WorldWideScience

Sample records for area food prices

  1. Higher fuel and food prices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Benfica, Rui; Maximiano, Nelson;

    2008-01-01

    Rising world prices for fuel and food represent a negative terms-of-trade shock for Mozambique. The impacts of these price rises are analyzed using various approaches. Detailed price data show that the world price increases are being transmitted to domestic prices. Short-run net benefit ratio...... analysis indicates that urban households and households in the southern region are more vulnerable to food price increases. Rural households, particularly in the North and Center, often benefit from being in a net seller position. Longer-term analysis using a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model of...... Mozambique indicates that the fuel price shock dominates rising food prices from both macroeconomic and poverty perspectives. Again, negative impacts are larger in urban areas. The importance of agricultural production response in general and export response in particular is highlighted. Policy analysis...

  2. Roaring Food Prices in India

    OpenAIRE

    Mukherjee , Soumyatanu

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we try to analyze the possible reasons behind food price hike. The motivation of doing this project is to see the probable reasons, which impact “common people” of India to the utmost extent. We concentrate mainly on the supply side, distribution aspects and the demand side. Checking these aspects we try to see their sensitivity in food prices.

  3. Food prices, access to food outlets and child weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Lisa M; Bao, Yanjun

    2009-03-01

    This study examines the importance of food prices and restaurant and food store outlet availability for child body mass index (BMI). We use the 1998, 2000 and 2002 waves of the child-mother merged files from the 1979 cohort of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth combined with fruit and vegetable and fast food price data obtained from the American Chamber of Commerce Researchers Association and outlet density data on fast food and full-service restaurants and supermarkets, grocery stores and convenience stores obtained from Dun & Bradstreet. Using a random effects estimation model, we found that a 10% increase in the price of fruits and vegetables was associated with a 0.7% increase in child BMI. Fast food prices were not found to be statistically significant in the full sample but were weakly negatively associated with BMI among adolescents with an estimated price elasticity of -0.12. The price estimates were robust to whether we controlled for outlet availability based on a per capita or per land area basis; however, the association between food outlets and child BMI differed depending on the definition. The associations of fruit and vegetable and fast food prices with BMI were significantly stronger both economically and statistically among low- versus high-socioeconomic status children. The estimated fruit and vegetable and fast food price elasticities were 0.14 and -0.26, respectively, among low-income children and 0.09 and -0.13, respectively, among children with less educated mothers. PMID:19231301

  4. Staple food prices in Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Haggblade, Steven; Dewina, Reno

    2010-01-01

    Prepared for the Comesa policy seminar on “Variation in staple food prices: Causes, consequence, and policy options”, Maputo, Mozambique, 25-26 January 2010 under the African Agricultural Marketing Project (AAMP)

  5. Staple food prices in Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Ariga, Joshua; Jayne, Thomas S.; Njukia, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Prepared for the COMESA policy seminar on “Variation in staple food prices: Causes, consequence, and policy options”, Maputo, Mozambique, 25-26 January 2010 under the Comesa-MSU-IFPRI African Agricultural Marketing Project (AAMP)

  6. Food Prices and Political Instability

    OpenAIRE

    AREZKI Rabah; Brückner, Markus

    2011-01-01

    We examine the effects that variations in the international food prices have on democracy and intra-state conflict using panel data for over 120 countries during the period 1970-2007. Our main finding is that in Low Income Countries increases in the international food prices lead to a significant deterioration of democratic institutions and a significant increase in the incidence of anti-government demonstrations, riots, and civil conflict. In the High Income Countries variations in the inter...

  7. Pricing a Convenience Food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabor, Andre

    1980-01-01

    Discusses a study undertaken by the Nottingham University Consumer Study Group to determine market operation for popular convenience foods in England. Information is presented on distribution of purchases, brand loyalties of respondents to a questionnaire regarding convenience foods, and market fluctuation due to inflation. (Author/DB)

  8. Food retailing and prices in Slovenia

    OpenAIRE

    Bojnec, Stefan

    2006-01-01

    This paper focuses on agro- food chains and agro- food consumer prices in Slovenia considering its European Union (EU) membership. As the Slovenian agro- food markets were distorted prior to the EU accession with some agro- food prices that were greater than comparable EU prices, the empirical results confirm that with the EU membership Slovenian real agro- food consumer prices have largely downward adjusted. Besides policy changes, internalization of retailing and distribution chains by entr...

  9. Biofuel and Food-Commodity Prices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Zilberman

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper summarizes key findings of alternative lines of research on the relationship between food and fuel markets, and identifies gaps between two bodies of literature: one that investigates the relationship between food and fuel prices, and another that investigates the impact of the introduction of biofuels on commodity-food prices. The former body of literature suggests that biofuel prices do not affect food-commodity prices, but the latter suggests it does. We try to explain this gap, and then show that although biofuel was an important contributor to the recent food-price inflation of 2001–2008, its effect on food-commodity prices declined after the recession of 2008/09. We also show that the introduction of cross-price elasticity is important when explaining soybean price, but less so when explaining corn prices.

  10. Monetary Policy and Food Prices in India

    OpenAIRE

    Khundrakpam, J. K.; Das, Dipika

    2011-01-01

    Using a vector error correction model (VECM), the paper examines the relative response of food and manufactured prices to change in interest rate and money supply in India during the period 2001:Q1 to 2010:Q2. It finds that, in the long-run, while money supply leads to rise in the prices of both food and manufactured prices, hike in call rate has a negative effect only on manufactured prices. The impact of money supply is, however, more on food prices than on manufactured prices. There is no ...

  11. Monetary Policy and Food Prices in India

    OpenAIRE

    Khundrakpam, J. K.; Das, Dipika

    2011-01-01

    Using a vector error correction model (VECM), the paper examines the relative response of food and manufactured prices to change in interest rate and money supply in India during the period 2001:Q1 to 2010:Q2. It finds that, in the long-run, while money supply leads to rise in the prices of both food and manufactured prices, hike in call rate has a negative effect only on manufactured prices. The impact of money supply is, however, more on food prices than on manufactured pr...

  12. Urban Bias in Price Risk: The Geography of Food Price Distributions in Low-Income Economies

    OpenAIRE

    Barrett, Christopher B.

    1995-01-01

    The geography of agricultural marketing has important implications for the stochastic distribution of agricultural commodity prices. This paper proposes that objective food price risk differs between rural and urban areas of infrastructure-poor economies characterized by spatially concentrated patterns of foodgrains storage. This difference implies an urban bias having adverse welfare effects for peasants who seasonally switch between net food seller and net food buyer positions. Empirical an...

  13. Food Price Volatility and Decadal Climate Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, M. E.

    2013-12-01

    The agriculture system is under pressure to increase production every year as global population expands and more people move from a diet mostly made up of grains, to one with more meat, dairy and processed foods. Weather shocks and large changes in international commodity prices in the last decade have increased pressure on local food prices. This paper will review several studies that link climate variability as measured with satellite remote sensing to food price dynamics in 36 developing countries where local monthly food price data is available. The focus of the research is to understand how weather and climate, as measured by variations in the growing season using satellite remote sensing, has affected agricultural production, food prices and access to food in agricultural societies. Economies are vulnerable to extreme weather at multiple levels. Subsistence small holders who hold livestock and consume much of the food they produce are vulnerable to food production variability. The broader society, however, is also vulnerable to extreme weather because of the secondary effects on market functioning, resource availability, and large-scale impacts on employment in trading, trucking and wage labor that are caused by weather-related shocks. Food price variability captures many of these broad impacts and can be used to diagnose weather-related vulnerability across multiple sectors. The paper will trace these connections using market-level data and analysis. The context of the analysis is the humanitarian aid community, using the guidance of the USAID Famine Early Warning Systems Network and the United Nation's World Food Program in their response to food security crises. These organizations have worked over the past three decades to provide baseline information on food production through satellite remote sensing data and agricultural yield models, as well as assessments of food access through a food price database. Econometric models and spatial analysis are used

  14. Food prices and body fatness among youths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Michael; Tekin, Erdal; Wada, Roy

    2014-01-01

    We examine the effect of food prices on clinical measures of obesity, including body mass index (BMI) and percentage body fat (PBF) measures derived from bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), among youths ages 12 through 18 in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. This is the first study to consider clinically measured levels of body composition rather than BMI to investigate the effects of food prices on obesity outcomes among youths classified by gender and race/ethnicity. Our findings suggest that increases in the real price per calorie of food for home consumption and the real price of fast-food restaurant food lead to improvements in obesity outcomes among youths. We also find that a rise in the real price of fruits and vegetables leads to increased obesity. Finally, our results indicate that measures of PBF derived from BIA and DXA are no less sensitive and in some cases more sensitive to the prices just mentioned than BMI, and serve an important role in demonstrating that rising food prices (except fruit and vegetable prices) are indeed associated with reductions in obesity rather than with reductions in body size proportions alone. PMID:24246131

  15. World Food Prices and Monetary Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Catão; Roberto Chang

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, large fluctuations in world food prices have renewed interest in the question of how monetary policy in small open economies should react to imported price shocks. We address this issue in an open economy setting similar to previous ones except that food plays a distinctive role in utility. A key novelty of our model is that the real exchange rate and the terms of trade can move in opposite directions in response to food price shocks. This has several consequences for observa...

  16. [Food prices in Brazil: prefer cooking to ultra-processed foods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claro, Rafael Moreira; Maia, Emanuella Gomes; Costa, Bruna Vieira de Lima; Diniz, Danielle Pereira

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to describe the prices of food groups consumed in Brazil considering the nature, extent, and purpose of their processing. Data were obtained from the Brazilian Household Budget Survey for 2008-2009. The mean prices of the groups (natural, cooking ingredients, processed, and ultra-processed) and their respective food subgroups were estimated for Brazil according to income, region, and area. Natural products and cooking ingredients showed lower prices per calorie when compared to the other groups, suggesting an economic advantage to preparing meals at home when compared to replacing them with ultra-processed foods. Families with the highest income paid the highest prices for their food, while families in the Northeast and North regions and rural areas paid the lowest. While fresh foods (meat, milk, fruit, and vegetables) tend to cost more than ultra-processed foods, dry grains (like rice and beans) are a more economical alternative for adopting healthy eating practices. PMID:27580234

  17. Energy Policies and Food Prices

    OpenAIRE

    Shih-Wen Hu; Li-Ju Chen; Vey Wang; Meng-Yi Tai; Lee-Jung Lu; Chiu-Yue Lin

    2015-01-01

    Biomass energy has been regarded as an effective instrument in combatting a high oil price. However, the increased production of biomass energy has raised the demand for agricultural products and led to a global grain deficiency and rising grain prices. This paper discusses the influence of energy policies on the agricultural product price using a macro model that contains the energy demand for agricultural products. The results show that: 1) A rise in the subsidy for agricultural products us...

  18. Oil price, biofuels and food supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The price of oil could play a significant role in influencing the expansion of biofuels, but this issue has yet to be fully investigated in the literature. Using a global computable general equilibrium (CGE) model, this study analyzes the impact of oil price on biofuel expansion, and subsequently, on food supply. The study shows that a 65% increase in oil price in 2020 from the 2009 level would increase the global biofuel penetration to 5.4% in 2020 from 2.4% in 2009. If oil prices rise 150% from their 2009 levels by 2020, the resulting penetration of biofuels would be 9%, which is higher than that would be caused by current mandates and targets introduced in more than forty countries around the world. The study also shows that aggregate agricultural output drops due to an oil price increase, but the drop is small in major biofuel producing countries as the expansion of biofuels would partially offset the negative impacts of the oil price increase on agricultural outputs. An increase in oil price would reduce global food supply through direct impacts as well as through the diversion of food commodities and cropland towards the production of biofuels. - Highlights: ► A global CGE model to analyze impacts of oil price on biofuels and food supply. ► Global biofuel penetration increases from 2.4% (2009) to 5.4% (2020) in baseline. ► A 150% rise of oil price boosts biofuels more than current mandates and targets do. ► Biofuels partially offset drops in agricultural outputs caused by oil price rise. ► Biofuels as well as oil price rise negatively affect global food supply.

  19. Food Prices and Body Fatness among Youths

    OpenAIRE

    Grossman, Michael; Tekin, Erdal; Wada, Roy

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we examine the effect of food prices on clinical measures of obesity, including body mass index (BMI) and percentage body fat (PBF) measures derived from bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) and dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), among youths ages 12 through 18. The empirical analyses employ data from various waves of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) merged with several food prices measured by county and year. This is the first study to consi...

  20. Food prices and food shopping decisions of black women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiSantis, Katherine I; Grier, Sonya A; Oakes, J Michael; Kumanyika, Shiriki K

    2014-06-01

    Identifying food pricing strategies to encourage purchases of lower-calorie food products may be particularly important for black Americans. Black children and adults have higher than average obesity prevalence and disproportionate exposure to food marketing environments in which high calorie foods are readily available and heavily promoted. The main objective of this study was to characterize effects of price on food purchases of black female household shoppers in conjunction with other key decision attributes (calorie content/healthfulness, package size, and convenience). Factorial discrete choice experiments were conducted with 65 low- and middle-/higher-income black women. The within-subject study design assessed responses to hypothetical scenarios for purchasing frozen vegetables, bread, chips, soda, fruit drinks, chicken, and cheese. Linear models were used to estimate the effects of price, calorie level (or healthfulness for bread), package size, and convenience on the propensity to purchase items. Moderating effects of demographic and personal characteristics were assessed. Compared with a price that was 35% lower, the regular price was associated with a lesser propensity to purchase foods in all categories (β = -0.33 to -0.82 points on a 1 to 5 scale). Other attributes, primarily calorie content/healthfulness, were more influential than price for four of seven foods. The moderating variable most often associated with propensity to pay the regular versus lower price was the reported use of nutrition labels. Price reductions alone may increase purchases of certain lower-calorie or more healthful foods by black female shoppers. In other cases, effects may depend on combining price changes with nutrition education or improvements in other valued attributes. PMID:24583415

  1. Sociodemographic differences in fast food price sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Katie A.; Guilkey, David K.; Ng, Shu Wen; Duffey, Kiyah J.; Popkin, Barry M.; Kiefe, Catarina I.; Steffen, Lyn M.; Shikany, James M.; Gordon-Larsen, Penny

    2014-01-01

    Importance Fiscal food policies (e.g., taxation) are increasingly proposed to improve population-level health, but their impact on health disparities is unknown. Objective We estimated subgroup-specific effects of fast food price changes on fast food consumption and cardio-metabolic outcomes, hypothesizing inverse associations between fast food price with fast food consumption, BMI, and insulin resistance and stronger associations among blacks (vs. whites) and participants with relatively lower education or income. Design 20-year follow-up (5 exams) in a biracial U.S. prospective cohort: Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) (1985/86–2005/06, baseline n=5,115). Participants Aged 18–30 at baseline; designed for equal recruitment by race (black/white), educational attainment, age, and gender. Exposures Community-level price data from the Council for Community and Economic Research (C2ER) temporally- and geographically-linked to study participants’ home address at each exam. Main outcome and measures Participant-reported number of fast food eating occasions per week; BMI (kg/m2) from clinical assessment of weight and height; homeostatic model assessment insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) from fasting glucose and insulin. Covariates included individual- and community-level social and demographic factors. Results In repeated measures regression, multivariable-adjusted associations between fast food price and consumption were non-linear (quadratic, p<0.001), with significant inverse estimated effects on consumption at higher prices; estimates varied according to race (interaction term p=0.04), income (p=0.07), and education (p=0.03). For example, at the 10th percentile of price ($1.25/serving), blacks and whites had mean fast food consumption (times/week) of 2.2 (95% CI: 2.1–2.3) and 1.6 (1.5–1.7), respectively, while at the 90th percentile of price ($1.53/serving), respective mean consumption estimates were 1.9 (1.8–2.0) and 1.5 (1.4–1.6). We

  2. Oil and food prices in Malaysia: A nonlinear ARDL analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Mansor H. Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    The present paper analyses the relations between food and oil prices for Malaysia using a nonlinear autoregressive distributed lags (NARDL) model. The bounds test of the NARDL specification suggests the presence of cointegration among the variables, which include the food price, oil price and real GDP. The estimated NARDL model affirms the presence of asymmetries in the food price behavior. Namely, in the long run, we find a significant relation between oil price increases and food price. Mea...

  3. PRICE ON THE ORGANIC FOOD MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GEORGE ATANASOAIE

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to present prices on PAE market (PAE- organic foods market. Prices are analyzed in terms of importance and the main factors that contribute to their establishment (quality of products, distribution channels, certification and eco-labeling system, customer segments and market development stage. This paper is based on the investigation of secondary sources, of specialized literature related to PAE consumers. The paper shows that are used three strategic options of prices: prices with high rigidity located in a low or high level and fluctuating prices, characterized by variations on short periods of time. Price is a very important barrier to market development but this importance can be mitigated through appropriate communication policies with the market, which are essential especially for markets in early stages of development.

  4. Food price inflation and children's schooling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Grimm (Michael)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractI analyze the impact of food price inflation on parental decisions to send their children to school. Moreover, I use the fact that food crop farmers and cotton farmers were exposed differently to that shock to estimate the income elasticity of school enrolment. The results suggest that t

  5. Price Dispersion and Accessibility: A Case study of Fast Food

    OpenAIRE

    Stewart, Hayden; David E. Davis

    2005-01-01

    This study examines spatial variation in the price and accessibility of fast food across a major urban area. We use novel data on the price of a representative fast food meal and the location of fast food restaurants belonging to one of three major chains in the District of Columbia and its surrounding suburbs. These data are used to test a structural model of spatial competition. The results of this study are easily interpreted and compared with a past analysis. We find that spatial differen...

  6. THE IMPACT OF BIG-BOX STORES ON RETAIL FOOD PRICES AND THE CONSUMER PRICE INDEX

    OpenAIRE

    Leibtag, Ephraim S.

    2006-01-01

    Over the past 10 years, the growth of nontraditional retail food outlets has transformed the food market landscape, increasing the variety of shopping and food options available to consumers, as well as price variation in retail food markets. This report focuses on these dynamics and how they affect food price variation across store format types. The differences in prices across store formats are especially noteworthy when compared with standard measures of food price inflation over time. Ove...

  7. Does International Oil Price Volatility Complement Domestic Food Price Instability in Nigeria? An Empirical Enquiry

    OpenAIRE

    Elijah Udoh; Festus O. Egwaikhide

    2011-01-01

    Of recent, there has been growing global concern over oil price fluctuation and soaring food prices. In this disquisition, we re-examine the co-movement and the causality relationship between international oil price fluctuations and domestic food price inflation in Nigeria, using data for the period 1970 to 2008. The empirical results provide clear evidence in support of a causal relationship between oil price distortions and food price instability in Nigeria. The Granger causality test show ...

  8. Evaluating Transmission Prices between Global Agricultural Markets and Consumers' Food Price Indices in the EU

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia-German, Sol; Garrido, Alberto; Bardaji, Isabel

    2014-01-01

    The rise of price levels and volatility of world agricultural commodities since 2006-2008 was followed by increased and more volatile food price inflation around the world. Using error correction models, this paper evaluates the velocity and extent to which world agricultural commodity price movements affect consumer food prices in the 28 EU's Member States. Results show a significant long run relationship between world agricultural commodity prices and food consumer prices in over half of th...

  9. Food price volatility in Africa: Has it really increased?:

    OpenAIRE

    Minot, Nicholas

    2012-01-01

    The food price crisis of 2007–2008 and recent resurgence of food prices have focused increasing attention on the causes and consequences of food price volatility in international food markets and the developing world, particularly in Africa south of the Sahara. In this paper, we examine the patterns and trends in food price volatility using an unusually rich database of African staple food prices. We find that international grain prices have become more volatile in recent years (2007–2010...

  10. National Brands, Private Labels, and Food Price Inflation

    OpenAIRE

    Volpe III, Rickard James

    2014-01-01

    This article investigates the extent to which national brand and private label (store brand) prices behave differently as food price inflation changes. Empirical tests using a range of indices support the hypotheses that rising commodity and fuel prices lead to relatively larger surges in private label prices. When food prices are rising or high, the average price dif- ference between national brands and private labels shrinks. The findings have implications for understanding the welfare effe...

  11. The Challenges of High Food and Fuel Prices

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2008-01-01

    The increase in the price of oil and food carry major adverse poverty and macroeconomic implications especially for fragile and small states and for low income households in all developing countries. In terms of their impact on income distribution, inflation, and poverty food prices are of greater and more immediate concern than high fuel prices. However, the impact of the oil price increa...

  12. Food Prices and the Multiplier Effect of Trade Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Paolo Giordani; Nadia Rocha; Michele Ruta

    2014-01-01

    This paper studies the relationship between trade policy and food prices. We show that, when individuals are loss averse, governments may use trade policy to shield the domestic economy from large food price shocks. This creates a complementarity between the price of food in international markets and trade policy. Specifically, unilateral actions give rise to a "multiplier effect": when a shock drives up the price of food, exporters respond by imposing restrictions while importers wind down p...

  13. Methodology Behind the Quarterly Food-at-Home Price Database

    OpenAIRE

    Todd, Jessica E.; Mancino, Lisa; Leibtag, Ephraim S.; Tripodo, Christina

    2010-01-01

    The Quarterly Food-at-Home Price Database (QFAHPD) was developed to provide market-level food prices that can be used to study how prices affect food choices, intake, and health outcomes. This report presents a detailed description of the methodology used to construct the QFAHPD. The database, constructed from 1999-2006 Nielsen Homescan data, includes quarterly observations on the mean price of 52 food categories for 35 market groups covering the contiguous United States. Data from 2006 indic...

  14. Assessing the effect of oil price on world food prices: Application of principal component analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this paper is to investigate the co-movement of food prices and the macroeconomic index, especially the oil price, by principal component analysis to further understand the influence of the macroeconomic index on food prices. We examined the food prices of seven major products: eggs, meat, milk, oilseeds, rice, sugar and wheat. The macroeconomic variables studied were crude oil prices, consumer price indexes, food production indexes and GDP around the world between 1961 and 2005. We use the Scree test and the proportion of variance method for determining the optimal number of common factors. The correlation coefficient between the extracted principal component and the macroeconomic index varies between 0.87 for the world GDP and 0.36 for the consumer price index. We find the food production index has the greatest influence on the macroeconomic index and that the oil price index has an influence on the food production index. Consequently, crude oil prices have an indirect effect on food prices. - Research Highlights: →We investigate the co-movement of food prices and the macroeconomic index. →The crude oil price has indirect effect on the world GDP via its impacts on food production index. →The food production index is the source of causation for CPI and GDP is affected by CPI. →The results confirm an indirect effect among oil price, food price principal component.

  15. New Local, National and Regional Cereal Price Indices for Improved Identification of Food Insecurity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Molly E.; Tondel, Fabien; Thorne, Jennifer A.; Essam, Timothy; Mann, Bristol F.; Stabler, Blake; Eilerts, Gary

    2011-01-01

    Large price increases over a short time period can be indicative of a deteriorating food security situation. Food price indices developed by the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) are used to monitor food price trends at a global level, but largely reflect supply and demand conditions in export markets. However, reporting by the United States Agency for International Development (USAID)'s Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) indicates that staple cereal prices in many markets of the developing world, especially in surplus-producing areas, often have a delayed and variable response to international export market price trends. Here we present new price indices compiled for improved food security monitoring and assessment, and specifically for monitoring conditions of food access across diverse food insecure regions. We found that cereal price indices constructed using market prices within a food insecure region showed significant differences from the international cereals price, and had a variable price dispersion across markets within each marketshed. Using satellite-derived remote sensing information that estimates local production and the FAO Cereals Index as predictors, we were able to forecast movements of the local or national price indices in the remote, arid and semi-arid countries of the 38 countries examined. This work supports the need for improved decision-making about targeted aid and humanitarian relief, by providing earlier early warning of food security crises.

  16. Analyzing Factors Affecting U.S. Food Price Inflation.

    OpenAIRE

    Baek, Jungho; Koo, Won W.

    2009-01-01

    Since the summer of 2007, U.S. food price has increased dramatically. Given public anxiety over fast-rising food prices in recent years, this paper attempts to analyze the effects of market factors ─ prices of energy and agricultural commodities and exchange rate ─ on U.S. food prices using a co-integration analysis. Results show that the agricultural commodity price and exchange rate play key roles in determining the short- and long-run movement of U.S. food prices. It is also found that in ...

  17. MINIMUM WAGE AND FOOD PRICES: AN ANALYSIS OF PRICE PASS-THROUGH EFFECTS

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Chinkook; Schluter, Gerald E.; O'Roark, Brian

    2000-01-01

    An Input-Output model is used to analyze price pass-through effects of a minimum wage increase on prices of the food and kindred product and food-service industry. Although these sectors employ a disproportionate share of minimum wage workers, our results suggest a $0.50 increase in the minimum wage would minimally affect food prices.

  18. International food prices and poverty in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Warr, Peter G.; Yusuf, Arief Anshory

    2009-01-01

    This paper argues that recent increases in international food prices worsened poverty incidence in Indonesia, even though many poor farmers benefited. This conclusion is based on the application of a multi-sectoral, multi-household general equilibrium model of the Indonesian economy. The positive effect on the welfare of poor farmers was exceeded by the negative effect on poor consumers. Indonesia’s ban on rice imports since 2004 complicates this account. The import ban shielded Indonesia’s i...

  19. Food Price Change and its Welfare Impact on Iranian Households

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Ghahremanzadeh; Mohammad Bagher Ziaei

    2014-01-01

    Iran has experienced high food prices in recent years. This paper examines the welfare impacts of rising major food groups' prices on Iranian urban households using Quadratic Almost Ideal Demand System (QUAIDS) approach. The elasticity coefficients derived from QUAIDS are used to estimate Compensated Variations (CV).The study uses Iranian Household Expenditure and Income Survey (HEIS) raw data, encompassing both low and high price periods. Prices of all food and agricu...

  20. Food and energy price shocks: what other prices are affected?

    OpenAIRE

    CLARK, Todd E.; Zaman, Saeed

    2011-01-01

    Sharp rises in energy and other commodity prices have recently ignited concerns about inflation. Will these price increases spill over to other prices more generally? We study the typical responses of different price shocks and assess whether the recent behavior of producer and consumer prices is consistent with historical norms. Our analysis shows that the behavior of various producer and consumer prices since late 2009 has generally matched up with historical patterns. Overall, our findings...

  1. The impact of ethanol production on food prices: The role of interplay between the U.S. and Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Food prices have increased rapidly in recent years, and so has ethanol production. Some studies have claimed that there is a connection between the two. The main purpose of this paper is to add to this literature by examining the influence that the interplay between Brazil and the U.S. in ethanol production has on food prices. Specifically, and controlling for other variables, which have been shown to affect food prices, we investigate whether sugarcane ethanol and corn ethanol production have similar impacts on food prices, and whether ethanol productivity affects food prices. We find a positive significant effect of Brazilian market share in world ethanol market on relative food prices. We also find that an increase of Brazilian cane ethanol area has a negative effect on relative food prices. - Highlights: ► We examine if sugarcane ethanol and corn ethanol have similar impacts on food price. ► We examine if ethanol productivity affects food prices. ► We control for many other variables, which have been shown to affect food prices. ► Brazilian market share in ethanol market has a positive effect on food prices. ► Brazilian cane ethanol area has a negative effect on relative food prices.

  2. Transmission of Global Food Prices to Domestic Prices: Evidence from Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Sivarajasingham Selliah; Shri-Dewi Applanaidu; Sallahuddin Hassan

    2015-01-01

    Food prices have been increasing sharply since 2003. In the globalized world, the transmission of global foodprice increases to domestic market determines the decision of economic agents and policy makers of a domesticeconomy. The recent growth of global food prices affects the welfare of poor consumers and producers. In SriLanka, large segment of the population spends more than 50 percent of their income on food. Thus, this studyinvestigates and assesses how international food price surge af...

  3. Impact Effect of Food Safety Incidents on Price

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Zhou

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Hidden danger of food safety is always one of the important factors causing food price fluctuation. Once some kind of food occurs large scale of safety incident, its price is bound to be impacted. To analyze the view above by example, this study analyzed impact effect of clenbuterol event on the market price of pork using method of relative price with a substitute. The results demonstrated that, relative price of pork and beef was in a co-integration relationship before clenbuterol event occurred; the first structural breakpoint appeared half year after CCTV reported clenbuterol event and the second one occurred in April, 2012, indicating the impact effect of clenbuterol event to market price lasted for half year. Evaluation of price impact effect by error correction model indicated that, the price of pork lowered 30.3% averagely in that period, while the price of its substitute beef tended to be higher, with an amplification of 8.2%.

  4. Wild Food, Prices, Diets and Development: Sustainability and Food Security in Urban Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Q. Sneyd

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses wild food consumption in urban areas of Cameroon. Building upon findings from Cameroon’s Comprehensive Food Security and Vulnerability Analysis (CFSVA this case study presents empirical data collected from 371 household and market surveys in Cameroonian cities. It employs the UN Special Rapporteur on the Right to Food’s framework for understanding challenges related to the availability, accessibility, and adequacy of food. The survey data suggest that many wild/traditional foods are physically available in Cameroonian cities most of the time, including fruits, vegetables, spices, and insects. Cameroonians spend considerable sums of their food budget on wild foods. However, low wages and the high cost of city living constrain the social and economic access most people have to these foods. The data also suggest that imports of non-traditional staple foods, such as low cost rice, have increasingly priced potentially more nutritious or safe traditional local foods out of markets after the 2008 food price crisis. As a result, diets are changing in Cameroon as the resource-constrained population continues to resort to the coping strategy of eating cheaper imported foods such as refined rice or to eating less frequently. Cameroon’s nutrition transition continues to be driven by need and not necessarily by the preferences of Cameroonian consumers. The implications of this reality for sustainability are troubling.

  5. Do food and oil prices co-move?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper studies co-movements between world oil prices and global prices for corn, soybean and wheat using copulas. Several copula models with different conditional dependence structures and time-varying dependence parameters were considered. Empirical results for weekly data from January 1998 to April 2011 showed weak oil-food dependence and no extreme market dependence between oil and food prices. These results support the neutrality of agricultural commodity markets to the effects of changes in oil prices and non-contagion between the crude oil and agricultural markets. However, dependence increased significantly in the last three years of the sampling period, even though upper tail dependence remained insignificant, indicating that food price spikes are not caused by positive extreme oil price changes. These results have implications for policy design, risk management and hedging strategies. - Highlights: ► We study co-movement between food and oil markets through copulas. ► Food prices are neutral to the effects of changes in oil prices. ► Oil price spikes had no causal effect on agricultural price spikes. ► Oil–corn and oil–soybean dependence increased in recent years. ► Food subsidy policies and price controls are unnecessary to avoid extreme oil prices.

  6. Impact Effect of Food Safety Incidents on Price

    OpenAIRE

    Nan Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Hidden danger of food safety is always one of the important factors causing food price fluctuation. Once some kind of food occurs large scale of safety incident, its price is bound to be impacted. To analyze the view above by example, this study analyzed impact effect of clenbuterol event on the market price of pork using method of relative price with a substitute. The results demonstrated that, relative price of pork and beef was in a co-integration relationship before clenbuterol event occu...

  7. Biofuels versus food production: Does biofuels production increase food prices?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapidly growing fossil energy consumption in the transport sector in the last two centuries caused problems such as increasing greenhouse gas emissions, growing energy dependency and supply insecurity. One approach to solve these problems could be to increase the use of biofuels. Preferred feedstocks for current 1st generation biofuels production are corn, wheat, sugarcane, soybean, rapeseed and sunflowers. The major problem is that these feedstocks are also used for food and feed production. The core objective of this paper is to investigate whether the recent increase of biofuels production had a significant impact on the development of agricultural commodity (feedstock) prices. The most important impact factors like biofuels production, land use, yields, feedstock and crude oil prices are analysed. The major conclusions of this analysis are: In recent years the share of bioenergy-based fuels has increased moderately, but continuously, and so did feedstock production, as well as yields. So far, no significant impact of biofuels production on feedstock prices can be observed. Hence, a co-existence of biofuel and food production seems possible especially for 2nd generation biofuels. However, sustainability criteria should be seriously considered. But even if all crops, forests and grasslands currently not used were used for biofuels production it would be impossible to substitute all fossil fuels used today in transport.

  8. Geographic factors as determinants of food security: a Western Australian food pricing and quality study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, Christina Mary; Landrigan, Timothy John; Ellies, Pernilla Laila; Kerr, Deborah Anne; Lester, Matthew Langdon Underwood; Goodchild, Stanley Edward

    2014-01-01

    Food affordability and quality can influence food choice. This research explores the impact of geographic factors on food pricing and quality in Western Australia (WA). A Healthy Food Access Basket (HFAB) was cost and a visual and descriptive quality assessment of 13 commonly consumed fresh produce items was conducted in-store on a representative sample of 144 food grocery stores. The WA retail environment in 2010 had 447 grocery stores servicing 2.9 million people: 38% of stores the two major chains (Coles® Supermarkets Australia and Woolworths ® Limited) in population dense areas, 50% were smaller independently owned stores (Independent Grocers Association®) in regional areas as well, and 12% Indigenous community stores in very remote areas. The HFAB cost 24% (pfoods cost more and the quality of fresh produce was lower. Food affordability and quality may deter healthier food choice in geographically isolated communities. Improving affordability and quality of nutritious foods in remote communities may positively impact food choices, improve food security and prevent diet-sensitive chronic disease. Policy makers should consider influencing agriculture, trade, commerce, transport, freight, and modifying local food economies. PMID:25516329

  9. Assessing the effect of oil price on world food prices. Application of principal component analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this paper is to investigate the co-movement of food prices and the macroeconomic index, especially the oil price, by principal component analysis to further understand the influence of the macroeconomic index on food prices. We examined the food prices of seven major products: eggs, meat, milk, oilseeds, rice, sugar and wheat. The macroeconomic variables studied were crude oil prices, consumer price indexes, food production indexes and GDP around the world between 1961 and 2005. We use the Scree test and the proportion of variance method for determining the optimal number of common factors. The correlation coefficient between the extracted principal component and the macroeconomic index varies between 0.87 for the world GDP and 0.36 for the consumer price index. We find the food production index has the greatest influence on the macroeconomic index and that the oil price index has an influence on the food production index. Consequently, crude oil prices have an indirect effect on food prices. (author)

  10. Causes and analysis of food price volatility: Implications for modernization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataliia Valinkevych

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The impact of price volatility on the food industry enterprises functioning is examined and analyzed in the article. The food price indexes, consumer prices index for food and nonalcoholic beverages for years 2005-2012, food and beverages production indexes in Ukraine for years 2007-2012 and FAO food price indexes are considered. The aspects of government regulation of pricing for certain types of food, its prices instability and volatility are traced. It is reasoned that the organizational-economic modernization is revealed in the enterprise’s ability as a system to respond adequately to changes in environment at any time and at the same time to generate these interaction, which requires a clear pricing mechanism, exceptional resources, competencies and knowledge, determining the opportunity of optimal available at its disposal resources combination. It is proved that the efficient pricing for food industry products, its dynamics analysis and monitoring in comparison with world prices is one of the determinants of successful organizational-economic modernization implementation for stable competitive market position ensuring

  11. Effect of oil price on Nigeria’s food price volatility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ijeoma C. Nwoko

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the effect of oil price on the volatility of food price in Nigeria. It specifically considers the long-run, short-run, and causal relationship between these variables. Annual data on oil price and individual prices of maize, rice, sorghum, soya beans, and wheat spanning from 2000 to 2013 were used. The price volatility for each crop was obtained using Generalized Autoregressive Conditional Heteroskedascity (GARCH (1, 1 model. Our measure of oil price is the Refiner acquisition cost of imported crude oil. The Augmented Dickey–Fuller and Phillip–Perron unit root tests show that all the variables are integrated of order one, I (1. Therefore, we use the Johansen co-integration test to examine the long-run relationship. Our results show that there is no long-run relationship between oil price and any of the individual food price volatility. Thus, we implement a VAR instead of a VECM to investigate the short-run relationship. The VAR model result revealed a positive and significant short-run relationship between oil price and each of the selected food price volatility with exception of that of rice and wheat price volatility. These results were further confirmed by the impulse response functions. The Granger causality test result indicates a unidirectional causality from oil price to maize, soya bean, and sorghum price volatilities but does not show such relationship for rice and wheat price volatilities. We draw some policy implications of these findings.

  12. Price Volatility Transmission in Food Supply Chains: A Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Tsion Taye Assefa; Meuwissen, Miranda P.M.; Oude Lansink, Alfons G.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT This paper reviews the literature on price volatility transmission in vertical food markets. The methods and major findings of the literature are discussed and avenues for future research are suggested. The literature review shows that price volatility is analyzed using a class of univariate and multivariate GARCH models. The reviewed studies conclude that price volatility transmits along food supply chains thereby exposing all chain actors to risk and uncertainty. Extension of the l...

  13. Understanding the Impact of Higher Corn Prices on Consumer Food Prices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2007-04-18

    In an effort to assess the true effects of higher corn prices, the National Corn Growers Association (NCGA) commissioned an analysis on the impact of increased corn prices on retail food prices. This paper summarizes key results of the study and offers additional analysis based on information from a variety of other sources.

  14. Higher food prices may threaten food security status among American low-income households with children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qi; Jones, Sonya; Ruhm, Christopher J; Andrews, Margaret

    2013-10-01

    Children in food-insecure households are more likely to experience poorer health function and worse academic achievement. To investigate the relation between economic environmental factors and food insecurity among children, we examined the relation between general and specific food prices (fast food, fruits and vegetables, beverages) and risk of low (LFS) and very low food security (VLFS) status among low-income American households with children. Using information for 27,900 child-year observations from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Class of 1998-1999 linked with food prices obtained from the Cost of Living Data of the Council for Community and Economic Research, formerly known as the American Chamber of Commerce Researchers' Association, fixed effects models were estimated within stratified income groups. Higher overall food prices were associated with increased risk of LFS and VLFS (coefficient = 0.617; P fast food and fruit and vegetable prices also contributed to higher risk of food insecurity (coefficient = 0.632, P fast food; coefficient = 0.879, P food security status, even when controlling for general food prices. Thus, although food price changes were strongly related to food security status among low-income American households with children, the effects were not uniform across types of food. These relations should be accounted for when implementing policies that change specific food prices. PMID:23946342

  15. Vertical price transmission in the Danish food chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård; Møller, Anja Skadkær

    2005-01-01

    This purpose of this paper is to investigate price transmission patterns through selected Danish food chains – from primary production to processing, from processing to wholesale and from wholesale to retail prices. Specifically, the study addresses the following research questions: To what exten...... between sectors and stages of the food supply chain. Both transaction costs and imperfect competition seem to contribute to these asymmetries....... are commodity prices transmitted from one stage to another in the food chain? What is the time horizon in the price transmission? Is price transmission symmetric – in the short run and in the long run? Is the degree of price transmission affected by the degree of concentration in the supply and demand...

  16. Reconsidering the Role of Food Prices in Inflation

    OpenAIRE

    James P Walsh

    2011-01-01

    Food prices are generally excluded from measures of inflation most closely watched by policymakers due either to their transitory nature or their higher volatility. However, in lower income countries, food price inflation is not only more volatile but also on average higher than nonfood inflation. Food inflation is also in many cases more persistent than nonfood inflation, and shocks in many countries are propagated strongly into nonfood inflation. Under these conditions, and particularly giv...

  17. World commodity prices and UK inflation indexes: Food for thought?

    OpenAIRE

    Szilagyiova, Silvia; Anchor, J.R; Dastgir, Shabbir

    2012-01-01

    The dynamics of food price inflation have changed significantly. So, understanding them is important for policy not only in developing countries but also in developed countries like the UK. A question that has risen is the role, if any, of central banks in combating global food price inflation. The financial crisis and its negative consequences represent the primary problem for policy makers in stabilizing all economies. However the food crisis should not be forgotten since the dynamic of...

  18. Local Staple Food Price Indices in the Age of Biofuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Molly E.

    2012-01-01

    In many poor, food insecure regions, agriculture is a primary source of income and farmers are reliant both on their own production and on purchasing food in the market to feed their families. Large local food price increases over a short time period can be indicative of a deteriorating food security situation and may be the consequence of weather-related food production declines, Dr can simply be the result of price transmission from the international commodity market. Food price indices developed by the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) are used to monitor food price trends at a global level, but largely reflect supply and demand conditions in export markets far from the places where the chronically food insecure live. A much better understanding of how local staple food prices in isolated regions such as West Africa that grow most of the food they eat to better understand the impact of global commodity market transformations on sensitive communities at the margin. This information will also enable improved strategies for these farmers who are extraordinarily sensitive to climate change impacts on agricultural growing conditions.

  19. Do Food Prices Affect Food Security? Evidence from the CPS 2002-2006

    OpenAIRE

    Gregory, Christian A.; Coleman-Jensen, Alisha

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we estimate the effect of food prices on food insecurity for SNAP recipients using data from the Current Population Survey and the recently published Quarterly Food At Home Price Database. We form a local food price index based on amounts of food for a household of four as established by the Thrifty Food Plan. We use an econometric model that accounts for the endogeneity of SNAP receipt to food insecurity and for household-level unobservables. We find that the average effect of...

  20. How Will the Food Price Shock Affect Inflation in Latin America and the Caribbean?

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo Lora; Andrew Powell; Pilar Tavella

    2011-01-01

    There is widespread concern that recent increases in international food prices may have significant effects on domestic food prices and inflation. This note assesses the impact of the recent food price shock on food, non-food and consumer inflation in the countries of Latin American and the Caribbean (LAC). Vector Autoregressive Regressions (VARs) are estimated for each country to trace the effect of international food prices, the price of oil and the value of the US dollar on domestic prices...

  1. Geographic Differences in the Relative Price of Healthy Foods

    OpenAIRE

    Todd, Jessica E.; Leibtag, Ephraim S.; Penberthy, Corttney

    2011-01-01

    Although healthy foods can be affordable, if less healthy foods are cheaper, individuals may have an economic incentive to consume a less healthful diet. Using the Quarterly Food-at-Home Price Database, we explore whether a select set of healthy foods (whole grains, dark green vegetables, orange vegetables, whole fruit, skim and 1% milk, fruit juice, and bottled water) are more expensive than less healthy alternatives. We find that not all healthy foods are more expensive than less healthy al...

  2. The 2008 food price crisis negatively affected household food security and dietary diversity in urban Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Prevel, Yves; Becquey, Elodie; Tapsoba, Sylvestre; Castan, Florence; Coulibaly, Dramane; Fortin, Sonia; Zoungrana, Mahama; Lange, Matthias; Delpeuch, Francis; Savy, Mathilde

    2012-09-01

    Although the 2008 food price crisis presumably plunged millions of households into poverty and food insecurity, the real impact of the crisis has rarely been documented using field data. Our objective was to assess the consequences of this crisis for household food insecurity and dietary diversity in urban Burkina Faso. Two cross-sectional surveys were conducted among randomly selected households in Ouagadougou in July 2007 (n = 3017) and July 2008 (n = 3002). At each round, food insecurity assessed by the Household Food Insecurity Access Scale (HFIAS), the Dietary Diversity Score of an index-member of the household (IDDS = number of food groups consumed in the last 24 h), and food expenditure were collected. Food prices of the 17 most frequently consumed food items were recorded throughout the study area. Food prices at local markets increased considerably between 2007 and 2008, especially those of fish (113%), cereals (53%), and vegetable oil (44%), increasing the household monthly food expenditure by 18%. Thirty-three percent of households were food secure in 2007 and 22% in 2008 (P = 0.02). Individuals consumed fewer fruits and vegetables, dairy products, and meat/poultry in 2008 than in 2007 (mean IDDS = 5.7 ± 1.7 food groups in 2007 vs. 5.2 ± 1.5 in 2008; P crisis. PMID:22833656

  3. Retail margins, price transmission and price asymmetry in selected agricultural commodities in Trinidad and Tobago: Investigating the causes of presentation: Increasing food prices

    OpenAIRE

    Patterson, A; Singh-Knights, D.; Knights, Marlon

    2010-01-01

    Large structural shifts in the global economy are causing a dramatic rise in the price of food. Since 1994, food prices in Trinidad and Tobago have risen above 350%, faster than the price of other items. From March 2006 to 2007, the food component of the retail price index increased by 19% whilst the overall price index increased by 8%. Sizable and fluctuating price differences have been recorded between wholesale and retail prices. This paper looks at the development of retail food prices, i...

  4. As Food Prices Rise, Setting Menus Is Cause of Heartburn for Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, Christina A.

    2008-01-01

    With food and fuel prices increasing sharply, food and nutrition directors in school districts around the country are finding themselves facing some uncomfortable choices. In some districts, school lunch menus are being pared down to fewer selections, instead of the array of healthy options districts would like to offer. In other areas, canned and…

  5. Global Food Price Inflation and Policy Responses in Central Asia

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the implications of elevated global food prices for inflation in select Central Asian economies - Kazakhstan, the Kyrgyz Republic, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan. The findings suggest that global food inflation has significant short-run effects that build over time. Inflation outcomes simulated under alternative global wheat price assumptions underscore these vulnerabilities, and suggest that sustained administrative measures are unlikely to prove effective. In line with struc...

  6. Stochastic Food Prices and Slash-and-Burn Agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Barrett, Christopher B.

    1997-01-01

    This paper explores the interrelationship between poverty, risk, and deforestation by small farmers in the low-income tropics. A nonseparable household model reveals how exogenous shocks to the mean or variance of a food price distribution affect peasants' incentives to clear forest. The resulting links between food price policy, farmer behavior, and deforestation offer an innovative explanation of the vicious cycle of peasant immiserization and tropical deforestation. An intriguing, testable...

  7. Helping women respond to the global food price crisis:

    OpenAIRE

    Quisumbing, Agnes; Meinzen-Dick, Ruth Suseela; Bassett, Lucy; Usnick, Michael; Pandolfelli, Lauren; Morden, Cheryl; Alderman, Harold

    2008-01-01

    "The current food price crisis has received widespread attention, but discussions to date have largely overlooked the gender dimensions of the crisis. More than 15 years of rigorous research on gender and intrahousehold resource allocation suggest not only that men and women will be affected differently by the global food crisis, but also that, as both consumers and producers, they will have different stocks of resources with which to respond to rising prices. Although the current situation c...

  8. Food Price Change and its Welfare Impact on Iranian Households

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ghahremanzadeh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Iran has experienced high food prices in recent years. This paper examines the welfare impacts of rising major food groups' prices on Iranian urban households using Quadratic Almost Ideal Demand System (QUAIDS approach. The elasticity coefficients derived from QUAIDS are used to estimate Compensated Variations (CV.The study uses Iranian Household Expenditure and Income Survey (HEIS raw data, encompassing both low and high price periods. Prices of all food and agricultural products increased during the entire survey period of 2004 to 2012. Based on our estimates, the food groups of cereals, dairy products, vegetable and pulses, Potables and Spices are necessary goods, as their budget elasticity is positive and below one at the same time. Meat, edible oils, fruits and dried fruits and Sugary products are luxury goods, with income elasticity above one. We find that the remarkable increases in food prices resulted in severe erosion of purchasing power for the Iranian urban households and they need to be compensated on average about 48% of their initial income for the food price changes they faced during the 2004 and 2012. In addition the high share of cereals in year 2012 implies that urban households shift their consumption to cheaper calorie source. This figure is confirmed with the decline in the share of meat, dairy Products, fruits and dried fruits, vegetables and pulses and potables expenditure.

  9. Importing high food prices by exporting : rice prices in Lao PDR

    OpenAIRE

    Durevall, Dick; van der Weide, Roy

    2014-01-01

    This paper shows how a developing country, Lao PDR, imports high glutinous rice prices by exporting its staple food to neighboring countries, Vietnam and Thailand. Lao PDR has extensive export controls on rice, generating a sizable difference between domestic and international prices. Controls are relaxed after good harvests, leading to a surge in exports early in the season and rapidly ri...

  10. Domestic Wheat Price Formation and Food Inflation in India

    OpenAIRE

    Dasgupta, Dipak; Dubey, R.N.; R. Sathish

    2011-01-01

    Inflation, especially in food prices, has been persistently high in India during the past twenty four months. This has been a source of concern to policy-makers. Fortunately, food price increases are now starting to ease, after the major spike that occurred in the wake of the severe drought of 2009. However, there still remains concern that we: (a) need to better understand the factors that drive such spikes in key prices; and (b) design more effective policies to prevent such future pr...

  11. WHAT IMPLICATIONS DOES THE WORLD FOOD PRICE RISE HAVE FOR FOOD SECURITY IN BANGLADESH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahbub Hossain

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bangladesh has often been regarded as a country whose food security situation is frequently worsened by price rise of essential foodstuffs. Rice has been the most significant cereal food in Bangladesh because it accounts for around 42 percent of per capita daily energy intake. Food price rise has become the most serious concern of majority of the country’s household as price rise becomes the regular phenomenon in the country. One-third of the country’s total population have been living under the poverty line. Regardless of the domestic rice production, Bangladesh imports around three million tonnes of rice every year which constitutes 17 percent of the country’s total import. Therefore, this empirical paper has attempted to explore how Bangladeshi local rice price is being affected by the world rice price, and how rising rice price affects household food security. In doing so, co-integration model and error correction model were applied to weekly rice price data obtained from the on-line database of the Food Policy Monitoring Unit of the Ministry of Food, Government of Bangladesh. The results confirm that world rice price and Bangladesh local market rice price are co-integrated. Although there has not been any immediate impact of world price shock in Bangladesh due to the influence of short term measures taken by the government, there are long term impacts of such price shock. Logit model has been employed to determine the rice price threshold beyond which households become unable to ensure their food security. For this purpose a sample of 80 poor households whose per capita income was less than $1, was surveyed in order to obtain the required data. The results of the logit model suggest that if rice price goes beyond Tk 34 per kilogram, sample poor households become extremely vulnerable in respect of food security. Finally, some recommendations have been made at the end of this paper based on the empirical findings.

  12. The retail revolution and food-price mismeasurement

    OpenAIRE

    Leonard I. Nakamura

    1998-01-01

    If a product sells for $3 this week at the local supermarket and $2 next week, what is the "real" price? What if that same product has a different price at a different store? Thanks to scanner technology, food prices differ a lot these days because they can be changed quickly and easily. How do our official statistics take these price movements into account? Not too well, according to Leonard Nakamura. In this article, he describes the retail revolution of recent years and how it has led to m...

  13. Food price volatility and hunger alleviation – can Cannes work?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajkowicz Stefan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Recent years have seen global food prices rise and become more volatile. Price surges in 2008 and 2011 held devastating consequences for hundreds of millions of people and negatively impacted many more. Today one billion people are hungry. The issue is a high priority for many international agencies and national governments. At the Cannes Summit in November 2011, the G20 leaders agreed to implement five objectives aiming to mitigate food price volatility and protect vulnerable persons. To succeed, the global community must now translate these high level policy objectives into practical actions. In this paper, we describe challenges and unresolved dilemmas before the global community in implementing these five objectives. The paper describes recent food price volatility trends and an evaluation of possible causes. Special attention is given to climate change and water scarcity, which have the potential to impact food prices to a much greater extent in coming decades. We conclude the world needs an improved knowledge base and new analytical capabilities, developed in parallel with the implementation of practical policy actions, to manage food price volatility and reduce hunger and malnutrition. This requires major innovations and paradigm shifts by the global community.

  14. Food Price Rises and Political Instability: Problematizing a Complex Relationship

    OpenAIRE

    Demarest, Leila

    2014-01-01

    Recent spikes in international food prices and the occurrence of ‘food riots’ in the period 2007-2008 has led many researchers to investigate the links between food prices and conflict or political instability more closely. However, this emerging literature suffers from a number of flaws and misunderstandings. The objective of this paper is to discuss these further and offer ways of addressing them. I focus on three main issues: firstly, the vague use of concepts such as ‘political instabilit...

  15. Comparative Analysis of Food Price Policies in the Developed Countries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Linrong; LI

    2015-01-01

    As the basis for maintenance of national security and global strategic material,food has always captured the attention of governments in the world.After reaching a certain stage of industrialization,most countries will take the food support and protection measures,and the policy objectives and policy tools have evolved into a set of policy systems through continuous adjustment,but the intervention in food price has always been present.The food price intervention only plays a role in regulating food market supply and demand and guaranteeing minimum income for grain producers,and it can not reflect the cost of food production and continuously improve grain producers’ income,but because of its simple operation,low cost and immediate effect,it is suitable for the countries with a large number of grain producers but small operation scale in the short term.

  16. Price strategies for sustainable food products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ingenbleek, P.T.M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – Sustainable products often suffer a competitive disadvantage compared with mainstream products because they must cover ecological and social costs that their competitors leave to future generations. The purpose of this paper is to identify price strategies for sustainable products that min

  17. Food Prices and Climate Extremes: A Model of Global Grain Price Variability with Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, C.; Schewe, J.; Frieler, K.

    2015-12-01

    Extreme climate events such as droughts, floods, or heat waves affect agricultural production in major cropping regions and therefore impact the world market prices of staple crops. In the last decade, crop prices exhibited two very prominent price peaks in 2007-2008 and 2010-2011, threatening food security especially for poorer countries that are net importers of grain. There is evidence that these spikes in grain prices were at least partly triggered by actual supply shortages and the expectation of bad harvests. However, the response of the market to supply shocks is nonlinear and depends on complex and interlinked processes such as warehousing, speculation, and trade policies. Quantifying the contributions of such different factors to short-term price variability remains difficult, not least because many existing models ignore the role of storage which becomes important on short timescales. This in turn impedes the assessment of future climate change impacts on food prices. Here, we present a simple model of annual world grain prices that integrates grain stocks into the supply and demand functions. This firstly allows us to model explicitly the effect of storage strategies on world market price, and thus, for the first time, to quantify the potential contribution of trade policies to price variability in a simple global framework. Driven only by reported production and by long--term demand trends of the past ca. 40 years, the model reproduces observed variations in both the global storage volume and price of wheat. We demonstrate how recent price peaks can be reproduced by accounting for documented changes in storage strategies and trade policies, contrasting and complementing previous explanations based on different mechanisms such as speculation. Secondly, we show how the integration of storage allows long-term projections of grain price variability under climate change, based on existing crop yield scenarios.

  18. Analyzing Drivers of World Food Prices: Weather, Growth, and Biofuels

    OpenAIRE

    Saunders, Caroline M.; Kaye-Blake, William; Cagatay, Selim

    2009-01-01

    The recent rise of food cost in world markets has accelerated the research examining the underlying factors for this rise. The present research investigated the separate and combined impacts of three factors thought to contribute to the price rise: adverse weather events, strong and sustained growth in high populated countries, and increased biofuels production. The research further analysed the effects of these price rises on consumption expenditures in Brazil, China and India. Analyses were...

  19. Price rigidity in the euro area - An assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Emmanuel Dhyne; Jerzy Konieczny; Fabio Rumler; Patrick Sevestre

    2009-01-01

    The study on price stickiness examined nominal rigidities in the euro area and their importance for the functioning of markets. The study examined nominal rigidities in the euro area and their importance for the functioning of markets. It analysed the price setting behaviour of firms at the micro-level, developed several indicators to measure the degree of producer and consumer price rigidity at sector and product level and examined the various factors affecting consumer and producer price ri...

  20. Consumer Confidence in the Food System, Media Coverage and Stock Prices for the Food Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia-Fuentes, Pablo; Ferreira, Gustavo; Harrison, R. Wes; Kinsey, Jean D.; Degeneffe, Dennis

    2014-01-01

    Ongoing food safety incidents have generated a national interest in the significant costs that food recalls impose on stakeholders. This paper examines the impact of media coverage of food safety events on consumer confidence in food safety, and measures the response of stock prices of food companies to changes in consumer confidence. Results show that increases in media coverage have a negative impact on consumer confidence, and that decreases in the levels of consumer confidence regarding f...

  1. Price promotions for food and beverage products in a nationwide sample of food stores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Lisa M; Kumanyika, Shiriki K; Isgor, Zeynep; Rimkus, Leah; Zenk, Shannon N; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2016-05-01

    Food and beverage price promotions may be potential targets for public health initiatives but have not been well documented. We assessed prevalence and patterns of price promotions for food and beverage products in a nationwide sample of food stores by store type, product package size, and product healthfulness. We also assessed associations of price promotions with community characteristics and product prices. In-store data collected in 2010-2012 from 8959 food stores in 468 communities spanning 46 U.S. states were used. Differences in the prevalence of price promotions were tested across stores types, product varieties, and product package sizes. Multivariable regression analyses examined associations of presence of price promotions with community racial/ethnic and socioeconomic characteristics and with product prices. The prevalence of price promotions across all 44 products sampled was, on average, 13.4% in supermarkets (ranging from 9.1% for fresh fruits and vegetables to 18.2% for sugar-sweetened beverages), 4.5% in grocery stores (ranging from 2.5% for milk to 6.6% for breads and cereals), and 2.6% in limited service stores (ranging from 1.2% for fresh fruits and vegetables to 4.1% for breads and cereals). No differences were observed by community characteristics. Less-healthy versus more-healthy product varieties and larger versus smaller product package sizes generally had a higher prevalence of price promotion, particularly in supermarkets. On average, in supermarkets, price promotions were associated with 15.2% lower prices. The observed patterns of price promotions warrant more attention in public health food environment research and intervention. PMID:26827618

  2. Price transmission along the food supply chain in the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Bukeviciute, Lina; Dierx, Adriaan; Fabienne ILZKOVITZ; Roty, Guillaume

    2009-01-01

    Agricultural commodities and consumer food prices have experienced strong variations over the last 2 years, both upwards and downwards. This increased volatility, combined with long-term prospects of rising food prices, highlights the necessity to increase the efficiency of the food supply chain to ensure consumer food prices reflect the evolution of inputs prices. This paper aims at better understanding price transmission mechanisms along the chain across European Union Member States. Signif...

  3. MARKET COMPETITION AND METROPOLITAN-AREA GROCERY PRICES

    OpenAIRE

    Binkley, James K.; John M. Connor

    1996-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship of 1987 retail grocery prices to supermarket sales concentration across 95 U.S. metropolitan areas. The regression model incorporates a large number of population, retail-cost, and retail competition factors and separate prices by type of grocery item. We find that the concentration-price relationship is sensitive to item type: positive for packaged, branded, dry groceries and unrelated for produce, meat, and dairy product prices. As for market rivalry, we...

  4. Tax Risk Management in the Area of Transfer Pricing

    OpenAIRE

    Jamroży, Marcin

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to analyze the tax risk related to transfer pricing and methods of reducing it by Polish enterprises. Effective risk management requires identifying risk areas, quantifying the risk, as well as proper application of procedures that enable the reduction or an elimination of risk exposure. Creating or using adequate tax documentation, advance pricing agreements or internal transfer pricing procedures are the most important means of managing transfer pricing ris...

  5. THE EVOLUTION OF AGRO-FOOD PRODUCT PRICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAOUL SABIN GORDEAN

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper covers issues with respect to the agro-food product prices on the agrofood market in Romania, in general, from a micro and a macroeconomic perspective, and the basic features of these products within the nutrition of a nation.

  6. The effect of rising food prices on food consumption: systematic review with meta-regression

    OpenAIRE

    Green, Rosemary; Cornelsen, Laura; Dangour, Alan D.; Turner, Rachel; Shankar, Bhavani; Mazzocchi, Mario; Richard D. Smith

    2013-01-01

    Objective To quantify the relation between food prices and the demand for food with specific reference to national and household income levels. Design Systematic review with meta-regression. Data sources Online databases of peer reviewed and grey literature (ISI Web of Science, EconLit, PubMed, Medline, AgEcon, Agricola, Google, Google Scholar, IdeasREPEC, Eldis, USAID, United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, World Bank, International Food Policy Research Institute), hand searched r...

  7. Does the Minimum Wage Bite into Fast-Food Prices?

    OpenAIRE

    Emek Basker; Muhammad Taimur Khan

    2013-01-01

    WWe study the e?ect of increases in e?ective minimum wages on the prices of several fast-food items using quarterly city-level data from 1993-2014, a period during much of which the federal minimum wage declined in real value while state-level legislation ?ourished. For one product, a burger, we ?nd a robust price elasticity of 9% with respect to the minimum wage. This estimate indicates substantial cost pass-through when contextualized by the e?ect of minimumwage increases on restaurant wage...

  8. Global Food Price Volatility and Spikes: An Overview of Costs, Causes, and Solutions

    OpenAIRE

    von Braun, Joachim; Tadesse, Getaw

    2012-01-01

    Since the 2007–08 food crisis, many thoughtful analyses have addressed the causes and impacts of high and volatile international food prices and proposed solutions to the crisis. These studies have covered global as well as local food price dynamics and policy reactions. The food price problem is, however, far-reaching, and its impacts are wide and interrelated. The price formation mechanism has become highly complex and dynamic. Policy actions are politically and economically sensitive. This...

  9. Rising food prices and household welfare: Evidence from Brazil in 2008

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, Francisco H.G.; Fruttero, Anna; Leite, Phillippe; Lucchetti, Leonardo

    2011-01-01

    Food price inflation in Brazil in the twelve months to June 2008 was 18 percent, while overall inflation was seven percent. Using spatially disaggregated monthly data on consumer prices and two different household surveys, we estimate the welfare consequences of these food price increases, and their distribution across households. Because Brazil is a large food producer, with a predominant...

  10. Determinants of food price inflation in Finland—The role of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The agricultural commodity crisis of 2006–2008 and the recent evolution of commodity markets have reignited anxieties in Finland over fast-rising food prices and food security. Little is known about the strength of the linkages between food markets and input markets, such as the energy market. Using monthly series of price indices from 1995 to 2010, we estimate a vector error-correction (VEC) model in a cointegration framework in order to investigate the short-term and long-term dynamics of food price formation. The results indicate that a statistically significant long-run equilibrium relationship exists between the prices of food and those of the main variable inputs consumed by the food chain, namely agricultural commodities, labour, and energy. When judged by the magnitude of long-run pass-through rates, farm prices represent the main determinant of food prices, followed by wages in food retail and the price of energy. The parsimonious VEC model suggests that the dynamics of food price formation are dominated by a relatively quick process of adjustment to the long-run equilibrium, the half life of the transitional dynamics being six to eight months following a shock. - Highlights: • We investigate the dynamics of food price formation in Finland. • We establish the existence of a long-run equilibrium relationship between the prices of food, energy, agricultural commodities, and wages. • Energy price plays a significant but limited role in determining the equilibrium level of food prices

  11. Global Food Prices trends behavior and Managing Food Inflation in India: Strategic policy options and key issues

    OpenAIRE

    Arabi U

    2009-01-01

    The rapid rise in food prices has been a burden on the poor in developing countries, including in India, who spend roughly half of their household incomes on food. In many countries and regions, food price inflation is higher than aggregate inflation and contributing to underlying inflationary pressures. Food grain prices have more than doubled between January 2006 and June 2008. More than 60 percent of this increase has occurred since January 2008 alone. Although the pass-through of rising g...

  12. Research on the Influence Factors on the Crop Food Supply Price using Data Envelopment Analysis Method

    OpenAIRE

    Wang Yan

    2013-01-01

    The study aims to investigate the influence factors on the crop food supply price using the Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) method. Crops are the basic food rations for urban and rural residents and occupy the most important position in the food consumption. The price of the crop food has important influence on the stable economic operation and even social stability in China; hence it is crucial to find out the fluctuation rules and formation mechanism of crop food supply price. However, ther...

  13. The euro and prices: changeover-related inflation and price convergence in the euro area

    OpenAIRE

    Jan-Egbert Sturm; Ulrich Fritsche; Michael Graff; Michael Lamla; Sarah Lein; Volker Nitsch; David Liechti; Daniel Triet

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to examine the effects of the 'euro cash changeover' on consumer prices in the euro area. The report begins by describing price developments at the time of the introduction of euro notes and coins. The study also investigates the impact of price developments at the euro changeover on different households by socio-economic group. The third part of the report focuses on inflation perceptions and a fourth section explores the cross-border convergence of prices since t...

  14. Empirical Analysis of Price Setting and Quantity Surcharges in the German Food Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Schmitz, Silke; Abdulai, Awudu

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the incidence and determinants of quantity price discounts and quantity price surcharges in the German food sector through a bivariate probit, using recent consumer scanner survey data. Selectivity bias was corrected for in estimating the degree of quantity price surcharge and quantity price discount, using Heckman's procedure. The findings reveal that almost 10% of the investigated products attract higher unit prices for larger package sizes, although the extent of price ...

  15. Self-reported food insecurity in Africa during the food price crisis.

    OpenAIRE

    Verpoorten, Marijke; Arora, A.; Stoop, Nik; Swinnen, Jo

    2013-01-01

    This article analyzes data on self-reported food insecurity of more than 50,000 individuals in 18 Sub-Saharan African countries over the period 2005–2008, when global food prices increased dramatically. The average level of self-reported food insecurity was high but remarkably stable over time, at about 54%. However, this average hides large heterogeneity, both within countries and across countries. In eight of the sample countries, self-reported food security improved, while it worsened in t...

  16. Essays on food security in sub-Saharan Africa : The role of food prices and climate shocks

    OpenAIRE

    Brunelin, Stéphanie

    2014-01-01

    This doctoral thesis is in line with the renewed interest in research on agriculture and food security, following the 2008 global food crisis. The aim of this thesis is to contribute to a better understanding of the complex issues surrounding food security. The first chapter investigates whether the changes in the international price of rice are transmitted to the domestic prices of rice in Senegal, Mali and Chad. Results indicate that the domestic prices of imported rice in Dakar and of loca...

  17. Managing Food Price Risks and Instability in an Environment of Market Liberalization

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2005-01-01

    This report, Managing Food Price Risks and Instability in an Environment of Market Liberalization, studies the food price instability and risk problem in low-income countries and investigates the benefits and costs of alternative policy responses, and provides guidance on how to make the transition from state-dominated markets to private markets. The report concludes that problems of food price instability and food insecurity need to be addressed by developing: measures to improve overall pro...

  18. The effects of agricultural trade openness on food price transmission in Latin American countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Insa Flachsbarth

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Trade of agricultural commodities has grown significantly in most Latin American countries (LAC over the last two decades. However, after the international food price surges in 2006-08 and 2011-12 concerns about food access of the poor arose. Within a panel framework containing six LAC (Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico and Peru, we used a single equation error correction model to identify possible cointegrating relationships between the food consumer price index (CPI and a set of trade related and domestic variables. The main focus of the study was to examine how different levels of trade openness impact international food price transmission to domestic markets. Our results confirm that deeper market integration increases global price transmission elasticities. In other words, more agricultural trade openness proves to elevate food CPIs during global price spikes. Thus, for poor consumers world price shocks can be deteriorating in the short-run and domestic food prices will slowly converge to a higher long-run equilibrium. Especially in increasingly integrated economies, effective policies to buffer food price shocks should be put in place, but must be carefully planned with the required budget readily available. We also found that exchange rate appreciations can buffer price shocks to a certain extent and that monetary policies seem to be an appropriate means for stabilizing food prices to safeguard food access of the poor population.

  19. Consumers and sellers heterogeneity, search costs and spatial price dispersion in retail food markets

    OpenAIRE

    Anania, Giovanni; Nistico, Rosanna

    2010-01-01

    Price dispersion, i.e. a homogeneous product sold at different prices by different sellers, is among the most replicated findings in empirical economics. The paper assesses the extent and determinants of spatial price dispersion for 14 perfectly homogeneous food products in more than 400 retailers in a market characterized by the persistence of a large number of relatively small traditional food stores, side by side with large supermarkets. The extent of observed price dispersion is quite h...

  20. Price dispersion, search costs and consumers and sellers heterogeneity in retail food markets.

    OpenAIRE

    Anania, Giovanni; Nistico, Rosanna

    2012-01-01

    Price dispersion, i.e. a homogeneous product sold at different prices by different sellers, is among the most replicated findings in empirical economics. The paper assesses the extent and determinants of spatial price dispersion for 14 perfectly homogeneous food products in more than 400 retailers in a market characterized by the persistence of a large number of relatively small traditional food stores, side by side large supermarkets. The extent of observed price dispersion is quite high, su...

  1. Food Prices and Consumer Demand: Differences across Income Levels and Ethnic Groups

    OpenAIRE

    Ni Mhurchu, Cliona; Eyles, Helen; Schilling, Chris; Yang, Qing; Kaye-Blake, William; Genç, Murat; Blakely, Tony

    2013-01-01

    Background Targeted food pricing policies may improve population diets. To assess their effects on inequalities, it is important to determine responsiveness to price changes across income levels and ethnic groups. Objective Our goal was to estimate price elasticity (PE) values for major commonly consumed food groups in New Zealand, by income and ethnicity. PE values represent percentage change in demand associated with 1% change in price of that good (own-PE) or another good (cross-PE). Desig...

  2. Assessing the variety and pricing of selected foods in socioeconomically disparate districts of Berlin, Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Stroebele, Nanette; Dietze, Pia; Tinnemann, Peter; Willich, Stefan N.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Aim The neighbourhood environment appears to influence people?s food consumption. Access, variety and pricing of foods play a role in the socioeconomic difference of fruit and vegetable consumption. This study compared differences in the number of grocery stores, variety of fresh fruits and vegetables, and food prices in districts with different Social Indices (SI) in Berlin, Germany. Methods The ...

  3. Biofuels and Vertical Price Transmission: The Case of the US Corn, Ethanol, and Food Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drabik, D.; Ciaian, P.; Pokrivcak, J.

    2014-01-01

    This is the first paper to analyze the impact of biofuels on the price transmission along the food chain. We analyze the U.S. corn sector and its vertical links with food and ethanol (energy) markets. We find that biofuels affect the price transmission elasticity in the food chain compared to a no b

  4. Regional Trade and Food Price Stablisation in South Asia: Policy Responses to the 2007-08 World Price Shocks

    OpenAIRE

    Dorosh, Paul A.

    2008-01-01

    World price shocks and disruptions in international cereal trade in 2007 and 2008 caused considerable anxiety and hardship for food importing countries throughout the world. In South Asia, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Bangladesh and India were all affected by these movements in international prices, though the effects on domestic prices in each case was mitigated or exacerbated by each country’s own trade policies, as well as the trade policies of its neighbours. This paper reviews domestic and int...

  5. Global Food Prices and Business Cycle Dynamics in an Emerging Market Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Holtemöller, Oliver; Mallick, Sushanta

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates a perception in the political debates as to what extent poor countries are affected by price movements in the global commodity markets. To test this perception, we use the case of India to establish in a standard SVAR model that global food prices influence aggregate prices and food prices in India. To further analyze these empirical results, we specify a small open economy New-Keynesian model including oil and food prices and estimate it using observed data over the p...

  6. A Pricing Strategy To Promote Sales of Lower Fat Foods in High School Cafeterias: Acceptability and Sensitivity Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannan, Peter; French, Simone A.; Story, Mary; Fulkerson, Jayne A.

    2002-01-01

    Examined the purchase patterns of seven targeted foods under conditions in which prices of three high-fat foods were raised and prices of four low-fat foods were lowered in a high school cafeteria over 1 school year. Data collected on food sales and revenues supported the feasibility of a pricing strategy that offered low-fat foods at lower prices…

  7. International to domestic price transmission in fourteen developing countries during the 2007-08 food crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Baltzer, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    This paper synthesizes the evidence on price transmission from international maize, rice and wheat markets to domestic markets in fourteen developing countries during the global food crisis in 2007-08. A great variation in the price transmission patterns is observed; from almost no price pass-through in China and India, over close relationship between international and domestic prices in Brazil and South Africa, to substantial domestic price overshooting in Ethiopia and Nigeria. Much of this ...

  8. Pricing Decisions in Franchised Chains: A Look at the Restaurant and Fast-Food Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Francine Lafontaine

    1995-01-01

    This paper examines empirical issues of pricing and price dispersion within franchised restaurant and fast-food chains. Given the per se illegality of resale price maintenance (RPM) under current U.S. Antitrust laws, and the fact that franchised outlets are independent businesses under the law, franchisors must delegate the power to set prices to franchisees whereas corporate chains can control downstream prices directly. The issue I examine is whether it matters empirically who, between the ...

  9. Consumer protection in the food supplements area

    OpenAIRE

    Luptáková, Marcela

    2014-01-01

    The topic of this diploma thesis is the Consumer protection in the food supplements area. The work has been devided into three parts. The first part is devoted to the overview about categorization of the products with the impact on health. This part of this work also includes the elementary terms, which are: food, food supplements, medicinal products, cosmetics products and medical devices. The second chapter is devoted to the matter of food supplements as such. The third chapter deals with t...

  10. Are Foreign Aid and Remittance Inflows a Hedge Against Food Price Shocks?

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the role of foreign aid and remittance inflows in the mitigation of the effects of food price shocks. Using a large sample of developing countries and mobilising dynamic panel data specifications, the econometric results yield two important findings. First, remittance and aid inflows significantly dampen the effect of food price shocks in the most vulnerable countries. Second, a lower remittance-to-GDP ratio is required in order to fully absorb the effects of food price sh...

  11. Study on Prediction of Chinese Food Price Based on Fuzzy Neutral Network

    OpenAIRE

    Tong Wen-Bing

    2015-01-01

    In order to improve the prediction precision and accuracy of Chinese food price, the application of fuzzy neutral network on it in studied in depth. Firstly, the situation of China food price is analyzed. Secondly, the basic theory of fuzzy neutral network is analyzed. Thirdly, the training algorithm of fuzzy neutral network is designed. Finally, a simulation analysis is carried out for food prices in a province and results show that the fuzzy neutral network is an effective tool for predicti...

  12. Do monetary and technology shocks move euro area stock prices?

    OpenAIRE

    Berg, Tim Oliver

    2010-01-01

    I use a Bayesian vector autoregressive (VAR) model to investigate the impact of monetary and technology shocks on the euro area stock market in 1987-2005. I find an important role for technology shocks, but not monetary shocks, in explaining variations in real stock prices. The identification method is flexible enough to study the effects of technology news shocks. The responses are consistent with the idea that news on technology improvements have an immediate impact on stock prices. These f...

  13. UPDATE February 2012 - The Food Crises: Predictive validation of a quantitative model of food prices including speculators and ethanol conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Lagi, Marco; Bertrand, Karla Z; Bar-Yam, Yaneer

    2012-01-01

    Increases in global food prices have led to widespread hunger and social unrest---and an imperative to understand their causes. In a previous paper published in September 2011, we constructed for the first time a dynamic model that quantitatively agreed with food prices. Specifically, the model fit the FAO Food Price Index time series from January 2004 to March 2011, inclusive. The results showed that the dominant causes of price increases during this period were investor speculation and ethanol conversion. The model included investor trend following as well as shifting between commodities, equities and bonds to take advantage of increased expected returns. Here, we extend the food prices model to January 2012, without modifying the model but simply continuing its dynamics. The agreement is still precise, validating both the descriptive and predictive abilities of the analysis. Policy actions are needed to avoid a third speculative bubble that would cause prices to rise above recent peaks by the end of 2012.

  14. SECOND ROUND EFFECTS AND PASS-THROUGH OF FOOD PRICES TO INFLATION IN KENYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roseline Nyakerario Misati

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In the recent past, the Kenyan economy experienced persistent inflationary pressures, partly attributed to food price spikes. However, the quantitative role of food prices in inflation is not well understood or formally empirically analyzed in Kenya yet food occupies a weight of 36 percent in the consumer price index and contributes a monthly average of over 40 percent to overall inflation. Based on monthly data covering the period 1997-2012, this paper attempts to fill this gap by examining the relationship between food prices and inflation. The study used gap models and Phillips curve approaches to estimate the passthrough effects of food prices to both overall inflation and non-food non-fuel inflation. Based on gap models, the results confirm presence of second round effects from food prices to inflation while estimations of the Phillips curve suggest a domestic food price pass-through of 0.49 to overall inflation and 0.38 to non-food non-fuel inflation. The world food prices pass-through to overall inflation and non-food non-fuel inflation are estimated at 0.09 and 0.08, respectively. Thus this paper recommends usage of headline inflation to estimate trend inflation, enhanced communication to mitigate second round effects and that while monetary policy is very critical in anchoring inflationary expectations, there is mutual gain from a supportive fiscal policy in addressing supply side shocks.

  15. Three Empirical Essays on House Prices in the Euro Area

    OpenAIRE

    Ott, Hervé

    2007-01-01

    The real euro area house price has increased steadily since 1997 reaching more than 6.5% in 2004 and 2005. The rise on its own is not as striking as the long lasting effect of the phenomenon. Indeed, it is the longest lasting house price increase ever experience in the euro area since data are available. Due to a lack of data, I use panel econometrics. The estimated coefficients are then used to generate euro area fitted values in all three papers. In my first paper, I investigate the questio...

  16. Food prices and the inflation experiences of low-income households

    OpenAIRE

    Leslie McGranahan

    2008-01-01

    Food prices have been rising rapidly over the past two years. In August 2008, aggregate food prices were 6.1 percent above their level in August 2007. Prices in August 2007 were already 4.8 percent above the level in August 2006. Because food purchases represent a larger portion of the expenditures of low-income households, these increases in price have a more substantial impact on the purchasing power of low-income households. This article describes the food inflation experiences of differen...

  17. Food Poisioning Typicality in Food Safety Vulnerable Area of Indonesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AdilBasukiAhza

    2001-01-01

    Food poisoning characteristics and patterns were studied in six vulnerable provinces of Indonesia to identify the typicality of food poisonings.Units of analysis were district level,gender,type of food,and place of events,using the data of incidence of food poisoning from 1987to 1998 period(ten year),Multivariate analysis and bi-plot technique were used to characterize the vulnerability of the areas based on the following variables:(1) time of symptom perceived,(2) number of cases for each kind of poison,(3) incidence of chemicals poisoning,and (4)incidence the microbial poisonings,It was found that the three provinces most vulnerable to food poisoning are Central Java,West Java and Jogyakarta.The causes of food poisoning incidence are microbial poisonings(49.36%),chemicals(24.50%),natural toxicant(4.66%),and other causes or indications(21.37%),The poisoning symptoms were perceived within 1.0-144 hrs with incubation time of 0.08 to 33.00 hrs after food intake,depedn on the type of poison.The type of foods that caused poisoning are family prepared foods(30.57%),preserved food(industrial products) (29.94%),food from catering services(21.66%),traditional foods(10.83%) and street foods(7.00%),WOmen are more vulnerable(67.84)than men(32.16%),The most vulnerable places for food poisoning are respectively at home(family)(44.16%),at workplaces (16.23%),party venue(14.29%),school(12.99%),and in public places(12.34%).The results lead to the urgent needs of a better formulation,more stringent food control policy and regulation at district levels,the use of different approach towards a more locally oriented food poisoning safety measures and actions.

  18. Psychophysical methods in study of consumers' perceived price change for food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ming-Hsu; Chiou, Wen-Bin

    2007-04-01

    When adjusting product prices, marketers wish information concerning consumers' price perceptions. The present study aimed to develop an optimal pricing framework for food products by applying Weber's Law and Stevens' Power Law in psychophysics. The first phase attempted to measure the differential thresholds when magnitudes of prices were raised and lowered. The second phase was conducted to establish the psychophysical function representing perceived changes. Analysis showed consumers' differential thresholds were positively correlated with the initial price, consistent with Weber's Law. Further, participants' perceived change differed for increased and decreased prices. Products were perceived as cheaper only when medium-and low-priced products dropped dramatically in price. However, small reductions for the high-priced products were perceived as cheaper. Regardless of price changes, participants perceived products were more expensive when prices dropped by a small PMID:17564240

  19. Price transmission in the agri-food value chain - from a farmer perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henning Otte

    2015-01-01

    Price transmission in the agri-food value chain - when changes in one price cause another price downstream to change - is an important issue for farmers, markets and the economy as an efficient market price setting is crucial for all market players. However, there are numerous examples of price...... imperfect price transmission, to determine some of the underlying causes and driving forces behind the phenomenon as well as highlight farmers’ interests, role and opportunities in connection with ensuring more effective price transmission. On the basis of an example of a grain-bread value chain, it is...... apparent that the price increases downstream occur relatively quickly and are significant, while the price decreases become smaller and significantly slower as one moves forward in the value chain. Both lags and asymmetric price transmission are present. The example also shows that bread prices increase...

  20. Decongestion of urban areas with hotspot-pricing

    CERN Document Server

    Solé-Ribalta, Albert; Arenas, Alex

    2016-01-01

    The rapid growth of population in urban areas is jeopardizing the mobility and air quality worldwide. One of the most notable problems arising is that of traffic congestion which in turn affects air pollution. With the advent of technologies able to sense real-time data about cities, and its public distribution for analysis, we are in place to forecast scenarios valuable to ameliorate and control congestion. Here, we propose a local congestion pricing scheme, hotspot-pricing, that surcharges vehicles traversing congested junctions. The proposed tax is computed from the estimation of the evolution of congestion at local level, and the expected response of users to the tax (elasticity). Results on cities' road networks, considering real-traffic data, show that the proposed hotspot-pricing scheme would be more effective than current mechanisms to decongest urban areas, and paves the way towards sustainable congestion in urban areas.

  1. An economic analysis of community-level fast food prices and individual-level fast food intake: longitudinal effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon-Larsen, Penny; Guilkey, David K.; Popkin, Barry M.

    2011-01-01

    Background While dietary intake is shaped by cost, there is minimal research on the association between community-level food prices and dietary intake. Methods We used nationally representative, longitudinal data to examine how community-level food price variation was associated with individual-level fast food intake by race/ethnicity and income across waves II (1996) and III (2001–02) of The National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (n=11,088) from 158 baseline and 363 follow-up US counties. Results Negative binomial regression models predicting the number of fast food meals per week show strong relationships between fast food consumption and prices of fast food and soda that varied by gender and race/ethnicity. We found relatively stronger association between food prices and fast food intake for males and relatively greater price sensitivity for soda versus burgers. In the group with strongest associations (black males), a 20% increase in price of soda was associated with a decrease of a 0.25 visits to a fast food restaurant per week. Conclusions Economic incentives may be an effective mechanism to address fast food intake in an age group at high risk for obesity. PMID:21852178

  2. The Food Crises: A quantitative model of food prices including speculators and ethanol conversion

    OpenAIRE

    Marco Lagi; Yavni Bar-Yam; Bertrand, Karla Z.; Yaneer Bar-Yam

    2011-01-01

    Recent increases in basic food prices are severely impacting vulnerable populations worldwide. Proposed causes such as shortages of grain due to adverse weather, increasing meat consumption in China and India, conversion of corn to ethanol in the US, and investor speculation on commodity markets lead to widely differing implications for policy. A lack of clarity about which factors are responsible reinforces policy inaction. Here, for the first time, we construct a dynamic model that quantita...

  3. Analysis of China’s Food Price Changes Based on Data Processing

    OpenAIRE

    Shirong Tong

    2015-01-01

    This study conducts the descriptive statistic analysis of food commercial prices, urban resident income and other relevant data in China’s 30 provinces from 2004 to 2013. The commercial food industry has high added value and comprehensive economic benefit so the commercial food industry is naturally a hot-spot issue. The core issue of the food is the price. The change trend and the difference feature of both the food commercial price and the urban resident income in those regions are revealed...

  4. Fast Food Consumption and Food Prices: Evidence from Panel Data on 5th and 8th Grade Children

    OpenAIRE

    Tamkeen Khan; Powell, Lisa M.; Roy Wada

    2012-01-01

    Fast food consumption is a dietary factor associated with higher prevalence of childhood obesity in the United States. The association between food prices and consumption of fast food among 5th and 8th graders was examined using individual-level random effects models utilizing consumption data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 1998-99 (ECLS-K), price data from American Chamber of Commerce Researchers Association (ACCRA), and contextual outlet density data from...

  5. Increasing food and energy prices in 2008: What were the causes and who was to blame?

    OpenAIRE

    Brobakk, Jostein Tapper; Almås, Reidar

    2011-01-01

    In early 2007 food prices started to increase dramatically, creating more hunger, social unrest, political protests, and a debate on causes and cures. According to the FAO, the number of people getting less food than necessary reached 1 billion. After a century of declining food prices, increased productivity and relative stability several curves started to shift. Due to production growth levelling out and a steady increase in the global demand for food, in addition to policy changes in the f...

  6. Organic food – the impact of price changing on consumers’ behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Kvaková, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    This Bachelor thesis deals with the impact of price changing on consumers of organic food. The thesis is divided into two parts. The first part is theoretical and describes healthy food and organic food from production in organic farming to determination of the actual price of organic food on the market. The second part is practical and contains secondary and primary research. Primary research consists of structured interviews of respondents, the research probe and monitoring the monthly expe...

  7. Quantitative Assessment of Political Fragility Indices and Food Prices as Indicators of Food Riots in Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Natalini

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The impact of resources on social unrest is of increasing interest to political leaders, business and civil society. Recent events have highlighted that (lack of access to critical resources, including food, energy and water, can, in certain circumstances, lead to violent demonstrations. In this paper, we assess a number of political fragility indices to see whether they are good indicators of propensity to food riots. We found that the most accurate is the Political Instability and Absence of Violence Indicator of the Worldwide Governance Indicators by the World Bank. We compute a likelihood of experiencing a food riot for each quartile of this index. We found that the self-sufficiency of food does not seem to affect the likelihood of the occurrence of food riots, but that the level of political stability of a country does have a role. In addition, we identify a monthly and annual threshold for the Food and Agriculture Organisation Food Price Index, above which food riots in fragile states are more likely to occur.

  8. International to domestic price transmission in fourteen developing countries during the 2007-08 food crisis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baltzer, Kenneth Thomas

    This paper synthesizes the evidence on price transmission from international maize, rice and wheat markets to domestic markets in fourteen developing countries during the global food crisis in 2007-08. A great variation in the price transmission patterns is observed; from almost no price pass...

  9. The impact of food scares on price adjustment in the UK beef market

    OpenAIRE

    Lloyd, Tim; McCorriston, Steve; Morgan, C. W.; Rayner, A.J.

    2001-01-01

    This paper considers the impact of 'food scares', predominately concerns relating to BSE, on UK beef prices at retail, wholesale and producer levels over the 1990s. Acknowledging the co-movement that exists between prices in the meat marketing chain, we use a co-integrating framework, the results of which show the importance of publicity regarding the safety of food in the transmission of beef prices in the UK. The 'food publicity' index that we use has a marked negative impact on the prices ...

  10. Food versus fuel: What do prices tell us?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorting out the impacts of biofuels on global agricultural commodity prices is impossible without turning to data and distinguishing between the short-run versus the long-run impacts. Using time-series prices on fuels and agricultural commodities, the aim is to investigate the long-run cointegration of these prices simultaneously with their multivariate short-run interactions. Results indicate no direct long-run price relations between fuel and agricultural commodity prices, and limited if any direct short-run relationships. In terms of short-run price movements, sugar prices are influencing all the other agricultural commodity prices except rice. With sugar the number one world input for ethanol, results indicate increased ethanol production is potentially influencing short-run agricultural commodity prices. Overall, results support the effect of agricultural commodity prices as market signals which restore commodity markets to their equilibria after a demand or supply event (shock).

  11. Empirical Essays on the Economics of Food Price Shocks: Micro-econometric Evidence from Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Ndungu Mukasa, Adamon

    2015-01-01

    This thesis contains four closely related essays which address the empirical issues pertaining to the causes, consequences, and households’ responses to food price shocks in Uganda. The first essay investigates the nature of volatilities in agricultural commodity prices in Uganda between 2000 and 2012 by focusing on six key food staples, namely matooke, cassava, maize, sweet potatoes, beans, and millet flour. It studies the behavior of monthly price volatilities of these commodities, examines...

  12. Area allocation under price uncertainty on Dutch arable farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.

    1999-01-01

    This paper uses a Mean-Variance utility function to build a dual model that simultaneously determines area allocation and production/input levels under output price uncertainty. Regularity conditions of the indirect utility function (convexity) and producers risk preferences are tested. The framewor

  13. The Effect of Food Prices on Inflation in the Republic of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radukić Snežana

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In the Republic of Serbia, food accounts for a significant share in the consumer price index through which the inflation is statistically expressed. Therefore, in considerations of the basic factors of increase in the general price level, a special emphasis is placed on the specific features of the market of agricultural-food products. The aim of this research is to peruse the effect of the characteristics of the food market in Serbia on the inflation rate. High volatility of food prices is present because of the instability of this market, mainly due to seasonal fluctuations of supply and the effect of natural factors. Bearing in mind that the increase in food prices is the main determinant of the increase in the inflation rate, the indirect state control is very important so as to maintain price stability. Special importance is attached to the following instruments of economic policy: commodity reserves, storage policy, and fiscal and foreign trade policy.

  14. 77 FR 22282 - Milk in the Northeast and Other Marketing Areas; Determination of Equivalent Price Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-13

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service Milk in the Northeast and Other Marketing Areas; Determination of Equivalent Price Series AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Determination of equivalent price... products price series in the Dairy Products Sales report released by the Agricultural Marketing...

  15. Fast Food Consumption and Food Prices: Evidence from Panel Data on 5th and 8th Grade Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Tamkeen; Powell, Lisa M.; Wada, Roy

    2012-01-01

    Fast food consumption is a dietary factor associated with higher prevalence of childhood obesity in the United States. The association between food prices and consumption of fast food among 5th and 8th graders was examined using individual-level random effects models utilizing consumption data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 1998-99 (ECLS-K), price data from American Chamber of Commerce Researchers Association (ACCRA), and contextual outlet density data from Dun and Bradstreet (D&B). The results found that contextual factors including the price of fast food, median household income, and fast food restaurant outlet densities were significantly associated with fast food consumption patterns among this age group. Overall, a 10% increase in the price of fast food was associated with 5.7% lower frequency of weekly fast food consumption. These results suggest that public health policy pricing instruments such as taxes may be effective in reducing consumption of energy-dense foods and possibly reducing the prevalence of overweight and obesity among US children and young adolescents. PMID:22292115

  16. Fast Food Consumption and Food Prices: Evidence from Panel Data on 5th and 8th Grade Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamkeen Khan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Fast food consumption is a dietary factor associated with higher prevalence of childhood obesity in the United States. The association between food prices and consumption of fast food among 5th and 8th graders was examined using individual-level random effects models utilizing consumption data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 1998-99 (ECLS-K, price data from American Chamber of Commerce Researchers Association (ACCRA, and contextual outlet density data from Dun and Bradstreet (D&B. The results found that contextual factors including the price of fast food, median household income, and fast food restaurant outlet densities were significantly associated with fast food consumption patterns among this age group. Overall, a 10% increase in the price of fast food was associated with 5.7% lower frequency of weekly fast food consumption. These results suggest that public health policy pricing instruments such as taxes may be effective in reducing consumption of energy-dense foods and possibly reducing the prevalence of overweight and obesity among US children and young adolescents.

  17. Fast food consumption and food prices: evidence from panel data on 5th and 8th grade children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Tamkeen; Powell, Lisa M; Wada, Roy

    2012-01-01

    Fast food consumption is a dietary factor associated with higher prevalence of childhood obesity in the United States. The association between food prices and consumption of fast food among 5th and 8th graders was examined using individual-level random effects models utilizing consumption data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 1998-99 (ECLS-K), price data from American Chamber of Commerce Researchers Association (ACCRA), and contextual outlet density data from Dun and Bradstreet (D&B). The results found that contextual factors including the price of fast food, median household income, and fast food restaurant outlet densities were significantly associated with fast food consumption patterns among this age group. Overall, a 10% increase in the price of fast food was associated with 5.7% lower frequency of weekly fast food consumption. These results suggest that public health policy pricing instruments such as taxes may be effective in reducing consumption of energy-dense foods and possibly reducing the prevalence of overweight and obesity among US children and young adolescents. PMID:22292115

  18. Food Retailers' Pricing and Marketing Strategies, with Implications for Producers

    OpenAIRE

    Sexton, Richard J.; Xia, Tian; Li, Lan

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines grocery retailers' ability to influence prices charged to consumers and paid to suppliers. We discuss how retailer market power manifests itself in terms of pricing and marketing strategies by setting forth and offering evidence in support of eight "stylized facts" of retailer pricing and brand decisions. We argue that little, if any, of this behavior can be explained by a model of a competitive, price-taking retailer, but that most of the indicated behavior was also incon...

  19. The Heterogeneous Effects of a Food Price Crisis on Child School Enrollment and Labor: Evidence from Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Hou, Xiaohui; Hong, Seo Yeon

    2013-01-01

    Using a panel survey, this paper investigates how the increase in food prices in Pakistan in 2008-2010 affected children's school enrollment and labor. The causal identification relies on geographical variations in the price of food (wheat). The results show that the negative impacts of food price increase on school enrollment differ by gender, economic status, and the presence of siblings...

  20. The 2008 food price crisis negatively affected household food security and dietary diversity in urban Burkina Faso

    OpenAIRE

    Martin-Prével, Yves; Becquey, Elodie; Tapsoba, S.; Castan, F; Coulibaly, D.; Fortin, Sonia; Zoungrana, M.; Lange, M.; Delpeuch, Francis; Savy, Mathilde

    2012-01-01

    Although the 2008 food price crisis presumably plunged millions of households into poverty and food insecurity, the real impact of the crisis has rarely been documented using field data. Our objective was to assess the consequences of this crisis for household food insecurity and dietary diversity in urban Burkina Faso. Two cross-sectional surveys were conducted among randomly selected households in Ouagadougou in July 2007 (n = 3017) and July 2008 (n = 3002). At each round, food insecurity a...

  1. Consumer Confidence in the Food System, Media Coverage and Stock Prices of Food Companies: A Regression Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia-Fuentes, Pablo A.; Ferreira, Gustavo F.C.; Harrison, R. Wes; Kinsey, Jean D.; Degeneffe, Dennis J.

    2010-01-01

    A series of recent and serious food safety incidents have generated a national debate over the significant costs that they impose on various stakeholders - consumers, industry, or the government. This paper examines the impact of media coverage of food safety and defense issues on consumer confidence in food safety, and measures the response of stock prices of food companies to changes in consumer confidence. Results show that, increases in media coverage have a negative impact on consumer co...

  2. Higher US crop prices trigger little area expansion so marginal land for biofuel crops is limited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By expanding energy biomass production on marginal lands that are not currently used for crops, food prices increase and indirect climate change effects can be mitigated. Studies of the availability of marginal lands for dedicated bioenergy crops have focused on biophysical land traits, ignoring the human role in decisions to convert marginal land to bioenergy crops. Recent history offers insights about farmer willingness to put non-crop land into crop production. The 2006-09 leap in field crop prices and the attendant 64% gain in typical profitability led to only a 2% increase in crop planted area, mostly in the prairie states. At this rate, a doubling of expected profitability from biomass crops would expand cropland supply by only 3.2%. Yet targets for cellulosic ethanol production in the US Energy Independence and Security Act imply boosting US planted area by 10% or more with perennial biomass crops. Given landowner reluctance to expand crop area with familiar crops in the short run, large scale expansion of the area in dedicated bioenergy crops will likely be difficult and costly to achieve. - Highlights: → Biofuel crops on cropland can displace food crops, reducing food supply and triggering indirect land use. → Growing biofuel crops on non-crop marginal land avoids these problems. → But US farmers expanded cropland by only 2% when crop profitability jumped 64% during 2006-09. → So medium-term availability of marginal lands for biofuel crops is limited and costly.

  3. The Architecture of the Statistical Modeling Concerning the Consumer Prices Indexes for Food Goods, Non-Food Goods and Services, in Romania

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriela OPAIT

    2014-01-01

    This paper reflects the econometric modeling between 2000-2013, in Romania, concerning the Consumer Prices Index for food goods, the Consumer Prices Index for non-food goods and the Consumer Prices Index for services, through by means of the „Least Squares Method”. The Consumer Prices Index (CPI) reflects the change of price concerning the basket of goods that it is supposed to be purchased by a urban consumers in terms of the expenses incurred by a typical household.

  4. When do relative prices matter for measuring income inequality? The case of food prices in Mozambique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Jones, Edward Samuel; Salvucci, Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    Changes in relative prices of commodities consumed in different shares across income groups can be expected to alter real income differentials between these groups. Using Mozambican household budget survey and price data from 2002/03 and 2008/09, we show that once relative price increases are...... accounted for, inequality of real consumption increases substantially. We obtain this result by constructing a price deflator that reflects divergent price dynamics of different product categories. Since the main factors driving this result prevail in other developing countries, it is likely that inequality...

  5. Energy farming in Dutch desiccation abatement areas. Effects on break-even biomass price

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measures in Dutch nature areas to combat desiccation of nature areas often have effects on surrounding agricultural lands, or buffer areas. Generally, these soils become moister, which can lead to lower yields for most common crops. Cultivation of the flooding-tolerant energy crop willow may be an alternative. In this study, the performance of willow production is compared to that of grass for roughage, in buffer areas as well as in a hydrologically optimal situation. Financial consequences are evaluated by calculating the biomass price that makes willow equally competitive to grass (break-even). The effect of high groundwater tables on yields of both crops is estimated using the agro-hydrological model SWAP. The calculated price that gives break-even between willow and grass is lower on wet soils than in a hydrologically optimal situation. At a groundwater table class of II, a groundwater situation quite common in buffer areas, this break-even price is 20% lower. The physical yield of willow is lower than its optimum, but grass yields decrease stronger, making willow more competitive. The biomass price in a hydrologically optimal situation, as calculated in this study, is comparable to values found in other studies. However, this comparison is complicated by differences in assumptions in the cost calculations, and by the fact that grass as roughage has less value added than food crops such as potatoes and wheat. This study contains considerable uncertainties with respect to the data used and the methodology. A sensitivity analysis shows that several parameters with a strong influence on the biomass price have low uncertainties. An uncertain value with strong influence is the optimal willow yield, which could not be estimated on practical data. Methodological limitations of the study, both in the economic comparison between willow and grass and in the yield estimations, are also discussed. 50 refs

  6. The Theory of Biofuel Policy and Food Grain Prices

    OpenAIRE

    Drabik, Dusan

    2011-01-01

    We develop an analytical framework to assess the market effects of alternative biofuel policies (including subsidies to feedstocks). U.S. corn-ethanol policies are used as an example to study the effects on corn prices. We determine the ‘no policy’ ethanol price; analyze the implications for the ‘no policy’ corn price and resulting ‘water’ in the ethanol price premium due to policy; and generalize the unique interaction effects between mandates and tax credits to include ethanol and corn prod...

  7. MARKET-STRUCTURE DETERMINANTS OF NATIONAL BRAND-PRIVATE LABEL PRICE DIFFERENCES OF MANUFACTURED FOOD PRODUCTS

    OpenAIRE

    Connor, John M.; Peterson, Everett B.

    1991-01-01

    This paper estimates the relationships between market structure and the Lerner index of monopoly constructed from price data on processed food products sold through grocery stores. A theoretical model of a differentiated oligopoly specifies two determinants of price-cost margins: the Herfindahl-Hirschman index of seller concentration adjusted for the elasticity of demand and the industry advertising-to-sales ratio. The results indicate that the three principal determinants of price-cost margi...

  8. Logistics, Transport and Food Prices in LAC : Policy Guidance for Improving Efficiency and Reducing Costs

    OpenAIRE

    Schwartz, Jordan; Guasch, Jose Luis; Wilmsmeier, Gordon; Stokenberga, Aiga

    2009-01-01

    This introductory section explains the rationale for the guidance note, reflecting on the relevance of food prices in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC), their impact on the poor and the effect that logistics and transport costs have on those prices. Based upon that framework, the note provides an overview of the logistics and transport hurdles faced by importers and consumers in the re...

  9. Predicting the Direct Benefits of a Food Price Reporting or Preference Changing Program

    OpenAIRE

    Lesser, William H.; Bryant, W. Keith

    1981-01-01

    A method is developed for estimating returns to food price reporting and store selection preference changing programs. The approach is demonstrated by an example. While the extimated return to preference changing is small, the direct savings for price reporting can be substantial. Further replications are required to verify these results.

  10. Do Consumers Pay for Being Healthy Conscious?— An Analysis of Price Discrimination on Healthier Food Product

    OpenAIRE

    Zhan, Congnan

    2010-01-01

    ‘Healthier food product’ has experienced a rapid growth rate in recent years in U.S. because of the increasing consumer demand for healthier and environmental friendlier lifestyle. This analysis is looking for price discrimination evidences by comparing price cost margins of regular food products and healthier food products. Price cost margins are computed by solving firms' profit maximization problem and relevant parameters are estimated from consumers' choice decisions. Specifically, price ...

  11. Price variability or rigidity in the food-retailing sector? Theoretical analysis and evidence from German scanner data

    OpenAIRE

    Herrmann, Roland; Möser, Anke

    2003-01-01

    In many industrialized countries, the grocery-retailing sector exhibits a strong and increasing market concentration. Hence, it is important to understand retail pricing for many questions related to market power in the marketing chain and to agricultural and food policies. We analyze intertemporal pricing of grocery retailers in Germany with a large set of scanner data for processed foods. In theory, food prices could be rather variable, e.g. due to fluctuating commodity prices in a competit...

  12. Price Setting in Food SMEs: Which Role for Marketing Capability? An Empirical Analysis in Italy

    OpenAIRE

    BANTERLE Alessandro; Carraresi, Laura; Cavaliere, Alessia

    2011-01-01

    Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) are fighting for survival due to globalization, growing competition with big retailers, and strategies adopted by large industrial companies. Difficulties in pricing are also revealed in the literature. Therefore, appropriate activity is needed to be more a price maker than a taker, and to reach a better market power. On the other hand, market opportunities for SMEs are related to demand evolution toward food quality and traditional food products. To ...

  13. Price Transmission Mechanisms among Disaggregated Processing Stages of Food: Demand-Pull or Cost-Push?

    OpenAIRE

    Kwon, Dae-Heum; Koo, Won W.

    2009-01-01

    The recent concurrent surges of food and commodity prices renew the debate on the causal directions between producer and consumer prices. To address this issue, we utilize the stage of processing system incorporating retail stage beyond crude, intermediate, and finished processing stages of food and employ the method proposed by Toda and Yamamoto (1995) and Dolado and Lütkepohl (1996) of Granger causality tests. The overall results show that consistent with theory of derived demand, the deman...

  14. Exploring the Implications of Oil Prices for Global Biofuels, Food Security, and GHG Mitigation

    OpenAIRE

    Cai, Yongxia; Beach, Robert H.; Zhang, Yuquan

    2014-01-01

    Efforts to satisfy global energy demand and improve food security while simultaneously taking action to mitigate climate change pose many key challenges for the world. In this study, the Applied Dynamic Analysis of the Global Economy (ADAGE), a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model, is applied to examine the impact of oil price on biofuel expansion, and subsequently, on food supply/price, land use change and climate mitigation potential, when both first and second generation biofuel feed...

  15. Welfare Analysis of Changing Food Prices: A Nonparametric Examination of Export Ban on Rice in India

    OpenAIRE

    Ben Groom; Mehroosh Tak

    2013-01-01

    During the world food crisis of 2007-08, the price of staples soared rapidly. Higher food price impacts poor households more as they spend approximately three quarters of their income on food. Together rice and wheat provide more than 50% of the calorific intake in India. Apart from providing food security, millions of poor and small farmers depend on rice for their livelihoods. Using Indian Consumer Household Expenditure surveys for the years 2007-08 and 2009-10 the paper analyses the welfar...

  16. A Quarterly Food-at-Home Price Database for the U.S.

    OpenAIRE

    Todd, Jessica E.; Mancino, Lisa; Leibtag, Ephraim S.; Tripodo, Christina

    2009-01-01

    This report provides a detailed description of the methodology used to construct ERS’s Quarterly Food-at-Home Price Database (Q-FAHPD). As the name suggest, these data provide quarterly observations on the mean price of 52 food categories for specific U.S. markets. We provide a description of the Nielsen Homescan data that was used to create this database, the methodology used to classify foods into food groups, how we determined the appropriate the level of aggregation (sub-regional markets)...

  17. Modeling the relationship between the oil price and global food prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The growth of corn-based ethanol production and soybean-based bio-diesel production following the increase in the oil prices have significantly affect the world agricultural grain productions and its prices. The main purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationships between the crude oil price and the global grain prices for corn, soybean, and wheat. The empirical results show that the change in each grain price is significantly influenced by the changes in the crude oil price and other grain prices during the period extending from the 3rd week in 2005 to the 20th week in 2008 which implies that grain commodities are competing with the derived demand for bio-fuels by using soybean or corn to produce ethanol or bio-diesel during the period of higher crude oil prices in these recent years. The subsidy policies in relation to the bio-fuel industries in some nations engaging in bio-fuel production should be considered to avoid the consequences resulting from high oil prices. (author)

  18. Food prices and consumer demand: differences across income levels and ethnic groups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cliona Ni Mhurchu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Targeted food pricing policies may improve population diets. To assess their effects on inequalities, it is important to determine responsiveness to price changes across income levels and ethnic groups. OBJECTIVE: Our goal was to estimate price elasticity (PE values for major commonly consumed food groups in New Zealand, by income and ethnicity. PE values represent percentage change in demand associated with 1% change in price of that good (own-PE or another good (cross-PE. DESIGN: We used food expenditure data from national household economic surveys in 2007/08 and 2009/10 and Food Price Index data from 2007 and 2010. Adopting an Almost Ideal Demand System approach, own-PE and cross-PE estimates were derived for 24 food categories, household income quintiles, and two ethnic groups (Māori and non-Māori. RESULTS: Own-PE estimates (with two exceptions ranged from -0.44 to -1.78. Cross-PE estimates were generally small; only 31% of absolute values were greater than 0.10. Excluding the outlier 'energy drinks', nine of 23 food groups had significantly stronger own-PEs for the lowest versus highest income quintiles (average regression-based difference across food groups -0.30 (95% CI -0.62 to 0.02. Six own-PEs were significantly stronger among Māori; the average difference for Māori: non-Māori across food groups was -0.26 (95% CI -0.52 to 0.00. CONCLUSIONS: Food pricing policies have potential to improve population diets. The greater sensitivity of low-income households and Māori to price changes suggests the beneficial effects of such policies on health would be greatest for these groups.

  19. Analysis of the Behaviour of Prices of Major Staple Foods in West Africa: A Case Study of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. E. Ayinde

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The study analyzed the price behavior of major staple foods in West Africa taking Nigeria as a case study (1966 – 2011. It described the trend of the major staple food prices and examined the linear relationship and interdependence of the major staple food prices in Nigeria. Secondary data were used for this study. The sources were; Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO, and National Bureau of Statistics (NBS. These data were transformed from their nominal value to real value and analyzed using descriptive statistics, unit root test, Pearson correlation coefficient, granger-causality test and structural equation model. The study revealed that the prices of most of the major staple foods were at the maximum value between 1991 and 1993 while their prices were at the minimum value between 1978 and 1983. The study observed that the price of cowpea is most volatile seconded by maize. The results of the unit root test showed that all the variables studied were stationary. The prices of the major staple foods were linearly correlated; some were positively correlated while some were negatively correlated. Granger-causality test on the major staple foods prices showed that the prices of most staple foods were unidirectional while only few were bi-directional. The study further revealed that the prices of staple foods were interdependent. The study recommends political stability in the country as the major staple food prices reached maximum level during the period of 1993 presidential election crisis.

  20. A Price Survey Comparison of Alcoholic Beverages with the Five Basic Food Groups in Paraiba, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles I. Abramson

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of alcohol abuse is relatively new in Brazil. Government estimates suggest that 11.2% of the Brazilian population is alcohol dependent. Problems associated with alcohol dependence include domestic violence, increased risk of traffic accidents, poor self-esteem and weak academic performance. A factor known to correlate with alcohol abuse in 12-17 year olds is to have the money necessary to purchase alcoholic beverages. No data is available, however, on the price of alcoholic beverages. The objective of the present study was to provide data on price and to compare the price of alcoholic beverages to basic food items in the Brazilian diet. We also had interest in studying a population in the northeast region of Brazil. This region is the poorest in Brazil, has the highest percentage of alcohol dependency and is seldom the focus of research on dependency. We report that the prices of many alcoholic beverages are less than the price of basic food items. Prices of alcoholic beverages including beer, wine and spirits were compared to the prices of select food items as represented in the Food Pyramid. Food items were selected from the categories of Grain, Dairy, Fruit, Meat and Vegetable. Data was gathered from 32 supermarkets in 8 cities in the northeast state of Paraiba. The price of alcohol is generally less expensive than most basic food group items, especially brands of cachaça (a spirit distilled from sugar cane and beer. Data on price should be considered in any alcohol dependency program in Brazil.

  1. STRUCTURAL BREAKS, COINTEGRATION, AND CAUSALITY BY VECM ANALYSIS OF CRUDE OIL AND FOOD PRICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aynur Pala

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This papers investigated form of the linkage beetwen crude oil price index and food price index, using Johansen Cointegration test, and Granger Causality by VECM. Empirical results for monthly data from 1990:01 to 2011:08 indicated that evidence for breaks after 2008:08 and 2008:11. We find a clear long-run relationship between these series for the full and sub sample. Cointegration regression coefficient is negative at the 1990:01-2008:08 time period, but adversely positive at the 2008:11-2011:08 time period. This results represent that relation between crude oil and food price chanced.

  2. The Impact of RMB Exchange Rate on Agricultural Food Prices in Emerging Market

    OpenAIRE

    Li Zhou

    2015-01-01

    With the development of economic globalization, the economic ties between countries in the world more and more closely, prices and the exchange rate are the core economic variables in an open economy. In this study, we make a statistical analysis of RMB real effective exchange rate and agricultural food prices data from the year of 1990 to 2014. From the empirical analysis, the result shows that RMB real effective exchange rate will effect on agricultural food prices. LnREER at lag 1 period i...

  3. Financialisation of Food Commodity Markets, Price Surge and Volatility: New Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Kritika Mathur; Nidhi Kaicker; Raghav Gaiha; Katsushi Imai; Ganesh Thapa

    2013-01-01

    Recent literature points towards the role of speculators in exaggerating the rally in food prices, over and above that explained by the fundamentals of demand and supply. Some studies argue that futures market speculation can only be blamed for the increasing food prices if it is accompanied by hoarding. With this background, the issues that the present chapter deals with are: (i) assessing the impact of indices such as S&P500, and MSCI on commodity prices; and (ii) tracing the volatility pat...

  4. Afforestation to mitigate climate change: impacts on food prices under consideration of albedo effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreidenweis, Ulrich; Humpenöder, Florian; Stevanović, Miodrag; Bodirsky, Benjamin Leon; Kriegler, Elmar; Lotze-Campen, Hermann; Popp, Alexander

    2016-08-01

    Ambitious climate targets, such as the 2 °C target, are likely to require the removal of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. Afforestation is one such mitigation option but could, through the competition for land, also lead to food prices hikes. In addition, afforestation often decreases land-surface albedo and the amount of short-wave radiation reflected back to space, which results in a warming effect. In particular in the boreal zone, such biophysical warming effects following from afforestation are estimated to offset the cooling effect from carbon sequestration. We assessed the food price response of afforestation, and considered the albedo effect with scenarios in which afforestation was restricted to certain latitudinal zones. In our study, afforestation was incentivized by a globally uniform reward for carbon uptake in the terrestrial biosphere. This resulted in large-scale afforestation (2580 Mha globally) and substantial carbon sequestration (860 GtCO2) up to the end of the century. However, it was also associated with an increase in food prices of about 80% by 2050 and a more than fourfold increase by 2100. When afforestation was restricted to the tropics the food price response was substantially reduced, while still almost 60% cumulative carbon sequestration was achieved. In the medium term, the increase in prices was then lower than the increase in income underlying our scenario projections. Moreover, our results indicate that more liberalised trade in agricultural commodities could buffer the food price increases following from afforestation in tropical regions.

  5. Caribbean area food irradiation feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Agency for International Development funded the Caribbean Area Food Irradiation Feasibility Study (CAFI) through the US National Food Processors Association and with the collaboration of the US Department of Energy. This study focused on the economic, technical, financial, political and social feasibility of transferring food irradiation technology to the Caribbean area. The study focuses on three areas including the benefits to small farmers and nations interested in the export of crops, including non-traditional tropical commodities. The Feasibility Study Team conducted field work in Guatemala, Haiti, and Trinidad. The benefits of irradiation technology have been shown to have an impact particularly on the small farmer who is more capable of producing non-traditional crops intended for international export marketing. In Haiti, the anthropologists working on the CAFI study found that 74,000 individuals will be directly affected by the ban on the postharvest fumigant ethylene dibromide. Irradiation technology can not only provide the quarantine security needed to allow crops requiring quarantine treatment to move into international trade, but it can promote international co-operation in technology transfer. Training and safety issues related to the transfer, operation, and disposal of nuclear materials must be considered and point out the need for adequate regional co-operative programmes. Research and training programmes will be needed to augment the implementation of food irradiation processing by the private sector. Irradiation firms planning facilities in developing countries may need to provide crop production information, international marketing intelligence, and other assistance needed to integrate an irradiator into the overall postharvest food system. (author)

  6. The pass through of oil prices into euro area consumer liquid fuel prices in an environment of high and volatile oil prices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyler, Aidan [European Central Bank, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2009-11-15

    Crude and refined oil prices have been relatively high and volatile on a sustained basis since 1999. This paper considers the pass through of oil prices into consumer liquid (i.e. petrol, diesel and heating) fuel prices in such an environment. The pass through of oil prices into consumer liquid fuel prices has already been addressed extensively in the literature. Nonetheless much of this literature has either focused on the United States or on a time period when oil prices were relatively stable, or has used monthly data. The main contribution of this paper is a comprehensive combination of many features that have been considered before but rarely jointly. These features include: (1) the analysis of the euro area as an aggregate and a large number of countries (the initial 12 member states); (2) the consideration of different time periods; (3) the modelling of the data in raw levels rather than in log levels. This turns out to have important implications for our findings; (4) the use of high frequency (weekly) data, which, as results will suggest, are the lowest frequency one should consider; (5) the investigation of the different stages of the production chain from crude oil prices to retail distribution - refining costs and margins, distribution and retailing costs and margins; (6) the examination of prices including and excluding taxes - excise and value-added; (7) the modelling of prices for three fuel types - passenger car petrol and diesel separately and home heating fuel oil; (8) lastly we also address the issue of possible asymmetries, allowing for the pass through to vary according to (a) whether price are increasing or decreasing and (b) whether price levels are above or below their equilibrium level. The main findings are as follows: First, as distribution and retailing costs and margins have been broadly stable on average, the modelling of the relationship between consumer prices excluding taxes and upstream prices in raw levels rather than in

  7. Impact of supply of money on food prices in India: A causality analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Tiwari, Aviral

    2010-01-01

    This study attempts to investigate the direction of casualty between food prices and money supply in the static and dynamic framework. We found that narrow measure of money supply (M1) Granger causes food inflation while broad measure of money supply (M3) does not in the static framework. This implies that money supply (M1) is not neutral in determining food prices in the long run in the Indian context. From the dynamic framework of analysis we found that any one innovation in the broad measu...

  8. Evaluating Alternative Policy Responses to Higher World Food Prices : The Case of Increasing Rice Prices in Madagascar

    OpenAIRE

    Coady, David; Dorosh, Paul; Minten, Bart

    2009-01-01

    Higher world food prices have led many developing countries to adopt policies to mitigate the impact on low-income households. This article sets out a partial equilibrium framework to evaluate the efficiency, distributional, and revenue implications of alternative policy responses. The model is applied to evaluate tariff reductions and targeted transfers in Madagascar. Although lowering tariffs generates substantial efficiency gains, these accrue mainly to the top half of the welfare distribu...

  9. THE IMPORTANCE OF PRICE IN THE POSITIONING OF FOOD BRANDS IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghassan SHAKHSHIR

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In the food industry, price is an influential and a key factor in product brand positioning. This importance is even greater as the market analyzed is that of Romania. Since it is at the beginning of its relations with foreign markets compared to other countries, whether they are in the European Union or in Northern America, until a few years ago by Romanian consumers used to choose food products only based on the price and generally just buy the cheapest product, without taking into account other selection criteria. Now the market has developed, however, and there were many changes in behavior. This paper is a theoretical analysis on the influence of prices in the food market, the evolution of its importance due to the effects of the recession, the repercussions of changes in price and variation in behavior due to promotions. Preliminary results show that price is the main benefit by which consumers position food in their mind and that price promotions have an impact on positioning.

  10. The impact of food aid on maize prices and production in Swaziland

    OpenAIRE

    Mabuza, Majola Lawrence; Hendriks, Sheryl L.; Ortmann, Gerald F.; Sithole, M.M.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of the study was to provide empirical evidence on whether food aid leads to depressed domestic maize prices and reduced maize production in subsequent years in Swaziland. The lack of empirical evidence has often resulted in premature negative conclusions about the impact of food aid on Swaziland’s maize industry. The study used secondary national data from 1985 to 2006. Variables used in the statistical analysis included quantity of cereal food aid; quantity of commercial maiz...

  11. Food Marketing and Pricing Policy in Eastern and Southern Africa: Lessons for Increasing Agricultural Productivity and Access to Food

    OpenAIRE

    Jayne, Thomas S.; Jones, Stephen P.

    1996-01-01

    This study surveys the empirical record of grain marketing and pricing policy in selected Eastern and Southern Africa countries. The paper addresses five key issues with major implications for food policy in Africa: (a) why the anticipated supply response to market liberalization has not yet occurred; (b) why the common assumption of state taxation of farmers to support a cheap food policy does not apply in most of these countries; (c) why the temporary successes of the state-led approach to ...

  12. Food price inflation in India: the growing economy with sluggish agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joydeb Sasmal

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available India is experiencing high rate of economic growth in the last two decades but the growth has been coupled with high rate of food price inflation. The growth has been very uneven across sectors with agriculture remaining very sluggish. The increase in per capita income has significantly increased the demand for food but agricultural production has failed to keep pace with the growing demand. The theoretical explanations and time series econometric results establish that increase in per capita income and shortage in supply are responsible for price rise. There is no long run relationship between money supply and agricultural price. Increasing public expenditure and unfavorable foreign exchange rate have some effects on price although the results are not robust.

  13. Extra-euro area manufacturing import prices and exchange rate pass-through

    OpenAIRE

    Anderton, Robert

    2003-01-01

    This paper uses a model of import prices whereby exporters to the euro area set export prices partly as a mark-up on their production costs (i.e., the degree of exchange rate pass-through) and partly in line with euro area producer prices (i.e., pricing-to-market). Using both time series and panel estimation techniques, the econometric results suggest that the pass through of changes in the effective exchange rate of the euro to the price of extra-euro area imports of manufactures is around 5...

  14. China's Growth, World Food Prices, and Developing Countries Exports

    OpenAIRE

    Villoria, Nelson

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores the impacts of China's growth in the international markets of agricultural products. These impacts are important because they are related to two different ongoing discussions about the role of China in the world economy. One of these discussions have to do with China as a source of price inflation while the other has to do with China as an engine of growth for developing countries, in this case, through increased export opportunities. Our results suggest that China has bee...

  15. Price transmission between biofuels, fuels and food commodities

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krištoufek, Ladislav; Janda, K.; Zilberman, D.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 3 (2014), s. 362-373. ISSN 1932-104X Grant ostatní: GA ČR(CZ) GAP402/11/0948 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : biofuels * price transmission * non-linearity * elasticity Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 4.214, year: 2014 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2014/E/kristoufek-0433525.pdf

  16. Food pricing strategies, population diets, and non-communicable disease: a systematic review of simulation studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Eyles

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Food pricing strategies have been proposed to encourage healthy eating habits, which may in turn help stem global increases in non-communicable diseases. This systematic review of simulation studies investigates the estimated association between food pricing strategies and changes in food purchases or intakes (consumption (objective 1; Health and disease outcomes (objective 2, and whether there are any differences in these outcomes by socio-economic group (objective 3. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Electronic databases, Internet search engines, and bibliographies of included studies were searched for articles published in English between 1 January 1990 and 24 October 2011 for countries in the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Where ≥ 3 studies examined the same pricing strategy and consumption (purchases or intake or health outcome, results were pooled, and a mean own-price elasticity (own-PE estimated (the own-PE represents the change in demand with a 1% change in price of that good. Objective 1: pooled estimates were possible for the following: (1 taxes on carbonated soft drinks: own-PE (n  =  4 studies, -0.93 (range, -0.06, -2.43, and a modelled -0.02% (-0.01%, -0.04% reduction in energy (calorie intake for each 1% price increase (n  =  3 studies; (2 taxes on saturated fat: -0.02% (-0.01%, -0.04% reduction in energy intake from saturated fat per 1% price increase (n  =  5 studies; and (3 subsidies on fruits and vegetables: own-PE (n = 3 studies, -0.35 (-0.21, -0.77. Objectives 2 and 3: variability of food pricing strategies and outcomes prevented pooled analyses, although higher quality studies suggested unintended compensatory purchasing that could result in overall effects being counter to health. Eleven of 14 studies evaluating lower socio-economic groups estimated that food pricing strategies would be associated with pro-health outcomes. Food pricing strategies also have the potential to reduce

  17. The Impact of RMB Exchange Rate on Agricultural Food Prices in Emerging Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Zhou

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available With the development of economic globalization, the economic ties between countries in the world more and more closely, prices and the exchange rate are the core economic variables in an open economy. In this study, we make a statistical analysis of RMB real effective exchange rate and agricultural food prices data from the year of 1990 to 2014. From the empirical analysis, the result shows that RMB real effective exchange rate will effect on agricultural food prices. LnREER at lag 1 period increased one percentage can drive LnAFP growth by 0.015%; LnREER at lag 2 period increased one percentage can drive LnAFP growth by 0.187%, so the effect of RMB real effective exchange rate on agricultural food prices is obvious. Based on granger causality test, it shows that LnREER is the granger reason to LnAFP, which means RMB real effective exchange rate is the reason to agricultural food prices increase. On this basis, we have put forward relevant policy suggestions.

  18. Price Premiums for Organic Food: The Education Effect

    OpenAIRE

    Paull, John

    2007-01-01

    Australian consumers (N=221) were surveyed to establish their valuations of food, based on country of origin, organic status and eco-labelling. The effect of consumer education level on the valuation of Organic and Certified Organic food is reported. Respondents who reported completing secondary or tertiary education had a similar response style, valuing Certified Organic at approximately twice the premium of Organic. The secondary education group valued Organic at a premium of 6.2%, and Cert...

  19. THE IMPORTANCE OF PRICE IN THE POSITIONING OF FOOD BRANDS IN ROMANIA

    OpenAIRE

    Ghassan SHAKHSHIR

    2014-01-01

    In the food industry, price is an influential and a key factor in product brand positioning. This importance is even greater as the market analyzed is that of Romania. Since it is at the beginning of its relations with foreign markets compared to other countries, whether they are in the European Union or in Northern America, until a few years ago by Romanian consumers used to choose food products only based on the price and generally just buy the cheapest product, without taking into account ...

  20. Global Food Prices and Domestic Inflation; Some Cross-Country Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Davide Furceri; Prakash Loungani; John Simon; Susan Wachter

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides a broad brush look at the impact of fluctuations in global food prices on domestic inflation in a large group of countries. For advanced economies, we find that these fluctuations have played a significant role over the period from 1960 to the present, but the impact has declined over time and become less persistent. We also find that the more recent global food price shocks occurred in the 2000s had a much bigger impact on emerging than on advanced economies. This larger ...

  1. Price, Promotion, and Availability of Nutrition Information: A Descriptive Study of a Popular Fast Food Chain in New York City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basch, Corey Hannah; Ethan, Danna; Rajan, Sonali

    2013-01-01

    Legislation in NYC requires chain restaurants to post calorie information on menu boards in an effort to help consumers make more informed decisions about food and beverage items they are purchasing. While this is a step in the right direction in light of the current obesity epidemic, there are other issues that warrant attention in a fast food setting, namely the pricing of healthy food options, promotional strategies, and access to comprehensive nutrition information. This study focused on a popular fast-food chain in NYC. The study’s aims were threefold: (1) to determine the cost differential between the healthiest meal item on the chain’s general menu and meal items available specifically on a reduced cost menu for one dollar (US$1.00); (2) to identify and describe the promotions advertised in the windows of these restaurants, as well as the nutrition content of promoted items; and (3) to ascertain availability of comprehensive nutrition information to consumers within the restaurants. We found the healthiest meal item to be significantly higher in price than less nutritious meal items available for $1.00 (t = 146.9, p < .001), with the mean cost differential equal to $4.33 (95% CI $4.27, $4.39). Window promotions generally advertised less healthful menu items, which may aid in priming customers to purchase these versus more healthful options. Comprehensive nutrition information beyond calorie counts was not readily accessible prior to purchasing. In addition to improving access to comprehensive nutrition information, advertising more of and lowering the prices of nutritious options may encourage consumers to purchase healthier foods in a fast food setting. Additional research in this area is needed in other geographic locations and restaurant chains. PMID:24171876

  2. Price, promotion, and availability of nutrition information: a descriptive study of a popular fast food chain in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basch, Corey Hannah; Ethan, Danna; Rajan, Sonali

    2013-11-01

    Legislation in NYC requires chain restaurants to post calorie information on menu boards in an effort to help consumers make more informed decisions about food and beverage items they are purchasing. While this is a step in the right direction in light of the current obesity epidemic, there are other issues that warrant attention in a fast food setting, namely the pricing of healthy food options, promotional strategies, and access to comprehensive nutrition information. This study focused on a popular fast-food chain in NYC. The study's aims were threefold: (1) to determine the cost differential between the healthiest meal item on the chain's general menu and meal items available specifically on a reduced cost menu for one dollar (US$1.00); (2) to identify and describe the promotions advertised in the windows of these restaurants, as well as the nutrition content of promoted items; and (3) to ascertain availability of comprehensive nutrition information to consumers within the restaurants. We found the healthiest meal item to be significantly higher in price than less nutritious meal items available for $1.00 (t=146.9, padvertised less healthful menu items, which may aid in priming customers to purchase these versus more healthful options. Comprehensive nutrition information beyond calorie counts was not readily accessible prior to purchasing. In addition to improving access to comprehensive nutrition information, advertising more of and lowering the prices of nutritious options may encourage consumers to purchase healthier foods in a fast food setting. Additional research in this area is needed in other geographic locations and restaurant chains.  PMID:24171876

  3. Analysis of Palm Oil Prices in Ini Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Tiku, N.E.; Uduak, O.O.; Ini-mfon, V.P.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze palm oil prices in Ini Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. Palm oil is a major agricultural commodity that is highly commercialized in the Nigeria and has suffered various economic impacts cardinally is the price volatility. In consideration of palm oil price stability, trend analysis, seasonality, cyclical and irregular elements of price volatility were determined. Data were obtained through structured questionnaires administered to 160 ran...

  4. Output sensitivity of inflation in the euro area: Indirect evidence from disaggregated consumer prices

    OpenAIRE

    Fröhling, Annette; Lommatzsch, Kirsten

    2011-01-01

    We investigate output sensitivity of inflation in the euro area through a disaggregated analysis using price indices at the COICOP 4-digit level and compare cyclical sensitivity of a newly created index of cyclically sensitive items (ICSP) with that of headline HICP and core price indices. We also relate the ICSP to the first common factor extracted from the disaggregated prices, which best reflects the common dynamics of the underlying price indices. Our results indicate that two thirds of t...

  5. Interdependencies in the energy-bioenergy-food price systems: A cointegration analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciaian, Pavel; Kancs, d' Artis [European Commission (DG Joint Research Centre), Catholic University of Leuven (LICOS), and Economics and Econometrics Research Institute (EERI), B-1049 Brussels (Belgium)

    2011-01-15

    The present paper studies the interdependencies between the energy, bioenergy and food prices. We develop a vertically integrated multi-input, multi-output market model with two channels of price transmission: a direct biofuel channel and an indirect input channel. We test the theoretical hypothesis by applying time-series analytical mechanisms to nine major traded agricultural commodity prices, including corn, wheat, rice, sugar, soybeans, cotton, banana, sorghum and tea, along with one weighted average world crude oil price. The data consists of 783 weekly observations extending from January 1994 to December 2008. The empirical findings confirm the theoretical hypothesis that the prices for crude oil and agricultural commodities are interdependent including also commodities not directly used in bioenergy production: an increase in oil price by 1 $/barrel increases the agricultural commodity prices between 0.10 $/tonne and 1.80 $/tonne. Contrary to the theoretical predictions, the indirect input channel of price transmission is found to be small and statistically insignificant. (author)

  6. The determinants of the recent food price surges – A basic supply and demand model

    OpenAIRE

    Bernhard Troester

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyzes the factors behind the recent trends in food commodity prices, especially the question to what extent the price hikes are caused by fundamentals. Some of the main determinants have been identified and classified in ongoing studies. Based on this categorization, a basic supply and demand model for food commodity markets is developed in this paper that includes two arguments. One is that the growth rate of notional food demand differs from the growth rate of food supply. Con...

  7. Food price inflation in India: the growing economy with sluggish agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Joydeb Sasmal

    2015-01-01

    India is experiencing high rate of economic growth in the last two decades but the growth has been coupled with high rate of food price inflation. The growth has been very uneven across sectors with agriculture remaining very sluggish. The increase in per capita income has significantly increased the demand for food but agricultural production has failed to keep pace with the growing demand. The theoretical explanations and time series econometric results establish that increase in per capita...

  8. Food Price Inflation Rates in the Euro Zone: Distribution Dynamics and Convergence Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelos Liontakis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available It is widely recognized that inflation as a monetary phenomenon is determined by money supply changes. In the short run, however, several factors may lead to inflation rate differentials among different regions in the same country or among different countries in a monetary union. This paper examines the mean reversion attitude of food price inflation rates in the Euro zone, borrowing the concepts and developments from the recent growth literature and using panel unit root tests. Additionally, in order to capture sufficiently the evolving distributional dynamics, nonparametric econometric methods are also implemented. Finally, the comovement of the inflation rates among different food subgroups is also explored. The data consist of monthly observations of the EU harmonized consumer price indices of food and three different food subgroups (meat, bread and cereals, and vegetables for the 12 older member states of the Euro zone, covering the period from 1997 to 2010. The results do not fully support the hypothesis of the food price inflation rates convergence for the whole period under investigation. Mean reversion shows up in different time periods and in different food categories. Moreover, the analysis of distribution dynamics sheds light to different aspects of convergence and highlights processes like club formation and polarization.

  9. Distributional impacts of the 2008 global food price spike in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McKay, Andy; Tarp, Finn

    Agriculture and food cultivation production remains a key sector in the Vietnamese economy in terms of productive activities, income generation, and national export earnings. Higher world market prices should therefore in principle have a beneficial impact on rural farmers. This is based however on...

  10. Industrial concentration and price-cost margin of the Indonesian food and beverages sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Setiawan, M.; Emvalomatis, G.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    This article investigates trends in industrial concentration and its relationship with the price-cost margin in 54 subsectors of the Indonesian food and beverages sector in the period 1995 to 2006. This study uses firm-level survey data provided by the Indonesian Bureau of Central Statistics (BPS),

  11. Limits to growth in organic sales : price elasticity of consumer demand for organic food in Dutch supermarkets

    OpenAIRE

    Bunte, F.H.J.; Galen, van, P.L.J.; Kuiper, W.E.; Bakker, J.H.

    2007-01-01

    This report determines how sensitive consumer demand for organic products is to changes in the prices of organic products. The report is based on the analysis of scanner data for supermarkets in ten Dutch communities. In the framework of the analysis, an experiment has been performed in which the prices of organic products have been reduced below current price levels. The report shows that consumer demand for organic food is sensitive to changes in consumer prices. However, for five out of ei...

  12. Price Premiums for Organic Food from Australia and China

    OpenAIRE

    Paull, John

    2008-01-01

    Australian consumers (N=221) were surveyed to establish their valuations of food, based on provenance, organic status and eco-labelling. For Chinese produce "Organic" attracted a 6.4% premium, and "Certified Organic" a 11.6% premium. This compares to Australian produce which attracted a 7.9% premium for "Organic", and a 16.5% premium for "Certified Organic". For Chinese produce "Natural" added a 1.7% premium and "Eco" a 2.9% premium, compared to Australian produce which added a 2.6% premium f...

  13. On the First-Round Effects of International Food Price Shocks; the Role of the Asset Market Structure

    OpenAIRE

    Rafael Portillo; Luis-Felipe Zanna

    2015-01-01

    We develop a tractable small open-economy model to study the first-round effects of international food price shocks in developing countries. We define first-round effects as changes in headline inflation that, holding core inflation constant, help implement relative price adjustments. The model features three goods (food, a generic traded good and a non-traded good), varying degrees of tradability of the food basket, and alternative international asset market structures (complete and incomple...

  14. Food Scares, Market Power and Farm-Retail Price Spread: The Case of Pork Market in China

    OpenAIRE

    Dai, Jiawu; Li, Xun; Wang, Xiuqing; Yu, Qiushuo; Mao, Xiaojie

    2015-01-01

    Pork market, as one of the most important food markets in China, is frequently exposed to food scare events such as Porcine Reproductive & Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS), Swine Influenza (SI), and Classical Swine Fever (CSF). This research first investigates the impact of food scare incidents on pork market in China with a theoretical framework, proving that if there is no market power, farm-retail price spread should be a function of marketing cost only. Using monthly data of pork retail price ...

  15. Price Transmission and Food Scares in the U.S. Beef Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Livanis, Grigorios T.; Moss, Charles B.

    2005-01-01

    The advent of mad cow disease in Canada in the United States raises numerous concerns regarding consumer reaction to information in the United States. To examine the role of consumer reaction to information we examine the response of price spreads in the U.S. beef market to a Food Safety Index derived from Lexis-Nexis. Specifically, we estimate a vector error correction model to examine the long and short-run effect of news on price spreads. Our results indicate that informational shocks are ...

  16. How Will the Food Price Shock Affect Inflation in Latin America and the Caribbean? Title: ¿Qué efecto inflacionario tendrá el shock de precios de los alimentos en América Latina?

    OpenAIRE

    Pilar Tavella; Andrew Powell; Eduardo Lora

    2011-01-01

    There is widespread concern that recent increases in international food prices may have significant effects on domestic food prices and inflation. This note assesses the impact of the recent food price shock on food, non-food and consumer inflation in the countries of Latin American and the Caribbean (LAC). Vector Autoregressive Regressions (VARs) are estimated for each country to trace the effect of international food prices, the price of oil and the value of the US dollar on domestic prices...

  17. Accurate market price formation model with both supply-demand and trend-following for global food prices providing policy recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagi, Marco; Bar-Yam, Yavni; Bertrand, Karla Z; Bar-Yam, Yaneer

    2015-11-10

    Recent increases in basic food prices are severely affecting vulnerable populations worldwide. Proposed causes such as shortages of grain due to adverse weather, increasing meat consumption in China and India, conversion of corn to ethanol in the United States, and investor speculation on commodity markets lead to widely differing implications for policy. A lack of clarity about which factors are responsible reinforces policy inaction. Here, for the first time to our knowledge, we construct a dynamic model that quantitatively agrees with food prices. The results show that the dominant causes of price increases are investor speculation and ethanol conversion. Models that just treat supply and demand are not consistent with the actual price dynamics. The two sharp peaks in 2007/2008 and 2010/2011 are specifically due to investor speculation, whereas an underlying upward trend is due to increasing demand from ethanol conversion. The model includes investor trend following as well as shifting between commodities, equities, and bonds to take advantage of increased expected returns. Claims that speculators cannot influence grain prices are shown to be invalid by direct analysis of price-setting practices of granaries. Both causes of price increase, speculative investment and ethanol conversion, are promoted by recent regulatory changes-deregulation of the commodity markets, and policies promoting the conversion of corn to ethanol. Rapid action is needed to reduce the impacts of the price increases on global hunger. PMID:26504216

  18. Local Food Systems and Sustainability of Agriculture and Rural Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Ligita, Melece

    2012-01-01

    The paper provides insights into food systems and local or alternative food systems. The author reveals current changes and opportunities of agricultural and agrifood sector and rural areas. The role and development opportunities of local food systems are summarized by the author.

  19. India's grain security policy in the era of high food prices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Wusheng; Bandara, Jayatilleke

    2016-01-01

    consumers and producers and restricting exports entailed huge fiscal costs and equally large welfare costs to India, an outcome that is almost always the worst as compared to the alternative policy mixes examined in this study. While the most market-oriented domestic and trade policy alternatives that would......This study uses a computable general equilibrium model to evaluate the fiscal and welfare costs of the market stabilisation and insulating food policy of India during the 2007-08 global food crisis. We demonstrate that domestic food grain price stabilisation through simultaneously subsidising...... generate better welfare effects and the least fiscal costs may not be feasible due to political economy considerations, we argue that there exist some 'middle-ground' policy mixes featuring partial relaxations of domestic subsidies on either food grains or fertilisers and/or less restrictive border...

  20. The Price Responsiveness of Energy Demand in the Philippine Food Processing Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Julie G. Ranada

    1985-01-01

    This study attempts to derive reliable estimates of the price elasticity of demand for energy and the elasticities of substitution among labor, capital and energy in Philippine production. Three different methods of increasing complexity are fitted to data for firms employing twenty or more workers, based on annual surveys of the National Census and Statistics Office, The food processing sector in Philippine manufacturing was chosen as the testing ground for the types of analyses proposed.

  1. Biofuels and the Food Price Crisis: A Survey of the Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Kimberly Elliott

    2008-01-01

    While the precise contribution of biofuels to surging food prices is difficult to know, policies promoting production of the current generation of biofuels are not achieving their stated objectives of increased energy independence or reduced greenhouse gas emissions. Reaching the congressionally mandated goal of blending 15 billion gallons of renewable fuels in gasoline by 2015 would consume roughly 40 percent of the corn crop (based on recent production levels) while replacing just 7 percent...

  2. Anatomy of a crisis: The causes and consequences of surging food prices

    OpenAIRE

    Headey, Derek; Fan, Shenggen

    2008-01-01

    "Although the potential causes and consequences of recent increases in international food prices have attracted widespread attention, many existing appraisals are superficial and/or piecemeal. This paper attempts to provide a more comprehensive review of these issues based on the best and most recent research, and includes fresh theoretical and empirical analysis. We first analyze the causes of the current crisis by considering how well standard explanations hold up against relevant economic ...

  3. Agricultural trade distortions during recent international price spikes: what implications for food security?

    OpenAIRE

    MAGRINI, EMILIANO; Montalbano, Pierluigi; Nenci, Silvia; Salvatici, Luca

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to assess the causal impact of trade policy distortions on food security. This is an hot issue since restrictions to agricultural trade have been generally applied by national governments, especially in developing countries, as a tool to insulate domestic markets from international prices turmoil. The added value of this work is twofold: i) the use of a non parametric matching technique with continuous treatment, namely the Generalised Propensity Score (GPS) to addres...

  4. New areas in agricultural and food marketing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.; Harmsen, Hanne; Larsen, Hanne Hartvig;

    1997-01-01

    There is wide agreement in the public debate that the food industry in Western industrialised countries is entering a difficult period. Several tendencies taken together work to increase the competitive pressure on food companies (Grunert et al., 1996): - In affluent economies, it is one of the l....... - Concentration in the retail sector has resulted in powerful agents. Not only do the agents exercise an important gatekeeper function but they can also put competitive pressure on food manufacturers.......There is wide agreement in the public debate that the food industry in Western industrialised countries is entering a difficult period. Several tendencies taken together work to increase the competitive pressure on food companies (Grunert et al., 1996): - In affluent economies, it is one of the...... laws of economics that growth in markets for food products, if any, is not in terms of quantity, but in terms of value. - Most industrialised economies are characterised by an oversupply of agricultural products. - A global tendency towards deregulation, decrease of government subsidies to producers of...

  5. The food environment and adult obesity in US metropolitan areas

    OpenAIRE

    Akihiko Michimi; Wimberly, Michael C

    2015-01-01

    This research examines the larger-scale associations between obesity and food environments in metropolitan areas in the United States (US). The US Census County Business Patterns dataset for 2011 was used to construct various indices of food environments for selected metropolitan areas. The numbers of employees engaged in supermarkets, convenience stores, full service restaurants, fast food restaurants, and snack/coffee shops were standardised using the location quotients, and factor analysis...

  6. The role of price as a product attribute in the organic food context: An exploration based on actual purchase data (D.6.7)

    OpenAIRE

    Marian, Livia; Chrysochou, Polymeros; Krystallis Krontalis, Athanasios; Thøgersen, John

    2014-01-01

    High prices are often reported as an obstacle that inhibits the purchase of organic food products. The aim of this paper is to investigate how organic food products perform at different price levels and whether high prices are an advantage or a disadvantage for consumers’ repeat purchase of organic food. Based on analyses of actual purchase data, this study explores the effect of two product attributes (production method and price) on repeat purchase. The analysis is based on purchase data fo...

  7. Effects of calorie labeling and value size pricing on fast food meal choices: Results from an experimental trial

    OpenAIRE

    Jeffery Robert W; Story Mary T; Oakes J Michael; French Simone A; Harnack Lisa J; Rydell Sarah A

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Although point-of-purchase calorie labeling at restaurants has been proposed as a strategy for improving consumer food choices, a limited number of studies have evaluated this approach. Likewise, little research has been conducted to evaluate the influence of value size pricing on restaurant meal choices. Methods To examine the effect of point-of-purchase calorie information and value size pricing on fast food meal choices a randomized 2 × 2 factorial experiment was conduc...

  8. International Commodity Markets, Local Food Prices and Environment in West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, M. E.; Hintermann, B.; Higgins, N.

    2008-12-01

    The recent massive increase in food and energy prices in the past five years, coupled with the awareness of the long term challenges of climate change to small holder agriculture in Africa has brought the issue of food security for the world's poorest people to the forefront once again. Asymmetric and limited integration of local commodity markets in West Africa highlights the weak position of Africa's rural countries in the face of climate change and demographic expansion. This paper will describe the functioning of local informal food markets in West African over the past twenty years and evaluate the impact of their limited integration with each other and with global commodity markets. Satellite remote sensing of vegetation has been used as a proxy for agricultural production in economic models to improve prediction of large swings in prices from year to year due to differences in supply. As demand increases, improvements in market functioning will be necessary to counter likely increases in production variability. Increasing Africa's stability in the face of climate change will require investment in agricultural production and transportation infrastructure in order to ensure an affordable flow of food to people in these extremely poor, landlocked countries.

  9. Exchange Rate Pass-Through in the Euro Area; The Role of Asymmetric Pricing Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Hamid Faruqee

    2004-01-01

    Exchange rate pass-through in a set of euro area prices along the pricing chain is examined. Using a vector autoregression (VAR) approach, the empirics analyze the joint time-series behavior of the euro exchange rate and a system of euro-area prices in response to an exchange rate shock. The impulse-response functions from the VAR estimates are used to identify-in a 'new open economy macroeconomics model'-those key behavioral parameters that best replicate the pattern of exchange rate pass-th...

  10. Up in Smoke? Agricultural Commercialization, Rising Food Prices and Stunting in Malawi

    OpenAIRE

    Wood, Benjamin; Nelson, Carl; Kilic, Talip; Murray, Siobhan

    2013-01-01

    Diversification into high-value cash crops among smallholders has been propagated as a strategy to improve welfare in rural areas. However, the extent to which cash crop production spurs projected gains remains an under-researched question, especially in the context of market imperfections leading to non-separable production and consumption decisions, and price shocks to staple crops that ...

  11. The regional price of junk foods relative to healthy foods in the UK: indirect estimation of a time series, 1997-2009

    OpenAIRE

    Capacci, Sara; Mazzocchi, Mario; Shankar, Bhavani

    2012-01-01

    The paper aims at indirectly estimating a time series of food prices from household expenditure data, focusing on foods considered as ‘junk’ relative to healthy foods. The “big 6” among the HFSS (high in fats, sugar and salt) foods identified by the Food Standard Agency have been selected to compose a target ‘unhealthy’ basket, compared to a ‘healthy’ benchmark aggregate including fruit and vegetables. UK data from the National Food Surveys, the Household Expenditure Surveys and the Living Co...

  12. ACREAGE RESPONSE TO THE TARGET PRICE AND SET-ASIDE PROVISIONS OF THE FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ACT OF 1977

    OpenAIRE

    Evans, Sam

    1980-01-01

    The Food and Agriculture Act of 1977 increased the influence of target prices on acreage allocation decisions Differences between target and market prices were highly correlated with rates of participation in recent grain set-aside programs But, target prices also encourage set-aside participants to increase acreage of the set-aside crop The net effect of a set-aside on acreage of a specific crop may, thus, be positive or negative. Deficiencies in the target price formula magnify the potentia...

  13. IMPACT OF RICE AND WHEAT PRICE CHANGES ON THE POOR IN SOME SELECTED MONGA AFFECTED AREAS OF BANGLADESH: FIELD EVIDENCE FROM GAIBANDHA DISTRICT

    OpenAIRE

    Naha, Ashrafun; MANDAL, M.A.SATTAR; Rahman, M. Saidur

    2010-01-01

    The study evaluated the impact of price hike on food consumption of the poor and the performance of safety net programmes in the targeted monga affected areas (monga means season of very low employment in September/October, which led to famine like situation in the past). Primary data were collected from a sample of 90 poor households from four villages selected purposively from Gobindaganj Upazila of Gaibandha district, considering the traditional incidence of monga in the area. The sample h...

  14. Exchange rate pass-through to import prices in the Euro area

    OpenAIRE

    Campa, José Manuel; Linda S. Goldberg; José M. González-Mínguez

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents an empirical analysis of transmission rates from exchange rate movements to import prices, across countries and product categories, in the euro area over the last fifteen years. Our results show that the transmission of exchange rate changes to import prices in the short run is high, although incomplete, and that it differs across industries and countries; in the long run, exchange rate pass-through is higher and close to one. We find no strong statistical evidence that th...

  15. Testing for a time-varying price-cost markup in the Euro area inflation process

    OpenAIRE

    Bowdler, Christopher; Eilev S. Jansen

    2004-01-01

    Empirical models of inflation often incorporate equilibrium correction effects based upon levels of prices and input costs. Such models assume that the steady-state price-cost markup is constant, but recent research suggests that this may not be true for the Euro area economy, which has undergone major structural reforms over the last 25 years. We allow for permanent shifts in the markup factor through estimating an inflation equation that includes a time-varying intercept. The model suggests...

  16. Essays on the Economics of Climate Change, Biofuel and Food Prices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seguin, Charles

    Climate change is likely to be the most important global pollution problem that humanity has had to face so far. In this dissertation, I tackle issues directly and indirectly related to climate change, bringing my modest contribution to the body of human creativity trying to deal with climate change. First, I look at the impact of non-convex feedbacks on the optimal climate policy. Second, I try to derive the optimal biofuel policy acknowledging the potential negative impacts that biofuel production might have on food supply. Finally, I test empirically for the presence of loss aversion in food purchases, which might play a role in the consumer response to food price changes brought about by biofuel production. Non-convexities in feedback processes are increasingly found to be important in the climate system. To evaluate their impact on the optimal greenhouse gas (GHG) abate- ment policy, I introduce non-convex feedbacks in a stochastic pollution control model. I numerically calibrate the model to represent the mitigation of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions contributing to global climate change. This approach makes two contributions to the literature. First, it develops a framework to tackle stochastic non-convex pollu- tion management problems. Second, it applies this framework to the problem of climate change. This approach is in contrast to most of the economic literature on climate change that focuses either on linear feedbacks or environmental thresholds. I find that non-convex feedbacks lead to a decision threshold in the optimal mitigation policy, and I characterize how this threshold depends on feedback parameters and stochasticity. There is great hope that biofuel can help reduce greenhouse gas emissions from fossil fuel. However, there are some concerns that biofuel would increase food prices. In an optimal control model, a co-author and I look at the optimal biofuel production when it competes for land with food production. In addition oil is not

  17. The food environment and adult obesity in US metropolitan areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akihiko Michimi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This research examines the larger-scale associations between obesity and food environments in metropolitan areas in the United States (US. The US Census County Business Patterns dataset for 2011 was used to construct various indices of food environments for selected metropolitan areas. The numbers of employees engaged in supermarkets, convenience stores, full service restaurants, fast food restaurants, and snack/coffee shops were standardised using the location quotients, and factor analysis was used to produce two uncorrelated factors measuring food environments. Data on obesity were obtained from the 2011 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Individual level obesity measures were linked to the metropolitan area level food environment factors. Models were fitted using generalised estimating equations to control for metropolitan area level intra-correlation and individual level sociodemographic characteristics. It was found that adults residing in cities with a large share of supermarket and full-service restaurant workers were less likely to be obese, while adults residing in cities with a large share of convenience store and fast food restaurant workers were more likely to be obese. Supermarkets and full-service restaurant workers are concentrated in the Northeast and West of the US, where obesity prevalence is relatively lower, while convenience stores and fast-food restaurant workers are concentrated in the South and Midwest, where obesity prevalence is relatively higher. The food environment landscapes measured at the metropolitan area level explain the continental-scale patterns of obesity prevalence. The types of food that are readily available and widely served may translate into obesity disparities across metropolitan areas.

  18. The food environment and adult obesity in US metropolitan areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michimi, Akihiko; Wimberly, Michael C

    2015-01-01

    This research examines the larger-scale associations between obesity and food environments in metropolitan areas in the United States (US). The US Census County Business Patterns dataset for 2011 was used to construct various indices of food environments for selected metropolitan areas. The numbers of employees engaged in supermarkets, convenience stores, full service restaurants, fast food restaurants, and snack/coffee shops were standardised using the location quotients, and factor analysis was used to produce two uncorrelated factors measuring food environments. Data on obesity were obtained from the 2011 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Individual level obesity measures were linked to the metropolitan area level food environment factors. Models were fitted using generalised estimating equations to control for metropolitan area level intra-correlation and individual level sociodemographic characteristics. It was found that adults residing in cities with a large share of supermarket and full-service restaurant workers were less likely to be obese, while adults residing in cities with a large share of convenience store and fast food restaurant workers were more likely to be obese. Supermarkets and full-service restaurant workers are concentrated in the Northeast and West of the US, where obesity prevalence is relatively lower, while convenience stores and fast-food restaurant workers are concentrated in the South and Midwest, where obesity prevalence is relatively higher. The food environment landscapes measured at the metropolitan area level explain the continental-scale patterns of obesity prevalence. The types of food that are readily available and widely served may translate into obesity disparities across metropolitan areas. PMID:26618317

  19. Price consciousness and purchase intentions for new food products: the moderating effect of product category knowledge when price is unknown

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Håvard

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the degree to which consumers’ price consciousness affects their purchase intentions for a newly introduced product when the price of the product is unknown. Based on data from 186 consumers exposed to a new product offering, the results show that price consciousness indeed has a negative effect on purchase intentions, but only for consumers with a high level of product category knowledge. Although perceived risk and perceived value are significantly related to purchase in...

  20. The Impact of the Increase in Food Prices on Child Poverty and the Policy Response in Mali

    OpenAIRE

    Sami Bibi; John Cockburn; Massa Coulibaly; Luca Tiberti

    2009-01-01

    Since 2006, Mali has experienced the full effects of the global food crisis, with price increases of up to 67%. This study presents simulations of the impacts of this crisis and a number of policy responses with respect to the welfare of children. The impacts are analyzed in terms of monetary (food) poverty, nutrition, education, child labour and access to health services of children. According to simulations, food poverty among children would have increased from 41% to 51%, with a correspond...

  1. The impact of oil price increase on the Euro area's growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a first part, the author of this article comments the increase of oil prices since 2002 and notices that the magnitude is similar to that noticed during the 1973 and 1979 oil-shocks. He outlines that several factors have limited the impact of the oil price increase in the Euro area, notably the Euro appreciation with respect to the dollar: the Euro appreciation has absorbed half of the oil price increase, the oil intensity of the European economy has decreased, a tax damping effect has been noticed, and more competitive markets limit the inflation risk. The author assesses the impact of oil price increase on the growth of the Euro zone since 2002: recessionary effect of oil price increase, an actual impact but limited by the appreciation of Euro. Perspectives for 2008 are discussed: predictable oil price evolution and its impact of growth in 2008, policy and action of the ECB (European Central Bank) in front of the impact of oil price increase on inflation and on activity

  2. Effects of calorie labeling and value size pricing on fast food meal choices: Results from an experimental trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffery Robert W

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although point-of-purchase calorie labeling at restaurants has been proposed as a strategy for improving consumer food choices, a limited number of studies have evaluated this approach. Likewise, little research has been conducted to evaluate the influence of value size pricing on restaurant meal choices. Methods To examine the effect of point-of-purchase calorie information and value size pricing on fast food meal choices a randomized 2 × 2 factorial experiment was conducted in which participants ordered a fast food meal from one of four menus that varied with respect to whether calorie information was provided and whether value size pricing was used. Study participants included 594 adolescents and adults who regularly ate at fast food restaurants. Study staff recorded the foods ordered and consumed by each participant. Participants also completed surveys to assess attitudes, beliefs and practices related to fast food and nutrition. Results No significant differences in the energy composition of meals ordered or eaten were found between menu conditions. The average energy content of meals ordered by those randomized to a menu that included calorie information and did not include value size pricing was 842 kcals compared with 827 kcals for those who ordered their meal from a menu that did not include calorie information but had value size pricing (control menu. Results were similar in most analyses conducted stratified by factors such as age, race and education level. Conclusion Additional research is needed to better evaluate the effects of calorie labeling and value size pricing on fast food meal choices. Studies in which participants are repeatedly exposed to these factors are needed since long term exposure may be required for behavior change.

  3. Novel method to achieve price-optimized, fully nutritious, health-promoting and acceptable national food baskets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parlesak, Alexandr; Robertson, Aileen

    2015-01-01

    baskets should also reflect dietary guidelines to prevent non-communicable diseases and be optimized to achieve the highest possible social acceptance. So far, integrative approaches that include all these aspects are lacking. Methods: Food composition, local availability, food prices, national and...... available foods. The study was designed to obtain healthy, affordable, and socially acceptable diets for three European countries (Denmark, Slovenia, and Romania) and in three regions within Canada, Argentina, and Switzerland. Moreover, the costs for the “limiting” micronutrients and relative price...... micronutrients influencing the increased cost of food baskets were calcium, potassium, and the vitamins A, B2, C, and D. When additional constraints were applied by integrating food-based dietary guidelines and social acceptability (as measured by current consumption patterns, central 80% percentile), the cost...

  4. Money Velocity and Asset Prices in the Euro Area

    OpenAIRE

    Dreger, Christian; Wolters, Jürgen

    2008-01-01

    Monetary growth in the euro area has exceeded its target since several years. At the same time, the money demand function seems to be increasingly unstable if more recent data are used. If the link between money balances and the macroeconomy is fragile, the rationale of monetary aggregates in the ECB strategy has to be doubted. In fact, a rise in the income elasticity after 2001 can be observed, and may reflect the exclusion of real and financial wealth in conventional specifications of money...

  5. Fast food price, diet behavior, and cardiometabolic health: Differential associations by neighborhood SES and neighborhood fast food restaurant availability in the CARDIA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rummo, Pasquale E; Meyer, Katie A; Green Howard, Annie; Shikany, James M; Guilkey, David K; Gordon-Larsen, Penny

    2015-09-01

    Little research has addressed whether neighborhood context influences associations between fast food price, diet, and cardiometabolic health. We investigated these associations using 25 years of Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study data (n=4,469, observations=21,134). We found a negative association between fast food price and consumption, with stronger inverse associations in more (vs. less) deprived neighborhoods [3rd tertile: β=-0.68 (95% CI: (-0.85, -0.51); 1st tertile: β=-0.22 (95% CI: -0.42, -0.02); p-interaction-0.002], and a similar association for BMI [3rd tertile: β=-1.34 (95% CI: -1.54, -1.14); 1st tertile: β=-0.45 (95% CI: -0.66, -0.25); p-interactionfast food price by fast food availability. Future research on obesity disparities should consider potential differences in the association between fast food prices and health outcomes across neighborhood socioeconomic levels. PMID:26319447

  6. Kitchen Food Waste Inventory for Residential Areas in Baghdad City

    OpenAIRE

    Salam Bash AlMaliky; Zainab AlKhayat

    2012-01-01

    An inventory and generation rate for the kitchen food waste were determined in residential areas across Baghdad, Iraq as a first step towards more developed and sustainable solid waste management system. The study was based on collecting data from 20 families from 20 different locations across the city for the period from November, 2011 through June, 2012, regarding their total weekly food purchases and wastes in addition to other relevant social information in order to determine statistical ...

  7. Supermarket Healthy Eating for Life (SHELf): protocol of a randomised controlled trial promoting healthy food and beverage consumption through price reduction and skill-building strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background In the context of rising food prices, there is a need for evidence on the most effective approaches for promoting healthy eating. Individually-targeted behavioural interventions for increasing food-related skills show promise, but are unlikely to be effective in the absence of structural supports. Fiscal policies have been advocated as a means of promoting healthy eating and reducing obesity and nutrition-related disease, but there is little empirical evidence of their effectiveness. This paper describes the Supermarket Healthy Eating for LiFe (SHELf) study, a randomised controlled trial to investigate effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a tailored skill-building intervention and a price reduction intervention, separately and in combination, against a control condition for promoting purchase and consumption of healthy foods and beverages in women from high and low socioeconomic groups. Methods/design SHELf comprises a randomised controlled trial design, with participants randomised to receive either (1) a skill-building intervention; (2) price reductions on fruits, vegetables and low-joule soft drink beverages and water; (3) a combination of skill-building and price reductions; or (4) a control condition. Five hundred women from high and low socioeconomic areas will be recruited through a store loyalty card program and local media. Randomisation will occur on receipt of informed consent and baseline questionnaire. An economic evaluation from a societal perspective using a cost-consequences approach will compare the costs and outcomes between intervention and control groups. Discussion This study will build on a pivotal partnership with a major national supermarket chain and the Heart Foundation to investigate the effectiveness of intervention strategies aimed at increasing women's purchasing and consumption of fruits and vegetables and decreased purchasing and consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages. It will be among the first internationally to

  8. Supermarket Healthy Eating for Life (SHELf: protocol of a randomised controlled trial promoting healthy food and beverage consumption through price reduction and skill-building strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Ha ND

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the context of rising food prices, there is a need for evidence on the most effective approaches for promoting healthy eating. Individually-targeted behavioural interventions for increasing food-related skills show promise, but are unlikely to be effective in the absence of structural supports. Fiscal policies have been advocated as a means of promoting healthy eating and reducing obesity and nutrition-related disease, but there is little empirical evidence of their effectiveness. This paper describes the Supermarket Healthy Eating for LiFe (SHELf study, a randomised controlled trial to investigate effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a tailored skill-building intervention and a price reduction intervention, separately and in combination, against a control condition for promoting purchase and consumption of healthy foods and beverages in women from high and low socioeconomic groups. Methods/design SHELf comprises a randomised controlled trial design, with participants randomised to receive either (1 a skill-building intervention; (2 price reductions on fruits, vegetables and low-joule soft drink beverages and water; (3 a combination of skill-building and price reductions; or (4 a control condition. Five hundred women from high and low socioeconomic areas will be recruited through a store loyalty card program and local media. Randomisation will occur on receipt of informed consent and baseline questionnaire. An economic evaluation from a societal perspective using a cost-consequences approach will compare the costs and outcomes between intervention and control groups. Discussion This study will build on a pivotal partnership with a major national supermarket chain and the Heart Foundation to investigate the effectiveness of intervention strategies aimed at increasing women's purchasing and consumption of fruits and vegetables and decreased purchasing and consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages. It will be among the

  9. Putting a Price on Trash: Does Charging for Food Waste Reduce Total Waste? The Case of Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Bak, Nahyeon; Coggins, Jay S.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to estimate the impact of the new unit-based pricing system (UPS) for food waste on the volume of solid waste collected, accounting for the effect of cross price elasticity and environmental activism. Based on causal inference using a natural experiment with a difference-in-differences model for Korea for 2003-2010, this paper shows that adopting UPS for food waste has a significant negative effect on the volume of solid waste. A key contribution relative to the b...

  10. Do Farmers Really Benefit from High Food Prices? Balancing Rural Interest in Kenya's Maize Pricing and Marketing Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Jayne, Thom S.; Yamano, Takashi; Nyoro, James K.; Awour, Tom

    2001-01-01

    This paper uses information from rural household surveys in 24 districts in Kenya to inform current debate on maize pricing policy. Specifically, it sheds light on how rural farm households are being affected by governmental efforts to support maize price levels. Using information on landed import costs of white maize from South Africa with and without the import tariff, it simulates the effects of eliminating the tariff on rural smallholder farmers, large-scale farmers, and urban consumers. ...

  11. Can Food Stamps Do More to Improve Food Choices? An Economic Perspective--Higher Cost of Food in Some Areas May Affect Food Stamp Households' Ability To Make Healthy Food Choices

    OpenAIRE

    Nord, Mark; Hopwood, Heather

    2007-01-01

    The cost of “enough food,” estimated from the amount that low- and medium-income households in a geographic area report needing to spend to just meet their food needs, differs substantially across States and among metropolitan areas. In areas with high food costs, many food-stamp recipients are likely to have inadequate food resources to support healthy food choices.

  12. Store Type and Demographic Influence on the Availability and Price of Healthful Foods, Leon County, Florida, 2008

    OpenAIRE

    Leone, Angela F.; Lee, Jung Sun; Rigby, Samantha; Kurtz, Hilda; Johnson, Mary Ann; Betterley, Connie; Park, Sohyun

    2011-01-01

    Introduction The availability of healthful foods varies by neighborhood. We examined the availability and price of more healthful foods by store type, neighborhood income level, and racial composition in a community with high rates of diet-related illness and death. Methods We used the modified Nutrition Environment Measures Survey in Stores to conduct this cross-sectional study in 2008. We surveyed 73 stores (29% supermarkets, 11% grocery stores, and 60% convenience stores) in Leon County, F...

  13. The time varying effect of oil price shocks on euro-area exports

    OpenAIRE

    Marianna Riggi; Fabrizio Venditti

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we provide novel evidence on changes in the relationship between the real price of oil and real exports in the euro area. By combining robust predictions on the sign of the impulse responses obtained from a theoretical model with restrictions on the slope of the oil demand and oil supply curves, we identify oil supply and foreign productivity shocks in a time varying VAR with stochastic volatility. We find that from the 1980s onwards the relationship between oil prices and euro ...

  14. “Not always sunny in paradise: prices and brand diversity in touristic areas supermarkets”

    OpenAIRE

    Javier Campos; Juan Luis Jiménez; Ancor Suárez-Alemán

    2012-01-01

    Using a dataset from consumption patterns in the island of Gran Canaria collected by the authors, this paper attempts to quantify some non-positive effects of tourism on local destination retail markets for goods and services. In particular, we empirically prove, controlling by factors such as population, size of supermarkets or number of competitors, two main effects: first, that supermarkets located in touristic areas charge higher prices than those in non-touristic areas; and second, that ...

  15. The market value of cultural heritage in urban areas: an application of spatial hedonic pricing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazrak, Faroek; Nijkamp, Peter; Rietveld, Piet; Rouwendal, Jan

    2014-01-01

    The current literature often values intangible goods like cultural heritage by applying stated preference methods. In recent years, however, the increasing availability of large databases on real estate transactions and listed prices has opened up new research possibilities and has reduced various existing barriers to applications of conventional (spatial) hedonic analysis to the real estate market. The present paper provides one of the first applications using a spatial autoregressive model to investigate the impact of cultural heritage—in particular, listed buildings and historic-cultural sites (or historic landmarks)—on the value of real estate in cities. In addition, this paper suggests a novel way of specifying the spatial weight matrix—only prices of sold houses influence current price—in identifying the spatial dependency effects between sold properties. The empirical application in the present study concerns the Dutch urban area of Zaanstad, a historic area for which over a long period of more than 20 years detailed information on individual dwellings, and their market prices are available in a GIS context. In this paper, the effect of cultural heritage is analysed in three complementary ways. First, we measure the effect of a listed building on its market price in the relevant area concerned. Secondly, we investigate the value that listed heritage has on nearby property. And finally, we estimate the effect of historic-cultural sites on real estate prices. We find that, to purchase a listed building, buyers are willing to pay an additional 26.9 %, while surrounding houses are worth an extra 0.28 % for each additional listed building within a 50-m radius. Houses sold within a conservation area appear to gain a premium of 26.4 % which confirms the existence of a `historic ensemble' effect.

  16. Assessing the Potential Effectiveness of Food and Beverage Taxes and Subsidies for Improving Public Health: A Systematic Review of Prices, Demand and Body Weight Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Powell, Lisa M.; Chriqui, Jamie F; Khan, Tamkeen; Wada, Roy; Chaloupka, Frank J.

    2012-01-01

    Taxes and subsidies are increasingly being considered as potential policy instruments to incentivize consumers to improve their food and beverage consumption patterns and related health outcomes. This study provided a systematic review of recent U.S. studies on the price elasticity of demand for sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), fast food and fruits and vegetables as well as the direct associations of prices/taxes with body weight outcomes. Based on the recent literature, the price elasticity...

  17. The impact of banning export of cereals in response to soaring food prices: Evidences from Ethiopia using the new GTAP African database

    OpenAIRE

    Woldie, Getachew Abebe; Siddig, Khalid

    2009-01-01

    In the poorest countries like Ethiopia the spillover effects of a soaring food price is unbearable. To mitigate the recent rise in food prices and the burden on urban poor consumers, different measures have been considered by policy makers. Recently, Ethiopia banned the export of all grain products in a bid to stem huge price hikes. The export of indigenous grains, including the staple grains, like teff, maize, sorghum, and wheat are suspended indefinitely. Using the standard GTAP model and t...

  18. Neurofunctional areas related to food appetency in anorexia nervosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juán José Cervantes-Navarrete

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In Anorexia Nervosa the observable phenomenon is the suppression of appetite. Little is known about the biological and psychological (top-down bases that maintain this pathological state. However, Anorexia Nervosa is a biological, psychological and social model where the main behavioral characteristic is the inhibition of eating behavior; not by bottom-up but top-down regulation. Objective: To explore the areas of the brain associated with food appetency through functional magnetic resonance in women with anorexia nervosa. Methods: The subjects include 5 female with Restrictive type of Anorexia Nervosa and five controls female with similar in age and low weigh. The subjects were within the MRI scanner and while took fMRI they saw food images that would generate appetite. The subjects were in fasting state and mentally prepare by instruction “imagine you are eating the food presented in the following images”. Results: Compared differences in the activation between subjects four regions were found significant: the anterior cingulate, left front medial region and the left and right midbrain. Conclusions: The patients with Anorexia Nervosa present different activated cerebral areas to those of the controls during the visual exposition to food in hungry state and with evoke cognitions associated with eat food; those regions may be implicated in reward and self-control.

  19. Do energy prices stimulate food price volatility? Examining volatility transmission between US oil, ethanol and corn markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gardebroek, C.; Hernandez, M.A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines volatility transmission in oil, ethanol and corn prices in the United States between 1997 and 2011. We follow a multivariate GARCH approach to evaluate the level of interdependence and the dynamics of volatility across these markets. Preliminary results indicate a higher interact

  20. The Mathematical Statistical Analysis of Food Consumption Activities of Rural Residents of Main Grain Producing Areas%粮食主产区农村居民食物消费行为的计量分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李小军; 李宁辉

    2005-01-01

    With the development of the rural economy in China, rural household's consumption behavior in main grain producing area has being changed, which influence the adjustment of Agricultural industrial structure and agricultural industrial policy. In this article,we use Almost Ideal Demand System(AIDS) to estimate the elasticities of demand expenditure and price(own price elasticity and cross-price elasticity) and then to analyze food consumption behavior of rural household in main grain producing area. The results show that foods such as rice, wheat, pork, beef in main grain producing area have the positive elasticities of demand expenditure. According to the cross-price elasticity, the demand for eggs, mutton, beef and pork is more affected by the fluctuation of other food's price, while the demand for the wheat, rice, maize and soybean is less affected by thefluctuation of other food's price. Based on the results, some policy recommendations, such as increasing farmer's income, expanding the animal food production, stabilize food's price, are put forward correspondingly.in the article.

  1. Assessing food production capacity of farms in periurban areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalia Filippini

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The assessment of food production capacity is particularly important in small- and medium-sized cities, which have greater chances to develop local periurban farming. To date the literature has been focused on niche sectors of the food market, such as alternative food networks and public procurement for school canteens, but less attention has been paid to urban food production. We present a method to assess the food production capacity in periurban areas, which we tested on meat production (beef and lamb in the urban region of Pisa, a medium-sized Italian city. The capacity of periurban livestock farms for meat production to fulfil urban demand was assessed on the basis of meat supply and demand. We derived meat demand from statistical data, whereas we calculated meat supply on the basis of three estimates (i.e. potential, current, actual meat supply taking into account both statistical and on-farm survey data. In particular, the potential meat supply was estimated from statistical data on slaughtered livestock, the current meat supply was estimated from meat production data of on-farm surveys, while the actual meat supply was estimated from the amount of meat sold by farmers on the local market from onfarm surveys. For the urban region of Pisa, we estimated that the potential meat supply met is equal to 16% of the beef demand and 62% of the lamb demand. This data could change, if the on-farm data is taken into account in the current supply, as was the case with lamb, which decreased to 37%, whereas beef remained almost unchanged (14%. The actual supply was 70% and 10% of the current supply for beef and lamb respectively. We identified some gaps between the three estimates, particularly for lamb production, suggesting that it may have some constraints in terms of production and commercialisation. Our results can contribute to assess local food systems and their drivers at the farm level. Furthermore these results also highlight the need for an

  2. Does Price Signal Quality? Strategic Implications of Price as a Signal of Quality for the Case of Genetically Modified Food

    OpenAIRE

    Hwang, Yun Jae; Roe, Brian E.; Mario F. Teisl

    2005-01-01

    When products are differentiated and quality is highly subjective (e.g., fashion or art), novel (e.g., a new feature), or difficult to verify prior to purchase (e.g., credence attributes), consumers may turn to price as a signal of quality. Products containing genetically modified (GM) ingredients meet each of these criteria, i.e., GM ingredients are novel, their presence is difficult to verify, and their impact on subjective quality may be viewed differently across individuals with the same ...

  3. 基于VECM的国内外食品价格联动关系研究%VECM-Based Analysis of Price Linkage Relationship Between China and World Food Price

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文星; 刘枭

    2014-01-01

    This paper made a VECM-based research using the data of China and world food price from January 2007 to June 2013 , and found out that china food price and world food price is in a long and stable relationship, that world food price has a greater impact on China food prices than vice versa-when China food prices deviates from the equilibrium price level by interference, it is subject to a force in the same direction to make a big adjustment, but when world food price deviates from the equilibrium price level by interference, it is subject to a reverse force to make a small adjustment-and that the world food price shock is an important factor leading to the domestic food price changes. It recommends monitoring the supply and demand of world food market, increasing investment on China’s grain production and expanding the sources of food import to China so as to prevent food inflation risk in China .%基于2007年1月至2013年6月间国内外食品价格数据,利用VECM模型研究发现:国内外食品价格之间存在长期稳定的关系,国际食品价格对国内食品价格的影响比后者对前者的影响更大;我国食品价格受到干扰偏离均衡价格时,将受到一个同向的调整力,调整幅度较大。而当国际食品价格受到干扰偏离均衡价格时,将受到一个反向的调整力,调整幅度较小;国际食品价格冲击是导致国内食品价格变动的重要因素。可从监测国际食品市场供求关系、加大对粮食生产的投资力度和拓宽我国粮食进口来源渠道等方面制订防范我国食品通胀风险的政策。

  4. 基于VECM的国内外食品价格联动关系研究%VECM-Based Analysis of Price Linkage Relationship Between China and World Food Price

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文星; 刘枭

    2014-01-01

    基于2007年1月至2013年6月间国内外食品价格数据,利用VECM模型研究发现:国内外食品价格之间存在长期稳定的关系,国际食品价格对国内食品价格的影响比后者对前者的影响更大;我国食品价格受到干扰偏离均衡价格时,将受到一个同向的调整力,调整幅度较大。而当国际食品价格受到干扰偏离均衡价格时,将受到一个反向的调整力,调整幅度较小;国际食品价格冲击是导致国内食品价格变动的重要因素。可从监测国际食品市场供求关系、加大对粮食生产的投资力度和拓宽我国粮食进口来源渠道等方面制订防范我国食品通胀风险的政策。%This paper made a VECM-based research using the data of China and world food price from January 2007 to June 2013 , and found out that china food price and world food price is in a long and stable relationship, that world food price has a greater impact on China food prices than vice versa-when China food prices deviates from the equilibrium price level by interference, it is subject to a force in the same direction to make a big adjustment, but when world food price deviates from the equilibrium price level by interference, it is subject to a reverse force to make a small adjustment-and that the world food price shock is an important factor leading to the domestic food price changes. It recommends monitoring the supply and demand of world food market, increasing investment on China’s grain production and expanding the sources of food import to China so as to prevent food inflation risk in China .

  5. Asset-Based Reserve Requirements: A New Monetary Policy Instrument for Targeting Diverging Real Estate Prices in the Euro Area

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Holz

    2007-01-01

    Can monetary policy prevent real estate bubbles from harming economic welfare? The European Central Bank (ECB) has to conduct monetary policy for the Euro area as a whole, but her policy affects countries with rapidly rising house prices (e.g. Spain) in a markedly different way than those with stagnating house prices (like Germany). For opposing divergent real estate price developments within the European Monetary Union (EMU), interest rate policy is not the appropriate instrument; whereas "f...

  6. Trade policy responses to food price crisis and implications for existing domestic support measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Wusheng; Jensen, Hans Grinsted

    2014-01-01

    jointly moderated rises of domestic grain prices. In particular, domestic and trade measures on key agricultural inputs such as fertilizers are shown to contribute significantly to expand grain outputs and reduce domestic market prices. While the short-term goal in stabilizing domestic grain prices...... of these complicated policy interventions may be partially avoidable with a simpler and less distorting instrument....

  7. Area price and demand response in a market with 25% wind power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grohnheit, Poul Erik; Møller Andersen, Frits; Larsen, Helge V.

    2011-01-01

    Denmark, east and west of the Great Belt are bidding areas with separate hourly area prices for the Nord Pool power exchange, covering four Nordic countries and parts of Germany. The share of wind power has now increased to 25% on an annual basis in western Denmark. This has a significant impact......, which can improve market efficiency, and a welfare gain is obtained. An important limitation for demand response is events of several consecutive hours with extreme values. The analysis in this paper is a summary and update of some of the issues covered by the EU RESPOND project. It shows that extreme...

  8. Spatial Hedonic Pricing Models for Testing the Adequacy of Acoustic Areas in Madrid, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José-María Montero

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Road traffic noise is one of the main concerns of large cities. Most of them have classified their territory in acoustic areas and have constructed strategic noise maps. From both sources we have elaborated seven types of acoustic neighbourhoods according to both their noise gap in regard to the legal standard and the percentage of population exposed to noise. A spatial Durbin model has been selected as the strategy that best models the impact of noise on housing prices. However, results for Madrid do not confirm the hedonic theory and indicate, as one of the possibilities, that the official acoustic areas in Madrid could be incorrectly designed.

  9. On the effects of world stock market and oil price shocks on food prices: An empirical investigation based on TVP-VAR models with stochastic volatility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transmission of price shocks from one market to another one has long been investigated in the economic literature. However, studies have namely dealt with the relationship between financial and energy markets. With the recent changes in market conditions, investors, policy-makers and interest groups are giving special attention to food market. This paper aims at analyzing shock transmission between international food, energy and financial markets and to provide some insights into the volatility behavior during the past years and discuss its implications for portfolio management. To do this, we present a new time varying parameter VAR (TVP-VAR) model with stochastic volatility approach which provides extreme flexibility with a parsimonious specification. We resort also to a generalized vector autoregressive framework in which forecast-error variance decompositions are invariant to the variable ordering for the assessment of total and directional volatility spillovers. Our main findings suggest that volatility spillovers increase considerably during crisis and, namely after mid-2008, when stock markets become net transmitter of volatility shocks while crude oil becomes a net receiver. Shocks to crude oil or MSCI markets have immediate and short-term impacts on food markets which are emphasized during the financial crisis period. Moreover, we show that augmenting a diversified portfolio of food commodities with crude oil or stocks significantly increases its risk-adjusted performance. - Highlights: • We study shock transmission between food, energy and financial markets. • We use a new time-varying parameter VAR model with stochastic volatility. • There is volatility spillover from oil and stock markets to food. • Volatility spillovers increase considerably during crisis, namely after mid-2008. • Augmenting a portfolio of foods with oil or stocks increases its performance

  10. Food Insecurity in Urban and Rural Areas in Central Brazil: Transition from Locally Produced Foods to Processed Items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Livia Penna Firme; Carvalho, Raissa Costa; Maciel, Agatha; Otanasio, Polyanna Nunes; Garavello, Maria Elisa de Paula Eduardo; Nardoto, Gabriela Bielefeld

    2016-01-01

    Aiming to investigate the effect of diet and food consumption with regard to health, environment, and economy in light of nutrition ecology, we studied the dimensions of nutrition and food security in urban and rural settings in the region of Chapada dos Veadeiros, Central Brazil. We tracked diet and food consumption through carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios in fingernails of these inhabitants together with food intake data as a proxy for their diet patterns. We estimated household food insecurity by using the Brazilian Food Insecurity Scale. Nutrition and food insecurity was observed in both urban and rural areas, but was accentuated in rural settings. The diet pattern had high δ(13)C values in fingernails and low δ(15)N. Both urban and rural areas have diets with low diversity and relying on low-quality processed food staples at the same time that nutrition and food insecurity is quite high in the region. PMID:27286412

  11. Oil Price Effects on Land Use Competition – An Empirical Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Diermeier, Matthias; Schmidt, Torsten

    2012-01-01

    The increasing use of food commodities for biofuel production has substantial impact on prices and quantities of these and other food commodities. It is therefore likely that this trend also intensifies the competition for arable land. However, evidence for this hypothesis is generated by calibrated models while empirical evidence is rare. In this paper we analyze the effects of crude oil price and prices of input factors for biofuel production on prices, areas and quantities of selected food...

  12. Pricing strategy for products in the healthy fast food sector in Stockholm

    OpenAIRE

    Hermann, Tim

    2015-01-01

    The demand of fast food is increasing in current food market worldwide. But fast food, as one of the unhealthy food types, cannot deny its impact as one of the causes of leading death in populations of most high income countries. Healthy fast food is called by governments, health organizations and societies, and desired by customers especially in Sweden because it is affordable, easy accessible, and most immortally, healthy. Companies are emerging based on the current fast food demand to prov...

  13. Soil Fertility Map for Food Legumes Production Areas in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ling; Yang, Tao; Redden, Robert; He, Weifeng; Zong, Xuxiao

    2016-01-01

    Given the limited resources of fossil energy, and the environmental risks of excess fertilizer on crops, it is time to reappraise the potential role of food legume biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) as sources of nitrogen for cropping systems in China. 150 soil samples across 17 provinces and 2 municipalities of China were collected and analyzed. A distribution map of the soil fertilities and their patterns of distribution was constructed. The pH results indicated that soils were neutral to slightly alkaline overall. The soil organic matter (SOM) and the available nitrogen (AN) content were relatively low, while the available phosphorus (AP) and available potassium (AK) contents were from moderate to high. Production areas of food legumes (faba bean, pea, adzuki bean, mung bean and common bean) were clearly separated into 4 soil fertility type clusters. In addition, regions with SOM, AN, AP and AK deficiency, high acidity and high alkalinity were listed as target areas for further soil improvement. The potential was considered for biological nitrogen fixation to substitute for the application of mineral nitrogen fertiliser. PMID:27212262

  14. Exploring household food security in the Viljoenskroon area / Flipsje Jordaan

    OpenAIRE

    Jordaan, Flipsje

    2014-01-01

    Decreased food security is a major issue which influences numerous individuals in developing countries such as South Africa. Literature suggests that although detailed information is not available about the exact amount of food insecure households in South Africa, food insecurity does exist. Multiple factors influence decreased food security and households in informal settlements often portray high risks to decreased food security due to a lack of adequate resources to ensure sustainable food...

  15. Assessing the Potential Effectiveness of Food and Beverage Taxes and Subsidies for Improving Public Health: A Systematic Review of Prices, Demand and Body Weight Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Lisa M.; Chriqui, Jamie F.; Khan, Tamkeen; Wada, Roy; Chaloupka, Frank J.

    2012-01-01

    Taxes and subsidies are increasingly being considered as potential policy instruments to incentivize consumers to improve their food and beverage consumption patterns and related health outcomes. This study provided a systematic review of recent U.S. studies on the price elasticity of demand for sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), fast food and fruits and vegetables as well as the direct associations of prices/taxes with body weight outcomes. Based on the recent literature, the price elasticity of demand for SSBs, fast food, fruits and vegetables was estimated to be −1.21, −0.52, −0.49 and −0.48, respectively. The studies that linked soda taxes to weight outcomes showed minimal impacts on weight; however, they were based on existing state-level sales taxes that were relatively low. Higher fast-food prices were associated with lower weight outcomes particularly among adolescents suggesting that raising prices would potentially impact weight outcomes. Lower fruit and vegetable prices were generally found to be associated with lower body weight outcomes among both low-income children and adults suggesting that subsidies that would reduce the cost of fruits and vegetables for lower-socioeconomic populations may be effective in reducing obesity. Pricing instruments should continue to be considered and evaluated as potential policy instruments to address public health risks. PMID:23174017

  16. Assessing the potential effectiveness of food and beverage taxes and subsidies for improving public health: a systematic review of prices, demand and body weight outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, L M; Chriqui, J F; Khan, T; Wada, R; Chaloupka, F J

    2013-02-01

    Taxes and subsidies are increasingly being considered as potential policy instruments to incentivize consumers to improve their food and beverage consumption patterns and related health outcomes. This study provided a systematic review of recent U.S. studies on the price elasticity of demand for sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), fast food, and fruits and vegetables, as well as the direct associations of prices/taxes with body weight outcomes. Based on the recent literature, the price elasticity of demand for SSBs, fast food, fruits and vegetables was estimated to be -1.21, -0.52, -0.49 and -0.48, respectively. The studies that linked soda taxes to weight outcomes showed minimal impacts on weight; however, they were based on existing state-level sales taxes that were relatively low. Higher fast-food prices were associated with lower weight outcomes particularly among adolescents, suggesting that raising prices would potentially impact weight outcomes. Lower fruit and vegetable prices were generally found to be associated with lower body weight outcomes among both low-income children and adults, suggesting that subsidies that would reduce the cost of fruits and vegetables for lower-socioeconomic populations may be effective in reducing obesity. Pricing instruments should continue to be considered and evaluated as potential policy instruments to address public health risks. PMID:23174017

  17. Food Prices Are Associated with Dietary Quality, Fast Food Consumption, and Body Mass Index among U.S. Children and Adolescents123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beydoun, May A.; Powell, Lisa M.; Chen, Xiaoli; Wang, Youfa

    2011-01-01

    Food prices are expected to affect dietary intakes, however, previous findings are mixed and few are based on nationally representative data. We examined the associations of price indices of fast foods (FF-PI) and fruits and vegetables (FV-PI) with dietary intakes and BMI among U.S. children and adolescents using data from the Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII; 1994–1998) for 6759 children (2–9 y) and 1679 adolescents (10–18 y). FF-PI and FV-PI were linked to individuals’ CSFII dietary data through city-level geocodes. Main outcomes included intakes of selected nutrients and food groups, a fast food consumption index (FF-CI), diet quality using the 2005 Healthy Eating Index (HEI), and BMI. Among children (2–9 y), a higher FF-PI (by $1) was associated with intakes of lower FF-CI (β ± SE: −0.9 ± 0.3 count/d), higher HEI (6.6 ± 2.5), higher intakes of fiber (2.7 ± 0.7 g/d), calcium (225.7 ± 52.3 mg/d), dairy (172.5 ± 36.2 g/d), and fruits and vegetables (113.3 ± 23.4 cup equivalents/d). FV-PI was inversely related to fiber intake (β ± SE: −3.3 ± 1.5 g/d) and positively associated with BMI (4.3 ± 1.2 kg/m2). Less consistent findings were ascribed to FV-PI and among adolescents (10–18 y). Significant associations were almost equally balanced between low and high family income groups, with some significant interactions between food prices and family income observed, particularly among children (2–9 y). Our findings suggest that among U.S. children aged 2–9 y, higher FF-PI is associated with better dietary quality, whereas higher FV-PI is linked to higher BMI and lower fiber intake. Associations varied by family income in children for many dietary intake variables. PMID:21178080

  18. A Buffer Stock Model to Ensure Price Stabilization and Availability of Seasonal Staple Food under Free Trade Considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahyudi Sutopo

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The price volatility and scarcity have been became a great problem in the distribution system of seasonal staple food produced by agro industry. It has salient supply disparity during the harvest and planting season. This condition could cause disadvantages to the stakeholders such as producer, wholesaler, consumer, and government. This paper proposes a buffer stock model under free trade considerations to substitute quantitative restrictions and tariffs by indirect market intervention instrument. The instrument was developed through buffer stock scheme in accordance with warehouse receipt system (WRS and collateral management system. The public service institution for staple food buffer stock (BLUPP is proposed as wholesaler’s competitor with main responsibility to ensure price stabilization and availability of staple food. Multi criteria decision making is formulated as single objective a mixed integer non linear programming (MINLP. The result shows that the proposed model can be applied to solve the distribution problem and can give more promising outcome than its counterpart, the direct market intervention instrument.

  19. Provenance, Purity & Price Premiums: Consumer Valuations of Organic & Place-of-Origin Food Labelling (Executive Summary)

    OpenAIRE

    Paull, John

    2006-01-01

    China is now the world’s largest food producer for many food categories, and has recently embarked on a major conversion to organic agriculture. Australian farmers have described their industry as in crisis due to increasing competition from imports; they have called for strengthening of country of origin labelling on food. Priestley (2005) noted the absence of data on the premium Australian consumers will pay, if any, for Australian food produce. Halpin (2004) has reported that the current p...

  20. Sustainable Norway - can Norwegians become self-sufficient with ecologically grown food? How can we achieve fair food prices?

    OpenAIRE

    Løes, Anne-Kristin

    1995-01-01

    A calculation and estimation of the total agricultural production in Norway with organic management, and which changes in diet are required to feed the Norwegian 4,5 mill population by domestic organic food.

  1. Different unit price of packaging sizes matter for food waste : A case study how companies' price strategies of different packaging sizes of dairy products affect the emissions of CO2 equivalents

    OpenAIRE

    Lövdahl, Maria; Palmér, Karin

    2015-01-01

    One third of all food that is produced ends up as waste, making it an important for society. Companies in food sector offer various packaging sizes to consumers to meet different household needs, where smaller packaging sizes often have a higher unit price than larger packaging sizes. In Sweden, 70% of households consist of 1-2 person households, which indicate a need for smaller packaging sizes. Price is a determining factor in the choice of products, which may mean that consumers choose pac...

  2. MEASURING U.S. CONSUMER PREFERENCES FOR GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOODS USING CHOICE MODELING EXPERIMENTS: THE ROLE OF PRICE, PRODUCT BENEFITS AND TECHNOLOGY

    OpenAIRE

    Onyango, Benjamin M.; Govindasamy, Ramu; Nayga, Rodolfo M.

    2004-01-01

    Food biotechnology promises to deliver a wide range of enhanced consumer benefits. This study models consumer's willingness to trade-off the potential risks of GM foods with the possibility of extracting significant benefits. The results of the choice modeling experiments reflect how different attributes of price, product benefits, and technology influence consumer demand for genetically modified food products. The results suggest that direct health, environmental, and production related bene...

  3. Volatility in the international food markets: implications for global agricultural supply and for market and price policy

    OpenAIRE

    Haile, Mekbib Gebretsadik; Kalkuhl, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    Agricultural countries usually produce multiple crops, but a particular area of land is allocated to the production of a certain crop. Understanding how producers make decision to allot acreage among crops and how decisions about land use are affected by changes in prices and their volatility is fundamental for both policy design and for estimation models of the behavior of agricultural producers. The profitability of a land allocated to a certain crop is affected by the volatility of the cro...

  4. Marketing management capabilities and price setting: An empirical analysis in the EU traditional food sector

    OpenAIRE

    BANTERLE Alessandro; Cavaliere, Alessia; Stranieri, Stefanella; Carraresi, Laura

    2009-01-01

    In the EU, small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs), which constitute the majority of firms in the food industry, are fighting for survival as they face growing market competition from large firms (Knight, 2000). On the other hand, market opportunities for SMEs are connected to the evolution of consumer preferences toward food quality, especially for traditional food products (O’Reilly and Haines, 2004). To profit from such opportunities SMEs need to adapt their strategies, focussing on cons...

  5. Farm Foundation Issue Report: What's Driving Food Prices?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2008-07-01

    This report provides an assessment of the major forces behind the dramatic increases in commodity prices. It is intended to provide objective information that will help all stakeholders meet the challenge to address one of the most critical public policy issues facing the world today.

  6. The role of price as a product attribute in the organic food context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marian, Livia; Chrysochou, Polymeros; Krystallis Krontalis, Athanasios;

    2014-01-01

    to generating repeat purchase. Based on analyses of panel purchase data from 2011 in Denmark, the study explores the effects of production method (organic vs. conventional) and price on consumers’ repeat purchase and cross-purchase across four product categories: red meat, chicken, milk and hard cheese. Results...

  7. Proximate composition of plant origin traditional foods from Black Sea Area Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Albuquerque, T.G.; Costa, H. S.; Sanches-Silva, A.; Fontes, T.; Mota, C.; Santos, M.; Vasilopoulou, E.; Trichopoulou, A; D’Antuono, F.; Alexieva, I.; Fedosova, K.; Karpenko, D.; Kilasonia, Z.; Kocaoglu, B.; Koval, N.

    2011-01-01

    Within the frame of the European Project BaSeFood (Sustainable Exploitation of Bioactive Components Black Sea Area traditional foods), thirty-three traditional foods from six Black Sea Area Countries (Bulgaria, Georgia, Romania, Russian Federation, Turkey and Ukraine) were selected and prepared according to the traditional recipe, ingredients and traditional preparation methods. The aim is to promote and preserve traditional foods and to produce new and reliable data of the overall nutritiona...

  8. Assessment of Food Security Situation among Farming Households in Rural Areas of Kano State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Irohibe Ifeoma; Agwu Agwu

    2014-01-01

    Achieving food security is still a major problem for households in most rural areas of Nigeria. This study was therefore designed to assess the food security status among farming households in rural areas of Kano state, Nigeria. The study utilized a multistage random sampling technique to +select a sample of 120 rural farm households for interview. Data collected were analysed using percentages, mean score, logistic regression and food security index. Using the food security index approach, t...

  9. Analysis of Carotenoids, Vitamins and Folates in Traditional Foods from Black Sea Area

    OpenAIRE

    Sanches-Silva, A.; Albuquerque, T.G.; Ribeiro, T.; Valente, A.; Finglas, P; Flores, A.C.; M. Santos; D’Antuono, L.F.; Costa, H. S.; on behalf of the BaSeFood Black Sea area partners

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays, consumers are much more aware of nutritional composition and show especially interest in compounds with putative health benefits. Therefore, in the last few years, great attention has been devoted to the study of bioactive compounds in order to promote the consumption of traditional foods. The European project BaSeFood (Sustainable Exploitation of Bioactive Components Black Sea Area Traditional Foods) aims to study the traditional foods from the Black Sea Area, namely their nutr...

  10. Local Food Prices: Effects on Child Eating Patterns, Food Insecurity, and Overweight. Fast Focus. No. 16-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrissey, Taryn W.; Jacknowitz, Alison; Vinopal, Katie

    2013-01-01

    The authors of this research brief were co-principal investigators on a grant awarded by the IRP RIDGE Center for National Food and Nutrition Assistance Research at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, in partnership with the Economic Research Service of the U.S. Department of Agriculture. Their project, summarized here, was one of five proposals…

  11. 餐饮业定价策略与经济效益%Pricing Strategy and Economics of Food and Beverage Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘正宏

    2011-01-01

    The price of food products can affect the price of brand promotion,market stability and the increase in turnover and so on.Therefore,in order to achieve the pricing objectives,business meals must also use some of the strategies and methods in the selected price range within the full account of the potential price changes,various effects,and ultimately determine the price of catering enterprises.The price of food and beverage industry is one of its marketing strategy,prices of food and beverage in-dustry that can use to highlight their market positioning,price can also be used to attract the target market and meet the needs of different levels of interest.%饮食产品的价格可以影响到饮食品牌的提升、市场稳定及营业额的增加等。所以为了实现定价目标,餐食企业还必须使用一定的策略与方法,在选定的价格幅度范围内,充分考虑价格变动可能带来的各种影响,最终确定餐饮企业的产品价格。餐饮业的价格也是其营销策略的一种,餐饮业即可以利用价格突出自己的市场定位,也可以利用价格吸引目标市场并且满足不同层次的利益需要。

  12. Income distribution impacts of changes in Western Area Power Administration electricity prices. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, A.; Frias, O. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Dept. of Mineral Economics

    1993-06-01

    The purpose of this report is to present the methodology and results of an analysis of income distribution impacts associated with changes in the Western Area Power Administration (WAPA) marketing program. The focus will be on the distribution of personal income across eleven brackets in each of nine sub-regions of the WAPA market area. Moreover, these results will be translated into an assessment of the number of people who stand to gain or lose as a result of the policies and the size of these income changes. Most economic impact analyses are performed at an aggregate level. The results are typically presented in terms of net benefits, or a listing of changes in employment, output, income, or prices. What is neglected is the distribution of impacts across the affected population. These distributional impacts are important for several reasons. First, there is the normative judgmental issue of distributional justice, or equity. This addresses concerns about income disparities in general, or whether the poor, or any other group, are shouldering a disproportionate share of any burden or are failing to share significantly in any gain.

  13. A Price Survey Comparison of Alcoholic Beverages with the Five Basic Food Groups in Paraiba, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Abramson, Charles I.; Waylon Howard; Mia Zolna; Shakuntla Nain; Italo S. Aquino; Herbert R.Z. Moraes; Melanie M. Page; Zeyna Moraes

    2006-01-01

    The study of alcohol abuse is relatively new in Brazil. Government estimates suggest that 11.2% of the Brazilian population is alcohol dependent. Problems associated with alcohol dependence include domestic violence, increased risk of traffic accidents, poor self-esteem and weak academic performance. A factor known to correlate with alcohol abuse in 12-17 year olds is to have the money necessary to purchase alcoholic beverages. No data is available, however, on the price of alcoholic beverage...

  14. Rice Trade and Price Volatility: Implications on ASEAN and Global Food Security

    OpenAIRE

    Clarete, Ramon; Adriano, Lourdes; Esteban, Amelia

    2013-01-01

    This paper highlights the thinness of rice trade relative to wheat and maize, and the contrasting price volatility and tradability relations for wheat and maize, which display a positive correlation, and for rice, which show an inverse relation. The paper focuses on Southeast Asia, which hosts the world's biggest rice exporters and rice importers. Using the Granger causality tests to determine correlation, the analysis concludes that very low global trading activity in rice that tends to self...

  15. Consumer preferences for organic food: behavior building-up, importance of pricing, information and sensory issues

    OpenAIRE

    Avitia Rodríguez, Jessica Alejandra

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to investigate Spanish consumers purchase motivations and behavior towards organic food by means of determining the key factors that take part on building their behavior. An important contribution of this work consists on providing more evidence on consumers’ underlying motivations to buy organic food for the particular case of Spain and to test the role of sensory “experience” in defining individual new WTP for a post purchasing situation. This thesis investigate...

  16. Economics of Scholarly Publishing: Exploring the Causes of Subscription Price Variations of Scholarly Journals in Business Subject-Specific Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lewis G.

    2011-01-01

    This empirical research investigates subscription price variations of scholarly journals in five business subject-specific areas using the semilogarithmic regression model. It has two main purposes. The first is to address the unsettled debate over whether or not and to what extent commercial publishers reap monopoly profits by overcharging…

  17. [Assessment of food intake in rural area school children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indrei, L L; Albu, Adriana; Albu, M; Dănilă, Lorena; Foia, Iolanda

    2003-01-01

    Children food intake is influenced by family nutritional habits and economic status. According to the results of our survey, only 54.8% of the children have taken their breakfast, although all of them recognize the importance of this meal. 9.6% of the children are not using fresh fruits and vegetables in their diets, even if these are the main sources of vitamin C. Regarding the milk consumption, most of the children use this food item once (35.5%) or twice (19.4%) a day and only 16.1% occasionally. Although most of the children (93.5%) know that excessive salt intake represents a risk factor for their health, 87.1% have preferences for salted and spiced foods. Under the influence of advertising, certain changes in the nutritional habits have been noticed; instead of traditional snacks, children are more attracted to fast-food type snacks. PMID:14756073

  18. Korean adolescents' perceptions of nutrition and health towards fast foods in Busan area

    OpenAIRE

    Yoon, Ji-Young; Lyu, Eun-Soon; Lee, Kyung-A

    2008-01-01

    Adolescents in Busan area were asked in a survey about their perception and attitudes towards fast food. Most respondents answered that they consume fast food once a month because it is fast, easily accessible and tasty. Although they perceived fast food as unhealthy and less nutritious, they were less aware of its effect on their health and nutritional status. The more knowledgeable respondents were about nutrition and health the less likely they were to choose fast food over other meals. Ho...

  19. GHRELIN DIRECTLY TARGETS THE VENTRAL TEGMENTAL AREA TO INCREASE FOOD MOTIVATION

    OpenAIRE

    Skibicka, K.P.; Hansson, C; Alvarez-Crespo, M.; Friberg, P.A.; Dickson, S.L.

    2011-01-01

    Ghrelin, a circulating orexigenic stomach-derived hormone, has recently been implicated in extra-homeostatic feeding, increasing food reward and food-motivated behavior. The precise target site(s) for ghrelin's effects on food reward have yet to be elucidated. The neurocircuitry underpinning food-motivated behavior involves, in particular, the dopamine cells of the ventral tegmental area (VTA) that project to the nucleus accumbens (NAcc). Ghrelin stimulation in both of these mesolimbic reward...

  20. Neighbourhood socioeconomic inequalities in food access and affordability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Kylie; Timperio, Anna; Crawford, David

    2009-06-01

    This study investigated whether the availability and accessibility of supermarkets and fruit and vegetable stores, and the availability, variety and price of foods within these stores, varied across areas of different levels of socioeconomic disadvantage in Melbourne, Australia. Data on food store locations, and food variety and price within stores were obtained through objective audits of 45 neighbourhoods of varying socioeconomic disadvantage. Geographical accessibility of healthy food stores was mostly better amongst those living in more advantaged neighbourhoods. Availability of healthy foods within stores only slightly favoured those in advantaged neighbourhoods. However food prices favoured those living in disadvantaged areas. PMID:19046654

  1. Food Security in Rural Areas of Vaishali District, India: A Household Level Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haroon Sajjad

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Food security has been one of the major developmental objectives in India. Though India has sufficient food production yet the achievement did not percolate down to households.This paper reports on an investigation into the food security status in Vaishali district of Bihar. Data were gathered across 16 administrative divisions in the district and eventually959 farmers’ households were sampled using stratified random sampling techniques. This allowed computing composite food security index to assess the relative status of foodsecurity of the sampled farmers. The findings revealed that 75 % of the sampled households have low food security. Within farmers’ categories, most of the large farmers had high food security. Medium farmers experienced moderate food security while semimedium, small and marginal farmers were having low food security. Bivariate regression analyses between food security and its components of all the farmers shows foodavailability has a major impact on food security as 93 % variation in food security is explained by variation in food availability. The study suggested that priority should be accorded for creating rural employment opportunities, providing infrastructure forincreasing production and creating awareness of education for long term sustainability of food security in the study area.Key words : Food security components, Food security, India

  2. Assessment of Food Security Situation among Farming Households in Rural Areas of Kano State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irohibe Ifeoma

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Achieving food security is still a major problem for households in most rural areas of Nigeria. This study was therefore designed to assess the food security status among farming households in rural areas of Kano state, Nigeria. The study utilized a multistage random sampling technique to +select a sample of 120 rural farm households for interview. Data collected were analysed using percentages, mean score, logistic regression and food security index. Using the food security index approach, the study revealed that 74% of the respondents were food secure while 26% were food insecure. The results of the logistic regression revealed that educational level (p0.05; z = 1.95, sex (p0.05; z = 1.99, household size (p0.05; -4.29 and access to credit (p0.05; z = 2.4 were significant determinants of food security. Also, the major effect of food insecurity on the households include reduction in household income/ savings due to increased expenditure on food (M= 3.58, among others. The perceived coping strategies in cushioning the effects of food insecurity include engaging in off-farm and non-farm jobs to increase household income, (M= 2.77, among others. The study therefore recommends the fast tracking of already established policy measures aimed at reducing food insecurity in the country. Also, efforts aimed at reducing food insecurity among rural farming households should focus on increasing household income and food supply.

  3. Breast cancer incidence in food- vs non-food-producing areas in Norway: possible beneficial effects of World War II

    OpenAIRE

    Robsahm, T E; Tretli, S

    2002-01-01

    It has been suggested that World War II influenced breast cancer risk among Norwegian women by affecting adolescent growth. Diet changed substantially during the war, and the reduction in energy intake was assumed to be larger in non-food- producing than in food-producing municipalities. In the present study, we have looked at the influence of residential history in areas with and without food production on the incidence of breast cancer in a population-based cohort study consisting of 597 90...

  4. The Malthusian Paradox: Declining Food Prices in the Very Long Run

    OpenAIRE

    Bloch, Harry; Sapsford, David

    2012-01-01

    More than two centuries ago in his Essay on the Principle of Population, Thomas Malthus famously issued his dire prediction that mankind was doomed to survival at a subsistence level. His concept of population growth expanding to absorb the available food supply has been roundly contradicted by history, thanks in part to a declining birth rate in rich countries. However, economics is still the “dismal science”, as the underlying idea of natural resource scarcity impinging on the prospects for...

  5. Source segregation of food waste in office areas: Factors affecting waste generation rates and quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edjabou, Maklawe Essonanawe; Boldrin, Alessio; Scheutz, Charlotte; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2015-12-01

    Existing legislation mandates that the amount of waste being recycled should be increased. Among others, in its Resource Strategy Plan, the Danish Government decided that at least 60% of food waste generated by the service sector, including in office areas, should be source-sorted and collected separately by 2018. To assess the achievability of these targets, source-sorted food waste and residual waste from office areas was collected and weighed on a daily basis during 133 working days. Waste composition analyses were conducted every week to investigate the efficiency of the source-sorting campaign and the purity of the source-sorted food waste. The moisture content of source-sorted food waste and residual waste fractions, and potential methane production from source-sorted food waste, was also investigated. Food waste generation equated to 23 ± 5 kg/employee/year, of which 20 ± 5 kg/employee/year was source-sorted, with a considerably high purity of 99%. Residual waste amounted to 10 ± 5 kg/employee/year and consisted mainly of paper (29 ± 13%), plastic (23 ± 9%) and missorted food waste (24 ± 16%). The moisture content of source-sorted food waste was significantly higher (8%) than missorted food waste, and the methane potential of source-sorted food waste was 463 ± 42 mL CH4/g VS. These results show that food waste in office areas offers promising potential for relatively easily collectable and pure source-sorted food waste, suggesting that recycling targets for food waste could be achieved with reasonable logistical ease in office areas. PMID:26260965

  6. Evaluating the equity effects of road-pricing in the European urban context - The Madrid Metropolitan Area

    OpenAIRE

    Di Ciommo, Floridea; Lucas, Karen

    2014-01-01

    The paper identifies the potential spatial and social impacts of a proposed road-pricing scheme for different social groups in the Madrid Metropolitan Area (MMA). We appraise the accessibility of different districts within the MMA in terms of the actual and perceived cost of using the road infrastructure ‘before’ and ‘after’ implementation of the scheme. The appraisal framework was developed using quantitative survey data and qualitative focus group discussions with residents. We then simulat...

  7. FINANCIAL STABILITY AND PRICE STABILITY: AN EMPIRICAL ANALYSIS IN EURO AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristi Spulbăr

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we study the relationship between price stability and financial stability. We try to determine whether asset prices are useful indicators for determining future inflation rates and we analyze the tensions in the interbank market during the last five years by means of a GARCH (1,1 model. The results show that the interest rate leads to a decrease in the inflation rate, while oil and real estate prices give a positive impulse. Before the crisis, Euribor-Eoniaswap spread had a low volatility. But the intervention of central banks by injecting liquidity into the banking system led to a considerable increase in its volatility. Another explanation for the evolution of this phenomenon is due to the loss of control by the ECB on the MBR and Eoniaswap spread.

  8. Source segregation of food waste in office areas: Factors affecting waste generation rates and quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edjabou, Vincent Maklawe Essonanawe; Boldrin, Alessio; Scheutz, Charlotte;

    2015-01-01

    Existing legislation mandates that the amount of waste being recycled should be increased. Among others, in its Resource Strategy Plan, the Danish Government decided that at least 60% of food waste generated by the service sector, including in office areas, should be source-sorted and collected...... separately by 2018. To assess the achievability of these targets, source-sorted food waste and residual waste from office areas was collected and weighed on a daily basis during 133 working days. Waste composition analyses were conducted every week to investigate the efficiency of the source-sorting campaign...... and the purity of the source-sorted food waste. The moisture content of source-sorted food waste and residual waste fractions, and potential methane production from source-sorted food waste, was also investigated.Food waste generation equated to 23. ±. 5. kg/employee/year, of which 20. ±. 5. kg...

  9. Learning about wage and price mark-ups in euro area countries

    OpenAIRE

    Angelini, Elena; Dieppe, Alistair; Pierluigi, Beatrice

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we show that higher flexibility, measured by lower wage and price mark-ups leads to reduced inflationary pressures, increase in competitiveness, and higher output. A rational expectation and a learning version of the ECB’s New Multi-Country Model are used to understand plausible dynamics of labour cost and price adjustments. In the rational expectation version of the model gains are quicker but more short-lived than in a learning environment. We argue that a rational expectation...

  10. TESTING THE LINK BETWEEN PUBLIC INTERVENTION AND FOOD PRICE VARIABILITY: EVIDENCE FROM RICE MARKETS IN THE PHILIPPINES

    OpenAIRE

    Martinez, Elmer; Shively, Gerald E.; Masters, William J.

    1998-01-01

    Monthly price data from the Philippines are used to test the influence of government buffer-stock programs on the level and variability of rice prices from 1974-1990. Results do not support the conjecture that prices were correlated with stock purchases.

  11. Social Optimality of Cordon Area Congestion Pricing in an Monocentric City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harya S Dillon

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak. Kemacetan lalu lintas merupakan epidemi global yang telah melumpuhkan banyak kota. Dari sudut pandang ekonomi mikro, kemacetan dapat dipandang sebagai eksternalitas negatif dimana diperlukan bea Pigovian sebagai solusi atas ekuilibrium yang kurang optimal tersebut. Eksternalitas ini dirasakan dalam bentuk tundaan perjalanan dan pembangunan kota yang rakus lahan. Meskipun teori mengenai ketepatgunaan bea kemacetan (congestion pricing telah mapan sejak akhir 1970-an, penerapan dan implementasi kebijakan tertunda oleh kendala teknologi. Salah satu bentuk implementasi bayaran kemacetan yang sering dijumpai adalah bea lintas-kordon (cordon charging, dimana penglaju yang masuk ke wilayah pusat dibebani sejumlah biaya. Ketepatgunaan dari bea lintas-kordon telah dikaji secara empiris dan juga dengan simulasi numerik, namun penjelasan teoretis belum dilakukan secara tuntas. Penulis mengembangkan model kota monosentris untuk meneliti dampak kebijakan bea lintas-kordon pada kepadatan kota dan permintaan akan lahan kota (equilibrium rent. Bea lintas-kordon akan menaikkan harga lahan di pusat kota dan memperbesar gradien kurva tawaran-sewa (bid-rent curve. Namun yang lebih penting untuk diperhatikan adalah bahwa besaran ini ditentukan oleh parameter kordon. Dengan demikian dapat disimpulkan bahwa daya manfaat kebijakan ini sangat dipengaruhi oleh pilihan parameter kordon yang dibuat perencana.Kata kunci. kemacetan, bea lintas-kordon, kota monosentris, struktur kotaAbstract. Traffic congestion is a global epidemic that at time has put cities to a state of paralysis. From a microeconomics point of view, congestion can be approached as a negative externality that merits a Pigovian tax to correct the suboptimal equilibrium. Externalities manifest in delays and wasteful urbanization. While the efficiency of congestion pricing has been well established since the late 1970s, policy adoption and implementation have been delayed due to technological

  12. SMALL FARMERS FROM RURAL AREAS ATTITUDE ON ORGANIC FOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ron#537;ca Mihai Ioan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper is one of the few marketing research done in rural areas of attitudes towards green products. Even if the subject is generally treated at the international level, Romania has an important specific is to be taken into account in the European area. Size of agricultural holdings and their degree of technology do not have the desired agricultural economic efficiency of modern economies. But by applying marketing techniques and by approaching customer needs, the agricultural sector in Romania can develop in another direction no longer going through the business model of major West European farmers. We are referring here to transition to a agriculture on small areas, intensively exploited and ecology and a system of distributed in the markets with a big search for such products. But he must know how people in rural areas see these green products and how they are trained to understand the concepts of green marketing and marketing organic products. These issues have been dealt with in the first part of the work. The second part of this paper aims to describe the attitude of small agricultural producers towards organic products and the degree in which they are willing to go to such a production. Research is based on a survey an explorer in two rural areas of Romania one at the mountain and the other in lowlands and shows the degree of adaptation for small producers to new market requirements. Results have been contradictory. Some of them have confirmed the assumptions, namely the opening to such a grown for, and others have shown a much greater degree of the use of chemical compounds in agriculture than expected. Also the degree of taking the initiative in rural areas was an issue that came out at a level lower than expected. This is a worrying conclusion but worth being taken into account. This research gives the image concept in rural areas being the starting point for further research and strategies which to propose turning Romania into a

  13. PRICE AND PRICING STRATEGIES

    OpenAIRE

    Titus SUCIU

    2013-01-01

    In individual companies, price is one significant factor in achieving marketing success. In many purchase situations, price can be of great importance to customers. Marketers must establish pricing strategies that are compatible with the rest of the marketing mix. Management should decide whether to charge the same price to all similar buyers of identical quantities of a product (a one-price strategy) or to set different prices (a flexible price strategy). Many organizations, especially retai...

  14. Combined effects of compact cevelopment, transportation investments, and road user pricing on vehicle miles traveled in urbanized areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, Reid; Hamidi, Shima; Gallivan, Frank; Nelson, Arthur C.; Grace, James B.

    2014-01-01

    Vehicle miles traveled (VMT) is the primary determinant of traffic congestion, vehicle crashes, greenhouse gas emissions, and other effects of transportation. Two previous studies have sought to explain VMT levels in urbanized areas. This study updates and expands on previous work with more recent data, additional metrics, and structural equation modeling (SEM) to explain VMT levels in 315 urbanized areas. According to SEM, population, income, and gasoline prices are primary exogenous drivers of VMT. Development density is a primary endogenous driver. Urbanized areas with more freeway capacity are significantly less dense and have significantly higher VMT per capita. Areas with more transit service coverage and service frequency have higher development densities and per capita transit use, which leads to lower VMT per capita. The indirect effect of transit on VMT through land use, the so-called land use multiplier, is more than three times greater than the direct effect through transit ridership.

  15. On the bad reputation of Fukushima's nuclear accident. A risk-economic approach to distance and price factors of processed food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 2011, a big earthquake hit Japan and tsunami and nuclear power plant accident followed. Various discussions have been made on economical, ecological and psychological impacts of this disaster. Its bad reputation effect has not been much discussed, however. This paper deals with the relationship between the following two factors. They are: the distance from the nuclear power plant to the production place and the price of seemingly homogeneous processed food. (author)

  16. Cadmium Exposure and Potential Health Risk from Foods in Contaminated Area, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chunhabundit, Rodjana

    2016-01-01

    Man-made cadmium (Cd) emissions can be transported between environmental matrices and the food chain. Food is the primary source of Cd exposure among general population as a consequence of the bio-concentration of Cd from soil. Chronic Cd exposure has been reported to be associated with chronic kidney disease, osteoporosis, diabetes, cardiovascular disease and cancer. The Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) established the safe level of Cd intake as provisional tolerable monthly intake (PTMI) of 25 μg/kg bw in 2010. The major food groups that contribute to the most Cd exposure are rice and grains, shellfish and sea food, meat including edible offal, and vegetables. A number of studies reported the high Cd contaminated levels in foods from polluted areas in Thailand. The results are of high concern since the contaminations occur in foods that are major Cd contributors. Thus, in this review, the current situations of Cd contaminated foods in polluted areas of Thailand are summarized. In addition, the Cd intakes from selected scenarios are estimated to assess the potential health risk to consumers and the suggestions are also included. PMID:26977260

  17. 30 CFR 57.20014 - Prohibited areas for food and beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prohibited areas for food and beverages. 57.20014 Section 57.20014 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Miscellaneous § 57.20014 Prohibited areas...

  18. 30 CFR 56.20014 - Prohibited areas for food and beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prohibited areas for food and beverages. 56.20014 Section 56.20014 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Miscellaneous § 56.20014 Prohibited areas for...

  19. Prices Received by Farmers: Food Grains - Wheat , Rice, Rye by state and U.S. 1949-78

    OpenAIRE

    Anonymous

    1985-01-01

    This publication presents final estimates of prices received by farmers for all wheat, winter wheat, durum wheat, other spring wheat, rye, and rice by State and United States for 1949-78. It is the first statistical bulletin for these crops to include monthly prices by State in a longtime series. Other crops will be covered in future bulletins.

  20. 7 CFR 3402.4 - Food and agricultural sciences areas targeted for National Needs Graduate and Postdoctoral...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Food and agricultural sciences areas targeted for..., AND EXTENSION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES NATIONAL NEEDS.... Areas of the food and agricultural sciences, including multidisciplinary studies, appropriate...

  1. 75 FR 26967 - Guidance for Industry: Use of Water by Food Manufacturers in Areas Subject to a Boil-Water...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-13

    ... Areas Subject to a Boil-Water Advisory; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION... entitled ``Guidance for Industry: Use of Water by Food Manufacturers in Areas Subject to a Boil-Water Advisory.'' This guidance is intended to advise food manufacturers that once a boil-water advisory has...

  2. Pressure on Food Price?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    China News

    2010-01-01

    @@ Under the impacts of natural disasters,this year's summer grain yield per hectare reached4.4893 thousand kg,a 0.4%decrease of 20.4 kg from that of last year.Du Zhixiong,researcher from the Rural Development Institute of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences,said that although the summer grain yield per hectare dropped,the wheat production exceeded last year and the main grain production regions such as North China kept a stable growth of production,The overall sound performance of Chinese grain production and the huge grain stocks substantially lessened the impacts of the 0.3%slight drop on the grain supply.

  3. 食品价格上涨较快的几个理论问题研究%Several Theoretical Issues on Rapid Rise in Food Prices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何源

    2011-01-01

    In the last ten years, China has experienced three relatively big periods of inflation. The changes of CPI ( Consumer Price Index) shows that when prices increase, food prices are always rising more rapidly than those of other industries. By analyzing the price elasticity of agricultural products, labor productivity, agricultural aggregate output, and the actual value, this paper intends to find the reasons for this phenomenon, gain some enlightenment and accordingly, put forward some proposals.%近十几年来,我国一共经历了三次较大的通货膨胀期,从居民消费价格指数的变动可以看出,在物价上涨时,食品价格的上涨一直都快于其他行业。本文通过对农产品的价格弹性、劳动生产率、农业总产出和价格向实际价值回归四个方面进行分析,找出原因,并提出启示和相应的建议。

  4. Eating Habits and Food Preferences of Elementary School Students in Urban and Suburban Areas of Daejeon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eun-Suk; Lee, Je-Hyuk

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the dietary habits and food preferences of elementary school students. The survey was conducted by means of a questionnaire distributed to 4th and 5th grade elementary school students (400 boys and 400 girls) in urban and suburban areas of Daejeon. The results of this study were as follows: male students in urban areas ate breakfast, unbalanced diets, and dairy products more frequently than male students in suburban areas (p < 0.05). Female students in urban areas ate dairy products (p < 0.01) and fruits (p < 0.001) more frequently than female students in suburban areas. Students had the high preferences for boiled rice and noodles with black bean sauce, beef rib soup, steamed beef rib, steamed egg, beef boiled in soy sauce, egg roll, bulgogi, pork cutlet, deep-fried pork covered with sweet and sour starchy sauce, and honeyed juice mixed with fruit as a punch. All students preferred kimchi, although students in the suburban areas preferred kimchi-fried rice (p < 0.05), and those in the urban areas preferred bean-paste soup (p < 0.01). Students in suburban areas showed a greater preference for seasoned bean sprouts and Altari kimchi. All of the students preferred fruits, rice cake made with glutinous rice, and pizza among other foods. Overall, there were distinct differences in the eating habits and food preferences of elementary school students according to the place of residence. PMID:26251838

  5. The impact of improved access to market information through mobile phones usage on selling prices: Evidence from rural areas in Cambodia

    OpenAIRE

    Daichi Shimamoto; Hiroyuki Yamada; Martin Gummert

    2014-01-01

    Monopsony is often observed in local agricultural markets in developing countries because of the high entry cost to buyers; farmers in such markets therefore sell their agricultural products at a lower price. However, this situation seems to be changing with the diffusion of mobile phones. This paper investigates how access to market information through mobile phone usage impacts the selling price of rice in rural areas in Cambodia. We conducted a survey of farmers f households concerning agr...

  6. Food insecurity and socioeconomic, food and nutrition profile of schoolchildren living in urban and rural areas of Picos, Piauí

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jailane de Souza Aquino

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to determine the prevalence of food insecurity among schoolchildren living in urban and rural areas of Picos, Piauí associated with the socioeconomic profile of families and their food intake and nutritional status. Methods: Study participants were families with children aged 7-10 years enrolled in municipal schools, totaling 342 families/schoolchildren. The study was conducted at school facilities through interviews with mothers - or guardians - using a questionnaire based on the Brazilian Food Insecurity Scale and socioeconomic variables and food frequency questionnaire. The nutritional status of children was assessed using the following indexes: weight/age, height/age and body mass index/age. Results: The prevalence of food insecurity was high and similar for rural and urban areas, 84.3% and 83.3%, respectively. In general, lower income and consumption of untreated water was associated with greater frequency of food insecurity (p≤0.01. In urban areas, higher percentage of food insecurity was associated to lower educational levels (p≤0.05. Dietary intake and nutritional status of schoolchildren were not associated with food insecurity condition of families. Conclusion: The percentage of families at food insecurity, as well as the food consumption and nutritional status of schoolchildren were similar between urban and rural areas, characterized as a homogeneous population in terms of socioeconomic conditions.

  7. Signalling Strength: Limit Pricing and Predatory Pricing

    OpenAIRE

    Greg LeBlanc

    1992-01-01

    This article merges two areas of strategic pricing theory. A dynamic signalling game with two-sided uncertainty is presented in which an incumbent is confronted with potential entry and chooses between limit pricing and predatory pricing as a means of achieving or maintaining monopoly profit. Initial distributions across player types are pivotal to this decision. Results show that when the incumbent is likely to be strong relative to the entrant, predatory pricing is chosen. When the incumben...

  8. EFFECT OF VARIOUS STIMULI ON CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR FOR FOOD COMMODITIES IN AN AREA OF MYMENSINGH DISTRICT

    OpenAIRE

    Gheyas, Iffat Ara; Sabur, S. A.

    2002-01-01

    The study area covered the Bangladesh Agricultural University and its adjoining areas. The respondents were divided into three income groups and a total of 238 respondents were interviewed. "Weighted average" method was used for determining the preference and frequency of purchase of the households. Most households used to make decision for buying food jointly with husband and wife and did shopping as a matter of necessity rather than pleasure. The male members in the lower age groups had gen...

  9. Seasonal food habits of brown bear (Ursus arctos syriacus Linnaeus, 1758 in Cenral Alborz Protected Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bagher Nezami Balouchi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Mountains of Central Alborz Protected Area hold a big population of brown bear, the largest varnivore species in Iran. Understanding food habits is crucial to understanding the ecology of the species. Diet influences many ecological and life-history traits, such as spatial distribution, social and foraging behavior, body mass and reproduction. Therefore, during Jun 2006 to May 2007 we had a comprehensive study on brown bear food habits, as the largest omnivorous of the country in Central Alborz Protected Area. Our investigation showed that plant materials composed the main proportion of food items of the brown bears in the spring until mid-summer. Insects, especially ants were predominantly eaten in the first half of summer. As approaching to hibernation period in late autumn, fruits played the main role of bear food items having high fat content. We never witnessed bear attack on wild herbivores. Furthermore, we never found remains of wild herbivores except a few livestock remains in brown bear scats during our survey period. Accordingly, we concluded that brown bears were almost herbivorous in the Central Alborz Protected Area. We never found any bear scats or fresh signs in three consecutive years, between first of December until mid of March. Also, no direct sighting of brown bear was reported to us by local people and game keepers within the mentioned period. Accordingly, it can be concluded that the brown bears hibernate for a period of 3-3.5 months in winter in the Central Alborz Protected Area.

  10. Data sheet based countermeasure evaluation for radioactively contaminated Nordic food-producing areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Nordic expert group has identified and critically evaluated the countermeasures that may potentially be implemented in connection with major nuclear accident situations contaminating Nordic food-producing areas. This paper demonstrates how the derived technical information can be applied by decision-makers to identify practicable and cost-effective means for mitigation of the impact of contamination. (au)

  11. Derivation of reference concentration values in foods for Brazilian high background radiation areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aiming the establishment of Brazilian high background radiation area baseline data, 226Ra, 228Ra, 210Pb, 232Th, 228Th and 238U concentrations in foodstuffs arose from Brazilian high natural radiation areas were gathered, generating a databank containing concentration of radionuclides in 548 samples, 1871 single concentration measurements. Radionuclide concentration values in food vary widely because of the soil heterogeneity. In most analyzed samples the highest concentrations were found for 228Ra, followed by 226Ra, 210Pb, 228Th, 238U and 232Th. Differences among radionuclide concentrations in potato and carrot, kale and other leafy vegetables as well as among chicken, beef and pork were observed, showing that the joining of food in categories aiming comparison among concentrations can be meaningless. The origin of the food seems not play important role concerning the radionuclide concentration in it, since it was not found significant differences among the radionuclide concentrations in samples of a same food from the different areas. Reference values for some foodstuffs could be derived and in general the values can exceed by orders of magnitude those derived for temperate clime normal background areas. (author)

  12. Rice price instability in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Mili, Jobaida Yeasmin

    2012-01-01

    In the 2000s, the global attention was concentrated at the food price stability because of the rapid increase in cereal and other food prices. This rapid increase of food price has become a burden for the developing countries as well as for Bangladesh where households spend a large share of their income on food. Among the cereals rice has a strategic importance because it is the central to food security and economic and political stability of the country. Fluctuation in rice prices is not rar...

  13. Not as bad as you think: a comparison of the nutrient content of best price and brand name food products in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalatbari-Soltani, Saman; Marques-Vidal, Pedro

    2016-06-01

    Several studies have shown that low-cost foods have an equivalent nutrient composition compared to high-cost foods, but such information is lacking in Switzerland. Thus, we compared the caloric and nutrient content of "best price" (BPF) and brand name foods (BNF) in Switzerland using the version 5.0 (April 2015) of the Swiss Food and Nutrient composition database. Over 4000 processed food items were included and 26 food categories were compared regarding total energy, protein, fat and carbohydrates, saturated fatty acids, sugar, fiber and sodium. BPF, namely core food categories like Bread, Red meat, White meat and Fish products, were 42%, 39%, 42% and 46% less expensive than their BNF equivalents, respectively. No differences were found between BPF and BNF regarding total energy and protein, fat and carbohydrates for most food categories. In the Cheese category, BPF had a lower caloric content than BNF [Median (interquartile range, IQR): 307 (249-355) vs. 365 (308-395) kcal/100 g, respectively, p < 0.001]; BPF also had lower fat and saturated fatty acid content but higher carbohydrate content than BNF (both p < 0.01). In the Creams and puddings group, BPF had lower fat 1.3 (0.9-1.7) vs. 6.0 (3.5-11.0) g/100 g and saturated fatty acid 0.6 (0.6-0.8) vs. 2.9 (2.3-6.0) g/100 g content than BNF (both p < 0.005). In the Tinned fruits and vegetables group, BPF had lower sodium content than BNF: 175 (0-330) vs. 370 (150-600) mg/100 g, p = 0.006. BPF might be a reasonable and eventually healthier alternative of BNF for economically deprived people in Switzerland. PMID:27419018

  14. Eating Habits and Food Preferences of Elementary School Students in Urban and Suburban Areas of Daejeon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eun-Suk; Lee, Je-Hyuk; Kim, Myung-Hee

    2015-07-01

    This study investigated the dietary habits and food preferences of elementary school students. The survey was conducted by means of a questionnaire distributed to 4th and 5th grade elementary school students (400 boys and 400 girls) in urban and suburban areas of Daejeon. The results of this study were as follows: male students in urban areas ate breakfast, unbalanced diets, and dairy products more frequently than male students in suburban areas (p noodles with black bean sauce, beef rib soup, steamed beef rib, steamed egg, beef boiled in soy sauce, egg roll, bulgogi, pork cutlet, deep-fried pork covered with sweet and sour starchy sauce, and honeyed juice mixed with fruit as a punch. All students preferred kimchi, although students in the suburban areas preferred kimchi-fried rice (p < 0.05), and those in the urban areas preferred bean-paste soup (p < 0.01). Students in suburban areas showed a greater preference for seasoned bean sprouts and Altari kimchi. All of the students preferred fruits, rice cake made with glutinous rice, and pizza among other foods. Overall, there were distinct differences in the eating habits and food preferences of elementary school students according to the place of residence. PMID:26251838

  15. Air pollution, land price development and assessment of immission control needs in urban development plans. The impact of immission pollution by sulphur dioxide and dust precipitation on property prices in residential areas of Dortmund and Duisburg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Air pollution, land price development and assessment of immission control needs in urban development plans. The impact of immission pollution by sulphur dioxide and dust precipitation on property prices in residential areas of Dortmund and Duisburg. The focus of this thesis is on studying the links between property prices and air pollution. The ground rent theory which goes back to the 16th century provides the theoretical basis for this work. RICARDO put forward the theory, that air may, under certain circumstances, - as for instance different local air pollution levels or sensitivity of locals to air quality -, which did not apply 200 years ago actually produce rent. These circumstances do indeed apply widely today - different air pollution levels in urban areas are just a case in point. Various empiricial studies in the U.S. proved that air pollution with different substances does actually influence the value of property. The ground rent influenced by air pollution is called ''air rent''. This study contains empirical studies on the influence of air pollution by sulphur dioxide SO2 and dust precipitation on general property prices in residential areas of Dortmund between 1979 and 1989 and Duisburg between 1981 and 1989. (orig./UA)

  16. Impact of Media and Education on Food Practices in Urban Area of Varanasi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhatt Shuchi R, Bhatt Sheeendra M, Singh Anita

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Currently food malpractices are increasing in various metro cities of India and all the measures taken by agencies are failed to detect rapidly and many times it becomes late when the adulteration is detected. Worst scenario is the adulteration of some branded items of the children’s and in the women’s use such as milk cheese, ghee and oils. Therefore, Study for food practices and safety measures was done in selected area of Varanasi which was also validated by the wetlab methods. Methods: For this objective, questionnaire was prepared and distributed among selected people depending on their age group, sex and educational background. Statistical test were carried out on the basis of frequency of male and female respondents obtained in total respondents (n = 300. Chi square test were done and the calculated value were compared with value of t test (0.05 and on this basis, conclusion were drawn. Results: Result shows that regardless of the age income and religion, all of the groups are well aware the food adulteration and educated people are less prone to the effect. In terms of adulteration any how all the stores contains adulterated food however branded items contains less %age of adulteration than local item. This may be caused due to inactive agencies or longer process of legal system Conclusions: Study show that there is lag in following the food practices by all the ages in spite of having good media awareness program and knowledge of food practices.

  17. Markets, Climate Change and Food Security in West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Molly E.; Hintermann, Beat; Higgins, Nathaniel

    2009-01-01

    West Africa is one of the most food insecure regions of the world. Sharply increased food and energy prices in 2008 brought the role of markets in food access and availability around the world into the spotlight, particularly in urban areas. The period of high prices had the immediate consequence of sharply increasing the number of hungry people in the region without boosting farmer incomes significantly. In this article, the interaction between markets, food prices, agricultural technology and development is explored in the context of West Africa. To improve food security in West Africa, sustained commitment to investment in the agriculture sector will be needed to provide some protection against global swings in both production and world markets. Climate change mitigation programs are likely to force global energy and commodity price increases in the coming decades, putting pressure on regions like West Africa to produce more food locally to ensure stability in food security for the most vulnerable.

  18. Impact of Media and Education on Food Practices in Urban Area of Varanasi

    OpenAIRE

    Bhatt Shuchi R, Bhatt Sheeendra M, Singh Anita

    2012-01-01

    Background: Currently food malpractices are increasing in various metro cities of India and all the measures taken by agencies are failed to detect rapidly and many times it becomes late when the adulteration is detected. Worst scenario is the adulteration of some branded items of the children’s and in the women’s use such as milk cheese, ghee and oils. Therefore, Study for food practices and safety measures was done in selected area of Varanasi which was also validated by the wetlab methods....

  19. 7 CFR 1033.50 - Class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing...) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE MIDEAST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Class Prices § 1033.50 Class prices, component...

  20. 7 CFR 1030.50 - Class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing...) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE UPPER MIDWEST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Class Prices § 1030.50 Class prices,...

  1. 7 CFR 1001.50 - Class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing...) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE NORTHEAST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Class Prices § 1001.50 Class prices, component...

  2. 7 CFR 1006.50 - Class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing...) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE FLORIDA MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Class Prices § 1006.50 Class prices, component...

  3. 7 CFR 1124.50 - Class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing...) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Class Prices § 1124.50 Class prices,...

  4. 7 CFR 1126.50 - Class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing...) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE SOUTHWEST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Class Prices § 1126.50 Class prices, component...

  5. 7 CFR 1131.50 - Class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing...) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE ARIZONA MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Class Prices § 1131.50 Class prices, component...

  6. 7 CFR 1005.50 - Class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing...) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE APPALACHIAN MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Class Prices § 1005.50 Class prices, component...

  7. 7 CFR 1032.50 - Class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing...) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE CENTRAL MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Class Prices § 1032.50 Class prices, component...

  8. 7 CFR 1007.50 - Class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing...) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE SOUTHEAST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Class Prices § 1007.50 Class prices, component...

  9. Evaluation of the Implementation of Good Handling Practices in Food and Beverage Areas of Hotels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafim, A L; Hecktheuer, L H R; Stangarlin-Fiori, L; Medeiros, L B; Martello, L; Machado, C E

    2015-11-01

    Because of the major international-level events that have recently been held in Brazil, concerns about the sensory and hygienic-sanitary conditions of food have increased. The objective of this study was to evaluate the implementation of good handling practices in food and beverage areas of hotels, with and without outsourced professional intervention. We evaluated 19 food and beverage areas in hotels in Porto Alegre, Rio do Sul, Brazil, using a checklist that was developed by a municipal surveillance team based on existing laws for good handling practices. The evaluation was done by a skilled professional in the food safety area on two occasions, at the beginning of the study (January to May 2013) and at the end (July to November 2014), and the establishments were classified as good, regular, or poor. After the baseline evaluation, an action plan listing the noncompliance found at each location was given to those responsible for the establishments, and a period of 1 year 6 months was stipulated for improvements to be made. In the repeat evaluation, those responsible for the establishments were asked whether they had hired an outsourced professional to assist them in the improvements. The hotels showed improvement during the repeat evaluation, but a significant increase in the percentage of overall adequacy was seen only in the food and beverages areas of the 12 hotels that used the intervention of an outsourced professional. The better percentage of adequacy in establishments with outsourced professional intervention underlines the importance of an external and impartial view of routine activities in the implementation of good handling practices. PMID:26555528

  10. Focusing on fast food restaurants alone underestimates the relationship between neighborhood deprivation and exposure to fast food in a large rural area

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Individuals and families are relying more on food prepared outside the home as a source for at-home and away-from-home consumption. Restricting the estimation of fast-food access to fast-food restaurants alone may underestimate potential spatial access to fast food. Methods The study used data from the 2006 Brazos Valley Food Environment Project (BVFEP) and the 2000 U.S. Census Summary File 3 for six rural counties in the Texas Brazos Valley region. BVFEP ground-truthed data included identification and geocoding of all fast-food restaurants, convenience stores, supermarkets, and grocery stores in study area and on-site assessment of the availability and variety of fast-food lunch/dinner entrées and side dishes. Network distance was calculated from the population-weighted centroid of each census block group to all retail locations that marketed fast food (n = 205 fast-food opportunities). Results Spatial access to fast-food opportunities (FFO) was significantly better than to traditional fast-food restaurants (FFR). The median distance to the nearest FFO was 2.7 miles, compared with 4.5 miles to the nearest FFR. Residents of high deprivation neighborhoods had better spatial access to a variety of healthier fast-food entrée and side dish options than residents of low deprivation neighborhoods. Conclusions Our analyses revealed that identifying fast-food restaurants as the sole source of fast-food entrées and side dishes underestimated neighborhood exposure to fast food, in terms of both neighborhood proximity and coverage. Potential interventions must consider all retail opportunities for fast food, and not just traditional FFR. PMID:21266055

  11. Focusing on fast food restaurants alone underestimates the relationship between neighborhood deprivation and exposure to fast food in a large rural area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dean Wesley R

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Individuals and families are relying more on food prepared outside the home as a source for at-home and away-from-home consumption. Restricting the estimation of fast-food access to fast-food restaurants alone may underestimate potential spatial access to fast food. Methods The study used data from the 2006 Brazos Valley Food Environment Project (BVFEP and the 2000 U.S. Census Summary File 3 for six rural counties in the Texas Brazos Valley region. BVFEP ground-truthed data included identification and geocoding of all fast-food restaurants, convenience stores, supermarkets, and grocery stores in study area and on-site assessment of the availability and variety of fast-food lunch/dinner entrées and side dishes. Network distance was calculated from the population-weighted centroid of each census block group to all retail locations that marketed fast food (n = 205 fast-food opportunities. Results Spatial access to fast-food opportunities (FFO was significantly better than to traditional fast-food restaurants (FFR. The median distance to the nearest FFO was 2.7 miles, compared with 4.5 miles to the nearest FFR. Residents of high deprivation neighborhoods had better spatial access to a variety of healthier fast-food entrée and side dish options than residents of low deprivation neighborhoods. Conclusions Our analyses revealed that identifying fast-food restaurants as the sole source of fast-food entrées and side dishes underestimated neighborhood exposure to fast food, in terms of both neighborhood proximity and coverage. Potential interventions must consider all retail opportunities for fast food, and not just traditional FFR.

  12. The role of discharge variation in scaling of drainage area and food chain length in rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabo, John L.; Finlay, Jacques C.; Kennedy, Theodore A.; Post, David M.

    2010-01-01

    Food chain length (FCL) is a fundamental component of food web structure. Studies in a variety of ecosystems suggest that FCL is determined by energy supply, environmental stability, and/or ecosystem size, but the nature of the relationship between environmental stability and FCL, and the mechanism linking ecosystem size to FCL, remain unclear. Here we show that FCL increases with drainage area and decreases with hydrologic variability and intermittency across 36 North American rivers. Our analysis further suggests that hydrologic variability is the mechanism underlying the correlation between ecosystem size and FCL in rivers. Ecosystem size lengthens river food chains by integrating and attenuating discharge variation through stream networks, thereby enhancing environmental stability in larger river systems.

  13. Limits to growth in organic sales : price elasticity of consumer demand for organic food in Dutch supermarkets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bunte, F.H.J.; Galen, van M.A.; Kuiper, W.E.; Bakker, J.H.

    2007-01-01

    This report determines how sensitive consumer demand for organic products is to changes in the prices of organic products. The report is based on the analysis of scanner data for supermarkets in ten Dutch communities. In the framework of the analysis, an experiment has been performed in which the pr

  14. Eight Areas of Competency in Decision Making for Sustainability in Metro Food Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John D. WARBACH

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Michigan State University (MSU held a focus group in Detroit, Michigan, USA in 2012 with members of the urban agriculture movement. The session included business persons involved in growing and selling food, members of the health system, community group members and city government. The purpose was to identify the full range of sectors of society involved in the food system, to identify the perceptions of the food system among the city population, test eight sustainability competency areas developed by MSU faculty as concepts and as they related to urban food systems, and to discover what kinds of decision support tools were needed to foster sustainable food systems in Detroit. The focus group session was video and audio recorded, the tapes transcribed and coded to identify common themes and responses to the competency area concepts. The competency areas presented were: ecological integrity, community well-being/social justice, economic vitality, aesthetic quality, civic responsibility, systems interdependence, critical thinking, and personal growth. Participants indicated that they considered sustainability a value that people in urban agriculture shared, but that people struggled with how to move forward toward sustainability. Focus group participants were able to identify some aspect of each of the eight competency areas that they perceived people in urban agriculture, and the broader city resident population already recognized, or engaged in without recognizing that they were doing something that could lead to more sustainable outcomes. However, participants perceived that a sustainable metropolitan food system remains a somewhat elusive goal to achieve for people engaged in pursuing urban agriculture in Detroit due to a negative perception they expressed that many of the city’s population holds for growing food in the city, and in general for goods produced in the city. Information gained from the focus group and subsequent focus groups

  15. Analysis of the Impact of the Growing Area of Food Crops on Farmers’ Income in Yunnan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu; FENG; Chongguang; LI

    2013-01-01

    As a major agricultural province,Yunnan has always attached great importance to food production,and the proportion of the growing area of food crops to the growing area of total crops is more than one half in Yunnan Province,but the grain production efficiency has been low in recent years.Therefore,under the guidance of stabilizing food production and adjusting structure proposed by Yunnan provincial government,we analyze the impact of the growing area of food crops on farmers’ income,based on the recent trends of the growing area of food crops.Finally we put forth the following recommendations:developing the food production based on market; rationally making overall arrangement of planting structure; paying attention to the agricultural science and technology progress.

  16. Exploring household food security in the Vaalharts area / Dorette van Wyk

    OpenAIRE

    Van Wyk, Dorette

    2014-01-01

    Food security is essential amongst households as it enables consumers to live a healthy and productive life. Determining factors for households to be classified as food secure is the availability, accessibility and utilisation of food in a sustainable manner as food availability and accessibility alone are not enough for households to be food secure. The food utilisation aspect of food security, which includes the type of food consumed, food knowledge and food handling practices, should there...

  17. Food For Thought: The Social Impact of Community Gardens in the Greater Cleveland Area

    OpenAIRE

    Flachs, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    While the benefits of healthy eating and greenspace development have been well documented, the social impact of urban and community gardens remain less studied. This paper explores the social and cultural effects of urban gardening in the greater Cleveland area. Gardening is shown to have a multitude of motivating factors, including economic, environmental, political, social, and nutritional. While analyzing the impact that gardens have on community building, identity, and food security, s...

  18. Urban agriculture, food security and nutrition in low income areas of the city of Nairobi, Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Mboganie-Mwangi, A.; Foeken, D.W.J.

    1996-01-01

    This article considers the extent to which farming activities undertaken by low-income dwellers in Nairobi, Kenya, play a role in the food security and nutritional status of the households involved. It compares three low-income groups - two in Korogocho, viz. those who practise urban agriculture and those who do not, and one in the Kitui-Kanuku-Kinyago area, viz. households involved in the Undugu Society Urban Agriculture Project (USUAP). The questionnaire results indicate that those who farm...

  19. The oil price conundrum

    OpenAIRE

    Mabro, Robert

    2008-01-01

    The governments of oil-importing countries are worried about the recent high oil prices. They worry about possible macro-economic effects: inflation, recession, balance-of-payments deficits. The consumers of energy in those countries where fuels are not subsidised are angry about the higher prices of oil, gas and electricity. Unfortunately these higher prices have coincided with increases in the cost of food and other items of vital expenditures. Those who use fuels in significant quantities,...

  20. Relation among Housing Price,Land Price,Completed Housing Cost and the Ratio of Housing Sales Area to Completed Housing Area%我国房价与地价、竣工房屋造价及销竣比的关系*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄居林

    2013-01-01

    Based on multivariate econometric model determining the microscopic forming mechanism of housing price and land price,this article makes theoretical and empirical analysis of the relationship between housing price and land price.Study finds that there is a long-term equilibrium relationship among the housing price,land price, completed housing cost and the ratio of housing sales area and completed housing area,that although land price is Granger cause of housing price from long-term perspective,however,the influence of housing price on land price is much bigger than the influence of land price on housing price from the perspective of variance decomposition,that the key factor for the rise of housing price,relative to the influence of land price,is“housing price inertia”and the imbalance between supply and demand,and that after housing price and land price are shocked,the response value of housing price and land price to the stochastic impulse will go to the maximum after six to seven quarter and become stabilized soon afterwards.Therefore,the key to improving the effect of the real estate regulation is the suppression of“housing price inertia”,the introduction of policies for regulating housing price should be ahead of the time,meanwhile,the implementation of the policies should take a long time,and reverse balance between supply and demand of real estate should be realized by regulating policies.%基于一个反映房价与地价微观形成机理的多变量计量经济模型,对我国房价与地价的关系进行理论与实证分析。研究发现:我国房价与地价、竣工房屋造价和销竣比存在长期均衡关系;房价、地价具有较强的粘性;地价虽然从长期看是房价的Granger原因,但从方差分解看,房价对地价的影响远远超过地价对房价的影响;相对于地价的影响而言,“房价惯性”及供求失衡是房价上涨的关键因素;房价和地价受到

  1. Trophic relationships in tidal flat areas: To what extent are tidal flats dependent on imported food?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmus, Harald; Asmus, Ragnhild M.

    In four intertidal areas of 'Königshafen' (island of Sylt, FRG), biomass and production of macrozoobenthos were measured monthly in 1980 and 1984. The areas were characterized by different macrofauna assemblages ( Nereis-Corophium belt, seagrass bed, Arenicola flat and mussel bed). Biomass and production of macrofauna were partitioned with regard to food preference of single species as well as to the food availability within their habitat. In the Nereis-Corophium belt, seagrass bed and the Arenicola flat, most of the secondary production of the macrofauna was formed by grazing animals. Secondary production of mussel beds was nearly 10 times higher than in the other three assemblages. The suspension feeder assemblage depended on planktonic food imported from outside the bay. Considering the secondary production of the total tidal flat area, suspension feeders dominated the other trophic groups, indicating a key position of this group relative to the other macrofaunal assemblages. Mussel beds regulate the seston input to other communities situated further landward. Because of this dominance of the suspension feeder group, the energy and material flow of the total tidal flat is strongly dependent on the seston input from the coastal waters of the North Sea or from other parts of the Wadden Sea.

  2. Radioactive contamination of food sampled in the areas of the USSR affected by the Chernobyl disaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In October 1990 a Netherlands humanitarian fact finding mission on aid to people affected by the Chernobyl disaster visited contaminated regions in Russia, Byelorussia and the Ukraine. The mission consisted of medical, socio-psychological and agricultural experts. The results of radioactivity measurements on food products sampled in the contaminated areas are reported here and the radiation burden for the Soviet citizens due to these products is discussed. The radiocaesium contamination measured in 19 food products ranged between 0 and 170 Bq kg-1 and 40K from 25 to 200 Bq kg-1 in the fresh product. Strontium-90, measured in a few samples, was found to be between 1.8 and 30 Bq kg-1. Mushrooms and reindeer moss were very highly contaminated: from 103 000 to 284 000 Bq kg-1 of radiocaesium in the fresh product. Strontium-90 in these samples was 7.8-1550 Bq kg-1. The contamination of all food products was far below the stated limits, except for mushrooms. Extrapolation of the results to the total food consumption gave the radioactive burden due to this food as an estimated 0.2 mSv per year. All of the food products investigated, except mushrooms, can be regarded as safe with respect to radioactive contamination. In addition to sampling agricultural produce, field exposure measurements were also carried out. The measured values, expressed in equivalent doses, ranged from 1.8 to 14 mSv per year at a height of 1 m, with a median value of about 4 mSv per year. (author)

  3. Out-of-home food outlets and area deprivation: case study in Glasgow, UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cummins Steven

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a popular belief that out-of-home eating outlets, which typically serve energy dense food, may be more commonly found in more deprived areas and that this may contribute to higher rates of obesity and related diseases in such areas. Methods We obtained a list of all 1301 out-of-home eating outlets in Glasgow, UK, in 2003 and mapped these at unit postcode level. We categorised them into quintiles of area deprivation using the 2004 Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation and computed mean density of types of outlet (restaurants, fast food restaurants, cafes and takeaways, and all types combined, per 1000 population. We also estimated odds ratios for the presence of any outlets in small areas within the quintiles. Results The density of outlets, and the likelihood of having any outlets, was highest in the second most affluent quintile (Q2 and lowest in the second most deprived quintile (Q4. Mean outlets per 1,000 were 4.02 in Q2, 1.20 in Q4 and 2.03 in Q5. With Q2 as the reference, Odds Ratios for having any outlets were 0.52 (CI 0.32–0.84 in Q1, 0.50 (CI 0.31 – 0.80 in Q4 and 0.61 (CI 0.38 – 0.98 in Q5. Outlets were located in the City Centre, West End, and along arterial roads. Conclusion In Glasgow those living in poorer areas are not more likely to be exposed to out-of-home eating outlets in their neighbourhoods. Health improvement policies need to be based on empirical evidence about the location of fast food outlets in specific national and local contexts, rather than on popular 'factoids'.

  4. Analysis on the Product Price in the Problem of Abandoned Food with Reflux and Reforming%废弃食品回流再造问题的产品价格分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    费威

    2015-01-01

    针对废弃食品回流再造的食品安全问题,建立相关利益主体包括食品制造商、废弃食品收购者在各自独立以及作为利益共同体的不同条件下的优化模型,分析新生产食品价格和回流再造食品价格以及相应的利润、影响因素。结果表明:作为同一利益主体,生产制造昂贵食品对食品制造商获利不利,而回流再造成本越低,对食品制造商通过回流再造获利是有利的;若食品制造商和收购者各自独立决定价格,收购者进行回流再造的行为会干扰当前食品零售市场;由于回流再造食品的价格比较优势,在信息不对称时消费者会倾向选择回流再造食品。%For the problem of abandoned food with reflux and reforming,this paper built the optimal models with differ-ent conditions,in which the related interest subjects including the food manufacturer and the abandoned food acquirer determine the prices independently or jointly as a community of interests,and analyzed the price of the new food and the price of the food with reflux and reforming,and the profits and their influencing factors.The main results show that,when the food manufac-turer as a community of interests makes the expensive food,the interest of the food manufacturer is less;but when the cost of the reflux and reforming is low,the interest of the food manufacturer is more by the abandoned food with reflux and reforming. If the food manufacturer and the acquirer determine the price independently,the acquirer takes the behavior of reflux and refor-ming to disturb the food retail market nowadays,and because of the comparative advantage of the price of the food with reflux and reforming,the consumers will prefer to select the food with reflux and reforming when the information is asymmetric.

  5. Relationships Between Agritourism and Certified Quality Food in Italian Rural Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NICOLA GALLUZZO

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the early 1960, farms are one of the alternatively forms of hospitality in few Italian regions located predominately in the north and in the centre of peninsula. In 1985, Italian government promulgated a law in order to regulate this non-conventional form of tourism, by delegating to the regions the direct management of administrative procedures and inspections in farms. Nowadays, Italian agritourist farms represent a good chance to give value in favour of farm by the diversification of agrarian activities and also by holistically promoting local food in a direct connection to local gastronomy, rural heritage and tradition, with positive effects on the endogenous development in rural areas. The aim of the paper was to assess the role of agritourism in raising the socio-economic development of rural space by the diffusion of certified quality food using a quantitative approach and to assess if agritourist and certified quality food were tools able to implement the living conditions in the countryside. The findings have disclosed that tourists from abroad have increased the level of farmer income giving value towards high quality food and farm holidays farms. Instead, the impact of Italian agritourists has been relatively poor because of the economic crisis.

  6. Agricultural market integration: price transmission and policy intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Vasciaveo, M.; Rosa, F.; Weaver, R

    2013-01-01

    The increasing co-movements between world oil and food prices in the 2000s has prompted interest in the transmission mechanism among markets. This research investigates integration and price transmission of some important agricultural commodities traded in market area that includes United States and Italy for a period spanning from January 1999 to May 2012. The hypothesis of market integration is verified for crude oil and three agri-commodities wheat, corn and soybean in Italy and US. They a...

  7. Accounting Aspects of Pricing and Transfer Pricing

    OpenAIRE

    TÜNDE VERES

    2011-01-01

    The pricing methods in practice need really complex view of the business situation and depend on the strategy and market position of a company. The structure of a price seems simple: cost plus margin. Both categories are special area in the management accounting. Information about the product costs, the allocation methodologies in cost accounting, the analyzing of revenue and different level of the margin needs information from accounting system. This paper analyzes the pricing methods from m...

  8. Decision aiding handbooks for managing contaminated food production systems, drinking water and inhabited areas in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nisbet, A.F.; Brown, J.; Howard, B.J.;

    2010-01-01

    government departments and agencies, emergency services, radiation protection experts, the agriculture and food production sectors, industry and others who may be affected. The handbooks include management options for application in the different phases of an incident. Sources of contamination considered in......Three handbooks have been developed, in conjunction with a wide range of stakeholders to assist in the management of contaminated food production systems, inhabited areas and drinking water following a radiological incident. The handbooks are aimed at national and local authorities, central...... comprehensive, state-of-the-art datasheets for around 100 management options and guidance on planning in advance. A decision-aiding framework comprising colour coded selection tables, look-up tables and decision trees and several worked examples are also included. The handbooks can be used as a preparatory tool...

  9. Enhancement of Linear Agricultural Areas to Provide Invertebrates as Potential Food for Breeding Birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracy R. Evans

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Birds are an important part of the agricultural landscape, as having nature value, but also as pest control agents and bio-indicators for the health of the environment. Here we look at linear non-crop elements in agricultural areas as a potential source of food for nestlings of avian species. We measured invertebrate availability as it relates to structural complexity at the local and landscape levels in three counties in central Illinois. Invertebrates were measured with taxonomic diversity, abundance, and estimated biomass during spring of 2012 and 2013. Our study shows that easily modifiable field edge characteristics have the greatest impact on invertebrate diversity and abundance, as compared to field and landscape features. This finding shows that a potential invertebrate food source as measured by both diversity and biomass, may be easily enhanced without changes to agricultural practices.

  10. PENGARUH EARNING PER SHARE (EPS, PRICE EARNING RATIO (PER, DAN DIVIDEND PAYOUT RATIO (DPR TERHADAP HARGA SAHAM (Studi Empiris Pada Perusahaan Food & Beverages Yang Terdaftar di BEI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yayuk Sulistyowati

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available  Abstrak : Tujuan penelitian ini adalah menganalisa beberapa variabel yang mempengaruhi harga saham perusahaan food & beverages yang terdaftar di Bursa Efek Indonesia (BEI dan mengetahui variabel bebas mana yang dominan terhadap harga saham. Variabel yang diteliti adalah Earning Per Share (EPS, Price Earning Ratio (PER, dan Dividend Payout Ratio (DPR. Teknik pengambilan sampel dalam penelitian menggunakan metode purposive sampling. Jumlah sampel yang digunakan sebanyak 20 perusahaan dengan periode penelitian selama 3 tahun (2009-2011 dengan menggunakan metode analisis regresi linear berganda. Berdasarkan uji kolmogorov smirnov diketahui data Dividend Payout Ratio (DPR tidak terdistribusi normal karena itu terpaksa dikeluarkan dari model regresi. Model regresi yang digunakan mampu menjelaskan 75,1% perubahan atau variasi harga saham sedangkan sisanya 14,1 % dijelaskan oleh faktor lain diluar model regresi. Dari hasil penelitian menunjukkan baik secara parsial maupun simultan variabel bebas (EPS, PER, DPR berpengaruh signifikan terhadap harga saham. EPS merupakan variabel yang paling dominan dalam mempengaruhi harga saham

  11. The food and growth of 0-group flatfish on nursery grounds in the Clyde Sea Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poxton, M. G.; Eleftheriou, A.; McIntyre, A. D.

    1983-09-01

    In early summer plaice ( Pleuronectes platessa L.) in the Clyde Sea Area eat Tellina siphons and spionid palps. As they grow, they take progressively larger siphons, fragments of spionids and some crustaceans. In late summer they eat entire spionids and other sedentary polychaetes. There is no significant predation on fish. The common dab [ Limanda limanda (L.)] took a wider range of prey species than the plaice, but also depended mainly on polychaetes, crustaceans and bivalves. Depth distribution may limit both intra- and interspecific competition between these fish and also influence the choice of prey. The results from the main nursery areas of Irvine and Ayr Bays were similar to those from the other bays throughout the Clyde Sea Area and support earlier work at Firemore Bay in north-west Scotland and in the Dutch Wadden Sea. The growth rate of the fish increases during the early summer and may be related to increasing food availability, feeding experience of the fish and longer day length. Growth rate between areas appeared to be correlated with benthic productivity. 0-group plaice in Irvine, Ayr and Firemore Bays grew to different mean lengths by the end of the summer growth season, being 82 mm, 73 mm and 61 mm, respectively, for the period 1972-1974. This agrees with the known differences in standing stocks of intertidal macrobenthos in these bays (17·0, 11·1 and 1·3 g m -2 dry weight, respectively). The significance of this in relation to survival is discussed. Offshore migration of the larger fish in the autumn may result in apparent slowing of growth rates prematurely in inshore areas. The year-class strength depends more on the food availability in the nursery areas than on the number of plaice that settle on the bottom.

  12. How to identify food deserts in Amazonian cities?

    OpenAIRE

    Davies, Gemma; Frausin Bustamante, Gina Giovanna; Parry, Luke Thomas Wyn

    2016-01-01

    Food deserts are areas without affordable access to healthy foods. This paper explores whether food deserts are present within urban areas of the Brazilian Amazon. The availability and price of a variety of food products was surveyed in a total of 304 shops, across 3 cities in 2015. Least-cost distances were calculated to estimate travel distance to access products, with map overlay used to help identify areas with poor access to a variety of healthy food - these were defined as food deserts.

  13. Arterial roads and area socioeconomic status are predictors of fast food restaurant density in King County, WA

    OpenAIRE

    Streichert Laura C; Rehm Colin D; Moudon Anne V; Hurvitz Philip M; Drewnowski Adam

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Fast food restaurants reportedly target specific populations by locating in lower-income and in minority neighborhoods. Physical proximity to fast food restaurants has been associated with higher obesity rates. Objective To examine possible associations, at the census tract level, between area demographics, arterial road density, and fast food restaurant density in King County, WA, USA. Methods Data on median household incomes, property values, and race/ethnicity were obta...

  14. AN EXPLORATORY ANALYSIS OF FAMILIARITY AND WILLINGNESS TO USE ONLINE FOOD SHOPPING SERVICES IN A LOCAL AREA OF TEXAS

    OpenAIRE

    Hiser, Jennifer; Nayga, Rodolfo M.; Capps, Oral, Jr.

    1999-01-01

    Online food shopping is not only one of the newest innovations in grocery shopping but also one of the many services integrating the changing needs of consumers and the increasing use of modern technology. A survey was conducted in the Bryan/College Station area of Texas to determine a quantitative profile of consumers, via logit analysis, who are familiar with the concept of online food shopping and who are willing to use an online food shopping service. Older people, females, major shoppers...

  15. Disequilibrium Macroeconomic Dynamics, Income Distribution and Wage-Price Phillips Curves: Evidence from the US and the euro area

    OpenAIRE

    Ernst, Ekkehard; Flaschel, Peter; Proaño, Christian; Semmler, Willi

    2006-01-01

    The authors of this paper formulate a disequilibrium AS-AD model based on sticky wages and prices, perfect foresight of current inflation rates and adaptive expectations concerning the inflation climate in which the economy operates. The model consists of a wage and a price Phillips curves, a dynamic IS curve as well as a dynamic employment adjustment equation and a Taylor-rule-type interest rate law of motion. Through instrumental variables GMM system estimation with aggregate time series da...

  16. Relative prices, the price level and inflation: Effects of asymmetric and sticky adjustment

    OpenAIRE

    Shruti Tripathi; Ashima Goyal

    2011-01-01

    The paper examines how relative price shocks can affect the price level and then inflation. Using Indian data we find: (i) price increases exceed price decreases. Aggregate inflation depends on the distribution of relative price changes-inflation rises when the distribution is skewed to the right, (ii) such distribution based measures of supply shocks perform better than traditional measures, such as prices of energy and food. They moderate the price puzzle, whereby a rise in policy rates inc...

  17. Career Education Program: Geneva Area City Schools. [Grade 6 Units: Food Production, Ecology, Mind and Body, and Food Services].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geneva Area City Schools, OH.

    Four curriculum units for the sixth grade level focus on: (1) food production and nutrition, (2) food services, (3) physical and mental health, and (4) environmental conservation. Each unit's behavioral unit objectives emphasize career possibilities in the industries related to the unit's topic. A chart format is used to list suggested content…

  18. Essays on prices and price convergence

    OpenAIRE

    Lindenblatt, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    This thesis looks at prices in two different markets. The first one is the market for food products in Europe. With the introduction of the common market in 1992, most European markets have been integrated. When 10 more countries joined the EU in 2004, another round of integration took place and the common market was extended to these countries as well. We analyse if retail prices for food products have converged in the time after this "shock" of the EU enlargement. While there exists an...

  19. Hypothalamic Food Intake Regulating Areas are Involved in the Homeostasis of Blood Glucose and Plasma FFA Levels

    OpenAIRE

    Steffens, A.B.; Scheurink, A.J.W.; Luiten, P.G.M.; BOHUS, B

    1988-01-01

    The hypothalamus fulfills multiple functions, e.g., integration of food and water ingestion, various forms of social behavior and physiological neuroendocrine activities. Hypothalamic areas, particularly the ventromedial, lateral and paraventricular areas (VMH, LHA and PVN respectively), that contribute to the regulation of food intake are also involved in the regulation of blood glucose and plasma free fatty acid (FFA) levels. This regulation is controlled both directly via neural pathways a...

  20. Integrating Ecosystem Engineering and Food Web Ecology: Testing the Effect of Biogenic Reefs on the Food Web of a Soft-Bottom Intertidal Area.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bart De Smet

    Full Text Available The potential of ecosystem engineers to modify the structure and dynamics of food webs has recently been hypothesised from a conceptual point of view. Empirical data on the integration of ecosystem engineers and food webs is however largely lacking. This paper investigates the hypothesised link based on a field sampling approach of intertidal biogenic aggregations created by the ecosystem engineer Lanice conchilega (Polychaeta, Terebellidae. The aggregations are known to have a considerable impact on the physical and biogeochemical characteristics of their environment and subsequently on the abundance and biomass of primary food sources and the macrofaunal (i.e. the macro-, hyper- and epibenthos community. Therefore, we hypothesise that L. conchilega aggregations affect the structure, stability and isotopic niche of the consumer assemblage of a soft-bottom intertidal food web. Primary food sources and the bentho-pelagic consumer assemblage of a L. conchilega aggregation and a control area were sampled on two soft-bottom intertidal areas along the French coast and analysed for their stable isotopes. Despite the structural impacts of the ecosystem engineer on the associated macrofaunal community, the presence of L. conchilega aggregations only has a minor effect on the food web structure of soft-bottom intertidal areas. The isotopic niche width of the consumer communities of the L. conchilega aggregations and control areas are highly similar, implying that consumer taxa do not shift their diet when feeding in a L. conchilega aggregation. Besides, species packing and hence trophic redundancy were not affected, pointing to an unaltered stability of the food web in the presence of L. conchilega.

  1. Food sources of the Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum in intertidal areas: evidence from stable isotope analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Liqiang; Yan, Xiwu; Yang, Feng

    2013-07-01

    Based on stable isotope analysis, we characterized the dietary regime of the Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum inhabiting intertidal areas along the Liaodong Peninsula, Northern China. Samples, including particulate organic matter (POM; n =30), benthic microalgae (BMI; n =30) and R. philippinarum ( n =60), were collected from six sampling sites displaying the same ecological conditions. Of the two primary food sources, POM was more depleted in δ 13C (-20.61‰ to -22.89‰) than BMI was (-13.90‰ to -16.66‰). With respect to 15N, BMI was more enriched (2.90‰ to 4.07‰) than POM was (4.13‰ to 5.12‰). The δ 13C values of R. philippinarum ranged from -18.78‰ to -19.35‰ and the δ 15N values from 7.96‰ to 8.63‰, which were intermediate between the POM and BMI values. In a two-source isotope mixing model, we estimated the relative contributions of POM and BMI to the diet of R. philippinarum to be 74.2% and 25.8%, respectively. We conclude that R. philippinarum feeds mainly on POM, and BMI is also an important supplemental food source in intertidal areas.

  2. Veterinary education in the area of food safety (including animal health, food pathogens and surveillance of foodborne diseases).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, S M; Fajardo, P I; González, C G

    2013-08-01

    The animal foodstuffs industry has changed in recent decades as a result of factors such as: human population growth and longer life expectancy, increasing urbanisation and migration, emerging zoonotic infectious diseases and foodborne diseases (FBDs), food security problems, technological advances in animal production systems, globalisation of trade and environmental changes. The Millennium Development Goals and the 'One Health' paradigm provide global guidelines on efficiently addressing the issues of consumer product safety, food security and risks associated with zoonoses. Professionals involved in the supply chain must therefore play an active role, based on knowledge and skills that meet current market requirements. Accordingly, it is necessary for the veterinary medicine curriculum, both undergraduate and postgraduate, to incorporate these skills. This article analyses the approach that veterinary education should adopt in relation to food safety, with an emphasis on animal health, food pathogens and FBD surveillance. PMID:24547647

  3. Arterial roads and area socioeconomic status are predictors of fast food restaurant density in King County, WA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Streichert Laura C

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fast food restaurants reportedly target specific populations by locating in lower-income and in minority neighborhoods. Physical proximity to fast food restaurants has been associated with higher obesity rates. Objective To examine possible associations, at the census tract level, between area demographics, arterial road density, and fast food restaurant density in King County, WA, USA. Methods Data on median household incomes, property values, and race/ethnicity were obtained from King County and from US Census data. Fast food restaurant addresses were obtained from Public Health-Seattle & King County and were geocoded. Fast food density was expressed per tract unit area and per capita. Arterial road density was a measure of vehicular and pedestrian access. Multivariate logistic regression models containing both socioeconomic status and road density were used in data analyses. Results Over one half (53.1% of King County census tracts had at least one fast food restaurant. Mean network distance from dwelling units to a fast food restaurant countywide was 1.40 km, and 1.07 km for census tracts containing at least one fast food restaurant. Fast food restaurant density was significantly associated in regression models with low median household income (p Conclusion No significant association was observed between census tract minority status and fast food density in King County. Although restaurant density was linked to low household incomes, that effect was attenuated by arterial road density. Fast food restaurants in King County are more likely to be located in lower income neighborhoods and higher traffic areas.

  4. Arterial roads and area socioeconomic status are predictors of fast food restaurant density in King County, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurvitz, Philip M; Moudon, Anne V; Rehm, Colin D; Streichert, Laura C; Drewnowski, Adam

    2009-01-01

    Background Fast food restaurants reportedly target specific populations by locating in lower-income and in minority neighborhoods. Physical proximity to fast food restaurants has been associated with higher obesity rates. Objective To examine possible associations, at the census tract level, between area demographics, arterial road density, and fast food restaurant density in King County, WA, USA. Methods Data on median household incomes, property values, and race/ethnicity were obtained from King County and from US Census data. Fast food restaurant addresses were obtained from Public Health-Seattle & King County and were geocoded. Fast food density was expressed per tract unit area and per capita. Arterial road density was a measure of vehicular and pedestrian access. Multivariate logistic regression models containing both socioeconomic status and road density were used in data analyses. Results Over one half (53.1%) of King County census tracts had at least one fast food restaurant. Mean network distance from dwelling units to a fast food restaurant countywide was 1.40 km, and 1.07 km for census tracts containing at least one fast food restaurant. Fast food restaurant density was significantly associated in regression models with low median household income (p < 0.001) and high arterial road density (p < 0.001) but not with percent of residents who were nonwhite. Conclusion No significant association was observed between census tract minority status and fast food density in King County. Although restaurant density was linked to low household incomes, that effect was attenuated by arterial road density. Fast food restaurants in King County are more likely to be located in lower income neighborhoods and higher traffic areas. PMID:19630979

  5. Expansion of Sugarcane area for Ethanol production in Brazil: a Threat to Food Production and Environmental Sustainability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, J. M.; Coutinho, H. L.; Veiga, L. B.

    2012-12-01

    The raise in fossil fuels prices and the increase in Greenhouse Gas emissions is leading nations to adopt non-fossil fuels based energy sources. Sugarcane crops for biofuel production are expanding fast in Brazil, mainly through land use change (LUC) processes, in substitution of pasturelands and grain crops plantations. Would these changes affect negatively sustainability assessments of bioethanol production in the future? We estimate the extent of sugarcane cropland needed to produce sufficient ethanol to attend to market demands. This work presents a baseline scenario for sugarcane cropping area in Brazil in 2017, taking into account market forces (supply and demand). We also comment on a policy instrument targetting sustainable sugarcane production in Brazil. The expansion scenarios took into account the demand for ethanol from 2008-2017, produced by the Energy Research Corporation, of Brazil. In order to develop the expansion scenario, we estimated the amount of sugarcane needed to attend the ethanol demand. We then calculated the area needed to generate that amount of sugarcane. The analytical parameters were: 1) one tonne of sugarcane produces an average 81.6 liters of ethanol; 2) the average sugarcane crop productivity varied linearly from 81.4 tons/hectare in 2008 to 86.2 tons/hectare in 2017. We also assumed that sugarcane productivity in 2017 as the current average productivity of sugarcane in the State of São Paulo. The results show that the requirement for 3.5 million ha in 2007 will increase to 9 million ha in 2017. The Sugarcane Agroecologic Zoning (ZAECANA), published by Embrapa (2009), is a tool that not only informs the territory occupation and use policies, but also classifies land as qualified, restricted or non-qualified for the plantation of sugarcane crops. The ZAECANA is based on soil and climate suitability assessments, and is presented in a spatially-explicit format. Adopting the precautionary principle, a national policy was established

  6. Effects of Climate Change on the Yield and Cropping Area of Major Food Crops: A Case of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Ruhul Amin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The crops that we grow for food need specific climatic conditions to show better performance in view of economic yield. A changing climate could have both beneficial and harmful effects on crops. Keeping the above view in mind, this study is undertaken to investigate the impacts of climate change (viz. changes in maximum temperature, minimum temperature, rainfall, humidity and sunshine on the yield and cropping area of four major food crops (viz. Aus rice, Aman rice, Boro rice and wheat in Bangladesh. Heteroskedasticity and autocorrelation consistent standard error (HAC and feasible generalized least square (FGLS methods were used to determine the climate-crop interrelations using national level time series data for the period of 1972–2010. Findings revealed that the effects of all the climate variables have had significant contributions to the yield and cropping area of major food crops with distinct variation among them. Maximum temperature statistically significantly affected all the food crops’ yield except Aus rice. Maximum temperature also insignificantly affected cropping area of all the crops. Minimum temperature insignificantly affected Aman rice but benefited other three crops’ yield and cropping area. Rainfall significantly benefitted cropping area of Aus rice, but significantly affected both yield and cropping area of Aman rice. Humidity statistically positively contributed to the yield of Aus and Aman rice but, statistically, negatively influenced the cropping area of Aus rice. Sunshine statistically significantly benefitted only Boro rice yield. Overall, maximum temperature adversely affected yield and cropping area of all the major food crops and rainfall severely affected Aman rice only. Concerning the issue of climate change and ensuring food security, the respective authorities thus should give considerable attention to the generation, development and extension of drought (all major food crops and flood (particularly Aman

  7. The use of home-based therapy with ready-to-use therapeutic food to treat malnutrition in a rural area during a food crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    When the international community declared a famine in Malawi in January 2006, emergency food aid reached only populations with pre-existing health care services. To treat the widespread childhood malnutrition in Machinga district, a rural area lacking health care facilities, in February 2006 five ou...

  8. Where Will Demographics Take the Asia-Pacific Food System?

    OpenAIRE

    Armbruster, Walter J.; Coyle, William T.; Gilmour, Brad

    2004-01-01

    Demographic changes in the Asia-Pacific region - expanded urban concentration, variability in population growth within the region, and an aging population base - will drive significant food system change. Costs associated with urban congestion will test the capacity of the region's food system to deliver a continuous flow of safe, reasonably priced, fresh and processed foods. Pressure to better connect urban areas to rural hinterlands and for trade liberalization will intensify to meet food n...

  9. Development of a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire for middle-aged inhabitants in the Chaoshan area, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng-Yan Song; Xin-En Huang; Tajima Kazuo; Takezaki Toshiro; Ke Li; Ping Yu; Xu-Kai Lin; He-Lin Yang; Xiao-Ling Deng; Yu-Qi Zhang; Lai-Wen Lv

    2005-01-01

    AIM: This paper aims to develop a data-based semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire (SQFFQ) covering both urban and rural areas in the Chaoshan region of Guangdong Province, China, for the investigation of relationships between food intake and lifestyle-related diseases among middle-aged Chinese.METHODS: We recruited 417 subjects from the general population and performed an assessment of the diet, using a 3-d weighed dietary record survey. We employed contribution analysis (CA) and multiple regression analysis (MRA) to select food items covering up to a 90% contribution and a 0.90 R2, respectively. The total number of food items consumed was 523 (443 in the urban and 417 in the rural population) and the intake of 29 nutrients was calculated according to the actual consumption by foods/recipes.RESULTS: The CA selected 233, 194, and 183 foods/recipes for the combined, the urban and the rural areas, respectively,and then 196, 157, and 160 were chosen by the MRA. Finally,125 foods/recipes were selected for the final questionnaire.The frequencies were classified into eight categories and standard portion sizes were also calculated.CONCLUSION: For adoption of the area-specific SQFFQ,validity and reproducibility tests are now planned to determine how the combined SQFFQ performs in actual assessment of disease risk and benefit.

  10. Predatory Pricing

    OpenAIRE

    Edlin, Aaron S.

    2010-01-01

    Judge Breyer famously worried that aggressive prohibitions of predatory pricing throw away a bird in hand (low prices during the alleged predatory period) for a speculative bird in the bush (preventing higher prices thereafter). Here, I argue that there is no bird in hand because entry cannot be presumed. Moreover, it is plausibly commonplace that post‐entry low prices or the threat of low prices has anticompetitive results by reducing entry and keeping prices high pre‐entry and post‐predat...

  11. IRRIGATION WATER PRICING AND COST RECUPERATION FOR SUSTAINABILITY OF IRRIGATION PROJECTS IN NYANYADZI, ZIMBABWE

    OpenAIRE

    Ephraim Chifamba; Takupiwa Nyanga; Simbarashe Gukurume

    2013-01-01

    Water pricing and recuperation of the costs of irrigation investment have been litigious issues for many decades in the dry area of Nyanyadzi because the community view irrigation as a development expenditure, financed by donors and the government for backward areas through lowering of food prices and reduction of tariffs. The soaring charges for irrigation water are questioned, as well as, the diminutive percentage of farmers who fundamentally recompense the charges. The failure to institute...

  12. Fostering food security in areas of extreme poverty through Integrated Farm Management: the case of Burundi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Aad; van Duivenbooden, Niek; van Beek, Christy

    2014-05-01

    Extreme poverty in Burundi's rural area and tensions between families with limited access to arable land hinder development towards a more stable and peaceful society. Due to these tensions and a rapid population growth, agricultural land is currently subject to increased degradation and low agricultural productivity. A whole range of other limiting factors contributes to this, such as: poor seed quality, poor nutrient management combined with low soil fertility, inadequate agronomic practices, pests and crop diseases, poorly developed supply chains, health problems, difficult access to credit, and insecurity. Solving one of these problems will not solve the chain that eventually leads to low food production; it will simply move the emphasis to the next constraining factor. An integrated rural development approach is therefore required to break this vicious circle. The project Fanning the Spark, a Public-Private-Partnership between Achmea Foundation, Alterra of Wageningen University and Research Centre, and HealthNet-TPO in Burundi started in September 2013 with an intervention in several rural villages in Gitega. The project's objective is to increase food production at village level, by means of investments in crop production, a family (income) insurance package that protects rural families against the financial consequences of catastrophic events (natural and health) and making micro-credits available. This will enhance farmers' workability and generate income from agricultural activities in order to break the poverty cycle and enhance food security. The insurance package comprises agricultural and health insurances, and will be jointly implemented with the sustainable agriculture component. The latter component focuses on Integrated Farm Management and the use of innovative soil management practices. Farmer-to-farmer training and scaling-up are crucial components, and in the first phase of the project "innovative farmer groups" have a central role in the

  13. A simulation of the impacts of dynamic price management for perishable foods on retailer performance in the presence of need-driven purchasing consumers

    OpenAIRE

    Jaekwon Chung; Dong Li

    2014-01-01

    Numerous studies have investigated dynamic pricing for perishable products. The models have been designed to determine an optimal pricing structure and improve retailer performance. Previous studies on pricing models for perishable products have considered various assumptions of consumer demand and purchasing behaviour from deterministic and stochastic price-dependent demands to myopic and strategic consumer purchasing behaviour. They have not, however, considered consumer demand in reaction ...

  14. Pricing for Scarcity

    OpenAIRE

    Roseta-Palma, C.; Monteiro, H.

    2008-01-01

    DINÂMIA, Junho de 2008. “Prémio Científico ISCTE-IUL 2012” In many areas where water is not abundant, water pricing schedules contain significant nonlinearities. Existing pricing literature establishes that efficient schedules will depend on demand and supply characteristics. However, most empirical studies show that actual pricing schemes have little to do with theoretical efficiency results. In particular, there are very few models recommending increasing blocks, whe...

  15. Modeling the dynamics of radionuclide concentration in food after an accident in tropical areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following an accidental release of radionuclides to the atmosphere that leads to the contamination of large areas, a detailed and fast methodology to assess the prognosis of public exposure is needed, in order to estimate radiological consequences as a base to propose and optimize decisions related to the protection of the public. The German model ECOSYS has been chosen to integrate the SIEM - Integrated Emergency System, developed by IRD/CNEN to assess the doses to the public at the short, medium and long term after an accidental contamination of rural areas. The use of such a model demands a considerable effort in adapting the scenarios to fit the specific conditions of the location where it is to be applied, in particular considering the differences on climate, environmental characteristics, agricultural calendar and practices, along with population diet. The area selected as reference to start this adaptation process is the 50 km radius area surrounding the Brazilian nuclear power plants, at Angra dos Reis County, in Rio de Janeiro State. Radionuclides included in this study were 137Cs, 90Sr and 131I. This work describes the methodology used to select scenarios and describes the results related to the dynamics of the predicted concentration of radionuclides in different kinds of vegetable foods. It also discusses the relevance of criteria, parameter values and site specific aspects that are to be considered in performing assessments of public exposure. The work provides guidance to the need of radioecological research and on the database needed to perform the simulations, in order to improve the adequacy of the estimates to actual Brazilian scenarios. (author)

  16. Congestion Pricing in Urban Polycentric Networks with Distorted Labor Markets: A Spatial General Equilibrium Model for the Area Randstad

    OpenAIRE

    Tikoudis, Ioannis

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents a polycentric general equilibrium model with congestion externalities and distortionary labor taxation calibrated to fit the key empirical regularities of the regional economy and transport system of Randstad conglomeration. In line with more stylized models, marginal external cost pricing (i.e. a quasi first-best Pigouvian toll that ignores the pre-existing taxation in the labor market) is shown to generate considerable welfare losses. Surprisingly, the quasi first-best Pi...

  17. Association of food-hygiene practices and diarrhea prevalence among Indonesian young children from low socioeconomic urban areas

    OpenAIRE

    Agustina, R.; Sari, T.P.; Satroamidjojo, S.; Bovee-Oudenhoven, I M J; Feskens, E.J.M.; Kok, F. J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Information on the part that poor food-hygiene practices play a role in the development of diarrhea in low socioeconomic urban communities is lacking. This study was therefore aimed at assessing the contribution of food-hygiene practice to the prevalence of diarrhea among Indonesian children. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 274 randomly selected children aged 12-59 months in selected low socioeconomic urban areas of East Jakarta. The prevalence of diarrhea was...

  18. Energy potential from the anaerobic digestion of food waste in municipal solid waste stream of urban areas in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Hoa Huu; Heaven, Sonia; Banks, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) was introduced in Vietnam more than 10 years ago, but at a small scale to deal with agricultural wastes, manure, etc. Despite its many advantages, AD does not yet make a significant contribution to resolving Vietnams urban waste issues due to a lack of information, data and experience. This paper, using an energy model of food waste digestion, provides a usable source of information regarding energy potential of food waste generated from urban areas in Vietnam in form...

  19. Fat/carbohydrate ratio but not energy density determines snack food intake and activates brain reward areas

    OpenAIRE

    Hoch, Tobias; Kreitz, Silke; Gaffling, Simone; Pischetsrieder, Monika; Hess, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    The snack food potato chips induces food intake in ad libitum fed rats, which is associated with modulation of the brain reward system and other circuits. Here, we show that food intake in satiated rats is triggered by an optimal fat/carbohydrate ratio. Like potato chips, an isocaloric fat/carbohydrate mixture influenced whole brain activity pattern of rats, affecting circuits related e.g. to reward/addiction, but the number of modulated areas and the extent of modulation was lower compared t...

  20. Rice prices and poverty in Liberia

    OpenAIRE

    Tsimpo, Clarence; Wodon, Quentin

    2008-01-01

    When assessing the impact of changes in food prices on poverty, it is important to consider food producers (who may benefit from an increase in prices) as well as consumers (who loose out when the price increases), with a focus on poor consumers and producers. In the case of rice in Liberia however, the impact of a change in price is not ambiguous because a large share of the rice consumed ...

  1. Compilation of a countermeasures compendium for food production systems and inhabited areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The STRATEGY project (Sustainable Restoration and Long-Term Management of Contaminated Rural, Urban and Industrial Ecosystems) has established a holistic framework for the selection of optimal remediation strategies for long-term sustainable management of contaminated areas in Western Europe. A fundamental requirement of this framework was the development of databases containing state-of-the-art information on individual countermeasures that might be applicable to food production systems and inhabited areas. A data sheet template was designed taking into account all of the criteria that decision-makers might wish to consider when evaluating different countermeasures. These included a short description of the option, its key attributes, constraints, effectiveness, feasibility, waste generated, doses incurred, costs, side effects, stakeholder opinion and practical experience. A compendium, comprising data sheets for 101 countermeasures was produced based on existing information and new data. The compendium underwent extensive peer review. For some criteria, the inclusion of more detailed guidance was made possible by adopting a CD-Rom format with hyper-links to underlying documents, where relevant. The countermeasures compendium has been well received by national and international bodies and plans are currently being made for its further development under the direction of the IAEA/FAO and the EC

  2. Food Security in Rural Areas of Vaishali District, India: A Household Level Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Haroon Sajjad; Iffat Nasreen

    2014-01-01

    Food security has been one of the major developmental objectives in India. Though India has sufficient food production yet the achievement did not percolate down to households.This paper reports on an investigation into the food security status in Vaishali district of Bihar. Data were gathered across 16 administrative divisions in the district and eventually959 farmers’ households were sampled using stratified random sampling techniques. This allowed computing composite food security index to...

  3. Price Linkage between International Price of Crude Palm Oil (CPO) and Cooking Oil Price in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Rifin, Amzul

    2009-01-01

    Cooking oil in Indonesia is considered to be one of the staple food of Indonesian people. In the beginning of 2008, the price of cooking oil in Indonesia has increased significantly. One of the reasons is the increase of Crude Palm Oil (CPO) price in the international market. The objective of this research is to investigate the impacts of international price of CPO on the domestic price of CPO and cooking oil. Three specific objectives are included (1) To test whether international price of C...

  4. Pricing strategies of the supermarket sector

    OpenAIRE

    Leal, Joana Lobato da Fonseca Sáragga

    2014-01-01

    The food retail industry is a very competitive market. Supermarkets use a combination of price, quality of products and service to lure consumers and increase their profit. This work project draws upon both empirical and theoretical literatures to understand the different pricing strategies that the supermarket sector uses. Everyday Low Price, Promotional, Zone Pricing and Loyalty Programs are the most common pricing strategies in this industry. By using data from the Portuguese supermarket l...

  5. Food mirages: geographic and economic barriers to healthful food access in Portland, Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breyer, Betsy; Voss-Andreae, Adriana

    2013-11-01

    This paper investigated the role of grocery store prices in structuring food access for low-income households in Portland, Oregon. We conducted a detailed healthful foods market basket survey and developed an index of store cost based on the USDA Thrifty Food Plan. Using this index, we estimated the difference in street-network distance between the nearest low-cost grocery store and the nearest grocery store irrespective of cost. Spatial regression of this metric in relation to income, poverty, and gentrification at the census tract scale lead to a new theory regarding food access in the urban landscape. Food deserts are sparse in Portland, but food mirages are abundant, particularly in gentrifying areas where poverty remains high. In a food mirage, grocery stores are plentiful but prices are beyond the means of low-income households, making them functionally equivalent to food deserts in that a long journey to obtain affordable, nutritious food is required in either case. Results suggested that evaluation of food environments should, at a minimum, consider both proximity and price in assessing healthy food access for low-income households. PMID:24100236

  6. JUNK FOOD CONSUMPTION PATTERN AND OBESITY AMONG SCHOOL GOING CHILDREN IN AN URBAN FIELD PRACTICE AREA: A CROSS SECTIONAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidya

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Junk food simply means an empty calorie food; it lacks in micronutrients such as vitamins, minerals, or amino acids, and fibre but has high energy (calories. During school - age years, children begin to establish habits for eating and exercise that stick w ith them for their entire lives. If children establish healthy habits, their risk for developing many chronic diseases will be greatly decreased. The family, friends, schools, and community resources in a child’s environment reinforce lifestyle habits rega rding diet and activity. OBJECTIVES: To study the fast food consumptions pattern and fast food preferences among the school going children (9 - 13yrs and some of the determinants related to fast food consumption . STUDY SETTING: Department of Community Medic ine in an Urban field practice area of Rajarajeswari Medical College & Hospital, Bangalore. STUDY DESIGN: Cross - sectional study. STUDY DURATION: Three months duration ( Oct – Dec 2014. STUDY POPULATION: school students studying in V th standard to X th standar d. SAMPLE SIZE : The selected school had a strength of 200 students. Hence complete enumeration of the students was considered for this study. DATA COLLECTION : by using pre - structured questionnaire by interview method. The variables included were socio - demographic profile, measurement of height, weight and questions related to junk food consumption and its patterns. DATA ANALYSIS: using statistics software SPSS 20. Mean and standard deviation was calculated for anthropometric measurements. Test of significance for proportions was done by Chi - square test. RESULTS: Among 200 study subjects, 107 were male (53.5% and 93 females (46.5%. Majority of the students wer e in the age group of 12 - 15 years ( 66% and 9 - 11 years ( 34%. Snacks (41%, Fast food (25.50%, soft drinks (17.50% and candies (16% were the favourite junk foods among the study subjects. Taste and time factors, watching television while consuming

  7. Uranium analysis in some food samples collected from Bathinda area of Punjab, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To strengthen the radiation protection infrastructure in Bathinda, the uranium concentration in daily diet of the residents has been measured and its associated radiation risks were estimated for the adult population. Food samples were collected from major cancer prone areas of the district, from which daily diets were prepared. These diet samples were analyzed using fission track technique. The measured values of the uranium content were found to vary from 0.38 mBq/g in mustard seeds to 4.60 mBq/g in wheat. In case of milk the uranium content is found to vary from 28.57-213.36 mBq/l with mean concentration of 61.35 mBq/l. This leads to a daily dietary intake of 0.90 Bq/day. The measured value of 0.90 Bq d-1, contributes to 1.12 mSv to the cumulative effective dose to the population. This dose is much larger than the International Commission for Radiological Protection (ICRP) annual effective dose limit of 1 mSv for the general public. Therefore, it would pose significant health hazard. (author)

  8. Cadmium Exposure and Potential Health Risk from Foods in Contaminated Area, Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Chunhabundit, Rodjana

    2016-01-01

    Man-made cadmium (Cd) emissions can be transported between environmental matrices and the food chain. Food is the primary source of Cd exposure among general population as a consequence of the bio-concentration of Cd from soil. Chronic Cd exposure has been reported to be associated with chronic kidney disease, osteoporosis, diabetes, cardiovascular disease and cancer. The Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) established the safe level of Cd intake as provisional tolerable ...

  9. Production and Distribution of Organic Food - Opportunity for Development of Rural Areas in Macedonia

    OpenAIRE

    Magdinceva Sopova, Marija

    2011-01-01

    Most consumers are more interested in consuming organic produced food. Demand for organic produced food is increasing as a result of increased environmental awareness and growing concern of consumers for personal health. Market and production of organic products in the Republic of Macedonia is in the first stage of development. Worldwide, it is present trend of increasing agricultural land used for production of organic food products. This paper will attempt to perceive the possibility of dev...

  10. Price Dynamics in China

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2010-01-01

    Chinese inflation, particularly non-food inflation, has been surprisingly modest in recent years. We find that supply factors, including those captured through upstream foreign commodity and producer prices, have been important drivers of non-food inflation, as has foreign demand for Chinese goods. Domestic demand and monetary conditions seem less important, possibly reflecting a large domestic output gap generated by many years of high investment. Inflation varies systemically within China, ...

  11. The impact of gasoline price fluctuations on lodging demand for US brand hotels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, Kate; Enz, Cathy A.; Canina, Linda [Cornell Univ., School of Hotel Administration, Ithaca, NY (United States)

    2004-12-01

    Analyzing US brand hotels, over a 13-year period, this study provides empirical evidence of a significant negative relationship between gasoline prices and demand for certain lodging products, controlling for economic factors (i.e. gross domestic product and population density). Applying principles from microeconomic demand theory to the literature on gasoline price elasticities, consumer demographics and lodging demand, a set of hypotheses were devised to test the relationship between gasoline prices and lodging demand for specific hotel locations and price segments. Using fixed effects models, the results reveal that lodging demand decreases as gasoline prices rise in all segments except upper-upscale and all locations except urban areas. Hotels in midscale without food and beverage and economy market segments, in resort, suburban and highway locations, exhibit the greatest association between gasoline price shifts and demand. Implications of these findings are discussed for both hospitality research and practice. (Author)

  12. The impact of gasoline price fluctuations on lodging demand for US brand hotels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analyzing US brand hotels, over a 13-year period, this study provides empirical evidence of a significant negative relationship between gasoline prices and demand for certain lodging products, controlling for economic factors (i.e. gross domestic product and population density). Applying principles from microeconomic demand theory to the literature on gasoline price elasticities, consumer demographics and lodging demand, a set of hypotheses were devised to test the relationship between gasoline prices and lodging demand for specific hotel locations and price segments. Using fixed effects models, the results reveal that lodging demand decreases as gasoline prices rise in all segments except upper-upscale and all locations except urban areas. Hotels in midscale without food and beverage and economy market segments, in resort, suburban and highway locations, exhibit the greatest association between gasoline price shifts and demand. Implications of these findings are discussed for both hospitality research and practice. (Author)

  13. Fast food (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... quick, reasonably priced, and readily available alternatives to home cooking. While convenient and economical for a busy lifestyle, fast foods are typically high in calories, fat, saturated fat, ...

  14. Immigration and Swiss House Prices

    OpenAIRE

    Degen, Kathrin; Andreas M. Fischer

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the behavior of Swiss house prices to immigration flows for 85 districts from 2001 to 2006. The results show that the nexus between immigration and house prices holds even in an environment of low house price inflation, nationwide rent control, and modest immigration flows. An immigration inflow equal to 1% of an area's population is coincident with an increase in prices for single-family homes of about 2.7%: a result consistent with previous studies. The overall immigrati...

  15. Food groups consumed by infants and toddlers in urban areas of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan Yu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Food consumption patterns of young children in China are not well known. Objective: Characterised food groups consumed by infants and young children in urban China using data from the Maternal Infant Nutrition Growth (MING study. Design: One 24-h dietary recall was completed for 1,350 infants and young children (436 infants aged 6–11 months and 914 young children aged 12–35 months, who were recruited from maternal and child care centres in eight cities via face-to-face interviews with the primary caregiver. All foods, beverages and supplements reported were assigned to one of 64 food groups categorised into the following: milk and milk products, grains, vegetables, fruits, protein foods and desserts/sweets. The percentage of infants and young children consuming foods from specific food groups was calculated, regardless of the amount consumed. Results: Less than half of infants consumed breast milk (47%, whereas 59% of infants consumed infant formula and 53–75% of young children consumed growing-up (fortified milk. Rice was the number one grain food consumed after 6 months (up to 88% and the consumption of infant cereal was low. About 50% of infants did not consume any fruits or vegetables, and 38% of young children did not consume any fruits on the day of the recall. Only 40% of all children consumed dark green leafy vegetables and even fewer consumed deep yellow vegetables. Eggs and pork were the most commonly consumed protein foods. Conclusions: The data provide important insight for developing detailed food consumption guidelines for this population group. Mothers of infants should be encouraged to continue breastfeeding after the first 6 months. Parents should be advised to offer a wide variety of vegetables and fruits daily, particularly dark green leafy and deep yellow vegetables and colourful fruits. The consumption of fortified infant cereal should be advocated to improve the iron intake of Chinese infants.

  16. Modelling Brewing Industry Pricing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Maier

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this contribution is to analyse the price behaviour of the second to eleventh strongest brewers on the Czech market on the basis of the price behaviour of the price leader, this being Plzeňský Prazdroj (a member of SABMiller. Using monthly prices (the number of observations is generally 108 periods, is modelled the length of delay between the price leader and the other breweries making a price change. A linear regressive analysis is used to produce the model. The beer brands are divided into 3 segments: super- premium, mainstream and non-alcoholic beer and prices are modelled separately for barrelled and bottled beer if the data is available to allow it. The results of each brewery’s behaviour are summarised in conclusion. The information presented in the article is the product of working on the Research Plan MSM 6046070906, “The Economics of Czech agriculture resources and their efficient use within a multifunctional agri-food systems framework”.

  17. Review of arsenic contamination and human exposure through water food in rural areas in Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Red River Delta in Vietnam is one of the regions whose quaternary aquifers are polluted by arsenic. Chronic toxification by arsenic can cause severe illnesses such as cancer, skin lesions, developmental defects, cardiovascular and neurological diseases, and diabetes. In this study, a food processing craft village in the Red River Delta was investigated regarding the potential risk faced by the population due to arsenic. The potential sources of arsenic are the groundwater, the crops grown in the surroundings, and animal products from local husbandry. However, the occurrence of arsenic in nature is variable, and its bioavailability and toxicity depend very much on its specification: trivalent compounds are more toxic and often more mobile than pentavalent compounds, while inorganic species are generally more toxic than organic ones. Local conditions, such as the redox potential, strongly influence its specification and thus potential bioavailability. The introduction to this work elucidates the key factors which potentially cause human exposure to arsenic: the geological setting of the study area, land and water use patterns, and the current state of research regarding the mobilization, bioavailability and plant uptake of arsenic. Although the study area is located in a region where the groundwater is known to be moderately contaminated by arsenic, the level of arsenic in the groundwater in the village had not previously been determined. In this study, water use in the village was examined by a survey among the farmers and by water analyses, which are presented in the following chapters. Four main water sources (rain, river, tube well and a public municipal waterworks) are used for the different daily activities; the highest risk to human health was found to be the bore well water, which is pumped from the shallow Holocene aquifer. The water from the bore wells is commonly used for cleaning and washing as well as to feed the animals and for food processing

  18. Review of arsenic contamination and human exposure through water food in rural areas in Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn, Celia

    2016-05-01

    The Red River Delta in Vietnam is one of the regions whose quaternary aquifers are polluted by arsenic. Chronic toxification by arsenic can cause severe illnesses such as cancer, skin lesions, developmental defects, cardiovascular and neurological diseases, and diabetes. In this study, a food processing craft village in the Red River Delta was investigated regarding the potential risk faced by the population due to arsenic. The potential sources of arsenic are the groundwater, the crops grown in the surroundings, and animal products from local husbandry. However, the occurrence of arsenic in nature is variable, and its bioavailability and toxicity depend very much on its specification: trivalent compounds are more toxic and often more mobile than pentavalent compounds, while inorganic species are generally more toxic than organic ones. Local conditions, such as the redox potential, strongly influence its specification and thus potential bioavailability. The introduction to this work elucidates the key factors which potentially cause human exposure to arsenic: the geological setting of the study area, land and water use patterns, and the current state of research regarding the mobilization, bioavailability and plant uptake of arsenic. Although the study area is located in a region where the groundwater is known to be moderately contaminated by arsenic, the level of arsenic in the groundwater in the village had not previously been determined. In this study, water use in the village was examined by a survey among the farmers and by water analyses, which are presented in the following chapters. Four main water sources (rain, river, tube well and a public municipal waterworks) are used for the different daily activities; the highest risk to human health was found to be the bore well water, which is pumped from the shallow Holocene aquifer. The water from the bore wells is commonly used for cleaning and washing as well as to feed the animals and for food processing

  19. Gold prices

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph G. Haubrich

    1998-01-01

    The price of gold commands attention because it serves as an indicator of general price stability or inflation. But gold is also a commodity, used in jewelry and by industry, so demand and supply affect its pricing and need to be considered when gold is a factor in monetary policy decisions.

  20. Transfer Pricing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Bo

    2014-01-01

    Against a background of rather mixed evidence about transfer pricing practices in multinational enterprises (MNEs) and varying attitudes on the part of tax authorities, this paper explores how multiple aims in transfer pricing can be pursued across four different transfer pricing regimes. A MNE h...

  1. Measuring motivation for appetitive behaviour: food-restricted broiler breeder chickens cross a water barrier to forage in an area of wood shavings without food.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura M Dixon

    Full Text Available Broiler breeders (parents of meat chickens are selected for fast growth and become obese if fed ad libitum. To avoid this and maintain good health and reproductive ability, they are feed restricted to about 1/3 of what they would eat ad libitum. As a result, they experience chronic hunger and exhibit abnormal behaviour patterns that may indicate stress and frustration. One approach to measuring hunger is to observe how much birds will work, such as pecking a key, for access to more or different types of food. However, the sight, smell, and feedback from consumption of the feed reward changes the context and may artificially raise feeding motivation. To avoid this, we tested broiler breeders in an apparatus in which they could work for access to a wooden platform covered in wood shavings by crossing a water runway which increased in length and depth in 8 successive tests. In the wood shavings area, they could perform exploratory and foraging behaviour (the appetitive phase of feeding but were never rewarded with feed. Sixty birds were divided into three feed quantity treatments: commercial restriction (R, and twice (2R or three times (3R this amount. Overall, birds fed R worked harder to reach the wood shavings area (reached it in a larger number of tests than 2R and 3R birds (P2R>3R. This indicates that restricted-fed birds were hungry and willing to work for the opportunity to forage even though food was never provided, suggesting that their motivation to perform the appetitive component of feeding behaviour (foraging/food searching was sufficient to sustain their response. Thus food restriction in broiler breeders is a welfare concern. However these methods could be used to test alternative feeding regimes to attempt to find ways of alleviating hunger while still maintaining healthy growth and reproduction in these birds.

  2. Food supply for waders (Aves: Charadrii) in an estuarine area in the Bay of Cádiz (SW Iberian Peninsula)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masero, José A.; Pérez-González, Maite; Basadre, Marta; Otero-Saavedra, Mónica

    1999-07-01

    We studied the composition, density, size distribution and biomass of the food supply for waders in an estuarine area in the Bay of Cádiz (SW Iberian Peninsula), in winter (January-February) and in the pre-migratory period (late March). The estuarine area comprises an intertidal mudflat and an adjacent salina or salt-pan. On the intertidal mudflat, the biomass was 53 and 37 g AFDW .m -2in winter and the pre-migratory period, respectively. The main food source on mudflat was the polychaete Nereis diversicolor (44-54 % of the total biomass). On the other hand, the biomass in the salina was comparatively very poor, ranging from 0.008 to 0.079 g AFDW .m -2in winter and ranging from 0.011 to 0.09 g AFDW in late March. The main source of food in the salina was the crustacean Artemia. The total biomass on the mudflat during the pre-migratory period was 1.4 times lower than in February. This depletion could be caused by wader predation, mainly by Nereis diversicolor consumption. Although the potential food on the mudflats could allow high intertidal densities of waders, the availability of high tide foraging areas in the salina seems to contribute to the maintenance of these high intertidal densities.

  3. Perspectives for food research and European collaboration in the European Research Area and the new Framework Programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breslin, L

    2001-08-01

    Since 1987, successive framework programmes have contributed to strengthen European food research through the establishment of networks between research institutions, universities and companies from various European countries. In the FAIR programme (1994-1998), 118 research projects comprising nearly 1,000 participants from the European Union and Associated States have been supported in the food area with a European funding of about [symbol: see text] 108 million. Within the Quality of Life and Management of Living Resources programme (1998-2002), food research is mostly supported within the key action 'food, nutrition and health' with a budget of [symbol: see text] 290 million. After the first four deadlines, 735 eligible research proposals have already been received. Further to their evaluation by a panel of independent experts, 108 proposals have been funded or selected for funding representing a total contribution of about [symbol: see text] 168 million. Among those, several clusters of projects are now running on important topics such as probiotics, coeliac diseases, mycotoxins, GMO, safety and food for the elderly. In addition, technology stimulation measures are largely benefiting SMEs to foster their innovation potential. In January 2000, the European Commission adopted a Communication entitled "Towards the European Research Area (ERA)" with the objective to contribute to developing better framework conditions for research in Europe. On 21 February 2001, the Commission adopted proposals to be submitted to the European Parliament and Council for the next framework programme for research and innovation (2002-2006). The new framework programme that is becoming one of the financial instruments of the ERA aims at catalysing the integration of European research by: strengthening of links between the Community research effort and national and regional research policies; concentrating on a limited number of priority fields or research to which activities at the

  4. Principles, application areas and an example of risk assessment conducted at the Danish Institute for Food and Veterinary Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greiner, Matthias; Paisley, Larry; Nørgaard, Julie Hostrup; Wong, Danilo Lo Fo; Andersen, Jens Strodl; Stockmarr, Anders; Korsgaard, Helle; Sommer, Helle Mølgaard; Hald, Tine

    The Department for Epidemiology and Risk Analysis at the Danish Institute for Food and Veterinary Research (DFVF) is concerned with risk analyses in the areas of food safety, zoo noses, antimicrobial resistance and OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health) list A and B diseases. The DFVF is...... risk assessments at the DFVF. Important elements of these guidelines are the independence between risk assessment and risk management, the commitment to science-based, transparent and fully documented procedures and adherence to a protocol that regulates the cooperation between DFVF and DVFA. Typical...

  5. Melanocortin 4 Receptor and Dopamine D2 Receptor Expression in Brain Areas Involved in Food Intake

    OpenAIRE

    Yoon, Ye Ran; Baik, Ja-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Background The melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R) is involved in the regulation of homeostatic energy balance by the hypothalamus. Recent reports showed that MC4R can also control the motivation for food in association with a brain reward system, such as dopamine. We investigated the expression levels of MC4R and the dopamine D2 receptor (D2R), which is known to be related to food rewards, in both the hypothalamus and brain regions involved in food rewards. Methods We examined the expression leve...

  6. Food irradiation 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Food irradiation principles; its main applications, advantages and limitations; wholesomeness, present activities at Ezeiza Atomic Centre; research coordinated by the International Atomic Energy Agency; capacity building; and some aspects on national and international regulations, standards and commercialization are briefly described. At present 56 countries authorize the consumption of varied irradiated foods; trade is performed in 32 countries, with about 200 irradiation facilities. Argentina pioneered nuclear energy knowledge and applications in Latin America, food irradiation included. A steady growth of food industrial volumes treated in two gamma facilities can be observed. Food industry and producers show interest towards new facilities construction. However, a 15 years standstill in incorporating new approvals in the Argentine Alimentary Code, in spite of consecutive request performed either by CNEA or some food industries restricts, a wider industrial implementation, which constitute a drawback to future regional commercialization in areas such as MERCOSUR, where Brazil since 2000 freely authorize food irradiation. Besides, important chances in international trade with developed countries will be missed, like the high fresh fruits and vegetables requirements United States has in counter-season, leading to convenient sale prices. The Argentine food irradiation facilities have been designed and built in the country. Argentina produces Cobalt-60. These capacities, unusual in the world and particularly in Latin America, should be protected and enhanced. Being the irradiation facilities scarce and concentrated nearby Buenos Aires city, the possibilities of commercial application and even research and development are strongly limited for most of the country regions. (author)

  7. Source segregation and food waste prevention activities in high-density households in a deprived urban area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rispo, A.; Williams, I.D., E-mail: idw@soton.ac.uk; Shaw, P.J.

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Study of waste management in economically and socially deprived high-density housing. • Food waste segregation, prevention and recycling activities investigated. • Study involved a waste audit and household survey of 1034 households. • Populations in such areas are “hard-to-reach”. • Exceptional efforts and additional resources are required to improve performance. - Abstract: A waste audit and a household questionnaire survey were conducted in high-density housing estates in one of the most economically and socially deprived areas of England (Haringey, London). Such areas are under-represented in published research. The study examined source segregation, potential participation in a food waste segregation scheme, and food waste prevention activities in five estates (1034 households). The results showed that: contamination of recyclables containers was low; ca. 28% of the mixed residual waste’s weight was recyclable; food waste comprised a small proportion of the waste from these residents, probably because of their relatively disadvantaged economic circumstances; and the recycling profile reflected an intermittent pattern of behaviour. Although the majority of respondents reported that they would participate in a food waste separation scheme, the response rate was low and many responses of “don’t know” were recorded. Municipalities committed to foster improved diversion from landfill need to recognise that there is no “quick and easy fix”, regardless of local or national aspirations. Lasting and sustained behaviour change requires time and the quality of service provision and associated infrastructure play a fundamental role in facilitating residents to participate effectively in waste management activities that maximise capture of source-segregated materials. Populations in deprived areas that reside in high-rise, high-density dwellings are “hard-to-reach” in terms of participation in recycling schemes and exceptional

  8. Source segregation and food waste prevention activities in high-density households in a deprived urban area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Study of waste management in economically and socially deprived high-density housing. • Food waste segregation, prevention and recycling activities investigated. • Study involved a waste audit and household survey of 1034 households. • Populations in such areas are “hard-to-reach”. • Exceptional efforts and additional resources are required to improve performance. - Abstract: A waste audit and a household questionnaire survey were conducted in high-density housing estates in one of the most economically and socially deprived areas of England (Haringey, London). Such areas are under-represented in published research. The study examined source segregation, potential participation in a food waste segregation scheme, and food waste prevention activities in five estates (1034 households). The results showed that: contamination of recyclables containers was low; ca. 28% of the mixed residual waste’s weight was recyclable; food waste comprised a small proportion of the waste from these residents, probably because of their relatively disadvantaged economic circumstances; and the recycling profile reflected an intermittent pattern of behaviour. Although the majority of respondents reported that they would participate in a food waste separation scheme, the response rate was low and many responses of “don’t know” were recorded. Municipalities committed to foster improved diversion from landfill need to recognise that there is no “quick and easy fix”, regardless of local or national aspirations. Lasting and sustained behaviour change requires time and the quality of service provision and associated infrastructure play a fundamental role in facilitating residents to participate effectively in waste management activities that maximise capture of source-segregated materials. Populations in deprived areas that reside in high-rise, high-density dwellings are “hard-to-reach” in terms of participation in recycling schemes and exceptional

  9. Renda, preço dos alimentos e participação de frutas e hortaliças na dieta Income, food prices, and participation of fruit and vegetables in the diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Moreira Claro

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar a influência da renda e preços dos alimentos sobre a participação de frutas, legumes e verduras no consumo alimentar das famílias. MÉTODOS: Os dados provêm da Pesquisa de Orçamentos Familiares da Fundação Instituto de Pesquisas Econômicas 1998/99, no Município de São Paulo. A influência da renda e do preço dos alimentos sobre a participação de frutas, legumes e verduras no total calórico foi estudada utilizando-se técnicas de análise de regressão para estimação de coeficientes de elasticidade. RESULTADOS: Observou-se aumento da participação de frutas, legumes e verduras no total de calorias adquirido com a diminuição de seu próprio preço, elevação da renda familiar, e aumento do preço dos demais alimentos. Um por cento da diminuição de preço das frutas, legumes e verduras aumentaria em 0,2% sua participação no total calórico; 1% de aumento do preço dos demais alimentos reduziria em 0,07%, a participação; 1% de aumento da renda familiar aumentaria em 0,04% a participação. O efeito dos preços dos demais alimentos perdeu intensidade nos estratos de maior renda, e nos outros dois casos não se identificou um padrão consistente de relação com os estratos de renda. CONCLUSÕES: A redução de preço de frutas, legumes e verduras, possível de ser obtida por meio de políticas públicas, poderia aumentar a participação desses alimentos na dieta dos domicílios do município de São Paulo e em realidades urbanas semelhantes.OBJECTIVE: To analyze the influence of income and food prices on household consumption of fruit and vegetables. METHODS: Data from the 1998/99 Household Budget Survey were analyzed, which was conducted by the Fundação Instituto de Pesquisas Econômicas (Institute for Economic Research Foundation in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. The influence of income and food price on the relative participation of fruit and vegetables in the total household calorie intake was

  10. Fast food (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fast foods are quick, reasonably priced, and readily available alternatives to home cooking. While convenient and economical for a busy lifestyle, fast foods are typically high in calories, fat, saturated fat, ...

  11. Principles, application areas and an example of risk assessment conducted at the Danish Institute for Food and Veterinary Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greiner, Matthias; Paisley, Larry; Nørgaard, Julie Hostrup;

    2004-01-01

    The Department for Epidemiology and Risk Analysis at the Danish Institute for Food and Veterinary Research (DFVF) is concerned with risk analyses in the areas of food safety, zoo noses, antimicrobial resistance and OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health) list A and B diseases. The DFVF is...... responsible for the risk assessment component of the risk analysis process and provides advice and support for the risk management and risk communication component, which is generally under the auspices of the Danish Veterinary and Food Administration (DVFA). The paper presents guidelines for the conduct of...... risk assessments at the DFVF. Important elements of these guidelines are the independence between risk assessment and risk management, the commitment to science-based, transparent and fully documented procedures and adherence to a protocol that regulates the cooperation between DFVF and DVFA. Typical...

  12. Organic farmers use of wild food plants and fungi in a hilly area in Styria (Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schunko Christoph

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Changing lifestyles have recently caused a severe reduction of the gathering of wild food plants. Knowledge about wild food plants and the local environment becomes lost when plants are no longer gathered. In Central Europe popular scientific publications have tried to counter this trend. However, detailed and systematic scientific investigations in distinct regions are needed to understand and preserve wild food uses. This study aims to contribute to these investigations. Methods Research was conducted in the hill country east of Graz, Styria, in Austria. Fifteen farmers, most using organic methods, were interviewed in two distinct field research periods between July and November 2008. Data gathering was realized through freelisting and subsequent semi-structured interviews. The culinary use value (CUV was developed to quantify the culinary importance of plant species. Hierarchical cluster analysis was performed on gathering and use variables to identify culture-specific logical entities of plants. The study presented was conducted within the framework of the master's thesis about wild plant gathering of the first author. Solely data on gathered wild food species is presented here. Results Thirty-nine wild food plant and mushroom species were identified as being gathered, whereas 11 species were mentioned by at least 40 percent of the respondents. Fruits and mushrooms are listed frequently, while wild leafy vegetables are gathered rarely. Wild foods are mainly eaten boiled, fried or raw. Three main clusters of wild gathered food species were identified: leaves (used in salads and soups, mushrooms (used in diverse ways and fruits (eaten raw, with milk (products or as a jam. Conclusions Knowledge about gathering and use of some wild food species is common among farmers in the hill country east of Graz. However, most uses are known by few farmers only. The CUV facilitates the evaluation of the culinary importance of species and

  13. UPDATE July 2012 | The Food Crises: The US Drought

    OpenAIRE

    Marco Lagi; Yavni Bar-Yam; Yaneer Bar-Yam

    2012-01-01

    Recent droughts in the midwestern United States threaten to cause global catastrophe driven by a speculator amplified food price bubble. Here we show the effect of speculators on food prices using a validated quantitative model that accurately describes historical food prices. During the last six years, high and fluctuating food prices have lead to widespread hunger and social unrest. While a relative dip in food prices occurred during the spring of 2012, a massive drought in the American Mid...

  14. PRICE CATEGORIES AND PRICE STRUCTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VĂDUVA CECILIA ELENA

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Defining the pricing mechanism aims, primarily, the price system that works through the interconditionality with other systems of the national economy and, secondly, legalities of the formation process of prices which continuously act as a specific part within the whole social reproduction on prices. The multitude of phases of social reproduction, the diversification of national economy branches, the connections between the economic units, internal and external market, complex process of formation of the goods value, delineates existing prices as autonomous mechanism.

  15. Risk Management Instruments for Food Price Volatility and Weather Risk in Latin America and the Caribbean: The Use of Risk Management Instruments

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, Anne G.; Jason Hartell; Víctor Cárdenas; Skees, Jerry R.

    2012-01-01

    This report examines some of the implications of price risk and volatility, and weather risks in the LAC region that are important threats to already vulnerable populations. It considers the advantages and limitations of a set of financial instruments for managing these risks; and identifies potential mechanisms for addressing concerns about the socioeconomic consequences of price and weather volatility. In reviewing the innovations that are being tested in the LAC region and around the world...

  16. A Study on Environmental Pollutants in the Food Subject Area of High School Family and Consumer Sciences Textbooks : Including the Relation to the Experimental Research

    OpenAIRE

    OKAZAKI, YUKAKO

    2005-01-01

    The chief aim of this paper is to examine the present state of environmental pollutants in the food subject area of family and consumer sciences textbooks for senior high school level. First, the author showed how course of study and textbooks for senior high school students deal with environment pollutants in the food subject area. Second, after considering their contents from the viewpoints of food life, books and experimental reports that deal with environmental pollutants were reviewed an...

  17. Home gardens in Msunduza : urban agriculture as a contribution to food security

    OpenAIRE

    Oikarinen-Mapengo, Jaana

    2011-01-01

    World is facing a fundamental food security challenge, due the increasing food prices and population. Especially people in developing countries are struggling to feed themselves. In the recent decades, urbanization rates have been increasing in the countries of Africa and food security has become even bigger issue in development work in the urban areas. Urban agriculture has been practiced thousands of years and it can be strategy for attaining sustainable food security in the cities. Urb...

  18. Economic Implications of Food Demand in Akoko South West, Ondo State, Nigeria: Aids Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Adebisi Temitope Edun; Adamu Haruna

    2013-01-01

    The study examined the socio-economic characteristics of food consuming households, estimated the complete demand functions for some selected common food commodities, their prices and expenditure elasticities in Akoko South West (ASW) local government in Ondo state, Nigeria. The study examined demand analysis for food in ASW, using primary data with the use of questionnaire on some selected food-consuming households within the study area. Data collected were subjected to descriptive statisti...

  19. A guide to countermeasures for implementation in the event of a nuclear accident affecting nordic food-producing areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    State-of-the-art information on methods for management of nuclear accidents affecting food-producing areas has been reviewed, evaluated and transposed to reflect conditions relevant to the Nordic countries. This data, describing in detail the various method-specific costs and benefits, is reported in a well-arranged format facilitating analyses in connection with decision-making. Guidance, recommendations and examples are given as to how the individual data sheets may be used in emergency preparedness planning. (au)

  20. A guide to countermeasures for implementation in the event of a nuclear accident affecting nordic food-producing areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, K.G.; Roed, J. [Risoe National Lab., (Denmark); Rantavaara, A. [STUK (Finland); Rosen, K. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences (Sweden); Salbu, B.; Skipperud, L. [Agricultural Univ. of Norway (Norway)

    2000-08-01

    State-of-the-art information on methods for management of nuclear accidents affecting food-producing areas has been reviewed, evaluated and transposed to reflect conditions relevant to the Nordic countries. This data, describing in detail the various method-specific costs and benefits, is reported in a well-arranged format facilitating analyses in connection with decision-making. Guidance, recommendations and examples are given as to how the individual data sheets may be used in emergency preparedness planning. (au)

  1. Obtaining fruit and vegetables for the lowest prices: pricing survey of different outlets and geographical analysis of competition effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amber L Pearson

    Full Text Available AIMS: Inadequate fruit and vegetable (F&V consumption is an important dietary risk factor for disease internationally. High F&V prices can be a barrier to dietary intake and so to improve understanding of this topic we surveyed prices and potential competition between F&V outlet types. METHODS: Over a three week early autumn period in 2013, prices were collected bi-weekly for 18 commonly purchased F&Vs from farmers' markets (FM selling local produce (n = 3, other F&V markets (OFVM (n = 5, supermarkets that neighbored markets (n = 8, and more distant supermarkets (n = 8, (in urban Wellington and Christchurch areas of New Zealand. Prices from an online supermarket were also collected. RESULTS: A total of 3120 prices were collected. Most F&Vs (13/18 were significantly cheaper at OFVMs than supermarkets. Over half of the F&Vs (10/18 were significantly cheaper at nearby compared to distant supermarkets, providing evidence of a moderate 'halo effect' in price reductions in supermarkets that neighbored markets. Weekend (vs midweek prices were also significantly cheaper at nearby (vs distant supermarkets, supporting evidence for a 'halo effect'. Ideal weekly 'food basket' prices for a two adult, two child family were: OFVMs (NZ$76, online supermarket ($113, nearby supermarkets ($124, distant supermarkets ($127, and FMs ($138. This represents a savings of $49 per week (US$26 by using OFVMs relative to (non-online supermarkets. Similarly, a shift from non-online supermarkets to the online supermarket would generate a $13 saving. CONCLUSIONS: In these locations general markets appear to be providing some substantially lower prices for fruit and vegetables than supermarkets. They also appear to be depressing prices in neighboring supermarkets. These results, when supplemented by other needed research, may help inform the case for interventions to improve access to fruit and vegetables, particularly for low-income populations.

  2. Lifestyle prices and production

    OpenAIRE

    Mark Aguiar; Erik Hurst

    2005-01-01

    Using scanner data and time diaries, we document how households substitute time for money through shopping and home production. We find evidence that there is substantial heterogeneity in prices paid across households for identical consumption goods in the same metro area at any given point in time. For identical goods, prices paid are highest for middle-aged, rich, and large households, consistent with the hypothesis that shopping intensity is low when the cost of time is high. The data sugg...

  3. The minimum wage and restaurant prices

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Aaronson; Eric French; MacDonald, James M.

    2004-01-01

    Using both store-level and aggregated price data from the food away from home component of the Consumer Price Index survey, we show that restaurant prices rise in response to an increase in the minimum wage. These results hold up when using several different sources of variation in the data. We interpret these findings within a model of employment determination. The model implies that minimum wage hikes cause employment to fall and prices to rise if labor markets are competitive but potential...

  4. Social impact caused by european economical recession in food business operators of industrial zone Tirana-Durres in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anila Sulaj

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to explore situation of the Albania Food industry in relation to the European recession to clarify mainly negative effects to food business operators along the corridor Tirana-Durres and to identify social problems caused by this impact. Effect of economical European crisis in food operators of corridor Tirana-Durres causing slightly increase of unemployment and increase of food prices. Our study has evaluated the unemployment situation and food retail prices using data analyzing methodology for three big food processing companies located in this area. From study results was concluded that unemployment is slightly increased a respectively was evaluated as following. For first company unemployment has been increased with 2, 8%, however for second company it was increased with 2, 1% and for third company it was increased with 1, 8%. Food retail prices produced by these companies are increased referring to food prices evaluated on 2009. Retail food prices are increased respectively for three food kinds. Beer retail prices produced by first company are increased with 3, 8%, dried sausages retail prices produced by second Company are increased with 2.5%. According to study results is confirmed also slightly increase of UHT milk product produced by third company with average value 1, 9%. Even thought there is no big difference between previous values for unemployment and retail prices in 2009 and results found in 2010-2011 confirmed that social impact of crises is evident because of increase of unemployment and food prices cause decrease of incomes for families living in Tirana and in Albania.

  5. Competitive Pricing

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Villar

    2007-01-01

    Competitive pricing is a pricing rule that combines two principles that are present in competitive markets. The profit principle (an action will be chosen only if it yields maximal payoffs), and the scarcity principle (markets make expensive those commodities that restrict production possibilities). It is shown that, under standard assumptions, these principles imply profit maximization at given prices. But also that they can be applied to economies with non-convex production sets (e.g. firms...

  6. Urban agriculture, food security and nutrition in low income areas of the city of Nairobi, Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mboganie-Mwangi, A.; Foeken, D.W.J.

    1996-01-01

    This article considers the extent to which farming activities undertaken by low-income dwellers in Nairobi, Kenya, play a role in the food security and nutritional status of the households involved. It compares three low-income groups - two in Korogocho, viz. those who practise urban agriculture and

  7. The role of urban agriculture for food security in low income areas in Nairobi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mwangi, A.M.

    1995-01-01

    This paper, which is based on research carried out among 210 households in Nairobi (Kenya) in 1994, examines the role of urban agriculture in household food security among low-income urban households. It determines the different strategies the low-income population of Nairobi deploys in order to fee

  8. Food frequency consumption and lipoproteins serum levels in the population of an urban area, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nélida Schmid Fornés

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To identify the association between food group consumption frequency and serum lipoprotein levels among adults. METHODS: The observations were made during a cross-sectional survey of a representative sample of men and women over 20 years old living in Cotia county, S. Paulo, Brazil. Data on food frequency consumption, serum lipids, and other covariates were available for 1,045 adults. Multivariate analyses adjusted by age, gender, body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio, educational level, family income, physical activity, smoking, and alcohol consumption were performed. RESULTS: Consumption of processed meat, chicken, red meat, eggs and dairy foods were each positively and significantly correlated with LDL-C, whereas the intake of vegetables and fruits showed an inverse correlation. Daily consumption of processed meat, chicken, red meat, eggs, and dairy foods were associated with 16.6 mg/dl, 14.5 mg/dl, 11.1 mg/dl, 5.8 mg/dl, and 4.6 mg/dl increase in blood LDL-C, respectively. Increases of daily consumption of fruit and vegetables were associated with 5.2 mg/dl and 5.5 mg/dl decreases in LDL-C, respectively. Alcohol beverage consumption showed a significant positive correlation with HDL-C. CONCLUSIONS: Dietary habits in the study population seem to contribute substantially to the variation in blood LDL and HDL concentrations. Substantially CHD risk reduction could be achieved with dietary changes.

  9. Food frequency consumption and lipoproteins serum levels in the population of an urban area, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fornés Nélida Schmid

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To identify the association between food group consumption frequency and serum lipoprotein levels among adults. METHODS: The observations were made during a cross-sectional survey of a representative sample of men and women over 20 years old living in Cotia county, S. Paulo, Brazil. Data on food frequency consumption, serum lipids, and other covariates were available for 1,045 adults. Multivariate analyses adjusted by age, gender, body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio, educational level, family income, physical activity, smoking, and alcohol consumption were performed. RESULTS: Consumption of processed meat, chicken, red meat, eggs and dairy foods were each positively and significantly correlated with LDL-C, whereas the intake of vegetables and fruits showed an inverse correlation. Daily consumption of processed meat, chicken, red meat, eggs, and dairy foods were associated with 16.6 mg/dl, 14.5 mg/dl, 11.1 mg/dl, 5.8 mg/dl, and 4.6 mg/dl increase in blood LDL-C, respectively. Increases of daily consumption of fruit and vegetables were associated with 5.2 mg/dl and 5.5 mg/dl decreases in LDL-C, respectively. Alcohol beverage consumption showed a significant positive correlation with HDL-C. CONCLUSIONS: Dietary habits in the study population seem to contribute substantially to the variation in blood LDL and HDL concentrations. Substantially CHD risk reduction could be achieved with dietary changes.

  10. Transfer Pricing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohde, Carsten; Rossing, Christian Plesner

    trade internally as the units have to decide what prices should be paid for such inter-unit transfers. One important challenge is to uncover the consequences that different transfer prices have on the willingness in the organizational units to coordinate activities and trade internally. At the same time...... the determination of transfer price will affect the size of the profit or loss in the organizational units and thus have an impact on the evaluation of managers‟ performance. In some instances the determination of transfer prices may lead to a disagreement between coordination of the organizational...

  11. Health benefits of 'grow your own' food in urban areas: implications for contaminated land risk assessment and risk management?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2009-12-21

    Abstract Compelling evidence of major health benefits of fruit and vegetable consumption, physical activity, and outdoor interaction with \\'greenspace\\' have emerged in the past decade - all of which combine to give major potential health benefits from \\'grow-your-own\\' (GYO) in urban areas. However, neither current risk assessment models nor risk management strategies for GYO in allotments and gardens give any consideration to these health benefits, despite their potential often to more than fully compensate the risks. Although urban environments are more contaminated by heavy metals, arsenic, polyaromatic hydrocarbons and dioxins than most rural agricultural areas, evidence is lacking for adverse health outcomes of GYO in UK urban areas. Rarely do pollutants in GYO food exceed statutory limits set for commercial food, and few people obtain the majority of their food from GYO. In the UK, soil contamination thresholds triggering closure or remediation of allotment and garden sites are based on precautionary principles, generating \\'scares\\' that may negatively impact public health disproportionately to the actual health risks of exposure to toxins through own-grown food. By contrast, the health benefits of GYO are a direct counterpoint to the escalating public health crisis of \\'obesity and sloth\\' caused by eating an excess of saturated fats, inadequate consumption of fresh fruit and vegetables combined with a lack of exercise. These are now amongst the most important preventable causes of illness and death. The health and wider societal benefits of \\'grow-your-own\\' thus reveal a major limitation in current risk assessment methodologies which, in only considering risks, are unable to predict whether GYO on particular sites will, overall, have positive, negative, or no net effects on human health. This highlights a more general need for a new generation of risk assessment tools that also predict overall consequences for health to more effectively guide

  12. Toxaphene levels in retail food from the Pearl River Delta area of South China and an assessment of dietary intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, YouSheng; Liu, ZhiBin; Wu, DongTing; Zhang, JianQing; Zhou, Jian; Li, ShengNong; Lu, LinGeng; Lin, XiaoShi; Lu, ShaoYou; Peng, JinLing

    2016-06-01

    Limited literature exists on toxaphene contamination in food worldwide, particularly in mainland China. In this study, three toxaphene congeners, Parlar 26 (B8-1413), Parlar 50 (B9-1679) and Parlar 62 (B9-1025), were analyzed in five different food categories from the Pearl River Delta Area in China using isotope dilution high-resolution gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS), and toxaphene levels in food were reported and toxaphene dietary intake by local residents estimated. The results showed that fish contained the highest toxaphene level with a median of 12.87 pg/g wet weight (ww), followed by poultry meat, egg products, livestock meat and vegetable, which had median levels of 5.8, 2.2, 1.89 and 0.67 pg/g ww, respectively. Parlar 50 and Parlar 26 were the predominant characteristic congeners in fish, and Parlar 26 was the predominant congener not only in poultry products and eggs, but also in livestock and vegetable. The estimated average daily intake found by local residents was 35.57 pg/kg body weight/day. Overall toxaphene levels and estimated dietary intake in the Pearl River Delta Area of South China are far lower than the European Maximum Residue Limits (EU MRLs), the German MRL for fish, and other international literature data. Therefore, the risk of adverse health effects from dietary intakes of toxaphene for the local residents is not considerable at the current time, but follow-ups are warranted to study dynamic changes of toxaphene in food in this area. PMID:26991380

  13. Crop Monitoring as a Tool for Modelling the Genesis of Millet Prices in Senegal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacques, D.; Marinho, E.; Defourny, P.; Waldner, F.; d'Andrimont, R.

    2015-12-01

    Food security in Sahelian countries strongly relies on the ability of markets to transfer staplesfrom surplus to deficit areas. Market failures, leading to the inefficient geographical allocation of food,are expected to emerge from high transportation costs and information asymmetries that are commonin moderately developed countries. As a result, important price differentials are observed betweenproducing and consuming areas which damages both poor producers and food insecure consumers. Itis then vital for policy makers to understand how the prices of agricultural commodities are formed byaccounting for the existing market imperfections in addition to local demand and supply considerations. To address this issue, we have gathered an unique and diversified set of data for Senegal andintegrated it in a spatially explicit model that simulates the functioning of agricultural markets, that isfully consistent with the economic theory. Our departure point is a local demand and supply modelaround each market having its catchment areas determined by the road network. We estimate the localsupply of agricultural commodities from satellite imagery while the demand is assumed to be a functionof the population living in the area. From this point on, profitable transactions between areas with lowprices to areas with high prices are simulated for different levels of per kilometer transportation costand information flows (derived from call details records i.e. mobile phone data). The simulated prices are then comparedwith the actual millet prices. Despite the parsimony of the model that estimates only two parameters, i.e. the per kilometertransportation cost and the information asymmetry resulting from low levels of mobile phone activitybetween markets, it impressively explains more than 80% of the price differentials observed in the 40markets included in the analysis. In one hand these results can be used in the assessment of the socialwelfare impacts of the further development of

  14. Roles of Food Price and Dietary Knowledge in Improving Diet Quality in China%食品价格和饮食知识在提高中国饮食质量方面的作用∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    下川哲[日

    2015-01-01

    China has been experiencing a rapid incrase in the prevalence of overweight/obesity after 1 990,and China now has the largest number of overweight people in the world.The increasing overweight/obesity will cause a substantial increase in diet-related chronic diseases and economic and social costs.Thus,it is critical to prevent and mitigate overweight/obesity in China.As potential policy channels,this paper focuses on the roles of food price and dietary knowledge in leading people to healthier diet.The paper finds that overweight people tend to be more responsive to food price and income changes,and that the undesirable impacts of increasing pork and oil prices on diet quality are smaller among people with higher dietary knowledge.The findings imply that food price policy can be more effective among overweight people and that dietary education may mitigate the undesirable effects of increasing pork and oil prices on diet quality in China.The paper also demonstrates the importance of taking into account substitutions across food groups when we evaluate the impact of food price policy on diet quality.%1990年之后,中国人口的肥胖率迅速上升,现今已是肥胖人数最多的国家。肥胖人数的增加会导致与饮食相关的慢性疾病的发病率上升,同时也会使得相关的经济、社会成本大幅增加。因此,阻止和缓解中国的肥胖问题十分关键。作为潜在的政策渠道,论文的研究中心是食品价格和饮食知识在引导人们更加健康地饮食方面的作用。文章发现肥胖人群更易受食品价格和收入变化的影响。同时,猪肉和油价上涨对饮食质量的不良影响,对有着较多膳食知识的人群来说会更小一些。这表明食品价格政策在肥胖人群中会更有效,饮食教育可以减小猪肉和油价上涨对中国饮食质量所产生的不良影响。文章也表明在评估食品价格政策对饮食质量影响时考虑食物群中替代品的重要性。

  15. Food retailing and food service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capps, Oral; Park, John L

    2003-07-01

    The food retailing and food service sector is not only an important component of the food marketing channel but is also vital to the United States economy, accounting for more than 7% of the United States gross domestic product in 2001. The business of food retailing and food service is undergoing salient change. The authors argue that the singular force driving this change is the consumer. To understand the linkages in the food marketing channel, this article provides information on the farm-to-retail price spread and the economic forces that influence their magnitude. Examples are given of farm-to-retail price spreads for red meat and dairy industries. In addition, the economics behind the provision of retail services and the growth of the food service industry are discussed. Further, the authors demonstrate that the structure of the food market channel is consumer driven, and present three characteristics of convenience (preparation, delivery, and service) and identify four food distribution channels in terms of convenience (complete convenience, traditional food service, consumer direct, and traditional retail). PMID:12951742

  16. Don't Control Prices, Raise Interest Rates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ANDY XIE

    2008-01-01

    @@ The price of Thai white rice, a benchmark for the international rice trade, surged 30% on March 31 to USD 790/ton,prompted by news of various countries restricting food exports. Its price has doubled since the end of 2007 and nearly quadrupled from 2003, while the UN's FAO food price index has roughly doubled in the past two years.

  17. What price recreation in Finland? – A contingent valuation study of non-market benefits of public outdoor recreation areas

    OpenAIRE

    Huhtala, Anni

    2004-01-01

    Basic services in Finnish national parks and state-owned recreation areas have traditionally been publicly financed and thus free of charge for users. Since the benefits of public recreation are not captured by market demand, government spending on recreation services must be motivated in some other way. Here, we elicit people’s willingness to pay (WTP) for services in the country’s state-owned parks to obtain an estimate of the value of outdoor recreation in monetary terms. A variant of the ...

  18. Millet Prices, Public Policy and Child Malnutrition: The case of Niger in 2005

    OpenAIRE

    Giovanni Andrea Cornia; Laura Deotti

    2008-01-01

    Severe food crises were common until the middle 1980s. Since then, they have been less frequent and until the sharp rise of food prices in 2007-8 the dominant perception was that, except in areas suffering from political instability, famines were slowly becoming a problem of the past. Niger’s 2005 events suggest it is too soon to claim victory. Indeed, between March and August 2005 the country was hit by a doubling of millet prices, and a sharp rise in the number of severely malnourished chil...

  19. Price points and price rigidity

    OpenAIRE

    Levy, Daniel; Lee, Dongwon; Chen, Haipeng (Allan); Kauffman, Robert,; Bergen, Mark

    2010-01-01

    We offer new evidence on the link between price points and price rigidity using two datasets. One is a large weekly transaction price dataset, covering 29 product categories over an eight-year period from a large U.S. supermarket chain. The other is from the Internet, and includes daily prices over a two-year period for 474 consumer electronic goods covering ten product categories, from 293 different Internet retailers. Across the two datasets, we find that (i) 9 is the most frequently used p...

  20. Hunting at the Abun Regional Marine Protected Areas: A Link Between Wildmeat and Food Security

    OpenAIRE

    FREDDY PATTISELANNO; MUHAMMAD IRFANSYAH LUBIS

    2014-01-01

    Native Papuans are relied on hunting for subsistence purposes and significantly contributed to traditional cultures. However, in Papua information on hunting is limited and largely restricted to anthropological setting with most observations were done on the forest sites in lowland and highland landscapes. This study focuses on the contribution of hunting on food security along the coastal forests at the Bird’s Head Peninsula. Do people live near coastal sites mostly rely on marine resources ...

  1. Pricing Options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenopir, Carol

    1998-01-01

    Presents results of a recent survey of over 100 public and academic libraries about pricing options from online companies. Most options fall into three categories: pay-as-you-go, fixed-rate, and user-based. Results are discussed separately for public and academic libraries and for consortial discounts. Trends in pricing options preferred by…

  2. Do Agricultural Commodity Firm Stock Price and Agricultural Commodity Price Move Together?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis Declerck

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The research aims at explaining stock performance of processing companies as a function of commodity performance on commodity markets. The results show that stock prices of food companies do not significantly depend on agricultural market prices. So, risks of agricultural market price volatility cannot be hedged using foodfirm stocks, whose markets are more liquid.

  3. Patterns of food and nutrient consumption in northern Iran, a high-risk area for esophageal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islami, Farhad; Malekshah, Akbar Fazeltabar; Kimiagar, Masoud; Pourshams, Akram; Wakefield, Jon; Goglani, Goharshad; Rakhshani, Nasser; Nasrollahzadeh, Dariush; Salahi, Rasoul; Semnani, Shahryar; Saadatian-Elahi, Mitra; Abnet, Christian C; Kamangar, Farin; Dawsey, Sanford M; Brennan, Paul; Boffetta, Paolo; Malekzadeh, Reza

    2009-01-01

    Our objectives were to investigate patterns of food and nutrient consumption in Golestan province, a high-incidence area for esophageal cancer (EC) in northern Iran. Twelve 24-h dietary recalls were administered during a 1-yr period to 131 healthy participants in a pilot cohort study. We compare here nutrient intake in Golestan with recommended daily allowances (RDAs) and lowest threshold intakes (LTIs). We also compare the intake of 27 food groups and nutrients among several population subgroups using mean values from the 12 recalls. Rural women had a very low level of vitamin intake, which was even lower than LTIs (P Golestan, with high incidence rates among women and people with low socioeconomic status and the highest incidence rate among rural women. PMID:19838919

  4. RECENT TRENDS IN THE FOOD TRADE SECTOR OF HUNGARY, THE EXAMPLE OF THE LAKE BALATON RESORT AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erzsébet PÉTER

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Following the political transformation of Hungary fundamental changes took place in the trading sector as a consequence of privatization. The influx of active capital considerably influenced the economy and due to its multiplying effects new enterprise management systems, new work comprehension, new service background were established to help the economy participants. Chain formation, trade companies and shopping centres having large floor-space moved into the area with their modern equipments and wide commodity assortment, assisted by foreign capital investment. At the same time national retail trade declined, micro enterprises with few employees lost their survival possibilities in the area. The reply of the food trade sector to the entry of well-capitalized enterprises in the area was that the “chain formation” of smaller retailers became more frequent in the last years in Hungary. This type of transformation made them capable of competing with the big companies.

  5. Foods, macronutrients and fibre in the diet of blue sheep (Psuedois nayaur) in the Annapurna Conservation Area of Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryal, Achyut; Coogan, Sean C P; Ji, Weihong; Rothman, Jessica M; Raubenheimer, David

    2015-09-01

    Food resources are often critical regulating factors affecting individual fitness and population densities. In the Himalayan Mountains, Bharal "blue sheep" (Pseudois nayaur) are the main food resource for the endangered snow leopard (Panthera uncia), as well as being preyed upon by other predators. Blue sheep, however, may face a number of challenges including food resource competition with other wild and domestic ungulates, and hunting pressure. Here, we characterized the diet of blue sheep in the Annapurna Conservation Area (ACA) of Nepal and conducted proximate nutritional analysis on a limited number of plants identified as foods. Furthermore, we investigated the macronutrient and fiber balance of these plants using nutritional geometry which is a state-space approach to modeling multidimensional and interactive nutritional aspects of foraging. A total of 19 plant species/genera were identified in blue sheep pellets using microhistological analysis. On average, across seasons and regions of the study area, the two most frequently occurring plants in pellets were graminoids: Kobressia sp. and Carex spp. The macronutrient balance of Kobresia sp. was relatively high in carbohydrate and low in protein, while other plants in the diet were generally higher in protein and lipid content. Analysis of fiber balance showed that the two most consumed plants of blue sheep (i.e., Kobresia spp. and Carex spp.) contained the highest concentration of hemicellulose, which is likely digestible by blue sheep. The hemicellulose and lignin balance of plants ranged relatively widely, yet their cellulose contents showed less variation. Foraging by blue sheep may therefore be a balance between consuming highly digestible high-carbohydrate plants and plants less-digestible but higher in protein and/or lipid. PMID:26445655

  6. The implementation of anaerobic digestion of food waste in a highly populated urban area: an LCA evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosso, Mario; Nava, Chiara; Testori, Roberta; Rigamonti, Lucia; Viganò, Federico

    2012-09-01

    While source separation of waste packaging materials for recycling is well established in several metropolitan areas, the collection of food waste from the households is less widespread because of its more difficult implementation. Source segregation of food waste in densely populated areas is raising new interest, as the availability of biogas following its anaerobic digestion (AD) paves the road to a number of possibilities, from electric energy production to its upgrading to biomethane and subsequent feeding in to the natural gas network or in vehicles as a fuel. The study addresses this waste management option by analysing a real metropolitan situation where food waste currently ends up mixed with the residual waste in a waste-to-energy plant (WTE). We assume to establish a new collection scheme for household food waste, followed by its treatment in a new AD and post-composting facility. A comparative life cycle assessment was carried out, where possible synergies between the existing WTE plant and the new one were evaluated. All new scenarios based on AD attained similar or better results compared with the reference scenario for almost all of the impact indicators. The most robust indication is related to global warming potential, with a potential improvement of up to 37%. Finally, a sensitivity analysis was carried out to assess the effect of the variation of the most relevant parameters. Results have proven to be very sensible to the hypothesis on the type of substituted electric energy. All the other examined sensitivities resulted in variations well below 10%. PMID:22993137

  7. Drivers of rice price variation in Nigeria: A two-stage iterative ridge regression approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayinde Opeyemi E.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Most studies on local rice in Nigeria were centred on increasing production, consumption or competitiveness with very few of them addressing the determinants of the price of rice in an economy. Filling this gap requires a study on the various factors that influence the price of rice. Food price instability is a frequent forerunner of macroeconomic shocks and political turmoil that can discourage long-run investment and curtail growth. In this study, secondary data were employed. The study used descriptive statistics tools to analyse the pattern of price variation over the period of 42 years in the study area. Similarly, various factors affecting price variation of rice were examined. The following recommendations were made: appropriate tax collection measures on producers should be implemented so as to curtail farmers from exploiting the masses by making excessive gains. Since the decrease in export results in an increase in price, the government should keep a balance between import and export to maintain the price of rice at a reasonable level. The price of rice can be reduced by the government when they implement measures to control the inflation rate in the economy. The government should put measures to regulate the quantity of land used by rice producers as well as to control the price of rice, since they both have a positive relationship.

  8. Gas prices and price process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On a conference (Gas for Europe in the 1990's) during the Gasexpo '91 the author held a speech of which the Dutch text is presented here. Attention is paid to the current European pricing methods (prices based on the costs of buying, transporting and distributing the natural gas and prices based on the market value, which is deducted from the prices of alternative fuels), and the transparency of the prices (lack of information on the way the prices are determined). Also attention is paid to the market signal transparency and gas-gas competition, which means a more or less free market of gas distribution. The risks of gas-to-gas competition for a long term price stability, investment policies and security of supply are discussed. Opposition against the Third Party Access (TPA), which is the program to implement gas-to-gas competition, is caused by the fear of natural gas companies for lower gas prices and lower profits. Finally attention is paid to government regulation and the activities of the European Commission (EC) in this matter. 1 fig., 6 ills., 1 tab

  9. Effects of insulin and leptin in the ventral tegmental area and arcuate hypothalamic nucleus on food intake and brain reward function in female rats

    OpenAIRE

    Bruijnzeel, Adrie W.; Corrie, Lu W.; Rogers, Jessica A.; Yamada, Hidetaka

    2011-01-01

    There is evidence for a role of insulin and leptin in food intake, but the effects of these adiposity signals on the brain reward system are not well understood. Furthermore, the effects of insulin and leptin on food intake in females are underinvestigated. These studies investigated the role of insulin and leptin in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and the arcuate hypothalamic nucleus (Arc) on food intake and brain reward function in female rats. The intracranial self-stimulation procedure w...

  10. Surviving the Price Hikes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JESSY ZHANG

    2006-01-01

    @@ Viessmann Werke, a German-based global manufacturer of heating technology products, settled down in an industrial development zone in Beijing suburb in 2001. In recent years, however, they have witnessed a price increase for land use in their development zone and nearby areas. "There will be more infrastructure construction in this area and a new exhibition center is said to be built here," says Dr. Andreas Tank, executive manager of Viessmann Werke. "We see the demand for land is increasing and newcomers must pay higher prices for land use than we paid. "Viessmann has fixed its expenditure on land use fees by signing a long-term contract with the development zone.

  11. Price-setting policy determinants: micro-evidence from Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo L. Moura

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper studies the frequency of price changes from a survey data on Brazilian companies. The data set has the advantage of including all of the economic sectors: agricultural and food products, trading, industry and services. Strong evidence of nominal price rigidities is found on the data with average and median price durations around 10.1 and 8.1 months, which is very close to results reported for the euro area and the United States. Using econometric modeling through an ordered probit and also an OLS regression, we find that price change duration is mostly explained by the wage duration, the degree of competition, product specialization, the elasticity of demand and economic sector dummies. The empirical results refute somewhat commonly used macroeconomic modeling for monetary policy evaluation; however they do not refute time-dependent models since those are consistent with different price durations across firms. These results shed light on some stylized facts that a macroeconomic price-setting model would need to reproduce.

  12. Price increase

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    Please take note that after five years of stable prices at Restaurant No 1 a price increase will come into force on 1st January 2006. This increase has been agreed after discussions between the CSR (Comité de Surveillance des Restaurants) and the catering company Novae and will reflect the inflation rate of the last few years. In addition, a new children's menu will be introduced as well as 'Max Havelaar' fair-trade coffee at a price of 1.70 CHF.

  13. Price increase

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Please take note that after five years of stable prices at Restaurant No 1 a price increase will come into force on 1st January 2006. This increase has been agreed after discussions between the CSR (Comité de Surveillance des Restaurants) and the catering company Novae and will reflect the inflation rate of the last few years. In addition, a new children's menu will be introduced, as well as 'Max Havelaar' fair-trade coffee at a price of 1.70 CHF.

  14. The overlapping food and economic crises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Radu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we are looking at the cause-effect relationship between the economic, financial, demographic and food crises. Crises are interrelated and need to be viewed together, as the effects of one crisis are or may represent causes for another crisis. The current food crisis translates today in food price increases, in the level of health of the population that does not have enough resources for a balanced diet and in obesity problems of the young generation (Romania ranks third among European countries. All these issues with immediate and direct effects over the population in our country have generated our interest to conduct a rigorous and careful observation on the development of the phenomenon of food crisis. Food crisis, its causes and consequences – aging population, the migration of the active population to other countries (especially from the rural areas and the agglomeration of the disadvantaged population in certain geographical areas, can cause social and economic imbalances.

  15. FOOD CRISIS OVERLAPPING THE ECONOMIC CRISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARMEN RADU

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The present paper seeks to find some answers regarding the existent causality between the economic, financial, demographic and food crises. Crises are interrelated, thus one crisis cannot be analyzed without the other, as the effects of one crisis are or may represent causes for another crisis. The current food crisis translates today in food price increases, in the health of the population that does not have enough resources for a balanced diet and in obesity problems of the young generation (Romania ranks third among European countries. All these issues with immediate and direct effects over the population in our country determined us to conduct a rigorous and careful observation on the development of the phenomenon of food crisis. Food crisis, its causes and consequences – aging population, the migration of the active population to other countries (especially from the rural areas and the agglomeration of the disadvantaged population in certain geographical areas, can cause social and economic imbalances.

  16. Farming and food production and development in the Shropshire Hills Environmentally Sensitive Area, 1997-2008

    OpenAIRE

    Tate, Graham; Park, Julian

    2010-01-01

    European agricultural and environmental policy has evolved considerably over the last 15 years. In this paper the changes in farm businesses in an Environmentally Sensitive Area in England are evaluated based on two surveys with the same farmers at the start and end of this period. The rate of participation in the environmental scheme had increased significantly at a time when Government led goals in this area had developed and become more output focussed. A combination of poli...

  17. Development and Validation of a Data-Based Food Frequency Questionnaire for Adults in Eastern Rural Area of Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagisawa, Ayumi; Sudo, Noriko; Amitani, Yukiko; Caballero, Yuko; Sekiyama, Makiko; Mukamugema, Christine; Matsuoka, Takuya; Imanishi, Hiroaki; Sasaki, Takayo; Matsuda, Hirotaka

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to develop and evaluate the validity of a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) for rural Rwandans. Since our FFQ was developed to assess malnutrition, it measured energy, protein, vitamin A, and iron intakes only. We collected 260 weighed food records (WFRs) from a total of 162 Rwandans. Based on the WFR data, we developed a tentative FFQ and examined the food list by percent contribution to energy and nutrient intakes. To assess the validity, nutrient intakes estimated from the FFQ were compared with those calculated from three-day WFRs by correlation coefficient and cross-classification for 17 adults. Cumulative contributions of the 18-item FFQ to the total intakes of energy and nutrients reached nearly 100%. Crude and energy-adjusted correlation coefficients ranged from -0.09 (vitamin A) to 0.58 (protein) and from -0.19 (vitamin A) to 0.68 (iron), respectively. About 50%-60% of the participants were classified into the same tertile. Our FFQ provided acceptable validity for energy and iron intakes and could rank Rwandan adults in eastern rural area correctly according to their energy and iron intakes. PMID:27429558

  18. CADMIUM EXPOSURE VIA FOOD CROPS: A CASE STUDY OF INTENSIVE FARMING AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raagheni Munisamy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium (Cd is ubiquitous in environment and may enter food chain through intense application of phosphate fertilizers to agricultural crops. A cross-sectional study was conducted at Kuala Terla and Blue Valley farming villages, Cameron Highlands to determine cadmium concentration in vegetables and soil and to determine the health risks among respondents. A total of 87 respondents were selected based on inclusive and exclusive criteria. A set of pre-tested questionnaires utilized to obtain socio-demographic information and to predict health risks faced by the respondents based on their vegetable ingestion rate. The Average Daily Dose (ADD and Target Hazard Quotient (THQ were determined in this study. Convenient sampling method was employed to obtain 15 paired soil and vegetable samples. Cadmium concentration in the samples was acid digested prior analysis using Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (FAAS. The mean ± standard deviation concentrations of Cd in vegetable samples were 0.13±0.082 mg kg-1, within the acceptable range specified by Malaysia Food Regulation 1985 (1 mg kg-1. For sol samples, the mean ± standard deviation concentration of Cd was 2.78±2.83 mg kg-1. Eight out of 11 soil samples exceed the permissible limit of Cd outlined by The Dutch Standard (1 mg kg-1. The findings on THQ demonstrated that all respondents are within the acceptable non-carcinogenic health risk (THQ<1. The results also exhibit that there is no correlation between cadmium in soils and vegetables. There are unlikely potential adverse health impacts arising from Cd through vegetables consumption in this study. Respondents are advised to have a medical check-up in order to determine Cd body burden thus eliminating the risks of acquiring cadmium related diseases.

  19. Analyzing Market Price Transmission, Government Intervention and Weather Shocks for Rice Market in the Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    Jolejole-Foreman, Maria Christina; Mindy L. Mallory

    2011-01-01

    In the Philippines, where rice is considered the most important food crop, attempts to influence rice prices have been prevalent. The government, through National Food Authority (NFA) has sought to establish stocks and control imports to stabilize prices since its establishment in 1972 to support farm gate prices and reduce retail price of rice. But data shows divergence in retail prices and farm prices since mid 1960s. In this paper, we use vector autoregression (VAR) to analyze the movement...

  20. Frequency of metabolic syndrome and the food intake patterns in adults living in a rural area of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine Fedrigo Silva

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Metabolic syndrome (MetS, a risk factor for atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease, is related to an inadequate food intake pattern. Its incidence is increasing among Brazilian adults, including those living in rural areas. Our aim was not only to describe the frequency of MetS in adults with or without MetS but also to compare their food intake pattern as assessed by the healthy eating index (HEI and serum albumin and C reactive protein (CRP levels. METHODS: Men and women (n = 246 living in a small village in Brazil were included. MetS was characterized according to the adult treatment panel (ATP III criteria. Groups were compared by chi-square, student t or Mann-Whitney tests. RESULTS: MetS was diagnosed in 15.4% of the cases. The MetS group showed higher CRP (1.8±1.2 vs. 1.0±0.9 mg/dl and lower albumin (4.3±0.3 vs. 4.4±0.3 g/dl serum levels compared to the control group. Additionally, the MetS group showed lower scores (median[range] in the HEI compared to the control group (53.5[31.2-78.1] vs 58[29.7-89.5], respectively. The MetS group also had decreased scores for total fat and daily variety of food intake. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that adults with MetS displayed chronic mild inflammation and a poorer food intake pattern than the control group.

  1. Petroleum price

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The oil market is the most volatile of all markets, with the exception of the Nasdaq. It is also the biggest commodity market in the world. Therefore one cannot avoid forecasting oil prices, nor can one expect to avoid the forecasting errors that have been made in the past. In his report, Joel Maurice draws a distinction between the short term and the medium-long term in analysing the outlook for oil prices. (author)

  2. Focusing on fast food restaurants alone underestimates the relationship between neighborhood deprivation and exposure to fast food in a large rural area

    OpenAIRE

    Dean Wesley R; Johnson Cassandra M; Sharkey Joseph R; Horel Scott A

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Individuals and families are relying more on food prepared outside the home as a source for at-home and away-from-home consumption. Restricting the estimation of fast-food access to fast-food restaurants alone may underestimate potential spatial access to fast food. Methods The study used data from the 2006 Brazos Valley Food Environment Project (BVFEP) and the 2000 U.S. Census Summary File 3 for six rural counties in the Texas Brazos Valley region. BVFEP ground-truthed da...

  3. Housing Price Fluctuations Across China: An Equilibrium Mechanism Perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Hong; WENG Shaoqun; ZHOU Xuan

    2007-01-01

    The mechanisms affecting housing prices were studied using the equilibrium housing prices based on classic supply/demand theory. The fluctuations of the actual housing prices were then analyzed relative to the equilibrium prices. The equilibrium prices for each area were calculated from economic statistics and housing prices in 35 China metropolitan areas. The fluctuations of the actual prices are then manifested as functions of the equilibrium price, the mean reversion, and the autocorrelation coefficient. The results show that the equilibrium prices are determined by the basic economic conditions in China and that the equilibrium prices greatly affect the fluctuation of the actual prices, which return to the equilibrium price through self-adjustments. The data also shows that the actual prices in China have the trend of continuing to rise in the future.

  4. Demonstration of generic handbooks for assisting in the management of contaminated food production systems and inhabited areas in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nisbet, A.F.; Andersson, Kasper Grann; Duranova, T.

    2010-01-01

    Two handbooks have been developed in conjunction with a wide range of stakeholders that provide assistance in the management of contaminated food production systems and inhabited areas following a radiological incident. Emergency centres in Member States not involved in the development of these...... handbooks were invited to take part in demonstration activities to establish whether the handbooks would be useful for the purposes of contingency planning and accident management. Some eight centres took part. Emergency exercises or similar events based on scenarios involving contamination of the foodchain...... and inhabited areas were used. Feedback from all of the demonstrations was positive with constructive criticism given on how to improve the navigation, structure and format of the handbooks. All of the key improvements highlighted during the demonstrations were taken into account and included in...

  5. Which Factors Affect Adolescent Food Preferences?

    OpenAIRE

    Seray Kabaran; Mercanlıgil, Seyit M.

    2013-01-01

    Hunger, extreme desire to eat a certain food, taste, price, and convenience are among the main There are various factors that affect food preferences. Hunger, extreme desire to eat a certain food, taste, price, and convenience are among the main factors affecting food preferences. Additionally, general nutritional habits, family, friends, commercials, and availability of the food are also important for food preferences. Also, past experiences with foods are related to preferring or rejecting ...

  6. Analysis of the Main Factors Influencing Food Production in China Based on Time Series Trend Chart

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuangjin; WANG; Jianying; LI

    2014-01-01

    Based on the annual sample data on food production in China since the reform and opening up,we select 8 main factors influencing the total food production( growing area,application rate of chemical fertilizer,effective irrigation area,the affected area,total machinery power,food production cost index,food production price index,financial funds for supporting agriculture,farmers and countryside),and put them into categories of material input,resources and environment,and policy factors. Using the factor analysis,we carry out the multi-angle analysis of these typical influencing factors one by one through the time series trend chart. It is found that application rate of chemical fertilizer,the growing area of food crops and drought-affected area become the key factors affecting food production. On this basis,we set forth the corresponding recommendations for improving the comprehensive food production capacity.

  7. Wheat Prices, Bread Consumption and Health in Scotland

    OpenAIRE

    Revoredo-Giha, Cesar; Leat, Philip M.K.; Toma, Luiza; Lamprinopoulou-Kranis, Chrysa; Kupiec-Teahan, Beata; Cacciolatti, Luca

    2009-01-01

    The relative recent rise in food prices has increased concern about the choice of a healthy food basket, especially in the context of the formulation of a National Food Policy for Scotland. This concern has revived interest in food price and expenditure demand systems as they provide information about consumers’ food decisions. The paper focuses on the consumption of brown and white bread, as they are the most typical forms of cereals use in the UK. Moreover, nutritionists recommend the consu...

  8. Food insecurity, chronic illness, and gentrification in the San Francisco Bay Area: An example of structural violence in United States public policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittle, Henry J; Palar, Kartika; Hufstedler, Lee Lemus; Seligman, Hilary K; Frongillo, Edward A; Weiser, Sheri D

    2015-10-01

    Food insecurity continues to be a major challenge in the United States, affecting 49 million individuals. Quantitative studies show that food insecurity has serious negative health impacts among individuals suffering from chronic illnesses, including people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHIV). Formulating effective interventions and policies to combat these health effects requires an in-depth understanding of the lived experience and structural drivers of food insecurity. Few studies, however, have elucidated these phenomena among people living with chronic illnesses in resource-rich settings, including in the United States. Here we sought to explore the experiences and structural determinants of food insecurity among a group of low-income PLHIV in the San Francisco Bay Area. Thirty-four semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with low-income PLHIV receiving food assistance from a local non-profit in San Francisco and Alameda County, California, between April and June 2014. Interview transcripts were coded and analysed according to content analysis methods following an inductive-deductive approach. The lived experience of food insecurity among participants included periods of insufficient quantity of food and resultant hunger, as well as long-term struggles with quality of food that led to concerns about the poor health effects of a cheap diet. Participants also reported procuring food using personally and socially unacceptable strategies, including long-term dependence on friends, family, and charity; stealing food; exchanging sex for food; and selling controlled substances. Food insecurity often arose from the need to pay high rents exacerbated by gentrification while receiving limited disability income--​a situation resulting in large part from the convergence of long-standing urban policies amenable to gentrification and an outdated disability policy that constrains financial viability. The experiences of food insecurity described by participants in this

  9. Hunting at the Abun Regional Marine Protected Areas: A Link Between Wildmeat and Food Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FREDDY PATTISELANNO

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Native Papuans are relied on hunting for subsistence purposes and significantly contributed to traditional cultures. However, in Papua information on hunting is limited and largely restricted to anthropological setting with most observations were done on the forest sites in lowland and highland landscapes. This study focuses on the contribution of hunting on food security along the coastal forests at the Bird’s Head Peninsula. Do people live near coastal sites mostly rely on marine resources as protein source? We gathered data on hunting by the majority of Karon ethnic group in the Abun district of Tambrauw Regency at the Bird’s Head Peninsula of Papua, Indonesia. We used information from in-depth interviews with hunters and households meal survey at four villages of Abun: Waibem, Wau, Warmandi and Saubeba. Reasons for hunting were varies among respondents but mostly conducted for trade. Six species of mammals and three birds were commonly hunted by using six different hunting techniques. Wild pig and rusa deer were the major targets in hunting to meet the demand of meat for both trading and household consumption. Meals containing wildmeat was the most consumed meal, greater than meals containing fish, animal products and vegetables, and noodles.

  10. Pricing Principles from Psychology for Agricultural Organizations with Market Power

    OpenAIRE

    Larson, Ronald B.

    2007-01-01

    A recent review of food retailer pricing found evidence that much of the behavior was inconsistent with traditional economic models (Li, Sexton & Xia, ARER 2006). These inconsistencies may stem from the theoretical foundation that firms use to guide their pricing. When firms can influence price, they often use pricing principles from psychology, based on buyer behavior instead of utility maximization. These principles have been incorporated into the marketing approach to pricing. A comparison...

  11. 7 CFR 1033.53 - Announcement of class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... advanced pricing factors. 1033.53 Section 1033.53 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE MIDEAST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Class Prices § 1033.53 Announcement...

  12. 7 CFR 1131.53 - Announcement of class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... advanced pricing factors. 1131.53 Section 1131.53 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE ARIZONA MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Class Prices § 1131.53 Announcement...

  13. 7 CFR 1001.53 - Announcement of class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... advanced pricing factors. 1001.53 Section 1001.53 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE NORTHEAST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Class Prices § 1001.53 Announcement...

  14. 7 CFR 1006.53 - Announcement of class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... advanced pricing factors. 1006.53 Section 1006.53 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE FLORIDA MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Class Prices § 1006.53 Announcement...

  15. 7 CFR 1032.53 - Announcement of class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... advanced pricing factors. 1032.53 Section 1032.53 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE CENTRAL MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Class Prices § 1032.53 Announcement...

  16. 7 CFR 1126.53 - Announcement of class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... advanced pricing factors. 1126.53 Section 1126.53 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE SOUTHWEST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Class Prices § 1126.53 Announcement...

  17. 7 CFR 1007.53 - Announcement of class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... advanced pricing factors. 1007.53 Section 1007.53 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE SOUTHEAST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Class Prices § 1007.53 Announcement...

  18. 7 CFR 1030.53 - Announcement of class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... advanced pricing factors. 1030.53 Section 1030.53 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE UPPER MIDWEST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Class Prices § 1030.53...

  19. 7 CFR 1124.53 - Announcement of class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... advanced pricing factors. 1124.53 Section 1124.53 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Class Prices §...

  20. 7 CFR 1005.53 - Announcement of class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... advanced pricing factors. 1005.53 Section 1005.53 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE APPALACHIAN MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Class Prices § 1005.53 Announcement...

  1. Assessing the potential impact on poverty of rising cereals prices : the case of Mali

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph, George; Wodon, Quentin

    2008-01-01

    Concerns have been raised about the impact of rising food prices worldwide on the poor. To assess the (short term) impact of rising food prices in any particular country it is necessary to look at both the impact on food producers (who benefit from an increase in prices) and food consumers (who loose out when the price increases), with a focus on poor producers and consumers. In Mali the i...

  2. An Empirical Study of the Correlation between the Monetary Aggregates and the Price Level in Euro Area in the Years 2004 - 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Ludomir Slahor; Daniela Majercakova; Alexandra Mittelman

    2015-01-01

    The historical evidence suggests a high correlation between changes in the stock of money per unit of output and changes in prices in the same direction. The goal of this paper is to analyze the correlation between the monetary aggregates and the price stability before, during and after the financial and debt crisis in the European Monetary Union. For this purpose, firstly, the paper includes some basic theoretical aspects, secondly, practical analysis based on the Pearson prod...

  3. Food security under climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertel, Thomas W.

    2016-01-01

    Using food prices to assess climate change impacts on food security is misleading. Differential impacts on income require a broader measure of household well-being, such as changes in absolute poverty.

  4. Nonlinear Pricing in Energy and Environmental Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Koichiro

    This dissertation consists of three empirical studies on nonlinear pricing in energy and environmental markets. The first investigates how consumers respond to multi-tier nonlinear price schedules for residential electricity. Chapter 2 asks a similar research question for residential water pricing. Finally, I examine the effect of nonlinear financial rewards for energy conservation by applying a regression discontinuity design to a large-scale electricity rebate program that was implemented in California. Economic theory generally assumes that consumers respond to marginal prices when making economic decisions, but this assumption may not hold for complex price schedules. The chapter "Do Consumers Respond to Marginal or Average Price? Evidence from Nonlinear Electricity Pricing" provides empirical evidence that consumers respond to average price rather than marginal price when faced with nonlinear electricity price schedules. Nonlinear price schedules, such as progressive income tax rates and multi-tier electricity prices, complicate economic decisions by creating multiple marginal prices for the same good. Evidence from laboratory experiments suggests that consumers facing such price schedules may respond to average price as a heuristic. I empirically test this prediction using field data by exploiting price variation across a spatial discontinuity in electric utility service areas. The territory border of two electric utilities lies within several city boundaries in southern California. As a result, nearly identical households experience substantially different nonlinear electricity price schedules. Using monthly household-level panel data from 1999 to 2008, I find strong evidence that consumers respond to average price rather than marginal or expected marginal price. I show that even though this sub-optimizing behavior has a minimal impact on individual welfare, it can critically alter the policy implications of nonlinear pricing. The second chapter " How Do

  5. Food and nutrition security and the economic crisis in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soekirman

    2001-01-01

    Indonesia has been afflicted by an economic crisis since July 1997. The economic crisis was preceded by a long drought associated with El Nino. The result has been a decline in food production, especially rice. In the eastern part of the country, especially in Irian Jaya, there was food insecurity during the early stages of the economic crisis. When the crisis escalated to become an economic, social and political crisis in 1998, food insecurity spread to other provinces, especially to urban areas in Java. The crisis led to increasingly high inflation. unemployment, poverty, food insecurity and malnutrition. The official figures indicate that poverty in Indonesia increased from 22.5 million (11.3%) in 1996 to 36.5 million (17.9%) in 1998. Food production decreased by 20-30% in some parts of the country. Compared with prices in January 1998, food prices had escalated 1.5- to threefold by August/November 1998 when acute food shortages occurred, especially in urban Java. Coupled with a drop in purchasing power, the higher food prices worsened health, nutritional status and education of children of urban poor and unemployed families. Despite social and political uncertainties, the Indonesian Government has taken prompt action to prevent a worsening of the situation by massive imports of rice, instituting food price subsidies for the poor and launching social safety net programmes to cope with food shortages and malnutrition. The present paper attempts to highlight the impact of the economic crisis on food insecurity and malnutrition in Indonesia. PMID:11708583

  6. Evolution in microbiological results in food samples in a health area in the Community of Madrid, Spain (1999-2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nerea Fernández de Larrea Baz

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In the context of the increasing relevance of food security in the field of the Public Health, the present article try to evaluate the degree of microbiological contamination in foodstuffs, and to search improvement measures.Methods: Retrospective analysis of the results obtained from the samples of foodstuffs from industries and restauration establishements in the district 1 of the Area V of Madrid Autonomous Region between 1999 and 2002.To check the official minutes of inspections of social restauration establishements.Descriptive analysis of the data obtained.Results: The parameters in 116 of the 383 analysed samples (30 ́3% were higher than permitted by law. The percentage of correct samples in the collective lunchrooms went up from 62% in 1999 to 89 ́9% in 2001 (p<0 ́05.The 32 ́8% of the altered samples were caused by the presence of patogens.The foodsttufs with higher percentage of alteration were the dairy products, followed by the sausages. In the cooked foods, the percentage of alteration was higher in those of group A.The primary deficiences in the social restauration establishements were the absence of non-manual accion tap, the lack of bleach suitable for alimentary use and the inadequate protection of foods.Conclusions: In collective lunchrooms we can observe an improvement in the microbiological results; however, there are still structural and process deficiencies. The results of the other industries cannot be easily assessed due to scarcity of samples.To use bleach suitable for alimentary use in a routine way, can be a measure to reduce the high percentage of group A contaminated foodstuffs.

  7. Human exposure to mercury in a compact fluorescent lamp manufacturing area: By food (rice and fish) consumption and occupational exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate human Hg exposure by food consumption and occupation exposure in a compact fluorescent lamp (CFL) manufacturing area, human hair and rice samples were collected from Gaohong town, Zhejiang Province, China. The mean values of total mercury (THg) and methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations in local cultivated rice samples were significantly higher than in commercial rice samples which indicated that CFL manufacturing activities resulted in Hg accumulation in local rice samples. For all of the study participants, significantly higher THg concentrations in human hair were observed in CFL workers compared with other residents. In comparison, MeHg concentrations in human hair of residents whose diet consisted of local cultivated rice were significantly higher than those who consumed commercial rice. These results demonstrated that CFL manufacturing activities resulted in THg accumulation in the hair of CFL workers. However, MeHg in hair were mainly affected by the sources of rice of the residents. - Highlights: • Rice samples were contaminated by Compact fluorescent lamp (CFL) manufacturing. • CFL manufacturing lead to THg accumulation in human hair. • MeHg in human hair were mainly affected by the sources of rice. • MeHg intake from fish consumption was lower than that from rice consumption. • PDI of MeHg by food consumption was below the guidelines for public health concern. - CFL manufacturing activities result in Hg accumulation in local rice samples and hair of CFL workers. However, MeHg in hair were mainly affected by sources of rice

  8. Investigation on the level and movement of Mercury contaminants around storage areas and food processing factories in Hassahesa town, Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A total of 62 surface soil samples were taken from various sites in Hassahesa town and analyzed for total mercury level using X-ray fluorescence spectrometer. Sites were chosen to represent the soil of pesticide store, food processing factories (involved in using contaminated seeds as fuel), near stock of redundant cotton seeds and neighbouring cotton fields. Control soils were sampled from similar soil type south Hassahesa town. The results indicated an elevated mercury level in all samples analyzed far exceeding the background and normal range for mercury in soil. The highest level of contamination was found in soil of the pesticide store (51ppm), followed by the tow food factories (24 ppm and 19 ppm). Horizontal movement of mercury contaminants at various rates from foci of area selected was noticed, wind direction and/ or topography apparently had some role in this movement. The level of total mercury in the control soil was exceeding the background and normal range for mercury in soils reported from other places. Various aspects of levels of mercury contamination, their movements, transportation and toxicological impacts on various forms of life were discussed.(Author)

  9. Investigation on the level and movement of mercury contaminants around storage areas and food processing factories in Hassahesa town

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A total of 62 surface soil samples were taken from various sites in Hassahesa town and analyzed for total mercury level using x-ray fluorescence spectrometer. Sites were chosen to represent the soil of pesticide store, food processing factories (involved in using contaminated seeds as fuel), nera stock of redundant cotton seeds and neighbouring cotton fields. Control soils were sampled from similar soil type south Hassahesa town. The results indicated an elevated mercury level in all samples analyzed far exceeding the background and normal range for mercury in soil. The highest level of contamination was found in soil of pesticide store (51 ppm), followed by the two food factories (24 ppm and 19 ppm). Horizontal movement of mercury contaminants at various rates from foci of areas selected was noticed, wind direction and/or topography apparently had some role in this movement. The level of total mercury in the control soil was exceeding the background and normal range for mercury in soils reported from other places. Various aspects of levels of mercury contamination, their movements, transportation and toxicological impacts on various forms of life were discussed. (Author)

  10. Dynamic Effects of Grain and Energy Prices on the Catfish Feed and Farm Sectors

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad, Andrew; Zheng, Hualu

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the dynamic effects of grain prices and energy prices on catfish feed prices and the price of food-sized catfish at the farm level. Using the autoregressive distributed lag model and bounds testing procedure, a long-run relationship between feed and farm prices and their determinants was confirmed. Given the effect of corn and soybean meal prices on catfish feed prices, and catfish fish feed prices on farm prices, the long-run responsiveness of feed prices to a percentage ...

  11. Development of a standard methodology for integrating non-food crop production in rural areas with niche energy markets. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This project was supported as a Concerted Action under the EC DGVI AIR programme from 1993-1996. It has successfully developed a standard methodology to help integrate non-food crop production in rural areas with niche energy markets. The methodology was used to compare the costs of different energy crop production and conversion options across the six participating nations. The partners provide a representative cross-section of European agriculture and energy expertise. All partners agreed on three niche markets favourable for biomass and biofuels: small-scale heat markets (less than 1 MW th) for agro-industry, domestic and commercial buildings, medium-scale heat markets (1-10MWth), including cogeneration for light industry and district heating, and liquid biofuels as substitutes for fossil fuels in transport, heat and power applications. (Author)

  12. Staggered Price and Wage Setting in Macroeconomics

    OpenAIRE

    John B. Taylor

    1998-01-01

    This paper reviews the role of temporary price and wage rigidities in explaining the dynamic relationship between money, real output, and inflation. It summarizes microeconomic data on price and wage setting behavior, and argues that staggered price and wage setting models provide the most satisfactory match with the data. Research in this area has been very active in the 1990's with a remarkable number of studies using, estimating, or testing models of staggered price and wage setting. A new...

  13. Poverty, Policy and Price Transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elleby, Christian

    This thesis consists of four self-contained chapters in which different aspects of the relationship between international commodity markets and domestic food markets are explored. What motivates the analysis is the recent surge in international commodity prices and the controversy over the poverty...

  14. Price Variation Antagonism and Firm Pricing Policies

    OpenAIRE

    Courty, Pascal; Pagliero, Mario

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Pricing schemes that vary prices in response to demand shocks may antagonize consumers and reduce demand. At the same time, consumers may take advantage of the opportunities offered by price changes. Overall, the net impact of varying price on demand is ambiguous. We investigate this issue empirically, exploiting a unique dataset from a firm that has experimented with different pricing schemes. Each scheme is characterized by how much prices respond to fluctuations in dema...

  15. Price Variation Antagonism and Firm Pricing Policies

    OpenAIRE

    Pascal Courty; Mario Pagliero

    2010-01-01

    Pricing schemes that vary prices in response to demand shocks may antagonize consumers and reduce demand. At the same time, consumers may take advantage of the opportunities offered by price changes. Overall, the net impact of varying price on demand is ambiguous. We investigate this issue empirically, exploiting a unique dataset from a firm that has experimented with different pricing schemes. Each scheme is characterized by how much prices respond to fluctuations in demand and generates dif...

  16. Community gardens in urban areas: a critical reflection on the extent to which they strenghten social cohesion and provide alternative food

    OpenAIRE

    Veen, E.J.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Introduction The aims of this thesis are twofold; firstly, it aims to increase the understanding of the extent to which community gardens enhance social cohesion for those involved; secondly, it aims to gain insight into the importance community gardeners attach to food growing per se, and the extent to which participants perceive community gardens as an alternative to the industrial food system. I define community gardens as a plot of land in an urban area, cultivated either communa...

  17. Association between the Hygiene Index Values of Live Fresh Aquatic Products and Food-Borne Diarrhea in the Population of the Ningbo Area in China

    OpenAIRE

    Lijun Zhang; Lu Lu; Liye Shu; Jianjun Chen; Baobo Zou; Qi Zhou; Yuanliang Gu; Jinshun Zhao; Xialu Lin

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the association of the hygiene index values of live fresh aquatic products and food-borne diarrhea in the population of the Ningbo area in China. Volatile basic nitrogen (VBN), histamine (HIS), indole, tetrodotoxin (TTX), and paralytic, neurotoxic, amnesic and diarrhetic shellfish poisons (PSP, NSP, ASP, and DSP, respectively) in the samples of live fresh aquatic products and food-borne diarrhea cases in six studied districts were analyzed. Results indicate that the incidence r...

  18. The world food problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Argument continues in the world press as to the urgency of the food problem. Some economists in equating world food production statistics with population figures have convinced themselves there is more than enough food per capita and, accordingly, no problem. Looking in greater depth than these gross averages, however, we find that there is indeed a prospective problem, and of such a nature and magnitude as to tax all of mankind's talents and resources in its resolution. It is true that certain of the developed countries of the world in the last generation acquired agricultural production capabilities that notably exceeded the resident population's capacity to consume. 'Surplus' in these areas became an ugly word during this period of a generally favorable weather cycle, and restrictions on the amount of and that could be devoted to graincrops were imposed to curb this tremendous capacity. A fickle Mother Nature, however, has turned things around during the early 1970's by one or another of her many vacillations in the form of local drought, excess moisture, shortened growing season, or other means, in some of the major producing areas. Inconsequence, the food grain surpluses are now gone and the world is looking at a three to four week reserve at any given moment. The cost of food products available from exporting countries has doubled and trebled in price during the past two years. The potential for famine exceeds in magnitude anything the world has ever known. It is against this background that the World Food Conference will be held in Rome during November of this year. (author)

  19. Issues and Challenges Facing Rice Production and Food Security in the Granary Areas in the East Coast Economic Region (ECER), Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Chamhuri Siwar; Nor Diana Mohd Idris; Muhammad Yasar; Golam Morshed

    2014-01-01

    This study is an effort to explore and investigate the issues and challenging are facing rice production and food security in Malaysia. It is also to identify the contribution of the granary areas in East Coast Economic Region (ECER) to the national food security. The important of rice as a staple food crop of Malaysia and is grown on 673,745 ha of land, producing annually 2.6 million tons of paddy grain valued at RM 2 billion, which is contribute with average growth rate of 3.7% of year, in ...

  20. Integrating ecosystem engineering and food web ecology: testing the effect of biogenic reefs on the food web of a soft-bottom intertidal area

    OpenAIRE

    De Smet, B; Fournier, J.; de Troch, M.; Vincx, M.; Vanaverbeke, J.

    2015-01-01

    The potential of ecosystem engineers to modify the structure and dynamics of food webs has recently been hypothesised from a conceptual point of view. Empirical data on the integration of ecosystem engineers and food webs is however largely lacking. This paper investigates the hypothesised link based on a field sampling approach of intertidal biogenic aggregations created by the ecosystem engineer Lanice conchilega (Polychaeta, Terebellidae). The aggregations are known to have a considerable ...