 2 AMS radiocarbon dates. According to the available sets of dates, the time span of emergence extends from 8300 BP to the past few hundred years, for lakes from c. 30 m to 1.1 m above the present sea-level. Due to the global rise in sea-level, during the period of 7500-6500 BP, the sea-level rise clearly exceeded the rate of uplift, and resulted in the Litorina transgression, which had an amplitude of around one metre. The

  9. Mortality and air pollution in Helsinki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poenkae, A.; Savela, M.; Virtanen, M. [Helsinki City Centre of the Environment (Finland)

    1998-07-01

    In Helsinki, Finland, from 1987 to 1993, the authors studied the associations between daily concentrations of sulphur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, ozone, total suspended particulates, and particulates with aerodynamic diameters less than 10 {micro}m (PM{sub 10}), and the daily number of deaths from all causes and from cardiovascular causes. Investigators used Poisson regressions to conduct analyses in two age groups, and they controlled for temperature, relative humidity, day of the week, month, year, long-term trend, holidays, and influenza epidemics. The PM{sub 10} levels were associated significantly with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality among persons under the age of 65 y of age. In the less-than-65-y age group, sulfur dioxide and ozone were also associated significantly with cardiovascular mortality. The effect of the ozone was independent of the PM{sub 10} effect, whereas sulfur dioxide became nonsignificant when modeled with PM{sub 10}. An increase of 10 {micro}g/m{sup 3} in PM{sub 10} resulted in increases in total mortality and cardiovascular mortality of 3.5% (95% confidence interval = 1.0, 5.8) and 4.1% (95% confidence interval = 0.4, 10.3), respectively. A 20 {micro}g/m{sup 3} increase in ozone was associated with a 9.9% (95% confidence interval = 1.1, 19.5) increase in cardiovascular mortality; however, ozone results were inconsistent. Moreover, in addition to their separate effects, high concentrations of PM{sub 10}, ozone, and nitrogen dioxide had a further harmful additive effect. Typically, PM{sub 10} was a better indicator of particulate pollution than total suspended particulates. The authors` findings suggest that (a) even low levels of particulates are related to an increase in cardiovascular mortality; (b) ozone--even in low concentrations--is associated, independently, with cardiovascular mortality; and (c) PM{sub 10}, ozone, and nitrogen dioxide--the essential components of summertime pollution--have harmful interactions at high

  10. Hotellipaketin suunnittelu Case: Hilton Helsinki Airport

    OpenAIRE

    Kyrö, Niina; Grönqvist, Henna

    2014-01-01

    Tämän opinnäytetyön aiheena oli hotellipaketin suunnittelu, joka toteutettiin toimeksiantona kansainväliseen Hilton -ketjuun kuuluvalle Hilton Helsinki Airportille. Hilton Helsinki Airport tarjoaa täyden palvelun hotellina asiakkailleen majoitus-, kokous- ja ravintolapalveluita. Opinnäytetyö oli toiminnallinen. Sen tavoitteena oli tuottaa toteuttamiskelpoinen hotellipaketti. Työn tarkoituksena oli luoda lisäarvoa toimeksiantajan hotellipakettitarjontaan ja edistää hotellin asiakastyytyväisyyt...

  11. History of cosmic ray research in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usoskin, I. G.; Valtonen, E.; Vainio, R.; Tanskanen, P. J.; Aurela, A. M.

    2009-11-01

    The history of cosmic ray research in Finland can be traced back to the end of 1950s, when first ground-based cosmic ray measurements started in Turku. The first cosmic ray station was founded in Oulu in 1964 performing measurements of cosmic rays by a muon telescope, which was later complemented by a neutron monitor. Since the 1990s, several research centers and universities, such as The Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki University of Technology, University of Oulu, University of Turku and University of Helsinki have been involved in space science projects, such as SOHO, AMS, Cluster, Cassini, BepiColombo, etc. At the same time, ground-based cosmic ray measurements have reached a new level, including a fully automatic on-line database in Oulu and a new muon measuring underground site in Pyhäsalmi. Research groups in Helsinki, Oulu and Turku have also extensive experience in theoretical investigations of different aspects of cosmic ray physics. Cosmic ray research has a 50-year long history in Finland, covering a wide range from basic long-running ground-based observations to high-technology space-borne instrumentation and sophisticated theoretical studies. Several generations of researchers have been involved in the study ensuring transfer of experience and building the recognized Finnish research school of cosmic ray studies.

  12. Colon cancer and large bowel function in Denmark and Finland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cummings, J H; Branch, W J; Bjerrum, L;

    1982-01-01

    for large bowel cancer. Mean transit time (37 +/- 1 hours, Copenhagen; 43 +/- 1 hours, Helsinki; 40 +/- 1 hours, Them; 37 +/- 1 hours, Parikkala) was not significantly different among populations, but average 24-hour stool weights (136 +/- 13 g, Copenhagen; 176 +/- 17 g, Helsinki; 169 +/- 16 g, Them; 196...... +/- 15 g, Parikkala) were different and had a significant inverse relationship to total large bowel cancer incidence, with larger stool weights being found in the low-risk population. A high proportion of study subjects, especially in Finland, were found to be taking medication or to have a history...

  13. Case study: Teaching Finnish - English Language for Specific Purposes (LSP) Legal Translation at the University of Helsinki

    OpenAIRE

    Garant, Mikel

    2013-01-01

    Finland is widely recognized as one of the top countries to live in, with transparency and an excellent education system, which provides for top English proficiencies. The applied English translation case study that is examined in this paper focuses on Finnish into English legal translation teaching coupled with studying at the University of Helsinki. Scrutiny of the course structure, teaching materials and teaching methods was undertaken as part of the empirical research and the efficiency o...

  14. Music Export from Helsinki to Berlin and vice versa. Case study: Face of God and Ill Kommodity

    OpenAIRE

    Kuhn, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    This is a product - oriented thesis. The aim is to conclude a guidebook about music export for young bands that are interested in playing a show abroad. The project: Music export from Helsinki to Berlin and vice versa. Case study: Face of God and Ill Kommodity, was used to learn from the praxis. The thesis describes the responsibilities of the project manager and brings project management and event planning together. The music export history of Finland and Germany is taken in considerat...

  15. Defining Elements of Cities Touristic Attractiveness - A Case Study – Helsinki

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Tescasiu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Achieving the „attractive touristic destination” label represents a high objective for any touristic destination. In order to accomplish this objective, one of the most important aspect is to find what do the attributes of attractiveness in tourism mean. This study consists in a research made by the author during an Erasmus+ teaching visit at Laurea University of Applied Science in Helsinki- Finland. The research consisted in a focus-group organized in the Tourism, Restaurants and Entrepreneurship specialization among students and teachers from Finland and, also, international students, in order to provide some trends that could be deepened by other analysis. The analysis starts from the idea that touristic attractiveness has a subjective component, given by the consumers. As a conclusion, it should be appreciated that it is very important to find the way that touristic services consumer evaluate this concept.

  16. Medication adherence: a review of pharmacy education, research, practice and policy in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Bell JS; Enlund H; Vainio K

    2010-01-01

    Aims: To describe pharmacy education, research, practice and policy related to medication adherence in Finland since the year 2000.Methods: The three universities that provide pharmacy education (Åbo Akademi, University of Eastern Finland, and University of Helsinki) completed a structured pro-forma questionnaire regarding education related to medication adherence. A MEDLINE and EMBASE literature search was performed to identify English language peer-reviewed research that reported medication...

  17. Membership Finland

    CERN Multimedia

    Rubbia,C

    1991-01-01

    Le DG C.Rubbia et la vice présidente du conseil du Cern souhaite la bienvenue à l'adhésion de la Finlande, comme 15me membre du Cern depuis le 1. janvier 1991 en présence du secrétaire generale et de l'ambassadeur

  18. Results of the Helsinki magnetic observatory 1844-1912

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Nevanlinna

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available The geomagnetic field declination (D and horizontal component (H were observed visually at the Helsinki magnetic observatory between 1844–1912. About 2.0 million single observations of the magnetic components are available. The observing equipment and observation methods were the same for almost 70 years. The Helsinki data series is thus rather homogeneous and suitable for magnetic field analysis of both internal and external origin for about five sunspot cycles (sunspot cycles 9–13. Due to disturbances from nearby electric tramway traffic, most of the observations after 1897 are very noisy and unreliable for magnetic activity studies. Observations of D (1844–1897 have been converted into an absolute scale but H refers to variation values only. Observations of D have been previously analyzed and published for the time interval 1844–1880. In this paper we present new results of D for 1881–1897 and H for 1844–1897. The annual rate of the secular variation of D has been rather stable between 1844–1909, showing a mean eastward increase of +0.11°/year, which is about twice as large as the mean secular variation rate for the past 50 years at the same latitude in Finland. Around 1875 there was a sudden change in the secular variation rate resembling the famous jerk of 1970. Magnetic activity indices (K, Ak for 1844–1897 were calculated from hourly values of D- and D-series separately using the IAGA K-index algorithm (the FMI-method. Comparisons with other relevant activity series from other sources (aa, u, RI, C9, auroral occurrence rate show that the Helsinki index series gives an important contribution to the index family. By extending the Mayaud's aa-index series with Helsinki Ak-values (1844–1868, it is possible to reconstruct a (pseudo aa-series that covers almost 160 years. Magnetic activity (space weather was

  19. Structural analysis and metamorphism of Palaeoproterozoic metapelites in the Seinäjoki-Ilmajoki area, western Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mäkitie, H.

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available The Palaeoproterozoic Svecofennian bedrock of the Seinäjoki-Ilmajoki area, western Finland, is largely composed of porphyroblastic metapelites. In the area, the regional metamorphic grade increases towards the southwest. Over a distance of 15 km, andalusite mica schists gradually grade into migmatitic garnet cordierite-sillimanite mica gneisses with a facies-series of the andalusite-sillimanite type. Five regional metamorphic zones are present: andalusite, sillimanite-muscovite, sillimanite-K-feldspar, cordierite-K-feldspar and garnet-cordierite-K-feldspar. The primary layering (S0 of the mica schists is deformed by an isoclinal fold phase (F2, which is synchronous with the main metamorphic phase and the growth of micas. S1 is very weak and subject to interpretation. The S2 schistosity is deformed by intense late-metamorphic F3 and F3b folds, which have formed under slightly different metamorphic conditions: practically no metamorphic micas have grown parallel to axial planes while within F3b folds there are a few granitic veins parallel to these planes. The F3 and F3b folds probably belong to one phase. S2 dominates in the mica schists while S3 and S3b dominate in the mica gneisses. The metapelites are also deformed by younger minor fold phases (F4 and F5. A composite schistosity (S0±S1±S2±S3, or S3b commonly occurs in the metapelites. The peak of regional metamorphism has been associated with the intrusion of 1.89-1.88 Ga old tonalite plutons. Geothermometric estimates for regional metamorphism are c. 730 °C at an assumed pressure of 5 kbar. Neosomes in the high-grade mica gneisses occur as patches rather than as elongated, narrow veins. Garnet coexists with cordierite, but the minerals are rarely in equilibrium. Muscovitization and the formation of retrogressive andalusite did not occur in the high-grade mica gneisses, but there is minor kyanite indicating that the crust probably underwent near-isobaric cooling. The area of highest

  20. Kasvun vaikutus marginaalitapahtuman tuotantoon : Case Helsinki Pride

    OpenAIRE

    Pihlman, Iina

    2014-01-01

    Tämä opinnäytetyö käsittelee marginaalitapahtuman kasvua ja kasvun vaikutusta tapahtuman tuotantoon. Työn tilaaja on HeSeta ry, jonka organisoima Helsinki Pride -tapahtuma toimii opinnäytetytön esimerkkinä ja kehittämistyön kohteena. Helsinki Pride on viikon mittainen, vuosittain järjestettävä ihmisoikeustapahtuma, joka kokoaa yhteen seksuaali- ja sukupuolivähemmistöjä sekä heidän läheisiään. Tapahtuman kävijämäärät ja sidostapahtumat ovat kasvaneet vuosittain. Opinnäytetyö on kehittämis...

  1. [The plague in Finland in 1710].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engström, N G

    1994-01-01

    In the autumn of 1710 Helsinki was struck by the so-called oriental plague during four months. The infection was transferred by black rats which harboured fleas. The flea-bites caused boils. It was believed that the plague was air-borne, and the air was very humid that autumn. Big fires were lit in order to reduce the humidity, the purpose being to make it easier for the infected to breathe. Attempts were also made to dissect the boils. The carriers of the contamination came as refugees from Estland over the Gulf of Finland. The infection had spread from Turkey to Poland and Balticum after the defeat of the Finnish-Swedish army in the summer of 1709 at Poltava in Ucraine. Helsingfors (Helsinki) was struck extremely hard. About two-thirds of the inhabitants died of the pestilence. Some escaped by fleeing to the countryside. The plague spread through the country as far north as to Uleåborg (Oulu) and Cajana (Kajaani). Marketplaces became important centres of infection. With the advent of the frost in December the plague dwindled. At that time Helsinki was practically a dead town. PMID:11640321

  2. Helsinki School of Economics Executive Education

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ One of Europe's pre-eminent business schools, the Helsinki School of Economics Executive Education (HSEEE) offers focused executive education programs that produce lasting results for its client organizations.HSEEE partners with a select group of corporate clients to design customized programs tailored to their specific needs. HSEEE works intimately with a dedicated team of content experts that understands the industry and company's competitive environment. Its core competence is in talent management programs for middle to senior executives.

  3. Hilton Helsinki Strandin vastaanoton asiakaspalvelun kehitysehdotus

    OpenAIRE

    Kataja, Noora

    2015-01-01

    Opinnäytetyö tutkii, kuinka voisi parhaiten kehittää olemassaolevaa asiakaspalvelun tasoa Hilton Helsinki Strandin vastaanotossa. Pohdinnassa keskitytään pelkästään vastaanoton asiakaspalveluun havainnoinnin ja johdon haastattelun pohjalta. Johtoa haastattelemalla saatiin tieto nykyisestä tyytyväisyystasosta, ja sitä vertaillen omaan pohdintaan ja havainnointiin teorian tuella mietittiin sopiva tapa edelleen ke-hittää palvelun tasoa ja korkeaa laatua. Aluksi haettiin teorian avulla t...

  4. Observing wind, aerosol particles, cloud and precipitation: Finland's new ground-based remote-sensing network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hirsikko

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The Finnish Meteorological Institute, in collaboration with the University of Helsinki, has established a new ground-based remote-sensing network in Finland. The network consists of five topographically, ecologically and climatically different sites distributed from southern to northern Finland. The main goal of the network is to monitor air pollution and boundary layer properties in near real time, with a Doppler lidar and ceilometer at each site. In addition to these operational tasks, two sites are members of the Aerosols, Clouds, and Trace gases Research InfraStructure Network (ACTRIS; a Ka-band Doppler cloud radar at Sodankylä will provide cloud retrievals within CloudNet, and a multi-wavelength Raman lidar, POLLYXT (POrtabLe Lidar sYstem eXTended, in Kuopio provides optical and microphysical aerosol properties through EARLINET (European Aerosol Research Lidar Network to Establish an Aerosol Climatology. Three C-band weather radars are located in the Helsinki metropolitan area and are deployed for operational and research applications. We carried out two inter-comparison campaigns to investigate the Doppler lidar performance. The aims of the campaigns were to compare the backscatter coefficient and retrieved wind profiles, and to optimise the lidar sensitivity through adjusting the telescope focus and data-integration time to ensure enough signals in low-aerosol-content environments. The wind profiles showed good agreement between different lidars. However, due to inaccurate telescope focus setting and varying receiver sensitivity, backscatter coefficient profiles showed disagreement between the lidars. Harsh Finnish winters could pose problems, but, due to the built-in heating systems, low ambient temperatures had no, or only a minor, impact on the lidar operation: including scanning-head motion. However, accumulation of snow and ice on the lens has been observed, which can lead to formation of a water/ice layer thus attenuating the

  5. Second meeting of the International Working Group on Advanced Technologies for Water Cooled Reactors, Helsinki, 6-9 June 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Second Meeting of the IAEA International Working Group on Advanced Technologies for Water Cooled Reactors (IWGATWR) was held in Helsinki, Finland, from 6-9 June 1988. The Summary Report (Part II) contains the papers which review the national programmes since the first meeting of IWGATWR in May 1987 in the field of Advanced Technologies for Water Cooled Reactors and other presentations at the Meeting. A separate abstract was prepared for each of these 12 papers presented at the meeting. Figs and tabs

  6. Nurse managers' perceptions related to their leadership styles, knowledge, and skills in these areas-a viewpoint: case of health centre wards in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesterinen, Soili; Suhonen, Marjo; Isola, Arja; Paasivaara, Leena; Laukkala, Helena

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore nurse managers' perceptions related to their leadership styles, knowledge, and their skills in these areas in health centre wards in Finland. The data were collected from nurse managers (n = 252) in health centre hospitals in Finland using a structured questionnaire (response rate 63%). Six leadership styles-visionary, coaching, affiliate, democratic, commanding, and isolating-were reflected on. Almost all respondents in every age group considered four leadership styles-visionary, coaching, affiliate, and democratic-to be very important or important. Nurse managers estimated their knowledge and skills in leadership styles to be essentially fairly sufficient or sufficient. Nurse managers' abilities to reflect, understand, and, if necessary, change their leadership style influence the work unit's success and employees' job satisfaction. Nurse managers, especially new nurse managers, need more theoretic, evidence-based education to cope with these expectations and to develop their professional abilities. Together with universities, health care organizations should start planning nurse manager education programmes that focus on strategic issues, leadership, job satisfaction, challenging situations in leadership, change management, work unit management (e.g., economy, efficiency, and resources), and how the nurse managers consider their own wellbeing.

  7. Nurse managers' perceptions related to their leadership styles, knowledge, and skills in these areas-a viewpoint: case of health centre wards in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesterinen, Soili; Suhonen, Marjo; Isola, Arja; Paasivaara, Leena; Laukkala, Helena

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore nurse managers' perceptions related to their leadership styles, knowledge, and their skills in these areas in health centre wards in Finland. The data were collected from nurse managers (n = 252) in health centre hospitals in Finland using a structured questionnaire (response rate 63%). Six leadership styles-visionary, coaching, affiliate, democratic, commanding, and isolating-were reflected on. Almost all respondents in every age group considered four leadership styles-visionary, coaching, affiliate, and democratic-to be very important or important. Nurse managers estimated their knowledge and skills in leadership styles to be essentially fairly sufficient or sufficient. Nurse managers' abilities to reflect, understand, and, if necessary, change their leadership style influence the work unit's success and employees' job satisfaction. Nurse managers, especially new nurse managers, need more theoretic, evidence-based education to cope with these expectations and to develop their professional abilities. Together with universities, health care organizations should start planning nurse manager education programmes that focus on strategic issues, leadership, job satisfaction, challenging situations in leadership, change management, work unit management (e.g., economy, efficiency, and resources), and how the nurse managers consider their own wellbeing. PMID:23691356

  8. Back to the Future: Do Lessons from Finland Point the Way to a Return to Model Schools for Northern Ireland?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Anne; Clarke, Linda

    2012-01-01

    The paper examines the school-based element of initial teacher education (ITE) and the ways in which it contributes to the professional learning of student teachers in Finland (University of Helsinki) and Northern Ireland (University of Ulster). In particular it seeks to assess the potential of Training Schools for Northern Ireland. Universities…

  9. Neighbourhoods and self rated health: a comparison of public sector employees in London and Helsinki

    OpenAIRE

    Stafford, M; Martikainen, P; Lahelma, E; Marmot, M.

    2004-01-01

    Study objective: Mortality and morbidity vary across neighbourhoods and larger residential areas. Effects of area deprivation on health may vary across countries, because of greater spatial separation of people occupying high and low socioeconomic positions and differences in the provision of local services and facilities. Neighbourhood variations in health and the contribution of residents' characteristics and neighbourhood indicators were compared in London and Helsinki, two settings where ...

  10. Upwelling characteristics in the Gulf of Finland (Baltic Sea) as revealed by Ferrybox measurements in 2007-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikas, Villu; Lips, Urmas

    2016-07-01

    Ferrybox measurements have been carried out between Tallinn and Helsinki in the Gulf of Finland (Baltic Sea) on a regular basis since 1997. The system measures autonomously water temperature, salinity, chlorophyll a fluorescence and turbidity and takes water samples for further analyses at a predefined time interval. We aimed to show how the Ferrybox technology could be used to study the coastal upwelling events in the Gulf of Finland. Based on the introduced upwelling index and related criteria, 33 coastal upwelling events were identified in May-September 2007-2013. The number of events, as well as the frequency of their occurrence and intensity expressed as a sum of daily average temperature deviations in the 20 km wide coastal area, were almost equal near the northern and southern coasts. Nevertheless, the wind impulse, which was needed to generate upwelling events of similar intensity, differed between the northern and southern coastal areas. It is suggested that the general thermohaline structure adapted to the prevailing forcing and the estuarine character of the basin weaken the upwelling created by the westerly to southwesterly (up-estuary) winds and strengthen the upwelling created by the easterly to northeasterly (down-estuary) winds. Two types of upwelling events were identified - one characterized by a strong temperature front and the other revealing gradual decrease in temperature from the open sea to the coastal area, with maximum temperature deviation close to the shore.

  11. Seismic VSP and HSP surveys on preliminary investigation areas in Finland for final disposal of spent nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keskinen, J.; Cosma, C.; Heikkinen, P. (Vibrometric Oy, Helsinki (Finland))

    1992-10-01

    Seismic reflection surveys in boreholes were carried out for Teollisuuden Voima Oy at five sites in Finland (Eurajoki Olkiluoto, Hyrynsalmi Veitsivaara, Konginkangas Kivetty, Kuhmo Romuvaara and Sievi Syyry). The vertical Seismic Profiling (VSP) surveys were a part of the investigation programme for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. The purpose was to detect fractured zones, lithological contacts and other anomalies in the structure of the rockmass and to determine their position and orientation. Horizontal Seismic Profiling (HSP) was used at the Olkiluoto site, additionally to VSP. The data has been organized in profiles containing seismograms recorded from the same shotpoint (shot gathers). One of the most powerful processing methods used with this project has been the Image Space Filtering, a new technique, which has been developed (in the project) for seismic reflection studies in crystalline rock. The method can be applied with other rock types where steeply inclined or vertical anomalies are of interest. It acts like a multichannel filter, enhancing the reflected events and also as an interpretation tool, to estimate the strength and position of the reflectors. This approach has been of great help in emphasizing the weak reflections from uneven and sometimes vanishing interfaces encountered in crystalline.

  12. Crowdfunding in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Leppänen, Alfred

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of the Thesis is to find answers to three (3) questions which will define the position of crowdfunding industry in Finland. Questions are: How crowdfunding oper-ates in Finland. Which elements in Finland support or do not support crowdfunding industry? What is the future potential for the industry in Finland? In order to understand crowdfunding industry, paper will consist of general crowdfunding definitions and main crowdfunding forms which are used within the industry. As a for...

  13. 芬兰与浦东新区社区卫生服务的比较%Comparison of community health services in Finland and Pudong New Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔伟; 张韬

    2014-01-01

    This article introduced the overview,internal collaboration and personnel training of primary health care in Finland and Pudong New Area and compared their important parameters. It put forward two points which could be learned from Finland. Firstly,optimizing and integrating the functions of general practitioners,community nurses, and public health personnel to work in collaboration. Secondly,using multi-channel and multilateral collaboration to educate and train the general practitioners in order to guarantee,develop and improve the general practitioner's quality and ability,and enhance their enthusiasm and responsibility to serve the people with good community health care.%对芬兰与上海浦东新区两地社区卫生保健体系的基本情况、内部协作与人才培养进行介绍和阐述,并抽取其中的重要参数进行比较,经分析提出可在两点上借鉴芬兰简便高效的运作模式:(1)医、护、防职能分工优化整合,紧密协作;(2)全科医师培养和进修多管齐下,多方协作,以充分保障全科医师的素质与能力,发展与提升,充分激发其职业热忱和为民服务的高度责任心,做好社区卫生保健工作。

  14. Feasibility analysis of Indian vegetarian restaurant in Helsinki

    OpenAIRE

    Dhakal, Dikchhya

    2014-01-01

    This thesis is a feasibility analysis of an Indian vegetarian restaurant in Helsinki. The main objective of the study is to evaluate the possibility of opening an Indian vegetarian restaurant. Veg Paradise is an Indian vegetarian restaurant, serving a variety of tasty Indian vegetarian cuisines in Helsinki. In the beginning phase, the restaurant will provide delicious cuisines, later, when it has achieved a certain degree of market sustainability, a catering service will be introduced as well...

  15. The role of SSDL-Helsinki for dosimetry and quality audit in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quality and dosimetry audit in radiotherapy has in Finland been implemented through inspections carried out by the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK). In connection with the Radiation Metrology Laboratory of the Centre, the SSDL-Helsinki, there is a section for radiotherapy supervision. The inspection by STUK is an independent review of the quality and dosimetry control system which can be called quality and dosimetry audit by site visits. STUK is the responsible authority for the supervision of all use of radiation in Finland and that is why it also can set up requirements on the basis of results of the review. The disagreement of the measuring results between STUK and the radiotherapy department, of more than a given action level, will always lead to a thorough investigation of the reason and to a discussion of the most reliable results to be used for the treatments. The inspections include dose calibration for conventional X-ray therapy equipment and dose comparison, including field size dependence, for high energy equipment. For afterloading equipment the reference air kerma rate is checked. Additionally, the inspections by STUK include checks of the performance characteristics of the equipment and the accomplishment and the results of quality control procedures. Further, methods are currently being developed to supplement the direct measurements by TL-measurements in special phantoms in order to include the whole treatment chain (e.g. the treatment planning system) in the audit. (author). 7 refs, 1 tab

  16. Education in cryosphere science for students and teachers at University of Helsinki

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepparanta, M.

    2009-04-01

    Cryosphere physics belongs to the geophysics discipline in the Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, Finland. Due to the northern location of Finland cryosphere has been long time one of the primary fields in geophysical education and research. In the university geophysics it starts from the 2nd year level, with the course "Geophysics of snow and ice" covering snow and ice in all their form in the Earth. In the graduate education specific field courses are arranged every two years devoting to sea ice, freshwater ice, snow or glaciers. PhD courses have been arranged in collaboration with other universities active in cryosphere. Snow and ice courses have been also given to high school teachers to begin with special winter courses for high school students. Such activity has started in a few high schools, and our staff has provided help to those schools with lectures and measurement techniques. Snow and ice questions are in the media practically every day in the winter time, discussing skiing conditions, safety for travellers on lake ice and sea ice, problems with snow storms and many other positive and negative outcomes from the cold season.

  17. Characterization of a volcanic ash episode in southern Finland caused by the Grimsvötn eruption in Iceland in May 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.-M. Kerminen

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The volcanic eruption of Grimsvötn in Iceland in May 2011 affected surface-layer air quality at several locations in Northern Europe. In Helsinki, Finland, the main pollution episode lasted for more than 8 h around the noon of 25 May. We characterized this episode by relying on detailed physical, chemical and optical aerosol measurements. The analysis was aided by air mass trajectory calculations, satellite measurements, and dispersion model simulations. During the episode, volcanic ash particles were present at sizes from less than 0.5 μm up to sizes >10 μm. The mass mean diameter of ash particles was a few μm in the Helsinki area, and the ash enhanced PM10 mass concentrations up to several tens of μg m−3. Individual particle analysis showed that some ash particles appeared almost non-reacted during the atmospheric transportation, while most of them were mixed with sea salt or other type of particulate matter. Also sulfate of volcanic origin appeared to have been transported to our measurement site, but its contribution to the aerosol mass was minor due the separation of ash-particle and sulfur dioxide plumes shortly after the eruption. The volcanic material had very little effect on PM1 mass concentrations or sub-micron particle number size distributions in the Helsinki area. The aerosol scattering coefficient was increased and visibility was slightly decreased during the episode, but in general changes in aerosol optical properties due to volcanic aerosols seem to be difficult to be distinguished from those induced by other pollutants present in a continental boundary layer. The case investigated here demonstrates clearly the power of combining surface aerosol measurements, dispersion model simulations and satellite measurements in analyzing surface air pollution episodes caused by volcanic eruptions. None of these three approaches alone would be sufficient to forecast, or even to unambiguously identify

  18. Characterization of a volcanic ash episode in southern Finland caused by the Grimsvötn eruption in Iceland in May 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.-M. Kerminen

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The volcanic eruption of Grimsvötn in Iceland in May 2011, affected surface-layer air quality at several locations in Northern Europe. In Helsinki, Finland, the main pollution episode lasted for more than 8 h around the noon of 25 May. We characterized this episode by relying on detailed physical, chemical and optical aerosol measurements. The analysis was aided by air mass trajectory calculations, satellite measurements, and dispersion model simulations. During the episode, volcanic ash particles were present at sizes from less than 0.5 μm up to sizes >10 μm. The mass mean diameter of ash particles was a few μm in the Helsinki area, and the ash enhanced PM10 mass concentrations up to several tens of μg m−3. Individual particle analysis showed that some ash particles appeared almost non-reacted during the atmospheric transportation, while most of them were mixed with sea salt or other type of particulate matter. Also sulfate of volcanic origin appeared to have been transported to our measurement site, but its contribution to the aerosol mass was minor due the separation of ash-particle and sulfur dioxide plumes shortly after the eruption. The volcanic material had very little effect on PM1 mass concentrations or sub-micron particle number size distributions in the Helsinki area. The aerosol scattering coefficient was increased and visibility was slightly decreased during the episode, but in general changes in aerosol optical properties due to volcanic aerosols seem to be difficult to be distinguished from those induced by other pollutants present in a continental boundary layer. The case investigated here demonstrates clearly the power of combining surface aerosol measurements, dispersion model simulations and satellite measurements in analyzing surface air pollution episodes caused by volcanic eruptions. None of these three approaches alone would be sufficient to forecast, or even to unambiguously

  19. Fluxes of greenhouse gases CH{sub 4}, CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}O on some peat mining areas in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nykaenen, H.; Martikainen, P.J. [National Public Health Inst., Kuopio (Finland). Dept. of Biology; Silvola, J.; Alm, J. [Joensuu Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Biology

    1996-12-31

    The increase in concentration of greenhouse gases (CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O) in atmosphere is associated with burning of fossil fuels and also changes in biogeochemistry due to land use activities. Virgin peatlands are globally important stores of carbon and sources of CH4. Peatland drainage changes the processes in carbon and nitrogen cycles responsible for the fluxes of CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O. Preparing of peatlands for peat mining greatly change their biogeochemical processes. Effective drainage decreases water table and allows air to penetrate deep into peat profile. Aerobic conditions inhibit activities of anaerobic microbes, including the methanogens, whereas aerobic processes like methane oxidation are stimulated. Destruction of vegetation cover stops the carbon input to peat. In Finland the actual peat mining area is 0.05 x 106 hectares and further 0.03 x 106 hectares have been prepared or are under preparation for peat mining. The current total peatland area in the world used for mining is 0.94 x 106 ha and the area already mined is 1.15 x 106 ha. In this presentation fluxes of greenhouse gases (CH{sub 4}, CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}O) on some mires under peat mining are reported and compared with those on natural mires and with the emissions from peat combustion. (15 refs.)

  20. Structure of Suasselkä Postglacial Fault in northern Finland obtained by analysis of ambient seismic noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afonin, Nikita; Kozlovskaya, Elena

    2016-04-01

    Understanding inner structure of seismogenic faults and their ability to reactivate is particularly important in investigating the continental intraplate seismicity regime. In our study we address this problem using analysis of ambient seismic noise recorded by the temporary DAFNE array in northern Fennoscandian Shield. The main purpose of the DAFNE/FINLAND passive seismic array experiment was to characterize the present-day seismicity of the Suasselkä post-glacial fault (SPGF) that was proposed as one potential target for the DAFNE (Drilling Active Faults in Northern Europe) project. The DAFNE/FINLAND array comprised the area of about 20 to 100 km and consisted of 8 short-period and 4 broad-band 3-component autonomous seismic stations installed in the close vicinity of the fault area. The array recorded continuous seismic data during September, 2011-May, 2013. Recordings of the array have being analyzed in order to identify and locate natural earthquakes from the fault area and to discriminate them from the blasts in the Kittilä Gold Mine. As a result, we found several dozens of natural seismic events originating from the fault area, which proves that the fault is still seismically active. In order to study the inner structure of the SPGF we use cross-correlation of ambient seismic noise recorded by the array. Analysis of azimuthal distribution of noise sources demonstrated that that during the time interval under consideration the distribution of noise sources is close to the uniform one. The continuous data were processed in several steps including single station data analysis, instrument response removal and time-domain stacking. The data were used to estimate empirical Green's functions between pairs of stations in the frequency band of 0.1-1 Hz and to calculate correspondent surface wave dispersion curves. After that S-wave velocity models were obtained as a result of dispersion curves inversion using Geopsy software. The results suggest that the area of

  1. Sociotope map : Mapping perceived green area values fromadolescents’ perspective in Lempäälämunicipality in Western Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Ogbeide, Efe

    2012-01-01

    Urbanization in all over the world has created pressure on the remaining open space, especially green areas,in the cities. Hence, the importance of green areas has become more relevant. It has been acknowledged thatthey are economically valuable as they promote the identity of cities and stimulate for example tourism.They also have a major impact on both physical and mental health and preserve ecological balance.However, knowledge on their social values to users has not been explored that muc...

  2. Science and Values in Radiological Protection - Helsinki, Finland, 15-17 January 2008. Workshop proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Key scientific challenges arising from ongoing radiobiological research have been identified recently. From this scientific base, the possible implications for radiological protection science are expected to be further elaborated. Through discussions among members of various NEA committees, it is clear that there is a need for radiological protection policy makers, regulators and practitioners to better understand possible developments coming from radiological protection science. At the same time, there is also a need for radiological protection scientists to better understand the broad processes of radiological protection decision making and to better interact with these processes in terms of furnishing input coming from their research. Participants in this workshop will attempt to identify elements of a framework that are better suited for the integration of new scientific and technological developments and socio-political considerations into radiological protection. This workshop initiated a process of reflection and dialogue among researchers, policy makers and other stakeholders that will, in the longer term: - improve understanding in both the research and policy communities of what is at stake in the system of radiological protection as scientific knowledge and social values evolve; - contribute to the development of a more shared view of emerging scientific and societal challenges to radiological protection, taking into account existing differences; - identify research that will better inform decision makers' judgments on emerging issues; - be the first step in the identification of elements of a framework that is better suited for the integration of new scientific and technological developments and socio-political considerations into radiological protection; and - identify the most appropriate next steps in this process. To achieve the above objectives, selected examples of emerging radiological protection issues were addressed during the workshop. The workshop was structured around a number of invited plenary presentations addressing selected emerging challenges for radiological protection. These presentations were followed by facilitated breakout sessions, during which participants examined these emerging challenges in greater detail. Discussions in particular focused on their potential implications from the perspectives of science, values and interpretation. Pre-determined participation in each breakout session balanced the spectrum of stakeholders participating in the workshop. Some of the key scientific issues identified in the recent NEA Expert Group on the Implications of Radiological Protection Science (EGIS) report were used as examples in the workshop, namely: non-targeted effects; individual sensitivity; and circulatory diseases. Each topic was addressed initially in plenary and subsequently in the parallel breakout sessions which were moderated by designated experts. The moderated discussions followed a 'what if' approach during which the nature and significance of the potential implications of the various emerging issues or challenges will be determined. Where appropriate, the need for further research and/or analysis was identified in order to better understand the challenge and how/if it is accommodated. The outcomes of the breakout sessions were presented in plenary by the respective moderators followed by an open discussion. These discussions informed the conclusions of the workshop. This document brings together the slides of the different presentations given at the workshop

  3. What price recreation in Finland? – A contingent valuation study of non-market benefits of public outdoor recreation areas

    OpenAIRE

    Huhtala, Anni

    2004-01-01

    Basic services in Finnish national parks and state-owned recreation areas have traditionally been publicly financed and thus free of charge for users. Since the benefits of public recreation are not captured by market demand, government spending on recreation services must be motivated in some other way. Here, we elicit people’s willingness to pay (WTP) for services in the country’s state-owned parks to obtain an estimate of the value of outdoor recreation in monetary terms. A variant of the ...

  4. Emergency preparedness in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although the menace of nuclear war still persists, the focus in national emergency preparedness in Finland is presently on emergencies involving nuclear installations. The nuclear power plants, nuclear submarines and other installations in the former USSR are a major reason for this. In this article the main features and organization of emergency preparedness in Finland are described. (orig.)

  5. Adult Education in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szekely, Radu

    2006-01-01

    Ever since the first ideas of national independence appeared in Finland, adult education has played an essential role in shaping the destiny of the Finns. With a history of almost 130 years, during which it has continuously increased in quality and quantity, the Finnish adult education system has ensured that Finland stays among the most…

  6. The capability of three component substation FIA1 at local and regional distances. Comparisons with FINESA and Helsinki bulletins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Tarvainen

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available The automatic analysing capability of the three component substation called hereafter also FIA1 (coordinates: 61.4444°N, 26.0793°E is studied. The detections and daily bulletins of FINESA (renamed as FINESS since August 1993 are used as a basis of the study. At the three component substation FIA1 a detector bulletin producer of type Husebye Ruudwas used to detect events and after forming a single station daily bulletin the common detections with FINESA were taken into a more detailed examination. From 689 detections of FINESA (also referred to as FIAO the three component substation could associate 258 events. The main part of events were mining and quarry explosions in Estonia, Russia, north of St. Petersburg and Finland, at distances up to 250 km. The diurnal distribution of events was studied and the connections to certain mines were attempted to be determined. It is found that certain mining areas have very specified shooting times, thus making it possible to monitor this kind of areas under predefined procedure. The median difference of azimuths obtained from the three component station compared with FINESA azimuths was 50 and the median difference of distance was as small as 6.2 km. In these comparisons the siting of the three component sensor was not taken into account, even though it is not located in the centre of the array. The main sources of location differences are found to be the errors of azimuth and veiled later phases. Sometimes the phase pickings of the two different methods did not give any coinciding results, even though the P detections occurred simultaneously. Also, the deviation of azimuths under poor SNR circumstances caused clear location biases. To investigate the detection and locating performance of the three component sub station FIA1 at local and regional distances, the results were compared with the preliminary weekly analysis and Helsinki bulletins of the Finnish National Data Centre (FNDC, which handled 480

  7. Borehole radar measurements performed on preliminary investigation areas in Finland for final disposal of spent nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlsten, S. [Swedish Geological Co., Uppsala (Sweden)

    1991-05-01

    Borehole radar measurements with the RAMAC system have been performed in 24 boreholes distributed between the investigation areas Kuhmo Romuvaara, Hyrynsalmi Veitsivaara, Konginkangas Kivetty, Sievi Syyry, and Eurajoki Olkiluoto. The purpose of the borehole radar measurement program has been to investigate the bedrock in the vicinity of the boreholes in order to obtain information about geometry and extent of fracture zones, lithological contacts and other structures. The measurements have been performed as singlehole radar reflection measurements and Vertical Radar Profiling (VRP) measurements, using antennas with 22 MHz frequency range in both configurations. The total measured length in the singlehole radar reflection mode is 13304 meter and in the VRP mode 9200 meter. The VRP measurements are not presented in the report. Radar data from the singlehole reflection measurements are presented as grey scale radar maps after digital filtering with a bandpass filter and a moving average filter. Interpreted zones from the singlehole radar measurements are presented in tables for each borehole. It has been possible to study structures at distances of more than 110 meter from the borehole.

  8. Borehole radar measurements performed on preliminary investigation areas in Finland for final disposal of spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borehole radar measurements with the RAMAC system have been performed in 24 boreholes distributed between the investigation areas Kuhmo Romuvaara, Hyrynsalmi Veitsivaara, Konginkangas Kivetty, Sievi Syyry, and Eurajoki Olkiluoto. The purpose of the borehole radar measurement program has been to investigate the bedrock in the vicinity of the boreholes in order to obtain information about geometry and extent of fracture zones, lithological contacts and other structures. The measurements have been performed as singlehole radar reflection measurements and Vertical Radar Profiling (VRP) measurements, using antennas with 22 MHz frequency range in both configurations. The total measured length in the singlehole radar reflection mode is 13304 meter and in the VRP mode 9200 meter. The VRP measurements are not presented in the report. Radar data from the singlehole reflection measurements are presented as grey scale radar maps after digital filtering with a bandpass filter and a moving average filter. Interpreted zones from the singlehole radar measurements are presented in tables for each borehole. It has been possible to study structures at distances of more than 110 meter from the borehole

  9. 75 FR 75615 - Helsinki Human Rights Day, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-03

    ... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8608 of November 30, 2010 Helsinki Human Rights Day, 2010 By the President of... Act, a seminal document tying lasting security among states with respect for human rights and... comprehensive security across the European continent. This occasion also spurred courageous human...

  10. Three Introductory Lectures in Helsinki on Matrix Models of Superstrings

    CERN Document Server

    Makeenko, Y M

    1997-01-01

    These are short notes of three introductory lectures on recently proposed matrix models of Superstrings and M theory given at 5th Nordic Meeting on Supersymmetric Field and String Theories in Helsinki (March 10-12, 1997). Contents: M(atrix) theory of BFSS, From IIA to IIB with IKKT, The NBI matrix model.

  11. Business plan for Gourmet Food Truck in Helsinki

    OpenAIRE

    Mulmi, Mukesh

    2015-01-01

    This thesis work is about food truck and food truck industry in Finland. In Finland, Culinary scenes are booming and growing but, the food truck concept is new to Finland. Food truck industry is very young and currently, there is a hype for food truck and people are admiring new cuisines. Author himself is working as a cook. And he is passionate about food and restaurant industry. The main purpose of the thesis was to explore more about food truck industry in Finland and create the busine...

  12. DEVELOPING A RESTAURANT BUSINESS PLAN : Opening a Thali Restaurant in Helsinki

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman , Tayabur; Bista , Meelan

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the thesis was to develop a restaurant plan. The name of this restaurant would be Thali which would be based in Helsinki. Thali restaurant would focus on the Asian food business in a Metropolitan area. The main purpose of this project was to determine whether this business plan would be viable and able to function as normal restaurant. This restaurant business plan used different features that were evaluated by comparing them to other restaurants. The author’s (Meelan Bista and Tay...

  13. Paired Border Towns or TwinCities from Finland and China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Riitta Kosonen; Xu Feng; Erja Kettunen

    2008-01-01

    This paper discusses cross-border cooperation at the level of urban socio-economic systems.Worldwide,cross-border urban cooperation has in several cases produced socio-economic and political coherence supported by various joint programs and efforts.However,the degree of coherence varies and seldom creates socio-economically and politically tightly integrated "TwinCities" where the state border becomes highly transparent or obscure.Focusing on Finland and China,our aim is to identify whether the selected border towns represent coherent TwinCities or a more loose type of "paired border towns".The study uses an empirical examination of three Finnish towns (Helsinki,Tomio,Imatra) and their neighboring towns in Estonia,Sweden,and Russia as a benchmark.Then,a comparative study is made regarding three Chinese eross-border cities facing Russia,Vietnam and Kazakhstan.We highlight the differences in cross-border integration from the viewpoint of shared public sector programs,cross-border enterprise relocation and networking,and integrated social sector in terms of labor market,education and shopping area.

  14. Personal exposures to NO2 in the EXPOLIS-study: relation to residential indoor, outdoor and workplace concentrations in Basel, Helsinki and Prague

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Personal exposures, residential indoor, outdoor and workplace levels of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) were measured for 262 urban adult (25-55 years) participants in three EXPOLIS centres (Basel, Switzerland; Helsinki, Finland; and Prague, Czech Republic) using passive samplers for 48-h sampling periods during 1996-1997. The average residential outdoor and indoor NO2 levels were lowest in Helsinki (24 ± 12 and 18 ± 11 μgm-3, respectively), highest in Prague (61 ± 20 and 43 ± 23μgm-3), with Basel in between (36 ± 13 and 27± 13μgm-3). Average workplace NO2 levels, however, were highest in Basel (36 ± 24μgm-3), lowest in Helsinki (27 ± 15μgm-3), with Prague in between (30 ± 18μgm-3). A time-weighted microenvironmental exposure model explained 74% of the personal exposure variation in all centre and in average 88% of the exposures. Log-linear regression models, using residential outdoor measurements (fixed site monitoring) combined with residential and work characteristics (i.e. work location, using gas appliances and keeping windows open), explained 48% (37%) of the personal NO2 exposure variation. Regression models based on ambient fixed site concentrations alone explained only 11-19% of personal NO2 exposure variation. Thus, ambient fixed site monitoring alone was a poor predictor for personal NO2 exposure variation, but adding personal questionnaire information can significantly improve the predicting power. (Author)

  15. Anu Koskivirta, Sari Forsström, (eds.), Manslaughter, fornication and sectarianism. Norm-breaking in Finland and the Baltic area from mediaeval to modern times / Maria Ågren, Åsa Karlsson, Xavier Rousseaux, (eds.), Guises of power. Integra

    OpenAIRE

    Spierenburg, Pieter

    2009-01-01

    The first of the two collective volumes reviewed here results from the productive project on the history of crime in Finland and surrounding areas, directed by Heikki Ylikangas. Other publications in English have already appeared (one reviewed as a short notice by me in CHS 3,2). Of the seven contributions to this volume, five deal with Finland, one with Sweden and one with Estonia. Violence, mainly homicide, is the principal subject, with four contributions devoted to it. The other three are...

  16. Evaluation of two PCR-based techniques for molecular epidemiology in Finland, a high-endemic area with four sympatric Trichinella species

    OpenAIRE

    Kapel C.M.O.; Oivanen L; La Rosa G.; Mikkonen T.; Pozio E.

    2001-01-01

    Trichinella larvae collected from wildlife, domestic and synanthropic animals in Finland were identified to species by two molecular techniques: Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and the recently described multiplex PCR. The RAPD-PCR was very sensitive to the sub-optimal preservation muscle larvae and resulting in weak and smeared bands on the gels for such material. However, the same samples yielded easily recognizable bands in the multiplex PCR; this la...

  17. Errors in Scale Values for Magnetic Elements for Helsinki

    CERN Document Server

    Svalgaard, Leif

    2014-01-01

    Using several lines of evidence we show that the scale values of the geomagnetic variometers operating in Helsinki in the 19th century were not constant throughout the years of operation 1844-1897. Specifically, the adopted scale value of the Horizontal Force variometer appears to be too low by ~30% during the years 1866-1874.5 and the adopted scale value of the Declination variometer appears to be too low by a factor of ~2 during the interval 1885.8-1887.5. Reconstructing the Heliospheric Magnetic Field strength from geomagnetic data has reached a stage where a reliable reconstruction is possible using even just a single geomagnetic data set of hourly or daily values. Before such reconstructions can be accepted as reliable, the underlying data must be calibrated correctly. It is thus mandatory that the Helsinki data be corrected. Such correction has been satisfactorily carried out and the HMF strength is now well constrained back to 1845.

  18. Reservoir-flooded river mouth areas as sediment traps revealing erosion from peat mining areas - Jukajoki case study in eastern Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahvanainen, Teemu; Meriläinen, Henna-Kaisa; Haraguchi, Akira; Simola, Heikki

    2016-04-01

    Many types of soil-disturbing land use have caused excess sedimentation in Finnish lakes. Identification and quantification of catchment sources of sediment material is crucial in cases where demands for remediation measures are considered. We studied recent (50 yr) sediments of four small rivers, all draining to a reservoir impounded in 1971. Catchments of two of the rivers had had peat mining activities from early 1980s until recently, exposing large areas of peat surfaces to erosion. The water level of the reservoir had risen to the river mouth areas of all rivers, while in each case, the river mouth areas still form riverine narrows separable from the main reservoir, hence collecting sedimentation from their own catchments. The original soils under the reservoir water level could readily be observed in core samples, providing a dated horizon under recent sediments. In addition, we used 137Cs-stratigraphies for dating of samples from original river bed locations. As expected, recent sediments of rivers with peat mining influence differed from others e.g. by high organic content and C:N ratios. Stable isotopes 13C and 15N both correlated with C:N (r = 0.799 and r = -0.717, respectively) and they also differentiated the peat-mining influenced samples from other river sediments. Principal components of the physical-chemical variables revealed clearer distinction than any variables separately. Light-microscopy revealed abundance of leafs of Sphagnum mosses in peat-mining influenced river sediments that were nearly absent from other rivers. Spores of Sphagnum were, however, abundant in all river sediments indicating their predominantly airborne origin. We find that combination of several physical-chemical characters rather than any single variable and microscopy of plant remains can result in reliable recognition of peatland-origin of sediment material when non-impacted sites are available for comparison. Dating of disturbed recent sediments is challenging. River

  19. The image of Helsinki as a cultural tourism destination

    OpenAIRE

    Matikainen, Petteri

    2015-01-01

    Cultural tourism has been increasing constantly during the last decades and has become one of the most essential sections of tourism industry. Culture influences strongly on decisions to travel and it is often placed on the key role in tourism strategies. Similarly a strong destination image is inevitable in order to success in highly competed tourism industry. The purpose of this study is to examine the image of Helsinki as a cultural tourism destination. The main objective is to examine...

  20. Geohimicheskaja harakteristika donnyh otlozhenij v zone pokmarkov v vostochnoj chasti Finskogo zaliva [The geochemical characteristics of the bottom sediment in the pockmark area of the eastern part of the Gulf of Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanova Varvara; Kirievskaya Dubrava; Bolotov Alexander

    2011-01-01

    It is the first time pockmark-like structures have been detected in the south-eastern part of the Gulf of Finland with the help of a side-scan sonar and a profile recorder. The analysis of the distribution of microcomponents in the bottom sediment indicates that the pockmark area is located in the geochemical barrier border zone where the reducing medium of the incoming mineralized solution meets the highly oxidizing sea water medium. The hydrodynamic and geochemical processes in the pockmark...

  1. Early life origins cognitive decline: findings in elderly men in the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katri Raikkonen

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To examine whether the adverse effects of slow prenatal and postnatal growth on cognitive function persist to old age and predict age related cognitive decline. DESIGN AND SETTING: A longitudinal birth cohort study of men born in Helsinki, Finland 1934-44. PARTICIPANTS: Nine-hundred-thirty-one men of the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study, with detailed data on growth from birth to adulthood, aged 20.1 (SD = 1.4 at the first and 67.9 (SD = 2.5 years at the second cognitive testing. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The Finnish Defense Forces Basic Intellectual Ability Test assessed twice over nearly five decades apart. RESULTS: Lower weight, length and head circumference at birth were associated with lower cognitive ability at 67.9 years (1.04-1.55 points lower ability per each standard deviation [SD] unit decrease in body size, 95% Confidence Interval [95%CI]: 0.05 to 2.72 and with cognitive decline after 20.1 years (0.07-0.11 SD decline over time per each SD decrease in body size, 95%CI:0.00 to 0.19. Men who were born larger were more likely to perform better in the cognitive ability test over time (1.22-1.43 increase in odds to remain in the top relative to the lower two thirds in ability over time per each SD increase in body size, 95%CI:1.04 to 1.79 and were more resilient to cognitive decline after 20.1 years (0.69 to 0.76 decrease in odds to decline from than remain in the top third of ability over time per each SD increase in body size, 95%CI:0.49 to 0.99. Slower growth between birth and two years in weight, height and body mass index was associated with lower cognitive ability at 67.9 years, but not with cognitive decline. CONCLUSIONS: Poorer lifetime cognitive ability is predicted by slower growth before and after birth. In predicting resilience to age related cognitive decline, the period before birth seems to be more critical.

  2. Comparison on humus and soil geochemical baselines in Southern Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minolfi, Giulia; Tarvainen, Timo; Jarva, Jaana

    2016-04-01

    Humus has been recognized since a survey in 1977 (Allen and Steinnes, 1980) as one of the best sampling media for mapping regional environmental contamination because of the strong geochemical contrast between anomalous and background concentrations resulting from its capacity to accumulate high levels of trace metals. This study is in the framework of the comparison between humus, topsoil and moss deposition data, in order to analyze the humus behavior and to find possible similarities to underlying geology and long-range atmospheric deposition. The analyzed samples are part of a geochemical mapping programme carried out by the Geological Survey of Finland (GTK); subsoil, topsoil and humus samples have been collected in a large area in Southern Finland since 2002. 816 sample pairs (humus and topsoil samples) were selected for statistical analysis. Statistical graphs, like histograms, CP plots and box plots, were realized for 31 elements, and showed that most of the elements have completely different distribution of concentrations in humus and in topsoil samples. Then the correlation between the element concentrations in humus and minerogenic topsoil has been evaluated measuring the Spearman rank correlation value and elaborating scatter plots between the element concentrations in humus and minerogenic topsoil, and between the content of the element vs. the content of organic C. The concentrations of some elements, like K, Mg, Fe, Al, in humus samples are controlled by the content of mineral matter, derived by the soil dust. Other elements, such as As, Bi, Cd, Co, Cu, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Rb, Th, V and Zn showed evident outliers, with probable anthropogenic origin. In order to explain these anomalous high values in humus, the geographic distributions of these elements in humus and topsoil were analyzed and then compared to the deposition data obtained by the national moss data. High values appear in areas where the anthropogenic impact is strong, like the Harjavalta

  3. Gift from Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An instrument worth $19 000 for the analysis of nuclear radiation, donated by Finland to IAEA, was handed over by the Finnish Ambassador, Mr. Otso Wartiovaara, to the Director General of IAEA, Dr. Sigvard Eklund, at the Agency's laboratory at Seibersdorf on 22 January. The instrument, a multi-channel analyzer with 512 channels, was constructed in Finland. It is being used in connection with all the major Agency projects under way at Seibersdorf, such as the standardization of radionuclides, agricultural research, and analytical work carried out at the request of Member States

  4. BLOOD SERVICE IN FINLAND

    OpenAIRE

    TASHTEMIROV K.K.; LATVALA E.; IMANGAZINOV S.B.

    2016-01-01

    The goal of the post is to summarize the experience of blood service in Finland by the result of the business move and examination of the service activities at the point.The research materials indicate that the blood service in Finland is a non-profit organization and is an independent part of the Finnish Red Cross (FRC). All expenses and development of Blood Service are covered by the sale of blood and blood products and expert services in the Finnish health care system. It is responsible fo...

  5. Getting to Finland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Claus

    2015-01-01

    Kan man både opnå topplaceringer i PISA og blive Nordens mester i lighed gennem uddannelse? Finland kan. Men har den danske folkeskole mod til at tage samme type af ansvar for skabe større lighed gennem uddannelse, end vi hidtil har opnået?......Kan man både opnå topplaceringer i PISA og blive Nordens mester i lighed gennem uddannelse? Finland kan. Men har den danske folkeskole mod til at tage samme type af ansvar for skabe større lighed gennem uddannelse, end vi hidtil har opnået?...

  6. Update on women in physics in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miikkulainen, Kukka; Vapaavuori, Jaana

    2015-12-01

    Despite Finland's role as a forerunner in many areas of gender equality, in the field of physics, the advancement of females to reach the full gender equality has been stagnated for the past decade, and no significant improvements since 2011 can be reported. However, a few interesting PhD theses have focused on gaining a better understanding of the phenomena, and a few seminars on the topic have been organized. However, good, systematically collected statistics on the numbers and salaries of female researches in Finland are still lacking.

  7. EMPLOYMENT OF RUSSIAN IMMIGRANTS IN FINLAND

    OpenAIRE

    Sinkevitch, Dimitri

    2011-01-01

    There are 150,000 immigrants in Finland. Russians are the second largest group after Estonians. The main purpose of this thesis was to help Russian immigrant get em-ployed in Finland. I tried to map the problems areas through interviews with both Russian immigrants and Finnish employers. The first issue of my theoretical part was to explain who the immigrants are, and what the reasons for migration are. The second part deals with cultural differences, which is supported by Geert Hofstede’s 5D...

  8. How radiation oncology emerged as a discipline in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The news about the discovery of Roentgen's new rays spread over Finland quite early, and the first Finnish writing about the rays appeared in February 1896. The first x-ray machine was installed in 1897. Proper training of radiologists began, however, at a comparatively late date. For a long time the position of radiologists remained a subordinate one. Radiology had the nature of a spare time hobby, because in most hospitals surgeons treated x-ray machines as a sideline. Because of this, scientific research work was delayed. The specialty of x-ray diagnosis and therapy was, however, established in 1921, and the Finnish Society of Radiology was founded in 1924. The first radiotherapy department with its own beds was opened in 1936 in Helsinki. In 1950, the first professor of medical radiology was appointed at the University of Helsinki. The Finnish Cancer Society played an important role in developing the radiotherapy net in the country by supplying cobalt devises and auxiliary hospital activities in the 1960s. In the early 1960s roentgen diagnosis and radiotherapy were separated into two distinct disciplines. There are now five medical faculties with chairs in radiation oncology. The country is divided into five regions for cancer care. The managing groups in each region are headed by the professor of radiotherapy and oncology. The radiation oncologists in Finland are involved in diagnosis and staging of cancer and are responsible for radiation therapy, chemotherapy and hormones. They are responsible for follow-up of treated patients, their own wards, and the general care of their patients

  9. Helsingin matkailullisen brändi-identiteetin vahvistuminen Helsinki-oppaan työssä

    OpenAIRE

    Riehunkangas, Juha; Oikarinen, Satu

    2010-01-01

    Tämä opinnäytetyö käsittelee Helsingin tavoittelemaa matkailubrändiä ja brändi-identiteetin vahvistumista Helsinki-oppaan työssä. Helsingin matkailustrategian 2009–2012 mukaan Helsinki tavoittelee vahvaa matkailubrändiä. Tutkimuksen tavoitteena oli selvittää, ovatko Helsinki-oppaiden tärkeinä pitämät ja korostamat vetovoimatekijät linjassa strategiassa määriteltyjen brändi-elementtien kanssa. Toisena tavoitteena oli selvittää Helsinki-oppaiden kiinnostus lisäkoulutukseen ja koulutusaiheisiin....

  10. Evaluation of two PCR-based techniques for molecular epidemiology in Finland, a high-endemic area with four sympatric Trichinella species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapel C.M.O.

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Trichinella larvae collected from wildlife, domestic and synanthropic animals in Finland were identified to species by two molecular techniques: Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD polymerase chain reaction (PCR and the recently described multiplex PCR. The RAPD-PCR was very sensitive to the sub-optimal preservation muscle larvae and resulting in weak and smeared bands on the gels for such material. However, the same samples yielded easily recognizable bands in the multiplex PCR; this latter technique is then recommended for epidemiological studies, especially when the preservation of the samples is sub-optimal. For larvae in good condition the unequivocal bands obtained by multiplex was the easiest identifiable. Four species of Trichinella were identified in the material: T. spiralis, T. nativa, T. britovi, and T. pseudospiralis. Trichinella britovi is a new record for Finland, and T. pseudospiralis is a new record for Northern Europe. Mixed infections between T. britovi and T. spiralis, T. nativa and T. spiralis, and between T. britovi and T. nativa were detected; this is the first record of a mixed infection between T. spiralis and T. nativa in a naturally infected host. Raccoon dogs were the only host species from which all of the four Trichinella species were detected. Trichinella spiralis was found in both domestic animals and wildlife, but none of the sylvatic Trichinella species were detected in domestic pig.

  11. Sami Education in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskitalo, Pigga; Maatta, Kaarina; Uusiautti, Satu

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is, first, to describe Sami children's education and its status in the Finnish education system and, secondly, to contemplate its development in Finland. The core of the article is intertwined with issues concerning the status, language, and culture of indigenous peoples. According to the article, the western school…

  12. Dense downtown living more carbon intense due to higher consumption: a case study of Helsinki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hindering urban sprawl is one of the main goals for contemporary urban planning. Urban density is considered crucial in climate change mitigation since it reduces automobile dependence and decreases unit sizes, for example. This letter analyzes the effect of density in a city context. In the study the Finnish capital Helsinki is divided into two areas of different urban densities: the high density downtown area and the more scarcely populated suburbs. The study is a continuation of a recently published study on the implications of urban structure on carbon emissions, and analyzes further the main finding of the first study-that higher urban density might have negligible or even reverse effect on the per capita carbon emissions. Similarly to the previous study, a consumption based tiered hybrid life cycle assessment (LCA) approach is employed in order to produce a comprehensive assessment, free of territorial boundaries and system cutoffs typical of traditional LCAs. Based on the findings of the previous study, it is hypothesized that when assessing city level carbon dioxide emissions from a wider, consumer oriented LCA perspective, increased urban density may not necessarily reduce carbon emissions. Surprisingly, the study finds that carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e) emissions are substantially higher in the dense downtown area than in the surrounding suburbs, which is suggested to imply that the increased consumption due to the higher standard of living increases emissions more than the higher density is able to reduce them. The results demonstrate that, while increasing urban density can be justified from a number of ecological, social and economic viewpoints, density is not necessarily a key parameter in the particular case of climate change. In cities like Helsinki, where wealth is concentrated in the downtown area, climate policies should give higher priority to the energy consumption of buildings, to alternative energy production and distribution modes, as

  13. Infant motor development and cognitive performance in early old age: the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poranen-Clark, Taina; von Bonsdorff, Mikaela B; Lahti, Jari; Räikkönen, Katri; Osmond, Clive; Rantanen, Taina; Kajantie, Eero; Eriksson, Johan G

    2015-06-01

    Motor development and cognitive development in childhood have been found to be fundamentally interrelated, but less is known about the association extending over the life course. The aim of this study was to examine the association between early motor development and cognitive performance in early old age. From men and women belonging to the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study, who were born between 1934 and 1944 and resided in Finland in 1971, 1279 participated in cognitive performance tests (CogState®, version 3.0.5) between 2001 and 2006 at an average age of 64.2 years (SD 3.0). Of these, age at first walking extracted from child welfare clinic records was available for 398 participants. Longer reaction times in cognitive tasks measuring simple reaction time (SRT), choice reaction time (CRT), working memory (WM), divided attention (DA), and associated learning (AL) indicated poorer cognitive performance. Adjustment was made for sex, age at testing, father's occupational status and own highest attained education, and occupation in adulthood. Average age of learning to walk was 12.2 months (SD 2.1). After adjusting for covariates, earlier attainment of learning to walk was associated with shorter reaction times in cognitive performance tasks (SRT 10.32 % per month, 95 % CI 0.48-21.12, p = 0.039; CRT 14.17 % per month, 95 % CI 3.75-25.63, p = 0.007; WM 15.14 % per month, 95 % CI 4.95-26.32, p = 0.003). People who learned to walk earlier had better cognitive performance in early old age. The earlier attainment of motor skills may track over to early old age and possibly reflect greater cognitive reserve in older age.

  14. Errors in Scale Values for Magnetic Elements for Helsinki

    OpenAIRE

    Svalgaard, Leif

    2014-01-01

    Using several lines of evidence we show that the scale values of the geomagnetic variometers operating in Helsinki in the 19th century were not constant throughout the years of operation 1844-1897. Specifically, the adopted scale value of the Horizontal Force variometer appears to be too low by ~30% during the years 1866-1874.5 and the adopted scale value of the Declination variometer appears to be too low by a factor of ~2 during the interval 1885.8-1887.5. Reconstructing the Heliospheric Ma...

  15. Helsinki Motorsport Weekend : Moottoriurheilutapahtuman järjestäminen

    OpenAIRE

    Tyagi, Ashish; Ranta, Toni

    2011-01-01

    Tämä toiminnallinen opinnäytetyö kertoo Elokuussa 2010 järjestetystä Helsinki Motorsport Weekend-moottoriurheilutapahtumasta, jonka järjestäjänä on toiminut T&A Promotions Oy (Toni Rannan ja Ashish Tyagin omistama osakeyhtiö). Tapahtuman tavoitteena oli tuoda moottoriurheilu takaisin Helsingin-alueelle, jossa se on aikoinaan ollut Thunder-ajojen muodossa. Opinnäytetyön sisältö koostuu tapahtuman järjestämisen eri elementeistä, suunnitteluvaiheesta lopputulokseen. Tapahtuman suurina yhteistyök...

  16. Radon in an underground excavation site in Helsinki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper reports on radon measurements and actions taken in a large underground excavation site in Helsinki, where a coal store was excavated underneath an existing power plant. The measurements were carried out by taking grab samples using Lucas type scintillation cells. Large variations in radon concentrations were observed during the three-year study. The reasons for variations are discussed and recommendations are given for radon monitoring procedures in underground excavation sites. The importance of ventilation to reduce the radon level is stressed. (P.A.)

  17. Finland Becomes Eleventh ESO Member State

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-07-01

    Finland has become the eleventh member state of the European Southern Observatory (ESO) [1]. The formal accession procedure was carried through as planned and has now been completed. Following the signing of the corresponding Agreement earlier this year (ESO PR 02/04), acceptance by the Finnish Parliament and ratification by the Finnish President of the Agreement as well as the ESO Convention and the associated protocols in June [2] and the deposit of the instruments of accession today, Finland has now officially joined ESO. ESO warmly welcomes the new member country and its scientific community that is renowned for their expertise in many frontline areas. The related opportunities will contribute to strenghtening of pioneering research with the powerful facilities at ESO's observatories, to the benefit of Astronomy and Astrophysics as well as European science in general. ESO also looks forward to collaboration with the Finnish high-tech industry. For Finland, the membership in ESO is motivated by scientific and technological objectives as well as by the objective of improving the public understanding of science. The Finnish Government is committed to increasing the public research funding in order to improve the quality, impact and internationalisation of research. Membership in ESO offers unique facilities for astronomical research which would not otherwise be available for Finnish astronomers. Finland is also very interested in taking part in technological development projects in fields like ICT, optics and instrumentation. For young scientists and engineers, ESO is a challenging, international working and learning environment. Finland has already taken part in the educational programmes of ESO, and as a member this activity will be broadened and intensified. In Finland there are also several science journalists and a large community of amateur astronomers who will be very happy to take part in ESO's outreach activities.

  18. Guidelines for Nordic Co-operation concerning nuclear installations in the border areas between Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden in respect of nuclear safety conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These Guidelines came into force between the four Contracting Parties (Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden) to the Agreement on 15th November 1976. The Agreement is the outcome of work undertaken these past years in the Nordic Reactor Safety Working Group and the Nordic Atomic Energy Liaison Group. The purpose of the Guidelines is to establish a consultation mechanism between the authorities of Nordic countries likely to be affected by a nuclear installation siting project by another party to the Agreement near their borders. Information imparted during such consultation is intended mainly to improve assessment of the projected site for the installation and its environment. Discussions may also cover the actual safety of the installation itself. (NEA)

  19. Population and policy in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulkko, J

    1989-03-01

    Finland, with a population of 4.9 million, currently has an overall fertility rate of 1.6. There is a small population growth, but this is due to a large reproductive age group, return migration of Finns from Sweden, and a decrease in mortality that has increased the proportion of old people in the population. The state has no official population policy. A recommendation of the Finnish Committee on the World Population Year 1974 that the government establish an agency for population policy has not been adopted. The coalition government now in power has a program, however, aimed at influencing population growth. The program includes proposals to reduce work hours for parents with small children, increase the age limit for participation in the child allowance system, and increase the number of municipal day care facilities. Concerning regional policy, the government wants a balanced development of the country's different regions. Subsidiary industries of agriculture and forestry are being encouraged to preserve population levels in sparse areas. Finland also supports a health policy emphasizing preventive and non-institutional aspects of health care, with targets of life expectancy set at 82 years for women and 75 years for men by the year 2000. PMID:12222205

  20. Promoting biogas production and using it as transport fuel in the Helsinki region; Suunnitelma liikennebiokaasun tuotannon ja kaeytoen edistaemiseksi Helsingin seudulla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasi, S.; Havukainen, J.; Uusitalo, V.; Andersson, R.; Manninen, K.; Aro-Heinilae, E.; Rintala, J.

    2012-11-01

    The main objective of the project was to promote biogas production and its use as transport fuel. The aims in the four Finnish and two Estonian case areas were to reduce the amount and improve the sustainable use of waste and sludge, to promote biogas production, to start biogas use as transport fuel and to provide tools for implementing the aims. The total biomethane potential in the Helsinki region corresponds to approximately 450 GWh/a. The most potential user for biomethane is public transport. The total amount of biomethane would suffice for 80% of the busses operating in the Helsinki region. Using biogas as a transport fuel instead of energy production in the Helsinki region would result in emission reductions (13 000 t{sub CO2,eq}/a). However if the fuel replacing biogas in energy production would be renewable, the emission reductions would be significantly greater. The economical assessment indicates that the production of biogas is economically feasible if all the produced gas can be sold. Biogas produced near the natural gas grid can also be transported to the Helsinki region where there are better possibilities to find uses for it. In this way, for example, gas that is produced in Kymenlaakso but is not consumed there can be transported via the natural gas grid, assuming that the production plant is reasonably close to the grid. (orig.)

  1. Johan Kock and the dramatic events of 1905 and 1906 in Helsinki

    OpenAIRE

    Uski, Juha Janne Olavi

    2009-01-01

    The research considers how the theme of violence is reflected in the accounts about Johan Kock's activities in Helsinki during the Great Strike of 1905 and the Sveaborg rebellion of 1906. During those occasions, Captain Kock was in charge of the Workers' Security Guard in Helsinki, better known as the Red Guard of 1905-1906.

  2. Markkinointisuunnitelma Apsis Finland Oy

    OpenAIRE

    Salla, Tuomas

    2011-01-01

    Apsis Finland Oy on sähköpostimarkkinointiin erikoistunut yritys, joka ei ole tehnyt tavoitteellista markkinointia kahden vuoden olemassa olonsa aikana. Yritys haluaa kuitenkin muuttaa tilanteen, jonka takia kiinnostus markkinointisuunnitelmaa kohti syntyi. Opinnäytetyön tavoitteena oli luoda markkinointisuunnitelma vuotta 2011 varten ja valita siihen keinot jotka voidaan mitata. Markkinoinnin päätavoite on yrityksen tunnettavuuden lisääminen Suomen markkinoilla. Työ tehtiin yhteistyö...

  3. NPPCI activities in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research activities at the Technical Research Centre of Finland in the control and instrumentation field have been directed both towards immediate needs and towards long term goals. The immediate needs have been connected to different ongoing investigations and to development projects in connection with process industry. Of the more long term projects the following can be explicitly mentioned: the Nordic project on human reliability; work on software reliability; design guides for digital CI systems; simulation of technical processes; artificial intelligence in nuclear power

  4. Restructuring in SMEs: Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Akola, Elisa; Havupalo, Niko

    2013-01-01

    Based on information derived from 85 case studies across all EU Member States and other sources, the project outlines the features peculiar to SMEs in their anticipation and management of restructuring, explores the main drivers of change and analyses the factors influencing successful restructuring. It offers some insight into how restructuring impacts on workers and the company itself and sets out several policy pointers for future action. This is the country report for Finland

  5. Nuclear energy in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finland currently generates about 40% of its electricity from nuclear power. This achievement of worldwide record magnitude is based on long-lasting efforts to build and maintain the competent infrastructure and close international cooperation required by this demanding technology. This booklet published by the Finnish Atomic Energy Commission gives an overview of nuclear energy and related organizations in Finland. It describes the utility companies and nuclear power production, the manufacturing industry and its export potential, research and educational activities and the legal framework and authorities for nuclear safety and administration. International cooperation has been essential for Finland in developing its nuclear energy capacity and appreciation is espressed to many countries and international organizations which have contributed to this. At the same time Finnish organizations are willing to share the experiences and know-how they have gained in building nuclear power in a small country. This is a road which will be followed by many other countries in the decades to come. It is hoped that this booklet will also help to open new channels of cooperation in such efforts

  6. Three-dimensional geologic modeling and groundwater flow modeling of the Töllinperä aquifer in the Hitura nickel mine area, Finland – providing the framework for restoration and protection of the aquifer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sami Saraperä

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Elevated concentrations of sulphate, chloride, and nickel were discovered in water samples taken from the Töllinperä aquifer in western Finland. The area is located adjacent to the tailings area of the Hitura nickel mine. Earlier studies revealed that the groundwater contamination resulted from tailings-derived mine waters leaking from a tailings impoundment area. The tailings area directly overlies the Weichselian esker system, part of which is the Töllinperä classified groundwater area. The observed groundwater and surface water contamination resulted in a need to characterize the subsurface geology in the whole area of the contaminated esker aquifer. The primary sedimentary units were introduced into a three-dimensional (3-D geologic model of the aquifer made with EarthVision geologic modeling software. The information obtained from the 3-D geological model was then introduced into a numerical groundwater flow model made with MODFLOW code, which was calibrated with MODFLOWP code.The results of this study were used to guide the sealing of the tailings impoundment in order to prevent the further contamination of the Töllinperä aquifer. The groundwater flow model was used to interpret and simulate the flow system, and to provide a plan to safely continue water supply to local inhabitants from the unpolluted parts of the aquifer.

  7. Deep drilling for geothermal energy in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukkonen, Ilmo

    2016-04-01

    There is a societal request to find renewable CO2-free energy resources. One of the biggest such resources is provided by geothermal energy. In addition to shallow ground heat already extensively used in Finland, deep geothermal energy provides an alternative so far not exploited. Temperatures are high at depth, but the challenge is, how to mine the heat? In this presentation, the geological and geophysical conditions for deep geothermal energy production in Finland are discussed as well as challenges for drilling and conditions at depth for geothermal energy production. Finland is located on ancient bedrock with much lower temperatures than geologically younger volcanically and tectonically active areas. In order to reach sufficiently high temperatures drilling to depths of several kilometres are needed. Further, mining of the heat with, e.g., the principle of Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) requires high hydraulic conductivity for efficient circulation of fluid in natural or artificial fractures of the rock. There are many issues that must be solved and/or improved: Drilling technology, the EGS concept, rock stress and hydraulic fracturing, scale formation, induced seismicity and ground movements, possible microbial activity, etc. An industry-funded pilot project currently in progress in southern Finland is shortly introduced.

  8. Upgrading the Northern Finland Seismological Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narkilahti, Janne; Kozlovskaya, Elena; Silvennoinen, Hanna; Hurskainen, Riitta; Nevalainen, Jouni

    2016-04-01

    The Finnish National Seismic Network (FNSN) comprises national Helsinki University Seismological network (HE) ISUH and the Northern Finland Seismological Network (FN) hosted by the Sodankylä Geophysical Observatory (SGO) of the University of Oulu. The FN network currently consists of four real-time permanent stations equipped with Streckeisen STS-2 broad band seismometers that are recording continuous digital seismic data. At present, the network is a part of GEOFON Extended Virtual Network and of the ORFEUS Virtual European Broadband Seismograph Network. In the future, the network will be the part of EPOS-European Plate Observing System research infrastructure. As a part of EPOS project activities, the SGO started to upgrade their own network in 2014. The main target of the network upgrade is to increase the permanent station coverage in the European Arctic region, particularly behind the Polar Circle. Another target is to transform the network into a broadband seismic array capable to detect long-period seismic signals originating from seismic events in the Arctic. The first upgrade phase started in 2014, when two new stations were installed and now are working in the test regime. These stations are used as prototypes for testing seismic equipment and technical solutions for real-time data transmission and vault construction under cold climate conditions. The first prototype station is installed in a surface vault and equipped with Nanometrics Trillium 120P sensor, while the other one is installed in a borehole and equipped with Trillium Posthole seismometer. These prototype stations have provided to us valuable experience on the downhole and surface deployment of broadband seismic instruments. We also have been able to compare the capabilities and performance of high sensitivity broadband sensor deployed in borehole with that deployed in surface vault. The results of operation of prototype stations will be used in site selection and installation of four new

  9. Helsinki score-a novel model for prediction of metastases in adrenocortical carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennanen, Mirkka; Heiskanen, Ilkka; Sane, Timo; Remes, Satu; Mustonen, Harri; Haglund, Caj; Arola, Johanna

    2015-03-01

    Histopathologic diagnosis of adrenocortical tumors is based on adverse features that indicate malignant potential. Proliferation index has served as a supplemental tool in assessing the malignant potential of adrenocortical tumors. None of the current histologic classification systems can sufficiently accurately predict tumors' metastatic potential. We studied 177 consecutive adult patients with primary adrenocortical tumors operated on at Helsinki University Central Hospital between 1990 and 2003, all patients with a minimum follow-up of 5 years. We determined for each tumor the Weiss score and the Weiss revisited score by Aubert. Proliferation index was measured by computer-assisted image analysis. Each of the 9 Weiss criteria and the proliferation index were then used to establish a scoring system to predict the metastatic potential of adrenocortical tumors. Use of stepwise regression analysis led us to propose a calculation: 3 × mitotic rate (>5/50 high-power fields) + 5 × presence of necrosis + proliferation index in the most proliferative area of the tumor. Using a cutoff value of 8.5, the new scoring system was able to diagnose metastatic adrenocortical carcinoma with 100% sensitivity (confidence interval [CI], 76.8%-100%) and 99.4% specificity (CI, 96.6%-100%). The corresponding sensitivity of the Weiss system was 100% (CI, 76.8%-100%), and specificity, 90.2% (CI, 84.6%-94.3%), with sensitivity of the Weiss revisited system at 100% (CI, 76.8%-100%) and specificity at 96.9% (CI, 93.0%-99.0%). The new Helsinki score thus was accurate in predicting the metastatic potential of adrenocortical tumors. PMID:25582500

  10. Second home mobility in Finland: Patterns, practices and relations of leisure oriented mobile lifestyle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mervi Johanna Hiltunen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on leisure oriented mobile lifestyle between urban home and rural second home in Finland which is one of the world’s leading countries in terms of second home ownership and tourism. Spatial patterns and social practices of physical mobility related to second home use are revealed by using triangulation of research methods and data. Analysis is based on GIS data, questionnaire survey results and national statistics. A relational approach is applied to conceptualise and contextualise second home mobility which is influenced by many bio-physical and socio-cultural processes and changes. Relational elements and processes interlinked to past, present and future of second home related physical mobility are identified. Natural amenities form the physical geographical basis for rural second home distribution which correlates with length of shoreline, distance to urban areas and local land use in second home environments. Second home related spatial mobility patterns differ and depend on size of the urban region of origin. Helsinki metropolitan dwellers have the longest trips to second homes which is explained not merely by environmental but by historical, societal and social reasons as well. Second home related social mobility practices are dependent on cottage owners’ and users’ life phase and standard of second homes. Retiring baby boom generation is the largest and most active cottager group and after retirement the use of second homes increases remarkably. The vast majority of second home owners and users travel the cottage trips by private cars and wish to spend at least as much time at rural second home as present. However, they do not intend to give up the urban home which leads to the conclusion that leisure related lifestyle mobility in between urban and rural living environments will continue to characterise second home owners’ and users’ way of life.

  11. Destination Image : Marketing of Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Siegismund, Daniela

    2013-01-01

    Finland is known almost everywhere in the world as a cold snowbound location that would most be suitable for winter holidays. This bachelor’s thesis seeks to analyse destination marketing of Finland and the factors that have led to this image and reputation. Especially important in this thesis is the image of Finland and its perception from the view of potential German customers. The goal was to identify reasons based on the author’s assumption for an image of Finland as mainly a winter locat...

  12. Card, Internet and mobile payments in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Jyrkönen, Hanna; Paunonen, Heli

    2004-01-01

    Retail payment methods are in a stage of rapid development. New service providers and technological developments enable new payment services through a variety of channels. Payment solutions are being developed based eg on the Internet and on mobile phones. Presumably, the use of paper-based payment instruments will decrease further in the future thanks to electronification in the retail payment area. In this paper we focus on card payments in Finland and certain other countries. We also look ...

  13. Teachers as Leaders in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahlberg, Pasi

    2013-01-01

    During the last decade, thousands of visitors have flocked to Finland--now a leader in education rankings--to uncover this small Nordic country's secret to its education success. In this article, Finnish educator and scholar Pasi Sahlberg explains how Finland has managed such a feat. A rigorous graduate degree and at least five years of…

  14. Cosmetics Consumption among Young Males in the Greater Helsinki Region

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Xin

    2011-01-01

    The study was conducted to investigate Finnish young men's current consumption behavior and attitudes towards cosmetics. The research first sought to explore how different variables influence Finnish male consumers' cosmetics purchasing decisions. The secondary research aim was to analyze how metrosexuality was applied in Finland. Last to seek for identifying what are the key determinants in Finnish young men's cosmetics purchasing behaviors. Introduction sought to present a foundation of ...

  15. Developing Tourism Web Service for Russian Tourists: Case Moi Helsinki

    OpenAIRE

    Manner, Anastasia

    2014-01-01

    Tourist behavior and consumption patterns of Russians abroad are relevant topics in today’s tourism industry. As the role of social media in travel industry has increased dramatically during recent years, tourism marketing has also moved to the world of social media, creating opportunities for new marketing concepts and forms. In Finland, where Russian tourists form the majority of all foreign visitors, companies still struggle to utilize Russian social media as a marketing tool. The developm...

  16. Financial aspects of a small hospitality business planning : through the example of a business plan of a café in Helsinki downtown

    OpenAIRE

    Sushko, Ekaterina

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis project is to create a business plan for a small restaurant business potentially located in Helsinki downtown area. The subject is approached with aid of financial management and financial planning theory. The business plan of a café was developed based on the experience and knowledge obtained during studies at Haaga-Helia UAS, with usage of existent literature on entrepreneurship and financial management. The main objectives of the plan creation are clarificati...

  17. The three official language versions of the Declaration of Helsinki:what's lost in translation?

    OpenAIRE

    Carlson, Robert V; van Ginneken, Nadja H; Pettigrew, Luisa M; Davies, Alan; Boyd, Kenneth M; Webb, David J.

    2007-01-01

    The Declaration of Helsinki, the World Medical Association's (WMA's) statement of ethical guidelines regarding medical research, is published in the three official languages of the WMA: English, French and Spanish.

  18. Tectono-metamorphic evolution and timing of the melting processes in the Svecofennian Tonalite-Trondhjemite Migmatite Belt: An example from Luopioinen, Tampere area, southern Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mouri, H.

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available The Svecofennian Orogen is in southern Finland characterized by two major migmatite belts. These are the so-called Granite Migmatite Belt, in which Kfs-rich leucosomes predominate, and the Tonalite-Trondhjemite Migmatite Belt, which is characterized by Kfs-poor leucosomes and borders the former belt in the north. The present paper deals with selected migmatitic rocks from the latter belt. It is aimed to study the temporal and structural relationships of the different leucosome generations, and to establish the pressure-temperature-time paths of this belt. The Tonalite-Trondhjemite Migmatite Belt consists mainly of migmatitic rocks with various types of synorogenic granitoids and minor mafic and ultramafic crocks. The mesosome of the migmatites consist of garnet-sillimanite-biotite-plagioclase-cordierite-quartz assemblages with rare K-feldspar and late andalusite. The oldest leucosomes are dominated by plagioclase and quartz, and the content of K-feldspar increases in later leucosomes. Microtextural analysis in conjunction with THERMOCALC calculations and geothermometry shows that these rocks were metamorphosed at peak conditions of 700-750°C at 4-5 kbar and aH20 = 0.4-0.7. The formation of cordierite coronas around garnet and the late crystallization of andalusite suggest that the final stage of the P-T history was characterized by decompression and cooling within the andalusite stability field, estimated at 500-650°C and 3-4 kbar. Detailed isotopic dating of mesosome and leucosomes of the migmatites was undertaken by conventional U-Pb analyses on monazite and zircon, Sm-Nd analyses on garnet, and ion probe dating on zircon. The monazites are nearly concordant with an average age of 1878.5±1.5 Ma, and garnet-whole rock analyses show that the concordant leucosomes and the mesosome are coeval within error margins having ages of 1893±40 and 1871±14 Ma, respectively. However, garnet in the discordant vein leucosome provides an age of 1843±11

  19. The revised Declaration of Helsinki: cosmetic or real change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Aisha Y; Foster, Charles

    2016-05-01

    The Declaration of Helsinki, adopted by the World Medical Association's General Assembly in 1964, is the most important set of guidelines about research on human participants. It both reflects and shapes the ethos of international research ethics. It is a living instrument and is reviewed and revised regularly. Its latest revision was in 2013. There are four substantial changes, reflected in the new Paragraph 15 (which deals with compensation for trial related injuries), Paragraph 33 (relating to placebos), Paragraph 20 (relating to vulnerable groups) and the new Paragraph 34 (relating to post-trial provisions). This article analyses these changes, and asks whether they indicate any shift in the overall philosophy of the Declaration. We conclude that these changes, though significant, are not tectonic. They accord with the spirit that has motivated the Declaration through all its iterations, and indicate a steady, incremental evolution towards a holistic code of research ethics for research on human participants. Patient autonomy, though crucial, is no longer the only concern of the Declaration; distributive justice and beneficence are motivating forces too. While the Declaration is aware of the need to facilitate research, it is equally aware of the need to protect the vulnerable, and of the practical difficulties involved in that protection. PMID:27150712

  20. Physics teacher education in Finland and reasons underlying the top scores of Finnish students on international assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirvonen, Pekka

    2010-02-01

    In Finland physics teachers have Master's degree in physics and pedagogical studies (60 cr). In addition they have introductory and intermediate studies (60 cr) in minor subjects, normally in mathematics and chemistry. The degree consists of 300 cr minimum and takes 5 years or more. In Bachelor studies (180 cr), almost identical in all Finnish universities, student teachers do the same physics courses than physicists (70 cr). Few exceptions can be found, e.g. in Joensuu we have two laboratory courses (5 cr) for student teachers. Part of pedagogical studies (25 cr) and some minor subject studies are included in Bachelor studies. Master studies (120 cr) differ more from university to university. Some universities do not make a difference between student teachers and forthcoming physicists but for instance the Universities of Joensuu and Helsinki offer several special courses for student teachers. These special courses include elements from different areas, e.g. the history of physics or the philosophy of physics, or the courses can concentrate on students' pre-knowledge or to foster students' conceptual and structural understanding of physics. In addition master's thesis can be done in the area of physics education. In summary, significant differences between universities can only be found in Master studies. However, there is no evidence that special courses for teachers produce better results than traditional master's physics courses. In fact most of the Finnish in-service physics teachers have done the traditional physics courses that do not include any influence from physics education research. Teacher education is surely one factor underlying the top scores of Finnish students. However, it is not only one and many other reasons can also be presented. )

  1. Evaluation and comparison of operational NWP and mesoscale meteorological models for forecasting urban air pollution episodes - Helsinki case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neunhaeuserer, L.; Fay, B. [German Weather Service (DWD), Offenbach (Germany); Baklanov, A.; Rasmussen, A. [Danish Meteorological Inst. (DMI), Copenhagen (Denmark); Bjergene, N.; Oedegaard, V. [Nowegian Meteorological Inst. (DNMI), Oslo (Norway); Kukkonen, J.; Rantamaeki, M.; Valkama, I. [Finnish Meteorological Inst. (FMI), Helsinki (Finland); Palau, J.L.; Landa, G.P. [Fundacion Centro de Estudios Ambientales del Mediterraneo (CEAM), Valencia (Spain)

    2004-07-01

    Predicting potentially harmful air pollution episodes is the purpose of urban air quality information and forecasting systems (UAQIFSs) that are established in several European cities especially after the implementation of stricter European air quality directives. As nested numerical weather prediction models have recently approached urban scale resolution, UAQIFSs may benefit largely from using the output of operational weather prediction and mesoscale meteorological models. The improvement and urbanisation of NWP models applied in UAQIFSs and their application in several European target cities (Oslo, Turin, Helsinki, Valencia/Castellon, Bologna) is the aim of the European Union FP5 project FUMAPEX (Integrated Systems for Forecasting Urban Meteorology, Air Pollution and Population Exposure, http://fumapex.dmi.dk) established in the COST 715 action. This paper presents results from the working package WP3 ''Testing the quality of different operational meteorological forecasting systems for urban areas''. A wintertime inversion episode in Dec 1995 and spring dust episodes in March 1998 and April 2002 in Helsinki are investigated. Simulations are performed and inter-compared for four numerical weather prediction (NWP) models (DMI-/FMI-/DNMI-HIRLAM and LM of the DWD/COSMO group) and the mesoscale meteorological models MM5 and RAMS. (orig.)

  2. Sylvatic Trichinella spp. infection in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airas, Niina; Saari, Seppo; Mikkonen, Taina; Virtala, Anna-Maija; Pellikka, Jani; Oksanen, Antti; Isomursu, Marja; Kilpelä, Seija-Sisko; Lim, Chae W; Sukura, Antti

    2010-02-01

    Although human infections caused by Trichinella sp. have not been reported in Finland for several decades and Trichinella sp. infection in pork has become virtually extinct in the last decade, sylvatic Trichinella spp. infection is still highly prevalent in Finland. Muscle digestion of 2,483 carnivorous wild animals from 9 host species during 1999-2005 showed 617 positive animals (24.8%). Molecular identification from 328 larval isolates revealed 4 different endemic Trichinella species, i.e., T. nativa, T. spiralis, T. britovi, and T. pseudospiralis. Seven percent of the infected animals carried mixed infections. Trichinella nativa was the most common species (74%), but T. spiralis was identified in 12%, T. britovi in 6%, and T. pseudospiralis in 1% of the animals. Host species showed different sample prevalence and Trichinella species distribution. Geographical distribution also varied, with the southern part of the country having significantly higher percentages than the northern part. Infection density was dependent on both the infecting Trichinella species and the host species. Trichinella spiralis was discovered in areas with no known domestic infection cases, indicating that it can also occur in the sylvatic cycle. Raccoon dogs and red foxes are the most important reservoir animals for T. spiralis , as well as for the sylvatic Trichinella species in Finland. PMID:19731970

  3. Workplace harassment prevention in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Lorek, Angelika

    2015-01-01

    The proposed research concerns the engagement of companies operating in Finland in prevention of workplace harassment. The main target of the thesis is to understand the importance of the prevention of workplace harassment in the work environment. Research analyses what measures companies take in order to prevent workplace harassment and how is it monitored. As a primary research, interview findings of four Finnish companies (“Company X”, DHL Finland, ISS Palvelut and Management Institute...

  4. Computers in Education in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Koivisto, Jari

    2014-01-01

    International audience This chapter traces the history of computers in education in Finland from the early 1970s to today. It begins by noting that the history of computers in education in Finland began in the early 70s after many Finnish companies and universities acquired and made use of mainframe computers. Some of the university students who used computers in their studies afterwards became teachers and brought with them the idea of using computers in classroom education in Finnish sch...

  5. Internal radiation doses of people in Finland after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After the reactor accident in Chernobyl radionuclides carried by airstreams reached Finland on April 27, 1986. The radioactive cloud spread over central and southern Finland and to a lesser extent over northern Finland. In Helsinki the maximum radionuclide concentrations in air were measured in late evening of April 28. The radioactive cloud remained over Finland only a short time and within a few days the radionuclide concentrations in the air decreased to one-hundredth of the maximum values. Most radionuclides causing deposition were washed down by local showers, resulting in very uneven deposition of radionuclides on the ground. In a addition minor amounts of radioactivity were deposited on Mav 10-12. For internal and external dose estimations Finland was divided into five fallout regions (1-5) according to the increasing 137Cs surface activity. At first, the short-lived radionuclides as well as 134Cs and 137Cs contributed to the external dose rate. Only the long-lived isotopes, 134Cs and especially 137Cs, later determined the external dose rates. The regions and corresponding dose rates and deposition categories on October 1, 1987, are shown.To estimate the total dose of the Finnish population from the radionuclides originating at Chernobyl the effective external and internal doses were calculated; the external doses were estimated using the data given. Groups of Finnish people representing the five fallout regions were whole-body counted annually during 1986-1990. The results of these measurements and those of the reference group were used to estimate the internal body burdens and radiation doses from 134Cs and 137Cs to the population

  6. Helsinki Region Transport Environmental Report 2011; Helsingin seudun liikenteen ympaeristoeraportti 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruskovaara, A.

    2012-07-01

    This environment report summarizes the key environmental impacts of HSL's activities and HSL's work to mitigate these impacts in 2011. The report is intended both for stakeholders and all residents of the region. It describes the state of affairs during HSL's second year of activity, particularly in terms of environmental aspects. Quality and environmental policies as well as strategic goals guide HSL's efforts towards continuous improvement. HSL's aim is that in 2018, Helsinki region has the most efficient transport system and the most satisfied users of public transport in Europe. Environmentally friendly transport system is promoted in accordance with the Helsinki Region Transport System Plan (HLJ 2011). HSL's Executive Board made the Transport System Decision on 29 March 2011, and the Board of KUUMA municipalities approved the decision on 19 April 2011.In terms of transport system, HLJ 2011 serves as starting point for the preparation of a Letter of Intent on Helsinki Region Land Use, Housing and Transport Program (MAL). The aim is that the State, the region's municipalities and HSL sign the Letter of Intent during spring 2012. Continuous improvement of environmental activities is important for a well-functioning transport system and competitive service supply. HSL is developing its environmental management in compliance with ISO 14001 standard. In HSL's activities, important environmental aspects relate to the wellbeing of people: health, living conditions and comfort as well as air quality and energy consumption. Emissions from bus services have decreased thanks to new vehicles and use of biofuels. Some 40 percent of the buses used on HSL's services are low-emissions vehicles. Renewable diesel fuel produced using waste animal fat from the food industry has been used in 19 new buses since August 2011. In early 2012, two hybrid buses enter service on bus route 24. The buses are expected to attain a 25 per cent

  7. Trajectory-based source area analysis of atmospheric fine particles, SO2, NOx and O3 for the SMEAR II station in Finland in 1996–2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kulmala

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Source area analysis based on combining in situ measurements of trace gas or particle concentrations and back trajectories calculated for corresponding times has proven to be a valuable approach in atmospheric research; especially in investigating air pollution episodes, but also in e.g. tracing the source areas of air masses related to high vs. low concentrations of aerosol particles of different sizes at the receptor site. A statistical trajectory method used before by Sogacheva et al. (2005 was fine-tuned to take the presumable horizontal error in calculated trajectories into account, tested with SO2 and validated by comparison against EMEP (European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme emission data. In this work we apply the improved method for characterizing the source areas of atmospheric SO2, NOx, O3 and aerosol particles of different size modes from the perspective of a Finnish measurement station located in Hyytiälä (61°51' N, 24°17' E. Our method proved useful for qualitative source area analysis of measured trace compounds. We applied it to study trends and seasonal variation in atmospheric pollutant transport during 13 yr at the SMEAR II station.

  8. Subglacial hydrology of the lake district ice lobe during the Younger Dryas (ca. 12 500 - 11 600 years ago) in the Kylaeniemi area, SE Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lunkka, J. P.; Moisio, K.; Vainio, A. [Univ. of Oulu (Finland)

    2013-07-15

    It is essential to gain knowledge on the subglacial hydrological conditions at the glacier bed / bedrock interface when assessing how bedrock fracture zones affect subglacial melt water flow and in which subglacial zones pressurized and oxygen-rich melt water penetrates into the bedrock fracture systems. In the warm-based glacier zones, a part of subglacial melt water will penetrate deep into the fracture systems although the major part of melt water is drained to and beyond the ice margin via subglacial tunnel networks especially in the areas where ice is flowing on the crystalline bedrock. During the last deglaciation phase of the former Scandinavian Ice Sheet, glaciofluvial accumulations were deposited and these sediment accumulations are highly important when picturing the subglacial hydrology of different ice streams during deglaciation in the crystalline bedrock area. The aim of the present work was to map the bedrock fracture zones in the Kylaeniemi area and to shed light on the subglacial hydrology of the Scandinavian Ice Sheet's Lake District Ice Stream that occupied the Kylaeniemi area during the Younger Dryas between ca. 12 500 - 11 600 years ago. The special emphasis within this general aim was to study the relationship between bedrock fracture zones and the routes of subglacial drainage paths. The methods used to map and study bedrock fracture zones and subglacial drainage paths included remotes sensing methods, field observations, ground penetrating radar (GPR) investigations and GIS-based reconstructions. Conventional geological field methods aided by the GPR-method were also used to map bedrock exposures and their structures and to define the type of glaciofluvial sediments and glaciofluvial landform associations. Two main fracture zone sets occur in the study area. The most prominent bedrock fracture zone set trends NW-SE while the other, less prominent fracture zone set is aligned in NE-SW direction. The majority of the minor joint sets in

  9. Distribution of permafrost in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seppälä, M.

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Two main types of permafrost are found in northern Finland. The most widely known occurence is in mires, in peat mounds with permanently frozen cores known as palsas. Some fully new, small occurrences have been found in pounus, small peat humps over large areas in Lapland. The second main type of permafrost occurrence is located above the tree line on barren fell summits there permafrost means continuous temperature below 0°C in the bedrock .Some massive cave ice has been found in Lapland, too. The climatic conditions at permafrost sites are still poorly know because the local topography affects the temperature conditions. Only sporadic recordings are available from the summits of fells and from palsa mires. In general, the mean annual air temperature for permafrost formation should be below -1°C. Snow depth seems to be the most critical factor for permafrost formation in Lapland: thin snow cover promotes frost penetration. Vegetation provides a useful indicator of snow depth and of possible permafrost sites. Some proposals are made for permafrost studies in Lapland.

  10. Natural radioactivity of ground and surface water in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Finland a country-wide study on the radioactivity of natural and drinking water has been performed to elucidate the role of water as a factor increasing the background radiation dose. The study was concerned mainly with waterworks having more than 200 users in the circuit of their distribution system. Additional samples were collected from bored privately-owned wells and from mines. The samples were analysed for 222Rn, 226Ra and gross alpha and beta activity. As a further investigation from a part of samples determinations of uranium and 228Ra were also made. The variation of radioactivity in the ground and surface water samples is presented, as are the areal variations of 226Ra and 222Rn in water of wells and springs, the highest concentrations and anomalies found, and the occurrence of 222Rn, 226Ra and natural uranium in tap water samples of waterworks. About 20 percent of bored wells in the region of Helsinki and about 5 percent of bored wells in other parts of Finland contained highly radioactive water, in which, e.g., the concentration of 222Rn was more than 100 000 pCi/l. In water of bored wells concentrations up to 1 200 000 pCi/l of 222Rn, 202 pCi/l of 226Ra, 181 pCi/l of 228Ra and 3090 μg/l of uranium were found. From the point of view of radiation protection, of the radioactive substances under study, 222Rn in water is the most important. The greatest radiation dose resulting from the use of radon-rich water is caused by radon liberated into the air in buildings. (author)

  11. Ultraviolet radiation in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taalas, P.; Koskela, T.; Damski, J.; Supperi, A. [Finnish Meteorological Inst., Helsinki (Finland). Section of Ozone and UV Research; Kyroe, E. [Finnish Meteorological Inst., Sodankylae (Finland). Sodankylae Observatory

    1996-12-31

    Solar ultraviolet radiation is damaging for living organisms due to its high energy pro each photon. The UV radiation is often separated into three regions according to the wavelength: UVC (200-280 nm), UVB (280-320 nm) and UVA (320-400 nm). The most hazardous part, UVC is absorbed completely in the upper atmosphere by molecular oxygen. UVB radiation is absorbed by atmospheric ozone partly, and it is reaching Earth`s surface, as UVA radiation. Besides atmospheric ozone, very important factors in determining the intensity of UVB radiation globally are the solar zenith angle and cloudiness. It may be calculated from global ozone changes that the clear-sky UVB doses may have enhanced by 10-15 % during spring and 5-10 % during summer at the latitudes of Finland, following the decrease of total ozone between 1979-90. The Finnish ozone and UV monitoring activities have become a part of international activities, especially the EU Environment and Climate Programme`s research projects. The main national level effort has been the Finnish Academy`s climatic change programme, SILMU 1990-95. This presentation summarises the scientific results reached during the SILMU project

  12. Successful Eradication of Multidrug Resistant Acinetobacter in the Helsinki Burn Centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindford, Andrew; Kiuru, Valtteri; Anttila, Veli-Jukka; Vuola, Jyrki

    2015-01-01

    Multidrug-resistant (MDR) Acinetobacter is an important pathogen implicated in nosocomial infections in healthcare environments. Virulence factors, resistance mechanisms, and limited therapeutic options make this pathogen a major problem currently facing burn intensive care units (ICUs) worldwide. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of infection control measures taken in Helsinki Burn Centre in 2001 on MDR Acinetobacter prevalence in ICU burn patients. Data were retrospectively collected from patient files from 1998 to 2012. ICU burn patients were defined as those with either over 30% of total body surface area burnt or requiring mechanical ventilation. Inclusion criteria consisted of patients who tested positive for Acinetobacter sp. in routine bacterial cultures or cultures taken because of a clinically suspected infection. Infection control interventions performed in 2001 consisted of various shower room renovations and changes in hospital hygiene and burn treatment regimes. Between 1998 and 2012, 75 patients were diagnosed with Acinetobacter sp. colonization. Following the infection control interventions the incidence of Acinetobacter sp. radically declined. Between 1998 and 2001, there were 31 cases of MDR Acinetobacter colonizations diagnosed, but from 2002 to 2012 no MDR strains were found. Changes to hospital hygiene and wound treatment protocols as well as structural changes to the hospital environment can have a major impact on preventing and treating Acinetobacter outbreaks in burn centers. PMID:25501783

  13. Engineering and R and D needs and supply in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The construction of the fifth power plant in Finland and the planning of a sixth one have increased the need for nuclear professionals. The situation is not eased by the previous nuclear generation retiring. Within the next 10 years almost 25% of the nuclear experts in Finland will retire. The need to transfer their knowledge to younger professionals and train new experts is evident. In fusion, the work started to build the next generation experiment ITER, has also drawn attention at least European wide to the need of young engineering experts. This talk will give an overview of the education system of engineers in Finland. The academic levels are discussed as well as a special course for professionals. A Finnish specialty in all the technical areas is the close connection of students with the industry, research institutes and authorities. Also the education of fusion engineers and plasma physicists in Finland will be considered. The European programs to train professionals in the fusion area will be viewed. Finally, the current situation of the personnel in nuclear energy research is resumed. It must be noted that the current situation in Finland also attracts students and young professionals. Also, the nuclear companies are confident that their needs can be fulfilled by the few universities giving the education. However, some extra effort is welcome in the field. (author)

  14. Factors Affecting Corrosion in Gulf of Finland Brackish Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jari Aromaa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Baltic Sea is a relatively shallow inland sea surrounded by the countries of North-Eastern Europe and Scandinavia. The brackish water in the Baltic Sea has low salt concentration and it is typically one-sixth of the ocean seawater. The “nominal” amount of dissolved solids, upon which formulae for artificial seawater are based, is about 34,500 ppm, of which most is sodium chloride. The major constituents are those whose concentrations are greater than 1 mg/L and are not greatly affected by biological processes. The ratio of concentrations of these ions and molecules to each other is relatively constant. Corrosion rates were determined in long-term tests in Gulf of Finland brackish water off Helsinki. The water temperature varies through the year from about 0°C in January to 15-16°C in June to August. Salinity is 4–6‰, highest at the end of summer and lowest when ice melts. pH is between 7.0 and 8.1. Weight loss tests from one- to four-year tests for steel, stainless steel, copper, aluminium, zinc, and galvanized steel are reported and compared to short term laboratory tests in artificial seawater. Tests for passivation rates and crevice corrosion for stainless steel are discussed in terms of environment variation. The effect of corrosion on strength of steel is also discussed.

  15. Surveillance of Environmental Radiation in Finland. Annual Report 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    soil in the Member States. In Finland, also the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI) and the Defence Forces are monitoring environmental radiation at their own stations. STUK's partners in surveillance of environmental radioactivity are collecting and delivering environmental samples for laboratory analyses, or are participating in whole-body counting. STUK would like to express its gratitude to the following partners for the successful co-operation: Defence Forces, Finnish Meteorological Institute, Arctic Research Centre, Southeast Finland Regional Environment Centre, North Ostrobothnia Regional Environment Centre, Lapland Regional Environment Centre, Southeast Finland Frontier Guard District, Lapland Frontier Guard District, Rescue Centre of Kotka, Water supply plants of Oulu and Turku, Valio Ltd., Health Department of Helsinki/Maria Hospital, Tampere University Central Hospital, Lapland Central Hospital, Secondary school of Helsingin yhteislyseo, Secondary school of Hatanpaeae in Tampere, and Secondary school of Korkalovaara in Rovaniemi. This report is addressed to all who are interested in environmental radioactivity in Finland. STUK delivers monitoring data also to the European Commission on regular basis, and this report is a summary of the results delivered to the Commission. (orig.)

  16. Surveillance of environmental radiation in Finland. Annual Report 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    previous years. The results are collected from monitoring programmes of STUK, FMI and the Defence Forces Research Institute of Technology. Nuclear power plant licensees are responsible for environmental surveillance in the vicinity of nuclear power plants in Finland. Those results are reported elsewhere. STUK's partners in surveillance of environmental radioactivity are collecting and delivering environmental samples for laboratory analyses, or are participating in whole-body counting. STUK would like to express its gratitude to the following institutions for the successful co-operation: Defence Forces, Finnish Meteorological Institute, Arctic Research Centre, Southeast Finland Regional Environment Centre, North Ostrobothnia Regional Environment Centre, Lapland Regional Environment Centre, Southeast Finland Frontier Guard District, Lapland Frontier Guard District, Jyvaeskylae Airport, Rescue Centre of Kotka, Water supply plants of Oulu and Turku, Valio Ltd., Health Department of Helsinki/Maria Hospital, Tampere University Central Hospital, Lapland Central Hospital, Secondary school of Helsingin yhteislyseo, Secondary school of Hatanpaeae in Tampere, and Secondary school of Korkalovaara in Rovaniemi. This report is addressed to all who are interested in environmental radioactivity in Finland. STUK delivers monitoring data also to the European Commission on regular basis, and this report is a summary of the results delivered to the Commission. The report is also available on the STUK's home pages www.stuk.fi. (orig.)

  17. Customer Satisfaction at the Hospitality Industry: Holiday Inn Helsinki-Vantaa Airport

    OpenAIRE

    Eld, Anna

    2015-01-01

    The intention of this Bachelor’s Degree thesis was to examine and observe the customer service and especially customer satisfaction in a hotel industry, and Holiday Inn Helsinki-Vantaa Airport was selected to be an example for this survey. This survey and thesis is carried out by the author in collaboration with Holiday Inn Helsinki-Vantaa Airport, which was the commissioner of this Bachelor’s Degree thesis. This hotel was chosen since the author of this thesis did her second internship there...

  18. Sustainable energy utilization in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alakangas, E.

    1996-12-31

    Finland tops the statistics for the industrialised world in the utilisation of bioenergy. In 1995 bioenergy, including peat-fired heat and power, accounted for 20 % of the total energy consumption. The declared goal of the government is to increase the use of bioenergy by not less than 25 % (1.5 million toe by the year 2005). Research and development plays a crucial role in the promotion of the expanded use of bioenergy in Finland. The aim is to identify and develop technologies for establishing and sustaining economically, environmentally and socially viable bioenergy niches in the energy system

  19. Canadian Art Partnership Program in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketovuori, Mikko

    2011-01-01

    This article is about a multidisciplinary R&D project in which a Canadian Learning Through The Arts (LTTA) program was imported to Finland in 2003-2004. Cultural differences in arts education in Finland and Canada are discussed. While Finland has a national school curriculum with all the arts included. Canada relies more on partnerships to ensure…

  20. Organic food and farming research in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Nykänen, Arja

    2006-01-01

    In Finland we have a tendency of increasing activities in organic food and farming research during last five years. Most of the organic food and farming research i Finland is carried out at the MTT Agrifood Research Finland. The rest is done at the universities and other institutes.

  1. Geophysical investigations in the Olkiluoto area, Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Investigations were carried out at the Olkiluoto site at Eurajoki using geological, geophysical, geohydrological and geochemical methods in 1987-1992 to determine the suitability of the bedrock for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. In this survey airborne, ground and borehole geophysical methods were used to study the rock type distribution, fracturing and hydraulic conductivity of the bedrock to a depth of one kilometre

  2. Geophysical investigations in the Syyry area, Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Investigations were carried out at the Syyry site at Sievi using geological, geophysical, geohydrological and geochemical methods in 1987-1991 to determine the suitability of the bedrock for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. In this survey airborne, ground and borehole geophysical methods were used to study the rock type distribution, fracturing and hydraulic conductivity of the bedrock to a depth of one kilometre

  3. When Self-Organization intersects with Urban Planning: Two Cases from Helsinki

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horelli, Liisa; Saad-Sulonen, Joanna; Wallin, Sirkku;

    2015-01-01

    Participation as self-organization has emerged as a new form of citizen activism, often supported by digital technology. A comparative qualitative analysis of two case studies in Helsinki indicates that the self-organization of citizens expands the practice of urban planning. Together, they enable...

  4. Surveillance of environmental radiation in Finland. Annual Report 2003; Ympaeristoen saeteilyvalvonta Suomessa. Vuosiraportti 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mustonen, R. (ed.)

    2004-07-01

    Meteorological Institute, the FMI Observatory at Sodankylae, the Southeast Finland Regional Environment Centre, the North Ostrobothnia Regional Environment Centre, the Lapland Regional Environment Centre, the Southeast Finland Frontier Guard District, the Lapland Frontier Guard District, Jyvaeskylae Airport, the Rescue Centre of Kotka, the Health Department of Helsinki/Maria Hospital, Tampere University Central Hospital, Lapland Central Hospital, the Secondary school Helsingin yhteislyseo, the Hatanpaeae Secondary school in Tampere, and the Korkalovaara Secondary school in Rovaniemi. This report is addressed to all who are interested in environmental radioactivity in Finland. STUK also delivers monitoring data to the European Commission on a regular basis, and this report is a summary of the results delivered to the Commission. The report is also available on STUK's home page; www.stuk.fi. (orig.)

  5. Surveillance of environmental radiation in Finland. Annual Report 2001; Ympaeristoen saeteilyvalvonta Suomessa. Vuosiraportti 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mustonen, R. (ed.)

    2002-07-01

    -operation: Defence Forces, Finnish Meteorological Institute, FMI Observatory of Sodankylae, Southeast Finland Regional Environment Centre, North Ostrobothnia Regional Environment Centre, Lapland Regional Environment Centre, Southeast Finland Frontier Guard District, Lapland Frontier Guard District, Jyvaeskylae Airport, Rescue Centre of Kotka, Water works of Turku and Oulu. Health Department of Helsinki/ Maria Hospital, Tampere University Central Hospital, Lapland Central Hospital, Secondary school of Helsingin yhteislyseo, Secondary school of Hatanpaeae in Tampere, Secondary school of Korkalovaara in Rovaniemi. This report is addressed to all who are interested in environmental radioactivity in Finland. STUK delivers monitoring data also to the European Commission on regular basis, and this report is a summary of the results delivered to the Commission. The report is also available at the STUK's home pages www.stuk.fi. (orig.)

  6. Surveillance of environmental radiation in Finland. Annual Report 2002; Ympaeristoen saeteilyvalvonta Suomessa. Vuosiraportti 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mustonen, R. (ed.)

    2003-07-01

    Meteorological Institute, the FMI Observatory at Sodankylae, the Southeast Finland Regional Environment Centre, the North Ostrobothnia Regional Environment Centre, the Lapland Regional Environment Centre, the Southeast Finland Frontier Guard District, the Lapland Frontier Guard District, Jyvaeskylae Airport, the Rescue Centre of Kotka, the Health Department of Helsinki/Maria Hospital, Tampere University Central Hospital, Lapland Central Hospital, the Secondary school Helsingin yhteislyseo, the Hatanpaeae Secondary school in Tampere, and the Korkalovaara Secondary school in Rovaniemi. This report is addressed to all who are interested in environmental radioactivity in Finland. STUK also delivers monitoring data to the European Commission on a regular basis, and this report is a summary of the results delivered to the Commission. The report is also available on STUK's home page; www.stuk.fi. (orig.)

  7. Growth and equity in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Jäntti, Markus; Saari, Juho; Vartiainen, Juhana

    2006-01-01

    This paper reviews Finnish economic history during the ‘long’ twentieth century with a special emphasis on policies for equity and growth. We argue that Finland developed from a poor, vulnerable, and conflict-prone country to a modern economy in part through policies geared at both growth and equity, such as land reform and compulsory schooling. The state participated in economic activity both indirectly and directly in the post-war period, implementing many social policy reforms that facilit...

  8. Russian Consumer Behavior in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Potapova, Eila

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the thesis is to study consumer behavior of Russian tourists in Finland and to analyze the main factors that are influencing their buying habits. The growing effect of Russians on Finnish market triggered the interest to start this thesis. Theoretical part of the thesis starts with a definition of the consumer and consumer behavior. Segmentation, positioning and targeting are discussed next. Afterwards, segments of Russian consumers are described generally. Empirical study ...

  9. CRYPTO-CURRENCIES IN FINLAND

    OpenAIRE

    Savukoski, Atte

    2015-01-01

    This thesis study was conducted to deliver information about Bitcoin and its use in Finland. The first objective was to explain what Bitcoin is and its fundamentals. By understanding Bitcoin, people have the opportunity to think how it can influence business. Additionally, it is important to know the limitations of Bitcoin and how it should be used properly in terms of security and regulations. The second objective of this thesis study was to find out common reasons for use of Bitcoin in comp...

  10. UNIVERSITY CONTINUING EDUCATION IN FINLAND

    OpenAIRE

    Kess, P.; Tuomi, O.

    1998-01-01

    Statistics show that half of the adult population of Finland is engaged in study at some educational institution. The desire among Finns for education is an internationally interesting feature. At governmental level educational policy is considered an important aid in international competition. The concept of lifelong learning is supported in Finnish society by empirical evidence, even if the high appreciation in the social hierarchy for qualifications should also be mentioned as a characteri...

  11. Estimating the distribution of strontium isotope ratios (87Sr/86Sr) in the Precambrian of Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Lars Kaislaniemi

    2011-01-01

    A method to estimate the 87Sr/86Sr ratio of a rock based on its age and Rb/Sr ratio is presented. This method, together with data from the Rock Geochemical Database of Finland (n=6544) is used to estimate the 87Sr/86Sr ratios in the Precambrian of Finland and in its different major units. A generalization to cover the whole area of Finland is achieved by smoothing of estimation points. The estimation method is evaluated by comparing its results to published Rb-Sr isotope analyses (n=138) obta...

  12. Declaracion de Helsinki sus vicisitudes en los últimos cinco años Declaration of Helsinki. Its vicissitudes during the last five years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezequiel Klimovsky

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available La Declaración de Helsinki es uno de los referentes centrales en cuanto a las normas éticas que guían la investigación clínica. A lo largo de su existencia fue modificada en diversas ocasiones, la última de ellas en octubre de 2000. El objetivo del trabajo es realizar una revisión de las discusiones que llevaron a esta última modificación y los debates suscitados a partir de la misma y que todavía continúan, fundamentalmente en relación al uso del placebo en los protocolos de investigación clínica farmacológica. Se realizó una revisión de los artículos más destacados y de las opiniones de los participantes en las discusiones que han sido publicadas acerca de este tema en los últimos cinco años. Se reseñan las argumentaciones de los científicos a favor y en contra del uso del placebo. Consideramos que es dificultoso hallar respuestas simples para los interrogantes que el uso del placebo en los ensayos clínicos nos plantea, tanto en países desarrollados como en países en desarrollo, y que la Declaración de Helsinki continúa constituyendo una guía de ideal ético al cual todos los involucrados en la investigación clínica deberíamos intentar acercarnos.The Declaration of Helsinki is one of the major ethical guidelines for conducting clinical research. Along its existence it has been modified on diverse occasions, the latest one in October 2000. The objective of this article is to carry out a revision of the discussions that were taken up at this latest modification and the debates raised since its promulgation which still continue, fundamentally in relation to the use of placebo in pharmacological clinical investigation. This includes a revision of the most outstanding articles and of the opinions of the participants in the discussions that have been published in the last five years. The scientists' arguments in favor or against the use of placebo are pointed out. We consider that it is difficult to find simple

  13. World Medical Association Declaration of Helsinki: ethical principles for medical research involving human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Published research in English-language journals are increasingly required to carry a statement that the study has been approved and monitored by an Institutional Review Board in conformance with 45 CFR 46 standards if the study was conducted in the United States. Alternative language attesting conformity with the Helsinki Declaration is often included when the research was conducted in Europe or elsewhere. The Helsinki Declaration was created by the World Medical Association in 1964 (ten years before the Belmont Report) and has been amended several times. The Helsinki Declaration differs from its American version in several respects, the most significant of which is that it was developed by and for physicians. The term "patient" appears in many places where we would expect to see "subject." It is stated in several places that physicians must either conduct or have supervisory control of the research. The dual role of the physician-researcher is acknowledged, but it is made clear that the role of healer takes precedence over that of scientist. In the United States, the federal government developed and enforces regulations on researcher; in the rest of the world, the profession, or a significant part of it, took the initiative in defining and promoting good research practice, and governments in many countries have worked to harmonize their standards along these lines. The Helsinki Declaration is based less on key philosophical principles and more on prescriptive statements. Although there is significant overlap between the Belmont and the Helsinki guidelines, the latter extends much further into research design and publication. Elements in a research protocol, use of placebos, and obligation to enroll trials in public registries (to ensure that negative findings are not buried), and requirements to share findings with the research and professional communities are included in the Helsinki Declaration. As a practical matter, these are often part of the work of American

  14. Acid sulfate soils are an environmental hazard in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pihlaja, Jouni

    2016-04-01

    Acid sulfate soils (ASS) create significant threats to the environment on coastal regions of the Baltic Sea in Finland. The sediments were deposited during the ancient Litorina Sea phase of the Baltic Sea about 7500-4500 years ago. Finland has larger spatial extent of the ASS than any other European country. Mostly based on anthropogenic reasons (cultivation, trenching etc.) ASS deposits are currently being exposed to oxygen which leads to chemical reaction creating sulfuric acid. The acidic waters then dissolve metals form the soil. Acidic surface run off including the metals are then leached into the water bodies weakening the water quality and killing fish or vegetation. In constructed areas acidic waters may corrode building materials. Geological Survey of Finland (GTK) is mapping ASS deposits in Finland. The goal is to map a total of 5 million hectares of the potentially ASS affected region. It has been estimated that the problematic Litorina Sea deposits, which are situated 0-100 m above the recent Baltic Sea shoreline, cover 500 000 hectares area. There are several phases in mapping. The work begins at the office with gathering the existing data, interpreting airborne geophysical data and compiling a field working plan. In the field, quality of the soil is studied and in uncertain cases samples are taken to laboratory analyses. Also electrical conductivity and pH of soil and water are measured in the field. Laboratory methods include multielemental determinations with ICP-OES, analyses of grain size and humus content (LOI), and incubation. So far, approximately 60 % of the potential ASS affected regions in Finland are mapped. Over 15 000 sites have been studied in the field and 4000 laboratory analyses are done. The spatial database presented in the scale of 1: 250 000 can be viewed at the GTK's web pages (http://gtkdata.gtk.fi/hasu/index.html).

  15. The use of videoconferencing for mental health services in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohinmaa, Arto; Roine, Risto; Hailey, David; Kuusimäki, Marja-Leena; Winblad, Ilkka

    2008-01-01

    The utilization of telemental health (TMH) services in Finland was surveyed in 2006. In total, 135 health-care units provided responses. Eighty-four responses were received from primary care units (health-care centres and clinics) and eight from other clinics, in all hospital districts. The overall rate of TMH consultations was 4 per 100,000 population. The highest TMH consultation per population ratio, 22 per 100,000, was in northern Finland. Most of the sites used telepsychiatry services for less than 10% of clinical outpatient services. The sites with over 20% utilization of clinical TMH services from all psychiatric consultations were all rural health centres. Compared with Finland, the utilization rates of TMH were higher in Canada; that might be due to differences between the countries in the organization of mental health services in primary and specialized care. In Finland TMH consultations made up only a very small proportion of all mental health services. The use of TMH was particularly common in remote areas; however, there were many rural centres that did not utilize clinical TMH. TMH was widely utilized for continuing and medical education.

  16. Aerial measurements in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winkelmann, I.; Thomas, M.; Buchroeder, H.; Brummer, C. [Federal Office for Radiation Protection, Berlin (Germany); Carloff, G. [German Federal Border Police, Grenzschutz-Fliegergruppe, Sankt Augustin (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    Aerial measurements were performed to determine the {sup 137}Cs soil contamination in a given region to detect unknown radiation sources and to assess their activity. For these measurements a computerized gamma ray spectrometer, equipped with a high purity Ge-semiconductor detector and a 12 l volume Nal(Tl)-detector was used. HPGe-detector measurements from different altitudes over area I were done to test and re-calibrate the aerial measuring system. The known {sup 137}Cs contamination of (50.7 {+-} 5.2) kBq m{sup -2} could be confirmed by the measured value of (57 {+-} 10) kBq m{sup -2}. the Nal(Tl)-detector was re-calibrated at that site for further {sup 137}Cs measurements over area II. The area II was surveyed from an altitude of about 70 m and at a parallel line distance of 150 m at an flying speed of 100 km h{sup -1} to determine the {sup 137}Cs soil contamination. The measuring time was two seconds for the Nal(Tl)-detector. For the spectra measured with the HPGe-detector, a measuring time of 30 s each was chosen. From the Nal(Tl)-measurements, a mean {sup 137}Cs value of (60 {+-} 20) kBq m{sup -2} was determined with a maximum value of 90 kBq m{sup -2}. The corresponding values measured by HPGe-detector were (70 {+-} 20) kBq m{sup -2} and 120 kBq m{sup -2}, respectively. For the evaluation of the HPGe-spectra a depth distribution parameter {alpha}/{rho} = (0.44 {+-} 0.21) cm{sup 2} g{sup -1} for {sup 137}Cs was used measured from soil samples. From data measured with the Nal(Tl)-detector during flights over area III, three{sup 60}Co-sources and one {sup 137}Cs source could be detected, localized and their activity assessed. By HPGe-detector measurements, only scattered {sup 192}lr radiation was registered. (au).

  17. Does Finland Suffer from Brain Drain?

    OpenAIRE

    Johansson, Edvard

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the trends in immigration to and emigration from Finland during the period 1987-2006. The focus is on the 'human capital content' of the migration flows, the key question being: Is Finland losing out in the international competition for highly educated individuals? International comparisons presented by the OECD give the impression that Finland perform very weakly in the global competition for talent, as the share of highlyskilled immigrants is very low. However, these com...

  18. Canadian Art Partnership Program in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Ketovuori, Mikko Mr.

    2011-01-01

    This article is about a multidisciplinary R&D project in which a Canadian Learning Through The Arts (LTTA) program was imported to Finland in 2003–2004. Cultural differences in arts education in Finland and Canada are discussed. While Finland has a national school curriculum with all the arts included. Canada relies more on partnerships to ensure arts education for children in the schools. Despite the fact that Canadian learning methods appeared to be quite similar to the ones Finnish teacher...

  19. Regulatory control of nuclear safety in Finland. Annual report 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report describes regulatory control of the use of nuclear energy by the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) in Finland in 1997. Nuclear regulatory control ascertained that the operation of Finnish NPPs was in compliance with the conditions set out in operating licences and current regulations. In addition to NPP normal operation, STUK oversaw projects at the plant units relating to power uprating and safety improvements. STUK prepared statements for the Ministry of Trade and Industry about the applications for renewing the operating licenses of Loviisa and Olkiluoto NPPs. The most important items of supervision in nuclear waste management were studies relating to the final disposal of spent fuel from NPPs and the review of the licence application for a repository for low- and intermediate-level reactor waste from Loviisa NPP. Preparation of general safety regulations for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel, to be published in the form of a Council of State Decision, was started. By safeguards control, the use of nuclear materials was verified to be in compliance with current regulations and that the whereabouts of every batch of nuclear material were always known. Nuclear material safeguards were stepped up to prevent illicit trafficking of nuclear materials and other radioactive materials. In co-operation with the Ministry for Foreign Affairs and the Institute of Seismology (University of Helsinki), preparations were undertaken to implement the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). For enforcement of the Treaty and as part of the international regulatory approach, STUK is currently developing laboratory analyses relating to airborne radioactivity measurements. The focus of co-operation funded by external sources was as follows: improvement of the safety of Kola and Leningrad NPPs, improvement of nuclear waste management in North-West Russia, development of the organizations of nuclear safety authorities in Eastern Europe and development

  20. Sleep Advantage : Undersökning av ett koncept på Crowne Plaza Helsinki

    OpenAIRE

    Pieniniemi, Jonas

    2012-01-01

    En välplanerad produktutveckling utgör en viktig konkurrensfördel för företag inom hotellbranschen. Ett hotell måste kunna erbjuda tjänster som upplevs som mervärde för kunden. För att stärka detta har man på hotellet Crowne Plaza Helsinki tagit ibruk ett koncept med namnet Sleep Advantage. Konceptet erbjuder kunden garanterad nattsömn och tilläggstjänster som stärker kundens upplevelse om en lyckad och lugnt natt på ett klassigt hotell. Konceptet är nytt och Crowne Plaza Helsinki har anlitat...

  1. Utveckling av executive loungens tjänster på Hilton Helsinki Airport

    OpenAIRE

    Turunen, Nea

    2014-01-01

    Lärdomsprovet är gjort på uppdrag av Hilton Helsinki Airport hotell. Skribenten gjorde sin arbetspraktik på hotellet och fick uppdraget då. Hotellet har en executive lounge. Hotellet är grundat år 2007. Det har aldrig förr gjorts en kundnöjdhetsunder-sökning för loungen. På Hilton Helsinki Airport vill de veta hur nöjda kunderna är med loungen och hur de skulle kunna utveckla den så att kunderna skulle vara ännu nöjdare. De flesta av kunderna som besöker hotellet är affärsresenärer. Hote...

  2. Correction of errors in scale values for magnetic elements for Helsinki

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svalgaard, L.

    2014-06-01

    Using several lines of evidence we show that the scale values of the geomagnetic variometers operating in Helsinki in the 19th century were not constant throughout the years of operation 1844-1897. Specifically, the adopted scale value of the horizontal force variometer appears to be too low by ~ 30% during the years 1866-1874.5 and the adopted scale value of the declination variometer appears to be too low by a factor of ~ 2 during the interval 1885.8-1887.5. Reconstructing the heliospheric magnetic field strength from geomagnetic data has reached a stage where a reliable reconstruction is possible using even just a single geomagnetic data set of hourly or daily values. Before such reconstructions can be accepted as reliable, the underlying data must be calibrated correctly. It is thus mandatory that the Helsinki data be corrected. Such correction has been satisfactorily carried out and the HMF strength is now well constrained back to 1845.

  3. Comparison of OMI NO2 observations and their seasonal and weekly cycles with ground-based measurements in Helsinki

    OpenAIRE

    Ialongo, Iolanda; Herman, Jay; Krotkov, Nick; Lamsal, Lok; Boersma, Folkert; Hovila, Jari; Tamminen, Johanna

    2016-01-01

    We present the comparison of satellite-based OMI (Ozone Monitoring Instrument) NO2 products with ground-based observations in Helsinki. OMI NO2 total columns, available from standard product (SP) and DOMINO algorithm, are compared with the measurements performed by the Pandora spectrometer in Helsinki in 2012. The relative difference between Pandora #21 and OMI SP retrievals is 4 % and −6 % for clear sky and all sky conditions, respectively. DOMINO NO2 retrievals showed sl...

  4. Marketing and Promotional Materials for Helsinki Zoo Business Services : Producing a Sub-brand from an Established Corporate Identity

    OpenAIRE

    Ranta, Julia

    2015-01-01

    Helsinki Zoo (Korkeasaaren eläintarha) is known for its location on an island and for being one of the oldest zoos in the world, having been established in 1889. The public can visit Helsinki Zoo all year round and besides normal zoo entrances and educational programmes run for schools, the zoo offers services for business clients, such as conference room facilities, various programmes about the zoo’s work and animals, and cafeteria services. The objective of this thesis was t...

  5. Accessible Tourism : A Study of accessibility in Hotel Chains,Public Transport and Ferry Companies in Helsinki

    OpenAIRE

    Khatri, Kumar; Shrestha, Rajkumar; Mahat, Ujjwal

    2012-01-01

    This Bachelor’s thesis was prepared for the fulfillment of the educational standard of Laurea University of Applied Sciences. This thesis is aimed to achieve a main goal which is to explore accessible service and product with its environment into hotel chains, public transportation and ferry companies in Helsinki. In addition, this thesis describes the current accessibility situation of hotel chains, public transportation and two ferry companies in Helsinki. The empirical study material ...

  6. ACADEMIC TRAINING (O. BRUNING / CERN-SL, S. TAPPROGGE / Helsinki Univ. of Physics, E. TSESMELIS / Helsinki Univ. of Physics , CERN-EST)

    CERN Document Server

    Françoise Benz

    2002-01-01

    21, 22, 23 May LECTURE SERIES from 11.00 to 12.00 hrs - Auditorium, bldg. 500 The LHC Machine/Experiment Interface by O. BRUNING / CERN-SL, S. TAPPROGGE / Helsinki Univ. of Physics, E. TSESMELIS / Helsinki Univ. of Physics, CERN-EST     This series of three lectures will provide an overview of issues arising at the interface between the LHC machine and the experiments, which are required for guiding the interaction between the collider and the experiments when operation of the LHC commences. A basic description of the LHC Collider and its operating parameters, such as its energy, currents, bunch structure and luminosity, as well as variations on these parameters, will be given. Furthermore, the optics foreseen for the experimental insertions, the sources and intensities of beam losses and the running-in scenarios for the various phases of operation will be discussed. A second module will cover the specific requirements and expectations of each experiment in terms of the layout of experiment...

  7. The marketing strategy of a biofore company: a case study of UPM, Helsinki

    OpenAIRE

    Roy, Uttam

    2014-01-01

    Laurea University of Applied Sciences Abstract Leppävaara Degree Programme in Business Management Roy, Uttam Kumar The marketing strategy of a biofore company a case study of UPM, Helsinki. May 2014 Pages 49 The main objective of this thesis is to evaluate the marketing strategies of a case company UPM. This thesis analysis is related to the business activities among stakeholders and UPM as forest based products of a multinational company. ...

  8. Assessing the Effectiveness of Marginal Cost Pricing in Transport - the Helsinki Case

    OpenAIRE

    Paavo Moilanen

    2000-01-01

    A geographic MEPLAN model based on the principles of economic behaviour was applied to study the marginal cost pricing approach for optimising the use of the transport system in the Helsinki region. As the model can estimate land use relocation the analysis emphasises the long-term impacts. According to the model calculations, marginal cost pricing can increase the overall socio-economic efficiency of the transport system especially by reducing urban sprawl. The welfare gain obtainable can be...

  9. Bronchial hyperresponsiveness in an adult population in Helsinki: decreased FEV1, the main determinant

    OpenAIRE

    Juusela, Maria; Pallasaho, Paula; Sarna, Seppo; Piirilä, Päivi; Lundbäck, Bo; Sovijärvi, Anssi

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) elevates the risk for development of respiratory symptoms and accelerates the decline in forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1). We thus aimed to assess the prevalence, determinants and quantity of BHR in Helsinki. Objectives This study involved 292 randomly selected subjects age 26–66 years, women comprising 58%. Methods Following a structured interview, a spirometry, a bronchodilation test, and a skin-prick test, we assessed a br...

  10. Medication compliance and serum lipid changes in the Helsinki Heart Study.

    OpenAIRE

    Mäenpää, H; Heinonen, O. P.; Manninen, V

    1991-01-01

    1. To control the bias caused by poor medication compliance in the Helsinki Heart Study three methods were used to measure medication compliance during the total 5 years follow up time: continuous capsule counting, semi-annual urine gemfibrozil analysis and a new method, the digoxin marker at the end of the third and fifth study years. 2. The serum lipid responses to gemfibrozil treatment varied linearly with the level of medication compliance, e.g. the mean change in serum total cholesterol ...

  11. Public health response to radiation emergencies and the role of the Helsinki Project Office

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper focuses on the public health element of nuclear emergency preparedness, defined as the mitigation of the long-term effects of radiation on exposed populations, as opposed to dealing with the health consequences of an exposure in an individual (termed medical aspects). The paper also approaches to the role of the Helsinki Project Office which is concerned with the protection of public health through effective response to nuclear emergencies, and falling into two categories, namely contingency planning or preparedness, and response

  12. Treatment of illicit opioid and γ-hydroxybutyrate overdose by Helsinki emergency medical services

    OpenAIRE

    Boyd, James

    2011-01-01

    Aims: To examine the characteristics, incidence, treatment and outcome of presumed opioid, γ-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) and γ-butyrolactone (GBL) overdoses involving users of illicit drugs in Helsinki. GHB/GBL were included in this study, despite not being opioids, due to the relative ease with which they can cause potentially fatal respiratory depression. The incidence and time interval of recurrent opioid toxicity after prehospital administration of naloxone, an opioid antagonist, was studied ...

  13. Dental care and treatments provided under general anaesthesia in the Helsinki Public Dental Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savanheimo Nora

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dental general anaesthesia (DGA is a very efficient treatment modality, but is considered only in the last resort because of the risks posed by general anaesthesia to patients’ overall health. Health services and their treatment policies regarding DGA vary from country to country. The aims of this work were to determine the reasons for DGA in the Helsinki Public Dental Service (PDS and to assess the role of patient characteristics in the variation in reasons and in the treatments given with special focus on preventive care. Methods The data covered all DGA patients treated in the PDS in Helsinki in 2010. The data were collected from patient documents and included personal background: age ( Results The DGA patients (n=349 were aged 2.3 to 67.2 years. Immigrants predominated in the youngest age group (p Conclusions Extreme non-cooperation, dental fear and an excessive need for treatment were the main reasons for the use of comprehensive, conservative DGA in the Helsinki PDS. The reasons for the use of DGA and the treatments provided varied according to personal and medical background, and immigration status with no gender-differences. Preventive measures formed only a minor part of the dental care given under DGA.

  14. Energy policies of IEA countries: Finland - 2007 review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-03-15

    Faced with considerable challenges related to its geography and size, Finland's sound energy policies do much to overcome its situation. The country leverages its small market where it can - such as by adopting or harmonising with EU directives and policies. To counter its relative isolation, Finland strengthened its position by becoming part of the larger Nordic electricity market and enhancing energy linkages. At the core, however, the country ensures energy security by relying on transparency and sound market signals to investors and customers, as well as by making good use of domestic sources of biomass and nuclear. As Finland continues to refine and enhance its energy policy, there are some areas that warrant special attention. As nearly all fossil fuels are imported and all natural gas comes through a single interconnection, the government should continue to explore ways to diversify import sources and routes. The new nuclear power plant currently being built - the first in a liberalised market - will help safeguard energy security, though the construction delays necessitate continued monitoring. Subsidies for peat, a fuel in abundance in Finland, should be reconsidered, as they do not enhance energy security. On the other hand, the government should continue to explore ways to expand new renewables, building on the current stock of biomass and hydro. This book takes an in-depth look at Finland's energy policy today and, through comparisons with good examples in other IEA countries, provides critiques and recommendations for improvements to guide the country towards a sustainable energy future. While the review provides comprehensive coverage of all topics, this thematic report highlights energy efficiency and energy R and D.

  15. Endemic time-spaces of Finland: Aquatic regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tero Mustonen

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the endemic time-spaces of Finnish aquatic regimes. More precisely, it examines the socio-ecological relationships between Finns and lakes, rivers, and marshes-mires. First, the 'engine' of endemic time-space research, land use, and occupancy documentation, is explored in the Finnish context. Then two catchment areas, Kokemäenjoki in Western Finland and Vuoksi in Eastern Finland, provide cases which illustrate both past endemic time-spaces and surviving aspects of cultural readings of lakes and rivers. The ongoing winter seining in Lake Puruvesi in North Karelia emerges as an unbroken practice, with deep roots, that maintains the endemic time-spaces of a traditional Finnish relationship with a lake. As industrial uses of catchment areas, zoning, and environmental permitting exclude endemic readings inherent on the land and waterscapes, solutions are explored through mapping, along with its limitations, as a form bridging the gap between local realities and resource extraction.

  16. Postglacial deformation of bedrock in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glacial isostatic adjustment controls the three-dimensional deformation in Fennoscandia. Maximum vertical uplift rates based on the GPS measurements are about 11 mm/yr and horizontal motions are up to 2 mm/yr. Tectonic component is about 10% of the land uplift (or 1 mm/yr). Horizontal motions are directed outward from area of the fastest uplift. Horizontal tectonic motions are also less than 1 mm/yr. Seismic activity in Finland is low and heterogeneously distributed and the earthquake density maximums and the areas of postglacial faults have a spatial correlation. Detailed geodetic surveys indicate that crustal deformation occurs unevenly. However, the bedrock in Finland is so fractured that the deformation is distributed over a number of structures and that deformations and displacements along individual structures are very small and difficult to resolve. Fault intersections can form a locked area where stresses large enough to trigger intraplate earthquakes can build up. In the absence of intersections, the pre-existing faults can creep at a lower stress threshold. In Fennoscandia, plate-boundary tectonic stresses drive the regional compressive stress field, but to account for the current level of seismicity the glacial isostatic adjustment has a very important role. Brittle crust is near the point of failure, and, consequently, small changes, like glacial rebound related, (0.1 Mpa) in the state of stress can nucleate earthquakes are sufficient to reactive optimally oriented pre-excising weaknesses. Stress orientations inferred from the strain measurements of the first order triangulation network and seismological stress data shows (a) the dominating ridge-push/mantle drag related compression and, (b) evidence on significant local variations of the surface stress field influenced by the orientation of major fracture zones. Postglacial faults are re-activated old faults and the areas of postglacial faulting are still the most seismically active areas in

  17. Greenfield nuclear power for Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saarenpaa, Tapio

    2010-09-15

    In Finland, licensing for new nuclear power is ongoing. The political approval is to be completed in 2010. Fennovoima's project is unique in various ways: (i) the company was established only in 2007, (ii) its ownership includes a mixture of local energy companies, electricity-intensive industries and international nuclear competence through E.ON, and (iii) it has two alternative greenfield sites. There are five prerequisites for a successful nuclear power project in a transparent democracy of today: (1) need for additional power capacity, (2) actor prepared to invest, (3) established competence, (4) available site, (5) open communications, and (6) favorable public opinion.

  18. Epidemiological, clinical and genetic aspects of neurofibromatoses in Northern Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Pöyhönen, M. (Minna)

    1999-01-01

    Abstract A population-based study to investigate the epidemiological, genetic and clinical features of neurofibromatoses (NF) in Northern Finland was carried out between 1989–1996. The area concerned was that served by Oulu University Hospital, with a total population of 733 037. A total of 197 patients with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), five with neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) and eight with segmental neurofibromatosis (NF5) fulfilling the diagnostic criteria were identified among s...

  19. Esotericism made exoteric? Insider and outsider perspectives on the 2006 Mormon Temple Public Open House in Espoo, Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim B. Östman

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to discuss two perspectives on Latter-day Saints’ (Mormons' temple open houses. First, that of the Latter-day Saints themselves, who are placed in a delicate situation as they present the temple to the public while simultaneously desiring to preserve its esoteric nature. What do they want to accomplish and how do they go about doing it? Second, the perspective of the public, whose reactions exemplify layman views of what it can be like to peek into a sacred and esoteric world foreign to oneself. What kinds of forms can their thoughts take at Mormon temple open houses? The particular case considered in this article is the autumn 2006 open house at the Helsinki Finland temple.

  20. What Lessons Does Finland Give:Characteristics of Education in Finland%What Lessons Does Finland Give: Characteristics of Education in Finland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈曦

    2016-01-01

    Finland became outstanding on the world's list of education after 2000 in the following PISA conducted by OECD in 2000, 2003, 2006, 2009. There are still many lessons that can be drawn from the sound education system in Finland which lead to its success of education: equality, lifelong learning, and teacher education.

  1. The New Member States: Austria, Finland, Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetschy, Janine; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Includes "Difficult Metamorphosis of the Social 'Models' of the Nordic Countries" (Goetschy); "Swedish Training System" (Ottersten); "Features of Vocational Education in Finland" (Kyro); "Boom in Apprenticeship Training in Finland" (Vartiainen); "Vocational Training in Austria" (Riemer); "Reforms in the Vocational Education and Training Systems of…

  2. Finland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beverwijk, Jasmin

    2001-01-01

    With the introduction of the AMKs (Ammattikorkeakoulut) in 1990, the landscape of the Finnish higher education sector has changed immensely. The transformation of the vocational sector started in the 1980s when highly specialised study lines were combined into more comprehensive basic programmes. De

  3. International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) national favourability studies: Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finland covers an area of 337,000 skm. One third of the country lies north of the northern polar circle. 31,613 skm are covered by lakes. 71% of the landscape are covered by coniferous -wood. Climatlcal conditions are continental. The topography of the country is gently rolling with highest elevations of 300 m in the northern part. The most interesting geological units for uranium are Karelian, marginal meta-sediments, mainly quarzites and conglomerates but also schists. These schists are intruded by orogenlc plutonic rocks which are 1800-My-old. Potassium granites are common adjacent to the contact of the Pre-karelian basement (2500 My). In addition to these geological environment uranium and thorium minerals have been found in a large carbonatite in northern Finland, which is explored now

  4. The Secret to Finland's Success: Educating Teachers. Research Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahlberg, Pasi

    2010-01-01

    In the last decade, Finland has emerged as the leading OECD country in educational achievement. In examining the sources of Finland's dramatic rise to the top, research shows one key element that has impacted Finland's success above all others: excellent teachers. This policy brief details the key elements of Finland's successful system, examining…

  5. Ekologiska fotavtrycket av Unifeeder Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Malm, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Idag är miljö frågor mycket aktuella. De behandlas intensivt i media, vilket dramatiskt har ökat människors miljömedvetenhet. Miljötänkande har så ledes på de senaste tio åren stigit till en betydande konkurrensfaktor för flera företag. För att effektivt minska den negativa inverkan ett företag har på miljön är det bra att först kartlägga var felen finns. I det här arbetet har Unifeeder Finlands kontors ekologiska fotavtryck räknats ut. Ett företags ekologiska fotavtryck berättar hur myc...

  6. Centro estudiantil de Dípoli, en Helsinki, Finlandia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietila, R.

    1969-05-01

    Full Text Available The Students Centre at Dipoli consists essentially of blocks which grew simultaneously, but independently, and when finally completed they became an integrated unit. This project is not a complete architectural design, but rather an attempt, an effort, in a given direction. It constitutes an experience that differs from the accepted and known rules on the composition of buildings. The built up area is 10.500 m2, of which 3.855 m2 is devoted to restaurants. To meet its intended purpose, this rest centre was planned so that its indoor environment should differ from that of a school, providing the students with a strong contrast to the highly specific training that they normally receive. At this centre there is opportunity tor meetings and group activities, and also facilities for rest and relaxation. There are also rooms for games, and for amusement.El Centro Estudiantil de Dípoli consta, en esencia, de cuerpos de edificio que crecieron juntos pero independientes y que cuando estuvieron terminados constituyeron un todo; no es una obra arquitectónica completa, sino más bien un intento, una dirección; es una experiencia que se aparta de las reglas ya conocidas y aceptadas de composición. El edificio presenta en planta una superficie útil de 10.500 m2, de los que 3.855 m2 están dedicados a restaurantes. Para cumplir su cometido como Centro de descanso fue creado con un ambiente interior diferente al de la escuela, a fin de que sirviera a los estudiantes como un fuerte contrapeso de la formación eminentemente específica que reciben en la escuela; en él tienen lugar reuniones y funciones para grandes grupos; posibilita el descanso y reposo individual; dispone de salas de juego, de entretenimiento, etcétera.

  7. ALTENER - Biomass event in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    The publication contains the lectures held in the Biomass event in Finland. The event was divided into two sessions: Fuel production and handling, and Co-combustion and gasification sessions. Both sessions consisted of lectures and the business forum during which the companies involved in the research presented themselves and their research and their equipment. The fuel production and handling session consisted of following lectures and business presentations: AFB-NETT - business opportunities for European biomass industry; Wood waste in Europe; Wood fuel production technologies in EU- countries; new drying method for wood waste; Pellet - the best package for biofuel - a view from the Swedish pelletmarket; First biomass plant in Portugal with forest residue fuel; and the business forum of presentations: Swedish experiences of willow growing; Biomass handling technology; Chipset 536 C Harvester; KIC International. The Co-combustion and gasification session consisted of following lectures and presentations: Gasification technology - overview; Overview of co-combustion technology in Europe; Modern biomass combustion technology; Wood waste, peat and sludge combustion in Enso Kemi mills and UPM-Kymmene Rauma paper mill; Enhanced CFB combustion of wood chips, wood waste and straw in Vaexjoe in Sweden and Grenaa CHP plant in Denmark; Co-combustion of wood waste; Biomass gasification projects in India and Finland; Biomass CFB gasifier connected to a 350 MW{sub t}h steam boiler fired with coal and natural gas - THERMIE demonstration project in Lahti (FI); Biomass gasification for energy production, Noord Holland plant in Netherlands and Arbre Energy (UK); Gasification of biomass in fixed bed gasifiers, Wet cleaning and condensing heat recovery of flue gases; Combustion of wet biomass by underfeed grate boiler; Research on biomass and waste for energy; Engineering and consulting on energy (saving) projects; and Research and development on combustion of solid fuels

  8. Import of fruits from Spain to Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, Hardi

    2012-01-01

    The research is made for company named Karamelo Citrus S.L.L. It has already business links to many countries and they are working on the link to Finland when my help was needed to finish this project. As the project is huge it was divided in two parts. My part is registering company and start import fruits/vegetables to Finland. This is part number two and it will show how to import fruits/vegetables from Spain to Finland and what techniques are needed to provide fruits for the Finnish ma...

  9. Fish farming and otters in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skarén U.

    1990-02-01

    Full Text Available The results of a questionnaire sent to all fishfarmers in Finland are presented; 45% replied. There appear to be good otter populations in Finland. Frequency and amount of damage to stocks is discussed. An electric fence system that has been found useful in excluding otters from fish farms is described. Only a few farmers consider otters a grave pest. The major threat to otters in Finland seems to be traffic accidents as car numbers increase. Further information is needed to confirm the findings, and to ensure confusion with mink does not occur.

  10. Perehdyttäminen hotellin vastaanottoon : perehdytyskansio Hotelli Hilton Helsinki Strandiin

    OpenAIRE

    Ruohola, Tuomas

    2010-01-01

    Tämän toiminnallisen opinnäytetyön tavoitteenaa on koota perehdytyskansio Hotelli Hilton Helsinki Strandiin. Kansio on pyritty kokoamaan hotellin johdon sekä Hilton Worldwiden asettamien kriteerien ja toiveiden mukaisesti. Opinnäytetyön tarkoituksena oli luoda perehdytyskansio, jota Hilton Strandin perehdyttäjät voisivat käyttää apuna uutta työntekijää perehdyttäessä. Uusia työntekijöitä ovat kaikki henkilöt, jotka edustavat olemuksellaan hotellia. Näitä ovat niin työelämään tutustujat, h...

  11. Food and Urban Gardening in Planning : An Exploration in Helsinki and Stockholm

    OpenAIRE

    Luokkala, Rosaleena

    2014-01-01

    The thesis presents an exploration into the relationship between food and planning in Helsinki and Stockholm. It looks at the top-down side of planning and the bottom-up side of urban gardening to investigate how food and urban gardening are taken into consideration in the official planning; how two urban gardening initiatives, Dodo's Kääntöpöytä and Trädgård på spåret, are involved in shaping their city; and what the relationship between the two sides is. The study is qualitative and uses ca...

  12. Value creation through online travel reviews on TripAdvisor: case of hotels in Helsinki

    OpenAIRE

    Sjöblom, Sini

    2013-01-01

    The use of online travel reviews as a part of consumers' tourism planning processes is a growing phenomenon. Consumers' especially use other travelers' reviews while choosing accommodation for their trip. TripAdvisor is one of the largest tourism related websites on Internet and it contains reviews of hotels around the world. In this thesis the ways in which the hotels in Helsinki are using these reviews in their value creation processes, if they are used at all, are analyzed. Also based on t...

  13. Greenhouse Gas Implications of Urban Sprawl in the Helsinki Metropolitan Area

    OpenAIRE

    Sanna Ala-Mantila; Seppo Junnila; Jukka Heinonen

    2013-01-01

    Suburban households living in spacious detached houses and owing multiple cars are often seen as main culprits for negative greenhouse consequences of urban sprawl. Consequently, the effects of sprawl have been mostly studied from the viewpoints of emissions from home energy consumption and private driving. Little attention has been paid to the changes in other consumption. In this paper, urban sprawl is linked to the proliferation of semi-detached and detached housing, described as a low-ris...

  14. University Mergers in Finland: Mediating Global Competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Välimaa, Jussi; Aittola, Helena; Ursin, Jani

    2014-01-01

    University mergers have become a common strategy for increasing global competitiveness. In this chapter, the authors analyze the implementation of mergers in Finnish universities from the perspective of social justice as conceived within Finland and other Nordic countries.

  15. Achievements of school education in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Mihail Brazhnik

    2010-01-01

    Discussed are specific traits of the evaluation of schools and students education achievements, as well as the specifics of the recruitment of teachers in Finland. Those are considered as factors improving the education quality.

  16. Brand of Finland from design management perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Rantanen, Vesa

    2014-01-01

    This thesis – The Brand of Finland From Design Management Perspective – has it's primary focus on the concept of country brand and how it is formulated. The underlying principle is to familiarize the reader with a concept and then look at how Finland has proceeded with those elaborations and constructions. This thesis is not a case study but perhaps a motion of proposal suggestion, a thesis, and more important still, a study of country brands and drives behind those elaborate formulat...

  17. Marketing Chinese plasma products in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Ye, Dongchuan

    2011-01-01

    The case company of this study is Shanghai Xin-xing Medicine Co. Ltd., the subsidiary of China General Technology Group in Shanghai City of China. The company manufactures plasma products. This study gives information about the company, their products and the outlook of marketing Chinese plasma products in Finland. The goal of the study is to clarify the method of marketing Chinese plasma products in Finland. For that purpose one survey-questionnaire was sent to 20 main hospitals in diffe...

  18. Internet Banking Adoption Factors in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Minna Mattila; Heikki Karjaluoto; Tapio Pento,

    2001-01-01

    This paper finds out factors which have defined consumers' adoption of Internet banking in Finland. Finland is a world leader in electronic banking, and over 39.8 percent of all the banking transactions were made over the Internet. Using the data of a large survey, we develop a cognitive model of the factors which affect the adoption of Internet banking. Prior technology experience, personal banking experience, reference group influence, and security concerns are found to be the main factors,...

  19. Importing Educational Services from Finland to Kurdistan

    OpenAIRE

    Sharif, Tajzan

    2013-01-01

    This thesis focuses on importing educational services from Finland to Kurdistan. The thesis first introduces the topic and the case company. After that it will briefly discuss the Kurdistan Region and then looks into the educational systems in the Kurdistan Region and Finland, finds problems and offers solutions based on the Finnish education system. After this, the thesis presents a product that will serve as an solution: the Future Leaders Educational Plan. Future Leaders is a non-profi...

  20. International collaborative trials, placebo controls and The Declaration of Helsinki: need for clarification in paragraph 32.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, A Y; Ghafoor, F

    2012-01-01

    Inequities in socio-economic and healthcare systems between developed and developing countries have been thrown into sharp relief by globalisation. At the same time, pharmaceutical companies have started conducting clinical trials in developing countries in order to reduce their costs substantially. Together, these two developments create ethical challenges for sponsors and researchers of these trials. One such challenge is that of placebo-controlled trials (PCTs). In this paper we analyse Paragraph 32 of the Declaration of Helsinki referring to PCTs, identifying ambiguities in the wording, and then examine three arguments presented by sponsors of PCTs in developing countries, in defence of such trials. These arguments are: (i) a placebo control provides a definitive answer, and is therefore methodologically superior; (ii) placebo-controlled trials are ethical because they serve the principle of utility, and (iii) interpreting the "best current proven intervention" as the local standard of care allows PCTs to be conducted, if the local standard of care is "no treatment". We argue that PCTs are not methodologically superior; nor are they ethically defensible. Other trial designs conforming to the ethics of research are feasible; the reason for conducting PCTs is expediency. We further propose that, given the global applicability of the Declaration of Helsinki, it is imperative to remove the ambiguities in Paragraph 32. In the context of collaborative trials, when a treatment exists, conducting PCTs is ethically unacceptable, irrespective of the geographic location of the trial. Universal standards ought to be applied universally. PMID:22319846

  1. In the Context of Bioethics and Biopolitics with Keeping Track of the Helsinki Declaration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ümit Yaşar Öztoprak

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Bioethics and biopolitics derive from ethics, which con­stitutes their denominator but their choice and the appli­cation of the moral principles ranges from being simply different to being outright contradictory. In order to under­stand the interaction between bioethics and biopolitics, which has been repeatedly mentioned, we believe that it is important to examine the Declaration of Helsinki. When the revisions of the declaration are analyzed thoroughly, especially when the differences between the 2008 and 2013 revisions are examined, it is possible to see how bioethics and politics contradict and/or overlap each other in the world of clinical research. In 1952 ethics commission was established under WMA (World Medical Association, in 1961 an outline of text about use of human subjects and researches on human being was created to be a guideline for physicians. This text has been declared at the 18th General Assembly of the WMA (Helsinki 1964. In our study, in the light of this document, we will evaluate with a critical perspective, the revision in 2013 and the WMA’s biopolitics concerns relating to reserch on human subject. We will scent out the traces of the capitalism on the health and health care era. J Clin Exp Invest 2016; 7 (1: 111-119

  2. Modelling tree biomasses in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Repola, J.

    2013-06-01

    Biomass equations for above- and below-ground tree components of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L), Norway spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst) and birch (Betula pendula Roth and Betula pubescens Ehrh.) were compiled using empirical material from a total of 102 stands. These stands (44 Scots pine, 34 Norway spruce and 24 birch stands) were located mainly on mineral soil sites representing a large part of Finland. The biomass models were based on data measured from 1648 sample trees, comprising 908 pine, 613 spruce and 127 birch trees. Biomass equations were derived for the total above-ground biomass and for the individual tree components: stem wood, stem bark, living and dead branches, needles, stump, and roots, as dependent variables. Three multivariate models with different numbers of independent variables for above-ground biomass and one for below-ground biomass were constructed. Variables that are normally measured in forest inventories were used as independent variables. The simplest model formulations, multivariate models (1) were mainly based on tree diameter and height as independent variables. In more elaborated multivariate models, (2) and (3), additional commonly measured tree variables such as age, crown length, bark thickness and radial growth rate were added. Tree biomass modelling includes consecutive phases, which cause unreliability in the prediction of biomass. First, biomasses of sample trees should be determined reliably to decrease the statistical errors caused by sub-sampling. In this study, methods to improve the accuracy of stem biomass estimates of the sample trees were developed. In addition, the reliability of the method applied to estimate sample-tree crown biomass was tested, and no systematic error was detected. Second, the whole information content of data should be utilized in order to achieve reliable parameter estimates and applicable and flexible model structure. In the modelling approach, the basic assumption was that the biomasses of

  3. Academic education on organic food and farming in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Taskinen, Aija

    2006-01-01

    The University of Helsinki offers basic and intermediate studies in organic food and farming in Ruralia Institute in Mikkeli. The study programme for organic food and farming is known as the Eco Studies.

  4. Lead poisoning and trace elements in common eiders from Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollmén, Tuula E.; Franson, J.C.; Poppenga, R.H.; Hario, Martti; Kilpi, Mikael

    1998-01-01

    We collected carcasses of 52 common eider Somateria mollissima adults and ducklings and blood samples from 11 nesting eider hens in the Gulf of Finland near Helsinki in 1994, 1995 and 1996. Samples of liver tissue were analysed for arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, iron, lead, magnesium, manganese, mercury, molybdenum, selenium and zinc. Blood was analysed for lead, mercury and selenium. Most of the 21 adults examined at necropsy were emaciated with empty gizzards, and no ingested shotgun pellets or other metal were found in any of the birds. Three adult females had a combination of lesions and tissue lead residues characteristic of lead poisoning. Two of these birds had acid-fast intranuclear inclusion bodies in renal epithelial cells and high concentrations of lead (73.4 and 73.3 ppm; all liver residues reported on dry weight basis) in their livers. The third was emaciated with a liver lead concentration of 47.9 ppm. An adult male had a liver lead concentration of 81.7 ppm, which is consistent with severe clinical poisoning. Two other adults, one male and one female, had liver lead concentrations of 14.2 and 8.03 ppm, respectively. Lead concentrations in the blood of hens ranged from 0.11 to 0.63 ppm wet weight. Selenium residues of A?60 ppm were found in the livers of five adult males. Selenium concentrations in the blood of hens ranged from 1.18 to 3.39 ppm wet weight. Arsenic concentrations of 27.5-38.5 ppm were detected in the livers of four adult females. Detectable concentrations of selenium, mercury and molybdenum were found more frequently in the livers of adult males arriving on the breeding grounds than in incubating females, while the reverse was true for arsenic, lead and chromium. Mean concentrations of selenium, copper and molybdenum were higher in the livers of arriving males than in the livers of incubating hens, but hens had greater concentrations of iron and magnesium. Concentrations of trace elements were lower in the livers of ducklings than

  5. How to use social media as a communication tool: Case: Plan Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Hyvämäki, Miitta; Grasutis, Natalia

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the thesis is to improve the communication of Plan Finland’s volunteer Area Managers in social media by creating a communication package that focuses specifically on social media. This thesis is a product-oriented study and the commissioning party is non-profit organization Plan Finland. The idea for the thesis came to mind when contacting Plan Finland, and dis-cussing possible thesis topics in the area of communication. There was a clear need for guidelines to unify the...

  6. Synanthropic Trichinella infection in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oivanen, Leena; Oksanen, Antti

    2009-02-23

    The first three human trichinellosis cases in Finland were recorded around 1890, and altogether eight cases were registered until 2008. The first infected Finnish swine was found in 1954. From the early 1980s, an increasing trend in the number of infected swine was seen, with the highest number registered in 1996, after which a decrease has been observed. Infected pigs were found yearly until 2004. Since 1954, all slaughtered pigs have been tested for Trichinella, regardless of subsequent export or domestic consumption purpose. All Trichinella infections revealed in pigs are, since 1998, analysed for species by multiplex PCR. So far, all larvae from pig infections have been identified as Trichinella spiralis. During the recent decreasing trend in prevalence, the number of pig farms has also decreased, while the yearly number of slaughtered pigs has remained stable or even slightly increased. For many decades, the Trichinella prevalence in Finnish wildlife has remained high. Foxes, raccoon dogs, wolves, and lynx in the southern part of the country exhibit prevalence exceeding 50%. The most common species in wildlife is Trichinella nativa, a species with very low infectivity to swine, but also, T. spiralis, Trichinella britovi, and Trichinella pseudospiralis occur in wildlife. PMID:19054618

  7. Libraries in Finland Establish Consortia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esko Häkli

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available I will discuss the development of organized consortia, which are based on a charter or a written contract. I will also deal with some issues related to the organization of the consortia. I would already here like to stress, that if a consortium wants to achieve results it, in addition to a charter or a contract, also needs an executive body that carries out the work and makes sure that the plans and decisions are not only prepared but also put into practice. One of the main weaknesses of many cooperative arrangements between libraries has been the absence of a common executive not only taking care of the practicalities but also safeguarding the continuity. A committee can never fulfill the tasks of an executive body because running a consortium successfully requires much more effort than what is normally anticipated. In Finland the National Library has been given the task to enhance the cooperation between the research libraries of the country and to support their consortia . According to the National Library Strategy (adopted in November 1999 the Library is functioning as a common resource of the country’s research libraries. In this capacity it has been instrumental in creating the comprehensive consortia described below and is also responsible for running their daily business. It is possible that an arrangement of this kind is more typical for a small country than for a bigger one.

  8. Deposition of Chernobyl-derived transuranium nuclides and short- lived radon-222 progeny in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study the atmospheric deposition of radionuclides was investigated from two different viewpoints. The Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident in April 1986 caused a widely spread plume of radionuclides, including transuranium elements. The regional deposition of these elements in Finland was assessed based on lichen and peat samples. Unlike the deposition of transuranium elements from the weapons tests in the 1950's and 1960's, the deposition from the Chernobyl accident was very unevenly distributed in Finland. Also, the Chernobyl-derived deposition of 299,240Pu even in the most contaminated regions in Finland was still only some 10 per cent of the global fallout from weapons tests. On the other hand, the measured activity concentrations of 241Pu in the upper parts of lichen samples are comparable to those found in samples comparable during the heaviest weapons-test fallout in the early 1960's. The observed average 241Pu/239,240Pu activity ratio in the upper parts of lichen, 95, can be expected to lead at its maximum in the year 2059 to 241Am/239,240Pu activity ratio of 2.8 in the Chernobyl-derived deposition, exclusive of the 241Am present in the original deposition in 1986. The deposition pattern of transuranium elements observed in this work resembles that of refractory gamma-emitting nuclides such as 95Zr and 141Ce. The sampling area of this investigation does not cover the northern part of Finland. However, the fallout pattern of 95Zr would suggest that the deposition of transuranium nuclides north of the 65th latitude was very low. Biological half-lives of 730 d and 320 d for Pu and Am, respectively, were obtained in lichen in this study. The second part of this work is concerned with the factors affecting the wet deposition efficiency of the natural short-lived radon-222 progeny. This was studied with two methods: using recordings of external gamma radiation in central Finland, and using an automatic precipitation gamma analyser in northern Finland

  9. The Challenges of the 21st Century for Vocational Education and Training. International Conference on Vocational Education and Training Proceedings (Helsinki, Finland, August 24-28, 1997).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasonen, Johanna, Ed.

    The following are among the 52 papers included: "A Vision of Vocational Education and Training for the Approaching Millennium" (Mndebele); "Challenges for the 21st Century for Technical-Vocational Education and Training from Global, Regional and National Perspectives" (Basu); "A Customer-Oriented Approach for Curriculum Development in Vocational…

  10. Extent of the northern Baltic Sea during the Early Palaeozoic Era – new evidence from Ostrobothnia, western Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Uutela, A.

    1998-01-01

    This study reports new evidence of the extent of the northern Baltic Sea during the Cambrian and Ordovician periods. A drillcore (DC304) from the Lappajärvi impact crater, western Finland, and erratics from the surrounding area were studied for acritarchs. The acritarchs from the drillcore were reworked by the explosion but indicate, however, that the Baltic Sea extended beyond the western coast of central Finland during the Lower Cambrian Vergale and the Middle Cambrian Kibartai regional sta...

  11. VOLUNTARY WORK AMONG IMMIGRANTS IN HELSINKI : THE ROLES OF AFRICANS AND AFRICAN-EUROPEANS ASSOCIATION (AFAES RY)

    OpenAIRE

    Ayodeji, Sunday Abel

    2013-01-01

    Ayodeji Sunday Abel. Voluntary work among immigrants in Helsinki, The roles of Africans and African-Europeans Association (AFAES RY). Langauge: English. Spring 2013. 52 pages. 3 appendixes. Diaconia University of Applied Sciences. Degree: Programme in Social Services. Bachelor of Social Services. ...

  12. The Fourth Way in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesa Iitti

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the general history of the Fourth Way in Finland. The Fourth Way, or simply ‘the Work’, began as a Greco-Armenian man named Georges Ivanovich Gurdjieff (1866?–1949 gathered groups of pupils in St Petersburg and Moscow in 1912. To these groups, Gurdjieff started to teach what he had learned and synthesized between ca 1896 and 1912 during his travels on spiritual search of Egypt, Crete, Sumeria, Assyria, the Holy Land, Mecca, Ethiopia, Sudan, India, Afghanistan, the northern valleys of Siberia, and Tibet. Neither Gurdjieff nor any of his disciples called themselves a church, a sect, or anything alike, but referred to themselves simply as ‘the Work’, or as ‘the Fourth Way’. The name ‘the Fourth Way’ originates in a Gurdjieffian view that there are essentially three traditional ways of spiritual work: those of a monk, a fakir, and a yogi. These ways do not literally refer to the activities of a monk, a fakir, and a yogi, but to similar types of spiritual work emphasizing exercise of emotion, body, or mind. Gurdjieff’s teaching is a blend of various influences that include Suf­ism, orthodox Christianity, Buddhism, Kabbalah, and general elem­ents of various occult teachings of both the East and the West. Gurdjieff’s teaching is a blend of various influences that include Suf­ism, orthodox Christianity, Buddhism, Kabbalah, and general elem­ents of various occult teachings of both the East and the West. It is a unique combination of cosmology, psychology, theory of evolution, and overall theory and practise aiming to help individ­uals in their efforts towards what is called ‘self-remembering’.

  13. Introduction to the periglacial environment in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seppälä, M.

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available An overview is presented of the periglacial characteristics of climate and landforms in Finland. Mean annual air temperature (MAAT in Finland ranges from +5.5 to -3°C, and frost sums in most parts of the country are large enough for active seasonal frost. Local conditions are more important in the formation of frost features than the overly general mean values of air temperature, however. Snow depth is the critical factor for most frost features, and permafrost is observed only in northern parts of the country, where thin snow cover supports frost activity. A brief description of features indicating frost activity is presented. Palsas, pounus, and string mires are peat landforms designed by frost. Fell slopes exhibit additional features of talus, slush flows and gelifluction lobes and terraces. Frost heave and contraction cracking are characteristic features occuring even in fields in southern Finland. Active frost-sorted patterned grounds are common in northern Finland, especially at the bottoms of shallow, seasonally dry ponds. Ground water close to the surface is essential for the formation of most frost features. Special forms of both aeolian and fluvial activity are part of the periglacial environment in Finland. Snow drift and deflation of sand surfaces formed by glaciofluvial processes during deglaciation are part of the periglacial environment in Lapland. Drastic spring floods with ice dams formed in river channels are typical for northern rivers. Proposals for further studies are made at the end of the paper.

  14. Surveillance of Environmental Radiation in Finland. Annual Report 2009; Ympaeristoen saeteilyvalvonta Suomessa. Vuosiraportti 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mustonen, R. (ed.)

    2010-12-15

    , water and soil in the Member States. In Finland, also the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI) and the Defence Forces are monitoring environmental radiation at their own stations. STUK's partners in surveillance of environmental radioactivity are collecting and delivering environmental samples for laboratory analyses, or are participating in whole-body counting. STUK would like to express its gratitude to the following partners for the successful co-operation: Defence Forces, Finnish Meteorological Institute, Arctic Research Centre, Southeast Finland Regional Environment Centre, North Ostrobothnia Regional Environment Centre, Lapland Regional Environment Centre, Southeast Finland Frontier Guard District, Lapland Frontier Guard District, Rescue Centre of Kotka, Water supply plants of Oulu and Turku, Valio Ltd., Health Department of Helsinki/Maria Hospital, Tampere University Central Hospital, Lapland Central Hospital, Secondary school of Helsingin yhteislyseo, Secondary school of Hatanpaeae in Tampere, and Secondary school of Korkalovaara in Rovaniemi. This report is addressed to all who are interested in environmental radioactivity in Finland. STUK delivers monitoring data also to the European Commission on regular basis, and this report is a summary of the results delivered to the Commission. (orig.)

  15. Surveillance of environmental radiation in Finland. Annual Report 2004; Ympaeristoen saeteilyvalvonta Suomessa. Vuosiraportti 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mustonen, R. (ed.)

    2005-07-01

    previous years. The results are collected from monitoring programmes of STUK, FMI and the Defence Forces Research Institute of Technology. Nuclear power plant licensees are responsible for environmental surveillance in the vicinity of nuclear power plants in Finland. Those results are reported elsewhere. STUK's partners in surveillance of environmental radioactivity are collecting and delivering environmental samples for laboratory analyses, or are participating in whole-body counting. STUK would like to express its gratitude to the following institutions for the successful co-operation: Defence Forces, Finnish Meteorological Institute, Arctic Research Centre, Southeast Finland Regional Environment Centre, North Ostrobothnia Regional Environment Centre, Lapland Regional Environment Centre, Southeast Finland Frontier Guard District, Lapland Frontier Guard District, Jyvaeskylae Airport, Rescue Centre of Kotka, Water supply plants of Oulu and Turku, Valio Ltd., Health Department of Helsinki/Maria Hospital, Tampere University Central Hospital, Lapland Central Hospital, Secondary school of Helsingin yhteislyseo, Secondary school of Hatanpaeae in Tampere, and Secondary school of Korkalovaara in Rovaniemi. This report is addressed to all who are interested in environmental radioactivity in Finland. STUK delivers monitoring data also to the European Commission on regular basis, and this report is a summary of the results delivered to the Commission. The report is also available on the STUK's home pages www.stuk.fi. (orig.)

  16. [Marriage trends in Finland and Hungary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csernak, J

    1993-10-01

    "The study compares marriage trends of Finland and Hungary, using marriage tables of Finnish males and females born between 1939 and 1965 as well as those of Hungarian males and females born between 1939 and 1968." A major change in marriage behavior in Finland during the 1960s is attributed to changing social and economic conditions, particularly migration to the major cities. "Due to the changes a new marriage pattern is being shaped in Finland's population which is typical of postindustrial societies. In the youngest cohorts of Finnish females the average age at first marriage is likely to exceed 26 years, and at least 25 per cent of them remain ultimately unmarried. In the younger Hungarian cohorts significant decrease in first marriages can similarly be pointed out." (SUMMARY IN ENG AND RUS) PMID:12344978

  17. Probabilistic trajectory and dose analysis for Finland due to hypothetical radioactive releases at Sosnovyy Bor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chernobyl accident initiated a wide international interest in developing long range transport models for assessment of radiological consequences due to airborne releases. The Finnish TRADOS computer model had been developed to calculate long range atmospheric dispersion and resulting doses via several exposure pathways. During and after the Chernobyl release the code was utilized to make an initial estimate of the release magnitude and to predict both individual and collective doses in Finland. These calculations proved that the TRADOS system is also well applicable in the acute phase of an accident. In the present study the analysis of atmospheric dispersion to Finland from Sosnovyy Bor near Leningrad and the pertinent dose predictions due to a reactor accident in this area have been made. Both the Chernobyl type release and a smaller release typical of a modern light water reactor at the RBMK-1000 power plant site are considered. The results are compared with the previous studies, in which a smaller release from a light water reactor accident had been assumed to take place in northern Germany and in eastern Sweden (Forsmark). According to the analysis of the number of annual trajectories arriving to Finland from Leningrad this number is with a factor of two less than that for a site in eastern Sweden. Taking this fact into account the radiological risks to Finland seem to be approximately equal when the same release is assumed to have occurred either in Leningrad or in eastern Sweden. Acute health effects in Finland are not caused in either case

  18. Creating Brand for CoreFinland Ltd

    OpenAIRE

    Khatri, Santosh; Neupane, Khem Raj

    2011-01-01

    The research aims to build brand for a small-sized company namely CoreFinland Ltd. Herein, the main objective of this research is to create CoreFinland as a brand in b-to-b customers’ context. This broader milestone is achieved by studying the case company’s brand identity and brand image issues. The first part of this research makes a comparative study of varieties of relevant litera-ture from different writers. The theories discuss b-to-b brand relevance and extend to the major study ar...

  19. Peat - The sustainable energy resource in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Finland the level of energy consumption for heating, transportation and industry is higher than in many other European countries. This is due to the northern position of the country and also to the fact that Finland is sparsely inhabited. Peat is one of the Finnish domestic energy resources. This brochure provides a compact package of background information on fuel peat. All the data presented concerning the production and use of peat, employment, investments in the peat industry, emission levels resulting from the production and use of peat, new combustion technologies and peatland resources, have been collected from documents and other sources that are accessible to the general public

  20. Fossil fuel support mechanisms in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lampinen, Ari

    2013-10-15

    Fossil fuel subsidies and other state support for fossil fuels are forbidden by the Kyoto Protocol and other international treaties. However, they are still commonly used. This publication presents and analyses diverse state support mechanisms for fossil fuels in Finland in 2003-2010. Total of 38 support mechanisms are covered in quantitative analysis and some other mechanisms are mentioned qualitatively only. For some mechanisms the study includes a longer historical perspective. This is the case for tax subsidies for crude oil based traffic fuels that have been maintained in Finland since 1965.

  1. Toward Continual Development with ERP : Case BillerudKorsnäs Finland Oy

    OpenAIRE

    Perälä, Paula

    2014-01-01

    An ERP system implementation is a large project in its importance to the business and in the way that it affects different areas of the company. There are many benefits to be gained but there are varying results of the success of an ERP project among the huge number of companies that have adopted ERP systems. This thesis is a case study examining the post-implementation period at BillerudKorsnäs Finland Oy. The company has two paper machines and a small customer service team in Finland. I...

  2. Observations of biomass burning smoke from Russian wild fire episodes in Finland 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leino, K.; Nieminen, T.; Väänänen, R.; Petäjä, T.; Järvi, L.; Keronen, P.; Laurila, T.; Virkkula, A.; Pohja, T.; Aalto, P. P.; Kulmala, M.

    2013-05-01

    Forest and peat bog fires occur almost every summer in several parts of Russian boreal forests due to long rainless and heat periods at summertime. Particulate matter and different gases (CO, CO2, NOx, O3, SO2) in air can be transported thousands of kilometers away from the fire areas. Increased concentrations of the different parameters, like carbon monoxide and aerosol particles were observed on certain days in Southern Finland and even Finnish Lapland during Russian wild fire episodes in summer 2010. During these days the wind direction was from East or Southeast to Finland.

  3. Ice deformation in the Gulf of Finland in the severe winter of 2002/2003

    OpenAIRE

    Ove Pärn; Jari Haapala

    2013-01-01

    The Gulf of Finland is one of the heaviest ship traffic areas in the world. The ice-covered period in the gulf lasts up to 140 days in severe winters. Common features are openings in ice (flaw leads) and ice ridges. The winter of 2002/2003 was exceptionally harsh: the entire Gulf of Finland was for a long time covered with thick ice, severe weather conditions caused much ice deformation and numerous ship incidents happened. We investigated the dependence of ice deformation rate on wind speed ...

  4. The influence of seasonal sea ice on the physics of the coastal waters - Gulf of Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Merkouriadi, Ioanna

    2014-01-01

    The Gulf of Finland is located in the seasonal sea ice zone (SSIZ), were sea ice forms in the wintertime and melts in late spring. This seasonality entitles this sea as a key area regarding the impact of climatic changes. When the basin of interest is located at the climatological edge of the SSIZ, there is also high inter-annual variability in the ice conditions. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of the sea ice on the physics of the coastal waters in the Gulf of Finland...

  5. Perceived outcomes of public libraries in Finland, Norway and the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Vakkari; S. Aabø; R. Audunson; F. Huysmans; M. Oomes

    2014-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to compare the perceived benefits of public libraries and their structure in the major areas of life between Finland, Norway and the Netherlands. Design/methodology/approach - The data were based on representative samples of Finnish, Norwegian and Dutch adult l

  6. Policy Making Processes with Respect to Teacher Education in Finland and Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afdal, Hilde Wagsas

    2013-01-01

    This article examines policy making processes in the area of teacher education (TE) in Finland and Norway. Particular attention is given to the roles different actors play in these processes and the potential effects of their involvement on the TE programs in the two countries. Contemporary policy processes are analyzed through a set of interviews…

  7. Shared hesitance, joint success : Denmark, Finland, and Sweden in the European Union policy process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Selck, TJ; Kuipers, S

    2005-01-01

    This paper analyses the roles of Denmark, Finland, and Sweden in the area of EU legislative decision-making. After reviewing the literature, a research design is presented which incorporates information on the policy preferences of these three political states for seventy recent EU legislative decis

  8. Does the discussion in social media predict the returns of Helsinki Stock Exchange?

    OpenAIRE

    Kajasmaa, Janne

    2016-01-01

    In this thesis, I study the relationship between social media discussion and the stock index performance in Finland. My work relates to previous literature that uses Google searches or social media messages to explain trading activity and future stock returns. Previous research has acknowledged the relationship between social media discussion and the future returns, but the results vary due to the source of the messages and the timing of the research period. The contribution of this thesis is...

  9. Economic valuation of urban forest benefits in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyrväinen, L

    2001-05-01

    Urban development projects may cause loss of amenity values of green areas, which should be taken into consideration in planning. Therefore, quantitative information on residents' valuation concerning urban forests is needed for assessing urban land use. The purpose of this investigation was to study the valuation of urban forests in two different urban environments Joensuu and Salo, Finland. The aims were to study the attitudes towards and benefits related to the use of urban forests and, in particular, to measure the valuations in monetary terms using contingent valuation, i.e. measure the residents' willingness-to-pay for larger wooded recreation areas and for small forested parks. Urban forests were seen in both towns as clearly producing positive benefits rather than causing negative effects. The negative features of forests were related to the management of the areas rather than their existence. The main values were related to nature and social functions of forests. In contrast, timber production achieved a distinctively low priority in both study towns. The results stress the importance of defining urban forest policies for municipalities in Finland. More than two-thirds of the respondents were willing to pay for the use of recreation areas. Good location and active management raised the average WTP. Moreover, approximately half of the respondents were willing to pay for preventing construction in urban forests. The results also show that the monetary value of amenity benefits in recreation areas is much higher than the present maintenance costs. The examples concerning the advantageousness of construction on green areas suggest that a limit could be found where the infill of housing areas is not worthwhile from the point of view of society, if the losses of green space benefits are taken into account. PMID:11400466

  10. Assessment of doses to game animals in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was carried out to assess the dose rates to game animals in Finland affected by the radioactive caesium deposition that occurred after the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in Ukraine in 1986. The aim of this assessment was to obtain new information on the dose rates to mammals and birds under Finnish conditions. Dose rates were calculated using the ERICA Assessment Tool developed within the EC 6th Framework Programme. The input data consisted of measured activity concentrations of 137Cs and 134Cs in soil and lake water samples and in flesh samples of selected animal species obtained for environmental monitoring. The study sites were located in the municipality of Lammi, Southern Finland, where the average 137Cs deposition was 46.5 kBq m−2 (1 October 1987). The study sites represented the areas receiving the highest deposition in Finland after the Chernobyl accident. The selected species included moose (Alces alces), arctic hare (Lepus timidus) and several bird species: black grouse (Tetrao tetrix), hazel hen (Bonasia bonasia), mallard (Anas platurhynchos), goldeneye (Bucephala clangula) and teal (Anas crecca). For moose, dose rates were calculated for the years 1986–1990 and for the 2000s. For all other species, maximal measured activity concentrations were used. The results showed that the dose rates to these species did not exceed the default screening level of 10 μGy h−1 used as a protection criterion. The highest total dose rate (internal and external summed), 3.7 μGy h−1, was observed for the arctic hare in 1986. Although the dose rate of 3.7 μGy h−1 cannot be considered negligible given the uncertainties involved in predicting the dose rates, the possible harmful effects related to this dose rate are too small to be assessed based on current knowledge on the biological effects of low doses in mammals

  11. How Finland Serves Gifted and Talented Pupils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirri, Kirsi; Kuusisto, Elina

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of the ways gifted and talented pupils are served in Finland. The trend toward individualism and freedom of choice as well as national policy affecting gifted education are discussed. Empirical research on Finnish teachers' attitudes toward gifted education with respect to the national…

  12. From Finland to Kyrgyzstan: A Changing Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleicher, Andreas K. R.

    2009-01-01

    In the most recent Programme for International Student Assessment of science learning, the equivalent of six school years separate the achievement of 15-year-olds in Finland, the best-performing country, from their counterparts in Kyrgyzstan, a former Soviet republic. Still more than a school year lies between the neighboring countries Canada,…

  13. School-Parent Relations in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risku, Mika; Bjork, Lars G.; Browne-Ferrigno, Tricia

    2012-01-01

    This article provides insight into the nature and scope of home-school cooperation in Finland. Situating the study is a brief overview of the Finnish education system and a discussion of the Programme for International Student Assessment reports that place Finnish student outcomes at the top of rankings among industrialized nations for the past…

  14. Reversibility and Retrievability in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The spent nuclear fuel disposal project in Finland proceeds in stepwise manner. The site selection process continued with several stages from 1984 to 2000, including a country-wide site screening of potential sites and finally the investigations of four final candidate sites. Licensing of a nuclear facility includes three steps: - The Decision in Principle, which can be made if a '..construction project is in line with the overall good of society'. The decision is made by the government, requiring endorsement from the Parliament. Host municipality consent and a positive preliminary safety evaluation by the nuclear regulatory body, STUK, is required. - Construction license - granted by government, a positive safety evaluation by STUK is a prerequisite. - Operating license - granted by government, a positive safety evaluation by STUK is a prerequisite. The decision in principle for the Olkiluoto disposal facility was ratified by the Parliament in 2001. An application for a construction license is expected to be submitted in 2010 and for operation license in 2018, with the goal for start of operation in 2020. The closure of the facility is expected early in the next century. The stepwise decision process and the long time frame allow consideration of new developments and information. When the Decision in Principle for the Olkiluoto repository was made, retrievability-related requirements did exist in the regulation. The applicable government decision and regulatory guide in force at the time stipulated the following: - Disposal shall be planned so that no monitoring of the disposal site is required for ensuring long-term safety and so that retrievability of the waste canisters is maintained to provide for such development of technology that makes it a preferred option. - In the post-closure phase, retrieval of the waste canisters from the repository shall be feasible during the period in which the engineered barriers are required to provide practically complete

  15. Annual lecture: nuclear power in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy plays a vital role in the country's economy and welfare. Due to Finland's cold climate, long transportation distances and energy-intensive industries, Finland's own energy resources are very limited. More than 70% of the primary energy demand in Finland is imported and more than half of that from one country only -- Russia. Total energy consumption has stabilised in Finland but electricity consumption has grown steadily and it is forecast that this growth will continue into the future. Electricity generation is diversified and is based on the use of several fuels. The share of nuclear electricity is 27%. Operational experience of the four Finnish nuclear reactors has been very good. Production has been reliable; for example, at Olkiluoto the average capacity factor over the past ten years is about 94%. The high utilisation rate coupled with low fuel costs proves that nuclear electricity has been very competitive in the deregulated electricity market and safety of production has not been compromised.With regard to the management of nuclear waste, Finland has resolved this problem. The law demands that spent nuclear fuel, and only Finnish spent fuel, shall be finally disposed of in the Finnish bedrock. The Finnish government has given approval in principle for the plans and parliament ratified them in the spring of 2001. The final repository will be located close to the existing power plant units at Olkiluoto at several hundred metres depth in two-billion-year-old bedrock. Safety authorities and the local municipality have approved the plans and the location for the repository.Studies show that nuclear generation costs in Finland are lower than those for coal and gas. Based on spring 2001 price levels, the studies indicate that nuclear electricity maintains its position even when the interest rate is varied by up to 10% per year. Teollisuuden Voima Oy (TVO) power company has submitted an application to the Finnish government for construction of an additional

  16. Trajectory-based source area analysis of atmospheric fine particles, SO2, NOx and O3 for the SMEAR II station in Finland in 1996–2008

    OpenAIRE

    M. Kulmala; Junninen, H.; Dal Maso, M.; L. Riuttanen; Hulkkonen, M.

    2012-01-01

    Source area analysis based on combining in situ measurements of trace gas or particle concentrations and back trajectories calculated for corresponding times has proven to be a valuable approach in atmospheric research; especially in investigating air pollution episodes, but also in e.g. tracing the source areas of air masses related to high vs. low concentrations of aerosol particles of different sizes at the receptor site. A statistical trajectory method used before by Sogacheva et a...

  17. Using the New Scenarios Framework to Inform Climate Change Adaptation Policy in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, T. R.

    2013-12-01

    a firm basis for future climate change impact, adaptation and vulnerability assessments, offering RCP/SSP-based scenarios that are not only related to the global New Scenarios Framework, but are also recognised by national policy makers and key stakeholders, via the revised national climate change adaptation strategy. References IPCC (2000) Special Report on Emissions Scenarios: A Special Report of Working Group III of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. [Nakićenović, N. et al. (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, 600 pp. Kriegler E et al. (2012) The need for and use of socio-economic scenarios for climate change analysis: A new approach based on shared socio-economic pathways. Glob. Envir. Change 22:807-822. Marttila V et al. (2005) Finland's National Strategy for Adaptation to Climate Change, MMM publications 1a/2005, Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry, Helsinki, Finland, 280 pp. Moss RH et al. (2010) The next generation of scenarios for climate change research and assessment. Nature 463:747-756. Taylor KE et al. (2012) A summary of the CMIP5 experiment design. BAMS 93:485-498. van Vuuren DP et al. (2011) The representative concentration pathways: an overview. Clim. Change 109:5-31. Vautard R et al. (2013) The simulation of European heat waves from an ensemble of regional climate models within the EURO-CORDEX project. Clim. Dyn. doi:10.1007/s00382-013-1714-z

  18. Radioactive substances in foodstuffs and drinking water in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concentrations of radioactive substances in the environment and foodstuffs are continuously monitored in Finland. Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) publishes the annual report of Surveillance of Environmental Radiation which shows the activity levels of artificial radionuclides in Finland. Based on the results the radiation dose to Finnish people is estimated. Natural radioactive elements will be included in the surveillance program in future years. The aim of the foodstuffs monitoring program is to obtain information from the intake of radionuclides through ingestion. The radioactivity in foodstuffs is monitored by collecting foodstuffs on market, drinking water and daily meals offered at hospitals over one week. The sampling sites are located in southern, central and northern Finland, representing the main population centres and areal differences in the consumption of foodstuffs. One of these sampling sites is located in the highest 137Cs deposition area in Finland originating from the Chernobyl accident. The foodstuff samples on market are, for example, wild game, wild berries, wild mushrooms and fish. 137Cs and 90Sr are analysed from mixed diet samples and 137Cs from foodstuffs samples on market. The concentrations of 137Cs and 90Sr in daily meals are low because the agricultural products used as raw material are almost free of artificial radionuclides. The small variation in the results is caused by the differences in the types of meals that were prepared on the sampling dates and in the areal origins of raw materials. 137Cs concentration is remarkably higher in such food which contains a lot of natural products like wild berries, freshwater fish, wild mushrooms and game. As an example, the concentrations of 137Cs in the solid food in 2012 ranged from 0.06 - 1.0 Bq/kg, and in the drinks from 0.27 - 0.40 Bq/l, respectively. The radiation dose to Finnish people is estimated based on an analysis of the whole mixed diet samples. This gives the best

  19. Finland's forests in changing climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parviainen, J.; Vapaavuori, E.; Maekelae, A. (eds.). email: jari.parviainen@metla.fi

    2010-07-01

    This issue of Metla's Working Papers is based on the Finnish COST Action FP 0707 Expected Climate Change and Options for European Silviculture (ECHOES) country report published in 2009 compiled with updated information. The main goal was to review the state-of-the-art of climate change issues related to Finland's forests. The main effects of expected climate change in Finland's boreal vegetation zone are: The growing season in the northern coniferous zone is likely to lengthen; forest growth may increase; wind damage will become more prevalent; and in the temperate zone insect pests are expected to spread northwards, possible causing damage on a massive scale. A consequence of climate change could be a northwards shift in the tree-line zone and the gradual extinction of certain species in forests in tree-line areas in the northern polar region. Good and timely forest management is the main way of improving the ability of forests to adapt to climate change. In forest regeneration, depending on stand conditions, both natural regeneration as well as planting and seeding with improved genetic breeding material are recommended. Safeguarding environmental conditions on the site by wooden biomass extraction need more attention and research, while the soil nutrient loss and water protection have been considered as environmental threats by the increased extraction of wooden biomass. Awareness of the importance of forest management in adapting to climate change must be increased among members of the public, forest owners and those responsible for forest management. In Finland strong emphasis has been put on the mitigation issues by promoting the use of wood. These actions include the increased use of wood-based bioenergy (including biofuels) and wooden construction. In the land use, land-use change and forestry (LULUCF) sector Finland has a sink of carbon that amounted to -35 million tons of CO2 during 2008. That sink originated mainly from a sink in the tree

  20. Radioactive substances in foodstuffs and drinking water in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaaramaa, K.; Vesterbacka, P.; Solatie, D. [STUK - Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (Finland)

    2014-07-01

    The concentrations of radioactive substances in the environment and foodstuffs are continuously monitored in Finland. Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) publishes the annual report of Surveillance of Environmental Radiation which shows the activity levels of artificial radionuclides in Finland. Based on the results the radiation dose to Finnish people is estimated. Natural radioactive elements will be included in the surveillance program in future years. The aim of the foodstuffs monitoring program is to obtain information from the intake of radionuclides through ingestion. The radioactivity in foodstuffs is monitored by collecting foodstuffs on market, drinking water and daily meals offered at hospitals over one week. The sampling sites are located in southern, central and northern Finland, representing the main population centres and areal differences in the consumption of foodstuffs. One of these sampling sites is located in the highest {sup 137}Cs deposition area in Finland originating from the Chernobyl accident. The foodstuff samples on market are, for example, wild game, wild berries, wild mushrooms and fish. {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr are analysed from mixed diet samples and {sup 137}Cs from foodstuffs samples on market. The concentrations of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr in daily meals are low because the agricultural products used as raw material are almost free of artificial radionuclides. The small variation in the results is caused by the differences in the types of meals that were prepared on the sampling dates and in the areal origins of raw materials. {sup 137}Cs concentration is remarkably higher in such food which contains a lot of natural products like wild berries, freshwater fish, wild mushrooms and game. As an example, the concentrations of {sup 137}Cs in the solid food in 2012 ranged from 0.06 - 1.0 Bq/kg, and in the drinks from 0.27 - 0.40 Bq/l, respectively. The radiation dose to Finnish people is estimated based on an analysis of

  1. Monitoring of black carbon and size-segregated particle number concentrations at 9-m and 65-m distances from a major road in Helsinki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pakkanen, T.A.; Maekelae, T.; Hillamo, R.E. [Finnish Meteorological Inst., Helsinki (Finland); Virtanen, A.; Roenkkoe, T.; Keskinen, J. [Tampere Univ. of Technology, Inst. of Physics, Aerosol Physics Lab. , Tampere (Finland); Pirjola, L.; Parviainen, H. [Helsinki Polytechnic, Dept. of Technology, Helsinki (Finland); Hussein, T.; Haemeri, K. [Helsinki Univ., Dept. of Physical Sciences, Helsinki (Finland)

    2006-07-01

    In February and August 2003, black carbon (BC) and size-segregated particle number concentrations were monitored simultaneously at 9-m and 65-m distances from a major road in Helsinki, Finland, using aethalometers and electrical low-pressure impactors, respectively. During weekdays in winter, the average total particle number concentrations in the diameter range 0.007-1{mu}m increased during morning rush hours from the nighttime values of 17000 and 12000 cm{sup -3} to 190000 and 130000 cm{sup -3} at the 9-m and 65-m stations, respectively. The corresponding BC concentrations increased from 730 and 430 ng m{sup -3} to 2800 and 1550 ng m{sup -3}. Compared with those in winter, the average rush-hour particle number concentrations were much lower in summer, the likely reason being enhanced nucleation in cold winter conditions. BC concentrations were slightly higher during summer than during winter. Number size distributions measured at the 9-m and 65-m distances and at a background site had similar modal characteristics with the highest peak occurring below 0.03 {mu}m. Despite the different wind conditions in winter and summer, concentrations of total particle number and BC decreased similarly between the 9-m and 65-m stations, the likely principal mechanism being mixing with background air. The strong diurnal variation in concentrations during the weekdays, together with the large concentration difference between the 9-m and 65-m distances, suggests that local traffic was the main source of the measured pollutants, especially during rush hours at the 9-m site. In winter, the decrease in the particle number concentrations from the 9-m site to the 65-m site was most pronounced for the smallest exhaust particles. During an episodic pollution event in winter there were indications of condensational growth of 0.007-0.03 {mu}m particles, which increased the number concentration of 0.03-0.06 {mu}m particles at the 65-m site. (orig.)

  2. LA DECLARACIÓN DE HELSINKI VI: UNA REVISIÓN NECESARIA, PERO ¿SUFICIENTE?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. de Abajo

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available La quinta modificación de la Declaración de Helsinki (Edimburgo, 2000 ha supuesto un cambio fundamental en la historia de este documento, tras años de debate dentro y fuera de la Asociación Médica Mundial. La Declaración se adoptó en el año 1964 en un intento de demostrar la capacidad autorreguladora de los médicos en el control ético de la investigación con seres humanos. Diversos hechos desgraciados, como el estudio de la sífilis de Tuskegee, confirmaron que dicha autorregulación no era suficiente y que se hacía necesaria una regulación externa, un control público. Paradójicamente, esto no supuso un menoscabo de la importancia de la Declaración, en la medida en que muchas legislaciones la incorporaron como una referencia en su articulado, dotándola, por tanto, de carácter legal. Pero una nueva paradoja se vino a sumar a la anterior: a pesar de su importancia formal, la Declaración había tenido más bien un escaso impacto en el mundo real, si se juzga por el número nada despreciable de ensayos clínicos que la incumplían. Esto se debía fundamentalmente a que la Declaración de Helsinki se basaba en una lógica de la investigación clínica arcaica, a espaldas de todo el desarrollo metodológico moderno. La revisión parecía, pues, inaplazable. En el presente trabajo se analizan estas contradicciones de la Declaración y se evalúa si la revisión de Edimburgo ha permitido superarlas y en qué medida.

  3. Total Quality Management: A benchmarking study for improving the sewage and portable water system in Lagos state Nigeria using the case of Helsinki Region Environmental Service Authority

    OpenAIRE

    Shodeinde, Hezekiah Abidemi

    2012-01-01

    The topic of this Bachelor’s Thesis is Total Quality Management: A benchmarking study for improving sewage and portable water system in Lagos state Nigeria in the case of Helsinki en-vironmental service authority. The purpose of this research is to find a lasting solution to the deterioration of the environmental service of Lagos state with a focus on the sewage and portable water system through a benchmarking study of the Helsinki environmental service authority’s administration. The the...

  4. Carrying out Corporate Social Initiative Actions : Case: VATES Foundation and Helsinki Cooperative Society Elanto (HOK-Elanto)

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Armando

    2011-01-01

    This Bachelor’s thesis focuses on ways in which organisations work together to achieve desired goals that benefit people with disabilities and the wider community. The purpose is to analyse corporate social responsibility CSR initiatives, such as the employment of people with disabilities and other disadvantaged groups, and their impact. The target organisations of the case study were VATES Foundation and Helsinki Co-operative Society Elanto, Finnish organisations with headquarters in Hel...

  5. Estimating the distribution of strontium isotope ratios (87Sr/86Sr in the Precambrian of Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Kaislaniemi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A method to estimate the 87Sr/86Sr ratio of a rock based on its age and Rb/Sr ratio is presented. This method, together with data from the Rock Geochemical Database of Finland (n=6544 is used to estimate the 87Sr/86Sr ratios in the Precambrian of Finland and in its different major units. A generalization to cover the whole area of Finland is achieved by smoothing of estimation points. The estimation method is evaluated by comparing its results to published Rb-Sr isotope analyses (n=138 obtained on the Finnish Precambrian. The results show correspondence to different geological units of Finland,but no systematic difference between Archaean and younger areas is evident. Evaluation of the method shows that most of the estimates are reliable and accurate to be used as background material for provenance studies in archaeology, paleontology and sedimentology. However, some granitic rocks may have large (>1.0 % relative errors.Strontium concentration weighted average of the estimates differs only by 0.001 from the average 87Sr/86Sr ratio (0.730 of the rivers on the Fennoscandian shield.

  6. Concentrations of carbonaceous aerosols at HyytiÀlÀ, Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Pokharel, Pramod

    2014-01-01

    Vain tiivistelmÀ. OpinnÀytteiden arkistokappaleet ovat luettavissa Helsingin yliopiston kirjastossa. Hae HELKA-tietokannasta (http://www.helsinki.fi/helka/index.htm). Abstract only. The paper copy of the whole thesis is available for reading room use at the Helsinki University Library. Search HELKA online catalog (http://www.helsinki.fi/helka/index.htm). Endast avhandlingens sammandrag. Pappersexemplaret av hela avhandlingen finns för lÀsesalsbruk i Helsingfors universitets bibliote...

  7. The spatial distribution of forest damages in southeastern Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jokinen, J.; Maekinen, E.; Meinander, O.; Haarala, S. [Finnish Meteorological Inst., Helsinki (Finland)

    1995-12-31

    Up to the present time scientists researching the causes of the vast areas of forest damages observed in Europe and North America have presented many different hypotheses. Among the first explanations was the damaging effect of acid rain. Some researchers claimed that of all air pollutants ozone was the most important damaging agent. The stress theory emphasizes the interaction of nitrogen oxides and sulphur dioxide with oxidants, hydrocarbons and heavy metals to be the main cause of toxic effects. In addition to above-mentioned theories, projects carried out by the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI) have revealed that under northern conditions coniferous forests have been damaged even in situations where the emissions consist of sulphur and nitrogen compounds occurring together. This theory postulates that the interaction of the above pollutants may be responsible by themselves for the effects on coniferous forests. The interaction is supposed to cause damages by two different mechanisms, namely, by causing direct toxic effects or through wintering failures. These mechanisms are indicated by the total nitrogen and sulphur concentration relationships of the needles. In the first case both sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides occur at such a high levels in the air that they cause direct damages, while in the second case sulphur dioxide concentration, in particular, is lower and both compounds can then be used as nutrients causing nutrient imbalance and a loss of wintering hardiness of the needles. The study area in these projects was southeastern Finland, which is one of the most polluted areas in our country. Domestic emissions from the paper and pulp industry, as well as the Russian emissions (e g. from the Leningrad region) affect this area. The aim of this study was to test the sulphur-nitrogen hypothesis using data collected from the Kymi province, S.E. Finland. (author)

  8. [THE DECLARATION OF HELSINKI IN 2015 AND THE ETHICS OF RESEARCH IN FRENCH-SPEAKING AFRICA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botbol-Baum, Mylène

    2015-10-01

    This article follows my book "Bioéthique pour les pays du Sud" [Bioethics for the South] that was intended to show the need for an African bioethics to regulate international research, especially in the context of AIDS which is neither experienced nor cured the same way in the North and in the South. Many debates occurred since the publication of this book, debates that, at first glance, sided with those who claimed, in the name of rationality and pragmatism, double standards of care between both hemispheres. Despite a discourse based on respect for others, the Helsinki Declaration, in its 2000 version, supported justifications based on double standards of care. It replaces the debate on the legitimacy of research sponsored by the North, with participants from populations of emerging countries, as well as the debate on the best bioethics approach to respond to this problematic situated at the intersection of the universal, ethical principles and local situations. This text is the result of a reflection inspired by the conditions of legitimacy of bioethics teaching in French-speaking Africa countries, where the lack of regulation leads to exploitation and human experimentation in the name of care. PMID:26911081

  9. Knotworking in Academic Libraries: Two Case Studies from the University of Helsinki

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yrjö Engeström

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Librarians in academic libraries are facing major changes in their work due to, e.g., the internet, digitization, and increasing use of new channels for information retrieval by their most important clients, namely researchers. This creates challenges for librarians: both to deepen their own expertise and to develop innovative service models for their clients. In this paper we present a development project entitled ‘Knotworking in the Library’ from the Helsinki University Library. The project made use of the Change Laboratory method, which is an intensive developmental effort which facilitates improvements in the activities of organizations and changes in the organizational culture. The process started in Viikki Campus Library in 2009–2010 and continued in the City Centre Campus Library in 2010–2011. The aim was to create new kinds of partnership between libraries and research groups in the form of knotworking. By knotworking we mean a boundary-crossing, collective problem-solving way of organizing work. The knotworking model presented in this paper generated practical tools to assist selected research groups in dealing with data management related-issues.

  10. [Registration of observational studies: it is time to comply with the Declaration of Helsinki requirement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal-Ré, Rafael; Delgado, Miguel; Bolumar, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Publication bias is a serious deficiency in the current system of disseminating the results of human research studies. Clinical investigators know that, from an ethical standpoint, they should prospectively register clinical trials in a public registry before starting them. In addition, it is believed that this approach will help to reduce publication bias. However, most studies conducted in humans are observational rather than experimental. It is estimated that less than 2% out of 2 million concluded or ongoing observational studies have been registered. The 2013 revision of the Declaration of Helsinki requires registration of any type of research study involving humans or identifiable samples or data. It is proposed that funding agencies, such as the Fondo de Investigaciones Sanitarias, as well as private companies, require preregistration of observational studies before providing funding. It is also proposed that Research Ethics Committees which, following Spanish regulation, have been using the Declaration as the framework for assessing the ethics of clinical trials with medicines since 1990, should follow the same provisions for the assessment of health-related observational studies: therefore, they should require prospective registration of studies before granting their final approval. This would allow observational study investigators to be educated in complying with an ethical requirement recently introduced in the most important ethical code for research involving humans. PMID:25433766

  11. Psychological risk factors related to coronary heart disease. Prospective studies among policemen in Helsinki.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirkko, O; Lauroma, M; Siltanen, P; Tuominen, H; Vanhala, K

    1982-01-01

    Psychological investigations carried out on 1326 Helsinki policemen showed that individuals with electrocardiogram (ECG) signs of coronary heart disease (CHD), and those showing symptoms, were more anxious, aggressive, defensive and inhibited than those free from signs or symptoms. It is suggested that the poor prognosis associated with angina pectoris may be related to the psychological characteristics of the patients who suffer from it. Studies of 5- and 10-year prospective data showed that subjects dying from myocardial infarction differed from survivors on six significant psychological characteristics, including optimism, inhibition and superego strength. Multiple logistic analysis showed an association of lowered self-esteem and high somatization with myocardial infarction. A particular statistical analysis ("ridit analysis") revealed the existence of 4 variables (inhibition, neuroticism, differentiation and certainty) which distinguished to some degree with different manifestations of CHD. The nature of these variables and the correlations involved are discussed. It is concluded that psychological variables have some predictive power not only for the risk of CHD, but also for the risk of clinically different CHD events. PMID:6958183

  12. Selenium and arsenic in the environment in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahermo, P; Alfthan, G; Wang, D

    1998-01-01

    concentrations in water from drilled bedrock wells, and the findings of international medical studies suggesting that As is a carcinogen. The most important source of As is arsenopyrite (FeAsS). Hence, high As concentrations most frequently occur in areas of sulfide mineralization, often in connection with occurrences of mafic rocks such as gabbros, amphibolites, and peridotites. The As concentrations in till fines, the most common glaciogenic soil type in Finland, reflect those in bedrock. The concentrations in groundwater are controlled by the chemical composition of the bedrock and the soil and prevailing hydrogeochemical conditions, for example, pH and Eh levels. Arsenic concentrations are lowest in surface water and swiftly flowing shallow ground water discharged by springs and are somewhat higher in shallow wells dug into overburden. By far, the highest As concentrations are to be found in wells drilled into bedrock (maximum 1 to 2 mg/L), although the concentrations vary by several orders of magnitude from well to well. The highest probability of encountering deleteriously arsenious well water is in areas with characteristic As anomalies in the till and bedrock. Hence, it is important to understand local geological conditions, particularly in the case of wells drilled into bedrock. The risk of deleteriously high As concentrations occurring in captured springs and shallow wells is slight. PMID:9726792

  13. Business models of heat entrepreneurship in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the business models of small-scale heat energy production in Finland. Firstly, the development of heat entrepreneurship in the country is presented, including the remarkable growth of small and medium size enterprises (SMEs) in the last 15 years. Secondly, the concept of business model (business architecture of product/service flows and earning logics) is modified to the framework of wood heat production. The business model concept, and its sub-concepts, is applied in a brief review of current heat energy businesses in Finland. We arrive at a business model of heat entrepreneurships that are public companies/utilities, public-private partnerships, private companies and cooperatives, Energy Saving Company (ESCO), network model of large enterprise and franchising. Descriptive cases of these models are presented. Finally, the paper concludes with a discussion on the applicability of the business models in different operational environments and geographical contexts.

  14. The nucleus in Finland - The second report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Finnish Nuclear Society (FNS) started the distribution of the Nucleus bulletin at the beginning of 1988. The volume of distribution has been extended since, including today nearly 1,000 persons. Both the English and the Finnish version of the bulletin is sent to various opinion leaders of society, i.e. the members of the parliament, ministries, the media, representatives of industry and other decision-makers of the energy field. After the five-year history of the Nucleus in Finland, it is time to look back and sum up the present status of the Nucleus. This report gives a short summary concerning the present distribution and its efficiency, the experiences gained and the influence of the bulletin in Finland. The first questionnaire was sent in November 1988, and the survey was repeated among the Finnish readers of the Nucleus in autumn 1992. The results of the latter survey are given in this report

  15. Property crime and income inequality in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Huhta, Arto

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this thesis is to study the relationship of income inequality and property crime rates in Finland. While theoretical expectations for the relationship are strong, empirical evidence from previous within-country studies is mixed. My data set covers 337 Finnish municipalities during 1995-2009. The relationship of the Gini coefficient and crime rates was econometrically tested using an OLS model, a fixed effects panel data model and a dynamic generalized method of moments (GMM) m...

  16. Risk Assessment in Finland: Theory and Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Anttonen, Hannu; Pääkkönen, Rauno

    2010-01-01

    The Finnish risk assessment practice is based on the Occupational Safety and Health (OSH) Act aiming to improve working conditions in order maintain the employees' work ability, and to prevent occupational accidents and diseases. In practice there are hundreds of risk assessment methods in use. A simple method is used in small and medium sized enterprises and more complex risk evaluation methods in larger work places. Does the risk management function in the work places in Finland? According ...

  17. Special requirements of aquaponics in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Soppela, Olli

    2016-01-01

    This thesis brings together observations about special features that should be taken into consideration when designing the technical aspects of aquaponics practices and production units in Finland. Market demands, water purification and facility temperature control methods; sources of healthy feed and the needs for artificial lighting vary significantly around the globe. The unique combination of climate conditions, legislation and zoological conditions should be taken into consideration whe...

  18. ACCULTURATION OF THE SUDANESE IN FINLAND

    OpenAIRE

    Tabi Agbor, Tabi

    2009-01-01

    Tabi Agbor Tabi. Acculturation of the Sudanese in Finland. Järvenpää, Autumn 2009, 46p., 1 appendix. Diaconia University of Applied Sciences, Diak South, Järvenpää Unit, Degree Programme in Social Services. The emergence of globalisation has resulted in easy movement of people across various borders. This has also resulted in individuals or group of individuals getting in continuous first-hand contact with people of different cultures. This research looks at the impacts of this phenome...

  19. Employment Assimilation of Immigrants - Evidence from Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Hämäläinen, Kari; Kangasharju, Aki; Pekkala, Sari; Sarvimäki, Matti

    2005-01-01

    This paper analyses economic effects of immigrants that moved to Finland be-tween 1990 and 2000. The focus is on labour market participation, which affects direct taxes paid and income transfers received by immigrants. Immigrants are followed from the year of immigration up to 2000 or out-migration. Countries of origin are grouped into four categories: OECD, neighbouring countries (Russia and Estonia), the "JIIS-countries” (i.e. former Yugoslavia, Iran, Irak and Soma-lia), and remaining other...

  20. Teaching literature in Slovenia and Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Može, Alenka

    2011-01-01

    The research compares primary school instruction of literature in Slovenia and Finland on the basis of data from personal interviews with Slovenian and Finnish primary teachers. The theoretical part is built according to the international comparisons of student performance. It is further on supported by a review of fundamental differences in education, professional career of a class teacher and school systems of both countries, including close examination of specific curricula for subject mot...

  1. Human capital and regional growth in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Pelkonen, Lea; Ylonen, Sakari

    1998-01-01

    Recent investigations of regional growth have paid a great attention to convergence of per-capita income. These studies have shown the human capital to be a significant factor in addition to labour force, capital and technical progress when explaining the economic growth. This paper examines the convergence, and in particular the impact of human capital on regional growth in Finland. We estimate a standard neoclassical growth model extended by a human capital accumulation. The regional growth...

  2. The esoteric milieu in Finland today

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jussi Sohlberg

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available As in the other Scandinavian countries, so in Finland an exceptionally high percentage of the population belongs to a religious community. Today, about 82 per cent of Finns are members of the Evangelical Lutheran Church. However, the picture of the Finnish religious and spiritual landscape is more complex than it may at first appear. The project ‘Religions in Finland’ was started in 2003. The project is a joint-effort of the Church Research Institute and the Research Network for the Study of New Religious Movements. The aim is to create an electronic database for describing, mapping and analysing religious associations and communities in Finland (active ones and also those that no longer exist. In August 2007 there were 777 communities and organizations listed in the database. They are classified into ten categories representing religious traditions according to their historical and cultural background. There are 29 organizations classified under the category Western esotericism. This article presents a general overview of the major and recently founded esoteric groups in Finland, most of which are registered associations.

  3. Assuring future competence in nuclear safety in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Background: Within last few years we have been faced the fact that ageing of experts in nuclear safety field cannot be ignored in Finland. A great number of all experts/specialists with special competence on nuclear safety studied in the early 70's and had their first permanent jobs in the 'golden era' of nuclear power. These experts are going to retire within next ten years. Therefore both the regulatory body and licensees in Finland have the situation where the age distribution of staff member has become distorted. Also the amount of students in universities which have nuclear technology as their major subject has diminished remarkably until the decision of the new nuclear power plant unit in Finland was made in May 2001. After that the amount of students has risen. Assuring competences within the regulatory body STUK adopted the systematic approach to training in early 90's, this method is widely presented in IAEA TECDOC 1254 (2001). However, the very low turnover of staff led to decrease of training needs and therefore also the systematic training efforts decreased. In 2001 a need to restart the systematic approach to assuring competences was identified. To improve competence management at the regulatory body a competence analysis was carried out and a human resource plan for nuclear safety area for the near future was made. Competence analysis is a method which is quite commonly used on public sector and governmental organisations in Finland. STUK studied carefully the models used in other public sector organisations and adjusted the method to its own purposes. The model used has four competence categories: substance related, management skills, common working skills and STUK related working skills. Substance related competences were defined and described at working unit level. Descriptions for the rest three categories were made at STUK level and those were common for all departments. Substance related competencies common to all working at the

  4. The Education System in Finland - Development and Equality

    OpenAIRE

    Leijola, Liisa

    2004-01-01

    This discussion paper examines the education system in Finland from the viewpoint of equality. First, it presents the current structure of the education system in Finland. Second, history and development of the Finnish education system are discussed with special attention paid to the principle of equality, which has since the early 19th century been one of the key values and goals of education policy in Finland. National sentiment first called for educating also the common people and providin...

  5. U-Th-Pb zircon geochronology on igneous rocks in the Toija and Salittu Formations, Orijärvi area, southwestern Finland: constraints on the age of volcanism and metamorphism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher L. Kirkland

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Zircons from a felsic volcanic rock in the Toija Formation and a synvolcanic gabbro intrusion in the Salittu Formation within the Orijärvi area were dated by U-Th-Pb SIMS in order to provide depositional constraints on these formations. Zircon crystals from the felsic rock preserve a two-stage crystallisation history with zoned core domains and homogeneous rim domains. Inner domains yield a 1878±4 Ma concordia age, interpreted to determine the crystallisation of this rock. Rims yield a 1815±3 Ma concordia age interpretedto determine the regional metamorphism. Small rounded zircon grains from the Salittu gabbro, located within the Jyly shear zone, yield a concordia age of 1792±5 Ma. We interpret the grain textures to suggest that they recrystallised from inherited zircon seeds during the heat and fluid flow into the shear zone. Although no direct ages for the Salittu Formation have been recovered, field relationships imply that it was deposited between 1878−1875 Ma.

  6. Extremes temperatures and enthalpy in Finland and Sweden in a changing climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venaelaeinen, A.; Saku, S.; Jylhae, K. (Finnish Meteorological Institute (Finland)); Nikulin, G.; Kjellstroem, E.; Baerring, L. (Swedish Meteorological Institute (Sweden))

    2009-06-15

    Though risks caused by harsh weather conditions are taken into account in the planning of nuclear power plants, some exceptional weather events or combination of different events may prevent normal power operation and simultaneously endanger safe shutdown of the plant. Extreme weather events could influence, for example, the external power grid connection, emergency diesel generators (blockage of air intakes), ventilation and cooling of electric and electronics equipment rooms and the seawater intake. Due to the influence of an intensified greenhouse effect the climate is changing rapidly during the coming decades and this change is expected to have an influence also on the occurrence of extreme weather events. In this report we have examined extreme temperatures. Enthalpy is a parameter that combines air temperature and air humidity and it is used in the design of air conditioning systems. Therefore, we have included also return levels of enthalpy in our analysis. The influence of climate change on extreme temperatures is analysed based on regional climate model simulations. The reoccurrence times of high temperatures combined with high air humidity was analysed based on measurements made at five Finnish and three Swedish meteorological stations. Based on the observational records we find the 10 year return level of daily maximum temperature to be around 32 deg. C and the 100 year return level around 35 deg. C. If we look the return levels of warm and humid conditions then for example in Helsinki the 10 year return level of one week mean temperature in case mean air humidity is above 80% is 20.1 deg. C. The 10 year return level of daily maximum enthalpy is around 60 kJ/kg and the 100 year return level almost 70 kJ/kg. According to the climate model simulations the largest increase of 50-year return level of daily maximum temperature is found in southern Sweden and south-western Finland. By the end of this century the increase can be 3-5 deg. C. The largest change

  7. Extremes temperatures and enthalpy in Finland and Sweden in a changing climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Though risks caused by harsh weather conditions are taken into account in the planning of nuclear power plants, some exceptional weather events or combination of different events may prevent normal power operation and simultaneously endanger safe shutdown of the plant. Extreme weather events could influence, for example, the external power grid connection, emergency diesel generators (blockage of air intakes), ventilation and cooling of electric and electronics equipment rooms and the seawater intake. Due to the influence of an intensified greenhouse effect the climate is changing rapidly during the coming decades and this change is expected to have an influence also on the occurrence of extreme weather events. In this report we have examined extreme temperatures. Enthalpy is a parameter that combines air temperature and air humidity and it is used in the design of air conditioning systems. Therefore, we have included also return levels of enthalpy in our analysis. The influence of climate change on extreme temperatures is analysed based on regional climate model simulations. The reoccurrence times of high temperatures combined with high air humidity was analysed based on measurements made at five Finnish and three Swedish meteorological stations. Based on the observational records we find the 10 year return level of daily maximum temperature to be around 32 deg. C and the 100 year return level around 35 deg. C. If we look the return levels of warm and humid conditions then for example in Helsinki the 10 year return level of one week mean temperature in case mean air humidity is above 80% is 20.1 deg. C. The 10 year return level of daily maximum enthalpy is around 60 kJ/kg and the 100 year return level almost 70 kJ/kg. According to the climate model simulations the largest increase of 50-year return level of daily maximum temperature is found in southern Sweden and south-western Finland. By the end of this century the increase can be 3-5 deg. C. The largest change

  8. Reasons behind the Success of Finland in PISA:

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Eraslan

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2000, 2003, and 2006, the achievement of Finnish students in the area of mathematics, science and reading literacy in PISA (Programme for International Student Assessment has got attention from all over the world, particularly from OECD countries that ranked below the average. Thus, on the basis of the author’ own experiences in Finland and related literature, this paper aims to explain four forefront factors that appear to contribute to the Finnish student achievement, and then, to discuss what we as Turkey can benefit from the Finnish education system. Four main factors are as follows: (1 teacher education program, (2 traditional school life, (3 teaching profession as culture, and (4 in-service teacher education

  9. Apolipoprotein A-I Helsinki promotes intracellular acyl-CoA cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) protein accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo, Juan D; Garda, Horacio A; Cabaleiro, Laura V; Cuellar, Angela; Pellon-Maison, Magali; Gonzalez-Baro, Maria R; Gonzalez, Marina C

    2013-05-01

    Reverse cholesterol transport is a process of high antiatherogenic relevance in which apolipoprotein AI (apoA-I) plays an important role. The interaction of apoA-I with peripheral cells produces through mechanisms that are still poorly understood the mobilization of intracellular cholesterol depots toward plasma membrane. In macrophages, these mechanisms seem to be related to the modulation of the activity of acyl-CoA cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT), the enzyme responsible for the intracellular cholesterol ester biosynthesis that is stored in lipid droplets. The activation of ACAT and the accumulation of lipid droplets play a key role in the transformation of macrophages into foam cells, leading to the formation of atheroma or atherosclerotic plaque. ApoA-I Helsinki (or ∆K107) is a natural apoA-I variant with a lysine deletion in the central protein region, carriers of which have increased atherosclerosis risk. We herein show that treatment of cultured RAW macrophages or CHOK1 cells with ∆K107, but not with wild-type apoA-I or a variant containing a similar deletion at the C-terminal region (∆K226), lead to a marked increase (more than 10 times) in the intracellular ACAT1 protein level as detected by western blot analysis. However, we could only detect a slight increase in cholesteryl ester produced by ∆K107 mainly when Chol loading was supplied by low-density lipoprotein (LDL). Although a similar choline-phospholipid efflux is evoked by these apoA-I variants, the change in phosphatidylcholine/sphyngomyelin distribution produced by wild-type apoA-I is not observed with either ∆K107 or ∆K226. PMID:23456478

  10. Well-being at work on farms in Finland : Stress, safety in animal handling and working conditions of women on dairy farms

    OpenAIRE

    Kallioniemi, Marja

    2013-01-01

    The restructuring of agriculture in Finland has resulted in several types of change on farms during recent years. The field areas and sizes of herds per farm have been increasing, while the number of farms has been decreasing. Concurrently, the risks of agriculture have increased. Ongoing change has been described as a modernization process from traditional farming towards a more enterprise form of agriculture. Farms are mainly owned by private persons in Finland. The farm entrepreneurs ...

  11. AN AIR POLLUTION EPISODE CAUSED BY REGIONALLY TRANSPORTED SMOKE IN FINLAND ON 21 AUG 2006: A CASE STUDY USING MESOSCALE NWP MODEL

    OpenAIRE

    Rantamäki, Minna; Niemelä, Sami; Karppinen, Ari

    2008-01-01

    Abstract: The purpose of this study is to identify the prevailing synoptic and mesoscale conditions related to severe air quality episode in Finland utilizing AROME mesoscale NWP model. The summer of 2006 was exceptionally dry in the areas surrounding the Gulf of Finland; this resulted in frequently occurring wild land fires, especially in north-western part of Russia and Estonia. Easterly winds were prevailing with an exceptional long period in August and spread occasionally smoke t...

  12. Viability and seasonal distribution patterns of Scots pine pollen in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulkkinen, P.; Rantio-Lehtimäki, A.

    1995-01-01

    Germination ability and airborne counts of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) pollen were studied during the spring of 1993 at Turku in southern Finland (60 degrees 32' N, 22 degrees 28' E) and at Utsjoki in northern Finland (69 degrees 45' N, 27 degrees 01' E). Pollen waas trapped from the beginning of May to the end of June in a high-volume air sampler. Germination tests were performed to determine the in vitro pollen viability of the trapped pollen. Airborne pine pollen counts were obtained from a continuously operating Burkard trap located near each high-volume sampler. When male flowering began, phenological observations were carried out on pollen grains collected in rotored samplers located in pine and spruce stands and open fields near Turku and Utsjoki. In southern Finland, the peak period of pine pollen production was short, lasting for only 3 days, but it accounted for about 80% of the total germinating pine pollen yield for the year. The peak count was on May 20, with over 2000 germinating pollen grains per cubic meter of air. Pollen germination rates of up to 70% were obtained during the week preceding the local pollen peak, and rates reached almost 90% on the peak day. Pollen viability remained at 45 to 65% for 1 week after the peak. There was no significant difference between the pollen counts for day and night, indicating that during the main pollen season, the pollen source was close to Turku. Before the local pollen peak, the counts of living pine pollen were low, indicating that pine pollen transported over long distances was of little ecological importance in 1993 in the Turku area. In northern Finland, the first pollen grains were caught on July 4, and the peak day was July 13. However, no viable pollen was observed during this period, indicating that there was little gene drift from southern to northern Finland in 1993.

  13. Wind energy statistics of Finland. Yearly report 2011; Tuulivoiman tuotantotilastot. Vuosiraportti 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turkia, V.; Holttinen, H.

    2013-01-15

    Wind power production from grid connected wind turbines in Finland was 481 GWh in 2011. This corresponds to 0.6 % of Finland's electricity consumption. Installed wind capacity was 199 MW at the end of the year and the number of the operating turbines was 131. Two new turbines were installed in 2011 with the total power of 1.75 MW and no turbines were taken out of operation. The average size of all turbines in Finland was 1 519 kW at the end of 2011 (1519 kW at the end of 2010). The new climate and energy strategy has a target of 2 500 MW wind power in 2020. A market based feed-in system with a guaranteed price of 83.5 euro/MWh entered into force on 25 March 2011 in Finland. There will be an increased tariff of 105.3 euro/MWh until end of 2015 (max 3 years). The difference between the guaranteed price and spot price of electricity will be paid to the producers as a premium. Year 2010 had close to long term average wind resource. The weighted production index for the four sea areas was 98 %. Average capacity factor of standard wind turbines, which operated the whole year, was 24 % while the best turbine yielded 45 % capacity factor. Technical availability of the standard wind power plants was 88,5 % in 2011. This report contains production and availability figures of the grid connected wind turbines in Finland as well as component summary of failure statistics. There is an English list of figure and table captions and the yearly statistics table is as an appendix. (orig.)

  14. TVO: new nuclear plant in Finland; TVO: nytt kjernekraftverk i Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heggedal, Ane-Marte

    2007-07-01

    Teollisuuden Voima Oy (TVO) has begun building Finland's fifth nuclear power plant. The plant is projected to be finished in 2010-2011, and will have an installed effect at 1600 MWe. Details on the Finnish power company TVO are provided (ml)

  15. ExternE National Implementation Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ExternE National Implementation is a continuation of the ExternE Project, funded in part by the European Commission's Joule III Programme. This study is the result of the ExternE National Implementation Project for Finland. Three fuel cycles were selected for the Finnish study: coal, peat and wood-derived biomass, which together are responsible for about 40% of total electricity generation in Finland and about 75% of the non-nuclear fuel based generation. The estimated external costs or damages were dominated by the global warming (GW) impacts in the coal and peat fuel cycles, but knowledge of the true GW impacts is still uncertain. From among other impacts that were valued in monetary terms the human health damages due to airborne emissions dominated in all the three fuel cycles. Monetary valuation for ecosystem impacts is not possible using the ExternE methodology at present. The Meri-Pori power station representing the coal fuel cycle is one of the world's cleanest and most efficient coal-fired power plants with a condensing turbine. The coal is imported mainly from Poland. The estimated health damages were about 4 mECU/kWh, crop damages an order of magnitude lower and damages caused to building materials two orders of magnitude lower. The power stations of the peat and biomass fuel cycles are of CHP type, generating electricity and heat for the district heating systems of two cities. Their fuels are of domestic origin. The estimated health damages allocated to electricity generation were about 5 and 6 mECU/kWh, respectively. The estimates were case-specific and thus an generalisation of the results to the whole electricity generation in Finland is unrealistic. Despite the uncertainties and limitations of the methodology, it is a promising tool in the comparison of similar kinds of fuel cycles, new power plants and pollution abatement technologies and different plant locations with each other. (orig.)

  16. ExternE National Implementation Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pingoud, K.; Maelkki, H.; Wihersaari, M.; Pirilae, P. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland); Hongisto, M. [Imatran Voima Oy, Vantaa (Finland); Siitonen, S. [Ekono Energy Ltd, Espoo (Finland); Johansson, M. [Finnish Environment Institute, Helsinki (Finland)

    1999-07-01

    ExternE National Implementation is a continuation of the ExternE Project, funded in part by the European Commission's Joule III Programme. This study is the result of the ExternE National Implementation Project for Finland. Three fuel cycles were selected for the Finnish study: coal, peat and wood-derived biomass, which together are responsible for about 40% of total electricity generation in Finland and about 75% of the non-nuclear fuel based generation. The estimated external costs or damages were dominated by the global warming (GW) impacts in the coal and peat fuel cycles, but knowledge of the true GW impacts is still uncertain. From among other impacts that were valued in monetary terms the human health damages due to airborne emissions dominated in all the three fuel cycles. Monetary valuation for ecosystem impacts is not possible using the ExternE methodology at present. The Meri-Pori power station representing the coal fuel cycle is one of the world's cleanest and most efficient coal-fired power plants with a condensing turbine. The coal is imported mainly from Poland. The estimated health damages were about 4 mECU/kWh, crop damages an order of magnitude lower and damages caused to building materials two orders of magnitude lower. The power stations of the peat and biomass fuel cycles are of CHP type, generating electricity and heat for the district heating systems of two cities. Their fuels are of domestic origin. The estimated health damages allocated to electricity generation were about 5 and 6 mECU/kWh, respectively. The estimates were case-specific and thus an generalisation of the results to the whole electricity generation in Finland is unrealistic. Despite the uncertainties and limitations of the methodology, it is a promising tool in the comparison of similar kinds of fuel cycles, new power plants and pollution abatement technologies and different plant locations with each other. (orig.)

  17. Biomass-fueled power plants in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raiko, M. [IVO Power Engineering Ltd., Vantaa (Finland); Hulkkonen, S. [Imatran Voima Oy, Vantaa (Finland)

    1997-07-01

    Combined heat and power production (CHP) from biomass is a commercially viable alternative when district heat or process steam is needed in small towns or in a process industry. The high nominal investment cost of a small power plant that uses local biomass fuels is compensated by the revenues from the heat. The price of the district heat or the steam generated in the CHP-plant can be valued at the same price level as the heat from a mere steam boiler. Also, the price of heat produced by a small-generation-capacity plant is local and higher, whereas electricity has a more general market price. A typical small Finnish CHP-plant consists of a bubbling fluidized bed boiler and a simplified steam turbine cycle generating 4 to 10 MW of electricity and 10 to 30 MW of district heat or process steam. There are about 10 power plants of this type in commercial operation in Finland. As a whole, biomass, which is used in more than 200 plants, provides about 20% of the primary energy consumption in Finland. Roughly half of these produce only heat but the rest are combined heat and power plants. The majority of the plants is in pulp and paper industry applications. Imatran Voima Oy (IVO) is the biggest energy producer in Finland. IVO builds, owns and operates several biomass-fired power plants and carries out active R and D work to further develop the biomass-fueled small power plant. This paper discusses the experiences of the biomass-fueled power plants. (author)

  18. Freemasonry and its social position in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nils G. Holm

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Freemasonry, with its roots in the seventeenth century, has had to suffer insults and some­times even attacks from society. In this article the author looks more closely at Free­masonry in Finland, where it first appeared in the mid-eighteenth century, in the light of the suspicion and negative treatment it had to suffer. The deprecatory attitude of individuals and various social organisations towards Freemasonry varied over time, but there was often an underlying suspicion among the general public. This was expressed in the form of legends and folk tales of a more or less dramatic nature.

  19. Parenting educational styles in Slovenia and Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Sevčnikar, Kaja

    2015-01-01

    In everyday life the subject of parenting and child upbringing is often discussed among people who find themselves in the role of parents, babysitters and grandparents striving for best results (Peček Čuk and Lesar, 2009). My thesis focuses on parenting styles of mothers and fathers in Slovenia and in Finland. In the first, theoretical part, I have explained the concepts of socialization and parenting. I have defined the meaning of the term family and different family types. I have also c...

  20. Progressive Finland sees progress with nuclear projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Finnish Hanhikivi-1 reactor project is firmly on track and a licence has been granted for construction of a final disposal facility for spent nuclear fuel - the first final repository in the world to enter the construction phase. Significant progress has been made with plans for Finland to build its sixth nuclear reactor unit at Hanhikivi. Fennovoima's licensing manager Janne Liuko said the company expects to receive the construction licence for the Generation III+ Hanhikivi-1 plant in late 2017. The application was submitted to the Finnish Ministry of Employment and the Economy in June 2015.

  1. Silica, silicosis and cancer in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partanen, T; Jaakkola, J; Tossavainen, A

    1995-01-01

    Approximately 100 000 Finnish workers are currently employed in jobs and tasks that may involve exposure to airborne silica dust. The major industries involved are mining and quarrying; production of glass, ceramics, bricks and other building materials; metal industry, particularly iron and steel founding; and construction. Over 1500 cases of silicosis have occurred in Finland since 1935. Tuberculosis has been a frequent complication of silicosis. Results of studies from several countries strongly suggest that silica dust also causes lung cancer. The results of the relevant Finnish epidemiologic and industrial hygiene studies addressing cancer risk and exposure to quartz dust are summarized.

  2. Progressive Finland sees progress with nuclear projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalton, David [NucNet, Brussels (Belgium)

    2016-02-15

    The Finnish Hanhikivi-1 reactor project is firmly on track and a licence has been granted for construction of a final disposal facility for spent nuclear fuel - the first final repository in the world to enter the construction phase. Significant progress has been made with plans for Finland to build its sixth nuclear reactor unit at Hanhikivi. Fennovoima's licensing manager Janne Liuko said the company expects to receive the construction licence for the Generation III+ Hanhikivi-1 plant in late 2017. The application was submitted to the Finnish Ministry of Employment and the Economy in June 2015.

  3. Pakkaus Peikon palveluna : case: Peikko Finland Oy

    OpenAIRE

    Niemi, Raine

    2014-01-01

    Tämä opinnäytetyö käsittelee kuljetuspakkauksien kehittämistä ja parantamista. Työssä haetaan keinoja Peikko Finland Oy:lle uuden pakkauksiin liittyvän palvelumallin kehittämiseen. Työn tarkoituksena on löytää kehitysehdotuksia kotimaan asiakkaille toimitettavien vajaiden vakiotuotteiden kuljetuspakkauksiin. Tavoitteena on tuoda lisäarvoa yritykselle ja sen asiakkaille. Työn teoreettinen osuus keskittyy palvelumalliin ja lisäarvoon sekä pakkaamiseen. Teoriaosuus perustuu alan kirjallisuut...

  4. Wi-Fi in Cafes : Wi-Fi Use and its Impact on the Café Scene in Helsinki

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Bishal

    2012-01-01

    The advent of of WiFi (wireless internet) has revolutionized way people work and communicate by freeing them from the confinements of their offices and studies. With more and more cafes embracing this WiFi culture, it is worthwhile studying the impact of WiFi on the cafe environment, which is the focus of this research. The study was conducted on 7 cafes in Helsinki. The focus was on the degree of use of such services, awareness about WiFi security, the attitude of cafe customers and opinions...

  5. "Minäkin tarvitsen ihmisen aikaa." : Asiakaslähtöinen kyselylomake HelsinkiMission puhelinpalveluohjauksen tukena.

    OpenAIRE

    Suomi, Marja; Kajava, Marjo; Loponen, Sirpa

    2012-01-01

    Tämä opinnäytetyö toteutettiin tutkimuksellisena kehittämistyönä, jossa tarkasteltiin viiden helsinkiläisen kotona asuvan ikäihmisen toiminnallisuutta. Kehittämisen kohteena oli sosiaalialan järjestön HelsinkiMission puhelinpalveluohjauksen kyselylomake. Puhelinpalveluohjauksen haasteeksi nousi asiakasnäkökulman esille tuominen ja kuinka saada selville puhelimessa ikäihmisen toimintakyky. Kehittämistyössä tavoitteena oli tuottaa tietoa kotikäyntien avulla. Kehittämistehtävänä oli sel...

  6. Website creation and design for a business idea of: “photo shooting and guiding services in Helsinki city”

    OpenAIRE

    Solovyeva, Galina

    2012-01-01

    This is a report of a project-oriented thesis. The thesis product is a webpage that offers personalized photography and city guiding services around the main attractions of Helsinki district. The business idea of creating a website is invented and implemented by an author as a source of her extra earning and as a hobby. The thesis is done to help the readers to understand the main points that have to be considered before starting up the creation and design of their own website. It is aim...

  7. Life-space mobility assessment in older people in Finland; measurement properties in winter and spring.

    OpenAIRE

    Portegijs, Erja; Iwarsson, Susanne; Rantakokko, Merja; Viljanen, Anne; Rantanen, Taina

    2014-01-01

    Background: Life-space mobility refers to the spatial area an individual moves through, the frequency and need for assistance. Based on the assumption that measurement scale properties are context-specific, we tested the scale distribution, responsiveness, and reproducibility of the 15-item University of Alabama at Birmingham Study of Aging Life-Space Assessment in older people in Finland, specifically accounting for season. Methods: Community-dwelling older men and women in...

  8. A comparative study on campus sustainability in higher education sector in Hong Kong and Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Law, Cheuk Yan

    2015-01-01

    This thesis presents a comparative study examining the practices of campus sustainability in Higher Education Sectors between Hong Kong and Finland. Campus sustainability is a trend during the last decade as a result of numerous declarations and meetings for sustainable development in Higher education all over the world. In this thesis, the investigated areas are focused on environmental sustainability and Social sustainability. This study used the content analysis method to anal...

  9. Isolation of Mycobacterium avium complex from water in the United States, Finland, Zaire, and Kenya.

    OpenAIRE

    von Reyn, C F; Waddell, R D; Eaton, T.; Arbeit, R D; Maslow, J.N.; Barber, T W; Brindle, R. J.; Gilks, C F; Lumio, J; Lähdevirta, J

    1993-01-01

    Disseminated infection with organisms of the Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) is a common complication of AIDS in the United States and other developing countries, but it is rare or absent in sub-Saharan Africa. To assess the comparative likelihood of exposure to MAC in these geographic areas, we used a standard protocol to culture 91 water samples from environmental sites and piped water supply systems in the United States, Finland, Zaire, and Kenya. MAC was isolated from all geographic are...

  10. Geological resources in Finland, production data and annual report 2010; Geologisten luonnonvarojen hyoedyntaeminen Suomessa vuonna 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kananoja, T.; Ahtola, T.; Hyvaerinen, J. [and others]. E-mail: tapio.kananoja@gtk.fi

    2012-07-01

    The ground has an enormous reserve of energy. In Finland, the utilization of geoenergy by ground heat pumps has increased rapidly in the 21st century. In 2010, the total number of heat pumps in the country was 47 190, and they produced 2532 GWh of energy. Around 40% of family house builders chose geoenergy. Furthermore, extraction associated with metal mining in Finland rapidly increased in 2010. The total extraction was 45.8 Mt, of which 18.2 Mt consisted of ore. Ten metallic ore mines were active in 2010. In terms of ore extraction, Finland's biggest metal mines were the Talvivaara Ni-Zn-Cu-Co-mine (13.3 Mt ore), the Pyhaesalmi copper-zinc mine (1.4 Mt), the Kemi chrome mine (1.4 Mt) and the Kittilae Suurikuusikko gold mine (1.1 Mt). There is a high potential to find new high-tech metal deposits in Finland. The potential is especially high for platinum group metals and rare earth elements. According to the EU, these are the most critical high-tech metals. For rare earth minerals, the most potential rock types are carbonatites and alkaline rocks. The Kevitsa nickel-copper-platinum mine will start operations in 2012. In the Kokkola region there are many promising lithium deposits, the most well known being Laenttae. The total extraction of industrial minerals in 2010 was 24.9 Mt, 15.6 Mt of which consisted of ore. The amount of ore was clearly greater than in 2009. In terms of ore extraction, the biggest industrial mineral mine was the Siilinjaervi phosphate mine (10.2 Mt ore). Around 1.5 Mt of carbonates were extracted from both the Ihalainen limestone mine in Lappeenranta and the Limberg- Skraebboele limestone mine in Parainen. Most of the Ylaemaa spectrolite was refined by local companies, as well as Luumaeki beryllium and Luosto amethyst. Five companies have a diamond claim in Finland. Four of the claims were in Kuhmo and one in Kaavi. In addition, rubies and sapphires were found in the Lemmenjoki gold panning area and the first emerald in Finland was

  11. Third International Reindeer/ Caribou Symposium, Saariselkä, Finland, 1982

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Skjenneberg

    1982-05-01

    Full Text Available The third international reindeer/caribou symposium was arranged in Saariselkä, Finland, 23-26 August 1982 under the leadership of Dr. Erkki Pulliainen. 125 participants presented 70 lectures and posters. Proceedings will be published in Acta Zoologica Fennica, Volume VII. NOR contributed much to the conference in giving travelling grants to 35 participants from Finland, Norway and Sweden.

  12. Folkeskolen kan lære af Finland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Frans Ørsted

    2010-01-01

    Kronikken er en kommentar til den aktuelle danske debat om skolelukninger og -sammenlægninger - med udsyn til USA og Finland......Kronikken er en kommentar til den aktuelle danske debat om skolelukninger og -sammenlægninger - med udsyn til USA og Finland...

  13. Youth Suicide Trends in Finland, 1969-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahti, Anniina; Rasanen, Pirkko; Riala, Kaisa; Keranen, Sirpa; Hakko, Helina

    2011-01-01

    Background: There are only a few recent studies on secular trends in child and adolescent suicides. We examine here trends in rates and methods of suicide among young people in Finland, where suicide rates at these ages are among the highest in the world. Methods: The data, obtained from Statistics Finland, consisted of all suicides (n = 901)…

  14. The Discourse on Multicultural Education in Finland: Education for Whom?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Gunilla; Londen, Monica

    2010-01-01

    Finland is experiencing increased immigration and therefore increased cultural diversity in its schools. This paper examines the multicultural education discourse in Finland by analysing the national and municipal curricula for the comprehensive school, educational policy documents and teacher education curricula. The focus is on how multicultural…

  15. Geophysical investigations in the Syyry area, Finland. Summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heikkinen, E. [ed.; Ahokas, H. [Fintact Ky, Helsinki (Finland); Kurimo, M. [Geological Survey of Finland, Espoo (Finland)] [and others

    1992-12-01

    Investigations were carried out at the Syyry site at Sievi using geological, geophysical, geohydrological and geochemical methods in 1987-1991 to determine the suitability of the bedrock for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. In this survey airborne, ground and borehole geophysical methods were used to study the rock type distribution, fracturing and hydraulic conductivity of the bedrock to a depth of one kilometre.

  16. Fuel peat utilisation in Finland: resource use and emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leijting, J.

    1999-11-01

    The aim of the study was to inventorize the emissions and other stressors caused by fuel peat use in Finland. The life cycle approach was used to organise and compile the burdens associated with the fuel peat utilisation sector in the years 1994 and 1995. Fuel peat accounts for about 6.5 % of the total primary energy production in Finland. The study showed that most emissions out into the air occur during combustion of peat in energy plants. The emissions account for about 13 - 14 % of the CO{sub 2} emissions released by fossil fuel utilisation in Finland, for 12 % of the SO{sub 2} for 8 % of the N{sub 2}O and approximately 4 % of the NOR emissions released by anthropogenic sources in Finland. Phosphorus releases into waters contributes for about 0.2 % while nitrogen releases account for 0.3 % in the total anthropogenic discharge in Finland. (orig.) 88 refs.

  17. Fuel peat utilization in Finland: resource use and emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the study was to inventorize the emissions and other stressors caused by fuel peat use in Finland. The life cycle approach was used to organise and compile the burdens associated with the fuel peat utilisation sector in the years 1994 and 1995. Fuel peat accounts for about 6.5 % of the total primary energy production in Finland. The study showed that most emissions out into the air occur during combustion of peat in energy plants. The emissions account for about 13 - 14 % of the CO2 emissions released by fossil fuel utilisation in Finland, for 12 % of the SO2 for 8 % of the N2O and approximately 4 % of the NOR emissions released by anthropogenic sources in Finland. Phosphorus releases into waters contributes for about 0.2 % while nitrogen releases account for 0.3 % in the total anthropogenic discharge in Finland. (orig.) 88 refs

  18. Modeling and measurements of urban aerosol processes on the neighborhood scale in Rotterdam, Oslo and Helsinki

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karl, Matthias; Kukkonen, Jaakko; Keuken, Menno P.; Lützenkirchen, Susanne; Pirjola, Liisa; Hussein, Tareq

    2016-04-01

    This study evaluates the influence of aerosol processes on the particle number (PN) concentrations in three major European cities on the temporal scale of 1 h, i.e., on the neighborhood and city scales. We have used selected measured data of particle size distributions from previous campaigns in the cities of Helsinki, Oslo and Rotterdam. The aerosol transformation processes were evaluated using the aerosol dynamics model MAFOR, combined with a simplified treatment of roadside and urban atmospheric dispersion. We have compared the model predictions of particle number size distributions with the measured data, and conducted sensitivity analyses regarding the influence of various model input variables. We also present a simplified parameterization for aerosol processes, which is based on the more complex aerosol process computations; this simple model can easily be implemented to both Gaussian and Eulerian urban dispersion models. Aerosol processes considered in this study were (i) the coagulation of particles, (ii) the condensation and evaporation of two organic vapors, and (iii) dry deposition. The chemical transformation of gas-phase compounds was not taken into account. By choosing concentrations and particle size distributions at roadside as starting point of the computations, nucleation of gas-phase vapors from the exhaust has been regarded as post tail-pipe emission, avoiding the need to include nucleation in the process analysis. Dry deposition and coagulation of particles were identified to be the most important aerosol dynamic processes that control the evolution and removal of particles. The error of the contribution from dry deposition to PN losses due to the uncertainty of measured deposition velocities ranges from -76 to +64 %. The removal of nanoparticles by coagulation enhanced considerably when considering the fractal nature of soot aggregates and the combined effect of van der Waals and viscous interactions. The effect of condensation and

  19. Post-trial access and the new version of the Declaration of Helsinki

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Palacios

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In October 2013, the World Medical Association (WMA approved the latest version of the Declaration of Helsinki (DoH in Fortaleza, Brazil. Post-trial access of favorable interventions was again one of the critical issues raised during the meeting. The call to clinical research actors, other than physicians, in this discussion is not new, but this is the first time, after 49 years and nine amendments, when governments are requested to take responsibilities. The primary purpose of the DoH is the protection of human subjects involved in clinical research, but since the 2000 amendment, the WMA extended their concerns to what happens to the trial participants after the study. This issue, along with the use of placebo, was one of the key points that led to the withdrawal of the DoH as reference in the United States regulation. However, only the 2013 version acknowledges that the burden of providing post-trial access for those patients on continuous treatment is far beyond the investigator’s scope. The delay between the end of a blind study and the unblinding could take several months. Meantime, the investigator is unaware if the participant received either control or experimental product. In case of therapeutic response, the investigator should provide to the participant the same treatment until the unblinding, even if it is the control product, i.e. placebo? A trial participant can get therapeutic response with an experimental product that during the unblinded analysis has failed. The risk benefit analysis on individual basis might be challenging if one considers that the clinical development can stop due to safety concerns, lack of efficacy or release of alternatives more advantageous than the investigational product. Before retaining a product still under development after a study, the physician should consider safety and efficacy information as well as therapeutic alternatives to take decisions on an individual participant, even if the patient

  20. Main Changes Experienced by Husbands Involved in the Caring for their Wives with Multiple Sclerosis in Finland, Austria and Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mª Carmen Pérez Belda

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines husbands’ experiences with wives in the long-term care of the Multiple Sclerosis disease in Finland, Austria and Spain. Avoiding generalizations, this study focuses on the main changes after the diagnosis in all levels – personal, economic and professional – because to understand and reach equality in the care work it is necessary to open debate about men’s practices in this area. In this research, three couples in each country in the regions of Lapland (Finland, Vorarlberg (Austria and Alicante (Spain were interviewed. To analyze the findings, a gender perspective is used with a particular attention to the influence of the contextual factors in each case. Comparing Finland with Austria and Spain, big differences emerged related to the economic changes. Changes in the social and sexual life were common in most cases.

  1. Risk assessment in Finland: theory and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anttonen, Hannu; Pääkkönen, Rauno

    2010-09-01

    The Finnish risk assessment practice is based on the Occupational Safety and Health (OSH) Act aiming to improve working conditions in order maintain the employees' work ability, and to prevent occupational accidents and diseases. In practice there are hundreds of risk assessment methods in use. A simple method is used in small and medium sized enterprises and more complex risk evaluation methods in larger work places. Does the risk management function in the work places in Finland? According to our experience something more is needed. That is, understanding of common and company related benefits of risk management. The wider conclusion is that commitment for risk assessment in Finland is high enough. However, in those enterprises where OSH management was at an acceptable level or above it, there were also more varied and more successfully accomplished actions to remove or reduce the risks than in enterprises, where OSH management was in lower level. In risk assessment it is important to process active technical prevention and exact communication, increase work place attraction and increase job satisfaction and motivation. Investments in OSH are also good business. Low absenteeism due to illness or accidents increases directly the production results by improved quality and quantity of the product. In general Finnish studies have consistently shown that the return of an invested euro is three to seven-old. In national level, according to our calculations the savings could be even 20% of our gross national product. PMID:22953157

  2. Energy and sustainable development in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.N. World Summit on Environment and Development in Rio de Janeiro in June 1992 was the origin of the international framework for sustainable development. As a basis for joint, sustainable action by governments, organizations, industries, and the public, the participating countries signed the Rio Declaration on Environment and Development, and drafted the associated action program, Agenda 21. Sustainable development comprises these three determinant factors: - Economy. - Ecology. - Social aspects. This is where entrepreneurial responsibility for society comes in. If industries want to generate overall positive effects, they must be efficient, competitive, and profitable on a long-term basis. Power supply systems meeting the criteria of sustainable development must be reliable, economically viable, socially acceptable, and environmentally compatible. The power supply in Finland is meeting these sustainability requirements in many ways. Finland's electricity supply is decentralized, using a variety of energy sources. Electricity can be generated and made available at low cost. The Finnish power industry is an important employer and a major factor in the economy. Moreover, electricity is generated in advanced types of power plants. In this way, the structure of the Finnish power supply system incorporates important factors of sustainable development. (orig.)

  3. The development of climatic scenarios for Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, T.; Tuomenvirta, H. [Finnish Meteorological Inst., Helsinki (Finland); Posch, M. [National Inst. of Public Health and the Environment, Bilthoven (Netherlands)

    1996-12-31

    One of the main objectives of the Finnish Research Programme on Climate Change (SILMU) has been to assess the possible impacts of future changes in climate due to the enhanced greenhouse effect on natural systems and human activities in Finland. In order to address this objective, it was first necessary to specify the types of climate changes to be expected in the Finnish region. Estimates of future climate are conventionally obtained using numerical models, which simulate the evolution of the future climate in response to radiative forcing due to changes in the composition of the atmosphere (i.e. of greenhouse gases and aerosols). However, there are large uncertainties in the model estimates because current knowledge and understanding of atmospheric processes remains incomplete. Since accurate predictions of climate change are not available, an alternative approach is to develop scenarios. These are plausible projections which reflect the best estimates to the future conditions but at the same time embrace the likely uncertainties attached to these estimates. In order to obtain expert opinion on the most appropriate methods of providing scenarios for SILMU, an International Workshop was organised in 1993. The recommendations of the Workshop formed the basis of the present project, initiated in 1994, to develop standard climatic scenarios for Finland

  4. Electricity statistics for Finland 1997; Saehkoetilasto 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kangas, H.; Savolainen, T. [Adato Energia Oy, Helsinki (Finland)

    1998-12-01

    Until 1995 the electrical statistics information has according to the law about electric utilities and facilities been collected and handled by the Electrical Inspectorate. In 1996 the work was done by the Finnish Electricity Association and it was commissioned by the Ministry of Trade and Industry. Since 1996 the collection and handling of the information is based on the Electricity Market Act. The information is mainly submitted by the producers and distributors of electricity and processed since 1997 in Adato Energia Oy owned jointly by Finnish Energy Industries Federation, Finnish District Heating Association and Finnish Electricity Association. This action is based on a mutual contract of the Statistics Finland, Adato Energia Oy, Finnish Energy Industries Federation and Finnish Electricity Association. The Electricity Statistics for Finland 1997 contains several summaries about the consumption and the production. There is also summaries about the networks, the effects of electricity, the capacities of electricity, the fuels used in production and the dwellings heated by electric power. Like before a list of names, addresses, persons and telephone numbers is available. Additionally a list comprising the power consumption in all Finnish communes and a glossary in three languages (Finnish, Swedish and English) are included

  5. Carbon Storage Potential of Forest Land: A Comparative Study of Cases in Finland and Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Tijardović

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: The concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere have been increasing over the last hundred years in relation to the Fourth IPCC assessment report that highlighted human activities as a direct influence on climate changes. Since Croatia and Finland signed the Kyoto Protocol, they are both committed to fulfil international obligations of lowering GHG’s emissions, enhancing the storage, as well as protecting and enhancing the current pools where the forestry sector has a prominent role. These obligations created a need for a review on carbon storage potentials for both countries with the aim of setting further scientific and management guidelines as the basic purpose of this research. Materials and Methods: Data collection was conducted within the scope of the Sort Term Scientific Mission (STSM in the period from May 2 – July 22, 2009 in the Finnish Forest Research Institute in Joensuu. The research encompassed an overview of literature, personal contacts with scientists and experts from both countries (research institutes, ministries, the EFI branch office in Joensuu and a field inspection which altogether provided an insight into the applied silvicultural and utilization activities. A significant data source were official documents and published project results on the carbon storage potential. Results and Discussion: Mitigation activities within the framework of the LULUCF project reduced the total emissions for 33.4 millions tons of CO2 equivalents in Finland in 2006 (this data has varied from 18 to 33.4 millions tons CO2 equivalents in the last fifteen years while for Croatia the availability of such data is limited. Finland has some former agricultural land which may be afforested but not in the substantial share, while in Croatia such areas amount to around 1 million ha. According to the climate change scenario for Finland (FINADAPT, predicting the largest climate changes, the total forest growth

  6. Payments for Improved Ecostructure (PIE): Funding for the Coexistence of Humans and Wolves in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiedanpää, Juha; Kalliolevo, Hanna; Salo, Matti; Pellikka, Jani; Luoma, Mikael

    2016-09-01

    The gray wolf ( Canis lupus) is a source of concern and a cause of damage to people's livelihoods. In Finland, as in most countries, actual damages are compensated according to the real lost value. However, often, the suffered damages are larger than what is compensated, and worries and fears are not accounted for at all. The purpose of our transdisciplinary action research is to contribute to the process of modifying the scientific, administrative, and everyday habits of mind in order to meet the practical prerequisites of living with the wolf. In 2014, we planned and participated in a process designed to update Finland's wolf population management plan. During our study, we applied e-deliberation, conducted a national wolf survey, and organized solution-oriented workshops in wolf territory areas around Finland. By applying abductive reasoning, we illustrate the basic features of an economic scheme that would help finance and coordinate practical modifications to the ecological, economic, and institutional circumstances and settings in wolf territory areas. The potential economic instrument is based on payments for improved ecostructures. In our paper, we describe the organization, functioning, and financing of this instrument in detail.

  7. [Mental health in Chile and Finland: Challenges and lessons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retamal C, Pedro; Markkula, Niina; Peña, Sebastián

    2016-07-01

    This article analyses and compares the epidemiology of mental disorders and relevant public policies in Chile and Finland. In Chile, a specific mental health law is still lacking. While both countries highlight the role of primary care, Finland places more emphasis on participation and recovery of service users. Comprehensive mental health policies from Finland, such as a successful suicide prevention program, are presented. Both countries have similar prevalence of mental disorders, high alcohol consumption and high suicide rates. In Chile, the percentage of total disease burden due to psychiatric disorders is 13% and in Finland 14%. However, the resources to address these issues are very different. Finland spends 4.5% of its health budget on mental health, while in Chile the percentage is 2.2%. This results in differences in human resources and service provision. Finland has five times more psychiatric outpatient visits, four times more psychiatrists, triple antidepressant use and twice more clinical guidelines for different psychiatric conditions. In conclusion, both countries have similar challenges but differing realities. This may help to identify gaps and potential solutions for public health challenges in Chile. Finland’s experience demonstrates the importance of political will and long-term vision in the construction of mental health policies. PMID:27661557

  8. Research News from Norway, Sweden, and Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Skjenneberg

    1986-06-01

    Full Text Available Norge: 1 Forskningsavd ved Reindriftsadministrasjonen. 2 Avd. for arktisk biologi, Univ. i Tromsø 3 Viltforskningen ved DN, Trondheim 4 Institutt for biologi og geologi, Univ. i Tromsø 5 Institutt for husdyrnæring, Norges landbrukshøgskole 6 Institutt for zoologi, Norges landbrukshøgskole 7 Stipendiat Norges landbruksvit. forskningsråd 8 Statens veterinære laboratorium i Nord-Norge Sverige: 1 Renförsöksavdelningen, Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet 2 Statens veterinärmedicinska anstalt 3 Statens naturvårdsverk Finland: 1 Vilt- och fiskeriforskningsinstitutet, Renforskning 2 Kaamanen försöksstation, Renägareföreningen 3 Veterinärmedicinska högskolan 4 Helsingfors universitets husdjursvetenskapliga institut 5 Kuopios och Uleåborgs universiteter 6 Helsingfors universitets geologiska institut 7 Jyväskyläs universitet 8 Lantbrukets forskningscentral

  9. Radioactive contamination of the forests of southern Poland and Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experimental data of caesium and ruthenium radioactivity in chosen parts of forest ecosystems in Finland and Southern Poland are presented and compared. Measurements were performed with a low-background gamma-rays spectrometer with the Ge(Li) detector. The maximum caesium 137 activity in litter from Poland is 2.5 kBq, in that from Finland 3.9 kBq, in spruce needles it is 0.4 kBq (Poland), 0.9 kBq (Finland) and in fern leaves it is as high as 15.9 kBq per kg of dry mass in one sample from Poland. (author)

  10. Chinese Jiaotong Universities Presidents Delegation Visits Russia and Finland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu; Yang

    2014-01-01

    <正>At the invitation of the Russian St.Petersburg State Transport University and the Regional State Administrative Agency for Eastern Finland,the Chinese Jiao tong Universities Presidents Delegation,led by CPAFFC Secretary General Li Xikui,visited Russia and Finland,to attend the First Forum of Chinese and Russian Transport Universities’Presidents and hold exchanges with local governments and universities of Finland from May 19 to 26.The forum was jointly initiated and organized by the CPAFFC and

  11. Sweden, Finland and the German energy policy turnaround

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After the nuclear catastrophe in Fukushima Finland and Sweden have chosen completely different paths compared to Germany: both countries plan to build new nuclear power plants. The contribution discusses the historical development of nuclear power in these countries. In Sweden a political polarization exists between those who want to use renewable energies and those who expect increasing greenhouse gas emissions in case of nuclear power phaseout. In Finland no important anti-nuclear movement has been formed. The authors do not expect a change of policy in Sweden and Finland.

  12. ABCGheritage project - promoting geotourism in northern Finland, northern Norway and the Kola Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pihlaja, Jouni; Johansson, Peter; Lauri, Laura S.

    2014-05-01

    Nature tourism has been a growing business sector in the Barents area during the recent decades. With the purpose to develop nature tourism in a sustainable way, a cooperation project ABCGheritage - Arctic Biological, Cultural and Geological Heritage has been carried out. Project has received partial funding from the EU Kolarctic ENPI program. In the geoheritage part of the project the main activities were aimed to develop pro-environmental ways of geotourism in the area. The three main participants in the geoheritage part of the project are the Geological Survey of Finland, Northern Finland Office, the Geological Institute of the Kola Science Centre of the Russian Academy of Sciences and Bioforsk Soil and Environment from northeastern Norway. The duration of the project is 2012-2014 and most of the work has already been completed even if most of the results are not published yet. Totally ten different tasks have been implemented in the geological part of the project. The largest task has been the preparation of a geological outdoor map and guide book of the Khibiny Tundra locating in the central part of the Kola Peninsula. In Finland already 11 such maps have been published, and the experiences gained during their production have been used in this project, too. Geological heritage trails to the Khibiny Tundra have also been created and they will be drawn on the map. The second concrete result is the Barents Tour for Geotourist -guide, which will be published as a guide book, web pages and an exhibition. The route comprises ca 35 best geological demonstration sites along the circle route from northern Finland to northeastern Norway, from there to Kola Peninsula and then back to Finland. Information of the route will be available for all interested travelers. In addition to the geological outdoor map of the Khibiny Tundra and "Barents Tour for Geotourists"-guide, the primary outputs of the project are the geological nature trails on the field, geological

  13. Fifteen years of heating enterprise in southern Finland; Laempoeyrittaejyyttae Uudellamaalla jo 15 vuotta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vuorio, K.; Lahdensaari-Natt, L., Email: kari.vuorio@tts.fi, Email: liisa.lahdensaari@tts.fi

    2013-06-01

    Heating entrepreneurs produce heat locally and sell heat to the end user at an agreed price. Heat is usually produced by burning wood chips from the companys own forests or from the surrounding forests. There were more than 500 heating plants run by heating entrepreneurs in Finland in the beginning of 2012. Some thirty of them were situated in the area of Uusimaa in southern Finland. It seems that heating entrepreneurship is steadily gaining ground, since the amount of heating plants has increased annually by around twenty. TTS-Tyoetehoseura (Work Efficiency Institute) started the nationwide research and development of heating entrepreneurship in 1993. At that time there were only three heating companies in Finland. The first started to operate in Uusimaa during 1994-1998. Among the first heating plants to be built in 1998 were Perttula Vocational School (KEUDA) with 500 kiloWatts capacity in Nurmijaervi, Ohkola school with 200 kiloWatts capacity in Maentsaelae and the Vaestankvarn schoolfarm with 700 kiloWatts capacity in Inkoo, of which we will give more info about in this bulletin. (orig.)

  14. Legal prerequisites for clinical trials under the revised Declaration of Helsinki and the European Convention on Human Rights and Biomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenau, H

    2000-06-01

    Biomedical research is a perennially controversial subject. While the provisions of the Revised Declaration of Helsinki enjoy world-wide acceptance, they are increasingly placed in question--not least by the Council of Europe's Bioethics Convention, which allows non-therapeutic research in restricted cases on those incapable of giving informed consent. Taking as its starting-point the fundamental conflict between the general interest in research and the individual interests of the patients concerned, this article analyses the conditions under which medical experimentation on human beings is permissible. The article recognises the model of risk/benefit analysis and the doctrine of informed consent as equally valid core principles which do not conflict with restricted, non-therapeutic research, whether on patients who lack the capacity to consent or in placebo-controlled trials.

  15. Business Culture Differences in Communication between Finland and Tunisia

    OpenAIRE

    Jemaiel, Karima

    2013-01-01

    The topic for this thesis is the business culture differences in communication between Finland and Tunisia. The business world is increasingly international which means that the business men and women should acknowledge the cultural differences which they are facing when conducting business in a foreign culture. The objective of this thesis was to identify business culture differences between Finland and Tunisia. By identifying the culture differences this thesis was able to find answers...

  16. MARKETING OF MUSIC FESTIVALS IN FINLAND : Case Study on Websites

    OpenAIRE

    Kurikkala, Jonna

    2012-01-01

    The thesis was commissioned to provide support material to the course Festival and Event Management which is taught by Raili Häggblom in Central Ostrobothnia University of Applied Sciences. The subject of the thesis was Marketing of Festivals in Finland - Case study on websites. The aim of this thesis was to provide a comprehensive look on the marketing of festivals in Finland by presenting marketing theories, such as, visual marketing, branding and social media as well as analyzing some ...

  17. International migration between Finland and the Baltic Sea Region

    OpenAIRE

    ELLI HEIKKILÄ

    2006-01-01

    Immigration from the former socialist countries into Western Europe generally increased after the fall of the Iron Curtain. This was also apparent with respect to the Nordic labour markets and Finland where the share of immigrants grew from countries around the Baltic Sea Region. The main immigrant groups come to Finland from Sweden, Russia and Estonia. Immigration from Poland, Lithuania and Latvia has not played such an important role. This paper analyses the volume and integration of immigr...

  18. A Critical Evaluation of the MARS Treatment in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Kantola, Taru

    2010-01-01

    The Molecular Adsorbent Recirculating System (MARS) is an extracorporeal albumin dialysis device which is used in the treatment of liver failure patients. This treatment was first utilized in Finland in 2001, and since then, over 200 patients have been treated. The aim of this thesis was to evaluate the impact of the MARS treatment on patient outcome, the clinical and biochemical variables, as well as on the psychological and economic aspects of the treatment in Finland. This thesis...

  19. Raising the Profile of Sign Language Teachers in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    De Weerdt, Danny; Salonen, Juhana; Liikamaa, Arttu

    2016-01-01

    Sign language teaching in Finland has a long history. In contrast, sign language teacher training programs and research into the sign languages of Finland both know a short history. Due to this contrast, the field of sign language teaching nowadays can be seen as the ‘Wild West’. Till today, teachers from different backgrounds do teach sign language. We do not have a clear picture of what knowledge or competencies are expected from these teachers. In this article we would like ...

  20. Creating an Internet travel platform about Finland for Russian customers

    OpenAIRE

    Granberg, Liubov

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to find out the potential to develop travel Internet platform about Finland for Russian customers. Finland is a particular attractive destination for Russian tourists. A massive market eager for travel, the Russian Federation has become Europe’s third largest source market. The mission of new Internet platform would be to offer a more complete spectrum of services to Russian customers, make personal trips according to their preferences. In this paper we will address ...

  1. Vietnamese Immigrant Entrepreneurship in Finland: Motivation and Obstacles

    OpenAIRE

    Trinh, Quyen

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine the motivations and obstacles to Vietnamese immigrant entrepreneurship in Finland. In theoretical part, the main issue was to define different concepts of entrepreneurship, immigrant and immigrant entrepreneur. Further, theories of motivational and obstacle factors were reviewed. In the next part, previous studies about immigration history of Finland were retrieved. Multiple research method was adopted, combining both quantitative and quali...

  2. Service design for Chinese restaurant management in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Yan

    2011-01-01

    The main objective of the thesis is focused on understanding the service and operation model of Chinese restaurants in Finland, identifying the gaps between the service suppliers’ and the customers’ view on service quality and trying to find out the best Chinese restaurant service design in Finland. The conceptual framework of the thesis is based on the service design, the scale to measure the service quality - SERVQUAL model, and the comparison of Finnish and Chinese food culture and...

  3. Mathematics background of engineering students in Northern Ireland and Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Cole, Jonathan S.; McCartan, Charles D.; Tuohi, Raija; Steinby, Paula

    2014-01-01

    The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development investigated numeracy proficiency among adults of working age in 23 countries across the world. Finland had the highest mean numeracy proficiency for people in the 16 – 24 age group while Northern Ireland’s score was below the mean for all the countries. An international collaboration has been undertaken to investigate the prevalence of mathematics within the secondary education systems in Northern Ireland and Finland, to highlight pa...

  4. Chinese students' perceptions of cooperative learning in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Ying

    2015-01-01

    International students from China continue to have a strong presence in European tertiary institutions, however, only a limited number of studies can be found about their learning experiences and their perceptions towards western educational practices. How Chinese students in Finland perceive cooperative learning is the focus of this study, while different education cultures between China and Finland is identified as the dominant element that may determine students’ beliefs and their choices ...

  5. Evaluation and modeling of the size fractionated aerosol number concentration measurements near a major road in Helsinki

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Hussein

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available This study presents an evaluation and modeling of the size fractionated aerosol number concentrations that were measured near a major road of Itäväylä in Helsinki, during 23 August – 19 September 2003 and 14 January – 11 February 2004. The measurement system contained also electronic traffic counts, on-site meteorological measurements, and urban background concentration measurements. We have evaluated the temporal variations and the dependencies on local meteorological conditions of the measured aerosol number concentrations and size distributions. The ultrafine particle (UFP number concentrations at the roadside site were approximately an order of magnitude higher than those at the urban background site during daytime, due to vehicular emissions from the road. We also determined the statistical correlations of the sequential time series of the particle number size distributions at the roadside site, and the traffic densities. The computed Pearson correlation coefficients for the downwind cases were substantially high for UFP's (>0.6, and low for accumulation mode particles; the latter is due to the substantial contribution of long-range transported particles in that size range. We also utilized this dataset for evaluating the performance of a modeling system that consists of a roadside dispersion model CAR-FMI (Contaminants in the Air from a Road – Finnish Meteorological Institute, a meteorological pre-processing model MPP-FMI and an aerosol process model UHMA (University of Helsinki Model for Aerosol processes. Model simulations underpredicted the particle number concentrations at the measurement site, which was caused by uncertainties in the emission modeling, especially in the UFP size range.

  6. Forest Energy Project of Central Finland; Keski-Suomen metsaeenergiaprojekti

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahokas, M. [Regional Council of Central Finland, Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Kuitto, P.J. [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland). Fuel Production

    1997-12-01

    The Forest Energy Project of Central Finland (1994 - 1996) was one of the leading regional demonstration projects in Finland for testing and studying of the complete energy wood delivery chains and energy wood utilisation. The target of this provincial project was to collect and demonstrate the most promising energy wood procurement technologies and methods for utilisation of energy producers, forest industry and small and medium sized industries co- operating with forest owners, contractors and forest organisations. The project was a large development and technology transfer venture concentrated primarily on practical needs. Total delivery chains were formed of the best machine and method alternatives, and they were also demonstrated. The project offered hence a wide test field for regional and national techno / economical wood fuel development. The Forest Energy Project of Central Finland was a demonstration project supervised by the Regional Council of Central Finland. The project was a part of the national Bioenergy Research Programme. VTT Energy and the Forestry Board of Central Finland were responsible for the practical development work. A large number of provincial partners interested in wood fuels took part in the project. The project were carried out during the years 1994 - 1996. The total costs were 4.4 million FIM. The aim is to create a practical model for the entire system, by which enables the economically profitable increment of the utilisation of chip fuels in Central Finland by 100 GWh/1996 and 500 GWh/a (about 250 000 m{sup 3}) to the end of the decade. (orig.)

  7. Finland`s second report under the framework convention on climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    Finland is an industrialized country with extensive forest lands. Because of the structure of industry and the country`s geophysical conditions, large amounts of energy are consumed. In 1995, CO{sub 2} emissions from fossil fuels and peat and from industry totalled 56 Tg, as compared to 54 Tg in 1990. Wood burning released another 21 Tg of CO{sub 2} in 1995, but this is not counted in total emissions because even more carbon was bound up in the growing stock in the forests. Methane (CH{sub 4}) emissions totalled 241 Gg in 1995, nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) 18 Gg, nitrogen oxides 259 Gg, carbon monoxide (CO) 434 Gg and volatile organic compounds from human activities (NMVOC) 182 Gg. Emissions other than carbon dioxide were jointly equivalent to some 25 Tg of CO{sub 2} in terms of their direct or indirect greenhouse effect. These estimates are consistent wish the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) guidelines for estimating national greenhouse gas emissions and sinks. The minor deviations from the guidelines have been presented in this report. Trends in national greenhouse gas emissions and sinks to 2000 and beyond have been estimated in consultation with appropriate government departments, industry sectors, research institutions and other bodies. Wherever possible, these projections take into account the effect of current and planned policies and measures aimed at reducing emissions and enhancing sinks. The main focus in Finland`s climate strategy is to intensify those programmes for reducing greenhouse gas emissions that are already under way, such as efficiency improvements in the energy production and utilization system, and use of energy and carbon taxes. As well as limiting emissions of CO{sub 2} and other greenhouse gases, the Finnish action programme also includes measures to enhance carbon reservoirs and sinks. In its energy report to Parliament in autumn 1993, the Government adopted the goals of stopping increases in CO{sub 2} emissions from

  8. Firewood processing devices in Finland 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Forestry Bulletin presents a review of the market situation for firewood processing devices in Finland during March 2002. The review is based on a questionnaire sent to device manufacturers. The firewood processing devices have traditionally been divided into three groups according to their functions: cross-cutting devices, splitting devices and cross-cutting and splitting devices. With a cross-cutting device the tree can be cross-cut only. Because it is easily possible to build the splitting function into a cross-cutting device, merely manufacturing a cross-cutting devices is rare. In all the splitting machines on the market, the splitting is carried out on a horizontally operated hydraulic cylinder pushing against a splitting blade. The types of cross-cutting blade mostly used in cross-cutting and splitting devices are circular i.e. circular saw blade, and chain saw. These devices are called firewood sawing machines. In firewood chopping machines that have a chopping blade, the wood is cross-cut using a spiral or guillotine blade. The splitting is done by a wedge blade or an axe blade. The firewood chopping machines can cross-cut and split stems up to a maximum of 20-22 cm in diameter. Circular blade firewood machines use either a cone screw or hydraulic cylinder and counter blade for splitting. They can handle wood of 20-30 cm thick in diameter. Machines using a chain saw can process stems of a maximum 30-45 cm thick in diameter. All firewood machines that work with a chain saw use a hydraulic cylinder and counter blade for splitting. According to the questionnaire responses, there were 14 (12 Finnish, one Norwegian and one Italian) manufacturers of firewood processing devices in the market. There were over 80 device models. There were only three cross-cutting devices, thirty splitting devices and forty cross-cutting splitting devices. The price range of the devices was 500-66,000 euros (including 22% VAT). According to the MTT Agrifood Research Finland

  9. Seafloor mapping at Olkiluoto western coast of Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilmarinen, K.; Leinikki, J.; Oulasvirta, P. (Alleco Oy, Helsinki (Finland))

    2009-02-15

    The objective of the study was to investigate the seafloor of shallow areas around Olkiluoto island, western Finland. The surveys were carried out by Alleco Ltd. Posiva will use the data for modeling purposes. The investigations included bathymetric surveys, sediment sampling and assessment of benthic macrophytes and macrozoobenthos in the underwater parts of six pre-defined survey transects extending from land to the sea. Sediment sampling and the assessment of benthic organisms were done by SCUBA diving. The study area showed a great variation in environmental conditions. Olkiluoto stands between almost open sea and extremely sheltered river mouth area of Lapinjoki. Two of the transects were more than 7 meters deep and included both hard and soft sand bottom. Whereas rest of the transects were shallow with mostly soft clay, mud and silt bottom. Altogether 27 species of algae including five species of stoneworts (Charophyta), one species of water moss (Bryophyta) and 16 species of vascular plants (Tracheophyta) were found. The most abundant group was vascular plants, between the other groups of macroalgae big differences in the abundance were not seen. Furthermore altogether 43 species of macrozoobenthos (Invertebrata) were found, of which six species were sessile bottom fauna (permanently attached fauna). The most abundant groups in the bottom samples were bivalves (Lamellibranchiata) (996 individuals per m2), snails (Gastropoda) (739 individuals per m2) and polychaetes (Polychaeta) (542 individuals per m2). The total abundance of macrozoobenthos on all transects was 2 899 individuals per m2. The biggest groups by biomass were bivalves (fresh weight 87 054 mg per m2) and polychaetes (fresh weight 12 983 mg per m2). Transect 1 was the richest in number of species of the deep and exposed transects 1 and 2. The transect 5 had the highest diversity of all the shallow soft bottom transects 3, 4, 5 and 5a. The high diversity of the transect 1 and 5 may be explained by

  10. Surveillance of Environmental Radiation in Finland. Annual Report 2010; Ympaeristoen saeteilyvalvonta Suomessa. Vuosiraportti 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mustonen, R.

    2011-07-01

    This report is the national summary of the results obtained in surveillance of environmental radioactivity in Finland in 2010. The Finnish Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) has produced most of the results, but also the Finnish Meteorological Institute and the Defence Forces Research Institute of Technology have delivered results to this report, on gross beta activity in outdoor air and on airborne radioactive substances, respectively. The surveillance programme on environmental radioactivity contains continuous and automated monitoring of external dose rate in air, regular monitoring of radioactive substances and gross beta activity in outdoor air, radioactive substances in deposition, in surface and drinking water, milk, foodstuffs, and in human body. Also a summary of radioactivity surveillance of the Baltic Sea was added in this report since 2002. In 2009, the programme for the surveillance of environmental radiation was expanded to monitor the occurrence of artificial radionuclides in sludge from the wastewater treatment plant in Helsinki. Sludge is a sensitive indicator of radionuclides that enter the environment since many radionuclides in wastewater are enriched during the water treatment process. The results of 2010 show that artificial radionuclides in the environment originate from the Chernobyl accident in 1986 and from atmospheric nuclear tests performed in 1950's and 1960's. In addition to these, very small amounts of short-lived artificial radioisotopes in outdoor air at three monitoring stations were detected in 2010 (60Co, 54Mn and 241Am). Their concentrations were, however, so small that their appearance had no impact to human health or the environment. The average annual dose of Finns, received from different radiation sources, is about 3.7 millisievert (mSv). Majority of this annual dose is caused by natural radionuclides in soil and bedrock, and by the cosmic radiation. The exposure to radiation of artificial radionuclides

  11. Tree species composition affects the abundance of rowan (Sorbus aucuparia L.) in urban forests in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamberg, Leena; Lehvävirta, Susanna; Kotze, D Johan; Heikkinen, Juha

    2015-03-15

    Recent studies have shown a considerable increase in the abundance of rowan (Sorbus aucuparia) saplings in urban forests in Finland, yet the reasons for this increase are not well understood. Here we investigated whether canopy cover or tree species composition, i.e., the basal areas of different tree species in Norway spruce dominated urban forests, affects the abundances of rowan seedlings, saplings and trees. Altogether 24 urban forest patches were investigated. We sampled the number of rowan and other saplings, and calculated the basal areas of trees. We showed that rowan abundance was affected by tree species composition. The basal area of rowan trees (≥ 5 cm in diameter at breast height, dbh) decreased with increasing basal area of Norway spruce, while the cover of rowan seedlings increased with an increase in Norway spruce basal area. However, a decrease in the abundance of birch (Betula pendula) and an increase in the broad-leaved tree group (Acer platanoides, Alnus glutinosa, Alnus incana, Amelanchier spicata, Prunus padus, Quercus robur, Rhamnus frangula and Salix caprea) coincided with a decreasing number of rowans. Furthermore, rowan saplings were scarce in the vicinity of mature rowan trees. Although it seems that tree species composition has an effect on rowan, the relationship between rowan saplings and mature trees is complex, and therefore we conclude that regulating tree species composition is not an easy way to keep rowan thickets under control in urban forests in Finland.

  12. Exposure to solar UV in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jokela, K.; Leszczynski, K.; Visuri, R.; Ylianttila, L. [Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety, Helsinki (Finland)

    1995-12-31

    Exceptionally low total ozone, up to 40 % below the normal level, was measured over Northern Europe during winter and spring in 1992 and 1993. In 1993 the depletion persisted up to the end of May, resulting in a significant increase in biologically effective ultraviolet (UV) radiation. The increases were significantly smaller in 1992 and 1994 than in 1993. A special interest in Northern Europe is the effect of high reflection of UV from the snow. The period from the mid March to the mid May is critical in Northern Finland, because in that time the UV radiation is intense enough to cause significant biological effects, and the UV enhancing snow still covers the ground. Moreover, there is some evidence of increasing springtime depletions of ozone over Arctic regions. In this study the increase of UV exposure associated with the ozone depletions was examined with measurements and theoretical calculations. The measurements were carried out with spectroradiometrically calibrated Solar Light Model 500 and 501 UV radiometers which measure the erythemally effective UV doses and dose rates. The theoretical UV doses and dose rates were computed with the clear sky model of Green

  13. Traffic mortality of four ungulate species in southern Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milla Niemi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Ungulate–vehicle collisions are intensively studied in many countries. However, limited knowledge exists on how many animals struck actually die due to collisions and whether differences in traffic mortality occur between species living in the same area. In this study, we estimated a kill rate (the proportion of individuals killed/struck and, in relation to their winter population sizes, the collision and traffic mortality rates for four ungulate species (moose Alces alces, white-tailed deer Odocoileus virginianus, roe deer Capreolus capreolus, and fallow deer Dama dama. We used an unofficial collision register collected between 2001 and 2012 (a total of 12 years by voluntary hunters from the Hyvinkää Game Management Area (323 km2 located in southern Finland. The population estimates used were based on annual snow track censuses. A total of 497 ungulates were involved in collisions during the study period. Of these, 76% were killed directly or put down afterwards. Roe deer had the highest kill rate; 95% of struck individuals died. White-tailed deer had the highest collision and traffic mortality rates (8.0% and 6.5% of the winter population, respectively, followed by moose (6.5 % and 4.5%, roe deer (3.9% and 3.7%, and fallow deer (3.2% and 2.1%. As we found the collision and traffic mortality rates to be unequal between species, we recommend separately reporting all ungulate species when compiling collision statistics. We additionally suggest that local managers should be aware of ungulate collision and traffic mortality rates in their areas and should use this knowledge when planning annual harvest.

  14. Radioactivity of milk, meat, cereals and other agricultural products in Finland after the Chernobyl accident in 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper describes the surveillance of radioactive substances in agricultural products in Finland after the end of April 1986. The main objective was to assess the dietary intake of fallout radionuclides via milk, meat, cereals and eggs in Finland during the period May-December 1986. In spring 1986 the sampling programmes were extended on the basis of the continuous surveys carried out earlier. The sampling of different types of produce covered a considerable part of the main production areas. The frequency of the sampling was greatly increased from that in previous years, specially in spring and summer, in order to follow the temporal variation in the contents of radionuclides in milk and meat. Gamma-emitting radionuclides, especially ''1''3''1I, ''1''3''4Cs and ''1''3''7Cs, were measured on all samples. ''8''9Sr and ''9''0Sr were determined on the milk and cereal samples used for nationwide assessments. The mean dietary intakes of radionuclides in May-December 1986, calculated from the average consumption of foodstuffs in Finland and the nationwide production-weighted mean mean contents of radionuclides. Contamination of agricultural products due to fallout radionuclides did not cause any restrictions for their use in Finland

  15. Insomnia symptoms and mortality: a register-linked study among women and men from Finland, Norway and Lithuania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lallukka, Tea; Podlipskytė, Aurelija; Sivertsen, Børge; Andruškienė, Jurgita; Varoneckas, Giedrius; Lahelma, Eero; Ursin, Reidun; Tell, Grethe S; Rahkonen, Ossi

    2016-02-01

    Evidence on the association between insomnia symptoms and mortality is limited and inconsistent. This study examined the association between insomnia symptoms and mortality in cohorts from three countries to show common and unique patterns. The Finnish cohort comprised 6605 employees of the City of Helsinki, aged 40-60 years at baseline in 2000-2002. The Norwegian cohort included 6236 participants from Western Norway, aged 40-45 years at baseline in 1997-1999. The Lithuanian cohort comprised 1602 participants from the City of Palanga, aged 35-74 years at baseline in 2003. Mortality data were derived from the Statistics Finland and Norwegian Cause of Death Registry until the end of 2012, and from the Lithuanian Regional Mortality Register until the end of 2013. Insomnia symptoms comprised difficulties initiating sleep, nocturnal awakenings, and waking up too early. Covariates were age, marital status, education, smoking, alcohol, physical inactivity, obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, depression, shift work, sleep duration, and self-rated health. Cox regression analysis was used. Frequent difficulties initiating sleep were associated with all-cause mortality among men after full adjustments in the Finnish (hazard ratio 2.51; 95% confidence interval 1.07-5.88) and Norwegian (hazard ratio 3.42; 95% confidence interval 1.03-11.35) cohorts. Among women and in Lithuania, insomnia symptoms were not statistically significantly associated with all-cause mortality after adjustments. In conclusion, difficulties initiating sleep were associated with mortality among Norwegian and Finnish men. Variation and heterogeneity in the association between insomnia symptoms and mortality highlights that further research needs to distinguish between men and women, specific symptoms and national contexts, and focus on more chronic insomnia. PMID:26420582

  16. Regional distribution of Chernobyl-derived plutonium deposition in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident in April 1986 caused a widely spread plume of radionuclides containing, amongst other materials, plutonium isotopes. The regional deposition of these nuclides in Finland has been assessed, based on samples of lichen, peat, precipitation, surface soil and grass. Unlike the deposition of transuranium elements from the weapons tests in the 1950's and the 1960's, the deposition in Finland from the Chernobyl accident was very unevenly distributed. Even then, the Chernobyl-derived deposition of 239,240Pu in the most contaminated regions of Finland was only around 10% of the global fallout from weapons tests. The total amount of 239,240Pu deposited in Finland was 1 x 1011 Bq (∼25 g), i.e., approximately half of a percent of the activity deposited in the 1950's and the 1960's. In addition to the alpha-emitting Pu isotopes, the Chernobyl plume also contained a significant amount of the beta-emitting 241Pu, which is the precursor of the long-lived alpha-emitter 241Am. The highest plutonium deposition values were found in a relatively narrow swath from the southwestern coast of Finland northeastwards across the country. This is related to the calculated route of the air parcel trajectory associated with the initial explosion of the Chernobyl reactor. The high deposition values found in the northeastern part of the plume route over Finland can be attributed to the simultaneous occurrence of precipitation. The relatively high plutonium deposition in the southwestern part of Finland occurred, however, without concurrent precipitation. This indicates that the plutonium was at least partly associated with relatively large particles having a substantial deposition velocity due to gravitational setting. (author)

  17. Vectors and transmission dynamics for Setaria tundra (Filarioidea; Onchocercidae, a parasite of reindeer in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuusela Jussi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent studies have revealed expansion by an array of Filarioid nematodes' into the northern boreal region of Finland. The vector-borne nematode, Setaria tundra, caused a serious disease outbreak in the Finnish reindeer population in 2003–05. The main aim of this study was to understand the outbreak dynamics and the rapid expansion of S. tundra in the sub arctic. We describe the vectors of S. tundra, and its development in vectors, for the first time. Finally we discuss the results in the context of the host-parasite ecology of S. tundra in Finland Results Development of S. tundra to the infective stage occurs in mosquitoes, (genera Aedes and Anopheles. We consider Aedes spp. the most important vectors. The prevalence of S. tundra naturally infected mosquitoes from Finland varied from 0.5 to 2.5%. The rate of development in mosquitoes was temperature-dependent. Infective larvae were present approximately 14 days after a blood meal in mosquitoes maintained at room temperature (mean 21 C, but did not develop in mosquitoes maintained outside for 22 days at a mean temperature of 14.1 C. The third-stage (infective larvae were elongated (mean length 1411 μm (SD 207, and width 28 μm (SD 2. The anterior end was blunt, and bore two liplike structures, the posterior end slight tapering with a prominent terminal papilla. Infective larvae were distributed anteriorly in the insect's body, the highest abundance being 70 larvae in one mosquito. A questionnaire survey revealed that the peak activity of Culicidae in the reindeer herding areas of Finland was from the middle of June to the end of July and that warm summer weather was associated with reindeer flocking behaviour on mosquito-rich wetlands. Conclusion In the present work, S. tundra vectors and larval development were identified and described for the first time. Aedes spp. mosquitoes likely serve as the most important and competent vectors for S. tundra in Finland. Warm summers

  18. Mudanças na Declaração de Helsinki: fundamentalismo econômico, imperialismo ético e controle social Changes in the Declaration of Helsinki: economic fundamentalism, ethical imperialism and social control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volnei Garrafa

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho consiste em uma reflexão crítica sobre as tentativas de alterações na Declaração de Helsinki, entendida como um dos documentos que representam as teses democráticas vencedoras da segunda metade do século passado, portanto, patrimônio da humanidade, pelo seu valor de referência como diretrizes éticas a serem observadas em pesquisas envolvendo seres humanos. Assim, o controle sobre tal documento deve ser coletivo, mundial, societário, e qualquer mudança suscita amplo debate, participação e discussão, visando-se evitar algum retrocesso humanitário. Este estudo analisa alguns fatos atuais relacionados com pesquisas com sujeitos humanos, desenvolvidas em países chamados "periféricos" ou "em desenvolvimento". E, também, faz uma interpretação sócio-política da questão, em que se evidencia que o fundamentalismo econômico por parte dos países ricos resulta em um inevitável imperialismo ético, expondo ainda mais as comunidades dos países pobres à vulnerabilidade, discriminação e exclusão social.This study is a critical reflection on attempts to alter the Declaration of Helsinki, a key document of the democratic theses achieved in the latter half of the 20th century and thus a legacy for humanity because of its ethical guidelines for research involving human beings. Therefore, there must be worldwide social control over such a document, and any change in it demands ample debate with international participation to avoid any reversal in its humanitarian thrust. The study analyzes current aspects of research with human subjects in so-called "outlying" or "developing" countries. It also brings a social and political focus to the matter, highlighting that the economic fundamentalism exercised by wealthy countries inevitably leads to an ethical imperialism, exposing communities of poor countries to even greater vulnerability, discrimination, and social exclusion.

  19. Geodiversity of high-latitude landscapes in northern Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjort, Jan; Luoto, Miska

    2010-02-01

    Geodiversity is a rather new, emerging topic in earth science. There is now increased awareness of our need to understand patterns of geodiversity in different landscapes facing global change. In this study, we systematically inventoried geodiversity and topographical parameters in an area of 285 km 2 in subarctic Finland. We quantified the spatial variation of geodiversity using four different measures and analysed the relationship between geodiversity and topography using a spatial grid system at a landscape scale (the size of the analysis window was 500 × 500 m). The number of different elements of geodiversity (total geodiversity) varied from 2 to 22 per grid cell. The spatial pattern of the total geodiversity, geomorphological process variability and geodiversity index were fairly similar, whereas of the other geodiversity measures, the measure of temporal diversity differed the most. Topographically, the high-diversity sites occurred in rather steep-sided valleys. Areas of high geodiversity reflect heterogeneous abiotic conditions where both erosion and accumulation processes play a major role in landscape development. The mapping of geodiversity may be indicative not only in the context of geomorphology, but also provide a focus for conservation initiatives. From a conservation point of view, the lack of wider knowledge of the distribution of geodiversity and its relationship to biodiversity hinders the protection of ecologically and geomorphologically valuable regions. Thus, we recommend that further studies focus on: (1) quantifying spatial patterns of geodiversity in different regions, (2) determining the key drivers that control the variability of geodiversity and (3) exploring the linkage between geodiversity and biodiversity.

  20. Productivity of semi-domesticated reindeer in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilpo Kojola

    1991-10-01

    Full Text Available In spite of a twofold increase in the density of reindeer in Finland from 1974 to 1987, meat production per reindeer increased during this period. This was possible due to calf harvesting and supplemental feeding. Results from multiple regression models indicated that calf harvesting influenced both per unit area and per capita production more than supplemental feeding. Correlation between meat production and animal density decreased with increased supplemental feeding. Traditionally, southern and central herds of reindeer fed mainly on arboreal lichens in late winter; however, due to large-scale logging, woodlands rich of arboreal lichens had been greatly reduced. Economic carrying capacity of the winter range apparently has been exceeded in the south; a heavy crash in the number of reindeer is likely if supplemental feeding ceases. In northern herds, intensive calf harvesting enabled satisfactory yield without supplemental feeding. In northern herds, yield increased mainly per unit area (i.e. by increases in herd size; in the south yield per reindeer increased.Lithantuotantoon vaikuttavat tekijat Suomen poron-hoidossa.Abstract in Finnish / Tiivistelmd: Huolimatta Suomessa vuosien 1974 ja 1987 valilla tapahtuneesta porotiheyden kaksinkertaistumisesta, lihantuotto poroa kohti kasvoi jakson aikana. Tama johtui oletettavasti vasateurastuksesta ja lisaruokinnasta. Monimu-uttujaregressiomallien tulosten perusteella vasateurastuksella nayttaisi olevan lisaruokintaa suurempi vaikutus seka poroa etta pinta-alaa kohti laskettuun tuottoon. Ruokinnan tehostuessa pienentyi lihantuoton ja porotiheyden valinen riippuvuus. Etelaosan ja keskiosan porot syovat perinteisesti puussa kasvavia jakalia kevattalvella. Hakkuista johtuen luppometsien osuus on suuresti vahentynyt. Talvilaidunten ekonomien kantokyky on ilmeisesti ylitetty etela- ja keski-osassa; syva romahdus poromaarissa on todennakoista, jos ruokinta lopetettaisiin. Pohjoisosassa voima-perainen vasate

  1. Radioecology of human food chains and forests in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ageing of radioactive fallout also signifies that contributions of various foodstuffs to the human ingestion dose will change with time. The long-term contamination of forest vegetation has motivated studies on contribution of wild food to dietary radiocaesium and radiostrontium. Consumption rates of these foodstuffs have shown variation by geographical regions in Finland, the loss of radiocaesium during cooking of mushrooms has been found significant, and the approximation of the loss using survey data on the actual practices in households was also shown important for dietary assessment. Forest industry needs information for planning its own emergency response, particularly concerning production of acceptable timber after contamination of forests by radioactive fallout. In recent years experimental evidence has been obtained for the mitigating effect of forest management methods, namely soil preparation and fertilisation, on radioactive contamination of forest vegetation. Thereby realistic options for intervention have been suggested. Further testing will improve the information on effectiveness of different methods and duration of management influence in different types of forests. Results from systematic field experiments have also provided data and conceptual views for forest modelling, e.g. for RODOS, a European decision support system for off-site emergency preparedness. The future topics in terrestrial radioecology will altogether support production of safe foodstuffs and safe use of forests after contamination of rural areas. Evaluation of practicability of countermeasures will greatly benefit from measured radioecological parameters in the contaminated areas and from additional field tests. Natural radionuclides and their connection to both agricultural and semi-natural dose pathways ought to be studied. Radiation impact due to bioenergy production and use of ash is close to forest ecosystem studies. Returning of wood ash to forests will maintain and

  2. 芬兰赫尔辛基乃塔Kannisto学校%Kannisto School, Vantaa, Finland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Timo Koljonen

    2012-01-01

    Kannisto School is the building for primary school, daycare centre, local community centre and local dental care. School is situated in the Marja-Vantaa area, which is the most significant new urban residential and business area to be emerged within the Helsinki Region. It will offer homes for some 30,000 inhabitants and 25,000 jobs in the future.%Kannisto学校的建筑包括一个小学、日问看护中心、地方交流中心及地方牙齿护理中心。该学校坐落在赫尔辛基新的商业和居民区崛起的区域。该地区将成为30,000居民的家园.将为25,000人提供工作机会。该学校为移居到该地区的人们提供服务。

  3. The isotopic composition of lead in man and the environment in Finland: isotope ratios of lead as indicators of pollutant source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The isotopic composition of lead was determined in samples from the Helsinki area: in emission sources (gasoline, incinerator and lead smelter emissions, coal), in sources of intake to man (air, diet), in samples representing long-term deposition (lichen, soil, lake sediments) and in human tissue. The measurements of the isotope ratios 206Pb/204Pb and 206Pb/207Pb were done by thermal ionization mass spectrometry after chemical separation of lead by anion exchange and cathodic electrodeposition. The origin of lead in man and the environment in the Helsinki area was evaluated by using the differences in the measured isotope ratios as an indicator. The means of the ratios in gasoline (206Pb/207Pb 1.124+-0.026, 206Pb/204Pb 17.45+-0.42) and the ratios in other emission sources in Helsinki (206Pb/207Pb 1.149-1.226, 206Pb/204Pb 17.94-19.24) were significantly different. Lead in air samples from Helsinki (1.123+-0.013) could be attributed to gasoline, as lead in soil near a highway (1.136+-0.003). By contrast, isotope ratios measured in lichen (1.148+-0.006) indicated considerable amounts of lead from sources with higher 206Pb abundances, evidently industrial sources. The isotope ratios in human liver, lung, and bone (206Pb/207Pb 1.142+-0.015, 1.151+-0.011, and 1.156+-0.013, respectively and 206Pb/204Pb 17.76+-0.28, 17.91+-0.20, and 17.96+-0.09, respectively) were practically the same and no significant dependence of the isotope ratios on age or concentration of lead was seen. In lake sediment cores a correlation was found between the isotope ratios, lead concentration, and depth. The non-anthropogenic lead of high isotope ratios from bedrock was the major component at depths dated older than 100 years. At the surface of the sediment atmospheric lead prevailed, with ratios similar to those of gasoline, air samples and lichen. In the post-1900 layers, anthropogenic lead made up about 40-60% of the total sedimentary lead

  4. National level water quality simulation and climate change scenarios in Finland with WSFS-Vemala model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huttunen, M.; Huttunen, I.; Seppänen, V.; Vehviläinen, B.

    2012-04-01

    WSFS-Vemala model have been developed for water quality simulation and scenarios for Finland. The model consists of sub-models for hydrological cycle, nutrient leaching and transport in rivers and lakes. Simulation of total phosphorus, total nitrogen, suspended solids and total organic carbon is included. Hydrological simulation is based on WSFS system, which simulates the hydrological cycle by one day time step using standard meteorological data. The system covers the whole land area of Finland, including cross-border watersheds, total of 390 000 km2. The meteorological inputs of the model are daily precipitation and temperature and the simulated components are snow accumulation and melt, soil moisture, evaporation, ground water, runoff and discharges and water levels of rivers and lakes. The remote sensing data used in the model includes satellite data of snow coverage and snow water equivalent and precipitation from weather radars. In the hydrological simulation Finland is divided into 6200 50-100 km2 sub-basin. All lakes larger than one hectar are simulated, which is about 58 000 lakes. The large number of lakes is characteristics for Finland and especially for water quality simulation the lake processes are important and therefore all lakes are included. Since agriculture is the main source of nutrient loading, fields are described in detail. Slope profile, crop and soil type data for each 1 100 000 fields in Finland are described, which covers 2 450 000 hectares of fields. For phosphorus leaching and erosion simulation the field level Icecream model is applied. In the Icecream model farming practicies, fertilization, crop growth, phosphorus cycle in the soil and finally leaching and erosion are simulated on daily timestep. For nitrogen simulation in fields a similar process based model is applied on sub-basin level and field scale nitrogen simulation with Icecream model is under development. Point loads, atmospheric deposition and load from settlements are

  5. Mechanical-biological waste treatment and the associated occupational hygiene in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A special feature of waste management in Finland has been the emphasis on the source separation of kitchen biowaste (catering waste); more than two-thirds of the Finnish population participates in this separation. Source-separated biowaste is usually treated by composting. The biowaste of about 5% of the population is handled by mechanical-biological treatment. A waste treatment plant at Mustasaari is the only plant in Finland using digestion for kitchen biowaste. For the protection of their employees, the plant owners commissioned a study on environmental factors and occupational hygiene in the plant area. During 1998-2000 the concentrations of dust, microbes and endotoxins and noise levels were investigated to identify possible problems at the plant. Three different work areas were investigated: the pre-processing and crushing hall, the bioreactor hall and the drying hall. Employees were asked about work-related health problems. Some problems with occupational hygiene were identified: concentrations of microbes and endotoxins may increase to levels harmful to health during waste crushing and in the bioreactor hall. Because employees complained of symptoms such as dry cough and rash or itching appearing once or twice a month, it is advisable to use respirator masks (class P3) during dusty working phases. The noise level in the drying hall exceeded the Finnish threshold value of 85 dBA. Qualitatively harmful factors for the health of employees are similar in all closed waste treatment plants in Finland. Quantitatively, however, the situation at the Mustasaari treatment plant is better than at some Finnish dry waste treatment plants. Therefore is reasonable to conclude that mechanical sorting, which produces a dry waste fraction for combustion and a biowaste fraction for anaerobic treatment, is in terms of occupational hygiene better for employees than combined aerobic treatment and dry waste treatment

  6. Suffrage, gender and citizenship in Finland – A comparative perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irma Sulkunen

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Finland was the first European country where women gained the full political rights. The reform, carried out in a political inflammable situation after the great strike in 1905, was pioneering: it gave women not only the right to vote but also to stand as candidates for Parliament. In Finland, as well as in other young nations, the early suffrage of women was connected with strong national aspirations and in these nations democracy also emerged rapidly. Furthermore the right to vote was the most salient vehicle to regulate the limits and contents of citizenship including a new notion of genders. Due to the cultural background, which was strongly bound with agricultural tradition, the relationship between genders in Finland contained some peculiar features. This, associated with a favourable political situation, enabled the early entry of Finnish women into Parliament.

  7. An Oral History of Programming Practices: Gender and Age Dynamics and Digital (Dis)Engagement Among Computer Programmers in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Antti Silvast

    2015-01-01

    Since the 1980s, educational policies in many countries have aimed at improving the computer literacy and programming competencies of the population. Over the same period, the possibilities that people have seen regarding programming and everyday programming practices have emerged as an area of strong interest within historical scholarship. The paper contributes to these discussions by drawing on techniques of oral history to focus on programming hobbies and practices in Finland. Examining da...

  8. The effects of socioeconomic and cultural characteristics of regions on the spatial patterns of the Second Demographic Transition in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Elina Mäenpää; Pekka Martikainen; Tapani Valkonen; Jenni Blomgren; Kauppinen, Timo M.

    2008-01-01

    The article studies to what extent regional socioeconomic and cultural characteristics explain spatial patterns in the Second Demographic Transition in Finland. The country’s 75 functional regions are used as area units. A summary indicator of the transition based on divorce and cohabitation is used as the dependent variable. The results show that the spatial pattern is mainly determined according to the regional level of urbanization, but the effect is mediated by cultural characteristics ...

  9. TOURISM DEVELOPMENT IN FINLAND : Tourism Development in Lapland and its Socio-economic Impacts

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman Md, Habibur

    2014-01-01

    The availability of tourism product and services and the combination of planning and having a marketing strategy stimulate the development of tourism in Finland. Finland has many potential attractions starting from places of natural beauty to cultural and ancient heritage that can be more developed in the Finnish tourism industry which provides employment, tax, and export income and increases welfare throughout Finland. Lapland is one of the most important regions of Finland for tourism busin...

  10. Nuclear power in Finland. Present status and trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present status and development trends in nuclear power in Finland has been shown and discussed. Finland has 4 nuclear power units, with total power capacity of 2300 MW. The consumption of primary energy per capita is one of the highest in Europe. This situation decided that new power capacity must be constructed in the future. Industry and power companies would perfect nuclear option, public opinion is divided. The Parliament is supposed to vote on the ratification of pro-nuclear decision during the 1993. 6 figs

  11. Fear of AIDS and suicide in Finland: a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aro, A R; Henriksson, M; Leinikki, P;

    1995-01-01

    This review presents data on HIV epidemiology and suicide mortality, and summarizes studies on fear of AIDS in completed suicides in Finland. Finland has a low prevalence of HIV and a high suicide mortality. A 12-month nationwide suicide population, 1987-88 (n = 1397, all HIV negative) at the time...... of a sensational media campaign against HIV included 28 (2%) cases with fear of AIDS as a contributing factor. Triggers of fear could be classified in 20 cases: persistent symptoms in 10, casual sex contacts in eight, and a TV programme in two. The AIDS fear cases were younger, had more major depression and more...

  12. Finland: construction of the first geological storage of the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finland has become the first country in the world granting a construction license for a store deep geological (AGP) for radioactive waste, as reported last November 12 Posiva, the agency management of these materials in the Baltic country. After more than 40 years of research, Posiva begin construction of this facility in Olkiluoto, which will house so end spent fuel generated in power stations Olkiluoto and Loviisa and could start operating in 2023. As noted Janne Mokka, president of Posiva, this pioneering project is not only important for Finland, but for everyone because it is the first AGP enters under construction in the world. (Author)

  13. Understanding and Developing Educational Tourism from Russia to Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Tenitskaya, Yulia

    2015-01-01

    This Bachelor’s thesis focuses on researching educational tourism from Russian degree stu-dents’ point of view and sources of information which Russian students and applicants utilize. The research paper intends to compare the educational systems of two partner countries Fin-land and Russia, aiming to uncover main tendencies in educational tourism from Russia to Fin-land. The thesis is also a project with an aim to research the motivation of Russian students as well as difficulties in a proce...

  14. Noteworthy records of aphyllophoroid fungi in Finland (Basidiomycota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panu Kunttu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We present new records of noteworthy aphyllophoroid fungi, mainly polypores and corticioids in Finland. The following 19 rare or infrequently collected species are presented with notes on their substrates: Amylocorticium subsulphureum, Antrodiella parasitica, Ceraceomyces sulphurinus, Clavaria atroumbrina, Clavaria rosea, Gloeophyllum carbonarium, Hyphodontia flavipora, Junghuhnia fimbriatella, Lindtneria chordulata, Odonticium septocystidia, Peniophorella guttulifera, Perenniporia tenuis, Postia immitis, Repetobasidium vile, Resinicium pinicola, Sidera vulgaris, Tomentella coerulea, Trechispora laevis and Xylodon pruni. We also list 41 aphyllophoroid fungi as new to some sections of the boreal vegetation zone in Finland.

  15. Body mass index and overweight in relation to residence distance and population density: experience from the Northern Finland birth cohort 1966

    OpenAIRE

    Näyhä, Simo; Lankila, Tiina; Rautio, Arja; Koiranen, Markku; Tammelin, Tuija H.; Taanila, Anja; Rusanen, Jarmo; Laitinen, Jaana

    2013-01-01

    Background The effect of urban sprawl on body weight in Finland is not well known. To provide more information, we examined whether body mass index (BMI) and the prevalence of overweight are associated with an individual’s distance to the local community centre and population density in his/her resident area. Methods The sample consisted of 5363 men and women, members of the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 (NFBC), who filled in a postal questionnaire and attended a medical checkup in 1997,...

  16. Chiropractors in Finland – a demographic survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malmqvist Stefan

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Finnish chiropractic profession is young and not fully accepted by Finnish healthcare authorities. The demographic profile and style of practice has not been described to date. However, as the profession seems to be under rapid development, it would be of interest to stakeholders, both chiropractic and political, to obtain a baseline description of this profession with a view to the development of future goals and strategies for the profession. The purpose of this study was to describe the chiropractic profession in Finland in relation to its demographic background, the demographics of their clinics, practice patterns, interactions with other health care practitioners and some of the professions' plans for the future. Methods A structured questionnaire survey was conducted in 2005, in which all 50 members of the Finnish Chiropractic Union were invited to participate. Results In all, 44 questionnaires were returned (response rate 88%. Eighty percent of the respondents were men, and 77% were aged 30 to 44 years old, most of whom graduated after 1990 with either a university-based bachelors' or masters' degree in chiropractic. Solo practice was their main practice pattern. The vast majority described their scope of practice to be based on a musculoskeletal approach, using the Diversified Technique, performing Soft Tissue Therapy and about two-thirds also used an Activator Instrument (mechanical adjusting instrument. The mean number of patient visits reported to have been seen weekly was 59 of which nine were new patients. Most practitioners found this number of patients satisfactory. At the initial consultation, 80% of respondents spent 30–45 minutes with their patients, 75% spent 20–30 minutes with "new old" patients and on subsequent visits 80% of respondents spent 15–30 minutes. Interactions with other health care professions were reasonably good and most of chiropractors intended to remain within the profession

  17. A healthy Nordic diet and physical performance in old age: findings from the longitudinal Helsinki Birth Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perälä, Mia-Maria; von Bonsdorff, Mikaela; Männistö, Satu; Salonen, Minna K; Simonen, Mika; Kanerva, Noora; Pohjolainen, Pertti; Kajantie, Eero; Rantanen, Taina; Eriksson, Johan G

    2016-03-14

    Epidemiological studies have shown that a number of nutrients are associated with better physical performance. However, little is still known about the role of the whole diet, particularly a healthy Nordic diet, in relation to physical performance. Therefore, we examined whether a healthy Nordic diet was associated with measures of physical performance 10 years later. We studied 1072 participants from the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study. Participants' diet was assessed using a validated 128-item FFQ at the mean age of 61 years, and a priori-defined Nordic diet score (NDS) was calculated. The score included Nordic fruits and berries, vegetables, cereals, PUFA:SFA and trans-fatty acids ratio, low-fat milk, fish, red and processed meat, total fat and alcohol. At the mean age of 71 years, participants' physical performance was measured using the Senior Fitness Test (SFT), and an overall SFT score was calculated. Women in the highest fourth of the NDS had on average 5 points higher SFT score compared with those in the lowest fourth (P for trend 0·005). No such association was observed in men. Women with the highest score had 17% better result in the 6-min walk test, 16% better arm curl and 20% better chair stand results compared with those with the lowest score (all P valuesperformance among women and might help decrease the risk of disability in old age.

  18. Chlamydia pneumoniae antibody levels before coronary events in the Helsinki Heart Study as measured by different methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paldanius, Mika; Leinonen, Maija; Virkkunen, Hanna; Tenkanen, Leena; Sävykoski, Tiina; Mänttäri, Matti; Saikku, Pekka

    2006-11-01

    The lack of specific tests for the diagnosis of chronic Chlamydia pneumoniae infection has led to the use of enzyme immunoassay (EIA) instead of the gold standard, that is, microimmunofluorescence (MIF), in the measurement of C. pneumoniae antibodies. We assessed the predictive values of C. pneumoniae antibody levels and seroconversions measured by MIF and EIA for coronary events in the prospective Helsinki Heart Study. Sera from 239 cases with coronary events and 239 controls were available at the baseline and data from 210 cases and 211 controls before and after the event. The agreement between MIF and EIA antibody levels was best in high antibody titers. In conditional logistic regression analysis, only high IgA MIF titers (>/=40) at the baseline predicted future coronary events, and the participants with MIF seroconversion between consecutive sera had a higher (nonsignificant) risk for coronary events than the controls. The difference in the kinetics of EIA and MIF antibodies demonstrated that MIF should remain the gold standard. PMID:16757141

  19. Forest ships in Finland. Use, experience and prices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakkila, P.; Nousiainen, I. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    2001-07-01

    The use of forest chips is increasing, although the increase is presently restricted to chips made from logging residues from the final harvest. In 2000 and 2001 the increase will take place mainly in large CHP plants of power and forest industry companies. In addition, a large number of new smaller users are expected to appear. Dozens of new heating plants have recently received investment aid from the Ministry of Trade and Industry to adapt their technology for forest chips and other wood fuels. On the other hand, according to the survey, few of those heating plants which presently use forest chips are going to expand their use. The forest industries are today actively involved in the development and building up of procurement systems for forest chips, simultaneously giving great emphasis to the integration of timber and fuel production. The interest of forest machine and truck contractors is growing as well, and the machine constructors see the production of forest chips again as an attractive and fledgling area of business. However, as the interest of large producers is mainly in logging residues rather than small trees, the impact of fuel chip production on rural employment and management of young forest plantations remains smaller than earlier anticipated. Still, the profitability of the production and use of forest chips remains weak. The need for research and system development remains high. Since Finland's international obligations and the Action Plan for Renewable Energy of the Ministry of Trade and Industry require the increasing use of renewable energy, the promotion of the use of forest chips will be continued. Among the means available are taxation, investment aid and financial support to research, development and demonstration projects.

  20. Evaluation and modelling of the size fractionated aerosol particle number concentration measurements nearby a major road in Helsinki ─ Part I: Modelling results within the LIPIKA project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ketzel

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available A field measurement campaign was conducted near a major road "Itäväylä" in an urban area in Helsinki in 17–20 February 2003. Aerosol measurements were conducted using a mobile laboratory "Sniffer" at various distances from the road, and at an urban background location. Measurements included particle size distribution in the size range of 7 nm–10 μm (aerodynamic diameter by the Electrical Low Pressure Impactor (ELPI and in the size range of 3–50 nm (mobility diameter by Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS, total number concentration of particles larger than 3 nm detected by an ultrafine condensation particle counter (UCPC, temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and direction, driving route of the mobile laboratory, and traffic density on the studied road. In this study, we have compared measured concentration data with the predictions of the road network dispersion model CAR-FMI used in combination with an aerosol process model MONO32. For model comparison purposes, one of the cases was additionally computed using the aerosol process model UHMA, combined with the CAR-FMI model. The vehicular exhaust emissions, and atmospheric dispersion and transformation of fine and ultrafine particles was evaluated within the distance scale of 200 m (corresponding to a time scale of a couple of minutes. We computed the temporal evolution of the number concentrations, size distributions and chemical compositions of various particle size classes. The atmospheric dilution rate of particles is obtained from the roadside dispersion model CAR-FMI. Considering the evolution of total number concentration, dilution was shown to be the most important process. The influence of coagulation and condensation on the number concentrations of particle size modes was found to be negligible on this distance scale. Condensation was found to affect the evolution of particle diameter in the two smallest particle modes. The assumed value of the concentration of

  1. Traffic deaths of reindeer in Finland during 1974 — 83

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauri Nieminen

    1985-05-01

    Full Text Available During 1974 — 83 a total of 23.298 reindeer died in traffic accidents in Finland. Vehicles killed 19.962 reindeer (85,7% of traffic deaths and trains 3.336 reindeer (14,3%. During 1978 — 82 the majority of reindeer killed by vehicles were hinds (52,2% and calves (24,6%. Reindeer road deaths were concentrated in the southern and central, heavily trafficked herding areas. Most reindeer were killed by vehicles in the marked herding areas of Pudasjårvi, Kuusamo, Raudanjoki and Sodankyiå. The most destructive section of road was highway number 20 between Pudasjårvi and Taivalkoski where 559 reindeer died during 1978 — 82 on a 36 km stretch. The worst railway stretch was between Ii and Kemi where an average of 115 reindeer/10 km died during 1976 — 82. Most reindeer died in traffic in November, December and January during the soft snow period when the movement of reindeer is most difficult. In summer, most reindeer died in traffic in July — August. The number of reindeer deaths on the roads in May — September depended slightly on the temperature in the different months (r=0,398. Throughout the whole reindeer herding area the amount of reindeer deaths also depended on the average 24-hour traffic (r=0,445.Porojen liikennekuolemat Suomessa 1974 — 83.Abstract in Finnish / Yhteenveto: Vuosina 1974—83 kuoli liikenteesså Suomessa yhteenså 23.298 poroa. Auton alle jåi 19.962 poroa (85,7% liikennekuolemista ja junan alle 3.336 poroa (14,3%. Vuosina 1978—82 oli autojen alle jååneistå poroista suurin osa vaatimia (52,2% ja vasoja (24,6%. Porojen maantiekuolemat keskittyivåt etelå- ja keskiosan pieniin ja runsaasti liikennoityihin paliskuntiin. Eniten poroja jåi auton alle Pudasjårven, Kuusamon, Raudanjoen ja Sodankylån merkkipiirien paliskunnissa. Tuhoisin tieosuus oli valtatie n:o 20 vålillå Pudasjårvi—Taivalkoski, jossa kuoli vuosina 1978—82 yhteenså 559 poroa 36 km:n matkalla. Pahin rataosuus olivålillå li

  2. Principals' Perceptions for Finnish- and Swedish-Language Schools in Finland: An Analysis of School-Level Indices from Programme for International Student Assessment 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harju-Luukkainen, Heidi; Vettenranta, Jouni; Kanervio, Pekka; Pulkkinen, Seppo

    2014-01-01

    The Finnish educational system is known for its equality. However, in many key areas in national and international assessments, Swedish-language schools in Finland have lagged behind their Finnish-language counterparts. So far there is little research into the underlying reasons for this discrepancy. In this article, in order to illuminate the…

  3. Assessing various drought indicators in representing summer drought in boreal forests in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Y.; Markkanen, T.; Thum, T.; Aurela, M.; Lohila, A.; Mammarella, I.; Kämäräinen, M.; Hagemann, S.; Aalto, T.

    2016-01-01

    Droughts can have an impact on forest functioning and production, and even lead to tree mortality. However, drought is an elusive phenomenon that is difficult to quantify and define universally. In this study, we assessed the performance of a set of indicators that have been used to describe drought conditions in the summer months (June, July, August) over a 30-year period (1981-2010) in Finland. Those indicators include the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI), the Standardized Precipitation-Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI), the Soil Moisture Index (SMI), and the Soil Moisture Anomaly (SMA). Herein, regional soil moisture was produced by the land surface model JSBACH of the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology Earth System Model (MPI-ESM). Results show that the buffering effect of soil moisture and the associated soil moisture memory can impact on the onset and duration of drought as indicated by the SMI and SMA, while the SPI and SPEI are directly controlled by meteorological conditions. In particular, we investigated whether the SMI, SMA and SPEI are able to indicate the Extreme Drought affecting Forest health (EDF), which we defined according to the extreme drought that caused severe forest damages in Finland in 2006. The EDF thresholds for the aforementioned indicators are suggested, based on the reported statistics of forest damages in Finland in 2006. SMI was found to be the best indicator in capturing the spatial extent of forest damage induced by the extreme drought in 2006. In addition, through the application of the EDF thresholds over the summer months of the 30-year study period, the SPEI and SMA tended to show more frequent EDF events and a higher fraction of influenced area than SMI. This is because the SPEI and SMA are standardized indicators that show the degree of anomalies from statistical means over the aggregation period of climate conditions and soil moisture, respectively. However, in boreal forests in Finland, the high initial soil moisture

  4. Nutrient and metal pollution of the eastern Gulf of Finland coastline: Sediments, macroalgae, microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubelit, Yulia; Polyak, Yulia; Dembska, Grazyna; Pazikowska-Sapota, Grazyna; Zegarowski, Lukasz; Kochura, Dmitry; Krivorotov, Denis; Podgornaya, Elena; Burova, Olga; Maazouzi, Chafik

    2016-04-15

    The anthropogenic pollution along the coastline of the eastern Gulf of Finland was studied through a range of methods, including analyses of metal contamination in water, surface sediments, accumulated algal biomass and its correlation with resistant microbiota. According to concentrations, the main pollutants in water were copper and manganese. Influence of Nuclear Power Plant was remarkable in adjacent areas and was expressed in high concentrations of molybdenum, nickel, copper and other elements in the water. Relatively high concentrations of copper, lead and zinc were found in sediments. Microbial tolerance appeared to be correlated with the concentration of the metals in sediments. Higher tolerance levels were found in sediment samples from more polluted stations. Macroalgae, which were massively developed in the coastal zone, had shown high level of metal bioaccumulation. Analyses of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus content of algal tissues allowed the estimation of additional nutrient loading from accumulated decaying algal biomass on the coastal zone of the eastern Gulf of Finland. Mass development of algae in coastal area may contribute to accumulation of organic matter and associated metals. In our study the highest metal concentrations in sediments were found at the sites with dense and continuous layer of fresh and decaying macroalgal biomass, accompanied by hypoxic conditions. Also our study has shown that accumulated biomass may be a significant source of nutrients in the coastal ecosystem.

  5. Nutrient and metal pollution of the eastern Gulf of Finland coastline: Sediments, macroalgae, microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubelit, Yulia; Polyak, Yulia; Dembska, Grazyna; Pazikowska-Sapota, Grazyna; Zegarowski, Lukasz; Kochura, Dmitry; Krivorotov, Denis; Podgornaya, Elena; Burova, Olga; Maazouzi, Chafik

    2016-04-15

    The anthropogenic pollution along the coastline of the eastern Gulf of Finland was studied through a range of methods, including analyses of metal contamination in water, surface sediments, accumulated algal biomass and its correlation with resistant microbiota. According to concentrations, the main pollutants in water were copper and manganese. Influence of Nuclear Power Plant was remarkable in adjacent areas and was expressed in high concentrations of molybdenum, nickel, copper and other elements in the water. Relatively high concentrations of copper, lead and zinc were found in sediments. Microbial tolerance appeared to be correlated with the concentration of the metals in sediments. Higher tolerance levels were found in sediment samples from more polluted stations. Macroalgae, which were massively developed in the coastal zone, had shown high level of metal bioaccumulation. Analyses of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus content of algal tissues allowed the estimation of additional nutrient loading from accumulated decaying algal biomass on the coastal zone of the eastern Gulf of Finland. Mass development of algae in coastal area may contribute to accumulation of organic matter and associated metals. In our study the highest metal concentrations in sediments were found at the sites with dense and continuous layer of fresh and decaying macroalgal biomass, accompanied by hypoxic conditions. Also our study has shown that accumulated biomass may be a significant source of nutrients in the coastal ecosystem. PMID:26849344

  6. Multidecadal analysis of forest growth and albedo in boreal Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukeš, Petr; Stenberg, Pauline; Mõttus, Matti; Manninen, Terhikki; Rautiainen, Miina

    2016-10-01

    It is well known that forests serve as carbon sinks. However, the balancing effect of afforestation and increased forest density on global warming due to carbon storage may be lost by low albedo (thus high absorption) of the forests. In the last 30 years, there has been a steady increase in the growing stock of Finnish forests by nearly a quarter while the area of the forests has remained virtually unchanged. Such increase in forest density together with the availability of detailed forest inventories provided by the Multi-Source National Forest Inventory (MS-NFI) in high spatial resolution makes Finland an ideal candidate for exploring the effects of increased forest density on satellite derived estimates of bio-geochemical products e.g. albedo (directional-hemispherical reflectance, DHR), fraction of photosynthetically active radiation absorbed by canopies (fAPAR), leaf area index (LAI) and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) in both current and long-term perspective. In this study, we first used MODIS-based vegetation satellite products for Finnish forests to study their seasonal patterns and interrelations. Next, the peak growing season observations are linked to the MS-NFI database to yield the generic relationships between forest density and the satellite-derived vegetation indicators. Finally, long-term GIMMS3g datasets between 1982 and 2011 (2008 for DHR) are analyzed and interpreted using forest inventory data. The vegetation peak growing season NIR DHR and VIS DHR showed weak to moderate negative correlation with fAPAR, whereas there was no correlation between NIR DHR and fAPAR. Next, we show that the spectral albedos in the near-infrared region (NIR DHR) showed weak negative correlation with forest biomass, basal area or canopy cover whereas, as expected, the spectral albedo in the visible region (VIS DHR) correlated negatively with these measures of forest density. Interestingly, the increase in forest density (biomass per ha) of Finnish

  7. Aerosol black carbon at five background measurement sites over Finland, a gateway to the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyvärinen, A.-P.; Kolmonen, P.; Kerminen, V.-M.; Virkkula, A.; Leskinen, A.; Komppula, M.; Hatakka, J.; Burkhart, J.; Stohl, A.; Aalto, P.; Kulmala, M.; Lehtinen, K. E. J.; Viisanen, Y.; Lihavainen, H.

    2011-08-01

    Aerosol equivalent black carbon (BC e) was measured at five different background stations in Finland, with the longest data set from Hyytiälä, December 2004-December 2008. Measurements were conducted either with an aethalometer or a Multi-Angle Absorption Photometer, MAAP. Measured black carbon concentrations were highest in Virolahti in southeastern Finland, with annual averages ranging from 385 to 460 ng m -3, followed by Hyytiälä (250-370 ng m -3), Utö (230-270 ng m -3), Puijo (225-230 ng m -3), and Pallastunturi (60-70 ng m -3) in northern Finland. The BC e fractions of measured PM 2.5 concentrations were generally between 5 and 10%, with highest fractions at Virolahti close to the Eastern border. At all the stations, the highest concentrations were observed during the spring and the winter, and the lowest concentrations during the summer. The seasonal cycle could generally be attributed to the reaching of long-range-transported black carbon. Additional reasons were increasing domestic wood burning and reduced boundary-layer height during winter, and a more effective vertical mixing during summer. The highest concentrations for each station occurred with southerly winds, and on the basis of trajectory analyses, the source areas of BC e resided mostly in Central and Eastern Europe. Occasionally the long-range-transported BC e concentrations were elevated for short periods to fulfill the characteristics of pollution episodes. From these episodes, about 62% were a result of non-fire anthropogenic sources and 36% due to open biomass burning sources. Episodes from the biomass burning sources were most often observed during the spring.

  8. Overview of vectors of cereal viruses in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Huusela-Veistola, Erja

    2007-01-01

    Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV), Oat sterile dwarf virus (OSDV) and Wheat dwarf virus (WDV) are the most serious virus diseases of cereals in Finland. BYDV is transmitted by aphids, mainly by bird cherry oat aphid, Rhopalosiphum padi. OSDV and WDV are leafhopper transmitted viruses.

  9. Students' Attitudes towards Craft and Technology in Iceland and Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorsteinsson, Gísli; Ólafsson, Brynjar; Autio, Ossi

    2012-01-01

    Craft education in both Finland and Iceland originated over 140 years ago and was influenced by the Scandinavian Sloyd pedagogy. Since then, the subject has moved away from craft and towards technology, with the aim being to increase students' technological abilities. In the beginning, the subject largely focused on the students copying artefacts,…

  10. Biodiversity Hotspots and Visitor Flows in Oulanka National Park, Finland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lyon, K.; Cottrell, S.P.; Siikamaki, P.; Marwijk, van R.B.M.

    2011-01-01

    Oulanka National Park, Finland aims to ensure nature conservation while providing high quality visitor experiences. The growth of outdoor recreation and nature tourism, however, has fueled concern about consequent pressures on the natural resources of the park. This analysis assessed the spatial rel

  11. Serodiagnosis of primary infections with human parvovirus 4, Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahtinen, Anne; Kivelä, Pia; Hedman, Lea; Kumar, Arun; Kantele, Anu; Lappalainen, Maija; Liitsola, Kirsi; Ristola, Matti; Delwart, Eric; Sharp, Colin; Simmonds, Peter; Söderlund-Venermo, Maria; Hedman, Klaus

    2011-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of parvovirus 4 infection and its clinical and sociodemographic correlations in Finland, we used virus-like particle-based serodiagnostic procedures (immunoglobulin [Ig] G, IgM, and IgG avidity) and PCR. We found 2 persons with parvovirus 4 primary infection who had mild or asymptomatic clinical features among hepatitis C virus-infected injection drug users.

  12. Teaching Linear Equations: Case Studies from Finland, Flanders and Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Paul; Sayers, Judy

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we compare how three teachers, one from each of Finland, Flanders and Hungary, introduce linear equations to grade 8 students. Five successive lessons were videotaped and analysed qualitatively to determine how teachers, each of whom was defined against local criteria as effective, addressed various literature-derived…

  13. Molecular epidemiology of tuberculosis in Finland, 2008-2011.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieter Willem Smit

    Full Text Available In industrialized countries the majority of tuberculosis (TB cases are linked to immigration. In Finland, most cases are still Finnish born but the number of foreign born cases is steadily increasing. In this 4-year population based study, the TB situation in Finland was characterized by a genotypic analysis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates. A total of 1048 M. tuberculosis isolates (representing 99.4% of all culture positive cases were analyzed by spoligotyping and MIRU. Spoligotype lineages belonging to the Euro-American family were predominant among the Finnish isolates, particularly T (n=346, 33.0% and Haarlem (n=237, 22.6% strains. The lineage signature was unknown for 130 (12.4% isolates. Out of the 17 multi-drug resistant TB strains, 10 (58.8% belonged to the Beijing lineage. In total, 23 new SIT designations were given and 51 orphan strains were found, of which 58 patterns were unique to Finland. Phylogeographical TB mapping as compared to neighboring countries showed that the population structure in Finland most closely resembled that observed in Sweden. By combining spoligotyping and MIRU results, 98 clusters comprising 355 isolates (33.9% were found. Only 10 clusters contained both Finnish and foreign born cases. In conclusion, a large proportion of the M. tuberculosis isolates were from Finnish born elderly patients. Moreover, many previously unidentified spoligotype profiles and isolates belonging to unknown lineages were encountered.

  14. Molecular Epidemiology of Tuberculosis in Finland, 2008-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smit, Pieter Willem; Haanperä, Marjo; Rantala, Pirre; Couvin, David; Lyytikäinen, Outi; Rastogi, Nalin; Ruutu, Petri; Soini, Hanna

    2013-01-01

    In industrialized countries the majority of tuberculosis (TB) cases are linked to immigration. In Finland, most cases are still Finnish born but the number of foreign born cases is steadily increasing. In this 4-year population based study, the TB situation in Finland was characterized by a genotypic analysis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates. A total of 1048 M. tuberculosis isolates (representing 99.4% of all culture positive cases) were analyzed by spoligotyping and MIRU. Spoligotype lineages belonging to the Euro-American family were predominant among the Finnish isolates, particularly T (n=346, 33.0%) and Haarlem (n=237, 22.6%) strains. The lineage signature was unknown for 130 (12.4%) isolates. Out of the 17 multi-drug resistant TB strains, 10 (58.8%) belonged to the Beijing lineage. In total, 23 new SIT designations were given and 51 orphan strains were found, of which 58 patterns were unique to Finland. Phylogeographical TB mapping as compared to neighboring countries showed that the population structure in Finland most closely resembled that observed in Sweden. By combining spoligotyping and MIRU results, 98 clusters comprising 355 isolates (33.9%) were found. Only 10 clusters contained both Finnish and foreign born cases. In conclusion, a large proportion of the M. tuberculosis isolates were from Finnish born elderly patients. Moreover, many previously unidentified spoligotype profiles and isolates belonging to unknown lineages were encountered. PMID:24386443

  15. Subcontracting, Posted Migrants and Labour Market Segmentation in Finland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lillie, Nathan

    2012-01-01

    Using evidence from the shipbuilding and construction industries in Finland, this article shows how trade union responses to the introduction of migrant workers can be conditioned by product markets. Growing numbers of posted workers, or intra-European Union work migrants employed via transnational

  16. Infection with Possible Novel Parapoxvirus in Horse, Finland, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airas, Niina; Hautaniemi, Maria; Syrjä, Pernilla; Knuuttila, Anna; Putkuri, Niina; Coulter, Lesley; McInnes, Colin J; Vapalahti, Olli; Huovilainen, Anita; Kinnunen, Paula M

    2016-07-01

    A horse in Finland exhibited generalized granulomatous inflammation and severe proliferative dermatitis. After euthanization, we detected poxvirus DNA from a skin lesion sample. The virus sequence grouped with parapoxviruses, closely resembling a novel poxvirus detected in humans in the United States after horse contact. Our findings indicate horses may be a reservoir for zoonotic parapoxvirus. PMID:27315302

  17. Coxsackievirus A6 and hand, foot, and mouth disease, Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterback, Riikka; Vuorinen, Tytti; Linna, Mervi; Susi, Petri; Hyypiä, Timo; Waris, Matti

    2009-09-01

    During fall 2008, an outbreak of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) with onychomadesis (nail shedding) as a common feature occurred in Finland. We identified an unusual enterovirus type, coxsackievirus A6 (CVA6), as the causative agent. CVA6 infections may be emerging as a new and major cause of epidemic HFMD.

  18. Teaching Popular Music in Finland: What's Up, What's Ahead?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakeva, Lauri

    2006-01-01

    This article describes the history and current situation of popular music pedagogy in Finland. While popular music is widely accepted in the curriculum, there are differences in its application in the comprehensive schools and music institutions. Popular styles were first introduced into Finnish music education by secondary school music teachers;…

  19. Teacher Education in Italy, Germany, England, Sweden and Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostinelli, Giorgio

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a brief analysis of teacher education in five European countries: Italy, Germany, England, Sweden and Finland. In the post-industrial world, the sense of teaching has profoundly changed, influenced by a rapidly evolving socio-economic context. The responses given by each country are different, but two tendencies emerge: on…

  20. School Autonomy, Leadership and Student Achievement: Reflections from Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saarivirta, Toni; Kumpulainen, Kristiina

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to provide national information on school autonomy, leadership and student achievements in Finland. Design/methodology/approach: The paper is a literature review on Finnish studies focusing on school autonomy, leadership and student achievement. The studies have been reviewed on the basis of a content…

  1. Safety belt usage in Finland and in other Nordic countries.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valtonen, J.

    1992-01-01

    Legislation has played a significant role in increasing safety belt usage in Finland and in the other Nordic countries. Publicity and enforcement have, however, been required to support the legislation. The development of safety belt regulations has been nearly similar in all these countries, both i

  2. Operational safety related human engineering research in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Human errors contribute considerably to the total risk of the nuclear power plants as was clearly demonstrated at the TMI-accident in 1979. This fact was recognized early in Finland and a comprehensive research program was established in the second half of the 1970s. This paper gives a short description of some research projects in this program. (author)

  3. Multicultural Education in Finland: Renewed Intercultural Competencies to the Rescue?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dervin, Fred; Paatela-Nieminen, Martina; Kuoppala, Kaisa; Riitaoja, Anna-Leena

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviews discourses on multicultural education and the concept of intercultural competencies in the European and Nordic country of Finland. We focus on their present uses and perceptions by decision-makers, researchers, and also student teachers. Some prognosis for the future is made based on a short case study from art teacher education…

  4. Swedish Immersion in the Early Years in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björklund, Siv; Mård-Miettinen, Karita; Savijärvi, Marjo

    2014-01-01

    Immersion education in Finland is a one-way (monolingual) early total Swedish programme for Finnish-speaking students. This immersion provision is offered at kindergarten level (ages 3-5), at preschool (age 6) and at primary levels (grades 1-9). Here, a brief synthesis of Finnish research studies on the early years in Swedish immersion is first…

  5. Checklist of the family Simuliidae (Diptera of Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jari Ilmonen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A checklist of the family Simuliidae (Diptera is provided for Finland and recognizes 56 species. One new record has been added (Simulium latipes and one name sunken in synonymy (Simulium carpathicum. Furthermore, Simulium tsheburovae is treated as a doubtful record.

  6. Learning Practices of Femininity through Gendered Craft Education in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokko, Sirpa

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the processes and practices that link crafts and gender in the upbringing and education of girls. The paper is based on a study conducted among female primary school trainee teachers in Finland. The data are comprised of their experiences with crafts as schoolgirls. The methods of the study were memory work and writing of…

  7. Evaluating the Quality of the Child Care in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hujala, Eeva; Fonsen, Elina; Elo, Janniina

    2012-01-01

    In this study we examine parents' and teachers' perceptions of the early childhood education and care (ECEC) quality in Finland. The study is based on the paradigm of inclusionary quality and the assessment is based on the quality evaluation model. The parents and teachers assess the quality to be good. The strength of the quality was the effect…

  8. Potential Trade-Offs Between Nature-Based Tourism and Forestry, a Case Study in Northern Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannu Salminen

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Forestry, as a large industry, has significant impacts on the quality of nature-based tourism landscapes in boreal forests. In Finland, the rapid growth of nature-based tourism has expanded outdoor recreation activities from protected areas into timber production forests; this is particularly so in northern Finland. This paper focuses on assessing balanced local net impacts of three alternative land-use scenarios, in which the level of integration between nature-based tourism (NBT and traditional forestry is varied. The study is located in northern Finland in the area between two top-rated tourist resorts, Ylläs and Levi. The results of the case study support the idea of an eligible integration between NBT and forestry, which takes into account scenic qualities of forested landscapes by restricting traditional management practices. In our case, the increased number of tourists (due to a more attractive forest environment offset the losses accrued in forestry (due to restricted forest management.

  9. Introduction of a Uranium tax in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Finland, it is possible to create a tax model on uranium that will not compromise the profitability of future power plant investments or decisively reduce climate policy incentives for carbon-free energy production. The rise in energy costs caused by the tax could be compensated by lowering the electricity tax imposed on industry. The estimates above were made by Managing Director Pasi Holm and Professor Markku Ollikainen, who, on 4 February 2011, handed over their report concerning introduction of uranium tax to Minister of Economic Affairs Mauri Pekkarinen. According to the administrators, one can deem nuclear power to include specific grounds for imposing a tax via the fact that storage of used nuclear fuel involves a (infinitesimally small) risk of accidents with irreversible effects, and that, through the EU climate policy, nuclear power companies gain extra profit 'for nothing', i.e. windfall profit. The EU Energy Tax Directive facilitates collection of uranium tax. Uranium tax, imposed as an excise tax, would target the nuclear power plants in operation as well as the Olkiluoto 3 plant, presently under construction. The amount of uranium fuel used would serve as the basis of taxation. Holm and Ollikainen introduce two tax models, adjustable in a manner that the uranium tax would yield revenues of approximately EUR 100 million a year. The companies would still keep more than half of the profit and the state, depending on the model used, would collect 43 to 45 per cent of it via the tax. In the minimum tax model, the uranium tax is 44.5 of the difference between the market price of emission allowance and the average price of 2010 (EUR 15/tonne of CO2), used as the comparison price, the minimum being EUR 2/MWh. The tax would yield a minimum of EUR 67 million to the state a year. When the emission allowance price rises to EUR 30, the tax would be EUR 6.7/MWh and the state would earn revenues of EUR 223 million. In a flexible tax model, the fixed part of the

  10. EPR becomes reality at Finland's Olkiluoto 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The EPR is a third-generation pressurized water reactor (PWR). Its development was started in 1992 by Framatome and Siemens within a Franco-German partnership. Since 2001 this work has been continued by Framatome ANP, which was formed when the two companies merged their nuclear businesses. The French company AREVA, world market leader in nuclear technology, holds a 66% share in Framatome ANP, with Siemens owning 34%. From the very start, development of the EPR was focused on improving plant safety and economics even further. The new reactor development was jointly financed together with the leading power utilities of both countries. The first steps towards realization of an EPR nuclear power plant were taken at Olkiluoto, Finland in 2004, consisting of initial preparation of the construction site. By mid-February 2005 the local municipality - Eurajoki - had issued a construction permit, and the Finnish Government a construction license pursuant to the Finnish Nuclear Energy Act. This had been preceded by a preliminary safety assessment prepared by the Finnish Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) for the Finnish Ministry of Trade and Industry in which STUK verified that it did not see any safety-related issues opposing issuance of the nuclear construction license. STUK emphasized that the evolutionary design of the EPR had been further improved by AREVA compared to the previous product lines. Concreting work began this spring and the unit will start commercial operation in 2009. Construction of an EPR has also been given the political go-ahead in France. According to the utility Electricite de France (EDF) the new reactor will be built as a forerunner of a later series at the site of Flamanville in Normandy. Construction is scheduled to begin in 2007. An EPR nuclear power plant has a rated electric capacity of around 1600 MW, depending on specific site conditions. Being the product of intense bilateral cooperation the EPR combines the technological

  11. International Expert Team Concludes IAEA Peer Review of Finland's Regulatory Framework for Nuclear and Radiation Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    contributing to enhanced safety worldwide through international cooperation. In line with the IAEA Action Plan on Nuclear Safety, the mission reviewed the regulatory implications for Finland of the March 2011 accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station in Japan. The mission found that STUK's immediate- and longer-term response was timely and effective. Although short-term safety issues were not identified, a number of safety improvements have been initiated and STUK performed extremely well in informing the public. The IRRS team identified a number of areas where the overall performance of the regulatory system could be improved, including: - Although STUK operates in practice as an independent regulatory body, the government should strengthen the legislative framework by embedding in law the regulatory body, separate from entities having responsibilities or interests that could unduly influence its decisions; - The Finnish legislative framework should be further developed to cover authorization for facility decommissioning and the waste repository shutdowns; and - STUK can improve the effectiveness of its inspection activities by enhancing the focus of inspection on the most safety-significant areas and developing a formal qualification programme for inspectors. In its preliminary report, the IAEA team's main conclusions have been conveyed to STUK. A final report will be submitted to the Government of Finland in about three months. STUK has informed the team that the final report will be made publicly available. The IAEA encourages nations to invite a follow-up IRRS mission about two years after the mission has been completed. Background The team reviewed the legal and regulatory framework for nuclear safety and addressed all facilities regulated by STUK with the exception of the research reactor FiR 1, which STUK decided to exclude because the operator is shutting it down. This was the 44th IRRS mission conducted by the IAEA. Quick Facts - Finland has four

  12. Size distributions, sources and source areas of water-soluble organic carbon in urban background air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Timonen

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper represents the results of one year long measurement period of the size distributions of water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC, inorganic ions and gravimetric mass of particulate matter. Measurements were done at an urban background station (SMEAR III by using a micro-orifice uniform deposit impactor (MOUDI. The site is located in northern European boreal region in Helsinki, Finland. The WSOC size distribution measurements were completed with the chemical analysis of inorganic ions, organic carbon (OC and monosaccharide anhydrides from the filter samples (particle aerodynamic diameter smaller than 1 μm, PM1. Gravimetric mass concentration varied during the MOUDI samplings between 3.4 and 55.0 μg m−3 and the WSOC concentrations were between 0.3 and 7.4 μg m−3. On average, water-soluble particulate organic matter (WSPOM, WSOC multiplied by 1.6 to convert the analyzed carbon mass to organic matter mass comprised 25±7.7% and 7.5±3.4% of aerosol PM1 mass and the PM1–10 mass, respectively. Inorganic ions contributed 33±12% and 28±19% of the analyzed PM1 and PM1–10 aerosol mass.

    Five different aerosol categories corresponding to different sources or source areas were identified (long-range transport aerosols, biomass burning aerosols from wild land fires and from small-scale wood combustion, aerosols originating from marine areas and from the clean arctic areas. Categories were identified mainly using levoglucosan concentration level for wood combustion and air mass backward trajectories for other groups. Clear differences in WSOC concentrations and size distributions originating from different sources or source areas were observed, although there are also many other factors which might affect the results. E.g. the local conditions and sources of volatile organic compounds (VOCs and aerosols as well as various transformation processes are likely

  13. Size distributions, sources and source areas of water-soluble organic carbon in urban background air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Timonen

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper represents the results of one year long measurement period of the size distributions of water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC, inorganic ions and gravimetric mass of particulate matter. Measurements were done at an urban background station (SMEAR III by using a micro-orifice uniform deposit impactor (MOUDI. The site is located in northern European boreal region in Helsinki, Finland. The WSOC size distribution measurements were completed with the chemical analysis of inorganic ions, organic carbon (OC and monosaccharide anhydrides from the filter samples. During the measurements gravimetric mass in the MOUDI collections varied between 3.4 and 55.0 μg m−3 and the WSOC concentration was between 0.3 and 7.4 μg m−3. On average, water-soluble particulate organic matter (WSPOM, WSOC multiplied by 1.6 comprised 25±7.7% and 7.5±3.4% of aerosol PM1 mass and the PM1−10 mass, respectively. Inorganic ions contributed 33±12% and 28±19% of the analyzed PM1 and PM1−10 aerosol mass.

    Five different aerosol categories corresponding to different sources or source areas were identified (long-range transport aerosols, biomass burning aerosols from wild land fires and from small-scale wood combustion, aerosols originating from marine areas and from the clean arctic areas. Clear differences in WSOC concentrations and size distributions originating from different sources or source areas were observed, although there are also many other factors which might affect the results. E.g. the local conditions and sources of volatile organic compounds (VOCs and aerosols as well as various transformation processes are likely to have an impact on the measured aerosol composition. Using the source categories, it was identified that especially the oxidation products of biogenic VOCs in summer had a clear effect on WSOC concentrations.

  14. Timing of Svecofennian crustal growth and collisional tectonics in Åland, SW Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl Ehlers

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In an effort to quantify the time parameter in the tectonomagmatic evolution of what has been called the Southern Svecofennian Arc Complex (SSAC of SW Finland, advanced radiometric dating techniques have here been applied to rock groups of key importance in that area. In this paper we report the results of 131 high-resolution ionmicroprobe spot analyses (SIMS of zircons, and 33 measurements using isotope dilution mass spectrometry (ID-TIMS on zircon, monazite and titanite, and employing both large-sample multi-grain as well as single-grain techniques. The Torsholma area of the Åland archipelago, situated between southern Finland and central Sweden, is a key structural area significant to resolve the time dimension in Svecofennian tectonics. There a collage of imbricated rock slabs was formed by tectonic shortening representing the culmination of large-scale penetrative Svecofennian deformation. Another structurally significant feature investigated is the South FinlandShear Zone (SFSZ that transects the southwest-Finnish archipelago and further east follows the southern coast of Finland. This shear zone forms the southern limit of the c. 1830 Ma Late Svecofennian Granite and Migmatite Zone (LSGM and also features deformations of a later stage when the considered region of Svecofennian crust was consolidated. The obtained age results and their tectonic analysis can be summarized as follows. The Enklinge volcanic sequence (1885±6 Ma is within error limits coeval with the intrusion of abundant early-kinematic gneissose granodiorites whose average age of 1884±5 Ma marks the formation of new crust in this region. Some of these geisses contain a significant amount of 2000–2080 Ma zircon. Although many Svecofennian granitoids are known to contain heterogeneous zircon populations, mainly formed c. 1890 Ma ago but also containing an inherited component, the Kökar gneiss is, to the best of our knowledge, the first case where inheritance from c. 2030

  15. Temporal differences in gamma-hydroxybutyrate overdoses involving injecting drug users versus recreational drug users in Helsinki: a retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boyd James J

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB and gamma-butyrolactone (GBL have been profiled as 'party drugs' used mainly at dance parties and in nightclubs on weekend nights. The purpose of this study was to examine the frequency of injecting drug use among GHB/GBL overdose patients and whether there are temporal differences in the occurrence of GHB/GBL overdoses of injecting drug and recreational drug users. Methods In this retrospective study, the ambulance and hospital records of suspected GHB- and GBL overdose patients treated by the Helsinki Emergency Medical Service from January 1st 2006 to December 31st 2007 were reviewed. According to the temporal occurrence of the overdose, patients were divided in two groups. In group A, the overdose occurred on a Friday-Saturday or Saturday-Sunday night between 11 pm-6 am. Group B consisted of overdoses occurring on outside this time frame. Results Group A consisted of 39 patient contacts and the remaining 61 patient contacts were in group B. There were statistically significant differences between the two groups in (group A vs. B, respectively: history of injecting drug abuse (33% vs. 59%, p = 0.012, reported polydrug and ethanol use (80% vs. 62%, p = 0.028, the location where the patients were encountered (private or public indoors or outdoors, 10%, 41%, 41% vs. 25%, 18%, 53%, p = 0.019 and how the knowledge of GHB/GBL use was obtained (reported by patient/bystanders or clinical suspicion, 72%, 28% vs. 85%, 10%, p = 0.023. Practically all (99% patients were transported to emergency department after prehospital care. Conclusion There appears to be at least two distinct groups of GHB/GBL users. Injecting drug users represent the majority of GHB/GBL overdose patients outside weekend nights.

  16. Exposure to Persistent Organic Pollutants Predicts Telomere Length in Older Age: Results from the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzzardi, Maria Angela; Iozzo, Patricia; Salonen, Minna K.; Kajantie, Eero; Airaksinen, Riikka; Kiviranta, Hannu; Rantakokko, Panu; Eriksson, Johan Gunnar

    2016-01-01

    As the population ages, the occurrence of chronic pathologies becomes more common. Leukocyte telomere shortening associates to ageing and age-related diseases. Recent studies suggest that environmental chemicals can affect telomere length. Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are most relevant, since they are ingested with foods, and accumulate in the body for a long time. This longitudinal study was undertaken to test if circulating POPs predict telomere length and shortening in elderly people. We studied 1082 subjects belonging to the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study (born 1934-1944), undergoing two visits (2001-2004 and 2011-2014). POPs (oxychlordane, trans-nonachlor, p, p’-DDE, PCB 153, BDE 47, BDE 153) were analysed at baseline. Relative telomere length was measured twice, ’10 years apart, by quantitative real-time PCR. Oxychlordane, trans-nonachlor and PCB-153 levels were significant predictors of telomere length and shortening. In men, we did not find a linear relationship between POPs exposure and telomere shortening. In women, a significant reduction across quartiles categories of oxychlordane and trans-nonachlor exposure was observed. Baseline characteristics of subjects in the highest POPs categories included higher levels of C-reactive protein and fasting glucose, and lower body fat percentage. This is one of few studies combining POPs and telomere length. Our results indicate that exposure to oxychlordane, trans-nonachlor and PCB 153 predicts telomere attrition. This finding is important because concentrations of POPs observed here occur in contemporary younger people, and may contribute to an accelerated ageing. PMID:27699078

  17. Characterization of aerosol particle episodes in Finland caused by wildfires in Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. V. Niemi

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We studied the sources, compositions and size distributions of aerosol particles during long-range transport (LRT PM2.5 episodes which occurred on 12–15 August, 26–28 August and 5–6 September 2002 in Finland. Backward air mass trajectories, satellite detections of fire areas and dispersion modelling results indicate that emissions from wildfires in Russia and other Eastern European countries arrived in Finland during these episodes. Elemental analyses using scanning electron microscopy (SEM coupled with energy dispersive X-ray microanalyses (EDX showed that the proportions of S-rich particles and agglomerates (agglomeration was caused partly by the sampling method used increased during the episodes, and they contained elevated fractions of K, indicating emissions from biomass burning. These aerosols were mixed with S-rich emissions from fossil fuel burning during transport since air masses came through polluted areas of Europe. Minor amounts of coarse Ca-rich particles were also brought by LRT during the episodes, and they probably originated from wildfires and/or from Estonian and Russian oil-shale-burning industrial areas. Ion chromatography analysis showed that concentrations of sulphate (SO42-, total nitrate (NO3-+HNO3(g and total ammonium (NH4++NH3(g increased during the episodes, but the ratio of the total amount of these ions to PM10 concentration decreased, indicating unusually high fractions of other chemical components. Particle number size distribution measurements with differential mobility particle sizer (DMPS revealed that concentrations of particles 90–500 nm increased during the episodes, while concentrations of particles smaller than 90 nm decreased. The reduction of the smallest particles was caused by suppressed new particle formation due to vapour and molecular cluster uptake of LRT particles. Our results show that emissions from wildfires in Russian and other Eastern European countries deteriorated air quality of

  18. Current statistical tools, systems and bodies concerned with safety and accident statistics. Contribution to the OECD seminar `International Road Traffic and Accident Databases IRTAD', Helsinki, Finland, September 19, 1995.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koornstra, M.J.

    1996-01-01

    The current use of road safety information systems and the few systems for international use are discussed. Recommendations are formulated for a more efficient, less costly and improved accident registration on the local, national and international levels.

  19. Three Paleoproterozoic A-type granite intrusions and associated dykes from Kainuu, East Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannu Huhma

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Mafic and felsic intrusive rocks aged 2.5–2.4 Ga have been observed over a large area in eastern and northern Finland, as well as in adjacent northwestern Russia. We describe three granite intrusions and associated dykes from Kainuu, Finland, that belong to this bimodal magmatic event. All these three granites show clear A2-type chemical affinities with high Y/Nb, HREE, Fe/Mg, Ga and Nb. Two of the intrusions, Rasinkylä and Pussisvaara, were dated at 2425±3 and 2427±3 Ma, respectively, using thermal ionisation mass spectrometry utilizing the chemical abrasion method (CA-TIMS. CA-TIMS ages are supported by single-grain age determinations obtained by using Laser Ablation Multicollector Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (LA-MC-ICPMS. New data on the previously described Rasimäki granite from southern Kainuu is presented, including an age of 2389±5 Ma obtained with LA-MC-ICPMS. The variable magnetite content of the granites is proposed to reflect the differences in the oxidation state of the source, which in our interpretation is the local Archean lower crust. Partial melting and the emplacement of the granites occurred in an extensional environment. Heat for the partial melting was provided by mafic magmas under and intraplating the extended crust.

  20. US-Finland Planning Visit: Cooperative Research and Education Activities in Integrated Access Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maclin, Arlene; University of Arizona-CIAN Collaboration; Aalto University in Finland Collaboration

    2011-03-01

    This planning grant visit sponsored by the NSF Office of International Science and Engineering occurred from October 3-10, 2010. The Dean of the School of Computer, Mathematical and Natural Sciences from Morgan State University (MSU), the PI and a faculty member from engineering at MSU along with a faculty member from the University of Arizona and two advanced level graduate students from the NSF-funded Center for Integrated Access Networks participated in this visit. The topic of novel low dimensional nano-materials was determined to be one possible area for future collaboration. As a result of this visit, a Materials World Network proposal has been submitted to the NSF involving MSU and CIAN in the US and Aalto University in Finland. A companion proposal on novel low dimensional nano- materials has also been submitted to the Academy of Finland. Another anticipated outcome of this collaboration of MSU with Aalto University and CIAN expands the outreach and diversity component to MSU, an institution serving largely an underrepresented minority student. Sponsor for this work was NSF # 1042309.

  1. Ice deformation in the Gulf of Finland in the severe winter of 2002/2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ove Pärn

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The Gulf of Finland is one of the heaviest ship traffic areas in the world. The ice-covered period in the gulf lasts up to 140 days in severe winters. Common features are openings in ice (flaw leads and ice ridges. The winter of 2002/2003 was exceptionally harsh: the entire Gulf of Finland was for a long time covered with thick ice, severe weather conditions caused much ice deformation and numerous ship incidents happened. We investigated the dependence of ice deformation rate on wind speed and direction, and variation in ice conditions in space and time. The numerical sea ice model HELMI was used to determine relations between wind conditions, ridged ice and ship damages. The occurrence frequency of leads in different regions was analysed by MODIS satellite imagery. The strongest wind blew from the NE, SW and NW in the winter of 2002/2003. The growth rate of deformed ice was more related to the wind direction than to speed. The ridging was most intensive when the wind blew from the E, SW and NW. Openings were formed almost everywhere during moderate or strong winds. Elongated leads, caused by northerly winds, were more common in the Finnish coastal region.

  2. Responses of aquatic ecosystems to environmental changes in Finland and China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan eWeckström

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The concern for the state of global freshwater reservoirs has increased due to deterioration of the water quality during the last decades. This has prompted monitoring and restoration efforts such as the European Water Framework Directive and the national-scale 2nd-investigation and monitoring of the water quality, water volume and biota resources in China. The challenge so far has been the determination of the natural state (reference conditions of freshwater ecosystems. We used the sediment archives of five lakes and one brackish water embayment in Finland and China to assess the impact of selected variables of climatology, hydrology, nutrients, and changes in human population on these ecosystems during the last few centuries. The study sites represent catchment areas with varying land use. Despite the long distance between the sites and their different land-use characteristics, the direction and timing of changes during the last few centuries are well comparable between the high latitudes of Finland and the mid-low latitudes of China. This study reinforces the sensitivity of aquatic ecosystems to environmental change and underlines the usefulness of the palaeolimnological approach as a tool for determining reference conditions.

  3. Partial debarking and covering to promote drying of roundwood for energy in Finland, Scotland and Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roeser, D.; Mola-Yudego, B.; Prinz, R.; Vaeaetaeinen, K. (Finnish Forest Research Inst., Joensuu (Finland)), Email: kari.vaatainen@metla.fi; Sikanen, L. (Joensuu Univ. (Finland)), Email: lauri.sikanen@joensuu.fi; Emer, B. (Padova Univ., Legnaro (Italy)), Email: beatrice.emer@unipd.it; Erkkilae, A. (VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)), Email: ari.erkkila@vtt.fi

    2009-07-01

    Moisture content is considered to be an important quality parameter in dealing with wood based fuels. The objective of this study was to investigate methods to promote the natural drying of small diameter trees. Effects on the drying process such as covering of the piles, partial debarking of stems and different locations were tested on order to find new methods to stabilize the moisture content of the woody material during storage. Drying trials were set up in Finland, Scotland and Italy utilizing tree species typically used in the area. The results of this study have shown that natural drying is an effective method to enhance the energy efficiency of wood based fuel products in all regions studied. In addition, the results also indicate that broad-leaved trees in particular dry more effectively, if some partial debarking is carried out. The study also revealed that covering of piles is of utmost importance in Scotland and Finland. Both of these operations do not have any significant effect on the total procurement costs to produce high quality chips, but offer simple to use solutions with large impacts. (orig.)

  4. Synthesis and New Observations on Needle Pathogens of Larch in Northern Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Risto Jalkanen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Needle pathogens of larch (Larix spp. in the Nordic countries are under-studied. Their incidence in Finland tends to be low and local, and this may be a function of enemy release, since species of larch were introduced to the region. Here, the ecology and incidence of larch needle pathogens and the abiotic factors that also affect larch in northern Finland are reviewed. Field observations and related laboratory analyses during the past 35 years have mainly been obtained near the Kivalo Research Area within the Arctic Circle, Finnish Lapland. The relatively recent introduction of Hypodermella laricis is a primary focus. This pathogen is not only new to Nordic countries, but can cause severe outbreaks, defoliation and crown-thinning in the canopies of all ages of most planted larch species worldwide. Symptoms of H. laricis clearly differ from those of Mycosphaerella laricina; the latter has affected Larix sibirica at high latitudes for decades. The effects of Meria laricis, Lophodermium laricinum, various rust fungi, and wind and frost are also discussed.

  5. An 854-Year Tree-Ring Chronology of Scots Pine for South-West Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helama Samuli

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A near-millennial tree-ring chronology (AD 1147-2000 is presented for south-west Finland and analyzed using dendroclimatic methods. This is a composite chronology comprising samples both from standing pine trees (Pinus sylvestris L. and subfossil trunks as recovered from the lake sediments, with a total sample size of 189 tree-ring sample series. The series were dendrochronologically cross-dated to exact calendar years to portray variability in tree-ring widths on inter-annual and longer scales. Al though the studied chronology correlates statistically significantly with other long tree-ring width chronologies from Finland over their common period (AD 1520-1993, the south-west chronology did not exhibit similarly strong mid-summer temperature or spring/early-summer precipitation signals in comparison to published chronologies. On the other hand, the south-west chronology showed highest correlations to the North Atlantic Oscillation indices in winter/spring months, this association following a dendroclimatic feature common to pine chronologies over the region and adjacent areas. Paleoclimatic comparison showed that tree-rings had varied similarly to central European spring temperatures. It is postulated that the collected and dated tree-ring material could be studied for wood surface reflectance (blue channel light intensity and stable isotopes, which both have recently shown to correlate notably well with summer temperatures.

  6. Partial debarking and covering to promote drying of roundwood for energy in Finland, Scotland, and Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roser, D.; Sikanen, L.; Prinz, R.; Mola, B.; Emer, B.; Nuutinen, Y.; Groome, S.; Nicol, A.; Robertson, A.; Strachan, F.; Erkkila, A.; Hillebrant, K.; Korhonen, J. [Finnish Forest Research Inst., Joensuu (Finland)

    2010-07-01

    The use of forest biomass as an energy source is expected to increase as a result of rising fossil fuel prices. This study investigated the effect of partial debarking and covering of roundwood biomass on the drying process. The tests were conducted in Finland, Scotland, and Italy using various local drying practices and forest species. Weather data were also collected and compared with 30-year averages from the same location in order to identify any unusual weather conditions in the areas during the drying trials. Partial debarking was conducted using a modified harvester head in Finland with alder, pine, and birch species. In Scotland and Italy, the harvester operator stroked the tree stem twice in order to remove more bark than is typically removed in debarking practices. The study showed that debarking has a significant impact on the decrease of moisture content when stacks were covered. Broad-leaved trees dried faster than pine trees. Between 15 and 20 per cent of the moisture content in the trees can be decreased when bark is removed and piles are covered.

  7. Airship-based observations of formaldehyde in the planetary boundary layer over rural Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thayer, Mitchell; Kaiser, Jennifer; Keutsch, Frank; Bachner, Mathias; Broch, Sebastian; Bohn, Birger; Fuchs, Hendrik; Gomm, Sebastian; Häseler, Rolf; Hofzumahaus, Andreas; Holland, Frank; Jäger, Julia; Li, Xin; Lohse, Insa; Rohrer, Franz; Tillmann, Ralf; Wegener, Robert; Mentel, Thomas; Kiendler-Scharr, Astrid; Wahner, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    Formaldehyde (HCHO) is an important tracer for oxidative processes in the atmosphere such as oxidation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and production of HO2 radicals (by photolysis or reaction with OH). Products of VOC oxidation and radical cycling, such as aerosols and tropospheric ozone, have direct impacts on human health. During the Pan-European Gas-AeroSOls Climate Interaction Study (PEGASOS), HCHO measurements were obtained together with OH reactivity, OH, HO2, CO, O3, NOx, HONO, HONO, VOCs, and aerosol particle size distribution. HCHO concentration was measured by the Madison FIber Laser-Induced Fluorescence (FILIF) instrument, optimized for flight campaigns to accommodate size and power requirements. Here we present data collected in rural areas near Jämijärvi, Finland in Spring 2013. Finland provides a pristine environment, allowing investigation of primarily biogenic emission and cycles. Measurements were carried out aboard a Zeppelin, which flew vertical profiles ranging in altitude from ~ 200 - 1000 meters. In this way, we studied the height-dependent evolution of the lower atmosphere, in which most VOC oxidation chemistry occurs. Flights were carried out with starting times ranging from sunrise to post-sunset. We present overall trends seen during the campaign of HCHO and related species within the context of VOC oxidation and secondary pollutant production.

  8. Structure and geological evolution of the bedrock at southern Satakunta, SW Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The southern Satakunta area lies on the west coast of Finland, mainly covering the mainland (with main towns Pori and Rauma), but also including the coastal archipelago and part of the Bothnian Sea. Near the centre of the area lies the island of Olkiluoto, on which Finland's site for a deep repository for spent nuclear fuel is located. The purpose of the present report is to compile and interpret all available geological and geophysical data relevant to understanding the regional geological setting of the Olkiluoto site. The area described is covered by four 1:100 000 scale geological map sheets, published by the Geological Survey of Finland, which, together with low-altitude aeromagnetic maps, provide the basis for a new 1:250 000 geological map compilation. This shows that the bedrock of southern Satakunta can be subdivided into three main zones: a pelitic migmatite belt in the southwest, a central, NW-SE trending area of sandstone, and a psammitic migmatite belt in the northeast. The migmatite belts formed during the Svecofennian orogeny, 1900-1800 Ma ago (Palaeoproterozoic). The sandstone area is the remnant of an alluvial basin, preserved now in a NW-SE trending graben, bounded on both sides by normal fault zones. The sandstones are thought to be at least 1400-1300 Ma old (Mesoproterozoic), and they are cut by Postjotnian olivine diabase dykes, 1270-1250 Ma in age. The Svecofennian migmatite belts show a complex history of formation, with various phases of anatexis/metamorphism, deformation and intrusion. In the pelitic migmatite belt, in which the Olkiluoto site is situated, four phases of ductile deformation (D-D4) and two phases of regional highT/lowP metamorphism and migmatite formation can be recognised, together with synorogenic (tonalite, granodiotite) and late orogenic ( potassium granite) intrusions. Subsequently, this very heterogeneous complex was intruded by anorogenic rapakivi granites, with ages 1580-1550 Ma. One pluton, the Eurajoki stock

  9. Structure and geological evolution of the bedrock at southern Satakunta, SW Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulamaeki, S.; Paananen, M.; Elo, S. [Geological Survey of Finland (Finland)

    2002-02-01

    The southern Satakunta area lies on the west coast of Finland, mainly covering the mainland (with main towns Pori and Rauma), but also including the coastal archipelago and part of the Bothnian Sea. Near the centre of the area lies the island of Olkiluoto, on which Finland's site for a deep repository for spent nuclear fuel is located. The purpose of the present report is to compile and interpret all available geological and geophysical data relevant to understanding the regional geological setting of the Olkiluoto site. The area described is covered by four 1:100 000 scale geological map sheets, published by the Geological Survey of Finland, which, together with low-altitude aeromagnetic maps, provide the basis for a new 1:250 000 geological map compilation. This shows that the bedrock of southern Satakunta can be subdivided into three main zones: a pelitic migmatite belt in the southwest, a central, NW-SE trending area of sandstone, and a psammitic migmatite belt in the northeast. The migmatite belts formed during the Svecofennian orogeny, 1900-1800 Ma ago (Palaeoproterozoic). The sandstone area is the remnant of an alluvial basin, preserved now in a NW-SE trending graben, bounded on both sides by normal fault zones. The sandstones are thought to be at least 1400-1300 Ma old (Mesoproterozoic), and they are cut by Postjotnian olivine diabase dykes, 1270-1250 Ma in age. The Svecofennian migmatite belts show a complex history of formation, with various phases of anatexis/metamorphism, deformation and intrusion. In the pelitic migmatite belt, in which the Olkiluoto site is situated, four phases of ductile deformation (D-D4) and two phases of regional highT/lowP metamorphism and migmatite formation can be recognised, together with synorogenic (tonalite, granodiotite) and late orogenic ( potassium granite) intrusions. Subsequently, this very heterogeneous complex was intruded by anorogenic rapakivi granites, with ages 1580-1550 Ma. One pluton, the Eurajoki stock

  10. Model estimates of the impact of bioirrigation activity of MARENZELLERIA spp. on the trophic state of the Gulf of Finland ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaev, Alexey; Eremina, Tatjana; Savchuk, Oleg; Ryabchenko, Vladimir

    2016-04-01

    Since the end of the 2000s, a sparcely populated soft bottom area in the deeps of the Eastern Gulf of Finland has been affected by invasive species Marenzelleria spp. The burrow flushing of sediments by Marenzelleria results in deeper penetration of oxygen into the sediments with corresponding redox alterations of nutrient cycling. In oxic conditions, a lager fraction of mineralized phosphates is transformed into particulate form due to formation of iron-humate complexes, thus increasing sediment phosphorus retention and burial. On the contrary, increased oxygen availability reduces nitrogen removal by denitrification, thus leading to larger release of nitrate into the water column. Indeed, as was revealed by long-term observations, the large-scale invasion of Marenzelleria spp. into the Eastern Gulf of Finland was accompanied by significant increase of the N:P ratio (Maximov et al., 2014). For a quantitative assessment of the bioirrigation activity of Marenzelleria spp., sediment parameterizations in SPBEM (St. Petersburg Baltic eutrophication model) have been modified as follows. Intensified burrow flushing is considered as the enlarged water-sediment contact area between water and sediments and described with the coefficient of bioirrigation determined by the abundance of polychaete and radius of their burrows. These parameterizations have been applied for simulation of the Gulf of Finland nutrient dynamics during 2010-2040. Preliminary results of simulations showed that vital activity of invasive Marenzelleria spp. might lead to slowdown or decrease of eutrophication in the Gulf of Finland due to reduction of cyanobacterial blooms

  11. GOING UNDERGROUND IN FINLAND: DESIGN OF ONKALO IN PROGRESS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The long-term program aimed at selection of a site for a deep repository was initiated in Finland in 1983. This program has come to end in 2001 and a new phase aimed at implementation of the geological disposal of spent fuel has been started. In this new phase the first milestone is the application for a construction license for the disposal facility around 2010. To fulfill the needs for detailed design of the disposal system, an underground rock characterization facility (URCF) will be constructed at the representative depth at Olkiluoto. The excavation of this facility will start the work for underground characterization, testing and demonstration, which is planned to be a continuous activity throughout the whole life cycle of the deep repository. The overall objectives for the underground site characterization are (1) verification of the present conclusions on site suitability, (2) definition and identification of suitable rock volumes for repository space and (3) characterization of planned host rock for detailed design, safety assessment and construction planning. The objective for verification aims at assessing that the Olkiluoto site meets the basic criteria for long-term safety and as well the basic requirements for construction and thus justifies the site selection. The two other main objectives are closely related to design of the repository and assessing the long-term safety of the site-specific disposal system. The most important objective of ONKALO should allow an in-depth investigation of the geological environment and to provide the opportunity to allow validation of models at more appropriate scales and conditions than can be achieved from the surface. In some areas, such as in demonstrating operational safety, in acquiring geological information at a repository scale and in constructional and operational feasibility, the ONKALO will provide the only reliable source of in situ data. The depth range envisaged for URCF called ONKALO is between 400 and

  12. Research field of fire technology in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loikkanen, P.; Holm, C.

    1987-02-01

    The goal of the study is to give an overview of the whole diversified research field of fire technology and its problems. For this reason the research subjects have been grouped so that the responsibilities of different authorities, the legislation and specifications, various fields of technology, areas of industry, and groups of products could all be found as clearly as possible. The field has been divided into nine sub-areas. They are: general grounds, fire physics and chemistry, structural fire prevention, textiles and furnishings, devices for heating and other use, detection, fire fighting and rescue, quality control, and special problems. The sub-areas have been divided into 34 main subjects and these, excluding those of special problems, further into as many as 117 subject groups. Characteristics and problems of the sub-areas and the main subjects have been described. The subject groups have been characterized by key words and concepts which outline the projects. No concrete research projects and programs have, however, been directly suggested because their extent and contents depend essentially on financing and other available resources.

  13. Occupational exposures of nuclear power plant workers in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Finland, the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) maintains a central dose register where all occupational doses of radiation workers are recorded. The computerised register enables easy control of personal doses, including annual, 5 year and lifetime doses. The type of radiation work is also recorded in the dose register. Finland was one of the first countries in the world to introduce dose limits based on the recommendations of ICRP 60. In this article, the radiation dose data of the Finnish nuclear power plant workers are analysed. The majority of the radiation doses are received during the maintenance outages. The trend of the 5 year doses and their distribution are presented. Doses received during different work assignments were averaged over the years 1996-1999 and they are also discussed in this article. (author)

  14. Global trade and climate policy scenarios. Impact on Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honkatukia, J.; Kaitila, V.; Kotilainen, M.; Niemi, J.

    2012-09-15

    In this study we use the dynamic version of the GTAP model to analyse the effects of global trade policy changes and their interaction with different global climate policy regimes from Finland's point of view, and in particular, implications for Finnish export sectors. Scenarios explore further trade liberalisation as well as effects of higher-than-current tariffs on world markets. As a complementary dimension we analyse the impact of a global climate agreement that will lead to an additional improvement in energy efficiency and impose limitations to GHG emissions. We find a general trend towards a greater weight of services sector in Finland's total exports volume, whilst the share of traditionally important heavy industry and electronics industries declines. These trends are amplified by further trade liberalisation and slowed down by new barriers for trade. The global coverage of climate policy is particularly significant for energy-intensive industries. (orig.)

  15. Women's Labor Force Attachment and Childbearing in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the impact of women's economic activity, earnings and take-up of child home care allowance on childbearing, using a ten percent sample from a longitudinal register data set that covers the entire female population of reproductive age in Finland in 1988-2000. Results show that a woman's economic activity and income were positively correlated with entry into motherhood and to a lesser extent with having a second child. This supports the notion of a common pattern of this relationship in the Nordic countries. In the light of Finland's rollercoaster economic development in the 1990s, the effects of a change in female population composition by economic characteristics on the fertility trend were small.

  16. Fildelning och upphovsrätten i Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Pesola, Joakim

    2015-01-01

    Detta lärdomsprov är gjort för att ge en bild av hur fildelningen och upphovsrätten ser ut i Finland idag. I teoridelen går jag in på hur EU påverkar Finland med nya direktiv och metoder för att kämpa mot piratism. Jag beskriver även upphovsrättens historia och utveckling samt tar upp olika tekniker och programvaror som används inom fildelning. Orsaken till att jag valde detta ämne som lärdomsprov är för att ämnet fått så stor uppmärksamhet i medier under de senaste tio åren. Nuförtiden ha...

  17. Fertility and Public Policies - Evidence from Norway and Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available The relatively high and rising fertility rates of Nordic countries in the late 1980s and early 1990s sparked a renewed research interest in the possible pronatalistic effects of generous family policy programs. Several studies have addressed this issue, but few have tried to model policy effects explicitly. The existing evidence so far is mainly from Sweden, where policy indicators have been incorporated in economic fertility models that also control for female wages. This paper complements previous Swedish analyses with evidence from Norway and Finland. The results corroborate earlier findings of a negative effect of female wages. There are also indications of a positive policy impact, as maternity leave extensions are estimated to raise birth rates, although mainly higher parity births and mainly in Finland.

  18. Heat Wave-Associated Vibriosis, Sweden and Finland, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker-Austin, Craig; Trinanes, Joaquin A; Salmenlinna, Saara; Löfdahl, Margareta; Siitonen, Anja; Taylor, Nick G H; Martinez-Urtaza, Jaime

    2016-07-01

    During summer 2014, a total of 89 Vibrio infections were reported in Sweden and Finland, substantially more yearly infections than previously have been reported in northern Europe. Infections were spread across most coastal counties of Sweden and Finland, but unusually, numerous infections were reported in subarctic regions; cases were reported as far north as 65°N, ≈100 miles (160 km) from the Arctic Circle. Most infections were caused by non-O1/O139 V. cholerae (70 cases, corresponding to 77% of the total, all strains were negative for the cholera toxin gene). An extreme heat wave in northern Scandinavia during summer 2014 led to unprecedented high sea surface temperatures, which appear to have been responsible for the emergence of Vibrio bacteria at these latitudes. The emergence of vibriosis in high-latitude regions requires improved diagnostic detection and clinical awareness of these emerging pathogens. PMID:27314874

  19. Number of radiological examinations in Finland in 2000

    CERN Document Server

    Hakanen, A

    2002-01-01

    STUK (Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority) collected the number of radiological examinations in Finland in 2000. The work was based on a decree of the ministry of social affairs and health on the medical use of radiation. The work was done in cooperation with the Finnish work group of nomenclature of radiological examinations and procedures and professor Seppo Soimakallio. In 2000, ca. 4.1 million x-ray examinations were made in Finland. In 1984 and in 1995, the numbers were ca. 4.6 million and 4.2 million, respectively, indicating that the total number of x-ray examinations has remained nearly unaltered. The proportions of conventional x-ray examinations, computed tomography examinations, angiographic and interventional procedures were ca. 93.5 %, 5.0 %, 0.9 % and 0.6 %, respectively. The reported number of ultrasound examinations was ca. 0.5 million. The reported number of MRI examinations was ca. 0.1 million.

  20. When Finland was lost. Background, Course of Events and Reactions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik Edgren

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Since 1809 the loss of Finland has been discussed in different ways in Swedish history research. In the early 20th century the burst of the state was seen in a nationalistic perspective. It was said that the people in Sweden, or the “public opinion”, with despair and in a “nationalistic trauma” received the news bulletins from the peace agreement in Fredrikshamn 1809, which was interpreted the worst defeat ever in Swedish history. Nowadays researchers argue whether the loss of Finland really was seen as a nationalistic trauma in the early 19th century. The article first summarises the background of the war and the most important war episodes and then discusses the apprehension of a Sweden in national chock after the burst of the state.

  1. Human Factors Engineering: Current Practices and Development Needs in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes initial findings from a study concerning the practices and development needs of Human Factors Engineering (HFE) in Finland. HFE is increasing in importance as the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority Finland (STUK) is renewing the regulatory guidelines and the intention is to include requirements concerning HFE. The motivation for the paper is to discover how HFE is conducted currently in order to envision what should be aimed at when modifying requirements for design practices. In an interview with STUK it was discovered that current HFE practices encompass mainly activities related to control room modifications and as such namely verification and validation of new designs. The adoption of the entire HFE process in design and modification projects requires changes that include better integration of technical and Human Factors Engineering approaches. Boundary objects that mediate between different design disciplines are needed in order to enforce the stronger integration. Concept of operations (CONOPS) is suggested as a such boundary object

  2. Human Factors Engineering: Current Practices and Development Needs in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savioja, Paula; Norros, Leena; Liinasuo, Marja; Laarni, Jari [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Finland (Finland)

    2011-08-15

    This paper describes initial findings from a study concerning the practices and development needs of Human Factors Engineering (HFE) in Finland. HFE is increasing in importance as the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority Finland (STUK) is renewing the regulatory guidelines and the intention is to include requirements concerning HFE. The motivation for the paper is to discover how HFE is conducted currently in order to envision what should be aimed at when modifying requirements for design practices. In an interview with STUK it was discovered that current HFE practices encompass mainly activities related to control room modifications and as such namely verification and validation of new designs. The adoption of the entire HFE process in design and modification projects requires changes that include better integration of technical and Human Factors Engineering approaches. Boundary objects that mediate between different design disciplines are needed in order to enforce the stronger integration. Concept of operations (CONOPS) is suggested as a such boundary object.

  3. Urban form and greenhouse gas emissions in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finland's regional form is becoming more concentrated, while urban sprawl is causing growth centres to become fragmented. The effects caused by these changes on greenhouse gas emissions were studied up to the year 2010, when, in accordance with the Kyoto protocol, Finland's greenhouse gas emissions should be reduced to the 1990 level. The urban form affects especially transportation inside regions, the potential to utilise district heating and the need for infrastructure. By preventing urban sprawl and by encouraging teleworking and some lifestyle changes, it would be possible to reduce annual transportation emissions by the year 2010 by 1.1 million tonnes CO2 eq., i.e. 27%, the emissions from residential and service buildings by 1.1 million tonnes CO2 eq., i.e. 5%, and the emissions from municipal infrastructure by 0.1 million tonnes CO2 eq., i.e. 6%. Altogether, it is possible to reduce the greenhouse gas emissions by 2.3 million tonnes, which amounts to 15% of Finland's target for emissions reductions in 2010. If the target-oriented scenario is realised, the subsequent decrease of emissions would accelerate. To stop urban sprawl, measures are required in planning, land use and housing policy as well as in transportation and tax policies. Additionally, more needs to be done in regard to co-operation, interaction and information dissemination. This paper introduces a report which estimates, for the first time, the effects caused by changes in the regional and urban forms on the levels of greenhouse gas emissions in Finland

  4. Variation in the abundance of Rhopalosiphum padi in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Huusela-Veistola, E.

    2009-01-01

    The bird cherry-oat aphid, Rhopalosiphum padi (L.), is the major aphid pest in spring cereals in Finland. It is also the vector of Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV) which is the most serious virus disease of cereals. The Finnish forecast of R. padi is based on egg counts on the winter host. The effects of no-tillage on aphid abundance have been variable.

  5. The Importance of Strategy: Iceland, Finland and Economic Security

    OpenAIRE

    Daði Rafnsson 1976

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to ask whether Iceland should form an economic security strategy: and if so, whether economic affairs should be explicitly securitized. It begins by defining the term "economic security", and Iceland’s situation in the wake of an economic crisis in 2008 is compared with the position and reaction of Finland which went through similar difficulties in the nineties. Realism, liberalism and marxism are key theories in international relations and help explain the di...

  6. Developing integrated marketing communication campaign for CoreFinland Ltd

    OpenAIRE

    Kucher, Kristina

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to develop marketing communication campaign for a small-sized snacks- producing company CoreFinland Ltd using the integrated approach. The research question defines what kind of marketing activities the case company needs in order to improve the interaction with consumers and raise brand awareness. The first part of the research is a qualitative study of relevant marketing literature that concentrates on comparison between traditional and modern marketing. An...

  7. Defining Marketing Strategies For Vihreä Tekno Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Manzari, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of this thesis is to define marketing strategies for Vihreä Tekno, a company in Vantaa, Finland. The company runs several businesses such as providing IT services, website designing, business/loyalty cards, professional logo design, PC repairs and installations, mobile application development, translation services, cleaning services, advertising and distribution services, billing/invoicing systems and so forth. In this thesis, the author analyzed the company’s current s...

  8. Organic and conventional public food procurement for youth in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Mikkola, Minna

    2008-01-01

    Public catering in Finland has strong historical roots from the 19th century, connected with the rise of the national state, industrialisation, democracy and modern times in general. The school meal system developed hand in hand with work place meal services, and inherently the aim was to offer lateral support for workers' and pupils' activities by healthy and wholesome nutrition. The public catering had initially a strong label of welfare services and implied economical use of ingredients. ...

  9. Ethnic and Gender Discrimination in Recruitment: Experimental Evidence From Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Karmela Liebkind; Liisa Larja; Asteria Brylka

    2016-01-01

    We ask (1) how the position of an ethnic (majority or minority) group in the local ethnic hierarchy affects the amount of recruitment discrimination faced by applicants from that group, and (2) whether gender discrimination is dependent on occupational gender stereotypes in the same way among ethnic majority and minority applicants. We use the situation testing method for the first time in Finland: In an experimental study (Study 1), 103 dentistry students made recruitment decisions based on ...

  10. Radioactivity of foodstuffs in Finland in 1987-1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiocesium and radiostrontium in foodstuffs of agricultural origin were surveyed in Finland in 1987 - 1988. The nationwide survey was a continuation to an earlier foodstuff monitoring programme, which was extended both areally and by the types of foodstuffs after the Chernobyl accident in 1986. The purpose of the programme was to give information for dose assessment and on temporal changes and regional differences in the contents of fallout radionuclides in foodstuffs

  11. Temp-Team Finland: Social Media and Recruitment

    OpenAIRE

    Nordström, Meri

    2014-01-01

    The role of recruiters and the forms of recruitment communication have undergone substantial changes in recent years. While the frequency of publishing job advertisements in print has decreased, recruiters are increasingly relying on social media for candidate search and top talent sourcing. These changing industry dynamics directly affect Temp-Team Finland, a private employment agency focused on recruiting contractual employees, and the commissioning party of this research. The purpose ...

  12. Factors Affecting Outsourcing Software Development from Finland to Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Le, Phuong

    2016-01-01

    The past few years have seen a steady trend in the growth of Offshore Outsourcing Soft-ware Development projects from Finland. At the same time, Vietnam has been quickly growing as a competitive outsourcing destination. Many outsourcing vendors from Vietnam want to enter Finnish software development market through contracts of outsourcing projects. They have neither had a competitive edge of international business relation nor a deep understanding of the Finnish market. The objectives of the ...

  13. INTERNATIONALIZATION OF SMEs IN CENTRAL FINLAND : Case: Jykes’ International Services

    OpenAIRE

    Ilmarinen, Paula

    2010-01-01

    The thesis deals with the small and medium enterprises in Central Finland, and their use of services which support international operations. There are organizations providing international services, and these organizations were also studied. These various organizations offer diverse services which assist the enterprises on their expansions to abroad. There are three main research questions which were studied. The primary goal is to cover the enterprises’ awareness of international services. A...

  14. Organizational Communication and Workforce Diversity Case Company: Burger King, Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Raqib, Maliha

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this Bachelor’s thesis is to examine the internal work process related communication of Burger King, Finland. The main focus of this thesis is to assess the current communication flow and recognize communication weak points. Therefore, three investigative questions were formulated to understand the phenomena and provide development suggestions for further communication progress. The theoretical framework consists of theories related to basic human communication model, organ...

  15. FinTech acceptance research in Finland - Case company Plastc

    OpenAIRE

    CAO Wen

    2016-01-01

    This research was designed to explore the major factors affecting the acceptance of the all-in-one payment method (Plastc Card) in Finland. The primary purpose was to find out possible variables which affect users' adoption rate in terms of the unique features of FinTech products, the second purpose was to propose a conceptual research model based on consumer acceptance theories from information system field, and the third purpose was to provide practical suggestions for the case company Plas...

  16. EXPLORING COUNTRY MUSIC'S POTENTIAL FOR MARKET GROWTH IN FINLAND

    OpenAIRE

    Karjalainen, Jukka

    2011-01-01

    Traditional North American country music has commercially grown from the first recordings made in the early 1900’s to a multimillion-dollar business. The market consists of national and international audiences. Country music has influenced many popular Finnish artists and music styles. Due to a lack of extensive previous theories, this study was conducted in order to define country music in a Finnish context and explore Finland as a potentially increasing market for country music sales. ...

  17. Reinventing Nordic Openness : Transparency and State Information in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    ErkkilÀ, Tero

    2010-01-01

    The study explores new ideational changes in the information strategy of the Finnish state between 1998 and 2007, after a juncture in Finnish governing in the early 1990s. The study scrutinizes the economic reframing of institutional openness in Finland that comes with significant and often unintended institutional consequences of transparency. Most notably, the constitutional principle of publicity (julkisuusperiaate), a Nordic institutional peculiarity allowing public access to state inform...

  18. DIFFERENCES IN CUSTOMER BEHAVIOUR AND EXPECTATIONS BETWEEN FINLAND AND GERMANY

    OpenAIRE

    Ober, Martina

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to find out differences in the behaviour and expectations of customers in restaurants in different countries, and how those differences affect the restaurant industry. The countries Finland and Germany were chosen to be compared with each. Respondents of both countries were asked in questionnaires about their preferences of service, complaining and tipping behaviour. In addition restaurant owners/managers were asked about their way of conducting service in their...

  19. Evolution of Retail Payments in Finland in the 1990s

    OpenAIRE

    Snellman, Jussi

    2000-01-01

    During the 1990s the availability of location-specific retail payment services in Finland declined substantially, but at the same time there was a surge of development of self-service methods. These new methods, which make use eg of mobile phones and the Internet, dramatically increased the availability of payment services that are not tied to location. More traditional forms of payment still exist; for example, the use of cash remains significant. In Europe there are marked differences betwe...

  20. Improving integration work with immigrants in Kemi - Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Unanka, Uchenna

    2011-01-01

    Thesis Descriptions: This paper investigates the standards of Kemi municipality -Finland immigrant´s integration programs and how these programs will improve immigrant´s community participation. Theoretical summary: The issue of migration is pressing nowadays because of globalization, constant political unrest, and natural deserters in many nations, these have intensified the fleeing of affected countries citizen to seek for refuge in EU member states. The host states have developed and u...