WorldWideScience

Sample records for area glare sources

  1. Temporal Glare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ritschel, Tobias; Ihrke, Matthias; Frisvad, Jeppe Revall

    2009-01-01

    Glare is a consequence of light scattered within the human eye when looking at bright light sources. This effect can be exploited for tone mapping since adding glare to the depiction of high-dynamic range (HDR) imagery on a low-dynamic range (LDR) medium can dramatically increase perceived contra...... to initially static HDR images. By conducting psychophysical studies, we validate that our method improves perceived brightness and that dynamic glare-renderings are often perceived as more attractive depending on the chosen scene.......Glare is a consequence of light scattered within the human eye when looking at bright light sources. This effect can be exploited for tone mapping since adding glare to the depiction of high-dynamic range (HDR) imagery on a low-dynamic range (LDR) medium can dramatically increase perceived contrast....... Even though most, if not all, subjects report perceiving glare as a bright pattern that fluctuates in time, up to now it has only been modeled as a static phenomenon. We argue that the temporal properties of glare are a strong means to increase perceived brightness and to produce realistic...

  2. Technical Notes: Glare pollution in Urban areas | Gelan | Zede Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Glare pollution is an unnatural element in the global environment that has emerged as a result of human beings inefficient and destructive use of technology and resources. It refers to the tangible and the intangible interaction of natural light reflecting off synthetic materials, for example sunlight on rooftops, walls, windows, ...

  3. Flying GLARE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beumler, T.

    2004-01-01

    At the end of the second millennium did the aircraft industry decide for the first time to apply the fiber metal laminate GLARE in a large quantity on a civil transport aircraft. It was focused on an application of the material on the pressurised fuselage, the decision driven by the demand for

  4. Evaluation of Glare at the Ivanpah Solar Electric Generating System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, Clifford K. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sims, Cianan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Christian, Joshua Mark [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-07-01

    The Ivanpah Solar Electric Generating System (ISEGS), located on I - 15 about 40 miles (60 km) south of Las Vegas, NV, consists of three power towers 459 ft (140 m) tall and over 170,000 reflective heliostats with a rated capacity of 390 MW. Reports of glare from the plant have been submitted by pilots and air traffic controllers and recorded by the Aviation Safety Reporting System and the California Energy Commission since 2013. Aerial and ground - based surveys of the glare were conducted in April, 2014, to identify the cause and to quantify the irradiance and potential ocular impact s of the glare . Results showed that the intense glare viewed from the airspace above ISEGS was caused by he liostats in standby mode that were aimed to the side of the receiver. Evaluation of the glare showed that the retinal irradiance and subtended source angle of the glare from the heliostats in standby were sufficient to cause significant ocular impact (pot ential for after - image) up to a distance of %7E6 miles (10 km), but the values were below the threshold for permanent eye damage . Glare from the receivers had a low potential for after - image at all ground - based monitoring locations outside of the site bound aries. A Letter to Airmen has been issued by the Federal Aviation Administration to notify pilots of the potential glare hazards. Additional measures to mitigate the potential impacts of glare from ISGES are also presented and discussed. This page intentionally left blank

  5. Review of Efforts to Develop a Low-Luminance-Level Disability Glare Tester

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    persists when the image of the glare source falls on the optic nerve head ,” an area without receptors and lateral neural connections. Fry and Alpern...non-neural, scatter-only hypothesis. Around 1965, the CIE asked Vos to head a committee to update the Holladay-Stiles formula. He had recently...Tripathi, and Tripathi, 1997). It grows by increased layering throughout life. The crystalline lens is suspended, like a trampoline , by the zonule

  6. Investigating scintillometer source areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perelet, A. O.; Ward, H. C.; Pardyjak, E.

    2017-12-01

    Scintillometry is an indirect ground-based method for measuring line-averaged surface heat and moisture fluxes on length scales of 0.5 - 10 km. These length scales are relevant to urban and other complex areas where setting up traditional instrumentation like eddy covariance is logistically difficult. In order to take full advantage of scintillometry, a better understanding of the flux source area is needed. The source area for a scintillometer is typically calculated as a convolution of point sources along the path. A weighting function is then applied along the path to compensate for a total signal contribution that is biased towards the center of the beam path, and decreasing near the beam ends. While this method of calculating the source area provides an estimate of the contribution of the total flux along the beam, there are still questions regarding the physical meaning of the weighted source area. These questions are addressed using data from an idealized experiment near the Salt Lake City International Airport in northern Utah, U.S.A. The site is a flat agricultural area consisting of two different land uses. This simple heterogeneity in the land use facilitates hypothesis testing related to source areas. Measurements were made with a two wavelength scintillometer system spanning 740 m along with three standard open-path infrared gas analyzer-based eddy-covariance stations along the beam path. This configuration allows for direct observations of fluxes along the beam and comparisons to the scintillometer average. The scintillometer system employed measures the refractive index structure parameter of air for two wavelengths of electromagnetic radiation, 880 μm and 1.86 cm to simultaneously estimate path-averaged heat and moisture fluxes, respectively. Meteorological structure parameters (CT2, Cq2, and CTq) as well as surface fluxes are compared for various amounts of source area overlap between eddy covariance and scintillometry. Additionally, surface

  7. Glare disability and driving safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babizhayev, M A

    2003-01-01

    Increasing investigation of the visual elements of safe driving environments may be of great benefit to society. Visual disability appears to be only one of many visual factors related to traffic accidents. The purpose of this article was to examine the type of visual impairment mediated by the increased glare sensitivity in adult drivers using the original halometer glare test. In this article, the visual sensory, cognitive and motor functions relevant to driving, their measurement, the epidemiology and prevention of age-associated functional impairments and the relationship of functional impairments to both self-reported driving and the imposition of legal restrictions are reviewed. The problem of night and tunnel driving is the most urgent in relation to the effects of glare from vehicle headlights on motion perception of drivers. The reduced mesopic vision and increased sensitivity to glare are accompanied by an increased risk of nighttime accidents. Elderly drivers and patients with beginning cataract cannot sufficiently fulfill the criteria for night driving ability because of contrast and glare sensitivity. It is indispensable for the parameters mentioned to be carefully measured and for drivers to be informed that night driving ability may be impaired, even if visual acuity is sufficient. It would be advisable for traffic safety if simple tests for contrast and glare sensitivity were implemented for vehicles and/or were regularly added to the requirements for a driver's licence, at least for older drivers. The age, functional status and test result limits should be defined to avoid a risk factor in traffic. Copyright 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel

  8. Glare Spot Phase Doppler Anemometry

    OpenAIRE

    Hespel, Camille; Ren, Kuan Fang; Gréhan, Gérard; Onofri, Fabrice

    2006-01-01

    International audience; The Phase Doppler anemometry has been developed to measure simultaneously the velocity and the size of droplets. The measurement of the refractive index is also necessary since it depends on the temperature and the composition of the particle and its measurement permits both to increase the quality of the diameter measurement and to obtain information on the temperature and/or the composition of the droplets. In this paper, we introduce a Glare Spot Phase Doppler Anemo...

  9. Glare Spot Phase Doppler Anemometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hespel, Camille; Ren, Kuanfang; Gréhan, Gérard; Onofri, Fabrice

    2007-06-01

    The Phase Doppler anemometry has been developed to measure simultaneously the velocity and the size of droplets. The measurement of the refractive index would be also interesting since it depends on the temperature and the composition of the particle and its measurement permits both to increase the quality of the diameter measurement and to obtain information on the temperature and/or the composition of the droplets. In this paper, we introduce a Glare Spot Phase Doppler Anemometry which uses two large beams. In this case, the images of the particle formed by the reflected and refracted light, known as glare spots, are separated in space. When a particle passes in the probe volume, the two parts in a signal obtained by a detector in forward direction are then separated in time. If two detectors are used the phase differences between two signals, the distance and the intensity ratio of reflected and refracted parts can be obtained and they provide rich information about the particle diameter and its refractive index, as well as its velocity. This paper is devoted to the numerical study of such a configuration with two theoretical models: geometrical optics and rigorous electromagnetism solution.

  10. Quantitative evaluation research of glare from automotive headlamps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tiecheng; Qian, Rui; Cao, Ye; Gao, Mingqiu

    2018-01-01

    This study concerns the quantized evaluation research of glare from automotive headlamps. In the actual regulations, only one point in the test screen is set for judging whether driver can bear the light caused by headlamps of opposing vehicle. To evaluating practical effect of glare, we accept a glare zone with the probability distribution information of the oncoming driver's eye position. In this focus area, glare level of headlamp is represented by weighted luminous flux. To confirm the most comfortable illuminance value to human eyes at 50 m, we used test point B50L as observation position, and collected 1,000 subjective evaluation data from 20 test personnel in different ages during two months. Basing on the assessment results, we calculated 0.60 lx as recommended value for standardized testing procedure at 25 m. Then we figured out 0.38 lm as optimum value, and 0.25 / 1.20 lm as limiting values depending on regulations. We tested 40 sample vehicles with different levels to verify the sectional nonlinear quantitative evaluation method we designed, and analyzed the typical test results.

  11. Macular pigment and visual performance in glare: benefits for photostress recovery, disability glare, and visual discomfort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stringham, James M; Garcia, Paul V; Smith, Peter A; McLin, Leon N; Foutch, Brian K

    2011-09-22

    One theory of macular pigment's (MP) presence in the fovea is to improve visual performance in glare. This study sought to determine the effect of MP level on three aspects of visual performance in glare: photostress recovery, disability glare, and visual discomfort. Twenty-six subjects participated in the study. Spatial profiles of MP optical density were assessed with heterochromatic flicker photometry. Glare was delivered via high-bright-white LEDs. For the disability glare and photostress recovery portions of the experiment, the visual task consisted of correct identification of a 1° Gabor patch's orientation. Visual discomfort during the glare presentation was assessed with a visual discomfort rating scale. Pupil diameter was monitored with an infrared (IR) camera. MP level correlated significantly with all the outcome measures. Higher MP optical densities (MPODs) resulted in faster photostress recovery times (average P disability glare contrast thresholds (average P visual discomfort (P = 0.002). Smaller pupil diameter during glare presentation significantly correlated with higher visual discomfort ratings (P = 0.037). MP correlates with three aspects of visual performance in glare. Unlike previous studies of MP and glare, the present study used free-viewing conditions, in which effects of iris pigmentation and pupil size could be accounted for. The effects described, therefore, can be extended more confidently to real-world, practical visual performance benefits. Greater iris constriction resulted (paradoxically) in greater visual discomfort. This finding may be attributable to the neurobiologic mechanism that mediates the pain elicited by light.

  12. Influence of veiling glare in the image intensifier on cinefluorographic sensitometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Eiji; Sanada, Taizo; Hitomi, Go; Ishii, Koushi; Yoshida, Akira

    1998-01-01

    We have experienced variations in the shape of the cinesensitometric curve when the exposure field is greatly altered. The veiling glare that arises from the scattering of x-ray photons, electrons, and light in the x-ray image intensifier (X-I.I.) depends on the size of the exposure field. Also, the effect of adjacent chemicals that occurs during the development process depends on the size of the exposed area on film. The veiling glare in the X-I.I. and the adjacent chemical effect on cine film processing may be responsible for these phenomena. This study investigated the influences of veiling glare on the shape of the cinesensitometric curve. Results showed that the veiling glare of the X-I.I. acts to increase the sensitivity of the cinesensitometric curve on the X-I.I. when the exposed area on the X-I.I. is larger. (author)

  13. Influence of veiling glare in the image intensifier on cinefluorographic sensitometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuda, Eiji; Sanada, Taizo; Hitomi, Go; Ishii, Koushi [Kawasaki Medical School, Kurashiki, Okayama (Japan). Hospital; Yoshida, Akira

    1998-08-01

    We have experienced variations in the shape of the cinesensitometric curve when the exposure field is greatly altered. The veiling glare that arises from the scattering of x-ray photons, electrons, and light in the x-ray image intensifier (X-I.I.) depends on the size of the exposure field. Also, the effect of adjacent chemicals that occurs during the development process depends on the size of the exposed area on film. The veiling glare in the X-I.I. and the adjacent chemical effect on cine film processing may be responsible for these phenomena. This study investigated the influences of veiling glare on the shape of the cinesensitometric curve. Results showed that the veiling glare of the X-I.I. acts to increase the sensitivity of the cinesensitometric curve on the X-I.I. when the exposed area on the X-I.I. is larger. (author)

  14. Consensus and new improvements of disability glare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Wei Zheng

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Patients with early cataract may have normal visual acuity(VAbut complain that they have problems in driving at night, like seeing things through a veil. This phenomenon is defined as disability glare which maybe caused by growing stray light. Patients with intraocular lens following cataract surgery may complain about glare, halos and shadows in visual field, which are also resulted from dysphotopia. Disability glare is the VA loss due to disturbing luminance in visual field. In other words, it's the retinal contrast sensitivity reduction because of the straylight. This article contains the consensus and new progress of disability glare. It provides solutions according to its effect factors and offers clues for further study.

  15. A portable inspection system to estimate direct glare of various LED modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Po-Li; Liao, Chun-Hsiang; Li, Hung-Chung; Jou, Shyh-Jye; Chen, Han-Ting; Lin, Yu-Hsin; Tang, Yu-Hsiang; Peng, Wei-Jei; Kuo, Hui-Jean; Sun, Pei-Li; Lee, Tsung-Xian

    2015-07-01

    Glare is caused by both direct and indirect light sources and discomfort glare produces visual discomfort, annoyance, or loss in visual performance and visibility. Direct glare is caused by light sources in the field of view whereas reflected glare is caused by bright reflections from polished or glossy surfaces that are reflected toward an individual. To improve visual comfort of our living environment, a portable inspection system to estimate direct glare of various commercial LED modules with the range of color temperature from 3100 K to 5300 K was developed in this study. The system utilized HDR images to obtain the illumination distribution of LED modules and was first calibrated for brightness and chromaticity and corrected with flat field, dark-corner and curvature by the installed algorithm. The index of direct glare was then automatically estimated after image capturing, and the operator can recognize the performance of LED modules and the possible effects on human being once the index was out of expecting range. In the future, we expect that the quick-response smart inspection system can be applied in several new fields and market, such as home energy diagnostics, environmental lighting and UGR monitoring and popularize it in several new fields.

  16. Evaluation on Glare from Vehicle Lamps and Effectiveness of Road Components as Glare Barriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mangkuto, R.A.; Paripurna, A.; Soelami, F.X.N.

    2009-01-01

    Vehicle lamps are vital components which are required to ensure the driver’s safety, particularly at nighttime. However, vehicle lamps may cause glare which can reduce visibility and create discomfort. The objectives of this research are to evaluate glare from car headlamp and motorcycle lamps; and

  17. Effects of a blue light-filtering intraocular lens on driving safety in glare conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Rob; Hill, Warren; Neuman, Brooke; Houtman, Diane; Potvin, Richard

    2012-05-01

    To evaluate whether the previously established benefit of blue light-filtering intraocular lenses (IOLs) when driving in glare conditions is maintained in patients previously implanted with a blue light-filtering toric IOL. Department of Applied Psychology, Arizona State University, Mesa, Arizona, USA. Comparative case series. The study comprised patients with a blue light-filtering toric IOL (test IOL) or an ultraviolet (UV)-only filtering nontoric IOL (control IOL). All patients had good visual acuity and a valid driver's license. While wearing best spherocylindrical correction, patients performed left-turn maneuvers in front of oncoming traffic in a driving simulator. The safety margin was defined as the time to collision less the time taken to turn at an intersection with oncoming traffic. Measures were repeated with a glare source simulating low-angle sun conditions (daytime driving). Of the 33 evaluable patients, 18 had a test IOL and 15 had a control IOL. In the presence of glare, patients with test IOLs had significantly greater safety margins (mean 2.676 seconds ± 0.438 [SD]) than patients with control IOLs (mean 2.179 ± 0.343 seconds) and significantly lower glare susceptibility (P<.05). In no-glare and glare conditions, patients with test IOLs had significantly lower glare susceptibility than patients with control IOLs. The blue light-filtering toric IOL produced a significantly greater reduction in glare disability than the UV-only filtering nontoric IOL and increased the ability of drivers to safely execute left turns in low-sun conditions. Dr. Houtman is an employee of Alcon Laboratories, Inc. No other author has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned. Copyright © 2012 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The dark side of photovoltaic — 3D simulation of glare assessing risk and discomfort

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rose, Thomas; Wollert, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) systems form an important force in the implementation of renewable energies, but as we all know, the force has always its dark side. Besides efficiency considerations and discussions about architectures of power distribution networks, the increasing numbers of installations of PV systems for implementing renewable energies have secondary effects. PV systems can generate glare due to optical reflections and hence might be a serious concern. On the one hand, glare could affect safety, e.g. regarding traffic. On the other hand, glare is a constant source of discomfort in vicinities of PV systems. Hence, assessment of glare is decisive for the success of renewable energies near municipalities and traffic zones for the success of solar power. Several courts decided on the change of PV systems and even on their de-installation because of glare effects. Thus, location-based assessments are required to limit potential reflections and to avoid risks for public infrastructure or discomfort of residents. The question arises on how to calculate reflections accurately according to the environment's topography. Our approach is founded in a 3D-based simulation methodology to calculate and visualize reflections based on the geometry of the environment of PV systems. This computational model is implemented by an interactive tool for simulation and visualization. Hence, project planners receive flexible assistance for adjusting the parameters of solar panels amid the planning process and in particular before the installation of a PV system. - Highlights: • Solar panels cause glare that impacts neighborhoods and traffic infrastructures. • Glare might cause disability and discomfort. • 3D environment for the calculation of glare • Interactive tool to simulate and visualize reflections • Impact assessment of solar power plant farms

  19. The dark side of photovoltaic — 3D simulation of glare assessing risk and discomfort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, Thomas; Wollert, Alexander

    2015-04-15

    Photovoltaic (PV) systems form an important force in the implementation of renewable energies, but as we all know, the force has always its dark side. Besides efficiency considerations and discussions about architectures of power distribution networks, the increasing numbers of installations of PV systems for implementing renewable energies have secondary effects. PV systems can generate glare due to optical reflections and hence might be a serious concern. On the one hand, glare could affect safety, e.g. regarding traffic. On the other hand, glare is a constant source of discomfort in vicinities of PV systems. Hence, assessment of glare is decisive for the success of renewable energies near municipalities and traffic zones for the success of solar power. Several courts decided on the change of PV systems and even on their de-installation because of glare effects. Thus, location-based assessments are required to limit potential reflections and to avoid risks for public infrastructure or discomfort of residents. The question arises on how to calculate reflections accurately according to the environment's topography. Our approach is founded in a 3D-based simulation methodology to calculate and visualize reflections based on the geometry of the environment of PV systems. This computational model is implemented by an interactive tool for simulation and visualization. Hence, project planners receive flexible assistance for adjusting the parameters of solar panels amid the planning process and in particular before the installation of a PV system. - Highlights: • Solar panels cause glare that impacts neighborhoods and traffic infrastructures. • Glare might cause disability and discomfort. • 3D environment for the calculation of glare • Interactive tool to simulate and visualize reflections • Impact assessment of solar power plant farms.

  20. Organizational Dysfunctions: Sources and Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Pasieczny

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective:The purpose of this article is to identify and describe various types and sources of organizational dysfunctions. Research Design & Methods: The findings are based on literature review and an ongoing empirical research project conducted in private sector organisations. The empirical study can be situated within interpretative approach. In this qualitative project open interviews and observations were used to collect data. Findings: The study indicates that various types and sources of organizational dysfunctions can be identified in organizations operating in Poland. The sources of dysfunctions may be found both within the organization and its environment. Regardless of its specific features, most of the dysfunctions may be interpreted as an undesirable goal displacement. Very often areas of these dysfunctions are strongly interconnected and create a system that hinders organizational performance. Yet, it is difficult to study these phenomena as respondents are unwilling, for various reasons, to disclose the problems faced by their organizations. Implications & Recommendations: The results imply that the issue of organisational dysfunctions requires open, long-lasting and comparative studies. Recommendations for further studies are formulated in the last section of the paper. Contribution & Value Added: The paper provides insight into "the dark side of organising" by identifying sources and areas of dysfunctions. It also reveals difficulties connected with conducting research on dysfunctions in the Polish context.

  1. Visual Fatigue Evaluation: Improvement of Reflected Glare on Touch Screen for Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Kang Hung; Yang, Chih Wei; Hwang, Sheue Ling; Liou, Jin Liang

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to evaluate the visual fatigue of operators caused by glare problems in the main control room of nuclear power plant. Within the limitation in the main control room, reflectors were set under the light source which generates reflected glare on touch screens. Through avoiding the light directly shines on touch screens, reflected glare were eliminated. This research matched up the setting process of reflectors, evaluated the visual fatigue of operators, and collected user's opinions before reflector setting, after the first setting, and after the second setting. The design of reflectors could refer the result of evaluations and the collection of opinions. Nevertheless, the improvement of reflected glare on touch screens could be verified by this evaluations. The result showed that setting reflectors under the light source could eliminate reflected glare effectively, and the visual fatigue was reduced both on subject and object evaluations. However, the setting direction of reflectors has potential effect on operators' visual fatigue, so the real setting of reflectors still need to be evaluated completely. The near point accommodation could reflect the effect of visual fatigue caused by changes of lighting environment. Thus, the verification of new lighting environment according to the near point accommodation is suggested

  2. An experimental investigation of glare and restructured fiber metal laminates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedict, Adelina Vanessa

    Fiber Metal Laminates (FMLs) are a group of materials fabricated by bonding glass/epoxy layers within metal layers. This class of materials can provide good mechanical properties, as well as weight savings. An FML known as Glass Laminate Aluminum Reinforced Epoxy (GLARE) was studied. An experimental investigation comprising of microscopy and tensile testing was carried out using different grades of GLARE. Microscopy revealed the construction details of GLARE, while tensile testing provided means of measuring and analyzing its stress-strain responses. Next, different metal surface pretreatment methods were explored. These included sandblasting, Phosphoric Acid Anodizing (PAA), and AC-130 Sol-Gel treatment. Woven S-2 glass, an epoxy adhesive, and aluminum alloy sheet metal were used to fabricate restructured FMLs using time and cost effective procedures. Additional microscopy and tensile testing allowed for comparisons with GLARE and aircraft grade aluminum alloys. The restructured FMLs showed similar behaviors to GLARE with potential significant improvements in fabrication efficiency.

  3. Influence of the Metal Volume Fraction on the permanent dent depth and energy absorption of GLARE plates subjected to low velocity impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bikakis, GSE; Savaidis, A.; Zalimidis, P.; Tsitos, S.

    2016-11-01

    Fiber-metal laminates are hybrid composite materials, consisting of alternating metal layers bonded to fiber-reinforced prepreg layers. GLARE (GLAss REinforced) belongs to this new family of materials. GLARE is the most successful fiber-metal laminate up to now and is currently being used for the construction of primary aerospace structures, such as the fuselage of the Airbus A380 air plane. Impact properties are very important in aerospace structures, since impact damage is caused by various sources, such as maintenance damage from dropped tools, collision between service cars or cargo and the structure, bird strikes and hail. The principal objective of this article is to evaluate the influence of the Metal Volume Fraction (MVF) on the low velocity impact response of GLARE fiber-metal laminates. Previously published differential equations of motion are employed for this purpose. The low velocity impact behavior of various circular GLARE plates is predicted and characteristic values of impact variables, which represent the impact phenomenon, are evaluated versus the corresponding MVF of the examined GLARE material grades. The considered GLARE plates are subjected to low velocity impact under identical impact conditions. A strong effect of the MVF on the maximum impact load and a significant effect on the maximum plate deflection of GLARE plates has been found.

  4. Influence of the Metal Volume Fraction on the maximum deflection and impact load of GLARE plates subjected to low velocity impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bikakis, GSE; Savaidis, A.; Zalimidis, P.; Tsitos, S.

    2016-11-01

    Fiber-metal laminates are hybrid composite materials, consisting of alternating metal layers bonded to fiber-reinforced prepreg layers. GLARE (GLAss REinforced) belongs to this new family of materials. GLARE is the most successful fiber-metal laminate up to now and is currently being used for the construction of primary aerospace structures, such as the fuselage of the Airbus A380 air plane. Impact properties are very important in aerospace structures, since impact damage is caused by various sources, such as maintenance damage from dropped tools, collision between service cars or cargo and the structure, bird strikes and hail. The principal objective of this article is to evaluate the influence of the Metal Volume Fraction (MVF) on the low velocity impact response of GLARE fiber-metal laminates. Previously published differential equations of motion are employed for this purpose. The low velocity impact behavior of various circular GLARE plates is predicted and characteristic values of impact variables, which represent the impact phenomenon, are evaluated versus the corresponding MVF of the examined GLARE material grades. The considered GLARE plates are subjected to low velocity impact under identical impact conditions. A strong effect of the MVF on the maximum impact load and a significant effect on the maximum plate deflection of GLARE plates has been found.

  5. Macular pigment spatial distribution effects on glare disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, Christopher M; Bassi, Carl J

    2015-01-01

    This project explored the relationship of the macular pigment optical density (MPOD) spatial profile with measures of glare disability (GD) across the macula. A novel device was used to measure MPOD across the central 16° of retina along four radii using customized heterochromatic flicker photometry (cHFP)at eccentricities of 0°, 2°, 4°, 6° and 8°. MPOD was measured as discrete and integrated values at all measured retinal loci. GD was calculated as a difference in contrast sensitivity (CS) between no glare and glare conditions using identical stimuli presented at the same eccentricities. GD was defined as [(CSNo Glare-CSGlare)/CSNo Glare] in order to isolate the glare attenuation effects of MPOD by controlling for CS variability among the subject sample. Correlations of the discrete and integrated MPOD with GD were compared. The cHFP identified reliable MPOD spatial distribution maps demonstrating a 1st-order exponential decay as a function of increasing eccentricity. There was a significant negative correlation between both measures of foveal MPOD and GD using 6 cycles per degree (cpd) and 9 cpd stimuli. Significant correlations were found between corresponding parafoveal MPOD measures and GD at 2 and 4° of eccentricity using 9 cpd stimuli with greater MPOD associated with less glare disability. These results are consistent with the glare attenuation effects of MP at higher spatial frequencies and support the hypothesis that discrete and integrated measures of MPOD have similar correlations with glare attenuation effects across the macula. Additionally, peak foveal MPOD appears to influence GD across the macula. Copyright © 2014 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  6. The mechanical behavior of GLARE laminates for aircraft structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Guocai; Yang, J.-M.

    2005-01-01

    GLARE (glass-reinforced aluminum laminate) is a new class of fiber metal laminates for advanced aerospace structural applications. It consists of thin aluminum sheets bonded together with unidirectional or biaxially reinforced adhesive prepreg of high-strength glass fibers. GLARE laminates offer a unique combination of properties such as outstanding fatigue resistance, high specific static properties, excellent impact resistance, good residual and blunt notch strength, flame resistance and corrosion properties, and ease of manufacture and repair. GLARE laminates can be tailored to suit a wide variety of applications by varying the fiber/resin system, the alloy type and thickness, stacking sequence, fiber orientation, surface pretreatment technique, etc. This article presents a comprehensive overview of the mechanical properties of various GLARE laminates under different loading conditions.

  7. Google Glass Glare: disability glare produced by a head-mounted visual display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longley, Chris; Whitaker, David

    2016-03-01

    Head mounted displays are a type of wearable technology - a market that is projected to expand rapidly over the coming years. Probably the most well known example is the device Google Glass (or 'Glass'). Here we investigate the extent to which the device display can interfere with normal visual function by producing monocular disability glare. Contrast sensitivity was measured in two normally sighted participants, 32 and 52 years of age. Data were recorded for the right eye, the left eye and then again in a binocular condition. Measurements were taken both with and without the Glass in place, across a range of stimulus luminance levels using a two-alternative forced-choice methodology. The device produced a significant reduction in contrast sensitivity in the right eye (>0.5 log units). The level of disability glare increased as stimulus luminance was reduced in a manner consistent with intraocular light scatter, resulting in a veiling retinal illuminance. Sensitivity in the left eye was unaffected. A significant reduction in binocular contrast sensitivity occurred at lower luminance levels due to a loss of binocular summation, although binocular sensitivity was not found to fall below the sensitivity of the better monocular level (binocular inhibition). Head mounted displays such as Google Glass have the potential to cause significant disability glare in the eye exposed to the visual display, particularly under conditions of low luminance. They can also cause a more modest binocular reduction in sensitivity by eliminating the benefits of binocular summation. © 2015 The Authors Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics © 2015 The College of Optometrists.

  8. Discomfort glare with complex fenestration systems and the impact on energy use when using daylighting control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, Sabine; McNeil, Andrew; Lee, Eleanor S.; Kalyanam, Raghuram

    2015-11-03

    Glare is a frequent issue in highly glazed buildings. A modelling approach is presented that uses discomfort glare probability and discomfort glare index as metrics to determine occupants’ behaviour. A glare control algorithm that actuated an interior shade for glare protection based on the predicted perception was implemented in a building simulation program. A reference case with a state-of-the-art base glazing was compared to the same glazing but with five different complex fenestration systems, i.e., exterior shades. The windows with exterior shades showed significant variations in glare frequencies. Energy use intensity in a prototypical office building with daylighting controls was greatly influenced for the systems with frequent glare occurrence. While the base glazing could benefit from glare control, some of the exterior shades showed significantly greater energy use when discomfort glare-based operation of interior shades was considered.

  9. FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE FIRST SOURCE CATALOG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdo, A. A.; Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Allafort, A.; Bechtol, K.; Berenji, B.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; Antolini, E.; Bonamente, E.; Atwood, W. B.; Axelsson, M.; Baldini, L.; Bellazzini, R.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Bisello, D.; Baughman, B. M.; Belli, F.

    2010-01-01

    We present a catalog of high-energy gamma-ray sources detected by the Large Area Telescope (LAT), the primary science instrument on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (Fermi), during the first 11 months of the science phase of the mission, which began on 2008 August 4. The First Fermi-LAT catalog (1FGL) contains 1451 sources detected and characterized in the 100 MeV to 100 GeV range. Source detection was based on the average flux over the 11 month period, and the threshold likelihood Test Statistic is 25, corresponding to a significance of just over 4σ. The 1FGL catalog includes source location regions, defined in terms of elliptical fits to the 95% confidence regions and power-law spectral fits as well as flux measurements in five energy bands for each source. In addition, monthly light curves are provided. Using a protocol defined before launch we have tested for several populations of gamma-ray sources among the sources in the catalog. For individual LAT-detected sources we provide firm identifications or plausible associations with sources in other astronomical catalogs. Identifications are based on correlated variability with counterparts at other wavelengths, or on spin or orbital periodicity. For the catalogs and association criteria that we have selected, 630 of the sources are unassociated. Care was taken to characterize the sensitivity of the results to the model of interstellar diffuse gamma-ray emission used to model the bright foreground, with the result that 161 sources at low Galactic latitudes and toward bright local interstellar clouds are flagged as having properties that are strongly dependent on the model or as potentially being due to incorrectly modeled structure in the Galactic diffuse emission.

  10. A real-time monitoring system for night glare protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jun; Ni, Xuxiang

    2010-11-01

    When capturing a dark scene with a high bright object, the monitoring camera will be saturated in some regions and the details will be lost in and near these saturated regions because of the glare vision. This work aims at developing a real-time night monitoring system. The system can decrease the influence of the glare vision and gain more details from the ordinary camera when exposing a high-contrast scene like a car with its headlight on during night. The system is made up of spatial light modulator (The liquid crystal on silicon: LCoS), image sensor (CCD), imaging lens and DSP. LCoS, a reflective liquid crystal, can modular the intensity of reflective light at every pixel as a digital device. Through modulation function of LCoS, CCD is exposed with sub-region. With the control of DSP, the light intensity is decreased to minimum in the glare regions, and the light intensity is negative feedback modulated based on PID theory in other regions. So that more details of the object will be imaging on CCD and the glare protection of monitoring system is achieved. In experiments, the feedback is controlled by the embedded system based on TI DM642. Experiments shows: this feedback modulation method not only reduces the glare vision to improve image quality, but also enhances the dynamic range of image. The high-quality and high dynamic range image is real-time captured at 30hz. The modulation depth of LCoS determines how strong the glare can be removed.

  11. Large area solid target neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, J.C.; Bauer, W.

    1974-01-01

    A potentially useful neutron source may result from the combination of a solid deuterium-tritium loaded target with the large area, high energy ion beams from ion sources being developed for neutral beam injection. The resulting neutron source would have a large radiating area and thus produce the sizable experimental volume necessary for future studies of bulk and synergistic surface radiation effects as well as experiments on engineering samples and small components. With a 200 keV D + T + beam and 40 kW/cm 2 power dissipation on a 200 cm 2 target spot, a total neutron yield of about 4 x 10 15 n/sec may be achieved. Although the useable neutron flux from this source is limited to 1 to 2 x 10 13 n/cm 2 /sec, this flux can be produced 3 cm in front of the target and over about 300 cm 3 of experimental volume. Problems of total power dissipation, sputtering, isotopic flushing and thermal dissociation are reviewed. Neutron flux profiles and potential experimental configurations are presented and compared to other neutron source concepts. (U.S.)

  12. Fatigue crack propagation and delamination growth in Glare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alderliesten, R.C.

    2005-01-01

    Fibre Metal Laminate Glare consists of thin aluminium layers bonded together with pre-impregnated glass fibre layers and shows an excellent fatigue crack growth behaviour compared to monolithic aluminium. The fibres are insensitive to the occurring fatigue loads and remain intact while the fatigue

  13. Could Daylight Glare Be Defined Mathematically?Results of Testing the DGIN Method in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazzal, Ali; Oki, Masato

    Discomfort glare from daylight is a common problem without valid prediction methods so far. A new mathematical DGIN (New Daylight Glare Index) method tries to respond the challenge. This paper reports on experiments carried out in daylit office environment in Japan to test applicability of the method. Slight positive correlation was found between the DGIN and the subjective evaluation. Additionally, a high Ladaptation value together with the small ratio of Lwindow to Ladaptation was obviously experienced sufficient to neutralize the effect of glare discomfort. However, subjective assessments are poor glare indicators and not reliable in testing glare prediction methods. DGIN is a good indicator of daylight glare, and when the DGIN value is analyzed together with the measured illuminance ratios, discomfort glare from daylight can be analyzed in a quantitative manner. The DGIN method could serve architects and lighting designers in testing daylighting systems, and also guide the action of daylight responsive lighting controls.

  14. Numerical stud of glare spot phase Doppler anemometry

    OpenAIRE

    Hespel , Camille; Ren , Kuan Fang; Gréhan , Gérard; Onofri , Fabrice

    2008-01-01

    International audience; The phase Doppler anemometry has (PDA) been developed to measure simultaneously the velocity and the size of droplets. When the concentration of particles is high, tightly focused beams must be used, as in the dual burst PDA. The latter permits an access to the refractive index of the particle, but the effect of wave front curvature of the incident beams becomes evident. In this paper, we introduce a glare spot phase Doppler anemometry which uses two large beams. The i...

  15. Verification of simple illuminance based measures for indication of discomfort glare from windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsen, Line Røseth; Heiselberg, Per Kvols; Bryn, Ida

    2015-01-01

    predictions of discomfort glare from windows already in the early design stage when decisions regarding the façade are taken. This study focus on verifying if simple illuminance based measures like vertical illuminance at eye level or horizontal illuminance at the desk are correlated with the perceived glare...... reported by 44 test subjects in a repeated measure design occupant survey and if the reported glare corresponds with the predictions from the simple Daylight Glare Probability (DGPs) model. Large individual variations were seen in the occupants’ assessment of glare in the present study. Yet, the results...... confirm that there is a statistically significant correlation between both vertical eye illuminance and horizontal illuminance at the desk and the occupants’ perception of glare in a perimeter zone office environment, which is promising evidence towards utilizing such simple measures for indication...

  16. Large area ion and plasma beam sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waldorf, J. [IPT Ionen- und Plasmatech. GmbH, Kaiserslautern (Germany)

    1996-06-01

    In the past a number of ion beam sources utilizing different methods for plasma excitation have been developed. Nevertheless, a widespread use in industrial applications has not happened, since the sources were often not able to fulfill specific demands like: broad homogeneous ion beams, compatibility with reactive gases, low ion energies at high ion current densities or electrical neutrality of the beam. Our contribution wants to demonstrate technical capabilities of rf ion and plasma beam sources, which can overcome the above mentioned disadvantages. The physical principles and features of respective sources are presented. We report on effective low pressure plasma excitation by electron cyclotron wave resonance (ECWR) for the generation of dense homogeneous plasmas and the rf plasma beam extraction method for the generation of broad low energy plasma beams. Some applications like direct plasma beam deposition of a-C:H and ion beam assisted deposition of Al and Cu with tailored thin film properties are discussed. (orig.).

  17. Large area ion and plasma beam sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waldorf, J.

    1996-01-01

    In the past a number of ion beam sources utilizing different methods for plasma excitation have been developed. Nevertheless, a widespread use in industrial applications has not happened, since the sources were often not able to fulfill specific demands like: broad homogeneous ion beams, compatibility with reactive gases, low ion energies at high ion current densities or electrical neutrality of the beam. Our contribution wants to demonstrate technical capabilities of rf ion and plasma beam sources, which can overcome the above mentioned disadvantages. The physical principles and features of respective sources are presented. We report on effective low pressure plasma excitation by electron cyclotron wave resonance (ECWR) for the generation of dense homogeneous plasmas and the rf plasma beam extraction method for the generation of broad low energy plasma beams. Some applications like direct plasma beam deposition of a-C:H and ion beam assisted deposition of Al and Cu with tailored thin film properties are discussed. (orig.)

  18. PUREX source Aggregate Area management study report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-03-01

    This report presents the results of an aggregate area management study (AAMS) for the PUREX Plant Aggregate Area in the 200 Areas of the US Department of Energy (DOE)Hanford Site in Washington State. This scoping level study provides the basis for initiating Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) activities under the comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) or Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Facility Investigations (RFI) and Corrective Measures Studies (CMS) under RCRA. This report also integrates select RCRA treatment, storage, or disposal (TSD) closure activities with CERCLA and RCRA past-practice investigations

  19. 200 North Aggregate Area source AAMS report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-06-01

    This report presents the results of an aggregate area management study (AAMS) for the 200 North Aggregate Area in the 200 Areas of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site in Washington State. This scoping level study provides the basis for initiating Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) activities under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) or Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Facility Investigations (RFI) and Corrective Measures Studies (CMS) under RCRA. This report also integrates select RCRA treatment, storage, or disposal (TSD) closure activities with CERCLA and RCRA past practice investigations

  20. 200 North Aggregate Area source AAMS report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-06-01

    This report presents the results of an aggregate area management study (AAMS) for the 200 North Aggregate Area in the 200 Areas of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site in Washington State. This scoping level study provides the basis for initiating Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) activities under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) or Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Facility Investigations (RFI) and Corrective Measures Studies (CMS) under RCRA. This report also integrates select RCRA treatment, storage, or disposal (TSD) closure activities with CERCLA and RCRA past practice investigations.

  1. Oil source rocks in the Adiyaman area, southeast Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soylu, Cengiz

    In the Adiyaman area, southeast Turkey, two carbonate source rock units, the Karababa-A Member and the Karabogaz Formation, are identified. The maturity levels of the source rock units increase towards the north and the west. Both the Karababa-A Member and the Karabogaz Formation are good to excellent oil-source rocks with widespread "kitchen areas".

  2. Numerical study of glare spot phase Doppler anemometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hespel, C.; Ren, K. F.; Gréhan, G.; Onofri, F.

    2008-03-01

    The phase Doppler anemometry has (PDA) been developed to measure simultaneously the velocity and the size of droplets. When the concentration of particles is high, tightly focused beams must be used, as in the dual burst PDA. The latter permits an access to the refractive index of the particle, but the effect of wave front curvature of the incident beams becomes evident. In this paper, we introduce a glare spot phase Doppler anemometry which uses two large beams. The images of the particle formed by the reflected and refracted light, known as glare spots, are separated in space. When a particle passes through the probe volume, the two parts in a signal obtained by a detector in forward direction are then separated in time. If two detectors are used the phase differences and the intensity ratios between two signals, the distance between the reflected and refracted spots can be obtained. These measured values provide information about the particle diameter and its refractive index, as well as its two velocity components. This paper is devoted to the numerical study of such a configuration with two theoretical models: geometrical optics and rigorous electromagnetism solution.

  3. Variation of runoff source areas under different soil wetness ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Runoff source areas can serve as focus areas for water quality monitoring and catchment management. In this study, a conceptual form of the Soil Conservation Service Curve Number method (SCS-CN) is used to define variable-source runoff areas in a meso-scale catchment in the Zagros mountain region, southwest of ...

  4. Semiworks source aggregate area management study report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-05-01

    This report presents the results of an aggregate area management study (AAMS) for the Semi-Works Aggregate Area in the 200 Areas of the US Department of Energy (DOE) . Hanford Site in Washington State. This scoping level study provides the basis for initiating Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) activities under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) or Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Facility Investigations WD and Corrective Measures Studies (CMS) under RCRA. This report also integrates select RCRA treatment storage, or disposal (TSD) closure activities with CERCLA and RCRA past-practice investigations. This approach is described and justified in The Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order Change Package. This strategy provides new concepts for: accelerating decision-malting by maximizing the use of existing data consistent with data quality objectives (DQOs); and undertaking expedited response actions (ERAS) and/or interim remedial measures (IRMs), as appropriate, to either remove threats to human health and welfare and the environment, or to reduce risk by reducing toxicity, mobility, or volume of contaminants

  5. Rainbow glare after laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis: a review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moshirfar M

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Majid Moshirfar,1,2 Jordan D Desautels,3 Tyler S Quist,4 David F Skanchy,5 Mark T Williams,6 Ryan T Wallace7 1Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, John A Moran Eye Center, University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, UT, 2HDR Research Center, Hoopes Vision, Draper, UT, 3Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, 4University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, UT, 5McGovern Medical School, The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, TX, 6University of California, San Francisco School of Medicine, San Francisco, CA, 7Brigham Young University, Provo, UT, USA Abstract: This article reviews the current literature pertaining to rainbow glare (RG, including incidence rate, clinical presentation, etiology, prognosis, and management. RG is a rare optical complication of femtosecond laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis that results in patients seeing an array of spectral bands surrounding point sources of light under mesopic and scotopic conditions. The mechanism is thought to be a consequence of the formation of a transmissive diffraction grating on the posterior surface of the corneal flap created by the FS laser. RG has a good prognosis and is usually self-limiting. Persistent RG with concomitant residual refractive error may warrant lifting the flap and photoablating the posterior surface of the flap. Patients with persistent RG and no residual refractive error should be considered candidates for phototherapeutic keratectomy on the posterior flap surface. Keywords: rainbow glare, femtosecond, LASIK, keratomileusis, phototherapeutic keratectomy

  6. Anti-glare LED lamps with adjustable illumination light field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yung-Sheng; Lin, Chung-Yi; Yeh, Chun-Ming; Kuo, Chie-Tong; Hsu, Chih-Wei; Wang, Hsiang-Chen

    2014-03-10

    We introduce a type of LED light-gauge steel frame lamp with an adjustable illumination light field that does not require a diffusion plate. Base on the Monte Carlo ray tracing method, this lamp has a good glare rating (GR) of 17.5 at 3050 lm. Compared with the traditional LED light-gauge steel frame lamp (without diffusion plate), the new type has low GR. The adjustability of the illumination light field could improve the zebra effect caused by the inadequate illumination light field of the lamp. Meanwhile, we adopt the retinal image analysis to discuss the influence of GR on vision. High GR could reflect stray light on the retinal image, which will reduce vision clarity and hasten the feeling of eye fatigue.

  7. Implications of advanced warning messages on eliminating sun glare disturbances at signalized intersections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Li

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Due to sun glare disturbances, drivers encounter fatal threats on roadways, particularly at signalized intersections. Many studies have attempted to develop applicable solutions, such as avoiding sun positions, applying road geometric re-directions, and wearing anti-glare glasses. None of these strategies have fully solved the problem. As one of the “Connected Vehicle” practices proposed by the U.S. Department of Transportation, advanced warning messages (AWMs are capable of providing wireless information about traffic controls. AWM acts as a supplement to conventional signs and signals, which can be blocked by obstacles or natural disturbances, such as sun glare. The drivers' smart advisory system (DSAS can provide drivers with AWM. Using a driving simulator this research explores the effects of DSAS messages on driving behaviors under sun glare disturbance. Statistical analyses were applied to assess (1 the negative impacts of sun glare, (2 the compensation of the DSAS AWM to sun glare effects, and (3 the improvement in driving performance due to DSAS AWM. Four performance indexes were measured, including (1 half kinetic energy speed, (2 mean approach speed, (3 brake response time, and (4 braking distance. The effects of the socio-demographic factors, such as gender, age, educational background, and driving experience were also studied. The analytical results illustrate that the DSAS can compensate for reduced visibility due to sun glare and improve driving performance to a normal visual situation, particularly for left turn and through movement.

  8. Survey of discomfort glare from the headlamps of cars widely used in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehri, Ahmad; Farhang Dehghan, Somayeh; Hajizadeh, Roohalah; Zakerian, Seyed Abolfazl; Mohammadi, Hamzeh; Abbasi, Milad

    2017-10-03

    On 2-lane roads, discomfort glare can cause annoyance, discomfort, inconvenience, stress, and fatigue to drivers, posing a risk of accidents. The aim of this study is to evaluate discomfort glare from the headlamps of cars widely used in Iran. The discomfort glare of new vehicles including Pride Saba model GTX, Pride Model 131SL, Samand Soren, Peugeot 405, Megane, and Peugeot Pars was examined at distances of 5 to 100 m at a background luminance of 50 cd/m 2 (late twilight/early dawn lighting) and 1 cd/m 2 (nighttime) using Schmidt-Clausen and Bindels model and de Boer's subjective scale. According to the de Boer scale, at a background luminance of 50 cd/m 2 , the discomfort glare for all studied vehicles was between 1.98 and 4.05 in high-beam mode and between 3.5 and 5.4 in low-beam mode. At a background luminance of 1 cd/m 2 , discomfort glare was between 0.41 and 2.48 in high-beam mode and between 1.93 and 3.84 in low-beam mode. In high-beam mode, the average levels of discomfort glare of these vehicles gradually increased when the distance between cars was reduced by up to about 20 m. In low-beam mode, there was no discomfort glare up to a vehicle distance of 40 m. In addition, at an angle of 1.15°-5.73° between the line of sight and light of vehicles in high-beam mode, the level of discomfort glare was increased, but at an angle of 5.73°-22.9° the level of discomfort glare was reduced. In low-beam mode at an angle of 2.86°-22.9°, the level of discomfort glare was almost identical. The results show that in high-beam mode and with a 100-m distance between vehicles as well as in low-beam mode at intervals of less than 40 m between cars, discomfort glare is created. It can be concluded that by providing solutions such as installing road lighting system, an increase in luminance of roads, separating or widening road lanes, increasing the lateral distance between vehicles, and increasing the angle between lighted vehicles and drivers can noticeably

  9. Large area, surface discharge pumped, vacuum ultraviolet light source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sze, R.C.; Quigley, G.P.

    1996-12-17

    Large area, surface discharge pumped, vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) light source is disclosed. A contamination-free VUV light source having a 225 cm{sup 2} emission area in the 240-340 nm region of the electromagnetic spectrum with an average output power in this band of about 2 J/cm{sup 2} at a wall-plug efficiency of approximately 5% is described. Only ceramics and metal parts are employed in this surface discharge source. Because of the contamination-free, high photon energy and flux, and short pulse characteristics of the source, it is suitable for semiconductor and flat panel display material processing. 3 figs.

  10. ColorChecker at the beach: dangers of sunburn and glare

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, John

    2014-01-01

    In High-Dynamic-Range (HDR) imaging, optical veiling glare sets the limits of accurate scene information recorded by a camera. But, what happens at the beach? Here we have a Low-Dynamic-Range (LDR) scene with maximal glare. Can we calibrate a camera at the beach and not be burnt? We know that we need sunscreen and sunglasses, but what about our cameras? The effect of veiling glare is scene-dependent. When we compare RAW camera digits with spotmeter measurements we find significant differences. As well, these differences vary, depending on where we aim the camera. When we calibrate our camera at the beach we get data that is valid for only that part of that scene. Camera veiling glare is an issue in LDR scenes in uniform illumination with a shaded lens.

  11. Effects of anti-glare particles on sedation in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongyu; Hao, Shaojun; Liu, Xiaobin; Kong, Xuejun; Wang, Xidong; Li, Wenjun; Zhang, Zhengchen

    2018-04-01

    To investigate the effect of anti-glare particles on sedation of mice, 60 mice were randomly divided into 5 groups, were fed by Ant-dizzy Granule Suspension, saline, Yang Xue Qing Nao Granule suspension and the same volume of saline, and administered 1 times daily, for 7 days. The mice in the wilderness box, hang - 150W light bulbs in the box above, the light recording activities within 2 minutes. The wilderness box into the box after the number of mice, mice with limbs went to the 1 squares is around 1 in the same case, mouse location and method of wilderness case; each group was placed in the turn/bar with rotating speed of 40RPM, each time 5 Parallel experiment recorded the mouse stay time on the rotating rod, if the mouse fell within 2 minutes, immediately put it on the rotating rod to continue the experiment, recorded the mouse on the rotating rod accumulated stay time. If 10 minutes did not drop, press 10 minutes; eighty mice were divided into 5 groups. The number of each rat injected subthreshold dose of pentobarbital sodium in mice. The sleep recording liquid were recorded sleep latency and sleep time. The anti-vertigo granule can obviously reduce the spontaneous activity of mice (Pparticles have good sedative effect.

  12. Plasma and Ion Sources in Large Area Coatings: A Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anders, Andre

    2005-02-28

    Efficient deposition of high-quality coatings often requires controlled application of excited or ionized particles. These particles are either condensing (film-forming) or assisting by providing energy and momentum to the film growth process, resulting in densification, sputtering/etching, modification of stress, roughness, texture, etc. In this review, the technical means are surveyed enabling large area application of ions and plasmas, with ion energies ranging from a few eV to a few keV. Both semiconductortype large area (single wafer or batch processing with {approx} 1000 cm{sup 2}) and in-line web and glass-coating-type large area (> 10{sup 7} m{sup 2} annually) are considered. Characteristics and differences between plasma and ion sources are explained. The latter include gridded and gridless sources. Many examples are given, including sources based on DC, RF, and microwave discharges, some with special geometries like hollow cathodes and E x B configurations.

  13. Computation of radionuclide particulate finite area fugitive source strengths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fields, D E

    1983-06-01

    Atmospheric source strengths quantifying particulate re-suspension from wind and non-wind disturbance-driven processes are computed for sites of small area. These values are useful in computing downwind air concentration values to evaluate risk to exposed populations. The net source strength for the site is the sum of the wind- and disturbance-driven components. A unified source strength approach includes both classes of re-suspension processes. More research is needed to satisfactorily express the time-dependence of re-suspension parameters, especially in non-arid climates where population densities are greater. (JMT)

  14. Robust brightness enhancement across a luminance range of the glare illusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Hideki; Nakauchi, Shigeki; Koida, Kowa

    2016-01-01

    The glare illusion refers to brightness enhancement and the perception of a self-luminous appearance that occurs when a central region is surrounded by a luminance gradient. The center region appears to be a light source, with its light dispersing into the surrounding region. If the luminous edge is critical for generating the illusion, modulating the perceived luminance of the image, and switching its appearance from luminous to nonluminous, would have a strong impact on lightness and brightness estimation. Here, we quantified the illusion in two ways, by assessing brightness enhancement and examining whether the center region appeared luminous. Thus, we could determine whether the two effects occurred jointly or independently. We examined a wide luminance range of center regions, from 0 to 200% relative to background. Brightness enhancement in the illusion was observed for a wide range of luminances (20% to 200% relative to background), while a luminous-white appearance was observed when the center region luminance was 145% of the background. These results exclude the possibility that brightness enhancement occurs because the stimuli appear self-luminous. We suggest that restoring the original image intensity precedes the perceptual process of lightness estimation.

  15. Application of source-receptor models to determine source areas of biological components (pollen and butterflies)

    OpenAIRE

    M. Alarcón; M. Àvila; J. Belmonte; C. Stefanescu; R. Izquierdo

    2010-01-01

    The source-receptor models allow the establishment of relationships between a receptor point (sampling point) and the probable source areas (regions of emission) through the association of concentration values at the receptor point with the corresponding atmospheric back-trajectories, and, together with other techniques, to interpret transport phenomena on a synoptic scale. These models are generally used in air pollution studies to determine the areas of origin of chemical compounds measured...

  16. Atmospheric mercury sources in the Mt. Amiata area, Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrara, R.; Mazzolai, B.; Edner, H.; Svanberg, S.; Wallinder, E.

    1998-01-01

    Mt. Amiata, located in southern Tuscany (Italy), is part of the geologic anomaly of the Mediterranean basin, which contains about 65% of the world's cinnabar (HgS) deposits. Atmospheric mercury emissions from the main sources (geothermal power plants, abandoned mine structures and spoil banks of roasted cinnabar ore) were determined by flux chamber and by LIDAR remote sensing. Mercury emissions from five geothermal power plants were on the order of 24 g h -1 for each plant, a value that remains constant throughout the year. In the month of July, the mine spoils (covering an area of =200000 m 2 ) emit a few grams of mercury per hour, while the abandoned mine structures give off 100-110 g h -1 . These two mercury sources were strongly influenced by ambient temperature. The area affected by mercury sources displays an average air mercury concentration of 20 ng m -3 during the summer and 10 ng m -3 in winter

  17. Location of an electric source facility and local area promotion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimohirao, Isao

    1999-01-01

    Here were described on energy demand and supply, energy policy and local area promotion policy for basic problems important on location of electric source facilities. At present, co-existence business between electricity business and electric source location area is lacking in its activity. It seems to be necessary to enforce some systems to intend to promote it earnestly, and to effort to promote industry promotions such as introduction of some national projects, induction of electricity cost reduction for a means of business invitation, and so forth. And it is necessary to promote them under cooperations with electricity businesses, governments, universities and communities for the industrial promotion and fixation of the youth at local areas. In order to realize such necessities, further larger efforts are expected for national and local governments. (G.K.)

  18. MILDOS-AREA: An enhanced version of MILDOS for large-area sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Y.C.; Wang, J.H.C.; Zielen, A.

    1989-06-01

    The MILDOS-AREA computer code is a modified version of the MILDOS code, which estimates the radiological impacts of airborne emissions from uranium mining and milling facilities or any other large-area source involving emissions of radioisotopes of the uranium-238 series. MILDOS-AREA is designed for execution on personal computers. The modifications incorporated in the MILDOS-AREA code provide enhanced capabilities for calculating doses from large-area sources and update dosimetry calculations. The major revision from the original MILDOS code is the treatment of atmospheric dispersion from area sources: MILDOS-AREA substitutes a finite element integration approach for the virtual-point method (the algorithm used in the original MILDOS code) when specified by the user. Other revisions include the option of using Martin-Tickvart dispersion coefficients in place of Briggs coefficients for a given source, consideration of plume reflection, and updated internal dosimetry calculations based on the most recent recommendations of the International Commission on Radiation Protection and the age-specific dose calculation methodology developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory. This report also discusses changes in computer code structure incorporated into MILDOS-AREA, summarizes data input requirements, and provides instructions for installing and using the program on personal computers. 15 refs., 9 figs., 26 tabs

  19. Large area UV light source with a semiconductor cathode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salamov, B. G.; Ciftci, Y. Oe.; Colakoglu, K.

    2002-01-01

    The light emission (LE) in the UV and visible (blue) range generated by a planar gas discharge system (PGDS) with a semiconductor cathode (SC) are studied. New light source offer high-intensity narrow-band emission at various UV and visible wavelengths (330 - 440 nm). Spectra in N 2 is presented, as well as intensity vs pressure curves for the main peaks of the spectrum. The use of source offers several advantages: PGDS can be extremely efficient energy converters transforming and amplifying a relatively low-powered photon flux incident on the receiving surface of the SC into a flux of high-energy particles over extended areas, i.e. electron, ions, photons. Thus, extremely bright UV and visible sources can be built. LE characteristics of the space in the PGDS are complex, depending on the emitting medium and species. By using the IR light to excite the SC of the system, we have shown that the discharge light emission (DLE) of the device with the N 2 in the gap can serve as an efficient source of the UV radiation if gas pressure and electric field are sufficiently high. This is realized due to the effect of the stabilisation of the spatially homogeneous mode of the discharge in a narrow gap with a large emitting area of SC. Special features of DLE render it highly promising for the development of sources with a large area of the emitting surface, high spatial uniformity of UV radiation, and fast dynamics of these devices. This low cost, high power light sources can provide an interesting alternative to conventional UV lamps

  20. Fermi Large Area Telescope Bright Gamma-ray Source List

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdo, Aous A.; /Naval Research Lab, Wash., D.C.; Ackermann, M.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC; Ajello, M.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC; Atwood, W.B.; /UC, Santa Cruz; Axelsson, M.; /Stockholm U., OKC /Stockholm U.; Baldini, L.; /INFN, Pisa; Ballet, J.; /DAPNIA, Saclay; Band, D.L.; /NASA, Goddard /NASA, Goddard; Barbiellini, Guido; /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U.; Bastieri, Denis; /INFN, Padua /Padua U.; Bechtol, K.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC; Bellazzini, R.; /INFN, Pisa; Berenji, B.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC; Bignami, G.F.; /Pavia U.; Bloom, Elliott D.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC; Bonamente, E.; /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U.; Borgland, A.W.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC; Bregeon, J.; /INFN, Pisa; Brigida, M.; /Bari U. /INFN, Bari; Bruel, P.; /Ecole Polytechnique; Burnett, Thompson H.; /Washington U., Seattle /Bari U. /INFN, Bari /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC /IASF, Milan /IASF, Milan /DAPNIA, Saclay /ASDC, Frascati /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U. /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC /George Mason U. /Naval Research Lab, Wash., D.C. /NASA, Goddard /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U. /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC /Montpellier U. /Sonoma State U. /Stockholm U., OKC /Royal Inst. Tech., Stockholm /Stockholm U. /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC /ASDC, Frascati /NASA, Goddard /Maryland U. /Naval Research Lab, Wash., D.C. /INFN, Trieste /Pavia U. /Bari U. /INFN, Bari /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC /UC, Santa Cruz /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC /Montpellier U. /Bari U. /INFN, Bari /Ecole Polytechnique /NASA, Goddard; /more authors..

    2009-05-15

    Following its launch in 2008 June, the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (Fermi) began a sky survey in August. The Large Area Telescope (LAT) on Fermi in three months produced a deeper and better resolved map of the {gamma}-ray sky than any previous space mission. We present here initial results for energies above 100 MeV for the 205 most significant (statistical significance greater than {approx}10{sigma}) {gamma}-ray sources in these data. These are the best characterized and best localized point-like (i.e., spatially unresolved) {gamma}-ray sources in the early mission data.

  1. Area radiation monitor at the intense pulsed-neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eichholz, J.J.; Lynch, F.J.; Mundis, R.L.; Howe, M.L.; Dolecek, E.H.

    1981-01-01

    A tissue-equivalent ionization chamber with associated circuitry has been developed for area radiation monitoring in the Intense Pulsed-Neutron Source (IPNS) facility at Argonne National Laboratory. The conventional chamber configuration was modified in order to increase the electric field and effective volume thereby achieving higher sensitivity and linearity. The instrument provides local and remote radiation level indications and a high level alarm. Twenty-four of these instruments were fabricated for use at various locations in the experimental area of the IPNS-1 facility

  2. Numerical investigation of the effect of delaminations on fracture characteristics of glare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Sunil; Narayanan, S.

    2013-10-01

    A finite element examination of the effect of delaminations on fracture characteristics of fibre metal laminate (Glare), by comparing energy release rates of normal cracks in laminates with and without delaminations, is presented in the paper. Glare comprising thin cracked 2024-T3 aerospace aluminum alloy layers alternately bonded with E-glass fibre based composite prepregs is considered for the analysis. Delaminations are modeled with interface cohesive elements. Energy release rates of normal cracks in laminates with delaminations are found to be higher than those in the laminates without delaminations.

  3. Mobile computing device configured to compute irradiance, glint, and glare of the sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Vipin P; Ho, Clifford K; Khalsa, Siri Sahib

    2014-03-11

    Described herein are technologies pertaining to computing the solar irradiance distribution on a surface of a receiver in a concentrating solar power system or glint/glare emitted from a reflective entity. A mobile computing device includes at least one camera that captures images of the Sun and the entity of interest, wherein the images have pluralities of pixels having respective pluralities of intensity values. Based upon the intensity values of the pixels in the respective images, the solar irradiance distribution on the surface of the entity or glint/glare corresponding to the entity is computed by the mobile computing device.

  4. Influence of dirt, age and poor aim on glare and illumination intensities of car headlamps in practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alferdinck, J.W.A.M.; Padmos, P.

    1987-01-01

    Luminous intensities of dipped car headlamps in directions of the eyes of drivers of oncoming cars (glare intensity) and the right roadside (illumination intensity) were measured (404 cars). The often too high glare intensities are mainly due to dirt and lamp age; the often too low illumination

  5. Data sources on landscape structure in a highly industrialized area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazurek Kinga

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Landscape may be described as a part of space characterized by a certain physiognomy, which is a dynamic system subject to evolution. An important factor influencing the type and condition of the landscape is human activity which shapes or rebuilds its structure. Interesting results may be obtained on comparison of archival cartographic materials with contemporary studies and zoning plans. The Upper Silesian Coal Basin is a region with a clearly transformed landscape. The determinant of the geographical environment transformation here is the anthropogenic factor. The study area includes the upper part of the Kłodnica catchment (229.6 sq km. The study is a review, and its aim is to systematize data sources used in the research on the transformation of landscape structure of a heavily industrialized area. In the first half of the nineteenth century created the "Urmesstischblätter" in the scale of 1:25 000. Afterwards preparations began to take new topographic images of the country (the "Messtischblätter". In the 1990s initiated the development of a new topographic map (in the scale of 1:10 000. Recent data source is for example the project CORINE Land Cover 2006. There are many of various sources of data on land cover. An important aspect is the proper selection of documents and maps, and their proper interpretation.

  6. LLNL large-area inductively coupled plasma (ICP) source: Experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, R.A.; Egan, P.O.; Benjamin, R.D.

    1995-05-01

    We describe initial experiments with a large (76-cm diameter) plasma source chamber to explore the problems associated with large-area inductively coupled plasma (ICP) sources to produce high density plasmas useful for processing 400-mm semiconductor wafers. Our experiments typically use a 640-nun diameter planar ICP coil driven at 13.56 MHz. Plasma and system data are taken in Ar and N 2 over the pressure range 3-50 mtorr. RF inductive power was run up to 2000W, but typically data were taken over the range 100-1000W. Diagnostics include optical emission spectroscopy, Langmuir probes, and B probes as well as electrical circuit measurements. The B and E-M measurements are compared with models based on commercial E-M codes. Initial indications are that uniform plasmas suitable for 400-mm processing are attainable

  7. Session IV. Problem Solving. Vehicle lighting system. Four steps in glare reduction.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, D.A.

    1972-01-01

    A number of proposals are described that may help to reduce glare. The systems are either only a partial improvement, or they are expensive, or their introduction raises severe problems. One solution, already widely in use, is applica- tion of overhead lighting. In order to really improve the

  8. Detection and Evaluation of Pre-Preg Gaps and Overlaps in Glare Laminates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardi, Davide; Abouhamzeh, Morteza; Leonard, Rob; Sinke, Jos

    2018-03-01

    Gaps and overlaps between pre-preg plies represent common flaws in composite materials that can be introduced easily in an automated fibre placement manufacturing process and are potentially detrimental for the mechanical performances of the final laminates. Whereas gaps and overlaps have been addressed for full composite material, the topic has not been extended to a hybrid composite material such as Glare, a member of the family of Fibre Metal Laminates (FMLs). In this paper/research, the manufacturing, the detection, and the optical evaluation of intraply gaps and overlaps in Glare laminates are investigated. As part of an initial assessment study on the effect of gaps and overlaps on Glare, only the most critical lay-up has been considered. The experimental investigation started with the manufacturing of specimens having gaps and overlaps with different widths, followed by a non-destructive ultrasonic-inspection. An optical evaluation of the gaps and overlaps was performed by means of microscope image analysis of the cross sections of the specimens. The results from the non-destructive evaluations show the effectiveness of the ultrasonic detection of gaps and overlaps both in position, shape, width, and severity. The optical inspections confirm the accuracy of the non-destructive evaluation also adding useful insights about the geometrical features due to the presence of gaps and overlaps in the final Glare laminates. All the results justify the need for a further investigation on the effect of gaps and overlaps on the mechanical properties.

  9. Out-of-autoclave manufacturing of GLARE panels using resistance heating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muller, B.; Palardy, G.; Teixeira De Freitas, S.; Sinke, J.

    2017-01-01

    Autoclave manufacturing of fibre metal laminates, such as GLARE, is an expensive process.Therefore, there is an increasing interest to find cost effective out-of-autoclave manufacturing processes without diminishing the laminate quality. The aim of this study is to

  10. The Glare Effect Test and the Impact of Age on Luminosity Thresholds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessio Facchin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The glare effect (GE is an illusion in which a white region appears self-luminous when surrounded by linearly decreasing luminance ramps. It has been shown that the magnitude of the luminosity effect can be modulated by manipulating the luminance range of the gradients. In the present study we tested the thresholds for the GE on two groups of adults: young (20–30 years old and elderly (60–75 years old. Purpose of our perspective study was to test the possibility of transforming the GE into a test that could easily measure thresholds for luminosity and discomfort glare. The Glare Effect Test (GET consisted in 101 printed cards that differed from each other for the range of luminance ramps. Participants were assessed with GET and a battery of visual tests: visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, illusion of length perception, and Ishihara test. Specifically in the GET, participants were required to classify cards on the basis of two reference cards (solid black-no gradient; full range black to white gradient. PSEs of the GE show no correlation with the other visual tests, revealing a divergent validity. A significant difference between young and elderly was found: contrary to our original expectations, luminosity thresholds of GE for elderly were higher than those for young, suggesting a non-direct relationship between luminosity perception and discomfort glare.

  11. Curtain with vista. Office tower with an effective solar and glare protection; Vorhang mit Durchblick. Buerohochhaus mit effektiven Sonnen- und Blendschutz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2012-05-15

    The Kennedydamm in Duesseldorf (Federal Republic of Germany) has a new landmark: the 89-meter-high Sky Office characterizes the entire surrounding metropolitan area and provides high-value jobs with popular outlook. In order to maintain this even when the sun is low, the planner have decided for a solar and glare protection solution from WAREMA Renkhoff SE (Marktheidenfeld, Federal Republic of Germany). A sophisticated control system combines the two components with the weather conditions, the path of the sun and the point of compass.

  12. Improving risk estimates of runoff producing areas: formulating variable source areas as a bivariate process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xiaoya; Shaw, Stephen B; Marjerison, Rebecca D; Yearick, Christopher D; DeGloria, Stephen D; Walter, M Todd

    2014-05-01

    Predicting runoff producing areas and their corresponding risks of generating storm runoff is important for developing watershed management strategies to mitigate non-point source pollution. However, few methods for making these predictions have been proposed, especially operational approaches that would be useful in areas where variable source area (VSA) hydrology dominates storm runoff. The objective of this study is to develop a simple approach to estimate spatially-distributed risks of runoff production. By considering the development of overland flow as a bivariate process, we incorporated both rainfall and antecedent soil moisture conditions into a method for predicting VSAs based on the Natural Resource Conservation Service-Curve Number equation. We used base-flow immediately preceding storm events as an index of antecedent soil wetness status. Using nine sub-basins of the Upper Susquehanna River Basin, we demonstrated that our estimated runoff volumes and extent of VSAs agreed with observations. We further demonstrated a method for mapping these areas in a Geographic Information System using a Soil Topographic Index. The proposed methodology provides a new tool for watershed planners for quantifying runoff risks across watersheds, which can be used to target water quality protection strategies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A large-area RF source for negative hydrogen ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, P.; Feist, J. H.; Kraus, W.; Speth, E.; Heinemann, B.; Probst, F.; Trainham, R.; Jacquot, C.

    1998-01-01

    In a collaboration with CEA Cadarache, IPP is presently developing an rf source, in which the production of negative ions (H - /D - ) is being investigated. It utilizes PINI-size rf sources with an external antenna and for the first step a small size extraction system with 48 cm 2 net extraction area. First results from BATMAN (Bavarian T lowbar est Machine for N lowbar egative Ions) show (without Cs) a linear dependence of the negative ion yield with rf power, without any sign of saturation. At elevated pressure (1.6 Pa) a current density of 4.5 mA/cm 2 H - (without Cs) has been found so far. At medium pressure (0.6 Pa) the current density is lower by approx. a factor of 5, but preliminary results with Cesium injection show a relative increase by almost the same factor in this pressure range. Langmuir probe measurements indicate an electron temperature T e >2 eV close to the plasma grid with a moderate magnetic filter (700 Gcm). Attempts to improve the performance by using different magnetic configurations and different wall materials are under way

  14. The Minister Council decree about conditions for to bring into the Polish customs area, to take away from the Polish customs area, and to transit through this area nuclear materials, radioactive sources and device including such sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, L.

    2002-01-01

    The decree refers to conditions for to bring into the Polish customs area, to take away from the Polish customs area, and to transit through this area nuclear materials, radioactive sources and devices containing such sources

  15. Comparison of glare in YAG-damaged intraocular lenses: injection-molded versus lathe-cut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bath, P E; Dang, Y; Martin, W H

    1986-11-01

    A comparative analysis of YAG laser intraocular lens (IOL) damage was undertaken on injection-molded and lathe-cut IOLs. Damage sites were evaluated with polarized light. A consistent positive polarization was observed in the damage sites of lathe-cut IOLs. A consistent negative polarization was observed in the damage sites of injection-molded IOLs. The presence of positive polarization in IOL damage sites may be correlated with increased potential for glare. Results and clinical implications are discussed.

  16. CALCULATION OF A GLARE STOP FOR TWO-MIRROR EXTRA-FOCAL OBJECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. F. Zambrano

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, efforts to improve optical characteristics in canonical mirror systems, including aspherical surfaces and corrective aberration capabilities. At the same time, much attention is paid to the development of new optical schemes of two-mirror objectives. Development measures to protect the image plane from stray light and harmful flows with minimal vignetting and screening is one of the most perspective ways for improving the image quality objectives. The only method to eliminate or even reduce these non-constructive rays is to set glare stops. The aim of the work was an improving method for constructing a glare stop to protect the image plane and the creation of a calculation algorithm of glare stop for protecting the image plane based on two-mirror extra-focal objectives.The study was conducted in two stages. In the course of the first stage, the positions of screening and intermediate image plane were obtained, as well as the central screening coefficient. At the second stage, an arrangement for the position of glare stop is proposed using the algorithm calculation. Thus, mathematical expressions were achieved by geometric constructions. The relation of the screening coefficient with the distance between the surfaces of the mirrors and the height of the paraxial rays is established. А representation of vignetting diagram for two-mirror extra-focal objective with D/f´ = 1 : 1,3 and 2ω = 4° was realized. The Q estimation of vignetting of inclined light beams is k= 0,56.

  17. Waste Area Grouping 2 Remedial Investigation Phase 1 Seep Task data report: Contaminant source area assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hicks, D.S.

    1996-03-01

    This report presents the findings of the Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 2, Phase 1 Remedial Investigation (RI) Seep Task efforts during 1993 and 1994 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The results presented here follow results form the first year of sampling, 1992, which are contained in the Phase 1 RI report for WAG 2 (DOE 1995a). The WAG 2 Seep Task efforts focused on contaminants in seeps, tributaries, and main streams within the White Oak Creek (WOC) watershed. This report is designed primarily as a reference for contaminants and a resource for guiding remedial decisions. Additional in-depth assessments of the Seep Task data may provide clearer understandings of contaminant transport from the different source areas in the WOC watershed. WAG 2 consists of WOC and its tributaries downstream of the ORNL main plant area, White Oak Lake, the White Oak Creek Embayment of the Clinch River, and the associated flood plains and subsurface environment. The WOC watershed encompasses ORNL and associated WAGs. WAG 2 acts as an integrator for contaminant releases from the contaminated sites at ORNL and as the conduit transporting contaminants to the Clinch River. The main objectives of the Seep Task were to identify and characterize seeps, tributaries and source areas that are responsible for the contaminant releases to the main streams in WAG 2 and to quantify their input to the total contaminant release from the watershed at White Oak Dam (WOD). Efforts focused on 90 Sr, 3 H, and 137 Cs because these contaminants pose the greatest potential human health risk from water ingestion at WOD. Bimonthly sampling was conducted throughout the WOC watershed beginning in March 1993 and ending in August 1994. Samples were also collected for metals, anions, alkalinity, organics, and other radionuclides

  18. Sources of transportation expertise by selected technical areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) has assigned components of its Waste Transportation Program to three of the DOE Operations offices. The DOE Oak Ridge Operations Office (ORO) is responsible for the transportation operations design, development, acquisition, testing, implementation, and program management, including the equipment, facilities, and services of the transportation system. Within ORO, the OCRWM transportation component is assigned to the Transportation Operations Project Office (TOPO). The specific activities involved in the ORO/TOPO include procurement, operational testing, inspection, logistics, interfaces, maintenance, management and improvements, and system operation. Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU) has developed (and will maintain and enhance) a data base of sources of transportation expertise in selected technical areas for ORO. The data base includes individuals and organizations who have indicated that they have capabilities and interest in assisting ORO in the design, development, implementation, and management of the OCRWM transportation system. This assistance might be in the form of consulting or subcontract work and/or participation in peer review panels, technical evaluation committees, workshops, advisory groups, etc. This initial project was completed in the four month period of January 30, 1987 through May 31, 1987

  19. 75 FR 31317 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Area Source Standards for Paints and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-03

    ... & Coating Manufacturing.. 325510 Area source facilities engaged in mixing pigments, solvents, and binders... repellant coatings for concrete and masonry. Adhesive Manufacturing......... 325520 Area source facilities... various areas of air pollution control. IV. Why are we amending the rule? Our intention in this area...

  20. Data requirements and data sources for biodiversity priority area ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    CSIRO Sustainable Ecosystems, Tropical Forest Research Centre and the Rainforest Co-operative Research Centre, ... kinds of data that already exist, and sources of those data. ...... ment of the realized qualitative niche: environmental niches.

  1. B Plant source aggregate area management study report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-03-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site in Washington state is organized into numerically designated operational areas including the 100, 200, 300, 400, 600, and 100 Areas (Figure 1--1). The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in November 1989, included the 200 Areas of the Hanford KLSite on the National Priorities List (NPL), included the 200 Areas of the Hanford Site on the National Priorities List (NPL) under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act of Feasibility Study (FS) process for characterizing the nature and extent of contamination, assessing risks to human health and the environment, and selection of remedial actions. This report presents the results of an aggregate area management study (AIMS) for the B Plant Aggregate Area located in the 200 Areas. The study provides the basis for initiating RI/FS under CERCLA or under the Resource which contain reactor fuel processing and waste management Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Facility Investigations (RFI) and Corrective Measures Studies (CMS). This report also integrates RCRA treatment, storage or disposal (TSD) closure activities with CERCLA and RCRA past-practice investigations

  2. Design of the GLARE tool. A grease lubrication apparatus for research and education

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rawlings, B.

    2012-01-01

    The GLARE: Grease Lubrication Apparatus for Research and Education was designed as a fourth year thesis project with the University of Ontario Institute of Technology (UOIT). The purpose of the apparatus is to train Ontario Power Generation Nuclear (OPGN) staff to properly lubricate bearings with grease and to help detect early equipment failures. Proper re-lubrication is critical to the nuclear industry as equipment may be inaccessible for long periods of time. A secondary purpose for the tool is for UOIT research and undergraduate laboratories.This abstract provides an overview of the project and its application to the nuclear industry. (author)

  3. A technique of scatter and glare correction for videodensitometric studies in digital subtraction videoangiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, C.G.; Ergun, D.L.; Myerowitz, P.D.; Van Lysel, M.S.; Mistretta, C.A.; Zarnstorff, W.C.; Crummy, A.B.

    1982-01-01

    The logarithmic amplification of video signals and the availability of data in digital form make digital subtraction videoangiography a suitable tool for videodensitometric estimation of physiological quantities. A system for this purpose was implemented with a digital video image processor. However, it was found that the radiation scattering and veiling glare present in the image-intensified video must be removed to make meaningful quantitations. An algorithm to make such a correction was developed and is presented. With this correction, the videodensitometry system was calibrated with phantoms and used to measure the left ventricular ejection fraction of a canine heart

  4. T Plant source aggregate area management study report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-11-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site in Washington State is organized into numerically designated operational areas including the 100, 200, 300, 400, 600, and 1100 Areas. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in November 1989, included the 200 Areas of the Hanford Site on the National Priorities List (NPL) under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) of 1980. Inclusion on the NPL initiates the Remedial Investigation (RI) and Feasibility Study (FS) process for characterizing the nature and extent of contamination, assessing risks to human health and the environment, and selection of remedial actions. This report presents the results of an aggregate area management study (AAMS) for the T Plant Aggregate Area located in the 200 Areas. The study provides the basis for initiating RI/FS under CERCLA or under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Facility Investigations (RFI) and Corrective Measures Studies (CMS). This report also integrates RCRA treatment, storage, or disposal (TSD) closure activities with CERCLA and RCRA past-practice investigations

  5. Z Plant source aggregate area management study report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-10-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site in Washington State is or into numerically designated operational areas including the 100, 200, 300, 400, 600, and 1100 Areas. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in November 1989, included the 200 Areas of the Hanford Site on the National Priorities List (NPL) under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) of 1980. Inclusion on the NPL initiates the Remedial Investigation (RI) and Feasibility Study (FS) process for characterizing the nature and extent of contamination, assessing risks to human health and the environment, and selection of remedial actions. This report presents the insults of an aggregate area management study (AAMS) for the Z Plant Aggregate Area located m the 200 Areas. The study provides the basis for initiating RIIFS under CERCLA or under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Facility Investigations (RFI) and Corrective Measures Studies (CMS). This report also integrates RCRA treatment, storage, or disposed (TSD) closure activities with CERCLA and RCRA past-practice investigations

  6. U Plant source aggregate area management study report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-09-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site in Washington State is organized into numerically designated operational areas including the 100, 200, 300, 400, 600, and 1100 Areas. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in November 1989, included the 200 Areas of the Hanford Site on the National Priorities List (NPL) under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) of 1980. Inclusion on the NPL initiates the Remedial Investigation (RI) and Feasibility Study (FS) process for characterizing the nature and extent of contamination, assessing risks to human health and the environment, and selection of remedial actions. This report presents the results of an aggregate area management study (AAMS) for the U Plant Aggregate Area located in the 200 Areas. The study provides the basis for initiating RI/FS under CERCLA or under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Facility Investigations (RFI) and Corrective Measures Studies (CMS). This report also integrates RCRA treatment, storage, or disposal (TSD) closure activities with CERCLA and RCRA past-practice investigations

  7. Arsenic levels in groundwater aquifer of the Neoplanta source area ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As part of a survey on the groundwater aquifer at the Neoplanta source site, standard laboratory analysis of water quality and an electromagnetic geophysical method were used for long-term quantitative and qualitative monitoring of arsenic levels. This study presents only the results of research conducted in the ...

  8. Glaring IPO

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    China Everbright Bank dazzles the domestic stock market with China’s second largest IPO this year As it launched its initial public offering(IPO) in Shanghai on August 18, 2010,China Everbright Bank Co. Ltd. was greeted with a warm welcome- shares of the mid-sized bank closed at 3.66 yuan($0.54) on its first trading date, jumping 18 percent from the IPO price of 3.1 yuan($0.46).

  9. Large area negative ion source for high voltage neutral beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poulsen, P.; Hooper, E.B. Jr.

    1979-11-01

    A source of negative deuterium ions in the multi-ampere range is described that is readily extrapolated to reactor size, 10 amp or more of neutral beam, that is of interest in future experiments and reactors. The negative ion source is based upon the double charge exchange process. A beam of positive ions is created and accelerated to an energy at which the attachment process D + M → D - + M + proceeds efficiently. The positive ions are atomically neutralized either in D 2 or in the charge exchange medium M. Atomic species make a second charge exchange collision in the charge target to form D - . For a sufficiently thick target, the beam reaches an equilibrium fraction of negative ions. For reasons of efficiency, the target is typically alkali metal vapor; this experiment uses sodium. The beam of negative ions can be accelerated to high (>200 keV) energy, the electrons stripped from the ions, and a high energy neutral beam formed

  10. 2π proportional counting chamber for large-area-coated β sources

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 86; Issue 6. 2 π proportional counting chamber for large-area-coated β sources ... A provision is made for change ofthe source and immediate measurement of source activity. These sources are used to calibrate the efficiency of contamination monitors at radiological ...

  11. Uruguaian rural area: energy demand and sources supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reolon, R.

    1994-01-01

    The present work is about the energy demand in rural areas and its electrification like one of the factors of its residents maintenance, in the means that they are essential for the development but intensive of agrarian intensity, nevertheless we will try to determine their quantity and the character one of them

  12. Data requirements and data sources for biodiversity priority area ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    tions required for a priority areas analysis. An important ..... Analysis Project, etc. Even before bias can be assessed and decisions taken either to proceed with existing data, model expected data. (see below), collect new data, or reject the data, those data have to be ..... Caudill 1990). They are a form of artificial intelligence,.

  13. Visual ergonomic aspects of glare on computer displays: glossy screens and angular dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunnström, Kjell; Andrén, Börje; Konstantinides, Zacharias; Nordström, Lukas

    2007-02-01

    Recently flat panel computer displays and notebook computer are designed with a so called glare panel i.e. highly glossy screens, have emerged on the market. The shiny look of the display appeals to the costumers, also there are arguments that the contrast, colour saturation etc improves by using a glare panel. LCD displays suffer often from angular dependent picture quality. This has been even more pronounced by the introduction of Prism Light Guide plates into displays for notebook computers. The TCO label is the leading labelling system for computer displays. Currently about 50% of all computer displays on the market are certified according to the TCO requirements. The requirements are periodically updated to keep up with the technical development and the latest research in e.g. visual ergonomics. The gloss level of the screen and the angular dependence has recently been investigated by conducting user studies. A study of the effect of highly glossy screens compared to matt screens has been performed. The results show a slight advantage for the glossy screen when no disturbing reflexes are present, however the difference was not statistically significant. When disturbing reflexes are present the advantage is changed into a larger disadvantage and this difference is statistically significant. Another study of angular dependence has also been performed. The results indicates a linear relationship between the picture quality and the centre luminance of the screen.

  14. Renewable sources of electricity in the SWEB area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-06-01

    Following the privatisation of the Electricity Supply Industry, Regional Electricity Companies now have greater influence on the generation and supply of electricity, including power from renewable sources. The introduction of the Non-Fossil Fuel Obligation has also greatly assisted the development of electricity generation from renewables, culminating in around 260 MW of new renewables capacity by April 1993 in England and Wales, including 116 MW from windfarms. In view of the increased interest in renewables shown nationally and within the South West, SWEB and the Department of Trade and Industry agreed to conduct a study of the renewable energy technologies and their associated resource potential within the SWEB region. (author)

  15. Studies on characteristics of water sources around Kaiga project area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prakash, T.R.; Krishna Bhat, D.; Thimme Gowda, B.; Sherigara, B.S.; Abdul Khadar, A.M.

    1995-01-01

    A systematic and detailed study of characteristics of ground water, Kali river water and rain water samples around Kaiga project area has been undertaken. The analysis of a large number of parameters revealed that the ground waters and Kali river water are of calcium-bicarbonate type as indicated by Romani's modified Hill Piper diagram. The ionic impurities in ground waters and Kali river water are well within the Indian Drinking Water Specifications. The results obtained would serve as base line data for future impact studies. (author). 6 refs., 1 tab

  16. Small Area Model-Based Estimators Using Big Data Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marchetti Stefano

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The timely, accurate monitoring of social indicators, such as poverty or inequality, on a finegrained spatial and temporal scale is a crucial tool for understanding social phenomena and policymaking, but poses a great challenge to official statistics. This article argues that an interdisciplinary approach, combining the body of statistical research in small area estimation with the body of research in social data mining based on Big Data, can provide novel means to tackle this problem successfully. Big Data derived from the digital crumbs that humans leave behind in their daily activities are in fact providing ever more accurate proxies of social life. Social data mining from these data, coupled with advanced model-based techniques for fine-grained estimates, have the potential to provide a novel microscope through which to view and understand social complexity. This article suggests three ways to use Big Data together with small area estimation techniques, and shows how Big Data has the potential to mirror aspects of well-being and other socioeconomic phenomena.

  17. Farm Agrotourism Alternative Sources Of Income In Rural Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Petroman

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Agrotourist movement in rural areas is influenced by several factors of economic, psychological, demographic, natural or circumstantial nature. Along with increasing of the incomes and exceeding the critical level of satisfaction only of consume requirements intensifies the agrotourist circulation and regarding tariffs practiced, they can have an inhibiting effect if they increase or will promote tourist flows if they decrease. The agrotourist motivation has a major influence, being the one that determines the tourist to move from his place of residence, this referring to the demands, impulses, desires, with personal character and intentions to spend their holidays in the country. Farm agrotourism is an activity of which raw material is represented by the environment surrounding and from the farm, their attractiveness, elements that develop a wide range of shapes, capable of responding to various reasons to spend a holiday in rural area. Through the diversification of agrotourist activities it will improuve the economic activity of the farms with specific and will increase the incomes additional obtained in farms at a time when the main activity is not so intense.

  18. Dust deposition in southern Nevada and California, 1984-1989: Relations to climate, source area, and source lithology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reheis, Marith C.; Kihl, Rolf

    1995-05-01

    Dust samples collected annually for 5 years from 55 sites in southern Nevada and California provide the first regional source of information on modern rates of dust deposition, grain size, and mineralogical and chemical composition relative to climate and to type and lithology of dust source. The average silt and clay flux (rate of deposition) in southern Nevada and southeastern California ranges from 4.3 to 15.7 g/m2/yr, but in southwestern California the average silt and clay flux is as high as 30 g/m2/yr. The climatic factors that affect dust flux interact with each other and with the factors of source type (playas versus alluvium), source lithology, geographic area, and human disturbance. Average dust flux increases with mean annual temperature but is not correlated to decreases in mean annual precipitation because the regional winds bring dust to relatively wet areas. In contrast, annual dust flux mostly reflects changes in annual precipitation (relative drought) rather than temperature. Although playa and alluvial sources produce about the same amount of dust per unit area, the total volume of dust from the more extensive alluvial sources is much larger. In addition, playa and alluvial sources respond differently to annual changes in precipitation. Most playas produce dust that is richer in soluble salts and carbonate than that from alluvial sources (except carbonate-rich alluvium). Gypsum dust may be produced by the interaction of carbonate dust and anthropogenic or marine sulfates. The dust flux in an arid urbanizing area may be as much as twice that before disturbance but decreases when construction stops. The mineralogic and major-oxide composition of the dust samples indicates that sand and some silt is locally derived and deposited, whereas clay and some silt from different sources can be far-traveled. Dust deposited in the Transverse Ranges of California by the Santa Ana winds appears to be mainly derived from sources to the north and east.

  19. SOLAR TO AC POWER SOURCE FOR REMOTE AREAS USING SEIG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MEHMET AKBABA

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Photovoltaic generators (PVG are increasingly used to provide electricity in remote areas. However, in many applications the DC generated electricity by a PVG need to be converted to AC. Traditionally DC to AC inverters have been widely used for this purpose. In this paper, a different system is proposed in which a self excited induction generator (SEIG driven by a permanent magnet DC motor (DCM and powered from a PVG through a maximum power point tracker (MPPT are used. A step-up chopper is utilized as an MPPT unit. The proposed system is modelled in time domain, and a detailed transient and steady-state analysis are presented. The main reason behind analyzing the system in the time domain is because of the fact that for unknown speeds, the methods developed for steady-state analysis of SEIGs can not be applied. The presented work shows that the full available power of the PVG can be harnessed by selecting suitable values for the duty cycle and the frequency of the step up chopper and the excitation capacitor of the SEIG. It is also shown that with such a combination power utilization efficiency of more than 83% can be achieved.

  20. 78 FR 7487 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Area Sources: Industrial, Commercial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    ... small coal-fired units (i.e., with a design heat input capacity of less than 10 MMBtu/hr) are subject to... existing area source coal-fired boilers with heat input capacity of 10 MMBtu/hr or greater may need to... most emissions from area source boilers, two pollutants emitted by coal-fired boilers, POM as 7-PAH and...

  1. A Detailed Study of Debris Flow Source Areas in the Northern Colorado Front Range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arana-Morales, A.; Baum, R. L.; Godt, J.

    2014-12-01

    Nearly continuous, heavy rainfall occurred during 9-13 September 2013 causing flooding and widespread landslides and debris flows in the northern Colorado Front Range. Whereas many recent studies have identified erosion as the most common process leading to debris flows in the mountains of Colorado, nearly all of the debris flows mapped in this event began as small, shallow landslides. We mapped the boundaries of 415 September 2013 debris flows in the Eldorado Springs and Boulder 7.5-minute quadrangles using 0.5-m-resolution satellite imagery. We characterized the landslide source areas of six debris flows in the field as part of an effort to identify what factors controlled their locations. Four were on a dip slope in sedimentary rocks in the Pinebrook Hills area, near Boulder, and the other two were in granitic rocks near Gross Reservoir. Although we observed no obvious geomorphic differences between the source areas and surrounding non-landslide areas, we noted several characteristics that the source areas all had in common. Slopes of the source areas ranged from 28° to 35° and most occurred on planar or slightly concave slopes that were vegetated with grass, small shrubs, and sparse trees. The source areas were shallow, irregularly shaped, and elongated downslope: widths ranged from 4 to 9 m, lengths from 6 to 40 m and depths ranged from 0.7 to 1.2 m. Colluvium was the source material for all of the debris flows and bedrock was exposed in the basal surface of all of the source areas. We observed no evidence for concentrated surface runoff upslope from the sources. Local curvature and roughness of bedrock and surface topography, and depth distribution and heterogeneity of the colluvium appear to have controlled the specific locations of these shallow debris-flow source areas. The observed distribution and characteristics of the source areas help guide ongoing efforts to model initiation of the debris flows.

  2. ["Glare vision". I. Physiological principles of vision change with increased test field luminance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser, B; Ochsner, H; Zrenner, E

    1992-02-01

    Clinical tests of visual acuity are an important measure of visual function. However visual acuity is usually determined only in narrow range of luminance levels between 160 and 320 cd/m2; therefore losses of visual acuity in other ranges of light intensity can not be detected. In a distance of 80 cm from the patients eyes, Landolt rings of varying sizes were presented on a small test field whose light intensity can be varied between 0.1 and 30,000 cd/m2. Thereby an acuity-luminance-function can be obtained. We studied such functions under different conditions of exposure time both with constant and with increasing luminance of the test field. We found that persons with normal vision can increase their visual acuity with increasing test field luminance up to a range of 5000 cd/m2. The maximum values of visual acuity under optimal lightening conditions lie (varying with age) between 2.2 and 0.9. Under pathological conditions visual acuity falls at high luminances accompanied by sensations of glare. Tests of glare sensitivity as a function of exposure time showed 4 sec to be a critical time of exposure since after 4 sec normal persons just reach their maximum visual acuity at high luminances. The underlying physiological mechanisms lead us to suppose that patients with neuronal light adaptation disturbances display a greater visual loss as a result of decreased time of exposure than those with disturbances in the ocular media. Visual acuity as well as the capacity to increase the patients visual acuity under optimal conditions of lighting were both found to be strongly age-dependent.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. Elk and Deer Study, Material Disposal Area G, Technical Area 54: Source document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. K. Ferenbaugh; P. R. Fresquez; M. H. Ebinger; G. J. Gonzales; P. A. Jordan

    1999-09-01

    As nuclear research has become more prevalent, environmental contamination from the disposal of radioactive waste has become a prominent issue. At Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in northern New Mexico, radioactive contamination from disposal operations has raised some very specific concerns. Material Disposal Area G (Area G) is the primary low-level radioactive waste disposal site at LANL and occupies an area adjacent to land belonging to the Native American community of the Pueblo of San Ildefonso. Analyses of soil and vegetation collected from the perimeter of Area G have shown concentrations of radionuclides greater than background concentrations established for northern New Mexico. As a result, Pueblo residents had become concerned that contaminants from Area G could enter tribal lands through various ecological pathways. The residents specifically questioned the safety of consuming meat from elk and deer that forage near Area G and then migrate onto tribal lands. Consequently, this study addresses the uptake of {sup 3}H, {sup 90}Sr, {sup tot}U, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239}Pu, {sup 241}Am, and {sup 137}Cs by elk (Cervus elaphus) and deer (Odocoileus hemionus) that forage around the perimeter of Area G and the associated doses to the animals and to humans who consume these animals. Radionuclide uptake by and internal dose to animals was estimated using equations modified from National Council on Radiological Protection Report 76. The Residual Radiation computer code was used to estimate the external dose to animals and the dose to humans consuming meat. Soil and water concentrations from the perimeter of Area G and from background regions in northern New Mexico were averaged over 4 years (1993--1996) and used as input data for the models. Concentration estimates generated by the model correspond to the concentration range measured in actual tissue samples from elk and deer collected at LANL. The highest dose estimates for both animals (0.028 mrad/d) and humans

  4. Elk and Deer Study, Material Disposal Area G, Technical Area 54: Source document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferenbaugh, J.K.; Fresquez, P.R.; Ebinger, M.H.; Gonzales, G.J.; Jordan, P.A.

    1999-01-01

    As nuclear research has become more prevalent, environmental contamination from the disposal of radioactive waste has become a prominent issue. At Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in northern New Mexico, radioactive contamination from disposal operations has raised some very specific concerns. Material Disposal Area G (Area G) is the primary low-level radioactive waste disposal site at LANL and occupies an area adjacent to land belonging to the Native American community of the Pueblo of San Ildefonso. Analyses of soil and vegetation collected from the perimeter of Area G have shown concentrations of radionuclides greater than background concentrations established for northern New Mexico. As a result, Pueblo residents had become concerned that contaminants from Area G could enter tribal lands through various ecological pathways. The residents specifically questioned the safety of consuming meat from elk and deer that forage near Area G and then migrate onto tribal lands. Consequently, this study addresses the uptake of 3 H, 90 Sr, tot U, 238 Pu, 239 Pu, 241 Am, and 137 Cs by elk (Cervus elaphus) and deer (Odocoileus hemionus) that forage around the perimeter of Area G and the associated doses to the animals and to humans who consume these animals. Radionuclide uptake by and internal dose to animals was estimated using equations modified from National Council on Radiological Protection Report 76. The Residual Radiation computer code was used to estimate the external dose to animals and the dose to humans consuming meat. Soil and water concentrations from the perimeter of Area G and from background regions in northern New Mexico were averaged over 4 years (1993--1996) and used as input data for the models. Concentration estimates generated by the model correspond to the concentration range measured in actual tissue samples from elk and deer collected at LANL. The highest dose estimates for both animals (0.028 mrad/d) and humans (0.072 mrem/y) were well below

  5. 77 FR 59931 - Single Source Program Expansion Supplement Award to Area Health Education Centers (AHEC) Program...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    ... Program Expansion Supplement Award to Area Health Education Centers (AHEC) Program Grantee; Exception to... Competition--Single Source Program Expansion Supplement Award to Area Health Education Centers (AHEC) Program... supplement award to the University of Guam School of Nursing, an Area Health Education Center (AHEC) Program...

  6. California; Bay Area Air Quality Management District; Proposed Approval of Stationary Sources New Source Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is making an interim final determination to defer imposition of sanctions based on a proposed determination that CARB submitted rules on behalf of BAAQMD that satisfy part D of the Clean Air Act for areas under the jurisdiction of the BAAQMD.

  7. Assessing critical source areas in watersheds for conservation buffer planning and riparian restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Zeyuan

    2009-11-01

    A science-based geographic information system (GIS) approach is presented to target critical source areas in watersheds for conservation buffer placement. Critical source areas are the intersection of hydrologically sensitive areas and pollutant source areas in watersheds. Hydrologically sensitive areas are areas that actively generate runoff in the watershed and are derived using a modified topographic index approach based on variable source area hydrology. Pollutant source areas are the areas in watersheds that are actively and intensively used for such activities as agricultural production. The method is applied to the Neshanic River watershed in Hunterdon County, New Jersey. The capacity of the topographic index in predicting the spatial pattern of runoff generation and the runoff contribution to stream flow in the watershed is evaluated. A simple cost-effectiveness assessment is conducted to compare the conservation buffer placement scenario based on this GIS method to conventional riparian buffer scenarios for placing conservation buffers in agricultural lands in the watershed. The results show that the topographic index reasonably predicts the runoff generation in the watershed. The GIS-based conservation buffer scenario appears to be more cost-effective than the conventional riparian buffer scenarios.

  8. Summary of Energy Assessment Requirements under the Area Source Boiler Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document provides an overview of the energy assessment requirements for the national emission standards for hazardous air pollutants (NESHAP) for area sources: industrial, commercial and Institutional boilers, 40 CFR Part 63, Subpart JJJJJJ.

  9. Radio Follow-up on All Unassociated Gamma-Ray Sources from the Third Fermi Large Area Telescope Source Catalog

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schinzel, Frank K. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box O, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Petrov, Leonid [Astrogeo Center, Falls Church, VA 22043 (United States); Taylor, Gregory B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States); Edwards, Philip G., E-mail: fschinze@nrao.edu [CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, P.O. Box 76, Epping, 1710 NSW (Australia)

    2017-04-01

    The third Fermi Large Area Telescope γ -ray source catalog (3FGL) contains over 1000 objects for which there is no known counterpart at other wavelengths. The physical origin of the γ -ray emission from those objects is unknown. Such objects are commonly referred to as unassociated and mostly do not exhibit significant γ -ray flux variability. We performed a survey of all unassociated γ -ray sources found in 3FGL using the Australia Telescope Compact Array and Very Large Array in the range 4.0–10.0 GHz. We found 2097 radio candidates for association with γ -ray sources. The follow-up with very long baseline interferometry for a subset of those candidates yielded 142 new associations with active galactic nuclei that are γ -ray sources, provided alternative associations for seven objects, and improved positions for another 144 known associations to the milliarcsecond level of accuracy. In addition, for 245 unassociated γ -ray sources we did not find a single compact radio source above 2 mJy within 3 σ of their γ -ray localization. A significant fraction of these empty fields, 39%, are located away from the Galactic plane. We also found 36 extended radio sources that are candidates for association with a corresponding γ -ray object, 19 of which are most likely supernova remnants or H ii regions, whereas 17 could be radio galaxies.

  10. Source segregation of food waste in office areas: Factors affecting waste generation rates and quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edjabou, Vincent Maklawe Essonanawe; Boldrin, Alessio; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    Existing legislation mandates that the amount of waste being recycled should be increased. Among others, in its Resource Strategy Plan, the Danish Government decided that at least 60% of food waste generated by the service sector, including in office areas, should be source-sorted and collected...... separately by 2018. To assess the achievability of these targets, source-sorted food waste and residual waste from office areas was collected and weighed on a daily basis during 133 working days. Waste composition analyses were conducted every week to investigate the efficiency of the source-sorting campaign...... and the purity of the source-sorted food waste. The moisture content of source-sorted food waste and residual waste fractions, and potential methane production from source-sorted food waste, was also investigated.Food waste generation equated to 23. ±. 5. kg/employee/year, of which 20. ±. 5. kg...

  11. Identification of dust storm source areas in West Asia using multiple environmental datasets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Hui; Amiraslani, Farshad; Liu, Jian; Zhou, Na

    2015-01-01

    Sand and Dust storms are common phenomena in arid and semi-arid areas. West Asia Region, especially Tigris-Euphrates alluvial plain, has been recognized as one of the most important dust source areas in the world. In this paper, a method is applied to extract SDS (Sand and Dust Storms) sources in West Asia region using thematic maps, climate and geography, HYSPLIT model and satellite images. Out of 50 dust storms happened during 2000-2013 and collected in form of MODIS images, 27 events were incorporated as demonstrations of the simulated trajectories by HYSPLIT model. Besides, a dataset of the newly released Landsat images was used as base-map for the interpretation of SDS source regions. As a result, six main clusters were recognized as dust source areas. Of which, 3 clusters situated in Tigris-Euphrates plain were identified as severe SDS sources (including 70% dust storms in this research). Another cluster in Sistan plain is also a potential source area. This approach also confirmed six main paths causing dust storms. These paths are driven by the climate system including Siberian and Polar anticyclones, monsoon from Indian Subcontinent and depression from north of Africa. The identification of SDS source areas and paths will improve our understandings on the mechanisms and impacts of dust storms on socio-economy and environment of the region. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Uniform sources of ionizing radiation of extended area from radiotoned photographic film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thackray, M.

    1978-01-01

    The technique of toning photographic films, that have been uniformly exposed and developed, with radionuclides to provide uniform sources of ionizing radiation of extended area and their uses in radiography are discussed. The suitability of various radionuclides for uniform-plane sources is considered. (U.K.)

  13. 75 FR 522 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Area Source Standards for Prepared...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-05

    ... associated with these analyses did not influence the basic decision to regulate this source category or the... that decision was not supported with a rational explanation. Response: As the commenter recognizes, in... and manganese). We reviewed the listing decision for this area source category and did not identify...

  14. The European large area ISO survey - III. 90-mu m extragalactic source counts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Efstathiou, A.; Oliver, S.; Rowan-Robinson, M.

    2000-01-01

    We present results and source counts at 90 mum extracted from the preliminary analysis of the European Large Area ISO Survey (ELAIS). The survey covered about 12 deg(2) of the sky in four main areas and was carried out with the ISOPHOT instrument onboard the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO...... or small groups of galaxies, suggesting that the sample may include a significant fraction of luminous infrared galaxies. The source counts extracted from a reliable subset of the detected sources are in agreement with strongly evolving models of the starburst galaxy population....

  15. Verification of surface source's characteristics using large-area 2π gas flow counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abu Naser Waheed, M.M.; Mikami, S.; Kobayashi, H.; Noda, K.

    1998-09-01

    Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC) has large-area 2π gas flow counter for the purpose of measuring activity of surface sources of alpha or beta ray emitter. Surface sources are used for the calibration of radiation measuring equipment for radiation control. Due to sequent use of sources, the surface of these sources are inclined to go in bad condition because of unwanted accidental incidents. For the better calibration achievement of radiation measuring instruments the rate of emission of these sources are to be checked periodically by the large-area 2π gas flow counter. In this paper described that eight U 3 O 8 surface sources were selected from many sources of PNC Tokai Works and activity of these sources was measured by the 2π gas flow counter. The results were compared with the values certified by Japan Radio Isotope Association (JRIA). It is evident from the result of comparison that the surface sources are in good condition, i.e., the sources are reliable to calibrate the radiation control instruments. (author)

  16. Analysis of income sources of women farmers in rural areas of Delta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... from goat production. The paper suggests that agricultural policy and programmes should focus more on cassava and goat production in order to increase income of the women farmers in the study area. Keywords: Income Sources, Women Farmers, Rural Area Global Approaches to Extension Practice Vol. 3 (1) 2007: pp.

  17. Geology of Muntok area and the potency of menumbang granite as source of Uranium and Thorium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurniawan Dwi Saksama; Ngadenin

    2013-01-01

    In the West Bangka there are some granites namely Menumbing, Pelangas, Tempilang, and Jebus granite. The granites is granite tin belt that stretches from Thailand-Malaysia-Bangka Belitung. Granite tin belt or granite source of tin (cassiterite) can act as a source of U and Th. Aims of the study is to find out the information on the geology of Muntok area and its surrounding and to determine the potency of Menumbing granite as a source of U and Th. The methods used is surface geological mapping in Muntok areas and its surrounding with scale 1 : 25.000, measurement grade of uranium and thorium in Menumbing granite areas and petrographic and grain size analysis of sample of Menumbing granite. Determination of granites a source of U and Th is based on content of radioactive mineral, anomaly of U and Th, megascopic and microscopic observation of granite. Morphology of Muntok areas and its surrounding is denudasional undulating plains to hills with an elevation ranging from 0 to 455 meters. Stratigraphy of research areas from old to young is meta sandstone units, granite intrusion of Menumbing and alluvial. Evolving fault is a fault trending West-East. Based on the presence of radioactive minerals, grade of U and Th as well as the type of granite, it was concluded that the Menumbing granite is a source of Th and not sources of U. (author)

  18. [Research on stormwater runoff quality of mountain city by source area monitoring].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li-Qing; Shan, Bao-Qing; Zhao, Jian-Wei; Guo, Shu-Gang; Gao, Yong

    2012-10-01

    Stormwater runoff samples were collected from 10 source areas in Mountain City, Chongqing, during five rain events in an attempt to investigate the characteristics of runoff quality and influencing factors. The outcomes are expected to offer practical guidance of sources control of urban runoff pollution. The results indicated that the stormwater runoff of Mountain City presented a strong first flush for almost all events and constituents. The runoff quality indices were also influenced by the rainfall intensity. The concentration of TSS, COD, TN and TP decreased as the rainfall intensity increased. The concentrations of COD and TP in stormwater runoff were highly correlated with TSS concentrations. Suspended solid matter were not only the main pollutant of stormwater runoff but also served as the vehicle for transport of organic matter and phosphorus. Organic matter and phosphorus in stormwatrer runoff were mainly bound to particles, whereas nitrogen was predominantly dissolved, with ammonia and nitrate. A significant difference of stormwater runoff quality was observed among the ten monitored source areas. The highest magnitude of urban stormwater runoff pollution was expected in the commercial area and the first trunk road, followed by the minor road, residential area, parking lot and roof. Urban surface function, traffic volume, population density, and street sweeping practice are the main factors determining spatial differentiation of urban surface runoff quality. Commercial area, the first trunk road and residential area with high population density are the critical sources areas of urban stormwater runoff pollution.

  19. Investigation into the Fiber Orientation Effect on the Formability of GLARE Materials in the Stamp Forming Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shichen; Lang, Lihui; Sherkatghanad, Ehsan; Wang, Yao; Xu, Wencai

    2018-04-01

    Glass-reinforced aluminum laminate (GLARE) is a new class of fiber metal laminates (FMLs) which has the advantages such as high tensile strength, outstanding fatigue, impact resistance, and excellent corrosion properties. GLARE has been extensively applied in advanced aerospace and automobile industries. However, the deformation behavior of the glass fiber during forming must be studied to the benefits of the good-quality part we form. In this research, we focus on the effect of fiber layer orientation on the GLARE laminate formability in stamp forming process. Experimental and numerical analysis of stamping a hemisphere part in different fiber orientation is investigated. The results indicate that unidirectional and multi-directional fiber in the middle layer make a significant effect on the thinning and also surface forming quality of the three layer sheet. Furthermore, the stress-strain distribution of the aluminum alloy and the unique anisotropic property of the fiber layer exhibit that fiber layer orientation can also affect the forming depths as well as the fracture modes of the laminate. According to the obtained results, it is revealed that multi-directional fiber layers are a good alternative compared to the unidirectional fibers especially when a better formability is the purpose.

  20. Analysis on Physical Characteristics of Rural Solid Waste in Dongjiang River Source Area, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Tao

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Dongjiang river is the source of drinking water of Guangdong Province and Hongkong, and the source area includes three counties in Ganzhou city of Jiangxi Province: Xunwu, Anyuan and Dingnan. Three typical villages were chosen in Dongjiang river source area to investigate the producing quantity and physical characteristics of rural solid waste. Results of investigation showed that the dominant ingredient in rural solid waste in Dongjiang river source area was kitchen waste, taking over 60%, followed by dust, reaching 12%, while other components took less than 10%. The per-capita producing quantity of solid waste of county-level village was 0.2~0.47 kg·d -1 and averaged by 0.36 kg·d -1, while that of town-level village was 0.18~0.35 kg· d -1, averaged by 0.29 kg· d -1 and that of hamlet was 0.07~0.33 kg· d -1, averaged by 0.17 kg· d -1. Water content in rural mixed solid waste of investigated area was significantly linear with percentage of kitchen waste in the mixed waste(R 2 =0.626, P=0.019. The average calorie wasaround 2 329 kJ·kg -1, which indicated that the rural solid waste in Dongjiang river source area was not suitable for incineration disposal directly.

  1. Distribution and origin sources of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) pollution in sediment of Sarawak coastal area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Shuhaimi Elias; Abdul Khalik Wood; Zaleha Hashim; Mohd Suhaimi Hamzah; Shamsiah Abdul Rahman; Nazaratul Ashifa Abdullah Salim

    2010-01-01

    Alkyl and parent Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) compounds in marine sediment sample collected from ten locations along Sarawak coastal areas were extracted and analyzed by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The source identification of PAH pollution in marine sediment of Sarawak coastal areas were identify by ratios technique of An/ An+phen, Fl/ Fl +Py, B[a]A/ (B[a]A+Chry) and total Methyl Phen/ Phen. The total alkyl and parent PAHs concentration varies from 36.5 - 277.4 ng/ g dry weight (d.w.) with a mean concentration of 138.2 ng/ g d.w. The ratio values of PAHs pollution in marine sediment of Sarawak coastal areas are clearly indicating the PAHs pollutions are originated from petroleum (petrogenic) and petroleum combustion (pyrolytic). However, the origin sources of PAHs pollution in a few stations were uncertain due to mixing sources of PAHs. (author)

  2. Recent advances in the source term area within the SARNET European severe accident research network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herranz, L.E.; Haste, T.; Kärkelä, T.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Main achievements of source term research in SARNET are given. • Emphasis on the radiologically important iodine and ruthenium fission products. • Conclusions on FP release, transport in the RCS and containment behaviour. • Significance of large-scale integral experiments to validate the analyses used. • A thorough list of the most recent references on source term research results. - Abstract: Source Term has been one of the main research areas addressed within the SARNET network during the 7th EC Framework Programme of EURATOM. The entire source term domain was split into three major areas: oxidising impact on source term, iodine chemistry in the reactor coolant system and containment and data and code assessment. The present paper synthesises the main technical outcome stemming from the SARNET FWP7 project in the area of source term and includes an extensive list of references in which deeper insights on specific issues may be found. Besides, based on the analysis of the current state of the art, an outlook of future source term research is outlined, where major changes in research environment are discussed (i.e., the end of the Phébus FP project; the end of the SARNET projects; and the launch of HORIZON 2020). Most probably research projects will be streamlined towards: release and transport under oxidising conditions, containment chemistry, existing and innovative filtered venting systems and others. These will be in addition to a number of projects that have been completed or are ongoing under different national and international frameworks, like VERDON, CHIP and EPICUR started under the International Source Term Programme (ISTP), the OECD/CSNI programmes BIP, BIP2, STEM, THAI and THAI2, and the French national programme MIRE. The experimental PASSAM project under the 7th EC Framework programme, focused on source term mitigation systems, is highlighted as a good example of a project addressing potential enhancement of safety systems

  3. Recent advances in the source term area within the SARNET European severe accident research network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herranz, L.E., E-mail: luisen.herranz@ciemat.es [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas Medio Ambientales y Tecnologica, CIEMAT, Avda. Complutense 40, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Haste, T. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire, IRSN, BP 3, F-13115 St Paul lez Durance Cedex (France); Kärkelä, T. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, P.O. Box 1000, FI-02044 VTT Espoo (Finland)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Main achievements of source term research in SARNET are given. • Emphasis on the radiologically important iodine and ruthenium fission products. • Conclusions on FP release, transport in the RCS and containment behaviour. • Significance of large-scale integral experiments to validate the analyses used. • A thorough list of the most recent references on source term research results. - Abstract: Source Term has been one of the main research areas addressed within the SARNET network during the 7th EC Framework Programme of EURATOM. The entire source term domain was split into three major areas: oxidising impact on source term, iodine chemistry in the reactor coolant system and containment and data and code assessment. The present paper synthesises the main technical outcome stemming from the SARNET FWP7 project in the area of source term and includes an extensive list of references in which deeper insights on specific issues may be found. Besides, based on the analysis of the current state of the art, an outlook of future source term research is outlined, where major changes in research environment are discussed (i.e., the end of the Phébus FP project; the end of the SARNET projects; and the launch of HORIZON 2020). Most probably research projects will be streamlined towards: release and transport under oxidising conditions, containment chemistry, existing and innovative filtered venting systems and others. These will be in addition to a number of projects that have been completed or are ongoing under different national and international frameworks, like VERDON, CHIP and EPICUR started under the International Source Term Programme (ISTP), the OECD/CSNI programmes BIP, BIP2, STEM, THAI and THAI2, and the French national programme MIRE. The experimental PASSAM project under the 7th EC Framework programme, focused on source term mitigation systems, is highlighted as a good example of a project addressing potential enhancement of safety systems

  4. Algorithms and analytical solutions for rapidly approximating long-term dispersion from line and area sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Steven R. H.; Britter, Rex E.

    Predicting long-term mean pollutant concentrations in the vicinity of airports, roads and other industrial sources are frequently of concern in regulatory and public health contexts. Many emissions are represented geometrically as ground-level line or area sources. Well developed modelling tools such as AERMOD and ADMS are able to model dispersion from finite (i.e. non-point) sources with considerable accuracy, drawing upon an up-to-date understanding of boundary layer behaviour. Due to mathematical difficulties associated with line and area sources, computationally expensive numerical integration schemes have been developed. For example, some models decompose area sources into a large number of line sources orthogonal to the mean wind direction, for which an analytical (Gaussian) solution exists. Models also employ a time-series approach, which involves computing mean pollutant concentrations for every hour over one or more years of meteorological data. This can give rise to computer runtimes of several days for assessment of a site. While this may be acceptable for assessment of a single industrial complex, airport, etc., this level of computational cost precludes national or international policy assessments at the level of detail available with dispersion modelling. In this paper, we extend previous work [S.R.H. Barrett, R.E. Britter, 2008. Development of algorithms and approximations for rapid operational air quality modelling. Atmospheric Environment 42 (2008) 8105-8111] to line and area sources. We introduce approximations which allow for the development of new analytical solutions for long-term mean dispersion from line and area sources, based on hypergeometric functions. We describe how these solutions can be parameterized from a single point source run from an existing advanced dispersion model, thereby accounting for all processes modelled in the more costly algorithms. The parameterization method combined with the analytical solutions for long-term mean

  5. Source Release Modeling for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory's Subsurface Disposal Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, B.H.

    2002-01-01

    A source release model was developed to determine the release of contaminants into the shallow subsurface, as part of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) evaluation at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory's (INEEL) Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA). The output of the source release model is used as input to the subsurface transport and biotic uptake models. The model allowed separating the waste into areas that match the actual disposal units. This allows quantitative evaluation of the relative contribution to the total risk and allows evaluation of selective remediation of the disposal units within the SDA

  6. Large-area smart glass and integrated photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lampert, C.M. [Star Science, 8730 Water Road, Cotati, CA 94931-4252 (United States)

    2003-04-01

    Several companies throughout the world are developing dynamic glazing and large-area flat panel displays. University and National Laboratory groups are researching new materials and processes to improve these products. The concept of a switchable glazing for building and vehicle application is very attractive. Conventional glazing only offers fixed transmittance and control of energy passing through it. Given the wide range of illumination conditions and glare, a dynamic glazing with adjustable transmittance offers the best solution. Photovoltaics can be integrated as power sources for smart windows. In this way a switchable window could be a completely stand alone smart system. A new range of large-area flat panel display including light-weight and flexible displays are being developed. These displays can be used for banner advertising, dynamic pricing in stores, electronic paper, and electronic books, to name only a few applications. This study covers selected switching technologies including electrochromism, suspended particles, and encapsulated liquid crystals.

  7. Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffy, L.P.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses the sources of radiation in the narrow perspective of radioactivity and the even narrow perspective of those sources that concern environmental management and restoration activities at DOE facilities, as well as a few related sources. Sources of irritation, Sources of inflammatory jingoism, and Sources of information. First, the sources of irritation fall into three categories: No reliable scientific ombudsman to speak without bias and prejudice for the public good, Technical jargon with unclear definitions exists within the radioactive nomenclature, and Scientific community keeps a low-profile with regard to public information. The next area of personal concern are the sources of inflammation. This include such things as: Plutonium being described as the most dangerous substance known to man, The amount of plutonium required to make a bomb, Talk of transuranic waste containing plutonium and its health affects, TMI-2 and Chernobyl being described as Siamese twins, Inadequate information on low-level disposal sites and current regulatory requirements under 10 CFR 61, Enhanced engineered waste disposal not being presented to the public accurately. Numerous sources of disinformation regarding low level radiation high-level radiation, Elusive nature of the scientific community, The Federal and State Health Agencies resources to address comparative risk, and Regulatory agencies speaking out without the support of the scientific community

  8. Thermal neutron equivalent doses assessment around KFUPM neutron source storage area using NTDs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abu-Jarad, F.; Fazal-ur-Rehman; Al-Haddad, M.N.; Al-Jarrallah, M.I.; Nassar, R

    2002-07-01

    Area passive neutron dosemeters based on nuclear track detectors (NTDs) have been used for 13 days to assess accumulated low doses of thermal neutrons around neutron source storage area of the King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals (KFUPM). Moreover, the aim of this study is to check the effectiveness of shielding of the storage area. NTDs were mounted with the boron converter on their surface as one compressed unit. The converter is a lithium tetraborate (Li{sub 2}B{sub 4}O{sub 7}) layer for thermal neutron detection via {sup 10}B(N,{alpha}){sup 7}Li and {sup 6}Li(n,{alpha}){sup 3}H nuclear reactions. The area passive dosemeters were installed on 26 different locations around the source storage area and adjacent rooms. The calibration factor for NTD-based area passive neutron dosemeters was found to be 8.3 alpha tracks.cm{sup -2}.{mu}Sv{sup -1} using active snoopy neutron dosemeters in the KFUPM neutron irradiation facility. The results show the variation of accumulated dose with locations around the storage area. The range of dose rates varied from as low as 40 nSv.h{sup -1} up to 11 {mu}Sv.h{sup -1}. The study indicates that the area passive neutron dosemeter was able to detect accumulated doses as low as 40 nSv.h{sup -1}, which could not be detected with the available active neutron dosemeters. The results of the study also indicate that an additional shielding is required to bring the dose rates down to background level. The present investigation suggests extending this study to find the contribution of doses from fast neutrons around the neutron source storage area using NTDs through proton recoil. The significance of this passive technique is that it is highly sensitive and does not require any electronics or power supplies, as is the case in active systems. (author)

  9. GIS Based Distributed Runoff Predictions in Variable Source Area Watersheds Employing the SCS-Curve Number

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenhuis, T. S.; Mendoza, G.; Lyon, S. W.; Gerard Marchant, P.; Walter, M. T.; Schneiderman, E.

    2003-04-01

    Because the traditional Soil Conservation Service Curve Number (SCS-CN) approach continues to be ubiquitously used in GIS-BASED water quality models, new application methods are needed that are consistent with variable source area (VSA) hydrological processes in the landscape. We developed within an integrated GIS modeling environment a distributed approach for applying the traditional SCS-CN equation to watersheds where VSA hydrology is a dominant process. Spatial representation of hydrologic processes is important for watershed planning because restricting potentially polluting activities from runoff source areas is fundamental to controlling non-point source pollution. The methodology presented here uses the traditional SCS-CN method to predict runoff volume and spatial extent of saturated areas and uses a topographic index to distribute runoff source areas through watersheds. The resulting distributed CN-VSA method was incorporated in an existing GWLF water quality model and applied to sub-watersheds of the Delaware basin in the Catskill Mountains region of New York State. We found that the distributed CN-VSA approach provided a physically-based method that gives realistic results for watersheds with VSA hydrology.

  10. Use of rare earth oxides as tracers to identify sediment source areas for agricultural hillslopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Deasy

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Understanding sediment sources is essential to enable more effective targeting of in-field mitigation approaches to reduce diffuse pollution from agricultural land. In this paper we report on the application of rare earth element oxides to arable soils at hillslope scale in order to determine sediment source areas and their relative importance, using a non-intrusive method of surface spraying. Runoff, sediments and rare earth elements lost from four arable hillslope lengths at a site in the UK with clay soils were monitored from three rainfall events after tracer application. Measured erosion rates were low, reflecting the typical event conditions occurring at the site, and less than 1% of the applied REO tracers were recovered, which is consistent with the results of comparable studies. Tracer recovery at the base of the hillslope was able to indicate the relative importance of different hillslope sediment source areas, which were found to be consistent between events. The principal source of eroded sediments was the upslope area, implying that the wheel tracks were principally conduits for sediment transport, and not highly active sites of erosion. Mitigation treatments for sediment losses from arable hillslopes should therefore focus on methodologies for trapping mobile sediments within wheel track areas through increasing surface roughness or reducing the connectivity of sediment transport processes.

  11. SWAT modeling of Critical Source Area for Runoff and Phosphorus losses: Lake Champlain Basin, VT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lake Champlain, located between Vermont, New York, and Quebec, exhibits eutrophication due to continuing phosphorus (P) inputs mainly from upstream nonpoint source areas. To address the Lake's eutrophication problem and as part of total maximum daily load (TMDL) requirements, a state-level P reducti...

  12. On the calculation of atmospheric thermal pollution resulted from a flat area source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkauskas, D.Ch.; Senuta, K.A.

    1984-01-01

    A spatial distribution of thermal atmospheric pollution from a flat area source - a great city or a lake-cooler of NPP was investigated. The numerical solution obtained lets to evaluate the horizontal and vertical spreading of the thermal atmospheric pollution by the different wind velocities in dependence of the inhomogeneities in humidity of the earth's surface

  13. Determination of fluoride source in ground water using petrographic studies in Dashtestan area, south of Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battaleb-Looie, Sedigheh; Moore, Farid, ,, Dr.

    2010-05-01

    The groundwater occurs in Dashtestan area, contains a high level of fluoride. Since groundwater is vastly used for drinking and irrigation purposes, the local residents are at high risk of fluoride toxicity, as already evidenced by the occurrence of dental Fluorosis in many residents. 35 surface and groundwater samples were collected in September, 2009. The results show that in 23 samples the fluoride concentration is above the permissible level (1.5ppm). Petrographic study of lithological units in the catchment area indicates that mica minerals are the most probable source of fluoride content in the study area.

  14. Variability in estimated runoff in a forested area based on different cartographic data sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fragoso, L.; Quirós, E.; Durán-Barroso, P.

    2017-11-01

    Aim of study: The goal of this study is to analyse variations in curve number (CN) values produced by different cartographic data sources in a forested watershed, and determine which of them best fit with measured runoff volumes. Area of study: A forested watershed located in western Spain. Material and methods: Four digital cartographic data sources were used to determine the runoff CN in the watershed. Main results: None of the cartographic sources provided all the information necessary to determine properly the CN values. Our proposed methodology, focused on the tree canopy cover, improves the achieved results. Research highlights: The estimation of the CN value in forested areas should be attained as a function of tree canopy cover and new calibrated tables should be implemented in a local scale.

  15. Resource communication: Variability in estimated runoff in a forested area based on different cartographic data sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Fragoso

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: The goal of this study is to analyse variations in curve number (CN values produced by different cartographic data sources in a forested watershed, and determine which of them best fit with measured runoff volumes. Area of study: A forested watershed located in western Spain. Material and methods: Four digital cartographic data sources were used to determine the runoff CN in the watershed. Main results: None of the cartographic sources provided all the information necessary to determine properly the CN values. Our proposed methodology, focused on the tree canopy cover, improves the achieved results. Research highlights: The estimation of the CN value in forested areas should be attained as a function of tree canopy cover and new calibrated tables should be implemented in a local scale.

  16. A GIS-based atmospheric dispersion model for pollutants emitted by complex source areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teggi, Sergio; Costanzini, Sofia; Ghermandi, Grazia; Malagoli, Carlotta; Vinceti, Marco

    2018-01-01

    Gaussian dispersion models are widely used to simulate the concentrations and deposition fluxes of pollutants emitted by source areas. Very often, the calculation time limits the number of sources and receptors and the geometry of the sources must be simple and without holes. This paper presents CAREA, a new GIS-based Gaussian model for complex source areas. CAREA was coded in the Python language, and is largely based on a simplified formulation of the very popular and recognized AERMOD model. The model allows users to define in a GIS environment thousands of gridded or scattered receptors and thousands of complex sources with hundreds of vertices and holes. CAREA computes ground level, or near ground level, concentrations and dry deposition fluxes of pollutants. The input/output and the runs of the model can be completely managed in GIS environment (e.g. inside a GIS project). The paper presents the CAREA formulation and its applications to very complex test cases. The tests shows that the processing time are satisfactory and that the definition of sources and receptors and the output retrieval are quite easy in a GIS environment. CAREA and AERMOD are compared using simple and reproducible test cases. The comparison shows that CAREA satisfactorily reproduces AERMOD simulations and is considerably faster than AERMOD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Geochemistry of Eagle Ford group source rocks and oils from the first shot field area, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edman, Janell D.; Pitman, Janet K.; Hammes, Ursula

    2010-01-01

    Total organic carbon, Rock-Eval pyrolysis, and vitrinite reflectance analyses performed on Eagle Ford Group core and cuttings samples from the First Shot field area, Texas demonstrate these samples have sufficient quantity, quality, and maturity of organic matter to have generated oil. Furthermore, gas chromatography and biomarker analyses performed on Eagle Ford Group oils and source rock extracts as well as weight percent sulfur analyses on the oils indicate the source rock facies for most of the oils are fairly similar. Specifically, these source rock facies vary in lithology from shales to marls, contain elevated levels of sulfur, and were deposited in a marine environment under anoxic conditions. It is these First Shot Eagle Ford source facies that have generated the oils in the First Shot Field. However, in contrast to the generally similar source rock facies and organic matter, maturity varies from early oil window to late oil window in the study area, and these maturity variations have a pronounced effect on both the source rock and oil characteristics. Finally, most of the oils appear to have been generated locally and have not experienced long distance migration. 

  18. Spatial Variability of Sources and Mixing State of Atmospheric Particles in a Metropolitan Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Qing; Gu, Peishi; Li, Hugh Z; Robinson, Ellis S; Lipsky, Eric; Kaltsonoudis, Christos; Lee, Alex K Y; Apte, Joshua S; Robinson, Allen L; Sullivan, Ryan C; Presto, Albert A; Donahue, Neil M

    2018-05-30

    Characterizing intracity variations of atmospheric particulate matter has mostly relied on fixed-site monitoring and quantifying variability in terms of different bulk aerosol species. In this study, we performed ground-based mobile measurements using a single-particle mass spectrometer to study spatial patterns of source-specific particles and the evolution of particle mixing state in 21 areas in the metropolitan area of Pittsburgh, PA. We selected sampling areas based on traffic density and restaurant density with each area ranging from 0.2 to 2 km 2 . Organics dominate particle composition in all of the areas we sampled while the sources of organics differ. The contribution of particles from traffic and restaurant cooking varies greatly on the neighborhood scale. We also investigate how primary and aged components in particles mix across the urban scale. Lastly we quantify and map the particle mixing state for all areas we sampled and discuss the overall pattern of mixing state evolution and its implications. We find that in the upwind and downwind of the urban areas, particles are more internally mixed while in the city center, particle mixing state shows large spatial heterogeneity that is mostly driven by emissions. This study is to our knowledge, the first study to perform fine spatial scale mapping of particle mixing state using ground-based mobile measurement and single-particle mass spectrometry.

  19. Legislation and water management of water source areas of São Paulo Metropolitan Region, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Eduardo Gregolin Grisotto

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the history of occupation in the water source areas in São Paulo Metropolitan Region (hereinafter SPMR and the evolution of the legislation related to this issue, from the point of view of the environmental and water management. A descriptive methodology was used, with searches into bibliographical and documental materials, in order to present the main laws for the protection of the water supply areas of SPMR and environmental and water management. It was possible to observe some progress in the premises of the both legislation and the format proposed for the management of the water source areas. However, such progress is limited due to the lack of a more effective mechanism for metropolitan management. The construction of the metropolitan management in SPMR would enlarge the capacity of integration between municipalities and sectors. The integration between the management of water and the land use management showed to be fundamental for the protection of the water sources. The new law for protection of the water sources, State Law nº 9.866/97, is decentralized and participative, focusing on non-structural actions and integrated management. However, the effective implementation of the law still depends on the harmonization of sectoral public policies, extensive coordination and cooperation among municipalities and the progress in the degree of the commitment of the governments.

  20. Analysis on Dangerous Source of Large Safety Accident in Storage Tank Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tong; Li, Ying; Xie, Tiansheng; Liu, Yu; Zhu, Xueyuan

    2018-01-01

    The difference between a large safety accident and a general accident is that the consequences of a large safety accident are particularly serious. To study the tank area which factors directly or indirectly lead to the occurrence of large-sized safety accidents. According to the three kinds of hazard source theory and the consequence cause analysis of the super safety accident, this paper analyzes the dangerous source of the super safety accident in the tank area from four aspects, such as energy source, large-sized safety accident reason, management missing, environmental impact Based on the analysis of three kinds of hazard sources and environmental analysis to derive the main risk factors and the AHP evaluation model is established, and after rigorous and scientific calculation, the weights of the related factors in four kinds of risk factors and each type of risk factors are obtained. The result of analytic hierarchy process shows that management reasons is the most important one, and then the environmental factors and the direct cause and Energy source. It should be noted that although the direct cause is relatively low overall importance, the direct cause of Failure of emergency measures and Failure of prevention and control facilities in greater weight.

  1. Lateral, Vertical, and Longitudinal Source Area Connectivity Drive Runoff and Carbon Export Across Watershed Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer, Margaret A.; McGlynn, Brian L.

    2018-03-01

    Watersheds are three-dimensional hydrologic systems where the longitudinal expansion/contraction of stream networks, vertical connection/disconnection between shallow and deep groundwater systems, and lateral connectivity of these water sources to streams mediate runoff production and nutrient export. The connectivity of runoff source areas during both baseflow and stormflow conditions and their combined influence on biogeochemical fluxes remain poorly understood. Here we focused on a set of 3.3 and 48.4 ha nested watersheds (North Carolina, USA). These watersheds comprise ephemeral and intermittent runoff-producing headwaters and perennial runoff-producing lowlands. Within these landscape elements, we characterized the timing and magnitude of precipitation, runoff, and runoff-generating flow paths. The active surface drainage network (ASDN) reflected connectivity to, and contributions from, source areas that differed under baseflow and stormflow conditions. The baseflow-associated ASDN expanded and contracted seasonally, driven by the rise and fall of the seasonal water table. Superimposed on this were event-activated source area contributions driven by connectivity to surficial and shallow subsurface flow paths. Frequently activated shallow flow paths also caused increased in-stream dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations with increases in runoff across both watershed scales. The spread and variability within this DOC-runoff relationship was driven by a seasonal depletion of DOC from continual shallow subsurface flow path activation and subsequent replenishment from autumn litterfall. Our findings suggest that hydrobiogeochemical signals at larger watershed outlets can be driven by the expansion, contraction, and connection of lateral, longitudinal, and vertical source areas with distinct runoff generation processes.

  2. [Scattered light and glare sensitivity after wavefront-guided photorefractive keratectomy (WFG-PRK) and laser in situ keratomileusis (WFG-LASIK)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vignal, R; Tanzer, D; Brunstetter, T; Schallhorn, S

    2008-05-01

    To compare glare sensitivity measured by the intraocular scattered light between WFG-PRK and WFG-LASIK at 12 months follow-up and to assess its correlation to patients' complaints. Prospective and randomized study on 13 patients treated with WFG-LASIK, 13 patients with WFG-PRK and a control group of 35 patients. The intraocular stray light was measured by the Oculus C-Quant 12 months after surgery and before surgery for the control group. Photopic and mesopic contrast acuity and glare symptoms were reported pre- and postoperatively. Stray light values were normal in 79% of patients after WFG-LASIK and PRK and 86% in the control group, with mean values of 1.05 log, 1.03 log, and 0.99 log, respectively (p>0.05). All the patients with significant glare complaints had impaired stray light values versus 31.5% in the no-complaint group. Photopic and mesopic contrast acuity and glare symptoms were improved 1 year after surgery compared to preoperatively (no significant difference between groups). WFG-LASIK and PRK are safe and equivalent procedures regarding quality of vision. The measurement of stray light can be a discriminative test to assessing patients' glare complaints.

  3. 100 Area source operable unit focused feasibility study report. Draft A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    In accordance with the Hanford Past-Practice Strategy (HPPS), a focused feasibility study (FFS) is performed for those waste sites which have been identified as candidates for interim remedial measures (IRM) based on information contained in applicable work plans and limited field investigations (LFI). The FFS process for the 100 Area source operable units will be conducted in two stages. This report, hereafter referred to as the Process Document, documents the first stage of the process. In this stage, IRM alternatives are developed and analyzed on the basis of waste site groups associated with the 100 Area source operable units. The second stage, site-specific evaluation of the IRM alternatives presented in this Process Document, is documented in a series of operable unit-specific reports. The objective of the FFS (this Process Document and subsequent operable unit-specific reports) is to provide decision makers with sufficient information to allow appropriate and timely selection of IRM for sites associated with the 100 Area source operable units. Accordingly, the following information is presented: a presentation of remedial action objectives; a description of 100 Area waste site groups and associated group profiles; a description of IRM alternatives; and detailed and comparative analyses of the IRM alternatives

  4. [Research on spatial differentiation of urban stormwater runoff quality by source area monitoring].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li-Qing; Zhu, Ren-Xiao; Guo, Shu-Gang; Yin, Cheng-Qing

    2010-12-01

    Runoff samples were collected from 14 source areas in Hanyang district during four rain events in an attempt to investigate the spatial differentiation and influencing factors of urban stormwater runoff quality. The outcomes are expected to offer practical guidance in sources control of urban runoff pollution. The results revealed that particle-bound proportion of chemical oxygen demand (COD), total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP) in stormwater runoff were 58% +/- 17%, 65% +/- 13% and 92% +/- 6%, respectively. The fractions of ammonia, nitrate and dissolved organic nitrogen were homogeneous in dissolved nitrogen composition. Urban surface function, traffic volume, land use, population density, and street sweeping practice are the main factors determining spatial differentiation of urban surface runoff quality. The highest magnitude of urban stormwater runoff pollution was expected in the old urban residential area, followed by general residential with restaurants, commercial and transport area, new developments and green land. In addition, the magnitude of road stormwater runoff pollution is positively correlated to traffic volume, in the following order: the first trunk road > the second trunk road > minor road. Street sweeping and critical source areas controls should be implemented to mitigate the adverse effects of urban stormwater runoff on receive waters.

  5. FERMI/LARGE AREA TELESCOPE BRIGHT GAMMA-RAY SOURCE LIST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdo, A. A.; Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Bechtol, K.; Berenji, B.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; Borgland, A. W.; Atwood, W. B.; Axelsson, M.; Battelino, M.; Baldini, L.; Bellazzini, R.; Ballet, J.; Band, D. L.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Baughman, B. M.; Bignami, G. F.; Bonamente, E.

    2009-01-01

    Following its launch in 2008 June, the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (Fermi) began a sky survey in August. The Large Area Telescope (LAT) on Fermi in three months produced a deeper and better resolved map of the γ-ray sky than any previous space mission. We present here initial results for energies above 100 MeV for the 205 most significant (statistical significance greater than ∼10σ) γ-ray sources in these data. These are the best characterized and best localized point-like (i.e., spatially unresolved) γ-ray sources in the early mission data.

  6. Strategies for satellite-based monitoring of CO2 from distributed area and point sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwandner, Florian M.; Miller, Charles E.; Duren, Riley M.; Natraj, Vijay; Eldering, Annmarie; Gunson, Michael R.; Crisp, David

    2014-05-01

    Atmospheric CO2 budgets are controlled by the strengths, as well as the spatial and temporal variabilities of CO2 sources and sinks. Natural CO2 sources and sinks are dominated by the vast areas of the oceans and the terrestrial biosphere. In contrast, anthropogenic and geogenic CO2 sources are dominated by distributed area and point sources, which may constitute as much as 70% of anthropogenic (e.g., Duren & Miller, 2012), and over 80% of geogenic emissions (Burton et al., 2013). Comprehensive assessments of CO2 budgets necessitate robust and highly accurate satellite remote sensing strategies that address the competing and often conflicting requirements for sampling over disparate space and time scales. Spatial variability: The spatial distribution of anthropogenic sources is dominated by patterns of production, storage, transport and use. In contrast, geogenic variability is almost entirely controlled by endogenic geological processes, except where surface gas permeability is modulated by soil moisture. Satellite remote sensing solutions will thus have to vary greatly in spatial coverage and resolution to address distributed area sources and point sources alike. Temporal variability: While biogenic sources are dominated by diurnal and seasonal patterns, anthropogenic sources fluctuate over a greater variety of time scales from diurnal, weekly and seasonal cycles, driven by both economic and climatic factors. Geogenic sources typically vary in time scales of days to months (geogenic sources sensu stricto are not fossil fuels but volcanoes, hydrothermal and metamorphic sources). Current ground-based monitoring networks for anthropogenic and geogenic sources record data on minute- to weekly temporal scales. Satellite remote sensing solutions would have to capture temporal variability through revisit frequency or point-and-stare strategies. Space-based remote sensing offers the potential of global coverage by a single sensor. However, no single combination of orbit

  7. Research on supplying potential of uranium source from rocks in western provenance area of Hailaer basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Yuliang; Liu Hanbin; Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences, Beijing

    2006-01-01

    Using U-Pb isotope composition evolution, this paper expounds the initial uranium content in volcanic rocks of provenance area of Xihulitu basin and in granites of provenance area of Kelulun sag, western Hailaer basin. The initial uranium content (U 0 ) in volcanic rocks of provenance area is higher, the average initial uranium content of volcanic rocks is 10.061 x 10 -6 , the average uranium variation coefficient (ΔU) is -49.57%; the average initial uranium content of granites is 18.381 x 10 -6 , the average uranium variation coefficient (ΔU) is -80%. The results indicate that rocks in provenance area could provide the pre-enrichment of uranium in deposited sandstone. U-Ra equilibrium coefficients of rocks indicate that there is obvious U-Ra disequilibrium phenomenon in volcanic rocks, and the time when granites provided uranium source occurred 16000 a ago. (authors)

  8. A CCD-based area detector for X-ray crystallography using synchrotron and laboratory sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, W.C.; Li Youli; Stanton, M.; Xie Yuanhui; O'Mara, D.; Kalata, K.

    1993-01-01

    The design and characteristics of a CCD-based area detector suitable for X-ray crystallographic studies using both synchrotron and laboratory sources are described. The active area is 75 mm in diameter, the FWHM of the point response function is 0.20 mm, and for Bragg peaks the dynamic range is 900 and the DQE ∼0.3. The 1320x1035-pixel Kodak CCD is read out into an 8 Mbyte memory system in 0.14 s and digitized to 12 bits. X-ray crystallographic data collected at the NSLS synchrotron from cubic insulin crystals are presented. (orig.)

  9. Economic analysis for the electricity production in isolated areas in Cuba using different renewable sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales Salas, Joel; Moreno Figueredo, Conrado; Briesemeister, Ludwig; Arzola, Jose

    2015-01-01

    Despite the effort and commitment of the Cuban government in more of 50 year, there are houses without electricity in remote areas of the Electricity Network. These houses or communities have the promise and commitment of the local and national authorities to help them in improve his life quality. How the houses and communities are remote of the electricity network, the cost to extend the network is considerably high. For that reason, the use of renewable sources in these areas is an acceptable proposal. This article does an analysis to obtain different configurations depending to the number of houses. It do a proposal with the use of the Hydrothermal Carbonization process in the cases where is not feasible introduce different renewable source; a technology new in Cuba, and advantageous taking into consideration the kind of biomass that exist in Cuba. The study of the chemical process of the Hydrothermal Carbonization with the Cuban biomass should be further researched. (full text)

  10. FreeSASA: An open source C library for solvent accessible surface area calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitternacht, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Calculating solvent accessible surface areas (SASA) is a run-of-the-mill calculation in structural biology. Although there are many programs available for this calculation, there are no free-standing, open-source tools designed for easy tool-chain integration. FreeSASA is an open source C library for SASA calculations that provides both command-line and Python interfaces in addition to its C API. The library implements both Lee and Richards' and Shrake and Rupley's approximations, and is highly configurable to allow the user to control molecular parameters, accuracy and output granularity. It only depends on standard C libraries and should therefore be easy to compile and install on any platform. The library is well-documented, stable and efficient. The command-line interface can easily replace closed source legacy programs, with comparable or better accuracy and speed, and with some added functionality.

  11. Critical Source Area Delineation: The representation of hydrology in effective erosion modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, A.; Boll, J.; Brooks, E. S.; Boylan, R. D.

    2017-12-01

    Despite decades of conservation and millions of conservation dollars, nonpoint source sediment loading associated with agricultural disturbance continues to be a significant problem in many parts of the world. Local and national conservation organizations are interested in targeting critical source areas for control strategy implementation. Currently, conservation practices are selected and located based on the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) hillslope erosion modeling, and the National Resource Conservation Service will soon be transiting to the Watershed Erosion Predict Project (WEPP) model for the same purpose. We present an assessment of critical source areas targeted with RUSLE, WEPP and a regionally validated hydrology model, the Soil Moisture Routing (SMR) model, to compare the location of critical areas for sediment loading and the effectiveness of control strategies. The three models are compared for the Palouse dryland cropping region of the inland northwest, with un-calibrated analyses of the Kamiache watershed using publicly available soils, land-use and long-term simulated climate data. Critical source areas were mapped and the side-by-side comparison exposes the differences in the location and timing of runoff and erosion predictions. RUSLE results appear most sensitive to slope driving processes associated with infiltration excess. SMR captured saturation excess driven runoff events located at the toe slope position, while WEPP was able to capture both infiltration excess and saturation excess processes depending on soil type and management. A methodology is presented for down-scaling basin level screening to the hillslope management scale for local control strategies. Information on the location of runoff and erosion, driven by the runoff mechanism, is critical for effective treatment and conservation.

  12. Power Generation from a Radiative Thermal Source Using a Large-Area Infrared Rectenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shank, Joshua; Kadlec, Emil A.; Jarecki, Robert L.; Starbuck, Andrew; Howell, Stephen; Peters, David W.; Davids, Paul S.

    2018-05-01

    Electrical power generation from a moderate-temperature thermal source by means of direct conversion of infrared radiation is important and highly desirable for energy harvesting from waste heat and micropower applications. Here, we demonstrate direct rectified power generation from an unbiased large-area nanoantenna-coupled tunnel diode rectifier called a rectenna. Using a vacuum radiometric measurement technique with irradiation from a temperature-stabilized thermal source, a generated power density of 8 nW /cm2 is observed at a source temperature of 450 °C for the unbiased rectenna across an optimized load resistance. The optimized load resistance for the peak power generation for each temperature coincides with the tunnel diode resistance at zero bias and corresponds to the impedance matching condition for a rectifying antenna. Current-voltage measurements of a thermally illuminated large-area rectenna show current zero crossing shifts into the second quadrant indicating rectification. Photon-assisted tunneling in the unbiased rectenna is modeled as the mechanism for the large short-circuit photocurrents observed where the photon energy serves as an effective bias across the tunnel junction. The measured current and voltage across the load resistor as a function of the thermal source temperature represents direct current electrical power generation.

  13. Source Apportionment of PM10 by Positive Matrix Factorization in Urban Area of Mumbai, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indrani Gupta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Particulate Matter (PM10 has been one of the main air pollutants exceeding the ambient standards in most of the major cities in India. During last few years, receptor models such as Chemical Mass Balance, Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF, PCA–APCS and UNMIX have been used to provide solutions to the source identification and contributions which are accepted for developing effective and efficient air quality management plans. Each site poses different complexities while resolving PM10 contributions. This paper reports the variability of four sites within Mumbai city using PMF. Industrial area of Mahul showed sources such as residual oil combustion and paved road dust (27%, traffic (20%, coal fired boiler (17%, nitrate (15%. Residential area of Khar showed sources such as residual oil combustion and construction (25%, motor vehicles (23%, marine aerosol and nitrate (19%, paved road dust (18% compared to construction and natural dust (27%, motor vehicles and smelting work (25%, nitrate (16% and biomass burning and paved road dust (15% in Dharavi, a low income slum residential area. The major contributors of PM10 at Colaba were marine aerosol, wood burning and ammonium sulphate (24%, motor vehicles and smelting work (22%, Natural soil (19%, nitrate and oil burning (18%.

  14. Palynology after Y2K--Understanding the Source Area of Pollen in Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, M. B.

    Pollen grains preserved in lake and bog sediment provide a record of past vegetation that has been an important source of information about climate and land cover during the Quaternary Period. Yet from the beginning, questions have been raised about the source area of pollen in sediment. Interpretation has been hampered by the lack of well-developed theory treating the relationship between the spatial distribution of trees on the landscape and the percentages of pollen in sediment. Within the past decade, however, new theory, models, and empirical data show how heterogeneous vegetation is represented by pollen. The distinction between "local" and "regional" pollen is explained by the Prentice-Sugita dispersal/deposition models, which predict how the ratio of regional to local pollen changes with lake size. Sugita's model simulating a landscape with heterogeneous vegetation predicts the size of the relevant source area-the area of vegetation reflected in between-lake variations in pollen loading-while demonstrating that regional pollen from beyond this distance is homogeneous at all lakes of similar size. By predicting the way landscape patterns will be reflected in pollen records, simulation models can improve research design and lead to more detailed and spatially precise records of past vegetation, enhancing continental-scale climate reconstructions.

  15. Transfer, sources and sinks for major and trace elements in urban and rural areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schnetger, B.; Brumsack, H.J.; Heinrichs, H.

    1996-01-01

    Spider webs and air filter samples from 11 German cities were analyzed for major and trace elements to determine the composition of urban particulates. Model calculation was used for the estimation of the sources (fraction of components with decreasing importance): tire abrasion, diesel soot, tar, material from the earth crust and brick abrasion, concrete abrasion, sulfur, gasoline soot, cement production, hard coal ash, lignite fly ash, steel production, waste incineration, sea spray, oil combustion, brake abrasion. Heavy metals in city dust are mostly related to traffic and industrial high temperature processes. The most important sink for the metals and acids of polluted air masses was found to be the forested areas of mountains exposed to the main wind direction. High enrichment of heavy metals and low pH values in the top soils of such areas (Harz Mountain, Germany) were found. From previously (now damaged) forested areas an acid front moves downward. Metals from the top soils were dissolved by this process. In the investigated area precipitation of the released metals takes place in the lakes and a drinking water reservoir. These sinks again become a source when acidification increases. (author)

  16. Inter-comparison of receptor models for PM source apportionment: Case study in an industrial area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana, M.; Pandolfi, M.; Minguillón, M. C.; Querol, X.; Alastuey, A.; Monfort, E.; Celades, I.

    2008-05-01

    Receptor modelling techniques are used to identify and quantify the contributions from emission sources to the levels and major and trace components of ambient particulate matter (PM). A wide variety of receptor models are currently available, and consequently the comparability between models should be evaluated if source apportionment data are to be used as input in health effects studies or mitigation plans. Three of the most widespread receptor models (principal component analysis, PCA; positive matrix factorization, PMF; chemical mass balance, CMB) were applied to a single PM10 data set (n=328 samples, 2002-2005) obtained from an industrial area in NE Spain, dedicated to ceramic production. Sensitivity and temporal trend analyses (using the Mann-Kendall test) were applied. Results evidenced the good overall performance of the three models (r2>0.83 and α>0.91×between modelled and measured PM10 mass), with a good agreement regarding source identification and high correlations between input (CMB) and output (PCA, PMF) source profiles. Larger differences were obtained regarding the quantification of source contributions (up to a factor of 4 in some cases). The combined application of different types of receptor models would solve the limitations of each of the models, by constructing a more robust solution based on their strengths. The authors suggest the combined use of factor analysis techniques (PCA, PMF) to identify and interpret emission sources, and to obtain a first quantification of their contributions to the PM mass, and the subsequent application of CMB. Further research is needed to ensure that source apportionment methods are robust enough for application to PM health effects assessments.

  17. Origin of fecal contamination in waters from contrasted areas: stanols as Microbial Source Tracking markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derrien, M; Jardé, E; Gruau, G; Pourcher, A M; Gourmelon, M; Jadas-Hécart, A; Pierson Wickmann, A C

    2012-09-01

    Improving the microbiological quality of coastal and river waters relies on the development of reliable markers that are capable of determining sources of fecal pollution. Recently, a principal component analysis (PCA) method based on six stanol compounds (i.e. 5β-cholestan-3β-ol (coprostanol), 5β-cholestan-3α-ol (epicoprostanol), 24-methyl-5α-cholestan-3β-ol (campestanol), 24-ethyl-5α-cholestan-3β-ol (sitostanol), 24-ethyl-5β-cholestan-3β-ol (24-ethylcoprostanol) and 24-ethyl-5β-cholestan-3α-ol (24-ethylepicoprostanol)) was shown to be suitable for distinguishing between porcine and bovine feces. In this study, we tested if this PCA method, using the above six stanols, could be used as a tool in "Microbial Source Tracking (MST)" methods in water from areas of intensive agriculture where diffuse fecal contamination is often marked by the co-existence of human and animal sources. In particular, well-defined and stable clusters were found in PCA score plots clustering samples of "pure" human, bovine and porcine feces along with runoff and diluted waters in which the source of contamination is known. A good consistency was also observed between the source assignments made by the 6-stanol-based PCA method and the microbial markers for river waters contaminated by fecal matter of unknown origin. More generally, the tests conducted in this study argue for the addition of the PCA method based on six stanols in the MST toolbox to help identify fecal contamination sources. The data presented in this study show that this addition would improve the determination of fecal contamination sources when the contamination levels are low to moderate. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Computed vs. conventional radiography for detecting fatigue cracks in riveted lap joints of aeronautical grade hybrid fiber-metal laminate Glare

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarpani, J.R.; Hideki Shinohara, A.; Da Silva, R.R.; Do Val Lacerda, N.

    2007-01-01

    This study aimed at assessing the capability of three different radiographic approaches (two computed or digital, and one conventional or analogous) for imaging fatigue cracks in riveted lap joints of composite fiber-metal laminate Glare. These structural joints are unique in the sense that fatigue cracks develop mainly at the faying surfaces of Glare sheets, so that visual detection is largely prevented and nondestructive inspection becomes mandatory. For this purpose, a round-robin programme comprising several industrial and research centers that employ X-ray radiography routinely to inspect high-demanding equipments, components and structures was conducted. (authors)

  19. Seismic ground motion characteristics in the Bucharest area: source and site effects contribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grecu, B.; Popa, M.; Radulian, M.

    2003-01-01

    The contribution of source vs. site effects on the seismic ground motion in Bucharest is controversial as the previous studies showed. The fundamental period of resonance for the sedimentary cover is emphasized by ambient noise and earthquake measurements, if the spectral ratio method (Nakamura, 1989) is applied (Bonjer et al., 1989). On the other hand, the numerical simulations (Moldoveanu et al., 2000.) and acceleration spectra analysis (Sandi et al., 2001) brought into the light the determinant role of the source effects. We considered all the available instrumental data related to Vrancea earthquakes recorded in Bucharest area to find how the source and site properties control the peak ground motion peculiarities. Our main results are summarized as follows: 1. The resonant period of oscillation, related to the shallow sediment layer, is practically present in all the H/V spectral ratios, no matter we consider ambient noise or earthquakes of any size. This argues in favor of the crucial role played by the sedimentary cover and proves that the ratio method is reasonably removing the source effects. However, the absolute spectra are completely different for earthquakes below and above magnitude 7, namely amplitudes in the range of 1-2 s periods are negligible in the first case, and predominant in the second one. It looks like the resonant amplification by the sedimentary cover becomes effective only for the largest earthquakes (M > 7), when the source radiation coincides with the fundamental resonance range. We conclude that the damage in Bucharest is dramatically amplified when the earthquake size is above a critical value (M ≅ 7); 2. Our analysis shows a rather weak variability of the peak motion values and spectral amplitudes over the study area, in agreement with the relatively small variability of the shallow structure topography. (authors)

  20. Levels, Composition and Sources of PM in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area During the MILAGRO Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Querol, X.; Pey, J.; Minguillon, M. C.; Perez, N.; Alastuey, A.; Moreno, T.; Bernabe, R.; Blanco, S.; Cardenas, B.

    2007-05-01

    Particle air pollution in urban agglomerations comes mostly from anthropogenic sources, mainly traffic, industrial processes, energy production, domestic and residential emissions, construction, but also a minor contribution from natural sources may be expected (bioaerosols, soil dust, marine aerosol). Once emitted into the atmosphere, this complex mixture of pollutants may be transformed as a function of the ambient conditions and the interaction among the different PM components, and also between PM components and gaseous pollutants. This system is especially complex in mega-cities due to the large emission volumes of PM components and gaseous precursors, the high variability and broad distribution of emission sources, and the possible long range transport of the polluted air masses. Speciation studies help to identify major sources of PM components with the end objective of applying plans and programs for PM pollution abatement. In this framework, concentration levels and compositions of particulate matter (PM2.5, PM10 and TSP) have been measured simultaneously at two sites in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (T0 and CENICA) and at one site 50 km away from Mexico City (T1) during the MILAGRO campaign (1st to 31st March 2006). Spatial and time (day and night) variations have been analysed. Coarse fraction levels were higher at T1 than at CENICA and T0, contrary to what was expected. This was due to the important soil re-suspension at T1, contributing significantly to the crustal load. Moreover, crustal levels were higher during daytime than during nights at all sites, while some secondary compounds (sulphate and ammonium) presented an opposite trend. Regarding trace elements, levels of Pb, Zn and Cd were higher at T0 than at CENICA and T1, probably due to traffic contribution. Arsenic levels did not show a clear pattern, being alternatively higher at CENICA and T0. Two intense episodes of Hg particulate have been recorded, more noticeable at T1 than at the urban

  1. Detecting and analyzing soil phosphorus loss associated with critical source areas using a remote sensing approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Hezhen; Yang, Shengtian; Zhao, Changsen; Shi, Liuhua; Wu, Linna; Wang, Yue; Wang, Zhiwei

    2016-12-15

    The detection of critical source areas (CSAs) is a key step in managing soil phosphorus (P) loss and preventing the long-term eutrophication of water bodies at regional scale. Most related studies, however, focus on a local scale, which prevents a clear understanding of the spatial distribution of CSAs for soil P loss at regional scale. Moreover, the continual, long-term variation in CSAs was scarcely reported. It is impossible to identify the factors driving the variation in CSAs, or to collect land surface information essential for CSAs detection, by merely using the conventional methodologies at regional scale. This study proposes a new regional-scale approach, based on three satellite sensors (ASTER, TM/ETM and MODIS), that were implemented successfully to detect CSAs at regional scale over 15years (2000-2014). The approach incorporated five factors (precipitation, slope, soil erosion, land use, soil total phosphorus) that drive soil P loss from CSAs. Results show that the average area of critical phosphorus source areas (CPSAs) was 15,056km 2 over the 15-year period, and it occupied 13.8% of the total area, with a range varying from 1.2% to 23.0%, in a representative, intensive agricultural area of China. In contrast to previous studies, we found that the locations of CSAs with P loss are spatially variable, and are more dispersed in their distribution over the long term. We also found that precipitation acts as a key driving factor in the variation of CSAs at regional scale. The regional-scale method can provide scientific guidance for managing soil phosphorus loss and preventing the long-term eutrophication of water bodies at regional scale, and shows great potential for exploring factors that drive the variation in CSAs at global scale. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Tracing lead pollution sources in abandoned mine areas using stable Pb isotope ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Eun-Jin; Lee, Jung-A; Park, Jae-Seon; Lee, Khanghyun; Lee, Won-Seok; Han, Jin-Seok; Choi, Jong-Woo

    2014-02-01

    This study focused on Pb isotope ratios of sediments in areas around an abandoned mine to determine if the ratios can be used as a source tracer. For pretreatment, sediment samples were dissolved with mixed acids, and a multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (MC-ICP-MS, Nu plasma II) was used to investigate the Pb isotopic composition of the samples. The measured isotope ratios were then corrected for instrumental mass fractionation by measuring the (203)Tl/(205)Tl ratio. Repeated measurements with the NIST SRM 981 reference material showed that the precision of all ratios was below 104 ppm (±2σ) for 50 ng/g. The isotope ratios ((207)Pb/(206)Pb) found were 0.85073 ± 0.0004~0.85373 ± 0.0003 for the main stream, while they were 0.83736 ± 0.0010 for the tributary and 0.84393 ± 0.0002 for the confluence. A binary mixing equation for isotope ratios showed that the contributions of mine lead to neighboring areas were up to 60%. Therefore, Pb isotope ratios can be a good source tracer for areas around abandoned mines.

  3. Factors influencing mobile source particulate matter emissions-to-exposure relationships in the Boston urban area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, Susan L; Wilson, Andrew M; Hanna, Steven R; Levy, Jonathan I

    2007-11-15

    Benefit-cost and regulatory impact analyses often use atmospheric dispersion models with coarse resolution to estimate the benefits of proposed mobile source emission control regulations. This approach may bias health estimates or miss important intra-urban variability for primary air pollutants. In this study, we estimate primary fine particulate matter (PM2.5) intake fractions (iF; the fraction of a pollutant emitted from a source that is inhaled by the population) for each of 23 398 road segments in the Boston Metro Core area to evaluate the potential for intra-urban variability in the emissions-to-exposure relationship. We estimate iFs using the CAL3QHCR line source model combined with residential populations within 5000 m of each road segment. The annual average values for the road segments range from 0.8 to 53 per million, with a mean of 12 per million. On average, 46% of the total exposure is realized within 200 m of the road segment, though this varies from 0 to 93% largely due to variable population patterns. Our findings indicate the likelihood of substantial intra-urban variability in mobile source primary PM2.5 iF that accounting for population movement with time, localized meteorological conditions, and street-canyon configurations would likely increase.

  4. Identification of Watershed-scale Critical Source Areas Using Bayesian Maximum Entropy Spatiotemporal Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roostaee, M.; Deng, Z.

    2017-12-01

    The states' environmental agencies are required by The Clean Water Act to assess all waterbodies and evaluate potential sources of impairments. Spatial and temporal distributions of water quality parameters are critical in identifying Critical Source Areas (CSAs). However, due to limitations in monetary resources and a large number of waterbodies, available monitoring stations are typically sparse with intermittent periods of data collection. Hence, scarcity of water quality data is a major obstacle in addressing sources of pollution through management strategies. In this study spatiotemporal Bayesian Maximum Entropy method (BME) is employed to model the inherent temporal and spatial variability of measured water quality indicators such as Dissolved Oxygen (DO) concentration for Turkey Creek Watershed. Turkey Creek is located in northern Louisiana and has been listed in 303(d) list for DO impairment since 2014 in Louisiana Water Quality Inventory Reports due to agricultural practices. BME method is proved to provide more accurate estimates than the methods of purely spatial analysis by incorporating space/time distribution and uncertainty in available measured soft and hard data. This model would be used to estimate DO concentration at unmonitored locations and times and subsequently identifying CSAs. The USDA's crop-specific land cover data layers of the watershed were then used to determine those practices/changes that led to low DO concentration in identified CSAs. Primary results revealed that cultivation of corn and soybean as well as urban runoff are main contributing sources in low dissolved oxygen in Turkey Creek Watershed.

  5. Evaluation of the sources of contamination in the suburban area of Koropi-Markopoulo, Athens, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaitantzian, Agavni; Kelepertzis, Efstratios; Kelepertsis, Akindynos

    2013-07-01

    Heavy metal concentrations were monitored in agricultural soils and irrigation groundwaters of Koropi-Markopoulo area, a representative agricultural suburb in Athens, Greece, aiming at the identification of the sources of contaminants. Multivariate analyses of geochemical data demonstrated that agricultural practices and industrial activities considerably affected the quality of both environmental compartments. The levels of Ni, Cr, Co, Mn and Fe in agricultural soils were associated with geological parent materials whereas Pb, Zn and Cu mainly originated from anthropic activities. Referring to groundwaters, individual major anions and cations (K⁺, Na⁺, Ca²⁺, Mg²⁺, NO₃⁻, SO₄²⁻, Cl⁻) were influenced by various natural and anthropogenic factors whereas Ni, Cr, Cu and Zn were controlled by industrial and agronomic activities. The identification of the sources of contaminants in soil and groundwater environments is a valuable basis for encouraging mitigation strategies preventing further quality degradation.

  6. Development of the detection technology of the source area derived from nuclear activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suh, Kyungsuk; Kim, Ingyu; Keum, Dongkwon; Lim, Kwangmuk; Lee, Jinyong

    2012-07-01

    - It is necessary to establish of the overall preparedness for analysis of the nuclear activities near the neighboring countries by increasing of the construction of the nuclear power plants and reprocessing facilities in China, North Korean Japan and Russia. - In Korea, the analysis and measurements for nuclear activities have been conducted, however the detection technology to find out the source area has not been developed. It is important to estimate the source origin of the radioisotope from the neighboring countries including Korea in the aspects of the surveillance and safety for the covert nuclear activities in Northeast Asia region - In this study, the data DB, treatment of the weather data and the development of connection module were conducted to track the origin of the radioisotope in the first year of the research. It had constructed the DB like the reactor types, places in China, Taiwan, Japan and Korea and the release amounts of the noble gas released into the air

  7. Development of the detection technology of the source area derived from nuclear activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suh, Kyungsuk; Kim, Ingyu; Keum, Dongkwon; Lim, Kwangmuk; Lee, Jinyong

    2012-07-15

    - It is necessary to establish of the overall preparedness for analysis of the nuclear activities near the neighboring countries by increasing of the construction of the nuclear power plants and reprocessing facilities in China, North Korean Japan and Russia. - In Korea, the analysis and measurements for nuclear activities have been conducted, however the detection technology to find out the source area has not been developed. It is important to estimate the source origin of the radioisotope from the neighboring countries including Korea in the aspects of the surveillance and safety for the covert nuclear activities in Northeast Asia region - In this study, the data DB, treatment of the weather data and the development of connection module were conducted to track the origin of the radioisotope in the first year of the research. It had constructed the DB like the reactor types, places in China, Taiwan, Japan and Korea and the release amounts of the noble gas released into the air.

  8. Investigating Diesel Engines as an Atmospheric Source of Isocyanic Acid in Urban Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, D.; Jathar, S.; Heppding, C.; Link, M.; Akherati, A.; Kleeman, M.; De Gouw, J. A.; Veres, P. R.; Roberts, J. M.

    2017-12-01

    Isocyanic acid (HNCO), an acidic gas found in tobacco smoke, urban environments and biomass burning-affected regions, has been linked to adverse health outcomes. Gasoline- and diesel-powered engines and biomass burning are known to emit HNCO and hypothesized to emit precursors such as amides that can photochemically react to produce HNCO in the atmosphere. Increasingly, diesel engines in developed countries like the United States are required to use Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) systems to reduce tailpipe emissions of oxides of nitrogen. SCR chemistry is known to produce HNCO as an intermediate product, and SCR systems have been implicated as an atmospheric source of HNCO. In this work, we measure HNCO emissions from an SCR system-equipped diesel engine and, in combination with earlier data, use a three-dimensional chemical transport model (CTM) to simulate the ambient concentrations and source/pathway contributions to HNCO in an urban environment. Engine tests were conducted at three different engine loads, using two different fuels and at multiple operating points. HNCO was measured using an acetate chemical ionization mass spectrometer. The diesel engine was found to emit primary HNCO (3-90 mg kg-fuel-1) but we did not find any evidence that the SCR system or other aftertreatment devices (i.e., oxidation catalyst and particle filter) produced or enhanced HNCO emissions. The CTM predictions compared well with the only available observational data sets for HNCO in urban areas but under-predicted the contribution from secondary processes. The comparison implied that diesel-powered engines were the largest source of HNCO in urban areas. The CTM also predicted that daily-averaged concentrations of HNCO reached a maximum of 110 pptv but were an order of magnitude lower than the 1 ppbv level that could be associated with physiological effects in humans. Precursor contributions from other combustion sources (gasoline and biomass burning) and wintertime conditions

  9. 40 CFR 51.914 - What new source review requirements apply for 8-hour ozone nonattainment areas?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... apply for 8-hour ozone nonattainment areas? 51.914 Section 51.914 Protection of Environment... Standard § 51.914 What new source review requirements apply for 8-hour ozone nonattainment areas? The requirements for new source review for the 8-hour ozone standard are located in § 51.165 of this part. [70 FR...

  10. Tracking sensitive source areas of different weather pollution types using GRAPES-CUACE adjoint model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; An, Xingqin; Zhai, Shixian; Hou, Qing; Sun, Zhaobin

    2018-02-01

    In this study, the sustained pollution processes were selected during which daily PM2.5 concentration exceeded 75 μg/m3 for three days continuously based on the hourly data of Beijing observation sites from July 2012 to December 2015. Using the China Meteorological Administration (CMA) MICAPS meteorological processing system, synoptic situation during PM2.5 pollution processes was classified into five weather types: low pressure and weak high pressure alternating control, weak high pressure, low pressure control, high rear, and uniform pressure field. Then, we chose the representative pollution cases corresponding to each type, adopted the GRAPES-CUACE adjoint model tracking the sensitive source areas of the five types, and analyzed the critical discharge periods of Beijing and neighboring provinces as well as their contribution to the PM2.5 peak concentration in Beijing. The results showed that the local source plays the main theme in the 30 h before the objective time, and prior to 72 h before the objective time contribution of local sources for the five pollution types are 37.5%, 25.0%, 39.4%, 31.2%, and 42.4%, respectively; the Hebei source contributes constantly in the 57 h ahead of the objective time with the contribution proportion ranging from 37% to 64%; the contribution period and rate of Tianjin and Shanxi sources are shorter and smaller. Based on the adjoint sensitivity analysis, we further discussed the effect of emission reduction control measures in different types, finding that the effect of local source reduction in the first 20 h of the objective time is better, and if the local source is reduced 50% within 72 h before the objective time, the decline rates of PM2.5 in the five types are 11.6%, 9.4%, 13.8%, 9.9% and 15.2% respectively. And the reduction effect of the neighboring sources is better within the 3-57 h before the objective time.

  11. Use of alternative sources of energy: design study of photovoltaic based parking area lighting system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perraki, V.; Loucas, G.

    2000-01-01

    This study proposes the lighting of the parking area and the surrounding streets of the north west part of the University Campus of Patras, using an alternative source of energy, the photovoltaic energy. The sizing of the proposed system results to a reliable, autonomous system which covers the total of the energy needs without any maintenance. Although the energy produced is more expensive compared to the grid electricity nowadays, such solutions seem necessary and well promising for the future as the fuel reserves are limited. (authors)

  12. Frequencies of leaks and probability of ignition sources in the H-area tank farm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cramer, D.S.

    1994-01-01

    Point estimates are developed for the probability of an ignition source for tetraphenylborate (TPB) solids in H-area which leak into the annulus of Tank 48 and/or in the Filter Cell. Additionally, leak frequencies and leak rates are estimated for: the inner cell wall of Tank 48; Hanford connectors and single-wall transfer lines in the Filter Cell of the In-Tank Precipitation (ITP) Facility; and the double-wall transfer lines between tank 48, the Filter Cell, Tank 49 and the 'Late Wash' Tank

  13. Applicability of the grounded-source airborne electromagnetics to coastal areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Hisatoshi; Tsukuda, Kazuhiro; Suzuki, Koichi; Kaieda, Hideshi; Kiho, Kenzo; Mogi, Toru

    2012-01-01

    Understanding geological and hydrogeological characteristics in coastal areas is an issue of paramount importance especially with regard to siting of geological disposal of nuclear wastes, whereas conventional airborne electromagnetic (AEM) surveys can reveal an electrical resistivity structure to a depth of only ∼200 m. In order to enhance the depth of investigation, we have developed a new type of AEM, grounded-electrical-source airborne transient electromagnetics (GREATEM). Here we have applied GREATEM to two coastal areas in Japan; Kujukuri, an alluvial coastal plain where thick Quaternary sediments prevail, and northwestern part of Awaji Island, where granitic rocks are dominant. It was found that the GREATEM system can reveal resistivity structure to a depth of ∼500 m and also high quality data are available just beneath the shoreline where shallow water prevails. (author)

  14. Estimate of main local sources to ambient ultrafine particle number concentrations in an urban area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md Mahmudur; Mazaheri, Mandana; Clifford, Sam; Morawska, Lidia

    2017-09-01

    Quantifying and apportioning the contribution of a range of sources to ultrafine particles (UFPs, D oil refineries, and seaport) sources to the total ambient particle number concentration (PNC) in a busy, inner-city area in Brisbane, Australia using Bayesian statistical modelling and other exploratory tools. The Bayesian model was trained on the PNC data on days where NP formations were known to have not occurred, hourly traffic counts, solar radiation data, and smooth daily trend. The model was applied to apportion and quantify the contribution of NP formations and local traffic and non-traffic sources to UFPs. The data analysis incorporated long-term measured time-series of total PNC (D ≥ 6 nm), particle number size distributions (PSD, D = 8 to 400 nm), PM2.5, PM10, NOx, CO, meteorological parameters and traffic counts at a stationary monitoring site. The developed Bayesian model showed reliable predictive performances in quantifying the contribution of NP formation events to UFPs (up to 4 × 104 particles cm- 3), with a significant day to day variability. The model identified potential NP formation and no-formations days based on PNC data and quantified the sources contribution to UFPs. Exploratory statistical analyses show that total mean PNC during the middle of the day was up to 32% higher than during peak morning and evening traffic periods, which were associated with NP formation events. The majority of UFPs measured during the peak traffic and NP formation periods were between 30-100 nm and smaller than 30 nm, respectively. To date, this is the first application of Bayesian model to apportion different sources contribution to UFPs, and therefore the importance of this study is not only in its modelling outcomes but in demonstrating the applicability and advantages of this statistical approach to air pollution studies.

  15. Very broad beam metal ion source for large area ion implantation application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, I.; Anders, S.; Dickinson, M.R.; MacGill, R.A.; Yao, X.

    1993-01-01

    The authors have made and operated a very broad beam version of vacuum arc ion source and used it to carry out high energy metal ion implantation of a particularly large substrate. A multiple-cathode vacuum arc plasma source was coupled to a 50 cm diameter beam extractor (multiple aperture, accel-decel configuration) operated at a net extraction voltage of up to 50 kV. The metal ion species chosen were Ni and Ta. The mean ion charge state for Ni and Ta vacuum arc plasmas is 1.8 and 2.9, respectively, and so the mean ion energies were up to about 90 and 145 keV, respectively. The ion source was operated in a repetitively pulsed mode with pulse length 250 μs and repetition rate several pulses per second. The extracted beam had a gaussian profile with FWHM about 35 cm, giving a nominal beam area of about 1,000 cm 2 . The current of Ni or Ta metal ions in the beam was up to several amperes. The targets for the ion implantation were a number of 24-inch long, highly polished Cu rails from an electromagnetic rail gun. The rails were located about 80 cm away from the ion source extractor grids, and were moved across a diameter of the vessel in such a way as to maximize the uniformity of the implant along the rail. The saturation retained dose for Ta was limited to about 4 x 10 16 cm -2 because of the rather severe sputtering, in accordance with the theoretical expectations for these implantation conditions. Here they describe the ion source, the implantation procedure, and the kinds of implants that can be produced in this way

  16. The Geysers-Clear Lake geothermal area, California - an updated geophysical perspective of heat sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, W.D.; Blakely, R.J.

    1995-01-01

    The Geysers-Clear Lake geothermal area encompasses a large dry-steam production area in The Geysers field and a documented high-temperature, high-pressure, water-dominated system in the area largely south of Clear Lake, which has not been developed. An updated view is presented of the geological/geophysical complexities of the crust in this region in order to address key unanswered questions about the heat source and tectonics. Forward modeling, multidimensional inversions, and ideal body analysis of the gravity data, new electromagnetic sounding models, and arguments made from other geophysical data sets suggest that many of the geophysical anomalies have significant contributions from rock property and physical state variations in the upper 7 km and not from "magma' at greater depths. Regional tectonic and magmatic processes are analyzed to develop an updated scenario for pluton emplacement that differs substantially from earlier interpretations. In addition, a rationale is outlined for future exploration for geothermal resources in The Geysers-Clear Lake area. -from Authors

  17. Levels and source apportionment of volatile organic compounds in southwestern area of Mexico City

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodolfo Sosa, E. [Centro de Ciencias de la Atmosfera, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Circuito Exterior, Ciudad Universitaria, C.P. 04510, D.F. (Mexico); Humberto Bravo, A. [Centro de Ciencias de la Atmosfera, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Circuito Exterior, Ciudad Universitaria, C.P. 04510, D.F. (Mexico)], E-mail: hbravo@servidor.unam.mx; Violeta Mugica, A. [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Azcapotzalco, D.F. (Mexico); Pablo Sanchez, A. [Centro de Ciencias de la Atmosfera, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Circuito Exterior, Ciudad Universitaria, C.P. 04510, D.F. (Mexico); Emma Bueno, L. [Centro Nacional de Investigacion y Capacitacion Ambiental, Instituto Nacional de Ecologia (Mexico); Krupa, Sagar [Department of Plant Pathology, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN 55108 (United States)

    2009-03-15

    Thirteen volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were quantified at three sites in southwestern Mexico City from July 2000 to February 2001. High concentrations of different VOCs were found at a Gasoline refueling station (GS), a Condominium area (CA), and at University Center for Atmospheric Sciences (CAS). The most abundant VOCs at CA and CAS were propane, n-butane, toluene, acetylene and pentane. In comparison, at GS the most abundant were toluene, pentane, propane, n-butane, and acetylene. Benzene, a known carcinogenic compound had average levels of 28, 35 and 250 ppbC at CAS, CA, and GS respectively. The main contributing sources of the measured VOCs at CA and CAS were the handling and management of LP (Liquid Propane) gas, vehicle exhaust, asphalt works, and use of solvents. At GS almost all of the VOCs came from vehicle exhaust and fuel evaporation, although components of LP gas were also present. Based on the overall results possible abatement strategies are discussed. - Volatile organic compounds were quantified in order to perform their source apportionment in southwestern area of Mexico City.

  18. Levels and source apportionment of volatile organic compounds in southwestern area of Mexico City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodolfo Sosa, E.; Humberto Bravo, A.; Violeta Mugica, A.; Pablo Sanchez, A.; Emma Bueno, L.; Krupa, Sagar

    2009-01-01

    Thirteen volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were quantified at three sites in southwestern Mexico City from July 2000 to February 2001. High concentrations of different VOCs were found at a Gasoline refueling station (GS), a Condominium area (CA), and at University Center for Atmospheric Sciences (CAS). The most abundant VOCs at CA and CAS were propane, n-butane, toluene, acetylene and pentane. In comparison, at GS the most abundant were toluene, pentane, propane, n-butane, and acetylene. Benzene, a known carcinogenic compound had average levels of 28, 35 and 250 ppbC at CAS, CA, and GS respectively. The main contributing sources of the measured VOCs at CA and CAS were the handling and management of LP (Liquid Propane) gas, vehicle exhaust, asphalt works, and use of solvents. At GS almost all of the VOCs came from vehicle exhaust and fuel evaporation, although components of LP gas were also present. Based on the overall results possible abatement strategies are discussed. - Volatile organic compounds were quantified in order to perform their source apportionment in southwestern area of Mexico City

  19. Contamination source review for Building E2370, Edgewood Area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Reilly, D.P.; Glennon, M.A.; Draugelis, A.K.; Rueda, J.; Zimmerman, R.E.

    1995-09-01

    The US Army Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG) commissioned Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to conduct a contamination source review to identify and define areas of toxic or hazardous contaminants and to assess the physical condition and accessibility of APG buildings. The information obtained from this review may be used to assist the US Army in planning for the future use or disposition of the buildings. The contamination source review consisted of the following tasks: historical records search, physical inspection, photographic documentation, and geophysical investigation. This report provides the results of the contamination source review for Building E2370. Many of the APG facilities constructed between 1917 and the 1960s are no longer used because of obsolescence and their poor state of repair. Because many of these buildings were used for research, development, testing, and/or pilot-scale production of chemical warfare agents and other military substances, the potential exists for portions of the buildings to be contaminated with these substances, their degradation products, and other laboratory or industrial chemicals. These buildings and associated structures or appurtenances may contribute to environmental concerns at APG.

  20. Source identification of particulate matter in a semi-urban area of Malaysia using multivariate techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahid, N B A; Latif, M T; Suan, L S; Dominick, D; Sahani, M; Jaafar, S A; Mohd Tahir, N

    2014-03-01

    This study aims to determine the composition and sources of particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of 10 μm or less (PM10) in a semi-urban area. PM10 samples were collected using a high volume sampler. Heavy metals (Fe, Zn, Pb, Mn, Cu, Cd and Ni) and cations (Na(+), K(+), Ca(2+) and Mg(2+)) were detected using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, while anions (SO4 (2-), NO3 (-), Cl(-) and F(-)) were analysed using Ion Chromatography. Principle component analysis and multiple linear regressions were used to identify the source apportionment of PM10. Results showed the average concentration of PM10 was 29.5 ± 5.1 μg/m(3). The heavy metals found were dominated by Fe, followed by Zn, Pb, Cu, Mn, Cd and Ni. Na(+) was the dominant cation, followed by Ca(2+), K(+) and Mg(2+), whereas SO4 (2-) was the dominant anion, followed by NO3 (-), Cl(-) and F(-). The main sources of PM10 were the Earth's crust/road dust, followed by vehicle emissions, industrial emissions/road activity, and construction/biomass burning.

  1. Contamination source review for Building E3236, Edgewood Area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zellmer, S.D.; Smits, M.P.; Draugelis, A.K.; Glennon, M.A.; Rueda, J.; Zimmerman, R.E.

    1995-09-01

    The US Army Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG) commissioned Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to conduct a contamination source review to identify and define areas of toxic or hazardous contaminants and to assess the physical condition and accessibility of APG buildings. The information obtained from the review may be used to assist the US Army in planning for the future use or disposition of the buildings. The contamination source review consisted of the following tasks: historical records search, physical inspection, photographic documentation, geophysical investigation, and review of available records regarding underground storage tanks associated with each building. This report provides the results of the contamination source review for Building E3236. Many of the APG facilities constructed between 1917 and the 1960s are no longer used because of obsolescence and their poor state of repair. Because many of these buildings were used for research, development, testing, and/or pilot- scale production of chemical warfare agents and other military substances, the potential exists for portions of the buildings to be contaminated with these substances, their degradation products, and other laboratory or industrial chemicals. These buildings and associated structures or appurtenances may contribute to environmental concerns at APG.

  2. Sources and Seasonality of Volatile Organic Compounds in the Northern Front Range Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeleira, A.; Pollack, I. B.; Sive, B. C.; Zaragoza, J.; Lindaas, J.; Fischer, E. V.; Farmer, D.

    2016-12-01

    The Northern Front Range Metropolitan Area (NFRMA) of Colorado, with a growing population of over 3 million, was deemed an ozone (O3) nonattainment area (NAA) in 2008 despite continued work on NOx reductions. Ground-level O3 is produced from photochemical catalytic cycles initiated by the OH oxidation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and propagated through reactions involving peroxy (HO2+RO2) and NOx (NO + NO2) radicals. We measured a suite of speciated VOCs during two 8-week deployments (March-May 2015, July-September 2015) at the Boulder Atmospheric Observatory in Erie, CO. The spring deployment overlapped with the NOAA SONGNEX (Shale Oil and Natural Gas Nexus) campaign. The BAO site lies at an urban-rural interface in the NFRMA with multiple urban centers surrounding the site, a major interstate highway within 2 miles, local suburban development in Erie, agricultural operations in the surrounding counties, and recent rapid expansion of oil and gas development in adjacent Weld County. VOCs were measured hourly with a custom-built online gas chromatography system along with measurements of O3, NOx, PAN, CO, and CH4. VOC measurements included C2-C8 hydrocarbons (NMHCs), C1-C5 alkyl nitrates, C1-C2 halocarbons, and several oxygenated species (OVOCs: methyl ethyl ketone, acetone, acetaldehyde). Using Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) we have identified four distinct VOC sources in the spring and five in the summer: 1) Oil and Natural Gas (ONG, e.g. C2 - C5 alkanes), 2) Traffic (e.g. ethyne & aromatics), 3) Background species (e.g. long-lived halogenated species), 4) Secondary production (e.g. C3-C5 alkyl nitrates & OVOCs), and for summer 5) Biogenic (e.g. isoprene). Using the source factors generated from the PMF analysis we calculated the VOC reactivity (VOCr) of each source. For both seasons, the ONG factor dominates VOCr in the mornings. In spring afternoons, a combination of background species and secondary products make up a large percentage of VOCr as

  3. The Comparison Study of gas source between two hydrate expeditions in ShenHu area, SCS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, X. R.

    2016-12-01

    Two gas hydrate expeditions (GMGS 01&03) were conducted in the Pearl River Mouth Basin, SCS, which were organized by Guangzhou Marine Geological Survey in 2007 and 2015, respectively. Compared with the drilling results of "mixed bio-thermogenic gas and generally dominated by biogenic gas" in 2007, hydrocarbon component measurements revealed a higher content of ethane and propane in 2015 drilling, providing direct evidence that deep thermogenic gas was the source for shallow hydrate formation. According to the geochemical analyses of the results obtained from the industrial boreholes in Baiyun sag, the deep hydrocarbon gas obviously leaked from the reservoir as escape caused by Dongsha movement in the late Miocene, as a result thermogenic gas from Wenchang, Enping and Zhuhai hydrocarbon source rocks migrated to late Miocene shallow strata through faults, diapirs and gas chimney vertically migration. In this paper we report the differences in fluid migration channel types and discuss their effect in fluid vertical migration efficiency in the two Shenhu hydrate drilling areas. For the drilling area in 2007,when the limited deep thermogenic gas experienced long distance migration process from bottom to up along inefficient energy channel, the gas composition might have changed and the carbon isotope fractionation might have happened, which were reflected in the results of higher C1/C2 ratios and lighter carbon isotope in gas hydrate bearing sediments. As a result the gas is with more "biogenic gas" features. It means thermogenic gases in the deep to contributed the formation of shallow gas hydrate indirectly in 2007 Shenhu drill area. On another hand, the gases were transported to the shallow sediment layers efficiently, where gas hydrate formed, through faults and fractures from deep hydrocarbon reservoirs, and as the result they experienced less changes in both components and isotopes in 2015 drilling site.

  4. Evaluation of the source area of rooftop scalar measurements in London, UK using wind tunnel and modelling approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brocklehurst, Aidan; Boon, Alex; Barlow, Janet; Hayden, Paul; Robins, Alan

    2014-05-01

    The source area of an instrument is an estimate of the area of ground over which the measurement is generated. Quantification of the source area of a measurement site provides crucial context for analysis and interpretation of the data. A range of computational models exists to calculate the source area of an instrument, but these are usually based on assumptions which do not hold for instruments positioned very close to the surface, particularly those surrounded by heterogeneous terrain i.e. urban areas. Although positioning instrumentation at higher elevation (i.e. on masts) is ideal in urban areas, this can be costly in terms of installation and maintenance costs and logistically difficult to position instruments in the ideal geographical location. Therefore, in many studies, experimentalists turn to rooftops to position instrumentation. Experimental validations of source area models for these situations are very limited. In this study, a controlled tracer gas experiment was conducted in a wind tunnel based on a 1:200 scale model of a measurement site used in previous experimental work in central London. The detector was set at the location of the rooftop site as the tracer was released at a range of locations within the surrounding streets and rooftops. Concentration measurements are presented for a range of wind angles, with the spread of concentration measurements indicative of the source area distribution. Clear evidence of wind channeling by streets is seen with the shape of the source area strongly influenced by buildings upwind of the measurement point. The results of the wind tunnel study are compared to scalar concentration source areas generated by modelling approaches based on meteorological data from the central London experimental site and used in the interpretation of continuous carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration data. Initial conclusions will be drawn as to how to apply scalar concentration source area models to rooftop measurement sites and

  5. Discovery of source fault in the region without obvious active fault. Geophysical survey in the source area of the 1984 western Nagano prefecture earthquake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoyagi, Yasuhira; Abe, Shintaro

    2009-01-01

    The 1984 Western Nagano Prefecture Earthquake (MJ6.8) occurred at shallow part of the southern foot of Mt. Ontake volcano, central Japan. Despite the large magnitude neither clear surface rupture nor active fault has been found around the source area. Therefore the earthquake is an issue for seismic assessment based on active fault survey. The purpose of this study is to find any tectonic geomorphologic features in the source area and to elucidate its relation to the source fault. In order to achieve it, an integrated survey with (1) micro earthquake observation, (2) airborne LIDAR, and (3) seismic reflection survey was demonstrated in the source area from 2006 to 2008. The survey area of airborne LIDAR (18 km x 4 km) covers main part of the aftershock distribution just after the mainshock. A linear zone with abrupt change of topographic roughness was found in ENE-WSW direction at the center of the LIDAR target area. River valleys flowing down to SSE direction change their directions and widths abruptly across the linear zone. Seismic reflection survey across the source region detect deformation zone just beneath the linear zone. These features of topographic and crustal deformation coincide well with the aftershock distribution. Therefore they indicate an active structure formed by the cumulative displacement of the source fault. (author)

  6. Strategic water source areas for urban water security: Making the connection between protecting ecosystems and benefiting from their services

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nel, JL

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Strategic water source areas are those areas that have a relatively high natural runoff in the region of interest, which is made accessible for supporting the region’s population or economy. These areas contribute substantially to development needs...

  7. Shear-wave velocity models and seismic sources in Campanian volcanic areas: Vesuvius and Phlegraean fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guidarelli, M; Zille, A; Sarao, A [Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Universita degli Studi di Trieste, Trieste (Italy); Natale, M; Nunziata, C [Dipartimento di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Universita di Napoli ' Federico II' , Napoli (Italy); Panza, G F [Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Universita degli Studi di Trieste, Trieste (Italy); Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste (Italy)

    2006-12-15

    This chapter summarizes a comparative study of shear-wave velocity models and seismic sources in the Campanian volcanic areas of Vesuvius and Phlegraean Fields. These velocity models were obtained through the nonlinear inversion of surface-wave tomography data, using as a priori constraints the relevant information available in the literature. Local group velocity data were obtained by means of the frequency-time analysis for the time period between 0.3 and 2 s and were combined with the group velocity data for the time period between 10 and 35 s from the regional events located in the Italian peninsula and bordering areas and two station phase velocity data corresponding to the time period between 25 and 100 s. In order to invert Rayleigh wave dispersion curves, we applied the nonlinear inversion method called hedgehog and retrieved average models for the first 30-35 km of the lithosphere, with the lower part of the upper mantle being kept fixed on the basis of existing regional models. A feature that is common to the two volcanic areas is a low shear velocity layer which is centered at the depth of about 10 km, while on the outside of the cone and along a path in the northeastern part of the Vesuvius area this layer is absent. This low velocity can be associated with the presence of partial melting and, therefore, may represent a quite diffused crustal magma reservoir which is fed by a deeper one that is regional in character and located in the uppermost mantle. The study of seismic source in terms of the moment tensor is suitable for an investigation of physical processes within a volcano; indeed, its components, double couple, compensated linear vector dipole, and volumetric, can be related to the movements of magma and fluids within the volcanic system. Although for many recent earthquake events the percentage of double couple component is high, our results also show the presence of significant non-double couple components in both volcanic areas. (author)

  8. Study on geochronology and uranium source of sandstone-type uranium deposit in Dongsheng area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Haibin; Xia Yuliang; Tian Shifeng

    2007-01-01

    This paper studied the geochronology of sandstone-type uranium deposit in the Dongsheng area of Ordos Basin. In eastern segment, ages of mineralization at the wing of the ore-roll are found to be 120 ± 5 Ma and 80 ± 5 Ma, and at the front of the ore-roll are 20 ± 2 Ma and 8 ± 1 Ma; While in middle segment, ages of mineralization are 124 ± 6 Ma and 80 ± 5 Ma. This means that the main mineralization in Dongsheng area were formed at early Jurassic and late Cretaceous, and correspondent to the time of structure uplift. Mineralization of roll-front (rich ore) which formed in Miocene and Pliocene may related to tectonic-thermal event taken place at that time and reformed the early mineralization in this area. The isochron line age of sample with uranium grade 0 ) in the sandbody is 24.64 x 10 -6 also shows the uranium pre-concentration in the strata. The even value of ΔU of rocks in Zhiluo formation is -70.2%, this shows that non-mineralized rocks have migrated uranium and acted as important metallogenic uranium sources. (authors)

  9. APPROACH TO CONSTRUCTING 3D VIRTUAL SCENE OF IRRIGATION AREA USING MULTI-SOURCE DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Cheng

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available For an irrigation area that is often complicated by various 3D artificial ground features and natural environment, disadvantages of traditional 2D GIS in spatial data representation, management, query, analysis and visualization is becoming more and more evident. Building a more realistic 3D virtual scene is thus especially urgent for irrigation area managers and decision makers, so that they can carry out various irrigational operations lively and intuitively. Based on previous researchers' achievements, a simple, practical and cost-effective approach was proposed in this study, by adopting3D geographic information system (3D GIS, remote sensing (RS technology. Based on multi-source data such as Google Earth (GE high-resolution remote sensing image, ASTER G-DEM, hydrological facility maps and so on, 3D terrain model and ground feature models were created interactively. Both of the models were then rendered with texture data and integrated under ArcGIS platform. A vivid, realistic 3D virtual scene of irrigation area that has a good visual effect and possesses primary GIS functions about data query and analysis was constructed.Yet, there is still a long way to go for establishing a true 3D GIS for the irrigation are: issues of this study were deeply discussed and future research direction was pointed out in the end of the paper.

  10. Carbon Storages in Plantation Ecosystems in Sand Source Areas of North Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiuping; Zhang, Wanjun; Cao, Jiansheng; Shen, Huitao; Zeng, Xinhua; Yu, Zhiqiang; Zhao, Xin

    2013-01-01

    Afforestation is a mitigation option to reduce the increased atmospheric carbon dioxide levels as well as the predicted high possibility of climate change. In this paper, vegetation survey data, statistical database, National Forest Resource Inventory database, and allometric equations were used to estimate carbon density (carbon mass per hectare) and carbon storage, and identify the size and spatial distribution of forest carbon sinks in plantation ecosystems in sand source areas of north Beijing, China. From 2001 to the end of 2010, the forest areas increased more than 2.3 million ha, and total carbon storage in forest ecosystems was 173.02 Tg C, of which 82.80 percent was contained in soil in the top 0–100 cm layer. Younger forests have a large potential for enhancing carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems than older ones. Regarding future afforestation efforts, it will be more effective to increase forest area and vegetation carbon density through selection of appropriate tree species and stand structure according to local climate and soil conditions, and application of proper forest management including land-shaping, artificial tending and fencing plantations. It would be also important to protect the organic carbon in surface soils during forest management. PMID:24349223

  11. SARNET. Severe Accident Research Network - key issues in the area of source term

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giordano, P.; Micaelli, J.C.; Haste, T.; Herranz, L.

    2005-01-01

    About fifty European organisations integrate in SARNET (Network of Excellence of the EU 6 th Framework Programme) their research capacities in resolve better the most important remaining uncertainties and safety issues concerning existing and future Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) under hypothetical Severe Accident (SA) conditions. Wishing to maintain a long-lasting cooperation, they conduct three types of activities: integrating activities, spreading of excellence and jointly executed research. This paper summarises the main results obtained by the network after the first year, giving more prominence to those from jointly executed research in the Source Term area. Integrating activities have been performed through different means: the ASTEC integral computer code for severe accident transient modelling, through development of PSA2 methodologies, through the setting of a structure for definition of evolving R and D priorities and through the development of a web-network of data bases that hosts experimental data. Such activities have been facilitated by the development of an Advanced Communication Tool. Concerning spreading of excellence, educational courses covering Severe Accident Analysis Methodology and Level 2 PSA have been set up, to be given in early 2006. A detailed text book on Severe Accident Phenomenology has been designed and agreed amongst SARNET members. A mobility programme for students and young researchers is being developed, some detachments are already completed or in progress, and examples are quoted. Jointly executed research activities concern key issues grouped in the Corium, Containment and Source Term areas. In Source Term, behaviour of the highly radio-toxic ruthenium under oxidising conditions (like air ingress) for HBU and MOX fuel has been investigated. First modelling proposals for ASTEC have been made for oxidation of fuel and of ruthenium. Experiments on transport of highly volatile oxide ruthenium species have been performed. Reactor

  12. Investigating diesel engines as an atmospheric source of isocyanic acid in urban areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. H. Jathar

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Isocyanic acid (HNCO, an acidic gas found in tobacco smoke, urban environments, and biomass-burning-affected regions, has been linked to adverse health outcomes. Gasoline- and diesel-powered engines and biomass burning are known to emit HNCO and hypothesized to emit precursors such as amides that can photochemically react to produce HNCO in the atmosphere. Increasingly, diesel engines in developed countries like the United States are required to use selective catalytic reduction (SCR systems to reduce tailpipe emissions of oxides of nitrogen. SCR chemistry is known to produce HNCO as an intermediate product, and SCR systems have been implicated as an atmospheric source of HNCO. In this work, we measure HNCO emissions from an SCR system-equipped diesel engine and, in combination with earlier data, use a three-dimensional chemical transport model (CTM to simulate the ambient concentrations and source/pathway contributions to HNCO in an urban environment. Engine tests were conducted at three different engine loads, using two different fuels and at multiple operating points. HNCO was measured using an acetate chemical ionization mass spectrometer. The diesel engine was found to emit primary HNCO (3–90 mg kg fuel−1 but we did not find any evidence that the SCR system or other aftertreatment devices (i.e., oxidation catalyst and particle filter produced or enhanced HNCO emissions. The CTM predictions compared well with the only available observational datasets for HNCO in urban areas but underpredicted the contribution from secondary processes. The comparison implied that diesel-powered engines were the largest source of HNCO in urban areas. The CTM also predicted that daily-averaged concentrations of HNCO reached a maximum of ∼ 110 pptv but were an order of magnitude lower than the 1 ppbv level that could be associated with physiological effects in humans. Precursor contributions from other combustion sources (gasoline and biomass

  13. Source term development for the 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bendixsen, R.B.

    1994-04-01

    A novel method for developing a source term for radiation and hazardous material content of sludge processing equipment and barrels in a new waste water treatment facility is presented in this paper. The 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF), located at the Hanford Site near Richland, Washington, will treat process sewer waste water from the 300 Area and discharge a permittable effluent flow into the Columbia River. A process information and hazards analysis document needed a process flowsheet detailing the concentrations of radionuclides, inorganics, and organics throughout the process, including the sludge effluent flow. A hazards analysis for a processing facility usually includes a flowsheet showing the process, materials, heat balances, and instrumentation for that facility. The flow sheet estimates stream flow quantities, activities, compositions, and properties. For the 300 Area TEDF, it was necessary to prepare the flow sheet with all of the information so that radiation doses to workers could be estimated. The noble method used to develop the 300 Area TEDF flowsheet included generating recycle factors. To prepare each component in the flowsheet, precipitation, destruction, and two recycle factors were developed. The factors were entered into a spreadsheet and provided a method of estimating the steady-state concentrations of all of the components in the facility. This report describes how the factors were developed, explains how they were used in developing the flowsheet, and presents the results of using these values to estimate radiation doses for personnel working in the facility. The report concludes with a discussion of the effect of estimates of radioactive and hazardous material concentrations on shielding design and the need for containment features for equipment in the facility

  14. Source Areas of Water and Nitrate in a Peatland Catchment, Minnesota, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebestyen, S. D.

    2017-12-01

    In nitrogen polluted forests, stream nitrate concentrations increase and some unprocessed atmospheric nitrate may be transported to streams during stormflow events. This understanding has emerged from forests with upland mineral soils. In contrast, catchments with northern peatlands may have both upland soils and lowlands with deep organic soils, each with unique effects on nitrate transport and processing. While annual budgets show nitrate yields to be relatively lower from peatland than upland-dominated catchments, little is known about particular runoff events when stream nitrate concentrations have been higher (despite long periods with little or no nitrate in outlet streams) or the reasons why. I used site knowledge and expansive/extensive monitoring at the Marcell Experimental Forest in Minnesota, along with a targeted 2-year study to determine landscape areas, water sources, and nitrate sources that affected stream nitrate variation in a peatland catchment. I combined streamflow, upland runoff, snow amount, and frost depth data from long-term monitoring with nitrate concentration, yield, and isotopic data to show that up to 65% of stream nitrate during snowmelt of 2009 and 2010 was unprocessed atmospheric nitrate. Up to 46% of subsurface runoff from upland soils during 2009 was unprocessed atmospheric nitrate, which shows the uplands to be a stream nitrate source during 2009, but not during 2010 when upland runoff concentrations were below the detection limit. Differences are attributable to variations in water and nitrate sources. Little snow (a nitrate source), less upland runoff relative to peatland runoff, and deeper soil frost in the peatland caused a relatively larger input of nitrate from the uplands to the stream during 2009 and the peatland to the stream during 2010. Despite the near-absence of stream nitrate during much of rest of the year, these findings show an important time when nitrate transport affected downstream aquatic ecosystems, reasons

  15. Source document for waste area groupings at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osborne, P.L.; Kuhaida, A.J., Jr.

    1996-09-01

    This document serves as a source document for Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) and other types of documents developed for and pertaining to Environmental Restoration (ER) Program activities at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). It contains descriptions of the (1) regulatory requirements for the ORR ER Program, (2) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) ER Program, (3) ORNL site history and characterization, and (4) history and characterization of Waste Area Groupings (WAGS) 1-20. This document was created to save time, effort, and money for persons and organizations drafting documents for the ER Program and to improve consistency in the documents prepared for the program. By eliminating the repetitious use of selected information about the program, this document will help reduce the time and costs associated with producing program documents. By serving as a benchmark for selected information about the ER Program, this reference will help ensure that information presented in future documents is accurate and complete

  16. 2005-2014 trends of PM10 source contributions in an industrialized area of southern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiwei; Chen, Bing; de la Campa, Ana M Sánchez; Alastuey, Andrés; Querol, Xavier; de la Rosa, Jesus D

    2018-05-01

    Particulate matter with a diameter of 10 μm or less (PM10) using receptor modelling was determined at an urban (La Linea, LL) and an industrial area (Puente Mayorga, PMY) in Southern Spain with samples collected during 2005-2014. The concentrations of PM10 had been decreasing at both sites in three distinctive periods: 1) the initial PM10 levels approached or exceeded the Spain and EU PM10 annual guidelines of 40 μg/m 3 during 2005-2007 at LL and 2005-2009 at PMY; 2) then PM10 dropped by 25%-∼30 μg/m 3 during 2008-2011 at LL and during 2010-2011 at PMY; 3) since 2012, the PM10 concentrations gradually decreased to major elements. These PM components generally showed a decrease trend, in accord with the trend of PM10 reduction. A PMF model identified seven sources to PM10 contributions. Secondary sulfate, soil/urban/construction dust, and secondary nitrate showed significantly decreasing trends with reduction of 40-60% comparing to the initial levels. The road traffic contribution decreased by 14% from the first to third period. However, sea salt, oil combustion, and industrial metallurgical process had relative stable contributions. These source contribution changes are reasonably governed by the PM emission abatement actions implemented during the past decade, as well as the financial crisis, that accounted for a significant decrease of PM pollution in Southern Spain. We identified that the mitigation efforts on industry, fossil fuel combustion, and urban transportation during the past decade were successful for air quality improvement in a highly industrialized area in Southern Spain. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A long source area of the 1906 Colombia-Ecuador earthquake estimated from observed tsunami waveforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanaka, Yusuke; Tanioka, Yuichiro; Shiina, Takahiro

    2017-12-01

    The 1906 Colombia-Ecuador earthquake induced both strong seismic motions and a tsunami, the most destructive earthquake in the history of the Colombia-Ecuador subduction zone. The tsunami propagated across the Pacific Ocean, and its waveforms were observed at tide gauge stations in countries including Panama, Japan, and the USA. This study conducted slip inverse analysis for the 1906 earthquake using these waveforms. A digital dataset of observed tsunami waveforms at the Naos Island (Panama) and Honolulu (USA) tide gauge stations, where the tsunami was clearly observed, was first produced by consulting documents. Next, the two waveforms were applied in an inverse analysis as the target waveform. The results of this analysis indicated that the moment magnitude of the 1906 earthquake ranged from 8.3 to 8.6. Moreover, the dominant slip occurred in the northern part of the assumed source region near the coast of Colombia, where little significant seismicity has occurred, rather than in the southern part. The results also indicated that the source area, with significant slip, covered a long distance, including the southern, central, and northern parts of the region.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  18. Honeycomblike large area LaB6 plasma source for Multi-Purpose Plasma facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, Hyun-Jong; Chung, Kyu-Sun; You, Hyun-Jong; Lee, Myoung-Jae; Lho, Taihyeop; Choh, Kwon Kook; Yoon, Jung-Sik; Jung, Yong Ho; Lee, Bongju; Yoo, Suk Jae; Kwon, Myeon

    2007-01-01

    A Multi-Purpose Plasma (MP 2 ) facility has been renovated from Hanbit mirror device [Kwon et al., Nucl. Fusion 43, 686 (2003)] by adopting the same philosophy of diversified plasma simulator (DiPS) [Chung et al., Contrib. Plasma Phys. 46, 354 (2006)] by installing two plasma sources: LaB 6 (dc) and helicon (rf) plasma sources; and making three distinct simulators: divertor plasma simulator, space propulsion simulator, and astrophysics simulator. During the first renovation stage, a honeycomblike large area LaB 6 (HLA-LaB 6 ) cathode was developed for the divertor plasma simulator to improve the resistance against the thermal shock fragility for large and high density plasma generation. A HLA-LaB 6 cathode is composed of the one inner cathode with 4 in. diameter and the six outer cathodes with 2 in. diameter along with separate graphite heaters. The first plasma is generated with Ar gas and its properties are measured by the electric probes with various discharge currents and magnetic field configurations. Plasma density at the middle of central cell reaches up to 2.6x10 12 cm -3 , while the electron temperature remains around 3-3.5 eV at the low discharge current of less than 45 A, and the magnetic field intensity of 870 G. Unique features of electric property of heaters, plasma density profiles, is explained comparing with those of single LaB 6 cathode with 4 in. diameter in DiPS

  19. Testing and intercomparison of model predictions of radionuclide migration from a hypothetical area source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Brien, R.S.; Yu, C.; Zeevaert, T.; Olyslaegers, G.; Amado, V.; Setlow, L.W.; Waggitt, P.W.

    2008-01-01

    This work was carried out as part of the International Atomic Energy Agency's EMRAS program. One aim of the work was to develop scenarios for testing computer models designed for simulating radionuclide migration in the environment, and to use these scenarios for testing the models and comparing predictions from different models. This paper presents the results of the development and testing of a hypothetical area source of NORM waste/residue using two complex computer models and one screening model. There are significant differences in the methods used to model groundwater flow between the complex models. The hypothetical source was used because of its relative simplicity and because of difficulties encountered in finding comprehensive, well-validated data sets for real sites. The source consisted of a simple repository of uniform thickness, with 1 Bq g -1 of uranium-238 ( 238 U) (in secular equilibrium with its decay products) distributed uniformly throughout the waste. These approximate real situations, such as engineered repositories, waste rock piles, tailings piles and landfills. Specification of the site also included the physical layout, vertical stratigraphic details, soil type for each layer of material, precipitation and runoff details, groundwater flow parameters, and meteorological data. Calculations were carried out with and without a cover layer of clean soil above the waste, for people working and living at different locations relative to the waste. The predictions of the two complex models showed several differences which need more detailed examination. The scenario is available for testing by other modelers. It can also be used as a planning tool for remediation work or for repository design, by changing the scenario parameters and running the models for a range of different inputs. Further development will include applying models to real scenarios and integrating environmental impact assessment methods with the safety assessment tools currently

  20. Source areas and long-range transport of pollen from continental land to Tenerife (Canary Islands).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izquierdo, Rebeca; Belmonte, Jordina; Avila, Anna; Alarcón, Marta; Cuevas, Emilio; Alonso-Pérez, Silvia

    2011-01-01

    The Canary Islands, due to their geographical position, constitute an adequate site for the study of long-range pollen transport from the surrounding land masses. In this study, we analyzed airborne pollen counts at two sites: Santa Cruz de Tenerife (SCO), at sea level corresponding to the marine boundary layer (MBL), and Izaña at 2,367 m.a.s.l. corresponding to the free troposphere (FT), for the years 2006 and 2007. We used three approaches to describe pollen transport: (1) a classification of provenances with an ANOVA test to describe pollen count differences between sectors; (2) a study of special events of high pollen concentrations, taking into consideration the corresponding meteorological synoptic pattern responsible for transport and back trajectories; and (3) a source-receptor model applied to a selection of the pollen taxa to show pollen source areas. Our results indicate several extra-regional pollen transport episodes to Tenerife. The main provenances were: (1) the Mediterranean region, especially the southern Iberian Peninsula and Morocco, through the trade winds in the MBL. These episodes were characterized by the presence of pollen from trees (Casuarina, Olea, Quercus perennial and deciduous types) mixed with pollen from herbs (Artemisia, Chenopodiaceae/Amaranthaceae and Poaceae wild type). (2) The Saharan sector, through transport at the MBL level carrying pollen principally from herbs (Chenopodiaceae-Amaranthaceae, Cyperaceae and Poaceae wild type) and, in one case, Casuarina pollen, uplifted to the free troposphere. And (3) the Sahel, characterized by low pollen concentrations of Arecaceae, Chenopodiaceae-Amaranthaceae, Cyperaceae and Poaceae wild type in sporadic episodes. This research shows that sporadic events of long-range pollen transport need to be taken into consideration in Tenerife as possible responsible agents in respiratory allergy episodes. In particular, it is estimated that 89-97% of annual counts of the highly allergenous Olea

  1. Source areas and long-range transport of pollen from continental land to Tenerife (Canary Islands)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izquierdo, Rebeca; Belmonte, Jordina; Avila, Anna; Alarcón, Marta; Cuevas, Emilio; Alonso-Pérez, Silvia

    2011-01-01

    The Canary Islands, due to their geographical position, constitute an adequate site for the study of long-range pollen transport from the surrounding land masses. In this study, we analyzed airborne pollen counts at two sites: Santa Cruz de Tenerife (SCO), at sea level corresponding to the marine boundary layer (MBL), and Izaña at 2,367 m.a.s.l. corresponding to the free troposphere (FT), for the years 2006 and 2007. We used three approaches to describe pollen transport: (1) a classification of provenances with an ANOVA test to describe pollen count differences between sectors; (2) a study of special events of high pollen concentrations, taking into consideration the corresponding meteorological synoptic pattern responsible for transport and back trajectories; and (3) a source-receptor model applied to a selection of the pollen taxa to show pollen source areas. Our results indicate several extra-regional pollen transport episodes to Tenerife. The main provenances were: (1) the Mediterranean region, especially the southern Iberian Peninsula and Morocco, through the trade winds in the MBL. These episodes were characterized by the presence of pollen from trees ( Casuarina, Olea, Quercus perennial and deciduous types) mixed with pollen from herbs ( Artemisia, Chenopodiaceae/Amaranthaceae and Poaceae wild type). (2) The Saharan sector, through transport at the MBL level carrying pollen principally from herbs (Chenopodiaceae-Amaranthaceae, Cyperaceae and Poaceae wild type) and, in one case, Casuarina pollen, uplifted to the free troposphere. And (3) the Sahel, characterized by low pollen concentrations of Arecaceae, Chenopodiaceae-Amaranthaceae, Cyperaceae and Poaceae wild type in sporadic episodes. This research shows that sporadic events of long-range pollen transport need to be taken into consideration in Tenerife as possible responsible agents in respiratory allergy episodes. In particular, it is estimated that 89-97% of annual counts of the highly allergenous Olea

  2. [Water environmental capacity calculation model for the rivers in drinking water source conservation area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ding-jiang; Lü, Jun; Shen, Ye-na; Jin, Shu-quan; Shi, Yi-ming

    2008-09-01

    Based on the one-dimension model for water environmental capacity (WEC) in river, a new model for the WEC estimation in river-reservoir system was developed in drinking water source conservation area (DWSCA). In the new model, the concept was introduced that the water quality target of the rivers in DWSCA was determined by the water quality demand of reservoir for drinking water source. It implied that the WEC of the reservoir could be used as the water quality control target at the reach-end of the upstream rivers in DWSCA so that the problems for WEC estimation might be avoided that the differences of the standards for a water quality control target between in river and in reservoir, such as the criterions differences for total phosphorus (TP)/total nitrogen (TN) between in reservoir and in river according to the National Surface Water Quality Standard of China (GB 3838-2002), and the difference of designed hydrology conditions for WEC estimation between in reservoir and in river. The new model described the quantitative relationship between the WEC of drinking water source and of the river, and it factually expressed the continuity and interplay of these low water areas. As a case study, WEC for the rivers in DWSCA of Laohutan reservoir located in southeast China was estimated using the new model. Results indicated that the WEC for TN and TP was 65.05 t x a(-1) and 5.05 t x a(-1) in the rivers of the DWSCA, respectively. According to the WEC of Laohutan reservoir and current TN and TP quantity that entered into the rivers, about 33.86 t x a(-1) of current TN quantity should be reduced in the DWSCA, while there was 2.23 t x a(-1) of residual WEC of TP in the rivers. The modeling method was also widely applicable for the continuous water bodies with different water quality targets, especially for the situation of higher water quality control target in downstream water body than that in upstream.

  3. Final Air Toxics Standards for Clay Ceramics Manufacturing, Glass Manufacturing, and Secondary Nonferrous Metals Processing Area Sources Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page contains a December 2007 fact sheet with information regarding the National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) for Clay Ceramics Manufacturing, Glass Manufacturing, and Secondary Nonferrous Metals Processing Area Sources

  4. A small, lightweight multipollutant sensor system for ground-mobile and aerial emission sampling from open area sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Characterizing highly dynamic, transient, and vertically lofted emissions from open area sources poses unique measurement challenges. This study developed and applied a multipollutant sensor and integrated sampler system for use on mobile applications including tethered balloons ...

  5. Volcanic or Fluvial Channels on Ascraeus Mons: Focus on the Source Area of Sinuous Channels on the Southeast Rift Apron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signorella, J. D.; de Wet, A. P.; Bleacher, J. E.; Collins, A.; Schierl, Z. P.; Schwans, B.

    2012-03-01

    This study focuses on the source area of sinuous channels on the southeast rift apron on Ascraeus Mons, Mars and attempts to understand whether the channels were formed through volcanic or fluvial processes.

  6. Within-plate Cenozoic Volcanism and Mantle Sources Within The Western-central Mediterranean Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beccaluva, L.; Bianchini, G.; Bonadiman, C.; Coltorti, M.; Siena, F.

    An integrated study of anorogenic basic magmas and entrained mantle xenoliths rep- resents a promising approach for a comprehension of the magmatogenic events occur- ring within the lithospheric mantle in the western-central Mediterranean area. In this contribution we review the geochemical characteristics of mafic lavas and associated peridotite xenoliths from three anorogenic volcanic districts: Pliocene-Quaternary vol- canism of Sardinia; Pliocene-Quaternary volcanism of the Iblean area (eastern Sicily); Paleocene-Oligocene Veneto Volcanic Province. Investigations have been focused on 1) petrological features of parental magmas, which may contribute to infer the com- positional characteristics of mantle sources and to constrain the modes of partial melt- ing; 2) modelling the depletion events and metasomatic enrichments in mantle xeno- liths of the three volcanic districts, as well as the nature of their causative agents. Petrological features and Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic data, both of lava and xenoliths, indicate that DM+HIMU components distinguish the lithospheric mantle sections of Iblean and Veneto Volcanic Provinces. On the other hand, lavas and xenoliths from Sardinia display a significant different isotopic signature characterised by DM+EM1. Similar geochemical fingerprints, i.e. the significant presence of EM components are gener- ally recorded by mafic lavas and mantle xenoliths from the European Plate, whereas they are not observed in the stable African lithospheric domain.

  7. Strategies for lidar characterization of particulates from point and area sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojcik, Michael D.; Moore, Kori D.; Martin, Randal S.; Hatfield, Jerry

    2010-10-01

    Use of ground based remote sensing technologies such as scanning lidar systems (light detection and ranging) has gained traction in characterizing ambient aerosols due to some key advantages such as wide area of regard (10 km2), fast response time, high spatial resolution (University, in conjunction with the USDA-ARS, has developed a three-wavelength scanning lidar system called Aglite that has been successfully deployed to characterize particle motion, concentration, and size distribution at both point and diffuse area sources in agricultural and industrial settings. A suite of massbased and size distribution point sensors are used to locally calibrate the lidar. Generating meaningful particle size distribution, mass concentration, and emission rate results based on lidar data is dependent on strategic onsite deployment of these point sensors with successful local meteorological measurements. Deployment strategies learned from field use of this entire measurement system over five years include the characterization of local meteorology and its predictability prior to deployment, the placement of point sensors to prevent contamination and overloading, the positioning of the lidar and beam plane to avoid hard target interferences, and the usefulness of photographic and written observational data.

  8. Economic Insights into Providing Access to Improved Groundwater Sources in Remote, Low-Resource Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramson, A.; Lazarovitch, N.; Adar, E.

    2013-12-01

    Groundwater is often the most or only feasible drinking water source in remote, low-resource areas. Yet the economics of its development have not been systematically outlined. We applied CBARWI (Cost-Benefit Analysis for Remote Water Improvements), a recently developed Decision Support System, to investigate the economic, physical and management factors related to the costs and benefits of non-networked groundwater supply in remote areas. Synthetic profiles of community water services (n = 17,962), defined across 14 parameters' values and ranges relevant to remote areas, were imputed into the decision framework, and the parameter effects on economic outcomes were investigated through regression analysis (Table 1). Several approaches were included for financing the improvements, after Abramson et al, 2011: willingness-to -pay (WTP), -borrow (WTB) and -work (WTW) in community irrigation (';water-for-work'). We found that low-cost groundwater development approaches are almost 7 times more cost-effective than conventional boreholes fitted with handpumps. The costs of electric, submersible borehole pumps are comparable only when providing expanded water supplies, and off-grid communities pay significantly more for such expansions. In our model, new source construction is less cost-effective than improvement of existing wells, but necessary for expanding access to isolated households. The financing approach significantly impacts the feasibility of demand-driven cost recovery; in our investigation, benefit exceeds cost in 16, 32 and 48% of water service configurations financed by WTP, WTB and WTW, respectively. Regressions of total cost (R2 = 0.723) and net benefit under WTW (R2 = 0.829) along with analysis of output distributions indicate that parameters determining the profitability of irrigation are different from those determining costs and other measures of net benefit. These findings suggest that the cost-benefit outcomes associated with groundwater-based water

  9. Burn Exclusion Areas from USCG source data, Geographic NAD83, LOSCO (1999) [burn_exclusion_areas_USCG_1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This is a polygon dataset delineating areas in the Gulf of Mexico that are excluded from Regional Response Team VI (RRT 6) pre-approval for the use of in-situ...

  10. Toronto area ozone: Long-term measurements and modeled sources of poor air quality events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whaley, C. H.; Strong, K.; Jones, D. B. A.; Walker, T. W.; Jiang, Z.; Henze, D. K.; Cooke, M. A.; McLinden, C. A.; Mittermeier, R. L.; Pommier, M.; Fogal, P. F.

    2015-11-01

    The University of Toronto Atmospheric Observatory and Environment Canada's Centre for Atmospheric Research Experiments each has over a decade of ground-based Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy measurements in southern Ontario. We present the Toronto area FTIR time series from 2002 to 2013 of two tropospheric trace gases—ozone and carbon monoxide—along with surface in situ measurements taken by government monitoring programs. We interpret their variability with the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model and determine the atmospheric conditions that cause pollution events in the time series. Our analysis includes a regionally tagged O3 model of the 2004-2007 time period, which quantifies the geographical contributions to Toronto area O3. The important emission types for 15 pollution events are then determined with a high-resolution adjoint model. Toronto O3, during pollution events, is most sensitive to southern Ontario and U.S. fossil fuel NOx emissions and natural isoprene emissions. The sources of Toronto pollution events are found to be highly variable, and this is demonstrated in four case studies representing local, short-, middle-, and long-range transport scenarios. This suggests that continental-scale emission reductions could improve air quality in the Toronto region. We also find that abnormally high temperatures and high-pressure systems are common to all pollution events studied, suggesting that climate change may impact Toronto O3. Finally, we quantitatively compare the sensitivity of the surface and column measurements to anthropogenic NOx emissions and show that they are remarkably similar. This work thus demonstrates the usefulness of FTIR measurements in an urban area to assess air quality.

  11. NO{sub 2} and CO nonattainment areas: a pragmatic approach to source reduction assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cernuschi, S; Giugliano, M; Marzolo, F [D.I.I.A.R. - Politecnico di Milano, Milan (Italy). Environmental Section

    1996-12-31

    Many Italian large conurbations have CO and NO{sub 2} air quality standards exceeded and, consequently, require control enforcement plans to attain and maintain regulations not respected. In planning the interventions to be undertaken a fundamental issue is represented by the relationships between active emission sources and air quality, commonly described through mathematical models for evaluating the expected effects of the different reduction scenarios. This approach, relatively feasible for slightly or non reactive pollutants like CO, becomes not as easy to be applied for secondary pollutants, like NO{sub 2}, mainly for the complex photo chemical reaction systems involved in their atmospheric presence and the consequent modeling difficulties related either to the description of the system itself than to the detail in input data required. A practicable alternative in this framework relies in the utilization of statistical models for deriving, through the empirical description of the relationships between the parameters of interest, the reduction levels required for complying with the standards. Following an approach already applied with useful results to the same area, present work reports on the development and application to Milan urban area of statistical models for describing the relationships between CO and NO{sub x} annual concentration averages and the corresponding air quality standard parameters (number of standard exceedances for CO and 98th percentile of hourly concentrations for NO{sub 2}). The models are utilised upstream to simple roll-back models for the assessment of the reduction in emissions strength required for attaining air quality standards for the area. (author)

  12. NO{sub 2} and CO nonattainment areas: a pragmatic approach to source reduction assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cernuschi, S.; Giugliano, M.; Marzolo, F. [D.I.I.A.R. - Politecnico di Milano, Milan (Italy). Environmental Section

    1995-12-31

    Many Italian large conurbations have CO and NO{sub 2} air quality standards exceeded and, consequently, require control enforcement plans to attain and maintain regulations not respected. In planning the interventions to be undertaken a fundamental issue is represented by the relationships between active emission sources and air quality, commonly described through mathematical models for evaluating the expected effects of the different reduction scenarios. This approach, relatively feasible for slightly or non reactive pollutants like CO, becomes not as easy to be applied for secondary pollutants, like NO{sub 2}, mainly for the complex photo chemical reaction systems involved in their atmospheric presence and the consequent modeling difficulties related either to the description of the system itself than to the detail in input data required. A practicable alternative in this framework relies in the utilization of statistical models for deriving, through the empirical description of the relationships between the parameters of interest, the reduction levels required for complying with the standards. Following an approach already applied with useful results to the same area, present work reports on the development and application to Milan urban area of statistical models for describing the relationships between CO and NO{sub x} annual concentration averages and the corresponding air quality standard parameters (number of standard exceedances for CO and 98th percentile of hourly concentrations for NO{sub 2}). The models are utilised upstream to simple roll-back models for the assessment of the reduction in emissions strength required for attaining air quality standards for the area. (author)

  13. Spatial and Temporal Variations of EC and OC Aerosol Combustion Sources in a Polluted Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouteva, G.; Randerson, J. T.; Fahrni, S.; Santos, G.; Bush, S. E.; Ehleringer, J. R.; Czimczik, C. I.

    2015-12-01

    Anthropogenic emissions of carbonaceous aerosols are a major component of fine air particulate matter (PM2.5) in polluted metropolitan areas and in the global atmosphere. Elemental (EC) and organic carbon (OC) aerosols influence Earth's energy balance by means of direct and indirect pathways and EC has been suggested as a better indicator of public health impacts from combustion-related sources than PM mass. Quantifying the contribution of fossil fuel and biomass combustion to the EC and OC emissions and their temporal and spatial variations is critical for developing efficient legislative air pollution control measures and successful climate mitigation strategies. In this study, we used radiocarbon (14C) to separate and quantify fossil and biomass contributions to a time series of EC and OC collected at 3 locations in Salt Lake City (SLC). Aerosol samples were collected on quartz fiber filters and a modified OC/EC analyzer was used with the Swiss_4S protocol to isolate and trap the EC fraction. Together with the total carbon (TC) content of the samples, the EC was analyzed for its 14C content with accelerator mass spectrometry. The 14C of OC was derived as a mass balance difference between TC and EC. EC had an annual average fraction modern of 0.13±0.06 and did not vary significantly across seasons. OC had an annual average FM of 0.49±0.13, with the winter mean (0.43±0.11) lower than the summer mean (0.64±0.13) at the 5% significance level. While the 3 stations were chosen to represent a variety of environmental conditions within SLC, no major differences in this source partitioning were observed between stations. During winter, the major sources of air pollutants in SLC are motor vehicles and wood stove combustion and determining their relative contributions has been the subject of debate. Our results indicated that fossil fuels were the dominant source of carbonaceous aerosols during winter, contributing 87% or more of the total EC mass and 40-75% of the OC

  14. Bacterial source tracking guides management of boat head waste in a coastal resort area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallin, Michael A; Haltom, Mary I; Song, Bongkeun; Tavares, Mary E; Dellies, Stephen P

    2010-12-01

    Fecal contamination of water bodies causes a public health problem and economic loss. To control such contamination management actions need to be guided by sound science. From 2007-2009 a study was undertaken to determine the sources of fecal bacteria contamination to the marine waters adjoining the Town of Wrightsville Beach, North Carolina, USA. The research effort included sampling for fecal coliform and Enterococcus bacteria, sampling for optical brighteners, dye studies, and use of molecular bacterial source tracking techniques including polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and terminal restriction fragment polymorphism (T-RFLP) fingerprinting of the Bacteroides-Prevotella group. Of the 96 samples collected from nine locations during the study, the water contact standard for Enterococcus was exceeded on 13 occasions. The T-RFLP fingerprint analyses demonstrated that the most widespread source of fecal contamination was human, occurring in 38% of the samples, with secondary ruminant and avian sources also detected. Optical brightener concentrations were low, reflecting a lack of sewage line leakage or spills. A lack of sewer leaks and lack of septic systems in the town pointed toward discharge from boat heads into the marine waters as the major cause of fecal contamination; this was supported by dye studies. Based on these data, the Town initiated action to have the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency declare the coastal waters (out to 3 nautical miles), the nearby Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway and its tributaries a no-discharge zone (NDZ) to alleviate the human fecal pollution. The Town garnered supporting resolutions from other local communities who jointly petitioned the North Carolina Department of Environmental and Natural Resources. This State regulatory agency supported the local government resolutions and sent an application for an NDZ to the EPA in April 2009. The EPA concurred, and in February 2010 the coastal waters of New Hanover County, NC, became the

  15. Local and remote black carbon sources in the Metropolitan Area of Buenos Aires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz Resquin, Melisa; Santágata, Daniela; Gallardo, Laura; Gómez, Darío; Rössler, Cristina; Dawidowski, Laura

    2018-06-01

    Equivalent black carbon (EBC) mass concentrations in the fine inhalable fraction of airborne particles (PM2.5) were determined using a 7-wavelength Aethalometer for 17 months, between November 2014 and March 2016, for a suburban location of the Metropolitan Area of Buenos Aires (MABA), Argentina. In addition to describing seasonal and diurnal black carbon (BC) cycles for the first time in this region, the relative contributions of fossil fuel and remote and local biomass burning were determined by distinguishing different carbonaceous components based on their effect on light attenuation for different wavelengths. Trajectory analyses and satellite-based fire products were used to illustrate the impact of long-range transport of particles emitted by non-local sources. EBC data showed a marked diurnal cycle, largely modulated by traffic variations and the height of the boundary layer, and a seasonal cycle with monthly median EBC concentrations (in μg /m3) ranging from 1.5 (February) to 3.4 (June). Maximum values were found during winter due to the combination of prevailingly stable atmospheric conditions and the increase of fossil fuel emissions, derived primarily from traffic and biomass burning from the domestic use of wood for heating. The use of charcoal grills was also detected and concentrated during weekends. The average contribution of fossil fuel combustion sources to EBC concentrations was 96%, with the remaining 4% corresponding to local and regional biomass burning. During the entire study period, only two events were identified during which EBC concentrations attributed to regional biomass burning accounted for over 50% of total EBC ; these events demonstrate the relevance of agricultural and forestry activities that take place far from the city yet whose emissions can affect the urban atmosphere of the MABA.

  16. Jet emission in young radio sources: A Fermi large area telescope gamma-ray view

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Migliori, G.; Siemiginowska, A. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Kelly, B. C. [Department of Physics, Broida Hall, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93107 (United States); Stawarz, Ł. [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, JAXA, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Celotti, A. [Scuola Internazionale Superiore di Studi Avanzati (SISSA), via Bonomea, 265-34136 Trieste (Italy); Begelman, M. C., E-mail: migliori@cfa.harvard.edu [JILA, University of Colorado and National Institute of Standards and Technology, 440 UCB, Boulder, CO 80309-0440 (United States)

    2014-01-10

    We investigate the contribution of the beamed jet component to the high-energy emission in young and compact extragalactic radio sources, focusing for the first time on the γ-ray band. We derive predictions on the γ-ray luminosities associated with the relativistic jet assuming a leptonic radiative model. The high-energy emission is produced via Compton scattering by the relativistic electrons in a spherical region at the considered scales (≲10 kpc). Simulations show a wide range of γ-ray luminosities, with intensities up to ∼10{sup 46}-10{sup 48} erg s{sup –1} depending on the assumed jet parameters. We find a highly linear relation between the simulated X-ray and γ-ray luminosities that can be used to select candidates for γ-ray detection. We compare the simulated luminosity distributions in the radio, X-ray, and γ-ray regimes with observations for the largest sample of X-ray-detected young radio quasars. Our analysis of ∼4-yr Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) data does not yield any statistically significant detections. However, the majority of the model-predicted γ-ray fluxes for the sample are near or below the current Fermi-LAT flux threshold and compatible with the derived upper limits. Our study gives constraints on the minimum jet power (L {sub jet,} {sub kin}/L {sub disk} > 0.01) of a potential jet contribution to the X-ray emission in the most compact sources (≲ 1 kpc) and on the particle-to-magnetic field energy density ratio that are in broad agreement with equipartition assumptions.

  17. Isotopic ratio based source apportionment of children's blood lead around coking plant area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Suzhen; Duan, Xiaoli; Zhao, Xiuge; Wang, Beibei; Ma, Jin; Fan, Delong; Sun, Chengye; He, Bin; Wei, Fusheng; Jiang, Guibin

    2014-12-01

    Lead exposure in the environment is a major hazard affecting human health, particularly for children. The blood lead levels in the local children living around the largest coking area in China were measured, and the source of blood lead and the main pathways of lead exposure were investigated based on lead isotopic ratios ((207)Pb/(206)Pb and (208)Pb/(206)Pb) in blood and in a variety of media, including food, airborne particulate matter, soil, dust and drinking water. The children's blood lead level was 5.25 (1.59 to 34.36 as range) μg dL(-1), lower than the threshold in the current criteria of China defined by the US Centers for Disease Control (10 μg dL(-1)). The isotopic ratios in the blood were 2.111±0.018 for (208)Pb/(206)Pb and 0.864±0.005 for (207)Pb/(206)Pb, similar to those of vegetables, wheat, drinking water, airborne particulate matter, but different from those of vehicle emission and soil/dust, suggesting that the formers were the main pathway of lead exposure among the children. The exposure pathway analysis based on the isotopic ratios and the human health risk assessment showed that dietary intake of food and drinking water contributed 93.67% of total exposed lead. The study further indicated that the coal used in the coking plant is the dominant pollution source of lead in children's blood. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A model to relate wind tunnel measurements to open field odorant emissions from liquid area sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucernoni, F.; Capelli, L.; Busini, V.; Sironi, S.

    2017-05-01

    Waste Water Treatment Plants are known to have significant emissions of several pollutants and odorants causing nuisance to the near-living population. One of the purposes of the present work is to study a suitable model to evaluate odour emissions from liquid passive area sources. First, the models describing volatilization under a forced convection regime inside a wind tunnel device, which is the sampling device that typically used for sampling on liquid area sources, were investigated. In order to relate the fluid dynamic conditions inside the hood to the open field and inside the hood a thorough study of the models capable of describing the volatilization phenomena of the odorous compounds from liquid pools was performed and several different models were evaluated for the open field emission. By means of experimental tests involving pure liquid acetone and pure liquid butanone, it was verified that the model more suitable to describe precisely the volatilization inside the sampling hood is the model for the emission from a single flat plate in forced convection and laminar regime, with a fluid dynamic boundary layer fully developed and a mass transfer boundary layer not fully developed. The proportionality coefficient for the model was re-evaluated in order to account for the specific characteristics of the adopted wind tunnel device, and then the model was related with the selected model for the open field thereby computing the wind speed at 10 m that would cause the same emission that is estimated from the wind tunnel measurement furthermore, the field of application of the proposed model was clearly defined for the considered models during the project, discussing the two different kinds of compounds commonly found in emissive liquid pools or liquid spills, i.e. gas phase controlled and liquid phase controlled compounds. Lastly, a discussion is presented comparing the presented approach for emission rates recalculation in the field, with other approaches

  19. Determination of Key Risk Supervision Areas around River-Type Water Sources Affected by Multiple Risk Sources: A Case Study of Water Sources along the Yangtze’s Nanjing Section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Zhou

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available To provide a reference for risk management of water sources, this study screens the key risk supervision areas around river-type water sources (hereinafter referred to as the water sources threatened by multiple fixed risk sources (the risk sources, and establishes a comprehensive methodological system. Specifically, it comprises: (1 method of partitioning risk source concentrated sub-regions for screening water source perimeter key risk supervision areas; (2 approach of determining sub-regional risk indexes (SrRI, which characterizes the scale of sub-regional risks considering factors like risk distribution intensity within sub-regions, risk indexes of risk sources (RIRS, characterizing the risk scale of risk sources and the number of risk sources; and (3 method of calculating sub-region’s risk threats to the water sources (SrTWS which considers the positional relationship between water sources and sub-regions as well as SrRI, and the criteria for determining key supervision sub-regions. Favorable effects are achieved by applying this methodological system in determining water source perimeter sub-regions distributed along the Yangtze’s Nanjing section. Results revealed that for water sources, the key sub-regions needing supervision were SD16, SD06, SD21, SD26, SD15, SD03, SD02, SD32, SD10, SD11, SD14, SD05, SD27, etc., in the order of criticality. The sub-region with the greatest risk threats on the water sources was SD16, which was located in the middle reaches of Yangtze River. In general, sub-regions along the upper Yangtze reaches had greater threats to water sources than the lower reach sub-regions other than SD26 and SD21. Upstream water sources were less subject to the threats of sub-regions than the downstream sources other than NJ09B and NJ03.

  20. SARNET integrated European Severe Accident Research-Conclusions in the source term area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haste, T., E-mail: tim.haste@irsn.f [Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Giordano, P. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, IRSN, BP 3, F-13115 St Paul lez Durance Cedex (France); Herranz, L. [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas Medio Ambientales y Tecnologica, CIEMAT, Avda. Complutense 22, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Girault, N.; Dubourg, R. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, IRSN, BP 3, F-13115 St Paul lez Durance Cedex (France); Sabroux, J.-C. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, IRSN, Saclay Research Centre, BP 68, F-91192 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Cantrel, L. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, IRSN, BP 3, F-13115 St Paul lez Durance Cedex (France); Bottomley, D. [European Commission Joint Research Centre, Transuranium Institute, P.O. Box 2340, D-76125 Karlsruhe (Germany); Parozzi, F. [ENEA - Ricerca sul Sistema Elettrico (ERSE) SpA., Via Rubattino 54, I-20134 Milano (Italy); Auvinen, A. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, P.O. Box 1000, FI-02044 VTT Espoo (Finland); Dickinson, S. [National Nuclear Laboratory, Harwell Business Centre, Didcot, OX11 0QJ (United Kingdom); Lamy, J.-C. [Electricite de France, 12-14 avenue Dutrievoz, F-69100 Villeurbanne (France); Weber, G. [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) mbH, Forschungsgelaende, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Albiol, T. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, IRSN, BP 3, F-13115 St Paul lez Durance Cedex (France)

    2009-12-15

    The overall aim of the SARNET (Severe Accident Research NETwork), in the EU 6th Framework programme was to integrate in a sustainable manner the research capabilities of fifty-one European organisations from eighteen member states of the European Union (EU) plus the Joint Research Centres, with one Canadian company, to resolve important remaining uncertainties and safety issues concerning existing and future nuclear plant, especially water-cooled reactors, under hypothetical severe accident conditions. It emphasised integrating activities, spreading of excellence (including knowledge transfer) and jointly executed research, with the knowledge gained being encapsulated in the European severe accident modelling code ASTEC. This paper summarises the achievements over the whole project in the Source Term Topic, which dealt with potential radioactive release to the environment, covering release of fission products and structural materials from the core, their transport in the primary circuit, and their behaviour in the containment. The main technical areas covered, as emphasised by the earlier EURSAFE project, were the effect of oxidative conditions on fission product release and transport (especially the behaviour of the highly radiotoxic ruthenium under air ingress conditions), iodine volatility in the primary circuit, control rod aerosol release (Ag-In-Cd) that affects iodine transport, containment by-pass in the case of steam generator tube rupture, aerosol retention in containment cracks, aerosol remobilisation in the circuit, and iodine/ruthenium behaviour in the containment especially concerning the volatile fraction in the atmosphere. The studies also covered performance of new experiments, analysis of existing data, and formulation and improvement of theoretical models. Significant progress was made in each area. Looking to the future, the 7th Framework successor project SARNET2 covers the remaining issues concerning iodine and ruthenium, including practical

  1. On the possibility of the multiple inductively coupled plasma and helicon plasma sources for large-area processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jin-Won; Lee, Yun-Seong, E-mail: leeeeys@kaist.ac.kr; Chang, Hong-Young [Low-temperature Plasma Laboratory, Department of Physics, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); An, Sang-Hyuk [Agency of Defense Development, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-151 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-15

    In this study, we attempted to determine the possibility of multiple inductively coupled plasma (ICP) and helicon plasma sources for large-area processes. Experiments were performed with the one and two coils to measure plasma and electrical parameters, and a circuit simulation was performed to measure the current at each coil in the 2-coil experiment. Based on the result, we could determine the possibility of multiple ICP sources due to a direct change of impedance due to current and saturation of impedance due to the skin-depth effect. However, a helicon plasma source is difficult to adapt to the multiple sources due to the consistent change of real impedance due to mode transition and the low uniformity of the B-field confinement. As a result, it is expected that ICP can be adapted to multiple sources for large-area processes.

  2. [Correlations between PBDEs and thyroid hormone concentrations in adults from production source area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming-Yuan; Jin, Jun; Yang, Cong-Qiao; Wang, Ying; Ding, Wen-Wei; Yang, Xian-Feng; Liu, An-Ming

    2011-11-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) concentrations in 36 resident serum samples from PBDEs production source area were analyzed by gas chromatography/negative chemical ionization/mass spectrometry(GC-NCI-MS) method, and the concentrations of thyroid hormones were determined as well. The sigma5PBDEs (BDE-28, -47, -153, -183, -209) concentrations(lipid weight) in serum ranged from 130.3 to 4 478.4 ng x g(-1), with an average value of 529.9 ng x g(-1). BDE-209 was a dominant PBDE congener, on average accounting for 69.8% of the total PBDEs concentrations. Spearman rank correlation coefficient was calculated between PBDEs and thyroid hormone, it showed that there were high significant negative correlation between BDE-28, -47, -153, -183 and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), and significant negative correlation was also found between BDE-183 and free thyroxine (fT4). Additionally, there were significant positive correlation between BDE-28, -47 and triiodothyronine (T3), as well as between BDE-28, -153, -183 and free triiodothyronine(fT3). In summary, the concentrations of PBDEs in serum in this study were at a high level, and BDE-209 was the predominant congener. The exposure to the PBDEs may affect thyroid hormone levels, and the further research should focus on the relationship between PBDEs and thyroid hormone concentrations.

  3. Source, propagation and site effects: impact on mapping strong ground motion in Bucharest area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radulian, R.; Kuznetsov, I.; Panza, G.F.

    2004-01-01

    Achievements in the framework of the NATO SfP project 972266 focused on the impact of Vrancea earthquakes on the security of Bucharest urban area are presented. The problem of Bucharest city security to Vrancea earthquakes is discussed in terms of numerical modelling of seismic motion and intermediate term earthquake prediction. A hybrid numerical scheme developed by Faeh et al. (1990; 1993) for frequencies up to 1 Hz is applied for the realistic modelling of the seismic ground motion in Bucharest. The method combines the modal summation for the 1D bedrock model and the finite differences for the 2D local structure model. All the factors controlling the ground motion at the site are considered: source, propagation and site effects, respectively. The input data includes the recent records provided by the digital accelerometer network developed within the Romanian-German CRC461 cooperation programme and CALIXTO'99, VRANCEA'99, VRANCEA2001 experiments. The numerical simulation proves to be a powerful tool in mapping the strong ground motion for realistic structures, reproducing acceptably from engineering point of view the observations. A new model of the Vrancea earthquake scaling is obtained and implications for the determination of the seismic motion parameters are analyzed. The role of the focal mechanism and attenuation properties upon the amplitude and spectral content of the ground motion are outlined. CN algorithm is applied for predicting Vrancea earthquakes. Finally, implications for the disaster management strategy are discussed. (authors)

  4. Sources of nitrogen deposition in Federal Class I areas in the US

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.-M. Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It is desired to control excessive reactive nitrogen (Nr deposition due to its detrimental impact on ecosystems. Using a three-dimensional atmospheric chemical transport model, GEOS-Chem, Nr deposition in the contiguous US and eight selected Class I areas (Voyageurs (VY, Smoky Mountain (SM, Shenandoah (SD, Big Bend (BB, Rocky Mountain (RM, Grand Teton (GT, Joshua Tree (JT, and Sequoia (SQ is investigated. First, modeled Nr deposition is compared with National Trends Network (NTN and Clean Air Status and Trends Network (CASTNET deposition values. The seasonality of measured species is generally well represented by the model (R2 > 0.6, except in JT. While modeled Nr is generally within the range of seasonal observations, large overestimates are present in sites such as SM and SD in the spring and summer (up to 0.6 kg N ha month−1, likely owing to model high-biases in surface HNO3. The contribution of non-measured species (mostly dry deposition of NH3 to total modeled Nr deposition ranges from 1 to 55 %. The spatial distribution of the origin of Nr deposited in each Class I area and the contributions of individual emission sectors are estimated using the GEOS-Chem adjoint model. We find the largest role of long-range transport for VY, where 50 % (90 % of annual Nr deposition originates within 670 (1670 km of the park. In contrast, the Nr emission footprint is most localized for SQ, where 50 % (90 % of the deposition originates from within 130 (370 km. Emissions from California contribute to the Nr deposition in remote areas in the western US (RM, GT. Mobile NOx and livestock NH3 are found to be the major sources of Nr deposition in all sites except BB, where contributions of NOx from lightning and soils to natural levels of Nr deposition are significant (∼ 40 %. The efficiency in terms of Nr deposition per kg emissions of NH3-N, NOx-N, and SO2-S are also estimated. Unique seasonal features are found in JT (opposing

  5. Developing an open source-based spatial data infrastructure for integrated monitoring of mining areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahn, Florian; Knoth, Christian; Prinz, Torsten; Pebesma, Edzer

    2014-05-01

    allows an easy exploration of the data to assess its quality and suitability for a specific task. More complex remote sensing image analysis is performed through 3rd party software, which is dynamically integrated into a Web Processing Service (WPS). With an increasing data volume the transmission becomes a key problem for a WPS processing this raster data. Here the Moving Code principle embedded in the 52North WPS implementation (MÜLLER et al. 2013) is applied to engage this problem by flexibly sending processes to the WPS which is directly coupled with the data on a server. The required parameters to control the processing are entered via an interface within the web portal. The Moving Code approach not only contributes to improving web processing for big data sets but it also makes it easier to integrate external executable programs into a WPS. As a result the proposed framework of web services and a web portal successfully combines various open source technologies to integrate all of the gathered vector and raster data as well as the analysis methods developed during the GMES4Mining project into a spatial data infrastructure and to enable access to them through a web browser. References: BENECKE, N., ZIMMERMANN, K., MÜTERTHIES, A., PAKZAD, K., TEUWSEN, S., GARCÍA MILLÁN, V., KATELOE, J., PREUßE, A., PEBESMA, E. & T. PRINZ (2013): GMES4Mining: GMES-based geoservices for mining areas. In: Proceedings of the XV International ISM Congress, September 2013, Aachen, Germany. MÜLLER, M., BERNARD, L. & D. KADNER (2013): Moving code - Sharing geoprocessing logic on the Web. In: ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing 83: 193-203.

  6. [Transport and sources of runoff pollution from urban area with combined sewer system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li-Qing; Yin, Cheng-Qing

    2009-02-15

    Sampling and monitoring of runoff and sewage water in Wuhan urban area with combined sewer system were carried out during the period from 2003 to 2006, to study the transport and sources of runoff pollution at the catchment scale coupled with environmental geochemistry method. The results showed a change in quality between the runoff entering the sewer network and the combined storm water flow at the sewer's outlet. A significant increase was observed in the concentrations of total suspended solids (TSS), volatile suspended solids (VSS), COD, TN, and TP, and in the proportion of COD linked to particles. During the runoff production and transport, the concentrations of TSS and COD increased from 18.7 mg/L and 37.0 mg/L in roof runoff, to 225.3 mg/L and 176.5 mg/L in street runoff, and to 449.7 mg/L and 359.9 mg/L in combined storm water flow, respectively. The proportion of COD linked to particles was increased by 18%. In addition, the total phosphorus (P) and iron (Fe) contents in urban ground dust, storm drain sediment, sewage sewer sediment and combined sewer sediment were measured to identify the potential sources of suspended solids in the combined flow. The urban ground dust andstorm drain sediment wererich in Fe, whereas the sewage sewer sediment was rich in P. The P/Fe ratios in these groups were significantly distinct and able to differentiate them. A calculation of the two storm events based on the P/Fe rations showed that 56% +/- 26% of suspended solids in combined flow came from urban ground and storm drain. The rest wer e originated from the sewage sewer sediments which deposited in combined sewer on the dry weather days and were eroded on the wet weather days. The combined sewer network not only acts as a transport system, but also constitutes a physicochemical reactor that degrades the quality of urban water. Reducing the in-sewer pollution stocks would effectively control urban runoff pollution.

  7. Evaluation of Workpiece Temperature during Drilling of GLARE Fiber Metal Laminates Using Infrared Techniques: Effect of Cutting Parameters, Fiber Orientation and Spray Mist Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giasin, Khaled; Ayvar-Soberanis, Sabino

    2016-01-01

    The rise in cutting temperatures during the machining process can influence the final quality of the machined part. The impact of cutting temperatures is more critical when machining composite-metal stacks and fiber metal laminates due to the stacking nature of those hybrids which subjects the composite to heat from direct contact with metallic part of the stack and the evacuated hot chips. In this paper, the workpiece surface temperature of two grades of fiber metal laminates commercially know as GLARE is investigated. An experimental study was carried out using thermocouples and infrared thermography to determine the emissivity of the upper, lower and side surfaces of GLARE laminates. In addition, infrared thermography was used to determine the maximum temperature of the bottom surface of machined holes during drilling GLARE under dry and minimum quantity lubrication (MQL) cooling conditions under different cutting parameters. The results showed that during the machining process, the workpiece surface temperature increased with the increase in feed rate and fiber orientation influenced the developed temperature in the laminate. PMID:28773757

  8. Evaluation of Uniformity and Glare Improvement with Low Energy Efficiency Losses in Street Lighting LED Luminaires Using Laser-Sintered Polyamide-Based Diffuse Covers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Gago-Calderón

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Energy saving in street lighting is garnering more interest and has become a priority in municipal management. Therefore, LED luminaires are gradually becoming prevalent in our cities. Beyond their energy/economic saving potential, quality in public lighting installations concerns aspects such as uniformity and glare which must be maintained if not improved in any installation renewal project using this technology. The high light intensity generated in a discrete point in LED packages and its directional nature result in significant deficiencies in these last two parameters. To soften these effects, translucent covers are being used as one of the most common solutions with the drawback of significant light intensity losses. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the behavior of LED luminaire’s polyamide-based optical covers manufactured with a laser-sintered process. These are designed to improve glare and uniformity output, to minimize light output reductions, and to be industrially manufactured with no increment of cost for their lighting equipment compared to conventional transparent polycarbonate solutions. A laboratory and field lighting test study has been applied to different covers with the same LED lamp and luminaire to compare the performance of three different solutions built with different polymeric materials and with different light transmission surface textures. The photometric results have been observed and discussed to demonstrate the ability to significantly improve the lighting performance of LED luminaires—illuminance and uniformity levels and discomfort and disability glare indexes— using an improved optic cover.

  9. High incidence of rainbow glare after femtosecond laser assisted-LASIK using the upgraded FS200 femtosecond laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Chen, Yue-Guo

    2018-03-05

    To compare the incidence of rainbow glare (RG) after femtosecond laser assisted-LASIK (FS-LASIK) using the upgraded FS200 femtosecond laser with different flap cut parameter settings. A consecutive series of 129 patients (255 eyes) who underwent FS-LASIK for correcting myopia and/or astigmatism using upgraded WaveLight FS200 femtosecond laser with the original settings was included in group A. Another consecutive series of 129 patients (255 eyes) who underwent FS-LASIK using upgraded WaveLight FS200 femtosecond laser with flap cut parameter settings changed (decreased pulse energy, spot and line separation) was included in group B. The incidence and fading time of RG, confocal microscopic image and postoperative clinical results were compared between the two groups. There were no differences between the two groups in age, baseline refraction, excimer laser ablation depth, postoperative uncorrected visual acuity and refraction. The incidence rate of RG in group A (35/255, 13.73%) was significantly higher than that in group B (4/255, 1.57%) (P  0.05).The confocal microscopic images showed wider laser spot spacing in group A than group B. The incidence of RG was significantly correlated with age and grouping (P laser with original flap cut parameter settings could increase the incidence of RG. The narrower grating size and lower pulse energy could ameliorate this side effect.

  10. Structural heterogeneities in the source area of the Mw 7.9 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z.; Fukao, Y.; Pei, S.

    2008-12-01

    The Mw 7.9 Wenchuan Earthquake occurred on May 12, 2008 (06:28:01 UTC) in the Longmen-Shan fault zone at the eastern margin of Tibet and adjacent to the Sichuan foreland basin, where as much as 9 m of coseismic slip was observed. This is the most significant earthquake to have struck China since the 1976 Tangshan Earthquake (Mw 7.6). Chinese authorities estimated more than 69,000 people were killed and 374,176 injured. About 1,485,000 people were forced into temporary shelters (http://www.gov.cn). The coseismic faulting zone coincides roughly with this aftershock distribution. The extent of the great damage may have resulted from the variation of crustal structures along the tectonic thrust faulting and strike slipping zone, causing significant coseismic displacement and acceleration on a regional scale. For a better understanding of what may have triggered this earthquake and how the rupture proceeded after the initiation, we conducted an investigation of the seismic structure in the Wenchuan earthquake source area. A large number of arrival time data of P and Pn, S and Sn phases from local earthquakes were collected and inverted jointly for the three-dimensional P- and S-wave velocity (Vp and Vs) models. The Poisson's ratio model was then calculated from these velocity models. The overall patterns of Vp and Vs anomalies are similar to each other at any of these three depths. The Sichuan Basin is a distinct entity in tomographic images, anomalously slow at 13 km depth and anomalously fast at 20 km depth, in sharp contrast to the anomalies on the mountain side across the Longmen-Shan fault zone. The area of the fault zone is characterized in general by high Vp and Vs anomalies at a depth of 13 km, although a low Vp and Vs anomaly patch is present in the middle of a total fault length of 300 km. At depths around 20 km, low Vp and Vs anomalies dominate on the mountain side including its eastern margin, where the shallower (˜13 km) and deeper (˜30 km) depths are

  11. [Influence of 175-m-impoundment in Three Gorges Reservoir area on the food web energy sources of main commercial fishes in backwater area of xiaojiang River].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bin; Wang, Zhi-Jian; Yue, Xing-Jian; Wang, Yong-Ming; Jin, Li; Zhang, Yao-Guang

    2013-06-01

    The impoundment in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area (TGRA) was first reached 175 m in 2010. To approach the influence of this impoundment on the food web energy sources of fishes in the tributaries of TRGA, an analysis was made on the food web energy sources of seven economically important fishes (Carassius auratus, Cyprinus carpio, Silurus asotus, Culter mongolicus mongolicus, Mystus macropterus, Pelteobagrus vachelli, and Pelteobagrus nitidus) in the backwater area of Xiaojiang River by using stable isotope method in combining with IsoSource Model. The results showed that before this impoundment (July 2010), microalgae were the main energy sources for the seven species. After this impoundment (December 2010), the contribution ratio of the microalgae decreased somewhat, while the relative contribution of terrestrial C4 plants had an obvious increase. Especially for crucian carp (C. auratus) and catfish (S. asotus), the contribution rate of the C4 plants reached 38-54% and 32-50%, respectively. After the impoundment, at least 30% of the energy resources of these two fishes were come from terrestrial C4 plants, suggesting that the impoundment in TGRA increased the contribution rate of exogenous terrestrial C4 plants as the energy sources of fishes.

  12. Field determination of multipollutant, open area combustion source emission factors with a hexacopter unmanned aerial vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurell, J.; Mitchell, W.; Chirayath, V.; Jonsson, J.; Tabor, D.; Gullett, B.

    2017-10-01

    An emission sensor/sampler system was coupled to a National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) hexacopter unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) to characterize gases and particles in the plumes emitted from open burning of military ordnance. The UAV/sampler was tested at two field sites with test and sampling flights spanning over 16 h of flight time. The battery-operated UAV was remotely maneuvered into the plumes at distances from the pilot of over 600 m and at altitudes of up to 122 m above ground level. While the flight duration could be affected by sampler payload (3.2-4.6 kg) and meteorological conditions, the 57 sampling flights, ranging from 4 to 12 min, were typically terminated when the plume concentrations of CO2 were diluted to near ambient levels. Two sensor/sampler systems, termed ;Kolibri,; were variously configured to measure particulate matter, metals, chloride, perchlorate, volatile organic compounds, chlorinated dioxins/furans, and nitrogen-based organics for determination of emission factors. Gas sensors were selected based on their applicable concentration range, light weight, freedom from interferents, and response/recovery times. Samplers were designed, constructed, and operated based on U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) methods and quality control criteria. Results show agreement with published emission factors and good reproducibility (e.g., 26% relative standard deviation for PM2.5). The UAV/Kolibri represents a significant advance in multipollutant emission characterization capabilities for open area sources, safely and effectively making measurements heretofore deemed too hazardous for personnel or beyond the reach of land-based samplers.

  13. Elevated source SF6-tracer dispersion experiments in the Copenhagen area. Preliminary results II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gryning, S.E.; Lyck, E.

    1980-01-01

    The results from 10 experiments, performed in neutral to unstable meteorological conditions, are reported from an ongoing series of elevated-source, urban-scale tracer dispersion experiments in the Copenhagen area. The tracer is released at a height of 115 m from the TV-tower in GLADSAXE, a suburb of Copenhagen, with tracer sampling units positioned at ground-level in 1 to 3 crosswind series, 2 to 6 km downwind of the tower. The lateral dispersion parameter, sigma(y), was estimated from the measured tracer concentration distribution and compared with values of sigma(y), computed by 1) methods based on wind variance measured during the experiments and 2) methods based on a stability classification of the atmospheric conditions. The wind-variance based methods proved superior in predicting the variation of sigma(y) compared with the stability based methods. Moreover, some of the former methods produced significantly biased estimates of sigma(y). The measured tracer concentration distributions were also crosswind integrated, chi(CWI). Estimates of chi(CWI) were computed using sigma (z) -values derived from the aforementioned computations assuming a Gaussian-type vertical tracer concentration distribution. A comparison is measured and calculated values of chi(CWI) showed no significant differences in the ability of the methods to predict the variation of chi(CWI). Only one method, the EPA, came out with a mean fractional error outside the range +-20% which constitutes the uncertainty in the absolute tracer concentration associated with the calibration of the gas chromatograph for tracer analysis

  14. A simple method for determining the activity of large-area beta sources constructed from anodized aluminum foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanga, D.

    2014-01-01

    A simple method has been developed for determining the activity of large-area beta reference sources in anodized aluminum foils. It is based on the modeling of the transmission of beta rays through thin foils in planar geometry using Monte Carlo simulation. The method was checked experimentally and measurement results show that the activity of large-area beta reference sources in anodized aluminum foils can be measured with standard uncertainties smaller than the limit of 10% required by ISO 8769. - Highlights: • A method for determining the activity of large-area beta sources is presented. • The method is based on a model of electron transport in planar geometry. • The method makes use of linear programming for determining the activity. • The uncertainty of the method is smaller than 10%

  15. Power flow modelling in electric networks with renewable energy sources in large areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buhawa, Z. M.; Dvorsky, E.

    2012-01-01

    In many worlds regions there is a great potential for utilizing home grid connected renewable power generating systems, with capacities of MW thousands. The optimal utilization of these sources is connected with power flow possibilities trough the power network in which they have to be connected. There is necessary to respect the long distances among the electric power sources with great outputs and power consumption and non even distribution of the power sources as well. The article gives the solution possibilities for Libya region under utilization of wind renewable sources in north in shore regions. (Authors)

  16. Paleofacies of Eocene Lower Ngimbang Source Rocks in Cepu Area, East Java Basin based on Biomarkers and Carbon-13 Isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, Elok A.; Rachman, Faisal; Satyana, Awang H.; Fahrudin; Setyawan, Reddy

    2018-02-01

    The Eocene Lower Ngimbang carbonaceous shales are geochemically proven hydrocarbon source rocks in the East Java Basin. Sedimentary facies of source rock is important for the source evaluation that can be examined by using biomarkers and carbon-13 isotopes data. Furthermore, paleogeography of the source sedimentation can be reconstructed. The case study was conducted on rock samples of Lower Ngimbang from two exploration wells drilled in Cepu area, East Java Basin, Kujung-1 and Ngimbang-1 wells. The biomarker data include GC and GC-MS data of normal alkanes, isoprenoids, triterpanes, and steranes. Carbon-13 isotope data include saturate and aromatic fractions. Various crossplots of biomarker and carbon-13 isotope data of the Lower Ngimbang source samples from the two wells show that the source facies of Lower Ngimbang shales changed from transitional/deltaic setting at Kujung-1 well location to marginal marine setting at Ngimbang-1 well location. This reveals that the Eocene paleogeography of the Cepu area was composed of land area in the north and marine setting to the south. Biomarkers and carbon-13 isotopes are powerful data for reconstructing paleogeography and paleofacies. In the absence of fossils in some sedimentary facies, these geochemical data are good alternatives.

  17. Extraction of Point Source Gamma Signals from Aerial Survey Data Taken over a Las Vegas Nevada, Residential Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thane J. Hendricks

    2007-01-01

    Detection of point-source gamma signals from aerial measurements is complicated by widely varying terrestrial gamma backgrounds, since these variations frequently resemble signals from point-sources. Spectral stripping techniques have been very useful in separating man-made and natural radiation contributions which exist on Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) plant sites and other like facilities. However, these facilities are generally situated in desert areas or otherwise flat terrain with few man-made structures to disturb the natural background. It is of great interest to determine if the stripping technique can be successfully applied in populated areas where numerous man-made disturbances (houses, streets, yards, vehicles, etc.) exist

  18. 76 FR 35806 - Amendments to National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Area Sources: Plating...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-20

    ...., Washington, DC. The Public Reading Room is open from 8:30 a.m. to 4:30 p.m. Eastern Standard Time (EST... parties interested in commenting must do so at this time. For further information, please see the... chromium anodizing sources, as those sources are subject to 40 CFR part 63, subpart N, ``Chromium Emissions...

  19. Aerosol composition and source apportionment in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area with PIXE/PESA/STIM and multivariate analysis

    OpenAIRE

    K. S. Johnson; B. de Foy; B. de Foy; B. Zuberi; B. Zuberi; L. T. Molina; L. T. Molina; M. J. Molina; M. J. Molina; Y. Xie; A. Laskin; V. Shutthanandan

    2006-01-01

    Aerosols play an important role in the atmosphere but are poorly characterized, particularly in urban areas like the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA). The chemical composition of urban particles must be known to assess their effects on the environment, and specific particulate emissions sources should be identified to establish effective pollution control standards. For these reasons, samples of particulate matter ≤2.5 μm (PM2.5) were collected during the MCMA-2003 Field Campaign f...

  20. Aerosol composition and source apportionment in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area with PIXE/PESA/STIM and multivariate analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson , K. S.; De Foy , B.; Zuberi , B.; Molina , L. T.; Molina , M. J.; Xie , Y.; Laskin , A.; Shutthanandan , V.

    2006-01-01

    Aerosols play an important role in the atmosphere but are poorly characterized, particularly in urban areas like the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA). The chemical composition of urban particles must be known to assess their effects on the environment, and specific particulate emissions sources should be identified to establish effective pollution control standards. For these reasons, samples of particulate matter ≤2.5 μm (PM2.5) were collected dur...

  1. Understanding Hydrological Processes in Variable Source Areas in the Glaciated Northeastern US Watersheds under Variable Climate Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenhuis, T. S.; Azzaino, Z.; Hoang, L.; Pacenka, S.; Worqlul, A. W.; Mukundan, R.; Stoof, C.; Owens, E. M.; Richards, B. K.

    2017-12-01

    The New York City source watersheds in the Catskill Mountains' humid, temperate climate has long-term hydrological and water quality monitoring data It is one of the few catchments where implementation of source and landscape management practices has led to decreased phosphorus concentration in the receiving surface waters. One of the reasons is that landscape measures correctly targeted the saturated variable source runoff areas (VSA) in the valley bottoms as the location where most of the runoff and other nonpoint pollutants originated. Measures targeting these areas were instrumental in lowering phosphorus concentration. Further improvements in water quality can be made based on a better understanding of the flow processes and water table fluctuations in the VSA. For that reason, we instrumented a self-contained upland variable source watershed with a landscape characteristic of a soil underlain by glacial till at shallow depth similar to the Catskill watersheds. In this presentation, we will discuss our experimental findings and present a mathematical model. Variable source areas have a small slope making gravity the driving force for the flow, greatly simplifying the simulation of the flow processes. The experimental data and the model simulations agreed for both outflow and water table fluctuations. We found that while the flows to the outlet were similar throughout the year, the discharge of the VSA varies greatly. This was due to transpiration by the plants which became active when soil temperatures were above 10oC. We found that shortly after the temperature increased above 10oC the baseflow stopped and only surface runoff occurred when rainstorms exceeded the storage capacity of the soil in at least a portion of the variable source area. Since plant growth in the variable source area was a major variable determining the base flow behavior, changes in temperature in the future - affecting the duration of the growing season - will affect baseflow and

  2. Ingestion of polonium ((210)Po) via dietary sources in high background radiation areas of south India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arunachalam, Kantha Deivi; Baskaran, Kamesh Viswanathan; Rao, D D; Sathyapriya, R; Annamalai, Sathesh Kumar; Kuruva, Jaya Krishna; Hari, Shanmugamsundaram

    2014-10-01

    To study the distribution of Polonium ((210)Po) activity in dietary sources in the high background radiation zone of Puttetti in southern Tamil Nadu. (210)Po was analyzed in the food materials consumed by the male and female individual representatives living in the high background areas by 24-h Duplicate Diet Study (DDS) and Market Basket Study (MBS). The MBS was performed by collecting the food samples such as, cereals, fruits, leafy vegetables, roots and tubers, other vegetables, fish, meat and milk grown in the high background radiation zone of southern Tamil Nadu as a part of baseline study in this region. The DDS was done by collecting the food materials consumed including the beverages in 24 h from different age groups of male and female individuals living in the village of Puttetti. The intake and ingestion dose of the radionuclide (210)Po was estimated. The average concentration of (210)Po in DDS (n = 33) was found to be 74 mBq.kg(- 1) of fresh weight. The MBS was collected based on food consumption representing more than 85-95% of annual supply, and were divided into eight food groups. The average concentration of (210)Po in the eight food groups namely leafy vegetables was 2176 mBq.kg(- 1) (n = 3), vegetables 55 mBq.kg(- 1) (n = 10), roots and tubers 251 mBq.kg(- 1) (n = 4), fruits 65 mBq.kg(- 1) (n = 5), fish 345 mBq.kg(- 1) (n = 2), meat food 117 mBq.kg(- 1) (n = 3), milk 20 mBq.kg(- 1) (n = 1) and cereal 290 (n = 1) mBq.kg(- 1) of fresh weight, respectively. The annual intake and ingestion dose due to (210)Po was estimated by DDS and MBS in adults, adolescents and children. The overall results showed that the MBS was moderately higher than the DDS in all age groups. Moreover, a DDS approach may even be more realistic, as cooked foodstuffs are used for dietary exposure assessment. The study confirms that the current levels of (210)Po do not pose a significant radiological risk to the local inhabitants.

  3. Contamination characteristics and source apportionment of heavy metals in topsoil from an area in Xi'an city, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiuduan; Lu, Xinwei

    2018-04-30

    As soil-extractable elements potentially pose ecological and health risks, identifying their contamination characteristics and sources is crucial. Therefore, to understand topsoil trace elements in the urban ring zone from the Second Ring Road to the Third Ring of Xi'an city in China, we determined the concentrations of Zn, Co, V, As, Cu, Mn, Ba, Ni and Pb, and analyzed the sources of the contamination. The results showed that the individual pollution indices of Pb, Co, Cu, Zn, Ba, Ni, Mn, As, and V were 1.79, 1.48, 1.41, 1.33, 1.20, 1.07, 1.04, 0.99, and 0.99, respectively. Evaluation with the aid of the pollution load index (PLI) indicated slight soil contamination by these elements in the study area. Using the positive matrix factorization (PMF) method, we identified four sources of contamination, namely (1) a natural source, (2) traffic emission source, (3) industrial emission source, and (4) mixed source. PMF is an effective tool for source apportionment of heavy metals in topsoil. The contribution rates of the natural source, traffic source, mixed source, and industrial source to the heavy metal contamination were specified as 25.04%, 24.71%, 24.99%, and 25.26%, respectively. Considering the above, any attempt to reduce the soil environmental cost of urban development, has to take into account the heavy metal contamination of the topsoil from industries, traffic, and other activities. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Using a topographic index to distribute variable source area runoff predicted with the SCS curve-number equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, Steve W.; Walter, M. Todd; Gérard-Marchant, Pierre; Steenhuis, Tammo S.

    2004-10-01

    Because the traditional Soil Conservation Service curve-number (SCS-CN) approach continues to be used ubiquitously in water quality models, new application methods are needed that are consistent with variable source area (VSA) hydrological processes in the landscape. We developed and tested a distributed approach for applying the traditional SCS-CN equation to watersheds where VSA hydrology is a dominant process. Predicting the location of source areas is important for watershed planning because restricting potentially polluting activities from runoff source areas is fundamental to controlling non-point-source pollution. The method presented here used the traditional SCS-CN approach to predict runoff volume and spatial extent of saturated areas and a topographic index, like that used in TOPMODEL, to distribute runoff source areas through watersheds. The resulting distributed CN-VSA method was applied to two subwatersheds of the Delaware basin in the Catskill Mountains region of New York State and one watershed in south-eastern Australia to produce runoff-probability maps. Observed saturated area locations in the watersheds agreed with the distributed CN-VSA method. Results showed good agreement with those obtained from the previously validated soil moisture routing (SMR) model. When compared with the traditional SCS-CN method, the distributed CN-VSA method predicted a similar total volume of runoff, but vastly different locations of runoff generation. Thus, the distributed CN-VSA approach provides a physically based method that is simple enough to be incorporated into water quality models, and other tools that currently use the traditional SCS-CN method, while still adhering to the principles of VSA hydrology.

  5. Tracking the 10Be-26Al source-area signal in sediment-routing systems of arid central Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struck, Martin; Jansen, John D.; Fujioka, Toshiyuki; Codilean, Alexandru T.; Fink, David; Fülöp, Réka-Hajnalka; Wilcken, Klaus M.; Price, David M.; Kotevski, Steven; Fifield, L. Keith; Chappell, John

    2018-05-01

    Sediment-routing systems continuously transfer information and mass from eroding source areas to depositional sinks. Understanding how these systems alter environmental signals is critical when it comes to inferring source-area properties from the sedimentary record. We measure cosmogenic 10Be and 26Al along three large sediment-routing systems ( ˜ 100 000 km2) in central Australia with the aim of tracking downstream variations in 10Be-26Al inventories and identifying the factors responsible for these variations. By comparing 56 new cosmogenic 10Be and 26Al measurements in stream sediments with matching data (n = 55) from source areas, we show that 10Be-26Al inventories in hillslope bedrock and soils set the benchmark for relative downstream modifications. Lithology is the primary determinant of erosion-rate variations in source areas and despite sediment mixing over hundreds of kilometres downstream, a distinct lithological signal is retained. Post-orogenic ranges yield catchment erosion rates of ˜ 6-11 m Myr-1 and silcrete-dominant areas erode as slow as ˜ 0.2 m Myr-1. 10Be-26Al inventories in stream sediments indicate that cumulative-burial terms increase downstream to mostly ˜ 400-800 kyr and up to ˜ 1.1 Myr. The magnitude of the burial signal correlates with increasing sediment cover downstream and reflects assimilation from storages with long exposure histories, such as alluvial fans, desert pavements, alluvial plains, and aeolian dunes. We propose that the tendency for large alluvial rivers to mask their 10Be-26Al source-area signal differs according to geomorphic setting. Signal preservation is favoured by (i) high sediment supply rates, (ii) high mean runoff, and (iii) a thick sedimentary basin pile. Conversely, signal masking prevails in landscapes of (i) low sediment supply and (ii) juxtaposition of sediment storages with notably different exposure histories.

  6. Evolution of air pollution source contributions over one decade, derived by PM10 and PM2.5 source apportionment in two metropolitan urban areas in Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diapouli, E.; Manousakas, M.; Vratolis, S.; Vasilatou, V.; Maggos, Th; Saraga, D.; Grigoratos, Th; Argyropoulos, G.; Voutsa, D.; Samara, C.; Eleftheriadis, K.

    2017-09-01

    Metropolitan Urban areas in Greece have been known to suffer from poor air quality, due to variety of emission sources, topography and climatic conditions favouring the accumulation of pollution. While a number of control measures have been implemented since the 1990s, resulting in reductions of atmospheric pollution and changes in emission source contributions, the financial crisis which started in 2009 has significantly altered this picture. The present study is the first effort to assess the contribution of emission sources to PM10 and PM2.5 concentration levels and their long-term variability (over 5-10 years), in the two largest metropolitan urban areas in Greece (Athens and Thessaloniki). Intensive measurement campaigns were conducted during 2011-2012 at suburban, urban background and urban traffic sites in these two cities. In addition, available datasets from previous measurements in Athens and Thessaloniki were used in order to assess the long-term variability of concentrations and sources. Chemical composition analysis of the 2011-2012 samples showed that carbonaceous matter was the most abundant component for both PM size fractions. Significant increase of carbonaceous particle concentrations and of OC/EC ratio during the cold period, especially in the residential urban background sites, pointed towards domestic heating and more particularly wood (biomass) burning as a significant source. PMF analysis further supported this finding. Biomass burning was the largest contributing source at the two urban background sites (with mean contributions for the two size fractions in the range of 24-46%). Secondary aerosol formation (sulphate, nitrate & organics) was also a major contributing source for both size fractions at the suburban and urban background sites. At the urban traffic site, vehicular traffic (exhaust and non-exhaust emissions) was the source with the highest contributions, accounting for 44% of PM10 and 37% of PM2.5, respectively. The long

  7. Organic sources in the Egyptian seawater around Alexandria coastal area as integrated from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omayma E. Ahmed

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper represents the first comprehensive survey and provides important data on PAHs concentration and composition in Alexandria coastal seawater. The compositions of PAHs determined in all samples are to be used as chemical markers for identifying different sources of PAH pollution in the surface seawater of Alexandria coastal area. The quantitative analysis of PAHs showed a concentration ranging from 8970.939 to 1254756.00 ng/L, which exceeds the maximum admissible concentrations of PAHs (200 ng/L for the water standard of European Union. The calculated diagnostic ratios suggested that the sources of PAHs at the majority of the studied area are derived primarily from pyrogenic sources from incomplete fuel combustion of the boats and vehicle engines with lesser amounts of PAHs contributed from petrogenic sources. Some stations displayed mixed sources in comparison to many other studied marine systems, the PAH concentrations detected at Alexandria area were considered to be higher and pose health risks to aquatic bodies.

  8. The Potential of Solar as Alternative Energy Source for Socio-Economic Wellbeing in Rural Areas, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Rashidah Zainal; Siwar, Chamhuri; Ludin, Norasikin Ahmad

    Malaysia's energy sector is highly dependent on fossil fuels as a primary energy source. Economic growth and socio-economic wellbeing also rely on the utilization of energy in daily life routine. Nevertheless, the increasing cost for electricity and declining fossil fuels resources causes various negative impacts to the people and environment especially in rural areas. This prompted Malaysia to shift towards alternative energy sources such as solar energy to ensure social, economic and environmental benefits. The solar energy is one of the potential renewable energy sources in tropical countries particularly in Malaysia. The paper attempts to analyze the benefits and advantages related to energy efficiency of solar for sustainable energy use and socio economic wellbeing in rural areas, Malaysia. The paper uses secondary sources of data such as policies, regulations and research reports from relevant ministries and agencies to attain the objectives. As a signatory country to the UN Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol, Malaysia has taken initiatives for decreasing energy dependence on oil to reduce greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) for sustainable development. The paper shows solar energy becomes one of the promising alternative energy sources to alleviate energy poverty in Malaysia for rural areas. Finally, solar energy has increased socio-economic wellbeing and develops green potential and toward achieving energy efficiency in energy sector of Malaysia by preserving environment as well as reducing carbon emission.

  9. Concentrations, sources and spatial distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soils from Beijing, Tianjin and surrounding areas, North China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Wentao; Massey Simonich, Staci L.; Xue Miao; Zhao Jingyu; Zhang Na; Wang Rong; Cao Jun; Tao Shu

    2010-01-01

    The concentrations, profiles, sources and spatial distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined in 40 surface soil samples collected from Beijing, Tianjin and surrounding areas, North China in 2007, and all sampling sites were far from industrial areas, roadsides and other pollution sources, and across a range of soil types in remote, rural villages and urban areas. The total concentrations of 16 PAHs ranged from 31.6 to 1475.0 ng/g, with an arithmetic average of 336.4 ng/g. The highest PAH concentrations were measured in urban soils, followed by rural village soils and soils from remote locations. The remote-rural village-urban PAH concentration gradient was related to population density, gross domestic product (GDP), long-range atmospheric transport and different types of land use. In addition, the PAH concentration was well correlated with the total organic carbon (TOC) concentration of the soil. The PAH profile suggested that coal combustion and biomass burning were primary PAH sources. - The concentration, profiles and possible sources of PAHs in Beijing, Tianjin and surrounding area soils were studied and related to population density and gross domestic product (GDP).

  10. Area Source Boiler National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP), 40 CFR Part 63, Subpart JJJJJJ: Questions and Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    This October 2016 question and answer (Q&A) document is in response to a number of questions the EPA has received from delegated state and local agencies and the regulated community regarding the NESHAP for Area source boilers. Document updates 4/2014 PDF.

  11. FIELD EVALUATION OF A METHOD FOR ESTIMATING GASEOUS FLUXES FROM AREA SOURCES USING OPEN-PATH FOURIER TRANSFORM INFRARED

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper describes preliminary results from a field experiment designed to evaluate a new approach to quantifying gaseous fugitive emissions from area air pollution sources. The new approach combines path-integrated concentration data acquired with any path-integrated optical re...

  12. Steady-state solution of the semi-empirical diffusion equation for area sources. [air pollution studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebedeff, S. A.; Hameed, S.

    1975-01-01

    The problem investigated can be solved exactly in a simple manner if the equations are written in terms of a similarity variable. The exact solution is used to explore two questions of interest in the modelling of urban air pollution, taking into account the distribution of surface concentration downwind of an area source and the distribution of concentration with height.

  13. A new approach for calculation of volume confined by ECR surface and its area in ECR ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filippov, A.V.

    2007-01-01

    The volume confined by the resonance surface and its area are important parameters of the balance equations model for calculation of ion charge-state distribution (CSD) in the electron-cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source. A new approach for calculation of these parameters is given. This approach allows one to reduce the number of parameters in the balance equations model

  14. 75 FR 10184 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Area Source Standards for Paints and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-05

    ... issuing the technical correction, EPA has taken the necessary steps to eliminate drafting errors and... Products Manufacturing-- Technical Amendment AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final rule; technical correction. SUMMARY: This action clarifies regulatory text of the ``Revision of Source...

  15. Emissions from Combustion of Open Area Sources: Prescribed Forest and Agricultural Burns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emissions from wildfires and prescribed forest and agricultural burns generate a variety of emissions that can cause adverse health effects for humans, contribute to climate change, and decrease visibility. Only limited pollutant data are available for these sources, particularly...

  16. 76 FR 15553 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Area Sources: Industrial, Commercial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-21

    ... firms to operate and maintain the emissions control systems. Consistent with the legislative history, we... stores/malls, laundries, apartments, restaurants, and hotels/motels. The institutional boiler source...

  17. A Fieldable-Prototype Large-Area Gamma-ray Imager for Orphan Source Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziock, Klaus-Peter [ORNL; Fabris, Lorenzo [ORNL; Carr, Dennis [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Collins, Jeff [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Cunningham, Mark F [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Habte Ghebretatios, Frezghi [ORNL; Karnowski, Thomas Paul [ORNL; Marchant, William [University of California, Berkeley

    2008-01-01

    We have constructed a unique instrument for use in the search for orphan sources. The system uses gamma-ray imaging to "see through" the natural background variations that effectively limit the search range of normal devices to ~10 m. The imager is mounted in a 4.9- m-long trailer and can be towed by a large personal vehicle. Source locations are determined both in range and along the direction of travel as the vehicle moves. A fully inertial platform coupled to a Global Positioning System receiver is used to map the gamma-ray images onto overhead geospatial imagery. The resulting images provide precise source locations, allowing rapid follow-up work. The instrument simultaneously searches both sides of the street to a distance of 50 m (100-m swath) for milliCurieclass sources with near-perfect performance.

  18. Particulate matter (PM 10 ) in Istanbul: Origin, source areas and potential impact on surrounding regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koçak, M.; Theodosi, C.; Zarmpas, P.; Im, U.; Bougiatioti, A.; Yenigun, O.; Mihalopoulos, N.

    2011-12-01

    Water-soluble ions (Cl -, NO3-, SO42-, CO4-, Na +, NH4+, K +, Mg 2+,Ca 2+), water soluble organic carbon (WSOC), organic and elemental carbon (OC, EC) and trace metals (Al, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb) were measured in aerosol PM 10 samples above the megacity of Istanbul between November 2007 and June 2009. Source apportionment analysis using Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) indicates that approximately 80% of the PM 10 is anthropogenic in origin (secondary, refuse incineration, fuel oil and solid fuel combustion and traffic). Crustal and sea salt account for 10.2 and 7.5% of the observed mass, respectively. In general, anthropogenic (except secondary) aerosol shows higher concentrations and contributions in winter. Mean concentration and contribution of crustal source is found to be more important during the transitional period due to mineral dust transport from North Africa. During the sampling period, 42 events exceeding the limit value of 50 μg m -3 are identified. A significant percentage (91%; n = 38) of these exceedances is attributed to anthropogenic sources. Potential Source Contribution Function analysis highlights that Istanbul is affected from distant sources from Balkans and Western Europe during winter and from Eastern Europe during summer. On the other hand, Istanbul sources influence western Black Sea and Eastern Europe during winter and Aegean and Levantine Sea during summer.

  19. Distributed MPC for Efficient Coordination of Storage and Renewable Energy Sources Across Control Areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, Kyri; Guo, Junyao; Hug, Gabriela; Li, Xin

    2016-03-01

    In electric power systems, multiple entities are responsible for ensuring an economic and reliable way of delivering power from producers to consumers. With the increase of variable renewable generation it is becoming increasingly important to take advantage of the individual entities' (and their areas') capabilities for balancing variability. Hence, in this paper, we employ and extend the approximate Newton directions method to optimally coordinate control areas leveraging storage available in one area to balance variable resources in another area with only minimal information exchange among the areas. The problem to be decomposed is a model predictive control problem including generation constraints, energy storage constraints, and AC power flow constraints. Singularity issues encountered when formulating the respective Newton-Raphson steps due to intertemporal constraints are addressed and extensions to the original decomposition method are proposed to improve the convergence rate and required communication of the method.

  20. sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Yin Chiang

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study the simplified models of the ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode multiplexer network with Bernoulli random traffic sources. Based on the model, the performance measures are analyzed by the different output service schemes.

  1. Factors affecting reservoir and stream-water quality in the Cambridge, Massachusetts, drinking-water source area and implications for source-water protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldron, Marcus C.; Bent, Gardner C.

    2001-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the city of Cambridge, Massachusetts, Water Department, to assess reservoir and tributary-stream quality in the Cambridge drinking-water source area, and to use the information gained to help guide the design of a comprehensive water-quality monitoring program for the source area. Assessments of the quality and trophic state of the three primary storage reservoirs, Hobbs Brook Reservoir, Stony Brook Reservoir, and Fresh Pond, were conducted (September 1997-November 1998) to provide baseline information on the state of these resources and to determine the vulnerability of the reservoirs to increased loads of nutrients and other contaminants. The effects of land use, land cover, and other drainage-basin characteristics on sources, transport, and fate of fecal-indicator bacteria, highway deicing chemicals, nutrients, selected metals, and naturally occurring organic compounds in 11 subbasins that contribute water to the reservoirs also was investigated, and the data used to select sampling stations for incorporation into a water-quality monitoring network for the source area. All three reservoirs exhibited thermal and chemical stratification, despite artificial mixing by air hoses in Stony Brook Reservoir and Fresh Pond. The stratification produced anoxic or hypoxic conditions in the deepest parts of the reservoirs and these conditions resulted in the release of ammonia nitrogen orthophosphate phosphorus, and dissolved iron and manganese from the reservoir bed sediments. Concentrations of sodium and chloride in the reservoirs usually were higher than the amounts recommended by the U.S. Environmental Protection agency for drinking-water sources (20 milligrams per liter for sodium and 250 milligrams per liter for chloride). Maximum measured sodium concentrations were highest in Hobbs Brook Reservoir (113 milligrams per liter), intermediate in Stony Brook Reservoir (62

  2. Assessment of fast and thermal neutron ambient dose equivalents around the KFUPM neutron source storage area using nuclear track detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fazal-ur-Rehman [Physics Department, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia)]. E-mail: fazalr@kfupm.edu.sa; Al-Jarallah, M.I. [Physics Department, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Abu-Jarad, F. [Radiation Protection Unit, Environmental Protection Department, Saudi Aramco, P. O. Box 13027, Dhahran 31311 (Saudi Arabia); Qureshi, M.A. [Center for Applied Physical Sciences, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia)

    2005-11-15

    A set of five {sup 241}Am-Be neutron sources are utilized in research and teaching at King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals (KFUPM). Three of these sources have an activity of 16Ci each and the other two are of 5Ci each. A well-shielded storage area was designed for these sources. The aim of the study is to check the effectiveness of shielding of the KFUPM neutron source storage area. Poly allyl diglycol carbonate (PADC) Nuclear track detectors (NTDs) based fast and thermal neutron area passive dosimeters have been utilized side by side for 33 days to assess accumulated low ambient dose equivalents of fast and thermal neutrons at 30 different locations around the source storage area and adjacent rooms. Fast neutron measurements have been carried out using bare NTDs, which register fast neutrons through recoils of protons, in the detector material. NTDs were mounted with lithium tetra borate (Li{sub 2}B{sub 4}O{sub 7}) converters on their surfaces for thermal neutron detection via B10(n,{alpha})Li6 and Li6(n,{alpha})H3 nuclear reactions. The calibration factors of NTD both for fast and thermal neutron area passive dosimeters were determined using thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD) with and without a polyethylene moderator. The calibration factors for fast and thermal neutron area passive dosimeters were found to be 1.33 proton tracks cm{sup -2}{mu}Sv{sup -1} and 31.5 alpha tracks cm{sup -2}{mu}Sv{sup -1}, respectively. The results show variations of accumulated dose with the locations around the storage area. The fast neutron dose equivalents rates varied from as low as 182nSvh{sup -1} up to 10.4{mu}Svh{sup -1} whereas those for thermal neutron ranged from as low as 7nSvh{sup -1} up to 9.3{mu}Svh{sup -1}. The study indicates that the area passive neutron dosimeter was able to detect dose rates as low as 7 and 182nSvh{sup -1} from accumulated dose for thermal and fast neutrons, respectively, which were not possible to detect with the available active neutron

  3. Mapping landslide source and transport areas in VHR images with Object-Based Analysis and Support Vector Machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heleno, Sandra; Matias, Magda; Pina, Pedro

    2015-04-01

    Visual interpretation of satellite imagery remains extremely demanding in terms of resources and time, especially when dealing with numerous multi-scale landslides affecting wide areas, such as is the case of rainfall-induced shallow landslides. Applying automated methods can contribute to more efficient landslide mapping and updating of existing inventories, and in recent years the number and variety of approaches is rapidly increasing. Very High Resolution (VHR) images, acquired by space-borne sensors with sub-metric precision, such as Ikonos, Quickbird, Geoeye and Worldview, are increasingly being considered as the best option for landslide mapping, but these new levels of spatial detail also present new challenges to state of the art image analysis tools, asking for automated methods specifically suited to map landslide events on VHR optical images. In this work we develop and test a methodology for semi-automatic landslide recognition and mapping of landslide source and transport areas. The method combines object-based image analysis and a Support Vector Machine supervised learning algorithm, and was tested using a GeoEye-1 multispectral image, sensed 3 days after a damaging landslide event in Madeira Island, together with a pre-event LiDAR DEM. Our approach has proved successful in the recognition of landslides on a 15 Km2-wide study area, with 81 out of 85 landslides detected in its validation regions. The classifier also showed reasonable performance (false positive rate 60% and false positive rate below 36% in both validation regions) in the internal mapping of landslide source and transport areas, in particular in the sunnier east-facing slopes. In the less illuminated areas the classifier is still able to accurately map the source areas, but performs poorly in the mapping of landslide transport areas.

  4. Possible emissions of POPs in plain and hilly areas of Nepal: Implications for source apportionment and health risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Ishwar Chandra; Devi, Ningombam Linthoingambi; Li, Jun; Zhang, Gan; Breivik, Knut

    2017-01-01

    Ambient air is a core media chosen for monitoring under the Stockholm Convention on POPs. While extensive monitoring of POPs in ambient air has been carried out in some parts of the globe, there are still regions with very limited information available, such as some developing countries as Nepal. This study therefore aims to target the occurrence of selected POPs in Nepal in suspected source areas/more densely populated regions. Four potential source regions in Nepal were furthermore targeted as it was hypothesized that urban areas at lower altitudes (Birgunj and Biratnagar located at approximately 86 and 80 m.a.s.l.) would be potentially more affected by OCPs because of more intensive agricultural activities in comparison to urban areas at higher altitudes (Kathmandu, Pokhara located 1400 and 1135 m.a.s.l). As some of these areas could also be impacted by LRAT, air mass back trajectories during the sampling period were additionally evaluated using HYSPLIT. The concentrations of overall POPs were twice as high in plain areas in comparison to hilly areas. DDTs and HCHs were most frequently detected in the air samples. The high p,p'-DDT/(pp'-DDE + pp'-DDD) ratio as well as the low o,p'-DDT/p,p'-DDT ratio observed in this study was inferred as continuing use of technical DDT. High levels of ∑ 26 PCBs were linked to proximity to highly urbanized and industrial areas, indicating the potential source of PCBs. The measured concentrations of legacy POPs in air from this study is assumed to represent a negligible health risk through inhalation of ambient air, however, other modes of human exposure could still be relevant in Nepal. The air mass backward trajectory analysis revealed that most of the air masses sampled originated from India and the Bay of Bengal. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. PM sources in a highly industrialised area in the process of implementing PM abatement technology. Quantification and evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz Minguillón, María; Querol, Xavier; Alastuey, Andrés; Monfort, Eliseo; Vicente Miró, José

    2007-10-01

    Principal component analysis (PCA) coupled with a multilinear regression analysis (MLRA) was applied to PM(10) speciation data series (2002-2005) from four sampling sites in a highly industrialised area (ceramic production) in the process of implementing emission abatement technology. Five common factors with similar chemical profiles were identified at all the sites: mineral, regional background (influenced by the industrial estate located on the coast: an oil refinery and a power plant), sea spray, industrial 1 (manufacture and use of glaze components, including frit fusion) and road traffic. The contribution of the regional background differs slightly from site to site. The mineral factor, attributed to the sum of several sources (mainly the ceramic industry, but also with minor contributions from soil resuspension and African dust outbreaks) contributes between 9 and 11 microg m(-3) at all the sites. Source industrial 1 entails an increase in PM(10) levels between 4 and 5 microg m(-3) at the urban sites and 2 microg m(-3) at the suburban background site. However, after 2004, this source contributed less than 2 microg m(-3) at most sites, whereas the remaining sources did not show an upward or downward trend along the study period. This gradual decrease in the contribution of source industrial 1 coincides with the implementation of PM abatement technology in the frit fusion kilns of the area. This relationship enables us to assess the efficiency of the implementation of environmental technologies in terms of their impact on air quality.

  6. A Catalogue of Source Parameters of Moderate and Strong Earthquakes for Turkey and its Surrounding Area (1938-2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalafat, D.; Toksoz, M. N.

    2015-12-01

    Turkey and Surrounding area, especially North Anatolian Fault Zone (NAFZ), East Anatolian Fault Zone (EAFZ), Western Turkey, cost of the Aegean Sea and Mediterranean Sea regions are seismically very active and undergoing rapid deformation. Earthquakes with M >6.0 do occur every couple of years regularly in this region, Moderate-magnitude seismicity (4.04.0 which were calculated of the fault-source parameters for Turkey and its surrounding area between 1938-2015. The fault source parameters of total over the 1200 earthquakes were calculated. The fault-source parameters of about 56.0 % of the all events were calculated with this study and 44.0 % of the rest were obtained from the other sources. The parameters of the old and incomplete events also were calculated in order to prepare the homogeneous and extended fault- source parameters set in the study. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This study was supported by the Department of Science Fellowship and Grant programs of TUBITAK (The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey).

  7. The sustainability and efficient use of renewable energy sources in rural areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adetunji, Kayode E.; Akinlabi, Akindeji O.; Joseph, Meera K.

    2018-04-01

    The energy system in African countries is mostly dependent on coal, gas, and oil, which in turns leads to environmental challenges and an imbalance of energy usage in some area of the countries. Given that, a mostly rural area in Africa suffers from the unsustainable energy system, thus it necessary to integrate renewable energy into the rural area for social and economic development. A sustainable energy system built on a clean energy such as renewable energy based on the availability of the natural resource is the main focus of this paper. Renewable energy is a solution for service delivery and when deployed everyone would be able to access electricity power, particularly in the remote area (which can be a suburb or rural environment) where the absence of national power grids. Renewable energy opens new opportunities for an economic development and sustainable solution to employ for energy efficiency, energy delivery, and energy management by the people and upon that a platform to promote environmental friendliness. In this paper, we explored the reasons for switching to renewable energy, saving energy and the awareness of potential and use of renewable energy in the rural area. IBM's SPSS is used for the quantitative data analysis. The results showed that sustainability of the National utility grid to the rural area is low, with over 80 percent of participants agreeing to disruption of power supply. The Positivity of the rural peoples' awareness of renewable also brought about the conclusion and recommendations from this paper.

  8. Pollution Sources and Mortality Rates across Rural-Urban Areas in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendryx, Michael; Fedorko, Evan; Halverson, Joel

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To conduct an assessment of rural environmental pollution sources and associated population mortality rates. Methods: The design is a secondary analysis of county-level data from the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Department of Agriculture, National Land Cover Dataset, Energy Information Administration, Centers for Disease Control…

  9. Development of a Protocol and a Screening Tool for Selection of DNAPL Source Area Remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    awaiting print. Gandhi, S., Oh, B., Schnoor J.L., Alvarez P. J. 2002, Degradation of TCE, Cr(VI), sulfate, and nitrate mixtures by granular iron in...disposal site in fractured rocks: Effect of multiscale heterogeneity and source term uncertainty on conceptual understanding of mass transfer

  10. Assessment of light extinction at a European polluted urban area during wintertime: Impact of PM1 composition and sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecchi, R; Bernardoni, V; Valentini, S; Piazzalunga, A; Fermo, P; Valli, G

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, results from receptor modelling performed on a well-characterised PM 1 dataset were combined to chemical light extinction data (b ext ) with the aim of assessing the impact of different PM 1 components and sources on light extinction and visibility at a European polluted urban area. It is noteworthy that, at the state of the art, there are still very few papers estimating the impact of different emission sources on light extinction as we present here, although being among the major environmental challenges at many polluted areas. Following the concept of the well-known IMPROVE algorithm, here a tailored site-specific approach (recently developed by our group) was applied to assess chemical light extinction due to PM 1 components and major sources. PM 1 samples collected separately during daytime and nighttime at the urban area of Milan (Italy) were chemically characterised for elements, major ions, elemental and organic carbon, and levoglucosan. Chemical light extinction was estimated and results showed that at the investigated urban site it is heavily impacted by ammonium nitrate and organic matter. Receptor modelling (i.e. Positive Matrix Factorization, EPA-PMF 5.0) was effective to obtain source apportionment; the most reliable solution was found with 7 factors which were tentatively assigned to nitrates, sulphates, wood burning, traffic, industry, fine dust, and a Pb-rich source. The apportionment of aerosol light extinction (b ext,aer ) according to resolved sources showed that considering all samples together nitrate contributed at most (on average 41.6%), followed by sulphate, traffic, and wood burning accounting for 18.3%, 17.8% and 12.4%, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Heavy metal contamination of surface soil in electronic waste dismantling area: site investigation and source-apportionment analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinhui Li; Huabo Duan; Pixing Shi

    2011-07-01

    The dismantling and disposal of electronic waste (e-waste) in developing countries is causing increasing concern because of its impacts on the environment and risks to human health. Heavy-metal concentrations in the surface soils of Guiyu (Guangdong Province, China) were monitored to determine the status of heavy-metal contamination on e-waste dismantling area with a more than 20 years history. Two metalloids and nine metals were selected for investigation. This paper also attempts to compare the data among a variety of e-waste dismantling areas, after reviewing a number of heavy-metal contamination-related studies in such areas in China over the past decade. In addition, source apportionment of heavy metal in the surface soil of these areas has been analysed. Both the MSW open-burning sites probably contained invaluable e-waste and abandoned sites formerly involved in informal recycling activities are the new sources of soil-based environmental pollution in Guiyu. Although printed circuit board waste is thought to be the main source of heavy-metal emissions during e-waste processing, requirement is necessary to soundly manage the plastic separated from e-waste, which mostly contains heavy metals and other toxic substances.

  12. Multi-keV X-ray area source intensity at SGII laser facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui-rong; An, Hong-hai; Xie, Zhi-yong; Wang, Wei

    2018-05-01

    Experiments for investigating the feasibility of multi-keV backlighters for several different metallic foil targets were performed at the Shenguang II (SGII) laser facility in China. Emission spectra in the energy range of 1.65-7.0 keV were measured with an elliptically bent crystal spectrometer, and the X-ray source size was measured with a pinhole camera. The X-ray intensity near 4.75 keV and the X-ray source size for titanium targets at different laser intensity irradiances were studied. By adjusting the total laser energy at a fixed focal spot size, laser intensity in the range of 1.5-5.0 × 1015 W/cm2, was achieved. The results show that the line emission intensity near 4.75 keV and the X-ray source size are dependent on the laser intensity and increase as the laser intensity increases. However, an observed "peak" in the X-ray intensity near 4.75 keV occurs at an irradiance of 4.0 × 1015 W/cm2. For the employed experimental conditions, it was confirmed that the laser intensity could play a significant role in the development of an efficient multi-keV X-ray source. The experimental results for titanium indicate that the production of a large (˜350 μm in diameter) intense backlighter source of multi-keV X-rays is feasible at the SGII facility.

  13. NO2 and SO2 dispersion modeling and relative roles of emission sources over Map Ta Phut industrial area, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chusai, Chatinai; Manomaiphiboon, Kasemsan; Saiyasitpanich, Phirun; Thepanondh, Sarawut

    2012-08-01

    Map Ta Phut industrial area (MA) is the largest industrial complex in Thailand. There has been concern about many air pollutants over this area. Air quality management for the area is known to be difficult, due to lack of understanding of how emissions from different sources or sectors (e.g., industrial, power plant, transportation, and residential) contribute to air quality degradation in the area. In this study, a dispersion study of NO2 and SO2 was conducted using the AERMOD model. The area-specific emission inventories of NOx and SO2 were prepared, including both stack and nonstack sources, and divided into 11 emission groups. Annual simulations were performed for the year 2006. Modeled concentrations were evaluated with observations. Underestimation of both pollutants was Jbund, and stack emission estimates were scaled to improve the modeled results before quantifying relative roles of individual emission groups to ambient concentration overfour selected impacted areas (two are residential and the others are highly industrialized). Two concentration measures (i.e., annual average area-wide concentration or AC, and area-wide robust highest concentration or AR) were used to aggregately represent mean and high-end concentrations Jbfor each individual area, respectively. For AC-NO2, on-road mobile emissions were found to be the largest contributor in the two residential areas (36-38% of total AC-NO2), while petrochemical-industry emissions play the most important role in the two industrialized areas (34-51%). For AR-NO2, biomass burning has the most influence in all impacted areas (>90%) exceptJor one residential area where on-road mobile is the largest (75%). For AC-SO2, the petrochemical industry contributes most in all impacted areas (38-56%). For AR-SO2, the results vary. Since the petrochemical industry was often identified as the major contributor despite not being the largest emitter, air quality workers should pay special attention to this emission group

  14. RF-source development for ITER: Large area H- beam extraction, modifications for long pulse operation and design of a half size ITER source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraus, W.; Heinemann, B.; Falter, H.D.; Franzen, P.; Speth, E.; Entscheva, A.; Fantz, U.; Franke, T.; Holtum, D.; Martens, Ch.; McNeely, P.; Riedl, R.; Wilhelm, R.

    2005-01-01

    With an extraction area of 152 cm 2 a calorimetrically measured H - current density of 19.3 mA/cm 2 has been achieved at 0.45 Pa with 90 kW RF power. With 306 cm 2 the electrically measured H - current has reached up to 9.7 A corresponding to 32 mA/cm 2 at 100 kW. The current on the calorimeter is limited by the extraction system. Down to 0.2 Pa only a weak dependence on the source pressure has been observed. The test bed will be upgraded to demonstrate cw operation with deuterium. Based on the tested prototype a half size ITER RF-source of 80 cm x 90 cm with 360 kW RF power has been designed

  15. Transport and solubility of Hetero-disperse dry deposition particulate matter subject to urban source area rainfall-runoff processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, G.; Sansalone, J.

    2010-03-01

    SummaryWith respect to hydrologic processes, the impervious pavement interface significantly alters relationships between rainfall and runoff. Commensurate with alteration of hydrologic processes the pavement also facilitates transport and solubility of dry deposition particulate matter (PM) in runoff. This study examines dry depositional flux rates, granulometric modification by runoff transport, as well as generation of total dissolved solids (TDS), alkalinity and conductivity in source area runoff resulting from PM solubility. PM is collected from a paved source area transportation corridor (I-10) in Baton Rouge, Louisiana encompassing 17 dry deposition and 8 runoff events. The mass-based granulometric particle size distribution (PSD) is measured and modeled through a cumulative gamma function, while PM surface area distributions across the PSD follow a log-normal distribution. Dry deposition flux rates are modeled as separate first-order exponential functions of previous dry hours (PDH) for PM and suspended, settleable and sediment fractions. When trans-located from dry deposition into runoff, PSDs are modified, with a d50m decreasing from 331 to 14 μm after transport and 60 min of settling. Solubility experiments as a function of pH, contact time and particle size using source area rainfall generate constitutive models to reproduce pH, alkalinity, TDS and alkalinity for historical events. Equilibrium pH, alkalinity and TDS are strongly influenced by particle size and contact times. The constitutive leaching models are combined with measured PSDs from a series of rainfall-runoff events to demonstrate that the model results replicate alkalinity and TDS in runoff from the subject watershed. Results illustrate the granulometry of dry deposition PM, modification of PSDs along the drainage pathway, and the role of PM solubility for generation of TDS, alkalinity and conductivity in urban source area rainfall-runoff.

  16. Financial analysis as a marketing tool in the process of awareness increase in the area of renewable energy sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Taušová

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Alternative sources of energy represent a great area of progress nowadays. The trend of the 21. century is energetically demanding with an increaming tendency to use fossil fuels, sources of which are however limited. The article will deal with an inevitability of the use of marketing tools with the aim to increase the share of these energetical resources on the Slovak market. The result will be obtaining of some financial advantage for future users on one side and the increase of volume of sales for vendors on the other side.

  17. Using analytic element models to delineate drinking water source protection areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, Heather A; Bondoc, Michael; McGinnis, John; Metropulos, Kathy; Heider, Pat; Reed, Allison; Saines, Steve

    2006-01-01

    Since 1999, Ohio EPA hydrogeologists have used two analytic element models (AEMs), the proprietary software GFLOW and U.S. EPA's WhAEM, to delineate protection areas for 535 public water systems. Both models now use the GFLOW2001 solution engine, integrate well with Geographic Information System (GIS) technology, have a user-friendly graphical interface, are capable of simulating a variety of complex hydrogeologic settings, and do not rely upon a model grid. These features simplify the modeling process and enable AEMs to bridge the gap between existing simplistic delineation methods and more complex numerical models. Ohio EPA hydrogeologists demonstrated that WhAEM2000 and GFLOW2000 were capable of producing capture zones similar to more widely accepted models by applying the AEMs to eight sites that had been previously delineated using other methods. After the Ohio EPA delineated protection areas using AEMs, more simplistic delineation methods used by other states (volumetric equation and arbitrary fixed radii) were applied to the same water systems to compare the differences between various methods. GIS software and two-tailed paired t-tests were used to quantify the differences in protection areas and analyze the data. The results of this analysis demonstrate that AEMs typically produce significantly different protection areas than the most simplistic delineation methods, in terms of total area and shape. If the volumetric equation had been used instead of AEMs, Ohio would not have protected 265 km2 of critical upgradient area and would have overprotected 269 km2 of primarily downgradient land. Since an increasing number of land-use restrictions are being tied to drinking water protection areas, this analysis has broad policy implications.

  18. Piper-PCA-Fisher Recognition Model of Water Inrush Source: A Case Study of the Jiaozuo Mining Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinghua Huang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Source discrimination of mine water plays an important role in guiding mine water prevention in mine water management. To accurately determine water inrush source from a mine in the Jiaozuo mining area, a Piper trilinear diagram based on hydrochemical experimental data of stratified underground water in the area was utilized to determine typical water samples. Additionally, principal component analysis (PCA was used for dimensionality reduction of conventional hydrochemical variables, after which mutually independent variables were extracted. The Piper-PCA-Fisher water inrush source recognition model was established by combining the Piper trilinear diagram and Fisher discrimination theory. Screened typical samples were used to conduct back-discriminate verification of the model. Results showed that 28 typical water samples in different aquifers were determined through the Piper trilinear diagram as a water sample set for training. Before PCA was carried out, the first five factors covered 98.92% of the information quantity of the original data and could effectively represent the data information of the original samples. During the one-by-one rediscrimination process of 28 groups of training samples using the Piper-PCA-Fisher water inrush source model, 100% correct discrimination rate was achieved. During the prediction and discrimination process of 13 samples, one water sample was misdiscriminated; hence, the correct prediscrimination rate was 92.3%. Compared with the traditional Fisher water source recognition model, the Piper-PCA-Fisher water source recognition model established in this study had higher accuracy in both rediscrimination and prediscrimination processes. Thus it had a strong ability to discriminate water inrush sources.

  19. A double-blind, placebo-controlled study on the effects of lutein and zeaxanthin on photostress recovery, glare disability, and chromatic contrast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Billy R; Fletcher, Laura M; Roos, Franz; Wittwer, Jonas; Schalch, Wolfgang

    2014-12-02

    Past studies have shown that higher macular pigment optical density (MPOD) and lutein (L) and zeaxanthin (Z) supplementation are related to improvements in glare disability, photostress recovery, and chromatic contrast. This study assessed those links using a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled design. The visual effects of 1 year of supplementing L (10 mg/d) and Z (2 mg/d) were investigated. One hundred fifteen young, healthy subjects were recruited and randomized into the study (58 received placebo, 57 L+Z). Several dependent measures were collected at baseline and then once every 3 months: serum L and Z measured by HPLC chromatography; MPOD measured using customized heterochromatic flicker photometry; photostress recovery assessed by measuring the time needed to recover visual acquisition of a grating target after 30 seconds of an intense xenon white flash exposure; glare disability evaluated as the energy in a surrounding annulus necessary to veil a central grating target; and chromatic contrast assessed by measuring thresholds for a yellow grating target superposed on a 460-nm background. Macular pigment optical density increased significantly versus placebo at all eccentricities (10, 30, 60, and 105 minutes from the center of the macula). Serum L and Z also increased significantly by the first follow-up visit (at 3 months), and remained elevated throughout the intervention period of 1 year. Chromatic contrast and photostress recovery time improved significantly versus placebo. Glare disability was correlated with macular pigment density throughout the study period but did not increase significantly in the treated group. Daily supplementation with L+Z resulted in significant increase in serum levels and MPOD and improvements in chromatic contrast and recovery from photostress. These results are consistent with past studies showing that increasing MPOD leads to improved visual performance. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00909090.). Copyright 2014 The

  20. Temporal variability and sources of VOCs in urban areas of the eastern Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Kaltsonoudis

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available During the summer of 2012 volatile organic compounds (VOCs were monitored by proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS in urban sites, in Athens and Patras, two of the largest cities in Greece. Also, during the winter of 2013, PTR-MS measurements were conducted in the center of the city of Athens. Positive matrix factorization (PMF was applied to the VOC measurements to gain insights about their sources. In summer most of the measured VOCs were due to biogenic and traffic emissions. Isoprene, monoterpenes, and several oxygenated VOCs (oVOCs originated mainly from vegetation either directly or as oxidation products. Isoprene average concentrations in Patras and Athens were 1 and 0.7 ppb respectively, while the monoterpene concentrations were 0.3 and 0.9 ppb respectively. Traffic was the main source of aromatic compounds during summer. For Patras and Athens the average concentrations of benzene were 0.1 and 0.2 ppb, of toluene 0.3 and 0.8 ppb, and of the xylenes 0.3 and 0.7 ppb respectively. Winter measurements in Athens revealed that biomass burning used for residential heating was a major VOC source contributing both aromatic VOCs and biogenic compounds such as monoterpenes. Several episodes related to biomass burning were identified and emission ratios (ERs and emission factors (EFs were estimated.

  1. HEAVY MINERALS IN PLACER DEPOSIT IN SINGKAWANG WATERS, WEST Kalimantan, RELATED TO FELSIC SOURCE ROCK OF ITS COASTAL AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deny Setiady

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Placer deposits are physically accumulated by fluvial and marine processes in coastal area. Thirty six samples were selected from seventy seven samples of seafloor sediment of Singkawang waters. Those samples have been analyzed microscopically for heavy mineral contents. Based on this analysis, the heavy minerals can be divided into four groups: oxyde and hydroxyde, silicate, sulphide, and carbonate. The source of most heavy minerals in the study area is commonly formed by Felsic igneous rock and finally deposited on the seafloor sediments.

  2. Source Distribution Method for Unsteady One-Dimensional Flows With Small Mass, Momentum, and Heat Addition and Small Area Variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirels, Harold

    1959-01-01

    A source distribution method is presented for obtaining flow perturbations due to small unsteady area variations, mass, momentum, and heat additions in a basic uniform (or piecewise uniform) one-dimensional flow. First, the perturbations due to an elemental area variation, mass, momentum, and heat addition are found. The general solution is then represented by a spatial and temporal distribution of these elemental (source) solutions. Emphasis is placed on discussing the physical nature of the flow phenomena. The method is illustrated by several examples. These include the determination of perturbations in basic flows consisting of (1) a shock propagating through a nonuniform tube, (2) a constant-velocity piston driving a shock, (3) ideal shock-tube flows, and (4) deflagrations initiated at a closed end. The method is particularly applicable for finding the perturbations due to relatively thin wall boundary layers.

  3. Source areas and chemical composition of fine particulate matter in the Pearl River Delta region of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagler, G. S. W.; Bergin, M. H.; Salmon, L. G.; Yu, J. Z.; Wan, E. C. H.; Zheng, M.; Zeng, L. M.; Kiang, C. S.; Zhang, Y. H.; Lau, A. K. H.; Schauer, J. J.

    Fine particulate matter (PM 2.5) was measured for 4 months during 2002-2003 at seven sites located in the rapidly developing Pearl River Delta region of China, an area encompassing the major cities of Hong Kong, Shenzhen and Guangzhou. The 4-month average fine particulate matter concentration ranged from 37 to 71 μg m -3 in Guangdong province and from 29 to 34 μg m -3 in Hong Kong. Main constituents of fine particulate mass were organic compounds (24-35% by mass) and sulfate (21-32%). With sampling sites strategically located to monitor the regional air shed patterns and urban areas, specific source-related fine particulate species (sulfate, organic mass, elemental carbon, potassium and lead) and daily surface winds were analyzed to estimate influential source locations. The impact of transport was investigated by categorizing 13 (of 20 total) sampling days by prevailing wind direction (southerly, northerly or low wind-speed mixed flow). The vicinity of Guangzhou is determined to be a major source area influencing regional concentrations of PM 2.5, with levels observed to increase by 18-34 μg m -3 (accounting for 46-56% of resulting particulate levels) at sites immediately downwind of Guangzhou. The area near Guangzhou is also observed to heavily impact downwind concentrations of lead. Potassium levels, related to biomass burning, appear to be controlled by sources in the northern part of the Pearl River Delta, near rural Conghua and urban Guangzhou. Guangzhou appears to contribute 5-6 μg m -3 of sulfate to downwind locations. Guangzhou also stands out as a significant regional source of organic mass (OM), adding 8.5-14.5 μg m -3 to downwind concentrations. Elemental carbon is observed to be strongly influenced by local sources, with highest levels found in urban regions. In addition, it appears that sources outside of the Pearl River Delta contribute a significant fraction of overall fine particulate matter in Hong Kong and Guangdong province. This is evident

  4. Bacteria from contaminated urban and hilly areas as a source of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) production and extraction of different bacterial strains isolated from contaminated urban and hilly areas was conducted. The 30 bacterial isolates were Gram negative and belonged to Pseudomonas, Citrobacter, Klebsiella, Escherichia and Enterobacter genera. Bacterial level of resistance ...

  5. Deep far infrared ISOPHOT survey in "Selected Area 57" - I. Observations and source counts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linden-Vornle, M.J.D.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, Hans Ulrik; Jørgensen, H.E.

    2000-01-01

    We present here the results of a deep survey in a 0.4 deg(2) blank field in Selected Area 57 conducted with the ISOPHOT instrument aboard ESAs Infrared Space Observatory (ISO1) at both 60 mu m and 90 mu m. The resulting sky maps have a spatial resolution of 15 x 23 arcsrc(2) per pixel which is much...

  6. Wintertime aerosol chemical composition and source apportionment of the organic fraction in the metropolitan area of Paris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Crippa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of a post-industrial megacity on local and regional air quality was assessed via a month-long field measurement campaign in the Paris metropolitan area during winter 2010. Here we present source apportionment results from three aerosol mass spectrometers and two aethalometers deployed at three measurement stations within the Paris region. Submicron aerosol composition is dominated by the organic fraction (30–36% and nitrate (28–29%, with lower contributions from sulfate (14–16%, ammonium (12–14% and black carbon (7–13%.

    Organic source apportionment was performed using positive matrix factorization, resulting in a set of organic factors corresponding both to primary emission sources and secondary production. The dominant primary sources are traffic (11–15% of organic mass, biomass burning (13–15% and cooking (up to 35% during meal hours. Secondary organic aerosol contributes more than 50% to the total organic mass and includes a highly oxidized factor from indeterminate and/or diverse sources and a less oxidized factor related to wood burning emissions. Black carbon was apportioned to traffic and wood burning sources using a model based on wavelength-dependent light absorption of these two combustion sources. The time series of organic and black carbon factors from related sources were strongly correlated. The similarities in aerosol composition, total mass and temporal variation between the three sites suggest that particulate pollution in Paris is dominated by regional factors, and that the emissions from Paris itself have a relatively low impact on its surroundings.

  7. FreeSASA: An open source C library for solvent accessible surface area calculations [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Mitternacht

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Calculating solvent accessible surface areas (SASA is a run-of-the-mill calculation in structural biology. Although there are many programs available for this calculation, there are no free-standing, open-source tools designed for easy tool-chain integration. FreeSASA is an open source C library for SASA calculations that provides both command-line and Python interfaces in addition to its C API. The library implements both Lee and Richards’ and Shrake and Rupley’s approximations, and is highly configurable to allow the user to control molecular parameters, accuracy and output granularity. It only depends on standard C libraries and should therefore be easy to compile and install on any platform. The library is well-documented, stable and efficient. The command-line interface can easily replace closed source legacy programs, with comparable or better accuracy and speed, and with some added functionality.

  8. Sources of heavy metal pollution in agricultural soils of a rapidly industrializing area in the Yangtze Delta of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xianghua; Zhao, Yongcun; Zhao, Xiaoyan; Wang, Yudong; Deng, Wenjing

    2014-10-01

    The rapid industrialization and urbanization in developing countries have increased pollution by heavy metals, which is a concern for human health and the environment. In this study, 230 surface soil samples (0-20cm) were collected from agricultural areas of Jiaxing, a rapidly industrializing area in the Yangtze Delta of China. Sequential Gaussian simulation (SGS) and multivariate factorial kriging analysis (FKA) were used to identify and explore the sources of heavy metal pollution for eight metals (Cu, Zn, Pb, Cr, Ni, Cd, Hg and As). Localized hot-spots of pollution were identified for Cu, Zn, Pb, Cr, Ni and Cd with area percentages of 0.48 percent, 0.58 percent, 2.84 percent, 2.41 percent, 0.74 percent, and 0.68 percent, respectively. The areas with Hg pollution covered approximately 38 percent whereas no potential pollution risk was found for As. The soil parent material and point sources of pollution had significant influences on Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn and Cd levels, except for the influence of agricultural management practices also accounted for micro-scale variations (nugget effect) for Cu and Zn pollution. Short-range (4km) diffusion processes had a significant influence on Cu levels, although they did not appear to be the dominant sources of Zn and Cd variation. The short-range diffusion pollution arising from current and historic industrial emissions and urbanization, and long-range (33km) variations in soil parent materials and/or diffusion jointly determined the current concentrations of soil Pb. The sources of Hg pollution risk may be attributed to the atmosphere deposition of industrial emission and historical use of Hg-containing pesticides. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The Characteristics and Potential Source Area Analysis of PM2.5 Concentration for Zhengzhou during 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, D.; Liu, J.; Li, S.; Wang, C.; Zhou, S.

    2018-04-01

    This study used the HYSPLIT-4 model combined with cluster analysis, potential source pollution contribution functions and other methods to analyse the ground air pollution monitoring data and meteorological data in Zhengzhou during 2016. The results showed that: 1) the level of PM2.5 reached the low value in summer. The PM2.5 concentration reached the highest level in December and reached the lowest level in August. The daily variation characteristics of PM2.5 concentration in different seasons were roughly the same, and it had an obviously "double-peak" structure. 2) The annual PM2.5 concentration was positively correlated with atmospheric pressure and relative humidity. The annual PM2.5 concentration was negatively correlated with temperature, visibility, precipitation, and wind speed. 3) In winter, the air mass trajectory that through the northern Sichuan - Gansu - Shaanxi - Hubei was polluted seriously, and the level of PM2.5 was the highest which reached to 202.13 μg/m3. In summer, the air mass trajectory that came from Hubei was the lowest level with the value is 40.17 μg/m3. 4) The potential source areas located in northwest of Zhengzhou, Gansu, Hubei and Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region in spring. The surrounding of Zhengzhou contributed to the pollution of Zhengzhou. The potential source areas appeared in Shaanxi, Sichuan, and Qinghai, the border between Ningxia and Inner Mongolia in autumn. In winter the potential source areas located in Jiangsu, Hubei, Henan, eastern of Shanxi, southern of Shanxi, Ningxia and the area of Yellow Sea, etc.

  10. Evaluation of Residue Based Power Oscillation Damping Control of Inter-area Oscillations for Static Power Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adamczyk, Andrzej Grzegorz; Teodorescu, Remus; Iov, Florin

    2012-01-01

    Low frequency inter-area oscillations are known stability issue of large interconnected electrical grids. It was demonstrated that additional control loop can be applied for static power sources, like FACTS, HVDC or modern Wind Power Plants, to modulate their power output and successfully attenuate......, it is proposed to give more attention to additional indices like transfer function zero location and interactions between mode of interest and other system dynamics. Consequently, additional rules are proposed for residue based damping control design....

  11. Tracking the 10Be–26Al source-area signal in sediment-routing systems of arid central Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Struck

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Sediment-routing systems continuously transfer information and mass from eroding source areas to depositional sinks. Understanding how these systems alter environmental signals is critical when it comes to inferring source-area properties from the sedimentary record. We measure cosmogenic 10Be and 26Al along three large sediment-routing systems ( ∼  100 000 km2 in central Australia with the aim of tracking downstream variations in 10Be–26Al inventories and identifying the factors responsible for these variations. By comparing 56 new cosmogenic 10Be and 26Al measurements in stream sediments with matching data (n =  55 from source areas, we show that 10Be–26Al inventories in hillslope bedrock and soils set the benchmark for relative downstream modifications. Lithology is the primary determinant of erosion-rate variations in source areas and despite sediment mixing over hundreds of kilometres downstream, a distinct lithological signal is retained. Post-orogenic ranges yield catchment erosion rates of  ∼  6–11 m Myr−1 and silcrete-dominant areas erode as slow as  ∼  0.2 m Myr−1. 10Be–26Al inventories in stream sediments indicate that cumulative-burial terms increase downstream to mostly  ∼  400–800 kyr and up to  ∼  1.1 Myr. The magnitude of the burial signal correlates with increasing sediment cover downstream and reflects assimilation from storages with long exposure histories, such as alluvial fans, desert pavements, alluvial plains, and aeolian dunes. We propose that the tendency for large alluvial rivers to mask their 10Be–26Al source-area signal differs according to geomorphic setting. Signal preservation is favoured by (i high sediment supply rates, (ii high mean runoff, and (iii a thick sedimentary basin pile. Conversely, signal masking prevails in landscapes of (i low sediment supply and (ii juxtaposition of sediment storages with notably different exposure

  12. Sources of organic compounds in fine soil and sand particles during winter in the metropolitan area of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushdi, Ahmed I; Al-Mutlaq, Khalid; Simoneit, Bernd R T

    2005-11-01

    Major advances have been made in molecular marker analysis to distinguish between natural and anthropogenic organic matter inputs to the atmosphere. Resuspension of soil and sand by wind is one of the major mechanisms that produces particle dusts in the atmosphere. Soil and sand samples from the Riyadh area were collected in winter 2002, sieved to remove coarse particles and extracted with a mixture of dichloromethane and methanol (3:1, v:v). The total extracts were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in order to characterize the contents and identify the potential sources of the organic components. The major organic compounds of these extracts were derived from natural biogenic and anthropogenic sources. Organic compounds from natural sources, mainly vegetation, were major in samples from outside the city of Riyadh and included n-alkanes, n-alkanoic acids, n- alkanols, methyl alkanoates, and sterols. Anthropogenic inputs were significant in the fine particles of soil and sand samples collected from populated areas of the city. They consisted mainly of n-alkanes, hopanes, UCM (from vehicular emissions), and plasticizers (from discarded plastics, e.g., shopping bags). Carbohydrates had high concentrations in all samples and indicate sources from decomposed cellulose fibers and/or the presence of viable microbiota such as bacteria and fungi.

  13. Source-receptor probability of atmospheric long-distance dispersal of viruses to Israel from the eastern Mediterranean area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klausner, Z; Klement, E; Fattal, E

    2018-02-01

    Viruses that affect the health of humans and farm animals can spread over long distances via atmospheric mechanisms. The phenomenon of atmospheric long-distance dispersal (LDD) is associated with severe consequences because it may introduce pathogens into new areas. The introduction of new pathogens to Israel was attributed to LDD events numerous times. This provided the motivation for this study which is aimed to identify all the locations in the eastern Mediterranean that may serve as sources for pathogen incursion into Israel via LDD. This aim was achieved by calculating source-receptor relationship probability maps. These maps describe the probability that an infected vector or viral aerosol, once airborne, will have an atmospheric route that can transport it to a distant location. The resultant probability maps demonstrate a seasonal tendency in the probability of specific areas to serve as sources for pathogen LDD into Israel. Specifically, Cyprus' season is the summer; southern Turkey and the Greek islands of Crete, Karpathos and Rhodes are associated with spring and summer; lower Egypt and Jordan may serve as sources all year round, except the summer months. The method used in this study can easily be implemented to any other geographic region. The importance of this study is the ability to provide a climatologically valid and accurate risk assessment tool to support long-term decisions regarding preparatory actions for future outbreaks long before a specific outbreak occurs. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  14. Analysis of PAEs contaminants in water sources for agriculture, industrial and residential areas from local city district

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qidan; Chen, Qixian; Wu, Fei; Liao, Jia; Zhao, Xi

    2018-02-01

    The technology of DEHP and DBP detection by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with ultraviolet detection (HPLC-UV) was developed and applied in analysis of local water sources from agriculture, industrial and residential areas. Under the optimized sample pretreatment and detection conditions, DEHP and DBP were well separated and detected in 4 mins. The detection limit of DBP was 0.002 mg/L and DEHP was 0.006 mg/L, and it meets the Chinese National Standard limitations for drinking water quality. The linear correlation coefficient of DBP and DEHP standard calibration curves was 0.9998 and 0.9995. The linear range of DBP was 0.020 mg/L ∼20.0 mg/L, with the standard deviation of 0.560% ∼5.07%, and the linear range of DEHP was 0.060 mg/L ∼15.0 mg/L, with the standard deviation of 0.546% ∼5.74%. Ten water samples from Jinwan district of Zhuhai in Guangdong province of China were analyzed. However, the PAEs amounts found in the water sources from industrial areas were higher than the agriculture and residential areas, industries grow incredibly fast in the district in recently years and more attention should be paid to the increasing risks of water sources pollution.

  15. Aerosol composition and source apportionment in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area with PIXE/PESA/STIM and multivariate analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. S. Johnson

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Aerosols play an important role in the atmosphere but are poorly characterized, particularly in urban areas like the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA. The chemical composition of urban particles must be known to assess their effects on the environment, and specific particulate emissions sources should be identified to establish effective pollution control standards. For these reasons, samples of particulate matter ≤2.5 μm (PM2.5 were collected during the MCMA-2003 Field Campaign for elemental and multivariate analyses. Proton-Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE, Proton-Elastic Scattering Analysis (PESA and Scanning Transmission Ion Microscopy (STIM measurements were done to determine concentrations of 19 elements from Na to Pb, hydrogen, and total mass, respectively. The most abundant elements from PIXE analysis were S, Si, K, Fe, Ca, and Al, while the major emissions sources associated with these elements were industry, wind-blown soil, and biomass burning. Wind trajectories suggest that metals associated with industrial emissions came from northern areas of the city whereas soil aerosols came from the southwest and increased in concentration during dry conditions. Elemental markers for fuel oil combustion, V and Ni, correlated with a large SO2 plume to suggest an anthropogenic, rather than volcanic, emissions source. By subtracting major components of soil and sulfates determined by PIXE analysis from STIM total mass measurements, we estimate that approximately 50% of non-volatile PM2.5 consisted of carbonaceous material.

  16. Ecological risk assessment and source identification for heavy metals in surface sediment from the Liaohe River protected area, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Xin; Gui, Shaofeng; Huang, Hao; Zhang, Haijun; Wang, Chunyong; Guo, Wei

    2017-05-01

    Surface sediment samples collected from 19 sites in the Liaohe River protected area were analysed for heavy metals to evaluate their potential ecological risk. The results demonstrated that the degree of pollution from seven heavy metals decreases in the following sequence: cadmium(Cd)>arsenic(As)>copper(Cu)>nickel(Ni)>lead(Pb)>chromium(Cr)>zinc(Zn). The metal speciation analysis indicated that Cd, Pb and Zn were dominated by non-residual fractions and have high mobility and bioavailability, indicating significant anthropogenic sources. Based on the potential ecological risk index (PERI), geo-accumulation index (I geo ) and risk assessment code (RAC), Cd made the most dominant contribution, with a high to very high potential ecological risk being determined in this studied area. Moreover, in reference to the results of multivariate statistical analyses, we deduced that Cd and Zn originated from agriculture sources within the Liaohe River protected area, whereas Cu, Cr and Ni primarily originated from natural sources. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A modeling study of saltwater intrusion in the Andarax delta area using multiple data sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antonsson, Arni Valur; Engesgaard, Peter Knudegaard; Jorreto, Sara

    context. The validity of a conceptual model is determined by different factors, where both data quantity and quality is of crucial importance. Often, when dealing with saltwater intrusion, data is limited. Therefore, using different sources (and types) of data can be beneficial and increase......In groundwater model development, construction of the conceptual model is one of the (initial and) critical aspects that determines the model reliability and applicability in terms of e.g. system (hydrogeological) understanding, groundwater quality predictions, and general use in water resources...

  18. Source apportionment of atmospheric bulk deposition in the Belgrade urban area using Positive Matrix factorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasić, M.; Mijić, Z.; Rajšić, S.; Stojić, A.; Radenković, M.; Joksić, J.

    2009-04-01

    The primary objective of the present study was to assess anthropogenic impacts of heavy metals to the environment by determination of total atmospheric deposition of heavy metals. Atmospheric depositions (wet + dry) were collected monthly, from June 2002 to December 2006, at three urban locations in Belgrade, using bulk deposition samplers. Concentrations of Fe, Al, Pb, Zn, Cu, Ni, Mn, Cr, V, As and Cd were analyzed using atomic absorption spectrometry. Based upon these results, the study attempted to examine elemental associations in atmospheric deposition and to elucidate the potential sources of heavy metal contaminants in the region by the use of multivariate receptor model Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF).

  19. Source apportionment of atmospheric bulk deposition in the Belgrade urban area using Positive Matrix factorization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tasic, M; Mijic, Z; Rajsic, S; Stojic, A; Radenkovic, M; Joksic, J

    2009-01-01

    The primary objective of the present study was to assess anthropogenic impacts of heavy metals to the environment by determination of total atmospheric deposition of heavy metals. Atmospheric depositions (wet + dry) were collected monthly, from June 2002 to December 2006, at three urban locations in Belgrade, using bulk deposition samplers. Concentrations of Fe, Al, Pb, Zn, Cu, Ni, Mn, Cr, V, As and Cd were analyzed using atomic absorption spectrometry. Based upon these results, the study attempted to examine elemental associations in atmospheric deposition and to elucidate the potential sources of heavy metal contaminants in the region by the use of multivariate receptor model Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF).

  20. Origin of fecal contamination in waters from contrasted areas: Stanols as Microbial Source Tracking markers

    OpenAIRE

    Derrien, M.; Jarde, E.; Gruau, G.; Pourcher, A. M.; Gourmelon, Michele; Jadas-hecart, Alain; Wickmann, A. C. Pierson

    2012-01-01

    Improving the microbiological quality of coastal and river waters relies on the development of reliable markers that are capable of determining sources of fecal pollution. Recently, a principal component analysis (PCA) method based on six stanol compounds (i.e. 5 beta-cholestan-3 beta-ol (coprostanol), 5 beta-cholestan-3 alpha-ol (epicoprostanol), 24-methyl-5 alpha-cholestan-3 beta-ol (campestanol), 24-ethyl-5 alpha-cholestan-3 beta-ol (sitostanol), 24-ethyl-5 beta-cholestan-3 beta-ol (24-eth...

  1. Temporal sea-surface gravity changes observed near the source area prior to the 2011 Tohoku earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, T.; Tsuboi, S.

    2013-12-01

    Recent seismological studies suggested subsurface activities preceding the 2011 Tohoku earthquake; the occurrence of migration of seismicity (Kato et al., 2012) and slow slip events (Ito et al., 2013) in and around the source area one month before the mainshock. In this study, we investigated sea-surface gravity changes observed by the shipboard gravimeter mounted on research vessels before the mainshock. The vessels incidentally passed through the source area along almost the same cruise track twice, four months before and one month before the mainshock. Comparing the sea surface gravity in the former track with that in the latter after Bouguer correction, we find the gravity changes of approximately 7 mGal in coseismic slip areas near the trench axis during the three months. We find these gravity changes even in the crossing areas of the cruise tracks where seafloor topographies have no differences between the tracks. We also find that the topographic differences show positive changes but the gravity changes negative ones in other areas, which is a negative correlation inconsistent with the theoretical relationship between the topographic difference and the gravity change. These mean that the differences of seafloor topographies due to differences between the two cruise tracks are not main causes of the observed gravity changes there. The changes cannot also be explained by drifts of the gravimeter and geostrophic currents. Although we have not had any clear evidences, we speculate that the possible cause may be density increases around the seismogenic zone or uplifts of seafloor in order to explain the changes of this size. We estimate the density increases of 1.0 g/cm**3 in a disk with a radius of 40 km and a width of 200 m or the uplifts of several tens of meters in seafloor areas for the observed gravity changes. Our results indicate that sea-surface gravity observations may be one of valid approaches to monitor the approximate location of a possible great

  2. Variation in low food access areas due to data source inaccuracies

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Xiaoguang; Battersby, Sarah E.; Bell, Bethany A.; Hibbert, James D.; Barnes, Timothy L.; Liese, Angela D.

    2013-01-01

    Several spatial measures of community food access identifying so called “food deserts” have been developed based on geospatial information and commercially-available, secondary data listings of food retail outlets. It is not known how data inaccuracies influence the designation of Census tracts as areas of low access. This study replicated the U.S. Department of Agriculture Economic Research Service (USDA ERS) food desert measure and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) non-he...

  3. Analysis of heat source selection for residential buildings in rural areas

    OpenAIRE

    Szul Tomasz

    2018-01-01

    The research aiming to check whether the output of currently installed boilers matches the use requirements together with estimation of their energy efficiency was carried out on a group of 84 single-family residential buildings located in rural areas. Heating and hot water energy needs were calculated for each building in order to determine the use requirements. This enabled verification whether the currently installed boilers match the actual use requirements in the buildings. Based on the ...

  4. Impact of aerosol particle sources on optical properties in urban, regional and remote areas in the north-western Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ealo, Marina; Alastuey, Andrés; Pérez, Noemí; Ripoll, Anna; Querol, Xavier; Pandolfi, Marco

    2018-01-01

    Further research is needed to reduce the existing uncertainties on the effect that specific aerosol particle sources have on light extinction and consequently on climate. This study presents a new approach that aims to quantify the mass scattering and absorption efficiencies (MSEs and MAEs) of different aerosol sources at urban (Barcelona - BCN), regional (Montseny - MSY) and remote (Montsec - MSA) background sites in the north-western (NW) Mediterranean. An analysis of source apportionment to the measured multi-wavelength light scattering (σsp) and absorption (σap) coefficients was performed by means of a multilinear regression (MLR) model for the periods 2009-2014, 2010-2014 and 2011-2014 at BCN, MSY and MSA respectively. The source contributions to PM10 mass concentration, identified by means of the positive matrix factorization (PMF) model, were used as dependent variables in the MLR model. With this approach we addressed both the effect that aerosol sources have on air quality and their potential effect on light extinction through the determination of their MSEs and MAEs. An advantage of the presented approach is that the calculated MSEs and MAEs take into account the internal mixing of atmospheric particles. Seven aerosol sources were identified at MSA and MSY, and eight sources at BCN. Mineral, aged marine, secondary sulfate, secondary nitrate and V-Ni bearing sources were common at the three sites. Traffic, industrial/metallurgy and road dust resuspension sources were isolated at BCN, whereas mixed industrial/traffic and aged organics sources were identified at MSY and MSA. The highest MSEs were observed for secondary sulfate (4.5 and 10.7 m2 g-1, at MSY and MSA), secondary nitrate (8.8 and 7.8 m2 g-1) and V-Ni bearing source (8 and 3.5 m2 g-1). These sources dominated the scattering throughout the year with marked seasonal trends. The V-Ni bearing source, originating mainly from shipping in the area under study, simultaneously contributed to both

  5. Analysis of the Variability of Classified and Unclassified Radiological Source term Inventories in the Frenchman Flat Area, Nevada test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, P.; Zavarin, M.

    2008-01-01

    It has been proposed that unclassified source terms used in the reactive transport modeling investigations at NTS CAUs should be based on yield-weighted source terms calculated using the average source term from Bowen et al. (2001) and the unclassified announced yields reported in DOE/NV-209. This unclassified inventory is likely to be used in unclassified contaminant boundary calculations and is, thus, relevant to compare to the classified inventory. They have examined the classified radionuclide inventory produced by 10 underground nuclear tests conducted in the Frenchman Flat (FF) area of the Nevada Test Site. The goals were to (1) evaluate the variability in classified radiological source terms among the 10 tests and (2) compare that variability and inventory uncertainties to an average unclassified inventory (e.g. Bowen 2001). To evaluate source term variability among the 10 tests, radiological inventories were compared on two relative scales: geometric mean and yield-weighted geometric mean. Furthermore, radiological inventories were either decay corrected to a common date (9/23/1992) or the time zero (t 0 ) of each test. Thus, a total of four data sets were produced. The date of 9/23/1992 was chosen based on the date of the last underground nuclear test at the Nevada Test Site

  6. An integrated and open source GIS environmental management system for a protected area in the south of Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teodoro, A.; Duarte, L.; Sillero, N.; Gonçalves, J. A.; Fonte, J.; Gonçalves-Seco, L.; Pinheiro da Luz, L. M.; dos Santos Beja, N. M. R.

    2015-10-01

    Herdade da Contenda (HC), located in Moura municipality, Beja district (Alentejo province) in the south of Portugal (southwestern Iberia Peninsula), is a national hunting area with 5270ha. The development of an integrated system that aims to make the management of the natural and cultural heritage resources will be very useful for an effective management of this area. This integrated system should include the physical characterization of the territory, natural conservation, land use and land management themes, as well the cultural heritage resources. This paper presents a new tool for an integrated environmental management system of the HC, which aims to produce maps under a GIS open source environment (QGIS). The application is composed by a single button which opens a window. The window is composed by twelve menus (File, DRASTIC, Forest Fire Risk, Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE), Bioclimatic Index, Cultural Heritage, Fauna and Flora, Ortofoto, Normalizes Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Digital Elevation Model (DEM), Land Use Land Cover Cover (LULC) and Help. Several inputs are requires to generate these maps, e.g. DEM, geologic information, soil map, hydraulic conductivity information, LULC map, vulnerability and economic information, NDVI. Six buttons were added to the toolbar which allows to manipulate the information in the map canvas: Zoom in, Zoom out, Pan, Print/Layout and Clear. This integrated and open source GIS environment management system was developed for the HC area, but could be easily adapted to other natural or protected area. Despite the lack of data, the methodology presented fulfills the objectives.

  7. Occurrence and sources of natural and anthropogenic lipid tracers in surface soils from arid urban areas of Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rushdi, Ahmed I.; Al-Mutlaq, Khalid F.; El-Mubarak, Aarif H.; Al-Saleh, Mohammed A.; El-Otaibi, Mubarak T.; Ibrahim, Sami M.M.; Simoneit, Bernd R.T.

    2016-01-01

    Soil particles contain a variety of natural and anthropogenic organic components, and in urban areas can be considered as local collectors of pollutants. Surface soil samples were taken from ten urban areas in Riyadh during early winter of 2007. They were extracted with dichloromethane-methanol mixture and the extracts were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The major compounds were unresolved complex mixture (UCM), plasticizers, n-alkanes, carbohydrates, n-alkanoic acids, hopanes, n-alkanols, and sterols. Vegetation detritus was the major natural source of organic compounds (24.0 ± 15.7%) in samples from areas with less human activities and included n-alkanes, n-alkanoic acids, n-alkanols, sterols and carbohydrates. Vehicular emission products and discarded plastics were the major anthropogenic sources in the soil particles (53.3 ± 21.3% and 22.7 ± 10.7%, respectively). The anthropogenic tracers were UCM, plasticizers, n-alkanes, hopanes and traces of steranes. Vegetation and human activities control the occurrence and distribution of natural and anthropogenic extractable organic matter in this arid urban area. - Highlights: • Human activities influence the distribution of EOM in soils of urban arid regions. • Petroleum residues and plastics are the dominant anthropogenic input. • Low soil organic matter and moisture limit microbial/fungal alteration. - This work shows that human activities are critical factors that influence the characteristics and distribution of EOM in soils of arid urban regions.

  8. Occurrence and sources of natural and anthropogenic lipid tracers in surface soils from arid urban areas of Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushdi, Ahmed I; Al-Mutlaq, Khalid F; El-Mubarak, Aarif H; Al-Saleh, Mohammed A; El-Otaibi, Mubarak T; Ibrahim, Sami M M; Simoneit, Bernd R T

    2016-01-01

    Soil particles contain a variety of natural and anthropogenic organic components, and in urban areas can be considered as local collectors of pollutants. Surface soil samples were taken from ten urban areas in Riyadh during early winter of 2007. They were extracted with dichloromethane-methanol mixture and the extracts were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The major compounds were unresolved complex mixture (UCM), plasticizers, n-alkanes, carbohydrates, n-alkanoic acids, hopanes, n-alkanols, and sterols. Vegetation detritus was the major natural source of organic compounds (24.0 ± 15.7%) in samples from areas with less human activities and included n-alkanes, n-alkanoic acids, n-alkanols, sterols and carbohydrates. Vehicular emission products and discarded plastics were the major anthropogenic sources in the soil particles (53.3 ± 21.3% and 22.7 ± 10.7%, respectively). The anthropogenic tracers were UCM, plasticizers, n-alkanes, hopanes and traces of steranes. Vegetation and human activities control the occurrence and distribution of natural and anthropogenic extractable organic matter in this arid urban area. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Using Simulated Ground Motions to Constrain Near-Source Ground Motion Prediction Equations in Areas Experiencing Induced Seismicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bydlon, S. A.; Dunham, E. M.

    2016-12-01

    Recent increases in seismic activity in historically quiescent areas such as Oklahoma, Texas, and Arkansas, including large, potentially induced events such as the 2011 Mw 5.6 Prague, OK, earthquake, have spurred the need for investigation into expected ground motions associated with these seismic sources. The neoteric nature of this seismicity increase corresponds to a scarcity of ground motion recordings within 50 km of earthquakes Mw 3.0 and greater, with increasing scarcity at larger magnitudes. Gathering additional near-source ground motion data will help better constraints on regional ground motion prediction equations (GMPEs) and will happen over time, but this leaves open the possibility of damaging earthquakes occurring before potential ground shaking and seismic hazard in these areas are properly understood. To aid the effort of constraining near-source GMPEs associated with induced seismicity, we integrate synthetic ground motion data from simulated earthquakes into the process. Using the dynamic rupture and seismic wave propagation code waveqlab3d, we perform verification and validation exercises intended to establish confidence in simulated ground motions for use in constraining GMPEs. We verify the accuracy of our ground motion simulator by performing the PEER/SCEC layer-over-halfspace comparison problem LOH.1 Validation exercises to ensure that we are synthesizing realistic ground motion data include comparisons to recorded ground motions for specific earthquakes in target areas of Oklahoma between Mw 3.0 and 4.0. Using a 3D velocity structure that includes a 1D structure with additional small-scale heterogeneity, the properties of which are based on well-log data from Oklahoma, we perform ground motion simulations of small (Mw 3.0 - 4.0) earthquakes using point moment tensor sources. We use the resulting synthetic ground motion data to develop GMPEs for small earthquakes in Oklahoma. Preliminary results indicate that ground motions can be amplified

  10. Luminescence of quartz and feldspar fingerprints provenance and correlates with the source area denudation in the Amazon River basin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sawakuchi, A.O.; Jain, M.; Mineli, T.D.

    2018-01-01

    The Amazon region hosts the world's largest watershed spanning from high elevation Andean terrains to lowland cratonic shield areas in tropical South America. This study explores variations in optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and infrared stimulated luminescence (IRSL) signals in suspended...... silt and riverbed sands retrieved from major Amazon rivers. These rivers drain Pre-Cambrian to Cenozoic source rocks in areas with contrasting denudation rates. In contrast to the previous studies, we do not observe an increase in the OSL sensitivity of quartz with transport distance; for example...... shield areas (denudation rate ξ=0.04 mmyr−1), while low sensitivity quartz occurs in less stable Andean terrains (ξ=0.24 mmyr−1). An apparent linear correlation between quartz OSL sensitivity and denudation rate suggests that OSL sensitivity may be used as a proxy for erosion rates in the Amazon basin...

  11. Large-Eddy Simulation of Chemically Reactive Pollutant Transport from a Point Source in Urban Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Tangzheng; Liu, Chun-Ho

    2013-04-01

    Most air pollutants are chemically reactive so using inert scalar as the tracer in pollutant dispersion modelling would often overlook their impact on urban inhabitants. In this study, large-eddy simulation (LES) is used to examine the plume dispersion of chemically reactive pollutants in a hypothetical atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) in neutral stratification. The irreversible chemistry mechanism of ozone (O3) titration is integrated into the LES model. Nitric oxide (NO) is emitted from an elevated point source in a rectangular spatial domain doped with O3. The LES results are compared well with the wind tunnel results available in literature. Afterwards, the LES model is applied to idealized two-dimensional (2D) street canyons of unity aspect ratio to study the behaviours of chemically reactive plume over idealized urban roughness. The relation among various time scales of reaction/turbulence and dimensionless number are analysed.

  12. RANS modeling of scalar dispersion from localized sources within a simplified urban-area model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Riccardo; Capra, Stefano; Iaccarino, Gianluca

    2011-11-01

    The dispersion of a passive scalar downstream a localized source within a simplified urban-like geometry is examined by means of RANS scalar flux models. The computations are conducted under conditions of neutral stability and for three different incoming wind directions (0°, 45°, 90°) at a roughness Reynolds number of Ret = 391. A Reynolds stress transport model is used to close the flow governing equations whereas both the standard eddy-diffusivity closure and algebraic flux models are employed to close the transport equation for the passive scalar. The comparison with a DNS database shows improved reliability from algebraic scalar flux models towards predicting both the mean concentration and the plume structure. Since algebraic flux models do not increase substantially the computational effort, the results indicate that the use of tensorial-diffusivity can be promising tool for dispersion simulations for the urban environment.

  13. Examination Of The Physicochemical Characteristics Of Domestic Water Sources In Ebonyi Local Government Area Of Ebonyi State Nigeria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nwidembia

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Lack of good drinking water due to contamination by chemicals has been a global menace. It is one of the most serious environmental problems that have greatly impacted human health. Basic quality parameters of domestic water sources in Ebonyi Local Government Area were studied in the months of September 2014 and October 2014. Samples were randomly collected from common water sources well stream borehole and pond across four communities in the Local Government Area. The physicochemical characteristics of the collected water samples were investigated using standard procedures. The results showed mean pH values of 7.3 7.8 6.8 and 7.0 for well stream borehole and pond water samples respectively. The colour examination showed 13 HU 11 HU 13 HU and 16 HU for well stream borehole and pond water samples respectively. The turbidity were recorded as 103 NTU well 90 NTU stream 0.8 NTU borehole and 92 NTU pond. Total dissolved solids TDS showed a record of 595 mgL 386mgL 76 mgL and 563 mgL for well stream borehole and pond respectively. Well water recorded 78 mgL stream 112 mgL borehole 42 mgL and pond 795 mgL for Total Suspended Solids respectively. Also the total hardness showed 525 mgL 779 mgL 44 mgL and 837 mgL for well stream borehole and pond water samples respectively. The results show that most of the common sources of water in the studied areas are not good for drinking since the physicochemical variables evaluated mostly exceeded WHO permissible limits. We therefore recommend that water treatment should be paramount as alternative sources of drinking water in the communities should be considered.

  14. Environmental isotopes, chemical composition and groundwater sources in Al-Maghara area, Sinai, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nada, A.A.; Awad, M.A.; Froehlich, K.; El Behery, M.

    1991-01-01

    Groundwater samples collected from a number of localities, in Al-Maghara area, north central part of Sinai, were subject to various chemical and isotopic analysis. The purpose of the study is to determine whether the groundwaters are recently recharged or not in order to adopt an efficient water management policy. The hydrochemical results indicate that they are mainly of primary marine origin, dilution of this water by meteoric water changes its chemical composition to be mixed water type, which has the major chemical components: KCl, NaCl, Na 2 SO 4 , MgSO 4 , Mg(HCO 3 ) 2 and Ca(HCO 3 ) 2 . The tritium content confirm the meteoric water recharge recently especially for wells with high tritium content. The stable environmental isotopic composition of the groundwater reflects the isotopic composition of precipitation and flooding with some evaporation enrichment prior to infiltration. There is also mixing with palaeowater (water recharge in the past cooler climate periods), by leaking through faulting in the area. (orig.) [de

  15. Use of lichen fumigation studies to evaluate the effects of new emission sources on class I areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, R.; Webb, P.G.; Biggs, R.H.; Portier, K.M.

    1988-01-01

    Allowable increments of SO 2 from new emission sources near Class I areas are severely limited by the PSD provisions of the Clean Air Act, unless the applicant can prove that the expected emissions will not adversely affect the air quality related values of Class I area. Lichens are considered to be the resource that is most sensitive to SO 2 . If projected concentrations will not injure lichens, other resources should not be affected. Four lichen species native to two Class I area, Cape Romain National Wildlife Refuge and Everglades National Park, were fumigated in the laboratory with SO 2 doses that simulated the frequencies, duration, and concentrations expected from potential new sources. Lichens from Cape Romain were fumigated with 240 μg/m 3 , 400 μg/m 3 , and ambient air 3 hours/week for 6 weeks. No differences in biomass gain, percent electrolyte leakage in solution (an indicator of membrane damage) or 14 CO 2 assimilation were observed among treatments. Lichens from Everglades National Park were fumigated with 100 μg/m 3 , 200 μg/m 3 , 400 μg/m 3 , and ambient air 6 hours/week for 10 weeks. Percent electrolyte leakage of Parmotrema tinctorum was greater at the two high concentrations, but there was no significant effect on biomass gain or 14 CO 2 assimilation. Percent electrolyte leakage increased and biomass gain and 14 CO 2 assimilation decreased in Ramalina denticulata at 400 μg/m 3 SO 2 in comparison with lower concentrations. Studies of fumigation effects on lichens are a useful technique for the evaluation of impacts of emission sources on air quality related values in Class I areas

  16. Sources of Nutrients to Nearshore Areas of a Eutrophic Estuary: Implications for Nutrient-Enhanced Acidification in Puget Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacella, S. R.

    2016-02-01

    Ocean acidification has recently been highlighted as a major stressor for coastal organisms. Further work is needed to assess the role of anthropogenic nutrient additions in eutrophied systems on local biological processes, and how this interacts with CO2 emission-driven acidification. This study sought to distinguish changes in pH caused by natural versus anthropogenically affected processes. We quantified the variability in water column pH attributable to primary production and respiration fueled by anthropogenically derived nitrogen in a shallow nearshore area. Two study sites were located in shallow subtidal areas of the Snohomish River estuary, a eutrophic system located in central Puget Sound, Washington. These sites were chosen due to the presence of heavy agricultural activity, urbanized areas with associated waste water treatment, as well as influence from deep, high CO2 marine waters transported through the Strait of Juan de Fuca and upwelled into the area during spring and summer. Data was collected from July-December 2015 utilizing continuous moorings and discrete water column sampling. Analysis of stable isotopes, δ15N, δ18O-NO3, δ15N-NH4, was used to estimate the relative contributions of anthropogenic versus upwelled marine nitrogen sources. Continuous monitoring of pH, dissolved oxygen, temperature, and salinity was conducted at both study sites to link changes in nutrient source and availability with changes in pH. We predicted that isotope data would indicate greater contributions of nitrogen from agriculture and wastewater rather than upwelling in the shallow, nearshore study sites. This study seeks to distinguish the relative magnitude of pH change stimulated by anthropogenic versus natural sources of nitrogen to inform public policy decisions in critically important nearshore ecosystems.

  17. The effect of the novel internal-type linear inductive antenna for large area magnetized inductive plasma source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S. H.; Shulika, Olga.; Kim, K. N.; Yeom, G. Y.; Lee, J. K.

    2004-09-01

    As the technology of plasma processing progresses, there is a continuing demand for higher plasma density, uniformity over large areas and greater control over plasma parameters to optimize the processes of etching, deposition and surface treatment. Traditionally, the external planar ICP sources with low pressure high density plasma have limited scale-up capabilities due to its high impedance accompanied by the large antenna size. Also due to the cost and thickness of their dielectric material in order to generate uniform plasma. In this study the novel internal-type linear inductive antenna system (1,020mm¡¿830mm¡¿437mm) with permanent magnet arrays are investigated to improve both the plasma density and the uniformity of LAPS (Large Area Plasma Source) for FPD processing. Generally plasma discharges are enhanced because the inductance of the novel antenna (termed as the double comb antenna) is lower than that of the serpentine-type antenna and also the magnetic confinement of electron increases the power absorption efficiency. The uniformity is improved by reducing the standing wave effect. The total length of antenna is comparable to the driving rf wavelength to cause the plasma nonuniformity. To describe the discharge phenomenon we have developed a magnetized two-dimensional fluid simulation. This work was supported by National Research Laboratory (NRL) Program of the Korea Ministry of Science and Technology. [References] 1. J.K.Lee, Lin Meng, Y.K.Shin, H,J,Lee and T.H.Chung, ¡°Modeling and Simulation of a Large-Area Plasma Source¡±, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Vol.36(1997) pp. 5714-5723 2. S.E.Park, B.U.Cho, Y.J.Lee*, and G.Y.Yeom*, and J.K.Lee, ¡°The Characteristics of Large Area Processing Plasmas¡±, IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci., Vol.31 ,No.4(2003) pp. 628-637

  18. Quantifying the influence of sediment source area sampling on detrital thermochronometer data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whipp, D. M., Jr.; Ehlers, T. A.; Coutand, I.; Bookhagen, B.

    2014-12-01

    Detrital thermochronology offers a unique advantage over traditional bedrock thermochronology because of its sensitivity to sediment production and transportation to sample sites. In mountainous regions, modern fluvial sediment is often collected and dated to determine the past (105 to >107 year) exhumation history of the upstream drainage area. Though potentially powerful, the interpretation of detrital thermochronometer data derived from modern fluvial sediment is challenging because of spatial and temporal variations in sediment production and transport, and target mineral concentrations. Thermochronometer age prediction models provide a quantitative basis for data interpretation, but it can be difficult to separate variations in catchment bedrock ages from the effects of variable basin denudation and sediment transport. We present two examples of quantitative data interpretation using detrital thermochronometer data from the Himalaya, focusing on the influence of spatial and temporal variations in basin denudation on predicted age distributions. We combine age predictions from the 3D thermokinematic numerical model Pecube with simple models for sediment sampling in the upstream drainage basin area to assess the influence of variations in sediment production by different geomorphic processes or scaled by topographic metrics. We first consider a small catchment from the central Himalaya where bedrock landsliding appears to have affected the observed muscovite 40Ar/39Ar age distributions. Using a simple model of random landsliding with a power-law landslide frequency-area relationship we find that the sediment residence time in the catchment has a major influence on predicted age distributions. In the second case, we compare observed detrital apatite fission-track age distributions from 16 catchments in the Bhutan Himalaya to ages predicted using Pecube and scaled by various topographic metrics. Preliminary results suggest that predicted age distributions scaled

  19. Distribution patterns and sources of metals and PAHs in an intensely urbanized area: The Acerra-Pomigliano-Marigliano conurbation (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albanese, Stefano; Lima, Annamaria; Rezza, Carmela; Ferullo, Giampiero; De Vivo, Benedetto; Chen, Wei; Qi, Shihua

    2014-05-01

    agricultural intensive land use. PAHs distribution pattern showed anomalous values across the whole study area. Especially, Benzo[a]pyrene values exceeds the trigger limits established by the Italian Environmental law (D.Lgs. 152/2006) in most of the analyzed soils and the diagnostic ratios calculated among several PAHs compounds suggested that the biomass burning in the rural sector of the study area could be a relevant source of pollution. The palm oil fuelled power plant in the northern sector of Acerra could not be excluded as a source of PAHs in the environment. [1] Albanese et al (2007) JGE 93, 21-34. [2] Cicchella et al (2008) GEEA 8 (1), 19-29. [3] De Vivo et al (2006) Aracne Editrice, Roma. 324 pp.

  20. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in a large South American industrial coastal area (Santos Estuary, Southeastern Brazil): Sources and depositional history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, Cesar C.; Bicego, Marcia C.; Mahiques, Michel M.; Figueira, Rubens C.L.; Tessler, Moyses G.; Montone, Rosalinda C.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → In early 1980s, Santos Estuary became known as one of the worst polluted in the world. → PAHs levels were similar to the values reported for marine sediments worldwide. → PAHs analyses indicated multiple sources of these compounds (oil and pyrolitic origin). → The decline of oil consumption due to the world oil crisis (late 1970s) was shown. → The input of organic pollutants is a historical problem for the Santos Estuary. - Abstract: Located in southeastern Brazil, the Santos Estuary has the most important industrial and urban population area of South America. Since the 1950's, increased urbanization and industrialization near the estuary margins has caused the degradation of mangroves and has increased the discharge of sewage and industrial effluents. The main objectives of this work were to determine the concentrations and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sediment cores in order to investigate the input of these substances in the last 50 years. The PAHs analyses indicated multiple sources of these compounds (oil and pyrolitic origin), basically anthropogenic contributions from biomass, coal and fossil fuels combustion. The distribution of PAHs in the cores was associated with the formation and development of Cubatao industrial complex and the Santos harbour, waste disposal, world oil crisis and the pollution control program, which results in the decrease of organic pollutants input in this area.

  1. Water Sources and Their Protection from the Impact of Microbial Contamination in Rural Areas of Beijing, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hairong Li

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial contamination of drinking water is a major public health problem in rural China. To explore bacterial contamination in rural areas of Beijing and identify possible causes of bacteria in drinking water samples, water samples were collected from wells in ten rural districts of Beijing, China. Total bacterial count, total coliforms and Escherichia coli in drinking water were then determined and water source and wellhead protection were investigated. The bacterial contamination in drinking water was serious in areas north of Beijing, with the total bacterial count, total coliforms and Escherichia coli in some water samples reaching 88,000 CFU/mL, 1,600 MPN/100 mL and 1,600 MPN/100 mL, respectively. Water source types, well depth, whether the well was adequately sealed and housed, and whether wellhead is above or below ground were the main factors influencing bacterial contamination levels in drinking water. The bacterial contamination was serious in the water of shallow wells and wells that were not closed, had no well housing or had a wellhead below ground level. The contamination sources around wells, including village dry toilets and livestock farms, were well correlated with bacterial contamination. Total bacterial counts were affected by proximity to sewage ditches and polluting industries, however, proximity to landfills did not influence the microbial indicators.

  2. Sources of dietary iodine: bread, cows' milk, and infant formula in the Boston area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Elizabeth N; Pino, Sam; He, Xuemei; Bazrafshan, Hamid R; Lee, Stephanie L; Braverman, Lewis E

    2004-07-01

    Dietary iodine is essential for thyroid hormone production. Although U.S. dietary iodine is generally adequate, some groups, especially women of childbearing age, are at risk for mild iodine deficiency. Children's average urinary iodine is higher than that of adults. U.S. dietary iodine sources have not been assessed recently. A survey of iodine content in 20 brands of bread, 18 brands of cows' milk, and eight infant formulae was performed between 2001 and 2002. Three bread varieties contained more than 300 microg iodine per slice. Iodine content in other brands was far lower (mean +/- sd, 10.1 +/- 13.2 microg iodine/slice). All cows' milk samples had at least 88 microg iodine/250 ml, ranging from 88-168 microg (116.0 +/- 22.1 microg/250 ml). Infant formulae values ranged from 16.2 to 56.8 microg iodine/5 oz (23.5 +/- 13.78 microg/5 oz). The public should be aware of the need for adequate dietary iodine intake and should be aware that ingredient lists do not reflect the iodine content of foods.

  3. Source-receptor relationships for speciated atmospheric mercury at the remote Experimental Lakes Area, northwestern Ontario, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Cheng

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Source-receptor relationships for speciated atmospheric mercury measured at the Experimental Lakes Area (ELA, northwestern Ontario, Canada were investigated using various receptor-based approaches. The data used in this study include gaseous elemental mercury (GEM, mercury bound to fine airborne particles (<2.5 μm (PHg, reactive gaseous mercury (RGM, major inorganic ions, sulphur dioxide, nitric acid gas, ozone, and meteorological variables, all of which were measured between May 2005 and December 2006. The source origins identified were related to transport of industrial and combustion emissions (associated with elevated GEM, photochemical production of RGM (associated with elevated RGM, road-salt particles with absorption of gaseous Hg (associated with elevated PHg and RGM, crustal/soil emissions, and background pollution. Back trajectory modelling illustrated that a remote site, like ELA, is affected by distant Hg point sources in Canada and the United States. The sources identified from correlation analysis, principal components analysis and K-means cluster analysis were generally consistent. The discrepancies between the K-means and Hierarchical cluster analysis were the clusters related to transport of industrial/combustion emissions, photochemical production of RGM, and crustal/soil emissions. Although it was possible to assign the clusters to these source origins, the trajectory plots for the Hierarchical clusters were similar to some of the trajectories belonging to several K-means clusters. This likely occurred because the variables indicative of transport of industrial/combustion emissions were elevated in at least two or more of the clusters, which means this Hg source was well-represented in the data.

  4. Radiocarbon Analysis to Calculate New End-Member Values for Biomass Burning Source Samples Specific to the Bay Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, S.; Kirchstetter, T.; Fairley, D.; Sheesley, R. J.; Tang, X.

    2017-12-01

    Elemental carbon (EC), also known as black carbon or soot, is an important particulate air pollutant that contributes to climate forcing through absorption of solar radiation and to adverse human health impacts through inhalation. Both fossil fuel combustion and biomass burning, via residential firewood burning, agricultural burning, wild fires, and controlled burns, are significant sources of EC. Our ability to successfully control ambient EC concentrations requires understanding the contribution of these different emission sources. Radiocarbon (14C) analysis has been increasingly used as an apportionment tool to distinguish between EC from fossil fuel and biomass combustion sources. However, there are uncertainties associated with this method including: 1) uncertainty associated with the isolation of EC to be used for radiocarbon analysis (e.g., inclusion of organic carbon, blank contamination, recovery of EC, etc.) 2) uncertainty associated with the radiocarbon signature of the end member. The objective of this research project is to utilize laboratory experiments to evaluate some of these uncertainties, particularly for EC sources that significantly impact the San Francisco Bay Area. Source samples of EC only and a mix of EC and organic carbon (OC) were produced for this study to represent known emission sources and to approximate the mixing of EC and OC that would be present in the atmosphere. These samples include a combination of methane flame soot, various wood smoke samples (i.e. cedar, oak, sugar pine, pine at various ages, etc.), meat cooking, and smoldering cellulose smoke. EC fractions were isolated using a Sunset Laboratory's thermal optical transmittance carbon analyzer. For 14C analysis, samples were sent to Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution for isotope analysis using an accelerated mass spectrometry. End member values and uncertainties for the EC isolation utilizing this method will be reported.

  5. Greenhouse Gas Source Detection and Attribution in the San Francisco Bay Area of California Using a Mobile Measurement Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martien, P. T.; Guha, A.; Newman, S.; Young, A.; Bower, J.; Perkins, I.; Randall, S.; Stevenson, E.; Hilken, H.

    2017-12-01

    The Bay Area Air Quality Management District, the San Francisco Bay Area's air quality regulatory agency, has set a goal to reduce the region's greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions 80% below 1990 levels by 2050, consistent with the State of California's climate goals. Recently, the Air District's governing board adopted a 2017 Clean Air Plan advancing the agency's vision and including actions to put the region on a path to achieving the 2050 goal while also reducing air pollution and related health impacts. The Plan includes GHG rule-making efforts, policy initiatives, local government partnerships, outreach, grants and incentives, encompassing over 250 specific implementation actions across all economic sectors to effect ambitious emission reductions in the region. To support the 2017 Plan, the Air District has built a mobile measurement platform (GHG research van) to perform targeted CH4 emissions hotspot detection and source attribution. Instruments in the van measure CH4, CO2 and N2O in ambient plumes. Coincident measurements of source tracers like isotopic methane (13C - CH4), CO and ethane (C2H6) provide the capability to distinguish between biogenic, combustion-based and fossil-based fugitive methane sources. We report observations of CH4 plumes from source-specific measurements in and around facilities including a wastewater treatment plant, a composting operation, a waste-to-energy anaerobic digestion plant and a few refineries. We performed leak surveys inside several electric utility-operated facilities including a power plant and an underground natural gas storage facility. We sampled exhaust from a roadway tunnel and computed fleet-averaged automobile-related CH4 and N2O emission factors. We used tracer-to-tracer emission ratios to create chemical signatures of emissions from each sampled source category. We compare measurement-based ratios with those used to derive the regional GHG inventory. Data from these and other sources will lead to an improved

  6. Automatic generation control of multi-area power systems with diverse energy sources using Teaching Learning Based Optimization algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabindra Kumar Sahu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design and analysis of Proportional-Integral-Double Derivative (PIDD controller for Automatic Generation Control (AGC of multi-area power systems with diverse energy sources using Teaching Learning Based Optimization (TLBO algorithm. At first, a two-area reheat thermal power system with appropriate Generation Rate Constraint (GRC is considered. The design problem is formulated as an optimization problem and TLBO is employed to optimize the parameters of the PIDD controller. The superiority of the proposed TLBO based PIDD controller has been demonstrated by comparing the results with recently published optimization technique such as hybrid Firefly Algorithm and Pattern Search (hFA-PS, Firefly Algorithm (FA, Bacteria Foraging Optimization Algorithm (BFOA, Genetic Algorithm (GA and conventional Ziegler Nichols (ZN for the same interconnected power system. Also, the proposed approach has been extended to two-area power system with diverse sources of generation like thermal, hydro, wind and diesel units. The system model includes boiler dynamics, GRC and Governor Dead Band (GDB non-linearity. It is observed from simulation results that the performance of the proposed approach provides better dynamic responses by comparing the results with recently published in the literature. Further, the study is extended to a three unequal-area thermal power system with different controllers in each area and the results are compared with published FA optimized PID controller for the same system under study. Finally, sensitivity analysis is performed by varying the system parameters and operating load conditions in the range of ±25% from their nominal values to test the robustness.

  7. Modeling strategy of the source and sink terms in the two-group interfacial area transport equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Mamoru; Sun Xiaodong; Kim, Seungjin

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents the general strategy for modeling the source and sink terms in the two-group interfacial area transport equation. The two-group transport equation is applicable in bubbly, cap bubbly, slug, and churn-turbulent flow regimes to predict the change of the interfacial area concentration. This dynamic approach has an advantage of flow regime-independence over the conventional empirical correlation approach for the interfacial area concentration in the applications with the two-fluid model. In the two-group interfacial area transport equation, bubbles are categorized into two groups: spherical/distorted bubbles as Group 1 and cap/slug/churn-turbulent bubbles as Group 2. Thus, two sets of equations are used to describe the generation and destruction rates of bubble number density, void fraction, and interfacial area concentration for the two groups of bubbles due to bubble expansion and compression, coalescence and disintegration, and phase change. Based upon a detailed literature review of the research on the bubble interactions, five major bubble interaction mechanisms are identified for the gas-liquid two-phase flow of interest. A systematic integral approach, in which the significant variations of bubble volume and shape are accounted for, is suggested for the modeling of two-group bubble interactions. To obtain analytical forms for the various bubble interactions, a simplification is made for the bubble number density distribution function

  8. Model of complex integrated use of alternative energy sources for highly urbanized areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanova Elena Ivanovna

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The increase of population and continuous development of highly urbanized territories poses new challenges to experts in the field of energy saving technologies. Only a multifunctional and autonomous system of building engineering equipment formed by the principles of energy efficiency and cost-effectiveness meets the needs of modern urban environment. Alternative energy sources, exploiting the principle of converting thermal energy into electrical power, show lack of efficiency, so it appears to be necessary for reaching a visible progress to skip this middle step. A fuel cell, converting chemical energy straight into electricity, and offering a vast diversity of both fuel types and oxidizing agents, gives a strong base for designing a complex integrated system. Regarding the results of analysis and comparison conducted among the most types of fuel cells proposed by contemporary scholars, a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC is approved to be able to ensure the smooth operation of such a system. While the advantages of this device meet the requirements of engineering equipment for modern civil and, especially, dwelling architecture, its drawbacks do not contradict with the operating regime of the proposed system. The article introduces a model of a multifunctional system based on solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC and not only covering the energy demand of a particular building, but also providing the opportunity for proper and economical operation of several additional sub-systems. Air heating and water cooling equipment, ventilating and conditioning devices, the circle of water supply and preparation of water discharge for external use (e.g. agricultural needs included into a closed circuit of the integrated system allow evaluating it as a promising model of further implementation of energy saving technologies into architectural and building practice. This, consequently, will positively affect both ecological and economic development of urban environment.

  9. Seismic velocity structure and microearthquake source properties at The Geysers, California, geothermal area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Connell, D.R.

    1986-12-01

    The method of progressive hypocenter-velocity inversion has been extended to incorporate S-wave arrival time data and to estimate S-wave velocities in addition to P-wave velocities. S-wave data to progressive inversion does not completely eliminate hypocenter-velocity tradeoffs, but they are substantially reduced. Results of a P and S-wave progressive hypocenter-velocity inversion at The Geysers show that the top of the steam reservoir is clearly defined by a large decrease of V/sub p//V/sub s/ at the condensation zone-production zone contact. The depth interval of maximum steam production coincides with minimum observed V/sub p//V/sub s/, and V/sub p//V/sub s/ increses below the shallow primary production zone suggesting that reservoir rock becomes more fluid saturated. The moment tensor inversion method was applied to three microearthquakes at The Geysers. Estimated principal stress orientations were comparable to those estimated using P-wave firstmotions as constraints. Well constrained principal stress orientations were obtained for one event for which the 17 P-first motions could not distinguish between normal-slip and strike-slip mechanisms. The moment tensor estimates of principal stress orientations were obtained using far fewer stations than required for first-motion focal mechanism solutions. The three focal mechanisms obtained here support the hypothesis that focal mechanisms are a function of depth at The Geysers. Progressive inversion as developed here and the moment tensor inversion method provide a complete approach for determining earthquake locations, P and S-wave velocity structure, and earthquake source mechanisms.

  10. Chemical mass balance source apportionment of TSP in a lignite-burning area of Western Macedonia, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samara, Constantini

    Total suspended particle mass concentrations (TSP) were determined in the Kozani-Ptolemais-Florina basin (western Macedonia, Greece), an area with intensive lignite burning for power generation. The study was conducted over a 1-year period (November 2000-November 2001) at 10 receptor sites located at variable distances from the power plants. Ambient TSP samples were analyzed for 27 major, minor and trace elements. Particulate emissions were also collected from a variety of sources including fly ash, lignite dust, automobile traffic, domestic heating, and open-air burning of agricultural biomass and refuse, and analyzed for the same chemical components. Ambient and source chemical profiles were used for source identification and apportionment of TSP by employing a chemical mass balance (CMB) receptor model. Diesel burning in vehicular traffic and in the power plants for generator start up was found to be the major contributor to ambient TSP levels at all 10 sites. Other sources with significant contributions were domestic coal burning, vegetative burning (wood combustion and agricultural burns) and refuse open-air burning. Fly ash escaping the electrostatic precipitators of the power plants was a minor contributor to ambient TSP.

  11. Wide area measurement system for smart grid applications involving hybrid energy sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amin, Mahmoud M.; Moussa, Heba B.; Mohammed, Osama A. [Florida International University, Energy Systems Research Laboratory, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Miami, FL (United States)

    2012-03-15

    This paper presents a model and experimental verification for a complete scenario of a proposed wide area measurement system (WAMS) based on synchronized phasor measurement units (PMUs). The proposed system is feasible for hybrid smart ac/dc power networks; such as grid-connected PV-power plants. The purpose is to increase the overall system reliability for all power stages via significant dependence on WAMS as distributed intelligence agents with improved monitoring, protection, and control capabilities of the power networks. The developed system is simulated in the Matlab/Simulink environment. The system was tested under two different cases; normal operation and fault state. Furthermore, the proposed WAMS was experimentally validated with results obtained from a reduced scale setup which built and tested in the laboratory based on the Hardware-in-the-loop concept. It was verified that the power system status can be easily monitored and controlled in real time by using the measured bus data in real time. This improves the overall system reliability and avoids cascaded blackout during fault occurrence. The simulation and experimental results confirm the validity of the proposed WAMS technology for smart grid applications. (orig.)

  12. Analysis of heat source selection for residential buildings in rural areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szul Tomasz

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The research aiming to check whether the output of currently installed boilers matches the use requirements together with estimation of their energy efficiency was carried out on a group of 84 single-family residential buildings located in rural areas. Heating and hot water energy needs were calculated for each building in order to determine the use requirements. This enabled verification whether the currently installed boilers match the actual use requirements in the buildings. Based on the calculations it was determined that the designed average boiler output in the group of buildings subject to analysis is 15.7 kW, whereas the mean rated output capacity of boilers installed therein is 25.4 kW. On average, the output capacity of the installed boilers exceeds the use requirements for the buildings by 60%. To calculate the energy efficiency of boilers, the mean annual boiler output capacity use coefficient was determined. For boilers selected on the basis of standard calculations, the mean coefficient is 0.47. For boilers currently in use it is 0.31, less than the above figure. The above calculations show that if boilers were correctly selected in compliance to the building needs, then the average estimated seasonal efficiency of 65% would be feasible. However, in the current state the achievable efficiency is approx. 55%.

  13. Land Degradation is The Instinctive Source of Poverty in Rural Areas of Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, L. L.; Koondhar, M. A.; Liu, Y. Y.; Zeng, W. Z.

    2017-10-01

    This review paper focused on the correlation between land degradation and poverty. Pakistan is an agricultural country and agriculture is the backbone of Pakistan`s economy. For the rapid growth of population food security should be under guarantee as well as the food production. In that farmers overused agrarian inputs, such as fertilizer, pesticide and water, environment and farmers were affected from the perspective of contamination and disease increase respectively. Due to over-exploitation of fertilizer and irrigation, ground water was contaminated, soil fertility weakening,salinity increasing and waterlogged. Consequently, soil was hard to be cultivated. In Pakistan 70% of people live in rural areas who are directly or indirectly involved in agriculture. As a result of land degradation farmers can not gain much benefit from agricultural activities and they are also unable to feed their children. Many of them became criminals, therefore, poverty deepened day after day. In order to alleviate poverty, Pakistan government should subsidize farmers on environmentally friendly inputs and; government should also open agricultural training schools to engage farmers in modern methods of cultivation, and provide modern technologies with subsidy rate. When the farmers are aware of how to increase the fertility of soil by employing modern methods, they can gain higher production, and obvious higher production is critical for living a better life and reducing poverty.

  14. Analysis of the environmental behavior of farmers for non-point source pollution control and management in a water source protection area in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yandong; Yang, Jun; Liang, Jiping; Qiang, Yanfang; Fang, Shanqi; Gao, Minxue; Fan, Xiaoyu; Yang, Gaihe; Zhang, Baowen; Feng, Yongzhong

    2018-08-15

    The environmental behavior of farmers plays an important role in exploring the causes of non-point source pollution and taking scientific control and management measures. Based on the theory of planned behavior (TPB), the present study investigated the environmental behavior of farmers in the Water Source Area of the Middle Route of the South-to-North Water Diversion Project in China. Results showed that TPB could explain farmers' environmental behavior (SMC=0.26) and intention (SMC=0.36) well. Furthermore, the farmers' attitude towards behavior (AB), subjective norm (SN), and perceived behavioral control (PBC) positively and significantly influenced their environmental intention; their environmental intention further impacted their behavior. SN was proved to be the main key factor indirectly influencing the farmers' environmental behavior, while PBC had no significant and direct effect. Moreover, environmental knowledge following as a moderator, gender and age was used as control variables to conduct the environmental knowledge on TPB construct moderated mediation analysis. It demonstrated that gender had a significant controlling effect on environmental behavior; that is, males engage in more environmentally friendly behaviors. However, age showed a significant negative controlling effect on pro-environmental intention and an opposite effect on pro-environmental behavior. In addition, environmental knowledge could negatively moderate the relationship between PBC and environmental intention. PBC had a greater impact on the environmental intention of farmers with poor environmental knowledge, compared to those with plenty environmental knowledge. Altogether, the present study could provide a theoretical basis for non-point source pollution control and management. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Assessment of soil contamination with Cd, Pb and Zn and source identification in the area around the Huludao Zinc Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, C.A.; Zhang, J.F.; Jiang, H.M.; Yang, J.C.; Zhang, J.T.; Wang, J.Z.; Shan, H.X.

    2010-01-01

    The distribution characteristics of heavy metals (cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn)) in the natural soil profiles around the Huludao Zinc Plant (HZP), an old industrial base in Northeast China, were analyzed. The pollutant source was identified using 210 Pb isotope technique to evaluate the geochemical characteristics of Pb and the historical production records of HZP. The results indicated: dust precipitation from HZP was the primary source of the pollutants. The average deposition rates of Cd, Pb and Zn were 0.33, 1.75, and 30.97 g/m 2 year, respectively at 1 km away after HZP, and 0.0048, 0.035, and 0.20 g/m 2 year, respectively at 10 km away after HZP. There is a risk of secondary pollution to the environment as well as the food chain in seriously polluted areas used for cultivation.

  16. Assessment of soil contamination with Cd, Pb and Zn and source identification in the area around the Huludao Zinc Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, C.A.; Zhang, J.F.; Jiang, H.M. [Institute of Agricultural Resources and Regional Planning, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences,100081 Beijing (China); Ministry of Agriculture Key Laboratory of Crop Nutrition and Fertilization, 100081 Beijing (China); Yang, J.C., E-mail: yangjch@263.net [Institute of Agricultural Resources and Regional Planning, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences,100081 Beijing (China) and Ministry of Agriculture Key Laboratory of Crop Nutrition and Fertilization, 100081 Beijing (China); Zhang, J.T.; Wang, J.Z.; Shan, H.X. [Institute of Agricultural Resources and Regional Planning, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, 100081 Beijing (China); Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences,100081 Beijing (China)

    2010-10-15

    The distribution characteristics of heavy metals (cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn)) in the natural soil profiles around the Huludao Zinc Plant (HZP), an old industrial base in Northeast China, were analyzed. The pollutant source was identified using {sup 210}Pb isotope technique to evaluate the geochemical characteristics of Pb and the historical production records of HZP. The results indicated: dust precipitation from HZP was the primary source of the pollutants. The average deposition rates of Cd, Pb and Zn were 0.33, 1.75, and 30.97 g/m{sup 2} year, respectively at 1 km away after HZP, and 0.0048, 0.035, and 0.20 g/m{sup 2} year, respectively at 10 km away after HZP. There is a risk of secondary pollution to the environment as well as the food chain in seriously polluted areas used for cultivation.

  17. Hydrologic, Water-Quality, and Meteorological Data for the Cambridge, Massachusetts, Drinking-Water Source Area, Water Year 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kirk P.

    2008-01-01

    Records of water quantity, water quality, and meteorological parameters were continuously collected from three reservoirs, two primary streams, and four subbasin tributaries in the Cambridge, Massachusetts, drinking-water source area during water year 2006 (October 2005 through September 2006). Water samples were collected during base-flow conditions and storms in the subbasins of the Cambridge Reservoir and Stony Brook Reservoir drainage areas and analyzed for dissolved calcium, sodium, chloride, and sulfate; total nitrogen and phosphorus; and polar pesticides and metabolites. These data were collected to assist watershed administrators in managing the drinking-water source area and to identify potential sources of contaminants and trends in contaminant loading to the water supply. Monthly reservoir contents for the Cambridge Reservoir varied from about 59 to 98 percent of capacity during water year 2006, while monthly reservoir contents for the Stony Brook Reservoir and the Fresh Pond Reservoir was maintained at greater than 83 and 94 percent of capacity, respectively. If water demand is assumed to be 15 million gallons per day by the city of Cambridge, the volume of water released from the Stony Brook Reservoir to the Charles River during the 2006 water year is equivalent to an annual water surplus of about 127 percent. Recorded precipitation in the source area was about 16 percent greater for the 2006 water year than for the previous water year and was between 12 and 73 percent greater than for any recorded amount since water year 2002. The monthly mean specific-conductance values for all continuously monitored stations within the drinking-water source area were generally within the range of historical data collected since water year 1997, and in many cases were less than the historical medians. The annual mean specific conductance of 738 uS/cm (microsiemens per centimeter) for water discharged from the Cambridge Reservoir was nearly identical to the annual

  18. A multi-sensor burned area algorithm for crop residue burning in northwestern India: validation and sources of error

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, T.; Marlier, M. E.; Karambelas, A. N.; Jain, M.; DeFries, R. S.

    2017-12-01

    A leading source of outdoor emissions in northwestern India comes from crop residue burning after the annual monsoon (kharif) and winter (rabi) crop harvests. Agricultural burned area, from which agricultural fire emissions are often derived, can be poorly quantified due to the mismatch between moderate-resolution satellite sensors and the relatively small size and short burn period of the fires. Many previous studies use the Global Fire Emissions Database (GFED), which is based on the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) burned area product MCD64A1, as an outdoor fires emissions dataset. Correction factors with MODIS active fire detections have previously attempted to account for small fires. We present a new burned area classification algorithm that leverages more frequent MODIS observations (500 m x 500 m) with higher spatial resolution Landsat (30 m x 30 m) observations. Our approach is based on two-tailed Normalized Burn Ratio (NBR) thresholds, abbreviated as ModL2T NBR, and results in an estimated 104 ± 55% higher burned area than GFEDv4.1s (version 4, MCD64A1 + small fires correction) in northwestern India during the 2003-2014 winter (October to November) burning seasons. Regional transport of winter fire emissions affect approximately 63 million people downwind. The general increase in burned area (+37% from 2003-2007 to 2008-2014) over the study period also correlates with increased mechanization (+58% in combine harvester usage from 2001-2002 to 2011-2012). Further, we find strong correlation between ModL2T NBR-derived burned area and results of an independent survey (r = 0.68) and previous studies (r = 0.92). Sources of error arise from small median landholding sizes (1-3 ha), heterogeneous spatial distribution of two dominant burning practices (partial and whole field), coarse spatio-temporal satellite resolution, cloud and haze cover, and limited Landsat scene availability. The burned area estimates of this study can be used to build

  19. Historical evolution of sources identification by means of Receptor Modeling in the Metropolitan Area of São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, R. M.; Andrade, M. D. F.; Marien, Y., Sr.

    2017-12-01

    The atmospheric aerosols sources have been identified in Sao Paulo since the 80´s with the use of receptor models. The Metropolitan Area of São Paulo (MASP) is a megacity with a population of 21 million, corresponding to more than 11% of the total population of Brazil. The first results for the identification of sources of particles were obtained with the application of Absolute Principal Component Analysis, Factor Analysis and Chemical Mass Balance. More recently the Positive Matrix Factorization has been used in combination with the other receptor models. With the improvement of the aerosol composition analytical determination (more elements and better resolution) the source identification has became more accurate. But, in spite of that, the main sources are the same for fine particles: vehicular emission, secondary formation and biomass burning. The large amount of biofuels used in the MASP makes this region an important example of the atmospheric chemistry of fossil fuel and biofuel emissions. The 7 million vehicles can run on gasohol, ethanol (95% ethanol + 5% gasoline) and biodiesel (mostly for trucks and buses). We have considered the Black Carbon as the tracer for diesel engines and biomass burning, being this last source associated not only with burning of sugar cane plantation and forest fires, but also with wood and charcoal used in restaurant and domestic cooking and residues burning. The responsibility of the vehicular emission to the fine particles has been maintained in approximately 50% of the mass. The soil resuspension was associated with 8% of the fine particles origin. We are presenting the data obtained from experiments performed from 1983 to 2014, not continuously and mainly performed in the winter time. It is a long period of data that is going to be considered. The previous results obtained with the application of PCA were compared to that obtained with PMF applied to the historical data collected at MASP, showing the evolution of the

  20. Genetic Types and Source of the Upper Paleozoic Tight Gas in the Hangjinqi Area, Northern Ordos Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqi Wu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The molecular and stable isotopic compositions of the Upper Paleozoic tight gas in the Hangjinqi area in northern Ordos Basin were investigated to study the geochemical characteristics. The tight gas is mainly wet with the dryness coefficient (C1/C1–5 of 0.853–0.951, and δ13C1 and δ2H-C1 values are ranging from -36.2‰ to -32.0‰ and from -199‰ to -174‰, respectively, with generally positive carbon and hydrogen isotopic series. Identification of gas origin indicates that tight gas is mainly coal-type gas, and it has been affected by mixing of oil-type gas in the wells from the Shilijiahan and Gongkahan zones adjacent to the Wulanjilinmiao and Borjianghaizi faults. Gas-source correlation indicates that coal-type gas in the Shiguhao zone displays distal-source accumulation. It was mainly derived from the coal-measure source rocks in the Upper Carboniferous Taiyuan Formation (C3t and Lower Permian Shanxi Formation (P1s, probably with a minor contribution from P1s coal measures from in situ Shiguhao zone. Natural gas in the Shilijiahan and Gongkahan zones mainly displays near-source accumulation. The coal-type gas component was derived from in situ C3t-P1s source rocks, whereas the oil-type gas component might be derived from the carbonate rocks in the Lower Ordovician Majiagou Formation (O1m.

  1. Source contribution to the bulk atmospheric deposition of minor and trace elements in a Northern Spanish coastal urban area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Olmo, Ignacio; Puente, Mariano; Montecalvo, Lucia; Irabien, Angel

    2014-08-01

    The bulk atmospheric deposition of the minor and trace elements As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Ti, V and Zn was investigated in Santander, a Northern Spanish coastal city. Bulk deposition samples were collected monthly for three years using a bottle/funnel device. Taking into account that heavy metals are bioavailable only in their soluble forms, water-soluble and water-insoluble fractions were evaluated separately for element concentration. The fluxes of the studied elements in the bulk deposition exhibited the following order: Zn > Mn ≫ Cu > Cr > Pb > V > Ni ≫ As > Mo > Cd. The fluxes of Zn and Mn were more than 10 times higher than those of the other elements, with maximum values of 554.5 and 334.1 μg m- 2 day- 1, respectively. Low solubilities (below 22%) were found for Cr, Ti and Pb, whereas the highest solubility was found for Zn (78%). With the exception of Cu, all of the studied metals in the water-soluble fraction of the atmospheric deposition showed seasonal dependence, due to the seasonal variability of precipitation. The enrichment factors (EFs) of Cu, Cd and Zn were higher than 100, indicating a clear anthropogenic origin. The EF of Mn (50) was below 100, but an exclusively industrial origin is suggested. Positive Matrix Factorisation (PMF) was used for the source apportionment of the studied minor and trace elements in the soluble fraction. Four factors were identified from PMF, and their chemical profiles were compared with those calculated from known sources that were previously identified in Santander Bay: two industrial sources, the first of which was characterised by Zn and Mn, which contributes 62.5% of the total deposition flux of the studied elements; a traffic source; and a maritime source. Zinc and Mn are considered to be the most characteristic pollutants of the studied area.

  2. Source segregation and food waste prevention activities in high-density households in a deprived urban area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rispo, A.; Williams, I.D.; Shaw, P.J.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Study of waste management in economically and socially deprived high-density housing. • Food waste segregation, prevention and recycling activities investigated. • Study involved a waste audit and household survey of 1034 households. • Populations in such areas are “hard-to-reach”. • Exceptional efforts and additional resources are required to improve performance. - Abstract: A waste audit and a household questionnaire survey were conducted in high-density housing estates in one of the most economically and socially deprived areas of England (Haringey, London). Such areas are under-represented in published research. The study examined source segregation, potential participation in a food waste segregation scheme, and food waste prevention activities in five estates (1034 households). The results showed that: contamination of recyclables containers was low; ca. 28% of the mixed residual waste’s weight was recyclable; food waste comprised a small proportion of the waste from these residents, probably because of their relatively disadvantaged economic circumstances; and the recycling profile reflected an intermittent pattern of behaviour. Although the majority of respondents reported that they would participate in a food waste separation scheme, the response rate was low and many responses of “don’t know” were recorded. Municipalities committed to foster improved diversion from landfill need to recognise that there is no “quick and easy fix”, regardless of local or national aspirations. Lasting and sustained behaviour change requires time and the quality of service provision and associated infrastructure play a fundamental role in facilitating residents to participate effectively in waste management activities that maximise capture of source-segregated materials. Populations in deprived areas that reside in high-rise, high-density dwellings are “hard-to-reach” in terms of participation in recycling schemes and exceptional

  3. Source segregation and food waste prevention activities in high-density households in a deprived urban area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rispo, A.; Williams, I.D., E-mail: idw@soton.ac.uk; Shaw, P.J.

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Study of waste management in economically and socially deprived high-density housing. • Food waste segregation, prevention and recycling activities investigated. • Study involved a waste audit and household survey of 1034 households. • Populations in such areas are “hard-to-reach”. • Exceptional efforts and additional resources are required to improve performance. - Abstract: A waste audit and a household questionnaire survey were conducted in high-density housing estates in one of the most economically and socially deprived areas of England (Haringey, London). Such areas are under-represented in published research. The study examined source segregation, potential participation in a food waste segregation scheme, and food waste prevention activities in five estates (1034 households). The results showed that: contamination of recyclables containers was low; ca. 28% of the mixed residual waste’s weight was recyclable; food waste comprised a small proportion of the waste from these residents, probably because of their relatively disadvantaged economic circumstances; and the recycling profile reflected an intermittent pattern of behaviour. Although the majority of respondents reported that they would participate in a food waste separation scheme, the response rate was low and many responses of “don’t know” were recorded. Municipalities committed to foster improved diversion from landfill need to recognise that there is no “quick and easy fix”, regardless of local or national aspirations. Lasting and sustained behaviour change requires time and the quality of service provision and associated infrastructure play a fundamental role in facilitating residents to participate effectively in waste management activities that maximise capture of source-segregated materials. Populations in deprived areas that reside in high-rise, high-density dwellings are “hard-to-reach” in terms of participation in recycling schemes and exceptional

  4. Exploring the uncertainty in attributing sediment contributions in fingerprinting studies due to uncertainty in determining element concentrations in source areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Jose Alfonso; Owens, Phillip N.; Koiter, Alex J.; Lobb, David

    2016-04-01

    One of the major sources of uncertainty in attributing sediment sources in fingerprinting studies is the uncertainty in determining the concentrations of the elements used in the mixing model due to the variability of the concentrations of these elements in the source materials (e.g., Kraushaar et al., 2015). The uncertainty in determining the "true" concentration of a given element in each one of the source areas depends on several factors, among them the spatial variability of that element, the sampling procedure and sampling density. Researchers have limited control over these factors, and usually sampling density tends to be sparse, limited by time and the resources available. Monte Carlo analysis has been used regularly in fingerprinting studies to explore the probable solutions within the measured variability of the elements in the source areas, providing an appraisal of the probability of the different solutions (e.g., Collins et al., 2012). This problem can be considered analogous to the propagation of uncertainty in hydrologic models due to uncertainty in the determination of the values of the model parameters, and there are many examples of Monte Carlo analysis of this uncertainty (e.g., Freeze, 1980; Gómez et al., 2001). Some of these model analyses rely on the simulation of "virtual" situations that were calibrated from parameter values found in the literature, with the purpose of providing insight about the response of the model to different configurations of input parameters. This approach - evaluating the answer for a "virtual" problem whose solution could be known in advance - might be useful in evaluating the propagation of uncertainty in mixing models in sediment fingerprinting studies. In this communication, we present the preliminary results of an on-going study evaluating the effect of variability of element concentrations in source materials, sampling density, and the number of elements included in the mixing models. For this study a virtual

  5. Edible wild mushroom tourism as a source of income and employment in rural areas. The case of Castilla y Leon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frutos Madrazo, P. de; Martinez Pena, F.; Esteban Laleona, S.

    2012-11-01

    Edible wild mushroom picking is becoming an important source of income in rural areas. The wide range of activities which add value to mycological production (initial sale, transformation, marketing, etc.) include those related to tourism which can attract visitors to mushroom producing areas, leading to so-called mycological tourism. To date, no research exists quantifying the importance thereof in rural areas endowed with such resources. The present research provides the first model to estimate this activity contribution to the economy of rural areas in the region of Castilla y Leon. The main finding to emerge evidences a close link between influx of visitors, who come principally to pick, and mycological productivity in the region. Based on this relation, we estimate four key variables to determine the impact which said activity has on the regional economy as a whole: the number of overnight stays and trips made by mycological tourists, as well as associated expenditure and employment created. Findings underscore the importance of this activity in the regional tourism industry and point to its significance as a major market niche, particularly during the hotel low season. The need for public administrators to implement a related management policy is also inferred. (Author) 35 refs.

  6. Luminescence of quartz and feldspar fingerprints provenance and correlates with the source area denudation in the Amazon River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawakuchi, A. O.; Jain, M.; Mineli, T. D.; Nogueira, L.; Bertassoli, D. J.; Häggi, C.; Sawakuchi, H. O.; Pupim, F. N.; Grohmann, C. H.; Chiessi, C. M.; Zabel, M.; Mulitza, S.; Mazoca, C. E. M.; Cunha, D. F.

    2018-06-01

    The Amazon region hosts the world's largest watershed spanning from high elevation Andean terrains to lowland cratonic shield areas in tropical South America. This study explores variations in optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and infrared stimulated luminescence (IRSL) signals in suspended silt and riverbed sands retrieved from major Amazon rivers. These rivers drain Pre-Cambrian to Cenozoic source rocks in areas with contrasting denudation rates. In contrast to the previous studies, we do not observe an increase in the OSL sensitivity of quartz with transport distance; for example, Tapajós and Xingu Rivers show more sensitive quartz than Solimões and Madeira Rivers, even though the latter have a significantly larger catchment area and longer sediment transport distance. Interestingly, high sensitivity quartz is observed in rivers draining relatively stable Central Brazil and Guiana shield areas (denudation rate ξ = 0.04 mmyr-1), while low sensitivity quartz occurs in less stable Andean terrains (ξ = 0.24 mmyr-1). An apparent linear correlation between quartz OSL sensitivity and denudation rate suggests that OSL sensitivity may be used as a proxy for erosion rates in the Amazon basin. Furthermore, luminescence sensitivity measured in sand or silt arises from the same mineral components (quartz and feldspar) and clearly discriminates between Andean and shield sediments, avoiding the grain size bias in provenance analysis. These results have implications for using luminescence sensitivity as a proxy for Andean and shield contributions in the stratigraphic record, providing a new tool to reconstruct past drainage configurations within the Amazon basin.

  7. Assessment of future climate change impacts on nonpoint source pollution in snowmelt period for a cold area using SWAT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Bian, Jianmin; Zhao, Yongsheng; Tang, Jie; Jia, Zhuo

    2018-02-05

    The source area of Liao River is a typical cold region in northeastern China, which experiences serious problems with agricultural nonpoint source pollution (NPS), it is important to understand future climate change impacts on NPS in the watershed. This issue has been investigated by coupling semi distributed hydrological model (SWAT), statistical downscaling model (SDSM) and global circulation model (GCMs). The results show that annual average temperature would rise by 2.1 °C (1.3 °C) in the 2080 s under scenario RCP8.5 (RCP4.5), and annual precipitation would increase by 67 mm (33 mm). The change in winter temperature and precipitation is most significant with an increase by 0.23 °C/10a (0.17 °C/10a) and 1.94 mm/10a (2.78 mm/10a). The future streamflow, TN and TP loads would decrease by 19.05% (10.59%), 12.27% (8.81%) and 10.63% (6.11%), respectively. Monthly average streamflow, TN and TP loads would decrease from March to November, and increase from December to February. This is because the increased precipitation and temperature in winter, which made the spring snowpack melting earlier. These study indicate the trends of nonpoint source pollution during the snowmelt period under climate change conditions, accordingly adaptation measures will be necessary.

  8. GIS-based evaluation of multifarious local renewable energy sources: a case study of the Chigu area of southwestern Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yue, C.-D.; Wang, S.-S.

    2006-01-01

    The issue of regulating greenhouse gas emissions of developing countries is one of the main reasons for the US's retreat from ratifying the Kyoto Protocal, and this deserves particular attention in order to ensure that a robust international climate policy exists in the future. Enabling developing countries to move toward low-carbon energy systems would enhance the feasibility for their participation in mitigating greenhouse gas emissions. This study evaluates wind, solar, and biomass energy sources in a rural area of Chigu in southwestern Taiwan by means of analyzing technical, economic, environmental, and political implications in order to establish an evaluation model for developing local renewable energy sources. The adopted approach evaluates local potentials of renewable energy sources with the aid of a geographic information system according to actual local conditions, and allows the assessment to consider local potentials and restrictions such as climate conditions, land uses, and ecological environments, thus enabling a more-accurate assessment than is possible with evaluations on an approximate basis. These results may help build a developmental vision for sustainable energy systems based on locally available natural resources, and facilitate a transition of national energy and environmental policies towards sustainability

  9. FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE OBSERVATION OF A GAMMA-RAY SOURCE AT THE POSITION OF ETA CARINAE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdo, A. A.; Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Allafort, A.; Bechtol, K.; Berenji, B.; Blandford, R. D.; Borgland, A. W.; Bouvier, A.; Baldini, L.; Bellazzini, R.; Bregeon, J.; Brez, A.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Bonamente, E.; Brandt, T. J.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.

    2010-01-01

    The Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope detected a γ-ray source that is spatially consistent with the location of Eta Carinae. This source has been persistently bright since the beginning of the LAT survey observations (from 2008 August to 2009 July, the time interval considered here). The γ-ray signal is detected significantly throughout the LAT energy band (i.e., up to ∼100 GeV). The 0.1-100 GeV energy spectrum is well represented by a combination of a cutoff power-law model ( 10 GeV). The total flux (>100 MeV) is 3.7 +0.3 -0.1 x 10 -7 photons s -1 cm -2 , with additional systematic uncertainties of 10%, and consistent with the average flux measured by AGILE. The light curve obtained by Fermi is consistent with steady emission. Our observations do not confirm the presence of a γ-ray flare in 2008 October, as reported by Tavani et al., although we cannot exclude that a flare lasting only a few hours escaped detection by the Fermi LAT. We also do not find any evidence for γ-ray variability that correlates with the large X-ray variability of Eta Carinae observed during 2008 December and 2009 January. We are thus not able to establish an unambiguous identification of the LAT source with Eta Carinae.

  10. Mercury isotope constraints on the source for sediment-hosted lead-zinc deposits in the Changdu area, southwestern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chunxia; Yin, Runsheng; Peng, Jiantang; Hurley, James P.; Lepak, Ryan F.; Gao, Jianfeng; Feng, Xinbin; Hu, Ruizhong; Bi, Xianwu

    2018-03-01

    The Lanuoma and Cuona sediment-hosted Pb-Zn deposits hosted by Upper Triassic limestone and sandstone, respectively, are located in the Changdu area, SW China. Mercury concentrations and Hg isotopic compositions from sulfide minerals and potential source rocks (e.g., the host sedimentary rocks and the metamorphic basement) were investigated to constrain metal sources and mineralization processes. In both deposits, sulfide minerals have higher mercury (Hg) concentrations (0.35 to 1185 ppm) than the metamorphic basement rocks (0.05 to 0.15 ppm) and sedimentary rocks (0.02 to 0.08 ppm). Large variations of mass-dependent fractionation (3.3‰ in δ202Hg) and mass-independent fractionation (0.3‰ in Δ199Hg) of Hg isotopes were observed. Sulfide minerals have Hg isotope signatures that are similar to the hydrothermal altered rocks around the deposit, and similar to the metamorphic basement, but different from barren sedimentary rocks. The variation of Δ199Hg suggests that Hg in sulfides was mainly derived from the underlying metamorphic basement. Mercury isotopes could be a geochemical tracer in understanding metal sources in hydrothermal ore deposits.

  11. Source apportionment of heavy metals and ionic contaminants in rainwater tanks in a subtropical urban area in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huston, R; Chan, Y C; Chapman, H; Gardner, T; Shaw, G

    2012-03-15

    Due to prolonged droughts in recent years, the use of rainwater tanks in urban areas has increased in Australia. In order to apportion sources of contribution to heavy metal and ionic contaminants in rainwater tanks in Brisbane, a subtropical urban area in Australia, monthly tank water samples (24 sites, 31 tanks) and concurrent bulk deposition samples (18 sites) were collected during mainly April 2007-March 2008. The samples were analysed for acid-soluble metals, soluble anions, total inorganic carbon and total organic carbon, and characteristics such as total solid and pH. The Positive Matrix Factorisation model, EPA PMF 3.0, was used to apportion sources of contribution to the contaminants. Four source factors were identified for the bulk deposition samples, including 'crustal matter/sea salt', 'car exhausts/road side dust', 'industrial dust' and 'aged sea salt/secondary aerosols'. For the tank water samples, apart from these atmospheric deposition related factors which contributed in total to 65% of the total contaminant concentration on average, another six rainwater collection system related factors were identified, including 'plumbing', 'building material', 'galvanizing', 'roofing', 'steel' and 'lead flashing/paint' (contributing in total to 35% of the total concentration on average). The Australian Drinking Water Guideline for lead was exceeded in 15% of the tank water samples. The collection system related factors, in particular the 'lead flashing/paint' factor, contributed to 79% of the lead in the tank water samples on average. The concentration of lead in tank water was found to vary with various environmental and collection system factors, in particular the presence of lead flashing on the roof. The results also indicated the important role of sludge dynamics inside the tank on the quality of tank water. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. An artificial neural network application to produce debris source areas of Barla, Besparmak, and Kapi Mountains (NW Taurids, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. Tunusluoglu

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Various statistical, mathematical and artificial intelligence techniques have been used in the areas of engineering geology, rock engineering and geomorphology for many years. However, among the techniques, artificial neural networks are relatively new approach used in engineering geology in particular. The attractiveness of ANN for the engineering geological problems comes from the information processing characteristics of the system, such as non-linearity, high parallelism, robustness, fault and failure tolerance, learning, ability to handle imprecise and fuzzy information, and their capability to generalize. For this reason, the purposes of the present study are to perform an application of ANN to a engineering geology problem having a very large database and to introduce a new approach to accelerate convergence. For these purposes, an ANN architecture having 5 neurons in one hidden layer was constructed. During the training stages, total 40 000 training cycles were performed and the minimum RMSE values were obtained at approximately 10 000th cycle. At this cycle, the obtained minimum RMSE value is 0.22 for the second training set, while that of value is calculated as 0.064 again for the second test set. Using the trained ANN model at 10 000th cycle for the second random sampling, the debris source area susceptibility map was produced and adjusted. Finally, a potential debris source susceptibility map for the study area was produced. When considering the field observations and existing inventory map, the produced map has a high prediction capacity and it can be used when assessing debris flow hazard mitigation efforts.

  13. Study on Net Primary Productivity over Complicated Mountainous Area based on Multi-Source Remote Sensing Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, X.; Shen, H.; Li, X.; Gan, W.

    2017-12-01

    Mountainous area hosts approximately a quarter of the global land surface, with complex climate and ecosystem conditions. More knowledge about mountainous ecosystem could highly advance our understanding of the global carbon cycle and climate change. Net Primary Productivity (NPP), the biomass increment of plants, is a widely used ecological indicator that can be obtained by remote sensing methods. However, limited by the defective characteristic of sensors, which cannot be long-term with enough spatial details synchronously, the mountainous NPP was far from being understood. In this study, a multi-sensor fusion framework was applied to synthesize a 1-km NPP series from 1982 to 2014 in mountainous southwest China, where elevation ranged from 76m to 6740m. The validation with field-measurements proved this framework greatly improved the accuracy of NPP (r=0.79, prun-off. What is more, it was indicated that the NPP variation showed three distinct stages at the year break-point of 1992 and 2002 over the region. The NPP in low-elevation area varied almost triple more drastic than the high-elevation area for all the three stages, due to the much greater change rate of precipitation. In summary, this study innovatively conducted a long-term and accurate NPP study on the not understood mountainous ecosystem with multi-source data, the framework and conclusions will be beneficial for the further cognition of global climate change.

  14. Heavy metals in the gold mine soil of the upstream area of a metropolitan drinking water source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Huaijian; Ji, Hongbing; Tang, Lei; Zhang, Aixing; Guo, Xinyue; Li, Cai; Gao, Yang; Briki, Mergem

    2016-02-01

    Pinggu District is adjacent to the county of Miyun, which contains the largest drinking water source of Beijing (Miyun Reservoir). The Wanzhuang gold field and tailing deposits are located in Pinggu, threatening Beijing's drinking water security. In this study, soil samples were collected from the surface of the mining area and the tailings piles and analyzed for physical and chemical properties, as well as heavy metal contents and particle size fraction to study the relationship between degree of pollution degree and particle size. Most metal concentrations in the gold mine soil samples exceeded the background levels in Beijing. The spatial distribution of As, Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn was the same, while that of Cr and Ni was relatively similar. Trace element concentrations increased in larger particles, decreased in the 50-74 μm size fraction, and were lowest in the pollution, but moderate to no Ni, Cr, and Hg pollution. The Tucker 3 model revealed three factors for particle fractions, metals, and samples. There were two factors in model A and three factors for both the metals and samples (models B and C, respectively). The potential ecological risk index shows that most of the study areas have very high potential ecological risk, a small portion has high potential ecological risk, and only a few sampling points on the perimeter have moderate ecological risk, with higher risk closer to the mining area.

  15. Nonpoint Source: Urban Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbanization increases the variety and amount of pollutants carried into our nation's waters. Pavement and compacted landscapes do not allow rain and snow melt to soak into the ground. List of typical pollutants from Urban runoff.

  16. (210)Pb as a tracer of soil erosion, sediment source area identification and particle transport in the terrestrial environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matisoff, Gerald

    2014-12-01

    Although (137)Cs has been used extensively to study soil erosion and particle transport in the terrestrial environment, there has been much less work using excess or unsupported (210)Pb ((210)Pbxs) to study the same processes. Furthermore, since (137)Cs activities in soils are decreasing because of radioactive decay, some locations have an added complication due to the addition of Chernobyl-derived (137)Cs, and the activities of (137)Cs in the southern hemisphere are low, there is a need to develop techniques that use (210)Pbxs to provide estimates of rates of soil erosion and particle transport. This paper reviews the current status of (210)Pbxs methods to quantify soil erosion rates, to identify and partition suspended sediment source areas, and to determine the transport rates of particles in the terrestrial landscape. Soil erosion rates determined using (210)Pbxs are based on the unsupported (210)Pb ((210)Pbxs) inventory in the soil, the depth distribution of (210)Pbxs, and a mass balance calibration ('conversion model') that relates the soil inventory to the erosion rate using a 'reference site' at which neither soil erosion nor soil deposition has occurred. In this paper several different models are presented to illustrate the effects of different model assumptions such as the timing, depth and rates of the surface soil mixing on the calculated erosion rates. The suitability of model assumptions, including estimates of the depositional flux of (210)Pbxs to the soil surface and the post-depositional mobility of (210)Pb are also discussed. (210)Pb can be used as one tracer to permit sediment source area identification. This sediment 'fingerprinting' has been extended far beyond using (210)Pb as a single radioisotope to include numerous radioactive and stable tracers and has been applied to identifying the source areas of suspended sediment based on underlying rock type, land use (roads, stream banks, channel beds, cultivated or uncultivated lands, pasture lands

  17. Proton Induced X-ray Emission Analysis of Sources of Raw for Blue-and-White Porcelain From Jingdezhen and Dehua Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Shunmin; Yang Dawei; Li Rongwu; Li Guoxia; Cheng Huansheng; Zheng Jongxin; Chen Lifang

    2010-01-01

    In order to find out sources of raw, ingredients and classification relationship for Blue-and-White porcelain from Jingdezhen and Dehua area in different time, 34 Blue-and-White porcelain samples were selected. The chemical ingredients of every sample were determined by proton induced X-ray emission. The chemical ingredients data of all samples were further analyzed using fuzzy cluster analysis. The results indicate that the sources of raw and classification relationship of majority bodies from Blue-and-White porcelain of Dehua and Jingdezhen area are commendably differentiated. The sources of raw and batch formulas of eight transparent enamel samples from Jingdezhen area in Ming Dynasty and majority transparent enamel samples from Dehua area are commendably differentiated. Except one or two samples, majority Blue-and-White glaze samples from two areas are obviously different, and it might be an important path for non-destructive discrimination among Blue-and-White porcelains from two areas. (authors)

  18. Assessment of Potential Nitrate Pollution Sources in the Marano Lagoon (Italy) and its Catchment Area Using a Multi Isotope Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saccon, P.; Leis, A.; Marca, A.; Kaiser, J.; Campisi, L.; Savarino, J.; Erbland, J.; Boettcher, M.E.; Eisenhauer, A.; Sueltenfuss, J.

    2011-01-01

    The aims of this study were mainly: (i) the identification and differentiation of the main anthropogenic nitrogen sources in the Marano Lagoon (Italy) and its catchment area; and (ii) the assessment of the intra-lagoonal water circulation, the morphological development of the lagoon and its anthropogenic pressure by applying a combined approach of hydrochemical, isotopic and remote sensing techniques. To achieve the aforementioned targets analyses of stable isotope signatures of nitrate, boron, water and sulphate have been used. Moreover the residence times of groundwater were determined by the tritium-helium dating method. To characterize the chemical composition of the different water types the concentrations of the major ions and nutrients as well as the physicochemical parameters have been measured. Remote sensing techniques have been applied to assess the spatial distribution of most superficial algal flora, water temperature as well as the key environmental and morphological changes of the lagoon since the beginning of the 1970s.

  19. Hydrologic, Water-Quality, and Meteorological Data for the Cambridge, Massachusetts, Drinking-Water Source Area, Water Year 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kirk P.

    2007-01-01

    Records of water quantity, water quality, and meteorological parameters were continuously collected from three reservoirs, two primary streams, and four subbasin tributaries in the Cambridge, Massachusetts, drinking-water source area during water year 2005 (October 2004 through September 2005). Water samples were collected during base-flow conditions and storms in the subbasins of the Cambridge Reservoir and Stony Brook Reservoir drainage areas and analyzed for selected elements, organic constituents, suspended sediment, and Escherichia coli bacteria. These data were collected to assist watershed administrators in managing the drinking-water source area and to identify potential sources of contaminants and trends in contaminant loading to the water supply. Monthly reservoir capacities for the Cambridge Reservoir varied from about 59 to 98 percent during water year 2005, while monthly reservoir capacities for the Stony Brook Reservoir and the Fresh Pond Reservoir were maintained at capacities greater than 84 and 96 percent, respectively. Assuming a water demand of 15 million gallons per day by the city of Cambridge, the volume of water released from the Stony Brook Reservoir to the Charles River during the 2005 water year is equivalent to an annual water surplus of about 119 percent. Recorded precipitation in the source area for the 2005 water year was within 2 inches of the total annual precipitation for the previous 2 water years. The monthly mean specific conductances for the outflow of the Cambridge Reservoir were similar to historical monthly mean values. However, monthly mean specific conductances for Stony Brook near Route 20, in Waltham (U.S. Geological Survey station 01104460), which is the principal tributary feeding the Stony Brook Reservoir, were generally higher than the medians of the monthly mean specific conductances for the period of record. Similarly, monthly mean specific conductances for a small tributary to Stony Brook (U.S. Geological Survey

  20. Genetic structure and inferences on potential source areas for Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel based on mitochondrial and microsatellite markers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Shi

    Full Text Available Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae is mainly distributed in tropical and subtropical Asia and in the Pacific region. Despite its economic importance, very few studies have addressed the question of the wide genetic structure and potential source area of this species. This pilot study attempts to infer the native region of this pest and its colonization pathways in Asia. Combining mitochondrial and microsatellite markers, we evaluated the level of genetic diversity, genetic structure, and the gene flow among fly populations collected across Southeast Asia and China. A complex and significant genetic structure corresponding to the geographic pattern was found with both types of molecular markers. However, the genetic structure found was rather weak in both cases, and no pattern of isolation by distance was identified. Multiple long-distance dispersal events and miscellaneous host selection by this species may explain the results. These complex patterns may have been influenced by human-mediated transportation of the pest from one area to another and the complex topography of the study region. For both mitochondrial and microsatellite data, no signs of bottleneck or founder events could be identified. Nonetheless, maximal genetic diversity was observed in Myanmar, Vietnam and Guangdong (China and asymmetric migration patterns were found. These results provide indirect evidence that the tropical regions of Southeast Asia and southern coast of China may be considered as the native range of the species and the population expansion is northward. Yunnan (China is a contact zone that has been colonized from different sources. Regions along the southern coast of Vietnam and China probably served to colonize mainly the southern region of China. Southern coastal regions of China may also have colonized central parts of China and of central Yunnan.

  1. Leishmania infection and blood food sources of phlebotomines in an area of Brazil endemic for visceral and tegumentary leishmaniasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães-e-Silva, Antônia Suely; Silva, Soraia de Oliveira; Ribeiro da Silva, Rosa Cristina; Pinheiro, Valéria Cristina Soares; Rebêlo, José Manuel Macário; Melo, Maria Norma

    2017-01-01

    The aims of the study were to determine the blood feeding preferences of sandflies and to identify species of Leishmania that infected phlebotomines in Caxias, Maranhão, Brazil, an area that is highly endemic for leishmaniasis. Sandflies were captured in light traps located in the peridomiciliary environments of randomly selected houses in urban and rural settings between 1800 and 0600 hours on new moon days between March 2013 and February 2015. DNA extracts from 982 engorged female sandflies were submitted to fragment length polymorphism analysis to identify infecting species of Leishmania, and blood sources were identified for 778 of these specimens. Infection by Leishmania infantum was detected in Lutzomyia longipalpis, Lu. whitmani and Lu. termitophila; L. infantum/L. braziliensis in Lu. longipalpis, Lu. whitmani and Lu. trinidadensis; L. shawi in Lu. longipalpis; L. mexicana in Lu. longipalpis; L. braziliensis in Lu. longipalpis and Lu. whitmani; L. guyanensis in Lu. longipalpis and Lu. termitophila; L. amazonensis in Lu. longipalpis and L. lainsoni or L. naiffi in Lu. longipalpis, while Lu. longipalpis and Lu. trinidadensis were infected with unidentified Leishmania sp. Blood sources were identified in 573 individual phlebotomines and the preferred hosts were, in decreasing order, chicken, dog, rodent and human with lower preferences for pig, horse, opossum and cattle. Lu. longipalpis and Lu. whitmani performed mixed feeding on man, dog and rodent, while Lu. longipalpis was the most opportunistic species, feeding on the blood of all hosts surveyed, but preferably on dog/chicken, dog/rodent and rodent/chicken. Our findings reveal the concomitant circulation of Leishmania species that cause visceral leishmaniasis and tegumentary leishmaniasis in the study area, and explain the occurrence of autochthonous human cases of both clinical forms of leishmaniasis in Caxias, Maranhão. The results support our hypothesis that, in the municipality of Caxias, transmission

  2. Characterization of biomass burning from olive grove areas: A major source of organic aerosol in PM10 of Southwest Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez de la Campa, Ana M.; Salvador, Pedro; Fernández-Camacho, Rocío; Artiñano, Begoña; Coz, Esther; Márquez, Gonzalo; Sánchez-Rodas, Daniel; de la Rosa, Jesús

    2018-01-01

    The inorganic and organic geochemistry of aerosol particulate matter (APM) was studied in a major olive grove area from Southwest Europe (Baena, Spain). The biomass consists of olive tree branches and the solid waste resulting of the olive oil production. Moreover, high PM10 levels were obtained (31.5 μg m- 3), with two days of exceedance of the daily limit of 50 μg m- 3 (2008/50/CE; EU, 2008) during the experimental period. A high mean levoglucosan concentration was obtained representing up 95% of the total mass of the isomers analysed (280 ng m- 3), while galactosan and mannosan mean concentrations were lower (8.64 ng m- 3 and 7.86 ng m- 3, respectively). The contribution of wood smoke in Baena was estimated, representing 19% of OC and 17% of OM total mass. Positive matrix factor (PMF) was applied to the organic and inorganic aerosols data, which has permitted the identification of five source categories: biomass burning, traffic, mineral dust, marine aerosol and SIC (secondary inorganic compounds). The biomass burning category reached the highest mean contribution to the PM10 mass (41%, 17.6 μg m- 3). In light of these results, the use of biomass resulting from the olive oil production for residential heating and industry must be considered the most important aerosol source during the winter months. The results of this paper can be extrapolated to other olive oil producing areas in the Mediterranean basin. Therefore, a fuller understanding of this type of biomass combustion is required in order to be able to establish appropriate polices and reduce the environmental impact on the population.

  3. Influence of transport from urban sources and domestic biomass combustion on the air quality of a mountain area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petracchini, Francesco; Romagnoli, Paola; Paciucci, Lucia; Vichi, Francesca; Imperiali, Andrea; Paolini, Valerio; Liotta, Flavia; Cecinato, Angelo

    2017-02-01

    The environmental influence of biomass burning for civil uses was investigated through the determination of several air toxicants in the town of Leonessa and its surroundings, in the mountain region of central Italy. Attention was focussed on PM 10 , polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and regulated gaseous pollutants (nitrogen dioxide, ozone and benzene). Two in-field campaigns were carried out during the summer 2012 and the winter 2013. Contemporarily, air quality was monitored in Rome and other localities of Lazio region. In the summer, all pollutants, with the exception of ozone, were more abundant in Rome. On the other hand, in the winter, PAH concentration was higher in Leonessa (15.8 vs. 7.0 ng/m 3 ), while PM 10 was less concentrated (22 vs. 34 μg/m 3 ). Due to lack of other important sources and to limited impact of vehicle traffic, biomass burning was identified as the major PAH source in Leonessa during the winter. This hypothesis was confirmed by PAH molecular signature of PM 10 (i.e. concentration diagnostic ratios and 206 ion mass trace in the chromatograms). A similar phenomenon (i.e. airborne particulate levels similar to those of the capital city but higher PAH loads) was observed in other locations of the province, suggesting that uncontrolled biomass burning contributed to pollution across the Rome metropolitan area.

  4. Burial fluxes and source apportionment of carbon in culture areas of Sanggou Bay over the past 200 years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Sai; HUANG Jiansheng; YANG Qian; YANG Shu; YANG Guipeng; SUN Yao

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we assessed the burial fluxes and source appointment of different forms of carbon in core sediments collected from culture areas in the Sanggou Bay, and preliminarily analyzed the reasons for the greater proportion of inorganic carbon burial fluxes (BFTIC). The average content of total carbon (TC) in the Sanggou Bay was 2.14%. Total organic carbon (TOC) accounted for a small proportion in TC, more than 65% of which derived from terrigenous organic carbon (Ct), and while the proportion of marine-derived organic carbon (Ca) increased significantly since the beginning of large-scale aquaculture. Total inorganic carbon (TIC) accounted for 60%–75%of TC, an average of which was 60%, with a maximum up to 90% during flourishing periods (1880–1948) of small natural shellfish derived from seashells inorganic carbon (Shell-IC). The TC burial fluxes ranged from 31 g/(m2·a) to 895 g/(m2·a) with an average of 227 g/(m2·a), which was dominated by TIC (about 70%). Shell-IC was the main source of TIC and even TC. As the main food of natural shellfish, biogenic silica (BSi) negatively correlated with BFTIC through affecting shellfish breeding. BFTIC of Sta. S1, influenced greatly by the Yellow Sea Coastal Current, had a certain response to Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) in some specific periods.

  5. DEVELOPMENT OF THE MODEL OF GALACTIC INTERSTELLAR EMISSION FOR STANDARD POINT-SOURCE ANALYSIS OF FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE DATA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acero, F.; Ballet, J. [Laboratoire AIM, CEA-IRFU/CNRS/Université Paris Diderot, Service d’Astrophysique, CEA Saclay, F-91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Ackermann, M.; Buehler, R. [Deutsches Elektronen Synchrotron DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Ajello, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Clemson University, Kinard Lab of Physics, Clemson, SC 29634-0978 (United States); Albert, A.; Baldini, L.; Bloom, E. D.; Bottacini, E.; Caliandro, G. A.; Cameron, R. A. [W. W. Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Department of Physics and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Barbiellini, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Trieste, I-34127 Trieste (Italy); Bastieri, D. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Padova, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Bellazzini, R. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Bissaldi, E. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Bonino, R. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Torino, I-10125 Torino (Italy); Brandt, T. J.; Buson, S. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Bregeon, J. [Laboratoire Univers et Particules de Montpellier, Université Montpellier, CNRS/IN2P3, Montpellier (France); Bruel, P., E-mail: isabelle.grenier@cea.fr, E-mail: casandjian@cea.fr [Laboratoire Leprince-Ringuet, École polytechnique, CNRS/IN2P3, Palaiseau (France); and others

    2016-04-01

    Most of the celestial γ rays detected by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope originate from the interstellar medium when energetic cosmic rays interact with interstellar nucleons and photons. Conventional point-source and extended-source studies rely on the modeling of this diffuse emission for accurate characterization. Here, we describe the development of the Galactic Interstellar Emission Model (GIEM), which is the standard adopted by the LAT Collaboration and is publicly available. This model is based on a linear combination of maps for interstellar gas column density in Galactocentric annuli and for the inverse-Compton emission produced in the Galaxy. In the GIEM, we also include large-scale structures like Loop I and the Fermi bubbles. The measured gas emissivity spectra confirm that the cosmic-ray proton density decreases with Galactocentric distance beyond 5 kpc from the Galactic Center. The measurements also suggest a softening of the proton spectrum with Galactocentric distance. We observe that the Fermi bubbles have boundaries with a shape similar to a catenary at latitudes below 20° and we observe an enhanced emission toward their base extending in the north and south Galactic directions and located within ∼4° of the Galactic Center.

  6. Wintering area DDE source to migratory white-faced ibis revealed by satellite telemetry and prey sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, M.A.; Fuller, M.R.; Henny, C.J.; Seegar, W.S.; Garcia, Jorge H.

    2010-01-01

    Locations of contaminant exposure for nesting migratory species are difficult to fully understand because of possible additional sources encountered during migration or on the wintering grounds. A portion of the migratory white-faced ibis (Plegadis chihi) nesting at Carson Lake, Nevada continues to be exposed to dichloro-diphenyldichloro-ethylene (DDE) with no change, which is unusual, observed in egg concentrations between 1985 and 2000. About 45-63% of the earliest nesting segment shows reduced reproductive success correlated with elevated egg concentrations of >4 ??g/g wet weight (ww). Local prey (primarily earthworms) near nests contained little DDE so we tracked the migration and wintering movements of 20 adult males during 2000-2004 to determine the possible source. At various wintering sites, we found a correlation (r 2 = 0.518, P = 0.0125, N = 11) between DDE in earthworm composites and DDE in blood plasma of white-faced ibis wintering there, although the plasma was collected on their breeding grounds soon after arrival. The main source of DDE was wintering areas in the Mexicali Valley of Baja California Norte, Mexico, and probably the adjacent Imperial Valley, California, USA. This unusual continuing DDE problem for white-faced ibis is associated with: the long-term persistence in soil of DDE; the earthworms' ability to bioconcentrate DDE from soil; the proclivity of white-faced ibis to feed on earthworms in agricultural fields; the species's extreme sensitivity to DDE in their eggs; and perhaps its life history strategy of being a "capital breeder". We suggest surveying and sampling white-faced ibis eggs at nesting colonies, especially at Carson Lake, to monitor the continuing influence of DDE. ?? 2009 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  7. Recharge sources and geochemical evolution of groundwater in the Quaternary aquifer at Atfih area, the northeastern Nile Valley, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sayed, Salah Abdelwahab; Morsy, Samah M.; Zakaria, Khalid M.

    2018-06-01

    This study addresses the topic of recharge sources and evolution of groundwater in the Atfih area situated in the northeastern part of the Nile Valley, Egypt. Inventory of water wells and collection of groundwater and surface water samples have been achieved. Water samples are analyzed for major ions according to the American Society for Testing and Materials and for the environmental isotopes analysis (oxygen-18 and deuterium) by using a Triple Liquid Isotopic Water Analyzer (Los Gatos). The groundwater is available from the Quaternary aquifer formed mainly of graded sand and gravel interbedded with clay lenses. The hydrogeologic, hydrogeochemical and isotopic investigations indicate the hydrodynamic nature of the aquifer, where different flow paths, recharge sources and evolution mechanisms are distinguished. The directions of groundwater flow are from E, W and S directions suggesting the contribution from Nile River, the Eocene aquifer and the Nile basin, respectively. The groundwater altitudes range from 13 m (MSL) to 44 m (MSL). The hydraulic gradient varies between 0.025 and 0.0015. The groundwater is alkaline (pH > 7) and has salinity ranging from fresh to brackish water (TDS between 528 mg/l and 6070 mg/l). The observed wide range in the ionic composition and water types reflects the effect of different environmental and geological conditions through which the water has flowed. The isotopic compositions of groundwater samples vary between -14.13‰ and +23.56 for δD and between - 2.91‰ and +3.10 for δ18O. The isotopic data indicates that the Quaternary aquifer receive recharge from different sources including the Recent Nile water, surplus irrigation water, old Nile water before the construction of Aswan High Dam, surface runoff of local rains and Eocene aquifer. Evaporation, water rock interaction and mixing between different types of waters are the main processes in the groundwater evolution. Major suggestions are presented to develop the aquifer

  8. Wintering area DDE source to migratory white-faced ibis revealed by satellite telemetry and prey sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Michael A; Fuller, Mark R; Henny, Charles J; Seegar, William S; Garcia, Jaqueline

    2010-01-01

    Locations of contaminant exposure for nesting migratory species are difficult to fully understand because of possible additional sources encountered during migration or on the wintering grounds. A portion of the migratory white-faced ibis (Plegadis chihi) nesting at Carson Lake, Nevada continues to be exposed to dichloro-diphenyldichloro-ethylene (DDE) with no change, which is unusual, observed in egg concentrations between 1985 and 2000. About 45-63% of the earliest nesting segment shows reduced reproductive success correlated with elevated egg concentrations of >4 microg/g wet weight (ww). Local prey (primarily earthworms) near nests contained little DDE so we tracked the migration and wintering movements of 20 adult males during 2000-2004 to determine the possible source. At various wintering sites, we found a correlation (r (2) = 0.518, P = 0.0125, N = 11) between DDE in earthworm composites and DDE in blood plasma of white-faced ibis wintering there, although the plasma was collected on their breeding grounds soon after arrival. The main source of DDE was wintering areas in the Mexicali Valley of Baja California Norte, Mexico, and probably the adjacent Imperial Valley, California, USA. This unusual continuing DDE problem for white-faced ibis is associated with: the long-term persistence in soil of DDE; the earthworms' ability to bioconcentrate DDE from soil; the proclivity of white-faced ibis to feed on earthworms in agricultural fields; the species's extreme sensitivity to DDE in their eggs; and perhaps its life history strategy of being a "capital breeder". We suggest surveying and sampling white-faced ibis eggs at nesting colonies, especially at Carson Lake, to monitor the continuing influence of DDE.

  9. The AreA transcription factor in Fusarium graminearum regulates the use of some nonpreferred nitrogen sources and secondary metabolite production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giese, Nanna Henriette; Sondergaard, Teis Esben; Sorensen, Jens Laurids

    2013-01-01

    and asparagine was found to be a preferential nitrogen source for F. graminearum. Deletion of areA led to poor growth on NaNO3 suggesting its involvement in regulation of the nitrate reduction process. In addition utilization of aspartic acid, histidine, isoleucine, leucine, threonine, tyrosine, and valine...... as nitrogen sources was shown to depend of a functional AreA. AreA was shown to be required for the production of the mycotoxins deoxynivalenol (DON), zearalenone, and fusarielin H regardless of the nutrient medium. Deletion of nmr, the repressor of AreA under nitrogen sufficient conditions, had little effect...

  10. Heavy metal pollution in reservoirs in the hilly area of southern China: Distribution, source apportionment and health risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaolong; Zhang, Lu; Zhao, Zhonghua; Cai, Yongjiu

    2018-09-01

    Reservoirs play more and more important role in providing potable water in many developing countries, including the China. In the present study, pollution characteristics, source and health risk of dissolved heavy metals in 19 representative reservoirs in the hilly area of southern China were investigated. The results presented great spatial heterogeneity in heavy metal concentrations among the studied reservoirs due to the disturbances by different anthropogenic activities. Several reservoirs had significantly higher concentrations of heavy metals compared with others, FengTan (FT) reservoir (0.34μg/L in dry season), Cr in reservoirs of HuangShi (HS) and ZheLin (ZL) with values of 4.16μg/L and 3.45μg/L in dry season respectively, and Al in reservoirs of JiaoKou (JK), GuTian (GT) and DouShui (DS) with values of 1011μg/L, 1036μg/L and 1001μg/L in wet season, respectively. Furthermore, there was a great difference in the seasonal variation of heavy metals, especially for Al and Pb in wet season characterized with relatively high values of 643μg/L and 0.67μg/L, respectively. Accordingly, Al was identified with a great health risk to living beings in view of its mean value in wet season, which greatly exceeded the criteria for drinking water of China, WHO and US EPA. Furthermore, As might be the greatest concern of health risk in this region considering its high carcinogenic risk to the local residents around the reservoirs of OuYangHai (OYH), DS, ZhiXi (ZX) and HS. Multivariate statistical analysis suggested that there was great heterogeneity in the sources of these heavy metals in the hilly area of southern China. Therefore, specific measures, such as controls on point source pollution control and tailings, should be taken for maintaining drinking water safety and aquatic ecosystem health. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Health risk assessment and source study of PAHs from roadside soil dust of a heavy mining area in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarafdar, Abhrajyoti; Sinha, Alok

    2018-02-26

    The total concentrations of 13 detected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in different traffic soil samples of Dhanbad heavy mining area, India, were between 8.256 and 12.562 µg/g and were dominated by four ring PAHs (44%). Diagnostic ratio study revealed that fossil fuel burning and vehicular pollution are the most prominent sources of the PAHs in roadside soil even at a heavy coal mining area. The 90th percentiles cancer risks determined by probabilistic health risk assessment (Monte Carlo simulations) for both the age groups (children and adults) were above tolerable limit (>1.00E-06) according to USEPA. The simulated mean cancer risk was 1.854E-05 for children and 1.823E-05 for adults. For different exposure pathways, dermal contact was observed to be the major pathway with an exposure load of 74% for children and 85% for adults. Sensitivity analysis demonstrated relative skin adherence factor for soil (AF) is the most influential parameter of the simulation, followed by exposure duration (ED).

  12. Response of Maize Grown on Overburden Soil in a Coal Mining Area without Top Soil to Various Compost Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erry Purnomo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Soil in Kalimantan Island is considered infertile. To obtain a reasonable crop yield a high input fertilizer package should be applied. The situation will be worsening when an open pit system of coal mining adopted. Failure in re-arranging the soil layers can result in decreasing soil fertility compared to original soil prior to mining. This study aimed to determine the improvement of soil fertility of a disposal without top soil by using composts from various sources, namely, the public garbage pile, commercial compost, and compost from kitchen waste. The experiment was conducted in a disposal area of a coal mining of PT AI. A series of application rate of compost was set. This was 0, 5, 10, and 20 tonne compost ha-1. A plot with top soil was involved for another control. Maize was selected as the plant indicator to evaluate the effect of treatments applied. It can be concluded that application of composts to reclamation area without top soil significantly improve soil fertility. Among the composts used, K-compost (compost from kitchen waste was the best in improving soil fertility. There were some characters of the compost that had not enough to support maize yield. These were P, K, and pH. Addition of P and K fertilizers and lime material are needed. Of the equation coefficients obtained, the b coefficient of equation belong to K-compost was higher than of the others.

  13. A critical source area phosphorus index with topographic transport factors using high resolution LiDAR digital elevation models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Ian; Murphy, Paul; Fenton, Owen; Shine, Oliver; Mellander, Per-Erik; Dunlop, Paul; Jordan, Phil

    2015-04-01

    A new phosphorus index (PI) tool is presented which aims to improve the identification of critical source areas (CSAs) of phosphorus (P) losses from agricultural land to surface waters. In a novel approach, the PI incorporates topographic indices rather than watercourse proximity as proxies for runoff risk, to account for the dominant control of topography on runoff-generating areas and P transport pathways. Runoff propensity and hydrological connectivity are modelled using the Topographic Wetness Index (TWI) and Network Index (NI) respectively, utilising high resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) derived from Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) to capture the influence of micro-topographic features on runoff pathways. Additionally, the PI attempts to improve risk estimates of particulate P losses by incorporating an erosion factor that accounts for fine-scale topographic variability within fields. Erosion risk is modelled using the Unit Stream Power Erosion Deposition (USPED) model, which integrates DEM-derived upslope contributing area and Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) factors. The PI was developed using field, sub-field and sub-catchment scale datasets of P source, mobilisation and transport factors, for four intensive agricultural catchments in Ireland representing different agri-environmental conditions. Datasets included soil test P concentrations, degree of P saturation, soil attributes, land use, artificial subsurface drainage locations, and 2 m resolution LiDAR DEMs resampled from 0.25 m resolution data. All factor datasets were integrated within a Geographical Information System (GIS) and rasterised to 2 m resolution. For each factor, values were categorised and assigned relative risk scores which ranked P loss potential. Total risk scores were calculated for each grid cell using a component formulation, which summed the products of weighted factor risk scores for runoff and erosion pathways. Results showed that the new PI was able to predict

  14. Health risk assessment of drinking arsenic-containing groundwater in Hasilpur, Pakistan: effect of sampling area, depth, and source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabassum, Riaz Ahmad; Shahid, Muhammad; Dumat, Camille; Niazi, Nabeel Khan; Khalid, Sana; Shah, Noor Samad; Imran, Muhammad; Khalid, Samina

    2018-02-10

    Currently, several news channels and research publications have highlighted the dilemma of arsenic (As)-contaminated groundwater in Pakistan. However, there is lack of data regarding groundwater As content of various areas in Pakistan. The present study evaluated As contamination and associated health risks in previously unexplored groundwater of Hasilpur-Pakistan. Total of 61 groundwater samples were collected from different areas (rural and urban), sources (electric pump, hand pump, and tubewell) and depths (35-430 ft or 11-131 m). The water samples were analyzed for As level and other parameters such as pH, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, cations, and anions. It was found that 41% (25 out of 61) water samples contained As (≥ 5 μg/L). Out of 25 As-contaminated water samples, 13 water samples exceeded the permissible level of WHO (10 μg/L). High As contents have been found in tubewell samples and at high sampling depths (> 300 ft). The major As-contaminated groundwater in Hasilpur is found in urban areas. Furthermore, health risk and cancer risk due to As contamination were also assessed with respect to average daily dose (ADD), hazard quotient (HQ), and carcinogenic risk (CR). The values of HQ and CR of As in Hasilpur were up to 58 and 0.00231, respectively. Multivariate analysis revealed a positive correlation between groundwater As contents, pH, and depth in Hasilpur. The current study proposed the proper monitoring and management of well water in Hasilpur to minimize the As-associated health hazards.

  15. Temporal characteristics of black carbon concentrations and its potential emission sources in a southern Taiwan industrial urban area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yu-Hsiang; Lin, Chi-Chi; Liu, Jyh-Jian; Hsieh, Cheng-Ju

    2014-03-01

    This study investigates the temporal characteristics of black carbon and its potential emission sources, as well as the fractions of BC in PM2.5 levels in Kaohsiung urban area, which is an industrial city in southern Taiwan. Concentrations of BC and PM2.5 are monitored continuously from March 2006 to February 2010, using an aethalometer and a tapered element oscillating microbalance monitor. Additionally, the presence of organic compounds (or UV enhanced species) in particles at the sampling site is determined using the Delta-C (UVBC-BC) value. According to long-term measurement results, BC and PM2.5 concentrations are 3.33 and 34.0 μg m(-3), respectively, in the Kaohsiung urban area. The ratio of BC/PM2.5 is approximately 11 %. Low concentration of BC and PM2.5 in the summer of this study period is mostly likely owing to meteorological conditions that favored dispersion of local air pollutants. Nevertheless, BC concentrations peaked markedly during morning hours (7:00-11:00), likely owing to local traffic congestion. Measurement results suggest that BC is released from local traffic activities and emitted from industrial activities at this sampling site. Additionally, Delta-C values are significantly higher than zero during January-March and November-December periods in this industrial urban area, implying that UV enhanced species can be observed. At this sampling site, these UV enhanced species do not only originate from household activity and solid waste burning but also release from industrial activities. The elevated Delta-C values during nighttime (18:00-6:00) in the autumn and winter seasons are likely related to those UV enhanced species in the atmosphere, which can be condensed on particle surface under low temperature conditions. According to long-term measurement results, significantly positive Delta-C values can be observed under temperatures industrial parks and a coal-fired power plant.

  16. Integrated watershed- and farm-scale modeling framework for targeting critical source areas while maintaining farm economic viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghebremichael, Lula T; Veith, Tamie L; Hamlett, James M

    2013-01-15

    Quantitative risk assessments of pollution and data related to the effectiveness of mitigating best management practices (BMPs) are important aspects of nonpoint source pollution control efforts, particularly those driven by specific water quality objectives and by measurable improvement goals, such as the total maximum daily load (TMDL) requirements. Targeting critical source areas (CSAs) that generate disproportionately high pollutant loads within a watershed is a crucial step in successfully controlling nonpoint source pollution. The importance of watershed simulation models in assisting with the quantitative assessments of CSAs of pollution (relative to their magnitudes and extents) and of the effectiveness of associated BMPs has been well recognized. However, due to the distinct disconnect between the hydrological scale in which these models conduct their evaluation and the farm scale at which feasible BMPs are actually selected and implemented, and due to the difficulty and uncertainty involved in transferring watershed model data to farm fields, there are limited practical applications of these tools in the current nonpoint source pollution control efforts by conservation specialists for delineating CSAs and planning targeting measures. There are also limited approaches developed that can assess impacts of CSA-targeted BMPs on farm productivity and profitability together with the assessment of water quality improvements expected from applying these measures. This study developed a modeling framework that integrates farm economics and environmental aspects (such as identification and mitigation of CSAs) through joint use of watershed- and farm-scale models in a closed feedback loop. The integration of models in a closed feedback loop provides a way for environmental changes to be evaluated with regard to the impact on the practical aspects of farm management and economics, adjusted or reformulated as necessary, and revaluated with respect to effectiveness of

  17. Sources and behaviour of nitrogen compounds in the shallow groundwater of agricultural areas (Poyang Lake basin, China)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soldatova, Evgeniya; Guseva, Natalia; Sun, Zhanxue; Bychinsky, Valeriy; Boeckx, Pascal; Gao, Bai

    2017-07-01

    Nitrogen contamination of natural water is a typical problem for various territories throughout the world. One of the regions exposed to nitrogen pollution is located in the Poyang Lake basin. As a result of agricultural activity and dense population, the shallow groundwater of this area is characterised by a high concentration of nitrogen compounds, primarily NO3-, with the concentration varying from 0.1 mg/L to 206 mg/L. Locally, high ammonium content occurs in the shallow groundwater with low reduction potential Eh ( 100 mV. To identify sources of nitrogen species and the factors that determine their behaviour, the dual stable isotope approach (δ15N and δ18О) and physical-chemical modelling were applied. Actual data were collected by sampling shallow groundwater from domestic water supply wells around the lake. The δ18О values from - 4.1‰ to 13.9‰ with an average value of 5.3 permille indicate a significant influence of nitrification on nitrogen balance. The enrichment of nitrate with the 15N isotope indicates that manure and domestic sewage are the principal sources of nitrogen compounds. Inorganic nitrogen speciation and thermodynamic calculations demonstrate the high stability of nitrate in the studied groundwater. Computer simulation and field observations indicate the reducing conditions formed under joint effects of anthropogenic factors and appropriate natural conditions, such as the low-level topography in which decreased water exchange rate can occur. The simulation also demonstrates the growth in pH of the groundwater as a consequence of fertilisation, which, in turn, conduced to the clay mineral formation at lower concentrations of aqueous clay-forming components than the ones under the natural conditions.

  18. Sources and behaviour of nitrogen compounds in the shallow groundwater of agricultural areas (Poyang Lake basin, China).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soldatova, Evgeniya; Guseva, Natalia; Sun, Zhanxue; Bychinsky, Valeriy; Boeckx, Pascal; Gao, Bai

    2017-07-01

    Nitrogen contamination of natural water is a typical problem for various territories throughout the world. One of the regions exposed to nitrogen pollution is located in the Poyang Lake basin. As a result of agricultural activity and dense population, the shallow groundwater of this area is characterised by a high concentration of nitrogen compounds, primarily NO 3 - , with the concentration varying from 0.1mg/L to 206mg/L. Locally, high ammonium content occurs in the shallow groundwater with low reduction potential Eh (shallow groundwater of the Poyang Lake basin has Eh>100mV. To identify sources of nitrogen species and the factors that determine their behaviour, the dual stable isotope approach (δ 15 N and δ 18 О) and physical-chemical modelling were applied. Actual data were collected by sampling shallow groundwater from domestic water supply wells around the lake. The δ 18 О values from -4.1‰ to 13.9‰ with an average value of 5.3 permille indicate a significant influence of nitrification on nitrogen balance. The enrichment of nitrate with the 15 N isotope indicates that manure and domestic sewage are the principal sources of nitrogen compounds. Inorganic nitrogen speciation and thermodynamic calculations demonstrate the high stability of nitrate in the studied groundwater. Computer simulation and field observations indicate the reducing conditions formed under joint effects of anthropogenic factors and appropriate natural conditions, such as the low-level topography in which decreased water exchange rate can occur. The simulation also demonstrates the growth in pH of the groundwater as a consequence of fertilisation, which, in turn, conduced to the clay mineral formation at lower concentrations of aqueous clay-forming components than the ones under the natural conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Application of water quality index for the assessment of suitability of natural sources of water for drinking in rural areas of east Sikkim, India

    OpenAIRE

    Shubra Poonia; T Shantikumar Singh; Dechen C Tsering

    2015-01-01

    In Sikkim, especially in the rural areas where there is no supply of treated water for drinking and other domestic uses, natural surface water is the only source. The objective was to assess the water quality of natural sources of water in the rural areas of East Sikkim using a water quality index (WQI) for different seasons. A total of 225 samples, that is, 75 in winter, 75 in summer, and 75 in monsoon were collected from different sources for physicochemical analysis, and a WQI was calculat...

  20. Search for Extended Sources in the Galactic Plane Using Six Years of Fermi -Large Area Telescope Pass 8 Data above 10 GeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackermann, M.; Buehler, R. [Deutsches Elektronen Synchrotron DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Ajello, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Clemson University, Kinard Lab of Physics, Clemson, SC 29634-0978 (United States); Baldini, L. [Università di Pisa and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Pisa I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Ballet, J. [Laboratoire AIM, CEA-IRFU/CNRS/Université Paris Diderot, Service d’Astrophysique, CEA Saclay, F-91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Barbiellini, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Trieste, I-34127 Trieste (Italy); Bastieri, D. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Padova, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Bellazzini, R. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Bissaldi, E.; Caragiulo, M. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Bloom, E. D.; Bottacini, E.; Cameron, R. A. [W. W. Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Department of Physics and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Bonino, R. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Torino, I-10125 Torino (Italy); Brandt, T. J.; Castro, D. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Bregeon, J. [Laboratoire Univers et Particules de Montpellier, Université Montpellier, CNRS/IN2P3, F-34095 Montpellier (France); Bruel, P. [Laboratoire Leprince-Ringuet, École polytechnique, CNRS/IN2P3, F-91128 Palaiseau (France); Caraveo, P. A. [INAF-Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica Milano, via E. Bassini 15, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Cavazzuti, E., E-mail: jcohen@astro.umd.edu, E-mail: elizabeth.a.hays@nasa.gov [Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI) Science Data Center, I-00133 Roma (Italy); and others

    2017-07-10

    The spatial extension of a γ -ray source is an essential ingredient to determine its spectral properties, as well as its potential multiwavelength counterpart. The capability to spatially resolve γ -ray sources is greatly improved by the newly delivered Fermi -Large Area Telescope (LAT) Pass 8 event-level analysis, which provides a greater acceptance and an improved point-spread function, two crucial factors for the detection of extended sources. Here, we present a complete search for extended sources located within 7° from the Galactic plane, using 6 yr of Fermi -LAT data above 10 GeV. We find 46 extended sources and provide their morphological and spectral characteristics. This constitutes the first catalog of hard Fermi -LAT extended sources, named the Fermi Galactic Extended Source Catalog, which allows a thorough study of the properties of the Galactic plane in the sub-TeV domain.

  1. Search for Extended Sources in the Galactic Plane Using Six Years of Fermi -Large Area Telescope Pass 8 Data above 10 GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ackermann, M.; Buehler, R.; Ajello, M.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Bellazzini, R.; Bissaldi, E.; Caragiulo, M.; Bloom, E. D.; Bottacini, E.; Cameron, R. A.; Bonino, R.; Brandt, T. J.; Castro, D.; Bregeon, J.; Bruel, P.; Caraveo, P. A.; Cavazzuti, E.

    2017-01-01

    The spatial extension of a γ -ray source is an essential ingredient to determine its spectral properties, as well as its potential multiwavelength counterpart. The capability to spatially resolve γ -ray sources is greatly improved by the newly delivered Fermi -Large Area Telescope (LAT) Pass 8 event-level analysis, which provides a greater acceptance and an improved point-spread function, two crucial factors for the detection of extended sources. Here, we present a complete search for extended sources located within 7° from the Galactic plane, using 6 yr of Fermi -LAT data above 10 GeV. We find 46 extended sources and provide their morphological and spectral characteristics. This constitutes the first catalog of hard Fermi -LAT extended sources, named the Fermi Galactic Extended Source Catalog, which allows a thorough study of the properties of the Galactic plane in the sub-TeV domain.

  2. [Comparison of precision in retrieving soybean leaf area index based on multi-source remote sensing data].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lin; Li, Chang-chun; Wang, Bao-shan; Yang Gui-jun; Wang, Lei; Fu, Kui

    2016-01-01

    With the innovation of remote sensing technology, remote sensing data sources are more and more abundant. The main aim of this study was to analyze retrieval accuracy of soybean leaf area index (LAI) based on multi-source remote sensing data including ground hyperspectral, unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) multispectral and the Gaofen-1 (GF-1) WFV data. Ratio vegetation index (RVI), normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), soil-adjusted vegetation index (SAVI), difference vegetation index (DVI), and triangle vegetation index (TVI) were used to establish LAI retrieval models, respectively. The models with the highest calibration accuracy were used in the validation. The capability of these three kinds of remote sensing data for LAI retrieval was assessed according to the estimation accuracy of models. The experimental results showed that the models based on the ground hyperspectral and UAV multispectral data got better estimation accuracy (R² was more than 0.69 and RMSE was less than 0.4 at 0.01 significance level), compared with the model based on WFV data. The RVI logarithmic model based on ground hyperspectral data was little superior to the NDVI linear model based on UAV multispectral data (The difference in E(A), R² and RMSE were 0.3%, 0.04 and 0.006, respectively). The models based on WFV data got the lowest estimation accuracy with R2 less than 0.30 and RMSE more than 0.70. The effects of sensor spectral response characteristics, sensor geometric location and spatial resolution on the soybean LAI retrieval were discussed. The results demonstrated that ground hyperspectral data were advantageous but not prominent over traditional multispectral data in soybean LAI retrieval. WFV imagery with 16 m spatial resolution could not meet the requirements of crop growth monitoring at field scale. Under the condition of ensuring the high precision in retrieving soybean LAI and working efficiently, the approach to acquiring agricultural information by UAV remote

  3. Size-segregated aerosol in a hot-spot pollution urban area: Chemical composition and three-way source apportionment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardoni, V; Elser, M; Valli, G; Valentini, S; Bigi, A; Fermo, P; Piazzalunga, A; Vecchi, R

    2017-12-01

    In this work, a comprehensive characterisation and source apportionment of size-segregated aerosol collected using a multistage cascade impactor was performed. The samples were collected during wintertime in Milan (Italy), which is located in the Po Valley, one of the main pollution hot-spot areas in Europe. For every sampling, size-segregated mass concentration, elemental and ionic composition, and levoglucosan concentration were determined. Size-segregated data were inverted using the program MICRON to identify and quantify modal contributions of all the measured components. The detailed chemical characterisation allowed the application of a three-way (3-D) receptor model (implemented using Multilinear Engine) for size-segregated source apportionment and chemical profiles identification. It is noteworthy that - as far as we know - this is the first time that three-way source apportionment is attempted using data of aerosol collected by traditional cascade impactors. Seven factors were identified: wood burning, industry, resuspended dust, regional aerosol, construction works, traffic 1, and traffic 2. Further insights into size-segregated factor profiles suggested that the traffic 1 factor can be associated to diesel vehicles and traffic 2 to gasoline vehicles. The regional aerosol factor resulted to be the main contributor (nearly 50%) to the droplet mode (accumulation sub-mode with modal diameter in the range 0.5-1 μm), whereas the overall contribution from the two factors related to traffic was the most important one in the other size modes (34-41%). The results showed that applying a 3-D receptor model to size-segregated samples allows identifying factors of local and regional origin while receptor modelling on integrated PM fractions usually singles out factors characterised by primary (e.g. industry, traffic, soil dust) and secondary (e.g. ammonium sulphate and nitrate) origin. Furthermore, the results suggested that the information on size

  4. Controlled Source Audio Magneto Telluric (CSAMT) studies for uranium exploration in Durgi area, Palnad sub-basin, Cuddapah basin, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Indresh; Kumar, S. Vijaya; Ramesh Babu, V.; Kumar, B.V.L.; Dash, J.K.; Chaturvedi, A.K.

    2017-01-01

    Cuddapah basin is known for hosting unconformity proximal uranium deposits viz., Lambapur, Peddagattu, Chitirial and Koppunuru along the northern margin of the basin. It is well known that these deposits are mostly associated with basement granitoids in Srisailam Sub-basin, and with cover sediments in Palnad subbasin where basement topography and fault/fracture system influence the fluid flow causing basement alteration and ore deposition. Geological setup, surface manifestation of uranium anomalies and association of the hydro-uranium anomalies near Durgi area in southern part of the Palnad sub-basin, have prompted detail investigation by geophysical methods to probe greater depths. Controlled Source Audio Magneto Telluric (CSAMT) survey conducted over five decades of frequency (0.1-9600 Hz) delineated the various lithounits of Kurnool and Nallamalai Groups along with their thicknesses as there exist an appreciable resistivity contrast. Interpretation of CSAMT sounding data are constrained by resistivity logs and litholog data obtained from the boreholes drilled within the basin indicated three to four layered structure. Sub-surface 2-D and 3-D geo-electrical models are simulated by stitching 1-D layered inverted resistivity earth models. Stitched 1-D inverted resistivity sections revealed the unconformity between the Kurnool Group and Nallamalai Group along with basement undulations. The faults/fractures delineated from the CSAMT data corroborated well with the results of gravity data acquired over the same area. Simulated 3-D voxel resistivity model helped in visualising the faults/fractures, their depth extent, thickness of the Banganapalle quartzite and basement configuration. Integrated interpretation of CSAMT, gravity and borehole data facilitated in delineating the unconformity and the structural features favourable for uranium mineralisation in deeper parts of the Palnad sub-basin. (author)

  5. Characterization and sources assignation of PM2.5 organic aerosol in a rural area of Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pindado, Oscar; Pérez, Rosa M. a.; García, Susana; Sánchez, Miguel; Galán, Pilar; Fernández, Marta

    The results from a year-long study of the organic composition of PM2.5 aerosol collected in a rural area influenced by a highway of Spain are reported. The lack of prior information related to the organic composition of PM2.5 aerosol in Spain, concretely in rural areas, led definition of the goals of this study. As a result, this work has been able to characterize the main organic components of atmospheric aerosols, including several compounds of SOA, and has conducted a multivariate analysis in order to assign sources of particulate matter. A total of 89 samples were taken between April 2004 and April 2005 using a high-volume sampler. Features and abundance of n-alkanes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), alcohols and acids were separately determined using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and high performance liquid chromatography analysis. The Σ n-alkane and ΣPAHs ranged from 3 to 81 ng m -3 and 0.1 to 6 ng m -3 respectively, with higher concentrations during colder months. Ambient concentrations of Σalcohols and Σacids ranged from 21 to 184 ng m -3 and 39 to 733 ng m -3, respectively. Also, several components of secondary organic aerosol have been quantified, confirming the biogenic contribution to ambient aerosol. In addition, factor analysis was used to reveal origin of organic compounds associated to particulate matter. Eight factors were extracted accounting more than 83% of the variability in the original data. These factors were assigned to a typical high pollution episode by anthropogenic particles, crustal material, plant waxes, fossil fuel combustion, temperature, microbiological emissions, SOA and dispersion of pollutants by wind action. Finally, a cluster analysis was used to compare the organic composition between the four seasons.

  6. Severe situation of rural nonpoint source pollution and efficient utilization of agricultural wastes in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tong; Ni, Jiupai; Xie, Deti

    2015-11-01

    Rural nonpoint source (NPS) pollution caused by agricultural wastes has become increasingly serious in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area (TGRA), significantly affecting the reservoir water quality. The grim situation of rural NPS pollution in the TGRA indicated that agrochemicals (chemical fertilizer and pesticide) were currently the highest contributor of rural NPS pollution (50.38%). The harmless disposal rates of livestock excrement, crop straws, rural domestic refuse, and sewage also cause severe water pollution. More importantly, the backward agricultural economy and the poor environmental awareness of farmers in the hinterland of the TGRA contribute to high levels of rural NPS pollution. Over the past decade, researchers and the local people have carried out various successful studies and practices to realize the effective control of rural NPS pollution by efficiently utilizing agricultural wastes in the TGRA, including agricultural waste biogas-oriented utilization, crop straw gasification, decentralized land treatment of livestock excrement technology, and crop straw modification. These technologies have greatly increased the renewable resource utilization of agricultural wastes and improved water quality and ecological environment in the TGRA.

  7. Analysis of potential debris flow source areas on Mount Shasta, California, by using airborne and satellite remote sensing data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, J.K.; Hubbard, B.E.; Mars, J.C.

    2003-01-01

    Remote sensing data from NASA's Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) and the first spaceborne imaging spectrometer, Hyperion, show hydrothermally altered rocks mainly composed of natroalunite, kaolinite, cristobalite, and gypsum on both the Mount Shasta and Shastina cones. Field observations indicate that much of the visible altered rock consists of talus material derived from fractured rock zones within and adjacent to dacitic domes and nearby lava flows. Digital elevation data were utilized to distinguish steeply sloping altered bedrock from more gently sloping talus materials. Volume modeling based on the imagery and digital elevation data indicate that Mount Shasta drainage systems contain moderate volumes of altered rock, a result that is consistent with Mount Shasta's Holocene record of mostly small to moderate debris flows. Similar modeling for selected areas at Mount Rainier and Mount Adams, Washington, indicates larger altered rock volumes consistent with the occurrence of much larger Holocene debris flows at those volcanoes. The availability of digital elevation and spectral data from spaceborne sensors, such as Hyperion and the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflectance Radiometer (ASTER), greatly expands opportunities for studying potential debris flow source characteristics at stratovolcanoes around the world. ?? 2003 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Assessment of the relationship between rural non-point source pollution and economic development in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tong; Ni, Jiupai; Xie, Deti

    2016-04-01

    This study investigates the relationship between rural non-point source (NPS) pollution and economic development in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area (TGRA) by using the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypothesis for the first time. Five types of pollution indicators, namely, fertilizer input density (FD), pesticide input density (PD), agricultural film input density (AD), grain residues impact (GI), and livestock manure impact (MI), were selected as rural NPS pollutant variables. Rural net income per capita was used as the indicator of economic development. Pollution load was generated by agricultural inputs (consumption of fertilizer, pesticide, and agricultural film) and economic growth with invert U-shaped features. The predicted turning points for FD, PD, and AD were at rural net income per capita levels of 6167.64, 6205.02, and 4955.29 CNY, respectively, which were all surpassed. However, the features between agricultural waste outputs (grain residues and livestock manure) and economic growth were inconsistent with the EKC hypothesis, which reflected the current trends of agricultural economic structure in the TGRA. Given that several other factors aside from economic development level could influence the pollutant generation in rural NPS, a further examination with long-run data support should be performed to understand the relationship between rural NPS pollution and income level.

  9. Development of a comprehensive source term model for the Subsurface Disposal Area at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The first detailed comprehensive simulation study to evaluate fate and transport of wastes disposed in the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA), at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC), Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) has recently been conducted. One of the most crucial parts of this modeling was the source term or release model. The current study used information collected over the last five years defining contaminant specific information including: the amount disposed, the waste form (physical and chemical properties) and the type of container used for each contaminant disposed. This information was used to simulate the release of contaminants disposed in the shallow subsurface at the SDA. The DUST-MS model was used to simulate the release. Modifications were made to allow the yearly disposal information to be incorporated. The modeling includes unique container and release rate information for each of the 42 years of disposal. The results from this simulation effort are used for both a groundwater and a biotic uptake evaluation. As part of this modeling exercise, inadequacies in the available data relating to the release of contaminants have been identified. The results from this modeling study have been used to guide additional data collection activities at the SDA for purposes of increasing confidence in the appropriateness of model predictions

  10. Sources and distribution of aromatic hydrocarbons in a tropical marine protected area estuary under influence of sugarcane cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arruda-Santos, Roxanny Helen de; Schettini, Carlos Augusto França; Yogui, Gilvan Takeshi; Maciel, Daniele Claudino; Zanardi-Lamardo, Eliete

    2018-05-15

    Goiana estuary is a well preserved marine protected area (MPA) located on the northeastern coast of Brazil. Despite its current state, human activities in the watershed represent a potential threat to long term local preservation. Dissolved/dispersed aromatic hydrocarbons and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were investigated in water and sediments across the estuarine salt gradient. Concentration of aromatic hydrocarbons was low in all samples. According to results, aromatic hydrocarbons are associated to suspended particulate matter (SPM) carried to the estuary by river waters. An estuarine turbidity maximum (ETM) was identified in the upper estuary, indicating that both sediments and contaminants are trapped prior to an occasional export to the adjacent sea. PAHs distribution in sediments were associated with organic matter and mud content. Diagnostic ratios indicated pyrolytic processes as the main local source of PAHs that are probably associated with sugarcane burning and combustion engines. Low PAH concentrations probably do not cause adverse biological effects to the local biota although their presence indicate anthropogenic contamination and pressure on the Goiana estuary MPA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The role of a detailed aqueous phase source release model in the LANL area G performance assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vold, E.L.; Shuman, R.; Hollis, D.K. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    A preliminary draft of the Performance Assessment for the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) low-level radioactive waste disposal facility at Area G is currently being completed as required by Department of Energy orders. A detailed review of the inventory data base records and the existing models for source release led to the development of a new modeling capability to describe the liquid phase transport from the waste package volumes. Nuclide quantities are sorted down to four waste package release categories for modeling: rapid release, soil, concrete/sludge, and corrosion. Geochemistry for the waste packages was evaluated in terms of the equilibrium coefficients, Kds, and elemental solubility limits, Csl, interpolated from the literature. Percolation calculations for the base case closure cover show a highly skewed distribution with an average of 4 mm/yr percolation from the disposal unit bottom. The waste release model is based on a compartment representation of the package efflux, and depends on package size, percolation rate or Darcy flux, retardation coefficient, and moisture content.

  12. Blood cadmium concentrations and environmental exposure sources in newcomer South and East Asian women in the Greater Toronto Area, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiseman, C.L.S.; Parnia, A.; Chakravartty, D.; Archbold, J.; Zawar, N.; Copes, R.; Cole, D.C.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Immigrant women are often identified as being particularly vulnerable to environmental exposures and health effects. The availability of biomonitoring data on newcomers is limited, thus, presenting a challenge to public health practitioners in the identification of priorities for intervention. Objectives: In fulfillment of data needs, the purpose of this study was to characterize blood concentrations of cadmium (Cd) among newcomer women of reproductive age (19–45 years of age) living in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA), Canada and to assess potential sources of environmental exposures. Methods: A community-based model, engaging peer researchers from the communities of interest, was used for recruitment and follow-up purposes. Blood samples were taken from a total of 211 newcomer women from South and East Asia, representing primary, regional origins of immigrants to the GTA, and environmental exposure sources were assessed via telephone survey. Metal concentrations were measured in blood samples (diluted with 0.5% (v/v) ammonium hydroxide and 0.1% (v/v) octylphenol ethoxylate) using a quadrupole ICP-MS. Survey questions addressed a wide range of environmental exposure sources, including dietary and smoking patterns and use of nutritional supplements, herbal products and cosmetics. Results: A geometric mean (GM) blood Cd concentration of 0.39 µg/L (SD:±2.07 µg/L) was determined for study participants (min/max: <0.045 µg /L (LOD)/2.36 µg/L). Several variables including low educational attainment (Relative Ratio (RR) (adjusted)=1.50; 95% CI 1.17–1.91), milk consumption (RR (adjusted)=0.86; 95% CI 0.76–0.97), and use of zinc supplements (RR (adjusted)=0.76; 95% CI 0.64–0.95) were observed to be significantly associated with blood Cd concentrations in the adjusted regression model. The variable domains socioeconomic status (R 2 adj =0.11) and country of origin (R 2 adj =0.236) were the strongest predictors of blood Cd. Conclusion: Blood Cd

  13. Blood cadmium concentrations and environmental exposure sources in newcomer South and East Asian women in the Greater Toronto Area, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiseman, C.L.S., E-mail: clare.wiseman@utoronto.ca [School of the Environment, University of Toronto (Canada); Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto (Canada); Parnia, A.; Chakravartty, D. [Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto (Canada); Archbold, J. [Toronto Public Health (Canada); Zawar, N. [Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto (Canada); Copes, R. [Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto (Canada); Public Health Ontario (Canada); Cole, D.C. [School of the Environment, University of Toronto (Canada); Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto (Canada)

    2017-04-15

    Background: Immigrant women are often identified as being particularly vulnerable to environmental exposures and health effects. The availability of biomonitoring data on newcomers is limited, thus, presenting a challenge to public health practitioners in the identification of priorities for intervention. Objectives: In fulfillment of data needs, the purpose of this study was to characterize blood concentrations of cadmium (Cd) among newcomer women of reproductive age (19–45 years of age) living in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA), Canada and to assess potential sources of environmental exposures. Methods: A community-based model, engaging peer researchers from the communities of interest, was used for recruitment and follow-up purposes. Blood samples were taken from a total of 211 newcomer women from South and East Asia, representing primary, regional origins of immigrants to the GTA, and environmental exposure sources were assessed via telephone survey. Metal concentrations were measured in blood samples (diluted with 0.5% (v/v) ammonium hydroxide and 0.1% (v/v) octylphenol ethoxylate) using a quadrupole ICP-MS. Survey questions addressed a wide range of environmental exposure sources, including dietary and smoking patterns and use of nutritional supplements, herbal products and cosmetics. Results: A geometric mean (GM) blood Cd concentration of 0.39 µg/L (SD:±2.07 µg/L) was determined for study participants (min/max: <0.045 µg /L (LOD)/2.36 µg/L). Several variables including low educational attainment (Relative Ratio (RR) (adjusted)=1.50; 95% CI 1.17–1.91), milk consumption (RR (adjusted)=0.86; 95% CI 0.76–0.97), and use of zinc supplements (RR (adjusted)=0.76; 95% CI 0.64–0.95) were observed to be significantly associated with blood Cd concentrations in the adjusted regression model. The variable domains socioeconomic status (R{sup 2}{sub adj}=0.11) and country of origin (R{sup 2}{sub adj}=0.236) were the strongest predictors of blood Cd. Conclusion

  14. Using a source-receptor approach to characterise VOC behaviour in a French urban area influenced by industrial emissions. Part II: source contribution assessment using the Chemical Mass Balance (CMB) model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badol, Caroline; Locoge, Nadine; Galloo, Jean-Claude

    2008-01-25

    In Part I of this study (Badol C, Locoge N, Leonardis T, Gallo JC. Using a source-receptor approach to characterise VOC behaviour in a French urban area influenced by industrial emissions, Part I: Study area description, data set acquisition and qualitative data analysis of the data set. Sci Total Environ 2007; submitted as companion manuscript.) the study area, acquisition of the one-year data set and qualitative analysis of the data set have been described. In Part II a source profile has been established for each activity present in the study area: 6 profiles (urban heating, solvent use, natural gas leakage, biogenic emissions, gasoline evaporation and vehicle exhaust) have been extracted from literature to characterise urban sources, 7 industrial profiles have been established via canister sampling around industrial plants (hydrocarbon cracking, oil refinery, hydrocarbon storage, lubricant storage, lubricant refinery, surface treatment and metallurgy). The CMB model is briefly described and its implementation is discussed through the selection of source profiles and fitting species. Main results of CMB modellings for the Dunkerque area are presented. (1) The daily evolution of source contributions for the urban wind sector shows that the vehicle exhaust source contribution varies between 40 and 55% and its relative increase at traffic rush hours is hardly perceptible. (2) The relative contribution of vehicle exhaust varies from 55% in winter down to 30% in summer. This decrease is due to the increase of the relative contribution of hydrocarbon storage source reaching up to 20% in summer. (3) The evolution of source contributions with wind directions has confirmed that in urban wind sectors the contribution of vehicle exhaust dominate with around 45-55%. For the other wind sectors that include some industrial plants, the contribution of industrial sources is around 60% and could reach 80% for the sector 280-310 degrees , which corresponds to the most dense

  15. Eo-Oligocene Oil Shales of the Talawi, Lubuktaruk, and Kiliranjao Areas, West Sumatra: Are they potential source rocks?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Iqbal

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available DOI:10.17014/ijog.v1i3.198To anticipate the increasing energy demand, additional data and information covering unconventional fossil fuels such as oil shale must be acquired to promote the usage of alternative energy sources to crude oil. The Talawi and Lubuktaruk regions situated within intra-montane Ombilin Basin, and the Kiliranjao assumed to be a small intra montane basin are occupied by Eo-Oligocene sediments of Sangkarewang and Kiliran Formations, respectively. Field activity, geochemical screening techniques, and organic petrographic analysis, supported by SEM mode, are methods used. Most of the oil shale sequence is typically of an organically rich-succession comprising predominantly well-bedded, laminated and fissile, brownish to dark grey organic-rich shale and mudstone rocks. The exinite macerals within oil shale comprise mainly Pediastrum-lamalginite with minor cutinite, resinite, liptodetrinite, sporinite, bituminite, and rare Botryococcus-telalginite. Therefore; the oil shale deposits can be described as “lamosites”. Minor vitrinite maceral is also recognized. TOC analysis on selected shale samples corresponds to a fair up to excellent category of source rock characterization. The hydrogen index (HI for all samples shows a range of values from 207 - 864, and pyrolysis yield (PY ranges from 2.67 to 79.72 mg HC/g rock. The kerogen is suggested to be of mixed Type II and Type I autochthonous materials such as alginite, with minor allochthonous substances. Oil samples collected appear to be positioned within more oil prone rather than gas prone. Thermal maturity of the oil shales gained from Tmax value and production index (PI tends to show immature to marginally/early mature stage. A consistency in the thermal maturity level results by using both Tmax and vitrinite reflectance value is recognized. On the basis of  SEM analysis, the oil shale has undergone a late eodiagenetic process. Thereby, overall, vitrinite reflectance

  16. QMRAcatch - faecal microbial quality of water resources in a river-floodplain area affected by urban sources and recreational visitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derx, Julia; Schijven, Jack; Sommer, Regina; Kirschner, Alexander; Farnleitner, Andreas H.; Blaschke, Alfred Paul

    2016-04-01

    QMRAcatch, a tool to simulate microbial water quality including infection risk assessment, was previously developed and successfully tested at a Danube river site (Schijven et al. 2015). In the tool concentrations of target faecal microorganisms and viruses (TMVs) are computed at a point of interest (PI) along the main river and the floodplain river at daily intervals for a one year period. Even though faecal microbial pathogen concentrations in water resources are usually below the sample limit of detection, this does not ensure, that the water quality complies with a certain required health based target. The aim of this study was therefore to improve the predictability of relevant human pathogenic viruses, i.e. enterovirus and norovirus, in the studied river/floodplain area. This was done by following an innovative calibration strategy based on human-associated microbial source tracking (MST) marker data which were determined following the HF183 TaqMan assay (Green et al. 2011). The MST marker is strongly associated with human faeces and communal sewage, occurring there in numbers by several magnitudes higher than for human enteric pathogens (Mayer et al 2015). The calibrated tool was then evaluated with measured enterovirus concentrations at the PI and in the floodplain river. In the simulation tool the discharges of 5 wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) were considered with point discharges along a 200 km reach of the Danube river. The MST marker and target virus concentrations at the PI at a certain day were computed based on the concentrations of the previous day, plus the wastewater concentrations times the WWTP discharge divided by the river discharge. A ratio of the river width was also considered, over which the MST marker and virus particles have fully mixed with river water. In the tool, the excrements from recreational visitors frequenting the floodplain area every day were assumed to be homogeneously distributed in the area. A binomial distributed

  17. The AreA transcription factor in Fusarium graminearum regulates the use of some nonpreferred nitrogen sources and secondary metabolite production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giese, Henriette; Sondergaard, Teis Esben; Sørensen, Jens Laurids

    2013-01-01

    Growth conditions are known to affect the production of secondary metabolites in filamentous fungi. The influence of different nitrogen sources and the transcription factor AreA on the production of mycotoxins in Fusarium graminearum was examined. Growth on glutamine or NH4-sources was poor and asparagine was found to be a preferential nitrogen source for F. graminearum. Deletion of areA led to poor growth on NaNO₃ suggesting its involvement in regulation of the nitrate reduction process. In addition utilization of aspartic acid, histidine, isoleucine, leucine, threonine, tyrosine, and valine as nitrogen sources was shown to depend of a functional AreA. AreA was shown to be required for the production of the mycotoxins deoxynivalenol (DON), zearalenone, and fusarielin H regardless of the nutrient medium. Deletion of nmr, the repressor of AreA under nitrogen sufficient conditions, had little effect on either growth or toxin production. AreA appears to regulate production of some mycotoxins directly or indirectly independent on nitrogen status and plays a role in utilization of certain amino acids. Copyright © 2013 The British Mycological Society. All rights reserved.

  18. The estimation of the load of non-point source nitrogen and phosphorus based on observation experiments and export coefficient method in Three Gorges Reservoir Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, X. X.; Hu, B.; Xu, W. S.; Liu, J. G.; Zhang, P. C.

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, Three Gorges Reservoir Area (TGRA) was chosen to be the study area, the export coefficients of different land-use type were calculated through the observation experiments and literature consultation, and then the load of non-point source (NPS) nitrogen and phosphorus of different pollution sources such as farmland pollution sources, decentralized livestock and poultry breeding pollution sources and domestic pollution sources were estimated. The results show as follows: the pollution load of dry land is the main source of farmland pollution. The order of total nitrogen load of different pollution sources from high to low is livestock breeding pollution, domestic pollution, land use pollution, while the order of phosphorus load of different pollution sources from high to low is land use pollution, livestock breeding pollution, domestic pollution, Therefore, reasonable farmland management, effective control methods of dry land fertilization and sewage discharge of livestock breeding are the keys to the prevention and control of NPS nitrogen and phosphorus in TGRA.

  19. Late Quaternary loess-like paleosols and pedocomplexes, geochemistry, provenance and source area weathering, Manasbal, Kashmir Valley, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babeesh, C.; Achyuthan, Hema; Jaiswal, Manoj Kumar; Lone, Aasif

    2017-05-01

    The late Quaternary loess and loess-like deposits in Kashmir Valley are natural archives that have preserved paleoclimate and paleoenvironmental records of the region. We present a loess-like paleosol located along the margin of the Manasbal Lake, Ganderbal, which was studied in detail for understanding the pedological processes and reconstructing the late Quaternary soil formation. In this paper we present loess-like paleosol formation of a nearly 10.6 m thick sequence exposed along the margin of Manasbal Lake, Ganderbal District, Srinagar, Kashmir. Geochemical and textural data of this loess-like sedimentary sequence fluctuate reflecting the varied depositional processes operating in the valley, differential intensity of weathering, and processes of pedogenesis. Weathering indices such as chemical index of alteration, chemical index of weathering, and plagioclase index of alteration reveal weak to moderate weathering of the parent material. Provenance discrimination diagrams of the present study disclose that the Manasbal loess-like paleosol sediments are derived from the mixed source rocks suggesting a variety of provenance with variable geological settings, which apparently have undergone weak to moderate recycling processes. The Manasbal paleosol horizons have been dated by the optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) method to the marine isotope stages mid-MIS-3 (41.7 ± 8.0 ka) and late-MIS-2 (14.6 ± 3.8 ka). During the MIS-3 period, the climate was wetter, forming a strong AhBtk paleosol as inferred from the geochemical data. A steady increase in the CaCO3 content and C/N ratio in the paleosols from 6.50 m (MIS-3) indicates arid and drier climatic conditions. The area around Manasbal Lake incised because of climate change and neotectonic activity since post-14 ka.

  20. Noninvasive Characterisation of Foot Reflexology Areas by Swept Source-Optical Coherence Tomography in Patients with Low Back Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Dalal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. When exploring the scientific basis of reflexology techniques, elucidation of the surface and subsurface features of reflexology areas (RAs is crucial. In this study, the subcutaneous features of RAs related to the lumbar vertebrae were evaluated by swept source-optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT in subjects with and without low back pain (LBP. Methods. Volunteers without LBP (n=6 (male : female = 1 : 1 and subjects with LBP (n=15 (male : female = 2 : 3 were clinically examined in terms of skin colour (visual perception, localised tenderness (visual analogue scale and structural as well as optical attributes as per SS-OCT. From each subject, 6 optical tomograms were recorded from equidistant transverse planes along the longitudinal axis of the RAs, and from each tomogram, 25 different spatial locations were considered for recording SS-OCT image attributes. The images were analysed with respect to the optical intensity distributions and thicknesses of different skin layers by using AxioVision Rel. 4.8.2 software. The SS-OCT images could be categorised into 4 pathological grades (i.e., 0, 1, 2, and 3 according to distinctness in the visible skin layers. Results. Three specific grades for abnormalities in SS-OCT images were identified considering gradual loss of distinctness and increase in luminosity of skin layers. Almost 90.05% subjects were of mixed type having predominance in certain grades. Conclusion. The skin SS-OCT system demonstrated a definite association of the surface features of healthy/unhealthy RAs with cutaneous features and the clinical status of the lumbar vertebrae.

  1. Noninvasive characterisation of foot reflexology areas by swept source-optical coherence tomography in patients with low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalal, Krishna; Elanchezhiyan, D; Das, Raunak; Dalal, Devjyoti; Pandey, Ravindra Mohan; Chatterjee, Subhamoy; Upadhyay, Ashish Datt; Maran, V Bharathi; Chatterjee, Jyotirmoy

    2013-01-01

    Objective. When exploring the scientific basis of reflexology techniques, elucidation of the surface and subsurface features of reflexology areas (RAs) is crucial. In this study, the subcutaneous features of RAs related to the lumbar vertebrae were evaluated by swept source-optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) in subjects with and without low back pain (LBP). Methods. Volunteers without LBP (n = 6 (male : female = 1 : 1)) and subjects with LBP (n = 15 (male : female = 2 : 3)) were clinically examined in terms of skin colour (visual perception), localised tenderness (visual analogue scale) and structural as well as optical attributes as per SS-OCT. From each subject, 6 optical tomograms were recorded from equidistant transverse planes along the longitudinal axis of the RAs, and from each tomogram, 25 different spatial locations were considered for recording SS-OCT image attributes. The images were analysed with respect to the optical intensity distributions and thicknesses of different skin layers by using AxioVision Rel. 4.8.2 software. The SS-OCT images could be categorised into 4 pathological grades (i.e., 0, 1, 2, and 3) according to distinctness in the visible skin layers. Results. Three specific grades for abnormalities in SS-OCT images were identified considering gradual loss of distinctness and increase in luminosity of skin layers. Almost 90.05% subjects were of mixed type having predominance in certain grades. Conclusion. The skin SS-OCT system demonstrated a definite association of the surface features of healthy/unhealthy RAs with cutaneous features and the clinical status of the lumbar vertebrae.

  2. Surface-water, water-quality, and meteorological data for the Cambridge, Massachusetts, drinking-water source area, water years 2007-08

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kirk P.

    2011-01-01

    Records of water quantity, water quality, and meteorological parameters were continuously collected from three reservoirs, two primary streams, and five subbasin tributaries in the Cambridge, Massachusetts, drinking-water source area during water years 2007-08 (October 2006 through September 2008). Water samples were collected during base-flow conditions and storms in the Cambridge Reservoir and Stony Brook Reservoir drainage areas and analyzed for dissolved calcium, sodium, chloride, and sulfate; total nitrogen and phosphorus; and polar pesticides and metabolites. Composite samples of stormwater also were analyzed for concentrations of total petroleum hydrocarbons and suspended sediment in one subbasin in the Stony Brook Reservoir drainage basin. These data were collected to assist watershed administrators in managing the drinking-water source area and to identify potential sources of contaminants and trends in contaminant loading to the water supply.

  3. Special Analysis for the Disposal of the Materials and Energy Corporation Sealed Sources at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shott, Gregory [National Security Technologies, LLC. (NSTec), Mercury, NV (United States)

    2017-05-15

    This special analysis (SA) evaluates whether the Materials and Energy Corporation (M&EC) Sealed Source waste stream (PERM000000036, Revision 0) is suitable for shallow land burial (SLB) at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) on the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). Disposal of the M&EC Sealed Source waste meets all U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Manual DOE M 435.1-1, “Radioactive Waste Management Manual,” Chapter IV, Section P performance objectives (DOE 1999). The M&EC Sealed Source waste stream is recommended for acceptance without conditions.

  4. Seawater quality assessment and identification of pollution sources along the central coastal area of Gabes Gulf (SE Tunisia): Evidence of industrial impact and implications for marine environment protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Zrelli, Radhouan; Rabaoui, Lotfi; Ben Alaya, Mohsen; Daghbouj, Nabil; Castet, Sylvie; Besson, Philippe; Michel, Sylvain; Bejaoui, Nejla; Courjault-Radé, Pierre

    2018-02-01

    Temperature, pH and trace elements (F, P, Cr, Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb) contents were determined in 16 stations as well as in 2 industrial and 2 domestic discharge sources, in the central coastal area of the Gulf of Gabes. Compared to the northern and southern areas of the study area, the highest contents of contaminants were reached in the central area which hosts the coastal industrial complex. The seawater in this central area was also found to be acid and of higher temperature. Based on the Water Pollution Index results, an increasing degradation gradient of the seawater quality was revealed from northern and/or southern stations to central ones, categorized as 'strongly to seriously affected'. Phosphogypsum wastes dumped by the Tunisian Chemical Group (GCT) seem to have continuously degraded the seawater quality in the study area. A rapid intervention is needed to stop the effects on the marine environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Recharge sources and residence times of groundwater as determined by geochemical tracers in the Mayfield Area, southwestern Idaho, 2011–12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Candice B.

    2013-01-01

    Parties proposing residential development in the area of Mayfield, Idaho are seeking a sustainable groundwater supply. During 2011–12, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Idaho Department of Water Resources, used geochemical tracers in the Mayfield area to evaluate sources of aquifer recharge and differences in groundwater residence time. Fourteen groundwater wells and one surface-water site were sampled for major ion chemistry, metals, stable isotopes, and age tracers; data collected from this study were used to evaluate the sources of groundwater recharge and groundwater residence times in the area. Major ion chemistry varied along a flow path between deeper wells, suggesting an upgradient source of dilute water, and a downgradient source of more concentrated water with the geochemical signature of the Idaho Batholith. Samples from shallow wells had elevated nutrient concentrations, a more positive oxygen-18 signature, and younger carbon-14 dates than deep wells, suggesting that recharge comes from young precipitation and surface-water infiltration. Samples from deep wells generally had higher concentrations of metals typical of geothermal waters, a more negative oxygen-18 signature, and older carbon-14 values than samples from shallow wells, suggesting that recharge comes from both infiltration of meteoric water and another source. The chemistry of groundwater sampled from deep wells is somewhat similar to the chemistry in geothermal waters, suggesting that geothermal water may be a source of recharge to this aquifer. Results of NETPATH mixing models suggest that geothermal water composes 1–23 percent of water in deep wells. Chlorofluorocarbons were detected in every sample, which indicates that all groundwater samples contain at least a component of young recharge, and that groundwater is derived from multiple recharge sources. Conclusions from this study can be used to further refine conceptual hydrological models of the area.

  6. Traffic represents the main source of pollution in small Mediterranean urban areas as seen by lichen functional groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llop, Esteve; Pinho, Pedro; Ribeiro, Manuel C; Pereira, Maria João; Branquinho, Cristina

    2017-05-01

    The land-use type (residential, green areas, and traffic) within relatively small Mediterranean urban areas determines significant changes on lichen diversity, considering species richness and functional groups related to different ecological factors. Those areas with larger volume of traffic hold lower species diversity, in terms of species richness and lichen diversity value (LDV). Traffic areas also affect the composition of the lichen community, which is evidenced by sensitive species. The abundance of species of lichens tolerant to low levels of eutrophication diminishes in traffic areas; oppositely, those areas show a higher abundance of species of lichens tolerating high levels of eutrophication. On the other hand, residential and green areas have an opposite pattern, mainly with species highly tolerant to eutrophication being less abundant than low or moderate ones. The characteristics of tree bark do not seem to affect excessively on lichen composition; however, tree species shows some effect that should be considered in further studies.

  7. Retrospection of recent 30-year changes in the process of soil wind erosion in the Luanhe River Source Area of North China using Cesium-137

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Zhifan [State Key Laboratory of Water Environment Simulation, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, 19 Xin Jie Kou Wai St., Beijing 100875 (China) and College of Environment and Planning, Henan University, Kaifeng 475001 (China)], E-mail: chenzhf0604@163.com; Zhao Ye [State Key Laboratory of Water Environment Simulation, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, 19 Xin Jie Kou Wai St., Beijing 100875 (China)], E-mail: zhaoye@bnu.edu.cn; Qiao Jiejuan [State Key Laboratory of Water Environment Simulation, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, 19 Xin Jie Kou Wai St., Beijing 100875 (China); Zhang Qing [National Institute for Radiological Protection, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Protection, Beijing 100088 (China); Zhu Yuen [State Key Laboratory of Water Environment Simulation, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, 19 Xin Jie Kou Wai St., Beijing 100875 (China); Xu Cuihua [National Institute for Radiological Protection, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Protection, Beijing 100088 (China)

    2009-10-15

    The Luanhe River Source Area belongs to typical semi-arid, agro-pastoral ecotone of North China. It is very important for the prevention and treatment of soil erosion in North China to analyze and evaluate quantitatively the recent 30-year changes in the process of soil wind erosion in this area. Based on long field observations, soil samples from different depths in a representative wind-deposited soil profile in the Luanhe River Source Area were collected. Then the {sup 137}Cs activity of soil samples from different depths in the soil profile was determined using a GEM series HPGe (high-purity germanium) coaxial detector system (ADCAM-100), and their soil properties, such as the soil particle fraction and so on, were analyzed. According to the detected {sup 137}Cs activity of different depths, a continuous time sequence of the wind-deposited soil profile in the study area was established. Furthermore, through assumption on a soil relative wind erosion intensity index (SWEI), recent 30-year changes in the process of soil wind erosion in the Luanhe River Source Area were retrospected . The analysis results revealed that weaker soil wind erosion occurred in the study area from the 1970s to the early 1980s and from the late 1980s to the mid to late 1990s. Conversely, intense periods of soil wind erosion occurred in the mid-1980s and from the late 1990s to 2002.

  8. Retrospection of recent 30-year changes in the process of soil wind erosion in the Luanhe River Source Area of North China using Cesium-137

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Zhifan; Zhao Ye; Qiao Jiejuan; Zhang Qing; Zhu Yuen; Xu Cuihua

    2009-01-01

    The Luanhe River Source Area belongs to typical semi-arid, agro-pastoral ecotone of North China. It is very important for the prevention and treatment of soil erosion in North China to analyze and evaluate quantitatively the recent 30-year changes in the process of soil wind erosion in this area. Based on long field observations, soil samples from different depths in a representative wind-deposited soil profile in the Luanhe River Source Area were collected. Then the 137 Cs activity of soil samples from different depths in the soil profile was determined using a GEM series HPGe (high-purity germanium) coaxial detector system (ADCAM-100), and their soil properties, such as the soil particle fraction and so on, were analyzed. According to the detected 137 Cs activity of different depths, a continuous time sequence of the wind-deposited soil profile in the study area was established. Furthermore, through assumption on a soil relative wind erosion intensity index (SWEI), recent 30-year changes in the process of soil wind erosion in the Luanhe River Source Area were retrospected . The analysis results revealed that weaker soil wind erosion occurred in the study area from the 1970s to the early 1980s and from the late 1980s to the mid to late 1990s. Conversely, intense periods of soil wind erosion occurred in the mid-1980s and from the late 1990s to 2002.

  9. Know Your Enemy - Implementation of Bioremediation within a Suspected DNAPL Source Zone Following High-Resolution Site Characterization at Contractors Road Heavy Equipment Area, Kennedy Space Center, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrest, Anne; Daprato, Rebecca; Burcham, Michael; Johnson, Jill

    2018-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Kennedy Space Center (KSC), has adopted high-resolution site characterization (HRSC) sampling techniques during baseline sampling prior to implementation of remedies to confirm and refine the conceptual site model (CSM). HRSC sampling was performed at Contractors Road Heavy Equipment Area (CRHE) prior to bioremediation implementation to verify the extent of the trichloroethene (TCE) dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) source area (defined as the area with TCE concentrations above 1% solubility) and its daughter product dissolved plume that had been identified during previous HRSC events. The results of HRSC pre-bioremediation implementation sampling suggested that the TCE source area was larger than originally identified during initial site characterization activities, leading to a design refinement to improve electron donor distribution and increase the likelihood of achieving remedial objectives. Approach/Activities: HRSC was conducted from 2009 through 2014 to delineate the vertical and horizontal extent of chlorinated volatile organic compounds (CVOCs) in the groundwater. Approximately 2,340 samples were collected from 363 locations using direct push technology (DPT) groundwater sampling techniques. Samples were collected from up to 14 depth intervals at each location using a 4-foot sampling screen. This HRSC approach identified a narrow (approx. 5 to 30 feet wide), approximately 3,000 square foot TCE DNAPL source area (maximum detected TCE concentration of 160,000 micrograms per liter [micro-g/L] at DPT sampling location DPT0225). Prior to implementation of a bioremediation interim measure, HRSC baseline sampling was conducted using DPT groundwater sampling techniques. Concentrations of TCE were an order of magnitude lower than previous reported (12,000 micro-g/L maximum at DPT sampling location DPT0225) at locations sampled adjacent to previous sampling locations. To further evaluate the variability

  10. Influence of a source line position on results of EM observations applied to the diagnostics of underground heating system pipelines in urban area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetrov, A.

    2009-05-01

    The condition of underground constructions, communication and supply systems in the cities has to be periodically monitored and controlled in order to prevent their breakage, which can result in serious accident, especially in urban area. The most risk of damage have the underground construction made of steal such as pipelines widely used for water, gas and heat supply. To ensure the pipeline survivability it is necessary to carry out the operative and inexpensive control of pipelines condition. Induced electromagnetic methods of geophysics can be applied to provide such diagnostics. The highly developed surface in urbane area is one of cause hampering the realization of electromagnetic methods of diagnostics. The main problem is in finding of an appropriate place for the source line and electrodes on a limited surface area and their optimal position relative to the observation path to minimize their influence on observed data. Author made a number of experiments of an underground heating system pipeline diagnostics using different position of the source line and electrodes. The experiments were made on a 200 meters section over 2 meters deep pipeline. The admissible length of the source line and angle between the source line and the observation path were determined. The minimal length of the source line for the experiment conditions and accuracy made 30 meters, the maximum admissible angle departure from the perpendicular position made 30 degrees. The work was undertaken in cooperation with diagnostics company DIsSO, Saint-Petersburg, Russia.

  11. Petrology and geochemistry of the Miocene-Pliocene fluvial succession, Katawaz Basin, Western Pakistan: Implications on provenance and source area weathering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasi, Aimal K.; Kassi, Aktar Muhammad; Friis, Henrik

    Petrology and geochemistry of sandstones and mudstones of the Miocene Dasht Murgha Group (DMG) and Pliocene Malthanai Formation (MF) of the Pishin Belt (Katawaz Basin), northwestern Pakistan have been carried out to find out their provenance and source area weathering. Sandstones of the Dasht...

  12. Multi-angle Indicators System of Non-point Pollution Source Assessment in Rural Areas: A Case Study Near Taihu Lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lei; Ban, Jie; Han, Yu Ting; Yang, Jie; Bi, Jun

    2013-04-01

    This study aims to identify key environmental risk sources contributing to water eutrophication and to suggest certain risk management strategies for rural areas. The multi-angle indicators included in the risk source assessment system were non-point source pollution, deficient waste treatment, and public awareness of environmental risk, which combined psychometric paradigm methods, the contingent valuation method, and personal interviews to describe the environmental sensitivity of local residents. Total risk values of different villages near Taihu Lake were calculated in the case study, which resulted in a geographic risk map showing which village was the critical risk source of Taihu eutrophication. The increased application of phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N), loss vulnerability of pollutant, and a lack of environmental risk awareness led to more serious non-point pollution, especially in rural China. Interesting results revealed by the quotient between the scores of objective risk sources and subjective risk sources showed what should be improved for each study village. More environmental investments, control of agricultural activities, and promotion of environmental education are critical considerations for rural environmental management. These findings are helpful for developing targeted and effective risk management strategies in rural areas.

  13. Distribution and Source Apportionment of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Forest Soils from Urban to Rural Areas in the Pearl River Delta of Southern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yihua; Tong, Fuchun; Kuang, Yuanwen; Chen, Bufeng

    2014-01-01

    The upper layer of forest soils (0–20 cm depth) were collected from urban, suburban, and rural areas in the Pearl River Delta of Southern China to estimate the distribution and the possible sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Total concentrations of PAHs in the forest soils decreased significantly along the urban–suburban–rural gradient, indicating the influence of anthropogenic emissions on the PAH distribution in forest soils. High and low molecular weight PAHs dominated in the urban and rural forest soils, respectively, implying the difference in emission sources between the areas. The values of PAH isomeric diagnostic ratios indicated that forest soil PAHs were mainly originated from traffic emissions, mixed sources and coal/wood combustion in the urban, suburban and rural areas, respectively. Principal component analysis revealed that traffic emissions, coal burning and residential biomass combustion were the three primary contributors to forest soil PAHs in the Pearl River Delta. Long range transportation of PAHs via atmosphere from urban area might also impact the PAHs distribution in the forest soils of rural area. PMID:24599040

  14. Source Areas for the Early Immigration of Sogatella furcifera (Homoptera: Delphacidae) at Xiushan in the Middle Reach of Yangtze River of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, C X; Chen, X L; Bi, J C; Li, J J; Xiao, X H; Li, Q; Wang, H J; Yang, Q F

    2015-12-01

    The spatiotemporal distribution of source areas for the early immigration of the white-backed planthopper, Sogatella furcifera (Horvάth), at Xiushan in the middle reach of Yangtze River of China, was analyzed with HYSPLIT (Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory) and ArcGIS 10.0. The analysis was based on light trap data collected during April-July in 2000-2012. The synoptic meteorology backgrounds during the immigration periods were analyzed by GrADS (Grid Analysis and Display System). The light trap catches of S. furcifera varied monthly and annually. S. furcifera started immigration in Xiushan in early April to early May, whereas the main immigration period was in July. The distribution of the source areas varied monthly, and the core was moved from the south to the north gradually. The main source areas of S. furcifera in May were in southwestern Guangxi and northern Vietnam. The source areas of S. furcifera in June were located in southwestern Guangxi and western Hunan. Additionally, some of the pests were from southeastern Yunnan. The source areas in July were in northwestern Guangxi, southwestern Guizhou, eastern Yunnan, and the transitional parts of Guangxi, Guizhou, and Yunnan. The sum frequencies of southwest and south winds on the 850 hPa isobaric surface of Xiushan of May-July in heavy occurrence years were more than the light occurrence years. The key meteorological factors were suggested to be vertical perturbation, precipitation, and wind shear during S. furcifera immigration periods. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Clay mineralogy and source-to-sink transport processes of Changjiang River sediments in the estuarine and inner shelf areas of the East China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yifei; Zou, Xinqing; Gao, Jianhua; Wang, Chenglong; Li, Yali; Yao, Yulong; Zhao, Wancang; Xu, Min

    2018-02-01

    We examined the source-to-sink sediment transport processes from the Changjiang River to the estuarine coastal shelf area by analyzing the clay mineral assemblages in suspended sediment samples from the Changjiang River catchment and surface samples from the estuarine coastal shelf area following the impoundment of the Three Gorges Dam (TGD) in 2003. The results indicate that the clay mineral compositions throughout the study area are dominated by illite, with less abundant kaolinite and chlorite and scarce smectite. The clay minerals display distinct differences in the tributaries and exhibit obvious changes in the trunk stream compared with the periods before 2003, and the source of sediment has largely shifted to the mid- to lower reaches of the river after 2003. Spatially, the clay mineral assemblages in the estuarine area define two compositionally distinct provinces. Province I covers the mud area of the Changjiang River estuary and the Zhe-Min coastal region, where sediment is primarily supplied by the Changjiang River. Province II includes part of the Changjiang River estuary and the southeastern portion of the study area, where the sediment is composed of terrestrial material from the Changjiang River and re-suspended material from the Huanghe River carried by the Jiangsu coastal current. Moreover, the other smaller rivers in China (including the Oujiang and Minjiang rivers of mainland China and the rivers of West Taiwan) also contribut sediments to the estuarine and inner shelf areas. In general, the clay mineral assemblages in the Changjiang River estuarine area are have mainly been controlled by sediment supplied from upstream of the Changjiang River tributaries. However, since the completion of the TGD in 2003, the mid- to downstream tributaries have become the main source of sediments from the Changjiang catchment into the East China Sea. These analyses further demonstrate that the coastal currents and the decrease in the sediment load of the river

  16. Nitrate source identification in groundwater of multiple land-use areas by combining isotopes and multivariate statistical analysis: A case study of Asopos basin (Central Greece)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matiatos, Ioannis

    2016-01-01

    Nitrate (NO_3) is one of the most common contaminants in aquatic environments and groundwater. Nitrate concentrations and environmental isotope data (δ"1"5N–NO_3 and δ"1"8O–NO_3) from groundwater of Asopos basin, which has different land-use types, i.e., a large number of industries (e.g., textile, metal processing, food, fertilizers, paint), urban and agricultural areas and livestock breeding facilities, were analyzed to identify the nitrate sources of water contamination and N-biogeochemical transformations. A Bayesian isotope mixing model (SIAR) and multivariate statistical analysis of hydrochemical data were used to estimate the proportional contribution of different NO_3 sources and to identify the dominant factors controlling the nitrate content of the groundwater in the region. The comparison of SIAR and Principal Component Analysis showed that wastes originating from urban and industrial zones of the basin are mainly responsible for nitrate contamination of groundwater in these areas. Agricultural fertilizers and manure likely contribute to groundwater contamination away from urban fabric and industrial land-use areas. Soil contribution to nitrate contamination due to organic matter is higher in the south-western part of the area far from the industries and the urban settlements. The present study aims to highlight the use of environmental isotopes combined with multivariate statistical analysis in locating sources of nitrate contamination in groundwater leading to a more effective planning of environmental measures and remediation strategies in river basins and water bodies as defined by the European Water Frame Directive (Directive 2000/60/EC). - Highlights: • More enriched N-isotope values were observed in the industrial/urban areas. • A Bayesian isotope mixing model was applied in a multiple land-use area. • A 3-component model explained the factors controlling nitrate content in groundwater. • Industrial/urban nitrogen source was

  17. Study on Pollen Quality and Quantity as Protein Source of Honeybee Apis mellifera In Rubber Plantation Area (Hevea brasiliensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Minarti

    2009-08-01

    The conclusion of this research is during migratory beekeeping in the area of rubber plantation, bees get pollen low amounts of protein and amino acid levels below the requirement. Keywords : Pollen, Protein, Amino Acids, Honey Bee, Rubber

  18. Quantifying spatial and temporal variability of methane emissions from a complex area source: case study of a central Indiana landfill

    Science.gov (United States)

    strengths, limitations, and uncertainties of these two approaches. Because US landfills are highly-engineered and composed of daily, intermediate, and final cover areas with differing thicknesses, composition, and implementation of gas recovery, we also expected different emissi...

  19. Recognition of the importance of geogenic sources in the content of metals in PM2.5 collected in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton-Bermea, Ofelia; Garza-Galindo, Rodrigo; Hernández-Álvarez, Elizabeth; Amador-Muñoz, Omar; Garcia-Arreola, Maria Elena; Ordoñez-Godínez, Sara L; Beramendi-Orosco, Laura; Santos-Medina, Graciela L; Miranda, Javier; Rosas-Pérez, Irma

    2018-01-17

    The study of airborne metals in urban areas is relevant due to their toxic effects on human health and organisms. In this study, we analyzed metals including rare earth elements (REE) in particles smaller than 2.5 μm (PM 2.5 ), collected at five sites around the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA), during three periods in 2011: April (dry-warm season, DW), August (rainy season, R), and November (dry-cold season, DC). Principal component analysis allowed identifying factors related to geogenic sources and factors related to anthropogenic sources. The recognition of the high impact of geogenic sources in PM 2.5 is in agreement with the REE distribution patterns, which show similar behavior as those shown by igneous rocks, confirming the influence of the regional geogenic material. Metals associated to geogenic sources showed higher concentration (p  0.05) and no similar seasonal pattern among them. These unexpected results exposed outstanding information regarding the identification of different geogenic sources as the main contributors of metals in the atmospheric environment in the MCMA and highlighted the importance of meteorology in the spatial and seasonal metal patterns.

  20. Antibiotic susceptibility profile of bacteria isolated from natural sources of water from rural areas of East Sikkim

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shubra Poonia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Contamination of water, food, and environment with antibiotic-resistant bacteria poses a serious public health issue. Objective: The objective was to study the bacterial pollution of the natural sources of water in east Sikkim and to determine the antimicrobial profile of the bacterial isolates. Materials and Methods: A total of 225 samples, 75 each during winter, summer, and monsoon season were collected from the same source in every season for bacteriological analysis by membrane filtration method. Antibiotic susceptibility test was performed using standard disc diffusion method. Results: A total of 19 bacterial species of the genera Escherichia, Klebsiella, Proteus, Salmonella, Shigella, Enterobacter, Citrobacter, Morganella, Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter, Flavobacterium, and Serratia were isolated and their antimicrobial sensitivity tested. Generally, most bacterial isolates except Salmonella and Shigella species were found resistant to commonly used antibiotics such as ampicillin (57.5%, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxaole (39.1%, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (37.4%, cefixime (34.5%, tetracycline (29.1%, ceftazidime (26.3%, ofloxacin (25.9%, amikacin (8.7%, and gentamicin (2.7% but sensitive to imipenem and piperacillin/tazobactam. Conclusion: Natural sources of water in east Sikkim are grossly contaminated with bacteria including enteropathogens. The consumption of untreated water from these sources might pose health risk to consumers.

  1. Risk Assessment of Pollution Emergencies in Water Source Areas of the Hanjiang-to-Weihe River Diversion Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Luyao; Feng, Minquan

    2018-03-01

    [Objective] This study quantitatively evaluated risk probabilities of sudden water pollution accidents under the influence of risk sources, thus providing an important guarantee for risk source identification during water diversion from the Hanjiang River to the Weihe River. [Methods] The research used Bayesian networks to represent the correlation between accidental risk sources. It also adopted the sequential Monte Carlo algorithm to combine water quality simulation with state simulation of risk sources, thereby determining standard-exceeding probabilities of sudden water pollution accidents. [Results] When the upstream inflow was 138.15 m3/s and the average accident duration was 48 h, the probabilities were 0.0416 and 0.0056 separately. When the upstream inflow was 55.29 m3/s and the average accident duration was 48 h, the probabilities were 0.0225 and 0.0028 separately. [Conclusions] The research conducted a risk assessment on sudden water pollution accidents, thereby providing an important guarantee for the smooth implementation, operation, and water quality of the Hanjiang-to-Weihe River Diversion Project.

  2. Studying The Contamination Status And The Sources Of Nitrogen Compounds In Groundwater In Ho Chi Minh City Area Using The Isotope Hydrology Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Kien Chinh; Le Danh Chuan; Nguyen Van Nhien; Huynh Long; Tran Bich Lien; Luong Thu Tra

    2013-01-01

    The obtained data on nitrate, ammonium and total nitrogen concentration of 100 groundwater samples collected from 3 main aquifers show that although the nitrate concentration is still lower than the authorized limit of this compound in groundwater but the concentration and, specially the distribution of nitrate in shallow aquifer (Pleistocene) shows the increasing tendency in pollution level while ammonium and also total nitrogen content exceeded the authorized limit of these compounds in groundwater. For deeper aquifers (Upper and Lower Pliocene) groundwater is less polluted by nitrogen compounds. Analysis data on isotopic composition δ 15 N and δ 18 O of nitrate of the collected groundwater samples in compiling with other environmental isotopes data as δ 2 H, δ 18 O of water and natural radioactive isotopes in groundwater ( 3 H and 14 C) show that nitrate in Pleistocene groundwater is derived from both sources, geogenic source such as organic matter buried in aquifer soil layers and anthropogenic source like fertilizers, manure and septic wastes with the dominance of anthropogenic source. At the same time, obtained isotopic data proved the geogenic source of nitrate in water of the deeper aquifers. Study results on infiltration rate and infiltration depth of fertilizers and water using tracer techniques in the zone specializing in legume cultivation of the study area show the possible infiltration into shallow groundwater of water and also fertilizers. The obtained results prove the need of better management of the use of fertilizers for cultivation activities in the study area and to apply the advanced cultural manners for minimizing amount of fertilizers used. At the same time to strengthen wastes management and treatment in whole study area, especially in the zones which intake rain water as a recharge source to shallow groundwater such as Cu Chi, Hoc Mon and also inner city districts. (author)

  3. Validation of a semi-automatic protocol for the assessment of the tear meniscus central area based on open-source software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pena-Verdeal, Hugo; Garcia-Resua, Carlos; Yebra-Pimentel, Eva; Giraldez, Maria J.

    2017-08-01

    Purpose: Different lower tear meniscus parameters can be clinical assessed on dry eye diagnosis. The aim of this study was to propose and analyse the variability of a semi-automatic method for measuring lower tear meniscus central area (TMCA) by using open source software. Material and methods: On a group of 105 subjects, one video of the lower tear meniscus after fluorescein instillation was generated by a digital camera attached to a slit-lamp. A short light beam (3x5 mm) with moderate illumination in the central portion of the meniscus (6 o'clock) was used. Images were extracted from each video by a masked observer. By using an open source software based on Java (NIH ImageJ), a further observer measured in a masked and randomized order the TMCA in the short light beam illuminated area by two methods: (1) manual method, where TMCA images was "manually" measured; (2) semi-automatic method, where TMCA images were transformed in an 8-bit-binary image, then holes inside this shape were filled and on the isolated shape, the area size was obtained. Finally, both measurements, manual and semi-automatic, were compared. Results: Paired t-test showed no statistical difference between both techniques results (p = 0.102). Pearson correlation between techniques show a significant positive near to perfect correlation (r = 0.99; p Conclusions: This study showed a useful tool to objectively measure the frontal central area of the meniscus in photography by free open source software.

  4. Atmospheric carbon tetrachloride in rural background and industry surrounded urban areas in Northern Iberian Peninsula: Mixing ratios, trends, and potential sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blas, Maite de; Uria-Tellaetxe, Iratxe; Gomez, Maria Carmen; Navazo, Marino; Alonso, Lucio; García, Jose Antonio; Durana, Nieves; Iza, Jon; Ramón, Jarol Derley

    2016-01-01

    Latest investigations on atmospheric carbon tetrachloride (CTC) are focused on its ozone depleting potential, adverse effects on the human health, and radiative efficiency and Global Warming Potential as a greenhouse gas. CTC mixing ratios have been thoroughly studied since its restriction under the Montreal Protocol, mostly in remote areas with the aim of reporting long-term trends after its banning. The observed decrease of the CTC background mixing ratio, however, was not as strong as expected. In order to explain this behavior CTC lifetime should be adjusted by estimating the relative significance of its sinks and by identifying ongoing potential sources. Looking for possible sources, CTC was measured with high-time resolution in two sites in Northern Spain, using auto-GC systems and specifically developed acquisition and processing methodologies. The first site, Bilbao, is an urban area influenced by the surrounding industry, where measurements were performed with GC–MSD for a one-year period (2007–2008). The second site, at Valderejo Natural Park (VNP), is a rural background area where measurements were carried out with GC-FID and covering CTC data a nonsuccessive five-year period (2003–2005, 2010–2011, and 2014–2015 years). Median yearly CTC mixing ratios were slightly higher in the urban area (120 pptv) than in VNP (80–100 pptv). CTC was reported to be well mixed in the atmosphere and no sources were noticed to impact the rural site. The observed long-term trend in VNP was in agreement with the estimated global CTC emissions. In the urban site, apart from industrial and commercial CTC sources, chlorine-bleach products used as cleaning agents were reported as promotors of indoor sources. - Highlights: • A methodology was developed to measure CTC using GC-MSD and GC-FID. • CTC ongoing sources were noticed in an industry surrounded urban area. • No noticeable nearby CTC sources impacted the rural site. • Long-term CTC trend in agreement

  5. Atmospheric carbon tetrachloride in rural background and industry surrounded urban areas in Northern Iberian Peninsula: Mixing ratios, trends, and potential sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blas, Maite de, E-mail: maite.deblas@ehu.eus [School of Engineering of Bilbao, University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU (Spain); Uria-Tellaetxe, Iratxe; Gomez, Maria Carmen [School of Engineering of Bilbao, University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU (Spain); Navazo, Marino [University College of Engineering of Vitoria-Gasteiz, University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU (Spain); Alonso, Lucio; García, Jose Antonio; Durana, Nieves; Iza, Jon; Ramón, Jarol Derley [School of Engineering of Bilbao, University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU (Spain)

    2016-08-15

    Latest investigations on atmospheric carbon tetrachloride (CTC) are focused on its ozone depleting potential, adverse effects on the human health, and radiative efficiency and Global Warming Potential as a greenhouse gas. CTC mixing ratios have been thoroughly studied since its restriction under the Montreal Protocol, mostly in remote areas with the aim of reporting long-term trends after its banning. The observed decrease of the CTC background mixing ratio, however, was not as strong as expected. In order to explain this behavior CTC lifetime should be adjusted by estimating the relative significance of its sinks and by identifying ongoing potential sources. Looking for possible sources, CTC was measured with high-time resolution in two sites in Northern Spain, using auto-GC systems and specifically developed acquisition and processing methodologies. The first site, Bilbao, is an urban area influenced by the surrounding industry, where measurements were performed with GC–MSD for a one-year period (2007–2008). The second site, at Valderejo Natural Park (VNP), is a rural background area where measurements were carried out with GC-FID and covering CTC data a nonsuccessive five-year period (2003–2005, 2010–2011, and 2014–2015 years). Median yearly CTC mixing ratios were slightly higher in the urban area (120 pptv) than in VNP (80–100 pptv). CTC was reported to be well mixed in the atmosphere and no sources were noticed to impact the rural site. The observed long-term trend in VNP was in agreement with the estimated global CTC emissions. In the urban site, apart from industrial and commercial CTC sources, chlorine-bleach products used as cleaning agents were reported as promotors of indoor sources. - Highlights: • A methodology was developed to measure CTC using GC-MSD and GC-FID. • CTC ongoing sources were noticed in an industry surrounded urban area. • No noticeable nearby CTC sources impacted the rural site. • Long-term CTC trend in agreement

  6. The simulation research of dissolved nitrogen and phosphorus non-point source pollution in Xiao-Jiang watershed of Three Gorges Reservoir area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lei; Long, Tian-Yu; Li, Chong-Ming

    2010-01-01

    Xiao-jiang, with a basin area of almost 5,276 km(2) and a length of 182.4 km, is located in the center of the Three Gorges Reservoir Area, and is the largest tributary of the central section in Three Gorges Reservoir Area, farmland accounts for a large proportion of Xiao-jiang watershed, and the hilly cropland of purple soil is much of the farmland of the watershed. After the second phase of water storage in the Three Gorges Reservoir, the majority of sub-rivers in the reservoir area experienced eutrophication phenomenon frequently, and non-point source (NPS) pollution has become an important source of pollution in Xiao-jiang Watershed. Because dissolved nitrogen and phosphorus non-point source pollution are related to surface runoff and interflow, using climatic, topographic and land cover data from the internet and research institutes, the Semi-Distributed Land-use Runoff Process (SLURP) hydrological model was introduced to simulate the complete hydrological cycle of the Xiao-jiang Watershed. Based on the SLURP distributed hydrological model, non-point source pollution annual output load models of land use and rural residents were respectively established. Therefore, using GIS technology, considering the losses of dissolved nitrogen and phosphorus in the course of transport, a dissolved non-point source pollution load dynamic model was established by the organic coupling of the SLURP hydrological model and land-use output model. Through the above dynamic model, the annual dissolved non-point source nitrogen and phosphorus pollution output as well as the load in different types were simulated and quantitatively estimated from 2001 to 2008, furthermore, the loads of Xiao-jiang Watershed were calculated and expressed by temporal and spatial distribution in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area. The simulation results show that: the temporal changes of dissolved nitrogen and phosphorus load in the watershed are close to the inter-annual changes of rainfall runoff, and the

  7. The Use of LiDAR Elevation Data and Satellite Imagery to Locate Critical Source Areas to Diffuse Pollution in Agricultural Watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drouin, Ariane; Michaud, Aubert; Thériault, Georges; Beaudin, Isabelle; Rodrigue, Jean-François; Denault, Jean-Thomas; Desjardins, Jacques; Côté, Noémi

    2013-04-01

    In Quebec / Canada, water quality improvement in rural areas greatly depends on the reduction of diffuse pollution. Indeed, point source pollution has been reduced significantly in Canada in recent years by creating circumscribed pits for manure and removing animals from stream. Diffuse pollution differs from point source pollution because it is spread over large areas. In agricultural areas, sediment loss by soil and riverbank erosion along with loss of nutrients (phosphorus, nitrogen, etc.) and pesticides from fields represent the main source of non-point source pollution. The factor mainly responsible for diffuse pollution in agricultural areas is surface runoff occurring in poorly drained areas in fields. The presence of these poorly drained areas is also one of the most limiting factors in crop productivity. Thus, a reconciliation of objectives at the farm (financial concern for farmers) and off-farm concerns (environmental concern) is possible. In short, drainage, runoff, erosion, water quality and crop production are all interconnected issues that need to be tackled together. Two complementary data sources are mainly used in the diagnosis of drainage, surface runoff and erosion : elevation data and multispectral satellite images. In this study of two watersheds located in Québec (Canada), LiDAR elevation data and satellite imagery (QuickBird, Spot and Landsat) were acquired. The studied territories have been partitioned in hydrologic response units (HRUs) according to sub-basins, soils, elevation (topographic index) and land use. These HRUs are afterwards used in a P index software (P-Edit) that calculates the quantities of sediments and phosphorus exported from each HRUs. These exports of sediments and phosphorus are validated with hydrometric and water quality data obtain in two sub-basins and are also compared to soil brightness index derived from multispectral images. This index is sensitive to soil moisture and thus highlights areas where the soil is

  8. Comparing Multipollutant Emissions-Based Mobile Source Indicators to Other Single Pollutant and Multipollutant Indicators in Different Urban Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle M. Oakes

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A variety of single pollutant and multipollutant metrics can be used to represent exposure to traffic pollutant mixtures and evaluate their health effects. Integrated mobile source indicators (IMSIs that combine air quality concentration and emissions data have recently been developed and evaluated using data from Atlanta, Georgia. IMSIs were found to track trends in traffic-related pollutants and have similar or stronger associations with health outcomes. In the current work, we apply IMSIs for gasoline, diesel and total (gasoline + diesel vehicles to two other cities (Denver, Colorado and Houston, Texas with different emissions profiles as well as to a different dataset from Atlanta. We compare spatial and temporal variability of IMSIs to single-pollutant indicators (carbon monoxide (CO, nitrogen oxides (NOx and elemental carbon (EC and multipollutant source apportionment factors produced by Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF. Across cities, PMF-derived and IMSI gasoline metrics were most strongly correlated with CO (r = 0.31–0.98, while multipollutant diesel metrics were most strongly correlated with EC (r = 0.80–0.98. NOx correlations with PMF factors varied across cities (r = 0.29–0.67, while correlations with IMSIs were relatively consistent (r = 0.61–0.94. In general, single-pollutant metrics were more correlated with IMSIs (r = 0.58–0.98 than with PMF-derived factors (r = 0.07–0.99. A spatial analysis indicated that IMSIs were more strongly correlated (r > 0.7 between two sites in each city than single pollutant and PMF factors. These findings provide confidence that IMSIs provide a transferable, simple approach to estimate mobile source air pollution in cities with differing topography and source profiles using readily available data.

  9. New directions: Beyond sulphur, vanadium and nickel - About source apportionment of ship emissions in emission control areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czech, Hendryk; Schnelle-Kreis, Jürgen; Streibel, Thorsten; Zimmermann, Ralf

    2017-08-01

    During the oil crises of the 70s and the associated increase of the oil price, the usage of marine fuels shifted from middle distillates of the crude oil refinery, such as marine diesel oil (MDO) or marine gas oil (MGO), towards cheaper heavy fuel oils (HFO), or also called residual fuel oil. The latter refers to the vacuum residue of the crude oil refinery blended by lighter refinery products, such as kerosene, to meet a certain maximum viscosity. Those HFOs are rich in sulphur and heavy metals which end up as significant constituents in emitted fine particulate matter (PM2.5) after the combustion. Especially for harbour cities or highly frequented ship traffic routes, HFO-derived PM2.5 has been identified as a globally important perpetrator of increased mortality by cardiopulmonary diseases and lung cancer (e.g. Corbett et al., 2007). However, the emitted hazardous species provide reliable markers to assess the contribution of this emission source to air pollution in source apportionment studies. Such studies are often performed utilising positive matrix factorisation, whose score matrix can be interpreted as temporal contribution of k identified emission sources and factors represent the k corresponding emission profiles. If one of the k factors contains moderate to high amounts of sulphate, vanadium and nickel with a high ratio of the two latter ones, the ship identification was unambiguous (e.g. Viana et al., 2009). Even more sensitive towards emission profiles are receptor models such as chemical mass balance, which require detailed prior knowledge about the assumed emission sources (Jeong et al., 2017).

  10. Response of Maize Grown on Overburden Soil in a Coal Mining Area Without Top Soil to Various Compost Sources

    OpenAIRE

    Erry Purnomo

    2015-01-01

    Soil in Kalimantan Island is considered infertile. To obtain a reasonable crop yield a high input fertilizer package should be applied. The situation will be worsening when an open pit system of coal mining adopted. Failure in re-arranging the soil layers can result in decreasing soil fertility compared to original soil prior to mining. This study aimed to determine the improvement of soil fertility of a disposal without top soil by using composts from various sources, namely, the public garb...

  11. Point-Source and Area-Wide Field Studies of Pyriproxyfen Autodissemination Against Urban Container-Inhabiting Mosquitoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-05

    in 50 L trash cans. Oak leaves of Quercus alba (L.) and Q. rubra (L.) were used because this infusion elicits oviposition responses from container...105 ha in area (Fig. 2), whereas, the control site was in Union Beach , NJ (40.2650 lat., - 74.71026 long.) and spanned 181 ha. Both the treatment and...people/km2) than Union Beach (1384.7 people/km2). We initially intended to assess pyriproxyfen-based area-wide autodissemination by treating 25% of an

  12. A candidate framework for PM2.5 source identification in highly industrialized urban-coastal areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateus, Vinícius Lionel; Gioda, Adriana

    2017-09-01

    The variability of PM sources and composition impose tremendous challenges for police makers in order to establish guidelines. In urban PM, sources associated with industrial processes are among the most important ones. In this study, a 5-year monitoring of PM2.5 samples was carried out in an industrial district. Their chemical composition was strategically determined in two campaigns in order to check the effectiveness of mitigation policies. Gaseous pollutants (NO2, SO2, and O3) were also monitored along with meteorological variables. The new method called Conditional Bivariate Probability Function (CBPF) was successfully applied to allocate the observed concentration of criteria pollutants (gaseous pollutants and PM2.5) in cells defined by wind direction-speed which provided insights about ground-level and elevated pollution plumes. CBPF findings were confirmed by the Theil-Sen long trend estimations for criteria pollutants. By means of CBPF, elevated pollution plumes were detected in the range of 0.54-5.8 μg m-3 coming from a direction associated to stacks. With high interpretability, the use of Conditional Inference Trees (CIT) provided both classification and regression of the speciated PM2.5 in the two campaigns. The combination of CIT and Random Forests (RF) point out NO3- and Ca+2 as important predictors for PM2.5. The latter predictor mostly associated to non-sea-salt sources, given a nss-Ca2+ contribution equal to 96%.

  13. Nature and sources of particle associated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in the atmospheric environment of an urban area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callén, M.S.; López, J.M.; Iturmendi, A.; Mastral, A.M.

    2013-01-01

    The total PAH associated to the airborne particulate matter (PM10) was apportioned by one receptor model based on positive matrix factorization (PMF) in an urban environment (Zaragoza city, Spain) during February 2010–January 2011. Four sources associated with coal combustion, gasoline, vehicular and stationary emissions were identified, allowing a good modelling of the total PAH (R 2 = 0.99). A seasonal behaviour of the four factors was obtained with higher concentrations in the cold season. The NE direction was one of the predominant directions showing the negative impact of industrial parks, a paper factory and a highway located in that direction. Samples were classified according to hierarchical cluster analysis obtaining that, episodes with the most negative impact on human health (the highest lifetime cancer risk concentrations), were produced by a higher contribution of stationary and vehicular emissions in winter season favoured by high relative humidity, low temperature and low wind speed. -- Highlights: ► PMF receptor model apportioned four sources associated to the total PAH in Zaragoza. ► The sources were: vehicular, coal combustion, gasoline and stationary emissions. ► Samples were additionally classified according to hierarchical cluster analysis. ► The stationary and vehicular emissions factors showed higher risk for human health. ► Low temperature, wind speed and high relative humidity favoured this negative impact. -- Episodes with the most negative impact on human health regarding PAH were produced by a higher contribution of stationary and vehicular emissions in winter season

  14. Chemical characterization and source apportionment of size-resolved particles in Hong Kong sub-urban area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yuan; Lee, Shun-Cheng; Huang, Yu; Chow, Judith C.; Watson, John G.

    2016-03-01

    Size-resolved particulate matter (PM) samples were collected with a 10-stage Micro-Orifice Uniform Deposit Impactor (MOUDI) at a sub-urban site (Tung Chung) in Hong Kong for four non-consecutive months representing four seasons from 2011 to 2012. Major chemical components were water-soluble anions (i.e., Cl-, NO3-, and SO42 -), cations (i.e., NH4+, Na+, K+, and Ca2 +), organic and elemental carbon and elements. Both chemical mass closure and positive matrix factorization (PMF) were employed to understand the chemical composition, resolve particle size modes, and evaluate the PM sources. Tri-modal size distributions were found for PM mass and major chemical components (e.g., SO42 -, NH4+, and OC). Mass median aerodynamic diameters (MMADs) with similar standard deviations (1.32 burning. Secondary SO42 - is also the most dominant component in the droplet mode, accounting for 23% of PM mass, followed by an industrial source (19%). Engine exhaust, secondary NO3-, and sea salt each accounted for 13-15% of PM mass. Sea salt and soil are the dominated sources in the coarse mode, accounting for 80% of coarse mass.

  15. Geochemistry of ground water and the source of contamination of fluoride in the drinking water of the Naranji area, district Swabi, NWFP, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danishwar, S.; Shah, M.T.

    1997-01-01

    Inhabitants of the Naranji village are known for their yellow coloration of teeth throughout the Mardan division. A general survey of the area shows prevalence of dental and skeletal fluorosis of varied degree in the village. A detailed geochemical analysis of ground water of the village indicates fluoride concentration of 13.5 mg l-1 which is about 9 times more than WHO's maximum contaminant level. The source of high fluoride in drinking water is considered to be the alkaline rocks of Koga Complex. Tube well water should be supplied to the area in order to avoid the fluoride contamination. (author)

  16. Disentangling the major source areas for an intense aerosol advection in the Central Mediterranean on the basis of Potential Source Contribution Function modeling of chemical and size distribution measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petroselli, Chiara; Crocchianti, Stefano; Moroni, Beatrice; Castellini, Silvia; Selvaggi, Roberta; Nava, Silvia; Calzolai, Giulia; Lucarelli, Franco; Cappelletti, David

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we combined a Potential Source Contribution Function (PSCF) analysis of daily chemical aerosol composition data with hourly aerosol size distributions with the aim to disentangle the major source areas during a complex and fast modulating advection event impacting on Central Italy in 2013. Chemical data include an ample set of metals obtained by Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE), main soluble ions from ionic chromatography and elemental and organic carbon (EC, OC) obtained by thermo-optical measurements. Size distributions have been recorded with an optical particle counter for eight calibrated size classes in the 0.27-10 μm range. We demonstrated the usefulness of the approach by the positive identification of two very different source areas impacting during the transport event. In particular, biomass burning from Eastern Europe and desert dust from Sahara sources have been discriminated based on both chemistry and size distribution time evolution. Hourly BT provided the best results in comparison to 6 h or 24 h based calculations.

  17. Occurrence of anthropogenic organic compounds and nutrients in source and finished water in the Sioux Falls area, South Dakota, 2009-10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoogestraat, Galen K.

    2012-01-01

    Anthropogenic organic compounds (AOCs) in drinking-water sources commonly are derived from municipal, agricultural, and industrial wastewater sources, and are a concern for water-supply managers. A cooperative study between the city of Sioux Falls, S. Dak., and the U.S. Geological Survey was initiated in 2009 to (1) characterize the occurrence of anthropogenic organic compounds in the source waters (groundwater and surface water) to water supplies in the Sioux Falls area, (2) determine if the compounds detected in the source waters also are present in the finished water, and (3) identify probable sources of nitrate in the Big Sioux River Basin and determine if sources change seasonally or under different hydrologic conditions. This report presents analytical results of water-quality samples collected from source waters and finished waters in the Sioux Falls area. The study approach included the collection of water samples from source and finished waters in the Sioux Falls area for the analyses of AOCs, nutrients, and nitrogen and oxygen isotopes in nitrate. Water-quality constituents monitored in this study were chosen to represent a variety of the contaminants known or suspected to occur within the Big Sioux River Basin, including pesticides, pharmaceuticals, sterols, household and industrial products, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, antibiotics, and hormones. A total of 184 AOCs were monitored, of which 40 AOCs had relevant human-health benchmarks. During 11 sampling visits, 45 AOCs (24 percent) were detected in at least one sample of source or finished water, and 13 AOCs were detected in at least 20 percent of all samples. Concentrations of detected AOCs were all less than 1 microgram per liter, except for two AOCs in multiple samples from the Big Sioux River, and one AOC in finished-water samples. Concentrations of AOCs were less than 0.1 microgram per liter in more than 75 percent of the detections. Nutrient concentrations varied seasonally in source

  18. Example Annual Certification & Compliance Reports for Sources with and without Visible Emissions Testing: NESHAP Area Source Standards for Nine Metal Fabrication and Finishing Source Categories 40 CFR 63 Subpart XXXXXX

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page contains examples of the type of information that must be submitted to fulfill the Notification of Compliance Status requirement of 40 CFR 63, subpart XXXXXX for sources reporting and not reporting visible emissions information.

  19. Identification of sources of elevated concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in an industrial area in Tianjin, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jiao, W.T.; Lu, Y.L.; Li, J.; Han, Jingyi; Wang, T.Y.; Luo, W.; Shi, Y.J.; Wang, G.

    2009-01-01

    The concentrations of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined by gas chromatography equipped with a mass spectrometry detector in 105 topsoil samples from an industrial area around Bohai Bay, Tianjin in the North of China. Results demonstrated that concentrations of PAHs in 104

  20. Uruguaian rural area: energy demand and sources supply; Sector rural uruguayo: demanda de energia y sus posibles fuentes de suministro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reolon, R [Ministerio de Industria Energia y Mineria, Direccion Nacional de Energia, Montevideo(Uruguay)

    1994-07-01

    The present work is about the energy demand in rural areas and its electrification like one of the factors of its residents maintenance, in the means that they are essential for the development but intensive of agrarian intensity, nevertheless we will try to determine their quantity and the character one of them.

  1. Campylobacteriosis in urban versus rural areas: a case-case study integrated with molecular typing to validate risk factors and to attribute sources of infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Lévesque

    Full Text Available Campylobacter infection is a leading cause of bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide, and most clinical cases appear as isolated, sporadic infections for which the source is rarely apparent. From July 2005 to December 2007 we conducted a prospective case-case study of sporadic, domestically-acquired Campylobacter enteritis in rural versus urban areas and a prevalence study of Campylobacter in animal and environmental sources in the Eastern Townships, Quebec. Isolates were typed using Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST to reinforce the case-case findings and to assign a source probability estimate for each human isolate. The risk of human campylobacteriosis was 1.89-fold higher in rural than urban areas. Unconditional multivariate logistic regression analysis identified two independent risk factors associated with human Campylobacter infections acquired in rural area: occupational exposure to animals (OR = 10.6, 95% CI: 1.2-91, p = 0.032, and household water coming from a private well (OR = 8.3, 95% CI: 3.4-20.4, p<0.0001. A total of 851 C. jejuni isolates (178 human, 257 chicken, 87 bovine, 266 water, 63 wild bird were typed using MLST. Among human isolates, the incidence rates of clonal complexes (CC CC-21, CC-45, and CC-61 were higher in rural than urban areas. MLST-based source attribution analysis indicated that 64.5% of human C. jejuni isolates were attributable to chicken, followed by cattle (25.8%, water (7.4%, and wild birds (2.3%. Chicken was the attributable source for the majority of cases, independent of residential area, sex and age. The increased incidence in rural compared to urban areas was associated with occupational exposure to animals, particularly cattle among those aged 15-34 years, and with consumption of private well water. Both bovine and water exposure appeared to contribute to the seasonal variation in campylobacteriosis. These results provide a basis for developing public education and preventive programs targeting the

  2. Possibilities of activation analysis with 252Cf sources in the area of earth sciences and mining prospection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melky, Sami.

    1975-01-01

    The 252 Cf neutron activation experimental set-up is composed of four sources of 225μg each, symmetrically disposed with regard to the sample axis. This installation permits the irradiation of 5 to 40cm 3 of ores, so that the analysis is done on sample weighing about 100g. This method allows, not only the determination of major and minor constituents in the sample, but also the determination of some trace elements. The experimental sensitivity of some important elements are given in mining prospection and it is shown that direct gamma spectrometry after activation permits a fast and precise determination of many elements in ores [fr

  3. Response of pig skin to single doses of irradiation from strontium-90 sources of differing surface area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopewell, J.W.; Hamlet, R.; Peel, D. (Churchill Hospital, Oxford (UK). Research Inst.)

    1985-08-01

    In the present investigations the effects of irradiation of pig skin with 22.5 and 40 mm diameter /sup 90/Sr plaques are compared. In addition to comparing peak epithelial reactions, comparisons were also made as to the healing times for comparable peak skin reactions for each field size. The ED/sub 50/ values (dose to produce moist desquamation in 50% of the skin fields) 26.5 +- 1.5 Gy for the 22.5 diameter field was not significantly different from that obtained for the larger 40 mm diameter source (ED/sub 50/ 29.0 +- 1.5 Gy).

  4. The response of pig skin to single doses of irradiation from strontium-90 sources of differing surface area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopewell, J.W.; Hamlet, R.; Peel, D.

    1985-01-01

    In the present investigations the effects of irradiation of pig skin with 22.5 and 40 mm diameter 90 Sr plaques are compared. In addition to comparing peak epithelial reactions, comparisons were also made as to the healing times for comparable peak skin reactions for each field size. The ED 50 values (dose to produce moist desquamation in 50% of the skin fields) 26.5+-1.5 Gy for the 22.5 diameter field was not significantly different from that obtained for the larger 40 mm diameter source (ED 50 29.0+-1.5 Gy). (U.K.)

  5. Petroleum hydrocarbons in a water-sediment system from Yellow River estuary and adjacent coastal area, China: Distribution pattern, risk assessment and sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Min; Wang, Chuanyuan; Li, Yuanwei

    2017-09-15

    Aliphatic hydrocarbons (AHs), biomarker and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) concentrations of surface water and sediment samples collected from Yellow River Estuary and adjacent coastal area in China were measured to determine their spatial distributions, analyze their sources and evaluate the ecological risk of PAHs in the water-sediment system. The spatial distributions of n-alkane in sediments are mainly controlled by the mixing inputs of terrigenous and marine components. In comparison with AHs, the total concentrations of Σ16PAHs in surface sediments from a transect of the offshore area were noticeably higher than that of the riverine and estuary areas. Additionally, the AHs and total PAHs concentrations all indicated an overall pattern of a seaward decrease. The PAHs concentrations during the dry season (mainly in the form of dissolved phase) were higher than that of PAHs (mainly dissolved phase and particulate phase form) in the flooding season. In comparison with global concentration levels of PAHs, the level of PAHs in suspended particulate matter and sediments from the Yellow River Estuary was lower than those from other countries, while the concentration of PAHs in the dissolved phase were in the middle range. Petroleum contamination, mainly from oil exploration and discharge of pollutants from rivers, was the main source of n-alkanes. The PAHs in the river were mostly of petrogenic origin, while those in the estuarial and marine areas originated mainly from pyrogenic sources. The results of the toxicology assessment suggested that the PAHs in sediments from Yellow River Estuary and adjacent coastal area exhibited a low potential eco-toxicological contamination level. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A novel assessment of odor sources using instrumental analysis combined with resident monitoring records for an industrial area in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyung-Don; Jeon, Soo-Bin; Choi, Won-Joon; Lee, Sang-Sup; Lee, Min-Ho; Oh, Kwang-Joong

    2013-08-01

    The residents living nearby the Sa-sang industrial area (SSIA) continuously were damaged by odorous pollution since 1990s. We determined the concentrations of reduced sulfur compounds (RSCs) [hydrogen sulfide (H2S), methyl mercaptan (CH3SH), dimethyl sulfide (DMS), and dimethyl disulfide (DMDS)], nitrogenous compounds (NCs) [ammonia (NH3) and trimethylamine (TMA)], and carbonyl compounds (CCs) [acetaldehyde and butyraldehyde] by instrumental analysis in the SSIA in Busan, Korea from Jun to Nov, 2011. We determined odor intensity (OI) based on the concentrations of the odorants and resident monitoring records (RMR). The mean concentration of H2S was 10-times higher than NCs, CCs and the other RSC. The contribution from RSCs to the OI was over 50% at all sites excluding the A-5 (chemical production) site. In particular, A-4 (food production) site showed more than 8-times higher the sum of odor activity value (SOAV) than the other sites. This suggested that the A-4 site was the most malodorous area in the SSIA. From the RMR analysis, the annoyance degree (OI ≥ 2) was 51.9% in the industrial area. The 'Rotten' smell arising from the RSCs showed the highest frequency (25.3%) while 'Burned' and 'Other' were more frequent than 'Rotten' in the residential area. The correlation between odor index calculated by instrumental analysis and OI from the RMR was analyzed. The Pearson correlation coefficient (r) of the SOAV was the highest at 0.720 (P food production causes significant annoyance in the SSIA. We also confirm RMR data can be used effectively to evaluate the characteristic of odorants emitted from the SSIA.

  7. Sources of nitrous oxide and other climate relevant gases on surface area in a dairy free stall barn with solid floor and outside slurry storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmithausen, Alexander J.; Trimborn, Manfred; Büscher, Wolfgang

    2018-04-01

    Livestock production systems in agriculture are one of the major emitters of greenhouse gases. So far, the focus of research in the dairy farm sector was primarily on ruminal methane (CH4) emissions. Emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O) usually arise from solid manure or in deep litter free stall barns. Release of N2O occurs as a result of interactions between organic material, nitrogen and moisture. Data of N2O emissions from modern dairy barns and liquid manure management systems are rare. Thus, the goal of this research was to determine the main sources of trace gas emissions at the dairy farm level, including N2O. Areas such as the scraped surface area where dry and wet conditions alternate are interesting. Possible sources of trace gases within and outside the barn were localised by measuring trace gas concentration rates from different dairy farm areas (e.g., areas covered with urine and excrement or slurry storage system) via the closed chamber technique. The results indicate typical emission ratios of carbon dioxide (CO2), CH4 and N2O in the various areas to generate comparable equivalent values. Calculated on the basis of nitrogen excretion from dairy cows, total emissions of N2O were much lower from barns than typically measured in fields. However, there were also areas within the barn with individual events and unexpected release factors of N2O concentrations such as urine patches, polluted areas and cubicles. Emission factors of N2O ranged from 1.1 to 5.0 mg m-2 d-1, respectively, for cleaned areas and urine patches. By considering the release factors of these areas and their proportion of the entire barn, total emission rates of 371 CO2-eq. LU-1 a-1, 36 CO2-eq. LU-1 a-1, and 1.7 kg CO2-eq. LU-1 a-1 for CO2, CH4 and N2O, respectively, were measured for the whole barn surface area. The CH4 emissions from surface area were stronger climate relevant comparing to N2O emissions, but compared to CH4 emissions from slurry storage or ruminal fermentation (not

  8. High background radiation area: an important source of exploring the health effects of low dose ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Luxin

    1997-01-01

    Objective: For obtaining more effective data from epidemiological investigation in high background radiation areas, it is necessary to analyze the advantages, disadvantages, weak points and problems of this kind of radiation research. Methods: For epidemiological investigation of population health effects of high background radiation, the author selected high background radiation areas of Yangjiang (HBRA) and a nearby control area (CA) as an instance for analysis. The investigation included classification of dose groups, comparison of the confounding factors in the incidence of mutation related diseases, cancer mortalities and the frequencies of chromosomal aberrations between HBRA and CA. This research program has become a China-Japan cooperative research since 1991. Results: The confounding factors above-mentioned were comparable between HBRA and CA, and within the dose groups in HBRA, based on a systematic study for many years. The frequencies of chromosomal aberrations increased with the increase of cumulative dose, but not for children around or below 10 years of age. The relative risks (RR) of total and site-specific cancer mortalities for HBRA were lower or around 1.00, compared with CA. The incidence of hereditary diseases and congenital deformities in HBRA were in normal range. The results were interpreted preliminarily by the modified 'dual radiation action' theory and the 'benefit-detriment competition' hypothesis. Conclusions: The author emphasizes the necessity for continuing epidemiological research in HBRA, especially for international cooperation. He also emphasizes the importance of combination of epidemiology and radiobiology

  9. Using crowd-sourced photos to assess seasonal patterns of visitor use in mountain-protected areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walden-Schreiner, Chelsey; Rossi, Sebastian Dario; Barros, Agustina; Pickering, Catherine; Leung, Yu-Fai

    2018-02-12

    Managing protected areas effectively requires information about patterns of visitor use, but these data are often limited. We explore how geotagged photos on Flickr, a popular photo-sharing social-media site, can generate hotspot maps and distribution models of temporal and spatial patterns of use in two mountain-protected areas of high conservation value. In Aconcagua Provincial Park (Argentina), two routes to the summit of Aconcagua were used in summer, but most visitors stayed close to the main road, using formal and informal walking trails and the Visitor Centre, while in winter, there was very limited visitation. In Kosciuszko National Park (Australia), alpine walking trails were popular in summer, but in winter, most visitors stayed in the lower altitude ski resorts and ski trails. Results demonstrate the usefulness of social-media data alone as well as a complement for visitor monitoring, providing spatial and temporal information for site-specific and park-level management of visitors and potential impacts in conservation areas.

  10. Taenia solium metacestode preparation in rural areas of sub-Saharan Africa: a source for diagnosis and research on cysticercosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, V; Sikasunge, C S; Odongo-Aginya, E; Simukoko, C; Mwanjali, G; Alarakol, S; Ovuga, E; Matuja, W; Kihamia, C; Löscher, T; Winkler, A S; Bretzel, G

    2015-03-01

    Taenia solium metacestodes/cysts obtained from pig carcasses constitute a primary source for diagnostic tools used for the detection of human cysticercosis. Data on T. solium cyst preparation in Africa is still scarce but required to establish independent reference laboratories. The aim of the present study is a) to present the likely yield of T. solium cyst material by the use of two different preparation methods in the field and b) to investigate its suitability for immunodiagnosis of human cysticercosis. In Zambia, Uganda and Tanzania 670 pigs were screened for T. solium infection. Cysts were prepared by 'shaking method' and 'washing method'. Generated crude antigens were applied in a standard western blot assay. 46 out of 670 pigs (6.9%) were found positive for T. solium (Zambia: 12/367, 3.3%; Uganda: 11/217, 5.1%; Tanzania 23/86, 26.7%). Mean values of 77.7 ml whole cysts, 61.8 ml scolices/membranes and 10.9 ml cyst fluid were obtained per pig. Suitability of collected material for the use as crude antigen and molecular diagnostic techniques was demonstrated. This study clearly shows that T. solium cyst preparation in African settings by simple field methods constitutes an effective way to obtain high quality material as source for diagnostic tools and research purposes.

  11. Sources of dissolved inorganic nitrogen in a coastal lagoon adjacent to a major metropolitan area, Miami Florida (USA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swart, Peter K.; Anderson, William T.; Altabet, Mark A.; Drayer, Courtney; Bellmund, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • A range of biota (algae and sea grasses) shows enriched δ 15 N close to the coast. • Enriched signals are evident in the particulate and sedimentary organic material. • δ 15 N signals are correlated with high inputs of dissolved inorganic matter. • The enriched values support the presence of a sewage related component. • The δ 15 N could arise from the local landfill, injected wastewater, or septic systems. - Abstract: Between 2006 and 2007, a study was carried out to determine the relative importance of natural and anthropogenic input of nitrogen into Biscayne Bay (South Florida, USA) using δ 13 C and δ 15 N values of algae, seagrasses, and particulate organic material, δ 18 O and δ 15 N of the NO 3 - and δ 13 C of the dissolved inorganic carbon. The δ 15 N values of all components showed a strong east to west gradient approaching more positive values (+7 to +10‰) close to the land-sea interface. The nitrogen could have emanated from the local waste water treatment plant, septic systems within the region, or nitrogen which had been affected by denitrification and leached from the local landfill, wastewater which had been injected into the Floridan aquifer and leaked back to the surface, and/or some other as yet unidentified source. The measured NO 3 - δ 15 N and δ 18 O values indicated that the dissolved nitrate originated from anthropogenic sources and was fractionated during assimilation

  12. Distribution, source identification and health risk assessment of soil heavy metals in urban areas of Isfahan province, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastegari Mehr, Meisam; Keshavarzi, Behnam; Moore, Farid; Sharifi, Reza; Lahijanzadeh, Ahmadreza; Kermani, Maryam

    2017-08-01

    The present study examines some heavy metals (As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) contents in urban soils of 23 cities in Isfahan province, central Iran. For this purpose, 83 topsoil samples were collected and analyzed by ICP-MS. Results showed that the concentrations of As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn are higher than background values, while Co, Cr and Ni concentrations are close to the background. Compared with heavy metal concentrations in selected cities around the world, As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn concentrations in urban soils of Isfahan are relatively enriched. Moreover, natural background concentrations of Co, Cr and Ni in Isfahan province soil are high and the apparent enrichment relative to other major cities of the world is due to this high background contents. Calculated contamination factor (CF) confirmed that As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn are extremely enriched in the urban soils. Furthermore, pollution load index (PLI) and Geoaccumulation index (Igeo) highlighted that highly contaminated cities are mostly affected by pollution from traffic, industries and Shahkuh Pb-Zn mine. Based on hazard quotients (HQ), hazard index (HI) and cancer risk (CR) calculated in this study, human health risk (particularly for Pb and Cd) have reached alarming scales. Results from principle component analysis (PCA) and positive matrix factorization (PMF) introduces three sources for soils heavy metals including mine and industries (mainly for Pb, Zn, Cd and As); urban activities (particularly for Cu, Pb and Zn); and geogenic source (Ni, Co and Cr).

  13. Decision support system for exploiting local renewable energy sources: A case study of the Chigu area of southwestern Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yue, C.-D.; Yang, G.G.-L.

    2007-01-01

    The topic of climate and energy policy has drawn new attention since the Kyoto Protocol has now come into force. It is hoped that strengthened use of renewable energy sources can meet new international environmental requirements and provide self-sufficient domestic energy supplies. The decision support system established in this study integrates potential evaluations, cost analyses, legal incentives, and analysis of returns on investments with the aid of a geographic information system (GIS). This system can provide insights for policymakers into where and the extent of the potentials, for lawmakers into whether the current legal incentives are sufficient to encourage private investment, and for investors into whether investments in exploiting local renewable energy sources are economically feasible. Under the current incentive framework in Taiwan, the amortization periods of investment on renewable energy are generally longer than the period over which the investment is to be recovered. This presents an unfavorable condition for attracting investments to and for developing renewable energy. An increase in remuneration through legal revisions is needed before domestic investment in renewable energy will actively expand

  14. Source apportionment of PM(2.5) in the harbour-industrial area of Brindisi (Italy): identification and estimation of the contribution of in-port ship emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesari, D; Genga, A; Ielpo, P; Siciliano, M; Mascolo, G; Grasso, F M; Contini, D

    2014-11-01

    Harbours are important for economic and social development of coastal areas but they also represent an anthropogenic source of emissions often located near urban centres and industrial areas. This increases the difficulties in distinguishing the harbour contribution with respect to other sources. The aim of this work is the characterisation of main sources of PM2.5 acting on the Brindisi harbour-industrial area, trying to pinpoint the contribution of in-port ship emissions to primary and secondary PM2.5. Brindisi is an important port-city of the Adriatic Sea considered a hot-spot for anthropogenic environmental pressures at National level. Measurements were performed collecting PM2.5 samples and characterising the concentrations of 23 chemical species (water soluble organic and inorganic carbon; major ions: SO4(2-), NO3(-), NH4(+), Cl(-), C2O4(2-), Na(+), K(+), Mg(2+), Ca(2+); and elements: Ni, Cu, V, Mn, As, Pb, Cr, Sb, Fe, Al, Zn, and Ti). These species represent, on average, 51.4% of PM2.5 and were used for source apportionment via PMF. The contributions of eight sources were estimated: crustal (16.4±0.9% of PM2.5), aged marine (2.6±0.5%), crustal carbonates (7.7±0.3%), ammonium sulphate (27.3±0.8%), biomass burning-fires (11.7±0.7%), traffic (16.4±1.7 %), industrial (0.4±0.3%) and a mixed source oil combustion-industrial including ship emissions in harbour (15.3±1.3%). The PMF did not separate the in-port ship emission contribution from industrial releases. The correlation of estimated contribution with meteorology showed directionality with an increase of oil combustion and sulphate contribution in the harbour direction with respect to the direction of the urban area and an increase of the V/Ni ratio. This allowed for the use of V as marker of primary ship contribution to PM2.5 (2.8%+/-1.1%). The secondary contribution of oil combustion to non-sea-salt-sulphate, nssSO4(2-), was estimated to be 1.3 μg/m(3) (about 40% of total nssSO4(2-) or 11% of PM2

  15. USE OF GUACIMO (Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. AS A FORAGE SOURCE FOR EXTENSIVE LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION IN A TROPICAL AREA OF MEXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Elena Nava-Tablada

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to study the traditional uses of guacimo (Guazuma ulmifolia Lam, compared to other local forage resources for livestock. The expectative of farmers on the use of trees as alternative sources of forage in Angostillo, Paso de Ovejas, Veracruz, Mexico was also investigated. Data was collected through interviews and direct observation. All farmers practice ranching and 85% combine animal production with crop cultivation; allocating 40% of their land to corn and 60% to dual purpose cattle production. The principal uses of guacimo are as forage, firewood, timber, shade, and living fence posts. Guacimo has the highest value as forage compared to other local fodder trees such as guaje de indio (Leucaena lanceolata S. Watson, espino (Acacia cavenia Mol. and huizache (A. farnesiana Willd.. Farmers showed interest in establishing silvopastoral systems including forage banks using guacimo. However, they foresaw limitations due to a lack of consulting, agronomic training and financial support to establish the crops.

  16. Levels, chemical composition and sources of fine aerosol particles (PM1) in an area of the Mediterranean basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caggiano, Rosa; Macchiato, Maria; Trippetta, Serena

    2010-01-01

    Daily samples of fine aerosol particles (i.e., PM1, aerosol particles with an aerodynamic diameter less than 1.0 μm) were collected in Tito Scalo - Southern Italy - from April 2006 to March 2007. Measurements were performed by means of a low-volume gravimetric sampler, and each PM1 sample was analyzed by means of Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES) or Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (GFAAS and FAAS) techniques in order to determine its content in fourteen trace elements (Al, Ca, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, Ti and Zn). During the period examined, PM1 daily concentrations ranged between 0.3 μg m -3 and 55 μg m -3 with a mean value of 8 μg m -3 , a standard deviation of 7 μg m -3 and a median value of 6 μg m -3 . As far as PM1 chemical composition is concerned, the mean values of the trace element concentrations decreased in the following order: Ca > Fe > Al > Na > K > Cr > Mg > Pb > Ni ∼ Ti ∼ Zn > Cd ∼ Cu > Mn. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) allowed the identification of three probable PM1 sources: industrial emissions, traffic and re-suspension of soil dust. Moreover, the results of a procedure applied to study the potential long-range transport contribution to PM1 chemical composition, showed that trace element concentrations do not seem to be affected by air mass origin and path. This was probably due to the strong impact of the local emission sources and the lack of the concentration measurements of some important elements and compounds that could better reveal the long-range transport influence on PM1 measurements at ground level.

  17. Levels, chemical composition and sources of fine aerosol particles (PM1) in an area of the Mediterranean basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caggiano, Rosa; Macchiato, Maria; Trippetta, Serena

    2010-01-15

    Daily samples of fine aerosol particles (i.e., PM1, aerosol particles with an aerodynamic diameter less than 1.0mum) were collected in Tito Scalo - Southern Italy - from April 2006 to March 2007. Measurements were performed by means of a low-volume gravimetric sampler, and each PM1 sample was analyzed by means of Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES) or Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (GFAAS and FAAS) techniques in order to determine its content in fourteen trace elements (Al, Ca, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, Ti and Zn). During the period examined, PM1 daily concentrations ranged between 0.3microgm(-3) and 55microgm(-3) with a mean value of 8 microg m(-3), a standard deviation of 7microgm(-3) and a median value of 6microgm(-3). As far as PM1 chemical composition is concerned, the mean values of the trace element concentrations decreased in the following order: Ca>Fe>Al>Na>K>Cr>Mg>Pb>Ni approximately Ti approximately Zn>Cd approximately Cu>Mn. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) allowed the identification of three probable PM1 sources: industrial emissions, traffic and re-suspension of soil dust. Moreover, the results of a procedure applied to study the potential long-range transport contribution to PM1 chemical composition, showed that trace element concentrations do not seem to be affected by air mass origin and path. This was probably due to the strong impact of the local emission sources and the lack of the concentration measurements of some important elements and compounds that could better reveal the long-range transport influence on PM1 measurements at ground level. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Seismic data collection from water gun and industrial background sources in the Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal area, Illinois, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, William S.; Carpenter, Phillip J.; Adams, Ryan F.

    2015-01-01

    The water gun is a tool adapted from deep marine geophysical surveys that is being evaluated for use as an acoustic fish deterrent to control the movement of invasive marine species. The water gun creates a seismic signal by using a compressed air discharge to move a piston rapidly within the water, resulting in an implosion. This energy pulse may be able to modify fish behavior or destroy marine life, such as the Asian carp, at some distance. The effects of this energy pulse on structures in the Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal (CSSC), such as canal walls, shore lines, and lock structures, are not known. The potential effects of the use of a water gun on structures was identified as a concern in the CSSC and was assessed relative to existing background sources during this study. During September 2011, two water guns with piston sizes of 80 and 343 cubic inches, respectively, were tested in the CSSC at varying pressures and distances from a canal wall consisting of dolomite and dolomite setblock. Seismic data were collected during these water gun firings using geophones on land, in boreholes, and at the canal wall interface. Data were collected at varying depths in the canal water using hydrophones. Seismic data were also collected during the occurrences of barge traffic, railroad traffic located near the electric fish barrier in Lemont, and coal-loading operations at a coal power plant near the electric fish barrier. In general, energy produced by barge and railroad sources was less than energy created by the water gun. Energy levels produced by coal-loading operations at least 200 feet from geophones were approximately four times lower than energy levels measured during water gun operations.

  19. The 1946 Unimak Tsunami Earthquake Area: revised tectonic structure in reprocessed seismic images and a suspect near field tsunami source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, John J.; von Huene, Roland E.; Ryan, Holly F.

    2014-01-01

    In 1946 at Unimak Pass, Alaska, a tsunami destroyed the lighthouse at Scotch Cap, Unimak Island, took 159 lives on the Hawaiian Islands, damaged island coastal facilities across the south Pacific, and destroyed a hut in Antarctica. The tsunami magnitude of 9.3 is comparable to the magnitude 9.1 tsunami that devastated the Tohoku coast of Japan in 2011. Both causative earthquake epicenters occurred in shallow reaches of the subduction zone. Contractile tectonism along the Alaska margin presumably generated the far-field tsunami by producing a seafloor elevation change. However, the Scotch Cap lighthouse was destroyed by a near-field tsunami that was probably generated by a coeval large undersea landslide, yet bathymetric surveys showed no fresh large landslide scar. We investigated this problem by reprocessing five seismic lines, presented here as high-resolution graphic images, both uninterpreted and interpreted, and available for the reader to download. In addition, the processed seismic data for each line are available for download as seismic industry-standard SEG-Y files. One line, processed through prestack depth migration, crosses a 10 × 15 kilometer and 800-meter-high hill presumed previously to be basement, but that instead is composed of stratified rock superimposed on the slope sediment. This image and multibeam bathymetry illustrate a slide block that could have sourced the 1946 near-field tsunami because it is positioned within a distance determined by the time between earthquake shaking and the tsunami arrival at Scotch Cap and is consistent with the local extent of high runup of 42 meters along the adjacent Alaskan coast. The Unimak/Scotch Cap margin is structurally similar to the 2011 Tohoku tsunamigenic margin where a large landslide at the trench, coeval with the Tohoku earthquake, has been documented. Further study can improve our understanding of tsunami sources along Alaska’s erosional margins.

  20. Nitrate source identification in groundwater of multiple land-use areas by combining isotopes and multivariate statistical analysis: A case study of Asopos basin (Central Greece)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matiatos, Ioannis, E-mail: i.matiatos@iaea.org

    2016-01-15

    Nitrate (NO{sub 3}) is one of the most common contaminants in aquatic environments and groundwater. Nitrate concentrations and environmental isotope data (δ{sup 15}N–NO{sub 3} and δ{sup 18}O–NO{sub 3}) from groundwater of Asopos basin, which has different land-use types, i.e., a large number of industries (e.g., textile, metal processing, food, fertilizers, paint), urban and agricultural areas and livestock breeding facilities, were analyzed to identify the nitrate sources of water contamination and N-biogeochemical transformations. A Bayesian isotope mixing model (SIAR) and multivariate statistical analysis of hydrochemical data were used to estimate the proportional contribution of different NO{sub 3} sources and to identify the dominant factors controlling the nitrate content of the groundwater in the region. The comparison of SIAR and Principal Component Analysis showed that wastes originating from urban and industrial zones of the basin are mainly responsible for nitrate contamination of groundwater in these areas. Agricultural fertilizers and manure likely contribute to groundwater contamination away from urban fabric and industrial land-use areas. Soil contribution to nitrate contamination due to organic matter is higher in the south-western part of the area far from the industries and the urban settlements. The present study aims to highlight the use of environmental isotopes combined with multivariate statistical analysis in locating sources of nitrate contamination in groundwater leading to a more effective planning of environmental measures and remediation strategies in river basins and water bodies as defined by the European Water Frame Directive (Directive 2000/60/EC). - Highlights: • More enriched N-isotope values were observed in the industrial/urban areas. • A Bayesian isotope mixing model was applied in a multiple land-use area. • A 3-component model explained the factors controlling nitrate content in groundwater. • Industrial

  1. Beyond imperviousness: A statistical approach to identifying functional differences between development morphologies on variable source area-type response in urbanized watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, T. C.

    2016-12-01

    Empirical evidence has shown linkages between urbanization, hydrological regime change, and degradation of water quality and aquatic habitat. Percent imperviousness, has long been suggested as the dominant source of these negative changes. However, recent research identifying alternative pathways of runoff production at the watershed scale have called into question percent impervious surface area's primacy in urban runoff production compared to other aspects of urbanization including change in vegetative cover, imported water and water leakages, and the presence of drainage infrastructure. In this research I show how a robust statistical methodology can detect evidence of variable source area (VSA)-type hydrologic response associated with incremental hydraulic connectivity in watersheds. I then use logistic regression to explore how evidence of VSA-type response relates to the physical and meterological characteristics of the watershed. I find that impervious surface area is highly correlated with development, but does not add significant explanatory power beyond percent developed in predicting VSA-type response. Other aspects of development morphology, including percent developed open space and type of drainage infrastructure also do not add to the explanatory power of undeveloped land in predicting VSA-type response. Within only developed areas, the effect of developed open space was found to be more similar to that of total impervious area than to undeveloped land. These findings were consistent when tested across a national cross-section of urbanized watersheds, a higher resolution dataset of Baltimore Metropolitan Area watersheds, and a subsample of watersheds confirmed not to be served by combined sewer systems. These findings suggest that land development policies that focus on lot coverage should be revisited, and more focus should be placed on preserving native vegetation and soil conditions alongside development.

  2. [Distribution Characteristics and Source of Fluoride in Groundwater in Lower Plain Area of North China Plain: A Case Study in Nanpi County].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Xiao-le; Wang, Shi-qin; Zhao, Huan; Yuan, Rui-qiang

    2015-11-01

    There is an obvious regional contradiction between water resources and agricultural produce in lower plain area of North China, however, excessive fluorine in deep groundwater further limits the use of regional water resources. In order to understand the spatial distribution characteristics and source of F(-) in groundwater, study was carried out in Nanpi County by field survey and sampling, hydrogeochemical analysis and stable isotopes methods. The results showed that the center of low fluoride concentrations of shallow groundwater was located around reservoir of Dalang Lake, and centers of high fluoride concentrations were located in southeast and southwest of the study area. The region with high fluoride concentration was consistent with the over-exploitation region of deep groundwater. Point source pollution of subsurface drainage and non-point source of irrigation with deep groundwater in some regions were the main causes for the increasing F(-) concentrations of shallow groundwater in parts of the sampling sites. Rock deposition and hydrogeology conditions were the main causes for the high F(-) concentrations (1.00 mg x L(-1), threshold of drinking water quality standard in China) in deep groundwater. F(-) released from clay minerals into the water increased the F(-) concentrations in deep groundwater because of over-exploitation. With the increasing exploitation and utilization of brackish shallow groundwater and the compressing and restricting of deep groundwater exploitation, the water environment in the middle and east lower plain area of North China will undergo significant change, and it is important to identify the distribution and source of F(-) in surface water and groundwater for reasonable development and use of water resources in future.

  3. Using stable isotopes in tracing contaminant sources in an industrial area: A case study on the hydrological basin of the Olt River, Romania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popescu, Raluca [National Research and Development Institute for Cryogenics and Isotopic Technologies, ICSI Ramnicu Valcea, 4 Uzinei Str, RO-240050 Ramnicu-Valcea (Romania); Mimmo, Tanja [Faculty of Science and Technology, Free University of Bozen-Bolzano, University Plaza no. 5, I-39100 Bolzano (Italy); Dinca, Oana Romina [National Research and Development Institute for Cryogenics and Isotopic Technologies, ICSI Ramnicu Valcea, 4 Uzinei Str, RO-240050 Ramnicu-Valcea (Romania); Capici, Calogero [Faculty of Science and Technology, Free University of Bozen-Bolzano, University Plaza no. 5, I-39100 Bolzano (Italy); Costinel, Diana; Sandru, Claudia [National Research and Development Institute for Cryogenics and Isotopic Technologies, ICSI Ramnicu Valcea, 4 Uzinei Str, RO-240050 Ramnicu-Valcea (Romania); Ionete, Roxana Elena, E-mail: roxana.ionete@icsi.ro [National Research and Development Institute for Cryogenics and Isotopic Technologies, ICSI Ramnicu Valcea, 4 Uzinei Str, RO-240050 Ramnicu-Valcea (Romania); Stefanescu, Ioan [National Research and Development Institute for Cryogenics and Isotopic Technologies, ICSI Ramnicu Valcea, 4 Uzinei Str, RO-240050 Ramnicu-Valcea (Romania); Axente, Damian [National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, 65–103 Donath Str., RO-400293 Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    2015-11-15

    Tracing pollution sources and transformation of nitrogen compounds in surface- and groundwater is an issue of great significance worldwide due to the increased human activity, translated in high demand of water resources and pollution. In this work, the hydrological basin of an important chemical industrial platform in Romania (Ramnicu Valcea industrial area) was characterized in terms of the physico-chemical and isotope composition of δ{sup 18}O and δ{sup 2}H in water samples and δ{sup 15}N of the inorganic nitrogen species. Throughout a period of one year, water samples from the Olt River and its more important tributaries were collected monthly in the industrial area, when the seasonal and spatial isotope patterns of the surface waters and the main sources of pollution were determined. Higher inorganic nitrogen concentrations (up to 10.2 mg N L{sup −1}) were measured between November 2012 and April