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Sample records for area helsinki finland

  1. Comparison of Collection Schemes of Municipal Solid Waste Metallic Fraction: The Impacts on Global Warming Potential for the Case of the Helsinki Metropolitan Area, Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Kari Heiskanen; Timo Kuusiola; Maaria Wierink

    2012-01-01

    In this research article the sustainability of different practices to collect the metal fraction of household waste in the Helsinki metropolitan area, Finland is examined. The study is carried out by calculating and comparing the greenhouse gas reduction potential of optional practices for collecting the metal fraction of household waste in the Helsinki metropolitan area, Finland. In order to locate the greenhouse gas reduction potential of the separate collection of the metallic fraction of ...

  2. Biomonitoring the effects of air pollution on forest ecosystems in an urban area, Helsinki, Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maekinen, A.; Pihlstroem, M. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Ecology and Systematics

    1995-12-31

    Single bioindicators have been used for a long time in air pollution monitoring in the Helsinki area (e.g. lichen studies since 1933). In the mid-eighties local authorities became aware of the need for regular integrated monitoring. Important objectives were: (a) to collect timeseries for the evaluation of natural variation e.g. weather in different parameters (b) to detect small, gradual, changes resulting from pollution control measures. The intensive monitoring of coniferous forests in the metropolitan area of Helsinki started in 1988. (author)

  3. Comparison of Collection Schemes of Municipal Solid Waste Metallic Fraction: The Impacts on Global Warming Potential for the Case of the Helsinki Metropolitan Area, Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kari Heiskanen

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In this research article the sustainability of different practices to collect the metal fraction of household waste in the Helsinki metropolitan area, Finland is examined. The study is carried out by calculating and comparing the greenhouse gas reduction potential of optional practices for collecting the metal fraction of household waste in the Helsinki metropolitan area, Finland. In order to locate the greenhouse gas reduction potential of the separate collection of the metallic fraction of municipal solid waste (MSW collected from residential sources, a comparative carbon footprint analysis using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA on six different waste management scenarios is carried out. The modeled system consisted of a waste collection system, transportation, and different waste management alternatives, including on-site separation, separation at the waste management facility as well as metallurgical recovery of separated scrap. The results show that, in terms of greenhouse gas emissions, separate collection and recycling of the metallic fraction of solid MSW at residential properties is the preferable option compared to a scenario with no source sorting and incineration of everything. According to this research scenario where the metal fraction of solid household waste was not source-separated or collected separately have clearly higher greenhouse gas emissions compared to all the other scenarios with separate collection for metals. In addition, metal recycling by regional collection points has considerably lower greenhouse gas emission potential than metal recycling by collection directly from residential properties.

  4. Measurements of aerosol charging states in Helsinki, Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gagné

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The charging state of aerosol populations was measured with an Ion-DMPS in Helsinki, Finland between December 2008 and February 2010. Based on the charging states, we calculated the ion-induced nucleation fraction to be around 0.8 % ± 0.9 %. We review the role of ion-induced nucleation and propose different explanations for a low ion-induced nucleation participation in urban areas. We present a new method to retrieve the average charging state for an event, and a given size. We also use a new theoretical framework that allows for different concentrations of small cluster ions for different polarities (polarity asymmetry. We extrapolate the ion-induced fraction using polarity symmetry and asymmetry. Finally, a method to calculate the growth rates from the variation of the charging state as a function of the particle diameter using polarity symmetry and asymmetry is presented and used on a selection of new particle formation events.

  5. A Business Plan of Teahouse in Helsinki, Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Zelu

    2013-01-01

    By studying what is a business plan, this paper introduces how to make a business plan with a real life case, starting a teashop business in Helsinki, Finland. It was started by studying how to make a business plan, which includes the structure of a business plan, such as operational planning, marketing planning and financial planning. It is the internal and external analysis that determines the corporate strategy, corporate strategy determines marketing strategy and operational strategy, ope...

  6. Atmospheric pressure and suicide attempts in Helsinki, Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiltunen, Laura; Ruuhela, Reija; Ostamo, Aini; Lönnqvist, Jouko; Suominen, Kirsi; Partonen, Timo

    2012-11-01

    The influence of weather on mood and mental health is commonly debated. Furthermore, studies concerning weather and suicidal behavior have given inconsistent results. Our aim was to see if daily weather changes associate with the number of suicide attempts in Finland. All suicide attempts treated in the hospitals in Helsinki, Finland, during two separate periods, 8 years apart, were included. Altogether, 3,945 suicide attempts were compared with daily weather parameters and analyzed with a Poisson regression. We found that daily atmospheric pressure correlated statistically significantly with the number of suicide attempts, and for men the correlation was negative. Taking into account the seasonal normal value during the period 1971-2000, daily temperature, global solar radiation and precipitation did not associate with the number of suicide attempts on a statistically significant level in our study. We concluded that daily atmospheric pressure may have an impact on suicidal behavior, especially on suicide attempts of men by violent methods ( P suicide attempts. Men seem to be more vulnerable to attempt suicide under low atmospheric pressure and women under high atmospheric pressure. We show only statistical correlations, which leaves the exact mechanisms of interaction between weather and suicidal behavior open. However, suicidal behavior should be assessed from the point of view of weather in addition to psychiatric and social aspects.

  7. Tourist Perceptions and Motivations as Inspiration for Destination Marketing Case: Finland & Helsinki

    OpenAIRE

    Partanen, Janna

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this Bachelor’s Thesis was to identify and examine efforts used in marketing Finland and Helsinki as tourism destinations. This thesis explored the perceptions travelling individuals have of Finland and Helsinki and reviewed travel motivations and preferences as well as travel research customs. The aim was to derive concepts that may be utilised in strengthening currently adopted destination marketing themes and procedures. These were based on the most common perceptions, prefe...

  8. The effects of de-icing in Helsinki urban streams, southern Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruth, O

    2003-01-01

    The environmental effects of road salt have been studied in Finland mainly in order to monitor and reduce groundwater contamination. In urban areas the road salt used for road maintenance in winter ends up in the storm water drains and receiving water bodies. We report here on water samples taken in 1998-1999 from three urban streams with catchments varying in area 1.7 to 24.4 km2 in different parts of the City of Helsinki. Despite efforts to reduce the amount of road salt, high concentrations were found in the urban stream water. Sudden variations in water quality were very marked during the spring flood period, with sodium and chloride concentrations varying over nine-fold within one day. Some 35-50% of the salt used on the roads in Helsinki passes into natural streams and from there into the sea. The significant positive correlation between NaCl and dissolved zinc in stream water was observed. The results show that it is important to monitor water quality, especially at the beginning of the spring flood period, when road salt and other contaminant levels are markedly high in urban streams. PMID:14703137

  9. Education of radiochemistry in the University of Helsinki, Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laboratory of Radiochemistry is one of the seven laboratories in the Department of Chemistry, University of Helsinki. In the department there are altogether 220 employees of which 25 work in the Laboratory of Radiochemistry. Laboratory of Radiochemistry is the only radiochemical institute within Finnish universities. It gives teaching in a wide range of topics including most areas of radiochemistry. Teaching in radiochemistry is given at the master's level. Prior to taking radiochemistry as their major students have studied two to three years of chemistry and other fields of sciences. Compulsory courses in radiochemistry are: (1) Principles of radioactivity and radiochemistry (8 credit units), includes two weeks' laboratory course. (2) Radiation safety (2 cu), includes one day laboratory work. (3) Detection and measurement of radiation (5 cu), includes two weeks' laboratory course. (4) Chemistry and analysis of radionuclides (5 cu), includes two weeks' laboratory course. There are several optional courses of which students have to take at least three: (1) Chemistry of the nuclear fuel cycle (3 cu), students write an essay. (2) Environmental radioactivity (3 cu), students write an essay and give a seminar lecture. (3) Radiopharmaceutical chemistry (3 cu), includes one week laboratory course. (4) Radioactive tracer techniques (3 cu), includes one week laboratory course. (5) Radiation chemistry (3 cu), includes one week laboratory course. (6) Chemistry of uranium series in the environment (3 cu). (7) Atmospheric radioactivity (3 cu), students write an essay. After finalising the required radiochemistry courses, and other studies (40 cu), students make their project work and write a master's thesis (together 40 cu). Project work and master's thesis are done in one of the research projects of the laboratory. The research projects are working in the following fields: 1) migration and retention of radionuclides in the geo sphere, 2) selective separation of radionuclides

  10. Education of radiochemistry in the University of Helsinki, Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laboratory of Radiochemistry is one of the seven laboratories in the Department of Chemistry, University of Helsinki. In the department there are altogether 220 employees of which 25 work in the Laboratory of Radiochemistry. Laboratory of Radiochemistry is the only radiochemical institute within Finnish universities. It gives teaching in a wide range of topics including most areas of radiochemistry. Teaching in radiochemistry is given at the master's level. Prior to taking radiochemistry as their major students have studied two to three years of chemistry and other fields of sciences. Compulsory courses in radiochemistry are: Principles of radioactivity and radiochemistry (8 credit units), includes two weeks' laboratory course. Radiation safety (2 cu), includes one day laboratory work. Detection and measurement of radiation (5 cu), includes two weeks' laboratory course. Chemistry and analysis of radionuclides (5 cu), includes two weeks' laboratory course There are several optional courses of which students have to take at least three: Chemistry of the nuclear fuel cycle (3 cu), students write an essay. Environmental radioactivity (3 cu), students write an essay and give a seminar lecture. Radiopharmaceutical chemistry (3 cu), includes one week laboratory course. Radioactive tracer techniques (3 cu), includes one week laboratory course. Radiation chemistry (3 cu), includes one week laboratory course. Chemistry of uranium series in the environment (3 cu). Atmospheric radioactivity (3 cu), students write an essay. After finalising the required radiochemistry courses, and other studies (40 cu), students make their project work and write a master's thesis (together 40 cu). Project work and master's thesis are done in one of the research projects of the laboratory. The research projects are working in the following fields: 1) migration and retention of radionuclides in the geo sphere, 2) selective separation of radionuclides from nuclear waste effluents, 3

  11. LIFE EXPERIENCES OF AFGHAN WOMEN IN FINLAND : a study of everyday life experiences of Afghan women in Helsinki Region

    OpenAIRE

    Ghaffar, Sumbal; Lama, Smriti Madonna

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Sumbal, Ghaffar and Smriti, Madonna Lama, Life of Afghan Women in Finland, A Study of everyday life experiences of Afghan Women living in Helsinki Region, Diak south, Helsinki, Spring 2014 Language: English, Helsinki-- pages, 47, Appendices, 7. Diaconia University of Applied Sciences, Degree program in Social Services and Community Development, Degree: Bachelor of Social Services. The aim of the research was to show and highlight the everyday life experiences of Afghan wom...

  12. Studying the Business Prospects of a Potential Handmade Chocolate Shop in Helsinki, Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Fei; Fu, Lu

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to concentrate on assessing the possibilities of establishing a handmade chocolate shop in Helsinki, Finland. The research is mainly a marketing research and concentrates on meeting the marketing demand, the potential customers’ expectations. By the further analysis and research of survey, the basic elements of establishing handmade chocolate shop will be listed. Based on this the basic principle of a business model can be formulated. The study involved resou...

  13. Outsourcing Housekeeping: An insight into two cleaning companies, SOL and N-Clean, in Helsinki, Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Hussain, Samra

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the author was to find to get an insight into the cleaning companies, in Helsin-ki, Finland, which the hotel industry is using as an external supplier for their housekeeping de-partment. The author has looked into the cleaning companies training process for the cleaning staff, employee demographics, quality control and process of handling complaints. The ad-vantages and disadvantages of outsourcing housekeeping in the hotel sector are also investi-gated. The research method...

  14. Radioactivity size distributions of ambient aerosols in Helsinki, Finland during May 1986 after Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambient aerosol size distributions oof 131I, 103Ru, 132Te and 137Cs radionuclides were measured in Helsinki, Finland during May 7 - 14, 1986. Radioactivity size distributions were unimodal. Geometric mean diameter of 131I was in the size range 0.33 - 0.57 μm a.e.d.. Other isotopes had geometric mean diameters in the size range 0.65 - 0.93 μm a.e.d.. (author)

  15. Multilevel climate policy: the case of the European Union, Finland and Helsinki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitigation of climate change requires action at all the different levels, from the international to the national and the local levels. This contribution presents a case study of the city of Helsinki in Finland. An ex-post approach is used to follow the implementation of the EU directives to the national and further to the city level and to identify the relevant voluntary action taken in the city. We find that the coherence of national and city level policies is the highest in regulated areas, such as waste management and building regulation. Voluntary action is easily taken at local level in areas where co-benefits can be expected: e.g. energy conservation and biofuels for transportation. These voluntary actions can show the feasibility of certain measures which can later on be implemented at national or supranational level. We observe a clear contradiction between the EU and national renewable electricity targets and the nonaction at the city level: local conditions and private interests pose barriers to the implementation of a climate policy. We conclude that the coherence between policies at different levels develops over time and international requirements as well as local conditions can be drivers for it. Cities in particular play a role in mitigating climate change through removing barriers for the implementation of national and EU policies, and through moving forward with and promoting innovative voluntary measures, e.g. through international city networks

  16. Sedimentation and lithostratigraphy of the Vuosaari multiple till sequence in Helsinki, southern Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirvas, H.

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available A multiple till sequence interbedded with sorted sediments has been investigated at Vuosaari, Helsinki, Finland. The investigation was carried out using standard sedimentological procedures combined with microfossil analysis in order to determine the genesis of the exposed sediments. This evidence is used to correlate lithostratigraphically the sequence with adjacent multiple till sequences in other parts of southern Finland (south of the Salpausselkä zone. It is concluded that all three till beds at Vuosaari are of basal origin that were laid down by separate ice flow phases. In contrast two rhythmite beds between the tills are thought to have been deposited in open water. The sediments at Vuosaari may have been laid down during the Weichselian glaciation although it is also possible that the lowermost till bed represents Saalian till.

  17. Spatial and temporal variability of turbulent vertical fluxes in Helsinki, Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Järvi, L.; Nordbo, A.; Haapanala, S.; Moilanen, J.; Vesala, T.

    2012-04-01

    The eddy-covariance technique has been widely used above vegetated surfaces to measure the turbulent exchange of momentum, heat and gases between the surface and the atmosphere. Above an urban surface, however, observations are scarce and complex measurement surroundings bring challenges to the measurements and the representativeness of the fluxes in a city scale. The fluxes of sensible (QH) and latent heat (QE), and CO2 (Fc) have been measured at three sites in Helsinki, Finland. At the SMEAR III station the measurements have been ongoing since December 2005 and the site is located next to a busy road about 4 km from downtown Helsinki. Two of the sites, Erottaja Fire Station (EFS) and Hotel Torni (HT), are located in downtown within a distance of 400 meters from each other. In EFS, the measurements have been carried out in June 2010 - January 2011, while in HT, the measurements have been ongoing since September 2010. The present dataset allows the studying of the inter-site variability of the exchange processes. Simultaneous measurements from all three sites cover four months in autumn/winter time. The high-latitude location allows a detailed examination of the effect of seasonal variation to the exchange processes. QH tends to be higher in city centre than in SMEAR III and a difference of 50 W m-2 is observed in winter. During the simultaneous measurements, stable atmospheric stratification is observed half of the time at SMEAR III whereas the occurrence in the city centre is less than 5%. This is a result of the urban heat island effect which is stronger in downtown than in the outside region. On the other hand, higher QE is measured in SMEAR III than in downtown particularly during spring and summer months when a difference of 100 W m-2 is observed. In downtown the low fraction of green areas limits the evaporation. Despite the short distance there are also differences between the two downtown sites. Both the median QH and QE are 7 W m-2 smaller in EFS than in

  18. Innovative Service Perspectives: Proceedings from the AMA SERVSIG International Service Research Conference, Helsinki, Finland, June 7-9 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Mickelsson, Jacob; Helkkula, Anu

    2012-01-01

    The 7th AMA SERVSIG International Service Research conference was held at Hanken School of Economics in Helsinki, Finland on June 7-9, 2012. The conference was organized by the CERS Centre for Relationship Marketing and Service Management, and attracted over 250 participants from 29 countries. The first SERVSIG conference was held in 1999, and the event has since been hosted in a different country and by a different school every two years. The Services Special Interest Group (SERVSIG) was fou...

  19. Anthropogenic and biogenic influence on VOC fluxes at an urban background site in Helsinki, Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rantala, Pekka; Järvi, Leena; Taipale, Risto; Laurila, Terhi K.; Patokoski, Johanna; Kajos, Maija K.; Kurppa, Mona; Haapanala, Sami; Siivola, Erkki; Petäjä, Tuukka; Ruuskanen, Taina M.; Rinne, Janne

    2016-07-01

    We measured volatile organic compounds (VOCs), carbon dioxide (CO2) and carbon monoxide (CO) at an urban background site near the city centre of Helsinki, Finland, northern Europe. The VOC and CO2 measurements were obtained between January 2013 and September 2014 whereas for CO a shorter measurement campaign in April-May 2014 was conducted. Both anthropogenic and biogenic sources were identified for VOCs in the study. Strong correlations between VOC fluxes and CO fluxes and traffic rates indicated anthropogenic source of many VOCs. The VOC with the highest emission rate to the atmosphere was methanol, which originated mostly from traffic and other anthropogenic sources. The traffic was also a major source for aromatic compounds in all seasons whereas isoprene was mostly emitted from biogenic sources during summer. Some amount of traffic-related isoprene emissions were detected during other seasons but this might have also been an instrumental contamination from cycloalkane products. Generally, the observed VOC fluxes were found to be small in comparison with previous urban VOC flux studies. However, the differences were probably caused by lower anthropogenic activities as the CO2 fluxes were also relatively small at the site.

  20. Senior expert symposium on electricity and the environment, Helsinki, Finland, 13-17 May 1991. Key issues papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume contains the four Key Issues Papers prepared as background papers by international expert groups for the Senior Expert Symposium on Electricity and the Environment held in Helsinki, Finland in May 1991. The papers are on topics selected as the central themes of the symposium: energy and electricity supply and demand - implications for the global environment; energy sources and technologies for electricity generation; comparative environmental and health effects of different energy systems for electricity generation; and the incorporation of environmental and health impacts into policy, planning and decision making for the electricity sector. The four papers have been indexed separately. Refs, figs and tabs

  1. Abstracts of the 4th International MELODI Workshop 12 -14 September 2012, Helsinki, Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sulonen, N. (ed.)

    2012-08-15

    The Fourth International MELODI Workshop is organized by STUK - Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority in Helsinki, Finland, on 12-14 September 2012. The workshop offers an update of recent low-dose research issues, and an opportunity to participate in the MELODI Low Dose Research Platform, a major step in the long term goals that the European Low-Dose Risk research intends to achieve. The main goal of MELODI is to develop and maintain a Strategic Research Agenda (SRA) in the field of low-dose radiation research, and to actively promote its implementation. DoReMi Network of Excellence funded by the European Commission is supporting the setting up of the Platform and addressing some of its research needs. In line with one of the main SRA goals, a major aim of the workshop was to set all topics in an interdisciplinary context. The Workshop abstracts cover plenary lectures as well as poster presentations related to topical discussions in breakout sessions. The theme of the first day 'Low dose risk research - state of the art' provides an introduction to the MELODI activities and the SRA and an update on recent epidemiological studies and dosimetric aspects of low dose studies. Potential implications of cardiovascular disease risk for radiation protection are also addressed. Discussion on the state-of-the art of MELODI SRA took place in three break-out groups addressing epidemiological approaches, cancer mechanisms and models and infrastructures and knowledge management. The second day 'Emerging scientific challenges' features the development of science and novel technologies, covering topics such as epigenetics, systems biology, stem cells as well as biomarkers that could be potentially used in molecular epidemiological studies. The associated breakout sessions explore the roadmap for future research, covering themes on biomarkers and biobanks, non-cancer effects, as well as low dose dosimetry and dose concept. The third day 'Integrating the

  2. Cost-benefit analysis of green roofs in urban areas : case study in Helsinki

    OpenAIRE

    Nurmi, VÀinö; Votsis, Athanasios; Perrels, Adriaan; LehvÀvirta, Susanna

    2013-01-01

    Abstract This report presents a green roof cost-benefit analysis. Green roofs are roofs that are partially (or almost completely) covered with vegetation; between the roofing membrane and the vegetation there may be several technical layers. In this report we discuss the benefits and costs of lightweight self-sustaining vegetated roofs that do not require structural modifications from the building. The costs and benefits have been analysed in Helsinki, Finland. Green roofs o...

  3. Waste management options for discarded newspaper in the Helsinki metropolitan area life cycle assessment report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlbo, H.; Laukka, J.; Myllymaa, T.; Koskela, S.; Tenhunen, J.; Seppaelae, J.; Jouttijaervi, T.; Melanen, M.

    2005-07-01

    Consumption and the amount of wastes are constantly increasing and therefore the waste management solutions have an increasing impact on the ecology and costs of the life cycle of a product. In an optimal situation the environmental impacts of a waste management solution are as few as possible and this is achieved with as low costs as possible. Searching and comparing the most appropriate waste management solutions demands systematic and case- specific studies. The Finnish Environment Institute (SYKE) and the University of Helsinki carried out in 2002 - 2004 a joint project called 'Life cycle approach to sustainability of waste management - a case study on newspaper (LCA-WASTE)', financed by the National Technology Agency of Finland (Tekes). In the project, the ecology and costs of different waste management alternatives for newspaper were studied. This report describes the process and results of the life cycle assessment performed in the study. Five waste management alternatives for discarded newspaper in the Helsinki Metropolitan Area (HMA) were formulated and assessed. The whole life cycle of newspaper, comprising forestry, manufacturing of newsprint, printing, waste recovery and treatment, transportations and by-products (in this study energy from waste), was included in the product system. Process-specific data from the facilities in operation, data from pilot studies and also databases were used in the life cycle inventory (LCI) phase. In order to assess the potential environmental impacts of the waste management alternatives, the inventory data were interpreted with three LCIA models, namely DAIA, Eco-indicator 99 and EPS 2000, in the life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) phase. The results of the economic assessment are not reported here. The combined assessment of the ecology and costs is reported in the publication: Myllymaa et al. 2005. A method for implementing life cycle surveys of waste management alternatives' environmental and cost

  4. Air quality in the Helsinki metropolitan area in 2010; Ilmanlaatu paeaekaupunkiseudulla vuonna 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malkki, M.; Lounasheimo, J.; Niemi, J.; Myllynen, M.; Loukkola, K.

    2011-06-15

    fine particles did not exceed the limit value, but the annual guideline based on health effects given by WHO was exceeded at the monitoring sites and in Helsinki city centre. Long-range transport of fine particles caused high concentrations from time to time in the whole metropolitan area. Also emissions of local traffic and small scale wood burning caused high daily concentrations occasionally. Emissions from small scale wood burning cause high concentrations of benzo(a)pyrene and its target value is estimated to be exceeded locally near emission sources in many areas with densely built detached houses. In 2008 the target value was exceeded in Itae-Hakkila area of detached housing. In the measurements done in 2009 and 2010 no exceedances were observed at Vartiokylae monitoring station, which is not as densely built as Itae-Hakkila. The annual average concentration of black carbon was in Vartiokylae 0.8 mug/m3 in 2009. In 2010 the annual average in Toeoeloentulli monitoring site was 2.6 mug/m3, which is the highest result in all measurements carried out in urban environments in Finland. Ozone concentrations were below the target value for protection of human health, but exceeded the long-term objective over the whole area. The concentrations of sulphur dioxide, carbon monoxide, benzene, and lead were low and did not exceed the limit values in 2010. In the long run the concentrations of air pollutants have decreased except for those of ozone and fine particles. However, the concentrations of nitrogen dioxide have no longer decreased during the past years. In 2010 the emissions of nitrogen oxides increased due to increased need for district heating energy and energy production. The emissions of sulphur dioxide, particles, carbon monoxide and volatile organic compounds decreased, however. The share of natural gas, which is a cleaner fuel than coal, increased in fuels used for energy production. In the long run the total emissions of different pollutants have decreased in

  5. Gay-friendly Helsinki: Case Helsinki Pride

    OpenAIRE

    Kinnunen, Emmi

    2012-01-01

    This thesis is done for Helsinki City Tourism & Convention Bureau and the task was to research Helsinki Pride event in a perspective of gay-friendly tourism. Helsinki Pride is the largest LGBT event organised in Finland. It is organised every summer and in this year’s (2011) weeklong event there were about 30 000 participants all together. The most visible part of the event is the Gay Pride parade and Party in the Park. Helsinki Pride is organised by human rights organisation Helsingin seudun...

  6. Changes in the food habits of Chinese students after migration to Helsinki, Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Ting

    2010-01-01

    Elintarvike ja ympÀristötieteiden laitos, ravitsemustiede Globalization encourages migration all over the world. Dietary acculturation, the process of adopting the dietary practices of the host country, has become an interesting issue in community nutrition and nutritional anthropology. This is the first study on Chinese immigrants and dietary acculturation in Finland. In this study, the KoctÌrk model is used as conceptual framework which had showed its usefulness to structure the vario...

  7. Looking for the role of nature experiences in planning and decision making: a perspective from the Helsinki Metropolitan Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maija Faehnle

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Public experiences of everyday environments influence well-being and quality of life and effective planning for these environments can promote social sustainability. This article discusses how residents’ values related to urban nature areas are as important as ecological and technical issues and can inform urban nature planning and decision making. We first provide a generic review of residents’ values and meanings regarding urban nature. We then outline practices for obtaining data on these values and meanings and present examples from the Helsinki (Finland Metropolitan Area. The article concludes with a discussion of the challenges that nature experiences bring to planning and decision making and highlights why and how insights generated as a result of residents’ participation should be included in the knowledge base for planning decisions.

  8. Location choices of the Creative Class in Finland with a special focus on Helsinki

    OpenAIRE

    Fossa, Veronica

    2012-01-01

    We are currently living in an age of creativity, in which new economic realities based on knowledge and embracing new technologies and new ways of production are emerging. Hence, cities around the world compete in order to attract and retain the highly educated and talented individuals who drive these activities, establishing the so-called creative class. Few studies have investigated the location of the creative class in Finland although many studies regarding American and European cities ar...

  9. Underground space planning in Helsinki

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilkka Vähäaho

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives insight into the use of underground space in Helsinki, Finland. The city has an underground master plan (UMP for its whole municipal area, not only for certain parts of the city. Further, the decision-making history of the UMP is described step-by-step. Some examples of underground space use in other cities are also given. The focus of this paper is on the sustainability issues related to urban underground space use, including its contribution to an environmentally sustainable and aesthetically acceptable landscape, anticipated structural longevity and maintaining the opportunity for urban development by future generations. Underground planning enhances overall safety and economy efficiency. The need for underground space use in city areas has grown rapidly since the 21st century; at the same time, the necessity to control construction work has also increased. The UMP of Helsinki reserves designated space for public and private utilities in various underground areas of bedrock over the long term. The plan also provides the framework for managing and controlling the city's underground construction work and allows suitable locations to be allocated for underground facilities. Tampere, the third most populated city in Finland and the biggest inland city in the Nordic countries, is also a good example of a city that is taking steps to utilise underground resources. Oulu, the capital city of northern Finland, has also started to ‘go underground’. An example of the possibility to combine two cities by an 80-km subsea tunnel is also discussed. A new fixed link would generate huge potential for the capital areas of Finland and Estonia to become a real Helsinki-Tallinn twin city.

  10. Underground space planning in Helsinki

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ilkka Vhaho

    2014-01-01

    This paper gives insight into the use of underground space in Helsinki, Finland. The city has an under-ground master plan (UMP) for its whole municipal area, not only for certain parts of the city. Further, the decision-making history of the UMP is described step-by-step. Some examples of underground space use in other cities are also given. The focus of this paper is on the sustainability issues related to urban underground space use, including its contribution to an environmentally sustainable and aesthetically acceptable landscape, anticipated structural longevity and maintaining the opportunity for urban development by future generations. Underground planning enhances overall safety and economy effi-ciency. The need for underground space use in city areas has grown rapidly since the 21st century;at the same time, the necessity to control construction work has also increased. The UMP of Helsinki reserves designated space for public and private utilities in various underground areas of bedrock over the long term. The plan also provides the framework for managing and controlling the city’s underground con-struction work and allows suitable locations to be allocated for underground facilities. Tampere, the third most populated city in Finland and the biggest inland city in the Nordic countries, is also a good example of a city that is taking steps to utilise underground resources. Oulu, the capital city of northern Finland, has also started to‘go underground’. An example of the possibility to combine two cities by an 80-km subsea tunnel is also discussed. A new fixed link would generate huge potential for the capital areas of Finland and Estonia to become a real Helsinki-Tallinn twin city.

  11. A survey of the investigations concerning nuclear district heating in the Helsinki Metropolitan Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The investigations concerning the economy and the basic technical solutions of nuclear district heating in the Helsinki Metropolitan Area, HMA, are done and a power plant company is founded to realize the plan. However there are difficulties in siting the plant. The coordination of the new power plants in the country has also caused postponement of the HMA project. According to the prognoses for electricity in this country, there is no need for new nuclear power plants before the middle of the 1980's after the two units both at the Loviisa and Olkiluoto power plants. On the basis of studies concerning unit size it has been concluded that the electric output of the next nuclear power unit should be 1000 MW. However, the site of the unit and the exact time of completing it are open. The possibility to locate the plant in the Helsinki Metropolitan Area is an important alternative. (author)

  12. Air quality in the Helsinki metropolitan area in 2011; Ilmanlaatu paeaekaupunkiseudulla vuonna 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malkki, M.; Matilainen, L.; Kousa, A.; Myllynen, M.; Niemi, J.; Loukkola, K.

    2012-07-01

    Helsinki Region Environmental Services Authority HSY monitors air quality in the Helsinki metropolitan area. In 2011 air quality in the region was most of the time good or satisfactory. The number of hours with poor or very poor air quality was at many monitoring sites smaller than during the previous year. Poor or very poor air quality was in most cases due to spring time street dust. There were no significant long-range transport episodes or other long lasting events of deteriorated air quality. Snow cover that lasted up to the beginning of April and changeable weather restrained resuspension of street dust except for the major roads. The strongest street dust period did not start until the 11th of April, about two weeks later than normally. Intensified cleaning of streets and sprinkling them with dilute solution of calcium chloride have been effective in decreasing the concentrations of thoracic particles, the limit values of which have not been exceeded after 2006. The national 24-hour guideline for thoracic particles was exceeded in busy traffic environments during the street dust period in spring. In 2011 the annual average concentration of nitrogen dioxide no longer exceeded the limit value in the city centre of Helsinki at Mannerheimintie monitoring station. In previous years the limit value has been exceeded also at the Mannerheimintie monitoring station. The limit value was, however, still exceeded at many places in busy street canyons of Helsinki. The limit value should have been achieved by the beginning of 2010. Because this aim was not achieved by the given date, a postponement has been applied for from the EU Commission. The national 24-hour guideline was exceeded during nine months in the street canyon of Maekelaenkatu, during three months in the Helsinki city centre and in February also in many places in the busy traffic areas of the region. The concentrations of fine particles did not exceed the limit value, but the annual guideline based on

  13. Leadership credibility - Perceptions of female leaders on credibility in tourism industry in Helsinki metropolitan area

    OpenAIRE

    Kauppila, Kati

    2013-01-01

    This thesis discusses perceptions of female leaders on credibility in tourism industry in Helsinki metropolitan area and it is done between September 2012 - January 2013. The topic was chosen by the author, since she is personally interested in leadership studies and she also thinks that the topic is important and should be researched further. This thesis tries to found out how female leaders feel about leader’s credibility, whether there are differences in leadership credibility between male...

  14. Air quality in the Helsinki Metropolitan Area in 2012; Ilmanlaatu paeaekaupunkiseudulla vuonna 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aarnio, P.; Matilainen, L.; Loukkola, K.

    2013-09-01

    Helsinki Region Environmental Services Authority HSY monitors air quality in the Helsinki metropolitan area. In 2012 air quality in the region was most of the time good or satisfactory. The number of hours with poor or very poor air quality was at all monitoring sites smaller than during the previous year. Poor or very poor air quality was in most cases due to spring time street dust. The 24-hour limit value for thoracic particles was exceeded at the mobile monitoring site near the Keha I ring road. At the permanent monitoring sites the number of days with the 24-hour average concentration above 50 {mu}g/m{sup 3} was clearly lower than during the previous years. The national 24-hour guideline for thoracic particles was exceeded at Leppavaara and Keha I monitoring sites during the street dust period and at Keha I monitoring site also in November. The concentrations of fine particles did not exceed the EU limit value or the WHO annual guideline value. The WHO 24-hour guideline was, however, exceeded during 2 to 8 days depending on the monitoring site. The exceedances were mainly caused by long range transport of particles. Besides these, the emissions from traffic and small scale wood burning caused a few exceedances of the WHO 24-hour guideline in ground based inversion situations with low wind speeds. At the Mannerheimintie monitoring station in the city centre of Helsinki the annual average concentration of nitrogen dioxide was lower than in 2011 and clearly below the limit value. The limit value was, however, still exceeded at many places in busy street canyons of Helsinki. The concentration level of the one hour limit value was exceeded seven hours at Mannerheimintie monitoring site and four ours in Vallila. The national 24-hour and/or onehour guideline were exceeded at Mannerheimintie, Vallila, Keha I, Leppavaara, and Tikkurila monitoring sites. The concentrations of ozone were in 2012 lower than in 2011 at most monitoring stations, and they were below the

  15. Report of the ninth meeting of the Baltic Marine Environment Protection Commission - Helsinki Commission (HELCOM). Convention on the Protection of the Marine Environment of the Baltic Sea Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is the report of the ninth meeting of the Baltic Marine Environment Protection Commission - the Helsinki Commission - held in Helsinki 15-19 February 1988. The Commission is composed of the representatives of Denmark, Finland, Federal Republic of Germany, Poland, Sweden and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics as well as national, regional and international organizations. The Meeting made a number of proposals and recommendations on the protection of the marine environment

  16. Underground space planning in Helsinki

    OpenAIRE

    Ilkka Vähäaho

    2014-01-01

    This paper gives insight into the use of underground space in Helsinki, Finland. The city has an underground master plan (UMP) for its whole municipal area, not only for certain parts of the city. Further, the decision-making history of the UMP is described step-by-step. Some examples of underground space use in other cities are also given. The focus of this paper is on the sustainability issues related to urban underground space use, including its contribution to an environmentally sustainab...

  17. Fireplaces and use of firewood in Helsinki area; Tulisijojen vaehaepaeaestoeinen kaeyttoe. Tietoa ja tuloksia paeaekaupunkiseudulta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makkonen, J.

    2010-07-01

    This fact sheet is focused on fireplaces and fine particle emissions. Short theory of clean combustion and practical advices are given, because the fireplace user has a remarkable affect on emissions. Results from a recent fireplace study in Helsinki area are also reported in the text. According to the study over 90 percent of detached houses had at least one fireplace. Only 10 percent of respondents didn't have any kind of burning device. Sauna stoves made up over 20 percent of all fireplaces. The most common fireplace in the accommodation was a fireplace with doors and a capability to store heat. The second common was an open fireplace. Among the respondents who used oil heating open fireplace was slightly more frequent than the fireplace with doors. Use of fireplaces was concentrated on weekends (Saturday) and in evenings (6-9 pm). Use of Finnish stove was low in summer time and sauna stoves were used almost constantly during the year. The percentage in figures means how many fireplaces were used in relation to all fireplaces. In 2009 TTS Research made a study concerning fireplaces and the use of chopped firewood in the Helsinki metropolitan area. The inventory was commissioned by the Helsinki Metropolitan Area Council (YTV). The target group was detached house owners. The results were analysed from the perspective of primary heating systems, which were electric heating (direct and accumulator), oil heating and district heating. The aim was to gather background information in order to estimate emissions. The study method was a postal questionnaire which was carried out in February 2008 and 2009

  18. Use of atmospheric elemental size distributions in estimating aerosol sources in the Helsinki area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pakkanen, T.A.; Kerminen, V.-M.; Korhonen, C.H.; Hillamo, R.E. [Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki (Finland); Aarnio, P.; Koskentalo, T. [Helsinki Metropolitan Area Council, Helsinki (Finland); Maenhaut, W. [University of Ghent, Gent (Belgium). Institute for Nuclear Sciences

    2001-07-01

    In June 1996-June 1997 Berner impactors were used in the Helsinki area to measure size distribution of atmospheric aerosols simultaneously at an urban and at a rural site. Ten sample pairs were collected in the size range of 0.03-15.7{mu}m of equivalent aerodynamic diameter (EAD). Average size distributions at the two sites were calculated for 29 elements, particulate mass, and sulphate. At both sites especially sulphate, As, B, Cd, Bi, Tl, and V were enriched in fine particles (EAD < 2.3{mu}m). In order to estimate local fine-particle sources of the various chemical components, the similarities and dissimilarities in the accumulation-mode parameters were studied separately for both sites. It was observed that often in different samples, different components had similar accumulation modes. At both sites, particulate mass, As, and Pb had similar accumulation modes to sulphate which suggests that long-range transport (LRT) is important for these components. V, Ni, Mo, and Co formed another group of similar accumulation modes at both sites suggesting that these elements largely originated from local and regional oil combustion. In addition, other groups of similar accumulation modes were observed but these groups were different between the sites. The meteorological parameters indicated that seven sample pairs formed a subset of the data in which the local emissions of the Helsinki area were transported to the urban site but not to the rural site. For this subset the rural fine-particle concentrations were considered to represent an upper limit estimate for the LRT. These upper limit LRT estimations were further improved by utilising the quantitative relative size distributions (QRSD) method at the rural site. The QRSD method supposes that in the fine-particle size range the LRT fractions of all chemical components have a similar shape in their size distributions. Fine-particle sulphate is typically long-range transported, and was therefore selected as the model

  19. Greenhouse Gas Implications of Urban Sprawl in the Helsinki Metropolitan Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanna Ala-Mantila

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Suburban households living in spacious detached houses and owing multiple cars are often seen as main culprits for negative greenhouse consequences of urban sprawl. Consequently, the effects of sprawl have been mostly studied from the viewpoints of emissions from home energy consumption and private driving. Little attention has been paid to the changes in other consumption. In this paper, urban sprawl is linked to the proliferation of semi-detached and detached housing, described as a low-rise lifestyle, at the expense of apartment house living i.e., high-rise lifestyle. We analyze differences between the low-rise and the high-rise lifestyles and their environmental effects in the Helsinki Metropolitan Area, taking into account all consumption activities. Environmental effects are assessed by combining greenhouse gas intensities from a consumption-based environmentally-extended input-output (EE I-O model with expenditure data. Then these carbon footprints are further elucidated with regression analysis. We find that low-rise lifestyles causes approximately 14% more emissions than high-rise lifestyles. However, the relative contributions of emissions from different sources, whether direct or indirect, are almost equal for both. Furthermore, when controlling the level of expenditure, the differences between the two lifestyles unexpectedly disappear and in certain cases are even reversed. We believe that our consumption-based approach facilitates the understanding of sprawling lifestyles and offers important insights for sustainable policy-design and urban planning.

  20. Geophysical investigations in the Kivetty area, Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heikkinen, E. (ed.); Ahokas, H. (Fintact Ky, Helsinki (Finland)); Paananen, M. (Geological Survey of Finland, Espoo (Finland)); Oehberg, A. (Saanio and Riekkola Consulting Engineers, Helsinki (Finland)); Front, K.; Okko, O.; Pitkaenen, P. (Technical Research of Finland, Espoo (Finland). Road, Traffic and Geotechnical Lab.); Cosma, C.; Heikkinen, P.; Keskinen, J.; Korhonen, R. (Vibrometric Oy, Perttula

    1992-09-01

    Investigations were carried out at Kivetty site in Konginkangas, in central Finland, by geological, geophysical, geohydrological and geochemical methods in 1987-1991 to determine the suitability of the bedrock for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. Airborne, ground and borehole geophysical methods were used to study the rock type distribution, fracturing and hydraulic conductivity of the bedrock to a depth of one kilometre.

  1. Geophysical investigations in the Kivetty area, Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Investigations were carried out at Kivetty site in Konginkangas, in central Finland, by geological, geophysical, geohydrological and geochemical methods in 1987-1991 to determine the suitability of the bedrock for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. Airborne, ground and borehole geophysical methods were used to study the rock type distribution, fracturing and hydraulic conductivity of the bedrock to a depth of one kilometre

  2. Sources and chemical composition of atmospheric fine and coarse particles in the Helsinki area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pakkanen, T.A.; Loukkola, K.; Korhonen, C.H. [Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki (FI)] (and others)

    2001-07-01

    During April 1996 - June 1997 size-segregated atmospheric aerosol particles were collected at an urban and a rural site in the Helsinki area by utilising virtual impactors (VI) and Berner low-pressure impactors (BLPI). In addition, VI samples were collected at a semi-urban site during October 1996 - May 1997. The average PM{sub 2.3} (fine particle) concentrations at the urban and rural sites were 11.8 and 8.4 {mu}g/m{sup 3}, and the PM{sub 2.3}-{sub 15} (coarse particle) concentrations were 12.8 and about 5{mu}g/m{sup 3}, respectively. The difference in fine particle mass concentrations suggests that on average, more than one third of the fine mass at the urban site is of local origin. Evaporation of fine particle nitrate from the VI Teflon filters during sampling varied similarly at the three sites, the average evaporation being about 50-60 per cent. The average fine particle concentrations of the chemical components (25 elements and 13 ions) appeared to be fairly similar at the three sites for most components, which suggests that despite the long-range transport, the local emissions of these components were relatively evenly distributed in the Helsinki area. Exceptions were the average fine particles Ba, Fe, Sb and V concentrations that were clearly highest at the urban site pointing to traffic (Ba, Fe, Sb) and to combustion of heavy fuel oil (V) as the likely sources. The average coarse particle concentrations for most components were highest at the urban site and lowest at the rural site. Average chemical composition of fine particles was fairly similar at the urban and rural sites: non-analysed fraction (mainly carbonaceous material and water) 43 per cent and 37 per cent, sulphate 21 per cent and 25 per cent, crustal matter 12 per cent and 13 per cent, nitrate 12 per cent and 11 per cent, ammonium 9 per cent and 10 per cent and sea-salt 2.5 per cent and 3.2 per cent, respectively. At the semi-urban site also, the average fine particle composition was similar

  3. Impact of production method and production area on energy balance of rye consumed in Helsinki

    OpenAIRE

    Sinkkonen, Marko

    2002-01-01

    The results of the study show that production of fertilizers is the biggest factor in the rye production chain. Therefore organic rye tillage is not as intensive in energy usage as conventional practices. The energy consumed for transportation does not play a big role in total energy consumption of rye consumed in Helsinki.

  4. School Performance, School Segregation, and Stress-Related Symptoms: Comparing Helsinki and Stockholm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modin, Bitte; Karvonen, Sakari; Rahkonen, Ossi; Östberg, Viveca

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates cross-cultural differences in the interrelation between school performance, school segregation, and stress-related health among 9th-grade students in the greater Stockholm and Helsinki areas. Contrary to the Swedish case, it has been proposed that school performance in Finland is largely independent of the specific school…

  5. Empowerment Experiences of Kenyan Mothers living in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Ndungu, Lucy

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT Ndungu Lucy. Empowerment experiences of Kenyan mothers living in Finland. Järvenpää, Spring 2010, 41 p., 2 appendices. Diaconia University of Applied Sciences, Diak South, Järvenpää Unit, Degree programme in Social Services. (UAS) The research was carried out in Helsinki area in Finland and it is based on Kenyan mothers' experiences. The aim of the study is to gain from opportunities Kenyan mothers attain in Finland, as empowerment tools to change Kenyans living standar...

  6. The municipal continuum: Research on maritime water pollution in Helsinki in the 20th century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurila, S. K. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Social History; Laakkonen, S. J. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Social Policy

    2004-07-01

    In general, the history of environmental research is not known very well. Our study contributes to filling this gap by focusing on the history of the methods that were used during the 20th century to study the state of the urban sea area in Helsinki, Finland. From the beginning of the past century, the methodological basis of municipal water pollution studies in Helsinki was broad, involving the use of physical, chemical, hygienic and biological methods. Since 1904, municipal laboratories have overseen and conducted most physico-chemical and bacteriological studies of pollution of urban watercourses, and they have done regular annual sampling since 1947. In the 1920s and 1930s, the municipal laboratories cooperated with the University of Helsinki and, secondarily, with the Helsinki University of Technology in order to develop the skills and manpower that were required in order to conduct pollution studies. Statutory monitoring was initiated in the mid-1960s, and it continues today. (orig.)

  7. Urban and rural ultrafine (PM{sub 0.1}) particles in the Helsinki area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pakkanen, Tuomo A.; Kerminen, Veli-Matti; Korhonen, Christina H.; Hillamo, Risto E. [Finnish Meteorological Inst., Helsinki (Finland); Aarnio, Paeivi; Koskentalo, Tarja [Helsinki Metropolitan Area Council, Helsinki (Finland); Maenhaut, Willy [Institute for Nuclear Sciences, Gent (Belgium)

    2001-07-01

    In June 1996-June 1997 Berner low-pressure impactors were used at an urban and at a rural site in the Helsinki area for sampling ultrafine particles (UFP, PM{sub 0.1}). Ten samples pairs, each pair measured simultaneously, were collected in the size range of 0.03-15{mu}m of particle aerodynamic diameter. More than 40 chemical components were measured. Surprisingly, the average UFP mass concentration was higher at the rural site (520ng/m{sup 3}) than at the urban site (490ng/m{sup 3}). The average chemical composition of UFP was similar at the two sites. The most abundant of the measured components were sulphate (32 and 40ng/m{sup 3} for the urban and rural sites, respectively), ammonium (22 and 25ng/m{sup 3}), nitrate (4 and 11ng/m{sup 3}) and the Ca{sup 2+} ion (5 and 7ng/m{sup 3}). The most important metals at both sites were Ca, Na, Fe, K and Zn with concentrations between 0.7 and 5ng/m{sup 3}. Of the heavy metals, Ni, V, Cu, and Pb were important with average ultrafine concentrations between about 0.1 and 0.2ng/m{sup 3}. Also the organic anions oxalate (urban 2.1ng/m{sup 3} and rural 1.9ng/m{sup 3}) and methanesulphonate (1.3 and 1.7ng/m{sup 3}) contributed similarly at both sites. The measured species accounted for only about 15-20% of the total ultrafine mass. The fraction that was not measured includes mainly carbonaceous material and water. It was estimated that the amount of water was about 10% (50ng/m{sup 3}) and that of carbonaceous material about 70% (350ng/m{sup 3}) at both sites. Aitken modes were observed for most components with the average mass mean mode diameters being between about 0.06 and 0.12{mu}m. The average concentrations in the Aitken mode differed from those in the UFP for several components. The average contributions of ultrafine mass to the fine particle mass (PM{sub 2.5}) was about 7% at the urban site and 8.5% at the rural site. At both sites the contribution of ultrafine to fine was especially high for Se, Ag, B and Ni (10-20%) and

  8. Atmospheric inorganic trace contaminants in Finland, especially in the Gulf of Finland area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atmospheric aerosol samples were collected at Utoe and Virolahti in the Gulf of Finland area and Aehtaeri in Central Finland during 1991-1992 using a filter pack which divides the samples between fine and coarse fractions. The concentrations of 33 elements in the samples were analysed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and inductively coupled plasma mass-spectrometry (ICP-MS). A simple and quantitative acid digestion method based on HNO3-HF (3+1) dissolution at room temperature was developed for the ICP-MS analysis of the aerosol samples. The average total (fine + coarse) atmospheric concentrations range from 0.083 ng m-3 for Cd at Utoe (0.095 ng m-3 at Virolahti and 0.066 ng m-3 at Aehtaeri), 0.59 ng m-3 for As (0.75 ng m-3 at Virolahti and 0.46 ng m-3 at Aehtaeri), 0.80 ng m-3 for Cu (1.0 ng m-3 at Virolahti and 0.82 ng m-3 at Aehtaeri), 1.1 ng m-3 for Ni ( 1.3 ng m-3 at Virolahti and 0.6 ng m-3 at Aehtaeri), 7.1 ng m-3 for Pb (7.1 ng m-3 at Virolahti and 6.3 ng m-3 at Aehtaeri), 10 ng m-3 for Zn (12 ng m-3 at Virolahti and 8.6 ng m-3 at Aehtaeri) to 87 ng m-3 for Ca (430 ng m-3 at Virolahti and 53 ng m-3 at Aehtaeri) and 730 ng m-3 for Na at Utoe (250 ng m-3 at Virolahti and 190 ng m-3 at Aehtaeri). Analysis of the elemental data is given using trajectories, principal component analysis and longrange transport modelling. The sea areas (Utoe, Virolahti, Hailuoto) have most of the heavy metal air pollution in Finland, as witnessed by the aerosol concentration and wet deposition data, due to the location of the sites in relative proximity to the concentration of population and industrial plants in coastal areas and to long-range transport. There is a clear decreasing gradient in the deposition of As, Cd, Cr. Pb, and V from South to North in Finland. In general, the trace element concentrations and deposition are lower in Finland than in Central Europe. It has been shown that the effect of large particulate emission sources in Estonia can be seen in

  9. Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-10-01

    In 1985, Finland's population stood at 4,913,300, with an annual growth rate of 0.35%. The 1984 infant mortality rate was 6.6/1000 and life expectancy was 70.4 years for males and 78.8 years for females. Finland's literacy rate approaches 100%. Of the labor force of 2,437,000, 11.5% are engaged in agriculture; 45.5% are employed in industry, commerce, and finance; 28% are in the service sector; 5.1% work for the government; and 7.6% work in the transport sector. The gross domestic product (GDP) was US$54 billion in 1985, with an annual growth rate of 2.8% and a per capita income of $1,007. Industry accounts for 28% of the GDP. An extensive social welfare system, comprising 20% of the national income, includes a variety of pension and assistance programs and a comprehensive health insurance program covering the entire Finnish population. Finland's proportional representation system of government encourages a multitude of political parties and has resulted in several coalition governments. Finland's industrial economy is based on capital investment and new technology. PMID:12178064

  10. Event seeking for sponsors: Case Helsinki Pride

    OpenAIRE

    Jaakkola, Johanna

    2014-01-01

    This thesis was done for HeSeTa Ry (Helsingin seudun seksuaalinen tasavertaisuus ry) and the goal was to find out how Helsinki Pride could get sponsors more efficiently and how the co-operation could be made more long lasting with the current sponsors. Helsinki Pride is an event organized in Helsinki each year in June. It is also the biggest LGBT event organized in Finland. The biggest event of the week is the Gay Parade and the Party in the Park. In 2014 only these events had over 20 000 par...

  11. A modelling system for predicting urban air pollution: model description and applications in the Helsinki metropolitan area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have developed a modelling system for evaluating the traffic volumes, emissions from stationary and vehicular sources, and atmospheric dispersion of pollution in an urban area. The dispersion modelling is based on combined application of the urban dispersion modelling system (UDM-FMI) and the road network dispersion model (CAR-FMI). The system includes also a meteorological preprocessing model and a statistical and graphical analysis of the computed time series of concentrations. The modelling system contains a method, which allows for the chemical interaction of pollutants, originating from a large number of urban sources. This paper presents an overview of the modelling system and its application for estimating the NOx and NO2 concentrations in the Helsinki metropolitan area in 1993. A companion paper addresses comparison of model predictions with the results of an urban measurement network. This modelling system is an important regulatory assessment tool for the national environmental authorities. (author)

  12. Geophysical investigations of the Romuvaara area, Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the study area of Romuvaara, investigations have been carried out during 1987 - 90 with the aim of finding out whether the polyphasically deformed Precambrian gneiss complex is suitable for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. The bedrock has been studied by geological, geophysical, geohydrological and geochemical methods. Airborne, ground and borehole geophysical surveys were used in studying the rock type distribution, fracturing and hydraulic conductivity of the bedrock to a depth of one kilometre. Airborne surveys (magnetic, radiometric and two electromagnetic methods) and ground surveys (VLF and VLF-R, magnetic and soil radar methods) were useful in distinguishing the metadiabases, amphibolites and granodiorites from the less magnetized migmatites. The electromagnetic and seismic refraction surveys were used in locating crushed and fractured zones. The rock type distribution was studied by single-hole logging of susceptibility, natural γ radiation and radiometric γ-γ -density. Electrical and acoustic logging served the mapping of fractures and the interpretation of water injection tests. The flow conditions in the boreholes were studied by fluid logging and tube-wave sounding. The rock volume surrounding the boreholes was mapped by borehole radar with a frequency of 22 MHz. The upper parts of the boreholes were also studied by vertical radar profiling (VRP). Larger volumes of rock were mapped by vertical seismic profiling (VSP) using 4 - 5 transmitter shotholes per borehole

  13. Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document provides information on the status of institutional and financial arrangements in Finland for the long term management of HLW and SNF, It includes the following elements: A consistent set of requirements for the technical and legal infrastructure including: funding, liability, institutional control, records management, and research activities; An organizational structure with clearly defined responsibilities; and Provisions for participation by interested parties in decisions and outcomes

  14. Investigations concerning nuclear energy in the combined production of electricity and heat in the Helsinki metropolitan area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possibility of producing the base load of both electricity and district heat for the Helsinki Metropolitan Area (HMA) utilizing nuclear energy has been investigated since 1968. At every stage of the study, it has been concluded that district heating utilizing nuclear power in combined electricity and heat productions is the most economical way of heating the main part of the HMA. The studies have dealt with the economy of energy production and heat transmission as well as nuclear safety. According to the latest results, the optimum of the heat output of a 1000-MW(electric) unit is approximately 800 MW if the plant is situated 50 km away from the heat load center. For further studies and realization of the plans, the cities of the HMA and the state-owned power company, the Imatra Power Company, have formed a common company for the nuclear power plant project

  15. Business Plan for a Vietnamese Restaurant & Coffee Shop in Helsinki

    OpenAIRE

    Pham Do, Thien Huong

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the thesis was to invent a practical business plan for setting up a combination of a Vietnamese Restaurant and Coffee Shop which is located in the capital city of FinlandHelsinki and in a very central area of the Antilla Shopping Mall. The main purpose of this study is to determine whether a very unique Vietnamese restaurant is viable to function without any coordination with other Asian cuisines such as Chinese, Thai, etc… This thesis also clarifies the constructive oppor...

  16. Structural and magmatic evolution in the Loimaa area, southwestern Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nironen, M.

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Within the Loimaa area there is a junction of the general E-W structural trend of southern Finland and a NW-N-NE curving trend. The structure of the area is dominated by ductile D, and D4 deformations with E-W and N-S axial traces, respectively. The typical semicircular structures in the study area are interpreted as F3-F4 fold interference structures. The predominant plutonic rocks in the Loimaa area are penetratively foliated tonalites and granodiorites which probably intruded during D2 deformation. Peak regional metamorphism at upper amphibolite facies and emplacement of the Pöytyä Granodiorite ca. 1870 Ma ago occurred during D, deformation. The ductile style of D4 deformation in the Loimaa area is probably related to the high-grade metamorphism at 1850-1810 Ma in the late Svecofennian granite-migmatite (LSGM zone immediately south of the study area. The Oripää Granite was emplaced during D4 deformation. The structural evolution in the Loimaa area may be correlated with the evolution further to the northwest (Pori area and north (Tampere-Vammala area whereas correlation to the south and west is problematic. A transpressional model presented for the LSGM zone is not applicable to the Loimaa area.

  17. Using monosaccharide anhydrides to estimate the impact of wood combustion on fine particles in the Helsinki Metropolitan Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saarnio, K.; Saarikoski, S. [Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki (Finland); Niemi, J.V. [HSY Helsinki Region Environmental Services Authority, Helsinki (Finland)

    2012-11-01

    The spatiotemporal variation of ambient particles under the influence of biomass burning emissions was studied in the Helsinki Metropolitan Area (HMA) in selected periods during 2005-2009. Monosaccharide anhydrides (MAs; levoglucosan, mannosan and galactosan), commonly known biomass burning tracers, were used to estimate the wood combustion contribution to local particulate matter (PM) concentration levels at three urban background sites close to the city centre, and at three suburban sites influenced by local small-scale wood combustion. In the cold season (October-March), the mean MAs concentrations were 115-225 ng m{sup -3} and 83-98 ng m{sup -} {sup 3}at the suburban and urban sites, respectively. In the warm season, the mean MAs concentrations were low (19-78 ng m{sup -3}), excluding open land fire smoke episodes (222-378 ng m{sup -}3{sup )}. Regionally distributed wood combustion particles raised the levels over the whole HMA while particles from local wood combustion sources raised the level at suburban sites only. The estimated average contribution of wood combustion to fine particles (PM{sub 2.5}) ranged from 18% to 29% at the urban sites and from 31% to 66% at the suburban sites in the cold season. The PM measurements from ambient air and combustion experiments showed that the proportions of the three MAs can be utilised to separate the wildfire particles from residential wood combustion particles. (orig.)

  18. Chemical and physical characterization of traffic particles in four different highway environments in the Helsinki metropolitan area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enroth, Joonas; Saarikoski, Sanna; Niemi, Jarkko; Kousa, Anu; Ježek, Irena; Močnik, Griša; Carbone, Samara; Kuuluvainen, Heino; Rönkkö, Topi; Hillamo, Risto; Pirjola, Liisa

    2016-05-01

    Traffic-related pollution is a major concern in urban areas due to its deleterious effects on human health. The characteristics of the traffic emissions on four highway environments in the Helsinki metropolitan area were measured with a mobile laboratory, equipped with state-of-the-art instrumentation. Concentration gradients were observed for all traffic-related pollutants, particle number (CN), particulate mass (PM1), black carbon (BC), organics, and nitrogen oxides (NO and NO2). Flow dynamics in different environments appeared to be an important factor for the dilution of the pollutants. For example, the half-decay distances for the traffic-related CN concentrations varied from 8 to 83 m at different sites. The PM1 emissions from traffic mostly consisted of organics and BC. At the most open site, the ratio of organics to BC increased with distance to the highway, indicating condensation of volatile and semi-volatile organics on BC particles. These condensed organics were shown to be hydrocarbons as the fraction of hydrocarbon fragments in organics increased. Regarding the CN size distributions, particle growth during the dilution was not observed; however the mass size distributions measured with a soot particle aerosol mass spectrometer (SP-AMS), showed a visible shift of the mode, detected at ˜ 100 nm at the roadside, to a larger size when the distance to the roadside increased. The fleet average emission factors appeared to be lower for the CN and higher for the NO2 than ten years ago. The reason is likely to be the increased fraction of light-duty (LD) diesel vehicles in the past ten years. The fraction of heavy-duty (HD) traffic, although constituting less than 10 % of the total traffic flow, was found to have a large impact on the emissions.

  19. Geophysical investigations in the Veitsivaara area, Finland summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teollisuuden Voima Oy (TVO carries out site investigations in Finland for final disposal of nuclear high level waste during 1987-2000. Investigations by geological, geophysical, geohydrological and geochemical methods were carried out in the Veitsivaara area in 1987-90 to determine the suitability of the bedrock for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. Airborne, ground and borehole geophysical methods were used to study the rock type distribution, fracturing and hydraulic conductivity. Airborne surveys were performed by magnetic, radiometric and two electromagnetic methods and ground investigations by VLF magnetic and resistivity, magnetic and impulse radar methods. Electromagnetic and seismic refraction surveys were used to locate crushed and fracture zones. The properties of weak electrical conductors, e.g. their depth dimensions, were studied by direct current resistivity measurements. The rock type distribution was studied by single-hole logging of susceptibility, natural γ-radiation and radiometric γ γ-density. Electrical and acoustic logging allowed water bearing fractures to be mapped and the results of water injection tests to be interpreted. Flow conditions in the boreholes were studied by both fluid logging and tube wave sounding

  20. Measuring Retail Service Quality in Sport Stores by Using RSQS Model : A case study of Stadium in Helsinki

    OpenAIRE

    Chernetskaya, Julia; Xiao, Jing

    2010-01-01

    During the past few decades service quality has become a major area of attention topractitioners, managers and researchers. It has strong impact on business performance,lower costs, customer satisfaction, customer loyalty and profitability. This study aimedat analysis of retail service quality dimensions at clothing stores. The purpose of thisthesis was to find out how customers perceive the overall retail service quality in a sportstore. We chose Stadium in Helsinki, Finland as our case comp...

  1. Geophysical investigations in the Kivetty area, Finland. Summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heikkinen, E. [ed.; Ahokas, H. [Fintact Ky, Helsinki (Finland); Paananen, M. [Geological Survey of Finland, Espoo (Finland); Oehberg, A. [Saanio and Riekkola Consulting Engineers, Helsinki (Finland); Front, K.; Okko, O.; Pitkaenen, P. [Technical Research of Finland, Espoo (Finland). Road, Traffic and Geotechnical Lab.; Cosma, C.; Heikkinen, P.; Keskinen, J.; Korhonen, R. [Vibrometric Oy, Perttula (Finland)

    1992-09-01

    Investigations were carried out at Kivetty site in Konginkangas, in central Finland, by geological, geophysical, geohydrological and geochemical methods in 1987-1991 to determine the suitability of the bedrock for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. Airborne, ground and borehole geophysical methods were used to study the rock type distribution, fracturing and hydraulic conductivity of the bedrock to a depth of one kilometre.

  2. Utilization of remote sensing methods in prospecting of alkaline rocks in Finland and neighbouring areas

    OpenAIRE

    Paarma, H.; Vartiainen, H

    1996-01-01

    The availability of various kind of satellite imageries and geological, geochemical and geophysical data in useful form has given possibility to confirm the earlier tectonic interpretations of deep fracture zones and to find new interesting zones for the exploring of alkaline rocks in Finland. The interpretations and suggestions given here are tentative prognoses for prospecting certain areas. The selecting of real target areas need more work. Some methods for this kind of classifying researc...

  3. Mapping and characterising children’s daily mobility in urban residential areas in Turku, Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Nora Charlotta Fagerholm; Anna Broberg

    2011-01-01

    Independent mobility in a local environment is crucial for a child’s development and physical activity, contributing to overall health and well-being. This methodological article describes a study capturing children’s daily mobility in two residential areas in Turku, southwestern Finland, by combining the methods of GPS tracking, mobility diaries, interviews and questionnaires. Geographical positioning data enables analysis of spatial characteristics of children’s mobility, e.g. the compariso...

  4. Land uplift in the Olkiluoto-Pyhaejaervi area, southwestern Finland, during the last 8000 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Land is rising in relation to sea level several millimetres per year on the coast of southwestern Finland. The aim of the study was to gather information about the land uplift process. Sediment samples were collected from 14 lakes lying at different altitudes in the area between Olkiluoto and Lake Pyhaejaervi in southwestern Finland to study the relative sea-level changes and land uplift. The present-day lakes had once been below the waters of the Baltic, but due to uplift they had been isolated from the sea one after another. The isolation points in the sediments were determined by preliminary diatom analyses. They show the change from brackish to fresh-water conditions, and these horizons were then dated by two radiocarbon assays. (37 refs., 18 figs., 1 tab.)

  5. American Studies in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Jopi Nyman

    2005-01-01

    Since its establishment in 1996, the Finnish American Studies Association has sought to promote the field of American Studies in Finland by organizing conferences, events and by increasing networking amongst its scattered membership (ca. 35) working at various universities and other higher education institutions. The current President of the Association is Dr Jopi Nyman (University of Joensuu) and its Secretary is Dr Ari Helo (University of Helsinki). While currently only the University of He...

  6. 3D modeling of soil structure in urban groundwater areas: case studies in Kolpene, Rovaniemi, Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupila, Juho

    2015-04-01

    3D modeling of groundwater areas is an important research method in groundwater surveys. Model of geological soil structure improves the knowledge of linkage between land use planning and groundwater protection. Results can be used as base information when developing the water supply services and anticipating and performing the measures needed in case of environmental accidents. Also, collected information is utilized when creating the groundwater flow model. In Finland, structure studies have been conducted in cooperation (among others) with the municipalities and local water suppliers and with the authorities from the Centre for Economic Development, Transport and the Environment. Geological Survey of Finland carries out project "Structure studies in Kolpene groundwater area" in Rovaniemi, Finnish Lapland. Study site is located in northern Finland, in the vicinity of the city center of Rovaniemi. Extent of the area is about 13 square kilometers and there are lots of urban residential areas and other human activities. The objective of this project is to determine the geological structure of the Kolpene groundwater area so that the results can be used to estimate the validity of the present exclusion area and possible risks to the groundwater caused by the land use. Soil layers of the groundwater area are studied by means of collecting information by heavy drilling, geophysical surveying (ground penetrating radar and gravimeter measurements) and water sampling from the installed observation pipes. Also the general geological and hydrological mappings are carried out. Main results which will be produced are: 1) the model of the bedrock surface, 2) the model of the surface of the ground water and flow directions, 3) the thickness of ground water saturated soil layers and 4) location and main characteristics of the soil layers which are significant to the ground water conditions. The preparing studies have been started at the end of 2013 and the results will be

  7. Helsinki market entry opportunity for a Vegan & Raw Danish restaurant chain 42˚RAW

    OpenAIRE

    Yablokova, Anna

    2015-01-01

    For those who follow and are interested in the vegan lifestyle, the scarce number of restaurants which offer suchlike products in Helsinki is evident. Comparing the local market with cities around the globe this impression can be proven with statistical data. Despite the world growing trend of healthy eating and living, Finland is still far behind even the neighbouring Nordic countries on the level of niche vegan industry. The purpose of this thesis was to research the Helsinki market and fin...

  8. Law Company ERP Software Market Analysis of St. Petersburg and Stockholm - CASE: CSI Helsinki Oy

    OpenAIRE

    Miettinen, Marko; Hämäläinen, Mikko

    2010-01-01

    This study is a part of bachelor studies in Laurea University of Applied Sciences and was commissioned by the case company, CSI Helsinki. CSI Helsinki provides enterprise resource planning (ERP) and customer relationship management (CRM) solutions for the leading consulting businesses in Finland and focuses on leading law companies abroad. Since the first ERP systems were developed in the 1960s they have been used by companies to improve management of business functions and gain competiti...

  9. Perspectives on prescribing in nursing homes in Helsinki

    OpenAIRE

    Hosia-Randell, Helka

    2010-01-01

    Prescribing for older patients is challenging. The prevalence of diseases increases with advancing age and causes extensive drug use. Impairments in cognitive, sensory, social and physical functioning, multimorbidity and comorbidities, as well as age-related changes in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics all add to the complexity of prescribing. This study is a cross-sectional assessment of all long-term residents aged ≥ 65 years in all nursing homes in Helsinki, Finland. The residen...

  10. University of Helsinki Music Research Laboratory and Electronic Music Studio

    OpenAIRE

    Lassfolk, Kai; Ojanen, Mikko

    2014-01-01

    The University of Helsinki Music Research Laboratory and Electronic Music Studio is one of the oldest studios and research facilities of its kind in the Nordic countries. Originally named "ÄÀniteknillinen laboratorio" (Laboratory of sound technology), the studio was the leading electronic music facility in Finland from the early 1960s to the late 1970s. Built and maintained by Erkki Kurenniemi, the studio served also as an important center for the development of electronic musical instrumen...

  11. A business plan for establishing a Bangladeshi restaurant in Helsinki

    OpenAIRE

    Hosen, Zobayer

    2015-01-01

    The field of ethnic food industry is growing day by day due to increased ethnic population, popularity of ethnic food, health consciousness, changes in the eating habit and increased multiculturalism. The main objective of the study is to make a practical business plan for an ethnic Bangladeshi restaurant in Helsinki, Finland. The business plan explains the products and services which will be provided, location, logistics, employee training and education, food production, management structure...

  12. Black carbon concentration trends in Helsinki during 1996–2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Pakkanen

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The black carbon (BC concentration trends were studied during ten years in Helsinki, Finland. Measurements were made in three campaigns between 1996 and 2005 at an urban area locating two kilometres from the centre of Helsinki. The first campaign was from November 1996 to June 1997, the second from September 2000 to May 2001 and the third from March 2004 to October 2005. In this study, only data from winter and spring months was analysed. The effect of traffic and meteorological variables on the measured BC concentrations was studied by means of a multiple regression analysis, where the meteorological data was obtained from a meteorological pre-processing model (MPP-FMI. During the ten years, the campaign median BC concentrations were found to decrease slightly from 1.11 to 1.00 μg m−3. The lowest campaign median concentration (0.93 μg m−3 was measured during the second campaign in 2000–2001, when also the lowest traffic rates were measured. The strongest decrease between campaigns 1 and 3 was observed during weekday daytimes, when the traffic rates are highest. The variables affecting the measured BC concentrations most were traffic, wind speed and mixing height. On weekdays, traffic had clearly the most important influence and on weekends the effect of wind speed diluted the effect of traffic. The affecting variables and their influence on the BC concentration were similar in winter and spring. The separate examination of the three campaigns showed that the effect of traffic on the BC concentrations had decreased during the studied years. This reduction was caused by cleaner emissions from vehicles, since between years 1996 and 2005 the traffic rates had increased. A rough estimate gave that vehicle number-scaled BC mass concentrations have decreased from 0.0028 to 0.0020 μg m−3 between campaigns 1 and 3.

  13. Utilization of remote sensing methods in prospecting of alkaline rocks in Finland and neighbouring areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paarma, H.

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available The availability of various kind of satellite imageries and geological, geochemical and geophysical data in useful form has given possibility to confirm the earlier tectonic interpretations of deep fracture zones and to find new interesting zones for the exploring of alkaline rocks in Finland. The interpretations and suggestions given here are tentative prognoses for prospecting certain areas. The selecting of real target areas need more work. Some methods for this kind of classifying research for planning prospecting projects have been recommended. So far the Finnish Lapland is regarded as a region where the methods suggested here would give useful results.

  14. A mobile guide for Chinese travellers in Helsinki - Case:CreateTrips

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Siyu

    2015-01-01

    Chinese inbound tourism is growing rapidly as well as in Europe, also in Finland. Helsinki as a tourism destination for them is a hot topic. However, the information for Chinese travellers in Helsinki is still limited and often Chinese travellers find it difficult to enjoy their time in the city. This is mostly due to lack of information on their own language. This thesis described how the author made a mobile travel guide for Chinese travellers in Helsinki. The aim of this thesis is...

  15. Volatile organic compound sources for Southern Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patokoski, Johanna; Ruuskanen, Taina M.; Kajos, Maija K.; Taipale, Risto; Rantala, Pekka; Aalto, Juho; Ryyppö, Timo; Hakola, Hannele; Rinne, Janne

    2014-05-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) have several sources, both biogenic and anthropogenic. Emissions of biogenic VOCs in a global scale are estimated to be an order of magnitude higher than anthropogenic ones. However, in densely populated areas and during winter time the anthropogenic VOC emissions dominate over the biogenic ones. The aim of this study was to clarify potential local sources and source areas of VOCs in different seasons. Diurnal behaviour in winter and spring were also compared at two different sites in Finland: SMEAR II and III (Station for Measuring Ecosystem - Atmosphere Relations). SMEAR II is a rural site located in Hyytiälä in Southern Finland 220 km North-West from Helsinki whereas SMEAR III is background urban site located 5 km from the downtown of Helsinki. The volume mixing ratios of VOCs were measured with a proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS, Ionicon Analytik GmbH, Austria) during years 2006-2011. Other trace gases such as CO, NOXand SO2 were also measured in both sites and used for source analysis. Source areas for long term VOC measurements were investigated with trajectory analysis and sources for local and regional concentrations were determined by Unmix multivariate receptor model. Forest fires affect air quality and the biggest smoke plumes can be seen in satellite images and even hinder visibility in the plume areas. They provide temporally and spatially well-defined sources that can be used to verify source area estimates. During the measurement periods two different forest fire episodes with several hotspots, happened in Russia. Forest fires which showed up in these measurements were in 2006 near the border of Finland in Vyborg area and 2010 in Moscow area. Forest fire episodes were clearly observed in trajectory analysis for benzene, toluene and methanol and also CO and NOX. In addition to event sources continuous source areas were determined. Anthropogenic local sources seemed to be dominant during winter in

  16. What was behind the bark? : An assessment of decay among urban Tilia, Betula and Acer trees felled as hazardous in the Helsinki City area

    OpenAIRE

    Terho, Minna

    2009-01-01

    Old trees growing in urban environments are often felled due to symptoms of mechanical defects that could be hazardous to people and property. The decisions concerning these removals are justified by risk assessments carried out by tree care professionals. The major motivation for this study was to determine the most common profiles of potential hazard characteristics for the three most common urban tree genera in Helsinki City: Tilia, Betula and Acer, and in this way improve management pract...

  17. Establishment of national emission measurement activity in neighbouring areas of Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aunela, L.; Larjava, K.; Jormanainen, P. [VTT Chemical Technology, Espoo (Finland). Environmental Technology; Muurinen, M. [Enemi Ltd, Lahti (Finland); Hietamaeki, M. [Ministry of the Environment, Helsinki (Finland)

    1995-12-31

    Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania (the Baltic countries) and the Republic State of Carelia, Russia belong to the so-called nearby areas of Finland. All being part of the former Soviet Union, they are now undergoing the establishment of their own environment- managing systems. Finland has shown a great amount of interest in supporting the efforts of these areas to solve their environmental problems. In 1993 VTT started, at the request of the East European Project of the Finnish Ministry of the Environment, a four year project aiming at the establishment of national atmospheric emission measurement systems in the Baltic countries and the Republic state of Carelia (later: the counterpart countries). Proper national emission measurement systems were regarded important in order to provide reliable data on the emission situation for national and international use. The main target of the work is to raise the level of the emission measurements in the counterpart countries to the international level. Two aspects were considered to be required to achieve this goal; (1) delivery of proper emission measurement equipment, (2) training of the emission measurement personnel. It was estimated that within three to four years these counterpart countries could join the Finnish quality assurance system in emission measurements if desired. (author)

  18. Conference Organisers' Perceptions of Helsinki

    OpenAIRE

    Bühler, Stefanie

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this Bachelor’s thesis is to identify whether conference organisers present Helsinki as a tourist destination or as a knowledge hub in their own field of expertise. The thesis was commissioned by the Helsinki Convention & Events Bureau. The research focuses on conferences that took place between 2013 and 2015. The theoretical framework explains destination images and their relation to business tourism. Furthermore, it introduces the essential definitions of conference and c...

  19. Spent fuel encapsulation and verification. Safequards workshop in Helsinki, Finland, 19-20 December 2000. Phase II interim report on Task FIN C1184 of the Finnish Support Programme to IAEA safeguards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honkamaa, T. (ed.)

    2001-03-01

    According the present plans the final disposal of spent fuel will begin in Finland in 2020. The construction of the encapsulation facility will begin five years earlier. Preliminary design of encapsulation facility has already been presented by Finnish nuclear waste management company Posiva ltd. In order to avoid unnecessary costs and delays in implementation of safeguards regime in the facility, the safeguards-related aspects should be taken into account in early phase. This requires open communication between the operator, regulators and expert bodies. In December 2000, Finnish Support Programme to IAEA safeguards arranged a workshop to facilitate the communication between the operators, regulators and experts. Due to the new concept, the open discussion is beneficial and necessary for all parties. One goal of the workshop was also to provide basis for further designing of the facility. The goals for the meeting were achieved. The discussions were conducted in very good and fruitful atmosphere. The conclusions and recommendations of the workshop were discussed and written down by the chair of the final session. The draft document was distributed to the participants and all comments were taken into account, This report, representing the views of the participants, gives also recommendations for further work. It was tentatively agreed that parties will meet again in 2001 to review and discuss, in an informal atmosphere, facility design developments and potential safeguards measures. Action to convene the meeting is on the FINSP (orig.)

  20. Spent fuel encapsulation and verification. Safequards workshop in Helsinki, Finland, 19-20 December 2000. Phase II interim report on Task FIN C1184 of the Finnish Support Programme to IAEA safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According the present plans the final disposal of spent fuel will begin in Finland in 2020. The construction of the encapsulation facility will begin five years earlier. Preliminary design of encapsulation facility has already been presented by Finnish nuclear waste management company Posiva ltd. In order to avoid unnecessary costs and delays in implementation of safeguards regime in the facility, the safeguards-related aspects should be taken into account in early phase. This requires open communication between the operator, regulators and expert bodies. In December 2000, Finnish Support Programme to IAEA safeguards arranged a workshop to facilitate the communication between the operators, regulators and experts. Due to the new concept, the open discussion is beneficial and necessary for all parties. One goal of the workshop was also to provide basis for further designing of the facility. The goals for the meeting were achieved. The discussions were conducted in very good and fruitful atmosphere. The conclusions and recommendations of the workshop were discussed and written down by the chair of the final session. The draft document was distributed to the participants and all comments were taken into account, This report, representing the views of the participants, gives also recommendations for further work. It was tentatively agreed that parties will meet again in 2001 to review and discuss, in an informal atmosphere, facility design developments and potential safeguards measures. Action to convene the meeting is on the FINSP (orig.)

  1. Dispersion model computations of urban air pollution in Espoo, Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valkonen, E.; Haerkoenen, J.; Kukkonen, J.; Rantakrans, E.; Jalkanen, L.

    1997-12-31

    This report presents the numerical results of air quality studies of the city of Espoo in southern Finland. This city is one of the four cities in the Helsinki metropolitan area, having a total population of 850 000. A thorough emission inventory was made of both mobile and stationary sources in the Helsinki metropolitan area. The atmospheric dispersion was evaluated using an urban dispersion modelling system, including a Gaussian multiple-source plume model and a meteorological pre-processing model. The hourly time series of CO, NO{sub 2} and SO{sub 2} concentrations were predicted, using the emissions and meteorological data for the year 1990. The predicted results show a clear decrease in the yearly mean concentrations from southeast to northwest. This is due in part to the denser traffic in the southern parts of Espoo, and in part to pollution from the neighbouring cities of Helsinki and Vantaa, located east of Espoo. The statistical concentration parameters found for Espoo were lower than the old national air quality guidelines (1984); however, some occurrences of above-threshold values were found for NO{sub 2} in terms of the new guidelines (1996). The contribution of traffic to the total concentrations varies spatially from 30 to 90 % for NO{sub 2} from 1 to 65 % for SO{sub 2} while for CO it is nearly 100 %. The concentrations database will be further utilised to analyse the influence of urban air pollution on the health of children attending selected day nurseries in Espoo. The results of this study can also be applied in traffic and city planning. In future work the results will also be compared with data from the urban measurement network of the Helsinki Metropolitan Area Council. (orig.) 19 refs.

  2. Soil acidity status in polluted and non-polluted areas in southern Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From 359 study plots on coniferous forest soil in southern Finland, 232 humus and 359 mineral soil (top 5 cm) samples were taken in 1991 and analyzed for their cation exchange capacity, base saturation, pH, total S content (humus samples only), and extractable Al, Fe and Mn concentrations in order to assess the impact of acidic air pollution on soil acidity. The main sources of local air pollutants (SO2 and NOx) were from the capital region and an oil refinery. Although concentrations of S in the humus layer were 8% higher near the emission sources, it was concluded that air pollution has not resulted in a detectable increase in soil acidity. Mean values for humus layer pH (BaCl2), cation exchange capacity (CEC), base saturation, and extractable Al concentration for the overall study area were 2.9 (0.2), 310 (50) meq kg-1, 48 (12)% of CEC, and 530 (340) mg kg-1. The respective values for the mineral soil layer were 3.3 (0.3), 56 (19) meq kg-1, 13 (8)% of CEC, and 320 (130) mg kg-1. Standard deviations are given in parentheses. 24 refs, 2 figs, 5 tabs

  3. A Business Plan for the Leisure Industry : Case: Wolverine Fitness Helsinki

    OpenAIRE

    Räsänen, Mikko

    2012-01-01

    This thesis is an illustration of a business plan creation for the leisure industry in Helsinki, Finland. The plan follows Osterwalder’s nine-stage business creation model, covering the main elements in business establishment. Wolverine Fitness Helsinki is the sole trading name of Miska Toivonen, who is a certified CrossFit coach and the purpose of this plan is to justify and demonstrate the needed steps that need to be taken to turn a business idea into a sustainable business model. Cro...

  4. Does diurnal temperature range influence seasonal suicide mortality? Assessment of daily data of the Helsinki metropolitan area from 1973 to 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holopainen, Jari; Helama, Samuli; Partonen, Timo

    2014-08-01

    Several studies show a peak in suicide rates during springtime and suggest differences in the seasonal variation of suicides. However, the seasonal distribution of the temperature impact on suicide is less clear. This study investigated the relationship between diurnal temperature range (DTR) on suicide mortality. Daily temperature and suicide data for Helsinki were analyzed for the period of 1973-2010 inclusive. Overall, DTR reached its maximum during the spring from mid-April to mid-June, which is also the season with highest suicide mortality in the study region. Specifically, the seasonal timing and maxima for both DTR and suicides vary from year to year. Time series analysis of DTR and suicide records revealed a significant ( P BAT) over-activity. Activation of BAT through the winter improves cold tolerance at the cost of heat tolerance. This might trigger anxiety and psychomotor agitation, affecting mood in a negative way. As a hypothesis, the compromised heat tolerance is suggested to increase the risk of death from suicide.

  5. Mapping and characterising children’s daily mobility in urban residential areas in Turku, Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Charlotta Fagerholm

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Independent mobility in a local environment is crucial for a child’s development and physical activity, contributing to overall health and well-being. This methodological article describes a study capturing children’s daily mobility in two residential areas in Turku, southwestern Finland, by combining the methods of GPS tracking, mobility diaries, interviews and questionnaires. Geographical positioning data enables analysis of spatial characteristics of children’s mobility, e.g. the comparison to land use structure and analysis of the travel speed, while the qualitative data sets reveal how, why and with whom the travel was realised and the level of children’s independence in mobility.The results show that children’s mobility is clustered around homes and schools and evident gender differences exist; boys travel longer distances and at higher speeds than girls. The children in Turku are relatively independent and have extensive mobility licenses. However, the travel undertaken to practise hobbies or participate in organised leisure activities is realised in adult company and significantly dominated by car transportation. The results strengthen the observation that Finnish children are allowed to travel rather independently and to explore the surrounding environment without adult company, using active forms of transportation. The significant level of independence is a consequence of the high perception of safety, both from the children and the parents in the residential areas. The described mixed methods approach, combining objective measurement of actual mobility with qualitative data sets, is applicable for further mobility studies and the results offer implications for planning child-friendly urban environments.

  6. Everyday Discoveries in Helsinki and Dublin: How PIVOT Dublin and the Institute of Designers in Ireland Engaged in an Open and Participative Competition as Part of World Design Capital 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Sheehan, Barry

    2012-01-01

    Design Forum Finland invited the Institute of Designers in Ireland (IDI) to take part in the International Design House Exhibition as part of World Design Capital Helsinki 2012. The IDI was asked to work with Design Forum Finland and Imu Design in the event that takes place during Helsinki Design Week 2012. In 2010 Dublin City Council formed a group called PIVOT Dublin to bid for World Design Capital 2014. Dublin has been investigating different ways of utilizing design to make changes and...

  7. Uranium in lower Proterozoic conglomerates of the Koli area, eastern Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jatulian meta-arenites form an extensive part of the Karelian Supergroup (middle to lower Proterozoic) in the Baltic Shield. In North Karelia, eastern Finland, the middle and lower Karelian supracrustal rocks (Jatulian an Sariolian; 2,000-2,500 Ma) trend northwesterly for 150 km along the margin of the Archean basement in the east. The thickness of this sequence varies from less than 500 m to 2,000 m. Already in the late 1950's, near Koli in North Karelia small uranium deposits were discovered. Uranium and, in places, thorium occur in the lower Jatulian Quartzite Member as lenses along a horizon that bears spotty pigmentation of hematite. Interbeds of quartz-pebble conglomerate are typical of this horizon. Uranium is also enriched at the contacts of Jatulian diabases where they cut across the uraniferous horizon. Small uranium bodies also lie in the middle Jatulian Arkosite Member. Ipatti, a well-exposed occurrence of uranium at Koli (71,000 tons of mineralized rock averaging 0.083% U) is situated in the Arkosite Member 200-300 m above the hematite-stained horizon. The Ipatti arsenites are predominantly pebbly and clayey subarkoses indicating poor sorting and, hence, rapid burial. The maximum dimensions of the uraniferous body are 6x50x300 m. Colloform low-thorium pitchblende forms part of the cement material between the quartz clasts in the mineralized grit. Secondary uranium minerals envelop the pitchblende mineralization as a network of fracture fillings. Systematic lithogeochemical study across the Ipatti deposit and the lower Jatulian Quartzite Member at Koli did not reveal anomalous contents of gold. The uranium mineralization at Ipatti is suggested to have originated from pore fluids in at least three stages of epigenetic precipitation. The Prejatulian weathering crust and Archean granitoids are considered to be the most probable sources of uranium. Sedimentological, mineralogical, and geochemical evidence for syngenetic conglomerate-type mineralization of

  8. Behavior of Sr-90 and transuranic elements in three areas in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study was carried out in three areas (both terrestrial and aquatic): in the Maenttae area in Central Finland and in the environs of the Loviisa and Olkiluoto Nuclear Power Plants. The highest Sr-90 concentrations were found in Ebilobium angustifolium, being 70 - 90 Bq/kg d.w., and Empetrum nigrum, 15 - 60 Bq/kg d.w. Concentrations of more than 10 Bq/kg d.w. were also detected in leaves of birch (Betula pendula), in berries of Empetrum nigrum and in ferns (Dryopteris carthusiana, Dryopteris expansa, Polypodium vulgare). The Sr-90 concentrations in mushrooms were less than 10 Bq/kg d.w. and varied considerably from one species to another. The concentrations of Pu-239,240 were below the detection limits in mushrooms and berries. Detectable amounts of Pu-239,240 were found in ferns. Am-241 was detected in ferns, but also in a Cantharellus tubaeformis sample and in Calluna vulgaris, in which the Pu-239,240 concentrations were below the detection limits. The highest concentrations of Sr-90 in fresh water environment were detected in shells and flesh of freshwater clam, Anodonta sp., and in marine environment in Saduria entomon and Macoma balthica. In Anodonta sp. (both shells and flesh), also Pu-239,240 and Am-241 were detected. Pu-239,240 was detectable in almost all the marine samples. Concentration factors (CF) of Pu-239,240 were roughly at the same level or greater than those of Sr-90, especially in the marine environment. Best indicator organism for Sr in the fresh water environment was Anodonta sp., and then Nuphar lutea (CFs 103 - 104); and Macoma balthica and Fucus vesiculosus in the marine environment. Roots of Nymphaea candida and flesh of Anodonta sp. accumulated best Pu-239,240 in fresh water environment; The CFs of Pu-239,240 were greater in the marine environment compared to those in fresh water environment. Phytoplankton and periphyton accumulate most efficiently Pu-239,240 in the marine environment. The behavior of plutonium and americium were

  9. Finland country report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    engineering at Helsinki (TKK) and Lappeenranta (LUT) Universities of Technology; - Radiochemistry: University of Helsinki (UH); - Some activities in other universities too; - Finnish specialty in all technical areas is close connection of students with industry, research institutes and the authorities; Summer trainees; Diploma (Master's) theses; Special course at professional level after graduation covering whole area of nuclear safety: - For new staff and recruits from other fields (5 times, 270 participants), - Organised jointly by the Ministry of Employment and the Economy and all institutes in nuclear energy. 'Radiant Women' Seminar in 2007: For female decision makers and opinion leaders; Some 70 participants; Theme 'The climate changes - changes in everyday life'; Opening speech by Ms. Sirkka Hautojaervi, Permanent Secretary of the Ministry of the Environment; 'Finland and its adaptation to the climate change', senior researcher Susanna Kankaanpaeae, the Finnish Environment Institute; 'Prevention of climate change in everyday life', communications director Paeivi Laitila from Motiva; 'CO2-studies and the effect of the sea on the climate change', senior researcher Heidi Pettersson, the Marine Research Institute. Christmas party in January for Energy Channel members who visited the research department of the Radiation and Nuclear Safety authority STUK. Number of Energy Channel members: ∼80

  10. World Medical Association Declaration of Helsinki Ethical Principles for Medical Research Involving Human Subjects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@Adopted by the 18th WMA General Assembly, Helsinki, Finland, June 1964; amended by the 29th WMA General Assembly, Tokyo, Japan, October 1975; 35th WMA General Assembly, Venice, Italy, October 1983; 41st WMA General Assembly, Hong Kong, September 1989; 48th WMA General Assembly, Somerset West, Republic of South Africa, October 1996, and the 52nd WMA General Assembly, Edinburgh, Scotland, October 2000.

  11. Russian Tourists Overnighting in Helsinki: Information Search and Use of Social Media

    OpenAIRE

    Liikanen, Taika

    2013-01-01

    Russian tourism to Finland is a constantly growing phenomenon. This Bachelor’s thesis focuses on researching consumer behavior of Russian tourists overnighting in Helsinki. In this research, consumer behavior regarding information search and social media behavior are highlighted in order to answer the research targets set by the commissioner, Hotel Arthur. In today’s travel industry, the changes towards online booking and domination of large online travel agents force hotels to find ways to d...

  12. Turbulent vertical fluxes and air quality measured in urban air in Helsinki

    OpenAIRE

    JÀrvi, Leena

    2009-01-01

    There is a growing need to understand the exchange processes of momentum, heat and mass between an urban surface and the atmosphere as they affect our quality of life. Understanding the source/sink strengths as well as the mixing mechanisms of air pollutants is particularly important due to their effects on human health and climate. This work aims to improve our understanding of these surface-atmosphere interactions based on the analysis of measurements carried out in Helsinki, Finland. The v...

  13. Defining Elements of Cities Touristic Attractiveness - A Case Study – Helsinki

    OpenAIRE

    Bianca Tescasiu; Angela Eliza Micu

    2015-01-01

    Achieving the „attractive touristic destination” label represents a high objective for any touristic destination. In order to accomplish this objective, one of the most important aspect is to find what do the attributes of attractiveness in tourism mean. This study consists in a research made by the author during an Erasmus+ teaching visit at Laurea University of Applied Science in Helsinki- Finland. The research consisted in a focus-group organized in the Tourism, Restaurants and Entrepreneu...

  14. Servicios orientados a los usuarios en las bibliotecas de hospital de la Ciudad de Helsinki

    OpenAIRE

    Berndtson, Maija

    2000-01-01

    The idea of the hospital libraries for patients and the therapeutic value of books and the reading, were treated for the first time in the United States, between the librarians, during the I World war, as of 1914. In Finland this became during II the World war, in coordination with the libraries of hospital directed by the Library of the City of Helsinki, after the war, in 1945. The first library of hospital in Finland was opened in 1936 by volunteers of the Red Cross.

  15. The birth rate of hypospadias in the Turku area in Finland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Virtanen, H E; Kaleva, M; Haavisto, A M;

    2001-01-01

    Reports based on national registers of congenital malformations have suggested that the birth rate of hypospadias has increased during the last few decades. Register-based information may, however, have pitfalls because of changes in diagnostics, reporting accuracy and registration system. The aim...... of this study was to determine the current birth rate of hypospadias in Turku University Central Hospital (TUCH) in Finland. This was a prospective study on live-born boys born in TUCH from 1997 to 1999. In the total birth cohort (n=5,798) as well as in a special subcohort group (n=1,505) 0.3% of...... boys had hypospadias. Only one scrotal hypospadias was found in a boy who had a chromosomal anomaly. Other hypospadias were glandular or coronal. No increase was found in the birth rate of hypospadias when comparing our result with register-based data of boys born in Finland during the years 1970 to...

  16. Mortality and air pollution in Helsinki.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pönkä, A; Savela, M; Virtanen, M

    1998-01-01

    In Helsinki, Finland, from 1987 to 1993, the authors studied the associations between daily concentrations of sulphur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, ozone, total suspended particulates, and particulates with aerodynamic diameters less than 10 microm (PM10), and the daily number of deaths from all causes and from cardiovascular causes. Investigators used Poisson regressions to conduct analyses in two age groups, and they controlled for temperature, relative humidity, day of the week, month, year, long-term trend, holidays, and influenza epidemics. The PM10 levels were associated significantly with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality among persons under the age of 65 y of age. In the less-than-65-y age group, sulfur dioxide and ozone were also associated significantly with cardiovascular mortality. The effect of ozone was independent of the PM10 effect, whereas sulfur dioxide became nonsignificant when modeled with PM10. An increase of 10 microg/m3 in PM10 resulted in increases in total mortality and cardiovascular mortality of 3.5% (95% confidence interval=1.0, 5.8) and 4.1% (95% confidence interval=0.4, 10.3), respectively. A 20 microg/m3 increase in ozone was associated with a 9.9% (95% confidence interval=1.1, 19.5) increase in cardiovascular mortality; however, ozone results were inconsistent. Moreover, in addition to their separate effects, high concentrations of PM10, ozone, and nitrogen dioxide had a further harmful additive effect. Typically, PM10 was a better indicator of particulate pollution than total suspended particulates. The authors' findings suggest that (a) even low levels of particulates are related to an increase in cardiovascular mortality; (b) ozone--even in low concentrations--is associated, independently, with cardiovascular mortality; and (c) PM10, ozone, and nitrogen dioxide--the essential components of summertime pollution--have harmful interactions at high concentrations. PMID:9709992

  17. Mycorrhizal mushroom biodiversity in PAH-polluted areas : Case Somerharju, Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Yemelyanova, Marina

    2016-01-01

    Presence of mycorrhizal fungi affects the phytoremediation efficiency on PAH-polluted soils: fungi participate in the soil bioremediation per se and, as symbionts with living trees, help the trees to survive under the pollution and other harsh environmental conditions. This thesis initiates a study of a mycorrhizal mushroom community on the Somerharju phytoremediation project site in Finland. An inventory of the mycorrhizal mushrooms concerning mushroom abundance, species richness and bi...

  18. Book Review: Sustainable Innovation : A New Age of Innovation and Finland's Innovation Policy by Hautamäki A.

    OpenAIRE

    Del Arco Herrera, Ignacio

    2010-01-01

    Kirja-arvostelu/Book Review kirjasta: Hautamäki, A. (2010). Sustainable Innovation: A New Age of Innovation and Finland’s Innovation Policy [Sitra Reports 87]. Helsinki, Finland: Sitra and Edita Prima, Ltd. 144 pages.

  19. Finland 1993

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørstrup, Finn Rude

    1993-01-01

    Kompendium udarbejdet til en studierejse til Finland maj 1998 Kunstakademiets Arkitektskole, Institut 3H......Kompendium udarbejdet til en studierejse til Finland maj 1998 Kunstakademiets Arkitektskole, Institut 3H...

  20. Customer Service and Customer Satisfaction Level of CheapSleep Hostels, Helsinki

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen Thi Vu, Hoa

    2016-01-01

    This bachelor thesis was commissioned by CheapSleep hostels, Helsinki. CheapSleep is a young budget hostel having operated for 3,5 years located in Vallila, Helsinki. CheapSleep has recently considered opening a new business in Helsinki, as well as the metropolitan area. The aim of this dissertation is to examine the service concept and identify the customer satisfaction level by conducting a customer satisfaction survey while the author was working at the reception in CheapSleep hostels. ...

  1. Report on joint ecogeochemical mapping and monitoring in the West Murmansk Region and the contiguous areas of Finland and Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A series of meetings between the Central Kola Survey Expedition, Geological Survey of Finland and Geological Survey of Norway in 1991-1992 led to the implementation of a pilot project of a joint ecogeochemical study of the impacts of industrial activities on the terrestrial systems of West Kola Peninsula and adjacent areas in Finland and Norway. The main aims of this pilot project were to harmonize methods of sampling, preparation, analysis, data treatment and interpretation, focusing on heavy metals and radionuclides. A small area in the three-country field, including Nikel, Zapoljarny and Kirkenes was chosen as test territory. Experiences of the pilot project should form a base for planning a major project to cover some 170000 km2 in the three countries. Snow cover, terrestrial moss, A0-horizon, A0+2-horizon, C-horizon, stream water, stream sediments and overbank sediments were used as sampling medias, with 15 sites in each country. A data quality assessment was carried out, and maps of pollutant elements clearly delineate patterns similar to those found by other workers. There is no indication that C-horizon is affected, but results of overbank sediments indicate that there are abnormal conditions with regards to the sediment transport and chemistry in the ''industrial desert''. Results of 134,137Cs determinations in the uppermost 5 cm of the soil profile show no alarming levels. An attempt at modelling the flux of contaminants has also been made. 29 refs., 54 figs., 9 tabs

  2. Regionale Meeresschutzkooperation und die EU-Gratwanderung der Helsinki-Kommission imOsterweiterungsprozess der EU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imhoff, Heike

    1999-12-01

    The purpose of the lecture is to describe the role of regional marine protection cooperation in the context of international cooperation. My intention is to provide evidence that regional forms of cooperation are an indispensable instrument, in particular against the backdrop of the EU enlargement to the east. Signed at times when the iron curtain still existed, the Baltic Marine Environment Protection Convention was the basis of a first reluctant cooperation between Western and Eastem states bordering on the Baltic Sea. As a result of the fall of the iron curtain and of the accession of Finland and Sweden to the European Union there was a shift in the political structure of the Baltic Sea cooperation. 4 EU member states are represented in the Helsinki Commission. As there is a total of 10 Parties (one of them the Commission of the European Communities) this means that EU countries currently already make up 50% of the Commission. The regulatory instruments of the Helsinki Commission (legally non-binding, yet politically appellative recommendations) and of the EU (directives, regulations etc. which are binding by international law) make it clear that there are serious differences. From the point of view of regional marine protection cooperation, the EC Commission’s involvement in issues of regional marine protection has been linked to both advantages and disadvantages. The pressure created by the EC’s involvement in certain issues can be considered an advantage, since it requires that certain issues are continually addressed in the framework of regional marine protection cooperation. For example, in the wake of the adoption of the nitrates directive special rules were established in the framework of the Helsinki Commission. However, the exclusive competence for individual areas (e.g. fisheries) claimed by the EC Commission sometimes has negative effects. Those member states of the Helsinki Commission which are also EU member states may formally only accept rules

  3. Colon cancer and large bowel function in Denmark and Finland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cummings, J H; Branch, W J; Bjerrum, L;

    1982-01-01

    Stool weight and transit time through the gut were measured in 4 groups of 30 men, aged 50-59 years, randomly selected from populations in urban (Copenhagen) and rural (Them) Denmark and urban (Helsinki) and rural (Parikkala) Finland. These populations exhibited a 3-4 fold difference in risk for ...

  4. Palynological investigations in the old town of Helsinki

    OpenAIRE

    Vuorela, I.

    1994-01-01

    The main sites and palynological results obtained in 1989-1993 in connection with archaeological excavation in the Old Town of Helsinki, are briefly reported. The pollen analytical investigations focused on the cultural layer dating to approximately AD 1400-1700, on two former water wells, on the local river bed and on the bottom deposits of a former ditch while microfossil analysis was mainly made on the material from waste pits, wells and house areas. The results previously published confir...

  5. Land uplift and relative sea-level changes in the Loviisa area, southeastern Finland, during the last 8000 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Southeastern Finland belongs to the area covered by the Weichselian ice sheet, where the release of the ice load caused a rapid isostatic rebound during the postglacial time. While the mean overall apparent uplift is of the order of 2 mm/yr today, in the early Holocene time it was several times higher. A marked decrease in the rebound rate occurred around 8500 BP, however, since then the uplift rate has remained high until today, with a slightly decreasing trend towards the present time. According to current understanding there have neither been temporary increases nor decreases in the rate of uplift during the postglacial time. Even so, it is not known for sure whether there are regional irregularities on the rebound in Finland. Concurrently with land uplift, relative sea-level changes in the Baltic basin were also strongly affected by the global eustatic rise of sea-level. During the early Litorina Sea stage on the southern coast of Finland around 7000 BP, the rise in sea-level exceeded the rate of land uplift, and resulted in a short-lived transgression. The most accurate information on relative sea-level changes in an uplifting area may be obtained from radiocarbon dated events of isolation in small lake basins, as they were cut off from larger bodies of water. The isolations of such basins from the sea may be reliably determined by the recorded changes in the diatom flora in the sediment sequences, at horizons which may be radiometrically dated. In the present study, the isolation-horizons of 13 basins were dated by 26 conventional and 2 AMS radiocarbon dates. According to the available sets of dates, the time span of emergence extends from 8300 BP to the past few hundred years, for lakes from c. 30 m to 1.1 m above the present sea-level. Due to the global rise in sea-level, during the period of 7500-6500 BP, the sea-level rise clearly exceeded the rate of uplift, and resulted in the Litorina transgression, which had an amplitude of around one metre. The

  6. Land uplift and relative sea-level changes in the Loviisa area, southeastern Finland, during the last 8000 years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miettinen, A.; Eronen, M.; Hyvaerinen, H. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Geology

    1999-09-01

    Southeastern Finland belongs to the area covered by the Weichselian ice sheet, where the release of the ice load caused a rapid isostatic rebound during the postglacial time. While the mean overall apparent uplift is of the order of 2 mm/yr today, in the early Holocene time it was several times higher. A marked decrease in the rebound rate occurred around 8500 BP, however, since then the uplift rate has remained high until today, with a slightly decreasing trend towards the present time. According to current understanding there have neither been temporary increases nor decreases in the rate of uplift during the postglacial time. Even so, it is not known for sure whether there are regional irregularities on the rebound in Finland. Concurrently with land uplift, relative sea-level changes in the Baltic basin were also strongly affected by the global eustatic rise of sea-level. During the early Litorina Sea stage on the southern coast of Finland around 7000 BP, the rise in sea-level exceeded the rate of land uplift, and resulted in a short-lived transgression. The most accurate information on relative sea-level changes in an uplifting area may be obtained from radiocarbon dated events of isolation in small lake basins, as they were cut off from larger bodies of water. The isolations of such basins from the sea may be reliably determined by the recorded changes in the diatom flora in the sediment sequences, at horizons which may be radiometrically dated. In the present study, the isolation-horizons of 13 basins were dated by 26 conventional and 2 AMS radiocarbon dates. According to the available sets of dates, the time span of emergence extends from 8300 BP to the past few hundred years, for lakes from c. 30 m to 1.1 m above the present sea-level. Due to the global rise in sea-level, during the period of 7500-6500 BP, the sea-level rise clearly exceeded the rate of uplift, and resulted in the Litorina transgression, which had an amplitude of around one metre. The

  7. Solving Benchmark Frequency Assignment Problem of Helsinki Regions Network by a Novel Nature Inspired Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avtar Singh Buttar

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The Frequency Assignment Problem is assignment of frequencies or channels to establish link between base station and mobile transmitter in cellular system. To avoid interference, minimum separation between assigned frequencies is required. This problem is NP-hard. Due to limited availability of spectrum and reuse of same frequencies at different geographical locations, an excellent assignment is to be done, which must satisfy electromagnetic constraints with respect to demand in each cell. This paper presents a novel DGWCHD algorithm for frequency assignment problem in cellular radio networks. The objective is to assign the frequency satisfying electromagnetic constraints for given demand with minimum use of frequency bandwidth. The proposed algorithm is based on real wild animal such as dog’s intelligent strategies during chasing and hunting their prey. The proposed algorithm is implemented on benchmark Kunz’s test problems, which are practical FAP problems based on area around 25 regions in Helsinki, Finland. The DGWCHD algorithm has been used for call ordering and FEA strategy for assignment. The performance of the proposed novel DGWCHD algorithm has been compared with other nature inspired techniques. The results obtained are very optimistic and encouraging

  8. Mortality and air pollution in Helsinki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poenkae, A.; Savela, M.; Virtanen, M. [Helsinki City Centre of the Environment (Finland)

    1998-07-01

    In Helsinki, Finland, from 1987 to 1993, the authors studied the associations between daily concentrations of sulphur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, ozone, total suspended particulates, and particulates with aerodynamic diameters less than 10 {micro}m (PM{sub 10}), and the daily number of deaths from all causes and from cardiovascular causes. Investigators used Poisson regressions to conduct analyses in two age groups, and they controlled for temperature, relative humidity, day of the week, month, year, long-term trend, holidays, and influenza epidemics. The PM{sub 10} levels were associated significantly with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality among persons under the age of 65 y of age. In the less-than-65-y age group, sulfur dioxide and ozone were also associated significantly with cardiovascular mortality. The effect of the ozone was independent of the PM{sub 10} effect, whereas sulfur dioxide became nonsignificant when modeled with PM{sub 10}. An increase of 10 {micro}g/m{sup 3} in PM{sub 10} resulted in increases in total mortality and cardiovascular mortality of 3.5% (95% confidence interval = 1.0, 5.8) and 4.1% (95% confidence interval = 0.4, 10.3), respectively. A 20 {micro}g/m{sup 3} increase in ozone was associated with a 9.9% (95% confidence interval = 1.1, 19.5) increase in cardiovascular mortality; however, ozone results were inconsistent. Moreover, in addition to their separate effects, high concentrations of PM{sub 10}, ozone, and nitrogen dioxide had a further harmful additive effect. Typically, PM{sub 10} was a better indicator of particulate pollution than total suspended particulates. The authors` findings suggest that (a) even low levels of particulates are related to an increase in cardiovascular mortality; (b) ozone--even in low concentrations--is associated, independently, with cardiovascular mortality; and (c) PM{sub 10}, ozone, and nitrogen dioxide--the essential components of summertime pollution--have harmful interactions at high

  9. Hotellipaketin suunnittelu Case: Hilton Helsinki Airport

    OpenAIRE

    Kyrö, Niina; Grönqvist, Henna

    2014-01-01

    Tämän opinnäytetyön aiheena oli hotellipaketin suunnittelu, joka toteutettiin toimeksiantona kansainväliseen Hilton -ketjuun kuuluvalle Hilton Helsinki Airportille. Hilton Helsinki Airport tarjoaa täyden palvelun hotellina asiakkailleen majoitus-, kokous- ja ravintolapalveluita. Opinnäytetyö oli toiminnallinen. Sen tavoitteena oli tuottaa toteuttamiskelpoinen hotellipaketti. Työn tarkoituksena oli luoda lisäarvoa toimeksiantajan hotellipakettitarjontaan ja edistää hotellin asiakastyytyväisyyt...

  10. Case study: Teaching Finnish - English Language for Specific Purposes (LSP) Legal Translation at the University of Helsinki

    OpenAIRE

    Garant, Mikel

    2013-01-01

    Finland is widely recognized as one of the top countries to live in, with transparency and an excellent education system, which provides for top English proficiencies. The applied English translation case study that is examined in this paper focuses on Finnish into English legal translation teaching coupled with studying at the University of Helsinki. Scrutiny of the course structure, teaching materials and teaching methods was undertaken as part of the empirical research and the efficiency o...

  11. Music Export from Helsinki to Berlin and vice versa. Case study: Face of God and Ill Kommodity

    OpenAIRE

    Kuhn, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    This is a product - oriented thesis. The aim is to conclude a guidebook about music export for young bands that are interested in playing a show abroad. The project: Music export from Helsinki to Berlin and vice versa. Case study: Face of God and Ill Kommodity, was used to learn from the praxis. The thesis describes the responsibilities of the project manager and brings project management and event planning together. The music export history of Finland and Germany is taken in considerat...

  12. Groundwater flow paths in the bedrock fracture zones revealed by using the stable isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen in the Talvivaara mine gypsum pond area, Northeastern Finland

    OpenAIRE

    KittilÀ, Anniina

    2015-01-01

    Bedrock fracturing is considerably extensive and distinct in Finland, and the fractures that are open, conductive and interconnected usually control the groundwater flow paths in fractured bedrock. This highlights the importance of knowing the locations and hydraulic connections of water conducting fracture zones particularly in mining areas, because they can transport adverse substances outside the mining area. In this study, it is focused on examining possible hydraulic connections of bedro...

  13. History of cosmic ray research in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usoskin, I. G.; Valtonen, E.; Vainio, R.; Tanskanen, P. J.; Aurela, A. M.

    2009-11-01

    The history of cosmic ray research in Finland can be traced back to the end of 1950s, when first ground-based cosmic ray measurements started in Turku. The first cosmic ray station was founded in Oulu in 1964 performing measurements of cosmic rays by a muon telescope, which was later complemented by a neutron monitor. Since the 1990s, several research centers and universities, such as The Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki University of Technology, University of Oulu, University of Turku and University of Helsinki have been involved in space science projects, such as SOHO, AMS, Cluster, Cassini, BepiColombo, etc. At the same time, ground-based cosmic ray measurements have reached a new level, including a fully automatic on-line database in Oulu and a new muon measuring underground site in Pyhäsalmi. Research groups in Helsinki, Oulu and Turku have also extensive experience in theoretical investigations of different aspects of cosmic ray physics. Cosmic ray research has a 50-year long history in Finland, covering a wide range from basic long-running ground-based observations to high-technology space-borne instrumentation and sophisticated theoretical studies. Several generations of researchers have been involved in the study ensuring transfer of experience and building the recognized Finnish research school of cosmic ray studies.

  14. Palaeoproterozoic mafic and intermediate metavolcanic rocks in the Turku area, SW Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Markku Väisänen; Gustav Westerlund

    2007-01-01

    Twenty two samples were analysed from mafic and intermediate volcanic rocks from the Turku area along ~60 km long north-south geotraverse. Geographically and lithologically the samples were divided into the Pargas, Turku and Vahto groups. The Pargas and Turku groups consist of mafic units and intercalations within migmatitic gneisses. Their geochemical compositions are very similar. In average, they show quite flat REE curves and the multielement diagrams show moderate LILE enrichments, minor...

  15. Mobility Experiments: Learning Urban Travel with Children in Helsinki

    OpenAIRE

    Kullman, Kim

    2015-01-01

    Working between and beyond the interdisciplinary areas of childhood studies and children’s geographies, this thesis explores how children learn practices of everyday mobility in metropolitan Helsinki (population 1.4 million). Children’s urban movement has become a contested issue in Euro-American settings due to a range of developments, among them the growth in car traffic, the increase in travel distances to school and the widening influence of risk thinking on cultural understandings of...

  16. Defining Elements of Cities Touristic Attractiveness - A Case Study – Helsinki

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Tescasiu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Achieving the „attractive touristic destination” label represents a high objective for any touristic destination. In order to accomplish this objective, one of the most important aspect is to find what do the attributes of attractiveness in tourism mean. This study consists in a research made by the author during an Erasmus+ teaching visit at Laurea University of Applied Science in Helsinki- Finland. The research consisted in a focus-group organized in the Tourism, Restaurants and Entrepreneurship specialization among students and teachers from Finland and, also, international students, in order to provide some trends that could be deepened by other analysis. The analysis starts from the idea that touristic attractiveness has a subjective component, given by the consumers. As a conclusion, it should be appreciated that it is very important to find the way that touristic services consumer evaluate this concept.

  17. Radiometric ages and other isotopic data bearing on the evolution of Archaean crust and ores in the Kuhmo-Suomussalmi area, eastern Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Vaasjoki, M.; Taipale, K.; Tuokko, I.

    1999-01-01

    The Archaean greenstone-gneiss terrain in the Kuhmo-Suomussalmi district in eastern Finland has been isotopically studied in connection with regional bedrock mapping and local mineral exploration projects. The studies have aimed at testing correlations of lithologic units in partly poorly exposed areas, determining times of ore formation and obtaining ore genetic information in order to better understand the general evolution of the Archaean formations within the Fennoscandian Shield. Isotopi...

  18. Results of the Helsinki magnetic observatory 1844-1912

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Nevanlinna

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available The geomagnetic field declination (D and horizontal component (H were observed visually at the Helsinki magnetic observatory between 1844–1912. About 2.0 million single observations of the magnetic components are available. The observing equipment and observation methods were the same for almost 70 years. The Helsinki data series is thus rather homogeneous and suitable for magnetic field analysis of both internal and external origin for about five sunspot cycles (sunspot cycles 9–13. Due to disturbances from nearby electric tramway traffic, most of the observations after 1897 are very noisy and unreliable for magnetic activity studies. Observations of D (1844–1897 have been converted into an absolute scale but H refers to variation values only. Observations of D have been previously analyzed and published for the time interval 1844–1880. In this paper we present new results of D for 1881–1897 and H for 1844–1897. The annual rate of the secular variation of D has been rather stable between 1844–1909, showing a mean eastward increase of +0.11°/year, which is about twice as large as the mean secular variation rate for the past 50 years at the same latitude in Finland. Around 1875 there was a sudden change in the secular variation rate resembling the famous jerk of 1970. Magnetic activity indices (K, Ak for 1844–1897 were calculated from hourly values of D- and D-series separately using the IAGA K-index algorithm (the FMI-method. Comparisons with other relevant activity series from other sources (aa, u, RI, C9, auroral occurrence rate show that the Helsinki index series gives an important contribution to the index family. By extending the Mayaud's aa-index series with Helsinki Ak-values (1844–1868, it is possible to reconstruct a (pseudo aa-series that covers almost 160 years. Magnetic activity (space weather was

  19. Palaeoproterozoic mafic and intermediate metavolcanic rocks in the Turku area, SW Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markku Väisänen

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Twenty two samples were analysed from mafic and intermediate volcanic rocks from the Turku area along ~60 km long north-south geotraverse. Geographically and lithologically the samples were divided into the Pargas, Turku and Vahto groups. The Pargas and Turku groups consist of mafic units and intercalations within migmatitic gneisses. Their geochemical compositions are very similar. In average, they show quite flat REE curves and the multielement diagrams show moderate LILE enrichments, minor negative Ta-Nb anomalies and straight HFSE curves. We infer these as transitional between MORB and VAB. The Vahtogroup consists of thicker volcanic sequences in connection with synorogenic plutonic rocks. The data show enriched LREEs, LILEs, Th and P combined with negative Ta-Nb anomalies, i.e. the Vahto group shows subduction component. We interpret that the Vahto volcanicrocks belong to the Häme belt. The geochemical data indicate that the Pargas and Turku groups were formed in extensional, possibly back-arc or intra-arc setting while the Vahto group was formed at continental volcanic arc.

  20. Structural analysis and metamorphism of Palaeoproterozoic metapelites in the Seinäjoki-Ilmajoki area, western Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mäkitie, H.

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available The Palaeoproterozoic Svecofennian bedrock of the Seinäjoki-Ilmajoki area, western Finland, is largely composed of porphyroblastic metapelites. In the area, the regional metamorphic grade increases towards the southwest. Over a distance of 15 km, andalusite mica schists gradually grade into migmatitic garnet cordierite-sillimanite mica gneisses with a facies-series of the andalusite-sillimanite type. Five regional metamorphic zones are present: andalusite, sillimanite-muscovite, sillimanite-K-feldspar, cordierite-K-feldspar and garnet-cordierite-K-feldspar. The primary layering (S0 of the mica schists is deformed by an isoclinal fold phase (F2, which is synchronous with the main metamorphic phase and the growth of micas. S1 is very weak and subject to interpretation. The S2 schistosity is deformed by intense late-metamorphic F3 and F3b folds, which have formed under slightly different metamorphic conditions: practically no metamorphic micas have grown parallel to axial planes while within F3b folds there are a few granitic veins parallel to these planes. The F3 and F3b folds probably belong to one phase. S2 dominates in the mica schists while S3 and S3b dominate in the mica gneisses. The metapelites are also deformed by younger minor fold phases (F4 and F5. A composite schistosity (S0±S1±S2±S3, or S3b commonly occurs in the metapelites. The peak of regional metamorphism has been associated with the intrusion of 1.89-1.88 Ga old tonalite plutons. Geothermometric estimates for regional metamorphism are c. 730 °C at an assumed pressure of 5 kbar. Neosomes in the high-grade mica gneisses occur as patches rather than as elongated, narrow veins. Garnet coexists with cordierite, but the minerals are rarely in equilibrium. Muscovitization and the formation of retrogressive andalusite did not occur in the high-grade mica gneisses, but there is minor kyanite indicating that the crust probably underwent near-isobaric cooling. The area of highest

  1. Medication adherence: a review of pharmacy education, research, practice and policy in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Bell JS; Enlund H; Vainio K

    2010-01-01

    Aims: To describe pharmacy education, research, practice and policy related to medication adherence in Finland since the year 2000.Methods: The three universities that provide pharmacy education (Åbo Akademi, University of Eastern Finland, and University of Helsinki) completed a structured pro-forma questionnaire regarding education related to medication adherence. A MEDLINE and EMBASE literature search was performed to identify English language peer-reviewed research that reported medication...

  2. Membership Finland

    CERN Multimedia

    Rubbia,C

    1991-01-01

    Le DG C.Rubbia et la vice présidente du conseil du Cern souhaite la bienvenue à l'adhésion de la Finlande, comme 15me membre du Cern depuis le 1. janvier 1991 en présence du secrétaire generale et de l'ambassadeur

  3. Helsinki School of Economics Executive Education

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ One of Europe's pre-eminent business schools, the Helsinki School of Economics Executive Education (HSEEE) offers focused executive education programs that produce lasting results for its client organizations.HSEEE partners with a select group of corporate clients to design customized programs tailored to their specific needs. HSEEE works intimately with a dedicated team of content experts that understands the industry and company's competitive environment. Its core competence is in talent management programs for middle to senior executives.

  4. Hilton Helsinki Strandin vastaanoton asiakaspalvelun kehitysehdotus

    OpenAIRE

    Kataja, Noora

    2015-01-01

    Opinnäytetyö tutkii, kuinka voisi parhaiten kehittää olemassaolevaa asiakaspalvelun tasoa Hilton Helsinki Strandin vastaanotossa. Pohdinnassa keskitytään pelkästään vastaanoton asiakaspalveluun havainnoinnin ja johdon haastattelun pohjalta. Johtoa haastattelemalla saatiin tieto nykyisestä tyytyväisyystasosta, ja sitä vertaillen omaan pohdintaan ja havainnointiin teorian tuella mietittiin sopiva tapa edelleen ke-hittää palvelun tasoa ja korkeaa laatua. Aluksi haettiin teorian avulla t...

  5. Modelling the response of soil and runoff chemistry to forest harvesting in a low deposition area (Kangasvaara, eastern Finland)

    OpenAIRE

    Kämäri, J.; Rankinen, K.; L. Finér; S. Piirainen; M. Posch

    1998-01-01

    A simple dynamic soil model developed to analyse the effects of atmospheric deposition and nutrient cycling on terrestrial ecosystems, SMART 2, was applied to the Kangasvaara catchment in eastern Finland. Given the historical deposition and forest growth patterns and reasonable values for the input parameters, SMART 2 was calibrated successfully to reproduce present-day soil and Kangasvaara catchment on the soil and runoff water chemistry under a future deposition scenario (GRP...

  6. [The plague in Finland in 1710].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engström, N G

    1994-01-01

    In the autumn of 1710 Helsinki was struck by the so-called oriental plague during four months. The infection was transferred by black rats which harboured fleas. The flea-bites caused boils. It was believed that the plague was air-borne, and the air was very humid that autumn. Big fires were lit in order to reduce the humidity, the purpose being to make it easier for the infected to breathe. Attempts were also made to dissect the boils. The carriers of the contamination came as refugees from Estland over the Gulf of Finland. The infection had spread from Turkey to Poland and Balticum after the defeat of the Finnish-Swedish army in the summer of 1709 at Poltava in Ucraine. Helsingfors (Helsinki) was struck extremely hard. About two-thirds of the inhabitants died of the pestilence. Some escaped by fleeing to the countryside. The plague spread through the country as far north as to Uleåborg (Oulu) and Cajana (Kajaani). Marketplaces became important centres of infection. With the advent of the frost in December the plague dwindled. At that time Helsinki was practically a dead town. PMID:11640321

  7. Observing wind, aerosol particles, cloud and precipitation: Finland's new ground-based remote-sensing network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hirsikko

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The Finnish Meteorological Institute, in collaboration with the University of Helsinki, has established a new ground-based remote-sensing network in Finland. The network consists of five topographically, ecologically and climatically different sites distributed from southern to northern Finland. The main goal of the network is to monitor air pollution and boundary layer properties in near real time, with a Doppler lidar and ceilometer at each site. In addition to these operational tasks, two sites are members of the Aerosols, Clouds, and Trace gases Research InfraStructure Network (ACTRIS; a Ka-band Doppler cloud radar at Sodankylä will provide cloud retrievals within CloudNet, and a multi-wavelength Raman lidar, POLLYXT (POrtabLe Lidar sYstem eXTended, in Kuopio provides optical and microphysical aerosol properties through EARLINET (European Aerosol Research Lidar Network to Establish an Aerosol Climatology. Three C-band weather radars are located in the Helsinki metropolitan area and are deployed for operational and research applications. We carried out two inter-comparison campaigns to investigate the Doppler lidar performance. The aims of the campaigns were to compare the backscatter coefficient and retrieved wind profiles, and to optimise the lidar sensitivity through adjusting the telescope focus and data-integration time to ensure enough signals in low-aerosol-content environments. The wind profiles showed good agreement between different lidars. However, due to inaccurate telescope focus setting and varying receiver sensitivity, backscatter coefficient profiles showed disagreement between the lidars. Harsh Finnish winters could pose problems, but, due to the built-in heating systems, low ambient temperatures had no, or only a minor, impact on the lidar operation: including scanning-head motion. However, accumulation of snow and ice on the lens has been observed, which can lead to formation of a water/ice layer thus attenuating the

  8. Second meeting of the International Working Group on Advanced Technologies for Water Cooled Reactors, Helsinki, 6-9 June 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Second Meeting of the IAEA International Working Group on Advanced Technologies for Water Cooled Reactors (IWGATWR) was held in Helsinki, Finland, from 6-9 June 1988. The Summary Report (Part II) contains the papers which review the national programmes since the first meeting of IWGATWR in May 1987 in the field of Advanced Technologies for Water Cooled Reactors and other presentations at the Meeting. A separate abstract was prepared for each of these 12 papers presented at the meeting. Figs and tabs

  9. Nurse managers' perceptions related to their leadership styles, knowledge, and skills in these areas-a viewpoint: case of health centre wards in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesterinen, Soili; Suhonen, Marjo; Isola, Arja; Paasivaara, Leena; Laukkala, Helena

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore nurse managers' perceptions related to their leadership styles, knowledge, and their skills in these areas in health centre wards in Finland. The data were collected from nurse managers (n = 252) in health centre hospitals in Finland using a structured questionnaire (response rate 63%). Six leadership styles-visionary, coaching, affiliate, democratic, commanding, and isolating-were reflected on. Almost all respondents in every age group considered four leadership styles-visionary, coaching, affiliate, and democratic-to be very important or important. Nurse managers estimated their knowledge and skills in leadership styles to be essentially fairly sufficient or sufficient. Nurse managers' abilities to reflect, understand, and, if necessary, change their leadership style influence the work unit's success and employees' job satisfaction. Nurse managers, especially new nurse managers, need more theoretic, evidence-based education to cope with these expectations and to develop their professional abilities. Together with universities, health care organizations should start planning nurse manager education programmes that focus on strategic issues, leadership, job satisfaction, challenging situations in leadership, change management, work unit management (e.g., economy, efficiency, and resources), and how the nurse managers consider their own wellbeing. PMID:23691356

  10. Neighbourhoods and self rated health: a comparison of public sector employees in London and Helsinki

    OpenAIRE

    Stafford, M; Martikainen, P; Lahelma, E; Marmot, M.

    2004-01-01

    Study objective: Mortality and morbidity vary across neighbourhoods and larger residential areas. Effects of area deprivation on health may vary across countries, because of greater spatial separation of people occupying high and low socioeconomic positions and differences in the provision of local services and facilities. Neighbourhood variations in health and the contribution of residents' characteristics and neighbourhood indicators were compared in London and Helsinki, two settings where ...

  11. Three-dimensional geologic modeling and groundwater flow modeling of the Töllinperä aquifer in the Hitura nickel mine area, Finland – providing the framework for restoration and protection of the aquifer

    OpenAIRE

    Sami Saraperä; Silja Pietilä; Veli-Pekka Salonen; Aki Artimo

    2004-01-01

    Elevated concentrations of sulphate, chloride, and nickel were discovered in water samples taken from the Töllinperä aquifer in western Finland. The area is located adjacent to the tailings area of the Hitura nickel mine. Earlier studies revealed that the groundwater contamination resulted from tailings-derived mine waters leaking from a tailings impoundment area. The tailings area directly overlies the Weichselian esker system, part of which is the Töllinperä classified groundwater area. The...

  12. Upwelling characteristics in the Gulf of Finland (Baltic Sea) as revealed by Ferrybox measurements in 2007-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikas, V.; Lips, U.

    2015-11-01

    Ferrybox measurements are carried out between Tallinn and Helsinki in the Gulf of Finland (Baltic Sea) in a regular basis since 1997. The system measures autonomously water temperature, salinity, chlorophyll a fluorescence and turbidity and takes water samples for further analyses at a pre-defined time interval. We aimed to show how the Ferrybox technology could be used to study the coastal upwelling events in the Gulf of Finland. Based on the introduced upwelling index and related criterion, 33 coastal upwelling events were identified in May-September 2007-2013. The number of events as well as frequency of their occurrence and intensity, expressed as a sum of daily average temperature deviations in the 20 km wide coastal area, were almost equal near the northern and southern coast. It is shown that the wind impulse needed to generate upwelling events of similar intensity differ between the two coastal areas whereas this difference is related to the average wind forcing in the area. Two types of upwelling events were identified - one characterized by a strong temperature front and the other revealing gradual decrease of temperature from the open to coastal area with maximum temperature deviation close to the shore.

  13. Back to the Future: Do Lessons from Finland Point the Way to a Return to Model Schools for Northern Ireland?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Anne; Clarke, Linda

    2012-01-01

    The paper examines the school-based element of initial teacher education (ITE) and the ways in which it contributes to the professional learning of student teachers in Finland (University of Helsinki) and Northern Ireland (University of Ulster). In particular it seeks to assess the potential of Training Schools for Northern Ireland. Universities…

  14. A Thematic Survey of the Documents of the Moscow Helsinki Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alekseeva, Lyudmila

    To assess Soviet compliance with the provisions of the Helsinki Accords (the Helsinki Final Act), the Moscow-Helsinki Group collects and publishes documented human rights abuses in the USSR. The Moscow-Helsinki Group was formed by 11 participants in the human rights movement in 1976 and has prepared documentation regarding human rights violations…

  15. Seismic VSP and HSP surveys on preliminary investigation areas in Finland for final disposal of spent nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keskinen, J.; Cosma, C.; Heikkinen, P. (Vibrometric Oy, Helsinki (Finland))

    1992-10-01

    Seismic reflection surveys in boreholes were carried out for Teollisuuden Voima Oy at five sites in Finland (Eurajoki Olkiluoto, Hyrynsalmi Veitsivaara, Konginkangas Kivetty, Kuhmo Romuvaara and Sievi Syyry). The vertical Seismic Profiling (VSP) surveys were a part of the investigation programme for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. The purpose was to detect fractured zones, lithological contacts and other anomalies in the structure of the rockmass and to determine their position and orientation. Horizontal Seismic Profiling (HSP) was used at the Olkiluoto site, additionally to VSP. The data has been organized in profiles containing seismograms recorded from the same shotpoint (shot gathers). One of the most powerful processing methods used with this project has been the Image Space Filtering, a new technique, which has been developed (in the project) for seismic reflection studies in crystalline rock. The method can be applied with other rock types where steeply inclined or vertical anomalies are of interest. It acts like a multichannel filter, enhancing the reflected events and also as an interpretation tool, to estimate the strength and position of the reflectors. This approach has been of great help in emphasizing the weak reflections from uneven and sometimes vanishing interfaces encountered in crystalline.

  16. Recovery of benthic macrofauna from chronic pollution in the sea area off a refinery plant, southwest Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leppaekoski, E.J. (Inst. of Biology, Abo, Finland); Lindstroem, L.S.

    1978-05-01

    Quantitative field studies (density, wet weight biomass, Shannon diversity, species richness, evenness of distribution) on benthic sublittoral macrofauna were made in the vicinity of an oil refinery in southwest Finland before and after the installation of a new wastewater treatment plant that reduced the amount of oil and liquid effluents by ca. 90-95%. The number of species and species diversity increased during the 1st and 2nd yr after pollution abatement at the stations close to the former outflows. The amphipods pontoporeia affinis, Corophium volutator, and C. lacustre, midge larvae of the Chironomus plumosus-group, the oligochaete Tubifex costatus, the polychaetes Harmothoe sarsi and Polydora redeki, and the bivalve Cardium sp. were the most successful recolonizers of the 23 taxa sampled. The strong lethal effect of oil-contaminated sediments upon Chironomus plumosus larvae decreased markedly in laboratory experiments (LT50 was estimated at 7 d in 1973 and at 28 d in 1974; in 1975, 80-90% of the larvae survived for 28 d). Details of postabatement succession are discussed. The results demonstrate not only the recovery from chronic oil pollution but also the degree of ecological damage caused by previous continuous discharge of oil.

  17. Upwelling characteristics in the Gulf of Finland (Baltic Sea) as revealed by Ferrybox measurements in 2007-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikas, Villu; Lips, Urmas

    2016-07-01

    Ferrybox measurements have been carried out between Tallinn and Helsinki in the Gulf of Finland (Baltic Sea) on a regular basis since 1997. The system measures autonomously water temperature, salinity, chlorophyll a fluorescence and turbidity and takes water samples for further analyses at a predefined time interval. We aimed to show how the Ferrybox technology could be used to study the coastal upwelling events in the Gulf of Finland. Based on the introduced upwelling index and related criteria, 33 coastal upwelling events were identified in May-September 2007-2013. The number of events, as well as the frequency of their occurrence and intensity expressed as a sum of daily average temperature deviations in the 20 km wide coastal area, were almost equal near the northern and southern coasts. Nevertheless, the wind impulse, which was needed to generate upwelling events of similar intensity, differed between the northern and southern coastal areas. It is suggested that the general thermohaline structure adapted to the prevailing forcing and the estuarine character of the basin weaken the upwelling created by the westerly to southwesterly (up-estuary) winds and strengthen the upwelling created by the easterly to northeasterly (down-estuary) winds. Two types of upwelling events were identified - one characterized by a strong temperature front and the other revealing gradual decrease in temperature from the open sea to the coastal area, with maximum temperature deviation close to the shore.

  18. 芬兰与浦东新区社区卫生服务的比较%Comparison of community health services in Finland and Pudong New Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔伟; 张韬

    2014-01-01

    This article introduced the overview,internal collaboration and personnel training of primary health care in Finland and Pudong New Area and compared their important parameters. It put forward two points which could be learned from Finland. Firstly,optimizing and integrating the functions of general practitioners,community nurses, and public health personnel to work in collaboration. Secondly,using multi-channel and multilateral collaboration to educate and train the general practitioners in order to guarantee,develop and improve the general practitioner's quality and ability,and enhance their enthusiasm and responsibility to serve the people with good community health care.%对芬兰与上海浦东新区两地社区卫生保健体系的基本情况、内部协作与人才培养进行介绍和阐述,并抽取其中的重要参数进行比较,经分析提出可在两点上借鉴芬兰简便高效的运作模式:(1)医、护、防职能分工优化整合,紧密协作;(2)全科医师培养和进修多管齐下,多方协作,以充分保障全科医师的素质与能力,发展与提升,充分激发其职业热忱和为民服务的高度责任心,做好社区卫生保健工作。

  19. Feasibility analysis of Indian vegetarian restaurant in Helsinki

    OpenAIRE

    Dhakal, Dikchhya

    2014-01-01

    This thesis is a feasibility analysis of an Indian vegetarian restaurant in Helsinki. The main objective of the study is to evaluate the possibility of opening an Indian vegetarian restaurant. Veg Paradise is an Indian vegetarian restaurant, serving a variety of tasty Indian vegetarian cuisines in Helsinki. In the beginning phase, the restaurant will provide delicious cuisines, later, when it has achieved a certain degree of market sustainability, a catering service will be introduced as well...

  20. Helsinki alert of biodiversity and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Hertzen, Leena; Beutler, Bruce; Bienenstock, John; Blaser, Martin; Cani, Patrice D; Eriksson, Johan; Färkkilä, Martti; Haahtela, Tari; Hanski, Ilkka; Jenmalm, Maria C; Kere, Juha; Knip, Mikael; Kontula, Kimmo; Koskenvuo, Markku; Ling, Charlotte; Mandrup-Poulsen, Thomas; von Mutius, Erika; Mäkelä, Mika J; Paunio, Tiina; Pershagen, Göran; Renz, Harald; Rook, Graham; Saarela, Maria; Vaarala, Outi; Veldhoen, Marc; de Vos, Willem M

    2015-05-01

    Urban living in built environments, combined with the use of processed water and food, may not provide the microbial stimulation necessary for a balanced development of immune function. Many chronic inflammatory disorders, including allergic, autoimmune, metabolic, and even some behavioural disorders, are linked to alteration in the human commensal microbiota. Sedentary lifestyle is associated with reduced exposure to a broad spectrum of environmental micro-organisms and surplus energy balance, both risk factors of chronic inflammatory disorders. According to the Biodiversity Hypothesis, an environment with diverse macrobiota and microbiota modifies and enriches the human microbiota, which in turn is crucial in the development and maintenance of appropriate immune function. These issues were discussed in the symposium 'Chronic Inflammation, Lifestyle and Environment', held in Helsinki, 20-22 August 2014, under the sponsorship of the Yrjö Jahnsson Foundation. This paper briefly outlines the recent findings in the context of the environment, lifestyle, and health; discusses the forces that undermine immune tolerance in urban environments; and highlights the possibilities to restore broken immune tolerance among urban dwellers, summarizing the main messages in four statements and calling for actions to combat major public health threats. PMID:25904094

  1. The role of SSDL-Helsinki for dosimetry and quality audit in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quality and dosimetry audit in radiotherapy has in Finland been implemented through inspections carried out by the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK). In connection with the Radiation Metrology Laboratory of the Centre, the SSDL-Helsinki, there is a section for radiotherapy supervision. The inspection by STUK is an independent review of the quality and dosimetry control system which can be called quality and dosimetry audit by site visits. STUK is the responsible authority for the supervision of all use of radiation in Finland and that is why it also can set up requirements on the basis of results of the review. The disagreement of the measuring results between STUK and the radiotherapy department, of more than a given action level, will always lead to a thorough investigation of the reason and to a discussion of the most reliable results to be used for the treatments. The inspections include dose calibration for conventional X-ray therapy equipment and dose comparison, including field size dependence, for high energy equipment. For afterloading equipment the reference air kerma rate is checked. Additionally, the inspections by STUK include checks of the performance characteristics of the equipment and the accomplishment and the results of quality control procedures. Further, methods are currently being developed to supplement the direct measurements by TL-measurements in special phantoms in order to include the whole treatment chain (e.g. the treatment planning system) in the audit. (author). 7 refs, 1 tab

  2. Education in cryosphere science for students and teachers at University of Helsinki

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepparanta, M.

    2009-04-01

    Cryosphere physics belongs to the geophysics discipline in the Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, Finland. Due to the northern location of Finland cryosphere has been long time one of the primary fields in geophysical education and research. In the university geophysics it starts from the 2nd year level, with the course "Geophysics of snow and ice" covering snow and ice in all their form in the Earth. In the graduate education specific field courses are arranged every two years devoting to sea ice, freshwater ice, snow or glaciers. PhD courses have been arranged in collaboration with other universities active in cryosphere. Snow and ice courses have been also given to high school teachers to begin with special winter courses for high school students. Such activity has started in a few high schools, and our staff has provided help to those schools with lectures and measurement techniques. Snow and ice questions are in the media practically every day in the winter time, discussing skiing conditions, safety for travellers on lake ice and sea ice, problems with snow storms and many other positive and negative outcomes from the cold season.

  3. Fluxes of greenhouse gases CH{sub 4}, CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}O on some peat mining areas in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nykaenen, H.; Martikainen, P.J. [National Public Health Inst., Kuopio (Finland). Dept. of Biology; Silvola, J.; Alm, J. [Joensuu Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Biology

    1996-12-31

    The increase in concentration of greenhouse gases (CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O) in atmosphere is associated with burning of fossil fuels and also changes in biogeochemistry due to land use activities. Virgin peatlands are globally important stores of carbon and sources of CH4. Peatland drainage changes the processes in carbon and nitrogen cycles responsible for the fluxes of CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O. Preparing of peatlands for peat mining greatly change their biogeochemical processes. Effective drainage decreases water table and allows air to penetrate deep into peat profile. Aerobic conditions inhibit activities of anaerobic microbes, including the methanogens, whereas aerobic processes like methane oxidation are stimulated. Destruction of vegetation cover stops the carbon input to peat. In Finland the actual peat mining area is 0.05 x 106 hectares and further 0.03 x 106 hectares have been prepared or are under preparation for peat mining. The current total peatland area in the world used for mining is 0.94 x 106 ha and the area already mined is 1.15 x 106 ha. In this presentation fluxes of greenhouse gases (CH{sub 4}, CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}O) on some mires under peat mining are reported and compared with those on natural mires and with the emissions from peat combustion. (15 refs.)

  4. Crowdfunding in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Leppänen, Alfred

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of the Thesis is to find answers to three (3) questions which will define the position of crowdfunding industry in Finland. Questions are: How crowdfunding oper-ates in Finland. Which elements in Finland support or do not support crowdfunding industry? What is the future potential for the industry in Finland? In order to understand crowdfunding industry, paper will consist of general crowdfunding definitions and main crowdfunding forms which are used within the industry. As a for...

  5. Characterization of a volcanic ash episode in southern Finland caused by the Grimsvötn eruption in Iceland in May 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.-M. Kerminen

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The volcanic eruption of Grimsvötn in Iceland in May 2011, affected surface-layer air quality at several locations in Northern Europe. In Helsinki, Finland, the main pollution episode lasted for more than 8 h around the noon of 25 May. We characterized this episode by relying on detailed physical, chemical and optical aerosol measurements. The analysis was aided by air mass trajectory calculations, satellite measurements, and dispersion model simulations. During the episode, volcanic ash particles were present at sizes from less than 0.5 μm up to sizes >10 μm. The mass mean diameter of ash particles was a few μm in the Helsinki area, and the ash enhanced PM10 mass concentrations up to several tens of μg m−3. Individual particle analysis showed that some ash particles appeared almost non-reacted during the atmospheric transportation, while most of them were mixed with sea salt or other type of particulate matter. Also sulfate of volcanic origin appeared to have been transported to our measurement site, but its contribution to the aerosol mass was minor due the separation of ash-particle and sulfur dioxide plumes shortly after the eruption. The volcanic material had very little effect on PM1 mass concentrations or sub-micron particle number size distributions in the Helsinki area. The aerosol scattering coefficient was increased and visibility was slightly decreased during the episode, but in general changes in aerosol optical properties due to volcanic aerosols seem to be difficult to be distinguished from those induced by other pollutants present in a continental boundary layer. The case investigated here demonstrates clearly the power of combining surface aerosol measurements, dispersion model simulations and satellite measurements in analyzing surface air pollution episodes caused by volcanic eruptions. None of these three approaches alone would be sufficient to forecast, or even to unambiguously

  6. Characterization of a volcanic ash episode in southern Finland caused by the Grimsvötn eruption in Iceland in May 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.-M. Kerminen

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The volcanic eruption of Grimsvötn in Iceland in May 2011 affected surface-layer air quality at several locations in Northern Europe. In Helsinki, Finland, the main pollution episode lasted for more than 8 h around the noon of 25 May. We characterized this episode by relying on detailed physical, chemical and optical aerosol measurements. The analysis was aided by air mass trajectory calculations, satellite measurements, and dispersion model simulations. During the episode, volcanic ash particles were present at sizes from less than 0.5 μm up to sizes >10 μm. The mass mean diameter of ash particles was a few μm in the Helsinki area, and the ash enhanced PM10 mass concentrations up to several tens of μg m−3. Individual particle analysis showed that some ash particles appeared almost non-reacted during the atmospheric transportation, while most of them were mixed with sea salt or other type of particulate matter. Also sulfate of volcanic origin appeared to have been transported to our measurement site, but its contribution to the aerosol mass was minor due the separation of ash-particle and sulfur dioxide plumes shortly after the eruption. The volcanic material had very little effect on PM1 mass concentrations or sub-micron particle number size distributions in the Helsinki area. The aerosol scattering coefficient was increased and visibility was slightly decreased during the episode, but in general changes in aerosol optical properties due to volcanic aerosols seem to be difficult to be distinguished from those induced by other pollutants present in a continental boundary layer. The case investigated here demonstrates clearly the power of combining surface aerosol measurements, dispersion model simulations and satellite measurements in analyzing surface air pollution episodes caused by volcanic eruptions. None of these three approaches alone would be sufficient to forecast, or even to unambiguously identify

  7. Sociotope map : Mapping perceived green area values fromadolescents’ perspective in Lempäälämunicipality in Western Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Ogbeide, Efe

    2012-01-01

    Urbanization in all over the world has created pressure on the remaining open space, especially green areas,in the cities. Hence, the importance of green areas has become more relevant. It has been acknowledged thatthey are economically valuable as they promote the identity of cities and stimulate for example tourism.They also have a major impact on both physical and mental health and preserve ecological balance.However, knowledge on their social values to users has not been explored that muc...

  8. Infrared technology in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartikainen, Jari A.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents the main actors in the Finnish infrared research community in the Defense Forces, the civilian research institutes and industry. Within the Defence Forces, the Defence Forces Research Centre (PvTT) has a key role as the most important research institute dealing with military technology in Finland and as an integrator of civilian expertise. The basic research strategy of the Finnish Defense Forces is to rely on external research institutes (either domestic or foreign) and to concentrate its own resources only on the areas where external expertise is not available. Accordingly, the research focus of PvTT is on the signature research and the environmental conditions affecting the performance of infrared sensors. The paper also describes the work done at the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT) and at various universities. The role of the Finnish defense industry has been fairly modest, but both its own products and recent technology transfer agreements may change the situation in the long run.

  9. International Cryogenic Engineering Conference, 10th, Helsinki, Finland, July 31-August 3, 1984, Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collan, H.K.; Berglund, P.; Krusius, M.

    1984-01-01

    The present conference on cryogenic devices and applications encompasses such diverse fields as cooling techniques, superconducting magnets, cryogenic coolant properties, ultraflow state temperature refrigeration methods, medical applications of cryogenic implements, He-II technologies, thermometry and instrumentation, large scale cooling methods, heat transfer and the properties of solids, space applications-related cooling techniques, SQUIDS, liquefaction transfer and storage methods, and superconductive magnetic energy storage. Specific attention is given to superconducting magnets for NMR imaging, heat and evaporative mass transfer correlations at the liquid-vapor interface of cryogenic liquids, a dynamic cooling system for cryogenic sensors, heat transfer during natural convective boiling of N in channels, cryosurgery, magnetocardiography, heat transfer and thermometry in optics below 1 K, the Space Shuttle launch facility's H dewar pressurization vaporizer, Si and Ge diode cryogenic thermometers, Nb-Ti superconductor development status, ac losses of V2Hf, a superconducting dc motor for ship propulsion, and an ocean bottom SQUID magnetometer.

  10. Science and Values in Radiological Protection - Helsinki, Finland, 15-17 January 2008. Workshop proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Key scientific challenges arising from ongoing radiobiological research have been identified recently. From this scientific base, the possible implications for radiological protection science are expected to be further elaborated. Through discussions among members of various NEA committees, it is clear that there is a need for radiological protection policy makers, regulators and practitioners to better understand possible developments coming from radiological protection science. At the same time, there is also a need for radiological protection scientists to better understand the broad processes of radiological protection decision making and to better interact with these processes in terms of furnishing input coming from their research. Participants in this workshop will attempt to identify elements of a framework that are better suited for the integration of new scientific and technological developments and socio-political considerations into radiological protection. This workshop initiated a process of reflection and dialogue among researchers, policy makers and other stakeholders that will, in the longer term: - improve understanding in both the research and policy communities of what is at stake in the system of radiological protection as scientific knowledge and social values evolve; - contribute to the development of a more shared view of emerging scientific and societal challenges to radiological protection, taking into account existing differences; - identify research that will better inform decision makers' judgments on emerging issues; - be the first step in the identification of elements of a framework that is better suited for the integration of new scientific and technological developments and socio-political considerations into radiological protection; and - identify the most appropriate next steps in this process. To achieve the above objectives, selected examples of emerging radiological protection issues were addressed during the workshop. The workshop was structured around a number of invited plenary presentations addressing selected emerging challenges for radiological protection. These presentations were followed by facilitated breakout sessions, during which participants examined these emerging challenges in greater detail. Discussions in particular focused on their potential implications from the perspectives of science, values and interpretation. Pre-determined participation in each breakout session balanced the spectrum of stakeholders participating in the workshop. Some of the key scientific issues identified in the recent NEA Expert Group on the Implications of Radiological Protection Science (EGIS) report were used as examples in the workshop, namely: non-targeted effects; individual sensitivity; and circulatory diseases. Each topic was addressed initially in plenary and subsequently in the parallel breakout sessions which were moderated by designated experts. The moderated discussions followed a 'what if' approach during which the nature and significance of the potential implications of the various emerging issues or challenges will be determined. Where appropriate, the need for further research and/or analysis was identified in order to better understand the challenge and how/if it is accommodated. The outcomes of the breakout sessions were presented in plenary by the respective moderators followed by an open discussion. These discussions informed the conclusions of the workshop. This document brings together the slides of the different presentations given at the workshop

  11. Influence of source types and source areas on the concentrations of volatile organic compounds in Southern Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Patokoski, Johanna

    2015-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are known to be key players in the atmospheric processes. They are emitted both from natural and non-biogenic sources. Although the biogenic sources are generally dominant compared with the anthropogenic sources in some circumstances the anthropogenic emissions can dominate e.g. in densely populated areas or during pollution plumes. VOCs are ambient trace gases including a vast group of compounds. Some of the VOCs are very reactive, participating in atmospher...

  12. Tallinna ja Helsinki Itämeren risteilykohteina

    OpenAIRE

    Punkkinen, Tiina

    2012-01-01

    Opinnäytetyön tavoitteena oli verrata Tallinnaa ja Helsinkiä Itämeren risteilykohteina. Tarkoitus on tutkia Tallinnaa ja Helsinkiä asemaa Itämerellä ja tuoda esiin molempien kaupunkien tavoitteita kansainvälisessä risteilymatkailussa. Kaupunkien on tunnettava kilpailijansa pysyäkseen mukana yhä kiristyvässä kilpailussa. Työssä vertaillaan myös millaisia tuotteita ja retkiä asiakkaille tarjotaan maissa. Työn toimeksiantaja on Helsingin matkailu- ja kongressitoimisto. Aihe valittiin yhdessä toi...

  13. What price recreation in Finland? – A contingent valuation study of non-market benefits of public outdoor recreation areas

    OpenAIRE

    Huhtala, Anni

    2004-01-01

    Basic services in Finnish national parks and state-owned recreation areas have traditionally been publicly financed and thus free of charge for users. Since the benefits of public recreation are not captured by market demand, government spending on recreation services must be motivated in some other way. Here, we elicit people’s willingness to pay (WTP) for services in the country’s state-owned parks to obtain an estimate of the value of outdoor recreation in monetary terms. A variant of the ...

  14. Regional development of river basins in the Olkiluoto-Pyhaejaervi Area, SW Finland, 2000 BP - 8000 AP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biosphere assessment forms one of the main components in Posiva's Safety Case portfolio and includes analyses of terrain and ecosystem development. Shoreline displacement and changes in surface hydrology form one part of these analyses. In this report, the regional development of the Olkiluoto-Pyhaejaervi area in the time period 2000 BP - 8000 AP was examined by taking into account changes in the surface flow patterns of the Lapinjoki and Eurajoki river basins. A hydrological model, EULA, was developed and applied to investigate the past and future hydrological regimes and changes in the Olkiluoto-Pyhaejaervi study area. As detailed assessment of erosion and sedimentation effects were not within the scope of this study, only their general effects were evaluated. The digital elevation models (DEM) for different time stages (2000, 1500, 1000 and 500 BP; 100, 300, 500, 1000, 1500, 2000, 2500, 3000, 3500, 4000, 4500, 5000, 6000, 7000 and 8000 AP) were compiled taking into account the land uplift and tilting of the Earth's crust. With the aid of various sophisticated GIS tools, the boundaries of the main river basins, the flow patterns of rivers and development of lakes during each stage were modelled. The yearly discharge rates of rivers Eurajoki and Lapinjoki were also evaluated with the assumption that present climatic features prevail during the whole time period 2000 BP - 8000 AP. Finally, the probability of significant changes in the surface water flow routes were estimated during different stages. (orig.)

  15. The capability of three component substation FIA1 at local and regional distances. Comparisons with FINESA and Helsinki bulletins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Tarvainen

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available The automatic analysing capability of the three component substation called hereafter also FIA1 (coordinates: 61.4444°N, 26.0793°E is studied. The detections and daily bulletins of FINESA (renamed as FINESS since August 1993 are used as a basis of the study. At the three component substation FIA1 a detector bulletin producer of type Husebye Ruudwas used to detect events and after forming a single station daily bulletin the common detections with FINESA were taken into a more detailed examination. From 689 detections of FINESA (also referred to as FIAO the three component substation could associate 258 events. The main part of events were mining and quarry explosions in Estonia, Russia, north of St. Petersburg and Finland, at distances up to 250 km. The diurnal distribution of events was studied and the connections to certain mines were attempted to be determined. It is found that certain mining areas have very specified shooting times, thus making it possible to monitor this kind of areas under predefined procedure. The median difference of azimuths obtained from the three component station compared with FINESA azimuths was 50 and the median difference of distance was as small as 6.2 km. In these comparisons the siting of the three component sensor was not taken into account, even though it is not located in the centre of the array. The main sources of location differences are found to be the errors of azimuth and veiled later phases. Sometimes the phase pickings of the two different methods did not give any coinciding results, even though the P detections occurred simultaneously. Also, the deviation of azimuths under poor SNR circumstances caused clear location biases. To investigate the detection and locating performance of the three component sub station FIA1 at local and regional distances, the results were compared with the preliminary weekly analysis and Helsinki bulletins of the Finnish National Data Centre (FNDC, which handled 480

  16. Borehole radar measurements performed on preliminary investigation areas in Finland for final disposal of spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borehole radar measurements with the RAMAC system have been performed in 24 boreholes distributed between the investigation areas Kuhmo Romuvaara, Hyrynsalmi Veitsivaara, Konginkangas Kivetty, Sievi Syyry, and Eurajoki Olkiluoto. The purpose of the borehole radar measurement program has been to investigate the bedrock in the vicinity of the boreholes in order to obtain information about geometry and extent of fracture zones, lithological contacts and other structures. The measurements have been performed as singlehole radar reflection measurements and Vertical Radar Profiling (VRP) measurements, using antennas with 22 MHz frequency range in both configurations. The total measured length in the singlehole radar reflection mode is 13304 meter and in the VRP mode 9200 meter. The VRP measurements are not presented in the report. Radar data from the singlehole reflection measurements are presented as grey scale radar maps after digital filtering with a bandpass filter and a moving average filter. Interpreted zones from the singlehole radar measurements are presented in tables for each borehole. It has been possible to study structures at distances of more than 110 meter from the borehole

  17. Borehole radar measurements performed on preliminary investigation areas in Finland for final disposal of spent nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlsten, S. [Swedish Geological Co., Uppsala (Sweden)

    1991-05-01

    Borehole radar measurements with the RAMAC system have been performed in 24 boreholes distributed between the investigation areas Kuhmo Romuvaara, Hyrynsalmi Veitsivaara, Konginkangas Kivetty, Sievi Syyry, and Eurajoki Olkiluoto. The purpose of the borehole radar measurement program has been to investigate the bedrock in the vicinity of the boreholes in order to obtain information about geometry and extent of fracture zones, lithological contacts and other structures. The measurements have been performed as singlehole radar reflection measurements and Vertical Radar Profiling (VRP) measurements, using antennas with 22 MHz frequency range in both configurations. The total measured length in the singlehole radar reflection mode is 13304 meter and in the VRP mode 9200 meter. The VRP measurements are not presented in the report. Radar data from the singlehole reflection measurements are presented as grey scale radar maps after digital filtering with a bandpass filter and a moving average filter. Interpreted zones from the singlehole radar measurements are presented in tables for each borehole. It has been possible to study structures at distances of more than 110 meter from the borehole.

  18. Business plan for Gourmet Food Truck in Helsinki

    OpenAIRE

    Mulmi, Mukesh

    2015-01-01

    This thesis work is about food truck and food truck industry in Finland. In Finland, Culinary scenes are booming and growing but, the food truck concept is new to Finland. Food truck industry is very young and currently, there is a hype for food truck and people are admiring new cuisines. Author himself is working as a cook. And he is passionate about food and restaurant industry. The main purpose of the thesis was to explore more about food truck industry in Finland and create the busine...

  19. 75 FR 75615 - Helsinki Human Rights Day, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-03

    ... Act, a seminal document tying lasting security among states with respect for human rights and... Helsinki Final Act, with its affirmation of fundamental human rights, inspired many who struggled against... hundred and thirty-fifth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2010-30584 Filed 12-2-10; 11:15 am] Billing...

  20. Three Introductory Lectures in Helsinki on Matrix Models of Superstrings

    CERN Document Server

    Makeenko, Y M

    1997-01-01

    These are short notes of three introductory lectures on recently proposed matrix models of Superstrings and M theory given at 5th Nordic Meeting on Supersymmetric Field and String Theories in Helsinki (March 10-12, 1997). Contents: M(atrix) theory of BFSS, From IIA to IIB with IKKT, The NBI matrix model.

  1. The Veikkola granite area in southern Finland: emplacement of a 1.83-1.82 Ga plutonic sequence in an extensional regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matti Kurhila

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Four granite intrusions and coeval small enderbite intrusions, belonging to the lateorogenic (1850–1820 Ma magmatism of the Svecofennian orogeny, are described in the Veikkola area of southern Finland. The granites are leucocratic, heterogeneous and characterizedby abundant garnet. The oldest granite is layered whereas the younger ones are more homogeneous. Geochemically the granites are peraluminous and have high contents of SiO2 (71–76 wt.%. Their major and minor element composition varies significantly but the REE patterns are fairly similar. Garnet mainly crystallized from melt but some garnet in the granites may be restitic. Garnet composition is relatively constant implying slow equilibration with the melt. In addition to garnet-bearing felsic layers in the oldest granite, the granites are crosscut by garnet-bearing dikes and veins. The layers, dikes and veins are higher in REE and Fe/Mg than the host granites and are considered partial melts from the granites. The abundant garnet in the felsic layers, dikes and veins crystallized from melt. Thermobarometry calculations indicate 3.5 – 5 kbar and ~650–700 °C estimates for crystallization of the felsic layers in the oldest granite whereas the host granite yields ~1.5 kbar higher pressure. The granites were probably derived by dehydration melting of layered, metagreywacke-dominated rocks. Melting was fluid-absent both during generation of the granites and during formation of the felsic layers, dikes and veins. The oldest granite (1850 Ma was emplaced at mid-crustal depth before extensional deformation. Layering in the oldest granite is regarded as the result of deformation-induced remelting of the host granite at a higher crustal level, during protracted extension and progressive regional metamorphism. The otherthree granites and the enderbite were emplaced at a late stage of extension, at or close to the peak of metamorphism (1.83 – 1.82 Ga.

  2. DEVELOPING A RESTAURANT BUSINESS PLAN : Opening a Thali Restaurant in Helsinki

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman , Tayabur; Bista , Meelan

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the thesis was to develop a restaurant plan. The name of this restaurant would be Thali which would be based in Helsinki. Thali restaurant would focus on the Asian food business in a Metropolitan area. The main purpose of this project was to determine whether this business plan would be viable and able to function as normal restaurant. This restaurant business plan used different features that were evaluated by comparing them to other restaurants. The author’s (Meelan Bista and Tay...

  3. Emergency preparedness in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although the menace of nuclear war still persists, the focus in national emergency preparedness in Finland is presently on emergencies involving nuclear installations. The nuclear power plants, nuclear submarines and other installations in the former USSR are a major reason for this. In this article the main features and organization of emergency preparedness in Finland are described. (orig.)

  4. Adult Education in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szekely, Radu

    2006-01-01

    Ever since the first ideas of national independence appeared in Finland, adult education has played an essential role in shaping the destiny of the Finns. With a history of almost 130 years, during which it has continuously increased in quality and quantity, the Finnish adult education system has ensured that Finland stays among the most…

  5. Personal exposures to NO2 in the EXPOLIS-study: relation to residential indoor, outdoor and workplace concentrations in Basel, Helsinki and Prague

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Personal exposures, residential indoor, outdoor and workplace levels of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) were measured for 262 urban adult (25-55 years) participants in three EXPOLIS centres (Basel, Switzerland; Helsinki, Finland; and Prague, Czech Republic) using passive samplers for 48-h sampling periods during 1996-1997. The average residential outdoor and indoor NO2 levels were lowest in Helsinki (24 ± 12 and 18 ± 11 μgm-3, respectively), highest in Prague (61 ± 20 and 43 ± 23μgm-3), with Basel in between (36 ± 13 and 27± 13μgm-3). Average workplace NO2 levels, however, were highest in Basel (36 ± 24μgm-3), lowest in Helsinki (27 ± 15μgm-3), with Prague in between (30 ± 18μgm-3). A time-weighted microenvironmental exposure model explained 74% of the personal exposure variation in all centre and in average 88% of the exposures. Log-linear regression models, using residential outdoor measurements (fixed site monitoring) combined with residential and work characteristics (i.e. work location, using gas appliances and keeping windows open), explained 48% (37%) of the personal NO2 exposure variation. Regression models based on ambient fixed site concentrations alone explained only 11-19% of personal NO2 exposure variation. Thus, ambient fixed site monitoring alone was a poor predictor for personal NO2 exposure variation, but adding personal questionnaire information can significantly improve the predicting power. (Author)

  6. Paired Border Towns or TwinCities from Finland and China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Riitta Kosonen; Xu Feng; Erja Kettunen

    2008-01-01

    This paper discusses cross-border cooperation at the level of urban socio-economic systems.Worldwide,cross-border urban cooperation has in several cases produced socio-economic and political coherence supported by various joint programs and efforts.However,the degree of coherence varies and seldom creates socio-economically and politically tightly integrated "TwinCities" where the state border becomes highly transparent or obscure.Focusing on Finland and China,our aim is to identify whether the selected border towns represent coherent TwinCities or a more loose type of "paired border towns".The study uses an empirical examination of three Finnish towns (Helsinki,Tomio,Imatra) and their neighboring towns in Estonia,Sweden,and Russia as a benchmark.Then,a comparative study is made regarding three Chinese eross-border cities facing Russia,Vietnam and Kazakhstan.We highlight the differences in cross-border integration from the viewpoint of shared public sector programs,cross-border enterprise relocation and networking,and integrated social sector in terms of labor market,education and shopping area.

  7. Board of Directors Orientation Manual for a non-profit : Case: The Vietnamese Student Association in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Linh

    2014-01-01

    This is a project- oriented thesis with an Orientation Manual for new-coming members of Board of Directors as the outcome. The Orientation Manual will serve as guidelines for Board members to carry their roles in the association and helps creating working relationship among Board members. The thesis was commissioned by the Vietnamese Student Association in Finland – a non-profit that was founded in 2003 and is currently based in Helsinki. The association provides sport, education and culture-...

  8. Christian’s perception in coping with stress related depression : a case study of Vantaa International Christian Fellowship (VICF), Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Eyongakpa, Marie

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Marie, Eyongakpa. Christian’s perception in coping with stress related depression. Diak South, Helsinki. Spring 2014. 70 p., 2 appendices. Diaconia University of Applied Sciences. Degree Programme in Social Services. Bachelor of Social Services (UAS). The aim of the study was to explore Christian’s perception in coping with stress related depression. A case study of Vantaa International Christian Fellowship, Finland (VICF). The methodology of the study entails a qualit...

  9. Anu Koskivirta, Sari Forsström, (eds.), Manslaughter, fornication and sectarianism. Norm-breaking in Finland and the Baltic area from mediaeval to modern times / Maria Ågren, Åsa Karlsson, Xavier Rousseaux, (eds.), Guises of power. Integra

    OpenAIRE

    Spierenburg, Pieter

    2009-01-01

    The first of the two collective volumes reviewed here results from the productive project on the history of crime in Finland and surrounding areas, directed by Heikki Ylikangas. Other publications in English have already appeared (one reviewed as a short notice by me in CHS 3,2). Of the seven contributions to this volume, five deal with Finland, one with Sweden and one with Estonia. Violence, mainly homicide, is the principal subject, with four contributions devoted to it. The other three are...

  10. Reservoir-flooded river mouth areas as sediment traps revealing erosion from peat mining areas - Jukajoki case study in eastern Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahvanainen, Teemu; Meriläinen, Henna-Kaisa; Haraguchi, Akira; Simola, Heikki

    2016-04-01

    Many types of soil-disturbing land use have caused excess sedimentation in Finnish lakes. Identification and quantification of catchment sources of sediment material is crucial in cases where demands for remediation measures are considered. We studied recent (50 yr) sediments of four small rivers, all draining to a reservoir impounded in 1971. Catchments of two of the rivers had had peat mining activities from early 1980s until recently, exposing large areas of peat surfaces to erosion. The water level of the reservoir had risen to the river mouth areas of all rivers, while in each case, the river mouth areas still form riverine narrows separable from the main reservoir, hence collecting sedimentation from their own catchments. The original soils under the reservoir water level could readily be observed in core samples, providing a dated horizon under recent sediments. In addition, we used 137Cs-stratigraphies for dating of samples from original river bed locations. As expected, recent sediments of rivers with peat mining influence differed from others e.g. by high organic content and C:N ratios. Stable isotopes 13C and 15N both correlated with C:N (r = 0.799 and r = -0.717, respectively) and they also differentiated the peat-mining influenced samples from other river sediments. Principal components of the physical-chemical variables revealed clearer distinction than any variables separately. Light-microscopy revealed abundance of leafs of Sphagnum mosses in peat-mining influenced river sediments that were nearly absent from other rivers. Spores of Sphagnum were, however, abundant in all river sediments indicating their predominantly airborne origin. We find that combination of several physical-chemical characters rather than any single variable and microscopy of plant remains can result in reliable recognition of peatland-origin of sediment material when non-impacted sites are available for comparison. Dating of disturbed recent sediments is challenging. River

  11. Errors in Scale Values for Magnetic Elements for Helsinki

    CERN Document Server

    Svalgaard, Leif

    2014-01-01

    Using several lines of evidence we show that the scale values of the geomagnetic variometers operating in Helsinki in the 19th century were not constant throughout the years of operation 1844-1897. Specifically, the adopted scale value of the Horizontal Force variometer appears to be too low by ~30% during the years 1866-1874.5 and the adopted scale value of the Declination variometer appears to be too low by a factor of ~2 during the interval 1885.8-1887.5. Reconstructing the Heliospheric Magnetic Field strength from geomagnetic data has reached a stage where a reliable reconstruction is possible using even just a single geomagnetic data set of hourly or daily values. Before such reconstructions can be accepted as reliable, the underlying data must be calibrated correctly. It is thus mandatory that the Helsinki data be corrected. Such correction has been satisfactorily carried out and the HMF strength is now well constrained back to 1845.

  12. Evaluation of two PCR-based techniques for molecular epidemiology in Finland, a high-endemic area with four sympatric Trichinella species

    OpenAIRE

    Kapel C.M.O.; Oivanen L; La Rosa G.; Mikkonen T.; Pozio E.

    2001-01-01

    Trichinella larvae collected from wildlife, domestic and synanthropic animals in Finland were identified to species by two molecular techniques: Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and the recently described multiplex PCR. The RAPD-PCR was very sensitive to the sub-optimal preservation muscle larvae and resulting in weak and smeared bands on the gels for such material. However, the same samples yielded easily recognizable bands in the multiplex PCR; this la...

  13. Creating a New Culture Concept : Case Study: Culture Salon, Helsinki

    OpenAIRE

    Launonen, Hanna

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this thesis was to examine the widely known theoretical frameworks and analyse their applicability to the case study, investigate the process of starting a new business concept while studying the project plan of an actual concept at hand. The weight of the study was on the feasibility and viability of the project plan of Culture Salon. The melting pot of arts and culture is to be opened in Helsinki, in May 2015. The theoretical framework was collected from related busine...

  14. Increasing entrepreneurial capabilities of Chinese entrepreneurs in Helsinki region

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yinan

    2013-01-01

    This study is an exploratory research focusing on increasing entrepreneurial capabilities of Chinese entrepreneurs in Helsinki region. It is based on a group of Chinese restaurant owners who participate a training program organized by Haaga-Helia University to improve their abilities of running business successfully. The objective of this study is to increase systematic knowledge on vital aspects to improve this group’s entrepreneurial capabilities by digging out, categorizing, summarizing an...

  15. The image of Helsinki as a cultural tourism destination

    OpenAIRE

    Matikainen, Petteri

    2015-01-01

    Cultural tourism has been increasing constantly during the last decades and has become one of the most essential sections of tourism industry. Culture influences strongly on decisions to travel and it is often placed on the key role in tourism strategies. Similarly a strong destination image is inevitable in order to success in highly competed tourism industry. The purpose of this study is to examine the image of Helsinki as a cultural tourism destination. The main objective is to examine...

  16. Smoking in context – a multilevel approach to smoking among females in Helsinki

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahkonen Ossi

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smoking is associated with disadvantage. As people with lower social status reside in less privileged areas, the extent of contextual influences for smoking remains unclear. The aims were to examine the spatial patterning of daily smoking within the city of Helsinki, to analyse whether contextual variation can be observed and which spatial factors associate with current daily smoking in the employed female population. Methods Data from a cross-sectional questionnaire were collected for municipal employees of Helsinki (aged 40–60 years. The response rate was 69%. As almost 4/5 of the employees are females, the analyses were restricted to women (n = 5028. Measures included smoking status, individual level socio-demographic characteristics (age, occupational social class, education, family type and statistical data describing areas in terms of social structure (unemployment rate, proportion of manual workers and social cohesion (proportions of single parents and single households. Logistic multilevel analysis was used to analyse data. Results After adjusting for the individual-level composition, smoking was significantly more prevalent according to all social structural and social cohesion indicators apart from the proportion of manual workers. For example, high unemployment in the area of domicile increased the risk of smoking by almost a half. The largest observed area difference in smoking – 8 percentage points – was found according to the proportion of single households. Conclusion The large variation in smoking rates between areas appears mainly to result from variation in the characteristics of residents within areas. Yet, living in an area with a high level of unemployment appears to be an additional risk for smoking that cannot be fully accounted for by individual level characteristics even in a cohort of female municipal employees.

  17. Early life origins cognitive decline: findings in elderly men in the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katri Raikkonen

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To examine whether the adverse effects of slow prenatal and postnatal growth on cognitive function persist to old age and predict age related cognitive decline. DESIGN AND SETTING: A longitudinal birth cohort study of men born in Helsinki, Finland 1934-44. PARTICIPANTS: Nine-hundred-thirty-one men of the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study, with detailed data on growth from birth to adulthood, aged 20.1 (SD = 1.4 at the first and 67.9 (SD = 2.5 years at the second cognitive testing. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The Finnish Defense Forces Basic Intellectual Ability Test assessed twice over nearly five decades apart. RESULTS: Lower weight, length and head circumference at birth were associated with lower cognitive ability at 67.9 years (1.04-1.55 points lower ability per each standard deviation [SD] unit decrease in body size, 95% Confidence Interval [95%CI]: 0.05 to 2.72 and with cognitive decline after 20.1 years (0.07-0.11 SD decline over time per each SD decrease in body size, 95%CI:0.00 to 0.19. Men who were born larger were more likely to perform better in the cognitive ability test over time (1.22-1.43 increase in odds to remain in the top relative to the lower two thirds in ability over time per each SD increase in body size, 95%CI:1.04 to 1.79 and were more resilient to cognitive decline after 20.1 years (0.69 to 0.76 decrease in odds to decline from than remain in the top third of ability over time per each SD increase in body size, 95%CI:0.49 to 0.99. Slower growth between birth and two years in weight, height and body mass index was associated with lower cognitive ability at 67.9 years, but not with cognitive decline. CONCLUSIONS: Poorer lifetime cognitive ability is predicted by slower growth before and after birth. In predicting resilience to age related cognitive decline, the period before birth seems to be more critical.

  18. Helsingin matkailullisen brändi-identiteetin vahvistuminen Helsinki-oppaan työssä

    OpenAIRE

    Riehunkangas, Juha; Oikarinen, Satu

    2010-01-01

    Tämä opinnäytetyö käsittelee Helsingin tavoittelemaa matkailubrändiä ja brändi-identiteetin vahvistumista Helsinki-oppaan työssä. Helsingin matkailustrategian 2009–2012 mukaan Helsinki tavoittelee vahvaa matkailubrändiä. Tutkimuksen tavoitteena oli selvittää, ovatko Helsinki-oppaiden tärkeinä pitämät ja korostamat vetovoimatekijät linjassa strategiassa määriteltyjen brändi-elementtien kanssa. Toisena tavoitteena oli selvittää Helsinki-oppaiden kiinnostus lisäkoulutukseen ja koulutusaiheisiin....

  19. Assessing the abundance, seasonal questing activity, and Borrelia and tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) prevalence of Ixodes ricinus ticks in a Lyme borreliosis endemic area in Southwest Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sormunen, Jani J; Klemola, Tero; Vesterinen, Eero J; Vuorinen, Ilppo; Hytönen, Jukka; Hänninen, Jari; Ruohomäki, Kai; Sääksjärvi, Ilari E; Tonteri, Elina; Penttinen, Ritva

    2016-02-01

    Studies have revealed that Ixodes ricinus (Acari: Ixodidae) have become more abundant and their geographical distribution extended northwards in some Nordic countries during the past few decades. However, ecological data of tick populations in Finland are sparse. In the current study, I. ricinus abundance, seasonal questing activity, and their Borrelia spp. and tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) prevalence were evaluated in a Lyme borreliosis endemic area in Southwest Finland, Seili Island, where a previous study mapping tick densities was conducted 12 years earlier. A total of 1940 ticks were collected from five different biotopes by cloth dragging during May-September 2012. The overall tick density observed was 5.2 ticks/100m(2) for nymphs and adults. Seasonal questing activity of ticks differed between biotopes and life stages: bimodal occurrences were observed especially for nymphal and adult ticks in forested biotopes, while larvae in pastures exhibited mostly unimodal occurrence. Prevalence of Borrelia and TBEV in ticks was evaluated using conventional and real-time PCR. All samples were negative for TBEV. Borrelia prevalence was 25.0% for adults (n=44) and the minimum infection rate (MIR) 5.6% for pooled nymph samples (191 samples, 1-14 individuals per sample; 30/191 positive). No Borrelia were detected in pooled larval samples (63 samples, 1-139 individuals per sample). Five species of Borrelia were identified from the samples: B. afzelii, B. burgdorferi s.s., B. garinii, B. valaisiana and B. miyamotoi. In Finland, B. valaisiana and B. miyamotoi have previously been reported from the Åland Islands but not from the mainland or inner archipelago. The results of the present study suggest an increase in I. ricinus abundance on the island. PMID:26548608

  20. Evaluation of two PCR-based techniques for molecular epidemiology in Finland, a high-endemic area with four sympatric Trichinella species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapel C.M.O.

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Trichinella larvae collected from wildlife, domestic and synanthropic animals in Finland were identified to species by two molecular techniques: Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD polymerase chain reaction (PCR and the recently described multiplex PCR. The RAPD-PCR was very sensitive to the sub-optimal preservation muscle larvae and resulting in weak and smeared bands on the gels for such material. However, the same samples yielded easily recognizable bands in the multiplex PCR; this latter technique is then recommended for epidemiological studies, especially when the preservation of the samples is sub-optimal. For larvae in good condition the unequivocal bands obtained by multiplex was the easiest identifiable. Four species of Trichinella were identified in the material: T. spiralis, T. nativa, T. britovi, and T. pseudospiralis. Trichinella britovi is a new record for Finland, and T. pseudospiralis is a new record for Northern Europe. Mixed infections between T. britovi and T. spiralis, T. nativa and T. spiralis, and between T. britovi and T. nativa were detected; this is the first record of a mixed infection between T. spiralis and T. nativa in a naturally infected host. Raccoon dogs were the only host species from which all of the four Trichinella species were detected. Trichinella spiralis was found in both domestic animals and wildlife, but none of the sylvatic Trichinella species were detected in domestic pig.

  1. Dense downtown living more carbon intense due to higher consumption: a case study of Helsinki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hindering urban sprawl is one of the main goals for contemporary urban planning. Urban density is considered crucial in climate change mitigation since it reduces automobile dependence and decreases unit sizes, for example. This letter analyzes the effect of density in a city context. In the study the Finnish capital Helsinki is divided into two areas of different urban densities: the high density downtown area and the more scarcely populated suburbs. The study is a continuation of a recently published study on the implications of urban structure on carbon emissions, and analyzes further the main finding of the first study-that higher urban density might have negligible or even reverse effect on the per capita carbon emissions. Similarly to the previous study, a consumption based tiered hybrid life cycle assessment (LCA) approach is employed in order to produce a comprehensive assessment, free of territorial boundaries and system cutoffs typical of traditional LCAs. Based on the findings of the previous study, it is hypothesized that when assessing city level carbon dioxide emissions from a wider, consumer oriented LCA perspective, increased urban density may not necessarily reduce carbon emissions. Surprisingly, the study finds that carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e) emissions are substantially higher in the dense downtown area than in the surrounding suburbs, which is suggested to imply that the increased consumption due to the higher standard of living increases emissions more than the higher density is able to reduce them. The results demonstrate that, while increasing urban density can be justified from a number of ecological, social and economic viewpoints, density is not necessarily a key parameter in the particular case of climate change. In cities like Helsinki, where wealth is concentrated in the downtown area, climate policies should give higher priority to the energy consumption of buildings, to alternative energy production and distribution modes, as

  2. Dense downtown living more carbon intense due to higher consumption: a case study of Helsinki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinonen, Jukka; Kyroe, Riikka; Junnila, Seppo, E-mail: jukka.heinonen@aalto.fi, E-mail: riikka.kyro@aalto.fi, E-mail: seppo.junnila@aalto.fi [School of Engineering, Department of Surveying, Aalto University, PO Box 11200, 00076 Aalto (Finland)

    2011-07-15

    Hindering urban sprawl is one of the main goals for contemporary urban planning. Urban density is considered crucial in climate change mitigation since it reduces automobile dependence and decreases unit sizes, for example. This letter analyzes the effect of density in a city context. In the study the Finnish capital Helsinki is divided into two areas of different urban densities: the high density downtown area and the more scarcely populated suburbs. The study is a continuation of a recently published study on the implications of urban structure on carbon emissions, and analyzes further the main finding of the first study-that higher urban density might have negligible or even reverse effect on the per capita carbon emissions. Similarly to the previous study, a consumption based tiered hybrid life cycle assessment (LCA) approach is employed in order to produce a comprehensive assessment, free of territorial boundaries and system cutoffs typical of traditional LCAs. Based on the findings of the previous study, it is hypothesized that when assessing city level carbon dioxide emissions from a wider, consumer oriented LCA perspective, increased urban density may not necessarily reduce carbon emissions. Surprisingly, the study finds that carbon dioxide equivalent (CO{sub 2}e) emissions are substantially higher in the dense downtown area than in the surrounding suburbs, which is suggested to imply that the increased consumption due to the higher standard of living increases emissions more than the higher density is able to reduce them. The results demonstrate that, while increasing urban density can be justified from a number of ecological, social and economic viewpoints, density is not necessarily a key parameter in the particular case of climate change. In cities like Helsinki, where wealth is concentrated in the downtown area, climate policies should give higher priority to the energy consumption of buildings, to alternative energy production and distribution modes

  3. Helsinki Motorsport Weekend : Moottoriurheilutapahtuman järjestäminen

    OpenAIRE

    Tyagi, Ashish; Ranta, Toni

    2011-01-01

    Tämä toiminnallinen opinnäytetyö kertoo Elokuussa 2010 järjestetystä Helsinki Motorsport Weekend-moottoriurheilutapahtumasta, jonka järjestäjänä on toiminut T&A Promotions Oy (Toni Rannan ja Ashish Tyagin omistama osakeyhtiö). Tapahtuman tavoitteena oli tuoda moottoriurheilu takaisin Helsingin-alueelle, jossa se on aikoinaan ollut Thunder-ajojen muodossa. Opinnäytetyön sisältö koostuu tapahtuman järjestämisen eri elementeistä, suunnitteluvaiheesta lopputulokseen. Tapahtuman suurina yhteistyök...

  4. Radon in an underground excavation site in Helsinki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper reports on radon measurements and actions taken in a large underground excavation site in Helsinki, where a coal store was excavated underneath an existing power plant. The measurements were carried out by taking grab samples using Lucas type scintillation cells. Large variations in radon concentrations were observed during the three-year study. The reasons for variations are discussed and recommendations are given for radon monitoring procedures in underground excavation sites. The importance of ventilation to reduce the radon level is stressed. (P.A.)

  5. Errors in Scale Values for Magnetic Elements for Helsinki

    OpenAIRE

    Svalgaard, Leif

    2014-01-01

    Using several lines of evidence we show that the scale values of the geomagnetic variometers operating in Helsinki in the 19th century were not constant throughout the years of operation 1844-1897. Specifically, the adopted scale value of the Horizontal Force variometer appears to be too low by ~30% during the years 1866-1874.5 and the adopted scale value of the Declination variometer appears to be too low by a factor of ~2 during the interval 1885.8-1887.5. Reconstructing the Heliospheric Ma...

  6. Raaka-aineoppaan suunnittelu ja toteuttaminen - Case Face Helsinki Ky

    OpenAIRE

    Sihvonen, Sanna

    2010-01-01

    Tämä opinnäytetyö on toimeksianto Denova Pro ammattikosmetiikkatuotteiden maahantuojalta Face Helsinki Ky:ltä. Työn tavoitteena oli suunnitella ja toteuttaa toimiva, selkeä ja kattava opas Denova Pro -tuotesarjassa käytetyistä raaka-aineista ja niiden funktioista. Raaka-aineoppaan on tarkoitus toimia apuna maahantuojan henkilökunnan arjessa, uusien työntekijöiden ja työharjoittelijoiden perehdyttämisessä sekä kosmetologiasiakkaille järjestettävien raaka-ainekoulutuksien lähdemateriaalina. ...

  7. Comparison on humus and soil geochemical baselines in Southern Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minolfi, Giulia; Tarvainen, Timo; Jarva, Jaana

    2016-04-01

    Humus has been recognized since a survey in 1977 (Allen and Steinnes, 1980) as one of the best sampling media for mapping regional environmental contamination because of the strong geochemical contrast between anomalous and background concentrations resulting from its capacity to accumulate high levels of trace metals. This study is in the framework of the comparison between humus, topsoil and moss deposition data, in order to analyze the humus behavior and to find possible similarities to underlying geology and long-range atmospheric deposition. The analyzed samples are part of a geochemical mapping programme carried out by the Geological Survey of Finland (GTK); subsoil, topsoil and humus samples have been collected in a large area in Southern Finland since 2002. 816 sample pairs (humus and topsoil samples) were selected for statistical analysis. Statistical graphs, like histograms, CP plots and box plots, were realized for 31 elements, and showed that most of the elements have completely different distribution of concentrations in humus and in topsoil samples. Then the correlation between the element concentrations in humus and minerogenic topsoil has been evaluated measuring the Spearman rank correlation value and elaborating scatter plots between the element concentrations in humus and minerogenic topsoil, and between the content of the element vs. the content of organic C. The concentrations of some elements, like K, Mg, Fe, Al, in humus samples are controlled by the content of mineral matter, derived by the soil dust. Other elements, such as As, Bi, Cd, Co, Cu, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Rb, Th, V and Zn showed evident outliers, with probable anthropogenic origin. In order to explain these anomalous high values in humus, the geographic distributions of these elements in humus and topsoil were analyzed and then compared to the deposition data obtained by the national moss data. High values appear in areas where the anthropogenic impact is strong, like the Harjavalta

  8. Update on women in physics in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miikkulainen, Kukka; Vapaavuori, Jaana

    2015-12-01

    Despite Finland's role as a forerunner in many areas of gender equality, in the field of physics, the advancement of females to reach the full gender equality has been stagnated for the past decade, and no significant improvements since 2011 can be reported. However, a few interesting PhD theses have focused on gaining a better understanding of the phenomena, and a few seminars on the topic have been organized. However, good, systematically collected statistics on the numbers and salaries of female researches in Finland are still lacking.

  9. EMPLOYMENT OF RUSSIAN IMMIGRANTS IN FINLAND

    OpenAIRE

    Sinkevitch, Dimitri

    2011-01-01

    There are 150,000 immigrants in Finland. Russians are the second largest group after Estonians. The main purpose of this thesis was to help Russian immigrant get em-ployed in Finland. I tried to map the problems areas through interviews with both Russian immigrants and Finnish employers. The first issue of my theoretical part was to explain who the immigrants are, and what the reasons for migration are. The second part deals with cultural differences, which is supported by Geert Hofstede’s 5D...

  10. BLOOD SERVICE IN FINLAND

    OpenAIRE

    TASHTEMIROV K.K.; LATVALA E.; IMANGAZINOV S.B.

    2016-01-01

    The goal of the post is to summarize the experience of blood service in Finland by the result of the business move and examination of the service activities at the point.The research materials indicate that the blood service in Finland is a non-profit organization and is an independent part of the Finnish Red Cross (FRC). All expenses and development of Blood Service are covered by the sale of blood and blood products and expert services in the Finnish health care system. It is responsible fo...

  11. Gift from Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An instrument worth $19 000 for the analysis of nuclear radiation, donated by Finland to IAEA, was handed over by the Finnish Ambassador, Mr. Otso Wartiovaara, to the Director General of IAEA, Dr. Sigvard Eklund, at the Agency's laboratory at Seibersdorf on 22 January. The instrument, a multi-channel analyzer with 512 channels, was constructed in Finland. It is being used in connection with all the major Agency projects under way at Seibersdorf, such as the standardization of radionuclides, agricultural research, and analytical work carried out at the request of Member States

  12. Getting to Finland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Claus

    2015-01-01

    Kan man både opnå topplaceringer i PISA og blive Nordens mester i lighed gennem uddannelse? Finland kan. Men har den danske folkeskole mod til at tage samme type af ansvar for skabe større lighed gennem uddannelse, end vi hidtil har opnået?......Kan man både opnå topplaceringer i PISA og blive Nordens mester i lighed gennem uddannelse? Finland kan. Men har den danske folkeskole mod til at tage samme type af ansvar for skabe større lighed gennem uddannelse, end vi hidtil har opnået?...

  13. Finland--Internationalism behind a Language Barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauranne, Jouko

    1991-01-01

    Argues that (1) English should be a compulsory foreign language in Finnish schools; (2) options to teach subjects in foreign languages should be expanded; and (3) the variety of foreign language choices in rural areas of Finland should be enlarged. (SK)

  14. How radiation oncology emerged as a discipline in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The news about the discovery of Roentgen's new rays spread over Finland quite early, and the first Finnish writing about the rays appeared in February 1896. The first x-ray machine was installed in 1897. Proper training of radiologists began, however, at a comparatively late date. For a long time the position of radiologists remained a subordinate one. Radiology had the nature of a spare time hobby, because in most hospitals surgeons treated x-ray machines as a sideline. Because of this, scientific research work was delayed. The specialty of x-ray diagnosis and therapy was, however, established in 1921, and the Finnish Society of Radiology was founded in 1924. The first radiotherapy department with its own beds was opened in 1936 in Helsinki. In 1950, the first professor of medical radiology was appointed at the University of Helsinki. The Finnish Cancer Society played an important role in developing the radiotherapy net in the country by supplying cobalt devises and auxiliary hospital activities in the 1960s. In the early 1960s roentgen diagnosis and radiotherapy were separated into two distinct disciplines. There are now five medical faculties with chairs in radiation oncology. The country is divided into five regions for cancer care. The managing groups in each region are headed by the professor of radiotherapy and oncology. The radiation oncologists in Finland are involved in diagnosis and staging of cancer and are responsible for radiation therapy, chemotherapy and hormones. They are responsible for follow-up of treated patients, their own wards, and the general care of their patients

  15. Changes in selenium, zinc, copper and cadmium contents in human milk during the time when selenium has been supplemented to fertilizers in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kantola, M. [Dept. of Chemistry, Univ. of Kuopio, Kuopio (Finland); Vartiainen, T. [Div. of Environmental Health, National Public Health Inst., Kuopio (Finland); Univ. of Kuopio, Dept. of Environmental Sciences, Kuopio (Finland)

    2001-07-01

    Sodium selenate has been supplemented to all agricultural fertilizers used in Finland since 1984. We followed the changes in selenium, cadmium, zinc and copper content in Finnish human milk between the years 1987 and 1993-1995. A total of 257 milk samples was collected, four weeks after delivery, in two areas: In Helsinki, an urban area, and in Kuopio, a rural area, where elevated copper concentrations have been found in the bedrock. Direct atomic absorption spectrophotometric methods without digestion were used for the analyses. The dependence of trace element content on study time, living area, smoking habits, fish eating frequency, and parity of mothers was studied by analysis of covariance. Inter-element correlations and correlations with mother's age and fat content in milk were studied by partial correlation. Significant increases were observed in mean selenium (16.4 {mu}g/l and 18.9 {mu}g/l, p < 0.001) and in fat contents (3.4% and 4.0%, p < 0.001), whereas significant decreases were seen in mean zinc (3.00 mg/l and 1.47 mg/l, p < 0.001), copper (0.52 mg/l and 0.43 mg/l, p < 0.001) and cadmium contents (0.095 {mu}g/l and 0.062 {mu}g/l, p < 0.01). In 1987, zinc had a positive correlation with copper and fat. Copper correlated inversely with the mothers' age. In 1993-1995, selenium correlated positively with copper, and zinc correlated inversely with mothers' age. Mothers living area had an effect on copper content in milk. Our results confirm that selenium supplementation to fertilizers in Finland has increased the selenium level in human maternal milk and most likely it also has an effect on the zinc and copper concentrations in maternal milk. (orig.)

  16. Guidelines for Nordic Co-operation concerning nuclear installations in the border areas between Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden in respect of nuclear safety conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These Guidelines came into force between the four Contracting Parties (Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden) to the Agreement on 15th November 1976. The Agreement is the outcome of work undertaken these past years in the Nordic Reactor Safety Working Group and the Nordic Atomic Energy Liaison Group. The purpose of the Guidelines is to establish a consultation mechanism between the authorities of Nordic countries likely to be affected by a nuclear installation siting project by another party to the Agreement near their borders. Information imparted during such consultation is intended mainly to improve assessment of the projected site for the installation and its environment. Discussions may also cover the actual safety of the installation itself. (NEA)

  17. The power and energy equipment market in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electric power and energy technology market in Finland was valued at $2 billion in 1999, with production at $2.5 billion, exports at $1.3 billion, and imports at $0.7 billion. Scandinavia, Central Europe and Southeast Asia are the major markets for Finland's energy manufacturers. Increased energy consumption and the trend to move towards green energy has provided opportunities for Canadian companies that have expertise in the field of clean burning natural gas. Finland is also expected to invest in renewable energy sources such as wind power, bio-energy and solar power. Canadian suppliers may find additional opportunities with the proposed construction of a fifth nuclear power plant in Finland. Other areas of opportunity exist in software and components used for conduction of high-voltage electricity. Finland values Canadian expertise because of the similarities in industry standards between the two countries, as well as similarities in climate and terrain. refs., tabs

  18. Promoting biogas production and using it as transport fuel in the Helsinki region; Suunnitelma liikennebiokaasun tuotannon ja kaeytoen edistaemiseksi Helsingin seudulla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasi, S.; Havukainen, J.; Uusitalo, V.; Andersson, R.; Manninen, K.; Aro-Heinilae, E.; Rintala, J.

    2012-11-01

    The main objective of the project was to promote biogas production and its use as transport fuel. The aims in the four Finnish and two Estonian case areas were to reduce the amount and improve the sustainable use of waste and sludge, to promote biogas production, to start biogas use as transport fuel and to provide tools for implementing the aims. The total biomethane potential in the Helsinki region corresponds to approximately 450 GWh/a. The most potential user for biomethane is public transport. The total amount of biomethane would suffice for 80% of the busses operating in the Helsinki region. Using biogas as a transport fuel instead of energy production in the Helsinki region would result in emission reductions (13 000 t{sub CO2,eq}/a). However if the fuel replacing biogas in energy production would be renewable, the emission reductions would be significantly greater. The economical assessment indicates that the production of biogas is economically feasible if all the produced gas can be sold. Biogas produced near the natural gas grid can also be transported to the Helsinki region where there are better possibilities to find uses for it. In this way, for example, gas that is produced in Kymenlaakso but is not consumed there can be transported via the natural gas grid, assuming that the production plant is reasonably close to the grid. (orig.)

  19. Energy efficiency in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    In Finland a significant portion of energy originates from renewable sources and cogeneration, that is, combined production of electricity and heat. Combined heat and electricity production is typical in the Finnish industry and in the district heating sector. One third of all electricity and 15 % of district heating is produced by cogeneration. District heating schemes provide about 45 % of heat in buildings. Overall efficiency in industry exceeds 80 % and is even higher in the district heating sector. In 1996 25 % of Finland`s primary energy was produced from renewable energy sources which is a far higher proportion than the European Union average of 6 %. Finland is one of the leading users of bioenergy. Biomass including peat, provides approximately 50 % of fuel consumed by industry and is utilised in significant amounts in combined heat and electricity plants. For example, in the pulp and paper industry, by burning black liquor and bark during the production of chemical pulp, significant amounts of energy are generated and used in paper mills. Conservation and efficient use of energy are central to the Finnish Government`s Energy Strategy. The energy conservation programme aims to increase energy efficiency by 10-20 % by the year 2010. Energy saving technology plays a key role in making the production and use of energy more efficient. In 1996 of FIM 335 million (ECU 57 million) spent on funding research, FIM 120 million (ECU 20 million) was spent on research into energy conservation

  20. Electromobility in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koskue, Mikko [Finpro, Muenchen (Germany). Tekes EVE Programme (Electric Vehicle Systems)

    2013-07-01

    Finland has set up several programs and platforms to be well prepared for the electric mobility development. The goal is to establish an international community focusing on the creation of new business around electric vehicles and related machinery and systems. (orig.)

  1. Sami Education in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskitalo, Pigga; Maatta, Kaarina; Uusiautti, Satu

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is, first, to describe Sami children's education and its status in the Finnish education system and, secondly, to contemplate its development in Finland. The core of the article is intertwined with issues concerning the status, language, and culture of indigenous peoples. According to the article, the western school…

  2. Logging in Finland.

    OpenAIRE

    Hakkila, Pentti

    1989-01-01

    A review of logging in Finland in relation to new logging technology developed in Nordic countries to meet their own specific requirements and constraints (high salaries, costs of social security, strict ergonomic standards, specific logging conditions, predominance of private ownership, and strong environmental and conservation concerns). Logging technology is based typically on the log-length method and load-carrying forwarders.

  3. Johan Kock and the dramatic events of 1905 and 1906 in Helsinki

    OpenAIRE

    Uski, Juha Janne Olavi

    2009-01-01

    The research considers how the theme of violence is reflected in the accounts about Johan Kock's activities in Helsinki during the Great Strike of 1905 and the Sveaborg rebellion of 1906. During those occasions, Captain Kock was in charge of the Workers' Security Guard in Helsinki, better known as the Red Guard of 1905-1906.

  4. Finland Becomes Eleventh ESO Member State

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-07-01

    Finland has become the eleventh member state of the European Southern Observatory (ESO) [1]. The formal accession procedure was carried through as planned and has now been completed. Following the signing of the corresponding Agreement earlier this year (ESO PR 02/04), acceptance by the Finnish Parliament and ratification by the Finnish President of the Agreement as well as the ESO Convention and the associated protocols in June [2] and the deposit of the instruments of accession today, Finland has now officially joined ESO. ESO warmly welcomes the new member country and its scientific community that is renowned for their expertise in many frontline areas. The related opportunities will contribute to strenghtening of pioneering research with the powerful facilities at ESO's observatories, to the benefit of Astronomy and Astrophysics as well as European science in general. ESO also looks forward to collaboration with the Finnish high-tech industry. For Finland, the membership in ESO is motivated by scientific and technological objectives as well as by the objective of improving the public understanding of science. The Finnish Government is committed to increasing the public research funding in order to improve the quality, impact and internationalisation of research. Membership in ESO offers unique facilities for astronomical research which would not otherwise be available for Finnish astronomers. Finland is also very interested in taking part in technological development projects in fields like ICT, optics and instrumentation. For young scientists and engineers, ESO is a challenging, international working and learning environment. Finland has already taken part in the educational programmes of ESO, and as a member this activity will be broadened and intensified. In Finland there are also several science journalists and a large community of amateur astronomers who will be very happy to take part in ESO's outreach activities.

  5. Attitudes towards suicide among Master’s degree students: a cross-cultural comparison between China and Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Mo, Yu

    2011-01-01

    Attitudes towards suicide among Master’s degree students in Chang Sha (China) and Helsinki (Finland) were compared in order to explore possible cross-cultural differences. The sample included 206 Master’s degree students, 101 Chinese and 105 Finnish. Data were collected using the 30-item Multi-Attitudes Suicide Tendency Scale (MAST) and a demographic information form. According to the results, both Chinese and Finnish students held positive attitudes towards life, they held contradictory ...

  6. Population and policy in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulkko, J

    1989-03-01

    Finland, with a population of 4.9 million, currently has an overall fertility rate of 1.6. There is a small population growth, but this is due to a large reproductive age group, return migration of Finns from Sweden, and a decrease in mortality that has increased the proportion of old people in the population. The state has no official population policy. A recommendation of the Finnish Committee on the World Population Year 1974 that the government establish an agency for population policy has not been adopted. The coalition government now in power has a program, however, aimed at influencing population growth. The program includes proposals to reduce work hours for parents with small children, increase the age limit for participation in the child allowance system, and increase the number of municipal day care facilities. Concerning regional policy, the government wants a balanced development of the country's different regions. Subsidiary industries of agriculture and forestry are being encouraged to preserve population levels in sparse areas. Finland also supports a health policy emphasizing preventive and non-institutional aspects of health care, with targets of life expectancy set at 82 years for women and 75 years for men by the year 2000. PMID:12222205

  7. Three-dimensional geologic modeling and groundwater flow modeling of the Töllinperä aquifer in the Hitura nickel mine area, Finland – providing the framework for restoration and protection of the aquifer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sami Saraperä

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Elevated concentrations of sulphate, chloride, and nickel were discovered in water samples taken from the Töllinperä aquifer in western Finland. The area is located adjacent to the tailings area of the Hitura nickel mine. Earlier studies revealed that the groundwater contamination resulted from tailings-derived mine waters leaking from a tailings impoundment area. The tailings area directly overlies the Weichselian esker system, part of which is the Töllinperä classified groundwater area. The observed groundwater and surface water contamination resulted in a need to characterize the subsurface geology in the whole area of the contaminated esker aquifer. The primary sedimentary units were introduced into a three-dimensional (3-D geologic model of the aquifer made with EarthVision geologic modeling software. The information obtained from the 3-D geological model was then introduced into a numerical groundwater flow model made with MODFLOW code, which was calibrated with MODFLOWP code.The results of this study were used to guide the sealing of the tailings impoundment in order to prevent the further contamination of the Töllinperä aquifer. The groundwater flow model was used to interpret and simulate the flow system, and to provide a plan to safely continue water supply to local inhabitants from the unpolluted parts of the aquifer.

  8. Helsinki score-a novel model for prediction of metastases in adrenocortical carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennanen, Mirkka; Heiskanen, Ilkka; Sane, Timo; Remes, Satu; Mustonen, Harri; Haglund, Caj; Arola, Johanna

    2015-03-01

    Histopathologic diagnosis of adrenocortical tumors is based on adverse features that indicate malignant potential. Proliferation index has served as a supplemental tool in assessing the malignant potential of adrenocortical tumors. None of the current histologic classification systems can sufficiently accurately predict tumors' metastatic potential. We studied 177 consecutive adult patients with primary adrenocortical tumors operated on at Helsinki University Central Hospital between 1990 and 2003, all patients with a minimum follow-up of 5 years. We determined for each tumor the Weiss score and the Weiss revisited score by Aubert. Proliferation index was measured by computer-assisted image analysis. Each of the 9 Weiss criteria and the proliferation index were then used to establish a scoring system to predict the metastatic potential of adrenocortical tumors. Use of stepwise regression analysis led us to propose a calculation: 3 × mitotic rate (>5/50 high-power fields) + 5 × presence of necrosis + proliferation index in the most proliferative area of the tumor. Using a cutoff value of 8.5, the new scoring system was able to diagnose metastatic adrenocortical carcinoma with 100% sensitivity (confidence interval [CI], 76.8%-100%) and 99.4% specificity (CI, 96.6%-100%). The corresponding sensitivity of the Weiss system was 100% (CI, 76.8%-100%), and specificity, 90.2% (CI, 84.6%-94.3%), with sensitivity of the Weiss revisited system at 100% (CI, 76.8%-100%) and specificity at 96.9% (CI, 93.0%-99.0%). The new Helsinki score thus was accurate in predicting the metastatic potential of adrenocortical tumors. PMID:25582500

  9. The research ethics evolution: from Nuremberg to Helsinki.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhai, A

    2014-03-01

    Health research sets out to acquire not only theoretical knowledge but also benefits for many people and often society as a whole, and is therefore justified. The quandary, though, is how such an important, shared purpose can be pursued with full protection of individuals and communities, in particular those with vulnerabilities. Abuses in the field surfaced in the early 1800s, and by the 1890s, anti-vivisectionists were calling for laws to protect children because of the increasing numbers of institutionalised children being subjected to unethical research. When read together, the Nuremberg Code and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights can be interpreted as establishing a basis for underpinning the principles of free and informed consent and avoiding harms and exploitation in scientific experiments involving human participants. The Declaration of Helsinki has been recognised as one of the most authoritative statements on ethical standards for human research in the world. PMID:24897818

  10. NPPCI activities in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research activities at the Technical Research Centre of Finland in the control and instrumentation field have been directed both towards immediate needs and towards long term goals. The immediate needs have been connected to different ongoing investigations and to development projects in connection with process industry. Of the more long term projects the following can be explicitly mentioned: the Nordic project on human reliability; work on software reliability; design guides for digital CI systems; simulation of technical processes; artificial intelligence in nuclear power

  11. Finland; Recent Economic Developments

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    1995-01-01

    This paper reviews economic developments in Finland during 1990–95. The paper discusses the domestic economy, public finances, money and credit, and the balance of payments. It reports on the robustness of various inflation indicators, providing background to the process of establishing a monetary policy framework under a floating exchange rate. The paper also reviews possible structural causes for high unemployment and discusses reform proposals. Macroeconomic shocks that triggered the rec...

  12. Restructuring in SMEs: Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Akola, Elisa; Havupalo, Niko

    2013-01-01

    Based on information derived from 85 case studies across all EU Member States and other sources, the project outlines the features peculiar to SMEs in their anticipation and management of restructuring, explores the main drivers of change and analyses the factors influencing successful restructuring. It offers some insight into how restructuring impacts on workers and the company itself and sets out several policy pointers for future action. This is the country report for Finland

  13. Markkinointisuunnitelma Apsis Finland Oy

    OpenAIRE

    Salla, Tuomas

    2011-01-01

    Apsis Finland Oy on sähköpostimarkkinointiin erikoistunut yritys, joka ei ole tehnyt tavoitteellista markkinointia kahden vuoden olemassa olonsa aikana. Yritys haluaa kuitenkin muuttaa tilanteen, jonka takia kiinnostus markkinointisuunnitelmaa kohti syntyi. Opinnäytetyön tavoitteena oli luoda markkinointisuunnitelma vuotta 2011 varten ja valita siihen keinot jotka voidaan mitata. Markkinoinnin päätavoite on yrityksen tunnettavuuden lisääminen Suomen markkinoilla. Työ tehtiin yhteistyö...

  14. Nuclear energy in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finland currently generates about 40% of its electricity from nuclear power. This achievement of worldwide record magnitude is based on long-lasting efforts to build and maintain the competent infrastructure and close international cooperation required by this demanding technology. This booklet published by the Finnish Atomic Energy Commission gives an overview of nuclear energy and related organizations in Finland. It describes the utility companies and nuclear power production, the manufacturing industry and its export potential, research and educational activities and the legal framework and authorities for nuclear safety and administration. International cooperation has been essential for Finland in developing its nuclear energy capacity and appreciation is espressed to many countries and international organizations which have contributed to this. At the same time Finnish organizations are willing to share the experiences and know-how they have gained in building nuclear power in a small country. This is a road which will be followed by many other countries in the decades to come. It is hoped that this booklet will also help to open new channels of cooperation in such efforts

  15. Deep drilling for geothermal energy in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukkonen, Ilmo

    2016-04-01

    There is a societal request to find renewable CO2-free energy resources. One of the biggest such resources is provided by geothermal energy. In addition to shallow ground heat already extensively used in Finland, deep geothermal energy provides an alternative so far not exploited. Temperatures are high at depth, but the challenge is, how to mine the heat? In this presentation, the geological and geophysical conditions for deep geothermal energy production in Finland are discussed as well as challenges for drilling and conditions at depth for geothermal energy production. Finland is located on ancient bedrock with much lower temperatures than geologically younger volcanically and tectonically active areas. In order to reach sufficiently high temperatures drilling to depths of several kilometres are needed. Further, mining of the heat with, e.g., the principle of Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) requires high hydraulic conductivity for efficient circulation of fluid in natural or artificial fractures of the rock. There are many issues that must be solved and/or improved: Drilling technology, the EGS concept, rock stress and hydraulic fracturing, scale formation, induced seismicity and ground movements, possible microbial activity, etc. An industry-funded pilot project currently in progress in southern Finland is shortly introduced.

  16. Cosmetics Consumption among Young Males in the Greater Helsinki Region

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Xin

    2011-01-01

    The study was conducted to investigate Finnish young men's current consumption behavior and attitudes towards cosmetics. The research first sought to explore how different variables influence Finnish male consumers' cosmetics purchasing decisions. The secondary research aim was to analyze how metrosexuality was applied in Finland. Last to seek for identifying what are the key determinants in Finnish young men's cosmetics purchasing behaviors. Introduction sought to present a foundation of ...

  17. Developing Tourism Web Service for Russian Tourists: Case Moi Helsinki

    OpenAIRE

    Manner, Anastasia

    2014-01-01

    Tourist behavior and consumption patterns of Russians abroad are relevant topics in today’s tourism industry. As the role of social media in travel industry has increased dramatically during recent years, tourism marketing has also moved to the world of social media, creating opportunities for new marketing concepts and forms. In Finland, where Russian tourists form the majority of all foreign visitors, companies still struggle to utilize Russian social media as a marketing tool. The developm...

  18. Indoor and outdoor air ions and aerosol particles in the urban atmosphere of Helsinki: characteristics, sources and formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirsikko, A.; Yli-Juuti, T.; Nieminen, T.; Vartiainen, E.; Laakso, L.; Hussein, T.; Kulmala, M. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Physical Sciences

    2007-07-01

    We measured air ion size distributions with an air ion spectrometer in the size range of 0.34-40.3 nm both indoors (in July) and outdoors (in August) in Helsinki, Finland in 2004. At the same time we measured particle number concentrations and size distributions with two condensation particle counters (indoors) and differential mobility particle sizer (outdoors). Our main focus was to study new-particle formation in an urban site. We observed new-particle formation indoors almost every day, even many times a day, and four times outdoors. Indoors, the observed growth rates were 2.3-4.9 nm h{sup -1} for 1.3-3-nm ions, 6.5-8.7 nm h{sup -1} for 3-7-nm ions and 5.1-8.7 nm h{sup -1} for 7-20-nm ions. Outdoor ions (3-7 nm) grew at rates as large as 15.4 nm h{sup -1}. Outdoor ion and particle number concentrations were dependent on the wind direction, whereas indoor concentrations were dependent on ventilation conditions. Secondary particle formation and growth affected concentrations both indoors and outdoors. We concluded, based on our measurement results and simulated penetration of outdoor particles through the ventilation system, that we had indoor sources for secondary particles. (orig.)

  19. Perceptions of Ecotourism in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Ikonen, Hanna

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to find out the current perceptions of ecotourism in Finland. The research topic derived from my personal interest in the subject and observations about the lack of ecotourism products and marketing in Finland. Ecotourism as a field of study is challenging because of the lack of a global definition. Various global ecotourism concepts were examined in order to find the scope for the study, because there is no ecotourism organization in Finland nor has the ter...

  20. Radon in dwellings in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For over ten years STUK (The Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority) has performed systematic indoor radon mapping in Finland with health authorities in municipalities. The most efficient means of reducing indoor radon exposure is to locate and mitigate dwellings with radon concentration exceeding the action level of 400 Bq/m3 and to build new houses so that radon concentrations do not exceed 200 Bq/m3. Therefore STUK has made radon measurement plans and radon risk maps to identify radon-prone areas. During 1986 - 1996 the municipalities have ordered 33 000 dosemeters for radon measurements. Private persons have ordered 24 000 dosemeters and STUK has used for its own investigations 34 000 dosemeters. Today the basic radon database of STUK consists information of about 52 000 Finnish dwellings. This report is a summary of the radon measurements made by STUK in low-rise dwellings. The radon situation by provinces is presented in tables

  1. Second home mobility in Finland: Patterns, practices and relations of leisure oriented mobile lifestyle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mervi Johanna Hiltunen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on leisure oriented mobile lifestyle between urban home and rural second home in Finland which is one of the world’s leading countries in terms of second home ownership and tourism. Spatial patterns and social practices of physical mobility related to second home use are revealed by using triangulation of research methods and data. Analysis is based on GIS data, questionnaire survey results and national statistics. A relational approach is applied to conceptualise and contextualise second home mobility which is influenced by many bio-physical and socio-cultural processes and changes. Relational elements and processes interlinked to past, present and future of second home related physical mobility are identified. Natural amenities form the physical geographical basis for rural second home distribution which correlates with length of shoreline, distance to urban areas and local land use in second home environments. Second home related spatial mobility patterns differ and depend on size of the urban region of origin. Helsinki metropolitan dwellers have the longest trips to second homes which is explained not merely by environmental but by historical, societal and social reasons as well. Second home related social mobility practices are dependent on cottage owners’ and users’ life phase and standard of second homes. Retiring baby boom generation is the largest and most active cottager group and after retirement the use of second homes increases remarkably. The vast majority of second home owners and users travel the cottage trips by private cars and wish to spend at least as much time at rural second home as present. However, they do not intend to give up the urban home which leads to the conclusion that leisure related lifestyle mobility in between urban and rural living environments will continue to characterise second home owners’ and users’ way of life.

  2. Upgrading the Northern Finland Seismological Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narkilahti, Janne; Kozlovskaya, Elena; Silvennoinen, Hanna; Hurskainen, Riitta; Nevalainen, Jouni

    2016-04-01

    The Finnish National Seismic Network (FNSN) comprises national Helsinki University Seismological network (HE) ISUH and the Northern Finland Seismological Network (FN) hosted by the Sodankylä Geophysical Observatory (SGO) of the University of Oulu. The FN network currently consists of four real-time permanent stations equipped with Streckeisen STS-2 broad band seismometers that are recording continuous digital seismic data. At present, the network is a part of GEOFON Extended Virtual Network and of the ORFEUS Virtual European Broadband Seismograph Network. In the future, the network will be the part of EPOS-European Plate Observing System research infrastructure. As a part of EPOS project activities, the SGO started to upgrade their own network in 2014. The main target of the network upgrade is to increase the permanent station coverage in the European Arctic region, particularly behind the Polar Circle. Another target is to transform the network into a broadband seismic array capable to detect long-period seismic signals originating from seismic events in the Arctic. The first upgrade phase started in 2014, when two new stations were installed and now are working in the test regime. These stations are used as prototypes for testing seismic equipment and technical solutions for real-time data transmission and vault construction under cold climate conditions. The first prototype station is installed in a surface vault and equipped with Nanometrics Trillium 120P sensor, while the other one is installed in a borehole and equipped with Trillium Posthole seismometer. These prototype stations have provided to us valuable experience on the downhole and surface deployment of broadband seismic instruments. We also have been able to compare the capabilities and performance of high sensitivity broadband sensor deployed in borehole with that deployed in surface vault. The results of operation of prototype stations will be used in site selection and installation of four new

  3. Destination Image : Marketing of Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Siegismund, Daniela

    2013-01-01

    Finland is known almost everywhere in the world as a cold snowbound location that would most be suitable for winter holidays. This bachelor’s thesis seeks to analyse destination marketing of Finland and the factors that have led to this image and reputation. Especially important in this thesis is the image of Finland and its perception from the view of potential German customers. The goal was to identify reasons based on the author’s assumption for an image of Finland as mainly a winter locat...

  4. A modelling system for predicting urban air pollution: comparison of model predictions with the data of an urban measurement network in Helsinki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have developed a modelling system for predicting the traffic volumes, emissions from stationary and vehicular sources, and atmospheric dispersion of pollution in an urban area. A companion paper addresses model development and its applications. This paper describes a comparison of the predicted NOx and NO2 concentrations with the results of an urban air quality monitoring network. We performed a statistical analysis concerning the agreement of the predicted and measured hourly time series of concentrations, at four monitoring stations in the Helsinki metropolitan area in 1993. The predicted and measured NO2 concentrations agreed well at all the stations considered. The agreement of model predictions and measurements for NOx and NO2 was better for the two suburban monitoring stations, compared with the two urban stations, located in downtown Helsinki. (author)

  5. Financial aspects of a small hospitality business planning : through the example of a business plan of a café in Helsinki downtown

    OpenAIRE

    Sushko, Ekaterina

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis project is to create a business plan for a small restaurant business potentially located in Helsinki downtown area. The subject is approached with aid of financial management and financial planning theory. The business plan of a café was developed based on the experience and knowledge obtained during studies at Haaga-Helia UAS, with usage of existent literature on entrepreneurship and financial management. The main objectives of the plan creation are clarificati...

  6. Card, Internet and mobile payments in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Jyrkönen, Hanna; Paunonen, Heli

    2004-01-01

    Retail payment methods are in a stage of rapid development. New service providers and technological developments enable new payment services through a variety of channels. Payment solutions are being developed based eg on the Internet and on mobile phones. Presumably, the use of paper-based payment instruments will decrease further in the future thanks to electronification in the retail payment area. In this paper we focus on card payments in Finland and certain other countries. We also look ...

  7. The three official language versions of the Declaration of Helsinki:what's lost in translation?

    OpenAIRE

    Carlson, Robert V; van Ginneken, Nadja H; Pettigrew, Luisa M; Davies, Alan; Boyd, Kenneth M; Webb, David J.

    2007-01-01

    The Declaration of Helsinki, the World Medical Association's (WMA's) statement of ethical guidelines regarding medical research, is published in the three official languages of the WMA: English, French and Spanish.

  8. International fashion franchise in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Vu, Phuong

    2015-01-01

    The study concentrates on exploring international clothing franchise and particularly international clothing franchise in Finland. The main objective of the research is to discover obstacles Finnish franchisees encounter when bringing an international fashion franchise to Finland and recommendations that are beneficial to their success. The thesis is inclined to exploit aspects concerning franchisees’ perspectives. In the literature review, main concepts presented are franchising, franchi...

  9. Teachers as Leaders in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahlberg, Pasi

    2013-01-01

    During the last decade, thousands of visitors have flocked to Finland--now a leader in education rankings--to uncover this small Nordic country's secret to its education success. In this article, Finnish educator and scholar Pasi Sahlberg explains how Finland has managed such a feat. A rigorous graduate degree and at least five years of…

  10. Tectono-metamorphic evolution and timing of the melting processes in the Svecofennian Tonalite-Trondhjemite Migmatite Belt: An example from Luopioinen, Tampere area, southern Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mouri, H.

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available The Svecofennian Orogen is in southern Finland characterized by two major migmatite belts. These are the so-called Granite Migmatite Belt, in which Kfs-rich leucosomes predominate, and the Tonalite-Trondhjemite Migmatite Belt, which is characterized by Kfs-poor leucosomes and borders the former belt in the north. The present paper deals with selected migmatitic rocks from the latter belt. It is aimed to study the temporal and structural relationships of the different leucosome generations, and to establish the pressure-temperature-time paths of this belt. The Tonalite-Trondhjemite Migmatite Belt consists mainly of migmatitic rocks with various types of synorogenic granitoids and minor mafic and ultramafic crocks. The mesosome of the migmatites consist of garnet-sillimanite-biotite-plagioclase-cordierite-quartz assemblages with rare K-feldspar and late andalusite. The oldest leucosomes are dominated by plagioclase and quartz, and the content of K-feldspar increases in later leucosomes. Microtextural analysis in conjunction with THERMOCALC calculations and geothermometry shows that these rocks were metamorphosed at peak conditions of 700-750°C at 4-5 kbar and aH20 = 0.4-0.7. The formation of cordierite coronas around garnet and the late crystallization of andalusite suggest that the final stage of the P-T history was characterized by decompression and cooling within the andalusite stability field, estimated at 500-650°C and 3-4 kbar. Detailed isotopic dating of mesosome and leucosomes of the migmatites was undertaken by conventional U-Pb analyses on monazite and zircon, Sm-Nd analyses on garnet, and ion probe dating on zircon. The monazites are nearly concordant with an average age of 1878.5±1.5 Ma, and garnet-whole rock analyses show that the concordant leucosomes and the mesosome are coeval within error margins having ages of 1893±40 and 1871±14 Ma, respectively. However, garnet in the discordant vein leucosome provides an age of 1843±11

  11. The revised Declaration of Helsinki: cosmetic or real change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Aisha Y; Foster, Charles

    2016-05-01

    The Declaration of Helsinki, adopted by the World Medical Association's General Assembly in 1964, is the most important set of guidelines about research on human participants. It both reflects and shapes the ethos of international research ethics. It is a living instrument and is reviewed and revised regularly. Its latest revision was in 2013. There are four substantial changes, reflected in the new Paragraph 15 (which deals with compensation for trial related injuries), Paragraph 33 (relating to placebos), Paragraph 20 (relating to vulnerable groups) and the new Paragraph 34 (relating to post-trial provisions). This article analyses these changes, and asks whether they indicate any shift in the overall philosophy of the Declaration. We conclude that these changes, though significant, are not tectonic. They accord with the spirit that has motivated the Declaration through all its iterations, and indicate a steady, incremental evolution towards a holistic code of research ethics for research on human participants. Patient autonomy, though crucial, is no longer the only concern of the Declaration; distributive justice and beneficence are motivating forces too. While the Declaration is aware of the need to facilitate research, it is equally aware of the need to protect the vulnerable, and of the practical difficulties involved in that protection. PMID:27150712

  12. Helsinki Region Transport Environmental Report 2011; Helsingin seudun liikenteen ympaeristoeraportti 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruskovaara, A.

    2012-07-01

    This environment report summarizes the key environmental impacts of HSL's activities and HSL's work to mitigate these impacts in 2011. The report is intended both for stakeholders and all residents of the region. It describes the state of affairs during HSL's second year of activity, particularly in terms of environmental aspects. Quality and environmental policies as well as strategic goals guide HSL's efforts towards continuous improvement. HSL's aim is that in 2018, Helsinki region has the most efficient transport system and the most satisfied users of public transport in Europe. Environmentally friendly transport system is promoted in accordance with the Helsinki Region Transport System Plan (HLJ 2011). HSL's Executive Board made the Transport System Decision on 29 March 2011, and the Board of KUUMA municipalities approved the decision on 19 April 2011.In terms of transport system, HLJ 2011 serves as starting point for the preparation of a Letter of Intent on Helsinki Region Land Use, Housing and Transport Program (MAL). The aim is that the State, the region's municipalities and HSL sign the Letter of Intent during spring 2012. Continuous improvement of environmental activities is important for a well-functioning transport system and competitive service supply. HSL is developing its environmental management in compliance with ISO 14001 standard. In HSL's activities, important environmental aspects relate to the wellbeing of people: health, living conditions and comfort as well as air quality and energy consumption. Emissions from bus services have decreased thanks to new vehicles and use of biofuels. Some 40 percent of the buses used on HSL's services are low-emissions vehicles. Renewable diesel fuel produced using waste animal fat from the food industry has been used in 19 new buses since August 2011. In early 2012, two hybrid buses enter service on bus route 24. The buses are expected to attain a 25 per cent

  13. Trajectory-based source area analysis of atmospheric fine particles, SO2, NOx and O3 for the SMEAR II station in Finland in 1996–2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kulmala

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Source area analysis based on combining in situ measurements of trace gas or particle concentrations and back trajectories calculated for corresponding times has proven to be a valuable approach in atmospheric research; especially in investigating air pollution episodes, but also in e.g. tracing the source areas of air masses related to high vs. low concentrations of aerosol particles of different sizes at the receptor site. A statistical trajectory method used before by Sogacheva et al. (2005 was fine-tuned to take the presumable horizontal error in calculated trajectories into account, tested with SO2 and validated by comparison against EMEP (European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme emission data. In this work we apply the improved method for characterizing the source areas of atmospheric SO2, NOx, O3 and aerosol particles of different size modes from the perspective of a Finnish measurement station located in Hyytiälä (61°51' N, 24°17' E. Our method proved useful for qualitative source area analysis of measured trace compounds. We applied it to study trends and seasonal variation in atmospheric pollutant transport during 13 yr at the SMEAR II station.

  14. Subglacial hydrology of the lake district ice lobe during the Younger Dryas (ca. 12 500 - 11 600 years ago) in the Kylaeniemi area, SE Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is essential to gain knowledge on the subglacial hydrological conditions at the glacier bed / bedrock interface when assessing how bedrock fracture zones affect subglacial melt water flow and in which subglacial zones pressurized and oxygen-rich melt water penetrates into the bedrock fracture systems. In the warm-based glacier zones, a part of subglacial melt water will penetrate deep into the fracture systems although the major part of melt water is drained to and beyond the ice margin via subglacial tunnel networks especially in the areas where ice is flowing on the crystalline bedrock. During the last deglaciation phase of the former Scandinavian Ice Sheet, glaciofluvial accumulations were deposited and these sediment accumulations are highly important when picturing the subglacial hydrology of different ice streams during deglaciation in the crystalline bedrock area. The aim of the present work was to map the bedrock fracture zones in the Kylaeniemi area and to shed light on the subglacial hydrology of the Scandinavian Ice Sheet's Lake District Ice Stream that occupied the Kylaeniemi area during the Younger Dryas between ca. 12 500 - 11 600 years ago. The special emphasis within this general aim was to study the relationship between bedrock fracture zones and the routes of subglacial drainage paths. The methods used to map and study bedrock fracture zones and subglacial drainage paths included remotes sensing methods, field observations, ground penetrating radar (GPR) investigations and GIS-based reconstructions. Conventional geological field methods aided by the GPR-method were also used to map bedrock exposures and their structures and to define the type of glaciofluvial sediments and glaciofluvial landform associations. Two main fracture zone sets occur in the study area. The most prominent bedrock fracture zone set trends NW-SE while the other, less prominent fracture zone set is aligned in NE-SW direction. The majority of the minor joint sets in

  15. Subglacial hydrology of the lake district ice lobe during the Younger Dryas (ca. 12 500 - 11 600 years ago) in the Kylaeniemi area, SE Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lunkka, J. P.; Moisio, K.; Vainio, A. [Univ. of Oulu (Finland)

    2013-07-15

    It is essential to gain knowledge on the subglacial hydrological conditions at the glacier bed / bedrock interface when assessing how bedrock fracture zones affect subglacial melt water flow and in which subglacial zones pressurized and oxygen-rich melt water penetrates into the bedrock fracture systems. In the warm-based glacier zones, a part of subglacial melt water will penetrate deep into the fracture systems although the major part of melt water is drained to and beyond the ice margin via subglacial tunnel networks especially in the areas where ice is flowing on the crystalline bedrock. During the last deglaciation phase of the former Scandinavian Ice Sheet, glaciofluvial accumulations were deposited and these sediment accumulations are highly important when picturing the subglacial hydrology of different ice streams during deglaciation in the crystalline bedrock area. The aim of the present work was to map the bedrock fracture zones in the Kylaeniemi area and to shed light on the subglacial hydrology of the Scandinavian Ice Sheet's Lake District Ice Stream that occupied the Kylaeniemi area during the Younger Dryas between ca. 12 500 - 11 600 years ago. The special emphasis within this general aim was to study the relationship between bedrock fracture zones and the routes of subglacial drainage paths. The methods used to map and study bedrock fracture zones and subglacial drainage paths included remotes sensing methods, field observations, ground penetrating radar (GPR) investigations and GIS-based reconstructions. Conventional geological field methods aided by the GPR-method were also used to map bedrock exposures and their structures and to define the type of glaciofluvial sediments and glaciofluvial landform associations. Two main fracture zone sets occur in the study area. The most prominent bedrock fracture zone set trends NW-SE while the other, less prominent fracture zone set is aligned in NE-SW direction. The majority of the minor joint sets in

  16. Physics teacher education in Finland and reasons underlying the top scores of Finnish students on international assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirvonen, Pekka

    2010-02-01

    In Finland physics teachers have Master's degree in physics and pedagogical studies (60 cr). In addition they have introductory and intermediate studies (60 cr) in minor subjects, normally in mathematics and chemistry. The degree consists of 300 cr minimum and takes 5 years or more. In Bachelor studies (180 cr), almost identical in all Finnish universities, student teachers do the same physics courses than physicists (70 cr). Few exceptions can be found, e.g. in Joensuu we have two laboratory courses (5 cr) for student teachers. Part of pedagogical studies (25 cr) and some minor subject studies are included in Bachelor studies. Master studies (120 cr) differ more from university to university. Some universities do not make a difference between student teachers and forthcoming physicists but for instance the Universities of Joensuu and Helsinki offer several special courses for student teachers. These special courses include elements from different areas, e.g. the history of physics or the philosophy of physics, or the courses can concentrate on students' pre-knowledge or to foster students' conceptual and structural understanding of physics. In addition master's thesis can be done in the area of physics education. In summary, significant differences between universities can only be found in Master studies. However, there is no evidence that special courses for teachers produce better results than traditional master's physics courses. In fact most of the Finnish in-service physics teachers have done the traditional physics courses that do not include any influence from physics education research. Teacher education is surely one factor underlying the top scores of Finnish students. However, it is not only one and many other reasons can also be presented. )

  17. Successful Eradication of Multidrug Resistant Acinetobacter in the Helsinki Burn Centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindford, Andrew; Kiuru, Valtteri; Anttila, Veli-Jukka; Vuola, Jyrki

    2015-01-01

    Multidrug-resistant (MDR) Acinetobacter is an important pathogen implicated in nosocomial infections in healthcare environments. Virulence factors, resistance mechanisms, and limited therapeutic options make this pathogen a major problem currently facing burn intensive care units (ICUs) worldwide. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of infection control measures taken in Helsinki Burn Centre in 2001 on MDR Acinetobacter prevalence in ICU burn patients. Data were retrospectively collected from patient files from 1998 to 2012. ICU burn patients were defined as those with either over 30% of total body surface area burnt or requiring mechanical ventilation. Inclusion criteria consisted of patients who tested positive for Acinetobacter sp. in routine bacterial cultures or cultures taken because of a clinically suspected infection. Infection control interventions performed in 2001 consisted of various shower room renovations and changes in hospital hygiene and burn treatment regimes. Between 1998 and 2012, 75 patients were diagnosed with Acinetobacter sp. colonization. Following the infection control interventions the incidence of Acinetobacter sp. radically declined. Between 1998 and 2001, there were 31 cases of MDR Acinetobacter colonizations diagnosed, but from 2002 to 2012 no MDR strains were found. Changes to hospital hygiene and wound treatment protocols as well as structural changes to the hospital environment can have a major impact on preventing and treating Acinetobacter outbreaks in burn centers. PMID:25501783

  18. Sylvatic Trichinella spp. infection in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airas, Niina; Saari, Seppo; Mikkonen, Taina; Virtala, Anna-Maija; Pellikka, Jani; Oksanen, Antti; Isomursu, Marja; Kilpelä, Seija-Sisko; Lim, Chae W; Sukura, Antti

    2010-02-01

    Although human infections caused by Trichinella sp. have not been reported in Finland for several decades and Trichinella sp. infection in pork has become virtually extinct in the last decade, sylvatic Trichinella spp. infection is still highly prevalent in Finland. Muscle digestion of 2,483 carnivorous wild animals from 9 host species during 1999-2005 showed 617 positive animals (24.8%). Molecular identification from 328 larval isolates revealed 4 different endemic Trichinella species, i.e., T. nativa, T. spiralis, T. britovi, and T. pseudospiralis. Seven percent of the infected animals carried mixed infections. Trichinella nativa was the most common species (74%), but T. spiralis was identified in 12%, T. britovi in 6%, and T. pseudospiralis in 1% of the animals. Host species showed different sample prevalence and Trichinella species distribution. Geographical distribution also varied, with the southern part of the country having significantly higher percentages than the northern part. Infection density was dependent on both the infecting Trichinella species and the host species. Trichinella spiralis was discovered in areas with no known domestic infection cases, indicating that it can also occur in the sylvatic cycle. Raccoon dogs and red foxes are the most important reservoir animals for T. spiralis , as well as for the sylvatic Trichinella species in Finland. PMID:19731970

  19. Recent regulatory issues in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents general regulatory issues from Finland since the last WWER Regulators Forum meeting in Odessa 11-13 October 2000. More specific issues concerning Loviisa NPP are described in the Annex of this paper. (author)

  20. Airborne gamma ray measurements conducted during an international trial in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Scottish Universities Research and Reactor Centre (SURRC) contributed to the RESUME 95 exercise by developing the calibration site at Vesivehmaa, and by participating in the airborne gamma spectrometry (AGS) part of the study. This report provides a full technical description of the AGS results from the SURRC team. The AGS tasks included fallout mapping of a 6x3 km area in central Finland with nominal 150 m line spacing, and a time constrained search for an undisclosed number of hidden radioactive sources. Measurements at the calibration site were also taken to provide a basis for traceable cross comparison between each teams' quantification procedures at a single, well characterised, location. A decision was taken to transport the SURRC AGS system by land and sea, and to utilise a Finnish Twin Star Helicopter chartered from Helijet OY from Rovaniemi and flown by a UK pilot. Prior to departure the SURRC spectrometer, comprising a 16 l. Nal detector and a 50% GMX detector, was checked, and NaI stripping ratios measured using pads, absorbers and active sheets. Installation and CAA approval details were forwarded to Finland, together with the CV of the proposed pilot, to obtain clearances for the operation. Maps of the study area were digitised to form geographical backdrops for the AGS results. The equipment was transported in a single Landrover, via Harwich, north Germany, and Helsinki; a journey taking 2 days and involving 3 overland stages and two ferries. The system was installed at tested in the Helijet aircraft immediately prior to the study. The SURRC team was the first to fly starting at 8.00 am on the day of study. Fallout mapping in Area II was accomplished within the allotted 2 hour period, and the source search conducted in Area III within the allotted hour. Immediately on landing the positions of 3 hidden sources were reported to the organisers, with paper copies of tabular data available within a few minutes of landing, and initial mapping taking

  1. Potential of Ecotourism in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Pöyhönen, Annukka

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this thesis was to examine the potential and the potential of ecotourism in Finland. The research focuses on different dimensions of ecotourism business as well as the stage we are at in Finland when it comes to ecotourism business. One of the main points was also to clarify the meanings of and the differences between ecotourism, nature-based tourism and sustainable tourism. Desktop research was chosen as the main research method. The intention was use it to survey existi...

  2. Workplace harassment prevention in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Lorek, Angelika

    2015-01-01

    The proposed research concerns the engagement of companies operating in Finland in prevention of workplace harassment. The main target of the thesis is to understand the importance of the prevention of workplace harassment in the work environment. Research analyses what measures companies take in order to prevent workplace harassment and how is it monitored. As a primary research, interview findings of four Finnish companies (“Company X”, DHL Finland, ISS Palvelut and Management Institute...

  3. Computers in Education in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Koivisto, Jari

    2014-01-01

    International audience This chapter traces the history of computers in education in Finland from the early 1970s to today. It begins by noting that the history of computers in education in Finland began in the early 70s after many Finnish companies and universities acquired and made use of mainframe computers. Some of the university students who used computers in their studies afterwards became teachers and brought with them the idea of using computers in classroom education in Finnish sch...

  4. Internal radiation doses of people in Finland after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After the reactor accident in Chernobyl radionuclides carried by airstreams reached Finland on April 27, 1986. The radioactive cloud spread over central and southern Finland and to a lesser extent over northern Finland. In Helsinki the maximum radionuclide concentrations in air were measured in late evening of April 28. The radioactive cloud remained over Finland only a short time and within a few days the radionuclide concentrations in the air decreased to one-hundredth of the maximum values. Most radionuclides causing deposition were washed down by local showers, resulting in very uneven deposition of radionuclides on the ground. In a addition minor amounts of radioactivity were deposited on Mav 10-12. For internal and external dose estimations Finland was divided into five fallout regions (1-5) according to the increasing 137Cs surface activity. At first, the short-lived radionuclides as well as 134Cs and 137Cs contributed to the external dose rate. Only the long-lived isotopes, 134Cs and especially 137Cs, later determined the external dose rates. The regions and corresponding dose rates and deposition categories on October 1, 1987, are shown.To estimate the total dose of the Finnish population from the radionuclides originating at Chernobyl the effective external and internal doses were calculated; the external doses were estimated using the data given. Groups of Finnish people representing the five fallout regions were whole-body counted annually during 1986-1990. The results of these measurements and those of the reference group were used to estimate the internal body burdens and radiation doses from 134Cs and 137Cs to the population

  5. Finland [Country report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A short introduction is given into the Finnish nuclear programme which is at an advanced stage, preparing for the licensing of the final disposal of spent fuel in a repository deep in crystalline rock. Initially, a brief characterization of the topography, geology and hydrology of Finland is given with emphasis on special features affecting natural geochemical cycles in glaciated terrain. Countrywide elemental and radionuclide concentration data are collected and displayed as concentration maps and box plot diagrams covering the most relevant compartments. Special attention is given to concentrations in groundwaters in different depth ranges. The implications of the geochemical concentration data are evaluated with respect to rates and directions of geochemical fluxes. Elemental and radionuclide flux data are extracted mainly from specific investigations focussing on headwater stream systems and well-defined small catchments which had been followed over longer time periods. The measured chemical erosion (weathering) rates are compared with estimated rates from till erosion. Site-specific uranium fluxes at a natural uranium anomaly (Palmottu U ore deposit) are derived from detailed site investigations and are presented together with inventory and mass balance data. U fluxes in the oxidizing zone are orders of magnitude larger than those in the reducing zone below about 100 m depth. In addition, site-specific fluxes of some elements through repository reference planes of 1 km2 at various disposal depths as well as near the surface at four repository investigation sites are estimated based on modelled groundwater flow data and chemical groundwater analyses. From the evaluation of the complete data set and all available complementary information it becomes evident, that in Finland natural geochemical cycles of elements and radionuclides in crystalline rock environment under the prevailing conditions are strongly affected primarily by hydraulic and geochemical factors

  6. Natural radioactivity of ground and surface water in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Finland a country-wide study on the radioactivity of natural and drinking water has been performed to elucidate the role of water as a factor increasing the background radiation dose. The study was concerned mainly with waterworks having more than 200 users in the circuit of their distribution system. Additional samples were collected from bored privately-owned wells and from mines. The samples were analysed for 222Rn, 226Ra and gross alpha and beta activity. As a further investigation from a part of samples determinations of uranium and 228Ra were also made. The variation of radioactivity in the ground and surface water samples is presented, as are the areal variations of 226Ra and 222Rn in water of wells and springs, the highest concentrations and anomalies found, and the occurrence of 222Rn, 226Ra and natural uranium in tap water samples of waterworks. About 20 percent of bored wells in the region of Helsinki and about 5 percent of bored wells in other parts of Finland contained highly radioactive water, in which, e.g., the concentration of 222Rn was more than 100 000 pCi/l. In water of bored wells concentrations up to 1 200 000 pCi/l of 222Rn, 202 pCi/l of 226Ra, 181 pCi/l of 228Ra and 3090 μg/l of uranium were found. From the point of view of radiation protection, of the radioactive substances under study, 222Rn in water is the most important. The greatest radiation dose resulting from the use of radon-rich water is caused by radon liberated into the air in buildings. (author)

  7. Ultraviolet radiation in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taalas, P.; Koskela, T.; Damski, J.; Supperi, A. [Finnish Meteorological Inst., Helsinki (Finland). Section of Ozone and UV Research; Kyroe, E. [Finnish Meteorological Inst., Sodankylae (Finland). Sodankylae Observatory

    1996-12-31

    Solar ultraviolet radiation is damaging for living organisms due to its high energy pro each photon. The UV radiation is often separated into three regions according to the wavelength: UVC (200-280 nm), UVB (280-320 nm) and UVA (320-400 nm). The most hazardous part, UVC is absorbed completely in the upper atmosphere by molecular oxygen. UVB radiation is absorbed by atmospheric ozone partly, and it is reaching Earth`s surface, as UVA radiation. Besides atmospheric ozone, very important factors in determining the intensity of UVB radiation globally are the solar zenith angle and cloudiness. It may be calculated from global ozone changes that the clear-sky UVB doses may have enhanced by 10-15 % during spring and 5-10 % during summer at the latitudes of Finland, following the decrease of total ozone between 1979-90. The Finnish ozone and UV monitoring activities have become a part of international activities, especially the EU Environment and Climate Programme`s research projects. The main national level effort has been the Finnish Academy`s climatic change programme, SILMU 1990-95. This presentation summarises the scientific results reached during the SILMU project

  8. Engineering and R and D needs and supply in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The construction of the fifth power plant in Finland and the planning of a sixth one have increased the need for nuclear professionals. The situation is not eased by the previous nuclear generation retiring. Within the next 10 years almost 25% of the nuclear experts in Finland will retire. The need to transfer their knowledge to younger professionals and train new experts is evident. In fusion, the work started to build the next generation experiment ITER, has also drawn attention at least European wide to the need of young engineering experts. This talk will give an overview of the education system of engineers in Finland. The academic levels are discussed as well as a special course for professionals. A Finnish specialty in all the technical areas is the close connection of students with the industry, research institutes and authorities. Also the education of fusion engineers and plasma physicists in Finland will be considered. The European programs to train professionals in the fusion area will be viewed. Finally, the current situation of the personnel in nuclear energy research is resumed. It must be noted that the current situation in Finland also attracts students and young professionals. Also, the nuclear companies are confident that their needs can be fulfilled by the few universities giving the education. However, some extra effort is welcome in the field. (author)

  9. Customer Satisfaction at the Hospitality Industry: Holiday Inn Helsinki-Vantaa Airport

    OpenAIRE

    Eld, Anna

    2015-01-01

    The intention of this Bachelor’s Degree thesis was to examine and observe the customer service and especially customer satisfaction in a hotel industry, and Holiday Inn Helsinki-Vantaa Airport was selected to be an example for this survey. This survey and thesis is carried out by the author in collaboration with Holiday Inn Helsinki-Vantaa Airport, which was the commissioner of this Bachelor’s Degree thesis. This hotel was chosen since the author of this thesis did her second internship there...

  10. Social networks of older adults living with HIV in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobre, Nuno Ribeiro; Kylmä, Jari; Kirsi, Tapio; Pereira, Marco

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the social networks of older adults living with HIV. Interviews were conducted with nine individuals aged 50 or older living with HIV in Helsinki, Finland. Analysis of transcripts was analysed by inductive qualitative content analysis. Results indicated that these participants' networks tended to be large, including those both aware and unaware of the participants' health status. Analysis identified three main themes: large multifaceted social networks, importance of a support group, and downsizing of social networks. Support received appeared to be of great importance in coping with their health condition, especially since the time of diagnosis. Friends and family were the primary source of informal support. The majority of participants relied mostly on friends, some of whom were HIV-positive. Formal support came primarily from the HIV organisation's support group. In this study group, non-disclosure did not impact participants' well-being. In years to come, social networks of older adults living with HIV may shrink due to personal reasons other than HIV-disclosure. What is of primary importance is that healthcare professionals become knowledgeable about psychosocial issues of older adults living with HIV, identifying latent problems and developing adequate interventions in the early stages of the disease; this would help prevent social isolation and foster successful ageing with HIV. PMID:26278329

  11. Surveillance of Environmental Radiation in Finland. Annual Report 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    soil in the Member States. In Finland, also the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI) and the Defence Forces are monitoring environmental radiation at their own stations. STUK's partners in surveillance of environmental radioactivity are collecting and delivering environmental samples for laboratory analyses, or are participating in whole-body counting. STUK would like to express its gratitude to the following partners for the successful co-operation: Defence Forces, Finnish Meteorological Institute, Arctic Research Centre, Southeast Finland Regional Environment Centre, North Ostrobothnia Regional Environment Centre, Lapland Regional Environment Centre, Southeast Finland Frontier Guard District, Lapland Frontier Guard District, Rescue Centre of Kotka, Water supply plants of Oulu and Turku, Valio Ltd., Health Department of Helsinki/Maria Hospital, Tampere University Central Hospital, Lapland Central Hospital, Secondary school of Helsingin yhteislyseo, Secondary school of Hatanpaeae in Tampere, and Secondary school of Korkalovaara in Rovaniemi. This report is addressed to all who are interested in environmental radioactivity in Finland. STUK delivers monitoring data also to the European Commission on regular basis, and this report is a summary of the results delivered to the Commission. (orig.)

  12. Surveillance of environmental radiation in Finland. Annual Report 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    previous years. The results are collected from monitoring programmes of STUK, FMI and the Defence Forces Research Institute of Technology. Nuclear power plant licensees are responsible for environmental surveillance in the vicinity of nuclear power plants in Finland. Those results are reported elsewhere. STUK's partners in surveillance of environmental radioactivity are collecting and delivering environmental samples for laboratory analyses, or are participating in whole-body counting. STUK would like to express its gratitude to the following institutions for the successful co-operation: Defence Forces, Finnish Meteorological Institute, Arctic Research Centre, Southeast Finland Regional Environment Centre, North Ostrobothnia Regional Environment Centre, Lapland Regional Environment Centre, Southeast Finland Frontier Guard District, Lapland Frontier Guard District, Jyvaeskylae Airport, Rescue Centre of Kotka, Water supply plants of Oulu and Turku, Valio Ltd., Health Department of Helsinki/Maria Hospital, Tampere University Central Hospital, Lapland Central Hospital, Secondary school of Helsingin yhteislyseo, Secondary school of Hatanpaeae in Tampere, and Secondary school of Korkalovaara in Rovaniemi. This report is addressed to all who are interested in environmental radioactivity in Finland. STUK delivers monitoring data also to the European Commission on regular basis, and this report is a summary of the results delivered to the Commission. The report is also available on the STUK's home pages www.stuk.fi. (orig.)

  13. Energy trends in Finland 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Ministry of Trade and Industry has published statistical information in several brochures, of which possibly the best known is the 'Finland and Energy' series. Alongside other data, the graphs in these brochures have indicated the impact of energy policy and have described the pressures on natural resources brought about by the energy sector. This publication, 'Energy Trends in Finland 2000', continues to present additional statistical data in the same context, aiming at more systematic processing of information. We have drawn up energy indicators, which follow current international examples in indicator formulation. The emphasis is on integration of environmental aspects and sustainable development into energy policy. We hope that this publication will reach a wide audience and will help readers to understand the prerequisites for energy policy in Finland, especially in relation to other industrialised countries

  14. Geophysical investigations in the Olkiluoto area, Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Investigations were carried out at the Olkiluoto site at Eurajoki using geological, geophysical, geohydrological and geochemical methods in 1987-1992 to determine the suitability of the bedrock for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. In this survey airborne, ground and borehole geophysical methods were used to study the rock type distribution, fracturing and hydraulic conductivity of the bedrock to a depth of one kilometre

  15. Geophysical investigations in the Syyry area, Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Investigations were carried out at the Syyry site at Sievi using geological, geophysical, geohydrological and geochemical methods in 1987-1991 to determine the suitability of the bedrock for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. In this survey airborne, ground and borehole geophysical methods were used to study the rock type distribution, fracturing and hydraulic conductivity of the bedrock to a depth of one kilometre

  16. Kosmetikmarknaden inom huvudstadsregionen i Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Brandt, Vivi

    2010-01-01

    Syftet med detta examensarbete var att undersöka kosmetikmarknaden inom huvudstadsregionen i Finland, utreda hurdan den finska kosmetikkonsumenten är, och hur Finlands kosmetikmarknad ser allmänt ut idag. Undersökningens delsyften var att definiera var, hur och varför den finska kosmetikkonsumenten gör sina uppköp. Delsyften var också att få svar på bl.a. följande frågor: varför väljer konsumenten en viss kosmetikaffär, vilka faktorer prioriterar kunden då hon handlar, och hur kunde kosmetika...

  17. Sustainable energy utilization in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alakangas, E.

    1996-12-31

    Finland tops the statistics for the industrialised world in the utilisation of bioenergy. In 1995 bioenergy, including peat-fired heat and power, accounted for 20 % of the total energy consumption. The declared goal of the government is to increase the use of bioenergy by not less than 25 % (1.5 million toe by the year 2005). Research and development plays a crucial role in the promotion of the expanded use of bioenergy in Finland. The aim is to identify and develop technologies for establishing and sustaining economically, environmentally and socially viable bioenergy niches in the energy system

  18. Lean Startup Practice in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Chu, Quynh

    2015-01-01

    The thesis examines the movement of lean startup phenomenon within startups in Finland. The research questions for the thesis are: “How are Lean Startups principles changing the way startups are managed?” And “Why are startups in Finland practicing lean startup principles?” The research’s target is to provide a supporting document to evaluate if Lean Startup should be consider as the management philosophy for the startups belonging to JAMK Incubator and Generator Programs. The research is ...

  19. Organic food and farming research in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Nykänen, Arja

    2006-01-01

    In Finland we have a tendency of increasing activities in organic food and farming research during last five years. Most of the organic food and farming research i Finland is carried out at the MTT Agrifood Research Finland. The rest is done at the universities and other institutes.

  20. Canadian Art Partnership Program in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketovuori, Mikko

    2011-01-01

    This article is about a multidisciplinary R&D project in which a Canadian Learning Through The Arts (LTTA) program was imported to Finland in 2003-2004. Cultural differences in arts education in Finland and Canada are discussed. While Finland has a national school curriculum with all the arts included. Canada relies more on partnerships to ensure…

  1. Finland's leading natural gas company

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ownership structure of Finland's leading natural gas company, Gasum, changed fundamentally in 1999, and the company is now no longer a subsidiary of Fortum Corporation. 'Our new strong and broad ownership base will enable us to develop the natural gas business and pipeline network in Finland in response to the requirements of our Finnish customers', says Antero Jaennes, Gasum's Chairman and CEO, who stresses that Gasum is committed to remaining the leading developer of the Finnish natural gas market and the number-one gas supplier. Natural gas usage in Finland in 1999 totalled 3.9 billion m3 (38.7 TWh), unchanged from 1998. Natural gas accounted for 11% of Finland's total primary energy need, as it did in 1998. The proportion of natural gas used in district heating rose by 2% to 36%, and moved down 2% in power generation to 10%. Industry's use of natural gas fell 1% to 17%. 75% of natural gas was used in combined heat and power (CHP) generation in industry and district heating. In 2000, Gasum expects to sell 4 billion m3 of natural gas (40 TWh)

  2. Airborne and deposited radioactivity from the Chernobyl accident. A review of investigations in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paatero, J. (Finnish Meteorogical Inst., Helsinki (Finland)); Haemeri, K. (Helsinki Univ., Dept. of Physics (Finland)); Jaakkola, T. (Helsinki Univ., Lab. of Radiochemistry (Finland)); Jantunen, M. (National Public Health Inst., Kuopio (Finland)); Koivukoski, J. (Ministry of the Interior, Rescue Dept., Government (Finland)); Saxen, R. (STUK Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Helsinki (Finland))

    2010-07-01

    The Chernobyl nuclear accident happened in the former Soviet Union on 26 April 1986. The accident destroyed one of the RBMK-1000 type reactors and released significant radioactive contamination into the environment. At first the emissions were transported north-westwards over Poland, the Baltic States, Finland, Sweden and Norway. During 27 April 1986 emissions were spreading to eastern-central Europe, southern Germany, Italy and Yugoslavia. Radioactivity mapping over Finland between 29 April and 16 May 1986 showed that the ground deposition in Finland covered southern and central parts of the country but had an irregular distribution. The highest (over 100 muR h-1 [1 muSv h-1]) contamination disclosed by the mapping was around the city of Uusikaupunki in western Finland and the city of Kotka in southeastern Finland. The Uusikaupunki region was an area of heavy fallout associated with the air mass that was located in the Chernobyl area at the time of the accident. The fallout pattern of reftractory nuclides, e.g. plutonium isotopes, had their spatial maximum in this region. Medical consequences in Finland were luckily mild, the most important symptoms being psychological ones. No increase in thyroid cancer or birth defect occurrence has been observed. The Chernobyl accident boosted the radioecological research which had already been calming down after the last atmospheric nuclear test in China in October 1980. Important new results concerning e.g. hot particles have been achieved. The most important effects of the accident in Finland were, however, the increase of public awareness of environmental issues in general and especially of nuclear energy. In Finland, the nuclear energy programme was halted until 2002 when the Parliament of Finland granted a licence to build the fifth nuclear reactor in Finland. (orig.)

  3. Report of the Committee for Nuclear Energy Competence in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    international research activities; and 6) to review the situation regarding VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland's research reactor. The work was carried out in six divisions which were also in charge of writing the texts for the report. A survey was implemented in order to acquire background material, and sent to some 300 organisations within the sector. The results of the survey are presented extensively in this report, which will be published both in Finnish and English. The committee included representatives from the Ministry of Employment and the Economy, the Ministry of the Environment, the Ministry of Social Affairs and Health, the Ministry of Education and Culture, the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority Finland (STUK), VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Aalto University, the universities of Jyvaeskylae, Oulu and Helsinki, and Lappeenranta University of Technology. The power companies involved were Fennovoima, Fortum, TVO, Posiva and the industrial association FinNuclear. In addition, several other organisations participated in the work of various divisions, and the number of people involved in the writing process of the report was more than 150. The report presents a large number of recommendations for long-term development of competence in the nuclear energy sector in Finland. (orig.)

  4. Declaracion de Helsinki sus vicisitudes en los últimos cinco años Declaration of Helsinki. Its vicissitudes during the last five years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezequiel Klimovsky

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available La Declaración de Helsinki es uno de los referentes centrales en cuanto a las normas éticas que guían la investigación clínica. A lo largo de su existencia fue modificada en diversas ocasiones, la última de ellas en octubre de 2000. El objetivo del trabajo es realizar una revisión de las discusiones que llevaron a esta última modificación y los debates suscitados a partir de la misma y que todavía continúan, fundamentalmente en relación al uso del placebo en los protocolos de investigación clínica farmacológica. Se realizó una revisión de los artículos más destacados y de las opiniones de los participantes en las discusiones que han sido publicadas acerca de este tema en los últimos cinco años. Se reseñan las argumentaciones de los científicos a favor y en contra del uso del placebo. Consideramos que es dificultoso hallar respuestas simples para los interrogantes que el uso del placebo en los ensayos clínicos nos plantea, tanto en países desarrollados como en países en desarrollo, y que la Declaración de Helsinki continúa constituyendo una guía de ideal ético al cual todos los involucrados en la investigación clínica deberíamos intentar acercarnos.The Declaration of Helsinki is one of the major ethical guidelines for conducting clinical research. Along its existence it has been modified on diverse occasions, the latest one in October 2000. The objective of this article is to carry out a revision of the discussions that were taken up at this latest modification and the debates raised since its promulgation which still continue, fundamentally in relation to the use of placebo in pharmacological clinical investigation. This includes a revision of the most outstanding articles and of the opinions of the participants in the discussions that have been published in the last five years. The scientists' arguments in favor or against the use of placebo are pointed out. We consider that it is difficult to find simple

  5. Siemens - nuclear engineering in Sweden and Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The number of nuclear power stations in Sweden and Finland, is with 16 blocks and a total installed capacity of almost 13,000 MW, equal to the plant capacity in operation in Germany. Siemens therefore already began in the middle of the 1970s to turn towards this attractive service market. At first in the area of fuel element rechargin and reactor operations planning, at the end of the 1980s this was followed by large refitting projects such as, for example steam generator exchange. The greatest success up until now was the total modernisation of the oldest Swedish reactor, the 462 MW-water-boiler reactor Oskarshamn 1, which will enable operation for another twenty years. Work began in November 1997 and should be concluded in 2001. Further similar concepts have been drawn up for the plants in Barsebaeck 1 and 2 and Oskarshamn 2, a relevant study was started a short while ago for Ringhals 1. On the new plant sector Siemens are preparing themselves with a new water-boiler reactors SWR 1000 for the impending tender for a new nuclear power plant in Finland. (orig.)

  6. State of the forests on Olkiluoto Island in 2004. Comparisons between Olkiluoto and the rest of Southwest Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the permanent monitoring system, the basic tree and stand measurements, and the state of the forests on Olkiluoto Island in relation to corresponding areas in Southwest Finland. The area described represents 561 ha of forests. The trees on the permanent sample plot system were measured in accordance with the field manual of the National Forest Inventory. The forests in Olkiluoto are mainly intensively managed, commercial forests, apart from the Liiklanperae Nature Conservation Area which is not subjected to forest management. The soils are more fertile and the forests are younger than those on the average in Southwest Finland. The proportion of stands where the dominant tree species is Norway spruce is higher than that in Southwest Finland. Mixed stands are more common than in the comparison area. The stand volumes are similar, with the exception of the oldest age classes. The size class distributions are also similar to those in South-west Finland. A higher proportion of the stands in Olkiluoto have been regenerated artificially compared to the situation in Southwest Finland in general. The silvicultural condition of the forests in Olkiluoto is better, and there are fewer cases of damage in the forests in Olkiluoto compared to Southwest Finland. The most common causes of damage were moose and storms. The frequency of silvicultural treatment in Olkiluoto has been markedly higher than that in Southwest Finland in general; 45% of the area had been treated during the last 10 years. The proportion of areas not treated during the last 30 years is higher than that in Southwest Finland. The proportion of regeneration areas that have been ploughed is also higher than elsewhere in Southwest Finland. About 10% of the total area of the island has been drained, and undrained mires cover 17 ha. The biodiversity situation in Olkiluoto is better than that in Southwest Finland in general due to the long shoreline and the presence of the nature conservation

  7. Surveillance of environmental radiation in Finland. Annual Report 2003; Ympaeristoen saeteilyvalvonta Suomessa. Vuosiraportti 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mustonen, R. (ed.)

    2004-07-01

    Meteorological Institute, the FMI Observatory at Sodankylae, the Southeast Finland Regional Environment Centre, the North Ostrobothnia Regional Environment Centre, the Lapland Regional Environment Centre, the Southeast Finland Frontier Guard District, the Lapland Frontier Guard District, Jyvaeskylae Airport, the Rescue Centre of Kotka, the Health Department of Helsinki/Maria Hospital, Tampere University Central Hospital, Lapland Central Hospital, the Secondary school Helsingin yhteislyseo, the Hatanpaeae Secondary school in Tampere, and the Korkalovaara Secondary school in Rovaniemi. This report is addressed to all who are interested in environmental radioactivity in Finland. STUK also delivers monitoring data to the European Commission on a regular basis, and this report is a summary of the results delivered to the Commission. The report is also available on STUK's home page; www.stuk.fi. (orig.)

  8. Surveillance of environmental radiation in Finland. Annual Report 2001; Ympaeristoen saeteilyvalvonta Suomessa. Vuosiraportti 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mustonen, R. (ed.)

    2002-07-01

    -operation: Defence Forces, Finnish Meteorological Institute, FMI Observatory of Sodankylae, Southeast Finland Regional Environment Centre, North Ostrobothnia Regional Environment Centre, Lapland Regional Environment Centre, Southeast Finland Frontier Guard District, Lapland Frontier Guard District, Jyvaeskylae Airport, Rescue Centre of Kotka, Water works of Turku and Oulu. Health Department of Helsinki/ Maria Hospital, Tampere University Central Hospital, Lapland Central Hospital, Secondary school of Helsingin yhteislyseo, Secondary school of Hatanpaeae in Tampere, Secondary school of Korkalovaara in Rovaniemi. This report is addressed to all who are interested in environmental radioactivity in Finland. STUK delivers monitoring data also to the European Commission on regular basis, and this report is a summary of the results delivered to the Commission. The report is also available at the STUK's home pages www.stuk.fi. (orig.)

  9. Surveillance of environmental radiation in Finland. Annual Report 2002; Ympaeristoen saeteilyvalvonta Suomessa. Vuosiraportti 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mustonen, R. (ed.)

    2003-07-01

    Meteorological Institute, the FMI Observatory at Sodankylae, the Southeast Finland Regional Environment Centre, the North Ostrobothnia Regional Environment Centre, the Lapland Regional Environment Centre, the Southeast Finland Frontier Guard District, the Lapland Frontier Guard District, Jyvaeskylae Airport, the Rescue Centre of Kotka, the Health Department of Helsinki/Maria Hospital, Tampere University Central Hospital, Lapland Central Hospital, the Secondary school Helsingin yhteislyseo, the Hatanpaeae Secondary school in Tampere, and the Korkalovaara Secondary school in Rovaniemi. This report is addressed to all who are interested in environmental radioactivity in Finland. STUK also delivers monitoring data to the European Commission on a regular basis, and this report is a summary of the results delivered to the Commission. The report is also available on STUK's home page; www.stuk.fi. (orig.)

  10. Annual particle flux observations over a heterogeneous urban area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Järvi, L.; Rannik, Ü.; Mammarella, I.; Sogachev, Andrey; Aalto, P.P.; Keronen, P.; Siivola, E.; Kulmala, M.; Vesala, T.

    2009-01-01

    Long-term eddy covariance particle number flux measurements for the diameter range 6 nm to 5 μm were performed at the SMEAR III station over an urban area in Helsinki, Finland. The heterogeneity of the urban measurement location allowed us to study the effect of different land-use classes in...... different wind directions on the measured fluxes. The particle number fluxes were highest in the direction of a local road on weekdays, with a daytime median flux of 0.8×109 m−2 s−1. The particle fluxes showed a clear dependence on traffic rates and on the mixing conditions of the boundary layer. The...... from the vegetated area were the lowest with daytime median fluxes below 0.2×109 m−2 s−1. During weekends and nights, the particle fluxes were low from all land use sectors being in the order of 0.02–0.1×109 m−2 s−1. On an annual scale the highest fluxes were measured in winter, when emissions from...

  11. Chemical composition, mass size distribution and source analysis of long-range transported wildfire smokes in Helsinki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Special episodes of long-range transported particulate (PM) air pollution were investigated in a one-month field campaign at an urban background site in Helsinki, Finland. A total of nine size-segregated PM samplings of 3- or 4-day duration were made between August 23 and September 23, 2002. During this warm and unusually dry period there were two (labelled P2 and P5) sampling periods when the PM2.5 mass concentration increased remarkably. According to the hourly-measured PM data and backward air mass trajectories, P2 (Aug 23-26) represented a single, 64-h episode of long-range transported aerosol, whereas P5 (Sept 5-9) was a mixture of two 16- and 14-h episodes and usual seasonal air quality. The large chemical data set, based on analyses made by ion chromatography, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, X-ray fluorescence analysis and smoke stain reflectometry, demonstrated that the PM2.5 mass concentrations of biomass signatures (i.e. levoglucosan, oxalate and potassium) and of some other compounds associated with biomass combustion (succinate and malonate) increased remarkably in P2. Crustal elements (Fe, Al, Ca and Si) and unidentified matter, presumably consisting to a large extent of organic material, were also increased in P2. The PM2.5 composition in P5 was different from that in P2, as the inorganic secondary aerosols (NO3-, SO42-, NH4+) and many metals reached their highest concentration in this period. The water-soluble fraction of potassium, lead and manganese increased in both P2 and P5. Mass size distributions (0.035-10 μm) showed that a large accumulation mode mainly caused the episodically increased PM2.5 concentrations. An interesting observation was that the episodes had no obvious impact on the Aitken mode. Finally, the strongly increased concentrations of biomass signatures in accumulation mode proved that the episode in P2 was due to long-range transported biomass combustion aerosol

  12. Sleep Advantage : Undersökning av ett koncept på Crowne Plaza Helsinki

    OpenAIRE

    Pieniniemi, Jonas

    2012-01-01

    En välplanerad produktutveckling utgör en viktig konkurrensfördel för företag inom hotellbranschen. Ett hotell måste kunna erbjuda tjänster som upplevs som mervärde för kunden. För att stärka detta har man på hotellet Crowne Plaza Helsinki tagit ibruk ett koncept med namnet Sleep Advantage. Konceptet erbjuder kunden garanterad nattsömn och tilläggstjänster som stärker kundens upplevelse om en lyckad och lugnt natt på ett klassigt hotell. Konceptet är nytt och Crowne Plaza Helsinki har anlitat...

  13. Correction of errors in scale values for magnetic elements for Helsinki

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svalgaard, L.

    2014-06-01

    Using several lines of evidence we show that the scale values of the geomagnetic variometers operating in Helsinki in the 19th century were not constant throughout the years of operation 1844-1897. Specifically, the adopted scale value of the horizontal force variometer appears to be too low by ~ 30% during the years 1866-1874.5 and the adopted scale value of the declination variometer appears to be too low by a factor of ~ 2 during the interval 1885.8-1887.5. Reconstructing the heliospheric magnetic field strength from geomagnetic data has reached a stage where a reliable reconstruction is possible using even just a single geomagnetic data set of hourly or daily values. Before such reconstructions can be accepted as reliable, the underlying data must be calibrated correctly. It is thus mandatory that the Helsinki data be corrected. Such correction has been satisfactorily carried out and the HMF strength is now well constrained back to 1845.

  14. Utveckling av executive loungens tjänster på Hilton Helsinki Airport

    OpenAIRE

    Turunen, Nea

    2014-01-01

    Lärdomsprovet är gjort på uppdrag av Hilton Helsinki Airport hotell. Skribenten gjorde sin arbetspraktik på hotellet och fick uppdraget då. Hotellet har en executive lounge. Hotellet är grundat år 2007. Det har aldrig förr gjorts en kundnöjdhetsunder-sökning för loungen. På Hilton Helsinki Airport vill de veta hur nöjda kunderna är med loungen och hur de skulle kunna utveckla den så att kunderna skulle vara ännu nöjdare. De flesta av kunderna som besöker hotellet är affärsresenärer. Hote...

  15. ACADEMIC TRAINING (O. BRUNING / CERN-SL, S. TAPPROGGE / Helsinki Univ. of Physics, E. TSESMELIS / Helsinki Univ. of Physics , CERN-EST)

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2002-01-01

    21, 22, 23 May LECTURE SERIES from 11.00 to 12.00 hrs - Auditorium, bldg. 500 The LHC Machine/Experiment Interface by O. BRUNING / CERN-SL, S. TAPPROGGE / Helsinki Univ. of Physics, E. TSESMELIS / Helsinki Univ. of Physics, CERN-EST     This series of three lectures will provide an overview of issues arising at the interface between the LHC machine and the experiments, which are required for guiding the interaction between the collider and the experiments when operation of the LHC commences. A basic description of the LHC Collider and its operating parameters, such as its energy, currents, bunch structure and luminosity, as well as variations on these parameters, will be given. Furthermore, the optics foreseen for the experimental insertions, the sources and intensities of beam losses and the running-in scenarios for the various phases of operation will be discussed. A second module will cover the specific requirements and expectations of each experiment in terms of the layout of experiment...

  16. Russian Consumer Behavior in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Potapova, Eila

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the thesis is to study consumer behavior of Russian tourists in Finland and to analyze the main factors that are influencing their buying habits. The growing effect of Russians on Finnish market triggered the interest to start this thesis. Theoretical part of the thesis starts with a definition of the consumer and consumer behavior. Segmentation, positioning and targeting are discussed next. Afterwards, segments of Russian consumers are described generally. Empirical study ...

  17. Wind Energy Consultancies in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Päivärinta, Nita

    2015-01-01

    This research paper studies the consulting market for the Finnish wind energy industry and the consulting services available for wind project developers in Finland. Since there were no previous studies conducted on the subject, there was a need for a research where the Finnish consulting services are mapped out. The theoretical framework for this study discusses the current state of the Finnish wind energy industry in general and in comparison to the rest of the European Union, production of ...

  18. Health technology assessment in Finland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mäkelä, Marjukka; Roine, Risto P

    2010-01-01

    Since the 1990s, health policy makers in Finland have been supportive of evidence-based medicine and approaches to implement its results. The Finnish Office for Health Technology Assessment (Finohta) has grown from a small start in 1995 to a medium-sized health technology assessment (HTA) agency,...... HTA findings. The Managed Uptake of Medical Methods program links the hospital districts to agree on introduction of technologies. The Ohtanen database provides Finnish-language summaries of major assessments made in other countries....

  19. Growth and equity in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Jäntti, Markus; Saari, Juho; Vartiainen, Juhana

    2006-01-01

    This paper reviews Finnish economic history during the ‘long’ twentieth century with a special emphasis on policies for equity and growth. We argue that Finland developed from a poor, vulnerable, and conflict-prone country to a modern economy in part through policies geared at both growth and equity, such as land reform and compulsory schooling. The state participated in economic activity both indirectly and directly in the post-war period, implementing many social policy reforms that facilit...

  20. CRYPTO-CURRENCIES IN FINLAND

    OpenAIRE

    Savukoski, Atte

    2015-01-01

    This thesis study was conducted to deliver information about Bitcoin and its use in Finland. The first objective was to explain what Bitcoin is and its fundamentals. By understanding Bitcoin, people have the opportunity to think how it can influence business. Additionally, it is important to know the limitations of Bitcoin and how it should be used properly in terms of security and regulations. The second objective of this thesis study was to find out common reasons for use of Bitcoin in comp...

  1. UNIVERSITY CONTINUING EDUCATION IN FINLAND

    OpenAIRE

    Kess, P.; Tuomi, O.

    1998-01-01

    Statistics show that half of the adult population of Finland is engaged in study at some educational institution. The desire among Finns for education is an internationally interesting feature. At governmental level educational policy is considered an important aid in international competition. The concept of lifelong learning is supported in Finnish society by empirical evidence, even if the high appreciation in the social hierarchy for qualifications should also be mentioned as a characteri...

  2. Accessible Tourism : A Study of accessibility in Hotel Chains,Public Transport and Ferry Companies in Helsinki

    OpenAIRE

    Khatri, Kumar; Shrestha, Rajkumar; Mahat, Ujjwal

    2012-01-01

    This Bachelor’s thesis was prepared for the fulfillment of the educational standard of Laurea University of Applied Sciences. This thesis is aimed to achieve a main goal which is to explore accessible service and product with its environment into hotel chains, public transportation and ferry companies in Helsinki. In addition, this thesis describes the current accessibility situation of hotel chains, public transportation and two ferry companies in Helsinki. The empirical study material ...

  3. Marketing and Promotional Materials for Helsinki Zoo Business Services : Producing a Sub-brand from an Established Corporate Identity

    OpenAIRE

    Ranta, Julia

    2015-01-01

    Helsinki Zoo (Korkeasaaren eläintarha) is known for its location on an island and for being one of the oldest zoos in the world, having been established in 1889. The public can visit Helsinki Zoo all year round and besides normal zoo entrances and educational programmes run for schools, the zoo offers services for business clients, such as conference room facilities, various programmes about the zoo’s work and animals, and cafeteria services. The objective of this thesis was t...

  4. Comparison of OMI NO2 observations and their seasonal and weekly cycles with ground-based measurements in Helsinki

    OpenAIRE

    Ialongo, Iolanda; Herman, Jay; Krotkov, Nick; Lamsal, Lok; Boersma, Folkert; Hovila, Jari; Tamminen, Johanna

    2016-01-01

    We present the comparison of satellite-based OMI (Ozone Monitoring Instrument) NO2 products with ground-based observations in Helsinki. OMI NO2 total columns, available from standard product (SP) and DOMINO algorithm, are compared with the measurements performed by the Pandora spectrometer in Helsinki in 2012. The relative difference between Pandora #21 and OMI SP retrievals is 4 % and −6 % for clear sky and all sky conditions, respectively. DOMINO NO2 retrievals showed sl...

  5. Assessing the Effectiveness of Marginal Cost Pricing in Transport - the Helsinki Case

    OpenAIRE

    Paavo Moilanen

    2000-01-01

    A geographic MEPLAN model based on the principles of economic behaviour was applied to study the marginal cost pricing approach for optimising the use of the transport system in the Helsinki region. As the model can estimate land use relocation the analysis emphasises the long-term impacts. According to the model calculations, marginal cost pricing can increase the overall socio-economic efficiency of the transport system especially by reducing urban sprawl. The welfare gain obtainable can be...

  6. Public health response to radiation emergencies and the role of the Helsinki Project Office

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper focuses on the public health element of nuclear emergency preparedness, defined as the mitigation of the long-term effects of radiation on exposed populations, as opposed to dealing with the health consequences of an exposure in an individual (termed medical aspects). The paper also approaches to the role of the Helsinki Project Office which is concerned with the protection of public health through effective response to nuclear emergencies, and falling into two categories, namely contingency planning or preparedness, and response

  7. Medication compliance and serum lipid changes in the Helsinki Heart Study.

    OpenAIRE

    Mäenpää, H; Heinonen, O. P.; Manninen, V

    1991-01-01

    1. To control the bias caused by poor medication compliance in the Helsinki Heart Study three methods were used to measure medication compliance during the total 5 years follow up time: continuous capsule counting, semi-annual urine gemfibrozil analysis and a new method, the digoxin marker at the end of the third and fifth study years. 2. The serum lipid responses to gemfibrozil treatment varied linearly with the level of medication compliance, e.g. the mean change in serum total cholesterol ...

  8. Bronchial hyperresponsiveness in an adult population in Helsinki: decreased FEV1, the main determinant

    OpenAIRE

    Juusela, Maria; Pallasaho, Paula; Sarna, Seppo; Piirilä, Päivi; Lundbäck, Bo; Sovijärvi, Anssi

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) elevates the risk for development of respiratory symptoms and accelerates the decline in forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1). We thus aimed to assess the prevalence, determinants and quantity of BHR in Helsinki. Objectives This study involved 292 randomly selected subjects age 26–66 years, women comprising 58%. Methods Following a structured interview, a spirometry, a bronchodilation test, and a skin-prick test, we assessed a br...

  9. Treatment of illicit opioid and γ-hydroxybutyrate overdose by Helsinki emergency medical services

    OpenAIRE

    Boyd, James

    2011-01-01

    Aims: To examine the characteristics, incidence, treatment and outcome of presumed opioid, γ-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) and γ-butyrolactone (GBL) overdoses involving users of illicit drugs in Helsinki. GHB/GBL were included in this study, despite not being opioids, due to the relative ease with which they can cause potentially fatal respiratory depression. The incidence and time interval of recurrent opioid toxicity after prehospital administration of naloxone, an opioid antagonist, was studied ...

  10. The marketing strategy of a biofore company: a case study of UPM, Helsinki

    OpenAIRE

    Roy, Uttam

    2014-01-01

    Laurea University of Applied Sciences Abstract Leppävaara Degree Programme in Business Management Roy, Uttam Kumar The marketing strategy of a biofore company a case study of UPM, Helsinki. May 2014 Pages 49 The main objective of this thesis is to evaluate the marketing strategies of a case company UPM. This thesis analysis is related to the business activities among stakeholders and UPM as forest based products of a multinational company. ...

  11. Dental care and treatments provided under general anaesthesia in the Helsinki Public Dental Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savanheimo Nora

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dental general anaesthesia (DGA is a very efficient treatment modality, but is considered only in the last resort because of the risks posed by general anaesthesia to patients’ overall health. Health services and their treatment policies regarding DGA vary from country to country. The aims of this work were to determine the reasons for DGA in the Helsinki Public Dental Service (PDS and to assess the role of patient characteristics in the variation in reasons and in the treatments given with special focus on preventive care. Methods The data covered all DGA patients treated in the PDS in Helsinki in 2010. The data were collected from patient documents and included personal background: age ( Results The DGA patients (n=349 were aged 2.3 to 67.2 years. Immigrants predominated in the youngest age group (p Conclusions Extreme non-cooperation, dental fear and an excessive need for treatment were the main reasons for the use of comprehensive, conservative DGA in the Helsinki PDS. The reasons for the use of DGA and the treatments provided varied according to personal and medical background, and immigration status with no gender-differences. Preventive measures formed only a minor part of the dental care given under DGA.

  12. Acid sulfate soils are an environmental hazard in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pihlaja, Jouni

    2016-04-01

    Acid sulfate soils (ASS) create significant threats to the environment on coastal regions of the Baltic Sea in Finland. The sediments were deposited during the ancient Litorina Sea phase of the Baltic Sea about 7500-4500 years ago. Finland has larger spatial extent of the ASS than any other European country. Mostly based on anthropogenic reasons (cultivation, trenching etc.) ASS deposits are currently being exposed to oxygen which leads to chemical reaction creating sulfuric acid. The acidic waters then dissolve metals form the soil. Acidic surface run off including the metals are then leached into the water bodies weakening the water quality and killing fish or vegetation. In constructed areas acidic waters may corrode building materials. Geological Survey of Finland (GTK) is mapping ASS deposits in Finland. The goal is to map a total of 5 million hectares of the potentially ASS affected region. It has been estimated that the problematic Litorina Sea deposits, which are situated 0-100 m above the recent Baltic Sea shoreline, cover 500 000 hectares area. There are several phases in mapping. The work begins at the office with gathering the existing data, interpreting airborne geophysical data and compiling a field working plan. In the field, quality of the soil is studied and in uncertain cases samples are taken to laboratory analyses. Also electrical conductivity and pH of soil and water are measured in the field. Laboratory methods include multielemental determinations with ICP-OES, analyses of grain size and humus content (LOI), and incubation. So far, approximately 60 % of the potential ASS affected regions in Finland are mapped. Over 15 000 sites have been studied in the field and 4000 laboratory analyses are done. The spatial database presented in the scale of 1: 250 000 can be viewed at the GTK's web pages (http://gtkdata.gtk.fi/hasu/index.html).

  13. Aerial measurements in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winkelmann, I.; Thomas, M.; Buchroeder, H.; Brummer, C. [Federal Office for Radiation Protection, Berlin (Germany); Carloff, G. [German Federal Border Police, Grenzschutz-Fliegergruppe, Sankt Augustin (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    Aerial measurements were performed to determine the {sup 137}Cs soil contamination in a given region to detect unknown radiation sources and to assess their activity. For these measurements a computerized gamma ray spectrometer, equipped with a high purity Ge-semiconductor detector and a 12 l volume Nal(Tl)-detector was used. HPGe-detector measurements from different altitudes over area I were done to test and re-calibrate the aerial measuring system. The known {sup 137}Cs contamination of (50.7 {+-} 5.2) kBq m{sup -2} could be confirmed by the measured value of (57 {+-} 10) kBq m{sup -2}. the Nal(Tl)-detector was re-calibrated at that site for further {sup 137}Cs measurements over area II. The area II was surveyed from an altitude of about 70 m and at a parallel line distance of 150 m at an flying speed of 100 km h{sup -1} to determine the {sup 137}Cs soil contamination. The measuring time was two seconds for the Nal(Tl)-detector. For the spectra measured with the HPGe-detector, a measuring time of 30 s each was chosen. From the Nal(Tl)-measurements, a mean {sup 137}Cs value of (60 {+-} 20) kBq m{sup -2} was determined with a maximum value of 90 kBq m{sup -2}. The corresponding values measured by HPGe-detector were (70 {+-} 20) kBq m{sup -2} and 120 kBq m{sup -2}, respectively. For the evaluation of the HPGe-spectra a depth distribution parameter {alpha}/{rho} = (0.44 {+-} 0.21) cm{sup 2} g{sup -1} for {sup 137}Cs was used measured from soil samples. From data measured with the Nal(Tl)-detector during flights over area III, three{sup 60}Co-sources and one {sup 137}Cs source could be detected, localized and their activity assessed. By HPGe-detector measurements, only scattered {sup 192}lr radiation was registered. (au).

  14. Fish farming and otters in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Skarén U.

    1990-01-01

    The results of a questionnaire sent to all fishfarmers in Finland are presented; 45% replied. There appear to be good otter populations in Finland. Frequency and amount of damage to stocks is discussed. An electric fence system that has been found useful in excluding otters from fish farms is described. Only a few farmers consider otters a grave pest. The major threat to otters in Finland seems to be traffic accidents as car numbers increase. Further information is needed to confirm the findi...

  15. Does Finland Suffer from Brain Drain?

    OpenAIRE

    Johansson, Edvard

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the trends in immigration to and emigration from Finland during the period 1987-2006. The focus is on the 'human capital content' of the migration flows, the key question being: Is Finland losing out in the international competition for highly educated individuals? International comparisons presented by the OECD give the impression that Finland perform very weakly in the global competition for talent, as the share of highlyskilled immigrants is very low. However, these com...

  16. Canadian Art Partnership Program in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Ketovuori, Mikko Mr.

    2011-01-01

    This article is about a multidisciplinary R&D project in which a Canadian Learning Through The Arts (LTTA) program was imported to Finland in 2003–2004. Cultural differences in arts education in Finland and Canada are discussed. While Finland has a national school curriculum with all the arts included. Canada relies more on partnerships to ensure arts education for children in the schools. Despite the fact that Canadian learning methods appeared to be quite similar to the ones Finnish teacher...

  17. Radon measurement and mitigation activity in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radon prevention, measurement and mitigation activities have been increasing in Finland during the 2000's. Nowadays, many municipal authorities, especially those located in high-radon areas, require radon prevention measures. This has activated radon measurements. Owners of new houses having radon piping installed under the floor slab are the most active group to measure and reduce the found high-radon values. Their radon awareness is apparently better than on the average, and the existing piping makes it easier and cheaper to reduce the radon levels. Local campaigns involving invitation flyers mailed to the residents have been a cost-effective means to activate measurements of older houses. So far 116 611 dwellings in low-rise residential buildings have been measured. At least 15 % of the 16 860 dwellings found to exceed the reference level of 400 Bq m-3 had their indoor radon level reduced below that. (authors)

  18. Regulatory control of nuclear safety in Finland. Annual report 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report describes regulatory control of the use of nuclear energy by the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) in Finland in 1997. Nuclear regulatory control ascertained that the operation of Finnish NPPs was in compliance with the conditions set out in operating licences and current regulations. In addition to NPP normal operation, STUK oversaw projects at the plant units relating to power uprating and safety improvements. STUK prepared statements for the Ministry of Trade and Industry about the applications for renewing the operating licenses of Loviisa and Olkiluoto NPPs. The most important items of supervision in nuclear waste management were studies relating to the final disposal of spent fuel from NPPs and the review of the licence application for a repository for low- and intermediate-level reactor waste from Loviisa NPP. Preparation of general safety regulations for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel, to be published in the form of a Council of State Decision, was started. By safeguards control, the use of nuclear materials was verified to be in compliance with current regulations and that the whereabouts of every batch of nuclear material were always known. Nuclear material safeguards were stepped up to prevent illicit trafficking of nuclear materials and other radioactive materials. In co-operation with the Ministry for Foreign Affairs and the Institute of Seismology (University of Helsinki), preparations were undertaken to implement the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). For enforcement of the Treaty and as part of the international regulatory approach, STUK is currently developing laboratory analyses relating to airborne radioactivity measurements. The focus of co-operation funded by external sources was as follows: improvement of the safety of Kola and Leningrad NPPs, improvement of nuclear waste management in North-West Russia, development of the organizations of nuclear safety authorities in Eastern Europe and development

  19. Final repository for spent nuclear fuel in granite - the KBS-3V concept in Sweden and Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Both Sweden and Finland has advanced plans for design, construction and operation of the final repositories for direct disposal of spent nuclear fuel. Both countries have the same type of host rock - granite. They are also investigating alternative concept for disposal, vertical or horizontal disposal of the canisters with encapsulated spent nuclear fuel, normally called KBS-3V or the KBS-3H disposal concept. The development of the KBS-3V concept started around 1980 and is the reference method for both SKB in Sweden and Posiva in Finland. However, extensive development work is ongoing since 2001 with KBS-3H in order to bring that concept to the same maturity as KBS-3V. This presentation deals with the design and operation of the KBS-3V based on the work done within Sweden and SKB but the development is Finland is identical and it is a close cooperation between SKB in Sweden and Posiva in Finland. In Sweden, the site investigation for location of the repository has been concentrated on two sites, in the Oskarshamn area, about 350 km south of Stockholm, and the Forsmark area, about 180 km north of Stockholm. For information it can be mentioned that Finland plans to locate their repository in the vicinity of the Olkiluoto nuclear power plant site, about 300 km north of Helsinki. The site investigation is completed and the selection of site is scheduled to mid 2009 and sending in the application for location and construction of the repository is scheduled to end 2009. After receiving all necessary permits, construction time and commissioning will take about 7 to 8 years and operation is expected to start about 2020. The KBS-3 system is based on a multi barrier concept and the work with compiling the design requirements for the underground part of the deep repository has been ongoing for some time within the SKB organisation. Today the design requirements for the underground part are documented in a big number of reports that has been produced by specialists and working

  20. Energy policies of IEA countries: Finland - 2007 review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-03-15

    Faced with considerable challenges related to its geography and size, Finland's sound energy policies do much to overcome its situation. The country leverages its small market where it can - such as by adopting or harmonising with EU directives and policies. To counter its relative isolation, Finland strengthened its position by becoming part of the larger Nordic electricity market and enhancing energy linkages. At the core, however, the country ensures energy security by relying on transparency and sound market signals to investors and customers, as well as by making good use of domestic sources of biomass and nuclear. As Finland continues to refine and enhance its energy policy, there are some areas that warrant special attention. As nearly all fossil fuels are imported and all natural gas comes through a single interconnection, the government should continue to explore ways to diversify import sources and routes. The new nuclear power plant currently being built - the first in a liberalised market - will help safeguard energy security, though the construction delays necessitate continued monitoring. Subsidies for peat, a fuel in abundance in Finland, should be reconsidered, as they do not enhance energy security. On the other hand, the government should continue to explore ways to expand new renewables, building on the current stock of biomass and hydro. This book takes an in-depth look at Finland's energy policy today and, through comparisons with good examples in other IEA countries, provides critiques and recommendations for improvements to guide the country towards a sustainable energy future. While the review provides comprehensive coverage of all topics, this thematic report highlights energy efficiency and energy R and D.

  1. Endemic time-spaces of Finland: Aquatic regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tero Mustonen

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the endemic time-spaces of Finnish aquatic regimes. More precisely, it examines the socio-ecological relationships between Finns and lakes, rivers, and marshes-mires. First, the 'engine' of endemic time-space research, land use, and occupancy documentation, is explored in the Finnish context. Then two catchment areas, Kokemäenjoki in Western Finland and Vuoksi in Eastern Finland, provide cases which illustrate both past endemic time-spaces and surviving aspects of cultural readings of lakes and rivers. The ongoing winter seining in Lake Puruvesi in North Karelia emerges as an unbroken practice, with deep roots, that maintains the endemic time-spaces of a traditional Finnish relationship with a lake. As industrial uses of catchment areas, zoning, and environmental permitting exclude endemic readings inherent on the land and waterscapes, solutions are explored through mapping, along with its limitations, as a form bridging the gap between local realities and resource extraction.

  2. Postglacial deformation of bedrock in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glacial isostatic adjustment controls the three-dimensional deformation in Fennoscandia. Maximum vertical uplift rates based on the GPS measurements are about 11 mm/yr and horizontal motions are up to 2 mm/yr. Tectonic component is about 10% of the land uplift (or 1 mm/yr). Horizontal motions are directed outward from area of the fastest uplift. Horizontal tectonic motions are also less than 1 mm/yr. Seismic activity in Finland is low and heterogeneously distributed and the earthquake density maximums and the areas of postglacial faults have a spatial correlation. Detailed geodetic surveys indicate that crustal deformation occurs unevenly. However, the bedrock in Finland is so fractured that the deformation is distributed over a number of structures and that deformations and displacements along individual structures are very small and difficult to resolve. Fault intersections can form a locked area where stresses large enough to trigger intraplate earthquakes can build up. In the absence of intersections, the pre-existing faults can creep at a lower stress threshold. In Fennoscandia, plate-boundary tectonic stresses drive the regional compressive stress field, but to account for the current level of seismicity the glacial isostatic adjustment has a very important role. Brittle crust is near the point of failure, and, consequently, small changes, like glacial rebound related, (0.1 Mpa) in the state of stress can nucleate earthquakes are sufficient to reactive optimally oriented pre-excising weaknesses. Stress orientations inferred from the strain measurements of the first order triangulation network and seismological stress data shows (a) the dominating ridge-push/mantle drag related compression and, (b) evidence on significant local variations of the surface stress field influenced by the orientation of major fracture zones. Postglacial faults are re-activated old faults and the areas of postglacial faulting are still the most seismically active areas in

  3. Epidemiological, clinical and genetic aspects of neurofibromatoses in Northern Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Pöyhönen, M. (Minna)

    1999-01-01

    Abstract A population-based study to investigate the epidemiological, genetic and clinical features of neurofibromatoses (NF) in Northern Finland was carried out between 1989–1996. The area concerned was that served by Oulu University Hospital, with a total population of 733 037. A total of 197 patients with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), five with neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) and eight with segmental neurofibromatosis (NF5) fulfilling the diagnostic criteria were identified among s...

  4. Importing home decorating accessories from India to Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Ruuska, Jenni

    2011-01-01

    The commissioner of this thesis is a start-up company interested in importing home decorating accessories from India to Finland. There are two main goals of this thesis: firstly, to discover how importing from India would happen in practice, and secondly, to investigate what are the fairs the commissioner should visit in India. Thus, the theoretical framework includes following areas: logistics, consisting of money transfer and transportation; customs duties, discussing for instance the tarif...

  5. The analysis of sustainable forest management in Latvia and Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Vaivade, Agnese

    2013-01-01

    One of the most discussed questions in past decades has been the climate change issue. This has affected policies within industrial sector and the economic by itself. Forest deforestation counts for one fifth of the total emissions worldwide, which leads to the need for better forest management. Finland and Latvia are countries in Europe that have relatively high shares of forest and other wooden land areas. This raises the value of sustainable forest management in these countries to provide ...

  6. Greenfield nuclear power for Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saarenpaa, Tapio

    2010-09-15

    In Finland, licensing for new nuclear power is ongoing. The political approval is to be completed in 2010. Fennovoima's project is unique in various ways: (i) the company was established only in 2007, (ii) its ownership includes a mixture of local energy companies, electricity-intensive industries and international nuclear competence through E.ON, and (iii) it has two alternative greenfield sites. There are five prerequisites for a successful nuclear power project in a transparent democracy of today: (1) need for additional power capacity, (2) actor prepared to invest, (3) established competence, (4) available site, (5) open communications, and (6) favorable public opinion.

  7. Employee motivation in JYSK Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Orimus, Juulia

    2016-01-01

    This thesis is commissioned by JYSK, a global retail chain. The aim of this thesis is to find out the level of employee motivation in the case company JYSK Finland. The objective is to find out what motivates the employees, what decreases motivation and how can the employees be motivated better in the future. Stress-management and stress creating factors are also researched. The study was carried out using a web-based survey and the link was posted to the JYSK employees. The survey includ...

  8. Centro estudiantil de Dípoli, en Helsinki, Finlandia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietila, R.

    1969-05-01

    Full Text Available The Students Centre at Dipoli consists essentially of blocks which grew simultaneously, but independently, and when finally completed they became an integrated unit. This project is not a complete architectural design, but rather an attempt, an effort, in a given direction. It constitutes an experience that differs from the accepted and known rules on the composition of buildings. The built up area is 10.500 m2, of which 3.855 m2 is devoted to restaurants. To meet its intended purpose, this rest centre was planned so that its indoor environment should differ from that of a school, providing the students with a strong contrast to the highly specific training that they normally receive. At this centre there is opportunity tor meetings and group activities, and also facilities for rest and relaxation. There are also rooms for games, and for amusement.El Centro Estudiantil de Dípoli consta, en esencia, de cuerpos de edificio que crecieron juntos pero independientes y que cuando estuvieron terminados constituyeron un todo; no es una obra arquitectónica completa, sino más bien un intento, una dirección; es una experiencia que se aparta de las reglas ya conocidas y aceptadas de composición. El edificio presenta en planta una superficie útil de 10.500 m2, de los que 3.855 m2 están dedicados a restaurantes. Para cumplir su cometido como Centro de descanso fue creado con un ambiente interior diferente al de la escuela, a fin de que sirviera a los estudiantes como un fuerte contrapeso de la formación eminentemente específica que reciben en la escuela; en él tienen lugar reuniones y funciones para grandes grupos; posibilita el descanso y reposo individual; dispone de salas de juego, de entretenimiento, etcétera.

  9. Indoor air particles in office buildings with suspected indoor air problems in the Helsinki area

    OpenAIRE

    Sanna Lappalainen; Heidi Salonen; Kari Salmi; Kari Reijula

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Airborne particle concentrations can be used as quality indicators of indoor environments. The previous lack of reference data has limited the use of particle measurements in offi ce environments. The aim of this study was to describe the concentrations of airborne particles (≥ 0.5 μm and ≥ 5.0 μm) in 122 Finnish offi ce buildings with suspected indoor air problems. Materials and Methods: The database consisted of indoor air and supply air particle samples collected in 2001–2006 f...

  10. Greenhouse Gas Implications of Urban Sprawl in the Helsinki Metropolitan Area

    OpenAIRE

    Sanna Ala-Mantila; Seppo Junnila; Jukka Heinonen

    2013-01-01

    Suburban households living in spacious detached houses and owing multiple cars are often seen as main culprits for negative greenhouse consequences of urban sprawl. Consequently, the effects of sprawl have been mostly studied from the viewpoints of emissions from home energy consumption and private driving. Little attention has been paid to the changes in other consumption. In this paper, urban sprawl is linked to the proliferation of semi-detached and detached housing, described as a low-ris...

  11. What Lessons Does Finland Give:Characteristics of Education in Finland%What Lessons Does Finland Give: Characteristics of Education in Finland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈曦

    2016-01-01

    Finland became outstanding on the world's list of education after 2000 in the following PISA conducted by OECD in 2000, 2003, 2006, 2009. There are still many lessons that can be drawn from the sound education system in Finland which lead to its success of education: equality, lifelong learning, and teacher education.

  12. The New Member States: Austria, Finland, Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetschy, Janine; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Includes "Difficult Metamorphosis of the Social 'Models' of the Nordic Countries" (Goetschy); "Swedish Training System" (Ottersten); "Features of Vocational Education in Finland" (Kyro); "Boom in Apprenticeship Training in Finland" (Vartiainen); "Vocational Training in Austria" (Riemer); "Reforms in the Vocational Education and Training Systems of…

  13. Contemporary Issues of Occupational Education in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasonen, Johanna, Ed.; Stenstrom, Marja-Leena, Ed.

    This book contains 28 papers about the current status of occupational education in Finland, with special emphasis on context factors, structural and pedagogical reform, and quality management. The following papers are included: "Introduction of Educational Structure in Finland" (Johanna Lasonen, Marja-Leena Stenstrom); "Vocational Education and…

  14. National Nuclear Security Practice in Finland: A Joint Effort

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear security regime in Finland consists of two main areas: combating crime and regulatory control of the use of nuclear energy and radiation. In both areas the concept is built on cooperation between authorities—not forgetting that the primary responsibility for the security of a nuclear facility or radioactive material is appointed to the operator. A third area, information exchange and joint development, is overarching the other two. While there is no specific national nuclear security plan, the corresponding functions and structures are established through the principles of the overall state administration. (author)

  15. Design District Helsinki -alue vaatetusalan yritysten toimintaympäristönä

    OpenAIRE

    Salonen, Noora

    2009-01-01

    Tämän opinnäytetyön aiheen valintaan on vaikuttanut tekijän henkilökohtainen kiinnostus sekä pienyrittäjyyteen, vaatteisiin että muotoiluun. Työ tehtiin toimeksiantona Designkortteli ry:lle, joka tunnetaan paremmin nimellä Design District Helsinki (DDH). Vuonna 2005 perustetun yhdistyksen toiminnan tarkoituksena on yhdistää Helsingin Diana-puistoa ympäröivän alueen muotoiluun panostavat liikkeet, galleriat, ravintolat ym. yritykset identiteetiltään yhtenäiseksi alueeksi. Työn päätavoitteena o...

  16. When Self-Organization intersects with Urban Planning: Two Cases from Helsinki

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horelli, Liisa; Saad-Sulonen, Joanna; Wallin, Sirkku;

    2015-01-01

    Participation as self-organization has emerged as a new form of citizen activism, often supported by digital technology. A comparative qualitative analysis of two case studies in Helsinki indicates that the self-organization of citizens expands the practice of urban planning. Together, they enable...... the mobilization of different groups around issues related to urban space. The consequences have become visible in temporary uses of places, event making and community development through bottom-up cultures. However, the lacking links to decision-making constrains new solutions and creative actions....

  17. Food and Urban Gardening in Planning : An Exploration in Helsinki and Stockholm

    OpenAIRE

    Luokkala, Rosaleena

    2014-01-01

    The thesis presents an exploration into the relationship between food and planning in Helsinki and Stockholm. It looks at the top-down side of planning and the bottom-up side of urban gardening to investigate how food and urban gardening are taken into consideration in the official planning; how two urban gardening initiatives, Dodo's Kääntöpöytä and Trädgård på spåret, are involved in shaping their city; and what the relationship between the two sides is. The study is qualitative and uses ca...

  18. Value creation through online travel reviews on TripAdvisor: case of hotels in Helsinki

    OpenAIRE

    Sjöblom, Sini

    2013-01-01

    The use of online travel reviews as a part of consumers' tourism planning processes is a growing phenomenon. Consumers' especially use other travelers' reviews while choosing accommodation for their trip. TripAdvisor is one of the largest tourism related websites on Internet and it contains reviews of hotels around the world. In this thesis the ways in which the hotels in Helsinki are using these reviews in their value creation processes, if they are used at all, are analyzed. Also based on t...

  19. Perehdyttäminen hotellin vastaanottoon : perehdytyskansio Hotelli Hilton Helsinki Strandiin

    OpenAIRE

    Ruohola, Tuomas

    2010-01-01

    Tämän toiminnallisen opinnäytetyön tavoitteenaa on koota perehdytyskansio Hotelli Hilton Helsinki Strandiin. Kansio on pyritty kokoamaan hotellin johdon sekä Hilton Worldwiden asettamien kriteerien ja toiveiden mukaisesti. Opinnäytetyön tarkoituksena oli luoda perehdytyskansio, jota Hilton Strandin perehdyttäjät voisivat käyttää apuna uutta työntekijää perehdyttäessä. Uusia työntekijöitä ovat kaikki henkilöt, jotka edustavat olemuksellaan hotellia. Näitä ovat niin työelämään tutustujat, h...

  20. Finland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beverwijk, Jasmin

    2001-01-01

    With the introduction of the AMKs (Ammattikorkeakoulut) in 1990, the landscape of the Finnish higher education sector has changed immensely. The transformation of the vocational sector started in the 1980s when highly specialised study lines were combined into more comprehensive basic programmes. De

  1. International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) national favourability studies: Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finland covers an area of 337,000 skm. One third of the country lies north of the northern polar circle. 31,613 skm are covered by lakes. 71% of the landscape are covered by coniferous -wood. Climatlcal conditions are continental. The topography of the country is gently rolling with highest elevations of 300 m in the northern part. The most interesting geological units for uranium are Karelian, marginal meta-sediments, mainly quarzites and conglomerates but also schists. These schists are intruded by orogenlc plutonic rocks which are 1800-My-old. Potassium granites are common adjacent to the contact of the Pre-karelian basement (2500 My). In addition to these geological environment uranium and thorium minerals have been found in a large carbonatite in northern Finland, which is explored now

  2. Swedish, Finnish, English? Finland's Swedes in a Changing World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjoholm, Kaj

    2004-01-01

    This paper explores the changing conditions of the Swedish minority in bilingual Finland. It describes the framework for Finland's bilingualism and the present situation of the Swedish minority in Finland. It concludes with a discussion of the recent debate in Finland about whether the increased use of languages other than L1 is to be seen as a…

  3. The Secret to Finland's Success: Educating Teachers. Research Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahlberg, Pasi

    2010-01-01

    In the last decade, Finland has emerged as the leading OECD country in educational achievement. In examining the sources of Finland's dramatic rise to the top, research shows one key element that has impacted Finland's success above all others: excellent teachers. This policy brief details the key elements of Finland's successful system, examining…

  4. Ekologiska fotavtrycket av Unifeeder Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Malm, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Idag är miljö frågor mycket aktuella. De behandlas intensivt i media, vilket dramatiskt har ökat människors miljömedvetenhet. Miljötänkande har så ledes på de senaste tio åren stigit till en betydande konkurrensfaktor för flera företag. För att effektivt minska den negativa inverkan ett företag har på miljön är det bra att först kartlägga var felen finns. I det här arbetet har Unifeeder Finlands kontors ekologiska fotavtryck räknats ut. Ett företags ekologiska fotavtryck berättar hur myc...

  5. ALTENER - Biomass event in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    The publication contains the lectures held in the Biomass event in Finland. The event was divided into two sessions: Fuel production and handling, and Co-combustion and gasification sessions. Both sessions consisted of lectures and the business forum during which the companies involved in the research presented themselves and their research and their equipment. The fuel production and handling session consisted of following lectures and business presentations: AFB-NETT - business opportunities for European biomass industry; Wood waste in Europe; Wood fuel production technologies in EU- countries; new drying method for wood waste; Pellet - the best package for biofuel - a view from the Swedish pelletmarket; First biomass plant in Portugal with forest residue fuel; and the business forum of presentations: Swedish experiences of willow growing; Biomass handling technology; Chipset 536 C Harvester; KIC International. The Co-combustion and gasification session consisted of following lectures and presentations: Gasification technology - overview; Overview of co-combustion technology in Europe; Modern biomass combustion technology; Wood waste, peat and sludge combustion in Enso Kemi mills and UPM-Kymmene Rauma paper mill; Enhanced CFB combustion of wood chips, wood waste and straw in Vaexjoe in Sweden and Grenaa CHP plant in Denmark; Co-combustion of wood waste; Biomass gasification projects in India and Finland; Biomass CFB gasifier connected to a 350 MW{sub t}h steam boiler fired with coal and natural gas - THERMIE demonstration project in Lahti (FI); Biomass gasification for energy production, Noord Holland plant in Netherlands and Arbre Energy (UK); Gasification of biomass in fixed bed gasifiers, Wet cleaning and condensing heat recovery of flue gases; Combustion of wet biomass by underfeed grate boiler; Research on biomass and waste for energy; Engineering and consulting on energy (saving) projects; and Research and development on combustion of solid fuels

  6. Import of fruits from Spain to Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, Hardi

    2012-01-01

    The research is made for company named Karamelo Citrus S.L.L. It has already business links to many countries and they are working on the link to Finland when my help was needed to finish this project. As the project is huge it was divided in two parts. My part is registering company and start import fruits/vegetables to Finland. This is part number two and it will show how to import fruits/vegetables from Spain to Finland and what techniques are needed to provide fruits for the Finnish ma...

  7. Glacial rebound and crustal stress in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The last ice age of Fennoscandinavia continues to have geological repercussions across Finland despite the last ice having retreated almost 10,000 years ago: land uplift, shoreline retreat, and the stress state of the crust continues to evolve. This report focusses on the glacial rebound signals for Finland and the Gulf of Bothnia and explores the consequences of the ongoing deformation. The rebound signals include the geological evidence as well as instrumental observations: the tide gauge and lake-level measurements of the past century, the changes in geodetic levels recorded in the repeat levelling surveys of the region and the direct measurement of crustal deformation (radial and horizontal) using high-precision space-geodesy measurements. These signals provide constraints on the Earth's rheology, its elasticity and viscosity, and the glacial history of the region. Once observationally constrained, the rebound models are used to predict both the ongoing evolution of shorelines and the changing state of stress within the crust. This report covers: (i) A review of glacial rebound modelling for Scandinavia (Sections 2 and 3). (ii) Review of observational evidence relating to sea-level change and crustal rebound (Section 4). (iii) New earth and ice-sheet model results from the inversion of the geological evidence for sea-level change, including models of shoreline evolution (Sections 5 and 6). (iv) Earth-model results from the inversion of the geodetic evidence for sea-level change (Section 7). (v) Development of crustal stress models for past and present stress states (Section 8). (vi) Conclusions and recommendations (Section 9). Specific conclusions reached pertain to: (i) Thickness of ice cover over Scandinavia since the Last Glacial Maximum, particularly for the Lateglacial period. (ii) Sea-level change and shoreline evolution for the Baltic area since the time the region became ice-free for the last time. (iii) The predicted rates of present-day crustal

  8. Achievements of school education in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Mihail Brazhnik

    2010-01-01

    Discussed are specific traits of the evaluation of schools and students education achievements, as well as the specifics of the recruitment of teachers in Finland. Those are considered as factors improving the education quality.

  9. Internet Banking Adoption Factors in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Minna Mattila; Heikki Karjaluoto; Tapio Pento,

    2001-01-01

    This paper finds out factors which have defined consumers' adoption of Internet banking in Finland. Finland is a world leader in electronic banking, and over 39.8 percent of all the banking transactions were made over the Internet. Using the data of a large survey, we develop a cognitive model of the factors which affect the adoption of Internet banking. Prior technology experience, personal banking experience, reference group influence, and security concerns are found to be the main factors,...

  10. Brand of Finland from design management perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Rantanen, Vesa

    2014-01-01

    This thesis – The Brand of Finland From Design Management Perspective – has it's primary focus on the concept of country brand and how it is formulated. The underlying principle is to familiarize the reader with a concept and then look at how Finland has proceeded with those elaborations and constructions. This thesis is not a case study but perhaps a motion of proposal suggestion, a thesis, and more important still, a study of country brands and drives behind those elaborate formulat...

  11. Marketing Chinese plasma products in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Ye, Dongchuan

    2011-01-01

    The case company of this study is Shanghai Xin-xing Medicine Co. Ltd., the subsidiary of China General Technology Group in Shanghai City of China. The company manufactures plasma products. This study gives information about the company, their products and the outlook of marketing Chinese plasma products in Finland. The goal of the study is to clarify the method of marketing Chinese plasma products in Finland. For that purpose one survey-questionnaire was sent to 20 main hospitals in diffe...

  12. Importing Educational Services from Finland to Kurdistan

    OpenAIRE

    Sharif, Tajzan

    2013-01-01

    This thesis focuses on importing educational services from Finland to Kurdistan. The thesis first introduces the topic and the case company. After that it will briefly discuss the Kurdistan Region and then looks into the educational systems in the Kurdistan Region and Finland, finds problems and offers solutions based on the Finnish education system. After this, the thesis presents a product that will serve as an solution: the Future Leaders Educational Plan. Future Leaders is a non-profi...

  13. Modelling tree biomasses in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Repola, J.

    2013-06-01

    Biomass equations for above- and below-ground tree components of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L), Norway spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst) and birch (Betula pendula Roth and Betula pubescens Ehrh.) were compiled using empirical material from a total of 102 stands. These stands (44 Scots pine, 34 Norway spruce and 24 birch stands) were located mainly on mineral soil sites representing a large part of Finland. The biomass models were based on data measured from 1648 sample trees, comprising 908 pine, 613 spruce and 127 birch trees. Biomass equations were derived for the total above-ground biomass and for the individual tree components: stem wood, stem bark, living and dead branches, needles, stump, and roots, as dependent variables. Three multivariate models with different numbers of independent variables for above-ground biomass and one for below-ground biomass were constructed. Variables that are normally measured in forest inventories were used as independent variables. The simplest model formulations, multivariate models (1) were mainly based on tree diameter and height as independent variables. In more elaborated multivariate models, (2) and (3), additional commonly measured tree variables such as age, crown length, bark thickness and radial growth rate were added. Tree biomass modelling includes consecutive phases, which cause unreliability in the prediction of biomass. First, biomasses of sample trees should be determined reliably to decrease the statistical errors caused by sub-sampling. In this study, methods to improve the accuracy of stem biomass estimates of the sample trees were developed. In addition, the reliability of the method applied to estimate sample-tree crown biomass was tested, and no systematic error was detected. Second, the whole information content of data should be utilized in order to achieve reliable parameter estimates and applicable and flexible model structure. In the modelling approach, the basic assumption was that the biomasses of

  14. How to use social media as a communication tool: Case: Plan Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Hyvämäki, Miitta; Grasutis, Natalia

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the thesis is to improve the communication of Plan Finland’s volunteer Area Managers in social media by creating a communication package that focuses specifically on social media. This thesis is a product-oriented study and the commissioning party is non-profit organization Plan Finland. The idea for the thesis came to mind when contacting Plan Finland, and dis-cussing possible thesis topics in the area of communication. There was a clear need for guidelines to unify the...

  15. Produkt, Fenomen, Upplevelse. Proceedings of a Nordic Symposium (Helsinki, Finland, November 7-9, 1996). Research in Sloyd Education and Crafts Science B:3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitamaa-Hakkarainen, Pirita, Ed.; Uotila, Minna, Ed.

    This anthology consists of 7 presentations given by invited speakers and 15 essays that show how crafts form both a theoretical and practical discourse that deals with the most varied individual, cultural, and behavioral phenomena. They involve the concept of sloyd, derived from a Swedish word, an umbrella term for making or crafting things by…

  16. VOLUNTARY WORK AMONG IMMIGRANTS IN HELSINKI : THE ROLES OF AFRICANS AND AFRICAN-EUROPEANS ASSOCIATION (AFAES RY)

    OpenAIRE

    Ayodeji, Sunday Abel

    2013-01-01

    Ayodeji Sunday Abel. Voluntary work among immigrants in Helsinki, The roles of Africans and African-Europeans Association (AFAES RY). Langauge: English. Spring 2013. 52 pages. 3 appendixes. Diaconia University of Applied Sciences. Degree: Programme in Social Services. Bachelor of Social Services. ...

  17. Academic education on organic food and farming in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Taskinen, Aija

    2006-01-01

    The University of Helsinki offers basic and intermediate studies in organic food and farming in Ruralia Institute in Mikkeli. The study programme for organic food and farming is known as the Eco Studies.

  18. Finland [Status and technology of polymer-containing fibrous materials in the Western Hemisphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When the first paper on WPC was published by the Russian authors Karpov et al. in 1960, new facilities were being planned for the Department of Radiochemistry at the University of Helsinki. As wood is the main export material of Finland, a 10 000-Ci cobalt-60 source, suitable for research on WPC and other related problems, was included in the plans. The new laboratory with the irradiation facility was inaugurated in April 1964 and research on WPC immediately commenced. It was first carried out by graduate students only and was mainly concentrated on the use of methyl methacrylate (MMA) and Finnish birch, fir and pine, until an important observation was made in the summer of 1966, namely, that mixtures of polyesters and styrene were suitable for preparation of WPC, In the autumn of 1966 the pace of this research was increased and an impregnation facility of stainless steel was constructed capable of withstanding pressures up to 20 atm. This facility makes it possible to impregnate about 20 kg of WPC in a batch, and the results obtained with it are described in this paper. Concurrently with our Department, research on WPC was also started at the research laboratory of the Neste Oy Oil Refinery near Porvoo, Finland. This company has only used chemical curing in an attempt to develop a technique requiring less capital cost than that based on radiation curing. Up to 90% styrene is used in the monomer mixture in the method briefly described in a recent publication. Several Finnish wood companies have recently started research on impregnation of veneer and plywood by monomers which can be chemically cured. Mixtures of polyesters and styrene have been used by at least one company, and semi-commercial production of plywood for flooring and containers for ocean transport is expected to start within a few months. No information on results of this research has been published so far

  19. Hydrogen apparent fractionation between source water and epicuticular waxes of Pinus sylvestris in North East Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newberry, S. L.; Grace, J.; Pedentchouk, N.

    2010-12-01

    Hydrogen isotopic composition of plant biomass provides crucial information about plant ecophysiology and local hydrology. Little is known about the apparent fractionation between hydrogen in source water and epicuticular leaf waxes of coniferous tree species that dominate the boreal forest ecosystem exposed to prolonged periods of sunlight during the growing season. In this study, single rope canopy access techniques were used to harvest needle and twig material from the upper, middle and lower crown of north and south facing branches of Pinus sylvestris within the subarctic forest of North East Finland. Samples were collected towards the beginning of the growing season in July and repeated in late September 2010. Leaf and twig waters were extracted cryogenically and analysed for D-enrichment. Individual n-alkanes are currently being quantified and analyzed for 13C/12C and D/H compositions. The molecular and isotopic data are supplemented by long-term in-situ cuvette photosynthetic assimilation measurements as well as relative humidity (RH), air temperature, precipitation and wind speed data collected by Helsinki University (SMEAR I). In addition RH, air temperature, wind speed and incoming solar radiation measurements were made at each individual sample point at the time of harvesting to quantify meteorological and microclimatological variation within individual trees. The outcome of this investigation will provide important insights into plant biochemistry and physiology of a crucial climate sensitive higher plant species subjected to continuous low light throughout the season. Furthermore, this work will expand our understanding of modern and palaeo-hydrology not only in northern Finland but also in other boreal forests around the world.

  20. Synanthropic Trichinella infection in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oivanen, Leena; Oksanen, Antti

    2009-02-23

    The first three human trichinellosis cases in Finland were recorded around 1890, and altogether eight cases were registered until 2008. The first infected Finnish swine was found in 1954. From the early 1980s, an increasing trend in the number of infected swine was seen, with the highest number registered in 1996, after which a decrease has been observed. Infected pigs were found yearly until 2004. Since 1954, all slaughtered pigs have been tested for Trichinella, regardless of subsequent export or domestic consumption purpose. All Trichinella infections revealed in pigs are, since 1998, analysed for species by multiplex PCR. So far, all larvae from pig infections have been identified as Trichinella spiralis. During the recent decreasing trend in prevalence, the number of pig farms has also decreased, while the yearly number of slaughtered pigs has remained stable or even slightly increased. For many decades, the Trichinella prevalence in Finnish wildlife has remained high. Foxes, raccoon dogs, wolves, and lynx in the southern part of the country exhibit prevalence exceeding 50%. The most common species in wildlife is Trichinella nativa, a species with very low infectivity to swine, but also, T. spiralis, Trichinella britovi, and Trichinella pseudospiralis occur in wildlife. PMID:19054618

  1. Deposition of Chernobyl-derived transuranium nuclides and short- lived radon-222 progeny in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study the atmospheric deposition of radionuclides was investigated from two different viewpoints. The Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident in April 1986 caused a widely spread plume of radionuclides, including transuranium elements. The regional deposition of these elements in Finland was assessed based on lichen and peat samples. Unlike the deposition of transuranium elements from the weapons tests in the 1950's and 1960's, the deposition from the Chernobyl accident was very unevenly distributed in Finland. Also, the Chernobyl-derived deposition of 299,240Pu even in the most contaminated regions in Finland was still only some 10 per cent of the global fallout from weapons tests. On the other hand, the measured activity concentrations of 241Pu in the upper parts of lichen samples are comparable to those found in samples comparable during the heaviest weapons-test fallout in the early 1960's. The observed average 241Pu/239,240Pu activity ratio in the upper parts of lichen, 95, can be expected to lead at its maximum in the year 2059 to 241Am/239,240Pu activity ratio of 2.8 in the Chernobyl-derived deposition, exclusive of the 241Am present in the original deposition in 1986. The deposition pattern of transuranium elements observed in this work resembles that of refractory gamma-emitting nuclides such as 95Zr and 141Ce. The sampling area of this investigation does not cover the northern part of Finland. However, the fallout pattern of 95Zr would suggest that the deposition of transuranium nuclides north of the 65th latitude was very low. Biological half-lives of 730 d and 320 d for Pu and Am, respectively, were obtained in lichen in this study. The second part of this work is concerned with the factors affecting the wet deposition efficiency of the natural short-lived radon-222 progeny. This was studied with two methods: using recordings of external gamma radiation in central Finland, and using an automatic precipitation gamma analyser in northern Finland

  2. Extent of the northern Baltic Sea during the Early Palaeozoic Era – new evidence from Ostrobothnia, western Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Uutela, A.

    1998-01-01

    This study reports new evidence of the extent of the northern Baltic Sea during the Cambrian and Ordovician periods. A drillcore (DC304) from the Lappajärvi impact crater, western Finland, and erratics from the surrounding area were studied for acritarchs. The acritarchs from the drillcore were reworked by the explosion but indicate, however, that the Baltic Sea extended beyond the western coast of central Finland during the Lower Cambrian Vergale and the Middle Cambrian Kibartai regional sta...

  3. Vibration exposure and prevention in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starck, J; Pyykkö, I; Koskimies, K; Pekkarinen, J

    1994-05-01

    The number of annually compensated occupational diseases due to exposure to hand-arm vibration (HAV) has decreased during the last 15 years. The number of exposed workers has been declining in Finland, especially in forestry work, as harvesters have increasingly replaced manual chain saw operations. During the entire 1970s, forest work caused more cases of vibration-induced occupational diseases than all industrial branches together. The decrease is mainly due to the technical development of chain saws, but also to the effective health care services in Finland. Other factors such as warm transport, warm rest cabins in which to take pauses at work, warm meals, adequate protective clothing, and vocationally adjusted early medical rehabilitation have helped to cut down health hazards, especially in forest work. The number of new cases has been decreasing in Finland not only in forestry but also in other industries. In Finland a considerable amount of research has been conducted to hand-arm vibration, resulting in the increased awareness of the health risks related to certain occupations. This has helped to carry out the Primary Health Care Act (1972) followed by the Occupational Health Care Act (1979) which obligates employers to arrange occupational health care for their employees. We believe that the research activity has contributed significantly to achieving the present health in Finnish work places. The purpose of the present paper is to describe the cases of occupational exposure to HAV, and the effectiveness of different preventive measures in Finland. PMID:7708103

  4. Does the discussion in social media predict the returns of Helsinki Stock Exchange?

    OpenAIRE

    Kajasmaa, Janne

    2016-01-01

    In this thesis, I study the relationship between social media discussion and the stock index performance in Finland. My work relates to previous literature that uses Google searches or social media messages to explain trading activity and future stock returns. Previous research has acknowledged the relationship between social media discussion and the future returns, but the results vary due to the source of the messages and the timing of the research period. The contribution of this thesis is...

  5. Surveillance of Environmental Radiation in Finland. Annual Report 2009; Ympaeristoen saeteilyvalvonta Suomessa. Vuosiraportti 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mustonen, R. (ed.)

    2010-12-15

    , water and soil in the Member States. In Finland, also the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI) and the Defence Forces are monitoring environmental radiation at their own stations. STUK's partners in surveillance of environmental radioactivity are collecting and delivering environmental samples for laboratory analyses, or are participating in whole-body counting. STUK would like to express its gratitude to the following partners for the successful co-operation: Defence Forces, Finnish Meteorological Institute, Arctic Research Centre, Southeast Finland Regional Environment Centre, North Ostrobothnia Regional Environment Centre, Lapland Regional Environment Centre, Southeast Finland Frontier Guard District, Lapland Frontier Guard District, Rescue Centre of Kotka, Water supply plants of Oulu and Turku, Valio Ltd., Health Department of Helsinki/Maria Hospital, Tampere University Central Hospital, Lapland Central Hospital, Secondary school of Helsingin yhteislyseo, Secondary school of Hatanpaeae in Tampere, and Secondary school of Korkalovaara in Rovaniemi. This report is addressed to all who are interested in environmental radioactivity in Finland. STUK delivers monitoring data also to the European Commission on regular basis, and this report is a summary of the results delivered to the Commission. (orig.)

  6. Surveillance of environmental radiation in Finland. Annual Report 2004; Ympaeristoen saeteilyvalvonta Suomessa. Vuosiraportti 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mustonen, R. (ed.)

    2005-07-01

    previous years. The results are collected from monitoring programmes of STUK, FMI and the Defence Forces Research Institute of Technology. Nuclear power plant licensees are responsible for environmental surveillance in the vicinity of nuclear power plants in Finland. Those results are reported elsewhere. STUK's partners in surveillance of environmental radioactivity are collecting and delivering environmental samples for laboratory analyses, or are participating in whole-body counting. STUK would like to express its gratitude to the following institutions for the successful co-operation: Defence Forces, Finnish Meteorological Institute, Arctic Research Centre, Southeast Finland Regional Environment Centre, North Ostrobothnia Regional Environment Centre, Lapland Regional Environment Centre, Southeast Finland Frontier Guard District, Lapland Frontier Guard District, Jyvaeskylae Airport, Rescue Centre of Kotka, Water supply plants of Oulu and Turku, Valio Ltd., Health Department of Helsinki/Maria Hospital, Tampere University Central Hospital, Lapland Central Hospital, Secondary school of Helsingin yhteislyseo, Secondary school of Hatanpaeae in Tampere, and Secondary school of Korkalovaara in Rovaniemi. This report is addressed to all who are interested in environmental radioactivity in Finland. STUK delivers monitoring data also to the European Commission on regular basis, and this report is a summary of the results delivered to the Commission. The report is also available on the STUK's home pages www.stuk.fi. (orig.)

  7. IAEA coordinated research project (CRP). The use of selected safety indicators (concentrations, fluxes) in the assessment of radioactive waste disposal. Report 5: Chemical weathering rates on the Baltic Shield of Finland for use as indicators of nuclear waste repository safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    the most fractured uppermost layers of bedrock. Influences of fluxes which might bring substances from greater depth cannot be distinguished in these catchments. Groundwater erosion rates are given for As, Cu, K, Rb, Th, U and Rn and compared with estimated till erosion rates. Estimates of heavy metal weathering rates (maps for Cu and U) based on base metal weathering rates for Finnish forest soils are given for most of the country except Lappland. The estimated mean weathering rate for Cu (0.21 mg/m2 a; max. 1.96 mg/m2 a) is consistent with river loads measured in western Finland, but not in the industrialized Helsinki region. Similar comparison studies are not available for Rb (1.2 mg/m2 a), Th (0.17 mg/m2 a) and U (0.054 mg/m2 a) weathering rates. Natural fluxes of Cu and U from Finnish headwater streams during one summer period from 30 basins of about 30 km2 drainage area are given. The estimated fluxes of Cu in 30 Finnish streams were 0.44 - 1418 g/month (mean 253 g/month). The estimated fluxes of U were 0.08 - 285 g/month (mean 41.2 g/month). A comparison of the measured headwater stream fluxes with estimated soil erosion rates shows consistency within the order of magnitude. (orig.)

  8. Atmospheric emissions, depositions, and transformations of arsenic in natural ecosystem in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Arun B; Bhattacharya, Prosun

    2002-06-20

    For the last 2 decades, special attention has been paid to arsenic due to its high concentration in groundwater in many regions of the globe. There are not very many reports on arsenic concentration in the Finnish ecosystem, although the metal has been known to be highly toxic since ancient times. For the majority of people in Finland, the leading exposure route to arsenic is through food consumption. In this study, it has been observed that atmospheric emissions of arsenic from anthropogenic sources have decreased by 90%, which is due to better control technology and strict regulation. Aquatic discharge also was attenuated from 7.1 metric tons (t) in 1990 to 0.7 t in 1999. The concentration of arsenic aerosols in the atmosphere in Finland varies between 0.46 to 0.75 ng m(-3). Its use in pesticides and insecticides also has been phased out in Finland. There is no information available regarding arsenic species in the Finnish environment. Elevated concentrations of arsenic in groundwater has been reported for many countries. In Finland two hot spots are reported--one in the south of Finland and the second in Lapland. In these areas, arsenic concentration in well water is greater than 10 microg l(-1) (WHO recommended value: groundwater is geogenic. PMID:12806160

  9. Probabilistic trajectory and dose analysis for Finland due to hypothetical radioactive releases at Sosnovyy Bor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chernobyl accident initiated a wide international interest in developing long range transport models for assessment of radiological consequences due to airborne releases. The Finnish TRADOS computer model had been developed to calculate long range atmospheric dispersion and resulting doses via several exposure pathways. During and after the Chernobyl release the code was utilized to make an initial estimate of the release magnitude and to predict both individual and collective doses in Finland. These calculations proved that the TRADOS system is also well applicable in the acute phase of an accident. In the present study the analysis of atmospheric dispersion to Finland from Sosnovyy Bor near Leningrad and the pertinent dose predictions due to a reactor accident in this area have been made. Both the Chernobyl type release and a smaller release typical of a modern light water reactor at the RBMK-1000 power plant site are considered. The results are compared with the previous studies, in which a smaller release from a light water reactor accident had been assumed to take place in northern Germany and in eastern Sweden (Forsmark). According to the analysis of the number of annual trajectories arriving to Finland from Leningrad this number is with a factor of two less than that for a site in eastern Sweden. Taking this fact into account the radiological risks to Finland seem to be approximately equal when the same release is assumed to have occurred either in Leningrad or in eastern Sweden. Acute health effects in Finland are not caused in either case

  10. [Marriage trends in Finland and Hungary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csernak, J

    1993-10-01

    "The study compares marriage trends of Finland and Hungary, using marriage tables of Finnish males and females born between 1939 and 1965 as well as those of Hungarian males and females born between 1939 and 1968." A major change in marriage behavior in Finland during the 1960s is attributed to changing social and economic conditions, particularly migration to the major cities. "Due to the changes a new marriage pattern is being shaped in Finland's population which is typical of postindustrial societies. In the youngest cohorts of Finnish females the average age at first marriage is likely to exceed 26 years, and at least 25 per cent of them remain ultimately unmarried. In the younger Hungarian cohorts significant decrease in first marriages can similarly be pointed out." (SUMMARY IN ENG AND RUS) PMID:12344978

  11. Toward Continual Development with ERP : Case BillerudKorsnäs Finland Oy

    OpenAIRE

    Perälä, Paula

    2014-01-01

    An ERP system implementation is a large project in its importance to the business and in the way that it affects different areas of the company. There are many benefits to be gained but there are varying results of the success of an ERP project among the huge number of companies that have adopted ERP systems. This thesis is a case study examining the post-implementation period at BillerudKorsnäs Finland Oy. The company has two paper machines and a small customer service team in Finland. I...

  12. Utilization of direct EU funding in Southwest Finland : funding period 2007-2013

    OpenAIRE

    Ailio, Heini

    2014-01-01

    This thesis studies the utilization of direct EU funding programmes in Southwest Finland. The main aim of this study is to find out how well the direct EU funding programmes are known among the key organizations and companies in the study area. The target is to research the use of programmes during EU funding period 2007- 2013 in order to identify new possibilities for the next funding period. The idea for my thesis was invented in TURKU-Southwest Finland European Office in Brussels, where...

  13. Observations of biomass burning smoke from Russian wild fire episodes in Finland 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leino, K.; Nieminen, T.; Väänänen, R.; Petäjä, T.; Järvi, L.; Keronen, P.; Laurila, T.; Virkkula, A.; Pohja, T.; Aalto, P. P.; Kulmala, M.

    2013-05-01

    Forest and peat bog fires occur almost every summer in several parts of Russian boreal forests due to long rainless and heat periods at summertime. Particulate matter and different gases (CO, CO2, NOx, O3, SO2) in air can be transported thousands of kilometers away from the fire areas. Increased concentrations of the different parameters, like carbon monoxide and aerosol particles were observed on certain days in Southern Finland and even Finnish Lapland during Russian wild fire episodes in summer 2010. During these days the wind direction was from East or Southeast to Finland.

  14. Single and double sexual standards in Finland, Estonia, and St. Petersburg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haavio-Mannila, Elina; Kontula, Osmo

    2003-02-01

    The sexual revolution and fight for gender equality began in the West during the 1960s but did not reach the Soviet Union until the late 1980s. Using survey data from nationally representative samples from Finland in 1971, 1992, and 1999 and from two former Soviet areas, Estonia in 2000 and St. Petersburg in 1996, we investigated the following: (a) differences across decades and countries in acceptance of the sexual double standard (SDS) in attitudes toward marital infidelity and women's initiating sex; and (b) the relationship between the SDS and sexual satisfaction. Results show that Finland in the 1990s was more egalitarian than Finland in 1971, St. Petersburg in 1996, or Estonia in 2000. Egalitarian sexual attitudes were positively related to sexual satisfaction. PMID:12806530

  15. Peat - The sustainable energy resource in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Finland the level of energy consumption for heating, transportation and industry is higher than in many other European countries. This is due to the northern position of the country and also to the fact that Finland is sparsely inhabited. Peat is one of the Finnish domestic energy resources. This brochure provides a compact package of background information on fuel peat. All the data presented concerning the production and use of peat, employment, investments in the peat industry, emission levels resulting from the production and use of peat, new combustion technologies and peatland resources, have been collected from documents and other sources that are accessible to the general public

  16. Creating Brand for CoreFinland Ltd

    OpenAIRE

    Khatri, Santosh; Neupane, Khem Raj

    2011-01-01

    The research aims to build brand for a small-sized company namely CoreFinland Ltd. Herein, the main objective of this research is to create CoreFinland as a brand in b-to-b customers’ context. This broader milestone is achieved by studying the case company’s brand identity and brand image issues. The first part of this research makes a comparative study of varieties of relevant litera-ture from different writers. The theories discuss b-to-b brand relevance and extend to the major study ar...

  17. On-site emergency preparedness in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    General scheme of emergency preparedness in Finland is presented including legal framework, emergency organization and detailed description of plans and procedures. Emergency plan in Finland cover the following matters: classification of emergency situations and description of events and accidents, description of emergency organization, description of the arrangements for alerting and data transfer, management of an emergency situation and radiation protection, worker safety and radiation protection, on- and off-site radiation measurements during a preparedness situation, provision of information, rooms, equipment and facilities, post emergency debriefing and measures, a description of the maintenance of preparedness

  18. Fossil fuel support mechanisms in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lampinen, Ari

    2013-10-15

    Fossil fuel subsidies and other state support for fossil fuels are forbidden by the Kyoto Protocol and other international treaties. However, they are still commonly used. This publication presents and analyses diverse state support mechanisms for fossil fuels in Finland in 2003-2010. Total of 38 support mechanisms are covered in quantitative analysis and some other mechanisms are mentioned qualitatively only. For some mechanisms the study includes a longer historical perspective. This is the case for tax subsidies for crude oil based traffic fuels that have been maintained in Finland since 1965.

  19. Policy Making Processes with Respect to Teacher Education in Finland and Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afdal, Hilde Wagsas

    2013-01-01

    This article examines policy making processes in the area of teacher education (TE) in Finland and Norway. Particular attention is given to the roles different actors play in these processes and the potential effects of their involvement on the TE programs in the two countries. Contemporary policy processes are analyzed through a set of interviews…

  20. Trajectory-based source area analysis of atmospheric fine particles, SO2, NOx and O3 for the SMEAR II station in Finland in 1996–2008

    OpenAIRE

    M. Kulmala; Junninen, H.; Dal Maso, M.; L. Riuttanen; Hulkkonen, M.

    2012-01-01

    Source area analysis based on combining in situ measurements of trace gas or particle concentrations and back trajectories calculated for corresponding times has proven to be a valuable approach in atmospheric research; especially in investigating air pollution episodes, but also in e.g. tracing the source areas of air masses related to high vs. low concentrations of aerosol particles of different sizes at the receptor site. A statistical trajectory method used before by Sogacheva et a...

  1. Environmental gamma radiation and fallout measurements in Finland, 1986-87

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results from a survey of environmental gamma radiation levels in Finland after the Chernobyl accident 1986 are presented. The measurements were made in 1986-87 by means of sensitive Geiger-counters and a gamma-spectrometer placed in cars. The results show the level of external radiation caused by the cesium fallout on the first of October 1987. The fallout pattern of 137Cs as well as of 95Zr and 103Ru are also presented. In the center of Southern Finland there are wide areas with exposure levels exceeding 0.03 μSv h-1, areas exceeding 0.10 μSv h-1 being very rare. The surface area weighted mean dose rate for the 461 municipalities in Finland was 0.027 μSv h-1 (range 0-0.19 μSv h-1). The population weighted mean dose rate was 0.037 μSv h-1. The corresponding estimated surface activity of 137Cs was 10.7 kBq m-2. The passage of the Chernobyl plume over Finland in 1986 led to various fallout patterns for different radionuclides. The deposition of the non-volatile nuclides, 95Zr and 141Ce, is closely related to the passage of the hot particle dust formed at the initial explosion in the reactor at 01.23 LT on 26 April. This cloud passed over Finland between the morning and the night of 27 April. The deposition of volatile fission products such as 131I, 132Te, 134Cs and 137Cs in Finland was caused by releases from the burning reactor after the initial explosion. The radioactive plume spread over Southern and Central Finland between Sunday 27 April and Tuesday 29 April. On 30 April and finally on 1 May a could northerly airstream spread into the whole of Finland purifying the atmosphere. The volatile nuclides were mainly deposited by intermittent rain on 28-30 April. The deposition pattern of 103Ru is a combination of the fallou patterns due to the initial explosion and the reactor burn, as well as the wet deposition occurring on 10-12 May caused by the releases from the burning reactor in early May

  2. Assessment of doses to game animals in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was carried out to assess the dose rates to game animals in Finland affected by the radioactive caesium deposition that occurred after the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in Ukraine in 1986. The aim of this assessment was to obtain new information on the dose rates to mammals and birds under Finnish conditions. Dose rates were calculated using the ERICA Assessment Tool developed within the EC 6th Framework Programme. The input data consisted of measured activity concentrations of 137Cs and 134Cs in soil and lake water samples and in flesh samples of selected animal species obtained for environmental monitoring. The study sites were located in the municipality of Lammi, Southern Finland, where the average 137Cs deposition was 46.5 kBq m−2 (1 October 1987). The study sites represented the areas receiving the highest deposition in Finland after the Chernobyl accident. The selected species included moose (Alces alces), arctic hare (Lepus timidus) and several bird species: black grouse (Tetrao tetrix), hazel hen (Bonasia bonasia), mallard (Anas platurhynchos), goldeneye (Bucephala clangula) and teal (Anas crecca). For moose, dose rates were calculated for the years 1986–1990 and for the 2000s. For all other species, maximal measured activity concentrations were used. The results showed that the dose rates to these species did not exceed the default screening level of 10 μGy h−1 used as a protection criterion. The highest total dose rate (internal and external summed), 3.7 μGy h−1, was observed for the arctic hare in 1986. Although the dose rate of 3.7 μGy h−1 cannot be considered negligible given the uncertainties involved in predicting the dose rates, the possible harmful effects related to this dose rate are too small to be assessed based on current knowledge on the biological effects of low doses in mammals

  3. Total Quality Management: A benchmarking study for improving the sewage and portable water system in Lagos state Nigeria using the case of Helsinki Region Environmental Service Authority

    OpenAIRE

    Shodeinde, Hezekiah Abidemi

    2012-01-01

    The topic of this Bachelor’s Thesis is Total Quality Management: A benchmarking study for improving sewage and portable water system in Lagos state Nigeria in the case of Helsinki en-vironmental service authority. The purpose of this research is to find a lasting solution to the deterioration of the environmental service of Lagos state with a focus on the sewage and portable water system through a benchmarking study of the Helsinki environmental service authority’s administration. The the...

  4. Carrying out Corporate Social Initiative Actions : Case: VATES Foundation and Helsinki Cooperative Society Elanto (HOK-Elanto)

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Armando

    2011-01-01

    This Bachelor’s thesis focuses on ways in which organisations work together to achieve desired goals that benefit people with disabilities and the wider community. The purpose is to analyse corporate social responsibility CSR initiatives, such as the employment of people with disabilities and other disadvantaged groups, and their impact. The target organisations of the case study were VATES Foundation and Helsinki Co-operative Society Elanto, Finnish organisations with headquarters in Hel...

  5. Adoption of social network sites in the entertainment business – Case promotion of urban music events in Helsinki on Facebook

    OpenAIRE

    Rugambwa, Gonzaga

    2009-01-01

    Social Network Sites (SNS) have recently quickly grown in numbers and sizes as more and more people join them in an attempt to connect with others for various reasons. This research aims at finding the major factors that make social network sites appealing for use in promotion of urban music entertainment events in Helsinki nightclubs. Moreover, it examines necessary improvements on the use of Facebook and on its features while recommending previous marketing methods that should be maintained...

  6. The willingness to pay for reducing the harm from future oil spills in the Gulf of Finland – an application of the contingent valuation method

    OpenAIRE

    Ahtiainen, Heini

    2007-01-01

    Oil transportation and other maritime traffic in the Gulf of Finland have increased rapidly over the last decade, and this development is estimated to continue in the future. The increasing volume of oil and other transport leads to higher risk of oil spills in the Gulf of Finland. The Gulf of Finland is an important area in the environmental and economic sense. An oil spill would cause harm for example to the nature and to the recreational use of the area. This paper presents ...

  7. City Diesel raises its profile in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As of the beginning of July 1993, Neste Oil's virtually sulphur- free City Diesel will become available throughout southern Finland. Up until now, the fuel has been in trial use only. Thanks to a favourable tax break, City Diesel will cost drivers the same as normal grades

  8. How Finland Serves Gifted and Talented Pupils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirri, Kirsi; Kuusisto, Elina

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of the ways gifted and talented pupils are served in Finland. The trend toward individualism and freedom of choice as well as national policy affecting gifted education are discussed. Empirical research on Finnish teachers' attitudes toward gifted education with respect to the national…

  9. School-Parent Relations in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risku, Mika; Bjork, Lars G.; Browne-Ferrigno, Tricia

    2012-01-01

    This article provides insight into the nature and scope of home-school cooperation in Finland. Situating the study is a brief overview of the Finnish education system and a discussion of the Programme for International Student Assessment reports that place Finnish student outcomes at the top of rankings among industrialized nations for the past…

  10. Reversibility and Retrievability in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The spent nuclear fuel disposal project in Finland proceeds in stepwise manner. The site selection process continued with several stages from 1984 to 2000, including a country-wide site screening of potential sites and finally the investigations of four final candidate sites. Licensing of a nuclear facility includes three steps: - The Decision in Principle, which can be made if a '..construction project is in line with the overall good of society'. The decision is made by the government, requiring endorsement from the Parliament. Host municipality consent and a positive preliminary safety evaluation by the nuclear regulatory body, STUK, is required. - Construction license - granted by government, a positive safety evaluation by STUK is a prerequisite. - Operating license - granted by government, a positive safety evaluation by STUK is a prerequisite. The decision in principle for the Olkiluoto disposal facility was ratified by the Parliament in 2001. An application for a construction license is expected to be submitted in 2010 and for operation license in 2018, with the goal for start of operation in 2020. The closure of the facility is expected early in the next century. The stepwise decision process and the long time frame allow consideration of new developments and information. When the Decision in Principle for the Olkiluoto repository was made, retrievability-related requirements did exist in the regulation. The applicable government decision and regulatory guide in force at the time stipulated the following: - Disposal shall be planned so that no monitoring of the disposal site is required for ensuring long-term safety and so that retrievability of the waste canisters is maintained to provide for such development of technology that makes it a preferred option. - In the post-closure phase, retrieval of the waste canisters from the repository shall be feasible during the period in which the engineered barriers are required to provide practically complete

  11. Annual lecture: nuclear power in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy plays a vital role in the country's economy and welfare. Due to Finland's cold climate, long transportation distances and energy-intensive industries, Finland's own energy resources are very limited. More than 70% of the primary energy demand in Finland is imported and more than half of that from one country only -- Russia. Total energy consumption has stabilised in Finland but electricity consumption has grown steadily and it is forecast that this growth will continue into the future. Electricity generation is diversified and is based on the use of several fuels. The share of nuclear electricity is 27%. Operational experience of the four Finnish nuclear reactors has been very good. Production has been reliable; for example, at Olkiluoto the average capacity factor over the past ten years is about 94%. The high utilisation rate coupled with low fuel costs proves that nuclear electricity has been very competitive in the deregulated electricity market and safety of production has not been compromised.With regard to the management of nuclear waste, Finland has resolved this problem. The law demands that spent nuclear fuel, and only Finnish spent fuel, shall be finally disposed of in the Finnish bedrock. The Finnish government has given approval in principle for the plans and parliament ratified them in the spring of 2001. The final repository will be located close to the existing power plant units at Olkiluoto at several hundred metres depth in two-billion-year-old bedrock. Safety authorities and the local municipality have approved the plans and the location for the repository.Studies show that nuclear generation costs in Finland are lower than those for coal and gas. Based on spring 2001 price levels, the studies indicate that nuclear electricity maintains its position even when the interest rate is varied by up to 10% per year. Teollisuuden Voima Oy (TVO) power company has submitted an application to the Finnish government for construction of an additional

  12. [Registration of observational studies: it is time to comply with the Declaration of Helsinki requirement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal-Ré, Rafael; Delgado, Miguel; Bolumar, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Publication bias is a serious deficiency in the current system of disseminating the results of human research studies. Clinical investigators know that, from an ethical standpoint, they should prospectively register clinical trials in a public registry before starting them. In addition, it is believed that this approach will help to reduce publication bias. However, most studies conducted in humans are observational rather than experimental. It is estimated that less than 2% out of 2 million concluded or ongoing observational studies have been registered. The 2013 revision of the Declaration of Helsinki requires registration of any type of research study involving humans or identifiable samples or data. It is proposed that funding agencies, such as the Fondo de Investigaciones Sanitarias, as well as private companies, require preregistration of observational studies before providing funding. It is also proposed that Research Ethics Committees which, following Spanish regulation, have been using the Declaration as the framework for assessing the ethics of clinical trials with medicines since 1990, should follow the same provisions for the assessment of health-related observational studies: therefore, they should require prospective registration of studies before granting their final approval. This would allow observational study investigators to be educated in complying with an ethical requirement recently introduced in the most important ethical code for research involving humans. PMID:25433766

  13. [THE DECLARATION OF HELSINKI IN 2015 AND THE ETHICS OF RESEARCH IN FRENCH-SPEAKING AFRICA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botbol-Baum, Mylène

    2015-10-01

    This article follows my book "Bioéthique pour les pays du Sud" [Bioethics for the South] that was intended to show the need for an African bioethics to regulate international research, especially in the context of AIDS which is neither experienced nor cured the same way in the North and in the South. Many debates occurred since the publication of this book, debates that, at first glance, sided with those who claimed, in the name of rationality and pragmatism, double standards of care between both hemispheres. Despite a discourse based on respect for others, the Helsinki Declaration, in its 2000 version, supported justifications based on double standards of care. It replaces the debate on the legitimacy of research sponsored by the North, with participants from populations of emerging countries, as well as the debate on the best bioethics approach to respond to this problematic situated at the intersection of the universal, ethical principles and local situations. This text is the result of a reflection inspired by the conditions of legitimacy of bioethics teaching in French-speaking Africa countries, where the lack of regulation leads to exploitation and human experimentation in the name of care. PMID:26911081

  14. Psychological risk factors related to coronary heart disease. Prospective studies among policemen in Helsinki.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirkko, O; Lauroma, M; Siltanen, P; Tuominen, H; Vanhala, K

    1982-01-01

    Psychological investigations carried out on 1326 Helsinki policemen showed that individuals with electrocardiogram (ECG) signs of coronary heart disease (CHD), and those showing symptoms, were more anxious, aggressive, defensive and inhibited than those free from signs or symptoms. It is suggested that the poor prognosis associated with angina pectoris may be related to the psychological characteristics of the patients who suffer from it. Studies of 5- and 10-year prospective data showed that subjects dying from myocardial infarction differed from survivors on six significant psychological characteristics, including optimism, inhibition and superego strength. Multiple logistic analysis showed an association of lowered self-esteem and high somatization with myocardial infarction. A particular statistical analysis ("ridit analysis") revealed the existence of 4 variables (inhibition, neuroticism, differentiation and certainty) which distinguished to some degree with different manifestations of CHD. The nature of these variables and the correlations involved are discussed. It is concluded that psychological variables have some predictive power not only for the risk of CHD, but also for the risk of clinically different CHD events. PMID:6958183

  15. Knotworking in Academic Libraries: Two Case Studies from the University of Helsinki

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yrjö Engeström

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Librarians in academic libraries are facing major changes in their work due to, e.g., the internet, digitization, and increasing use of new channels for information retrieval by their most important clients, namely researchers. This creates challenges for librarians: both to deepen their own expertise and to develop innovative service models for their clients. In this paper we present a development project entitled ‘Knotworking in the Library’ from the Helsinki University Library. The project made use of the Change Laboratory method, which is an intensive developmental effort which facilitates improvements in the activities of organizations and changes in the organizational culture. The process started in Viikki Campus Library in 2009–2010 and continued in the City Centre Campus Library in 2010–2011. The aim was to create new kinds of partnership between libraries and research groups in the form of knotworking. By knotworking we mean a boundary-crossing, collective problem-solving way of organizing work. The knotworking model presented in this paper generated practical tools to assist selected research groups in dealing with data management related-issues.

  16. Radioactive substances in foodstuffs and drinking water in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concentrations of radioactive substances in the environment and foodstuffs are continuously monitored in Finland. Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) publishes the annual report of Surveillance of Environmental Radiation which shows the activity levels of artificial radionuclides in Finland. Based on the results the radiation dose to Finnish people is estimated. Natural radioactive elements will be included in the surveillance program in future years. The aim of the foodstuffs monitoring program is to obtain information from the intake of radionuclides through ingestion. The radioactivity in foodstuffs is monitored by collecting foodstuffs on market, drinking water and daily meals offered at hospitals over one week. The sampling sites are located in southern, central and northern Finland, representing the main population centres and areal differences in the consumption of foodstuffs. One of these sampling sites is located in the highest 137Cs deposition area in Finland originating from the Chernobyl accident. The foodstuff samples on market are, for example, wild game, wild berries, wild mushrooms and fish. 137Cs and 90Sr are analysed from mixed diet samples and 137Cs from foodstuffs samples on market. The concentrations of 137Cs and 90Sr in daily meals are low because the agricultural products used as raw material are almost free of artificial radionuclides. The small variation in the results is caused by the differences in the types of meals that were prepared on the sampling dates and in the areal origins of raw materials. 137Cs concentration is remarkably higher in such food which contains a lot of natural products like wild berries, freshwater fish, wild mushrooms and game. As an example, the concentrations of 137Cs in the solid food in 2012 ranged from 0.06 - 1.0 Bq/kg, and in the drinks from 0.27 - 0.40 Bq/l, respectively. The radiation dose to Finnish people is estimated based on an analysis of the whole mixed diet samples. This gives the best

  17. Radioactive substances in foodstuffs and drinking water in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaaramaa, K.; Vesterbacka, P.; Solatie, D. [STUK - Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (Finland)

    2014-07-01

    The concentrations of radioactive substances in the environment and foodstuffs are continuously monitored in Finland. Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) publishes the annual report of Surveillance of Environmental Radiation which shows the activity levels of artificial radionuclides in Finland. Based on the results the radiation dose to Finnish people is estimated. Natural radioactive elements will be included in the surveillance program in future years. The aim of the foodstuffs monitoring program is to obtain information from the intake of radionuclides through ingestion. The radioactivity in foodstuffs is monitored by collecting foodstuffs on market, drinking water and daily meals offered at hospitals over one week. The sampling sites are located in southern, central and northern Finland, representing the main population centres and areal differences in the consumption of foodstuffs. One of these sampling sites is located in the highest {sup 137}Cs deposition area in Finland originating from the Chernobyl accident. The foodstuff samples on market are, for example, wild game, wild berries, wild mushrooms and fish. {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr are analysed from mixed diet samples and {sup 137}Cs from foodstuffs samples on market. The concentrations of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr in daily meals are low because the agricultural products used as raw material are almost free of artificial radionuclides. The small variation in the results is caused by the differences in the types of meals that were prepared on the sampling dates and in the areal origins of raw materials. {sup 137}Cs concentration is remarkably higher in such food which contains a lot of natural products like wild berries, freshwater fish, wild mushrooms and game. As an example, the concentrations of {sup 137}Cs in the solid food in 2012 ranged from 0.06 - 1.0 Bq/kg, and in the drinks from 0.27 - 0.40 Bq/l, respectively. The radiation dose to Finnish people is estimated based on an analysis of

  18. The Body Burden of Caesium-137 in People of Southern Finland 1961-1963

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In connection with the investigations of the caesium-137, body burden of Finnish Lapps several measurements of smaller groups of people living in Southern Finland were carried out. In November 1961 eleven Helsinki inhabitants, five men and six women, 15 to 54 yr. old, were counted for caesium-137 and potassium in Stockholm. None of these persons were laboratory workers, two were schoolboys. They were apparently healthy. Their diet was studied by the interview method. Ten of these people were counted again in the mobile whole-body counter of the Radiochemical Department of the University of Helsinki one year later. The average body burden of caesium-137 in men (5, average age 29) had increased from 8.4 nc in November 1961 to 18.4 nc in November 1962, in women (5, average age 34) from 2.9 nc to 8.7 nc. Potassium contents were the same within 2% (men 140 g, women, 100 g) For more detailed studies larger control groups were selected at the beginning of 1963 and counted four times, in February, May, August and October. For the group of men 25 privates of an infantry battalion (age 19, average weight 65 kg), for women 24 girl students of a household school (age 22, average weight 60 kg), were selected. In both cases the diet could be checked in detail and could be considered to be an average Finnish diet. In addition, the individual food consumption of each subject was studied by interview with the aid of weighed samples. Caesium-137 contents of both diets were determined for the time periods between the measurements. In both groups the caesium-137 content remained about constant (men, 17,5 nc; women, 11 nc) until the end of June, when the caesium-137 content of milk and meat was approximately doubled within about one week. At the end of August the body burden of caesium-137 had increased in, both groups to about 40% above the spring level in the middle of October the men's values had increased by 22%, the women's values by 14% of the August level. The determination of

  19. Using the New Scenarios Framework to Inform Climate Change Adaptation Policy in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, T. R.

    2013-12-01

    a firm basis for future climate change impact, adaptation and vulnerability assessments, offering RCP/SSP-based scenarios that are not only related to the global New Scenarios Framework, but are also recognised by national policy makers and key stakeholders, via the revised national climate change adaptation strategy. References IPCC (2000) Special Report on Emissions Scenarios: A Special Report of Working Group III of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. [Nakićenović, N. et al. (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, 600 pp. Kriegler E et al. (2012) The need for and use of socio-economic scenarios for climate change analysis: A new approach based on shared socio-economic pathways. Glob. Envir. Change 22:807-822. Marttila V et al. (2005) Finland's National Strategy for Adaptation to Climate Change, MMM publications 1a/2005, Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry, Helsinki, Finland, 280 pp. Moss RH et al. (2010) The next generation of scenarios for climate change research and assessment. Nature 463:747-756. Taylor KE et al. (2012) A summary of the CMIP5 experiment design. BAMS 93:485-498. van Vuuren DP et al. (2011) The representative concentration pathways: an overview. Clim. Change 109:5-31. Vautard R et al. (2013) The simulation of European heat waves from an ensemble of regional climate models within the EURO-CORDEX project. Clim. Dyn. doi:10.1007/s00382-013-1714-z

  20. Using Hydrochemistry and Stable Isotopes to Indicate Groundwater-Surface Water Interaction at Lake Pyhäjärvi, SW Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkka-Niemi, K.; Rautio, A.; Niemistö, P.

    2009-12-01

    chemistry in verifying the original source of the water. Mixing-ratios of groundwater and surface water in inshore water were calculated using AquaChem. Proportion of groundwater in inshore water samples range from 6 to 34% near the shoreline. PCE and its degradation products (remnants of a contaminant spill at a dry-cleaning facility near the esker adjacent to the lake) are used as a tracer in the aquifer, which intercepts the northeastern shore of the lake. PCE concentrations in four samples from discharging groundwater (3 from mini-piezometers,1 from a well) confirm the computer modeling estimation (Artimo 2002) that PCE concentrations in polluted groundwater discharging into the lake would be between 10 and 30 μg/L over most of this region in 2010. The maximum analyzed PCE concentration is 95 μg/L. References: Artimo, A. 2002. Application of flow and transport models to the polluted Honkala aquifer, Säkylä, Finland. Boreal Environment Research 7: 161-172. Korkka-Niemi, K., Rautio. A, Wiebe, A. 2009. Methods for investigating groundwater surface water interaction at Lake Pyhäjärvi, SW Finland. In: 6th National Geological Colloquium 4.-6.3.2009, program and abstracts. Publications of the Department of Geology. Series A 3.University of Helsinki, 28 p.

  1. The geochemistry of selenium in groundwaters in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The background level, seasonal variation, speciation, and geographical distribution of selenium (Se) were studied in dug and drilled wells and in natural groundwaters in Finland. The total Se concentration of well water samples (n=256) ranged from 4.1 to 2720 ng/l, with a median of 68.4 ng/l. The median Se concentration of groundwater from locations in natural surroundings was 51.5 ng/l (n=41) and 50.5 ng/l (n=39) in 1989 and 1990, respectively. The season had only a minor effect on both well and groundwater Se concentrations. Selenate was the most abundant species in groundwater. Locally, high concentrations of groundwater Se may originate from bedrock. The proportions of both selenite and Se associated with humic substances were less than 8 and 15%, respectively. The median Se concentration of 37 infiltration water samples was 28.6 ng/l (range 6.1-137 ng/l). The annual net deposition of Se from precipitation into soils was estimated to be 0.49 g/ha in the southern and 0.33 g/ha in the northern parts of Finland. Se from precipitation had no impact on groundwater Se. The effect of agricultural activities including Se supplemented fertilization on the Se concentration of groundwater in cultivated areas could not be demonstrated

  2. Estimating the distribution of strontium isotope ratios (87Sr/86Sr in the Precambrian of Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Kaislaniemi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A method to estimate the 87Sr/86Sr ratio of a rock based on its age and Rb/Sr ratio is presented. This method, together with data from the Rock Geochemical Database of Finland (n=6544 is used to estimate the 87Sr/86Sr ratios in the Precambrian of Finland and in its different major units. A generalization to cover the whole area of Finland is achieved by smoothing of estimation points. The estimation method is evaluated by comparing its results to published Rb-Sr isotope analyses (n=138 obtained on the Finnish Precambrian. The results show correspondence to different geological units of Finland,but no systematic difference between Archaean and younger areas is evident. Evaluation of the method shows that most of the estimates are reliable and accurate to be used as background material for provenance studies in archaeology, paleontology and sedimentology. However, some granitic rocks may have large (>1.0 % relative errors.Strontium concentration weighted average of the estimates differs only by 0.001 from the average 87Sr/86Sr ratio (0.730 of the rivers on the Fennoscandian shield.

  3. The spatial distribution of forest damages in southeastern Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jokinen, J.; Maekinen, E.; Meinander, O.; Haarala, S. [Finnish Meteorological Inst., Helsinki (Finland)

    1995-12-31

    Up to the present time scientists researching the causes of the vast areas of forest damages observed in Europe and North America have presented many different hypotheses. Among the first explanations was the damaging effect of acid rain. Some researchers claimed that of all air pollutants ozone was the most important damaging agent. The stress theory emphasizes the interaction of nitrogen oxides and sulphur dioxide with oxidants, hydrocarbons and heavy metals to be the main cause of toxic effects. In addition to above-mentioned theories, projects carried out by the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI) have revealed that under northern conditions coniferous forests have been damaged even in situations where the emissions consist of sulphur and nitrogen compounds occurring together. This theory postulates that the interaction of the above pollutants may be responsible by themselves for the effects on coniferous forests. The interaction is supposed to cause damages by two different mechanisms, namely, by causing direct toxic effects or through wintering failures. These mechanisms are indicated by the total nitrogen and sulphur concentration relationships of the needles. In the first case both sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides occur at such a high levels in the air that they cause direct damages, while in the second case sulphur dioxide concentration, in particular, is lower and both compounds can then be used as nutrients causing nutrient imbalance and a loss of wintering hardiness of the needles. The study area in these projects was southeastern Finland, which is one of the most polluted areas in our country. Domestic emissions from the paper and pulp industry, as well as the Russian emissions (e g. from the Leningrad region) affect this area. The aim of this study was to test the sulphur-nitrogen hypothesis using data collected from the Kymi province, S.E. Finland. (author)

  4. Finland: 2010 Article IV Consultation: Staff Report; Staff Statement; Public Information Notice on the Executive Board Discussion; and Statement by the Executive Director for Finland

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2010-01-01

    Owing to the high dependence of its exports on countries and commodities, Finland experienced the worst recession in the euro area. Executive Directors encouraged authorities to focus on improving bank cost efficiency, preventing excessive risk taking, and limiting liquidity and funding risks. Directors welcomed the establishment of the Nordic-Baltic Stability Group, and stressed the need to strengthen the effectiveness of cross-border supervision and crisis management arrangements. Directors...

  5. International aerial measuring campaign in Finland 1995 - measurement results of the German team

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Finnish Geological Service organized an international intercomparison campaign in 1995, with airborne measuring systems in helicopters and fixed wing aircraft over selected areas of Finland. The campaign demonstrated the ability of the systems in helicopters to perform rapid nuclide specific measurements in large areas and to detect sources of radioactivity. The features and conclusions specific of the German team are highlighted. (P.A.)

  6. Strain analysis in the Orijärvi triangle, southwestern Finland; in perspective of tectonic models

    OpenAIRE

    van Stel, H; Rees, D.; Schenke, B.

    1999-01-01

    Finite strain analyses were performed in metavolcanic rocks (agglomerates and pillowed metabasalts) from the Orijärvi area, southwestern Finland. In this area, tight folding (F1) of layered metasedimentary rocks and development of a penetrative axial plane schistosity (S1) took place during an early stage in the Svecofennian orogeny. Within the domain, there is no evidence of older deformational structures or of a later deformation phase; except in narrow, late-stage shear zones that bound th...

  7. Concentrations of carbonaceous aerosols at HyytiÀlÀ, Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Pokharel, Pramod

    2014-01-01

    Vain tiivistelmÀ. OpinnÀytteiden arkistokappaleet ovat luettavissa Helsingin yliopiston kirjastossa. Hae HELKA-tietokannasta (http://www.helsinki.fi/helka/index.htm). Abstract only. The paper copy of the whole thesis is available for reading room use at the Helsinki University Library. Search HELKA online catalog (http://www.helsinki.fi/helka/index.htm). Endast avhandlingens sammandrag. Pappersexemplaret av hela avhandlingen finns för lÀsesalsbruk i Helsingfors universitets bibliote...

  8. Selenium and arsenic in the environment in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahermo, P; Alfthan, G; Wang, D

    1998-01-01

    concentrations in water from drilled bedrock wells, and the findings of international medical studies suggesting that As is a carcinogen. The most important source of As is arsenopyrite (FeAsS). Hence, high As concentrations most frequently occur in areas of sulfide mineralization, often in connection with occurrences of mafic rocks such as gabbros, amphibolites, and peridotites. The As concentrations in till fines, the most common glaciogenic soil type in Finland, reflect those in bedrock. The concentrations in groundwater are controlled by the chemical composition of the bedrock and the soil and prevailing hydrogeochemical conditions, for example, pH and Eh levels. Arsenic concentrations are lowest in surface water and swiftly flowing shallow ground water discharged by springs and are somewhat higher in shallow wells dug into overburden. By far, the highest As concentrations are to be found in wells drilled into bedrock (maximum 1 to 2 mg/L), although the concentrations vary by several orders of magnitude from well to well. The highest probability of encountering deleteriously arsenious well water is in areas with characteristic As anomalies in the till and bedrock. Hence, it is important to understand local geological conditions, particularly in the case of wells drilled into bedrock. The risk of deleteriously high As concentrations occurring in captured springs and shallow wells is slight. PMID:9726792

  9. Apolipoprotein A-I Helsinki promotes intracellular acyl-CoA cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) protein accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo, Juan D; Garda, Horacio A; Cabaleiro, Laura V; Cuellar, Angela; Pellon-Maison, Magali; Gonzalez-Baro, Maria R; Gonzalez, Marina C

    2013-05-01

    Reverse cholesterol transport is a process of high antiatherogenic relevance in which apolipoprotein AI (apoA-I) plays an important role. The interaction of apoA-I with peripheral cells produces through mechanisms that are still poorly understood the mobilization of intracellular cholesterol depots toward plasma membrane. In macrophages, these mechanisms seem to be related to the modulation of the activity of acyl-CoA cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT), the enzyme responsible for the intracellular cholesterol ester biosynthesis that is stored in lipid droplets. The activation of ACAT and the accumulation of lipid droplets play a key role in the transformation of macrophages into foam cells, leading to the formation of atheroma or atherosclerotic plaque. ApoA-I Helsinki (or ∆K107) is a natural apoA-I variant with a lysine deletion in the central protein region, carriers of which have increased atherosclerosis risk. We herein show that treatment of cultured RAW macrophages or CHOK1 cells with ∆K107, but not with wild-type apoA-I or a variant containing a similar deletion at the C-terminal region (∆K226), lead to a marked increase (more than 10 times) in the intracellular ACAT1 protein level as detected by western blot analysis. However, we could only detect a slight increase in cholesteryl ester produced by ∆K107 mainly when Chol loading was supplied by low-density lipoprotein (LDL). Although a similar choline-phospholipid efflux is evoked by these apoA-I variants, the change in phosphatidylcholine/sphyngomyelin distribution produced by wild-type apoA-I is not observed with either ∆K107 or ∆K226. PMID:23456478

  10. A Review of Telemedicine Services in Finland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khatri, Vikramajeet; Peterson, Carrie Beth; Kyriazakos, Sofoklis; Prasad, Neeli R.

    2011-01-01

    Telemedicine is gaining popularity due to the provision of ubiquitous health care services that is a fundamental need for every socialized society. In this paper, telemedicine services in Finland are discussed, as well as how they came into existence, how they are funded, evaluated, and what are...... their impacts on health care systems and society. Telemedicine services like teleradiology, telelaboratory, telepsychiatry and remote consultations, are being offered in all hospital districts. Primary health care centers in Finland are lacking telemedicine services, and are planning to have them...... ubiquitous care. The e-Prescription project is also in the planning stage, which aims to enhance drug safety, prevent forged prescription, and prevent threat to a patient’s life....

  11. The nucleus in Finland - The second report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Finnish Nuclear Society (FNS) started the distribution of the Nucleus bulletin at the beginning of 1988. The volume of distribution has been extended since, including today nearly 1,000 persons. Both the English and the Finnish version of the bulletin is sent to various opinion leaders of society, i.e. the members of the parliament, ministries, the media, representatives of industry and other decision-makers of the energy field. After the five-year history of the Nucleus in Finland, it is time to look back and sum up the present status of the Nucleus. This report gives a short summary concerning the present distribution and its efficiency, the experiences gained and the influence of the bulletin in Finland. The first questionnaire was sent in November 1988, and the survey was repeated among the Finnish readers of the Nucleus in autumn 1992. The results of the latter survey are given in this report

  12. Business models of heat entrepreneurship in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the business models of small-scale heat energy production in Finland. Firstly, the development of heat entrepreneurship in the country is presented, including the remarkable growth of small and medium size enterprises (SMEs) in the last 15 years. Secondly, the concept of business model (business architecture of product/service flows and earning logics) is modified to the framework of wood heat production. The business model concept, and its sub-concepts, is applied in a brief review of current heat energy businesses in Finland. We arrive at a business model of heat entrepreneurships that are public companies/utilities, public-private partnerships, private companies and cooperatives, Energy Saving Company (ESCO), network model of large enterprise and franchising. Descriptive cases of these models are presented. Finally, the paper concludes with a discussion on the applicability of the business models in different operational environments and geographical contexts.

  13. Property crime and income inequality in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Huhta, Arto

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this thesis is to study the relationship of income inequality and property crime rates in Finland. While theoretical expectations for the relationship are strong, empirical evidence from previous within-country studies is mixed. My data set covers 337 Finnish municipalities during 1995-2009. The relationship of the Gini coefficient and crime rates was econometrically tested using an OLS model, a fixed effects panel data model and a dynamic generalized method of moments (GMM) m...

  14. Risk Assessment in Finland: Theory and Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Anttonen, Hannu; Pääkkönen, Rauno

    2010-01-01

    The Finnish risk assessment practice is based on the Occupational Safety and Health (OSH) Act aiming to improve working conditions in order maintain the employees' work ability, and to prevent occupational accidents and diseases. In practice there are hundreds of risk assessment methods in use. A simple method is used in small and medium sized enterprises and more complex risk evaluation methods in larger work places. Does the risk management function in the work places in Finland? According ...

  15. Special requirements of aquaponics in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Soppela, Olli

    2016-01-01

    This thesis brings together observations about special features that should be taken into consideration when designing the technical aspects of aquaponics practices and production units in Finland. Market demands, water purification and facility temperature control methods; sources of healthy feed and the needs for artificial lighting vary significantly around the globe. The unique combination of climate conditions, legislation and zoological conditions should be taken into consideration whe...

  16. ACCULTURATION OF THE SUDANESE IN FINLAND

    OpenAIRE

    Tabi Agbor, Tabi

    2009-01-01

    Tabi Agbor Tabi. Acculturation of the Sudanese in Finland. Järvenpää, Autumn 2009, 46p., 1 appendix. Diaconia University of Applied Sciences, Diak South, Järvenpää Unit, Degree Programme in Social Services. The emergence of globalisation has resulted in easy movement of people across various borders. This has also resulted in individuals or group of individuals getting in continuous first-hand contact with people of different cultures. This research looks at the impacts of this phenome...

  17. Employment Assimilation of Immigrants - Evidence from Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Hämäläinen, Kari; Kangasharju, Aki; Pekkala, Sari; Sarvimäki, Matti

    2005-01-01

    This paper analyses economic effects of immigrants that moved to Finland be-tween 1990 and 2000. The focus is on labour market participation, which affects direct taxes paid and income transfers received by immigrants. Immigrants are followed from the year of immigration up to 2000 or out-migration. Countries of origin are grouped into four categories: OECD, neighbouring countries (Russia and Estonia), the "JIIS-countries” (i.e. former Yugoslavia, Iran, Irak and Soma-lia), and remaining other...

  18. Regional differences in migratory behaviour in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Ritsila, Jari Jouni Kalervo; Tervo, Hannu

    1998-01-01

    The paper aims to analyse regional differences in migration behaviour and labour market adjustment in Finland. The analysis focuses on individuals belonging to the labour force both in 1985 and 1990. The data is a one percent sample from the Finnish longitudinal census file. Three outcomes can be deduced from the results. First, the chosen regions differ from each other quite little by migratory behaviour. Second, regional migratory behaviour has an equilibrating role in regional labour marke...

  19. Teaching literature in Slovenia and Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Može, Alenka

    2011-01-01

    The research compares primary school instruction of literature in Slovenia and Finland on the basis of data from personal interviews with Slovenian and Finnish primary teachers. The theoretical part is built according to the international comparisons of student performance. It is further on supported by a review of fundamental differences in education, professional career of a class teacher and school systems of both countries, including close examination of specific curricula for subject mot...

  20. Human capital and regional growth in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Pelkonen, Lea; Ylonen, Sakari

    1998-01-01

    Recent investigations of regional growth have paid a great attention to convergence of per-capita income. These studies have shown the human capital to be a significant factor in addition to labour force, capital and technical progress when explaining the economic growth. This paper examines the convergence, and in particular the impact of human capital on regional growth in Finland. We estimate a standard neoclassical growth model extended by a human capital accumulation. The regional growth...

  1. Country nuclear fuel cycle profile: Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 2002 Finland's four nuclear power plants, which have a combined capacity of 2.66 GW(e), provided 21.4 TW·h of electricity, equivalent to 26% of total electricity output. Fortum Power and Heat Oy (Fortum) operates two PWR reactors in Olkiluoto. In 2001 the Finnish Parliament ratified the Government's decision-in-principle on building a fifth nuclear power unit in Finland, considering that the construction is 'in the overall interest of society'. TVO, the responsible applicant organization, planned to start construction in 2005 and operation in 2009. Finland produced 30 t U between 1958 and 1961. Currently no mines are in operation. The last return shipment of spent fuel from Loviisa to the Russian Federation took place at the end of 1996. An interim spent fuel storage facility with a capacity of 490 t HM is in operation at the Loviisa nuclear power plant. At the Olkiluoto nuclear power plant a wet storage facility for spent fuel, termed the TVO-KPA store, has a capacity of 1200 t HM. A project for the final disposal of spent fuel was started in the early 1980s. In 2001 Parliament ratified the decision-in-principle of the Government on construction of a final disposal facility at Olkiluoto. Construction of the encapsulation and disposal facility is scheduled to start around 2010, with operation scheduled to commence in 2020

  2. DTP2 Laboratory Situation in Tampere, Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remote Handling is very important technology in the ITER project. Even ITER is regarded as a fairly long project, for the remote handling methods, tools and systems there is not very much development time provided. The technology has to be developed and demonstrated a long before supplied to the site in Cadarache. This is a large challenge, because the complex operations and extremely high reliability requirements. In the end of 2004, the Remote Operation and Virtual Reality Centre (ROViR) was established in Tampere Finland. The start up for this facility creation was an agreement with EFDA to host the Divertor Test Platform 2 (DTP2) in Finland. During the year 2005 the ROViR Centre was put in action. The construction work for DTP2 is currently going on and the platform should be ready for hosting the remote handling development by the end of 2006. After that the laboratory will receive the robots, tools and employees for the DTP2 operation. This abstract will give an overview of the DTP 2 platform in Tampere Finland as well as describe some other projects started in 2005. Presentation describes some problems of the ITER remote handling and tells about the state-of-the-art solutions. It also highlights some of the next tasks after putting the DTP2 platform in action. There are a plenty of tasks in the development of the ITER remote handling, after DTP2 laboratory is established. (author)

  3. Assuring future competence in nuclear safety in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Background: Within last few years we have been faced the fact that ageing of experts in nuclear safety field cannot be ignored in Finland. A great number of all experts/specialists with special competence on nuclear safety studied in the early 70's and had their first permanent jobs in the 'golden era' of nuclear power. These experts are going to retire within next ten years. Therefore both the regulatory body and licensees in Finland have the situation where the age distribution of staff member has become distorted. Also the amount of students in universities which have nuclear technology as their major subject has diminished remarkably until the decision of the new nuclear power plant unit in Finland was made in May 2001. After that the amount of students has risen. Assuring competences within the regulatory body STUK adopted the systematic approach to training in early 90's, this method is widely presented in IAEA TECDOC 1254 (2001). However, the very low turnover of staff led to decrease of training needs and therefore also the systematic training efforts decreased. In 2001 a need to restart the systematic approach to assuring competences was identified. To improve competence management at the regulatory body a competence analysis was carried out and a human resource plan for nuclear safety area for the near future was made. Competence analysis is a method which is quite commonly used on public sector and governmental organisations in Finland. STUK studied carefully the models used in other public sector organisations and adjusted the method to its own purposes. The model used has four competence categories: substance related, management skills, common working skills and STUK related working skills. Substance related competences were defined and described at working unit level. Descriptions for the rest three categories were made at STUK level and those were common for all departments. Substance related competencies common to all working at the

  4. Challenges and opportunities : being a foreign entrepreneur in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Jandali Rifai, Eyad

    2012-01-01

    In the near future Finland will be having more retirements and also many entrepreneurs are disappearing. At the same time, due to globalization, more foreigners are coming to Finland through studies, work, family and other reasons. Many of them are considering opening a business here. This is a qualitative research about the challenges and opportunities that foreign entrepreneurs face in Finland; and how these entrepreneurs describe entrepreneurship. Study was conducted by interviewing...

  5. WHY CHINESE TOURISTS CHOOSE FINLAND AS TRAVEL DESTINATION

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Qiaoyin

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to find out the reasons why Chinese tourists choose Finland as travel destination. In this study, the author gives general view of Chinese outbound tourism and comes up with some reasonable recommendations for attracting more Chinese tourists to travel to Finland. Also the aim is to help readers to make improvements for increasing the competitiveness of Finland in the Chinese tourism market. The theoretical framework consist of the theory based on consumer b...

  6. Strategy of commercialization of Russian innovations in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Koryakina, Natalia

    2014-01-01

    Russia inherited a large research and development (R&D) sector from Soviet times, and has retained a substantial R&D sector today, compared with other emerging economies. However, Russia is failing behind in all indicators measuring innovative output in comparison with most developed countries. According to Martti Vallila, Finland has what Russia needs and Russia has what Finland needs. There are researchers and innovators in Russia. Finland has one of the leading innovation systems in the wo...

  7. The Education System in Finland - Development and Equality

    OpenAIRE

    Leijola, Liisa

    2004-01-01

    This discussion paper examines the education system in Finland from the viewpoint of equality. First, it presents the current structure of the education system in Finland. Second, history and development of the Finnish education system are discussed with special attention paid to the principle of equality, which has since the early 19th century been one of the key values and goals of education policy in Finland. National sentiment first called for educating also the common people and providin...

  8. The Cinematic Land of Tapio: Suburban Finland Reimagined

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Essi Viitanen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines how the suburban spaces of Tapiola in Finland are cinematically reimagined in Jaakko Pakkasvirta’s film The Green Widow (1968. The film was produced during a time of rapid urbanization, the development of the Finnish welfare nation, and the birth of the Finnish suburb. The design, renaming, and construction of the Tapiola area especially became an excercise in creating a visual representation of the welfare policies and thus quite literally contributed to the building of a nation. This official vision of Tapiola is challenged by Pakkasvirta’s The Green Widow. The film focuses on the lived experience of the suburb from the point of view of a housewife and constructs a very different visual world. The relationship between the concrete built environment and the cinematically-imagined one become competing versions of reality.

  9. Reasons behind the Success of Finland in PISA:

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Eraslan

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2000, 2003, and 2006, the achievement of Finnish students in the area of mathematics, science and reading literacy in PISA (Programme for International Student Assessment has got attention from all over the world, particularly from OECD countries that ranked below the average. Thus, on the basis of the author’ own experiences in Finland and related literature, this paper aims to explain four forefront factors that appear to contribute to the Finnish student achievement, and then, to discuss what we as Turkey can benefit from the Finnish education system. Four main factors are as follows: (1 teacher education program, (2 traditional school life, (3 teaching profession as culture, and (4 in-service teacher education

  10. Website creation and design for a business idea of: “photo shooting and guiding services in Helsinki city”

    OpenAIRE

    Solovyeva, Galina

    2012-01-01

    This is a report of a project-oriented thesis. The thesis product is a webpage that offers personalized photography and city guiding services around the main attractions of Helsinki district. The business idea of creating a website is invented and implemented by an author as a source of her extra earning and as a hobby. The thesis is done to help the readers to understand the main points that have to be considered before starting up the creation and design of their own website. It is aim...

  11. "Minäkin tarvitsen ihmisen aikaa." : Asiakaslähtöinen kyselylomake HelsinkiMission puhelinpalveluohjauksen tukena.

    OpenAIRE

    Suomi, Marja; Kajava, Marjo; Loponen, Sirpa

    2012-01-01

    Tämä opinnäytetyö toteutettiin tutkimuksellisena kehittämistyönä, jossa tarkasteltiin viiden helsinkiläisen kotona asuvan ikäihmisen toiminnallisuutta. Kehittämisen kohteena oli sosiaalialan järjestön HelsinkiMission puhelinpalveluohjauksen kyselylomake. Puhelinpalveluohjauksen haasteeksi nousi asiakasnäkökulman esille tuominen ja kuinka saada selville puhelimessa ikäihmisen toimintakyky. Kehittämistyössä tavoitteena oli tuottaa tietoa kotikäyntien avulla. Kehittämistehtävänä oli sel...

  12. Asiakastyytyväisyys ja kaupunkibrändin näkyvyys Helsinki-Vantaan lentoaseman matkailuneuvonnassa

    OpenAIRE

    Pihlainen, Noora

    2012-01-01

    Työssä tarkastellaan asiakastyytyväisyyttä sekä Helsingin kaupungin matkailubrändin näkyvyyttä Helsinki-Vantaan lentoaseman seudullisessa matkailuneuvonnassa. Työn tavoitteena oli selvittää, millaiseksi matkailuneuvonnan palvelun laatu koetaan ja miten Helsingin kaupungin matkailubrändi näkyy matkailuneuvonnan ulkoasussa ja toiminnassa. Työn toimeksiantaja on Helsingin kaupungin matkailu- ja kongressitoimisto. Teoriaosassa käsitellään matkailuneuvonnan toimintaa ja sen tarjoamia palveluit...

  13. Wi-Fi in Cafes : Wi-Fi Use and its Impact on the Café Scene in Helsinki

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Bishal

    2012-01-01

    The advent of of WiFi (wireless internet) has revolutionized way people work and communicate by freeing them from the confinements of their offices and studies. With more and more cafes embracing this WiFi culture, it is worthwhile studying the impact of WiFi on the cafe environment, which is the focus of this research. The study was conducted on 7 cafes in Helsinki. The focus was on the degree of use of such services, awareness about WiFi security, the attitude of cafe customers and opinions...

  14. Extremes temperatures and enthalpy in Finland and Sweden in a changing climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Though risks caused by harsh weather conditions are taken into account in the planning of nuclear power plants, some exceptional weather events or combination of different events may prevent normal power operation and simultaneously endanger safe shutdown of the plant. Extreme weather events could influence, for example, the external power grid connection, emergency diesel generators (blockage of air intakes), ventilation and cooling of electric and electronics equipment rooms and the seawater intake. Due to the influence of an intensified greenhouse effect the climate is changing rapidly during the coming decades and this change is expected to have an influence also on the occurrence of extreme weather events. In this report we have examined extreme temperatures. Enthalpy is a parameter that combines air temperature and air humidity and it is used in the design of air conditioning systems. Therefore, we have included also return levels of enthalpy in our analysis. The influence of climate change on extreme temperatures is analysed based on regional climate model simulations. The reoccurrence times of high temperatures combined with high air humidity was analysed based on measurements made at five Finnish and three Swedish meteorological stations. Based on the observational records we find the 10 year return level of daily maximum temperature to be around 32 deg. C and the 100 year return level around 35 deg. C. If we look the return levels of warm and humid conditions then for example in Helsinki the 10 year return level of one week mean temperature in case mean air humidity is above 80% is 20.1 deg. C. The 10 year return level of daily maximum enthalpy is around 60 kJ/kg and the 100 year return level almost 70 kJ/kg. According to the climate model simulations the largest increase of 50-year return level of daily maximum temperature is found in southern Sweden and south-western Finland. By the end of this century the increase can be 3-5 deg. C. The largest change

  15. Modeling and measurements of urban aerosol processes on the neighborhood scale in Rotterdam, Oslo and Helsinki

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karl, Matthias; Kukkonen, Jaakko; Keuken, Menno P.; Lützenkirchen, Susanne; Pirjola, Liisa; Hussein, Tareq

    2016-04-01

    This study evaluates the influence of aerosol processes on the particle number (PN) concentrations in three major European cities on the temporal scale of 1 h, i.e., on the neighborhood and city scales. We have used selected measured data of particle size distributions from previous campaigns in the cities of Helsinki, Oslo and Rotterdam. The aerosol transformation processes were evaluated using the aerosol dynamics model MAFOR, combined with a simplified treatment of roadside and urban atmospheric dispersion. We have compared the model predictions of particle number size distributions with the measured data, and conducted sensitivity analyses regarding the influence of various model input variables. We also present a simplified parameterization for aerosol processes, which is based on the more complex aerosol process computations; this simple model can easily be implemented to both Gaussian and Eulerian urban dispersion models. Aerosol processes considered in this study were (i) the coagulation of particles, (ii) the condensation and evaporation of two organic vapors, and (iii) dry deposition. The chemical transformation of gas-phase compounds was not taken into account. By choosing concentrations and particle size distributions at roadside as starting point of the computations, nucleation of gas-phase vapors from the exhaust has been regarded as post tail-pipe emission, avoiding the need to include nucleation in the process analysis. Dry deposition and coagulation of particles were identified to be the most important aerosol dynamic processes that control the evolution and removal of particles. The error of the contribution from dry deposition to PN losses due to the uncertainty of measured deposition velocities ranges from -76 to +64 %. The removal of nanoparticles by coagulation enhanced considerably when considering the fractal nature of soot aggregates and the combined effect of van der Waals and viscous interactions. The effect of condensation and

  16. Post-trial access and the new version of the Declaration of Helsinki

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Palacios

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In October 2013, the World Medical Association (WMA approved the latest version of the Declaration of Helsinki (DoH in Fortaleza, Brazil. Post-trial access of favorable interventions was again one of the critical issues raised during the meeting. The call to clinical research actors, other than physicians, in this discussion is not new, but this is the first time, after 49 years and nine amendments, when governments are requested to take responsibilities. The primary purpose of the DoH is the protection of human subjects involved in clinical research, but since the 2000 amendment, the WMA extended their concerns to what happens to the trial participants after the study. This issue, along with the use of placebo, was one of the key points that led to the withdrawal of the DoH as reference in the United States regulation. However, only the 2013 version acknowledges that the burden of providing post-trial access for those patients on continuous treatment is far beyond the investigator’s scope. The delay between the end of a blind study and the unblinding could take several months. Meantime, the investigator is unaware if the participant received either control or experimental product. In case of therapeutic response, the investigator should provide to the participant the same treatment until the unblinding, even if it is the control product, i.e. placebo? A trial participant can get therapeutic response with an experimental product that during the unblinded analysis has failed. The risk benefit analysis on individual basis might be challenging if one considers that the clinical development can stop due to safety concerns, lack of efficacy or release of alternatives more advantageous than the investigational product. Before retaining a product still under development after a study, the physician should consider safety and efficacy information as well as therapeutic alternatives to take decisions on an individual participant, even if the patient

  17. Nurse Managers' Perceptions Related to Their Leadership Styles, Knowledge, and Skills in These Areas—A Viewpoint: Case of Health Centre Wards in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Soili Vesterinen; Marjo Suhonen; Arja Isola; Leena Paasivaara; Helena Laukkala

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore nurse managers' perceptions related to their leadership styles, knowledge, and their skills in these areas in health centre wards in Finland. The data were collected from nurse managers (n = 252) in health centre hospitals in Finland using a structured questionnaire (response rate 63%). Six leadership styles—visionary, coaching, affiliate, democratic, commanding, and isolating—were reflected on. Almost all respondents in every age group considered four...

  18. Well-being at work on farms in Finland : Stress, safety in animal handling and working conditions of women on dairy farms

    OpenAIRE

    Kallioniemi, Marja

    2013-01-01

    The restructuring of agriculture in Finland has resulted in several types of change on farms during recent years. The field areas and sizes of herds per farm have been increasing, while the number of farms has been decreasing. Concurrently, the risks of agriculture have increased. Ongoing change has been described as a modernization process from traditional farming towards a more enterprise form of agriculture. Farms are mainly owned by private persons in Finland. The farm entrepreneurs ...

  19. AN AIR POLLUTION EPISODE CAUSED BY REGIONALLY TRANSPORTED SMOKE IN FINLAND ON 21 AUG 2006: A CASE STUDY USING MESOSCALE NWP MODEL

    OpenAIRE

    Rantamäki, Minna; Niemelä, Sami; Karppinen, Ari

    2008-01-01

    Abstract: The purpose of this study is to identify the prevailing synoptic and mesoscale conditions related to severe air quality episode in Finland utilizing AROME mesoscale NWP model. The summer of 2006 was exceptionally dry in the areas surrounding the Gulf of Finland; this resulted in frequently occurring wild land fires, especially in north-western part of Russia and Estonia. Easterly winds were prevailing with an exceptional long period in August and spread occasionally smoke t...

  20. Radioactivity of fresh water fish in Finland after the Chernobyl accident in 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chernobyl accident raised the deposition levels of radioactive substances in Finland. Fish were affected by radioactive substances in watersheds. Extensive study of areal and temporal changes in the radioactivity of freshwater fish was started soon after the accident. The aim of the study was to obtain new data on a situation involving fresh deposition and to estimate the importance of freshwater fish as a source of radiocesium for consumers. Attenuation was also paid to various factors affecting the radioactivity of fish. Samples were taken from about 200 lakes. In all, about 600 samples were analysed gammaspectrometrically. A few samples were also analysed radiochemically for beta-emitting 89Sr and 90Sr. The samples contained about ten different species of fish. The highest concentrations of radiocesium in fish were found in the areas of highest radioactive deposition in Finland. In areas with the same level of 137Cs deposition, concentrations in fish depended on the size of the lake: the smaller the area of the lake in which the fish were caught the higher the concentration. Of the fish species studied, perches had the highest concentrations of radiocesium. Intake estimations were based on the average concentrations, weighted for catches, in each drainage area and in the whole country, and on the average intake of 137Cs via freshwater fish. In Finland, the average intake of 137Cs via freshwater fish in May-December 1986 was about 1200 Bq. The values obtained for different drainage basins varied from about 160 to 3400 Bq

  1. Environmental aspects of Greenfield NPP site in northern Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fennovoima will build a nuclear power plant of 1200 MW at Hanhikivi headland in Pyhaejoki, Northern Finland on the shore of the Baltic Sea. According to the target schedule the plant will produce electricity in 2024. The plant supplier is Rusatom Overseas, subsidiary of the Russian Rosatom. No industrial activity is practiced in the immediate surroundings of the site area and the headland and its surroundings are sparsely populated. The area is in its natural state. This means that all the preparatory and infrastructure works needs to be done before the construction of NPP can start. The environmental and nature conservation aspects have to be taken into consideration in planning, construction and operation of the NPP. Northern location sets some challenges to the design of the power plant. The sea area is normally covered with ice almost half of the year which has to be taken into account in the design of the power plant. But there are also advantages: in winter when the cooling water is cold the efficiency of electricity production is estimated to be exceptionally good, approximately 39 %. Since 2008, Fennovoima has carried out several environmental studies and surveys in the site area and has collected information about the nature conditions on land and in the sea area. The collected environmental data has been utilized in land use planning, environmental impact assessment procedure and in applying for conventional permits. The environmental data can also be used as baseline data. The document is composed of an abstract and the presentation slides

  2. Geophysical investigations in the Syyry area, Finland. Summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heikkinen, E. [ed.; Ahokas, H. [Fintact Ky, Helsinki (Finland); Kurimo, M. [Geological Survey of Finland, Espoo (Finland)] [and others

    1992-12-01

    Investigations were carried out at the Syyry site at Sievi using geological, geophysical, geohydrological and geochemical methods in 1987-1991 to determine the suitability of the bedrock for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. In this survey airborne, ground and borehole geophysical methods were used to study the rock type distribution, fracturing and hydraulic conductivity of the bedrock to a depth of one kilometre.

  3. Wind energy statistics of Finland. Yearly report 2011; Tuulivoiman tuotantotilastot. Vuosiraportti 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turkia, V.; Holttinen, H.

    2013-01-15

    Wind power production from grid connected wind turbines in Finland was 481 GWh in 2011. This corresponds to 0.6 % of Finland's electricity consumption. Installed wind capacity was 199 MW at the end of the year and the number of the operating turbines was 131. Two new turbines were installed in 2011 with the total power of 1.75 MW and no turbines were taken out of operation. The average size of all turbines in Finland was 1 519 kW at the end of 2011 (1519 kW at the end of 2010). The new climate and energy strategy has a target of 2 500 MW wind power in 2020. A market based feed-in system with a guaranteed price of 83.5 euro/MWh entered into force on 25 March 2011 in Finland. There will be an increased tariff of 105.3 euro/MWh until end of 2015 (max 3 years). The difference between the guaranteed price and spot price of electricity will be paid to the producers as a premium. Year 2010 had close to long term average wind resource. The weighted production index for the four sea areas was 98 %. Average capacity factor of standard wind turbines, which operated the whole year, was 24 % while the best turbine yielded 45 % capacity factor. Technical availability of the standard wind power plants was 88,5 % in 2011. This report contains production and availability figures of the grid connected wind turbines in Finland as well as component summary of failure statistics. There is an English list of figure and table captions and the yearly statistics table is as an appendix. (orig.)

  4. TVO: new nuclear plant in Finland; TVO: nytt kjernekraftverk i Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heggedal, Ane-Marte

    2007-07-01

    Teollisuuden Voima Oy (TVO) has begun building Finland's fifth nuclear power plant. The plant is projected to be finished in 2010-2011, and will have an installed effect at 1600 MWe. Details on the Finnish power company TVO are provided (ml)

  5. Chernobyl fallout in southern and central Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To study the levels and distributions of radionuclides released in the Chernobyl accident, we sampled surface peat from 62 sites in Southern and Central Finland and measured 131I, 134Cs, 137Cs, 132Te, 140Ba, 103Ru, 90Sr, 141Ce, and 95Zr. The distribution of fallout activities was highly uneven, depending on movement of the contaminated air mass and rainfall distribution during the critical days. The highest values observed were 420 kBq m-2 of 131I and 70 kBq m-2 of 137Cs. The nuclide ratios showed wide and partly unexpected variations. The high-boiling-point, or nonvolatile, elements Ce and Zr were spread mostly on a 200-km-wide zone extending across Finland from southwest to northeast. The more volatile elements, I, Ce, and Te, showed quite a different, more widespread, fallout distribution, while an intermediate behavior was observed for Ba, Ru, and possibly Sr. These results can be explained by assuming that pulverized nuclear fuel material released in the reactor explosion on 26 April reached Finland via Poland and the Baltic Sea and traversed the country along the above-mentioned narrow zone, while volatile material, evaporated in the reactor fire from 26 April to 5 May, arrived in several waves and was consequently more widely and evenly spread. From their elemental melting and boiling points, Ru and Mo would appear to belong to the nonvolatile group and Sr to the volatile. Yet, their actual behaviors were opposite; Ru in particular was found in the nonvolatile as well as the volatile fallout, possibly because Ru activities were present in the fuel partly in the metallic state and partly as volatile oxides

  6. ExternE National Implementation Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pingoud, K.; Maelkki, H.; Wihersaari, M.; Pirilae, P. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland); Hongisto, M. [Imatran Voima Oy, Vantaa (Finland); Siitonen, S. [Ekono Energy Ltd, Espoo (Finland); Johansson, M. [Finnish Environment Institute, Helsinki (Finland)

    1999-07-01

    ExternE National Implementation is a continuation of the ExternE Project, funded in part by the European Commission's Joule III Programme. This study is the result of the ExternE National Implementation Project for Finland. Three fuel cycles were selected for the Finnish study: coal, peat and wood-derived biomass, which together are responsible for about 40% of total electricity generation in Finland and about 75% of the non-nuclear fuel based generation. The estimated external costs or damages were dominated by the global warming (GW) impacts in the coal and peat fuel cycles, but knowledge of the true GW impacts is still uncertain. From among other impacts that were valued in monetary terms the human health damages due to airborne emissions dominated in all the three fuel cycles. Monetary valuation for ecosystem impacts is not possible using the ExternE methodology at present. The Meri-Pori power station representing the coal fuel cycle is one of the world's cleanest and most efficient coal-fired power plants with a condensing turbine. The coal is imported mainly from Poland. The estimated health damages were about 4 mECU/kWh, crop damages an order of magnitude lower and damages caused to building materials two orders of magnitude lower. The power stations of the peat and biomass fuel cycles are of CHP type, generating electricity and heat for the district heating systems of two cities. Their fuels are of domestic origin. The estimated health damages allocated to electricity generation were about 5 and 6 mECU/kWh, respectively. The estimates were case-specific and thus an generalisation of the results to the whole electricity generation in Finland is unrealistic. Despite the uncertainties and limitations of the methodology, it is a promising tool in the comparison of similar kinds of fuel cycles, new power plants and pollution abatement technologies and different plant locations with each other. (orig.)

  7. ExternE National Implementation Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ExternE National Implementation is a continuation of the ExternE Project, funded in part by the European Commission's Joule III Programme. This study is the result of the ExternE National Implementation Project for Finland. Three fuel cycles were selected for the Finnish study: coal, peat and wood-derived biomass, which together are responsible for about 40% of total electricity generation in Finland and about 75% of the non-nuclear fuel based generation. The estimated external costs or damages were dominated by the global warming (GW) impacts in the coal and peat fuel cycles, but knowledge of the true GW impacts is still uncertain. From among other impacts that were valued in monetary terms the human health damages due to airborne emissions dominated in all the three fuel cycles. Monetary valuation for ecosystem impacts is not possible using the ExternE methodology at present. The Meri-Pori power station representing the coal fuel cycle is one of the world's cleanest and most efficient coal-fired power plants with a condensing turbine. The coal is imported mainly from Poland. The estimated health damages were about 4 mECU/kWh, crop damages an order of magnitude lower and damages caused to building materials two orders of magnitude lower. The power stations of the peat and biomass fuel cycles are of CHP type, generating electricity and heat for the district heating systems of two cities. Their fuels are of domestic origin. The estimated health damages allocated to electricity generation were about 5 and 6 mECU/kWh, respectively. The estimates were case-specific and thus an generalisation of the results to the whole electricity generation in Finland is unrealistic. Despite the uncertainties and limitations of the methodology, it is a promising tool in the comparison of similar kinds of fuel cycles, new power plants and pollution abatement technologies and different plant locations with each other. (orig.)

  8. Biomass-fueled power plants in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raiko, M. [IVO Power Engineering Ltd., Vantaa (Finland); Hulkkonen, S. [Imatran Voima Oy, Vantaa (Finland)

    1997-07-01

    Combined heat and power production (CHP) from biomass is a commercially viable alternative when district heat or process steam is needed in small towns or in a process industry. The high nominal investment cost of a small power plant that uses local biomass fuels is compensated by the revenues from the heat. The price of the district heat or the steam generated in the CHP-plant can be valued at the same price level as the heat from a mere steam boiler. Also, the price of heat produced by a small-generation-capacity plant is local and higher, whereas electricity has a more general market price. A typical small Finnish CHP-plant consists of a bubbling fluidized bed boiler and a simplified steam turbine cycle generating 4 to 10 MW of electricity and 10 to 30 MW of district heat or process steam. There are about 10 power plants of this type in commercial operation in Finland. As a whole, biomass, which is used in more than 200 plants, provides about 20% of the primary energy consumption in Finland. Roughly half of these produce only heat but the rest are combined heat and power plants. The majority of the plants is in pulp and paper industry applications. Imatran Voima Oy (IVO) is the biggest energy producer in Finland. IVO builds, owns and operates several biomass-fired power plants and carries out active R and D work to further develop the biomass-fueled small power plant. This paper discusses the experiences of the biomass-fueled power plants. (author)

  9. The Impact of Tobacco Legislation on Restaurant Workers Exposure to Tobacco Smoke in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Reijula, Jere

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to tobacco smoke significantly increases the risk of several diseases including cancer, cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases. Prohibition of smoking in workplaces effectively protects workers against occupational exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS). However, Finnish restaurant employees have still been exposed to SHS at work until recent years. In 2000, a reform in tobacco legislation was launched in Finland according to which restaurants had to reserve non-smoking areas for their cl...

  10. A comparative study on campus sustainability in higher education sector in Hong Kong and Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Law, Cheuk Yan

    2015-01-01

    This thesis presents a comparative study examining the practices of campus sustainability in Higher Education Sectors between Hong Kong and Finland. Campus sustainability is a trend during the last decade as a result of numerous declarations and meetings for sustainable development in Higher education all over the world. In this thesis, the investigated areas are focused on environmental sustainability and Social sustainability. This study used the content analysis method to anal...

  11. The Fourth Enlargement of the European Union: Austria, Finland, and Sweden Join the EU

    OpenAIRE

    Fritz Breuss

    1995-01-01

    The integration of the rich EFTA countries Austria, Finland, and Sweden into the EU shifts the center of gravity to the North. While the previous enlargement by the "cohesion" countries Greece, Portugal, and Spain was a burden on the budget of the EU, the present enlargement is a relief. The integration of the three neutral countries constitutes no economic problems, but progress in the area of collective security might possibly be slowed down by their accession. Through the fourth EU enlarge...

  12. Actor Roles in an Urban Living Lab: What Can We Learn from Suurpelto, Finland?

    OpenAIRE

    Soile Juujärvi; Kaija Pesso

    2013-01-01

    There is a growing trend to involve citizens in city development to make urban areas more suitable to their needs and prevent social problems. City centres and neighbourhoods have increasingly been serving as regional living labs, which are ideal platforms to explore the needs of users as residents and citizens. This article examines the characteristics and success factors of urban living labs based on a case study of Suurpelto, Finland. Urban living lab activity is characterized by a practic...

  13. Isolation of Mycobacterium avium complex from water in the United States, Finland, Zaire, and Kenya.

    OpenAIRE

    von Reyn, C F; Waddell, R D; Eaton, T.; Arbeit, R D; Maslow, J.N.; Barber, T W; Brindle, R. J.; Gilks, C F; Lumio, J; Lähdevirta, J

    1993-01-01

    Disseminated infection with organisms of the Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) is a common complication of AIDS in the United States and other developing countries, but it is rare or absent in sub-Saharan Africa. To assess the comparative likelihood of exposure to MAC in these geographic areas, we used a standard protocol to culture 91 water samples from environmental sites and piped water supply systems in the United States, Finland, Zaire, and Kenya. MAC was isolated from all geographic are...

  14. Local food supply chain: a case of rural food processing firms and catering business in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Forsman, Sari; Paananen, Jaana

    2002-01-01

    The subject of this paper is the integration of food production and processing, distribution, and consumption on local markets in rural areas. We approach this integration from the point of view of an alternative food supply chain, a local food system as an example. The data were gathered through semistructured interviews with 12 entrepreneurs and 9 representatives of institutional food service units and restaurants in Eastern Finland.

  15. Life-space mobility assessment in older people in Finland; measurement properties in winter and spring.

    OpenAIRE

    Portegijs, Erja; Iwarsson, Susanne; Rantakokko, Merja; Viljanen, Anne; Rantanen, Taina

    2014-01-01

    Background: Life-space mobility refers to the spatial area an individual moves through, the frequency and need for assistance. Based on the assumption that measurement scale properties are context-specific, we tested the scale distribution, responsiveness, and reproducibility of the 15-item University of Alabama at Birmingham Study of Aging Life-Space Assessment in older people in Finland, specifically accounting for season. Methods: Community-dwelling older men and women in...

  16. An energy handbook for teachers in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this handbook for teachers is to provide an introduction to the principles and practices of energy education. It is composed of three sections plus commercial materials from energy companies. Part 1 discusses important aspects of energy and teaching methods. Part 2 provides graphical information showing how energy is produced and consumed in Finland. Part 3 is an introduction to energy from various aspects. One focus in the handbook is nuclear energy. Workshops on energy are also proposed to teachers. 8 figs., 2 refs

  17. Tarvekartoitus kondomiautomaateille : Case: Safe Play Finland Oy

    OpenAIRE

    Päivinen, Matti; Mäkelä, Irina

    2013-01-01

    Tarvekartoitus kondomiautomaateille Case: Safe Play Finland Oy Tutkimuksen tavoitteena on selvittää, onko kondomiautomaateilla kysyntää Laurea –ammattikorkeakoulujen- ja Länsiterminaalista lähtevien laivojen wc –tiloissa. Tutkimuksessa selvitetään, onko häpeä asia, joka vaikuttaa ihmisten ostokäyttäytymiseen niin, että kondomeja ostettaisiin mieluummin kondomiautomaatista kuin kaupasta myyjältä. Lisäksi tutkitaan laivamatkustajien tarpeita rajatummassa ympäristössä, jossa kondomeja ei ole...

  18. Progressive Finland sees progress with nuclear projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Finnish Hanhikivi-1 reactor project is firmly on track and a licence has been granted for construction of a final disposal facility for spent nuclear fuel - the first final repository in the world to enter the construction phase. Significant progress has been made with plans for Finland to build its sixth nuclear reactor unit at Hanhikivi. Fennovoima's licensing manager Janne Liuko said the company expects to receive the construction licence for the Generation III+ Hanhikivi-1 plant in late 2017. The application was submitted to the Finnish Ministry of Employment and the Economy in June 2015.

  19. Progressive Finland sees progress with nuclear projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalton, David [NucNet, Brussels (Belgium)

    2016-02-15

    The Finnish Hanhikivi-1 reactor project is firmly on track and a licence has been granted for construction of a final disposal facility for spent nuclear fuel - the first final repository in the world to enter the construction phase. Significant progress has been made with plans for Finland to build its sixth nuclear reactor unit at Hanhikivi. Fennovoima's licensing manager Janne Liuko said the company expects to receive the construction licence for the Generation III+ Hanhikivi-1 plant in late 2017. The application was submitted to the Finnish Ministry of Employment and the Economy in June 2015.

  20. Parenting educational styles in Slovenia and Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Sevčnikar, Kaja

    2015-01-01

    In everyday life the subject of parenting and child upbringing is often discussed among people who find themselves in the role of parents, babysitters and grandparents striving for best results (Peček Čuk and Lesar, 2009). My thesis focuses on parenting styles of mothers and fathers in Slovenia and in Finland. In the first, theoretical part, I have explained the concepts of socialization and parenting. I have defined the meaning of the term family and different family types. I have also c...

  1. Youth Suicide Trends in Finland, 1969-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahti, Anniina; Rasanen, Pirkko; Riala, Kaisa; Keranen, Sirpa; Hakko, Helina

    2011-01-01

    Background: There are only a few recent studies on secular trends in child and adolescent suicides. We examine here trends in rates and methods of suicide among young people in Finland, where suicide rates at these ages are among the highest in the world. Methods: The data, obtained from Statistics Finland, consisted of all suicides (n = 901)…

  2. Third International Reindeer/ Caribou Symposium, Saariselkä, Finland, 1982

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Skjenneberg

    1982-05-01

    Full Text Available The third international reindeer/caribou symposium was arranged in Saariselkä, Finland, 23-26 August 1982 under the leadership of Dr. Erkki Pulliainen. 125 participants presented 70 lectures and posters. Proceedings will be published in Acta Zoologica Fennica, Volume VII. NOR contributed much to the conference in giving travelling grants to 35 participants from Finland, Norway and Sweden.

  3. Third International Reindeer/ Caribou Symposium, Saariselkä, Finland, 1982

    OpenAIRE

    Sven Skjenneberg (ed.)

    1982-01-01

    The third international reindeer/caribou symposium was arranged in Saariselkä, Finland, 23-26 August 1982 under the leadership of Dr. Erkki Pulliainen. 125 participants presented 70 lectures and posters. Proceedings will be published in Acta Zoologica Fennica, Volume VII. NOR contributed much to the conference in giving travelling grants to 35 participants from Finland, Norway and Sweden.

  4. Folkeskolen kan lære af Finland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Frans Ørsted

    2010-01-01

    Kronikken er en kommentar til den aktuelle danske debat om skolelukninger og -sammenlægninger - med udsyn til USA og Finland......Kronikken er en kommentar til den aktuelle danske debat om skolelukninger og -sammenlægninger - med udsyn til USA og Finland...

  5. The Discourse on Multicultural Education in Finland: Education for Whom?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Gunilla; Londen, Monica

    2010-01-01

    Finland is experiencing increased immigration and therefore increased cultural diversity in its schools. This paper examines the multicultural education discourse in Finland by analysing the national and municipal curricula for the comprehensive school, educational policy documents and teacher education curricula. The focus is on how multicultural…

  6. Main Changes Experienced by Husbands Involved in the Caring for their Wives with Multiple Sclerosis in Finland, Austria and Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mª Carmen Pérez Belda

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines husbands’ experiences with wives in the long-term care of the Multiple Sclerosis disease in Finland, Austria and Spain. Avoiding generalizations, this study focuses on the main changes after the diagnosis in all levels – personal, economic and professional – because to understand and reach equality in the care work it is necessary to open debate about men’s practices in this area. In this research, three couples in each country in the regions of Lapland (Finland, Vorarlberg (Austria and Alicante (Spain were interviewed. To analyze the findings, a gender perspective is used with a particular attention to the influence of the contextual factors in each case. Comparing Finland with Austria and Spain, big differences emerged related to the economic changes. Changes in the social and sexual life were common in most cases.

  7. Fuel peat utilisation in Finland: resource use and emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leijting, J.

    1999-11-01

    The aim of the study was to inventorize the emissions and other stressors caused by fuel peat use in Finland. The life cycle approach was used to organise and compile the burdens associated with the fuel peat utilisation sector in the years 1994 and 1995. Fuel peat accounts for about 6.5 % of the total primary energy production in Finland. The study showed that most emissions out into the air occur during combustion of peat in energy plants. The emissions account for about 13 - 14 % of the CO{sub 2} emissions released by fossil fuel utilisation in Finland, for 12 % of the SO{sub 2} for 8 % of the N{sub 2}O and approximately 4 % of the NOR emissions released by anthropogenic sources in Finland. Phosphorus releases into waters contributes for about 0.2 % while nitrogen releases account for 0.3 % in the total anthropogenic discharge in Finland. (orig.) 88 refs.

  8. Fuel peat utilization in Finland: resource use and emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the study was to inventorize the emissions and other stressors caused by fuel peat use in Finland. The life cycle approach was used to organise and compile the burdens associated with the fuel peat utilisation sector in the years 1994 and 1995. Fuel peat accounts for about 6.5 % of the total primary energy production in Finland. The study showed that most emissions out into the air occur during combustion of peat in energy plants. The emissions account for about 13 - 14 % of the CO2 emissions released by fossil fuel utilisation in Finland, for 12 % of the SO2 for 8 % of the N2O and approximately 4 % of the NOR emissions released by anthropogenic sources in Finland. Phosphorus releases into waters contributes for about 0.2 % while nitrogen releases account for 0.3 % in the total anthropogenic discharge in Finland. (orig.) 88 refs

  9. Risk assessment in Finland: theory and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anttonen, Hannu; Pääkkönen, Rauno

    2010-09-01

    The Finnish risk assessment practice is based on the Occupational Safety and Health (OSH) Act aiming to improve working conditions in order maintain the employees' work ability, and to prevent occupational accidents and diseases. In practice there are hundreds of risk assessment methods in use. A simple method is used in small and medium sized enterprises and more complex risk evaluation methods in larger work places. Does the risk management function in the work places in Finland? According to our experience something more is needed. That is, understanding of common and company related benefits of risk management. The wider conclusion is that commitment for risk assessment in Finland is high enough. However, in those enterprises where OSH management was at an acceptable level or above it, there were also more varied and more successfully accomplished actions to remove or reduce the risks than in enterprises, where OSH management was in lower level. In risk assessment it is important to process active technical prevention and exact communication, increase work place attraction and increase job satisfaction and motivation. Investments in OSH are also good business. Low absenteeism due to illness or accidents increases directly the production results by improved quality and quantity of the product. In general Finnish studies have consistently shown that the return of an invested euro is three to seven-old. In national level, according to our calculations the savings could be even 20% of our gross national product. PMID:22953157

  10. The development of climatic scenarios for Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, T.; Tuomenvirta, H. [Finnish Meteorological Inst., Helsinki (Finland); Posch, M. [National Inst. of Public Health and the Environment, Bilthoven (Netherlands)

    1996-12-31

    One of the main objectives of the Finnish Research Programme on Climate Change (SILMU) has been to assess the possible impacts of future changes in climate due to the enhanced greenhouse effect on natural systems and human activities in Finland. In order to address this objective, it was first necessary to specify the types of climate changes to be expected in the Finnish region. Estimates of future climate are conventionally obtained using numerical models, which simulate the evolution of the future climate in response to radiative forcing due to changes in the composition of the atmosphere (i.e. of greenhouse gases and aerosols). However, there are large uncertainties in the model estimates because current knowledge and understanding of atmospheric processes remains incomplete. Since accurate predictions of climate change are not available, an alternative approach is to develop scenarios. These are plausible projections which reflect the best estimates to the future conditions but at the same time embrace the likely uncertainties attached to these estimates. In order to obtain expert opinion on the most appropriate methods of providing scenarios for SILMU, an International Workshop was organised in 1993. The recommendations of the Workshop formed the basis of the present project, initiated in 1994, to develop standard climatic scenarios for Finland

  11. Energy efficiency rating of districts, case Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is an increasing political pressure on the city planning to create more energy efficient city plans. Not only do the city plans have to enable and promote energy efficient solutions, but it also needs to be clearly assessed how energy efficient the plans are. City planners often have no or poor know how about energy efficiency and building technologies which makes it difficult for them to answer to this need without new guidelines and tools. An easy to use tool for the assessment of the energy efficiency of detailed city plans was developed. The aim of the tool is for city planners to easily be able to assess the energy efficiency of the proposed detailed city plan and to be able to compare the impacts of changes in the plan. The tool is designed to be used with no in-depth knowledge about energy or building technology. With a wide use of the tool many missed opportunities for improving energy efficiency can be avoided. It will provide better opportunities for sustainable solutions leading to less harmful environmental impact and reduced emissions. - Highlights: • We have created a tool for assessing energy efficiency of detailed city plans. • The energy source is the most important factor for efficiency of districts in Finland. • Five case districts in Finland were analyzed. • In this paper one residential district has in-depth sensitivity analyses done

  12. Radioactivity of household water in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A nationwide study on artificial and natural radioactivity in household water has been under way in Finland since the 1960s. The occurrence of artificial radionuclides in the surface water of drainage basins has been monitored extensively. The proportion of household water derived from surface waters in Finland is currently 48 %, but its usage is decreasing whereas that of groundwater is increasing at an annual rate of 1 - 2 %. The natural radioactivity of household water has been studied in almost all of the waters distributed by public waterworks and in 5400 private ground water wells. The downward trend in 90Sr, 137Cs and 3H concentrations in surface water continued from the middle 1960s until the Chernobyl accident. After the accident ten different radionuclides were detected in surface waters, but only 137Cs made a minor contribution the radiation dose. The maximum effective dose via ingestion of water was about 0.001 mSv in 1986, and considerably lower in the following years

  13. Small-scale hydro power in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At present there are around 150 operating small-scale hydro power plants in Finland, the power generating capacity of which varies between 50 and 1000 kW. The annual output in terms of produced energy is about 270 GWh which accounts for only 0.5 % of the total consumption of electricity. The plants are mainly owned by electricity distributing companies and industry. There are numerous old dams and abandoned small hydro power stations, once used as power source for flour mills and saw mills. The role of overall energy economics is reviewed in this article, as well as the increase potential for small-scale hydro power and the international cooperation in this field. The potential for small-scale hydro power in Finland has been estimated to be 370 MW in 1580 falls, of which 45 MW is used at 150 stations. Easily exploitable sites, usually with abandoned station or dam were calculated to be around 80 MW, corresponding to an annual energy output at 350 GWh

  14. A review of the seismotectonics of Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent major improvements in our knowledge about seismicity, crustal structure, primary stress field and tectonics together with other extensive geophysical and geological investigations have provided a good basis for a review of the seismotectonic setting of Finland. Correlations have been found to be present for the seismicity in Finland with the seismotectonic zones inside the Baltic Shield and with the seismicity of the North Atlantic Ridge. The current stress field in the Fennoscandian Shield seems to be dominated by ridge push forces. This conclusion is based on earthquake focal mechanisms, in-situ stress measurements and geodetic information. The report discusses the possible block movements induced by future glaciation. Location of the seismotectonic zones, duration of the glaciation and the presence of locally anomalous shear stresses seem to relate to the distribution of the discovered post-glacial faults in Fennoscandia. Special attention is paid to local seismotectonics. Potential direct or indirect effects on underground openings are possible due to local earthquakes or the creep. The importance of slow deformation processes in the bedrock is emphasized. (orig.)

  15. Electricity statistics for Finland 1997; Saehkoetilasto 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kangas, H.; Savolainen, T. [Adato Energia Oy, Helsinki (Finland)

    1998-12-01

    Until 1995 the electrical statistics information has according to the law about electric utilities and facilities been collected and handled by the Electrical Inspectorate. In 1996 the work was done by the Finnish Electricity Association and it was commissioned by the Ministry of Trade and Industry. Since 1996 the collection and handling of the information is based on the Electricity Market Act. The information is mainly submitted by the producers and distributors of electricity and processed since 1997 in Adato Energia Oy owned jointly by Finnish Energy Industries Federation, Finnish District Heating Association and Finnish Electricity Association. This action is based on a mutual contract of the Statistics Finland, Adato Energia Oy, Finnish Energy Industries Federation and Finnish Electricity Association. The Electricity Statistics for Finland 1997 contains several summaries about the consumption and the production. There is also summaries about the networks, the effects of electricity, the capacities of electricity, the fuels used in production and the dwellings heated by electric power. Like before a list of names, addresses, persons and telephone numbers is available. Additionally a list comprising the power consumption in all Finnish communes and a glossary in three languages (Finnish, Swedish and English) are included

  16. Energy and sustainable development in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.N. World Summit on Environment and Development in Rio de Janeiro in June 1992 was the origin of the international framework for sustainable development. As a basis for joint, sustainable action by governments, organizations, industries, and the public, the participating countries signed the Rio Declaration on Environment and Development, and drafted the associated action program, Agenda 21. Sustainable development comprises these three determinant factors: - Economy. - Ecology. - Social aspects. This is where entrepreneurial responsibility for society comes in. If industries want to generate overall positive effects, they must be efficient, competitive, and profitable on a long-term basis. Power supply systems meeting the criteria of sustainable development must be reliable, economically viable, socially acceptable, and environmentally compatible. The power supply in Finland is meeting these sustainability requirements in many ways. Finland's electricity supply is decentralized, using a variety of energy sources. Electricity can be generated and made available at low cost. The Finnish power industry is an important employer and a major factor in the economy. Moreover, electricity is generated in advanced types of power plants. In this way, the structure of the Finnish power supply system incorporates important factors of sustainable development. (orig.)

  17. Increased UV exposure in Finland in 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exceptionally low total ozone, up to 40% below the normal level, was measured over Northern Europe during winter and spring in 1992 and 1993. In 1993 the depletion persisted up to the end of May, resulting in a significant increase of biologically effective UV radiation. The increases were significantly smaller in 1992 and 1994 than in 1993. The UV exposure of the Finnish population was evaluated through measurements and theoretical calculations. The increase in measured erythemal (International Lighting Commission) UV falling onto horizontal surfaces on clear days was determined relative to model calculations for an average ozone amount. The increase was on average 10% from April to May 1993, and the maximal measured increase was 34%. Theoretical calculations for both erythemal and carcinogenic (Skin Cancer Utrecht-Philadelphia) UV indicated that in 1993 the theoretical annual increase to a vertical (cylinder) surface ranged from 8 to 13% in Finland. The reflection of UV from snow considerably increases facial UV doses in Northern Finland. (author)

  18. Increased UV exposure in Finland in 1993.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokela, K; Leszczynski, K; Visuri, R; Ylianttila, L

    1995-07-01

    Exceptionally low total ozone, up to 40% below the normal level, was measured over Northern Europe during winter and spring in 1992 and 1993. In 1993 the depletion persisted up to the end of May, resulting in a significant increase of biologically effective UV radiation. The increases were significantly smaller in 1992 and 1993 than in 1993. The UV exposure of the Finnish population was evaluated through measurements and theoretical calculations. The increase in measured erythemal (International Lighting Commission) UV falling onto horizontal surfaces on clear day was determined relative to model calculations for an average ozone amount. The increase was on average 10% from April to May 1993, and the maximal measured increase was 34%. Theoretical calculations for both erythemal and carcinogenic (Skin Cancer Utrecht--Philadelphia) UV indicated that in 1993 the theoretical annual increase to a vertical (cylinder) surface ranged from 8 to 13% in Finland. The reflection of UV from snow considerably increases facial UV doses in Northern Finland. PMID:7638253

  19. Carbon Storage Potential of Forest Land: A Comparative Study of Cases in Finland and Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Tijardović

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: The concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere have been increasing over the last hundred years in relation to the Fourth IPCC assessment report that highlighted human activities as a direct influence on climate changes. Since Croatia and Finland signed the Kyoto Protocol, they are both committed to fulfil international obligations of lowering GHG’s emissions, enhancing the storage, as well as protecting and enhancing the current pools where the forestry sector has a prominent role. These obligations created a need for a review on carbon storage potentials for both countries with the aim of setting further scientific and management guidelines as the basic purpose of this research. Materials and Methods: Data collection was conducted within the scope of the Sort Term Scientific Mission (STSM in the period from May 2 – July 22, 2009 in the Finnish Forest Research Institute in Joensuu. The research encompassed an overview of literature, personal contacts with scientists and experts from both countries (research institutes, ministries, the EFI branch office in Joensuu and a field inspection which altogether provided an insight into the applied silvicultural and utilization activities. A significant data source were official documents and published project results on the carbon storage potential. Results and Discussion: Mitigation activities within the framework of the LULUCF project reduced the total emissions for 33.4 millions tons of CO2 equivalents in Finland in 2006 (this data has varied from 18 to 33.4 millions tons CO2 equivalents in the last fifteen years while for Croatia the availability of such data is limited. Finland has some former agricultural land which may be afforested but not in the substantial share, while in Croatia such areas amount to around 1 million ha. According to the climate change scenario for Finland (FINADAPT, predicting the largest climate changes, the total forest growth

  20. Payments for Improved Ecostructure (PIE): Funding for the Coexistence of Humans and Wolves in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiedanpää, Juha; Kalliolevo, Hanna; Salo, Matti; Pellikka, Jani; Luoma, Mikael

    2016-09-01

    The gray wolf ( Canis lupus) is a source of concern and a cause of damage to people's livelihoods. In Finland, as in most countries, actual damages are compensated according to the real lost value. However, often, the suffered damages are larger than what is compensated, and worries and fears are not accounted for at all. The purpose of our transdisciplinary action research is to contribute to the process of modifying the scientific, administrative, and everyday habits of mind in order to meet the practical prerequisites of living with the wolf. In 2014, we planned and participated in a process designed to update Finland's wolf population management plan. During our study, we applied e-deliberation, conducted a national wolf survey, and organized solution-oriented workshops in wolf territory areas around Finland. By applying abductive reasoning, we illustrate the basic features of an economic scheme that would help finance and coordinate practical modifications to the ecological, economic, and institutional circumstances and settings in wolf territory areas. The potential economic instrument is based on payments for improved ecostructures. In our paper, we describe the organization, functioning, and financing of this instrument in detail.

  1. Basic professional training course on nuclear safety - Finland YK4 preface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication comprises the abstracts of the YK4 basic professional training course on nuclear safety arranged now for fourth time in Finland. Part of the abstracts has again been updated for this publication. When more renewed abstracts are received during the YK4 course, they are put in the distance learning pages of Lappeenranta University of Technology (LUT) being thus immediately available for the participants. In the fall of 2002, Finnish organizations re-evaluated the man-power situation and established an organizing committee to develop and organize basic post-graduate professional training of new recruits and staff members; especially for the acute needs of the new NPP project, but also to provide in the long-term a new generation of nuclear experts to replace the present generation which will retire within the next ten years. The organizing committee included representatives of the following organizations: Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority STUK, nuclear power utilities TVO and Fortum, the Technical Research Centre of Finland VTT, the Lappeenranta (LUT) and Helsinki Universities of Technology (TKK), and the Ministry of Trade and Industry, KTM. The committee decided to promptly organize a national training course on nuclear safety based on a similar course developed by the IAEA: the course structure and syllabus are alike. Although part of the course material is based on the IAEA material, it has been adapted to the Finnish conditions, and a large part of the material is completely new. The Finnish application aims to make visible different standpoints of all organizations and the location of the five-week course rotates between different organizations. In the academic year 2006-2007, the course is starting fourth time as YK4. There are again over 100 lecturers and rehearsal, demonstration or excursion leaders. Half of them come from the utilities TVO and Fortum, a quarter from the authority STUK, and the rest from VTT, universities and others. The

  2. Development of slow pyrolysis business operations in Finland - Hidaspyro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fagernaes, L.; Arpiainen, V.; Oasmaa, A. (VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland)), email: leena.fagernas@vtt.fi; Tiilikkala, K.; Lindqvist, I.; Lindqvist, B. (MTT Agrifood Research Finland, Jokioinen (Finland)), email: kari.tiilikkala@mtt.fi; Setaelae, H.; Hagner, M. (Univ. of Helsinki, Dept. of Ecological and Environmental Sciences (Finland)), email: heikki.setala@helsinki.fi

    2009-10-15

    Birch distillate, a new innovation in biological plant protection, is obtained as a by-product in charcoal production by slow pyrolysis process. MTT and University of Helsinki found during the recent years it to be a promising source for many kinds of biological pesticides. However, in the commercialization of the product there are still problems. The research is being continued during 2008-2011 within a new joint project of VTT, MTT and University of Helsinki. The primary aim of this project is to support and develop slow pyrolysis business operations of small and medium-sized enterprises by generating knowledge that the enterprises need in the commercialization of the products. The tasks include optimization of product lines, development of business concepts, characterization of the products, and ensuring constant quality of the products. In addition, potential uses for the distillate and tar products, EU registration requirements, and environmental impacts of the products are determined. (orig.)

  3. Evaluation and modeling of the size fractionated aerosol number concentration measurements near a major road in Helsinki

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Hussein

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available This study presents an evaluation and modeling of the size fractionated aerosol number concentrations that were measured near a major road of Itäväylä in Helsinki, during 23 August – 19 September 2003 and 14 January – 11 February 2004. The measurement system contained also electronic traffic counts, on-site meteorological measurements, and urban background concentration measurements. We have evaluated the temporal variations and the dependencies on local meteorological conditions of the measured aerosol number concentrations and size distributions. The ultrafine particle (UFP number concentrations at the roadside site were approximately an order of magnitude higher than those at the urban background site during daytime, due to vehicular emissions from the road. We also determined the statistical correlations of the sequential time series of the particle number size distributions at the roadside site, and the traffic densities. The computed Pearson correlation coefficients for the downwind cases were substantially high for UFP's (>0.6, and low for accumulation mode particles; the latter is due to the substantial contribution of long-range transported particles in that size range. We also utilized this dataset for evaluating the performance of a modeling system that consists of a roadside dispersion model CAR-FMI (Contaminants in the Air from a Road – Finnish Meteorological Institute, a meteorological pre-processing model MPP-FMI and an aerosol process model UHMA (University of Helsinki Model for Aerosol processes. Model simulations underpredicted the particle number concentrations at the measurement site, which was caused by uncertainties in the emission modeling, especially in the UFP size range.

  4. 137Cs in freshwater fish in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper deals with an evaluation of the importance of Finnish freshwater fish as a source of 137Cs in the diet. Freshwater fish were analysed for 137Cs in 1982. The 137Cs concentration factors from water to edible fish were determined for the same year. The evaluation is based on an extensive surface water investigation performed from 1965 to 1967. Along with the continuous fallout monitoring since the beginning of the 1960'es, this material makes it possible to valuate the 137Cs levels in surface water right up to the 1980'es. In 1982 the Finns received an average of 90 Bq 137Cs from freshwater fish. This dose constitutes a quarter of the 137Cs uptake from the total food consumtion in Finland in 1982

  5. Kuvapankkipalvelun kehitys BTJ Finland Oy:lle

    OpenAIRE

    Karjalainen, Eemeli

    2016-01-01

    Tässä opinnäytetyössä kerrotaan kuvapankkiprojektista, joka toteutettiin osana työharjoittelua yrityksessä BTJ Finland. Työssä kuvaillaan myös projektin aikana käytettyä jatkuvan kehittämisen menetelmää, eli CI-mallia. Työn tavoitteena oli projektin kuvaamisen ohella käsitellä jatkuvan kehittämisen menetelmän hyötyjä, haittoja sekä siihen sisältyviä haasteita. Projektin tavoitteena puolestaan oli kehittää kuvapankkipalvelu, joka tulisi ensisijaisesti Helsingin kaupunginkirjaston käyttöön. ...

  6. Natural radionuclides in ground water in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A nationwide survey of the natural radioactivity in drinking water was conducted in Finland throughout the 1970s and has continued in the 1980s with the emphasis on drinking water originating from drilled wells, which may be rich in natural radionuclides (mean 222Rn 1020 Bq.l-1, maximum 77,000 Bq.l-1). Between 1981 and 1987, 3000 ground water samples were analysed for 222Rn, some of them for gross alpha and beta, 226Ra, 210Pb, 210Po and U. In recent years the occurrence of 210Pb and 210Po in ground water has been studied. Preliminary results suggest that the contribution of 210Pb and 210Po to the total annual effective dose equivalent is higher than the contribution of 226Ra or U in that water. (author)

  7. Research News from Norway, Sweden, and Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Skjenneberg

    1986-06-01

    Full Text Available Norge: 1 Forskningsavd ved Reindriftsadministrasjonen. 2 Avd. for arktisk biologi, Univ. i Tromsø 3 Viltforskningen ved DN, Trondheim 4 Institutt for biologi og geologi, Univ. i Tromsø 5 Institutt for husdyrnæring, Norges landbrukshøgskole 6 Institutt for zoologi, Norges landbrukshøgskole 7 Stipendiat Norges landbruksvit. forskningsråd 8 Statens veterinære laboratorium i Nord-Norge Sverige: 1 Renförsöksavdelningen, Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet 2 Statens veterinärmedicinska anstalt 3 Statens naturvårdsverk Finland: 1 Vilt- och fiskeriforskningsinstitutet, Renforskning 2 Kaamanen försöksstation, Renägareföreningen 3 Veterinärmedicinska högskolan 4 Helsingfors universitets husdjursvetenskapliga institut 5 Kuopios och Uleåborgs universiteter 6 Helsingfors universitets geologiska institut 7 Jyväskyläs universitet 8 Lantbrukets forskningscentral

  8. Sweden, Finland and the German energy policy turnaround

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After the nuclear catastrophe in Fukushima Finland and Sweden have chosen completely different paths compared to Germany: both countries plan to build new nuclear power plants. The contribution discusses the historical development of nuclear power in these countries. In Sweden a political polarization exists between those who want to use renewable energies and those who expect increasing greenhouse gas emissions in case of nuclear power phaseout. In Finland no important anti-nuclear movement has been formed. The authors do not expect a change of policy in Sweden and Finland.

  9. Radioactive contamination of the forests of southern Poland and Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experimental data of caesium and ruthenium radioactivity in chosen parts of forest ecosystems in Finland and Southern Poland are presented and compared. Measurements were performed with a low-background gamma-rays spectrometer with the Ge(Li) detector. The maximum caesium 137 activity in litter from Poland is 2.5 kBq, in that from Finland 3.9 kBq, in spruce needles it is 0.4 kBq (Poland), 0.9 kBq (Finland) and in fern leaves it is as high as 15.9 kBq per kg of dry mass in one sample from Poland. (author)

  10. ABCGheritage project - promoting geotourism in northern Finland, northern Norway and the Kola Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pihlaja, Jouni; Johansson, Peter; Lauri, Laura S.

    2014-05-01

    Nature tourism has been a growing business sector in the Barents area during the recent decades. With the purpose to develop nature tourism in a sustainable way, a cooperation project ABCGheritage - Arctic Biological, Cultural and Geological Heritage has been carried out. Project has received partial funding from the EU Kolarctic ENPI program. In the geoheritage part of the project the main activities were aimed to develop pro-environmental ways of geotourism in the area. The three main participants in the geoheritage part of the project are the Geological Survey of Finland, Northern Finland Office, the Geological Institute of the Kola Science Centre of the Russian Academy of Sciences and Bioforsk Soil and Environment from northeastern Norway. The duration of the project is 2012-2014 and most of the work has already been completed even if most of the results are not published yet. Totally ten different tasks have been implemented in the geological part of the project. The largest task has been the preparation of a geological outdoor map and guide book of the Khibiny Tundra locating in the central part of the Kola Peninsula. In Finland already 11 such maps have been published, and the experiences gained during their production have been used in this project, too. Geological heritage trails to the Khibiny Tundra have also been created and they will be drawn on the map. The second concrete result is the Barents Tour for Geotourist -guide, which will be published as a guide book, web pages and an exhibition. The route comprises ca 35 best geological demonstration sites along the circle route from northern Finland to northeastern Norway, from there to Kola Peninsula and then back to Finland. Information of the route will be available for all interested travelers. In addition to the geological outdoor map of the Khibiny Tundra and "Barents Tour for Geotourists"-guide, the primary outputs of the project are the geological nature trails on the field, geological

  11. Fifteen years of heating enterprise in southern Finland; Laempoeyrittaejyyttae Uudellamaalla jo 15 vuotta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vuorio, K.; Lahdensaari-Natt, L., Email: kari.vuorio@tts.fi, Email: liisa.lahdensaari@tts.fi

    2013-06-01

    Heating entrepreneurs produce heat locally and sell heat to the end user at an agreed price. Heat is usually produced by burning wood chips from the companys own forests or from the surrounding forests. There were more than 500 heating plants run by heating entrepreneurs in Finland in the beginning of 2012. Some thirty of them were situated in the area of Uusimaa in southern Finland. It seems that heating entrepreneurship is steadily gaining ground, since the amount of heating plants has increased annually by around twenty. TTS-Tyoetehoseura (Work Efficiency Institute) started the nationwide research and development of heating entrepreneurship in 1993. At that time there were only three heating companies in Finland. The first started to operate in Uusimaa during 1994-1998. Among the first heating plants to be built in 1998 were Perttula Vocational School (KEUDA) with 500 kiloWatts capacity in Nurmijaervi, Ohkola school with 200 kiloWatts capacity in Maentsaelae and the Vaestankvarn schoolfarm with 700 kiloWatts capacity in Inkoo, of which we will give more info about in this bulletin. (orig.)

  12. Tobacco industry strategy to undermine tobacco control in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Hiilamo, H

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To identify and explain tobacco industry strategy in undermining tobacco control measures in Finland and results of these interferences in tobacco policy development during the 1980s and early 1990s.

  13. Estimating of two different kinds of forest damage mechanisms in southeastern Finland. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The spatial distribution and seriousness of pine damages as well as the occurrence of two different kinds of damage mechanisms in southeastern Finland were estimated on the basis of chemical needle element analysis, visual pine damage classification, and needle reflection photography. The needle samples were collected in April, 1991 using 79 study areas. The areas were situated in back areas of southeastern Finland, (i.e. 5-10 km from the nearest urban area). The concentrations of boron, calcium, chlorine, magnesium, manganese, total nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium, and sulphur in needles were analyzed using both the first and second needle year classes. According to visual pine damage classification, the most severe pine damages were located near emission sources and along a highway. The needle element results indicated most of the trees in our study areas had a potassium deficiency, which was causing nutrient imbalances and probably changes in nitrogen metabolism. There was an increased sulphur content in the needles of the severely damaged areas, especially in the older needles. The results of the field infrared photography indicated that the undamaged trees reflected more than the damaged ones as one sum vector between 750-840 nm. (orig.)

  14. MARKETING OF MUSIC FESTIVALS IN FINLAND : Case Study on Websites

    OpenAIRE

    Kurikkala, Jonna

    2012-01-01

    The thesis was commissioned to provide support material to the course Festival and Event Management which is taught by Raili Häggblom in Central Ostrobothnia University of Applied Sciences. The subject of the thesis was Marketing of Festivals in Finland - Case study on websites. The aim of this thesis was to provide a comprehensive look on the marketing of festivals in Finland by presenting marketing theories, such as, visual marketing, branding and social media as well as analyzing some ...

  15. Promotion of electricity from renewable energy sources in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Pozdnyakova, Liudmila

    2009-01-01

    The main purpose of this case was to study the development of energy projects from renewable energy sources and green energy promotion in Finland. A further aim was to establish whether the development takes purely economic turn and if there is a need for improvement of green energy promotion. The research was based on comparison and analysis of wind energy development in Finland, Germany and the Netherlands. Special attention was given to the development of promotional strategies and pol...

  16. Service design for Chinese restaurant management in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Yan

    2011-01-01

    The main objective of the thesis is focused on understanding the service and operation model of Chinese restaurants in Finland, identifying the gaps between the service suppliers’ and the customers’ view on service quality and trying to find out the best Chinese restaurant service design in Finland. The conceptual framework of the thesis is based on the service design, the scale to measure the service quality - SERVQUAL model, and the comparison of Finnish and Chinese food culture and...

  17. Raising the Profile of Sign Language Teachers in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    De Weerdt, Danny; Salonen, Juhana; Liikamaa, Arttu

    2016-01-01

    Sign language teaching in Finland has a long history. In contrast, sign language teacher training programs and research into the sign languages of Finland both know a short history. Due to this contrast, the field of sign language teaching nowadays can be seen as the ‘Wild West’. Till today, teachers from different backgrounds do teach sign language. We do not have a clear picture of what knowledge or competencies are expected from these teachers. In this article we would like ...

  18. Business Culture Differences in Communication between Finland and Tunisia

    OpenAIRE

    Jemaiel, Karima

    2013-01-01

    The topic for this thesis is the business culture differences in communication between Finland and Tunisia. The business world is increasingly international which means that the business men and women should acknowledge the cultural differences which they are facing when conducting business in a foreign culture. The objective of this thesis was to identify business culture differences between Finland and Tunisia. By identifying the culture differences this thesis was able to find answers...

  19. A Critical Evaluation of the MARS Treatment in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Kantola, Taru

    2010-01-01

    The Molecular Adsorbent Recirculating System (MARS) is an extracorporeal albumin dialysis device which is used in the treatment of liver failure patients. This treatment was first utilized in Finland in 2001, and since then, over 200 patients have been treated. The aim of this thesis was to evaluate the impact of the MARS treatment on patient outcome, the clinical and biochemical variables, as well as on the psychological and economic aspects of the treatment in Finland. This thesis...

  20. Creating an Internet travel platform about Finland for Russian customers

    OpenAIRE

    Granberg, Liubov

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to find out the potential to develop travel Internet platform about Finland for Russian customers. Finland is a particular attractive destination for Russian tourists. A massive market eager for travel, the Russian Federation has become Europe’s third largest source market. The mission of new Internet platform would be to offer a more complete spectrum of services to Russian customers, make personal trips according to their preferences. In this paper we will address ...

  1. International migration between Finland and the Baltic Sea Region

    OpenAIRE

    ELLI HEIKKILÄ

    2006-01-01

    Immigration from the former socialist countries into Western Europe generally increased after the fall of the Iron Curtain. This was also apparent with respect to the Nordic labour markets and Finland where the share of immigrants grew from countries around the Baltic Sea Region. The main immigrant groups come to Finland from Sweden, Russia and Estonia. Immigration from Poland, Lithuania and Latvia has not played such an important role. This paper analyses the volume and integration of immigr...

  2. Vietnamese Immigrant Entrepreneurship in Finland: Motivation and Obstacles

    OpenAIRE

    Trinh, Quyen

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine the motivations and obstacles to Vietnamese immigrant entrepreneurship in Finland. In theoretical part, the main issue was to define different concepts of entrepreneurship, immigrant and immigrant entrepreneur. Further, theories of motivational and obstacle factors were reviewed. In the next part, previous studies about immigration history of Finland were retrieved. Multiple research method was adopted, combining both quantitative and quali...

  3. Full case study report. PolarShiitake Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Risku-Norja, Helmi

    2015-01-01

    PolarShiitake Ltd. is a family enterprise cultivating organic shiitake mushrooms (Lentinus edodes) in the pure natural environment in northern Carelia, Finland. It is a small family enterprise with very specific niche product, the shiitake mushrooms. The enterprise was founded in 1999, but the history of PolarShiitake dates back to 1984, when shiitake production started in the same location in Eastern Finland. The production has continued in Rääkkylä without interruption since then. The ...

  4. Mathematics background of engineering students in Northern Ireland and Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Cole, Jonathan S.; McCartan, Charles D.; Tuohi, Raija; Steinby, Paula

    2014-01-01

    The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development investigated numeracy proficiency among adults of working age in 23 countries across the world. Finland had the highest mean numeracy proficiency for people in the 16 – 24 age group while Northern Ireland’s score was below the mean for all the countries. An international collaboration has been undertaken to investigate the prevalence of mathematics within the secondary education systems in Northern Ireland and Finland, to highlight pa...

  5. Chinese students' perceptions of cooperative learning in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Ying

    2015-01-01

    International students from China continue to have a strong presence in European tertiary institutions, however, only a limited number of studies can be found about their learning experiences and their perceptions towards western educational practices. How Chinese students in Finland perceive cooperative learning is the focus of this study, while different education cultures between China and Finland is identified as the dominant element that may determine students’ beliefs and their choices ...

  6. Early childhood education and care partnership in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Kc, Anupama

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to describe and find Early Childhood Education and Care partnership (ECEC) in a certain day-care of Finland. The objective of the study was to find answers to two questions: 1) what is ECEC partnership and how does it work in Finland; and 2) what are parents’ opinions and suggestions regarding the ECEC partnership. The thesis is based on qualitative research. Unstructured interview was conducted with five different parents for obtaining the data. The designed...

  7. Forest Energy Project of Central Finland; Keski-Suomen metsaeenergiaprojekti

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahokas, M. [Regional Council of Central Finland, Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Kuitto, P.J. [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland). Fuel Production

    1997-12-01

    The Forest Energy Project of Central Finland (1994 - 1996) was one of the leading regional demonstration projects in Finland for testing and studying of the complete energy wood delivery chains and energy wood utilisation. The target of this provincial project was to collect and demonstrate the most promising energy wood procurement technologies and methods for utilisation of energy producers, forest industry and small and medium sized industries co- operating with forest owners, contractors and forest organisations. The project was a large development and technology transfer venture concentrated primarily on practical needs. Total delivery chains were formed of the best machine and method alternatives, and they were also demonstrated. The project offered hence a wide test field for regional and national techno / economical wood fuel development. The Forest Energy Project of Central Finland was a demonstration project supervised by the Regional Council of Central Finland. The project was a part of the national Bioenergy Research Programme. VTT Energy and the Forestry Board of Central Finland were responsible for the practical development work. A large number of provincial partners interested in wood fuels took part in the project. The project were carried out during the years 1994 - 1996. The total costs were 4.4 million FIM. The aim is to create a practical model for the entire system, by which enables the economically profitable increment of the utilisation of chip fuels in Central Finland by 100 GWh/1996 and 500 GWh/a (about 250 000 m{sup 3}) to the end of the decade. (orig.)

  8. Finland`s second report under the framework convention on climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    Finland is an industrialized country with extensive forest lands. Because of the structure of industry and the country`s geophysical conditions, large amounts of energy are consumed. In 1995, CO{sub 2} emissions from fossil fuels and peat and from industry totalled 56 Tg, as compared to 54 Tg in 1990. Wood burning released another 21 Tg of CO{sub 2} in 1995, but this is not counted in total emissions because even more carbon was bound up in the growing stock in the forests. Methane (CH{sub 4}) emissions totalled 241 Gg in 1995, nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) 18 Gg, nitrogen oxides 259 Gg, carbon monoxide (CO) 434 Gg and volatile organic compounds from human activities (NMVOC) 182 Gg. Emissions other than carbon dioxide were jointly equivalent to some 25 Tg of CO{sub 2} in terms of their direct or indirect greenhouse effect. These estimates are consistent wish the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) guidelines for estimating national greenhouse gas emissions and sinks. The minor deviations from the guidelines have been presented in this report. Trends in national greenhouse gas emissions and sinks to 2000 and beyond have been estimated in consultation with appropriate government departments, industry sectors, research institutions and other bodies. Wherever possible, these projections take into account the effect of current and planned policies and measures aimed at reducing emissions and enhancing sinks. The main focus in Finland`s climate strategy is to intensify those programmes for reducing greenhouse gas emissions that are already under way, such as efficiency improvements in the energy production and utilization system, and use of energy and carbon taxes. As well as limiting emissions of CO{sub 2} and other greenhouse gases, the Finnish action programme also includes measures to enhance carbon reservoirs and sinks. In its energy report to Parliament in autumn 1993, the Government adopted the goals of stopping increases in CO{sub 2} emissions from

  9. Firewood processing devices in Finland 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Forestry Bulletin presents a review of the market situation for firewood processing devices in Finland during March 2002. The review is based on a questionnaire sent to device manufacturers. The firewood processing devices have traditionally been divided into three groups according to their functions: cross-cutting devices, splitting devices and cross-cutting and splitting devices. With a cross-cutting device the tree can be cross-cut only. Because it is easily possible to build the splitting function into a cross-cutting device, merely manufacturing a cross-cutting devices is rare. In all the splitting machines on the market, the splitting is carried out on a horizontally operated hydraulic cylinder pushing against a splitting blade. The types of cross-cutting blade mostly used in cross-cutting and splitting devices are circular i.e. circular saw blade, and chain saw. These devices are called firewood sawing machines. In firewood chopping machines that have a chopping blade, the wood is cross-cut using a spiral or guillotine blade. The splitting is done by a wedge blade or an axe blade. The firewood chopping machines can cross-cut and split stems up to a maximum of 20-22 cm in diameter. Circular blade firewood machines use either a cone screw or hydraulic cylinder and counter blade for splitting. They can handle wood of 20-30 cm thick in diameter. Machines using a chain saw can process stems of a maximum 30-45 cm thick in diameter. All firewood machines that work with a chain saw use a hydraulic cylinder and counter blade for splitting. According to the questionnaire responses, there were 14 (12 Finnish, one Norwegian and one Italian) manufacturers of firewood processing devices in the market. There were over 80 device models. There were only three cross-cutting devices, thirty splitting devices and forty cross-cutting splitting devices. The price range of the devices was 500-66,000 euros (including 22% VAT). According to the MTT Agrifood Research Finland

  10. Use of forest chips in Finland. Position paper for 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finland has decided to raise the energy use of forest chips to 5 million m3 solid by 2010. This corresponds to 0.9 million tonnes of oil equivalent. In order to monitor the ongoing development and the effectiveness of energy policy matters, the Wood Energy Technology Program of Tekes executed a survey of the use of forest chips in 1999. Forest chips were used in 135 heating plants (minimum size 0,5 MW), 21 power plants, and several thousands of small buildings and farm houses. The commercial use was 567 000 m3 solid and small-scale non- commercial use 180 000 m3 solid. The use of forest chips is increasing rapidly especially in combined production of heat and electricity. The report gives information on the use in plants of different size, seasonal variation of use, raw material sources of chips, moisture content of chips, and the development of prices. During the 1990s, the average price of forest chips was reduced by 35 %. In 1999, the average price at the plant was 61 FIM/MWh for whole-tree chips, 44 FIM/MWh for chips reduced from logging residues from forest regeneration areas, and 53 FIM/MWh for the entire flow of forest chips, VAT excluded. (orig.)

  11. Seafloor mapping at Olkiluoto western coast of Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilmarinen, K.; Leinikki, J.; Oulasvirta, P. (Alleco Oy, Helsinki (Finland))

    2009-02-15

    The objective of the study was to investigate the seafloor of shallow areas around Olkiluoto island, western Finland. The surveys were carried out by Alleco Ltd. Posiva will use the data for modeling purposes. The investigations included bathymetric surveys, sediment sampling and assessment of benthic macrophytes and macrozoobenthos in the underwater parts of six pre-defined survey transects extending from land to the sea. Sediment sampling and the assessment of benthic organisms were done by SCUBA diving. The study area showed a great variation in environmental conditions. Olkiluoto stands between almost open sea and extremely sheltered river mouth area of Lapinjoki. Two of the transects were more than 7 meters deep and included both hard and soft sand bottom. Whereas rest of the transects were shallow with mostly soft clay, mud and silt bottom. Altogether 27 species of algae including five species of stoneworts (Charophyta), one species of water moss (Bryophyta) and 16 species of vascular plants (Tracheophyta) were found. The most abundant group was vascular plants, between the other groups of macroalgae big differences in the abundance were not seen. Furthermore altogether 43 species of macrozoobenthos (Invertebrata) were found, of which six species were sessile bottom fauna (permanently attached fauna). The most abundant groups in the bottom samples were bivalves (Lamellibranchiata) (996 individuals per m2), snails (Gastropoda) (739 individuals per m2) and polychaetes (Polychaeta) (542 individuals per m2). The total abundance of macrozoobenthos on all transects was 2 899 individuals per m2. The biggest groups by biomass were bivalves (fresh weight 87 054 mg per m2) and polychaetes (fresh weight 12 983 mg per m2). Transect 1 was the richest in number of species of the deep and exposed transects 1 and 2. The transect 5 had the highest diversity of all the shallow soft bottom transects 3, 4, 5 and 5a. The high diversity of the transect 1 and 5 may be explained by

  12. Tree species composition affects the abundance of rowan (Sorbus aucuparia L.) in urban forests in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamberg, Leena; Lehvävirta, Susanna; Kotze, D Johan; Heikkinen, Juha

    2015-03-15

    Recent studies have shown a considerable increase in the abundance of rowan (Sorbus aucuparia) saplings in urban forests in Finland, yet the reasons for this increase are not well understood. Here we investigated whether canopy cover or tree species composition, i.e., the basal areas of different tree species in Norway spruce dominated urban forests, affects the abundances of rowan seedlings, saplings and trees. Altogether 24 urban forest patches were investigated. We sampled the number of rowan and other saplings, and calculated the basal areas of trees. We showed that rowan abundance was affected by tree species composition. The basal area of rowan trees (≥ 5 cm in diameter at breast height, dbh) decreased with increasing basal area of Norway spruce, while the cover of rowan seedlings increased with an increase in Norway spruce basal area. However, a decrease in the abundance of birch (Betula pendula) and an increase in the broad-leaved tree group (Acer platanoides, Alnus glutinosa, Alnus incana, Amelanchier spicata, Prunus padus, Quercus robur, Rhamnus frangula and Salix caprea) coincided with a decreasing number of rowans. Furthermore, rowan saplings were scarce in the vicinity of mature rowan trees. Although it seems that tree species composition has an effect on rowan, the relationship between rowan saplings and mature trees is complex, and therefore we conclude that regulating tree species composition is not an easy way to keep rowan thickets under control in urban forests in Finland. PMID:25588119

  13. Surveillance of Environmental Radiation in Finland. Annual Report 2010; Ympaeristoen saeteilyvalvonta Suomessa. Vuosiraportti 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mustonen, R.

    2011-07-01

    This report is the national summary of the results obtained in surveillance of environmental radioactivity in Finland in 2010. The Finnish Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) has produced most of the results, but also the Finnish Meteorological Institute and the Defence Forces Research Institute of Technology have delivered results to this report, on gross beta activity in outdoor air and on airborne radioactive substances, respectively. The surveillance programme on environmental radioactivity contains continuous and automated monitoring of external dose rate in air, regular monitoring of radioactive substances and gross beta activity in outdoor air, radioactive substances in deposition, in surface and drinking water, milk, foodstuffs, and in human body. Also a summary of radioactivity surveillance of the Baltic Sea was added in this report since 2002. In 2009, the programme for the surveillance of environmental radiation was expanded to monitor the occurrence of artificial radionuclides in sludge from the wastewater treatment plant in Helsinki. Sludge is a sensitive indicator of radionuclides that enter the environment since many radionuclides in wastewater are enriched during the water treatment process. The results of 2010 show that artificial radionuclides in the environment originate from the Chernobyl accident in 1986 and from atmospheric nuclear tests performed in 1950's and 1960's. In addition to these, very small amounts of short-lived artificial radioisotopes in outdoor air at three monitoring stations were detected in 2010 (60Co, 54Mn and 241Am). Their concentrations were, however, so small that their appearance had no impact to human health or the environment. The average annual dose of Finns, received from different radiation sources, is about 3.7 millisievert (mSv). Majority of this annual dose is caused by natural radionuclides in soil and bedrock, and by the cosmic radiation. The exposure to radiation of artificial radionuclides

  14. Radioactivity of milk, meat, cereals and other agricultural products in Finland after the Chernobyl accident in 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper describes the surveillance of radioactive substances in agricultural products in Finland after the end of April 1986. The main objective was to assess the dietary intake of fallout radionuclides via milk, meat, cereals and eggs in Finland during the period May-December 1986. In spring 1986 the sampling programmes were extended on the basis of the continuous surveys carried out earlier. The sampling of different types of produce covered a considerable part of the main production areas. The frequency of the sampling was greatly increased from that in previous years, specially in spring and summer, in order to follow the temporal variation in the contents of radionuclides in milk and meat. Gamma-emitting radionuclides, especially ''1''3''1I, ''1''3''4Cs and ''1''3''7Cs, were measured on all samples. ''8''9Sr and ''9''0Sr were determined on the milk and cereal samples used for nationwide assessments. The mean dietary intakes of radionuclides in May-December 1986, calculated from the average consumption of foodstuffs in Finland and the nationwide production-weighted mean mean contents of radionuclides. Contamination of agricultural products due to fallout radionuclides did not cause any restrictions for their use in Finland

  15. Modelling the potential effect of shared bicycles on public transport travel times in Greater Helsinki

    OpenAIRE

    JÀppinen, Sakari; Toivonen, Tuuli; Salonen, Maria

    2013-01-01

    In many European cities, support for public transport and cycling in daily mobility is considered an efficient means to reduce air pollution, traffic jams, and carbon emissions. Shared bicycle systems have turned out effective in increasing cycling in many urban areas, particularly when combined with public transportation. In this study, we make an effort to model a hypothetical shared bike system and quantify its spatial effect on public transport travel times. The study area is one of the f...

  16. Radioactivity of people in Finland in 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After the reactor accident at Chernobyl radioactive fallout was carried by air streams to most parts of Europe. In 1988 radionuclides causing internal contamination were transported to man only via foodchains and no longer via inhalation, as had happened immediately after the Chernobyl accident. To determine the level of radionuclides in the body and to estimate the internal radiation doses caused by the Chemobyl accident, whole-body counting measurements were performed. Nine different groups of people were measured during 1988. Three were local reference groups, two groups of radiation workers, one a population group representing the whole country and three groups representing those with special dietary habits. The weighted mean 137Cs body burden in the population group was 1300 Bq at the end of 1988, the minimum body burden being 50 Bq and the maximum 7700 Bq. The measurement data showed that the maximum body burdens were reached in summer 1987. The group with special diets did not necessarily follow this pattern. The mean effective dose equivalents delivered to people in Finland in 1988, estimated by using the measurement data on the population goup, was 0.05 mSv the corresponding dose equivalent in 1987 being 0.08 mSv

  17. Regulatory concern about economic deregulation in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The deregulation of the electricity market may cause an increased pressure to reduce the costs of electricity generation. This makes a new challenge to the regulatory body to assess the impact of these changes on the safety of nuclear power plants. Accordingly, it is important to identify the risks to the nuclear power industry resulting from the economic deregulation. This paper is to discuss the current situation in Finland with regard to the economic deregulation of the electricity market and the experiences so far. A common view today is that the number of electricity generating power companies will be reduced in Europe because of tough competition in the electricity market. It is expected that only the biggest companies can stand the consequences of tough competition in electricity prices and the consequential pressure to reduce costs. In order to review the impact of deregulation of the electricity market some relevant points have been discussed in this paper, such as change of ownership of power companies due to the economic pressure, the need to cut costs of the companies by reducing the number of their activities and increasing the efficiency in the remaining activities and/or outsourcing of activities. The need to pursue reduction or delay of planned investments in safety upgrades are discussed as well. (author)

  18. Radioactivity of sludge in Finland in 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sewage sludge from municipal wastewater treatment plants was studied to determine its radionuclide concentrations. Measurements were made to find out whether any radionuclides from the nuclear power stations at Loviisa and Olkiluoto and from hospitals and medical laboratories could be detected in sludge additional to those originating from global and Chernobyl fallout. In the treatment process of water, aluminium sulphate sludge is developed at treatment plants using surface water. This kind of sludge was measured since it also concentrates radionuclides. Fallout nuclides from the Chernobyl nuclear power station after the accident predominated in all sewage sludge samples in Finland. In 1987 six different radionuclides originating from the Chernobyl fallout were detected in sewage sludge. In spring when the snow melted and large quantities of run off water flowed into the treatment plants, the activity concentrations clearly increased, but then started decreasing again. At the end of the year the highest measured 137Cs activity concentrations were below 1000 Bq kg-1 dry weight. The highest activity concentration in sludge originated from iodine used fro medical purposes

  19. Nuclear threats and emergency preparedness in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The political and economic upheavals which have taken place in Eastern Europe have had an impact on radiation and nuclear safety throughout Europe. Emergency preparedness systems for unexpected nuclear events have been developed further in all European countries, and prosperous western nations have invested in improving the safety of East European nuclear power plants. The economic crisis facing countries of the former Soviet Union has also promoted illicit trade in nuclear materials; this has made it necessary for various border guards and police authorities to intensify their collaboration and to tighten border controls. On 3-4 October 1995, Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK) arranged a seminar on nuclear threats and emergency preparedness in Finland. In addition to STUK experts, a wide range of rescue and civil defence authorities, environmental health specialists and other persons engaged in emergency preparedness attended the seminar. The publication contains a compilation of reports presented at the seminar. The reports cover a broad spectrum of nuclear threats analyzed at STUK, the impacts of radioactive fallout on human beings and on the environment, and preparedness systems by which the harmful effects of radiation or nuclear accidents can, if necessary, be minimized. (33 figs., 5 tabs.)

  20. Exposure to solar UV in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jokela, K.; Leszczynski, K.; Visuri, R.; Ylianttila, L. [Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety, Helsinki (Finland)

    1995-12-31

    Exceptionally low total ozone, up to 40 % below the normal level, was measured over Northern Europe during winter and spring in 1992 and 1993. In 1993 the depletion persisted up to the end of May, resulting in a significant increase in biologically effective ultraviolet (UV) radiation. The increases were significantly smaller in 1992 and 1994 than in 1993. A special interest in Northern Europe is the effect of high reflection of UV from the snow. The period from the mid March to the mid May is critical in Northern Finland, because in that time the UV radiation is intense enough to cause significant biological effects, and the UV enhancing snow still covers the ground. Moreover, there is some evidence of increasing springtime depletions of ozone over Arctic regions. In this study the increase of UV exposure associated with the ozone depletions was examined with measurements and theoretical calculations. The measurements were carried out with spectroradiometrically calibrated Solar Light Model 500 and 501 UV radiometers which measure the erythemally effective UV doses and dose rates. The theoretical UV doses and dose rates were computed with the clear sky model of Green