WorldWideScience

Sample records for area etf effluent

  1. F/H Area ETF effluent (H-016 outfall) Ceriodaphnia survival/reproduction test, test date: December 12, 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This toxicity test was conducted to determine if the effluent from the F/H area of Savannah River Plant, affects the survival or reproduction of the test organisms during a seven day period. The test involved exposing the text organisms ceriodaphnia, to a series of dilutions of the effluent. At each dilution the survival and reproduction of ten test organisms was recorded. Each effluent dilution was compared to a control set of test organisms. Survival data were analyzed by Fisher's Exact Test and the Trimmed Spearman-Karber method to determine the effluent concentration necessary to cause statistically significant (p=0.05) mortality. Reproduction data was analyzed for normality, homogeneity of variance and equality of replicates among dilutions to determine appropriate statistical test for analysis of statistical differences in reproduction among dilutions. Results are summarized

  2. Biological monitoring of Upper Three Runs Creek, Savannah River Plant, Aiken County, South Carolina. Final report on macroinvertebrate stream assessments for F/H area ETF effluent discharge, July 1987--February 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Specht, W.L.

    1991-10-01

    In anticipation of the fall 1988 start up of effluent discharges into Upper Three Creek by the F/H Area Effluent Treatment Facility of the Savannah River Site, Aiken, SC, a two and one half year biological study was initiated in June 1987. Upper Three Runs Creek is an intensively studied fourth order stream known for its high species richness. Designed to assess the potential impact of F?H area effluent on the creek, the study includes qualitative and quantitative macroinvertebrate stream surveys at five sites, chronic toxicity testing of the effluent, water chemistry and bioaccumulation analysis. This final report presents the results of both pre-operational and post-operational qualitative and quantitative (artificial substrate) macroinvertebrate studies. Six quantitative and three qualitative studies were conducted prior to the initial release of the F/H ETF effluent and five quantitative and two qualitative studies were conducted post-operationally.

  3. SECONDARY WASTE/ETF (EFFLUENT TREATMENT FACILITY) PRELIMINARY PRE-CONCEPTUAL ENGINEERING STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MAY TH; GEHNER PD; STEGEN GARY; HYMAS JAY; PAJUNEN AL; SEXTON RICH; RAMSEY AMY

    2009-12-28

    This pre-conceptual engineering study is intended to assist in supporting the critical decision (CD) 0 milestone by providing a basis for the justification of mission need (JMN) for the handling and disposal of liquid effluents. The ETF baseline strategy, to accommodate (WTP) requirements, calls for a solidification treatment unit (STU) to be added to the ETF to provide the needed additional processing capability. This STU is to process the ETF evaporator concentrate into a cement-based waste form. The cementitious waste will be cast into blocks for curing, storage, and disposal. Tis pre-conceptual engineering study explores this baseline strategy, in addition to other potential alternatives, for meeting the ETF future mission needs. Within each reviewed case study, a technical and facility description is outlined, along with a preliminary cost analysis and the associated risks and benefits.

  4. SECONDARY WASTE/ETF (EFFLUENT TREATMENT FACILITY) PRELIMINARY PRE-CONCEPTUAL ENGINEERING STUDY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This pre-conceptual engineering study is intended to assist in supporting the critical decision (CD) 0 milestone by providing a basis for the justification of mission need (JMN) for the handling and disposal of liquid effluents. The ETF baseline strategy, to accommodate (WTP) requirements, calls for a solidification treatment unit (STU) to be added to the ETF to provide the needed additional processing capability. This STU is to process the ETF evaporator concentrate into a cement-based waste form. The cementitious waste will be cast into blocks for curing, storage, and disposal. Tis pre-conceptual engineering study explores this baseline strategy, in addition to other potential alternatives, for meeting the ETF future mission needs. Within each reviewed case study, a technical and facility description is outlined, along with a preliminary cost analysis and the associated risks and benefits.

  5. 200 Area Liquid Effluent Facilities -- Quality assurance program plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP) describes the quality assurance and management controls used by the 200 Area Liquid Effluent Facilities (LEF) to perform its activities in accordance with DOE Order 5700.6C. The 200 Area LEF consists of the following facilities: Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF); Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF); Liquid Effluent Retention facility (LERF); and Truck Loading Facility -- (Project W291). The intent is to ensure that all activities such as collection of effluents, treatment, concentration of secondary wastes, verification, sampling and disposal of treated effluents and solids related with the LEF operations, conform to established requirements

  6. PEROXIDE DESTRUCTION TESTING FOR THE 200 AREA EFFLUENT TREATMENT FACILITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HALGREN DL

    2010-03-12

    The hydrogen peroxide decomposer columns at the 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) have been taken out of service due to ongoing problems with particulate fines and poor destruction performance from the granular activated carbon (GAC) used in the columns. An alternative search was initiated and led to bench scale testing and then pilot scale testing. Based on the bench scale testing three manganese dioxide based catalysts were evaluated in the peroxide destruction pilot column installed at the 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility. The ten inch diameter, nine foot tall, clear polyvinyl chloride (PVC) column allowed for the same six foot catalyst bed depth as is in the existing ETF system. The flow rate to the column was controlled to evaluate the performance at the same superficial velocity (gpm/ft{sup 2}) as the full scale design flow and normal process flow. Each catalyst was evaluated on peroxide destruction performance and particulate fines capacity and carryover. Peroxide destruction was measured by hydrogen peroxide concentration analysis of samples taken before and after the column. The presence of fines in the column headspace and the discharge from carryover was generally assessed by visual observation. All three catalysts met the peroxide destruction criteria by achieving hydrogen peroxide discharge concentrations of less than 0.5 mg/L at the design flow with inlet peroxide concentrations greater than 100 mg/L. The Sud-Chemie T-2525 catalyst was markedly better in the minimization of fines and particle carryover. It is anticipated the T-2525 can be installed as a direct replacement for the GAC in the peroxide decomposer columns. Based on the results of the peroxide method development work the recommendation is to purchase the T-2525 catalyst and initially load one of the ETF decomposer columns for full scale testing.

  7. PEROXIDE DESTRUCTION TESTING FOR THE 200 AREA EFFLUENT TREATMENT FACILITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The hydrogen peroxide decomposer columns at the 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) have been taken out of service due to ongoing problems with particulate fines and poor destruction performance from the granular activated carbon (GAC) used in the columns. An alternative search was initiated and led to bench scale testing and then pilot scale testing. Based on the bench scale testing three manganese dioxide based catalysts were evaluated in the peroxide destruction pilot column installed at the 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility. The ten inch diameter, nine foot tall, clear polyvinyl chloride (PVC) column allowed for the same six foot catalyst bed depth as is in the existing ETF system. The flow rate to the column was controlled to evaluate the performance at the same superficial velocity (gpm/ft2) as the full scale design flow and normal process flow. Each catalyst was evaluated on peroxide destruction performance and particulate fines capacity and carryover. Peroxide destruction was measured by hydrogen peroxide concentration analysis of samples taken before and after the column. The presence of fines in the column headspace and the discharge from carryover was generally assessed by visual observation. All three catalysts met the peroxide destruction criteria by achieving hydrogen peroxide discharge concentrations of less than 0.5 mg/L at the design flow with inlet peroxide concentrations greater than 100 mg/L. The Sud-Chemie T-2525 catalyst was markedly better in the minimization of fines and particle carryover. It is anticipated the T-2525 can be installed as a direct replacement for the GAC in the peroxide decomposer columns. Based on the results of the peroxide method development work the recommendation is to purchase the T-2525 catalyst and initially load one of the ETF decomposer columns for full scale testing.

  8. State waste discharge permit application for the 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility and the State-Approved Land Disposal Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-01

    Application is being made for a permit pursuant to Chapter 173--216 of the Washington Administrative Code (WAC), to discharge treated waste water and cooling tower blowdown from the 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) to land at the State-Approved Land Disposal Site (SALDS). The ETF is located in the 200 East Area and the SALDS is located north of the 200 West Area. The ETF is an industrial waste water treatment plant that will initially receive waste water from the following two sources, both located in the 200 Area on the Hanford Site: (1) the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility (LERF) and (2) the 242-A Evaporator. The waste water discharged from these two facilities is process condensate (PC), a by-product of the concentration of waste from DSTs that is performed in the 242-A Evaporator. Because the ETF is designed as a flexible treatment system, other aqueous waste streams generated at the Hanford Site may be considered for treatment at the ETF. The origin of the waste currently contained in the DSTs is explained in Section 2.0. An overview of the concentration of these waste in the 242-A Evaporator is provided in Section 3.0. Section 4.0 describes the LERF, a storage facility for process condensate. Attachment A responds to Section B of the permit application and provides an overview of the processes that generated the wastes, storage of the wastes in double-shell tanks (DST), preliminary treatment in the 242-A Evaporator, and storage at the LERF. Attachment B addresses waste water treatment at the ETF (under construction) and the addition of cooling tower blowdown to the treated waste water prior to disposal at SALDS. Attachment C describes treated waste water disposal at the proposed SALDS.

  9. State waste discharge permit application for the 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility and the State-Approved Land Disposal Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Application is being made for a permit pursuant to Chapter 173--216 of the Washington Administrative Code (WAC), to discharge treated waste water and cooling tower blowdown from the 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) to land at the State-Approved Land Disposal Site (SALDS). The ETF is located in the 200 East Area and the SALDS is located north of the 200 West Area. The ETF is an industrial waste water treatment plant that will initially receive waste water from the following two sources, both located in the 200 Area on the Hanford Site: (1) the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility (LERF) and (2) the 242-A Evaporator. The waste water discharged from these two facilities is process condensate (PC), a by-product of the concentration of waste from DSTs that is performed in the 242-A Evaporator. Because the ETF is designed as a flexible treatment system, other aqueous waste streams generated at the Hanford Site may be considered for treatment at the ETF. The origin of the waste currently contained in the DSTs is explained in Section 2.0. An overview of the concentration of these waste in the 242-A Evaporator is provided in Section 3.0. Section 4.0 describes the LERF, a storage facility for process condensate. Attachment A responds to Section B of the permit application and provides an overview of the processes that generated the wastes, storage of the wastes in double-shell tanks (DST), preliminary treatment in the 242-A Evaporator, and storage at the LERF. Attachment B addresses waste water treatment at the ETF (under construction) and the addition of cooling tower blowdown to the treated waste water prior to disposal at SALDS. Attachment C describes treated waste water disposal at the proposed SALDS

  10. Environmental Test Facility (ETF)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Environmental Test Facility (ETF) provides non-isolated shock testing for stand-alone equipment and full size cabinets under MIL-S-901D specifications. The ETF...

  11. ETF Mission Statement document. ETF Design Center team

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Mission Statement document describes the results, activities, and processes used in preparing the Mission Statement, facility characteristics, and operating goals for the Engineering Test Facility (ETF). Approximately 100 engineers and scientists from throughout the US fusion program spent three days at the Knoxville Mission Workshop defining the requirements that should be met by the ETF during its operating life. Seven groups were selected to consider one major category each of design and operation concerns. Each group prepared the findings of the assigned area as described in the major sections of this document. The results of the operations discussed must provide the data, knowledge, experience, and confidence to continue to the next steps beyond the ETF in making fusion power a viable energy option. The results from the ETF mission (operations are assumed to start early in the 1990's) are to bridge the gap between the base of magnetic fusion knowledge at the start of operations and that required to design the EPR/DEMO devices

  12. ETF Mission Statement document. ETF Design Center team

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-04-01

    The Mission Statement document describes the results, activities, and processes used in preparing the Mission Statement, facility characteristics, and operating goals for the Engineering Test Facility (ETF). Approximately 100 engineers and scientists from throughout the US fusion program spent three days at the Knoxville Mission Workshop defining the requirements that should be met by the ETF during its operating life. Seven groups were selected to consider one major category each of design and operation concerns. Each group prepared the findings of the assigned area as described in the major sections of this document. The results of the operations discussed must provide the data, knowledge, experience, and confidence to continue to the next steps beyond the ETF in making fusion power a viable energy option. The results from the ETF mission (operations are assumed to start early in the 1990's) are to bridge the gap between the base of magnetic fusion knowledge at the start of operations and that required to design the EPR/DEMO devices.

  13. 200 Area treated effluent disposal facility operational test report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document reports the results of the 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (200 Area TEDF) operational testing activities. These completed operational testing activities demonstrated the functional, operational and design requirements of the 200 Area TEDF have been met

  14. MHD-ETF design criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Retallick, F.D.

    1978-04-01

    This document establishes criteria to be utilized for the design of a pilot-scale (150 to 300 MW thermal) open cycle, coal-fired MHD/steam plant. Criteria for this Engineering Test Facility (ETF) are presented relative to plant siting, plant engineering and operations, MHD-ETF testing, costing and scheduling.

  15. 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF) Hazards Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CAMPBELL, L.R.

    1999-01-15

    This document establishes the technical basis in support of emergency planning activities for the 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility. The technical basis for project-specific Emergency Action Levels and Emergency Planning Zone is demonstrated.

  16. 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF) Effluent Sampling and Analysis Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BROWN, M.J.

    2000-05-18

    This Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) has been developed to comply with effluent monitoring requirements at the 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF), as stated in Washington State Waste Discharge Permit No. ST 4502 (Ecology 2000). This permit, issued by the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) under the authority of Chapter 90.48 Revised Code of Washington (RCW) and Washington Administrative Code (WAC) Chapter 173-216, is an April 2000 renewal of the original permit issued on April 1995.

  17. Statistical evaluation of effluent monitoring data for the 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CJ Chou; VG Johnson

    2000-04-04

    The 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF) consists of a pair of infiltration basins that receive wastewater originating from the 200 West and 200 East Areas of the Hanford Site. TEDF has been in operation since 1995 and is regulated by State Waste Discharge Permit ST 4502 (Ecology 1995) under the authority of Chapter 90.48 Revised Code of Washington (RCW) and Washington Administrative Code (WAC) Chapter 173-216. The permit stipulates monitoring requirements for effluent (or end-of-pipe) discharges and groundwater monitoring for TEDF. Groundwater monitoring began in 1992 prior to TEDF construction. Routine effluent monitoring in accordance with the permit requirements began in late April 1995 when the facility began operations. The State Waste Discharge Permit ST 4502 included a special permit condition (S.6). This condition specified a statistical study of the variability of permitted constituents in the effluent from TEDF during its first year of operation. The study was designed to (1) demonstrate compliance with the waste discharge permit; (2) determine the variability of all constituents in the effluent that have enforcement limits, early warning values, and monitoring requirements (WHC 1995); and (3) determine if concentrations of permitted constituents vary with season. Additional and more frequent sampling was conducted for the effluent variability study. Statistical evaluation results were provided in Chou and Johnson (1996). Parts of the original first year sampling and analysis plan (WHC 1995) were continued with routine monitoring required up to the present time.

  18. Hanford Facility dangerous waste permit application, liquid effluent retention facility and 200 area effluent treatment facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coenenberg, J.G.

    1997-08-15

    The Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application is considered to 10 be a single application organized into a General Information Portion (document 11 number DOE/RL-91-28) and a Unit-Specific Portion. The scope of the 12 Unit-Specific Portion is limited to Part B permit application documentation 13 submitted for individual, `operating` treatment, storage, and/or disposal 14 units, such as the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility and 200 Area Effluent 15 Treatment Facility (this document, DOE/RL-97-03). 16 17 Both the General Information and Unit-Specific portions of the Hanford 18 Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application address the content of the Part B 19 permit application guidance prepared by the Washington State Department of 20 Ecology (Ecology 1987 and 1996) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 21 (40 Code of Federal Regulations 270), with additional information needs 22 defined by the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments and revisions of 23 Washington Administrative Code 173-303. For ease of reference, the Washington 24 State Department of Ecology alpha-numeric section identifiers from the permit 25 application guidance documentation (Ecology 1996) follow, in brackets, the 26 chapter headings and subheadings. A checklist indicating where information is 27 contained in the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility and 200 Area Effluent 28 Treatment Facility permit application documentation, in relation to the 29 Washington State Department of Ecology guidance, is located in the Contents 30 Section. 31 32 Documentation contained in the General Information Portion is broader in 33 nature and could be used by multiple treatment, storage, and/or disposal units 34 (e.g., the glossary provided in the General Information Portion). Wherever 35 appropriate, the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility and 200 Area Effluent 36 Treatment Facility permit application documentation makes cross-reference to 37 the General Information Portion, rather than duplicating

  19. Hanford Facility dangerous waste permit application, liquid effluent retention facility and 200 area effluent treatment facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application is considered to 10 be a single application organized into a General Information Portion (document 11 number DOE/RL-91-28) and a Unit-Specific Portion. The scope of the 12 Unit-Specific Portion is limited to Part B permit application documentation 13 submitted for individual, 'operating' treatment, storage, and/or disposal 14 units, such as the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility and 200 Area Effluent 15 Treatment Facility (this document, DOE/RL-97-03). 16 17 Both the General Information and Unit-Specific portions of the Hanford 18 Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application address the content of the Part B 19 permit application guidance prepared by the Washington State Department of 20 Ecology (Ecology 1987 and 1996) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 21 (40 Code of Federal Regulations 270), with additional information needs 22 defined by the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments and revisions of 23 Washington Administrative Code 173-303. For ease of reference, the Washington 24 State Department of Ecology alpha-numeric section identifiers from the permit 25 application guidance documentation (Ecology 1996) follow, in brackets, the 26 chapter headings and subheadings. A checklist indicating where information is 27 contained in the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility and 200 Area Effluent 28 Treatment Facility permit application documentation, in relation to the 29 Washington State Department of Ecology guidance, is located in the Contents 30 Section. 31 32 Documentation contained in the General Information Portion is broader in 33 nature and could be used by multiple treatment, storage, and/or disposal units 34 (e.g., the glossary provided in the General Information Portion). Wherever 35 appropriate, the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility and 200 Area Effluent 36 Treatment Facility permit application documentation makes cross-reference to 37 the General Information Portion, rather than duplicating

  20. Subproject L-045H 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study focuses on the project schedule for Project L-045H, 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility. The 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility is a Department of Energy subproject of the Hanford Environmental Compliance Project. The study scope is limited to validation of the project schedule only. The primary purpose of the study is to find ways and means to accelerate the completion of the project, thereby hastening environmental compliance of the 300 Area of the Hanford site. The ''300 Area'' has been utilized extensively as a laboratory area, with a diverse array of laboratory facilities installed and operational. The 300 Area Process Sewer, located in the 300 Area on the Hanford Site, collects waste water from approximately 62 sources. This waste water is discharged into two 1500 feet long percolation trenches. Current environmental statutes and policies dictate that this practice be discontinued at the earliest possible date in favor of treatment and disposal practices that satisfy applicable regulations

  1. Effluent variability study for the 200 area treated effluent disposal facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chou, C.J., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-12

    The variability of permitted constituents in grab samples and 24-hr composites of liquid effluent discharged to the Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF) in the 200 East Area of the Hanford Site was evaluated for the period July 1995 through April 1996. The variability study was required as a condition of the wastewater discharge permit issued by the State of Washington Department of Ecology. Results of the statistical evaluation indicated that (1) except for iron, and possibly chloride, there is a very low probability of exceeding existing permit limits, (2) seasonal effects related to intake water quality account for the variability in several chemical constituents and (3) sample type (grab vs 24-hr composite) have little if any effect on monthly mean constituent concentrations.

  2. 200 Area effluent treatment facility process control plan 98-02

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le, E.Q.

    1998-01-30

    This Process Control Plan (PCP) provides a description of the background information, key objectives, and operating criteria defining Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) Campaign 98-02 as required per HNF-IP-0931 Section 37, Process Control Plans. Campaign 98-62 is expected to process approximately 18 millions gallons of groundwater with an assumption that the UP-1 groundwater pump will be shut down on June 30, 1998. This campaign will resume the UP-1 groundwater treatment operation from Campaign 97-01. The Campaign 97-01 was suspended in November 1997 to allow RCRA waste in LERF Basin 42 to be treated to meet the Land Disposal Restriction Clean Out requirements. The decision to utilize ETF as part of the selected interim remedial action of the 200-UP-1 Operable Unit is documented by the Declaration of the Record of Decision, (Ecology, EPA and DOE 1997). The treatment method was chosen in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) as amended by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (SARA), the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (known as the Tri-Party Agreement or TPA), and to the extent practicable, the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP).

  3. Hedge Ratios for short and leveraged ETFs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leo Schubert

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Exchange Traded Funds (ETFs exist for stock-, bond- and commodity markets. In most cases the underlying of an ETF is an index. Fund management today uses the active and passive way to construct a portfolio. ETFs can be used for passive portfolio management. Then ETFs with positive leverage factors are preferred. In the frame of active portfolio also the ETFs with negative leverage factors can be applied for the hedge or cross hedge of a portfolio. These hedging possibilities will be analyzed in this paper. Short ETFs exist with different leverage factors. In Europe, the leverage factors 1 (e.g. ShortDAX ETF and 2 (e.g. DJ STOXX 600 Double Short are offered while in the financial markets of the United States factors from 1 to 4 can be found. To investigate the effect of the different leverage factors and other parameters Monte Carlo Simulation was used. The results show e.g. that higher leverage factors achieve higher profits as well as losses. In the case, that a bearish market is supposed, minimizing the variance of the hedge seem not to be until to get better hedging results, due to a very skewed return distribution of the hedge. The risk measure target-shortfall-probability confirms the use of the standard hedge weightings which depend only on the leverage factor. This characteristic remains, when a portfolio has to be hedged instead of the underlying index of the short ETF. For portfolios which have a low correlation with the index return should not be used high leverage factors for hedging, due to the higher volatility and target-shortfall-probability.

  4. Tritium monitoring in groundwater and evaluation of model predictions for the Hanford Site 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) disposal site, also known as the State-Approved Land Disposal Site (SALDS), receives treated effluent containing tritium, which is allowed to infiltrate through the soil column to the water table. Tritium was first detected in groundwater monitoring wells around the facility in July 1996. The SALDS groundwater monitoring plan requires revision of a predictive groundwater model and reevaluation of the monitoring well network one year from the first detection of tritium in groundwater. This document is written primarily to satisfy these requirements and to report on analytical results for tritium in the SALDS groundwater monitoring network through April 1997. The document also recommends an approach to continued groundwater monitoring for tritium at the SALDS. Comparison of numerical groundwater models applied over the last several years indicate that earlier predictions, which show tritium from the SALDS approaching the Columbia River, were too simplified or overly robust in source assumptions. The most recent modeling indicates that concentrations of tritium above 500 pCi/L will extend, at most, no further than ∼1.5 km from the facility, using the most reasonable projections of ETF operation. This extent encompasses only the wells in the current SALDS tritium-tracking network

  5. EFFLUENT TREATMENT FACILITY PEROXIDE DESTRUCTION CATALYST TESTING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HALGREN DL

    2008-07-30

    The 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) main treatment train includes the peroxide destruction module (PDM) where the hydrogen peroxide residual from the upstream ultraviolet light/hydrogen peroxide oxidation unit is destroyed. Removal of the residual peroxide is necessary to protect downstream membranes from the strong oxidizer. The main component of the PDM is two reaction vessels utilizing granular activated carbon (GAC) as the reaction media. The PDM experienced a number of operability problems, including frequent plugging, and has not been utilized since the ETF changed to groundwater as the predominant feed. The unit seemed to be underperforming in regards to peroxide removal during the early periods of operation as well. It is anticipated that a functional PDM will be required for wastewater from the vitrification plant and other future streams. An alternate media or methodology needs to be identified to replace the GAC in the PDMs. This series of bench scale tests is to develop information to support an engineering study on the options for replacement of the existing GAC method for peroxide destruction at the ETF. A number of different catalysts will be compared as well as other potential methods such as strong reducing agents. The testing should lead to general conclusions on the viability of different catalysts and identify candidates for further study and evaluation.

  6. Removal of heavy metals from tannery effluents of Ambur industrial area, Tamilnadu by Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaji, S; Kalaivani, T; Rajasekaran, C; Shalini, M; Vinodhini, S; Priyadharshini, S Sunitha; Vidya, A G

    2015-06-01

    The present study was carried out with the tannery effluent contaminated with heavy metals collected from Ambur industrial area to determine the phycoremediation potential of Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis. Two different concentrations (50 and 100 %) of heavy metals containing tannery effluent treated with A. platensis were analysed for growth, absorption spectra, biochemical properties and antioxidant enzyme activity levels. The effluent treatments revealed dose-dependent decrease in the levels of A. platensis growth (65.37 % for 50 % effluent and 49.32 % for 100 % effluent), chlorophyll content (97.43 % for 50 % effluent and 71.05 % for 100 % effluent) and total protein content (82.63 % for 50 % effluent and 62.10 % for 100 % effluent) that leads to the reduction of total solids, total dissolved solids and total suspended solids. A. platensis with lower effluent concentration was effective than at higher concentration. Treatment with the effluent also resulted in increased activity levels of antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase (14.58 units/g fresh weight for 50 % and 24.57 units/g fresh weight for 100 %) and catalase (0.963 units/g fresh weight for 50 % and 1.263 units/g fresh weight for 100 %). Furthermore, heavy metal content was determined using atomic absorption spectrometry. These results indicated that A. platensis has the ability to combat heavy metal stress by the induction of antioxidant enzymes demonstrating its potential usefulness in phycoremediation of tannery effluent.

  7. 78 FR 70976 - Horizons ETFs Management (USA) LLC and Horizons ETF Trust; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-27

    ... will include both institutional and retail investors.\\21\\ The price at which Shares trade will be... COMMISSION Horizons ETFs Management (USA) LLC and Horizons ETF Trust; Notice of Application November 21, 2013... management investment companies to issue shares (``Shares'') redeemable in large aggregations...

  8. Readiness Assessment Plan, Hanford 200 areas treated effluent disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Readiness Assessment Plan documents Liquid Effluent Facilities review process used to establish the scope of review, documentation requirements, performance assessment, and plant readiness to begin operation of the Treated Effluent Disposal system in accordance with DOE-RLID-5480.31, Startup and Restart of Facilities Operational Readiness Review and Readiness Assessments

  9. Filtration engineering study to upgrade the ETF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filtration technologies are evaluated which have potential to augment or upgrade the 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility. The study was written in anticipation of treating future waste waters that have high fouling potentials. The Three ultrafilters judged to be capable of treating future waste waters are: hollow fiber, tubular, and centrifugal

  10. EFFLUENT TREATMENT FACILITY (ETF) WASTE STREAM STABILIZATION TESTING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. Department of Energy Hanford Site, the location of plutonium production for the US nuclear weapons program, is the focal point of a broad range of waste remediation efforts. This presentation will describe the development of cementitious waste forms for evaporated Hanford waste waters from several sources. Basin 42 waste water and simulants of proposed Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant secondary wastes and Demonstration Bulk Vitrification System secondary wastes were solidified in cementitious matrices termed ''dry cementitious formulation.'' Solidification of these brines was difficult to deal with because of high sulfate contents. Two approaches were explored. The first was based on compositions similar to sulphoaluminate-belite cements. The main component of these cements is 4CaO · 2Al2O3 · SO4. When hydrating in the presence of sulfate, these cements rapidly form ettringite. The goal was to consume the sulfate by rapidly forming ettringite. Forming ettringite before the mixture has filly set minimizes the potential for deleterious expansion at a later date. These formulations were developed based on mixtures of calcium-aluminate cement, a glassy blast-furnace slag, class F fly ash, and Portland cement. A second approach was based on using high alumina cement like ciment fondu. In this case the grout was a mixture of ciment fondu, a glassy blast-furnace slag, class f fly ash, and Portland cement. The literature shows that for concretes based on equal amounts of ciment fondu and blast furnace slag, cured at either 20 C or 38 C, the compressive strength increased continuously over a period of 1 year. In this second approach, enough reactive calcium aluminate was added to fully consume the sulfate at an early age. The results of this study will be presented. Included will be results for expansion and bleed water testing, adiabatic temperature rise, microstructure development, and the phase chemistry of the hydrated materials. The results of toxicity characteristic leaching procedure testing on samples of dry cementitious formulation spiked with selected metals will also be presented

  11. How are VIX and Stock Index ETF Related?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); T-L. Hsieh (Tai-Lin); M.J. McAleer (Michael)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractAs stock market indexes are not tradeable, the importance and trading volume of Exchange Traded Funds (ETFs) cannot be understated. ETFs track and attempt to replicate the performance of a specific index. Numerous studies have demonstrated a strong relationship between the S&P500 Composi

  12. Request for modification of 200 Area effluent treatment facility final delisting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BOWMAN, R.C.

    1998-11-19

    A Delisting Petition submitted to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in August 1993 addressed effluent to be generated at the 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility from treating Hanford Facility waste streams. This Delisting Petition requested that 71.9 million liters per year of treated effluent, bearing the designation 'F001' through 'F005', and/or 'F039' that is derived from 'F001' through 'F005' waste, be delisted. On June 13, 1995, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency published the final rule (Final Delisting), which formally excluded 71.9 million liters per year of 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility effluent from ''being listed as hazardous wastes'' (60 FR 31115 now promulgated in 40 CFR 261). Given the limited scope, it is necessary to request a modification of the Final Delisting to address the management of a more diverse multi-source leachate (F039) at the 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility. From past operations and current cleanup activities on the Hanford Facility, a considerable amount of both liquid and solid Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 regulated mixed waste has been and continues to be generated. Ultimately this waste will be treated as necessary to meet the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Land Disposal Restrictions. The disposal of this waste will be in Resource Conservation and Recovery Act--compliant permitted lined trenches equipped with leachate collection systems. These operations will result in the generation of what is referred to as multi-source leachate. This newly generated waste will receive the listed waste designation of F039. This waste also must be managed in compliance with the provisions of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

  13. Request for modification of 200 Area effluent treatment facility final delisting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Delisting Petition submitted to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in August 1993 addressed effluent to be generated at the 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility from treating Hanford Facility waste streams. This Delisting Petition requested that 71.9 million liters per year of treated effluent, bearing the designation 'F001' through 'F005', and/or 'F039' that is derived from 'F001' through 'F005' waste, be delisted. On June 13, 1995, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency published the final rule (Final Delisting), which formally excluded 71.9 million liters per year of 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility effluent from ''being listed as hazardous wastes'' (60 FR 31115 now promulgated in 40 CFR 261). Given the limited scope, it is necessary to request a modification of the Final Delisting to address the management of a more diverse multi-source leachate (F039) at the 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility. From past operations and current cleanup activities on the Hanford Facility, a considerable amount of both liquid and solid Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 regulated mixed waste has been and continues to be generated. Ultimately this waste will be treated as necessary to meet the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Land Disposal Restrictions. The disposal of this waste will be in Resource Conservation and Recovery Act--compliant permitted lined trenches equipped with leachate collection systems. These operations will result in the generation of what is referred to as multi-source leachate. This newly generated waste will receive the listed waste designation of F039. This waste also must be managed in compliance with the provisions of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act

  14. Closure report for CAU 93: Area 6 steam cleaning effluent ponds, Nevada Test Site. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    The Steam Cleaning Effluent Ponds (SCEP) waste unit is located in Area 6 at the Nevada Test Site. The SCEPs are evaporation basins formerly used for the disposal of untreated liquid effluent discharged from steam cleaning activities associated with Buildings 6-623 and 6-800. This closure report documents the strategy and analytical results that support the clean closure or closure in place of each of the components within CAU 93. In addition, the report documents all deviations from the approved closure plan and provides rationale for all deviations.

  15. Closure report for CAU 93: Area 6 steam cleaning effluent ponds, Nevada Test Site. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Steam Cleaning Effluent Ponds (SCEP) waste unit is located in Area 6 at the Nevada Test Site. The SCEPs are evaporation basins formerly used for the disposal of untreated liquid effluent discharged from steam cleaning activities associated with Buildings 6-623 and 6-800. This closure report documents the strategy and analytical results that support the clean closure or closure in place of each of the components within CAU 93. In addition, the report documents all deviations from the approved closure plan and provides rationale for all deviations

  16. The Fabrication of Nanoimprinted P3HT Nanograting by Patterned ETFE Mold at Room Temperature and Its Application for Solar Cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Guangzhu; Wang, Kaixuan; Li, Xiaohui; Chen, Qing; Hu, Zhijun; Liu, Jieping

    2016-12-01

    Nanoimprinting lithography (NIL) is investigated as a promising method to define nanostructure; however, finding a practical method to achieve large area patterning of conjugated polymer remains a challenge. We demonstrate here that a simple and cost-effective technique is proposed to fabricate the nanoimprinted P3HT nanograting by solvent-assisted room temperature NIL (SART-NIL) method with patterned ETFE film as mold. The patterned ETFE template is produced by embossing ETFE film into a patterned silicon master and is used as template to transfer nanogratings during the SART-NIL process. It indicates that highly reproducible and well-controlled P3HT nanograting film is obtained successfully with feature size of nanogratings ranging from 130 to 700 nm, due to the flexibility, stiffness, and low surface energy of ETFE mold. Moreover, the SART-NIL method using ETFE mold is able to fabricate nanogratings but not to induce the change of molecular orientation within conjugated polymer. The conducting ability of P3HT nanograting in the vertical direction is also not damaged after patterning. Finally, we further apply P3HT nanograting for the fabrication of active layer of OBHJ solar cell device, to investigate the morphology role presented by ETFE mold in device performance. The device performance of OBHJ solar cell is preferential to that of PBHJ device obviously. PMID:27206643

  17. The Fabrication of Nanoimprinted P3HT Nanograting by Patterned ETFE Mold at Room Temperature and Its Application for Solar Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Guangzhu; Wang, Kaixuan; Li, Xiaohui; Chen, Qing; Hu, Zhijun; Liu, Jieping

    2016-05-01

    Nanoimprinting lithography (NIL) is investigated as a promising method to define nanostructure; however, finding a practical method to achieve large area patterning of conjugated polymer remains a challenge. We demonstrate here that a simple and cost-effective technique is proposed to fabricate the nanoimprinted P3HT nanograting by solvent-assisted room temperature NIL (SART-NIL) method with patterned ETFE film as mold. The patterned ETFE template is produced by embossing ETFE film into a patterned silicon master and is used as template to transfer nanogratings during the SART-NIL process. It indicates that highly reproducible and well-controlled P3HT nanograting film is obtained successfully with feature size of nanogratings ranging from 130 to 700 nm, due to the flexibility, stiffness, and low surface energy of ETFE mold. Moreover, the SART-NIL method using ETFE mold is able to fabricate nanogratings but not to induce the change of molecular orientation within conjugated polymer. The conducting ability of P3HT nanograting in the vertical direction is also not damaged after patterning. Finally, we further apply P3HT nanograting for the fabrication of active layer of OBHJ solar cell device, to investigate the morphology role presented by ETFE mold in device performance. The device performance of OBHJ solar cell is preferential to that of PBHJ device obviously.

  18. State waste discharge permit application: 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (Project W-049H)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of the original Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Concent Order negotiations, US DOE, US EPA and the Washington State Department of Ecology agreed that liquid effluent discharges to the ground to the Hanford Site are subject to permitting in the State Waste Discharge Permit Program (SWDP). This document constitutes the SWDP Application for the 200 Area TEDF stream which includes the following streams discharged into the area: Plutonium Finishing Plant waste water; 222-S laboratory Complex waste water; T Plant waste water; 284-W Power Plant waste water; PUREX chemical Sewer; B Plant chemical sewer, process condensate, steam condensate; 242-A-81 Water Services waste water

  19. Readiness plan, Hanford 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility: Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF) is designed for the collection, treatment, and eventual disposal of liquid waste from the 300 Area Process Sewer (PS) system. The PS currently discharges water to the 300 Area Process Trenches. Facilities supported total 54 buildings, including site laboratories, inactive buildings, and support facilities. Effluent discharges to the process sewer from within these facilities include heating, ventilation, and air conditioning systems, heat exchangers, floor drains, sinks, and process equipment. The wastewaters go through treatment processes that include iron coprecipitation, ion exchange and ultraviolet oxidation. The iron coprecipitation process is designed to remove general heavy metals. A series of gravity filters then complete the clarification process by removing suspended solids. Following the iron coprecipitation process is the ion exchange process, where a specific resin is utilized for the removal of mercury. The final main unit operation is the ultraviolet destruction process, which uses high power ultraviolet light and hydrogen peroxide to destroy organic molecules. The objective of this readiness plan is to provide the method by which line management will prepare for a Readiness Assessment (RA) of the TEDF. The self-assessment and RA will assess safety, health, environmental compliance and management readiness of the TEDF. This assessment will provide assurances to both WHC and DOE that the facility is ready to start-up and begin operation

  20. Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application, 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application documentation consists of both Part A and a Part B permit application documentation. An explanation of the Part A revisions associated with this treatment and storage unit, including the current revision, is provided at the beginning of the Part A section. Once the initial Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit is issued, the following process will be used. As final, certified treatment, storage, and/or disposal unit-specific documents are developed, and completeness notifications are made by the US Environmental Protection Agency and the Washington State Department of Ecology, additional unit-specific permit conditions will be incorporated into the Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit through the permit modification process. All treatment, storage, and/or disposal units that are included in the Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application will operate under interim status until final status conditions for these units are incorporated into the Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit. The Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application, 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility contains information current as of May 1, 1993

  1. Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application, 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-01

    The 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application documentation consists of both Part A and a Part B permit application documentation. An explanation of the Part A revisions associated with this treatment and storage unit, including the current revision, is provided at the beginning of the Part A section. Once the initial Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit is issued, the following process will be used. As final, certified treatment, storage, and/or disposal unit-specific documents are developed, and completeness notifications are made by the US Environmental Protection Agency and the Washington State Department of Ecology, additional unit-specific permit conditions will be incorporated into the Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit through the permit modification process. All treatment, storage, and/or disposal units that are included in the Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application will operate under interim status until final status conditions for these units are incorporated into the Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit. The Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application, 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility contains information current as of May 1, 1993.

  2. Westinghouse Hanford Company effluent discharges and solid waste management report for calendar year 1989: 200/600 Areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents calendar year 1989 radiological and nonradiological effluent discharge data from facilities in the 200 Areas and the 600 Area of the Hanford Site. Both summary and detailed effluent data are presented. In addition, radioactive and nonradioactive solid waste storage and disposal data for calendar year 1989 are furnished. Where appropriate, comparisons to previous years are made. The intent of the report is to demonstrate compliance of Westinghouse Hanford Company-operated facilities with administrative control values for radioactive constituents and applicable guidelines and standards (including Federal permit limits) for nonradioactive constituents. 11 refs., 20 tabs

  3. Hazard Baseline Downgrade Effluent Treatment Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Hazard Baseline Downgrade reviews the Effluent Treatment Facility, in accordance with Department of Energy Order 5480.23, WSRC11Q Facility Safety Document Manual, DOE-STD-1027-92, and DOE-EM-STD-5502-94. It provides a baseline grouping based on the chemical and radiological hazards associated with the facility. The Determination of the baseline grouping for ETF will aid in establishing the appropriate set of standards for the facility

  4. 300 Area process sewer piping upgrade and 300 Area treated effluent disposal facility discharge to the City of Richland Sewage System, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is proposing to upgrade the existing 300 Area Process Sewer System by constructing and operating a new process sewer collection system that would discharge to the 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility. The DOE is also considering the construction of a tie-line from the TEDF to the 300 Area Sanitary Sewer for discharging the process wastewater to the City of Richland Sewage System. The proposed action is needed because the integrity of the old piping in the existing 300 Area Process Sewer System is questionable and effluents might be entering the soil column from leaking pipes. In addition, the DOE has identified a need to reduce anticipated operating costs at the new TEDF. The 300 Area Process Sewer Piping Upgrade (Project L-070) is estimated to cost approximately $9.9 million. The proposed work would involve the construction and operation of a new process sewer collection system. The new system would discharge the effluents to a collection sump and lift station for the TEDF. The TEDF is designed to treat and discharge the process effluent to the Columbia River. The process waste liquid effluent is currently well below the DOE requirements for radiological secondary containment and is not considered a RCRA hazardous waste or a State of Washington Hazardous Waste Management Act dangerous waste. A National Pollutant Discharge Elimination, System (NPDES) permit has been obtained from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for discharge to the Columbia River. The proposed action would upgrade the existing 300 Area Process Sewer System by the construction and operation of a new combined gravity, vacuum, and pressurized process sewer collection system consisting of vacuum collection sumps, pressure pump stations, and buried polyvinyl chloride or similar pipe. Two buildings would also be built to house a main collection station and a satellite collection station.

  5. 77 FR 75200 - AllianceBernstein Active ETFs, Inc., et al.; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-19

    ... COMMISSION AllianceBernstein Active ETFs, Inc., et al.; Notice of Application December 13, 2012. AGENCY...Bernstein Active ETFs, Inc. (``Corporation''), AllianceBernstein L.P. (``Adviser''), and ALPS Distributors... Business Day's NAV and the market closing price or mid-point of the bid/ask spread at the time...

  6. 78 FR 29399 - ERNY Financial ETF Trust and ERNY Financial Advisors, LLC; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-20

    ... COMMISSION ERNY Financial ETF Trust and ERNY Financial Advisors, LLC; Notice of Application May 13, 2013... Financial ETF Trust (``Trust'') and ERNY Financial Advisors, LLC (``Adviser''). Summary of Application... and/or Sub-Advisers. \\4\\ Depositary Receipts are typically issued by a financial institution,...

  7. 77 FR 34095 - Federated Investment Management Company and Federated ETF Trust; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-08

    ... COMMISSION Federated Investment Management Company and Federated ETF Trust; Notice of Application June 1...: Federated Investment Management Company (``Federated'') and Federated ETF Trust (the ``Trust''). Summary of... complete application may be obtained via the Commission's Web site by searching for the file number, or...

  8. 78 FR 63522 - Syntax Analytics, LLC and Syntax ETF Trust; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-24

    ... COMMISSION Syntax Analytics, LLC and Syntax ETF Trust; Notice of Application October 18, 2013. AGENCY... the Act for an exemption from sections 12(d)(1)(A) and (B) of the Act. Applicants: Syntax Analytics, LLC (``Syntax'') and Syntax ETF Trust (``Trust''). Summary of Application: Applicants request an...

  9. Areas permitted for irrigation, storage, evaporation, and disposal of treated sewage effluent in the upper Carson River Basin, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set consists of areas permitted for irrigation, storage, evaporation, and disposal of treated sewage effluent in the Upper Carson River Basin, California...

  10. PV-ETFE 气枕结构温度实测研究%Field measurement of temperature of PV-ETFE cushion structures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡建辉; 陈务军; 赵兵; 宋浩

    2015-01-01

    To investigate temperature characteristics of the ethylene‐tetra‐fluoro‐ethylene (ETFE) cushion integrated flexible amorphous silicon photovoltaic panels (PV‐ETFE for short), two types of PV‐ETFE cushions were designed. Cushion 1 was a three‐layer ETFE cushion integrated PV on sur‐face of its middle layer and cushion 2 was a double‐layer ETFE cushion integrated PV on surface of its top layer. Then, temperature of the two PV‐ETFE cushions in summer was field‐measured. The re‐sults show that temperature differences between the two PV‐ETFE cushions were 35. 4 ℃ for PV and 26. 2℃ for ETFE foils, the major influencing factors for ETFE foil of cushion 1, ETFE foil of cushion 2 and PV are the air temperature in cushion 1, air flow outside the cushion 2, and shade and angle of incidence of the solar irradiance, respectively.%为了研究柔性非晶硅薄膜光伏电池‐乙烯四氟乙烯共聚物(简称PV‐ETFE)气枕结构的温度特征,设计了由三层ET FE气枕与集成于其中层膜上表面PV组成的气枕1及由双层ET FE气枕与集成于其上层膜上表面PV组成的气枕2,实测了两种气枕的PV和ET FE薄膜的夏季温度数据.通过分析得到:两种气枕的PV和ET FE薄膜温度差分别为35.4℃和26.2℃;气枕1和气枕2 ET FE薄膜受气枕内空气温度和气枕外空气流动影响明显;PV温度受阴影及太阳光入射角影响.

  11. Appraisal of potential for injection-well recharge of the Hueco bolson with treated sewage effluent : preliminary study at the northeast El Paso area, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garza, Sergio; Weeks, Edwin P.; White, Donald E.

    1980-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the City of El Paso and the Texas Department of Water Resources, made a preliminary study of specific factors related to recharging the Hueco bolson in the northeast El Paso area with treated sewage effluent. The city is interested in the location and spacing of injection wells relative to (1) maintaining the injected effluent in the aquifer for a predetermined amount of time (residence time) before it is pumped out, (2) recovery by pumping of as much of the injected effluent as possible, and (3) the long-term effects of injection on water-level declines.

  12. Mercury in ground water, septage, leach-field effluent, and soils in residential areas, New Jersey coastal plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barringer, J.L.; Szabo, Z.; Schneider, D.; Atkinson, W.D.; Gallagher, R.A.

    2006-01-01

    Water samples were collected from domestic wells at an unsewered residential area in Gloucester County, New Jersey where mercury (Hg) concentrations in well water were known to exceed the USEPA maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 2000 ng/L. This residential area (the CSL site) is representative of more than 70 such areas in southern New Jersey where about 600 domestic wells, sampled previously by State and county agencies, yielded water containing Hg at concentrations that exceed the MCL. Recent studies indicate that background concentrations of Hg in water from this unconfined sand and gravel aquifer system are iron concentrations indicate that reductive dissolution of iron hydroxides in soils may release Hg to the percolating effluent. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Special Analysis for Disposal of High-Concentration I-129 Waste in the Intermediate-Level Vaults at the E-Area Low-Level Waste Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This revision was prepared to address comments from DOE-SR that arose following publication of revision 0. This Special Analysis (SA) addresses disposal of wastes with high concentrations of I-129 in the Intermediate-Level (IL) Vaults at the operating, low-level radioactive waste disposal facility (the E-Area Low-Level Waste Facility or LLWF) on the Savannah River Site (SRS). This SA provides limits for disposal in the IL Vaults of high-concentration I-129 wastes, including activated carbon beds from the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF), based on their measured, waste-specific Kds

  14. Biofouling of microfilters at the Savannah River Site F/H-Area Effluent Treatment Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The F/H-Effluent Treatment Facility uses state-of-the-art water treatment processes to remove contaminants from low-level radioactive wastewater at the Savannah River Site. The plant replaces seepage basins that were closed to comply with the 1984 amendments to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The facility removes both radioactive and nonradioactive contaminants from the effluents orginating from onsite waste management facilities. The unit processes involve filtration, ion exchange, activated carbon absorption, and reverse osmosis. The filtration step is prone to considerable fouling, reducing the overall throughput of the facility. The filters utilized in the process are Norton Ceraflo trademark ceramic microfilters. It was discovered that bacteria were primarily responsible for the severe filter fouling. Inorganic fouling was also observed, but was not normally as severe as the bacterial fouling. The bacteria densities necessary to induce severe fouling were not significantly higher than those often found in surface water streams. Diversion of waste streams containing the highest quantity of bacteria, and various methods of source reduction were implemented, which dramatically improved the filter performance. Addition of aluminum nitrate at low pH further improved the filter performance

  15. Biofouling of microfilters at the Savannah River Site F/H-area effluent treatment facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The F/H-Effluent Treatment Facility uses state-of-the-art water treatment processes to remove contaminants from low-level radioactive wastewater at the Savannah River Site, The plant replaces seepage basins that were closed to comply with the 1984 amendments to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The facility removes both radioactive and nonradioactive contaminants from the effluents originating from onsite waste management facilities. The unit processes involve filtration, ion exchange, activated carbon absorption, and reverse osmosis. The filtration step is prone to considerable fouling, reducing the overall throughput of the facility. The Filters utilized in the process are Norton Ceraflo ceramic microfilters. It was discovered that bacteria were primarily responsible for the severe filter fouling. Inorganic fouling was also observed, but was not normally as severe as the bacterial fouling. The bacteria densities necessary to induce severe fouling were not significantly higher than those often found in surface water streams. Diversion of waste streams containing the highest quantity of bacteria, and various methods of source reduction were implemented, which dramatically unproved the filter performance. Addition of aluminum nitrate at low pH further improved the filter performance. (author)

  16. Impact of Shrimp Farm Effluent on Water Quality in Coastal Areas of the World Heritage-Listed Ha Long Bay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thuyet D. Bui

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Shrimp farming has rapidly developed in coastal areas of the World Heritage-listed Ha Long Bay since the last decade. Effluent discharged from shrimp farms with high levels of nutrient waste may cause eutrophication in receiving waterways. Therefore, assessing water quality at tidal creeks receiving shrimp farm effluent in coastal areas of Ha Long Bay supports environmental protection and decision making for sustainable development of the region. Approach: Water samples were collected at 3 different locations for spatial assessment: inside sections of creeks directly receiving farm effluent (IEC, from main creeks adjacent to points of effluent discharge outside concentrated shrimp farms (OEC and a few kilometers away from shrimp farm (ASF. Samples were taken on 3 occasions for temporal assessment. Parameters related to nutrient waste from shrimp farms, including: Total Ammonia Nitrogen (TAN, Nitrite-Nitrogen (NO2-N, Nitrate-Nitrogen (NO3-N, Total Phosphorus (TP, Dissolved Orthophosphate (PO4-P, Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD, Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD, Total Suspended Solid (TSS, Chlorophyll-a (Chl-a, Temperature, Salinity, pH and Dissolved Oxygen (DO were determined using standard methods. Results: There were statistically significant differences in the concentrations of TAN, NO2-N, NO3-N, TP, PO4-P, BOD, COD and Chl-a among IEC, OEC, ASF and the levels of these parameters increased after shrimp crops, especially after the main shrimp crop of the season in North Vietnam. The concentrations of TAN, NO3-N, TP, BOD, COD, Chl-a, TSS at IEC sites were higher than recommended for protecting aquatic ecosystems. Principal Component Analysis (PCA efficiently summarized patterns of co-variation in water quality parameters among locations and study times. Conclusion/Recommendations: The findings of this study indicate that greater awareness of the environmental impacts of shrimp farms is required if this industry is to be sustainable

  17. A New Financial Instrument For the Turkish Capital Markets: Exchange Traded Funds (ETFs)

    OpenAIRE

    Cetin Ali Donmez

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, the Exchange Traded Funds (ETFs) as one of the fastest growing products of the last decade have been covered in detail. This product was introduced to the financial markets in early 1990s and has shown a remarkable success which lead us to believe that the ETFs will make great contribution to the Turkish Capital Markets. Exchange Traded Funds are mainly passive index tracking funds that are traded just like ordinary common stocks, however a very special feature distinguishes th...

  18. Milline ETF sähvatab uuel aastal? / Fredy-Edwin Esse

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Esse, Fredy-Edwin

    2010-01-01

    Sel aastal on kõrgeimat tootlust pakkunud toorainete ja eelkõige väärsimetallide börsil kaubeldavad fondid ehk ETF-id. Aastaga on enim kallinenud toorainete ETF-id, kus suurimad tõusjad on väärismetallid. Autor soovitab arenevatest turgudest enim tähelepanu pöörata Venemaale. LHV Panga portfellihalduri-fondijuhi abi Joel Kukemelki kommentaare

  19. Whole-body monitor, hand-feet monitor, gaseous effluent, area monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The following gaseous (iodine, noble gases and aerosols) effluents monitoring equipment developed by INVAP may be installed in any nuclear facility with a ventilation system that expels air through a chimney. Should the facility fail to have such a ventilation system - hence the extraction chimney - INVAP can offer an alternative system: a portable gaseous-effluent measuring equipment which can be installed, for example, in the hall of the reactor. Basically, the system consists of forcing, by means of an aspiration pump, a known and fixed air flow fraction from the chimney (or the hall) and to retain the aerosols continuously in a glass microfiber filter. Aerosols are thus measured according to a specially-designed geometry which confronts the filter with the plastic scintillator. The gas thus obtained is free from aerosols. It then passes through a carbon-activated filter which retains iodine. This filter has a coaxial geometry, lodging inside an INa (Tl) gamma radiation-sensitive scintillator. Both scintillators are optically coupled to their respective photomultipliers. Their pulses are processed with a load preamplifier and a discriminating amplifier in order to store them in counters to be periodically read by the intelligent controller. Actual monitoring will be carried out by means of independent measuring channels for iodine and aerosols, with each channel featuring remote reading and alarms (for instance, at the Control Room). Data thus acquired will be processed by an intelligent controller (INVAP Mod. SAPP-09) which will perform the following functions: - Calculation and unit conversion in order to inform in a TRC total and incremental activity released by the installation during a pre-set period established by the operator. - Calculation, including statistical errors, to determine whether incremental alarm values and pre-set totals are adequate or whether they have been exceeded, providing the results. - Process-control operations (counting failure

  20. Toxicities of sediments below 10 effluent outfalls to near-coastal areas of the Gulf of Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chemical quality and toxicities of sediments collected in the receiving waters below 10 wastewater outfalls to Northwest Florida coastal areas were evaluated at multiple stations during 1994--1996. Eight types of toxicity tests using 11 test species were used to assess acute and chronic toxicity of the sediments collected below industrial, municipal, power generation and pulp mill outfalls. The primary objectives of the study were to evaluate the relative ability of different assessment procedures to detect toxicity and to provide some much-needed perspective on the impact of major point sources on sediment quality in Gulf of Mexico estuaries. The major chemical contaminants were heavy metals and PAHs. Acute and chronic toxicities were noted. Results of tests with sediment collected at the same location but several months later often differed. The most sensitive species were mysids and an estuarine amphipod. The least sensitive species were fish and macrophyte seedlings. There was poor correlation of effluent toxicity to sediment toxicity in the receiving water. Toxicity of the effluents was greater than that of the sediments. Overall, the unavailability of relevant chronic toxicity methods, uncertain criteria for choice of control stations, lack of guidance on frequency of testing and the dynamic physical and chemical characteristics of sediments are factors that need consideration if sediment monitoring is to be part of the NPDES regulatory process

  1. Radiological effluent and onsite area monitoring report for the Nevada Test Site (January 1986-December 1986)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report documents the environmental surveillance program at the Nevada Test Site as conducted by the Department of Energy (DOE) onsite radiological safety contractor from January 1986 through December 1986. It presents results and evaluations of radioactivity measurements in air and water, and of direct gamma radiation exposure rates. It establishes relevant correlations between the data recorded and DOE concentration guides (CG's). External gamma exposure levels and radioactivity in air and water on the Nevada Test Site were low compared to DOE guidelines. The highest average gross beta concentration in air was 0.005% of the DOE concentration guide (CG). The highest average Pu-239 concentration was 7.7% of the standard. The highest average tritium concentration was 0.39% of the standard. Kr-85 concentrations increased slightly from CY-1985 to CY-1986. Xe-133 remained nondetectable with some exceptions. The highest average gross beta concentration in potable water remained within the applicable standard for drinking water. The highest average Pu-239 concentration from contaminated waters was 0.0005% of the concentration guide. The highest average tritium concentration in noncontaminated water was 6% of the level for drinking water required by the National Interim Primary Drinking Water Regulation. The amounts of tritium-bearing effluent released to contaminated waste ponds was calculated and reported to DOE Headquarters. Gamma radiation measurements were roughly the same in CY-1986 relative to the previous year. All surveillance results from the Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) indicate that no detectable releases of radioactive materials occurred in that network in 1986. 29 refs., 14 figs., 23 tabs

  2. Coupling in vitro and in vivo neurochemical-based assessments of wastewater effluents from the Maumee River Area of Concern (AOC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Here we utilize in vivo and in vitro approaches to study whether real world effluents released in the Maumee River (Toledo, OH) Area of Concern (AOC) contain neuroactive substances that may impair fish reproduction and behavior. Our approaches help extend the concept of endocrine...

  3. Characterization of sorption sites and differential stress response of microalgae isolates against tannery effluents from ranipet industrial area-An application towards phycoremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaji, S; Kalaivani, T; Sushma, B; Pillai, C Varneetha; Shalini, M; Rajasekaran, C

    2016-08-01

    Phycoremediation ability of microalgae namely Oscillatoria acuminate and Phormidium irrigum were validated against the heavy metals from tannery effluent of Ranipet industrial area. The microalgae species were cultured in media containing tannery effluent in two different volumes and the parameters like specific growth rate, protein content and antioxidant enzyme activities were estimated. FTIR spectroscopy was carried out to know the sorption sites interaction. The antioxidant enzymes namely superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione (GSH) contents were increased in microalgae species indicating the free radical scavenging mechanism under heavy metal stress. SOD activity was 0.502 and 0.378 units/gram fresh weight, CAT activity was 1.36 and 0.256 units/gram fresh weight, GSH activity was 1.286 and 1.232 units/gram fresh weight respectively in the effluent treated microalgae species. Bio sorption efficiency for Oscillatoria acuminate and Phormidium irrigum was 90% and 80% respectively. FTIR analysis revealed the interaction of microalgae species with chemical groups present in the tannery effluent. From the results, the microalgae Oscillatoria acuminate possess high antioxidant activity and bio sorption efficiency when compared to Phormidium irrigum and hence considered useful in treating heavy metals contaminated effluents. PMID:26587690

  4. PERFORMANCE OF TRADITIONAL INVESTMENT FUNDS AND ETFs LINKED TO SUSTAINABILITY AND CORPORATE GOVERNANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisângela de Magalhães Soares

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to compare the performance of traditional investment funds and Exchange traded funds (ETFs, which benchmarks are Ibovespa, IBrX and Sustainability Indexes, as well as free funds using daily frequency data covering the period from 20 June 2012 to 31 October 2013. The survey is descriptive with a quantitative approach. Analyses were performed using the Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM and the Sharpe Ratio (1966. In order to obtain an index of ETFs linked to sustainability, the nomenclature and prospectus of each ETF were analyzed to see which ones were linked to this sector. Then the average return of these funds was calculated, weighted by its Net Asset Value, generating a series of the same period and frequency of others. The results show that the funds linked to sustainability and corporate governance indices are one of the best investment options, surpassed only by free funds.

  5. Analytical mass formula and nuclear surface properties in the ETF approximation. Part I: symmetric nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aymard, François; Gulminelli, Francesca; Margueron, Jérôme

    2016-08-01

    The problem of determination of nuclear surface energy is addressed within the framework of the extended Thomas Fermi (ETF) approximation using Skyrme functionals. We propose an analytical model for the density profiles with variationally determined diffuseness parameters. In this first paper, we consider the case of symmetric nuclei. In this situation, the ETF functional can be exactly integrated, leading to an analytical formula expressing the surface energy as a function of the couplings of the energy functional. The importance of non-local terms is stressed and it is shown that they cannot be deduced simply from the local part of the functional, as it was suggested in previous works.

  6. 77 FR 73089 - Cambria Investment Management, L.P. and Cambria ETF Trust; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-07

    ... in domestic equity securities and in particular in companies that will generate investment returns... existing or future open-end management companies that may utilize active management investment strategies... COMMISSION Cambria Investment Management, L.P. and Cambria ETF Trust; Notice of Application November 30,...

  7. Evidências empíricas: arbitragem no mercado brasileiro com fundos ETFs Empirical evidence: arbitrage with Exchange-traded Funds (ETFs on the brazilian market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri Sampaio Maluf

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available De acordo com a literatura de gestão de risco, a diversificação contribui para a mitigação do risco. Neste sentido, os fundos de índice Exchange Traded Funds (ETF, recém-introduzidos no mercado brasileiro, permitem sua fácil execução. Dentro deste contexto, o presente artigo investiga a eficiência do processo de valuation das cotas do fundo iShare Ibovespa com relação ao seu valor justo. Para isto, primeiramente é empregada uma análise das séries temporais de alta frequência do ETF e Ibovespa, seguido de simulações de estratégias que contemplem ágios/deságios entre as séries dos ativos, sem e com custos de transação. A fim de evitar efeitos de Data-Snooping nos resultados das operações, foi aplicado um Bootstrap para séries temporais. No primeiro momento os resultados apontam para uma ineficiência do apreçamento das cotas, visto que a incorporação de ágios/deságios na estratégia produziu retornos de 172,5% acima de seu índice. No segundo, verifica-se que mesmo com a introdução dos custos operacionais, os ganhos ainda assim apresentam ineficiência. Entretanto, a partir da técnica de Bootstrap, os resultados não apontaram para retornos excedentes, o que pode ser atribuído meramente ao fenômeno de Data-Snooping. Os resultados evidenciam, portanto, a inviabilidade dos agentes em auferir rendimentos anormais a partir de divergências entre os valores da cota do ETF e seu respectivo índice, o que indica uma eficiência nas precificações das cotas do fundo iShare Ibovespa.According to risk management literature, diversification helps mitigate risk. Index funds, known as exchange-traded funds (ETFs, which were recently introduced into the Brazilian market, make diversification straightforward to accomplish. This paper investigates the efficiency of the valuation process of the Ibovespa iShares with respect to the fair value of the shares. For this purpose, a high-frequency time series analysis of ETFs and

  8. 242-A Evaporator/Liquid Effluent Retention Facility data quality objectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Von Bargen, B.H.

    1994-09-29

    The purpose of data quality objectives (DQO) is to determine the most cost effective methods of gathering the essential data necessary to make decisions to support successful operation of the facility. The essential data is defined by such information as sample amount, sample location, required analyses, and how sampling and analyses are performed. Successful operation is defined as meeting the campaign objectives while operating within established requirements. This DQO document addresses that portion of the system from 242-A Evaporator candidate feed tanks through discharge of process condensate to the Liquid Effluent Retention of Facility (LERF). Later revisions will incorporate and integrate the entire system, including the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF).

  9. Bacterial challenge of NISSHO ultrafilter ETF 609: results of in vitro testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krautzig, S; Lonnemann, G; Shaldon, S; Koch, K M

    1996-07-01

    In hemodialysis, a certain degree of bacterial contamination on the dialysate side is a regular finding. Concern has been growing that this contamination may lead to a chronic inflammatory response in the patient. Ultrafiltration of dialysate can be used to reduce bacterial content and levels of cytokine-inducing substances upstream of the patient's dialyzer. The aim of this study was to test in vitro the rejection capacity of a polysulfone hollow-fiber ultrafilter (ETF 609, NISSHO Co., Osaka, Japan) challenged with bacterial filtrates derived from Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA103. Results showed a reduction of interleukin-1 beta-inducing activity (measured on peripheral blood mononuclear cells) from 5,035 +/- 394 pg/ml prefilter to nondetectable levels postfilter and endotoxin levels (limulus amebocyte lysate assay) of 4,167 +/- 1,079 versus 12 +/- 2 pg/ml, respectively. In conclusion, ultrafiltration of dialysate with the polysulfone ultrafilter ETF 609 leads to a potent reduction of cytokine-inducing activity.

  10. Analytical mass formula and nuclear surface properties in the ETF approximation. Part II: asymmetric nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aymard, François; Gulminelli, Francesca; Margueron, Jérôme

    2016-08-01

    We have recently addressed the problem of the determination of the nuclear surface energy for symmetric nuclei in the framework of the extended Thomas-Fermi (ETF) approximation using Skyrme functionals. We presently extend this formalism to the case of asymmetric nuclei and the question of the surface symmetry energy. We propose an approximate expression for the diffuseness and the surface energy. These quantities are analytically related to the parameters of the energy functional. In particular, the influence of the different equation of state parameters can be explicitly quantified. Detailed analyses of the different energy components (local/non-local, isoscalar/isovector, surface/curvature and higher order) are also performed. Our analytical solution of the ETF integral improves previous models and leads to a precision of better than 200 keV per nucleon in the determination of the nuclear binding energy for dripline nuclei.

  11. Silage effluent management: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebrehanna, M M; Gordon, R J; Madani, A; VanderZaag, A C; Wood, J D

    2014-10-01

    Silage effluent is a potent wastewater that can be produced when ensiling crops that have a high moisture content (MC). Silage effluent can cause fish-kills and eutrophication due to its high biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and nutrient content, respectively. It has a high acidity (pH ≈ 3.5-5) making it corrosive to steel and damaging to concrete, which makes handling, storage and disposal a challenge. Although being recognized as a concentrated wastewater, most research has focused on preventing its production. Despite noted imprecision in effluent production models-and therefore limited ability to predict when effluent will flow-there has been little research aimed at identifying effective reactive management options, such as containment and natural treatment systems. Increasing climate variability and intensifying livestock agriculture are issues that will place a greater importance on developing comprehensive, multi-layered management strategies that include both preventative and reactive measures. This paper reviews important factors governing the production of effluent, approaches to minimize effluent flows as well as treatment and disposal options. The challenges of managing silage effluent are reviewed in the context of its chemical constituents. A multi-faceted approach should be utilized to minimize environmental risks associated with silage effluent. This includes: (i) managing crop moisture content prior to ensiling to reduce effluent production, (ii) ensuring the integrity of silos and effluent storages, and (iii) establishing infrastructure for effluent treatment and disposal. A more thorough investigation of constructed wetlands and vegetated infiltration areas for treating dilute silage effluent is needed. In particular, there should be efforts to improve natural treatment system design criteria by identifying pre-treatment processes and appropriate effluent loading rates. There is also a need for research aimed at understanding the effects of

  12. Groundwater Monitoring and Tritium-Tracking Plan for the 200 Area State-Approved Land Disposal Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DB Barnett

    2000-08-31

    The 200 Area State-Approved Land Disposal Site (SALDS) is a drainfield which receives treated wastewater, occasionally containing tritium from treatment of Hanford Site liquid wastes at the 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF). Since operation of the SALDS began in December 1995, discharges of tritium have totaled {approx}304 Ci, only half of what was originally predicted for tritium quantity through 1999. Total discharge volumes ({approx}2.7E+8 L) have been commensurate with predicted volumes to date. This document reports the results of all tritium analyses in groundwater as determined from the SALDS tritium-tracking network since the first SALDS wells were installed in 1992 through July 1999, and provides interpretation of these results as they relate to SALDS operation and its effect on groundwater. Hydrologic and geochemical information are synthesized to derive a conceptual model, which is in turn used to arrive at an appropriate approach to continued groundwater monitoring at the facility.

  13. Correlation between DNAPL distribution area and dissolved concentration in surfactant enhanced aquifer remediation effluent: a two-dimensional flow cell study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Bin; Li, Huiying; Du, Xiaoming; Zhong, Lirong; Yang, Bin; Du, Ping; Gu, Qingbao; Li, Fasheng

    2016-02-01

    During the process of surfactant enhanced aquifer remediation (SEAR), free phase dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) may be mobilized and spread. The understanding of the impact of DNAPL spreading on the SEAR remediation is not sufficient with its positive effect infrequently mentioned. To evaluate the correlation between DNAPL spreading and remediation efficiency, a two-dimensional sandbox apparatus was used to simulate the migration and dissolution process of 1,2-DCA (1,2-dichloroethane) DNAPL in SEAR. Distribution area of DNAPL in the sandbox was determined by digital image analysis and correlated with effluent DNAPL concentration. The results showed that the effluent DNAPL concentration has significant positive linear correlation with the DNAPL distribution area, indicating the mobilization of DNAPL could improve remediation efficiency by enlarging total NAPL-water interfacial area for mass transfer. Meanwhile, the vertical migration of 1,2-DCA was limited within the boundary of aquifer in all experiments, implying that by manipulating injection parameters in SEAR, optimal remediation efficiency can be reached while the risk of DNAPL vertical migration is minimized. This study provides a convenient visible and quantitative method for the optimization of parameters for SEAR project, and an approach of rapid predicting the extent of DNAPL contaminant distribution based on the dissolved DNAPL concentration in the extraction well.

  14. Correlation between DNAPL distribution area and dissolved concentration in surfactant enhanced aquifer remediation effluent: A two-dimensional flow cell study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bin; Li, Huiying; Du, Xiaoming; Zhong, Lirong; Yang, Bin; Du, Ping; Gu, Qingbao; Li, Fasheng

    2016-02-01

    During the process of surfactant enhanced aquifer remediation (SEAR), free phase dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) may be mobilized and spread. The understanding of the impact of DNAPL spreading on the SEAR remediation is not sufficient with its positive effect infrequently mentioned. To evaluate the correlation between DNAPL spreading and remediation efficiency, a two-dimensional sandbox apparatus was used to simulate the migration and dissolution process of 1,2-DCA (1,2-dichloroethane) DNAPL in SEAR. Distribution area of DNAPL in the sandbox was determined by digital image analysis and correlated with effluent DNAPL concentration. The results showed that the effluent DNAPL concentration has significant positive linear correlation with the DNAPL distribution area, indicating the mobilization of DNAPL could improve remediation efficiency by enlarging total NAPL-water interfacial area for mass transfer. Meanwhile, the vertical migration of 1,2-DCA was limited within the boundary of aquifer in all experiments, implying that by manipulating injection parameters in SEAR, optimal remediation efficiency can be reached while the risk of DNAPL vertical migration is minimized. This study provides a convenient visible and quantitative method for the optimization of parameters for SEAR project, and an approach of rapid predicting the extent of DNAPL contaminant distribution based on the dissolved DNAPL concentration in the extraction well.

  15. LITERATURE REVIEW ON IMPACT OF GLYCOLATE ON THE 2H EVAPORATOR AND THE EFFLUENT TREATMENT FACILITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adu-Wusu, K.

    2012-05-10

    Glycolic acid (GA) is being studied as an alternate reductant in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) feed preparation process. It will either be a total or partial replacement for the formic acid that is currently used. A literature review has been conducted on the impact of glycolate on two post-DWPF downstream systems - the 2H Evaporator system and the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF). The DWPF recycle stream serves as a portion of the feed to the 2H Evaporator. Glycolate enters the evaporator system from the glycolate in the recycle stream. The overhead (i.e., condensed phase) from the 2H Evaporator serves as a portion of the feed to the ETF. The literature search revealed that virtually no impact is anticipated for the 2H Evaporator. Glycolate may help reduce scale formation in the evaporator due to its high complexing ability. The drawback of the solubilizing ability is the potential impact on the criticality analysis of the 2H Evaporator system. It is recommended that at least a theoretical evaluation to confirm the finding that no self-propagating violent reactions with nitrate/nitrites will occur should be performed. Similarly, identification of sources of ignition relevant to glycolate and/or update of the composite flammability analysis to reflect the effects from the glycolate additions for the 2H Evaporator system are in order. An evaluation of the 2H Evaporator criticality analysis is also needed. A determination of the amount or fraction of the glycolate in the evaporator overhead is critical to more accurately assess its impact on the ETF. Hence, use of predictive models like OLI Environmental Simulation Package Software (OLI/ESP) and/or testing are recommended for the determination of the glycolate concentration in the overhead. The impact on the ETF depends on the concentration of glycolate in the ETF feed. The impact is classified as minor for feed glycolate concentrations {le} 33 mg/L or 0.44 mM. The ETF unit operations that will have

  16. Geochemical and hydrologic characterization of the effluent draining from U12e, U12n, and U12t tunnels, area 12, Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, C.E.; Gillespie, L.; Gillespie, D.

    1993-05-01

    The objective of the Tunnel Effluent Characterization Project at the Nevada Test Site was to characterize the tunnel effluents in terms of rate of discharge, pH, temperature, specific conductivity, turbidity, and aqueous chemistry. The parameters were monitored for one year to identify hazardous constituents within the effluent and to characterize temporal variations.

  17. In vivo and In vitro neurochemical-based assessments of wastewater effluents from the Maumee River area of concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arini, Adeline; Cavallin, Jenna E; Berninger, Jason P; Marfil-Vega, Ruth; Mills, Marc; Villeneuve, Daniel L; Basu, Niladri

    2016-04-01

    Wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents contain potentially neuroactive chemicals though few methods are available to screen for the presence of such agents. Here, two parallel approaches (in vivo and in vitro) were used to assess WWTP exposure-related changes to neurochemistry. First, fathead minnows (FHM, Pimephales promelas) were caged for four days along a WWTP discharge zone into the Maumee River (Ohio, USA). Grab water samples were collected and extracts obtained for the detection of alkylphenols, bisphenol A (BPA) and steroid hormones. Second, the extracts were then used as a source of in vitro exposure to brain tissues from FHM and four additional species relevant to the Great Lakes ecosystem (rainbow trout (RT), river otter (RO), bald eagle (BE) and human (HU)). The ability of the wastewater (in vivo) or extracts (in vitro) to interact with enzymes (monoamine oxidase (MAO) and glutamine synthetase (GS)) and receptors (dopamine (D2) and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDA)) involved in dopamine and glutamate-dependent neurotransmission were examined on brain homogenates. In vivo exposure of FHM led to significant decreases of NMDA receptor binding in females (24-42%), and increases of MAO activity in males (2.8- to 3.2-fold). In vitro, alkylphenol-targeted extracts significantly inhibited D2 (66% in FHM) and NMDA (24-54% in HU and RT) receptor binding, and induced MAO activity in RT, RO, and BE brains. Steroid hormone-targeted extracts inhibited GS activity in all species except FHM. BPA-targeted extracts caused a MAO inhibition in FHM, RT and BE brains. Using both in vivo and in vitro approaches, this study shows that WWTP effluents contain agents that can interact with neurochemicals important in reproduction and other neurological functions. Additional work is needed to better resolve in vitro to in vivo extrapolations (IVIVE) as well as cross-species differences.

  18. Post-Closure Monitoring Report for Corrective Action Unit 339: Area 12 Fleet Operations Steam Cleaning Effluent Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. B. Campbell

    2002-09-01

    The Area 12 Fleet Operations Steam Cleaning Effluent site is located in the southeastern portion of the Area 12 Camp at the Nevada Test Site. This site is identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (1996) as Corrective Action Site (CAS) 12-19-01 and is the only CAS assigned to Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 339. Post-closure sampling and inspection of the site were completed on March 27, 2002. Post-closure monitoring activities were scheduled biennially (every two years) in the Post-Closure Monitoring Plan provided in the Closure Report for CAU 339: Area 12 Fleet Operations Steam Cleaning Effluent, Nevada Test Site (U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office [DOEN], 1997). A baseline for the site was established by sampling in 1997. Based on the recommendations from the 1999 post-closure monitoring report (DOE/NV, 1999), samples were collected in 2000, earlier than originally proposed, because the 1999 sample results did not provide the expected decrease in total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) concentrations at the site. Sampling results from 2000 (DOE/NV, 2000) and 2001 (DOE/NV, 2001) revealed favorable conditions for natural degradation at the CAU 339 site, but because of differing sample methods and heterogeneity of the soil, data results from 2000 and later were not directly correlated with previous results. Post-closure monitoring activities for 2002 consisted of the following: (1) Soil sample collection from three undisturbed plots (Plots A, B, and C, Figure 2). (2) Sample analysis for TPH as oil and bio-characterization parameters (Comparative Enumeration Assay [CEA] and Standard Nutrient Panel [SNP]). (3) Site inspection to evaluate the condition of the fencing and signs. (4) Preparation and submittal of the Post-Closure Monitoring Report.

  19. EVIDENCE OF ACTIVE MANAGEMENT OF PRIVATE VOLUNTARY PENSION FUNDS IN COLOMBIA: A PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS USING PROXY ETFs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EDGARDO CAYÓN FALLÓN

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El propósito del presente estudio es encontrar evidencia de que la gerencia activa de los portafolios administrados por los fondos privados de pensiones en Colombia realmente agrega valor a los inversionistas, o si por el contrario dichos inversionistas obtendrían mejores resultados invirtiendo en un producto de gerencia pasiva como los ETFs. Después de analizar los datos de 30 portafolios administrados por los fondos de pensiones en Colombia y de 30 ETFs que tuvieran objetivos de inversión similares a estos portafolios, el resultado obtenido fue que bajo medidas comunes de desempeño, el inversionista colombiano obtendría mejores rentabilidades invirtiendo en productos de gerencia pasiva (ETFS que en los portafolios que ofrecen actualmente los fondos de pensiones voluntarias en Colombia.

  20. Tritium-management requirements for D-T fusion reactors (ETF, INTOR, FED)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The successful operation of D-T fusion reactors will depend on the development of safe and reliable tritium-containment and fuel-recycle systems. The tritium handling requirements for D-T reactors were analyzed. The reactor facility was then designed from the viewpoint of tritium management. Recovery scenarios after a tritium release were generated to show the relative importance of various scenarios. A fusion-reactor tritium facility was designed which would be appropriate for all types of plants from the Engineering Test Facility (ETF), the International Tokamak Reactor (INTOR), and the Fusion Engineering Device (FED) to the full-scale power plant epitomized by the STARFIRE design

  1. A thermal model for amorphous silicon photovoltaic integrated in ETFE cushion roofs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A thermal model is proposed to estimate temperature of a-Si PV integrated in ETFE cushion. • Nonlinear equation is solved by Runge–Kutta method integrated in a new program. • Temperature profiles varying with weather conditions are obtained and analyzed. • Numerical results are in good line with experimental results with coefficients of 0.821–0.985. • Reasons for temperature difference of 0.9–4.6 K are solar irradiance and varying parameters. - Abstract: Temperature characteristics of amorphous silicon photovoltaic (a-Si PV) integrated in building roofs (e.g. the ETFE cushions) are indispensible for evaluating the thermal performances of a-Si PV and buildings. To investigate the temperature characteristics and temperature value, field experiments and numerical modeling were performed and compared in this paper. An experimental mock-up composed of a-Si PV and a three-layer ETFE cushion structure was constructed and experiments were carried out under four typical weather conditions (winter sunny, winter cloudy, summer sunny and summer cloudy). The measured solar irradiance and air temperature were used as the real weather conditions for the thermal model. On the other side, a theoretical thermal model was developed based on energy balance equation which was expressed as that absorbed energy was equal to converted energy and energy loss. The corresponding differential equation of PV temperature varying with weather conditions was solved by the Runge–Kutta method. The comparisons between the experimental and numerical results were focusing on the temperature characteristics and temperature value. For the temperature characteristics, good agreement was obtained by correlation analysis with the coefficients of 0.821–0.985, which validated the feasibility of the thermal model. For the temperature value, the temperature difference between the experimental and numerical results was only 0.9–4.6 K and the reasons could be the dramatical

  2. Biržoje prekiaujamų fondų (ETF bendrojo išlaidų rodiklio tyrimas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukas Macijauskas

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Diskusijai, kuris – pasyvus ar aktyvus – investicijų valdymas yra efektyvesnis, ryškėjant, biržoje prekiaujami fondai (Exchange Traded Funds – ETF sulaukia vis didesnio investuotojų dėmesio, o tai skatina detalesnius šių priemonių tyrinėjimus. Pagrindinis šio straipsnio tikslas – įvairiais aspektais analizuoti šių finansinių priemonių bendrąjį išlaidų rodiklį (Total Expense Ratio (TER. Naudodami duomenų bazę, kurią sudaro 1020 ETF, apskaičiavome, kad paprastųjų, t. y. nenaudojančių sverto ir ne atvirkštinių ETF, svertinis bendrojo išlaidų rodiklio vidurkis (įvertinant kapitalizaciją yra lygus 0,32 proc. Analizė rodo, kad atvirkštiniai ir svertiniai ETF vidutiniškai apie 3 kartus brangesni nei paprastieji ETF. Atlikę skaičiavimus nustatėme, kad bendrasis išlaidų rodiklis yra gerokai mažesnis nei vidutinių investicinių fondų. Tai leidžia daryti išvadą, kad vertinant per išlaidų koeficiento prizmę, ETF yra daug efektyvesnė investavimo priemonė nei įprasti investiciniai fondai.Straipsnis lietuvių kalba

  3. 基于价值的杠杆ETF的风险分析%Risk Analysis Based on the Value of Leveraged ETF

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李霄

    2011-01-01

    Leveraged ETF is a kind of various innovative fund products introduced by the abroad mature market in recent years, and has recognized by the market. This paper wants to study the risk of Leveraged ETF based on the study of its value to provide a reference for the transplantation of Leveraged ETF in China.%杠杆ETF(Leveraged ETF)是国外成熟市场近年采推出各类创新型基金产品的一种,而且得到了市场的认可.本文宗旨在研究杠杆ETF的价值的基础上研究他的风险,为在我国探讨移植杠杆ETF提供借鉴.

  4. Comparison of sodium naphthenate and air-ionization corona discharge as surface treatments for the ethylene-tetrafluoroethylene polymer (ETFE) to improve adhesion between ETFE and acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene polymer (ABS) in the presence of a cyanoacrylate adhesive (CAA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucía Johanning-Solís, Ana; Stradi-Granados, Benito A.

    2014-09-01

    This study compares two ethylene-tetrafluoroethylene (ETFE) surface activation treatments, namely chemical attack with a solution of sodium naphthenate and plasma erosion via air-ionization corona discharge in order to improve the adhesive properties of the ETFE. An experimental design was prepared for both treatments in order to assess the effect of the treatment characteristics on the tensile load needed to break the bond between the ETFE and the acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene polymer (ABS) formed with a cyanoacrylate adhesive (CAA) applied between them. The reason for the selection of this problem is that both polymers are frequently used in the biomedical industry for their properties, and they need to be joined firmly in biomedical devices, and the cyanoacrylate adhesive is the adhesive traditionally used for fluoropolymers, in this case the ETFE, and the same CAA has also shown good adhesion with ABS. However, the strength of the bond for the triplet ETFE-CAA-ABS has not been reported and the improvement of the strength of the bond with surface treatments is not found in scholarly journals for modern medical devices such as stents and snares. Both treatments were compared based on the aforementioned design of experiments. The case where ETFE receives no surface treatment serves as the reference. The results indicated that the three factors evaluated (initial drying of the material, temperature of the chemical bath, and immersion time), and their interactions have no significant effect over the tensile load at failure (tensile strength) of the adhesive bond being evaluated. For the air-ionization corona discharge treatment, two factors were evaluated: discharge exposition time and air pressure. The results obtained from this experimental design indicate that there is no significant difference between the levels of the factors evaluated. These results were unexpected as the ranges used were representative of the maximum ranges permissible in manufacturing

  5. Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) Engineering Test Facility (ETF) 200 MWe power plant. Conceptual Design Engineering Report (CDER). Volume 2: Engineering. Volume 3: Costs and schedules

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-01

    Engineering design details for the principal systems, system operating modes, site facilities, and structures of an engineering test facility (ETF) of a 200 MWE power plant are presented. The ETF resembles a coal-fired steam power plant in many ways. It is analogous to a conventional plant which has had the coal combustor replaced with the MHD power train. Most of the ETF components are conventional. They can, however, be sized or configured differently or perform additional functions from those in a conventional coal power plant. The boiler not only generates steam, but also performs the functions of heating the MHD oxidant, recovering seed, and controlling emissions.

  6. Groundwater screening evaluation/monitoring plan: 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (Project W-049H). Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnett, D.B.; Davis, J.D.; Collard, L.B.; Freeman, P.B.; Chou, C.J.

    1995-05-01

    This report consists of the groundwater screening evaluation required by Section S.8 of the State Waste Discharge Permit for the 200 Area TEDF. Chapter 1.0 describes the purpose of the groundwater monitoring plan. The information in Chapter 2.0 establishes a water quality baseline for the facility and is the groundwater screening evaluation. The following information is included in Chapter 2.0: Facility description;Well locations, construction, and development data; Geologic and hydrologic description of the site and affected area; Ambient groundwater quality and current use; Water balance information; Hydrologic parameters; Potentiometric map, hydraulic gradients, and flow velocities; Results of infiltration and hydraulic tests; Groundwater and soils chemistry sampling and analysis data; Statistical evaluation of groundwater background data; and Projected effects of facility operation on groundwater flow and water quality. Chapter 3.0 defines, based on the information in Chapter 2.0, how effects of the TEDF on the environment will be evaluated and how compliance with groundwater quality standards will be documented in accordance with the terms and conditions of the permit. Chapter 3.0 contains the following information: Media to be monitored; Wells proposed as the point of compliance in the uppermost aquifer; Basis for monitoring well network and evidence of monitoring adequacy; Contingency planning approach for vadose zone monitoring wells; Which field parameters will be measured and how measurements will be made; Specification of constituents to be sampled and analyzed; and Specification of the sampling and analysis procedures that will be used. Chapter 4.0 provides information on how the monitoring results will be reported and the proposed frequency of monitoring and reporting. Chapter 5.0 lists all the references cited in this monitoring plan. These references should be consulted for additional or more detailed information.

  7. Groundwater screening evaluation/monitoring plan: 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (Project W-049H). Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report consists of the groundwater screening evaluation required by Section S.8 of the State Waste Discharge Permit for the 200 Area TEDF. Chapter 1.0 describes the purpose of the groundwater monitoring plan. The information in Chapter 2.0 establishes a water quality baseline for the facility and is the groundwater screening evaluation. The following information is included in Chapter 2.0: Facility description;Well locations, construction, and development data; Geologic and hydrologic description of the site and affected area; Ambient groundwater quality and current use; Water balance information; Hydrologic parameters; Potentiometric map, hydraulic gradients, and flow velocities; Results of infiltration and hydraulic tests; Groundwater and soils chemistry sampling and analysis data; Statistical evaluation of groundwater background data; and Projected effects of facility operation on groundwater flow and water quality. Chapter 3.0 defines, based on the information in Chapter 2.0, how effects of the TEDF on the environment will be evaluated and how compliance with groundwater quality standards will be documented in accordance with the terms and conditions of the permit. Chapter 3.0 contains the following information: Media to be monitored; Wells proposed as the point of compliance in the uppermost aquifer; Basis for monitoring well network and evidence of monitoring adequacy; Contingency planning approach for vadose zone monitoring wells; Which field parameters will be measured and how measurements will be made; Specification of constituents to be sampled and analyzed; and Specification of the sampling and analysis procedures that will be used. Chapter 4.0 provides information on how the monitoring results will be reported and the proposed frequency of monitoring and reporting. Chapter 5.0 lists all the references cited in this monitoring plan. These references should be consulted for additional or more detailed information

  8. Plant and soil modifications by continuous surface effluent application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tedesco, M.J.; Levien, R. [Rio Grande do Sul Univ., Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Dept. of Solos; Mohrdieck, F.G.; Rodrigues, N.R. [CORSAN-SITEL, Triunfo, RS (Brazil). Polo Petroquimico do Sul. Dept. de Operacao e Manutencao; Flores, A.I.P.

    1993-12-31

    In order to study the effects on soil and plants of the liquid effluent generated by a the Integrated Liquid Effluent Treatment System of a large Brazilian petrochemical complex, a field study was conducted in four areas which received the effluent and compared to control sites. This work presents some results of this study. 12 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  9. Post-irradiation time effects on the graft of poly(ethylene-alt-tetrafluoroethylene) (ETFE) films for ion exchange membrane application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grafting of styrene followed by sulfonation onto poly(ethylene-alt-tetrafluoroethylene) (ETFE) was studied for synthesis of ion exchange membranes. Radiation-induced grafting of styrene onto ETFE films was investigated after simultaneous irradiation (in post-irradiation condition) using a 60Co source. The ETFE films were irradiated at 20 kGy dose at room temperature and chemical changes were monitored after contact with styrene for grafting. The post-irradiation time was established at 14 days when the films were remained in styrene/toluene 1:1 v/v. After this period the grafting degree was evaluated in the samples. The grafted films were sulfonated using chlorosulfonic acid and 1, 2-dichloroethane 20:80 (v/v) at room temperature for 5 h. The membranes were analyzed by infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), thermogravimetric measurements (TG) and degree of grafting (DOG). The ion exchange capacity (IEC) of membranes was determined by acid-base titration and the values for ETFE membranes were achieved higher than Nafion films. Preliminary single cell performance was made using pure H2 and O2 as reactants at a cell temperature of 80 deg. C and atmospheric gas pressure. The fuel cell performance of ETFE films was satisfactory when compared to state-of-art Nafion membranes.

  10. Enhancing the Decolorizing and Degradation Ability of Bacterial Consortium Isolated from Textile Effluent Affected Area and Its Application on Seed Germination

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    A bacterial consortium BMP1/SDSC/01 consisting of six isolates was isolated from textile effected soil, sludge, and textile effluent from Hudiara drain near Nishat Mills Limited, Ferozepur Road, Lahore, Pakistan. It was selected because of being capable of degrading and detoxifying red, green, black, and yellow textile dyes. The pH and supplements were optimized to enhance the decolorization ability of the selected consortium. The results indicated that decolorizing ability of consortium for ...

  11. Facility effluent monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gleckler, B.P.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the facility effluent monitoring programs and provides an evaluation of effluent monitoring data. These evaluations are useful in assessing the effectiveness of effluent treatment and control systems, as well as management practices.

  12. Cross-correlation analysis between Chinese TF contracts and treasury ETF based on high-frequency data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yu; Chen, Shi

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, we investigate the high-frequency cross-correlation relationship between Chinese treasury futures contracts and treasury ETF. We analyze the logarithmic return of these two price series, from which we can conclude that both return series are not normally distributed and the futures markets have greater volatility. We find significant cross-correlation between these two series. We further confirm the relationship using the DCCA coefficient and the DMCA coefficient. We quantify the long-range cross-correlation with DCCA method, and we further show that the relationship is multifractal. An arbitrage algorithm based on DFA regression with stable return is proposed in the last part.

  13. Enhancing the Decolorizing and Degradation Ability of Bacterial Consortium Isolated from Textile Effluent Affected Area and Its Application on Seed Germination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashid Mahmood

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A bacterial consortium BMP1/SDSC/01 consisting of six isolates was isolated from textile effected soil, sludge, and textile effluent from Hudiara drain near Nishat Mills Limited, Ferozepur Road, Lahore, Pakistan. It was selected because of being capable of degrading and detoxifying red, green, black, and yellow textile dyes. The pH and supplements were optimized to enhance the decolorization ability of the selected consortium. The results indicated that decolorizing ability of consortium for the red, green, black, and yellow dyes was higher as compared to individual strains. The consortium was able to decolorize 84%, 84%, 85%, 85%, and 82% of 200 ppm of red, green, black, yellow, and mixed dyes within 24 h while individual strain required 72 h. On supplementing urea, the consortium decolorized 87, 86, 89, 86, and 83%, respectively, while on supplementing sodium chloride the consortium decolorized 93, 94, 93, 94, and 89% of red, green, black, yellow, and mixed dyes, respectively, which was maximum while in the presence of ascorbic acid and ammonium chloride it showed intermediate results. The effect of untreated and treated dyes was investigated on Zea mays L. (maize and Sorghum vulgare Pers. (sorghum. This study will help to promote an efficient biotreatment of textile effluents.

  14. Enhancing the decolorizing and degradation ability of bacterial consortium isolated from textile effluent affected area and its application on seed germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Rashid; Sharif, Faiza; Ali, Sikander; Hayyat, Muhammad Umar

    2015-01-01

    A bacterial consortium BMP1/SDSC/01 consisting of six isolates was isolated from textile effected soil, sludge, and textile effluent from Hudiara drain near Nishat Mills Limited, Ferozepur Road, Lahore, Pakistan. It was selected because of being capable of degrading and detoxifying red, green, black, and yellow textile dyes. The pH and supplements were optimized to enhance the decolorization ability of the selected consortium. The results indicated that decolorizing ability of consortium for the red, green, black, and yellow dyes was higher as compared to individual strains. The consortium was able to decolorize 84%, 84%, 85%, 85%, and 82% of 200 ppm of red, green, black, yellow, and mixed dyes within 24 h while individual strain required 72 h. On supplementing urea, the consortium decolorized 87, 86, 89, 86, and 83%, respectively, while on supplementing sodium chloride the consortium decolorized 93, 94, 93, 94, and 89% of red, green, black, yellow, and mixed dyes, respectively, which was maximum while in the presence of ascorbic acid and ammonium chloride it showed intermediate results. The effect of untreated and treated dyes was investigated on Zea mays L. (maize) and Sorghum vulgare Pers. (sorghum). This study will help to promote an efficient biotreatment of textile effluents. PMID:25654132

  15. Waste monitoring system for effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The waste monitoring system in use at Los Alamos National Laboratory's Plutonium Facility, TA-55, is a computer-based system that proves real-time information on industrial effluents. Remote computers monitor discharge events and data moves from one system to another via a local area network. This report describes the history, system design, summary, instrumentation list, displays, trending screens, and layout of the waste monitoring system

  16. Nuclear reactor effluent monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minns, J.L.; Essig, T.H. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

    1993-12-31

    Radiological environmental monitoring and effluent monitoring at nuclear power plants is important both for normal operations, as well as in the event of an accident. During normal operations, environmental monitoring verifies the effectiveness of in-plant measures for controlling the release of radioactive materials in the plant. Following an accident, it would be an additional mechanism for estimating doses to members of the general public. This paper identifies the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulatory basis for requiring radiological environmental and effluent monitoring, licensee conditions for effluent and environmental monitoring, NRC independent oversight activities, and NRC`s program results.

  17. Liquid Effluent Retention Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Liquid Effluent Retention Facility (LERF) is located in the central part of the Hanford Site. LERF is permitted by the State of Washington and has three liquid...

  18. Genotoxicity of swine effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Techio, V H; Stolberg, J; Kunz, A; Zanin, E; Perdomo, C C

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed at the investigation of genotoxic effects of swine effluents from different stages of a treatment system for swine wastes through bioassay of stamen hairs and micronuclei in Tradescantia (clone BNL 4430). No significant differences (p≥0.05) regarding the genic mutations were found in the bioassay of stamen hairs, independently of the effluent analysed. For the genotoxicity test with micronuclei, the plants exposed to raw wastes, to sludge, and to effluent of the biodigester have presented higher rates of chromosomal damages (micronuclei), with significant differences in relation to the control group and other effluent of the waste treatment system (p≤0.05). The association between the chemical parameters and the genotoxicity data have shown that the variables COD and TKN have presented significant correlation (p≤0.05) with the number of mutagenic events in the tetrads.

  19. 基于 GARCH -VaR 模型下对 ETF 基金风险的测度与分析%The Measurement and Analysis of ETF Fund Risk Based on GARCH-VaR Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘降斌; 张洪建; 费洋

    2016-01-01

    ETF fund, also known as the exchange traded index funds (exchange traded funds), is a traded on the stock ex-change , the fund's share of a VaRiable open fund .ETF fund is operated through market signal , replicating the market index for the purpose of using decentralized investment strategy , reducing the systematic risk and the passive investment management and the transaction costs .So that investors benefit from .Taking the SSE 50 index as a sample , a GARCH model is established to calculate the VaR value and actual income rate difference .We try to find out the best selection methods of risk and return , risk measure-ment.The aim is to supervise and control the operation of the fund .%ETF基金又称交易型开放式指数基金(交易所交易基金),是一种在交易所上市交易的、基金份额可变的开放式基金。 ETF基金是通过追踪市场的信号、复制市场指数,采用分散化的投资策略,降低非系统风险的同时又通过被动的投资管理基金,最大限度地降低交易成本,从而使投资者从中获益。试采取上证50指数为样本,从收益的波动性出发,建立GARCH 族模型,计算并分析VaR 值与实际收益率的差别,作为判断风险的依据,为基金管理者、监督者进行基金风险测度、分析和控制提供有效性的参考。

  20. 中国市场ETF套利研究%ETF arbitrage research on China financial markets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈实; 吴述金; 郑伟安

    2013-01-01

    首先提出了一个描述配对资产之间价格关系的新模型ax(t)Xt-ay(t)Yt=mt+stεt,其中Xt与Yt表示两个资产在t时刻的价格,ax(t)与ay(t)表示资产配对系数,mt表示长期趋势,st表示残差的标准差,εt为标准化的残差.当系数ax(t)与ay(t)固定,st与趋势项mt保持恒定时,模型可退化为一种两变量的的协整模型.然后基于这个新模型,提出了一种利用平稳过程{εt}进行套利的高频交易方法,并将此方法应用到中国市场流动性较强的三只ETF(Exchange Traded Fund)基金中,对其进行两两配对套利,均取得较高的且非常稳定的理论收益.%This paper first proposed a new model to describe the relationship between two paired asset prices:ax(t)Xt-ay(t)Yt =mt + stεt,where Xt and Yt denote the prices of two paired financial assets at time t,ax(t) and ay(t) the matching coefficients,mt the long-term trend,st the standard deviation of residual,and εt the standardized residual.When ax(t),ay(t),rat and st are constants,the model is reduced to a kind of two-variable cointegration model.Based on this new model,the paper proposed a statistical arbitrage method for high-frequency trading using the stationary process {εt}.As its application,this method was used on three major ETFs in China financial markets and achieved very stable and high revenue on all three pairs.

  1. Metal Contamination In Plants Due To Tannery Effluent

    OpenAIRE

    Md.Farhad Ali; Umme Habiba Bodrun Naher; Md Mahamudul Hasan; Md. Aminul Islam

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This paper analyzes the determination of heavy metals named Chromium Lead and Cadmium deposited in soil as well as in the plants and vegetables due to the tanning industries of the area of Hazaribagh Dhaka. The tanneries discharge untreated tannery effluents which get mixed with the soil water of rivers and canals in this area. The determination of metals was performed for the soil that was collected from the land adjacent to the canals which bear untreated tannery effluents. The s...

  2. Integrating effluent management

    OpenAIRE

    1996-01-01

    The paper discusses a closed recycle shrimp farm in Thailand which integrates effluent management. The closed recycle system can reduce risk of heavy metals, pesticides, ammonia, and other toxic particles coming in with water from natural sources by reducing the quantity of water brought to the farm.

  3. Memory deficit in Swiss mice exposed to tannery effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabelo, Letícia Martins; Costa E Silva, Bianca; de Almeida, Sabrina Ferreira; da Silva, Wellington Alves Mizael; de Oliveira Mendes, Bruna; Guimarães, Abraão Tiago Batista; da Silva, Anderson Rodrigo; da Silva Castro, André Luis; de Lima Rodrigues, Aline Sueli; Malafaia, Guilherme

    2016-01-01

    Although it is known that tannery effluents constitute highly toxic pollutants whose effects in humans represent public health problems in several countries, studies involving experimental mammalian models are rare. In this context, the objective of the present study was to assess the effect of the exposure to tannery effluent on the memory of male and female Swiss mice. Animals of each sex were distributed into two experimental groups: the control group, in which the animals received only drinking water and the effluent group, in which the mice received 1% of gross tannery effluent diluted in water. The animals were exposed to the effluent by gavage, oral dosing, for 15days, ensuring the administration of 0.1mL of liquid (water or effluent)/10g of body weight/day. On the 14th and 15th experimental days the animals were submitted to the object recognition test. It was observed that the new object recognition indices calculated for the animals exposed to the effluent (males and females) were significantly lower than those obtained with the control group. The exposure to tannery effluent caused memory deficit in Swiss mice in a similar way for both sexes, reinforcing previous findings that these pollutants affect the central nervous system. It contributes to the knowledge in the area by attesting harmful effects to the cognition of such animals. PMID:27063058

  4. Team one (GA/MCA) effort of the DOE 12 Tesla Coil Development Program. 12 Tesla ETF toroidal field coil helium bath cooled NbTi alloy concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the conceptual design of an ETF compatible toroidal field coil, employing helium bath cooled NbTi alloy conductor. The ten TF-coil array generates a peak field of 11-1/2 tesla at 2.87 m radius, corresponding to a major axis field of 6.1 tesla. The 10 kA conductor is an uninsulated, unsoldered Rutherford cable, employing NbTiTa ally as developed in Phase I of this effort. The conductor is encased within a four element frame of stainless steel strips to provide hoop and bearing load support

  5. RESULTS OF TRITIUM TRACKING AND GROUNDWATER MONITORING AT THE HANFORD SITE 200 AREA STATE APPROVED LAND DISPOSAL SITE FY2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ERB DB

    2008-11-19

    The Hanford Site's 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) processes contaminated aqueous wastes derived from Hanford Site facilities. The treated wastewater occasionally contains tritium, which cannot be removed by the ETF prior to the wastewater being discharged to the 200 Area State-Approved Land Disposal Site (SALDS). During the first 11 months of fiscal year 2008 (FY08) (September 1, 2007, to July 31, 2008), approximately 75.15 million L (19.85 million gal) of water were discharged to the SALDS. Groundwater monitoring for tritium and other constituents, as well as water-level measurements, is required for the SALDS by State Waste Discharge Permit Number ST-4500 (Ecology 2000). The current monitoring network consists of three proximal (compliance) monitoring wells and nine tritium-tracking wells. Quarterly sampling of the proximal wells occurred in October 2007 and in January/February 2008, April 2008, and August 2008. The nine tritium-tracking wells, including groundwater monitoring wells located upgradient and downgradient of the SALDS, were sampled in January through April 2008. Water-level measurements taken in the three proximal SALDS wells indicate that a small groundwater mound is present beneath the facility, which is a result of operational discharges. The mound increased in FY08 due to increased ETF discharges from treating groundwater from extraction wells at the 200-UP-l Operable Unit and the 241-T Tank Farm. Maximum tritium activities increased by an order of magnitude at well 699-48-77A (to 820,000 pCi/L in April 2008) but remained unchanged in the other two proximal wells. The increase was due to higher quantities of tritium in wastewaters that were treated and discharged in FY07 beginning to appear at the proximal wells. The FY08 tritium activities for the other two proximal wells were 68,000 pCi/L at well 699-48-77C (October 2007) and 120,000 pCi/L at well 699-48-77D (October 2007). To date, no indications of a tritium incursion from

  6. Zero effluent; Efluente zero

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monteiro, Silvio Rogerio; Santos, Angelo Francisco dos [Liquigas Distribuidora S.A., Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    A scenery of water shortage and the search for profitability improvement obligate the companies to exercise their creativity and to adopt alternative methods to the conventional ones to preserve the environmental resources. The 'Effluent Zero' project comes from a paradigms changing that the environmental preservation is a necessary cost. It brings a new analysis approach of this problem with the purpose to adapt the investments and operational costs with the effluents treatment to the demands of the productive processes. In Liquigas, the project brought significant results; made a potential reduction of nearly 90% in the investments of the effluents treatment systems. That means nearly 13% in reduction in the total investments in modernization and upgrade of the existents companies installations and of 1,6% in the total operational costs of the Company. Further more, it has contributed for a reduction of until 43% of the water consumption in the bottling process of the Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG). This way, the project resulted in effective actions of environmental protection with relevant economic benefits. (author)

  7. Effluent generation by the dairy industry: preventive attitudes and opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. B. Brião

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Work aimed to identify the effluent is generating areas in a dairy company for purpose of changing concept pollution prevention. methodology consisted measuring volumes and collecting samples effluents production sectors. analysis was conducted by sector, order those which generated excessive amounts effluents. results show that dry products (powdered milk powdered whey are greatest generators BOD, nitrogen phosphorus, while fluid form (UHT milk, formulated UHT, pasteurized cream butter produced large quantities oils grease. solids recovery, waste segregation water reuse can be applied with saving potential as much R$ 28,000 ($ 11,200 per month only raw materials also environmental gains in pollution prevention.

  8. Facility effluent monitoring plan for the 327 Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-11-01

    The 327 Facility [Post-Irradiation Testing Laboratory] provides office and laboratory space for Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) scientific and engineering staff conducting multidisciplinary research in the areas of post-irradiated fuels and structural materials. The facility is designed to accommodate the use of radioactive and hazardous materials in the conduct of these activities. This report summarizes the airborne emissions and liquid effluents and the results of the Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan (FEMP) determination for the facility. The complete monitoring plan includes characterization of effluent streams, monitoring/sampling design criteria, a description of the monitoring systems and sample analysis, and quality assurance requirements.

  9. Feasibility of using geothermal effluents for waterfowl wetlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-09-01

    This project was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of using geothermal effluents for developing and maintaining waterfowl wetlands. Information in the document pertains to a seven State area the West where geothermal resources have development potential. Information is included on physiochemical characteristics of geothermal effluents; known effects of constituents in the water on a wetland ecosystem and water quality criteria for maintaining a viable wetland; potential of sites for wetland development and disposal of effluent water from geothermal facilities; methods of disposal of effluents, including advantages of each method and associated costs; legal and institutional constraints which could affect geothermal wetland development; potential problems associated with depletion of geothermal resources and subsidence of wetland areas; potential interference (adverse and beneficial) of wetlands with ground water; special considerations for wetlands requirements including size, flows, and potential water usage; and final conclusions and recommendations for suitable sites for developing demonstration wetlands.

  10. Genotoxicity of industrial wastes and effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claxton, L D; Houk, V S; Hughes, T J

    1998-06-01

    In excess of several million pounds of genotoxic and/or carcinogenic industrial wastes are released into the U.S. environment each year. Chemical characterization of these waste materials can rarely provide an adequate assessment of their genotoxicity and potential hazard. Bioassays do not require prior information about chemical composition and can effectively assess the genotoxicity of complex waste materials. The most commonly used genotoxicity assay has been the Salmonella mutagenicity assay. Results with this system have shown that the genotoxic potency of industrial wastes can vary over 10 orders of magnitude, from virtually nondetectable to highly potent. Industries employing similar industrial processes generally release wastes of similar potency. Extremely high potency wastes include those from furazolidone and nitrofurfural production. Pulp and paper mills, steel foundries, and organic chemical manufacturing facilities also discharge wastes of noteworthy potency. Treatment and remediation of some wastes, such as pulp and paper mill effluents, have been shown to reduce or eliminate genotoxicity. However, in other cases, treatment and remediation have been shown to enhance genotoxicity, such as for fungal treatment of oils. Analyses of samples collected from areas known to receive industrial wastes and effluents have shown that genotoxins can accumulate in the receiving environment and have adverse effects on indigenous biota. The evaluation of hazardous wastes and effluents by genotoxicity assays may provide data useful not only for hazard identification but for comparative risk assessment.

  11. Dairy shed effluent treatment and recycling: Effluent characteristics and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fyfe, Julian; Hagare, Dharma; Sivakumar, Muttucumaru

    2016-09-15

    Dairy farm milking operations produce considerable amounts of carbon- and nutrient-rich effluent that can be a vital source of nutrients for pasture and crops. The study aim was to characterise dairy shed effluent from a commercial farm and examine the changes produced by treatment, storage and recycling of the effluent through a two-stage stabilisation pond system. The data and insights from the study are broadly applicable to passive pond systems servicing intensive dairy and other livestock operations. Raw effluent contained mostly poorly biodegradable particulate organic material and organically bound nutrients, as well as a large fraction of fixed solids due to effluent recycling. The anaerobic pond provided effective sedimentation and biological treatment, but hydrolysis of organic material occurred predominantly in the sludge and continually added to effluent soluble COD, nutrients and cations. Sludge digestion also suppressed pH in the pond and increased salt levels through formation of alkalinity. High sludge levels significantly impaired pond treatment performance. In the facultative pond, BOD5 concentrations were halved; however smaller reductions in COD showed the refractory nature of incoming organic material. Reductions in soluble N and P were proportional to reductions in respective particulate forms, suggesting that respective removal mechanisms were not independent. Conditions in the ponds were unlikely to support biological nutrient removal. Recycling caused conservative inert constituents to accumulate within the pond system. Material leaving the system was mostly soluble (86% TS) and inert (65% TS), but salt concentrations remained below thresholds for safe land application. PMID:27213866

  12. Characterization of fish hold effluent discharged from commercial fishing vessels into harbor waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Ryan J; McLaughlin, Christine; Falatko, Debra

    2014-10-15

    Fish hold effluent and the effluent produced from the cleaning of fish holds may contain organic material resulting from the degradation of seafood and cleaning products (e.g., soaps and detergents). This effluent is often discharged by vessels into near shore waters and, therefore, could have the potential to contribute to water pollution in bays and estuaries. We characterized effluent from commercial fishing vessels with holds containing refrigerated seawater, ice slurry, or chipped ice. Concentrations of trace heavy metals, wet chemistry parameters, and nutrients in effluent were compared to screening benchmarks to determine if there is a reasonable potential for effluent discharge to contribute to nonattainment of water quality standards. Most analytes (67%) exceeded their benchmark concentration and, therefore, may have the potential to pose risk to human health or the environment if discharges are in significant quantities or there are many vessels discharging in the same areas. PMID:25176279

  13. Integrated management of liquid effluents at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This poster session illustrates the integrated approach that the Hanford Site has taken in managing high-priority liquid effluent streams. These waste waters are produced from a variety of process- and utility-related sources. The Hanford Site approach to management of liquid effluents focusses on eliminating the source, reusing where possible, and treating and disposing of the water that cannot be eliminated or recycled prior to disposal. Thirteen of the high-priority waste water streams have been or will be eliminated by the end of 1995. Some of these streams have been eliminated as the result of shutting down the associated operation. However, the elimination of other streams has been the result of process modifications, equipment substitutions, or recycling. Several of the waste water streams will receive treatment at the individual generating facility before being discharged into a new industrial sewer (the 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility). The industrial sewer will collect treated streams from various plants in the 200 Areas and dispose of the clean effluent at two uncontaminated new 20,235-square meter (5-acre) ponds permitted by Washington State. Finally, condensate from the 200 Areas tank waste evaporator and waste water from operations in the 300 Area will be treated at two end-of-the-pipe treatment facilities. The 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility will treat condensate (a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (1)-listed waste) from the tank waste evaporator, thereby allowing the waste to be delisted prior to disposal. The treated effluent will be pumped to a state-approved land disposal site selected to maximize the migration time to the river. This disposal site allows for the decay of tritium, which will be present in the condensate but cannot be removed using current technologies

  14. ifferential Gene Expression in Zebrafish (Danio rerio Following Exposure to Gaseous Diffusion Plant Effluent and Effluent Receiving Stream Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben F. Brammell

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The expression of six genes known to serve as bioindicators of environmental stress were examined using real-time quantitative PCR in liver tissue extracted from zebrafish (Danio rerio, Hamilton exposed to effluent and effluent containing stream water associated with the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP. Approach: The PGDP, the only active uranium enrichment facility in the US, is located in western Kentucky and discharges treated effluents into several surrounding streams. Environmentally relevant concentrations of several heavy metals and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs can be found in effluents emerging from the plant as well as in receiving streams. Fish were exposed in the laboratory to water from both effluents and downstream areas as well as to water from an upstream reference site. Expression of six genes known to be altered by metal and/or PCB exposure was quantified at both 7 and 14 day time points. Results: Transcription of the biomarker enzyme cytochrome P4501A1 (CYP1A1 was significantly elevated in fish exposed to one plant effluent at both the 7 (16 fold and 14 (10 fold day time points. Sediment PCB levels from this site were the highest observed in the study, indicating PCBs may be contributing to the elevated CYP1A1 mRNA. Additionally, catalase, an enzyme responsible for hydrogen peroxide detoxification and known to be impacted by metal contamination, demonstrated significant alterations in expression in the effluent containing the highest concentrations of most metals observed in this study. Interestingly, despite the presence of metal levels consistent with the induction of metallothionein in other studies, no metallothionein induction was observed. All other stress biomarker encoding genes were likewise unaffected by effluent water exposure. Conclusion/Recommendations: These results indicate that contaminant levels observed in this system altered transcription of catalase and CYP1A1 but failed to

  15. The attenuation of microorganisms in on-site wastewater effluent discharged into highly permeable subsoils

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Luanaigh, N. D.; Gill, L. W.; Misstear, B. D. R.; Johnston, P. M.

    2012-11-01

    An extensive field study on percolation areas receiving both septic tank and secondary treated on-site effluents from single houses in Ireland was carried out to investigate the attenuation capacity of highly permeable subsoils with respect to E. coli bacteria and spiked bacteriophages (MS2, ΦX174 and PR772). The development of biomats across the percolation areas receiving the secondary effluent was restricted compared to the percolation area receiving septic tank effluent, promoting a much higher areal hydraulic loading which created significant differences in the potential microbiological loading to groundwater. Greatest E. coli removal in the subsoil occurred within the first 0.35 m of unsaturated subsoil for all effluent types. Analysis showed, however, that more evidence of faecal contamination occurred at depth in the subsoils receiving secondary treated effluents than that receiving septic tank effluent, despite the lower bacterial influent load. All three bacteriophages were reduced to their minimum detection limit (septic tank effluent, although isolated incidences of ΦX174 and PR772 were measured below one trench. However again, slightly higher breakthroughs of MS2 and PR772 contamination were detected at the same depth under the trenches receiving secondary treated effluent.

  16. Normal water irrigation as an alternative to effluent irrigation in improving rice grain yield and properties of a paper mill effluent affected soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boruah, D; Hazarika, S

    2010-07-01

    Rice crop (var. Luit) was grown under controlled conditions in paper mill effluent contaminated soil and irrigated with undiluted paper mill effluent as well as normal water and compared the results against a control treatment consisting of similar unaffected soil irrigated with normal water. The effluent was alkaline (pH 7.5), containing high soluble salts (EC 2.93 dS m(-1)), chloride (600 mg L(-1)) and total dissolved solids (1875 mg L(-1)). At maximum tillering (MT) stage effluent irrigation significantly (P < 0.05) reduced the leaf numbers per hill and leaf area by 19.8 and 36.4 %, respectively. Tiller number and maximum root length were reduced by 19.3% and 12.5%, respectively at fifty percent flowering (FF) stage. Effluent irrigated crop recorded significant reduction in the dry matter production (17.5-24.9%) and grain yield (19%). Unfilled grain was increased by 10.7%. Higher concentration of sodium, calcium and magnesium in the effluent irrigated soil affected K uptake. Available soil P was lowest while available N, K, S and exchangeable and water soluble Na, K, Ca, Mg were highest in effluent irrigated soil. Chloride content found to increase (3-7 folds) while microbial biomass carbon reduced (10-37%). The adverse effect of the paper mill effluent on the crop as well as on the affected soil could be reduced significantly through normal water irrigation. PMID:21391395

  17. Radioactive effluents in Savannah River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winn, W.G.

    1991-11-27

    During 1990, low-level radiometric studies of the Savannah River continued to distinguish between effluent contributions from Plant Vogtle and the Savannah River Site. Measurements of these radioactive effluents are of mutual interest to both institutions, as they can address disturbing trends before they become health and legal concerns. The Environmental Technology Section (ETS) has conducted radiometric studies of Plant Vogtle since late 1986, prior to its startup. The plant has two 1100 MWe pressurized water reactors developed by Westinghouse. Unit 1 started commercial operations in June 1987, and Unit 2 began in May 1989. During powered operations, ETS has routinely detected neutron-activated isotopes in controlled releases but all activities have been several orders of magnitude below the DOE guide values. In 1990, processing improvements for Vogtle effluents have yielded even lower activities in the river. The Vogtle release data and the ETS measurements have tracked well over the past four years.

  18. Phytoremediation of the coalmine effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharti, Sandhya; Kumar Banerjee, Tarun

    2012-07-01

    Coal mine effluent was subjected to detoxification by phytoremediation using two macrophytes Azolla pinnata and Lemna minor. Both plants were kept separately in the effluents for 7 day. The initial concentration (mg L⁻¹) of eight metals: Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Ni, Pb, Cr and Cd investigated in the effluent were 22.91±0.02, 9.61±1.6, 2.04±0.23, 1.03±0.15, 0.86±0.19, 0.69±0.11, 0.18±0.007 and 0.06±0.008 respectively. The initial fresh biomass of each plant was 100g. After one week, metals removed in A. pinnata-phytoremediated effluent were in the order: Mn (98%)>Fe (95.4%)>Zn (95%)>Cu (93%)>Pb (86.9%)>Cd (85%)>Cr (77.7%)>Ni (66.2%) and metal decrease in L. minor-phytoremediated effluent were: Mn (99.5%)>Cu (98.8%)>Zn (96.7%)>Ni (94.5%)>Fe (93.1%)>Cd (86.7%)>Pb (84%)>Cr (76%). Due to metal toxicity the total chlorophyll and protein contents of L. minor decreased by 29.3% and 38.55% respectively. The decrease of these macromolecules in A. pinnata was 27% and 15.56% respectively. Also, the reduction in biomass of L. minor was greater than that for A. pinnata. Based on the finding we could suggest that both the plants are suitable for bioremediation of mine effluent at the contaminated sites. However, attention for quick disposal of these metal loaded plants is urgently required. PMID:22571948

  19. Conceptual design report, TWRS Privatization Phase I, Liquid effluent transfer systems, subproject W-506

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document includes Conceptual Design Report (CDR) for providing liquid effluent lines for routing waste from two Private Contractor (PC) facilities to existing storage, treatment, and disposal facilities in the 200-East Area

  20. Occurrence of synthetic musk fragrances in effluent and non-effluent impacted environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, Darcy A; Karnjanapiboonwong, Adcharee; Fang, Yu; Cobb, George P; Morse, Audra N; Anderson, Todd A

    2012-02-01

    Synthetic musk fragrances (SMFs) are considered micropollutants and can be found in various environmental matrices near wastewater discharge areas. These emerging contaminants are often detected in wastewater at low concentrations; they are continuously present and constitute a constant exposure source. Objectives of this study were to investigate the environmental fate, transport, and transformation of SMFs. Occurrence of six polycyclic musk compounds (galaxolide, tonalide, celestolide, phantolide, traseolide, cashmeran) and two nitro musk compounds (musk xylene and musk ketone) was monitored in wastewater, various surface waters and their sediments, as well as groundwater, soil cores, and plants from a treated wastewater land application site. Specifically, samples were collected quarterly from (1) a wastewater treatment plant to determine initial concentrations in wastewater effluent, (2) a storage reservoir at a land application site to determine possible photolysis before land application, (3) soil cores to determine the amount of sorption after land application and groundwater recharge to assess lack thereof, (4) a lake system and its sediment to assess degradation, and (5) non-effluent impacted local playa lakes and sediments to assess potential sources of these compounds. All samples were analyzed using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Data indicated that occurrence of SMFs in effluent-impacted environments was detectable at ng/L and ng/g concentrations, which decreased during transport throughout wastewater treatment and land application. However, unexpected concentrations, ng/L and ng/g, were also detected in playa lakes not receiving treated effluent. Additionally, soil cores from land application sites had ng/g concentrations, and SMFs were detected in plant samples at trace levels. Galaxolide and tonalide were consistently found in all environments. Information on occurrence is critical to assessing exposure to these potential

  1. Facility effluent monitoring plan for WESF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The FEMP for the Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF) provides sufficient information on the WESF effluent characteristics and the efferent monitoring systems so that a compliance assessment against applicable requirements may be performed. Radioactive and hazardous material source terms are related to specific effluent streams that are in turn, related to discharge points and, finally are compared to the effluent monitoring system capability

  2. Direct nanofiltration of wastewater treatment plant effluent

    OpenAIRE

    Schrader, Guillo Alexander

    2006-01-01

    Membrane technology, especially nanofiltration, is seen as a suitable technology to polish WWTP effluent to EU WFD standards and consequently produce an effluent quality suitable for agricultural or (in)direct potable usage. The objective of this study was to assess the potential of direct nanofiltration as technique for effluent reclamation.

  3. Ground Water Pollution and Emerging Environmental Challenges of Industrial Effluent Irrigation : A Case Study of Mettupalayam Taluk, Tamilnadu

    OpenAIRE

    Mukherjee, Sacchidananda; Nelliyat, Prakash

    2006-01-01

    Industrial disposal of effluents on land and the subsequent pollution of groundwater and soil of surrounding farmlands – is a relatively new area of research. The environmental and socioeconomic aspects of industrial effluent irrigation have not been studied as extensively as domestic sewage based irrigation practices, at least for a developing country like India. The disposal of effluents on land has become a regular practice for some industries. Industries located in Mettupalaya...

  4. Continuous monitoring of gaseous effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The system allows to continuously determine the radioactive materials discharge (iodine, noble gases and aerosols) to the environment. It consists in compelling, by a pump, a known and fixed fraction of the total flow and preserving the aerosols by a filter. The gas -now free from aerosols- traverses an activated carbon filter which keeps the iodine; after being free from aerosols and iodine, the effluent traverses a measurement chambers for noble gases which has a scintillator. (Author)

  5. The effects of bleach plant effluent recycle in kraft mill green liquors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richardson, B.M.; Uloth, V.C. [Pulp and Paper Research Inst. of Canada, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Dorris, G.M. [Pulp and Paper Research Inst. of Canada, Pointe Claire, PQ (Canada); Stafford, E. C.

    1995-12-31

    A new approach to reducing or eliminating effluent flows from a kraft mill through process changes and by recycling, was presented. A closed system experiment was conducted in which bleach plant effluents and green liquors were used to simulate effluent recycling to the recausticizing area in place of fresh water. Results showed that with current levels of water use, acid effluents from bleaching of softwood pulp could be recycled to the recausticizing area if a 5-18 per cent loss in causticizing efficiency and a 10 per cent decrease in the lime mud settling rate was tolerable. High levels of sodium chloride did not always reduce causticizing efficiency. It was found that bleach plant water usage was very high in the plants studied. New ways to minimize water use in the plant must be found if a significant degree of closure is to be achieved. 15 refs., 6 tabs., 8 figs.

  6. Electrocoagulation for the treatment of textile industry effluent--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandegar, V; Saroha, Anil K

    2013-10-15

    Various techniques such as physical, chemical, biological, advanced oxidation and electrochemical are used for the treatment of industrial effluent. The commonly used conventional biological treatment processes are time consuming, need large operational area and are not effective for effluent containing toxic elements. Advanced oxidation techniques result in high treatment cost and are generally used to obtain high purity grade water. The chemical coagulation technique is slow and generates large amount of sludge. Electrocoagulation has recently attracted attention as a potential technique for treating industrial effluent due to its versatility and environmental compatibility. This technique uses direct current source between metal electrodes immersed in the effluent, which causes the dissolution of electrode plates into the effluent. The metal ions, at an appropriate pH, can form wide range of coagulated species and metal hydroxides that destabilize and aggregate particles or precipitate and adsorb the dissolved contaminants. Therefore, the objective of the present manuscript is to review the potential of electrocoagulation for the treatment of industrial effluents, mainly removal of dyes from textile effluent.

  7. 324 and 327 Facilities Environmental Effluent Specifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These effluent specifications address requirements for the 324/321 Facilities, which are undergoing stabilization activities. Effluent specifications are imposed to protect personnel, the environment and the public, by ensuring adequate implementation and compliance with federal and state regulatory requirements and Hanford programs

  8. 324/327 facilities environmental effluent specifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These effluent technical specifications address requirements for the 324/327 facilities, which are undergoing stabilization activities. Effluent technical specifications are imposed to protect personnel, the environment and the public, by ensuring adequate implementation and compliance with federal and state regulatory requirements and Hanford programs

  9. 324 and 327 Facilities Environmental Effluent Specifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JOHNSON, D.L.

    1999-08-30

    These effluent specifications address requirements for the 324/321 Facilities, which are undergoing stabilization activities. Effluent specifications are imposed to protect personnel, the environment and the public, by ensuring adequate implementation and compliance with federal and state regulatory requirements and Hanford programs.

  10. Direct nanofiltration of wastewater treatment plant effluent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrader, Guillo Alexander

    2006-01-01

    Membrane technology, especially nanofiltration, is seen as a suitable technology to polish WWTP effluent to EU WFD standards and consequently produce an effluent quality suitable for agricultural or (in)direct potable usage. The objective of this study was to assess the potential of direct nanofiltr

  11. 40 CFR 420.133 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY... representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best available technology... effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best available technology economically...

  12. Aquatic Plant/microbial Filters for Treating Septic Tank Effluent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolverton, B. C.

    1988-01-01

    The use of natural biological processes for treating many types of wastewater have been developed by NASA at the John C. Stennis Space Center, NSTL, Mississippi, during the past 15 years. The simplest form of this technology involves the use of aquatic plant/marsh filters for treatment of septic tank effluent. Septic tank effluent from single home units can be treated to advanced secondary levels and beyond by using a 37.2 sq m (400 sq ft) surface area washed gravel filter. This filter is generally 0.3 m (1 ft) deep with a surface cover of approximately 0.15 m (6 in.) of gravel. The plants in this filter are usually aesthetic or ornamental such as calla lily (Zantedeschia aethiopica), canna lily (Canna flaccida), elephant ear (Colocasia esculenta), and water iris (Iris pseudacorus).

  13. Industrial Effluent Quality of Bikaner District Rajasthan ,India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yogita Yadav

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Industrial development is an obvious process in the current world. But it is resulting in different kind of pollution to the water resources. Monitoring of industrial effluents quality and its serious analysis is very significant relative to access the human health hazards. This paper is an attempt for the same purpose. The samples were collected from main industrial areas of the Bikaner City and were analysed for the desired physiochemical parameters applying the internationally valid standard methods. Results were compared with the international standards. It was found that effluent quality is very poor leading to very dangerous health hazards as the most of the samples were not found to be fit on international and national standards. This study suggests a need to revise a more advance development and public health awareness policy as well as in depth research.

  14. 40 CFR 424.57 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERROALLOY MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Other Calcium Carbide Furnaces Subcategory § 424.57 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of...

  15. 40 CFR 424.53 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERROALLOY MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Other Calcium Carbide Furnaces Subcategory § 424.53 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of...

  16. 40 CFR 424.47 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERROALLOY MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Covered Calcium Carbide Furnaces With Wet Air Pollution Control Devices Subcategory § 424.47 Effluent...

  17. 40 CFR 424.43 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERROALLOY MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Covered Calcium Carbide Furnaces With Wet Air Pollution Control Devices Subcategory § 424.43 Effluent...

  18. Biochemical methane potential of kraft bleaching effluent and codigestion with other in-mill streams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fitamo, Temesgen Mathewos; Dahl, Olli; Master, Emma;

    2016-01-01

    and in combination: total bleaching effluent, alkaline bleaching effluent, kraft evaporator condensate, and chemithermomechanical pulping effluent. The total bleaching effluent, consisting of the chlorine dioxide bleaching and alkaline bleaching effluents, exhibited the highest potential for organic matter...

  19. Quality of effluents from Hattar Industrial Estate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SIAL R.A.; CHAUDHARY M.F.; ABBAS S.T.; LATIF M.I.; KHAN A.G.

    2006-01-01

    Of 6634 registered industries in Pakistan, 1228 are considered to be highly polluting. The major industries include textile, pharmaceutical, chemicals (organic and inorganic), food industries, ceramics, steel, oil mills and leather tanning which spread all over four provinces, with the larger number located in Sindh and Punjab, with smaller number in North Western Frontier Province (NWFP) and Baluchistan. Hattar Industrial Estate extending over 700 acres located in Haripur district of NWFP is a new industrial estate, which has been developed with proper planning for management of industrial effluents. The major industries located in Hattar are ghee industry, chemical (sulfuric acid, synthetic fiber) industry, textile industry and pharmaceuticals industry.These industries, although developed with proper planning are discharging their effluents in the nearby natural drains and ultimately collected in a big drain near Wah. The farmers in the vicinity are using these effluents for growing vegetables and cereal crops due to shortage of water. In view of this discussion, there is a dire need to determine ifthese effluents are hazardous for soil and plant growth. So, effluents from different industries, sewage and normal tap water samples were collected and analysed for pH,electrical conductivity (EC), total soluble salts (TSS), biological oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total nitrogen, cations and anions and heavy metals. The effluents of ghee and textile industries are highly alkaline. EC and TSS loads of ghee and textile industries are also above the National Environmental Quality Standards (NEQS), Pakistan. All the effluents had residual sodium carbonates (RSCs), carbonates and bicarbonates in amounts that cannot be used for irrigation. Total toxic metals load in all the effluents is also above the limit i.e. 2.0 mg/L. Copper in effluents of textile and sewage, manganese in ghee industry effluents and iron contents in all the effluents were higher

  20. Suspended solids in liquid effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An international literature review and telephone mail survey was conducted with respect to technical and regulatory aspects of suspended solids in radioactive liquid wastes from nuclear power stations. Results of the survey are summarized and show that suspended solids are an important component of some waste streams. The data available, while limited, show these solids to be associated largely with corrosion products. The solids are highly variable in quantity, size and composition. Filtration is commonly applied for their removal from liquid effluents and is effective. Complex interactions with receiving waters can result in physical/chemical changes of released radionuclides and these phenomena have been seen as reason for not applying regulatory controls based on suspended solids content. 340 refs

  1. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in industrial and municipal effluents: Concentrations, congener profiles, and partitioning onto particulates and organic carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wastewater effluent samples were collected in the summer of 2009 from 16 different locations which included municipal and industrial wastewater treatment plants and petrochemical industrial outfalls in the Houston area. The effluent samples were analyzed for all 209 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) congeners using high resolution gas chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS) using the USEPA method 1668A. The total PCBs (∑ 209) concentration in the dissolved medium ranged from 1.01 to 8.12 ng/L and ranged from 2.03 to 31.2 ng/L in the suspended medium. Lighter PCB congeners exhibited highest concentrations in the dissolved phase whereas, in the suspended phase, heavier PCBs exhibited the highest concentrations. The PCB homolog concentrations were dominated by monochlorobiphenyls through hexachlorobiphenyls, with dichlorobiphenyls exhibiting the highest concentration amongst them at most of the effluent outfalls, in the suspended phase. Both total suspended solids (TSS) and various organic carbon fractions played an important role in the distribution of the suspended fractions of PCBs in the effluents. The log Koc values determined in the effluents suggest that effluent PCB loads might have more risk and impact than what standard partitioning models predict. - Highlights: • 209 PCB congeners were measured in 16 different municipal and industrial effluents. • PCB congener differences were elucidated for the various effluent types. • In addition to log Kow, organic carbon and TSS affect partitioning of PCBs. • High concentrations of homolog 2 maybe due to biotransformation of PCBs

  2. POTENTIAL FUNGI FOR BIOREMEDIATION OF INDUSTRIAL EFFLUENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vara Saritha

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Two fungi (unidentified were isolated from soil and marine environ-ments. These isolates were used for bioremediation of pulp and paper mill effluent at the laboratory scale. The treatment resulted in the reduction of color, lignin, and COD of the effluent in the order of 78.6%, 79.0%, and 89.4% in 21 days. A major part of reductions in these parameters occurred within 5 days of the treatment, which was also characterized by a steep decline in the pH of the effluent. The enzyme activity of these fungi was also tested, and the clearance zone was obtained in the plate assay.

  3. POTENTIAL FUNGI FOR BIOREMEDIATION OF INDUSTRIAL EFFLUENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Vara Saritha; Avasn Maruthi; Mukkanti, K.

    2010-01-01

    Two fungi (unidentified) were isolated from soil and marine environ-ments. These isolates were used for bioremediation of pulp and paper mill effluent at the laboratory scale. The treatment resulted in the reduction of color, lignin, and COD of the effluent in the order of 78.6%, 79.0%, and 89.4% in 21 days. A major part of reductions in these parameters occurred within 5 days of the treatment, which was also characterized by a steep decline in the pH of the effluent. The enzyme activity of t...

  4. Assessment of the impact of textile effluents on microbial diversity in Tirupur district, Tamil Nadu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabha, Shashi; Gogoi, Anindita; Mazumder, Payal; Ramanathan, AL.; Kumar, Manish

    2016-03-01

    The expedited advent of urbanization and industrialization for economic growth has adversely affected the biological diversity, which is one of the major concerns of the developing countries. Microbes play a crucial role in decontaminating polluted sites and degrades pollution load of textile effluent. The present study was based on identification of microbial diversity along the Noyaal river of Tirupur area. River water samples from industrial and non-industrial sites and effluent samples of before and after treatment were tested and it was found that microbial diversity was higher in the river water at the industrial site (Kasipalayam) as compared to the non-industrial site (Perur). Similarly, the microbial populations were found to be high in the untreated effluent as compared to the treated one by conventional treatment systems. Similar trends were observed for MBR treatment systems as well. Pseudomonas sp., Achromobacter sp. (bacterial species) and Aspergillus fumigates (fungal species), found exclusively at the industrial site have been reported to possess decolorization potential of dye effluent, thus can be used for treatment of dye effluent. The comparison of different microbial communities from different dye wastewater sources and textile effluents was done, which showed that the microbes degrade dyestuffs, reduce toxicity of wastewaters, etc. From the study, it can be concluded that the microbial community helps to check on the pollutants and minimize their affect. Therefore, there is a need to understand the systematic variation in microbial diversity with the accumulation of pollution load through monitoring.

  5. Physico-chemical treatment of coke plant effluents for control of water pollution in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghose, M.K. [Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad (India). Center of Mining Environmental

    2002-01-01

    Coal carbonizing industries in India are important and are growing every year. Large quantities of liquid effluents produced in this industry contain a large amount of suspended solids, high biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), phenols, ammonia and other toxic substances, which are causing serious surface water pollution in the area. There is a large number of coke plants in the vicinity of Jharia Coal Field (JCF). The working principle of a coke plant and the effluents produced is described. One large coke plant was chosen to evaluate characteristics of the effluent and to suggest a proper treatment method. Present effluent treatment system was found to be inadequate and a large quantity of a very good quality coke breeze is being lost, which is also causing siltation on the riverbed in addition to surface water pollution. Physico-chemical treatment has been considered as a suitable option for the treatment of coke plant effluents. A scheme has been proposed for the treatment, which can be suitably adopted for the recycling, reuse or safe disposal of the treated effluent. Various unit process and unit operations are discussed. The process may be useful on industrial scale for various sites so as to maintain a clean environment.

  6. Effects of a surfacing effluent plume on a coastal phytoplankton community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reifel, Kristen M.; Corcoran, Alina A.; Cash, Curtis; Shipe, Rebecca; Jones, Burton H.

    2013-06-01

    Urban runoff and effluent discharge from heavily populated coastal areas can negatively impact water quality, beneficial uses, and coastal ecosystems. The planned release of treated wastewater (i.e. effluent) from the City of Los Angeles Hyperion Wastewater Treatment Plant, located in Playa del Rey, California, provided an opportunity to study the effects of an effluent discharge plume from its initial release until it could no longer be detected in the coastal ocean. Non-metric multi-dimensional scaling analysis of phytoplankton community structure revealed distinct community groups based on salinity, temperature, and CDOM concentration. Three dinoflagellates (Lingulodinium polyedrum, Cochlodinium sp., Akashiwo sanguinea) were dominant (together >50% abundance) prior to the diversion. Cochlodinium sp. became dominant (65-90% abundance) within newly surfaced wastewater, and A. sanguinea became dominant or co-dominant as the effluent plume aged and mixed with ambient coastal water. Localized blooms of Cochlodinium sp. and A. sanguinea (chlorophyll a up to 100 mg m-3 and densities between 100 and 2000 cells mL-1) occurred 4-7 days after the diversion within the effluent plume. Although both Cochlodinium sp. and A. sanguinea have been occasionally reported from California waters, blooms of these species have only recently been observed along the California coast. Our work supports the hypothesis that effluent and urban runoff discharge can stimulate certain dinoflagellate blooms. All three dinoflagellates have similar ecophysiological characteristics; however, small differences in morphology, nutrient preferences, and environmental requirements may explain the shift in dinoflagellate composition.

  7. Effects of a surfacing effluent plume on a coastal phytoplankton community

    KAUST Repository

    Reifel, Kristen M.

    2013-06-01

    Urban runoff and effluent discharge from heavily populated coastal areas can negatively impact water quality, beneficial uses, and coastal ecosystems. The planned release of treated wastewater (i.e. effluent) from the City of Los Angeles Hyperion Wastewater Treatment Plant, located in Playa del Rey, California, provided an opportunity to study the effects of an effluent discharge plume from its initial release until it could no longer be detected in the coastal ocean. Non-metric multi-dimensional scaling analysis of phytoplankton community structure revealed distinct community groups based on salinity, temperature, and CDOM concentration. Three dinoflagellates (Lingulodinium polyedrum, Cochlodinium sp., Akashiwo sanguinea) were dominant (together >50% abundance) prior to the diversion. Cochlodinium sp. became dominant (65-90% abundance) within newly surfaced wastewater, and A. sanguinea became dominant or co-dominant as the effluent plume aged and mixed with ambient coastal water. Localized blooms of Cochlodinium sp. and A. sanguinea (chlorophyll a up to 100mgm-3 and densities between 100 and 2000cellsmL-1) occurred 4-7 days after the diversion within the effluent plume. Although both Cochlodinium sp. and A. sanguinea have been occasionally reported from California waters, blooms of these species have only recently been observed along the California coast. Our work supports the hypothesis that effluent and urban runoff discharge can stimulate certain dinoflagellate blooms. All three dinoflagellates have similar ecophysiological characteristics; however, small differences in morphology, nutrient preferences, and environmental requirements may explain the shift in dinoflagellate composition. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Status of Cadmium Concentration in Soil and Vegetable Irrigated with City Effluent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FARID Sajid; BALOCH Musa Kaleem; AKHTAR Kanwar Saleem

    2006-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a toxic and carcinogenic element, and it causes different diseases for people like sever nausea, salivation vomiting, diarrhoea, abdominal pain and neuralgia when it comes into food chain at excessive concentration. It is also not included in the micronutrients for plant growth. Due to arid and semi arid conditions of Pakistan, rainfall is small, causing shortage of irrigation water. Because of this shortage, farmers largely use city effluents for raising vegetables in the areas around big cities, which are contaminated with industrial wastewater. The effluents from Pakistan third largest city (Faisalabad) are used as supplementary irrigation water to produce vegetables for human consumption. This paper reports a study on assessment of risks and opportunities associated with this practice, with emphasis on Cd, which can enter the food chain as an impurity in vegetables. Cd and other elements were measured in some typical effluents, four types of soils and many vegetables with no fertilizer application. It was found that the municipal effluents increased soil salinity, sodicity and Cd concentration. The Cd concentration in the vegetables was high above those normally associated with suitability for human consumption. There were suggestions that soluble Cd concentration in the effluents could be lessened by adding lime, concurrently lowering the sodium adsorption ratio and residual sodium carbonate of the effluents, thus making them safe for utilization on agricultural soils. Fig 1, Tab 7, Ref 23

  9. Radiation induced decontamination of Cr(Ⅵ), Cu(Ⅱ) and phenol in some tannery effluents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hasan M.KHAN; Abdul MAHMOOD

    2007-01-01

    Industrialization has led to a number of environmental problems, such as release of toxic metals and other toxic organic and inorganic compounds to the environment. Among all, the rapid expansion of leather related industries in Pakistan have resulted in considerable environmental problems and effluents from processing of both domestic and imported hides and skins have increased pollution to alarming levels. Some tannery effluents of Peshawar area investigated in the present study showed high concentrations of Cr(Ⅵ) (2.7-12.6 mg/L), Cu(Ⅱ) (2.6-11.4 mg/L) and phenol (0.1-4.2 mg/L). These contaminants are very toxic and must be removed from effluents before releasing into water bodies. A new technique of gamma irradiation has been investigated to decrease the load of COD and concentrations of Cr(Ⅵ), Cu(Ⅱ) and phenol associated with tannery effluents to the permitted values. It was observed that concentration of Cr(Ⅵ) in the effluents can be brought to the permitted level by applying radiation dose of 3 kGy. A radiation dose of 2.5 kGy was required to remove more than 95% of Cu(Ⅱ) and 100 % degradation of phenol in tannery effluents could be achieved by only one kGy of radiation dose.

  10. Quality of shallow groundwater and manure effluents in a livestock farm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smoroń Sylwester

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to assess the quality of shallow groundwater on the site pens and runoff from livestock manure heaps, in three selected farms involved in animal production and vegetable crops in the area of Plateau Proszowice. The analysis mainly included water from farm wells and effluents from manure. Additionally, water from drainage ditch running nearby farms was collected, before inflow of effluent (i.e. ditch water without manure effluent and below inflow of effluent from heap of manure (i.e. ditch water containing manure effluent. Samples of the research material were collected from April 2012 to March 2014 at monthly intervals and analysed for the content of NO3-N, NH4-N, PO4-P, K, Na and Cl. Based on the obtained results it was found that water from the farm wells near the livestock buildings and from manure storage sites, was heavily polluted by the majority of these contaminants. The highest concentration of these pollutants, except for the NO3-N, was found in manure effluent – it exceeded a few dozen to a few hundred to any standards for water quality. There was also a significant deterioration in the quality of drainage ditch water because of the penetration of contaminants into ditch water from heaps of improperly stored manure. The water of the farm wells was characterized by excessive concentrations of NO3-N which disqualified it for drinking purposes.

  11. Distribution of pyrethroid insecticides in secondary wastewater effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry, Emily; Young, Thomas M

    2013-12-01

    Although the freely dissolved form of hydrophobic organic chemicals may best predict aquatic toxicity, differentiating between dissolved and particle-bound forms is challenging at environmentally relevant concentrations for compounds with low toxicity thresholds such as pyrethroid insecticides. The authors investigated the distribution of pyrethroids among 3 forms: freely dissolved, complexed with dissolved organic carbon, and sorbed to suspended particulate matter, during a yearlong study at a secondary wastewater treatment plant. Effluent was fractionated by laboratory centrifugation to determine whether sorption was driven by particle size. Linear distribution coefficients were estimated for pyrethroid sorption to suspended particulate matter (K(id)) and dissolved organic carbon (K(idoc)) at environmentally relevant pyrethroid concentrations. Resulting K(id) values were higher than those reported for other environmental solids, and variation between sampling events correlated well with available particle surface area. Fractionation results suggest that no more than 40% of the pyrethroid remaining in secondary effluent could be removed by extending settling periods. Less than 6% of the total pyrethroid load in wastewater effluent was present in the dissolved form across all sampling events and chemicals. PMID:23939863

  12. Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan for the 325 Radiochemical Processing Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shields, K.D.; Ballinger, M.Y.

    1999-04-02

    This Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan (FEMP) has been prepared for the 325 Building Radiochemical Processing Laboratory (RPL) at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to meet the requirements in DOE Order 5400.1, ''General Environmental Protection Programs.'' This FEMP has been prepared for the RPL primarily because it has a ''major'' (potential to emit >0.1 mrem/yr) emission point for radionuclide air emissions according to the annual National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) assessment performed. This section summarizes the airborne and liquid effluents and the inventory based NESHAP assessment for the facility. The complete monitoring plan includes characterization of effluent streams, monitoring/sampling design criteria, a description of the monitoring systems and sample analysis, and quality assurance requirements. The RPL at PNNL houses radiochemistry research, radioanalytical service, radiochemical process development, and hazardous and radioactive mixed waste treatment activities. The laboratories and specialized facilities enable work ranging from that with nonradioactive materials to work with picogram to kilogram quantities of fissionable materials and up to megacurie quantities of other radionuclides. The special facilities within the building include two shielded hot-cell areas that provide for process development or analytical chemistry work with highly radioactive materials and a waste treatment facility for processing hazardous, mixed radioactive, low-level radioactive, and transuranic wastes generated by PNNL activities.

  13. Supercritical water oxidation test bed effluent treatment study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents effluent treatment options for a 50 h Supercritical Water Test Unit. Effluent compositions are calculated for eight simulated waste streams, using different assumed cases. Variations in effluent composition with different reactor designs and operating schemes are discussed. Requirements for final effluent compositions are briefly reviewed. A comparison is made of two general schemes. The first is one in which the effluent is cooled and effluent treatment is primarily done in the liquid phase. In the second scheme, most treatment is performed with the effluent in the gas phase. Several unit operations are also discussed, including neutralization, mercury removal, and evaporation

  14. Effluent monitoring: Its purpose and value

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of effluent monitoring is described in terms of the primary objectives, the most important of which is to verify that the facility is functioning as it was designed and that the waste treatment and effluent control systems are performing as planned and expected. The object of a monitoring programme should be periodically re-examined to ensure that the programme serves a contemporary purpose. The value of the effluent monitoring programme is determined by the extent to which users of the monitoring data, i.e. the operator, the regulating authorities and the public, accept the result as indicating that the plant is operating safely, and in an environmentally acceptable manner. The credibility of the monitoring results is therefore the most important factor determining the value of an effluent monitoring programme. (author)

  15. A WET TALE: TOXICITY OF COMPLEX EFFLUENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This course covers standards, regulations, policy, guidance and technical aspects of implementing the whole effluent toxicity program. The curriculum incorporates rationale and information on WET test requirements from USEPA documents, such as the Technical Support Document for W...

  16. 40 CFR 409.17 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Beet Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.17 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  17. 40 CFR 409.27 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Crystalline Cane Sugar Refining Subcategory § 409.27 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  18. 40 CFR 409.37 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Liquid Cane Sugar Refining Subcategory § 409.37 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  19. 40 CFR 409.13 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best available technology... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Beet Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.13 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  20. 40 CFR 409.47 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Louisiana Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.47 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  1. 40 CFR 409.77 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hawaiian Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.77 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  2. 40 CFR 409.12 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best practicable control... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Beet Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.12 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  3. Anaerobic digestion of cassava starch factory effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manilal, V B; Narayanan, C S; Balagopalan, C

    1990-06-01

    Biomethanation of cassava starch factory effluent in a batch digester produced 130 l biogas/kg dry matter with an average melthane content of 59%. About 63% COD was removed during 60 days. In semicontinuous digesters, gas production was 3251/kg dry matter with a retention time of 33,3 days giving a COD reduction of 50%. Size of starter inoculum was important for good biogasification of the effluent.

  4. BS修正模型下的50ETF期权波动率特征分析%The Analysis of Characteristics of 50ETF Option Volatility Based on the BS Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨远健

    2015-01-01

    基于经典的Black-Scholes模型,放松连续交易和无限次对冲的假设,在离散模式下利用均值方差法推导出修正的BS模型,利用修正模型探究我国50ETF期权的波动率是否具有“微笑”特征时得出:我国的50ETF期权单边炒作现象比较严重,虚值的认购期权波动率远远高于实值和平值期权,使得整个波动率曲线呈现单边上扬的特点,违背传统的波动率曲线特征。%Based on the classical Black-Scholes model and by relaxing the restriction of continuous transac⁃tion and unlimited hedge,modified BS model was deduced under discrete mode by means of the mean vari⁃ance method. Then the modified model was used to explore whether the option volatility of 50ETF has“smile”feature in China. It is found that unilateral transactions of the 50ETF are quite serious,and a call op⁃tion volatility of a virtual value is much higher than the real peace value options,so that the curves of the en⁃tire volatility present the characteristics of unilateral rise,which is contrary to the traditional volatility curves.

  5. Impact of industrial waste effluents on river Damodar adjacent to Durgapur industrial complex, West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, U S; Gupta, S

    2013-03-01

    The present study deals with the characterization of industrial effluents released from various industries and distribution of heavy metals in effluent discharge channel and its impact on the river Damodar. The effluent of tamlanala, a natural storm water channel, is extensively used for irrigation for growing vegetables in and around the study area. The heavy metals in water of the study area are in the order of Fe > Mn > Pb > Cd and sediments follow similar trends too. The enrichment of heavy metals in the sediments are in the order of Cd (39.904) > Pb (33.156) > Mn (0.164) > Fe (0.013). The geoaccumulation index values reveal effluent channel is subjected to moderate to high pollution with respect to Cd (4.733) and Pb (4.466). The analyzed data for enrichment factors and the pollution load index (1.305) show that effluent channels have suffered from significant heavy metal contamination following industrialization and urbanization. Compared to baseline values, the surface sediment layers show high enrichment across the channel and at its discharge point. The factor analysis reveals three factors-industrial sources, surface runoff inputs, and background lithogenic factors which clarify the observed variance of the environmental variables. Metal pollution assessment of sediments suggests that pollution from the heavy metals observed is high in the tamlanala which in turn affects the downstream of the river system. PMID:22623168

  6. 300 area TEDF permit compliance monitoring plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BERNESKI, L.D.

    1998-11-20

    This document presents the permit compliance monitoring plan for the 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF). It addresses the compliance with the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit and Department of Natural Resources Aquatic Lands Sewer Outfall Lease.

  7. 40 CFR 434.53 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effluent limitations guidelines... economically achievable (BAT). 434.53 Section 434.53 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS COAL MINING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY BPT, BAT, BCT LIMITATIONS...

  8. Dispersion of effluents in the atmosphere; Dispersion des effluents dans l`atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    This conference day was organized by the `convection` section of the French association of thermal engineers with the support of the environment and energy mastery agency (ADEME). This book of proceedings contains 10 papers entitled: `physical modeling of atmospheric dispersion in wind tunnels. Some industrial examples`; `modeling of the noxious effects of a fire on the environment of an industrial site: importance of thermal engineering related hypotheses`; `atmospheric diffusion of a noxious cloud: fast evaluation method of safety areas around refrigerating installations that use ammonia`; `modeling of atmospheric flows in urban areas in order to study the dispersion of pollutants`; `use of a dispersion parameter to characterize the evolution of a diffusion process downstream of a linear source of passive contaminant placed inside a turbulent boundary layer`; `elements of reflexion around the development of an analytical methodology applied to the elaboration of measurement strategies of air quality in ambient and outdoor atmospheres around industrial sites`; `state-of-the-art about treatment techniques for VOC-rich gaseous effluents`; `characteristics of the time variation of the atmospheric pollution in the Paris region and visualization of its space distribution`; `mass-spectrometry for the measurement of atmospheric pollutants`; `volume variations in natural convection turbulence`. (J.S.)

  9. Sampling and Analysis Plan for the 105-N Basin Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.O. Mahood

    1997-12-31

    This sampling and analysis plan defines the strategy, and field and laboratory methods that will be used to characterize 105-N Basin water. The water will be shipped to the 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility for treatment and disposal as part of N Reactor deactivation. These analyses are necessary to ensure that the water will meet the acceptance criteria of the ETF, as established in the Memorandum of Understanding for storage and treatment of water from N-Basin (Appendix A), and the characterization requirements for 100-N Area water provided in a letter from ETF personnel (Appendix B)

  10. Metal Contamination In Plants Due To Tannery Effluent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Farhad Ali

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper analyzes the determination of heavy metals named Chromium Lead and Cadmium deposited in soil as well as in the plants and vegetables due to the tanning industries of the area of Hazaribagh Dhaka. The tanneries discharge untreated tannery effluents which get mixed with the soil water of rivers and canals in this area. The determination of metals was performed for the soil that was collected from the land adjacent to the canals which bear untreated tannery effluents. The soil is affected with the untreated effluents through the deposition of heavy metals. The metals were furthers deposited into the plants and vegetables grown on that soil. The roots stems and leaves of the plants of Jute Corchorus capsularis and Spinach Basella alba grown on that soil were analyzed for determining these metals. Extreme amount of chromium was found for plants and again Lead Cadmium were found in higher amount in these parts of the two plants. These two plants are taken as a popular vegetables extensively. In case of soil the amount of Chromium Lead and Cadmium were analyzed as 87 mgL 0.131 mgL and 0.190 mgL respectively. For the roots stems and leaves of Jute Corchorus capsularis the average values are 115.62 mgL for Chromium 11.25 mgL for Lead and 2.27 mgL for Cadmium respectively. Again in case of Spinach Basella alba 124.42 mgL was found for Chromium 7.38 mgL for lead and 2.97 mgL for Cadmium as average values for these parts of the two trees. All the observed values of metals of Chromium Lead and Cadmium are higher than the permissible and specially for Chromium the amount is extremely higher.

  11. Modeling of coastal effluent transport: an approach to linking far-field and near-field models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Zhaoqing; KHANGAOKAR Tarang

    2008-01-01

    One of the challenges in effluent transport modeling in coastal tidal environments is the proper specification of initial dilution in connection with the far-field transport phenomena. An approach of external linkage of far-field and near-field effluent transport models is presented, and applied to simulating the effluent transport in the Port Angeles Harbor, Washington in the Strait of Juan de Fuea. A near-field plume model was used to calculate the effluent initial dilution and a three-dimensional (3-D) hydrodynamic model was developed to simulate the tidal circulation and far-field effluent transport in the Port Angeles Harbor. The hydrodynamic model was driven by tides and surface winds. Observed water surface elevation and velocity data were used to calibrate the model over a period covering the neap-spring tidal cycle. The model was also validated with observed surface drogue trajectory data. The model successfully reproduced the tidal dynamics in the study area and good agreements between model results and observed data were obtained. It is demonstrated that the linkage between the near-field and far-field models in effluent transport modeling can be achieved through iteratively adjusting the model grid sizes such that the dilution ratio and effluent concentration in the circulation model grid cell match the concentration calculated by the near-field plume model.

  12. 40 CFR 450.21 - Effluent limitations reflecting the best practicable technology currently available (BPT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... infeasible, preserve topsoil. (b) Soil stabilization. Stabilization of disturbed areas must, at a minimum, be... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CONSTRUCTION AND DEVELOPMENT POINT... the best practicable technology currently available (BPT). Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30...

  13. Halonitromethanes formation in wastewater treatment plant effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hocheol; Addison, Jesse W; Hu, Jia; Karanfil, Tanju

    2010-03-01

    Halonitromethanes (HNMs) constitute one class of emerging disinfection by-products with high potential health risks. This study investigated the formation and occurrence of HNMs under different disinfection scenarios and the presence of their precursors in municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTPs) effluents. Formation potential tests performed on WWTP effluents revealed that HNM formation occurred in the order of ozonation-chlorination > ozonation-chloramination > chlorination > chloramination. Ozonation alone did not produce any HNM. Municipal WWTP effluents contained some reactive HNM precursors, possibly the by-products of biological treatment processes and/or some moiety of industry or household origin. No effects of nitrate on the formation of HNMs were observed in this study, and nitrification in WWTPs appears to remove appreciable portion of HNM precursors, especially those reactive to chlorine. UV disinfection using low pressure lamps in municipal WWTPs had negligible impact on HNM formation potential. HNM concentrations in the effluents of selected WWTPs were either non-detectable or less than minimum reporting level, except for one WWTP that gave trichloronitromethane concentrations in the range of 0.9-1.5 microg L(-1). No HNMs were observed in the effluents disinfected with UV radiation. Therefore, it appears the typical wastewater disinfection processes involving chlorination or UV treatment in WWTPs do not produce significant amounts of HNMs.

  14. High-yield pulping effluent treatment technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this report is to examine the high-yield (mechanical) pulp processes with respect to environmental issues affected by the discharge of their waste streams. Various statistics are given that support the view that high-yield pulping processes will have major growth in the US regions where pulp mills are located, and sites for projects in the development phase are indicated. Conventional and innovative effluent-treatment technologies applicable to these processes are reviewed. The different types of mechanical pulping or high-yield processes are explained, and the chemical additives are discussed. The important relationship between pulp yield and measure of BOD in the effluent is graphically presented. Effluent contaminants are identified, along with other important characteristics of the streams. Current and proposed environmental limitations specifically related to mechanical pulp production are reviewed. Conventional and innovative effluent-treatment technologies are discussed, along with their principle applications, uses, advantages, and disadvantages. Sludge management and disposal techniques become an intimate part of the treatment of waste streams. The conclusion is made that conventional technologies can successfully treat effluent streams under current waste-water discharge limitations, but these systems may not be adequate when stricter standards are imposed. At present, the most important issue in the treatment of pulp-mill waste is the management and disposal of the resultant sludge

  15. Recycling liquid effluents in a ceramic industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo Almeida, B.; Almeida, M.; Martins, S.; Alexandra Macarico, V.; Tomas da Fonseca, A.

    2016-08-01

    In this work is presented a study on the recycling of liquid effluents in a ceramic installation for sanitary industry. The effluents were characterized by X-ray diffraction and inductively coupled plasma to evaluate their compositions. It was also assessed the daily production rate. Several glaze-slurry mixtures were prepared and characterized according to procedures and equipment of the company's quality laboratory. The results show that for most of the properties, the tested mixtures exhibited acceptable performance. However, the pyro plasticity parameter is highly influenced by the glaze content and imposes the separation of glaze and slurry liquid effluents. In addition, it is necessary to invest on a storage plant, including tanks with constant stirring and a new pipeline structure to implement the reincorporation method on the slurry processing. (Author)

  16. ANALYSIS ON EFFLUENT WATER QUALITY AND ELECTRICITY CONSUMPTION AFTER INTRODUCING ADVANCED SEWAGE TREATMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiojiri, Yasuo; Maekawa, Shunich

    We analyze effluent water quality and electricity consumption after in troducing advanced treatment in sewage treatment plant. We define 'advanced treatment ratio' as volume of treated water through advanced treatment processes divided by total volume of treated water in plant. Advanced treatment ratio represents degree of introducing advanced treatment. We build two types of equation. One represents relation between effluent water quality and advanced treatment ratio, the other between electricity consumption and advanced treatment ratio. Each equation is fitted by least squares on 808 samples: 8 fiscal years operation data of 101 plants working in Kanagawa, Tokyo, Saitama and Chiba areas, and coefficient of advanced treatment ratio is estimated. The result is as follows. (1) After introducing advanced treatment aimed at nitrogen removal, T-N in effluent water decreases by 51.3% and electricity consum ption increases by 52.2%. (2) After introducing advanced treatment aimed at phosphorus removal, T-P in effluent water decreases by 27.8%. Using the above result, we try prioritizing 71 plants in Tokyo Bay watershed about raising advanced treatment ratio, so that, in total, pollutant in effluent water decreases with minimized increase of electricity consumption.

  17. A Conceptual Model For Effluent-Dependent Riverine Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, M. T.; Meyerhoff, R. D.; Osterkamp, W. R.; Smith, E. L.; Hawkins, R. H.

    2001-12-01

    The Arid West Water Quality Research Project (WQRP) is a multi-year, EPA-funded scientific endeavor directed by the Pima County, Wastewater Management Department in southern Arizona and focussed upon several interconnected ecological questions. These questions are crucial to water quality management in the arid and semi arid western US. A key component has been the ecological, hydrological and geomorphological investigation of habitat created by the discharge of treated effluent into ephemeral streams. Such environments are fundamentally different from the dry streams or rivers they displace; however, they are clearly not the perennial streams they superficially resemble. Under Arizona State regulations, such streams can bear the use designation of "Effluent Dependent Waters," or EDWs. Before this investigation, a hydrological/ecological conceptual model for these unique ecosystems had not been published. We have constructed one for general review that is designed to direct future work in the WQRP. The project investigated ten representative, yet contrasting EDW sites distributed throughout arid areas of the western US, to gather both historical and reconnaissance level field data, including in-stream and riparian, habitat and morphometric fluvial data. In most cases, the cross sectional area of the prior channel is oversized relative to the discharge of the introduced effluent. Where bed control is absent, the channels are incised downstream of the discharge point, further suggesting a disequilibrium between the channel and the regulated effluent flow. Several of the studied stream systems primarily convey storm water and are aggradational, exhibiting braided or anastomizing channels, high energy bedforms, and spatially dynamic interfluves. Active channels are formed in response to individual storm events and can be highly dynamic in both location and cross-sectional morphology. This poses a geomorphological challenge in the selection of a discharge point. We

  18. FISH COUGH RESPONSE - A METHOD FOR EVALUATING QUALITY OF TREATED COMPLEX EFFLUENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus) showed increases in cough frequency commensurate with effluent concentration when exposed for 24 h to different industrial and municipal effluents. Effluents known to be toxic caused steadily increasing cough rates in the fish as effluent co...

  19. DETERMINATION OF AMMONIA MASS EMISSION FLUX FROM HOG WASTE EFFLUENT SPRAYING OPERATION USING OPEN PATH TUNABLE DIODE LASER SPECTROSCOPY WITH VERTICAL RADIAL PLUME MAPPING ANALYSIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emission of ammonia from concentrated animal feeding operations represents an increasingly important environmental issue. Determination of total ammonia mass emission flux from extended area sources such as waste lagoons and waste effluent spraying operations can be evaluated usi...

  20. Virus movement in soil columns flooded with secondary sewage effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lance, J C; Gerba, C P; Melnick, J L

    1976-10-01

    Secondary sewage effluent containing about 3 X 10(4) plaque-forming units of polio virus type 1 (LSc) per ml was passed through columns 250 cm in length packed with calcareous sand from an area in the Salt River bed used for ground-water recharge of secondary sewage effluent. Viruses were not detected in 1-ml samples extracted from the columns below the 160-cm level. However, viruses were detected in 5 of 43 100-ml samples of the column drainage water. Most of the viruses were adsorbed in the top 5 cm of soil. Virus removal was not affected by the infiltration rate, which varied between 15 and 55 cm/day. Flooding a column continuosly for 27 days with the sewage water virus mixture did not saturate the top few centimeters of soil with viruses and did not seem to affect virus movement. Flooding with deionized water caused virus desorption from the soil and increased their movement through the columns. Adding CaCl2 to the deionized water prevented most of the virus desorption. Adding a pulse of deionized water followed by sewage water started a virus front moving through the columns, but the viruses were readsorbed and none was detected in outflow samples. Drying the soil for 1 day between applying the virus and flooding with deionized water greatly reduced desorption, and drying for 5 days prevented desorption. Large reductions (99.99% or more) of virus would be expected after passage of secondary sewage effluent through 250 cm of the calcareous sand similar to that used in our laboratory columns unless heavy rains fell within 1 day after the application of sewage stopped. Such virus movement could be minimized by the proper management of flooding and drying cycles. PMID:185960

  1. Bioremediation of the textile waste effluent by Chlorella vulgaris

    OpenAIRE

    Hala Yassin El-Kassas; Laila Abdelfattah Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    The microalgae biomass production from textile waste effluent is a possible solution for the environmental impact generated by the effluent discharge into water sources. The potential application of Chlorella vulgaris for bioremediation of textile waste effluent (WE) was investigated using 22 Central Composite Design (CCD). This work addresses the adaptation of the microalgae C. vulgaris in textile waste effluent (WE) and the study of the best dilution of the WE for maximum biomass production...

  2. 金融危机对我国ETF风险与收益影响分析--基于货币及QE视角%Analysis on Impacts of the Financial Crisis on ETF Funds Risk and Return from the Perspectives of Monetary and QE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李江涛

    2014-01-01

    ETF基金具有广阔的市场前景,在我国资本市场中发挥着重要作用。此文试图通过结合金融危机及货币政策时间表,通过对ETF基金的收益率进行建模,从而对ETF的收益及风险的影响进行分析并从中梳理货币政策逻辑。实证发现,金融危机前后及宽松政策变化前后ETF基金的实际超额收益率跟市场的超额收益率一直保持较强的线性相关,且线性相关性呈现出小幅增强的趋势。总体来看,本次美国金融危机对我国ETF的收益率和风险都有一定的影响,但影响有限。%ETF funds is an important financial instrument in today ’s China financial market .By combining the time table of the monetary policy responding to the financial crisis ,we analyze what impact financial crisis has brought to the return and risk of ETF funds .We find that ,surplus return of ETF funds has linear relation with the market both before and after the financial crisis in 2008 ,and this financial cri-sis has limitedly affected the return and risk of the ETF funds .

  3. 40 CFR 420.92 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Acid... degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology... by the application of the best practicable control technology currently available (BPT). Except...

  4. 40 CFR 420.52 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Vacuum... degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology... by the application of the best practicable control technology currently available (BPT). Except...

  5. 40 CFR 420.62 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Continuous... degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology... by the application of the best practicable control technology currently available (BPT). Except...

  6. 40 CFR 420.73 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hot Forming... degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best available technology economically... application of the best available technology economically achievable (BAT). The Agency has determined...

  7. 40 CFR 406.52 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... technology currently available. 406.52 Section 406.52 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Milling Subcategory § 406.52 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  8. 40 CFR 406.92 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... technology currently available. 406.92 Section 406.92 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Cereal Subcategory § 406.92 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  9. 40 CFR 406.53 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... economically achievable. 406.53 Section 406.53 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Subcategory § 406.53 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  10. 40 CFR 406.12 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... technology currently available. 406.12 Section 406.12 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Subcategory § 406.12 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  11. 40 CFR 406.82 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... technology currently available. 406.82 Section 406.82 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Subcategory § 406.82 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  12. 40 CFR 406.22 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... technology currently available. 406.22 Section 406.22 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Subcategory § 406.22 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  13. 40 CFR 406.32 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... technology currently available. 406.32 Section 406.32 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Milling Subcategory § 406.32 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  14. 40 CFR 406.62 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... technology currently available. 406.62 Section 406.62 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Processing Subcategory § 406.62 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  15. 40 CFR 406.33 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... economically achievable. 406.33 Section 406.33 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Subcategory § 406.33 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  16. 40 CFR 406.42 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... technology currently available. 406.42 Section 406.42 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Milling Subcategory § 406.42 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  17. 40 CFR 406.72 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... technology currently available. 406.72 Section 406.72 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Subcategory § 406.72 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  18. 40 CFR 418.43 - Effluent limitations and guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best available technology... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERTILIZER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Ammonium Nitrate... attainable by the application of the best available technology economically achievable. The...

  19. 40 CFR 418.72 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... technology currently available. 418.72 Section 418.72 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERTILIZER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Mixed and Blend Fertilizer Production Subcategory § 418.72 Effluent limitations guidelines representing...

  20. 40 CFR 418.62 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... technology currently available. 418.62 Section 418.62 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERTILIZER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY... effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology...

  1. 40 CFR 418.33 - Effluent limitations and guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best available technology... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERTILIZER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Urea Subcategory... the application of the best available technology economically achievable. The following...

  2. 40 CFR 418.23 - Effluent limitations quidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best available technology... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERTILIZER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Ammonia... by the application of the best available technology economically achievable. Except as provided...

  3. 40 CFR 418.53 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best available technology... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERTILIZER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Nitric Acid... by the application of the best available technology economically achievable. The...

  4. 40 CFR 418.13 - Effluent limitations and guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attained by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... representing the degree of effluent reduction attained by the application of the best available technology... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERTILIZER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Phosphate... attained by the application of the best available technology economically achievable. The...

  5. 40 CFR 418.63 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best available technology... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERTILIZER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Ammonium Sulfate... attainable by the application of the best available technology economically achievable. The...

  6. STUDY OF INFLUENCE OF EFFLUENT ON GROUND WATER USING REMOTE SENSING, GIS AND MODELING TECHNIQUES

    OpenAIRE

    S. Pathak; Bhadra, B. K.; Sharma, J. R.

    2012-01-01

    The area lies in arid zone of western Rajasthan having very scanty rains and very low ground water reserves. Some of the other problems that are faced by the area are disposal of industrial effluent posing threat to its sustainability of water resource. Textiles, dyeing and printing industries, various mechanical process and chemical/synthetic dyes are used and considerable wastewater discharged from these textile units contains about high amount of the dyes into the adjoining drainages. This...

  7. Anaerobic effluent disinfection using ozone: Byproducts formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silva, G.H.R.; Daniel, L.A.; Bruning, H.; Rulkens, W.H.

    2010-01-01

    This research was aimed at studying oxidation processes, coliform inactivation effectiveness and disinfection byproducts (DBPs) associated with the disinfection of anaerobic sanitary wastewater effluent with ozone applied at doses of 5.0, 8.0 and 10.0mg O(3)L(-1) for contact times of 5, 10 and 15 mi

  8. DOWNFLOW GRANULAR FILTRATION OF ACTIVATED SLUDGE EFFLUENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The performance of downflow granular filters subjected to effluents from activated sludge processes was investigated at the EPA-DC Pilot Plant in Washington, D.C. Several media combinations were investigated, including both single anthracite and dual anthracite-sand configuration...

  9. Liquid effluent study: Ground water characterization data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-08-01

    This report is a support document to the Liquid Effluent Study Final Project Report (WHC 1990c). The focus is on sampling and analysis rationale, quality assurance (QA), data validation, and sampling conditions for the groundwater quality assessment. Interpretation of the groundwater data is provided in the final project report. 20 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Wastewater effluent dispersal in Southern California Bays

    KAUST Repository

    Uchiyama, Yusuke

    2014-03-01

    The dispersal and dilution of urban wastewater effluents from offshore, subsurface outfalls is simulated with a comprehensive circulation model with downscaling in nested grid configurations for San Pedro and Santa Monica Bays in Southern California during Fall of 2006. The circulation is comprised of mean persistent currents, mesoscale and submesoscale eddies, and tides. Effluent volume inflow rates at Huntington Beach and Hyperion are specified, and both their present outfall locations and alternative nearshore diversion sites are assessed. The effluent tracer concentration fields are highly intermittent mainly due to eddy currents, and their probability distribution functions have long tails of high concentration. The dilution rate is controlled by submesoscale stirring and straining in tracer filaments. The dominant dispersal pattern is alongshore in both directions, approximately along isobaths, over distances of more than 10. km before dilution takes over. The current outfall locations mostly keep the effluent below the surface and away from the shore, as intended, but the nearshore diversions do not. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Constructed wetlands to help recovery of effluent dominated streams: application to ozonated and non ozonated treated effluents

    OpenAIRE

    Mezzanotte, V; Canobbio, S; Malpei, F.

    2012-01-01

    The paper reports the results of comparative trials carried out at demonstrative and pilot scale using constructed wetlands for the final polishing of treated effluents (ozonated and non ozonated) which are discharged into a small stream, often dry, whose flow is chiefly made of the effluents themselves. The effluents fed to experimental constructed wetlands had comparable quality for the chief parameters. The removal percent was higher in the case of ozonated effluents for total ...

  12. 40 CFR 420.137 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY... representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best control technology for... effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best control technology for conventional...

  13. 40 CFR 418.73 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best available technology... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERTILIZER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Mixed and Blend Fertilizer Production Subcategory § 418.73 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree...

  14. 40 CFR 409.22 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best practicable control... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Crystalline Cane Sugar Refining Subcategory § 409.22 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree...

  15. 40 CFR 409.52 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best practicable control... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Florida and Texas Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.52 Effluent limitations guidelines representing...

  16. 40 CFR 409.57 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Florida and Texas Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.57 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree...

  17. 40 CFR 409.87 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Puerto Rican Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.87 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree...

  18. 40 CFR 409.62 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best practicable control... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hilo-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.62 Effluent...

  19. 40 CFR 409.72 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best practicable control... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hawaiian Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.72 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree...

  20. 40 CFR 409.32 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best practicable control... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Liquid Cane Sugar Refining Subcategory § 409.32 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of...

  1. 40 CFR 409.42 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best practicable control... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Louisiana Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.42 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree...

  2. 40 CFR 409.67 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hilo-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.67 Effluent limitations...

  3. Estrogenic activity in Finnish municipal wastewater effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Välitalo, Pia; Perkola, Noora; Seiler, Thomas-Benjamin; Sillanpää, Markus; Kuckelkorn, Jochen; Mikola, Anna; Hollert, Henner; Schultz, Eija

    2016-01-01

    Effluents from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are a major source of estrogenic compounds to the aquatic environment. In the present work, estrogenic activities of effluents from eight municipal WWTPs in Finland were studied. The main objectives of the study were to quantify the concentrations of selected estrogenic compounds, to evaluate their contribution to estrogenic potency and to test the feasibility of the commercial bioassays for wastewater analysis. The effluent samples were analyzed by two in vitro tests, i.e. ERα-CALUX(®) and ELISA-E2, and by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry for six estrogenic compounds: estrone (E1), 17β-estradiol (E2), estriol (E3), 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2), 17α-estradiol and bisphenol A (BPA). Estrogenic effects were found in all of the effluent samples with both of the bioassays. The concentrations measured with ELISA-E2 (8.6-61.6 ng/L) were clearly higher but exhibited a similar pattern than those with chemical analysis (E2 effluents can be achieved by using in vitro biotests in addition to chemical analysis and their use would be beneficial in monitoring and screening purposes. PMID:26584345

  4. BIOLOGICAL TREATING TECHNOLOGY TO REMOVE PHENOLS IN FCCU EFFLUENT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@Baesd on the survey in 1997 fiscal year, we have been making a further survey and study together with 中国石油(Petro China) at Liaohe Refinery since 1998 fiscal year, aiming at the transfer of Japanese waste water treating technologies to China.   Scope is as follows:   (1) Demonstration of a new waste water treating technology, a kind of biological treating methods (Fluidized bed biological treatment), to eliminate phenols in FCCU effluent.   (2) Recommendation of eliminating pollutant and reducing total effluent by improving the operation.    1 Fluidized bed biological treatment 1.1 What is fluidized bed biological treatment   Fluidized bed biological treatment is the process to treat waste water as follows:   (1) To put biologically inert granular matters (fluidized carrier) into an aeration tank;   (2) Homogeneously and entirely to fluidize the particles in the tank to form highly active biofilm on the surface of each particle;   (3) To contact organic substances with these microorganisms to purify the waste water.   The surface area of the particle per unit volume is about ten times as large as that in conventional biofilm treatment process. In addition, no blockade of the filler (carrier) may be caused. Accordingly, volumetric loading of the aeration tank can be improved to attain highly efficient treatment.

  5. French studies on the thermal effluents of electric power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents a synthesis of studies made in France in the thermal effluent field: thermal power plant cooling systems, transfer and dispersion of thermal effluents in the receptive media, effects of thermal effluents on water physicochemistry and biochemistry, effects of thermal effluents on aquatic ecosystems, and, possibilities of waste heat recovery with the view of utilization in agriculture, aquaculture and district heating. A catalogue of French organizations working or having data on thermal effluents is presented, as also an alphabetical list of the contacted persons. A bibliography of French documents concerning the previously mentioned studies is finally given (193 refs.)

  6. Effluent Zero Release Concept——The Brazilian Experience

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    José Carlos Mierzwa; Sandra Mara Garcia Bello; Ivanildo Hespanhol

    2006-01-01

    Water scarcity is pushing the government, industries and researchers to the development of new strategies for water and wastewater management. An approach aimed at the optimization of the water use and minimization of effluent generation was developed at the Centro Experimental ARAMAR (CEA), a nuclear research facility, located in the State of Sao Paulo,Brazil. Bench scale tests followed by a pilot plant treating effluents from some nuclear research facilities have shown the results leading to the conclusion that the effluent zero release concept is feasible. Based on the gathered data, a project of an integrated effluent treatment system focusing on water recovery and environmental effluent release reduction has been developed.

  7. Effect of domestic sewage and industrial effluents on biomass and species diversity of seaweeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tewari, A.; Joshi, H.V.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of two chlor-alkali industry effluents and domestic sewage has been studied, in situ, on tropical seaweeds of the Okhamandal coast. Maximum biomass was observed at a distance of 400 and 5000 m away from the discharge points of the two chlor-alkali industries. Ulva lactuca and Rhizoclonium kochianum were most resistant while Caulerpa scalpelliformis, Halimeda tuna and Codium dwarkense were most sensitive. Species of Sargassum, Cystoseira and Gelidiella were completely eradicated due to the long-term effect of the effluent from one chlor-alkali industry. Gracilaria corticata, G. foliifera and species of Hypnea produced good biomass under mildly polluted conditions and they may be cultivated in such areas. Algal species diversity (ASD) was not recorded up to 400 and 4000 m away from chlor-alkali industries outfalls as intensity of pollution was high in this region. The ASD increased as the distance from the outfall increased: In general, brown seaweeds were most sensitive to this type of pollution. Domestic sewage was much less inhibitory to seaweeds. Species of Ulva and Enteromorpha were maximum biomass producers while brown seaweeds were least productive in the near vicinity of the discharge. Species diversity was also high, in this area, as compared to the chlor-alkali industry effluents. Vertical distribution of seaweeds was not evident up to 400-4000 m away from chlor-alkali effluents outfall and up to 10 m away from domestic sewage discharge points. Seaweeds showed characteristic vertical distribution after these distances. (orig.).

  8. STUDY ON THE REUSE OF ZAMYAD FACTORY WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT EFFLUENT IN IRRIGATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Massoudinejad, M. Manshouri, A.R. Yazdanbakhsh

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Considering the population increase in the cities and also the increase of per capita water consumption in these societies, the use of treated effluents for the green area irrigation has been taken into consideration. Human ever–increasing needs to green area in municipal societies and on the other hand the limitations in water supplies cause a new review in wastewater reuse. Also making use of treated effluents in irrigation has some limitations including clogging of the soil porosities, increasing of the chemicals and toxic substances to plants and increasing the probability of groundwater pollution. In this research, considering the indicators using recognition of the effluent’s quality, at the first stage compound samples of domestic wastewater treatment effluents of Zamyad Factory were taken. The samples were tested from the viewpoint of quality. Results showed that the indicator of Sodium Adsorption Ratio, Sodium Percentage, amounts of chloride, and electrical conductivity comparing to Food and Agriculture Organization and Department of the Environment of Iran standards were higher than the standard levels. Also parameters such as TDS, TSS, BOD, COD, anions and cations were in standard levels. Results also showed that the increase of some of the undesirable parameters was not related to the operation of wastewater treatment plant. Therefore, in order to make the standard effluent, different methods may be proposed and the most practical and economical one is dilution by using 50% mixing with raw water.

  9. Urban effluent discharges as causes of public and environmental health concerns in South Africa's aquatic milieu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibanda, Timothy; Selvarajan, Ramganesh; Tekere, Memory

    2015-12-01

    The water quality in South Africa's river systems is rapidly deteriorating as a consequence of increased discharge of wastewater effluents. The natural ability of rivers and reservoirs to trap toxic chemicals and nutrients in their sediments enables these systems to accumulate contaminants, altering the natural balance in environmental water quality, thereby raising a plethora of public and environmental health concerns. Impaired water quality has been linked to an array of problems in South Africa including massive fish mortalities, altered habitat template leading to the thinning of riverine macroinvertebrate diversity, shifts in microbial community structures with drastic ecological consequences and evolvement of antibiotic resistance genes that, under natural conditions, can be transferred to waterborne pathogens. Urban wastewater discharge has also been implicated in increased bioaccumulation of metals in edible plant parts, elevated concentrations of endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs), which are blamed for reduced fertility and increased cancer risk, excessive growth of toxic cyanobacteria and an increase in concentrations of pathogenic microorganisms which constitute a potential health threat to humans. However, despite the ecotoxicological hazards posed by wastewater effluents, ecotoxicological studies are currently underutilised in South African aquatic ecosystem assessments, and where they have been done, the observation is that ecotoxicological studies are mostly experimental and restricted to small study areas. More research is still needed to fully assess especially the ecotoxicological consequences of surface water pollution by urban wastewater effluents in South Africa. A review of the effects of urban effluent discharges that include domestic effluent mixed with industrial effluent and/or urban stormwater run-off is hereby presented. PMID:26408112

  10. Urban effluent discharges as causes of public and environmental health concerns in South Africa's aquatic milieu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibanda, Timothy; Selvarajan, Ramganesh; Tekere, Memory

    2015-12-01

    The water quality in South Africa's river systems is rapidly deteriorating as a consequence of increased discharge of wastewater effluents. The natural ability of rivers and reservoirs to trap toxic chemicals and nutrients in their sediments enables these systems to accumulate contaminants, altering the natural balance in environmental water quality, thereby raising a plethora of public and environmental health concerns. Impaired water quality has been linked to an array of problems in South Africa including massive fish mortalities, altered habitat template leading to the thinning of riverine macroinvertebrate diversity, shifts in microbial community structures with drastic ecological consequences and evolvement of antibiotic resistance genes that, under natural conditions, can be transferred to waterborne pathogens. Urban wastewater discharge has also been implicated in increased bioaccumulation of metals in edible plant parts, elevated concentrations of endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs), which are blamed for reduced fertility and increased cancer risk, excessive growth of toxic cyanobacteria and an increase in concentrations of pathogenic microorganisms which constitute a potential health threat to humans. However, despite the ecotoxicological hazards posed by wastewater effluents, ecotoxicological studies are currently underutilised in South African aquatic ecosystem assessments, and where they have been done, the observation is that ecotoxicological studies are mostly experimental and restricted to small study areas. More research is still needed to fully assess especially the ecotoxicological consequences of surface water pollution by urban wastewater effluents in South Africa. A review of the effects of urban effluent discharges that include domestic effluent mixed with industrial effluent and/or urban stormwater run-off is hereby presented.

  11. Precipitated magnetite in alpha effluent treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iron present as a fortuitous component of most nuclear plant effluents can be precipitated as magnetite after suitable chemical treatment. The spinel crystal lattice of the magnetite is able to incorporate a wide range of foreign ions which includes many important radioactive species. Provided the operating conditions are well chosen the precipitated magnetite provides an excellent scavenger for many radionuclides and gives a denser more granular solid product to be separated from the effluent than the more visual scavenging agent ferric hydroxide. The conditions under which magnetite can be formed by precipitation and its properties are presented and compared with those of ferric hydroxide. Because magnetite has a high magnetic susceptibility its separation by high gradient magnetic separation becomes a possibility and data relevant to this is presented. (author)

  12. Water conservation--whole effluent toxicity paradox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fort, Douglas J; Meyers, Jeffrey D; Page, Michael W; Hercyk, Neta L

    2013-06-01

    Total dissolved solids (TDS) management in water has become an increasingly important topic as competition for water supply sources and the intensity of use both increase. Regulatory failure of National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) whole effluent toxicity (WET) tests is one of several potential factors in managing TDS concentrations in effluent. Consequently, WET tests have become a de facto concentration standard that sets the limit for the intensity of water use and the amount of water conservation feasibly obtained for a facility. Conflicting regulations dealing with the application of mixing zones and antidegradation policies can prevent water conservation and actually result in the unintended consequence of causing more water use. The impact of TDS on NPDES-required WET tests, conflicting regulations dealing with the application of mixing zones that are counter-productive to water conservation, alternative practices currently being used, and other means of rectifying this paradox are discussed. PMID:23833811

  13. Tritium effluent control project at Mound Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tritium control technology and philosophies that have been developed at the various weapons complex sites can be drawn upon for the design and operation of fusion research facilities and Controlled Thermonuclear Reactor fuel cycle and tritium confinement systems. Historically, tritium control has been based on high volume air flows and dilution of effluent systems. As a consequence of the ''as low as practical'' criterion, control philosophies were reevaluated and control efforts intensified. It is the results of these recent efforts that are most applicable to the CTR program. At Mound Laboratory the tritium control development efforts are centered around an advanced technology project. The philosophy and goals of this project and a nearly completed pilot scale effluent control laboratory are described. (auth)

  14. Radioactivity in the industrial effluent disposed soil

    OpenAIRE

    Meenashisundaram V.; Narayanaswamy R.; Senthilkumar R. D.

    2012-01-01

    Studies on radiation and radioactivity distribution in the soils of effluent disposed from the sugar industry in India have been conducted. The external gamma dose rates in air and natural radionuclides activities in the soils were measured using an Environmental Radiation Dosimeter and a Gamma-ray Spectrometer respectively. The soil samples were also subject to various physico-chemical analyses. This study revealed some remarkable results that are discussed in the article.

  15. Radioactivity in the industrial effluent disposed soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meenashisundaram V.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Studies on radiation and radioactivity distribution in the soils of effluent disposed from the sugar industry in India have been conducted. The external gamma dose rates in air and natural radionuclides activities in the soils were measured using an Environmental Radiation Dosimeter and a Gamma-ray Spectrometer respectively. The soil samples were also subject to various physico-chemical analyses. This study revealed some remarkable results that are discussed in the article.

  16. ICPP effluent monitoring report, November 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Covers reporting period, October 20, 1982 through November 19, 1982. There have been no significant or unplanned releases to date in CY-1982. A summary of the total airborne, liquid and solid releases to date for CY-1982 are graphed. The airborne activity forecast is based on the assumption that the electrolytic dissolution would run for approximately 15 days during the first quarter; however, this did not occur. Both radioactive and chemical effluents are included

  17. Radioactivity in the industrial effluent disposed soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthilkumar, R. D.; Narayanaswamy, R.; Meenashisundaram, V.

    2012-04-01

    Studies on radiation and radioactivity distribution in the soils of effluent disposed from the sugar industry in India have been conducted. The external gamma dose rates in air and natural radionuclides activities in the soils were measured using an Environmental Radiation Dosimeter and a Gamma-ray Spectrometer respectively. The soil samples were also subject to various physico-chemical analyses. This study revealed some remarkable results that are discussed in the article.

  18. Functional design criteria for Project W-252, Phase II Liquid Effluent Treatment and Disposal: Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document provides the functional design criteria required for the Phase 2 Liquid Effluent Treatment and Disposal Project, Project W-252. Project W-252 shall provide new facilities and existing facility modifications required to implement Best Available Technology/All Known, Available, and Reasonable Methods of Prevention, Control, and Treatment (BAT/AKART) for the 200 East Phase II Liquid Effluent Streams. The project will also provide a 200 East Area Phase II Effluent Collection System (PTECS) for connection to a disposal system for relevant effluent streams to which BAT/AKART has been applied. Liquid wastestreams generated in the 200 East Area are currently discharged to the soil column. Included in these wastestreams are cooling water, steam condensate, raw water, and sanitary wastewaters. It is the policy of the DOE that the use of soil columns to treat and retain radionuclides and nonradioactive contaminants be discontinued at the earliest practical time in favor of wastewater treatment and waste minimization. In 1989, the DOE entered into an interagency agreement with Ecology and EPA. This agreement is referred to as the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement). Project W-252 is one of the projects required to achieve the milestones set forth in the Tri-Party Agreement. One of the milestones requires BAT/AKART implementation for Phase II streams by October 1997. This Functional Design Criteria (FDC) document provides the technical baseline required to initiate Project W-252 to meet the Tri-Party Agreement milestone for the application of BAT/AKART to the Phase II effluents

  19. Effluent metering and liquid gas ratio analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conrad, L.M. [EnCana Corp., Calgary, AB (Canada); Howell, K. [Intricate Group, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    The Industry Measurement Group (IMG) launched a 2 year initiative in 2007 focused on creating technically based regulations to improve the economics on low pressure, low liquid gas plays in western Canada. The IMG is the liaison between the petroleum industry and regulatory agencies in the development of industry accepted standards for measuring activities. The Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (CAPP) supported the IMG's initiative, which led to a joint CAPP/IMG review of effluent metering applications and the associated testing requirements for gas wells in British Columbia and Alberta. The primary objectives of the joint CAPP/IMG review were to bring all parties together to form a common framework for effluent metering application and testing expectations, based on a risk and volumetric approach; and to support an economical approach to the continued development of unconventional gas resource plays in Alberta and British Columbia, with a focus on well-site infrastructure and operational cost optimization. This paper focused primarily on the well testing requirements and discussed the benefits of creating technically based, pragmatic regulations. Existing regulations were used to help the CAPP/IMG project team to develop a new practical and pragmatic regulatory framework and policy for effluent metering and well testing. 1 ref., 2 tabs., 15 figs.

  20. Environmental system applied to radioactive liquid effluent release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    monetary and environmental costs. The results showed that the dilution factors values varied according to the employed radioisotope, in increasing order from 3H, 137CS, 54Mn, 60Co to 65Zn, following to each chemical element characteristics, significant variance among hydrogen, alkaline metal and transition metals was also showed. The dilution factor averages obtained in the first and second day of the releases were respectively 4,3 and 7,4 for 3H, 12,0 and 16,1 for 54Mn, 12,6 and 14,2 for 60Co, 12,0 and 27,9 for 65Zn, 6,2 and 13,9 for 137Cs. This is the first study about intra-institutional dilution factor estimation using anthropic radiotracers, without any addition costs. The obtained results contribute with the subsidies to the improvement of the environmental conduct and to establish optimized procedures, under current legislation. The dilution factors were estimated in an operations and laboratory study, in only one controlled discharge of the storage tank TR1. This radioactive tracers study will have to be repeated, in order to create an institutional database. The environmental systemic study must be established by each case, depending on the characteristics of the area, the institution and the released effluents.(author)

  1. Impact of pond aquaculture effluents on seagrass performance in NE Hainan, tropical China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Seagrass performance in relation to large-scale pond aquaculture was assessed. • Effluent-affected seagrass meadows have a low biodiversity, shoot density and biomass. • Shading by epiphytes and sulphide poisoning are major decline mechanisms of seagrasses. • Distance to effluent source and pond agglomeration size are major determinants of seagrass degradation. - Abstract: The impact of pond aquaculture effluents on the distribution and performance of seagrasses was examined in NE Hainan, tropical China. Samples were taken along transects in three back-reef areas with different extent of aquaculture production in their hinterland. High δ15N in seagrass leaves and epiphytes (6–9‰) similar to values in pond effluents documented aquaculture as dominant nitrogen source in the back-reefs with decreasing impact with distance from shore. Seagrass species abundance, shoot density and biomass were lower and concentrations of nutrients, chlorophyll and suspended matter were higher at nearshore sites with high and moderate pond abundance than at the control site. High epiphyte loads and low δ34S in seagrass leaves suggest temporal shading and sulphide poisoning of the nearshore seagrasses. Observed gradients in environmental parameters and seagrass performance indicate that the distance from the pond outlets and size of the adjacent pond agglomeration are major determinants of seagrass degradation

  2. Contribution of Wastewater Treatment Plant Effluents to Nutrient Dynamics in Aquatic Systems: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Richard O.; Migliaccio, Kati W.

    2009-08-01

    Excessive nutrient loading (considering nitrogen and phosphorus) is a major ongoing threat to water quality and here we review the impact of nutrient discharges from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) to United States (U.S.) freshwater systems. While urban and agricultural land uses are significant nonpoint nutrient contributors, effluent from point sources such as WWTPs can overwhelm receiving waters, effectively dominating hydrological characteristics and regulating instream nutrient processes. Population growth, increased wastewater volumes, and sustainability of critical water resources have all been key factors influencing the extent of wastewater treatment. Reducing nutrient concentrations in wastewater is an important aspect of water quality management because excessive nutrient concentrations often prevent water bodies from meeting designated uses. WWTPs employ numerous physical, chemical, and biological methods to improve effluent water quality but nutrient removal requires advanced treatment and infrastructure that may be economically prohibitive. Therefore, effluent nutrient concentrations vary depending on the particular processes used to treat influent wastewater. Increasingly stringent regulations regarding nutrient concentrations in discharged effluent, along with greater freshwater demand in populous areas, have led to the development of extensive water recycling programs within many U.S. regions. Reuse programs provide an opportunity to reduce or eliminate direct nutrient discharges to receiving waters while allowing for the beneficial use of reclaimed water. However, nutrients in reclaimed water can still be a concern for reuse applications, such as agricultural and landscape irrigation.

  3. Extended characterization of M-Area settling basin and vicinity. Technical data summary. Revision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pickett, J B

    1985-10-01

    The Savannah River Plant M-Area settling basin, an unlined surface impoundment, has received process effluents from the M-Area fuel and target fabrication facilities since 1958. The waste effluents have contained metal degreasing agents (chlorinated hydrocarbons), acids, caustics, and heavy metals. Data analyses are provided.

  4. Facility effluent monitoring plan for 242-A Evaporator facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A facility effluent monitoring plan is required by the US Department of Energy in DOE Order 5400.1* for any operations that involve hazardous materials and radioactive substances that could affect employee or public safety or the environment. A facility effluent monitoring plan determination was performed during Calendar Year 1991 and the evaluation showed the need for a facility effluent monitoring plan. This document is prepared using the specific guidelines identified in A Guide for Preparing Hanford Site Facility effluent Monitoring Plans, WHC-EP-0438-1**. This facility effluent monitoring plan assesses effluent monitoring systems and evaluates whether they are adequate to ensure the public health and safety as specified in applicable federal, state, and local requirements

  5. Radioactive effluents in Savannah River -- Summary report for 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winn, W.G.

    1992-07-16

    During 1991, low-level radiometric studies of the Savannah River continued to distinguish between effluent contributions from Plant Vogtle and the Savannah River Site. Measurements of these radioactive effluents are of mutual interest to both institutions, as they can address disturbing trends before they become health and legal concerns. During 1991, the radioactive effluents in the Savannah River were somewhat less than those observed in 1990. This decreasing trend has followed Vogtle improvements in pre-processing their liquid effluents. These effluents continue to be dominated by {sup 58}Co, which had a maximum concentration of only 0.21 pCi/L, which is an order of magnitude lower than the maximum observed in 1990. Many of the other man-made radionuclides observed in 1987--1990 have now decreased to where some are not even detected, and no new radionuclides were detected in the 1991 Vogtle effluents.

  6. Facility effluent monitoring plan for the plutonium uranium extraction facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiegand, D.L.

    1994-09-01

    A facility effluent monitoring plan is required by the US Department of Energy in DOE Order 5400.1 for any operations that involve hazardous materials and radioactive substances that could impact employee or public safety or the environment. This document is prepared using the specific guidelines identified in A Guide for Preparing Hanford Site Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans, WHC-EP-0438-01. This facility effluent monitoring plan assesses effluent monitoring systems and evaluates whether they are adequate to ensure the public health and safety as specified in applicable federal, state, and local requirements. This facility effluent monitoring plan shall ensure long-range integrity of the effluent monitoring systems by requiring an update whenever a new process or operation introduces new hazardous materials or significant radioactive materials. This document must be reviewed annually even if there are no operational changes, and it must be updated at a minimum of every three years.

  7. Nutrient removal from swine lagoon effluent by duckweed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergmann, B.A.; Cheng, J.; Classen, J.; Stomp, A.M.

    2000-04-01

    Three duckweed geographic isolates were grown on varying concentrations of swine lagoon effluent in a greenhouse to determine their ability to remove nutrients from the effluent. Duckweed biomass was harvested every other day over a 12-day period. Duckweed biomass production, nutrient loss from the swine lagoon effluent, and nutrient content of duckweed biomass were used to identify effluent concentrations/geographic isolate combinations that are effective in terms of nutrient utilization from swine lagoon effluent and production of healthy duckweed biomass. When Lemna minor geographic isolate 8627 was grown on 50% swine lagoon effluent, respective losses of TKN, NH{sub 3}-N, TP, OPO{sub 4}-P, TOC, K, Cu, and Zn were 83, 100, 49, 31, 68, 21, 28 and 67%.

  8. Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan for the uranium trioxide facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lohrasbi, J.; Johnson, D.L. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); De Lorenzo, D.S. [Los Alamos Technical Associates, Inc., NM (United States)

    1993-12-01

    A facility effluent monitoring plan is required by the US Department of Energy in DOE Order 5400.1 for any operations that involve hazardous materials and radioactive substances that could impact employee or public safety or the environment. This document is prepared using the specific guidelines identified in A Guide for Preparing Hanford Site Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans, WHC-EP-0438-01. This facility effluent monitoring plan assesses effluent monitoring systems and evaluates whether they are adequate to ensure the public health and safety as specified in applicable federal, state, and local requirements. This facility effluent monitoring plan shall ensure long-range integrity of the effluent monitoring systems by requiring an update whenever a new process or operation introduces new hazardous materials or significant radioactive materials. This document must be reviewed annually even if there are no operational changes, and it must be updated at a minimum of every three years.

  9. Facility effluent monitoring plan for the Plutonium Uranium Extraction Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greager, E.M.

    1997-12-11

    A facility effluent monitoring plan is required by the US Department of Energy in DOE Order 5400.1 for any operations that involve hazardous materials and radioactive substances that could impact employee or public safety or the environment. This document is prepared using the specific guidelines identified in A Guide for Preparing Hanford Site Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans, WHC-EP-0438-01. This facility effluent monitoring plan assesses effluent monitoring systems and evaluates whether these systems are adequate to ensure the public health and safety as specified in applicable federal, state, and local requirements. This facility effluent monitoring plan will ensure long-range integrity of the effluent monitoring systems by requiring an update whenever a new process or operation introduces new hazardous materials or significant radioactive materials. This document must be reviewed annually even if there are no operational changes, and it must be updated, at a minimum, every 3 years.

  10. Influence of marine sediments in the distribution of the main radionuclides of the effluent from the nuclear power plant Almirante Alvaro Alberto (Unit 1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study aimed to: 1) Characterize bottom sediments of the Angra dos Reis region, in the dispersion area of the effluent of the central Almirante Nuclear Alvaro Alberto, Unit 1. 2) Determining the adsorption capacity of these sediments to the long half-life and mean radionuclides to be released in the reactor effluent in a higher concentration. 3) Estimate the fraction of the different studied radionuclides that will be immobilized in sediments. 4) Identify critical radionuclides available for food chain

  11. Influence of ozonation and activated carbon treatment on the ecotoxicity of wastewater treatment plant effluents

    OpenAIRE

    Magdeburg, Axel

    2015-01-01

    Background. There is growing public and scientific concern about the occurrence of anthropogenic chemicals in the aquatic environment. Surface and groundwater serve as main drinking water resource. Especially in metropolitan areas these water reservoirs are impacted by organic pollutants predominantly originating from wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents. The impact of wastewater derived anthropogenic chemicals is therefore related to environmental and human health concerns. In order t...

  12. Occurrence of priority pollutants in WWTP effluents and Mediterranean coastal waters of Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Martí Ortega, Nuria; Aguado García, Daniel; Segovia Martínez, Laura; BOUZAS BLANCO, ALBERTO; Seco Torrecillas, Aurora

    2011-01-01

    A comprehensive study aimed at evaluating the occurrence, significance of concentrations and spatial distribution of priority pollutants (PPs) along the Comunidad Valenciana coastal waters (Spain) was carried out in order to fulfil the European Water Framework Directive (WFD). Additionally, PP concentrations were also analysed in the effluent of 28 WWTPs distributed along the studied area. In coastal waters 36 organic pollutants of the 71 analysed, including 26 PPs were detected although many...

  13. Impact of Sewage and Industrial Effluent on Soil Plant Health Act on Environment

    OpenAIRE

    T. Subramani; M. Mangaiyarkarasi

    2014-01-01

    Effect of continuous irrigation with sewage effluent on soil properties and status of nutrients and pollutant elements in soils and plants in the adjoining areas of Agra and Mathura cities of Uttar Pradesh was ascertained. The physical properties of soils improved due to sewage water irrigation. An appreciable increase in organic carbon, available N, P, K contents was recorded in the sewage water irrigated soils. Electrical conductivity of sewage water irrigated soils was much...

  14. Quality Assurance Project Plan for Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frazier, T.P.

    1994-10-20

    This Quality Assurance Project Plan addresses the quality assurance requirements for the activities associated with the Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans, which are part of the overall Hanford Site Environmental Protection Plan. This plan specifically applies to the sampling and analysis activities and continuous monitoring performed for all Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan activities conducted by Westinghouse Hanford Company. It is generic in approach and will be implemented in conjunction with the specific requirements of the individual Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans.

  15. Splenotoxic effect of radiographic developer effluent on Wistar rats

    OpenAIRE

    Ugwu, Anthony C.; Uchechukwu Dimkpa; Obianuju N. Agba; Albert N. Eteudo; Livinus C. Anikeh; Stephen O. Maduka; Roy C. Uchefuna; Nancy N. Njoku-Oji; Onyeka C. Okonkwo

    2016-01-01

    Background: Histological changes associated with toxicity of radiographic developer effluents on spleen tissues have not been previously studied. The present study therefore aimed at demonstrating the histopathological changes in splenic tissues of Wistar rats following exposure to developer effluent. Methods: Eighteen young Wistar rats weighing 140-220g were used for the study. The animals were divided randomly into three groups of 6 rats each based on the dose of developer effluent admin...

  16. IMPACT OF PAPER MILL EFFLUENTS ON SOIL AND VEGETATION

    OpenAIRE

    Mohan Singh Mandloi; Shatrughan Prasad Singh; Deepak Davar

    2015-01-01

    Environmental pollution poses a great health hazard to human beings, animals and plants. Pollution has also adverse effects on the land, water and its living and nonliving components. Industrial effluents, containing organic and inorganic compounds have strong influence on the development of growth of crop plants. The treated effluent was collected from OPM paper mill from its outlet. Thephysicochemical characteristics of paper mill industry effluent were measured and some were found...

  17. Quality Assurance Project Plan for Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Quality Assurance Project Plan addresses the quality assurance requirements for the Facility Monitoring Plans of the overall site-wide environmental monitoring plan. This plan specifically applies to the sampling and analysis activities and continuous monitoring performed for all Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan activities conducted by Westinghouse Hanford Company. It is generic in approach and will be implemented in conjunction with the specific requirements of individual Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans. This document is intended to be a basic road map to the Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan documents (i.e., the guidance document for preparing Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans, Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan determinations, management plan, and Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans). The implementing procedures, plans, and instructions are appropriate for the control of effluent monitoring plans requiring compliance with US Department of Energy, US Environmental Protection Agency, state, and local requirements. This Quality Assurance Project Plan contains a matrix of organizational responsibilities, procedural resources from facility or site manuals used in the Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans, and a list of the analytes of interest and analytical methods for each facility preparing a Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan. 44 refs., 1 figs., 2 tabs

  18. Effluent treatment options for nuclear thermal propulsion system ground tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A variety of approaches for handling effluent from nuclear thermal propulsion system ground tests in an environmentally acceptable manner are discussed. The functional requirements of effluent treatment are defined and concept options are presented within the framework of these requirements. System concepts differ primarily in the choice of fission-product retention and waste handling concepts. The concept options considered range from closed cycle (venting the exhaust to a closed volume or recirculating the hydrogen in a closed loop) to open cycle (real time processing and venting of the effluent). This paper reviews the strengths and weaknesses of different methods to handle effluent from nuclear thermal propulsion system ground tests

  19. Handling effluent from nuclear thermal propulsion system ground tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A variety of approaches for handling effluent from nuclear thermal propulsion system ground tests in an environmentally acceptable manner are discussed. The functional requirements of effluent treatment are defined and concept options are presented within the framework of these requirements. System concepts differ primarily in the choice of fission-product retention and waste handling concepts. The concept options considered range from closed cycle (venting the exhaust to a closed volume or recirculating the hydrogen in a closed loop) to open cycle (real time processing and venting of the effluent). This paper reviews the different methods to handle effluent from nuclear thermal propulsion system ground tests

  20. Monitoring release of pharmaceutical compounds: occurrence and environmental risk assessment of two WWTP effluents and their receiving bodies in the Po Valley, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Aukidy, M; Verlicchi, P; Jelic, A; Petrovic, M; Barcelò, D

    2012-11-01

    This study describes an investigation on the occurrence of 27 pharmaceutical compounds, belonging to different classes, in the effluent from two wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and their receiving water bodies in the sensitive area of the Po Valley (northern Italy). These canals were monitored upstream and downstream of the effluent discharge points in order to evaluate the effluent impact on the quality of surface waters, commonly used for irrigation. An environmental risk assessment was also conducted by calculating the risk quotient, i.e. the ratio between measured concentration and predicted no effect concentration. Collected data show that, although average values of the selected compounds were in general higher in the effluent than in the surface waters, some compounds not detected in the WWTP effluent were detected in the receiving water (upstream as well as downstream), indicating that sources other than treated effluents are present as contaminations during extraction and analysis have to be excluded. The most critical compounds for the environment were found to be the antibiotics sulfamethoxazole, clarithromycin and azithromycin. The study shows that the potential toxicological effects of persistent micropollutants can be mitigated to some extent by a high dilution capacity, i.e. a high average flow rate in the receiving water body with respect to the effluent. PMID:22967493

  1. Ecotoxicological studies with newly hatched larvae of Concholepas concholepas (Mollusca, Gastropoda): bioassay with secondary-treated kraft pulp mill effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manríquez, Patricio H; Llanos-Rivera, Alejandra; Galaz, Sylvana; Camaño, Andrés

    2013-12-01

    The Chilean abalone or "loco" (Concholepas concholepas, Bruguière 1789) represent the most economically important marine recourse exploited from inner inshore Management and Exploitation Areas for Benthic Resources along the Chilean coast. In this study, newly-hatched larvae of C. concholepas were investigated as a potential model species for marine ecotoxicological studies. The study developed a behavioral standard protocol for assessing the impact that kraft pulp mill effluents after secondary treatment have on C. concholepas larvae. Under controlled laboratory conditions, newly-hatched larvae were exposed to a series of different concentrations of kraft pulp mill effluents with secondary treatment (Pinus spp. and Eucalyptus spp.), potassium dichromate as standard reference toxicant and effluent-free control conditions. Regardless of the type of effluent the results indicated that diluted kraft pulp effluent with secondary treatment had reduced effect on larval survival. Low larval survivals were only recorded when they were exposed to high concentrations of the reference toxicant. This suggests that C. concholepas larval bioassay is a simple method for monitoring the effects of kraft pulp mill effluents with secondary treatment discharged into the sea. The results indicated that dilution of ca. 1% of the effluent with an elemental chlorine free (ECF) secondary treatment is appropriate for achieving low larval mortalities, such as those obtained under control conditions with filtered seawater, and to minimize their impact on early ontogenetic stages of marine invertebrates such as newly-hatched larvae of C. concholepas. The methodological aspects of toxicological testing and behavioral responses described here with newly-hatched larvae of C. concholepas can be used to evaluate in the future the potential effects of other stressful conditions as other pollutants or changes in seawater pH associated with ocean acidification. PMID:24099753

  2. Evaluation of waste stabilization ponds effluent efficiency on the growth and nutritive characteristics of cluster beans (cyamopsis tetragonoloba l.) taub

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    South Asian countries including Pakistan are facing chronic shortage of water supply which is anticipated to be aggravated in future. These countries are agribased where the continued water supply is crucial for sustainable economy. One of the possible alternatives to overcome the problems of water scarcity is the used of treated wastewater which is gaining much importance even in the western world. The treated wastewater can be used as a liquid fertilizer which could provide dual benefits both in terms of saving of fresh water as well as inorganic fertilizers. The potential of treated effluent from waste stabilization ponds (WSP) and equivalent basal fertilizer on growth and nutritive quality of cluster beans (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba L.) Taub. was investigated under field conditions. Treated effluent significantly increased fresh weight of leaves and stems. Dry weight of stem was also significantly higher with the treatment of WSP effluent as compared to the use of basal fertilizer and fresh water. Fresh and dry fruit weights, number of seeds per fruit and fruit length were also significantly increased in WSP effluent treatment as compared to other two treatments. Treatment with WSP effluent also improved the nutritive characteristics such as crude proteins and total carbohydrates. However, total fat and ash content percentage of Cyamopsis tetragonoloba remained unaltered. The application of WSP effluent also increased NPK and organic matter content of the soil after harvesting the crop which would be helpful for succeeding crop. The study demonstrated that treated effluent can be successfully used for unrestricted irrigation in the water deficient areas of Pakistan thereby saving huge quantities of fresh water. (author)

  3. Whole Effluent Assessment of urban discharges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lützhøft, Hans-Christian Holten; Qualmann, Signe; Kusk, Kresten Ole;

    2011-01-01

    The European Water Framework Directive and the Environmental Quality Standards Directive lay down a framework for maintaining or obtaining good ecological and chemical status of European surface and coastal water bodies by the year 2015. The aim of this work was through Whole Effluent Assessment...... (WEA) to identify problematic urban discharges, e.g. stormwater, municipal wastewater, combined sewer overflow (CSO), industrial wastewater. Samples from around Copenhagen were therefore tested in the Larval Development Ratio (LDR) test using the marine crustacean Acartia tonsa. The number of non...

  4. Removal of phosphorus from livestock effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szogi, Ariel A; Vanotti, Matias B

    2009-01-01

    For removal of phosphorus (P) from swine liquid manure before land application, we developed a treatment process that produces low P effluents and a valuable P by-product with minimal chemical addition and ammonia losses. The new wastewater process included two sequential steps: (i) biological nitrification and (ii) increasing the pH of the nitrified wastewater to precipitate P. We hypothesized that by reduction of inorganic buffers (NH(4)(+) and carbonate alkalinity) via nitrification, P could be selectively removed by subsequent hydrated lime [Ca(OH)(2)] addition. The objective of the study was to assess if this new treatment could consistently reduce inorganic buffer capacity with varied initial concentrations of N (100-723 mg NH(4)(+) L(-1)), P (26-85 mg TP L(-1)), and alkalinity (953-3063 mg CaCO(3) L(-1)), and then efficiently remove P from swine lagoon liquid. The process was tested with surface lagoon liquids from 10 typical swine farms in North Carolina. Each lagoon liquid received treatment in a nitrification bioreactor, followed by chemical treatment with Ca(OH)(2) at Ca rates of 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 mmol L(-1) to precipitate P. This configuration was compared with a control that received the same Ca rates but without the nitrification pretreatment. The new process significantly reduced >90% the inorganic buffers concentrations compared with the control and prevented ammonia losses. Subsequent lime addition resulted in efficient pH increase to > or = 9.5 for optimum P precipitation in the nitrified liquid and significant reduction of effluent total P concentration versus the control. With this new process, the total P concentration in treated liquid effluent can be adjusted for on-farm use with up to >90% of P removal. The recovered solid Ca phosphate material can be easily exported from the farm and reused as P fertilizer. Therefore, the new process can be used to reduce the P content in livestock effluents to levels that would diminish problems of

  5. 40 CFR 406.102 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... technology currently available. 406.102 Section 406.102 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Gluten Subcategory § 406.102 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of...

  6. Treatment of textile industry effluents using orange waste: a proposal to reduce color and chemical oxygen demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Farias Silva, Carlos Eduardo; da Silva Gonçalves, Andreza Heloiza; de Souza Abud, Ana Karla

    2016-01-01

    Various agricultural residues have been tested as biosorbents due to their low cost, high surface area, and favorable surface chemistry. In this work, a sweet orange albedo was tested as a biosorbent for treatment of real textile effluents. The orange albedo powder was prepared by drying the residue at 50 °C and milling to 30 mesh, and then used for dye adsorption from a alkaline (pH = 10.71) effluent. The adsorption process was studied in batch experiments at 30 °C by measuring color removal and chemical oxygen demand (COD). The color removal was found not to be significantly altered when the effluent was used in its raw state, while COD increased probably due to albedo degradation. For the effluent diluted to 60% (Veffluent VH2O(-1)), color and COD removal percentages of approximately 89% were obtained. It was found that pH played a very significant role on the adsorption process, as the treated albedo displayed a relative pHPZC* of 4.61, and the highest dye removal efficiencies were reached at pH lower than 2. The COD was strongly influenced by the effluent dilution. The effectiveness in eliminating color and COD shows that orange albedo can be potentially used as a biosorbent to treat textile wastewater. PMID:27533873

  7. Hydroponics reducing effluent's heavy metals discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rababah, Abdellah; Al-Shuha, Ahmad

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates the capacity of Nutrient Film Technique (NFT) to control effluent's heavy metals discharge. A commercial hydroponic system was adapted to irrigate lettuces with primary treated wastewater for studying the potential heavy metals removal. A second commercial hydroponic system was used to irrigate the same type of lettuces with nutrient solution and this system was used as a control. Results showed that lettuces grew well when irrigated with primary treated effluent in the commercial hydroponic system. The NFT-plant system heavy metals removal efficiency varied amongst the different elements, The system's removal efficiency for Cr was more than 92%, Ni more than 85%, in addition to more than 60% reduction of B, Pb, and Zn. Nonetheless, the NFT-plants system removal efficiencies for As, Cd and Cu were lower than 30%. Results show that lettuces accumulated heavy metals in leaves at concentrations higher than the maximum acceptable European and Australian levels. Therefore, non-edible plants such as flowers or pyrethrum are recommended as value added crops for the proposed NFT.

  8. Fungal protein from corn waste effluents : a model study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schellart, J.A.

    1975-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to study the microbiological aspects of the production of microbial protein ('single cell protein'; SCP) from corn waste effluents with simultaneous reduction of the COD of these effluents.For practical reasons the corn waste water itself was not used in the exp

  9. Integrated treatment of farm effluents in New Zealand's dairy operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolan, N S; Laurenson, S; Luo, J; Sukias, J

    2009-11-01

    Maintaining growth through intensification in the New Zealand dairy industry is a challenge for various reasons, in particular sustainably managing the large volumes of effluent. Dairy farm effluents have traditionally been treated using two-pond systems that are effective in the removal of carbon and suspended solids, however limited in their ability to remove nutrients. In the past these nutrient-rich two-pond treated effluents were disposed of in surface waters. Current environmental concerns associated with the direct discharge of these effluents to surface waters has prompted in developing technologies to either minimise the nutrient content of the effluent or apply effluents to land. Here, we discuss various approaches and methods of treatment that enable producers to sustainably manage farm effluents, including advanced pond treatment systems, stripping techniques to reduce nutrient concentration, land application strategies involving nutrient budgeting models to minimise environmental degradation and enhance fodder quality. We also discuss alternative uses of farm effluents to produce energy and animal feed.

  10. Facility effluent monitoring plan for 242-A evaporator facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A facility effluent monitoring plan is required by the U.S. Department of Energy in DOE Order 5400.1 for any operations that involve hazardous materials and radioactive substances that could affect employee or public safety or the environment. A facility effluent monitoring plan determination was performed during Calendar Year 1991 and the evaluation showed the need for a facility effluent monitoring plan. This document is prepared using the specific guidelines identified in A Guide for Preparing Hanford Site Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans, WHC-EP-0438-1. This facility effluent monitoring plan assesses effluent monitoring systems and evaluates whether they are adequate to ensure the public health and safety as specified in applicable federal, state, and local requirements. This facility effluent monitoring plan shall ensure long-range integrity of the effluent monitoring systems by requiring an update whenever a new process or operation introduces new hazardous materials or significant radioactive materials. This document must be reviewed annually even if there are no operational changes, and it must be updated, as a minimum, every three years

  11. Facility effluent monitoring plan for 242-A evaporator facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crummel, G.M.; Gustavson, R.D.

    1995-02-01

    A facility effluent monitoring plan is required by the U.S. Department of Energy in DOE Order 5400.1 for any operations that involve hazardous materials and radioactive substances that could affect employee or public safety or the environment. A facility effluent monitoring plan determination was performed during Calendar Year 1991 and the evaluation showed the need for a facility effluent monitoring plan. This document is prepared using the specific guidelines identified in A Guide for Preparing Hanford Site Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans, WHC-EP-0438-1. This facility effluent monitoring plan assesses effluent monitoring systems and evaluates whether they are adequate to ensure the public health and safety as specified in applicable federal, state, and local requirements. This facility effluent monitoring plan shall ensure long-range integrity of the effluent monitoring systems by requiring an update whenever a new process or operation introduces new hazardous materials or significant radioactive materials. This document must be reviewed annually even if there are no operational changes, and it must be updated, as a minimum, every three years.

  12. Facility effluent monitoring plan for the tank farms facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bachand, D.D.; Crummel, G.M.

    1995-05-01

    A facility effluent monitoring plan is required by the US Department of Energy for any operations that involve hazardous materials and radioactive substances that could impact employee or public safety or the environment. This document is prepared using specific guidelines. This facility effluent monitoring plan assesses effluent monitoring systems and evaluates whether they are adequate to ensure the public health and safety as specified in applicable federal, state, and local requirements. This facility effluent monitoring plan shall ensure long-range integrity of the effluent monitoring systems by requiring an update whenever a new process or operation introduces new hazardous materials or significant radioactive materials. This document must be reviewed annually even if there are no operational changes, and it must be updated as a minimum every three years.

  13. Facility effluent monitoring plan for the tank farms facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A facility effluent monitoring plan is required by the US Department of Energy for any operations that involve hazardous materials and radioactive substances that could impact employee or public safety or the environment. This document is prepared using specific guidelines. This facility effluent monitoring plan assesses effluent monitoring systems and evaluates whether they are adequate to ensure the public health and safety as specified in applicable federal, state, and local requirements. This facility effluent monitoring plan shall ensure long-range integrity of the effluent monitoring systems by requiring an update whenever a new process or operation introduces new hazardous materials or significant radioactive materials. This document must be reviewed annually even if there are no operational changes, and it must be updated as a minimum every three years

  14. Asymptomatic Effluent Protozoa Colonization in Peritoneal Dialysis Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simões-Silva, Liliana; Correia, Inês; Barbosa, Joana; Santos-Araujo, Carla; Sousa, Maria João; Pestana, Manuel; Soares-Silva, Isabel; Sampaio-Maia, Benedita

    Currently, chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a global health problem. Considering the impaired immunity of CKD patients, the relevance of infection in peritoneal dialysis (PD), and the increased prevalence of parasites in CKD patients, protozoa colonization was evaluated in PD effluent from CKD patients undergoing PD. Overnight PD effluent was obtained from 49 asymptomatic stable PD patients. Protozoa analysis was performed microscopically by searching cysts and trophozoites in direct wet mount of PD effluent and after staining smears. Protozoa were found in PD effluent of 10.2% of evaluated PD patients, namely Blastocystis hominis, in 2 patients, and Entamoeba sp., Giardia sp., and Endolimax nana in the other 3 patients, respectively. None of these patients presented clinical signs or symptoms of peritonitis at the time of protozoa screening. Our results demonstrate that PD effluent may be susceptible to asymptomatic protozoa colonization. The clinical impact of this finding should be further investigated. PMID:27659930

  15. Petroleum Refinery Effluents Treatment by Advanced Oxidation Process with Methanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petroleum refinery effluents are waste originating from industries primarily engaged in refining crude oil. It is a very complex compound of various oily wastes, water, heavy metals and so on. Conventional processes are unable to effectively remove the chemical oxygen demand (COD) of petroleum refinery effluents. Supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) was proposed to treat petroleum refinery effluents. In this paper, methanol was used to investigate co-oxidative effect of methanol on petroleum refinery effluents treatment. The results indicated that supercritical water oxidation is an effective process for petroleum refinery effluents treatment. Adding methanol caused an increase in COD removal. When reaction temperature is 440 .deg. C, residence time is 20 min, OE is 0.5 and initial COD is 40000 mg/L, and COD removal increases 8.5%

  16. Petroleum Refinery Effluents Treatment by Advanced Oxidation Process with Methanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shoucheng, Wen [Yangtze Univ., HuBei Jingzhou (China)

    2014-02-15

    Petroleum refinery effluents are waste originating from industries primarily engaged in refining crude oil. It is a very complex compound of various oily wastes, water, heavy metals and so on. Conventional processes are unable to effectively remove the chemical oxygen demand (COD) of petroleum refinery effluents. Supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) was proposed to treat petroleum refinery effluents. In this paper, methanol was used to investigate co-oxidative effect of methanol on petroleum refinery effluents treatment. The results indicated that supercritical water oxidation is an effective process for petroleum refinery effluents treatment. Adding methanol caused an increase in COD removal. When reaction temperature is 440 .deg. C, residence time is 20 min, OE is 0.5 and initial COD is 40000 mg/L, and COD removal increases 8.5%.

  17. Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan for the Plutonium Finishing Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A facility effluent monitoring plan is required by the U. S. Department of Energy in DOE Order 5400.1 for any operations that involve hazardous materials and radioactive substances that could impact employee or public safety or the environment. This facility effluent monitoring plan assesses effluent monitoring systems and evaluates whether these systems are adequate to ensure the public health and safety as specified in applicable federal, state, and local requirements. To ensure the long-range integrity of the effluent monitoring systems, an update to this facility effluent monitoring plan is required whenever a new process or operation introduces new hazardous materials or significant radioactive materials. This document is reviewed annually even if there are no operational changes, and is updated, at a minimum, every 3 years

  18. Kinetic Modeling of Dye Effluent Biodegradation by Pseudomonas Stutzeri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Rajamohan

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Dye industry waste water is difficult to treat because of the presence of dyes with complex aromatic structure. In this research study, the biodegradation studies of dye effluent were performed utilizing Pseudomonas stutzeri in a controlled laboratory environment under anoxic conditions. The effects of operational parameters like initial pH of the effluent and initial Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD of the effluent on percentage COD removal were studied. A biokinetic model is established giving the dependence of percentage COD removal on biomass concentration and initial COD of the effluent. The biokinetics of the COD removal was found to be first order with respect to both the microbial concentration and initial COD of the effluent. The optimal pH for better bacterial degradation was found to be 8.The specific degradation rate was found to be 0.1417 l/g Dry Cell Mass (DCM h, at 320 C.

  19. Asymptomatic Effluent Protozoa Colonization in Peritoneal Dialysis Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simões-Silva, Liliana; Correia, Inês; Barbosa, Joana; Santos-Araujo, Carla; Sousa, Maria João; Pestana, Manuel; Soares-Silva, Isabel; Sampaio-Maia, Benedita

    Currently, chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a global health problem. Considering the impaired immunity of CKD patients, the relevance of infection in peritoneal dialysis (PD), and the increased prevalence of parasites in CKD patients, protozoa colonization was evaluated in PD effluent from CKD patients undergoing PD. Overnight PD effluent was obtained from 49 asymptomatic stable PD patients. Protozoa analysis was performed microscopically by searching cysts and trophozoites in direct wet mount of PD effluent and after staining smears. Protozoa were found in PD effluent of 10.2% of evaluated PD patients, namely Blastocystis hominis, in 2 patients, and Entamoeba sp., Giardia sp., and Endolimax nana in the other 3 patients, respectively. None of these patients presented clinical signs or symptoms of peritonitis at the time of protozoa screening. Our results demonstrate that PD effluent may be susceptible to asymptomatic protozoa colonization. The clinical impact of this finding should be further investigated.

  20. Impact of pond aquaculture effluents on seagrass performance in NE Hainan, tropical China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbeck, Lucia S; Sollich, Miriam; Unger, Daniela; Holmer, Marianne; Jennerjahn, Tim C

    2014-08-15

    The impact of pond aquaculture effluents on the distribution and performance of seagrasses was examined in NE Hainan, tropical China. Samples were taken along transects in three back-reef areas with different extent of aquaculture production in their hinterland. High δ(15)N in seagrass leaves and epiphytes (6-9‰) similar to values in pond effluents documented aquaculture as dominant nitrogen source in the back-reefs with decreasing impact with distance from shore. Seagrass species abundance, shoot density and biomass were lower and concentrations of nutrients, chlorophyll and suspended matter were higher at nearshore sites with high and moderate pond abundance than at the control site. High epiphyte loads and low δ(34)S in seagrass leaves suggest temporal shading and sulphide poisoning of the nearshore seagrasses. Observed gradients in environmental parameters and seagrass performance indicate that the distance from the pond outlets and size of the adjacent pond agglomeration are major determinants of seagrass degradation.

  1. A study on sludge minimization during the treatment of pickling effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhal, Anupam; Tewari, V K; Prakash, Satya

    2006-04-01

    In pickling industries, a lot of sludge is generated during the treatment of pickling effluent and there is severe problem of its disposal. Disposal of this sludge as per the Hazardous Waste (Management & Handling) Rules, 1989 is not easy. Its transportation and construction of lined disposal sites pose very severe problems. In the normal practice, the sludge is being disposed of at the sides of roads and railway tracks to fill low lying areas. This may cause serious health hazards. Considering these problems, a study has been undertaken to minimize the sludge generation during the treatment of pickling effluent by neutralizing it with lime, sodium hydroxide and combination of both. An attempt has been made to do an economic evaluation of the above process. PMID:17913186

  2. Effects of sewage effluents on water quality in tropical streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa-Nieves, Débora; McDowell, William H; Potter, Jody D; Martínez, Gustavo; Ortiz-Zayas, Jorge R

    2014-11-01

    Increased urbanization in many tropical regions has led to an increase in centralized treatment of sewage effluents. Research regarding the effects of these wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) on the ecology of tropical streams is sparse, so we examined the effects of WWTPs on stream water quality on the Caribbean island of Puerto Rico. Nutrient concentrations, discharge, dissolved oxygen (DO), biochemical oxygen demand (CBOD), and specific UV absorbance (SUVA) at 254 nm were measured upstream from the WWTP effluent, at the WWTP effluent, and below the WWTP effluent. All parameters measured (except DO) were significantly affected by discharge of WWTP effluent to the stream. The values of SUVA at 254 nm were typically lower (<2.5 m mg L) in WWTP effluents than those measured upstream of the WWTP, suggesting that WWTP effluents are contributing labile carbon fractions to receiving streams, thus changing the chemical composition of dissolved organic carbon in downstream reaches. Effluents from WWTP contributed on average 24% to the stream flow at our tropical streams. More than 40% of the nutrient loads in receiving streams came from WWTP effluents, with the effects on NO-N and PO-P loads being the greatest. The effect of WWTPs on nutrient loads was significantly larger than the effect of flow due to the elevated nutrient concentrations in treated effluents. Our results demonstrate that inputs from WWTPs to streams contribute substantially to changes in water quality, potentially affecting downstream ecosystems. Our findings highlight the need to establish nutrient criteria for tropical streams to minimize degradation of downstream water quality of the receiving streams. PMID:25602222

  3. 40 CFR 435.44 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... drilling fluids, drill cuttings, and dewatering effluent Free Oil No discharge. 2 Non-aqueous drilling... Free Oil No discharge. 2 Well Treatment, Workover and Completion Fluids Free Oil No discharge. 2... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS OIL AND GAS EXTRACTION POINT SOURCE CATEGORY...

  4. 40 CFR 420.122 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hot Coating... application of the best practicable control technology currently available (BPT). Except as provided in 40 CFR... degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best practicable control...

  5. 40 CFR 420.93 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Acid Pickling... application of the best available technology economically achievable (BAT). Except as provided in 40 CFR 125... degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best available technology...

  6. 40 CFR 420.23 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sintering... representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best available technology... by the application of the best available technology economically achievable (BAT). Except as...

  7. 40 CFR 420.113 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Alkaline... degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best available technology economically... attainable by the application of the best available technology economically achievable (BAT). The Agency...

  8. 40 CFR 420.63 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Continuous Casting... application of the best available technology economically achievable (BAT). Except as provided in 40 CFR 125... degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best available technology...

  9. 40 CFR 420.102 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Cold Forming... application of the best practicable control technology currently available (BPT). Except as provided in 40 CFR... degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best practicable control...

  10. 40 CFR 420.123 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hot Coating... application of the best available technology economically achievable (BAT). Except as provided in 40 CFR 125... degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best available technology...

  11. 40 CFR 420.72 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hot Forming... application of the best practicable control technology currently available (BPT). Except as provided in 40 CFR... degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best practicable control...

  12. 40 CFR 420.42 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Steelmaking... application of the best practicable control technology currently available (BPT). Except as provided in 40 CFR... degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best practicable control...

  13. 40 CFR 420.13 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Cokemaking... representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best available technology... by the application of the best available technology economically achievable (BAT). Except as...

  14. 40 CFR 420.82 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Salt Bath... degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology... by the application of the best practicable control technology currently available (BPT). Except...

  15. 40 CFR 420.112 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Alkaline... degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology... attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology currently available (BPT). Except...

  16. 40 CFR 420.83 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Salt Bath Descaling... application of the best available technology economically achievable (BAT). Except as provided in 40 CFR 125... degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best available technology...

  17. 40 CFR 420.103 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Cold Forming... application of the best available technology economically achievable (BAT). Except as provided in 40 CFR 125... degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best available technology...

  18. 40 CFR 420.43 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Steelmaking... application of the best available technology economically achievable (BAT). Except as provided in 40 CFR 125... degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best available technology...

  19. 40 CFR 420.53 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Vacuum Degassing... application of the best available technology economically achievable (BAT). Except as provided in 40 CFR 125... degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best available technology...

  20. 40 CFR 417.63 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Soap Flakes and Powders Subcategory § 417.63 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the... 0.02 .01 Oil and grease 0.02 .01 pH (1) (1) English units (pounds per 1,000 lb of anhydrous...

  1. 40 CFR 417.62 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Soap Flakes and Powders Subcategory § 417.62 Effluent limitations guidelines...) BOD5 0.03 0.01 COD 0.15 .05 TSS 0.03 .01 Oil and grease 0.03 .01 pH (1) (1) English units (pounds per...

  2. 40 CFR 417.12 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Soap Manufacturing by Batch Kettle Subcategory § 417.12 Effluent limitations guidelines...) BOD5 1.80 0.60 COD 4.50 1.50 TSS 1.20 .40 Oil and grease 0.30 .10 pH (1) (1) English units (pounds...

  3. 40 CFR 417.32 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Soap Manufacturing by Fatty Acid Neutralization Subcategory § 417.32 Effluent limitations... anhydrous product) BOD5 0.03 0.01 COD 0.15 .05 TSS 0.06 .02 Oil and grease 0.03 .01 pH (1) (1) English...

  4. 40 CFR 428.63 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effluent limitations guidelines... economically achievable. 428.63 Section 428.63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS RUBBER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Medium-Sized...

  5. 40 CFR 428.62 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effluent limitations guidelines... technology currently available. 428.62 Section 428.62 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS RUBBER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY...

  6. 40 CFR 421.83 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart shall achieve the... zinc processed through leaching Cadmium .000 .000 Copper .000 .000 Lead .000 .000 Zinc .000 .000 (d... Zinc Subcategory § 421.83 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  7. 40 CFR 406.67 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... control technology (BCT). 406.67 Section 406.67 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Subcategory § 406.67 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable... specified for conventional pollutants (which are defined in § 401.16) in § 406.62 of this subpart for...

  8. 40 CFR 406.57 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... control technology (BCT). 406.57 Section 406.57 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Subcategory § 406.57 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable... specified for conventional pollutants (which are defined in § 401.16) in § 406.52 of this subpart for...

  9. 40 CFR 406.17 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... control technology. 406.17 Section 406.17 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... § 406.17 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the... TSS 36 12 Effective Date Note: Section 406.17 was indefinitely suspended at 45 FR 45582, July 7, 1980....

  10. 40 CFR 406.37 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... control technology (BCT). 406.37 Section 406.37 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Subcategory § 406.37 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable... specified for conventional pollutants (which are defined in § 401.16) in § 406.32 of this subpart for...

  11. 40 CFR 406.27 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... control technology (BCT). 406.27 Section 406.27 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... § 406.27 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the... conventional pollutants (which are defined in § 401.16) in § 406.22 of this subpart for the best...

  12. 40 CFR 406.97 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... control technology (BCT). 406.97 Section 406.97 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Subcategory § 406.97 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable... specified for conventional pollutants (which are defined in § 401.16) in § 406.92 of this subpart for...

  13. 40 CFR 406.47 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... control technology (BCT). 406.47 Section 406.47 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Subcategory § 406.47 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable... specified for conventional pollutants (which are defined in § 401.16) in § 406.42 of this subpart for...

  14. 40 CFR 406.107 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... control technology (BCT). 406.107 Section 406.107 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Gluten Subcategory § 406.107 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent... those specified for conventional pollutants (which are defined in § 401.16) in § 406.102 of this...

  15. 40 CFR 422.57 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Phosphoric Acid Subcategory § 422.57 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent... discharge of process waste water pollutants to navigable waters. (b) Process waste water pollutants from a... to the runoff from the 25-year, 24-hour rainfall event may be discharged, after treatment to...

  16. 40 CFR 422.53 - Effluent limitations and guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Phosphoric Acid Subcategory § 422.53 Effluent limitations and guidelines representing the degree of effluent... discharge of process wastewater pollutants to navigable waters. (b) Process waste water pollutants from a... to the runoff from the 25-year, 24-hour rainfall event may be discharged, after treatment to...

  17. 40 CFR 436.72 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effluent limitations guidelines... technology currently available. 436.72 Section 436.72 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS MINERAL MINING AND PROCESSING POINT SOURCE...

  18. 40 CFR 436.192 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effluent limitations guidelines... technology currently available. 436.192 Section 436.192 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS MINERAL MINING AND PROCESSING POINT SOURCE...

  19. 40 CFR 436.382 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effluent limitations guidelines... technology currently available. 436.382 Section 436.382 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS MINERAL MINING AND PROCESSING POINT SOURCE...

  20. 40 CFR 436.182 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effluent limitations guidelines... technology currently available. 436.182 Section 436.182 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS MINERAL MINING AND PROCESSING POINT SOURCE...

  1. 40 CFR 436.102 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effluent limitations guidelines... technology currently available. 436.102 Section 436.102 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS MINERAL MINING AND PROCESSING POINT SOURCE...

  2. 40 CFR 436.132 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effluent limitations guidelines... technology currently available. 436.132 Section 436.132 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS MINERAL MINING AND PROCESSING POINT SOURCE...

  3. 40 CFR 436.122 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effluent limitations guidelines... technology currently available. 436.122 Section 436.122 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS MINERAL MINING AND PROCESSING POINT SOURCE...

  4. 40 CFR 436.242 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effluent limitations guidelines... technology currently available. 436.242 Section 436.242 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS MINERAL MINING AND PROCESSING POINT SOURCE...

  5. 40 CFR 436.42 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effluent limitations guidelines... technology currently available. 436.42 Section 436.42 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS MINERAL MINING AND PROCESSING POINT SOURCE...

  6. 40 CFR 436.22 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effluent limitations guidelines... technology currently available. 436.22 Section 436.22 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS MINERAL MINING AND PROCESSING POINT SOURCE...

  7. 40 CFR 436.142 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effluent limitations guidelines... technology currently available. 436.142 Section 436.142 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS MINERAL MINING AND PROCESSING POINT SOURCE...

  8. 40 CFR 436.62 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effluent limitations guidelines... technology currently available. 436.62 Section 436.62 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS MINERAL MINING AND PROCESSING POINT SOURCE...

  9. 40 CFR 440.15 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effluent limitations representing the... technology (BCT). 440.15 Section 440.15 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Iron Ore Subcategory §...

  10. 40 CFR 436.252 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effluent limitations guidelines... technology currently available. 436.252 Section 436.252 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS MINERAL MINING AND PROCESSING POINT SOURCE...

  11. 40 CFR 436.322 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effluent limitations guidelines... technology currently available. 436.322 Section 436.322 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS MINERAL MINING AND PROCESSING POINT SOURCE...

  12. 40 CFR 436.32 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effluent limitations guidelines... technology currently available. 436.32 Section 436.32 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS MINERAL MINING AND PROCESSING POINT SOURCE...

  13. 40 CFR 436.112 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effluent limitations guidelines... technology currently available. 436.112 Section 436.112 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS MINERAL MINING AND PROCESSING POINT SOURCE...

  14. 40 CFR 436.152 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effluent limitations guidelines... technology currently available. 436.152 Section 436.152 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS MINERAL MINING AND PROCESSING POINT SOURCE...

  15. 40 CFR 436.262 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effluent limitations guidelines... technology currently available. 436.262 Section 436.262 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS MINERAL MINING AND PROCESSING POINT SOURCE...

  16. 40 CFR 436.52 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effluent limitations guidelines... technology currently available. 436.52 Section 436.52 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS MINERAL MINING AND PROCESSING POINT SOURCE...

  17. 40 CFR 436.222 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effluent limitations guidelines... technology currently available. 436.222 Section 436.222 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS MINERAL MINING AND PROCESSING POINT SOURCE...

  18. 40 CFR 436.232 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effluent limitations guidelines... technology currently available. 436.232 Section 436.232 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS MINERAL MINING AND PROCESSING POINT SOURCE...

  19. 40 CFR 434.54 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effluent limitations guidelines... control technology (BCT). 434.54 Section 434.54 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS COAL MINING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY BPT, BAT, BCT LIMITATIONS...

  20. 40 CFR 434.52 - Effluent limitations quidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effluent limitations quidelines... technology currently available (BPT). 434.52 Section 434.52 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS COAL MINING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY BPT,...

  1. 40 CFR 418.77 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... control technology. 418.77 Section 418.77 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERTILIZER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Mixed and Blend Fertilizer Production Subcategory § 418.77 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree...

  2. 40 CFR 408.232 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology currently available. 408.232 Section 408.232 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...

  3. 40 CFR 408.247 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... control technology (BCT). 408.247 Section 408.247 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Effluent limitations guidelines... degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant...

  4. 40 CFR 408.242 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology currently available. 408.242 Section 408.242 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...

  5. 40 CFR 415.33 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Calcium Carbide Production Subcategory § 415.33 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of... (BAT). Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to...

  6. Present and future mine effluents management at Zirovski Vrh uranium mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zirovski Vrh uranium mine and its facilities are situated on the northeastern slopes of the Zirovski Vrh ridge (960 m) and on the southern slopes of Crna gora (611 m) respectively. Mine elevation is from 430 m (bottom of the valley) to 580 m (P-1 adit). All effluents from the mine and mill objects flow into the Brebovscica river (with average yearly flow of 0.74 m3/s): run off mine water; mine waste pile Jazbec outflow; mill tailings Borst outflows; effluents from mine temporary mine waste piles P-1, P-9, P-36 are of minor significance. The first three effluents and the recipient surface water flows (the Todrascica brook and the Brebovscica river) are monitored extensively. The impact of radioactive polluted outflows on named waters is proved, but far under the maximal permitted limit values. The authorised maximal limits values for mine effluents were obtained in 1996. Detail design will ensure that this values will not be exceeded in the future. The long term planes are to minimise the uranium concentrations in the run off mine water by target underground drilling. The mine waste pile and the mill tailings will be covered by engineered cover system to avoid clean water contamination by weathering and ablution as well. The existing effluents from the mill tailings will diminish after the remediation and consolidation of the tailing. The Government of Slovenia funds the remediation of the uranium production site Zirovski Vrh. Estimated needed funds for remediation of the main objects are shown in the table below. The total investment includes also the costs for effluents control. Area Mio US$ Underground mine remediation 19.00 Mine waste pile remediation 6.50 Mill tailings remediation 2.24 Total investment costs 27.74 Above figures do not include operation costs of the Zirovski Vrh Mine, approximately US$ 2.2 Mio per year nowadays. The last implementation schedule foresights the end of remediation works in year 2005. After that starts trial monitoring of 5 years to

  7. REUSE OF DECOLORIZED DYEING EFFLUENTS IN REPEATED DYEINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ÖNER Erhan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this experimental work, the effluents of the reactive and disperse dyeings were reused in the next dyeing after the decolourization by ozone gas. Accordingly, the polyester woven samples were dyed with C.I. Disperse Yellow 160, C.I. Disperse Red 77 and C.I. Disperse Blue 79:1, and the cotton woven samples were dyed with C.I. Reactive Yellow 176, C.I. Reactive Red 239 and C.I. Reactive Blue 221. The effluents of the dyeings with these dyes and also with their mixtures were decolorized by ozone gas. The colours of the samples dyed with the decolorized effluents were compared with the original dyeings (standards and the colour differences were calculated. Under the experimental conditions of this investigation, the many of the dyeing effluents were decolorized successfully, except the effluent of C.I. Disperse Red 77. In the case that this red disperse dye present in the dyebath, the decolorized effluent had a slight reddish colour. The colour differences between the original dyeing (standard and the samples dyed with the decolorized effluent are mostly below the tolerance (DE<1 or slightly above the tolerance. The solid colours and uniform dyeings were achieved in the dyeings. The method seems promising in decreasing the amount of water used in textile dyeings.

  8. Bioremediation of the textile waste effluent by Chlorella vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hala Yassin El-Kassas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The microalgae biomass production from textile waste effluent is a possible solution for the environmental impact generated by the effluent discharge into water sources. The potential application of Chlorella vulgaris for bioremediation of textile waste effluent (WE was investigated using 22 Central Composite Design (CCD. This work addresses the adaptation of the microalgae C. vulgaris in textile waste effluent (WE and the study of the best dilution of the WE for maximum biomass production and for the removal of colour and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD by this microalga. The cultivation of C. vulgaris, presented maximum cellular concentrations Cmax and maximum specific growth rates μmax in the wastewater concentration of 5.0% and 17.5%, respectively. The highest colour and COD removals occurred with 17.5% of textile waste effluent. The results of C. vulgaris culture in the textile waste effluent demonstrated the possibility of using this microalga for the colour and COD removal and for biomass production. There was a significant negative relationship between textile waste effluent concentration and Cmax at 0.05 level of significance. However, sodium bicarbonate concentration did not significantly influence the responses of Cmax and the removal of colour and COD.

  9. Guide for effluent radiological measurements at DOE installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effluent monitoring and reporting programs are maintained at all US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities that may: (1) discharge significant concentrations of radioactivity in relation to applicable standards, or (2) discharge quantities of radioactivity that have potential health and safety or other environmental significance. This Guide is intended to provide supplemental guidance to DOE Orders on methods, procedures, and performance criteria to bring more comparable rationale to DOE facility effluent measurement programs and promote compliance with applicable standards and provide the DOE Office of Operational Safety (OOS) and Operations Offices with an additional tool for evaluating effluent measurement programs at DOE facilities

  10. In situ electrocatalytic oxidation of acid violet 12 dye effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, N; Balasubramanian, N

    2006-08-21

    Electrochemical treatment of organic pollutants is a promising treatment technique for substances which are recalcitrant to biodegradation. Experiments were carried out to treat acid violet 12 dye house effluent using electrochemical technique for removal color and COD reduction covering wide range in operating conditions. Ruthenium/lead/tin oxide coated titanium and stainless steel were used as anode and cathode, respectively. The influence of effluent initial concentration, pH, supporting electrolyte and the electrode material on rate of degradation has been critically examined. The results indicate that the electrochemical method can be used to treat dye house effluents. PMID:16730894

  11. Technical potential of microalgal bacterial floc raceway ponds treating food-industry effluents while producing microalgal bacterial biomass: An outdoor pilot-scale study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Den Hende, Sofie; Beelen, Veerle; Julien, Lucie; Lefoulon, Alexandra; Vanhoucke, Thomas; Coolsaet, Carlos; Sonnenholzner, Stanislaus; Vervaeren, Han; Rousseau, Diederik P L

    2016-10-01

    To replace costly mechanical aeration by photosynthetical aeration, upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) effluent of food-industry was treated in an outdoor MaB-floc raceway pond. Photosynthetic aeration was sufficient for nitrification, but the raceway effluent quality was below current discharge limits, despite the high hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 35days. Hereafter, conventional activated sludge (CAS) effluent of food-industry was treated in this pond to recover phosphorus. The two-day HRT results in a more realistic pond area, but the phosphorus removal efficiency was low (20%). High biomass productivities were obtained, i.e. 31.3 and 24.9ton total suspended solids hapond(-1)year(-1) for UASB and CAS effluent, respectively. Bioflocculation enabled successful harvesting of CAS effluent-fed MaB-flocs by settling and filtering at 150-250μm to 22.7% total solids. To conclude, MaB-floc raceway ponds cannot be recommended as the sole treatment for these food-industry effluents, but huge potential lies in added-value biomass production. PMID:27450127

  12. Treatment efficiency of effluent prawn culture by wetland with floating aquatic macrophytes arranged in series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henares, M N P; Camargo, A F M

    2014-11-01

    The efficiency of a series of wetland colonized with Eichhornia crassipes and Salvinia molesta to treat the effluent of a giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) broodstock pond was evaluated in this study. The experimental design was completely randomized and was performed in 9 rectangular tanks (1.6 m3) with three treatments (constructed wetlands) and three replicates. The treatment types included: a wetland colonized with E. crassipes and S. molesta (EcSm) arranged sequentially, a wetland with E. crassipes only (Ec) and a wetland with S. molesta only (Sm). The means of suspended particulate material (SPM), total inorganic nitrogen (TIN), total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN), P-orthophosphate (PO4-P) and total phosphorus (TP) of the treated effluents were compared using ANOVA followed by Tukey's test (Pwetlands exhibited lower SPM concentrations. The Ec wetland reduced TIN, TKN, PO4-P and TP by 46.0, 43.7, 44.4 and 43.6%, respectively. In the EcSm wetland, the reduction of TIN (23.0%), TKN (33.7%) and PO4-P (26.7%) was similar to the Sm wetland (19.8% TIN, 30.9% TKN and 23.8% PO4-P). The Ec wetland was more efficient in treating pond effluent due likely to the higher root surface of E. crassipes, which forms an extensive area favorable to retention and adsorption of debris and absorption of nutrients. PMID:25627602

  13. Photocatalytic degradation of dye effluent by titanium dioxide pillar pellets in aqueous solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yun-cang; ZOU Lin-da; Eric Hu

    2004-01-01

    Photocatalytic oxidation(PCO) process is an effective way to deal with organic pollutants in wastewater which could be difficult to be degraded by conventional biological treatment methods. Normally the TiO2 powder in nanometre size range was directly used as photocatalyst for dye degradation in wastewater. However the titanium dioxide powder was arduous to be recovered from the solution after treatment. In this application, a new form of TiO2(i. e. pillar pellets ranging from 2.5 to 5.3 mm long and with a diameter of 3.7 mm) was used and investigated for photocatalytic degradation of textile dye effluent. A test system was built with a flat plate reactor(FPR) and UV light source(blacklight and solar simulator as light source respectively) for investigating the effectiveness of the new form of TiO2. It was found that the photocatalytic process under this configuration could efficiently remove colours from textile dyeing effluent. Comparing with the TiO2 powder, the pellet was very easy to recovered from the treated solution and can be reused in multiple times without the significant change on the photocatalytic property. The results also showed that to achieve the same photocatalytic performance, the FPR area by pellets was about 91% smaller than required by TiO2 powder. At least TiO2 pellet could be used as an alternative form of photocatalyst in applications for textile effluent treatment process, also other wastewater treatment processes.

  14. Project C-018H, 242-A Evaporator/PUREX Plant Process Condensate Treatment Facility, functional design criteria. Revision 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document provides the Functional Design Criteria (FDC) for Project C-018H, the 242-A Evaporator and Plutonium-Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Plant Condensate Treatment Facility (Also referred to as the 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility [ETF]). The project will provide the facilities to treat and dispose of the 242-A Evaporator process condensate (PC), the Plutonium-Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Plant process condensate (PDD), and the PUREX Plant ammonia scrubber distillate (ASD)

  15. Heavy oil processing impacts refinery and effluent treatment operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thornthwaite, P. [Nalco Champion, Northwich, Cheshire (United Kingdom)

    2013-11-01

    Heavy oils are becoming more common in Europe. The processing of heavier (opportunity or challenge) crudes, although financially attractive, introduce additional challenges to the refiner. These challenges are similar whether they come from imported crudes or in the future possibly from shale oils (tight oils). Without a strategy for understanding and mitigating the processing issues associated with these crudes, the profit potential may be eroded by decreased equipment reliability and run length. This paper focuses on the impacts at the desalter and how to manage them effectively while reducing the risks to downstream processes. Desalters have to deal with an increased viscosity, density (lower API gravity), higher solids loading, potential conductivity issues, and asphaltene stability concerns. All these factors can lead to operational problems impacting downstream of the desalter, both on the process and the water side. The other area of focus is the effluent from the desalter which can significantly impact waste water operations. This can take the form of increased oil under-carry, solids and other contaminants originating from the crudes. Nalco Champion has experience in working with these challenging crudes, not only, Azeri, Urals and African crudes, but also the Canadian oil sands, US Shale oil, heavy South American crudes and crudes containing metal naphthenates. Best practices will be shared and an outlook on the effects of Shale oil will be given. (orig.)

  16. Performance evaluation of effluent treatment plant for automobile industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ansari, Farid [Department of Applied Science and Humanities, PDM College of Engineering, Bahadurgarh (Haryana) (India); Pandey, Yashwant K. [School of Energy and Environmental Studies, Devi Ahilya Vishwavidyalaya, Indore (India); Kumar, P.; Pandey, Priyanka [Department of Environmental Science, Post Graduate College Ghazipur (IN

    2013-07-01

    The automobile industry’s wastewater not only contains high levels of suspended and total solids such as oil, grease, dyestuff, chromium, phosphate in washing products, and coloring, at various stages of manufacturing but also, a significant amount of dissolved organics, resulting in high BOD or COD loads. The study reveals the performance, evaluation and operational aspects of effluent treatment plant and its treatability, rather than the contamination status of the real property. The Results revealed that the treated effluent shows most of the parameters are within permissible limits of Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB), India and based on the site visits, discussion with operation peoples, evaluation of process design, treatment system, existing effluent discharge, results of sample analyzed and found that effluent treatment plant of automobile industry are under performance satisfactory.

  17. Heterotrophic denitrification of aquaculture effluent using fluidized sand biofilters

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ability to consistently and cost-effectively reduce nitrate-nitrogen loads in effluent from recirculating aquaculture systems would enhance the industry's environmental stewardship and allow improved facility proximity to large markets in sensitive watersheds. Heterotrophic denitrification techn...

  18. Manatee use of power plant effluents in Brevard County, Florida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shane, S.H.

    The relationship between manatees and power plants was investigated at 2 power plants on the Indian River in Brevard County, Florida from January 1978-February 1980. Manatee presence in the power plant effluent zones was correlated with cold air and water temperatures. When air temperatures were below 16 C most manatees in the country were found in the effluent zones. Manatees in the effluent zones move with the wind-blown warm water plume, demonstrating a sensitivity to small changes in water temperature. Some individuals were frequently resighted at 1 plant, while others moved between the 2 plants. Because industrial warm water sources are less reliable than natural warm water refuges, it is recommended that no new artificial warm water effluents be constructed north of the species' traditional winter range. 16 references, 3 figures, 1 table.

  19. Concepts, tools, and strategies for effluent testing: An international survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whole effluent testing (also called Direct Toxicity Assessment) remains a critical long-term assessment tool for aquatic environmental protection. Use of animal alternative approaches for wastewater testing is expected to increase as more regulatory authorities routinely require ...

  20. Assessment of wastewater treatment plant effluent effects on fish reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents are known contributors of chemical mixtures into the environment. Of particular concern are endocrine-disrupting compounds that can affect hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis function in exposed organisms. The present study examined t...

  1. Strategies for chromium bioremediation of tannery effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Satyendra Kumar; Tripathi, Manikant; Srinath, Thiruneelakantan

    2012-01-01

    Bioremediation offers the possibility of using living organisms (bacteria, fungi, algae,or plants), but primarily microorganisms, to degrade or remove environmental contaminants, and transform them into nontoxic or less-toxic forms. The major advantages of bioremediation over conventional physicochemical and biological treatment methods include low cost, good efficiency, minimization of chemicals, reduced quantity of secondary sludge, regeneration of cell biomass, and the possibility of recover-ing pollutant metals. Leather industries, which extensively employ chromium compounds in the tanning process, discharge spent-chromium-laden effluent into nearby water bodies. Worldwide, chromium is known to be one of the most common inorganic contaminants of groundwater at pollutant hazardous sites. Hexavalent chromium poses a health risk to all forms of life. Bioremediation of chromium extant in tannery waste involves different strategies that include biosorption, bioaccumulation,bioreduction, and immobilization of biomaterial(s). Biosorption is a nondirected physiochemical interaction that occurs between metal species and the cellular components of biological species. It is metabolism-dependent when living biomass is employed, and metabolism-independent in dead cell biomass. Dead cell biomass is much more effective than living cell biomass at biosorping heavy metals, including chromium. Bioaccumulation is a metabolically active process in living organisms that works through adsorption, intracellular accumulation, and bioprecipitation mechanisms. In bioreduction processes, microorganisms alter the oxidation/reduction state of toxic metals through direct or indirect biological and chemical process(es).Bioreduction of Cr6+ to Cr3+ not only decreases the chromium toxicity to living organisms, but also helps precipitate chromium at a neutral pH for further physical removal,thus offering promise as a bioremediation strategy. However, biosorption, bioaccumulation, and

  2. Thief carbon catalyst for oxidation of mercury in effluent stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granite, Evan J.; Pennline, Henry W.

    2011-12-06

    A catalyst for the oxidation of heavy metal contaminants, especially mercury (Hg), in an effluent stream is presented. The catalyst facilitates removal of mercury through the oxidation of elemental Hg into mercury (II) moieties. The active component of the catalyst is partially combusted coal, or "Thief" carbon, which can be pre-treated with a halogen. An untreated Thief carbon catalyst can be self-promoting in the presence of an effluent gas streams entrained with a halogen.

  3. Infectious Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts in final reclaimed effluent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gennaccaro, A.L.; McLaughlin, M.R.; Quintero-Betancourt, W.; Huffman, D.E.; Rose, J.B.

    2003-01-01

    Water samples collected throughout several reclamation facilities were analyzed for the presence of infectious Cryptosporidium parvum by the focus detection method-most-probable-number cell culture technique. Results revealed the presence of infectious C. parvum oocysts in 40% of the final disinfected effluent samples. Sampled effluent contained on average seven infectious oocysts per 100 liters. Thus, reclaimed water is not pathogen free but contains infectious C. parvum.

  4. Two stage treatment of dairy effluent using immobilized Chlorella pyrenoidosa

    OpenAIRE

    Yadavalli, Rajasri; Heggers, Goutham Rao Venkata Naga

    2013-01-01

    Background Dairy effluents contains high organic load and unscrupulous discharge of these effluents into aquatic bodies is a matter of serious concern besides deteriorating their water quality. Whilst physico-chemical treatment is the common mode of treatment, immobilized microalgae can be potentially employed to treat high organic content which offer numerous benefits along with waste water treatment. Methods A novel low cost two stage treatment was employed for the complete treatment of dai...

  5. Electrochemical treatment of textile dyes and dyehouse effluents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatzisymeon, Efthalia [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Crete, Polytechneioupolis, GR-73100 Chania (Greece); Xekoukoulotakis, Nikolaos P. [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Crete, Polytechneioupolis, GR-73100 Chania (Greece); Coz, Alberto [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Crete, Polytechneioupolis, GR-73100 Chania (Greece); Kalogerakis, Nicolas [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Crete, Polytechneioupolis, GR-73100 Chania (Greece); Mantzavinos, Dionissios [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Crete, Polytechneioupolis, GR-73100 Chania (Greece)]. E-mail: mantzavi@mred.tuc.gr

    2006-09-21

    The electrochemical oxidation of textile effluents over a titanium-tantalum-platinum-iridium anode was investigated. Batch experiments were conducted in a flow-through electrolytic cell with internal recirculation at current intensities of 5, 10, 14 and 20 A, NaCl concentrations of 0.5, 1, 2 and 4% and recirculation rates of 0.81 and 0.65 L/s using a highly colored, synthetic effluent containing 16 textile dyes at a total concentration of 361 mg/L and chemical oxygen demand (COD) of 281 mg/L. Moreover, an actual dyehouse effluent containing residual dyes as well as various inorganic and organic compounds with a COD of 404 mg/L was tested. In most cases, quantitative effluent decolorization was achieved after 10-15 min of treatment and this required low energy consumption; conversely, the extent of mineralization varied between 30 and 90% after 180 min depending on the operating conditions and the type of effluent. In general, treatment performance improved with increasing current intensity and salinity and decreasing solution pH. However, the use of electrolytes not containing chloride (e.g. FeSO{sub 4} or Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) suppressed degradation. Although the acute toxicity of the actual effluent to marine bacteria Vibrio fischeri was weak, it increased sharply following treatment, thus suggesting the formation of persistent toxic by-products.

  6. The Potential of Extended Aeration System for Sago Effluent Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahi A. Rashid

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Sago effluent contains large amount of organic material which has a potential to cause water pollution. In order to reduce this problem, an experiment was conducted to remove organic material from sago effluent using lab scale of Extended Aeration (EA system. Approach: The EA system consisted of the combination of physical and biological treatment unit. For Physical Treatment Unit (PTU, the sago effluent was filtered using 710 µm mesh size filter. For Biological Treatment Unit (BTU, the effluent were mixed and aerated with activated sago sludge for 48 h. The treatment efficiency with respect to Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD, Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD and Total Suspended Solid (TSS removal were evaluated and compared with regulatory requirement by Department of Environment, Malaysia. Results: The result showed, the EA system could reduce BOD, COD and TSS up to 84, 87.8 and 73% respectively, however it did not comply with the regulatory requirement. Conclusion: This study suggested the EA system have potential to be apply on sago effluent, however it should be integrated with additional treatment unit to achieve the effluent quality standard.

  7. Characterization of effluent water qualities from satellite membrane bioreactor facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirani, Zakir M; Bukhari, Zia; Oppenheimer, Joan; Jjemba, Patrick; LeChevallier, Mark W; Jacangelo, Joseph G

    2013-09-15

    Membrane bioreactors (MBRs) are often a preferred treatment technology for satellite water recycling facilities since they produce consistent effluent water quality with a small footprint and require little or no supervision. While the water quality produced from centralized MBRs has been widely reported, there is no study in the literature addressing the effluent quality from a broad range of satellite facilities. Thus, a study was conducted to characterize effluent water qualities produced by satellite MBRs with respect to organic, inorganic, physical and microbial parameters. Results from sampling 38 satellite MBR facilities across the U.S. demonstrated that 90% of these facilities produced nitrified (NH4-N <0.4 mg/L-N) effluents that have low organic carbon (TOC <8.1 mg/L), turbidities of <0.7 NTU, total coliform bacterial concentrations <100 CFU/100 mL and indigenous MS-2 bacteriophage concentrations <21 PFU/100 mL. Multiple sampling events from selected satellite facilities demonstrated process capability to consistently produce effluent with low concentrations of ammonia, TOC and turbidity. UV-254 transmittance values varied substantially during multiple sampling events indicating a need for attention in designing downstream UV disinfection systems. Although enteroviruses, rotaviruses and hepatitis A viruses (HAV) were absent in all samples, adenoviruses were detected in effluents of all nine MBR facilities sampled. The presence of Giardia cysts in filtrate samples of two of nine MBR facilities sampled demonstrated the need for an appropriate disinfection process at these facilities. PMID:23871258

  8. Characterization and genotoxicity evaluation of effluent from a pharmacy industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélio Mendes de Oliveira Júnior

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The pharmaceutical, textile and food industry bear much of the responsibility for environmental pollution. In order to appropriately treat and mitigate the effects of pharmaceutical effluent, it is necessary to study it in order to determine its physical and chemical composition. In this work, the physicochemical characteristics of a pharmaceutical effluent were studied, to include the concentration of phenolic compounds, heavy metals, total phosphorus, nitrate, chemical oxygen demand (COD, and dissolved oxygen (DO. The in vivo micronucleus test was performed in mice, for investigation and possible genotoxicity and mutagenicity of the effluent from the pharmaceutical hub in Anápolis - Goiás. In all samples, only the phenolics showed concentrations above the values established by CONAMA Resolution 430/2011. The high concentrations of total phenols and synergy between metals found in wastewater can be linked to mutagenicity and genotoxicity found in the effluent, since the results of the micronucleus test indicated higher micronucleus formation when the mice were exposed to the effluent. The results of the study highlighted the necessity of characterizing these effluents in order to determine an appropriate treatment.

  9. Efficiency of aquatic macrophytes to treat Nile tilapia pond effluents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry-Silva Gustavo Gonzaga

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The effluents from fish farming can increase the quantity of suspended solids and promote the enrichment of nitrogen and phosphorus in aquatic ecosystems. In this context, the aim of this work was to evaluate the efficiency of three species of floating aquatic macrophytes (Eichhornia crassipes, Pistia stratiotes and Salvinia molesta to treat effluents from Nile tilapia culture ponds. The effluent originated from a 1,000-m² pond stocked with 2,000 male Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus. The treatment systems consisted of 12 experimental tanks, three tanks for each macrophyte species, and three control tanks (without plants. Water samples were collected from the: (i fish pond source water, (ii effluent from fish pond and (iii effluents from the treatment tanks. The following water variables were evaluated: turbidity, total and dissolved nitrogen, ammoniacal-N, nitrate-N, nitrite-N, total phosphorus and dissolved phosphorus. E. crassipes and P. stratiotes were more efficient in total phosphorus removal (82.0% and 83.3%, respectively and total nitrogen removal (46.1% and 43.9%, respectively than the S. molesta (72.1% total phosphorus and 42.7% total nitrogen and the control (50.3% total phosphorus and 22.8% total nitrogen, indicating that the treated effluents may be reused in the aquaculture activity.

  10. Bioequivalence approach for whole effluent toxicity testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shukla, R.; Wang, Q.; Fulk, F.; Deng, C.; Denton, D.

    2000-01-01

    Increased use of whole effluent toxicity (WET) tests in the regulatory arena has brought increased concern over the statistical analysis of WET test data and the determination of toxicity. One concern is the issue of statistical power. A number of WET tests may pass the current hypothesis test approach because they lack statistical power to detect relevant toxic effects because of large within-test variability. Additionally, a number of WET tests may fail the current approach because they possess excessive statistical power, as a result of small within-test variability, and detect small differences that may not be biologically relevant. The strengths and limitations of both the traditional hypothesis test approach and the bioequivalence approach for use in the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System program were evaluated. Data from 5,213 single-concentration, short-term chronic WET tests with Ceriodaphnia dubia provided the database for analysis. Comparison of results between the current approach and the bioequivalence approach indicates that the current approach to WET testing is generally sound but that adopting the proposed bioequivalence approach resolves concerns of statistical power. Specifically, within this data set, applying the bioequivalence approach resulted in failure for tests with relatively large test variability and a pass for tests with relatively small within-test variability.

  11. Soil aquifer treatment using advanced primary effluent

    KAUST Repository

    Sharma, Saroj K.

    2011-08-01

    Soil aquifer treatment (SAT) using primary effluent (PE) is an attractive option for wastewater treatment and reuse in many developing countries with no or minimal wastewater treatment. One of the main limitations of SAT of PE is rapid clogging of the infiltration basin due to high suspended solid concentrations. Some pre-treatment of PE before infiltration is likely to reduce this limitation, improve performance of SAT and help to implement this technology effectively. The effects of three pre-treatment options namely sedimentation (SED), coagulation (COAG) and horizontal roughing filtration (HRF) on SAT were analyzed by conducting laboratory-scale batch and soil column experiments. The sedimentation and coagulation pre-treatments led to less head loss development and reduction of clogging effect. The head loss development in soil column using PE + COAG and PE + SED was reduced by 85 and 72%, respectively, compared to PE alone without any pretreatment. The overall dissolved organic carbon (DOC) removal of pre-treatments and soil column collectively were 34, 44, 51 and 43.5% for PE without any pre-treatment, PE + SED, PE+ COAG and PE + HRF, respectively. Coagulation pre-treatment of PE was found to be the most effective option in terms of suspended solids, DOC and nitrogen removal. Sedimentation pre-treatment of PE could be attractive where land is relatively less expensive for the construction of sedimentation basins. © IWA Publishing 2011.

  12. 40 CFR 435.32 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... exploration, drilling, well completion, or well treatment (i.e., produced water, drilling muds, drill cuttings... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS OIL AND GAS EXTRACTION POINT SOURCE CATEGORY...

  13. 40 CFR 421.12 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... available. Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this... CATEGORY Bauxite Refining Subcategory § 421.12 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree...

  14. 40 CFR 406.73 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... economically achievable. 406.73 Section 406.73 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Animal Feed Subcategory §...

  15. 40 CFR 406.83 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... economically achievable. 406.83 Section 406.83 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hot Cereal Subcategory §...

  16. 40 CFR 418.12 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... technology currently available. 418.12 Section 418.12 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERTILIZER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY... attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology currently available. Except...

  17. 40 CFR 418.42 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... technology currently available. 418.42 Section 418.42 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERTILIZER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY... reduction attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology currently...

  18. 40 CFR 418.32 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... technology currently available. 418.32 Section 418.32 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERTILIZER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Urea... by the application of the best practicable control technology currently available. Except as...

  19. 40 CFR 418.22 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... technology currently available. 418.22 Section 418.22 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERTILIZER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY... attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology currently available. Except...

  20. 40 CFR 418.27 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... control technology. 418.27 Section 418.27 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERTILIZER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Ammonia... by the application of the best conventional pollutant control technology. The following...

  1. 40 CFR 418.67 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... control technology. 418.67 Section 418.67 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERTILIZER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Ammonium Sulfate... attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control technology. The...

  2. 40 CFR 418.17 - Effluent limitations quidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... control technology. 418.17 Section 418.17 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERTILIZER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Phosphate... by the application of the best conventional pollutant control technology. The following...

  3. 40 CFR 418.52 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... technology currently available. 418.52 Section 418.52 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERTILIZER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY... reduction attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology currently...

  4. 40 CFR 415.32 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... SOURCE CATEGORY Calcium Carbide Production Subcategory § 415.32 Effluent limitations guidelines... technology currently available (BPT). Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing...

  5. Evaluation of an innovative approach based on prototype engineered wetland to control and manage boron (B) mine effluent pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Türker, Onur Can; Türe, Cengiz; Böcük, Harun; Yakar, Anıl; Chen, Yi

    2016-10-01

    A major environmental problem associated with boron (B) mining in many parts of the world is B pollution, which can become a point source of B mine effluent pollution to aquatic habitats. In this study, a cost-effective, environment-friendly, and sustainable prototype engineered wetland was evaluated and tested to prevent B mine effluent from spilling into adjoining waterways in the largest B reserve in the world. According to the results, average B concentrations in mine effluent significantly decreased from 17.5 to 5.7 mg l(-1) after passing through the prototype with a hydraulic retention time of 14 days. The results of the present experiment, in which different doses of B had been introduced into the prototype, also demonstrated that Typha latifolia (selected as donor species in the prototype) showed a good resistance to alterations against B mine effluent loading rates. Moreover, we found that soil enzymes activities gradually decreased with increasing B dosages during the experiment. Boron mass balance model further showed that 60 % of total B was stored in the filtration media, and only 7 % of B was removed by plant uptake. Consequently, we suggested that application of the prototype in the vicinity of mining site may potentially become an innovative model and integral part of the overall landscape plan of B mine reserve areas worldwide. Graphical Abstract ᅟ. PMID:27364490

  6. Dispersal of plutonium from an effluent pulse in the Great Miami River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concentration of soluble 238Pu was found to be proportional to the concentration of the Rhodamine WT dye released from Mound Laboratory to the Great Miami River in an effluent pulse. This correlation permitted the integration of the area under the curves obtained from the dye monitoring to be equated to the total soluble 238Pu present in the pulse. Investigations of the uptake of pulse-associated 238Pu by organisms in the river proved inconclusive. It does appear, however, that organisms including the alga, Cladophora, which is known to concentrate plutonium, do not exhibit rapid changes in uptake coincident with the passage of the pulse

  7. Effects of spray-irrigated treated effluent on water quantity and quality, and the fate and transport of nitrogen in a small watershed, New Garden Township, Chester County, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreffler, Curtis L.; Galeone, Daniel G.; Veneziale, John M.; Olson, Leif E.; O'Brien, David L.

    2005-01-01

    . The spray-irrigated effluent affected the ground-water quality of the shallow aquifer differently on the hilltop and hillside topographic settings of the watershed where spray irrigation was being applied (application area). Concentrations of nitrate-nitrogen (nitrate N) and chloride (Cl) in the effluent were higher than concentrations of these constituents in shallow ground water from wells on the hilltop and hillside prior to start of spray irrigation. In water from wells on the hilltop, concentrations of nitrate N and Cl increased in samples collected during effluent application compared to samples collected prior to effluent application. Also, increasing trends in concentration of these two constituents were evident through the study period. In water from wells on the hillside, which were on the eastern part of the application area, nitrate N and Cl concentrations increased in samples collected during effluent application compared to samples collected prior to effluent application. Also, increasing trends in concentration of these two constituents were evident through the study period. However, on the hillside of the western application area, the ground-water quality was not affected by the spray-irrigated effluent because of the greater thickness of unconsolidated material and higher amounts of clay present in those unconsolidated sands. Although nitrate N concentrations increased in water from hilltop and hillside wells in the application area, the nitrate N concentrations were below the effluent concentration. A combination of plant uptake, biological activity, and denitrification may be the processes accounting for the lower nitrate N concentrations in shallow ground water compared to the spray-irrigated effluent. Cl concentrations in water from hilltop western application area well Ch-5173 increased during the study period but were an order of magnitude less than the input effluent concentration. Cl concentrations in shallow ground water in the e

  8. Biological monitoring of Upper Three Runs Creek, Savannah River Plant, Aiken County, South Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Specht, W.L.

    1991-10-01

    In anticipation of the fall 1988 start up of effluent discharges into Upper Three Creek by the F/H Area Effluent Treatment Facility of the Savannah River Site, Aiken, SC, a two and one half year biological study was initiated in June 1987. Upper Three Runs Creek is an intensively studied fourth order stream known for its high species richness. Designed to assess the potential impact of F H area effluent on the creek, the study includes qualitative and quantitative macroinvertebrate stream surveys at five sites, chronic toxicity testing of the effluent, water chemistry and bioaccumulation analysis. This final report presents the results of both pre-operational and post-operational qualitative and quantitative (artificial substrate) macroinvertebrate studies. Six quantitative and three qualitative studies were conducted prior to the initial release of the F/H ETF effluent and five quantitative and two qualitative studies were conducted post-operationally.

  9. High Speed/ Low Effluent Process for Ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Clark Dale

    2006-10-30

    n this project, BPI demonstrated a new ethanol fermentation technology, termed the High Speed/ Low Effluent (HS/LE) process on both lab and large pilot scale as it would apply to wet mill and/or dry mill corn ethanol production. The HS/LE process allows very rapid fermentations, with 18 to 22% sugar syrups converted to 9 to 11% ethanol ‘beers’ in 6 to 12 hours using either a ‘consecutive batch’ or ‘continuous cascade’ implementation. This represents a 5 to 8X increase in fermentation speeds over conventional 72 hour batch fermentations which are the norm in the fuel ethanol industry today. The ‘consecutive batch’ technology was demonstrated on a large pilot scale (4,800 L) in a dry mill corn ethanol plant near Cedar Rapids, IA (Xethanol Biofuels). The pilot demonstrated that 12 hour fermentations can be accomplished on an industrial scale in a non-sterile industrial environment. Other objectives met in this project included development of a Low Energy (LE) Distillation process which reduces the energy requirements for distillation from about 14,000 BTU/gal steam ($0.126/gal with natural gas @ $9.00 MCF) to as low as 0.40 KW/gal electrical requirements ($0.022/gal with electricity @ $0.055/KWH). BPI also worked on the development of processes that would allow application of the HS/LE fermentation process to dry mill ethanol plants. A High-Value Corn ethanol plant concept was developed to produce 1) corn germ/oil, 2) corn bran, 3) ethanol, 4) zein protein, and 5) nutritional protein, giving multiple higher value products from the incoming corn stream.

  10. Detritiation of Tritiated Effluent Gas and Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Do Hee; Kim, Kwang Rag; Paek, Seung Woo; Lee, Min Soo; Yim, Sung Paal; Chung Hong Suk

    2007-06-15

    In a demonstration scale equipment for treatment of tritium in off-gas, Pt/SDBC as oxidation catalyst and Zeolite 13X as adsorbent was charged in the beds, respectively. It was confirmed from the performance test that decontamination factor of the equipment showed more than 100 under the flow rate of off-gas of 90 l/hr and at the temperature of 65 {approx} 80 .deg. C. A small scale CECE process has been developed combining LPCE catalytic column with SPE (solid polymer electrolyte) electrolysis. The catalytic column was a trickle-bed type packed with the mixture of 1 wt% Pt/SDBC catalyst and 4 mm Dixon wire-mesh ring. The experimental results of the CECE process proved that the decontamination factor of 13 {approx} 20 under the operating conditions of the water of the 4 l/day and the effluent hydrogen gas of 16.2 mol/h. A design code of CECE process also developed which will be applied the tritium industry. An experimental method for the reduction of tritiated organic waste by using catalytic oxidation was tested in a heated catalytic reactor of 0.5 wt% Pd/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The simulated organic liquid was converted to water over 99%. A gas chromatographic column material was developed for the separation of mixed hydrogen isotopes. 17 wt% Pd-Pt on alumina showed 90% separation efficiency at 77 % yield for the separation of 29.2 % D{sub 2}-H{sub 2} gas mixture.

  11. Drilling in areas subject to environmental protection; A perfuracao em area de protecao ambiental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendonca, Ricardo Teixeira; Guimaraes, Antimio Santos [PETROBRAS, XX (Brazil). Distrito de Perfuracao do Nordeste. Div. Tecnica; Santana, Manoel Messias de [PETROBRAS, XX (Brazil). Regiao de Producao do Nordeste. Setor de Seguranca Industrial

    1989-12-31

    This paper presents the practices developed for pollution control in areas subject to environmental protection. This well drilling operation was carried out in the Municipality of Marechal Deodoro, in the State of Alagoas, in locality named Massagueira. We stress the preventive methods for liquid and solid effluent generation and the use of Closed Fluid System or Anti-Dike System. (author) 3 figs.

  12. Reason Analysis of Discharge Excessive Pollutants for Electroplating Effluent Treatment%电镀废水化学处理稳定达标难的原因分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴旭升

    2015-01-01

    废水处理是电镀集中区建设成功的关键,政府和企业投入了大量的资源,但经常没有好的结果,本文根据电镀废水的特点、废水分质现状、处理能力,结合电镀废水处理的工程设计特点、电镀添加剂等相关现状,分析导致废水处理效果波动的原因,希望对电镀废水处理的稳定达标有所帮助。%Wastewater treatment is a key to successful construction of centralized areas for electroplating industry, government and enterprises in the electroplating industry have been paying attention to the electroplating effluent treatment and made huge investment for them. But nowadays pollutant in effluent from a few factories remains not to come up to the standard. Combining the characteristics of electroplating effluent, the distributary actuality, effluent treatment ability, effluent treatment engineering design, additive for electroplating in present affecting treatment efficiency, the reason of discharge excessive pollutants for electroplating effluent treatment was analyzed, hoping to improve electroplating effluent treatment come up to the standard.

  13. The effect of paper industry effluent on growth, pigments, carbohydrates and proteins of rice seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, R N; Behera, P K

    1991-01-01

    The effect of paper industry effluent on the growth and content of certain macromolecules of seedlings of rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. Kesari-82K) has been examined. The effects were investigated in relation to both concentration of effluent and time of exposure to the effluent. Percentage of germination, water imbibing capacity, growth, pigment, carbohydrate and protein content showed a decreasing trend with increase in effluent concentration and time. Protein content was the most sensitive macromolecule affected by effluent. Measurement of protein and protein enzymes might therefore provide a useful criterion for the evaluation of the phytotoxicity of effluent released from the pulp and paper industries. PMID:15092110

  14. Monitoring of noble gas radioisotopes in nuclear power plant effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monitoring of gaseous radionuclides in the effluents of nuclear facilities is an essential requirement in effluent management programs. Since there is no practical way of removing noble gas radioisotopes from air at release pathways, their accurate monitoring is essential for providing appropriate environmental protection. Emitted γ dose-rate is the limiting factor for concentration-time integral of noble gas in gaseous effluents of reactor facilities. The external exposure to the public from a semi-infinite cloud is directly proportional to both the noble gas isotope concentration and the integrated γ energy per disintegration. Both can be directly measured in gaseous effluent pathways with a suitable detector. The capability of NaI(T1), CaF2(Eu) and plastic scintillation detectors to measure the γ-Ci.MeV content of noble gas releases was experimentally evaluated. The combination of CaF2(Eu) detector in a pressurized through-flow chamber, with a charge integrating scaler well complied with both γ energy response and detection sensitivity requirements. Noble gas source terms and effluent monitoring criteria are discussed, theoretical and experimental results are presented and a practical, on-line noble gas monitoring system is described

  15. Demasculinization of male fish by wastewater treatment plant effluent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vajda, A.M.; Barber, L.B.; Gray, J.L.; Lopez, E.M.; Bolden, A.M.; Schoenfuss, H.L.; Norris, D.O.

    2011-01-01

    Adult male fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) were exposed to effluent from the City of Boulder, Colorado wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) under controlled conditions in the field to determine if the effluent induced reproductive disruption in fish. Gonadal intersex and other evidence of reproductive disruption were previously identified in white suckers (Catostomus commersoni) in Boulder Creek downstream from this WWTP effluent outfall. Fish were exposed within a mobile flow-through exposure laboratory in July 2005 and August 2006 to WWTP effluent (EFF), Boulder Creek water (REF), or mixtures of EFF and REF for up to 28 days. Primary (sperm abundance) and secondary (nuptial tubercles and dorsal fat pads) sex characteristics were demasculinized within 14 days of exposure to 50% and 100% EFF. Vitellogenin was maximally elevated in both 50% and 100% EFF treatments within 7 days and significantly elevated by 25% EFF within 14 days. The steroidal estrogens 17??-estradiol, estrone, estriol, and 17??-ethynylestradiol, as well as estrogenic alkylphenols and bisphenol A were identified within the EFF treatments and not in the REF treatment. These results support the hypothesis that the reproductive disruption observed in this watershed is due to endocrine-active chemicals in the WWTP effluent. ?? 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  16. Impact of fertilizer plant effluent on water quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The impact of National Fertilizer Company of Nigeria out fall effluent on the physico chemistry and bacteriology of Okrika creek was investigated during the sampling period from May to December, 1998. The National Fertilizer Company of Nigeria out fall effluent, the Okrika creek water and the lkpukulubie creek (control) water samples were collected. The physico-chemical parameters analyzed for all the samples included temperature, p H, total chloride, total dissolved solids, dissolved oxygen, conductivity, free ammonia, total phosphate, urea, zinc and iron, while the bacteriological determinations were total culturable aerobic heterotrophic bacteria count and identification of representative isolates. The Okrika creek recorded higher concentrations for all the physicochemical parameters and bacteria load than the control creek. The higher values of p H, Free NH3, urea, TDS and the conductivity of the National Fertilizer Company of Nigeria out fall effluent above the FEPA standards reflect the poor effluent quality generated by National Fertilizer Company of Nigeria. The bacteria species isolated from the samples include Aerococcus viridans, Alcaligenes faecalis, Bacillus cereus, Citrobacter freundii, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Serratia marcescens and Staphylococcus aureus. In general, the investigation revealed that there was an extremely adverse impact on the physico-chemical and bacteriological water quality characteristics of the Okrika creek as a result of the discharge of poor quality effluent from National Fertilizer Company of Nigeria operations

  17. Cytotoxicity assays to evaluate tannery effluents treated by photoelectrooxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, N; Moraes, J P; Klauck, C R; Gehlen, G; Rodrigues, M A S; Ziulkoski, A L

    2015-12-01

    The advanced oxidation process (AOP) is used to increase the treatment efficiency of effluents however, it is necessary to compare the toxicity of treated and untreated effluents to evaluate if the decontamination process does not cause any biological harm. Cultured cells have been previously used to assess the genotoxic and cytotoxic potential of various compounds. Hence, the aim of this work was to assess the applicability of cytotoxicity assays to evaluate the toxicity related to the AOP treatment. Samples of an industrial effluent were collected after their treatment by a conventional method. Cytotoxicity of standard and AOP treated effluents was assessed in CRIB and HEp-2 cell line using the MTT and neutral red assays. We observed decrease at cell viability in the both assays (50% MTT and 13% NRU) when cells were exposed to the AOP treatment in the highest concentration. Thus, cytotoxic assays in cultured cells can be explored as an useful method to evaluate toxicity as well as to optimize effluents treatment process. PMID:26628242

  18. Effects of ozone on kraft process pulp mill effluent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohammed, A. (Stanley Industrial Consultants, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada)); Smith, D.W. (Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton, (Canada))

    1992-12-01

    Effluent from a kraft process pulp mill was studied in a batch reactor for ozone doses between 50 and 200 mg O[sub 3]/L to identify the suitability of ozone application locations in the treatment process and see the improvements in biotreatability of wastewaters from a kraft process pulp mill. Laboratory acclimatized seed were used for (Biochemical Oxygen Demand) BOD tests for ozonated and unozonated samples. The inhibitory effects were minimized by using optimum dilutions. The studies were divided into three major sections: characterization of mill effluent; ozone system calibration, and reactor design; and ozonation of mill effluent. Seed for BOD tests were acclimatized in batch units for primary, bleach and secondary effluents separately. The results were analyzed using the [open quote]t[close quote] test for paired experiments and an ANOVA table for statistical confirmation. Residuals were plotted to check the assumptions of constant variance and normal distribution. It was concluded that ozone is most effective for the removal of color and the increase of BOD in secondary effluent. 21 refs., 9 figs., 7 tabs.

  19. Optimizing Liquid Effluent Monitoring at a Large Nuclear Complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monitoring data for a centralized effluent treatment and disposal facility at the Hanford Site, a defense nuclear complex undergoing cleanup and decommissioning in southeast Washington State, was evaluated to optimize liquid effluent monitoring efficiency. Wastewater from several facilities is collected and discharged to the ground at a common disposal site. The discharged water infiltrates through 60 m of soil column to the groundwater, which eventually flows into the Columbia River, the second largest river in the contiguous United States. Protection of this important natural resource is the major objective of both cleanup and groundwater and effluent monitoring activities at the Hanford Site. Four years of effluent data were evaluated for this study. More frequent sampling was conducted during the first year of operation to assess temporal variability in analyte concentrations, to determine operational factors contributing to waste stream variability and to assess the probability of exceeding permit limits. Subsequently, the study was updated which included evaluation of the sampling and analysis regime. It was concluded that the probability of exceeding permit limits was one in a million under normal operating conditions, sampling frequency could be reduced, and several analytes could be eliminated, while indicators could be substituted for more expensive analyses. Findings were used by the state regulatory agency to modify monitoring requirements for a new discharge permit. The primary focus of this paper is on the statistical approaches and rationale that led to the successful permit modification and to a more cost-effective effluent monitoring program

  20. Efficient removal of mercury from aqueous solutions and industrial effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Maria B P; Leal, Katia Z; Oliveira, Fernando J S; Sella, Silvia M; Vieira, Méri D; Marques, Elisa M D; Gomes, Vanessa A C

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the ability of a solid waste produced during beneficiation of ornamental rocks to remove mercury (Hg) from an industrial effluent and aqueous solutions under various conditions. Batch studies have been carried out by observing the effects of pH, concentration of the adsorbate, contact time, and so on. Various sorption isotherm models such as Langmuir, Freundlich, and Tóth have been applied for the adsorbent. Film and intraparticle diffusion were both found to be rate-limiting steps. Adsorption was properly described by the Freundlich model (capacity constant of 0.3090 (mg g(-1))(mg L(-1))(-1/n) and adsorption intensity indicator of 2.2939), which indicated a favorable sorption and encouraged subsequent studies for treatment of Hg-containing industrial effluent. Industrial effluent treatment efficiency reached Hg removals greater than 90% by using ornamental rock solid waste (ORSW). Besides, desorption studies indicated that the maximum recovery of mercury was 100 ± 2% for 1 mol L(-1) HNO3 and 74 ± 8% for 0.1 mol L(-1) HNO3. The ORSW could be reused thrice without significant difference on the Hg removal rate from industrial effluent. These findings place ORSW as a promising efficient and low-cost adsorbent for the removal of Hg from aqueous solutions and industrial effluent. PMID:26301849

  1. Alkaline hydrothermal synthesis of homogeneous titania microspheres with urchin-like nanoarchitectures for dye effluent treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → Alkali-hydrothermal treatments of a remnant of Ti-H2O2 reaction achieve titania microspheres. → Inhibited heterogeneous nucleation and low supersaturation contribute to the uniform size. → Radially aligned anatase nanowires construct the microspheres. → The microspheres possess a BET surface area of 45.4 m2/g. → The microspheres exhibit a high activity to assist photodegradation of rhodamine B in water. - Abstract: The heterogeneous photocatalysis technique to treat dye effluents demands micrometer-sized titania aggregates with one-dimensional nanostructures, which possess high photocatalytic activity and at the same time facilitate the catalyst-recovery from a slurry system. In this study, the solution remained after interactions between metallic Ti and hydrogen peroxide was subjected to an alkaline hydrothermal treatment. Microspheres with extremely uniform sizes of ca. 2 μm in diameter were achieved after a subsequent proton exchange followed by calcination in air. The microspheres were urchin-like aggregates of radially assembled nanowires, which consisted of chain-like anatase single crystallites with an average diameter of 20-25 nm. The homogeneous microspheres calcinated at 600 oC possessed a surface area of 45.4 m2/g and exhibited an excellent activity to assist photodegradation of rhodamine B in water, which is significantly higher than that of P25 titania nanoparticles. Because of the much easier recovery of the photocatalyst, the homogeneous microspheres synthesized herein may find practical applications in efficient photocatalytic treatments of dye effluents.

  2. Radioactive effluents in Savannah River. Summary report for 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winn, W.G.

    1991-11-27

    During 1990, low-level radiometric studies of the Savannah River continued to distinguish between effluent contributions from Plant Vogtle and the Savannah River Site. Measurements of these radioactive effluents are of mutual interest to both institutions, as they can address disturbing trends before they become health and legal concerns. The Environmental Technology Section (ETS) has conducted radiometric studies of Plant Vogtle since late 1986, prior to its startup. The plant has two 1100 MWe pressurized water reactors developed by Westinghouse. Unit 1 started commercial operations in June 1987, and Unit 2 began in May 1989. During powered operations, ETS has routinely detected neutron-activated isotopes in controlled releases but all activities have been several orders of magnitude below the DOE guide values. In 1990, processing improvements for Vogtle effluents have yielded even lower activities in the river. The Vogtle release data and the ETS measurements have tracked well over the past four years.

  3. The treatment and disposal of tritiated effluents. Technology and safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study on the disposal of tritiated effluents has been conducted in coordination with investigations carried out at NUKEM GmbH under the heading ''Compilation of Safety-Related Data for an Industrial Disposal of Tritiated Effluents on the Basis of Large-Scale Invenstigations''. The findings of this study were adopted, in particular with a view to tritium exchange rates ascertained experimentally. After some introductory remarks on the origin of tritium, its properties and its behaviour in a reprocessing plant three alternative methods for the disposal of tritiated effluents produced during reprocessing are described in the present study and compared with each other under various aspects. The study is based on the concept of a 1400 t/a reprocessing plant for LWR fuel, which annually produces 3000 m3 of tritiated waste water with a tritium content of 6.5 x 1012 Bq/m3 as well as a residual fission product and actinide content. (orig./RW)

  4. A New Method for Effluent Treatment System Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIBaohong; FANXishan; 等

    2002-01-01

    This paper mainly discusses the design of distributed effluent treatment systems with single contaminant.A new method is put forward and four basic rules are provided.The key point of the method is that global optimality is obtained by guaranteeing the optimality of each step taken in the design.Costs per unit mass of removed contaminant are used as a scale to choose the next combination of an effluent stream and a treatment process.The remaining problem is updated after each choice.As for multiple contaminants,a two-stage method is adopted.At the first stage,the sub-networks for each contamiant are designed by the method mentioned above;at the second stage,the sub-networks are merged together in a new way.Overall,the paper presents a simple but practical framework for the effluent treatment system design.

  5. Optimizing nitrate removal in woodchip beds treating aquaculture effluents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Ahnen, Mathis; Pedersen, Per Bovbjerg; Hoffmann, Carl Christian;

    2016-01-01

    Nitrate is typically removed from aquaculture effluents using heterotrophic denitrification reactors. Heterotrophic denitrification reactors, however, require a constant input of readily available organic carbon (C) sources which limits their application in many aquaculture systems for practical...... the potential of optimizing woodchip reactors for treating aquaculture effluent. A central composite design (CCD) was applied to assess the effects of simultaneously changing the empty bed contact time (EBCTs of 5.0-15.0 h; corresponding to theoretical hydraulic retention times of 3.3-9.9 h) and bicarbonate...... (HCO3 -) inlet concentration (0.50-1.59 g HCO3 -/l) on the removal rate of NO3 -N, and additional organic and inorganic nutrients, in effluent deriving from an experimental recirculating aquaculture system (RAS).Volumetric NO3 -N removal rates ranged from 5.20 ± 0.02 to 8.96 ± 0.19 g/m3/day and were...

  6. Papillomas on fish exposed to chlorinated wastewater effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grizzle, J M; Melius, P; Strength, D R

    1984-11-01

    The presence of carcinogenic and mutagenic chemical(s) in the effluent of a wastewater treatment plant was indicated by papillomas developing on caged black bullheads (Ictalurus melas), hepatic enzyme induction in exposed fish, and Ames test mutagenicity of organic extracts of the wastewater. Although virus-like particles have been reported in papillomas of several other fish species, no evidence was obtained for the presence of viruses in the black bullhead papillomas. Mutagenic and carcinogenic chemicals were not identified in the wastewater, but chlorination was implicated as a factor contributing to the induction of the papillomas. The prevalence of papillomas on wild black bullheads exposed to the effluent decreased from 73 to 23% after the amount of residual chlorine (CAS: 7782-50-5) in the effluent leaving the chlorine contact chamber was reduced from 1.3-3.1 mg/liter to 0.25-1.2 mg/liter. PMID:6593489

  7. Splenotoxic effect of radiographic developer effluent on Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony C. Ugwu

    2016-05-01

    Results: Normal spleen histology was observed in the control group. In contrast, tissue degeneration and necrosis; lymphocytic infiltration as well as reduction of splenic follicles were observed in some of the test groups (IIA, IIB and IIIA. Interestingly, the toxic effects of the developer effluent on group IIIB administered with higher dose for a longer period of 28 days were not as severe as observed in the other test groups. Conclusions: The present study which indicated adverse effects of exposures to sub-lethal doses of developer effluent on Wistar rats' spleen tissues suggests the need for proper management and disposal of radiographic effluents. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(5.000: 1625-1631

  8. Processing of radioactive effluents in Cadarache research centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    French Atomic Energy Commission (Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique - CEA) is studying the design of a new plant for processing liquid aqueous radioactive effluents produced on Cadarache Research Centre. Effluents to be processed are low and medium activity effluents, with, for some of them, important concentrations of actinides, and which lead to the production of A and B category solid wastes, according to the French legislation, and suitable for final disposal. The objectives in terms of minimization of discharge's activity level and solid waste production have guided a selection of processes and their arrangement, in order to optimise decontamination and volume concentration factors. Seeded-ultrafiltration and vitrification with cold crucible melter are part of the selected processes for which developments are in progress in CEA for application to the characteristics of the project. (authors)

  9. UTILIZING Aspergillus niger FOR BIOREMEDIATION OF TANNERY EFFLUENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyoti Bisht

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Tannery waste water is characterized by highly toxic ammonium, sulfates, surfactants, acids, dyes, sulfonated oils and organic substances, including natural or synthetic tannins. This study was designed to study the potential of Aspergillus niger for bioremediation of tannery effluent. Addition of glucose as a carbon source in the tannery effluent encouraged the growth of A. niger but there was no change in physico-chemical parameters. The toxic effects were mostly reduced after treatment when 20% mineral salt medium was added in tannery effluent. Colour, COD, TS, TDS, TSS, chlorides, sulfides and chromium reduction were 71.9%, 72.1%, 69.0%, 65.0%, 68.1%, 66.8%, 65.7% and 57.8%, respectively.

  10. Ozonation of tannery effluent for removal of cod and color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preethi, V; Kalyani, K S Parama; Iyappan, K; Srinivasakannan, C; Balasubramaniam, N; Vedaraman, N

    2009-07-15

    Ozonation of leather dye effluent for removal of color and COD reduction covering wide range in operating parameters forms the scope of the present work. The influence of parameters such as influent pH, ozone flow rate and initial effluent concentration on ozonation efficiency has been critically examined. It has been observed from the present investigation that a maximum of COD removal efficiency of 92% has been achieved under optimum operating conditions. Further the biodegradability index of the tannery effluent has increased from an initial value of 0.18 to 0.49 during ozonation indicating favorable adaptation of ozonation as a primer to the biochemical technique to enhance the efficiency of biochemical treatment. PMID:19118944

  11. Evaluation of dairy effluent management options using multiple criteria analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajkowicz, Stefan A; Wheeler, Sarah A

    2008-04-01

    This article describes how options for managing dairy effluent on the Lower Murray River in South Australia were evaluated using multiple criteria analysis (MCA). Multiple criteria analysis is a framework for combining multiple environmental, social, and economic objectives in policy decisions. At the time of the study, dairy irrigation in the region was based on flood irrigation which involved returning effluent to the river. The returned water contained nutrients, salts, and microbial contaminants leading to environmental, human health, and tourism impacts. In this study MCA was used to evaluate 11 options against 6 criteria for managing dairy effluent problems. Of the 11 options, the MCA model selected partial rehabilitation of dairy paddocks with the conversion of remaining land to other agriculture. Soon after, the South Australian Government adopted this course of action and is now providing incentives for dairy farmers in the region to upgrade irrigation infrastructure and/or enter alternative industries.

  12. ADVANCED TREATMENT OF SAHEBGHARANIEH SECONDARY EFFLUENT BY OZONATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Vaezi

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available Chemical oxidation is one of the most suitable treatment methods for reducing organic pollutants and the number of pathogens remaining in secondary effluents. Ozone is the most powerful oxidizing agent commonly used because of it's many advantages over chlorination. In this study the efficiency of ozonation in advanced wastewater treatment of Sahebgharanieh Plant has been determined. Ozone generation has been performed by irradiation of compressed air with 4 special UV lamps. The total output of these lamps was determined to be 0.74 mg ozone per minute at established conditions. Considering 3 periods of ozonation of effluent samples (30, 60 and 120 min and ozone transfer coefficient of 95%, the concentrations of applied ozone for wastewater treatment were specified to be 10.5, 21 and 42 mg/l, respectively. Ozonation of secondary effluents at these periods has resulted in 17, 24 and 30 percent reduction in average COD and about 20, 18 and 32 percent decrease in BOD5. It is believed that the 2 percent increase observed in BOD after 30 minutes is caused by changing some amount of COD to BOD5 by applied ozone. According to the prescribed reduction values it could be concluded that the final effluent of a typical treatment plant would become better qualified for water reuse in irrigation. But it should be declared that the effluent might not be completely disinfected irrespective of about 99.0% decrease determined in MPN of total coliforms. Also it must be noted that this degree of disinfection was accomplished only for 62.5% of samples. Ozonation of effluent samples has caused an increase in pH value which was at least 0.4 of a pH unit.

  13. Fusion fuel cycle: material requirements and potential effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental effluents that may be associated with the fusion fuel cycle are identified. Existing standards for controlling their release are summarized and anticipated regulatory changes are identified. The ability of existing and planned environmental control technology to limit effluent releases to acceptable levels is evaluated. Reference tokamak fusion system concepts are described and the principal materials required of the associated fuel cycle are analyzed. These materials include the fusion fuels deuterium and tritium; helium, which is used as a coolant for both the blanket and superconducting magnets; lithium and beryllium used in the blanket; and niobium used in the magnets. The chemical and physical processes used to prepare these materials are also described

  14. Cleanup Verification Package for the 116-K-2 Effluent Trench

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. M. Capron

    2006-04-04

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 116-K-2 effluent trench, also referred to as the 116-K-2 mile-long trench and the 116-K-2 site. During its period of operation, the 116-K-2 site was used to dispose of cooling water effluent from the 105-KE and 105-KW Reactors by percolation into the soil. This site also received mixed liquid wastes from the 105-KW and 105-KE fuel storage basins, reactor floor drains, and miscellaneous decontamination activities.

  15. Modelling anaerobic codigestion of manure with olive oil mill effluent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelidaki, I.; Ellegaard, L.; Ahring, B.K.

    1997-01-01

    A mathematical model describing the combined anaerobic degradation of complex organic material, such as manure, and a lipid containing additive, such as olive oil mill effluents, has been developed based on a model previously described (Angelidaki et al. 1993). The model has been used to simulate...... anaerobic codigestion of cattle manure together with olive oil mill effluent (OME) and the simulations were compared with experimental data. Simulation data indicated that lack of ammonia, needed as nitrogen source for synthesis of bacterial biomass and as an important pH buffer, could be responsible...

  16. Radioactive effluents in the Savannah River: Summary report for 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Researchers at the Savannah River Site have low-level radiometric studies of the Savannah River to distinguish between the effluent contributions of the Savannah River Site and Plant Vogtle. Since the startup of Plant Vogtle in 1987, researchers have routinely detected neutron-activated isotopes in controlled releases, but all have routinely detected neutron-activated isotopes in controlled releases, but all have been well below the Department of Energy's (DOE) guidelines. The study has found that processing improvement at Plant Vogtle during 1989 have lowered the activities of effluents from Plant Vogtle. These studies will continue on a routine basis because they provide disturbing trends before actual health concerns evolve

  17. The use of magnetite for decontaminating alpha containing effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The feasibility of retention of precipitated magnetite by magnetic filtration followed by direct cementation offered an attractive alternative to conventional ferric hydroxide treatment of radioactive liquid effluents. The magnetically-assisted dewatering of laboratory-prepared magnetite was examined in a number of ways, none of which achieved the desired optimum solids content for cementation. Attempts to prepare magnetite in situ from typical effluents containing iron were unsuccessful owing to the presence of interfering ions. Preformed magnetite was reasonably effective at absorbing actinides from solution but did not appear to offer any significant advantage over ferric hydroxide. (author)

  18. Fusion fuel cycle: material requirements and potential effluents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teofilo, V.L.; Bickford, W.E.; Long, L.W.; Price, B.A.; Mellinger, P.J.; Willingham, C.E.; Young, J.K.

    1980-10-01

    Environmental effluents that may be associated with the fusion fuel cycle are identified. Existing standards for controlling their release are summarized and anticipated regulatory changes are identified. The ability of existing and planned environmental control technology to limit effluent releases to acceptable levels is evaluated. Reference tokamak fusion system concepts are described and the principal materials required of the associated fuel cycle are analyzed. These materials include the fusion fuels deuterium and tritium; helium, which is used as a coolant for both the blanket and superconducting magnets; lithium and beryllium used in the blanket; and niobium used in the magnets. The chemical and physical processes used to prepare these materials are also described.

  19. Enhanced production of laccase by a marine fungus during treatment of colored effluents and synthetic dyes

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DeSouza-Ticlo, D.; Tiwari, R.; Sah, A.K.; Raghukumar, C.

    enhancement in laccase production was found during treatment of colored effluents from textile, paper and pulp mill and distillery waste. Industrial effluents and synthetic dyes added to the growing culture of this fungus were decolorized to a great extent...

  20. Corrosivity of paper mill effluent and corrosion performance of stainless steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ram, Chhotu; Sharma, Chhaya; Singh, A K

    2015-01-01

    Present study relates to the corrosivity of paper mill effluent and corrosion performance of stainless steel (SS) as a construction material for the effluent treatment plant (ETP). Accordingly, immersion test and electrochemical polarization tests were performed on SS 304 L, 316 L and duplex 2205 in paper mill effluent and synthetic effluent. This paper presents electrochemical polarization measurements, performed for the first time to the best of the authors' information, to see the influence of chlorophenols on the corrosivity of effluents. The corrosivity of the effluent was observed to increase with the decrease in pH and increase in Cl- content while the addition of SO4- tends to inhibit corrosion. Mill effluent was found to be more corrosive as compared to synthetic effluent and has been attributed to the presence of various chlorophenols. Corrosion performance of SS was observed to govern by the presence of Cr, Mo and N contents. PMID:25188842

  1. Exposure of composite tannery effluent on snail, Pila globosa: A comparative assessment of toxic impacts of the untreated and membrane treated effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Priyankari; Swarnakar, Snehasikta; Mukhopadhyay, Aniruddha; Ghosh, Sourja

    2016-04-01

    Effluent from tannery industries can significantly affect the aquatic environment due to the presence of a variety of recalcitrant components. The present study focuses on a comparative assessment of the toxic impacts of an untreated tannery effluent and membrane treated effluents using snail, Pila globosa as an aquatic model. Composite tannery effluent collected from a common effluent treatment plant was selected as the untreated effluent. To investigate the effect of treated effluents on the aquatic organism the effluent was treated by two ways, viz. a single stage microfiltration (MF) using ceramic membrane and a two-step process involving MF followed by reverse osmosis (RO). The whole body tissue, gonad and mantle of P. globosa were subjected to enzyme assays like superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-GPx), glutathione S- transferase (GST), etc. for assessing toxic impact. Changes in the biochemical parameters like protein, carbohydrate and amino acid were observed including histological studies of gonad and mantle tissue upon treatment with tannery effluents. To examine potential DNA damage due to the exposure of the effluent, comet assay was conducted. The study revealed that with an exposure to the untreated effluent, activity of the antioxidant enzymes increased significantly while the protein and carbohydrate content reduced largely in the whole body tissue, gonad as well as mantle tissues of P. globosa. Histological study indicated considerable damage in the gonad and mantle tissues following exposure to the untreated effluent. Comet assay using hemolymph of P. globosa following exposure to tannery effluent, showed significant genotoxicity. Interestingly, compared to the untreated effluent, damaging effect was reduced in molluscs tissues when exposed to MF treated effluent and even lesser when exposed to MF+RO treated effluent. Apart from the reduced activities of oxidative stress enzymes, the

  2. Determination of production biology of cladocera in a reservoir receiving hyperthermal effluents from a nuclear production reactor. [Par Pond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vigerstad, T J

    1980-01-01

    The effects on zooplankton of residence in a cooling reservoir receiving hyperthermal effluents directly from a nuclear-production-reactor were studied. Rates of cladoceran population production were compared at two stations in the winter and summer of 1976 on Par Pond located on the Savannah River Plant, Aiken, SC. One station was located in an area of the reservoir directly receiving hyperthermal effluent (Station MAS) and the second was located about 4 km away in an area where surface temperatures were normal for reservoirs in the general geographical region (Station CAS). A non-parametric comparison between stations of standing stock and fecundity data for Bosmina longirostris, taken for the egg ratio model, was used to observe potential hyperthermal effluent effects. There was a statistically higher incidence of deformed eggs in the Bosmina population at Station MAS in the summer. Bosmina standing stock underwent two large oscillations in the winter and three large oscillations in the summer at Station MAS compared with two in the winter and one in the summer at Station CAS. These results are consistent with almost all other Par Pond studies which have found the two stations to be essentially similar in spectra composition but with some statistically significant differences in various aspects of the biology of the species.

  3. Effects of wastewater treatment plant effluent inputs on planktonic metabolic rates and microbial community composition in the Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaquer-Sunyer, Raquel; Reader, Heather E.; Muthusamy, Saraladevi; Lindh, Markus V.; Pinhassi, Jarone; Conley, Daniel J.; Kritzberg, Emma S.

    2016-08-01

    The Baltic Sea is the world's largest area suffering from eutrophication-driven hypoxia. Low oxygen levels are threatening its biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. The main causes for eutrophication-driven hypoxia are high nutrient loadings and global warming. Wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) contribute to eutrophication as they are important sources of nitrogen to coastal areas. Here, we evaluated the effects of wastewater treatment plant effluent inputs on Baltic Sea planktonic communities in four experiments. We tested for effects of effluent inputs on chlorophyll a content, bacterial community composition, and metabolic rates: gross primary production (GPP), net community production (NCP), community respiration (CR) and bacterial production (BP). Nitrogen-rich dissolved organic matter (DOM) inputs from effluents increased bacterial production and decreased primary production and community respiration. Nutrient amendments and seasonally variable environmental conditions lead to lower alpha-diversity and shifts in bacterial community composition (e.g. increased abundance of a few cyanobacterial populations in the summer experiment), concomitant with changes in metabolic rates. An increase in BP and decrease in CR could be caused by high lability of the DOM that can support secondary bacterial production, without an increase in respiration. Increases in bacterial production and simultaneous decreases of primary production lead to more carbon being consumed in the microbial loop, and may shift the ecosystem towards heterotrophy.

  4. Toxicity of effluents emitted by the diesel engines vehicles; Toxicite des effluents emis par les vehicules a moteur diesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alcon, St.

    1998-04-29

    The exhaust gases of diesel engine vehicles are atmospheric pollutants. They are characterised by a gaseous phase and a particulate phase. The diesel particulates are composed of a nucleus formed with elementary carbon, forming aggregates that absorb the organic by-products at their surface. A first part treats the effluents of diesel engine vehicles: their characteristics, the factors influencing the diesel emissions, the noxiousness of the gaseous phase, the kinetics and the metabolism of the particulate phase and analysis methods. A second part tackles the experimental toxicity of diesel effluents on insisting on the nature of exposures, the mutagenicity, the carcinogenicity, the effects on the reproduction function and immuno-toxicity. A third part is devoted to the toxicity for man with epidemiology data and some studies under controlled exposures. Then, a fourth part, explains the toxicity mechanisms and the action modes of diesel effluents on the carcinogen effects and on respiratory diseases. (N.C.)

  5. Cathode Assessment for Maximizing Current Generation in Microbial Fuel Cells Utilizing Bioethanol Effluent as Substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guotao Sun

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Implementation of microbial fuel cells (MFCs for electricity production requires effective current generation from waste products via robust cathode reduction. Three cathode types using dissolved oxygen cathodes (DOCs, ferricyanide cathodes (FeCs and air cathodes (AiCs were therefore assessed using bioethanol effluent, containing 20.5 g/L xylose, 1.8 g/L arabinose and 2.5 g/L propionic acid. In each set-up the anode and cathode had an electrode surface area of 88 cm2, which was used for calculation of the current density. Electricity generation was evaluated by quantifying current responses to substrate loading rates and external resistance. At the lowest external resistance of 27 Ω and highest substrate loading rate of 2 g chemical oxygen demand (COD per L·day, FeC-MFC generated highest average current density (1630 mA/m2 followed by AiC-MFC (802 mA/m2 and DOC-MFC (184 mA/m2. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS was used to determine the impedance of the cathodes. It was thereby confirmed that the FeC-MFC produced the highest current density with the lowest internal resistance for the cathode. However, in a setup using bioethanol effluent, the AiC-MFC was concluded to be the most sustainable option since it does not require ferricyanide. The data offer a new add-on option to the straw biorefinery by using bioethanol effluent for microbial electricity production.

  6. Bioremediation Kinetics of Pharmaceutical Industrial Effluent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Šabić

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, concerns about the occurrence and fate of pharmaceuticals that could be present in water and wastewater has gained increasing attention. With the public’s enhanced awareness of eco-safety, environmentally benign methods based on microorganisms have become more accepted methods of removing pollutants from aquatic systems. This study investigates bioremediation of pharmaceutical wastewater from pharmaceutical company Pliva Hrvatska d.o.o., using activated sludge and bioaugmented activated sludge with isolated mixed bacterial culture. The experiments were conducted in a batch reactor in submerged conditions, at initial concentration of organic matter in pharmaceutical wastewater, expressed as COD, 5.01 g dm–3 and different initial concentrations of activated sludge, which ranged from 1.16 to 3.54 g dm–3. During the experiments, the COD, pH, concentrations of dissolved oxygen and biomass were monitored. Microscopic analyses were performed to monitor the quality of activated sludge. Before starting with the bioremediation in the batch reactor, toxicity of the pharmaceutical wastewater was determined by toxicity test using bacteria Vibrio fischeri. The obtained results showed that the effective concentration of the pharmaceutical wastewater was EC50 = 17 % and toxicity impact index was TII50 = 5.9, meaning that the untreated pharmaceutical industrial effluent must not be discharged into the environment before treatment. The results of the pharmaceutical wastewater bioremediation process in the batch reactor are presented in Table 1. The ratio γXv ⁄ γX maintained high values throughout all experiments and ranged from 0.90 and 0.95, suggesting that the concentrations of biomass remained unchanged during the experiments. The important kinetic parameters required for performance of the biological removal process, namely μmax, Ks, Ki, Y and kd were calculated from batch experiments (Table 2. Figs. 1 and 2 show the experimental

  7. The endocrine-disrupting effect and other physiological responses of municipal effluent on the clam Ruditapes decussatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezghani-Chaari, Sawssan; Machreki-Ajmi, Monia; Tremolet, Gauthier; Kellner, Kristell; Geffard, Alain; Minier, Christophe; Hamza-Chaffai, Amel

    2015-12-01

    In order to document the potential endocrine disrupting and toxic effect of the municipal wastewater effluents discharged into the Sfax coastal area (South of Tunisia), specimens of clam R. decussatus were collected from a reference site and were in vivo exposed to treated sewage effluent for 30 days. To this end, estrogenic and androgenic activities were measured in the gills to assess potential accumulation and regulation of active compounds. After effluent exposure androgenic activity in organic extracts increased up to fivefold compared to controls and remained elevated, while estrogenic activity was not significantly affected by exposure. As a consequence, remarkable disruptions in the gametogenesis activity, glycogen content, and Vitellogenin-like protein levels in male clams were observed. A parallel analysis of heavy metals in clam tissues was determined. A significant uptake of Ni, Zn, and Pb in soft tissues of exposed clams was observed. The significant increase of malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations as a function of exposure time implies that clams have been exposed to an oxidative stress probably due to the presence of high metal concentrations in sewage effluent. Correlation analysis has revealed a statistically significant and positive relationship between MDA levels and metal concentrations in clams' tissues. The acetylcholinesterase activity was not significantly affected by exposure. Altogether, these results showed that a short-term exposure to a mixture of chemical compounds released by the Sfax wastewater treatment plant induce adverse physiological and reproductive effects in R. decussatus. Further studies are underway in order to evaluate its long-term impacts on aquatic wildlife in the gulf of Gabes area. PMID:26278908

  8. 40 CFR 141.551 - What strengthened combined filter effluent turbidity limits must my system meet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... in at least 95 percent of the turbidity measurements taken each month. Measurements must continue to... effluent turbidity limits must my system meet? 141.551 Section 141.551 Protection of Environment... Effluent Requirements § 141.551 What strengthened combined filter effluent turbidity limits must my...

  9. Response of Penaeid Prawns (Metapanaeus monoceros) to textile dye industrial effluents (TDIE): An indicator of stress

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Praneeth, R.R.; Shirodkar, P.V.; ManiMurali, R.; Ravindran, J.; Brahma, S.; Vethamony, P.

    proposed to have a common effluent pipeline to discharge the effluents from all the textile dying industries from Erode directly into the coastal sea after treatment. Such a huge discharge of effluents can have a devastating effect on the coastal marine...

  10. TOXICITY OF INDUSTRIAL EFFLUENT ON TOTAL CHLOROPHYLL CONTENT OF CERTAIN AQUATIC MACROPHYTES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Priti

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available To assess the toxicity of industrial effluents on certain macrophytes, the total chlorophyll content of free floating, submerged and emergent macrophytes were estimated in concentrations of industrial effluents at varying exposure duration. The result revealed reduction in total chlorophyll content of exposed macrophytes at higher concentrations of industrial effluents on prolonged duration.

  11. TOXICITY OF INDUSTRIAL EFFLUENT ON TOTAL CHLOROPHYLL CONTENT OF CERTAIN AQUATIC MACROPHYTES

    OpenAIRE

    Singh Priti; Vishen Ashish; Wadhwani R; Pandey Y.N

    2012-01-01

    To assess the toxicity of industrial effluents on certain macrophytes, the total chlorophyll content of free floating, submerged and emergent macrophytes were estimated in concentrations of industrial effluents at varying exposure duration. The result revealed reduction in total chlorophyll content of exposed macrophytes at higher concentrations of industrial effluents on prolonged duration.

  12. 40 CFR 434.84 - Effluent limitations attainable by application of the best conventional pollutant control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS COAL MINING POINT... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effluent limitations attainable by... Mining § 434.84 Effluent limitations attainable by application of the best conventional pollutant...

  13. Required ozone doses for removing pharmaceuticals from wastewater effluents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antoniou, Maria; Hey, Gerly; Rodríguez Vega, Sergio;

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the this study was to investigate the ozone dosage required to remove active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) from biologically treated wastewater of varying quality, originated from different raw wastewater and wastewater treatment processes.Secondary effluents from six Swedish...

  14. Consideration of Factors Affecting Strip Effluent PH and Sodium Content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States)

    2015-07-29

    A number of factors were investigated to determine possible reasons for why the Strip Effluent (SE) can sometimes have higher than expected pH values and/or sodium content, both of which have prescribed limits. All of the factors likely have some impact on the pH values and Na content.

  15. Radioactive Effluents from Nuclear Power Plants Annual Report 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes radioactive effluents from commercial nuclear power plants (NPPs) in the United States. This information was reported by the licensees for radioactive discharges that occurred in 2008. The report provides information relevant to the potential impact of NPPs on the environment and on public health.

  16. UASB reactor effluent disinfection by ozone and chlorine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ribeiro da Silvia, G.H.; Bruning, H.; Gerrity, D.; Daniel, L.A.

    2015-01-01

    This research studied the sequential ozone and chlorine process with respect to, the inactivation of indicator bacteria and the formation of ozone disinfection byproducts in sanitary wastewater effluent. The applied ozone doses were 5, 8 and 10 mg.O3.L-1, followed by chlorine doses of 10, 20 and 30

  17. Radioactive Effluents from Nuclear Power Plants Annual Report 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation

    2010-12-10

    This report describes radioactive effluents from commercial nuclear power plants (NPPs) in the United States. This information was reported by the licensees for radioactive discharges that occurred in 2007. The report provides information relevant to the potential impact of NPPs on the environment and on public health.

  18. Radioactive Effluents from Nuclear Power Plants Annual Report 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation

    2010-12-10

    This report describes radioactive effluents from commercial nuclear power plants (NPPs) in the United States. This information was reported by the licensees for radioactive discharges that occurred in 2008. The report provides information relevant to the potential impact of NPPs on the environment and on public health.

  19. POLISHING EFFLUENT FROM A PERCHLORATE-REDUCING ANAEROBIC BIOLOGICAL CONTACTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency undertook at 3 ½ year pilot-scale biological perchlorate treatment study that included two long (311 and 340 days) examinations of anaerobic effluent polishing. The polishing system consisted of hydrogen peroxide addition and aeration, fo...

  20. Effluent management practices at the AAEC Research Establishment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A technical description is given of the facilities and operation of the waste water and liquid waste management system at the Australian Atomic Energy Commission Research Establishment at Lucas Heights. Also described are practices and principles involved in the control and recording of radioactivity in the effluents. (Author)

  1. Develop Plan for Analysis of the Effluent from GCM Production.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nenoff, Tina M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Mowry, Curtis D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-08-24

    This milestone is focused on developing a plan for the analysis of the effluent from the Sandia low temperature sintering Bi-Si-Zn oxide glass composite material (GCM) waste form for the long term storage of iodine and its capture materials.

  2. Nile tilapia culture on domestic effluent treated in stabilization ponds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clovis Matheus Pereira

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The performance and filet quality of tilapias (Oreochromis niloticus culture in effluent stabilization lagoons was tested at the densities of 3 fish/m2 (T3, 7 fish/m2 (T2 and 7 fish/m2 in clean water + diet (T1 with 3 repetitions in tanks of 2.57m2 and 0.60m of water column with supplemental aeration. Fish culture in clean water plus diet (T1 presented the highest growth. The higher density T3 (7/m2 compared to T2 (3/m2 did not result in any difference of total production (p > 0.05 but this was compensated by the increased individual fish growth rate at lower density. The conditions that sustain fish survival culture with ETE effluent were attested by the high survival (> 90% under both treatments, but only 10% of the water samples from T2 and T3 N-total ammonium was favorable for fish growth (< 2.0mg/L. The rearing system improved the effluent quality, reducing the total organic nitrogen and the solids in suspension. The faecal coliforms, Salmonella sp. and Staphylococcus aureus from the effluent and fish were verified to be within the standards laid down by the World Health Organization (WHO.

  3. Removal of Heavy Metals in Effluent by Adsorption and Coagulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Ting LI; Xia LI; Bing Ru ZHANG; Qing Hua OUYANG

    2004-01-01

    The silicate colloids with an average diameter 100 nm, were prepared by the hydrolysis of tetraethoxysilane (TES), NH4OH (30%) and then modified by (3-mercaptopropyl) trimethoxysilane ( APS). The colloids can adsorb heavy metals such as Pb and Cr in effluent and after adsorption the colloids can be separated by coagulation of aluminum sulfate. The removal of heavy metals is up to 99%.

  4. Characteristics of Effluents from a Meat Processing Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Pandey

    1972-10-01

    Full Text Available A study on the characteristics of effluents from a meat processing plant has been made at three stages: (a the slaughter of animals (sheep and goat ranged from 340+-10 per day and the treatment of effluents was through oxidation ponds, (b the slaughter was 400 animals per day and the treatment plant (anacrobic digestion had been commissioned, and (c the slaughter was of the order of 700 animals per day. The treatment plant had been at work. In the first stage, the effluents were being routed to oxidation pounds I and II one after the other with the total detention period of 19 days. The BOD by these lagoons had gone down by 50 per cent and the percentage total solids by 46 per cent. In the second stage, the efficiency of the treatment plant was worked out to be 85 per cent. The solid content fall was only 37 per cent. In the third stage, the Permanganate Value (PV, Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD had reduced by 82 per cent respectively. The decrease in coliform counts was about 80 per cent. The BOD contribution has been worked out to be 555 gm/animal at the influent stage and 106 gm/animal at the effluent discharge stage.

  5. Performance evaluation of Effluent Treatment Plant of Dairy Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pratiksinh Chavda

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Dairy industry is among the most polluting of the food industries in regard to its large water consumption. Dairy is one of the major industries causing water pollution. Considering the increased milk demand, the dairy industry in India is expected to grow rapidly and have the waste generation and related environmental problems are also assumed increased importance. Poorly treated wastewater with high level of pollutants caused by poor design, operation or treatment systems creates major environmental problems when discharged to the surface land or water. Various operations in a dairy industry may include pasteurization, cream, cheese, milk powder etc. Considering the above stated implications an attempt has been made in the present project to evaluate one of the Effluent Treatment Plant for dairy waste. Samples are collected from three points; Collection tank (CT, primary clarifier (PC and Secondary clarifier (SC to evaluate the performance of Effluent Treatment Plant. Parameters analyzed for evaluation of performance of Effluent Treatment Plant are pH, TDS, TSS, COD, and BOD at 200C The pH, TDS, TSS, COD and BOD removal efficiency of Effluent Treatment Plant were 26.14 %, 33.30 %, 93.85 %, 94.19 % and 98.19 % respectively.

  6. Effects of wastewater effluent discharge and treatment facility upgrades on environmental and biological conditions of Indian Creek, Johnson County, Kansas, June 2004 through June 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Jennifer L.; Stone, Mandy L.; Rasmussen, Teresa J.; Foster, Guy M.; Poulton, Barry C.; Paxson, Chelsea R.; Harris, Theodore D.

    2014-01-01

    Indian Creek is one of the most urban drainage basins in Johnson County, Kansas, and environmental and biological conditions of the creek are affected by contaminants from point and other urban sources. The Johnson County Douglas L. Smith Middle Basin (hereafter referred to as the “Middle Basin”) and Tomahawk Creek Wastewater Treatment Facilities (WWTFs) discharge to Indian Creek. In summer 2010, upgrades were completed to increase capacity and include biological nutrient removal at the Middle Basin facility. There have been no recent infrastructure changes at the Tomahawk Creek facility; however, during 2009, chemically enhanced primary treatment was added to the treatment process for better process settling before disinfection and discharge with the added effect of enhanced phosphorus removal. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Johnson County Wastewater, assessed the effects of wastewater effluent on environmental and biological conditions of Indian Creek by comparing two upstream sites to four sites located downstream from the WWTFs using data collected during June 2004 through June 2013. Environmental conditions were evaluated using previously and newly collected discrete and continuous data and were compared with an assessment of biological community composition and ecosystem function along the upstream-downstream gradient. This study improves the understanding of the effects of wastewater effluent on stream-water and streambed sediment quality, biological community composition, and ecosystem function in urban areas. After the addition of biological nutrient removal to the Middle Basin WWTF in 2010, annual mean total nitrogen concentrations in effluent decreased by 46 percent, but still exceeded the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) wastewater effluent permit concentration goal of 8.0 milligrams per liter (mg/L); however, the NPDES wastewater effluent permit total phosphorus concentration goal of 1.5 mg/L or less was

  7. An evaluation of the whole effluent toxicity test method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whole effluent toxicity (WET) testing has become increasingly more important to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the States in the permitting of wastewater discharges from industry and municipalities. The primary purpose of the WET test is to protect aquatic life by predicting the effect of an effluent on the receiving stream. However, there are both scientific and regulatory concerns that using WET tests to regulate industrial effluents may result in either false positives and/or false negatives. In order to realistically predict the effect of an effluent on the receiving stream, the test should be as representative as possible of the conditions in the receiving stream. Studies (Rand and Petrocelli 1985) suggested several criteria for an ideal aquatic toxicity test organism, one of which is that the organism be indigenous to, or representative of, the ecosystem receiving the effluent. The other component needed in the development of a predictive test is the use of the receiving stream water or similar synthetic water as the control and dilution water in the test method. Use of an indigenous species and receiving water in the test should help reduce the variability in the method and allow the test to predict the effect of the effluent on the receiving stream. The experience with toxicity testing at the Savannah River Site (SRS) has yielded inconclusive data because of the inconsistency and unreliability of the results. The SRS contention is that the WET method in its present form does not adequately mimic actual biological/chemical conditions of the receiving streams and is neither reasonable nor accurate. This paper discusses the rationale for such a position by SRS on toxicity testing in terms of historical permitting requirements, outfall effluent test results, standard test method evaluation, scientific review of alternate test species, and concerns over the test method expressed by other organizations. This paper presents the Savannah River Site

  8. Study of Influence of Effluent on Ground Water Using Remote Sensing, GIS and Modeling Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, S.; Bhadra, B. K.; Sharma, J. R.

    2012-07-01

    The area lies in arid zone of western Rajasthan having very scanty rains and very low ground water reserves. Some of the other problems that are faced by the area are disposal of industrial effluent posing threat to its sustainability of water resource. Textiles, dyeing and printing industries, various mechanical process and chemical/synthetic dyes are used and considerable wastewater discharged from these textile units contains about high amount of the dyes into the adjoining drainages. This has caused degradation of water quality in this water scarce semi-arid region of the country. Pali city is located South-West, 70 Kms from Jodhpur in western Rajasthan (India). There are four Common Effluent Treatment Plant (CETP) treating wastewater to meet the pollutant level permissible to river discharge, a huge amount of effluent water of these factories directly meets the into the river Bandi - a tributary of river Luni. In order to monitor the impact of industrial effluents on the environment, identifying the extent of the degradation and evolving possible means of minimizing the impacts studies on quality of effluents, polluted river water and water of adjoining wells, the contamination migration of the pollutants from the river to ground water were studied. Remote sensing analysis has been carried out using Resourcesat -1 multispectral satellite data along with DEM derived from IRS P5 stereo pair. GIS database generated of various thematic layers viz. base layer - inventorying all waterbodies in the vicinity, transport network and village layer, drainage, geomorphology, structure, land use. Analysis of spatial distribution of the features and change detection in land use/cover carried out. GIS maps have been used to help factor in spatial location of source and hydro-geomorphological settings. DEM & elevation contour helped in delineation of watershed and identifying flow modelling boundaries. Litholog data analysis carried out for aquifer boundaries using specialized

  9. STUDY OF INFLUENCE OF EFFLUENT ON GROUND WATER USING REMOTE SENSING, GIS AND MODELING TECHNIQUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pathak

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The area lies in arid zone of western Rajasthan having very scanty rains and very low ground water reserves. Some of the other problems that are faced by the area are disposal of industrial effluent posing threat to its sustainability of water resource. Textiles, dyeing and printing industries, various mechanical process and chemical/synthetic dyes are used and considerable wastewater discharged from these textile units contains about high amount of the dyes into the adjoining drainages. This has caused degradation of water quality in this water scarce semi-arid region of the country. Pali city is located South-West, 70 Kms from Jodhpur in western Rajasthan (India. There are four Common Effluent Treatment Plant (CETP treating wastewater to meet the pollutant level permissible to river discharge, a huge amount of effluent water of these factories directly meets the into the river Bandi – a tributary of river Luni. In order to monitor the impact of industrial effluents on the environment, identifying the extent of the degradation and evolving possible means of minimizing the impacts studies on quality of effluents, polluted river water and water of adjoining wells, the contamination migration of the pollutants from the river to ground water were studied. Remote sensing analysis has been carried out using Resourcesat −1 multispectral satellite data along with DEM derived from IRS P5 stereo pair. GIS database generated of various thematic layers viz. base layer – inventorying all waterbodies in the vicinity, transport network and village layer, drainage, geomorphology, structure, land use. Analysis of spatial distribution of the features and change detection in land use/cover carried out. GIS maps have been used to help factor in spatial location of source and hydro-geomorphological settings. DEM & elevation contour helped in delineation of watershed and identifying flow modelling boundaries. Litholog data analysis carried out for aquifer

  10. Controls of Wellbore Flow Regimes on Pump Effluent Composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James Martin-Hayden; plummer; Sanford Britt

    2014-01-01

    Where well water and formation water are compositionally different or heterogeneous, pump effluent composition will vary due to partial mixing and transport induced by pumping. Investigating influences of purging and sampling methodology on composition variability requires quantification of wellbore flow regimes and mixing. As a basis for this quantification, analytical models simulating Poiseuille flow were developed to calculate flow paths and travel times. Finite element modeling was used to incorporate influences of mixing. Parabolic velocity distributions within the screened interval accelerate with cumulative inflow approaching the pump intake while an annulus of inflowing formation water contracts uniformly to displace an axial cylinder of pre-pumping well water as pumping proceeds. Increased dispersive mixing forms a more diffuse formation water annulus and the contribution of formation water to pump effluent increases more rapidly. Models incorporating viscous flow and diffusion scale mixing show that initially pump effluent is predominantly pre-pumping well water and compositions vary most rapidly. After two screen volumes of pumping, 94% of pump effluent is inflowing formation water. Where the composition of formation water and pre-pumping well water are likely to be similar, pump effluent compositions will not vary significantly and may be collected during early purging or with passive sampling. However, where these compositions are expected to be considerably different or heterogeneous, compositions would be most variable during early pumping, that is, when samples are collected during low-flow sampling. Purging of two screen volumes would be required to stabilize the content and collect a sample consisting of 94% formation water.

  11. Behavioral changes in female Swiss mice exposed to tannery effluents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Ferreira de Almeida

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Among the anthropic activities generating potentially toxic residues are those involved with bovine hide processing (tannery industries. However, knowledge is scant regarding the damage caused to the health of various organisms by tannery waste and studies are rare, especially in mammalian experimental models. This study therefore aimed to evaluate the physical and behavioral effects of the exposure of female Swiss mice to tannery effluent. To accomplish this, for a period of 15 days the animals were fed tannery effluent diluted with water in the following concentrations: 0% (control group, received only potable water, 5% and 10%. The body mass of the animals was evaluated at the beginning and end of the experiment, as well as the daily consumption of water and food. After 15 days of exposure to the effluent, the animals were submitted to the elevated plus maze (predictive of anxiety and the forced swim test (predictive of depression. The treatments did not affect the animals' body mass, either in eating behavior or in consumption of water. However, it was found that the animals that ingested tannery effluent concentrations of 5% and 10% exhibited an anxiolytic (lower level of anxiety, greater percentage of time in the open arms, longer time and frequency in the diving behavior, less time of lurks and less frequency of freezing and an antidepressant effect (more time in climbing behavior and less time of immobility when compared to the control group. It was concluded that the exposure of female Swiss mice to tannery effluents (5% and 10% diluted with water causes behavioral changes, possibly related to the neurotoxicity of this waste, without causing physical changes in the animals.

  12. Biogas Production From Cassava Starch Effluent Using Microalgae As Biostabilisator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Budiyono

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The rapid growing of Indonesian population is emerging several critical national issues i.e. energy, food, environmental, water, transportation, as well as law and human right. As an agricultural country, Indonesia has abundant of biomass wastes such as agricultural wastes include the cassava starch wastes. The problem is that the effluent from cassava starch factories is released directly into the river before properly treatment. It has been a great source of pollution and has caused environmental problems to the nearby rural population. The possible alternative to solve the problem is by converting waste to energy biogas in the biodigester. The main problem of the biogas production of cassava starch effluent is acid forming-bacteria quickly produced acid resulting significantly in declining pH below the neutral pH and diminishing growth of methane bacteria. Hence, the only one of the method to cover this problem is by adding microalgae as biostabilisator of pH. Microalgae can also be used as purifier agent to absorb CO2.The general objective of this research project was to develop an integrated process of biogas production and purification from cassava starch effluent by using biostabilisator agent microalgae. This study has been focused on the used of urea, ruminant, yeast, microalgae, the treatment of gelled and ungelled feed for biogas production, pH control during biogas production using buffer Na2CO3, and feeding management in the semi-continuous process of biogas production. The result can be concluded as follows: i The biogas production increased after cassava starch effluent and yeast was added, ii Biogas production with microalgae and cassava starch effluent, yeast, ruminant bacteria, and urea were 726.43 ml/g total solid, iii Biogas production without  microalgae was 189 ml/g total solid.

  13. The conditions for industrial effluent discharges to the municipal sewerage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The industrial waste waters of an urban area are jointly treated with municipal sewage waters. The operation of the municipal sewage treatment plant depends substantially on the quality and quantity of industrial waste water conducted to the treatment plant for joint treatment and drainage. In order to guarantee the normal run of the plant a number of normative documents have been worked out regulating the discharge of industrial effluents to the municipal sewer network. Detailed requirements for individual industrial enterprises have been elaborated on the grounds of these documents by the local bodies of Water Supply and Sewage Management. The local requirements are coordinated with the institutions for the regulation of water utilisation and water conservation under the USSR Ministry of Land Reclamation and Water Conservation and the Ministry of Fisheries and are confirmed by local municipal authorities. Control over the implementation of obligations is exercised by Water Supply and Sewerage Management authorities. The discharges of industrial effluents to municipal sewer network have to meet both general and specific requirements

  14. Preliminary Assessment of Effects of Paint Industry Effluents on Local Groundwater Regime in Ibadan, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olaoye, R. A.

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Although, groundwater constitutes a major source of water supply especially in developing countries, however wastes generated arising from industrial growth and further complication caused by its indiscriminate disposal have been a major risk to groundwater vulnerability. Hence in this study, preliminary impact assessment of wastewater discharged from paint industry on proximal groundwater regime was carried out. Representative groundwater and effluent samples were collected from locations within the study area, and analyzed in accordance to the American Public Health Association standard methods. The values of the measured concentration of the parameters were compared with regulatory standards for drinking water. The concentrations of Mn2+ , total Fe, Ca2+ , TDS, TSS, total hardness and SO4 2- were mostly higher than the permissible regulatory standards. Total alkalinity values were very low in all the groundwater samples, while the presence of E-coli across all the sampling points indicated wide spread pathogenic contamination. The results showed average lead concentration of 1.18 mg/l compared to the permissible level of 0.01 mg/l. Corresponding higher values of the physicochemical and biological parameters were observed in the discharged effluent samples. The observed high lead concentration have potential toxic consequences, and hence enforcement of localized waste minimization is recommended in order to promote waste recycling, and ensure adequate protection of public health and the environment.

  15. 40 CFR 435.14 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... located beyond 3 miles from shore: Water-based drilling fluids and associated drill cuttings Free Oil No... fluids Free Oil No discharge. 2 Well treatment, completion and workover fluids Free oil No discharge. 2... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS OIL AND GAS EXTRACTION POINT SOURCE CATEGORY...

  16. 40 CFR 420.12 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... best practicable control technology currently available. (a) By-product cokemaking—iron and steel... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Cokemaking... application of the best practicable control technology currently available (BPT). Except as provided in 40...

  17. 40 CFR 420.97 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Acid Pickling Subcategory § 420... of the best conventional technology (BCT). Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any... degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best conventional technology (BCT)....

  18. 40 CFR 420.47 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... control technology (BCT). 420.47 Section 420.47 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Steelmaking... by the application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). (a) Electric...

  19. 40 CFR 420.33 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Ironmaking Subcategory... application of the best available technology economically achievable (BAT). Except as provided in 40 CFR 125... best available technology economically achievable. (a) Iron blast furnace. Subpart C Pollutant...

  20. 40 CFR 420.87 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Salt Bath Descaling Subcategory... application of the best conventional technology (BCT). Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any... degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best conventional technology (BCT)....

  1. 40 CFR 420.32 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Ironmaking... application of the best practicable control technology currently available (BPT). Except as provided in 40 CFR... best practicable control technology currently available. (a) Iron blast furnace. Subpart C Pollutant...

  2. 40 CFR 420.77 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hot Forming Subcategory § 420.77... best conventional technology (BCT). Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing... degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best conventional technology (BCT)....

  3. 40 CFR 420.127 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hot Coating Subcategory § 420.127... best conventional technology (BCT). Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing... degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best conventional technology (BCT)....

  4. 40 CFR 420.117 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Alkaline Cleaning Subcategory... application of the best conventional technology (BCT). Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any... degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best conventional technology (BCT)....

  5. 40 CFR 420.22 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... technology currently available (BPT). 420.22 Section 420.22 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE... reduction attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology currently available...

  6. 40 CFR 420.107 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Cold Forming Subcategory § 420... of the best conventional technology (BCT). Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any... degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best conventional technology (BCT)....

  7. 40 CFR 420.17 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Cokemaking Subcategory § 420.17... best conventional technology (BCT). Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing...-product cokemaking—iron and steel. Subpart A Pollutant or pollutant property BCT effluent...

  8. 40 CFR 406.87 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... control technology (BCT). 406.87 Section 406.87 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hot Cereal Subcategory § 406... conventional pollutants (which are defined in § 401.16) in § 406.82 of this subpart for the best...

  9. 40 CFR 406.77 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... control technology (BCT). 406.77 Section 406.77 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Animal Feed Subcategory § 406... conventional pollutants (which are defined in § 401.16) in § 406.72 of this subpart for the best...

  10. 40 CFR 422.52 - Effluent limitations and guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Defluorinated Phosphoric Acid Subcategory § 422.52 Effluent limitations and guidelines representing the degree... process wastewater pollutants to navigable waters. (b) Process waste water pollutants from a cooling water... the 10-year, 24-hour rainfall event may be discharged, after treatment to the standards set forth...

  11. 40 CFR 421.113 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart shall achieve... Air Pollution Control. BAT Effluent Limitations Pollutant or pollutant property Maximum for any 1 day... .635 .261 Ammonia (as N) 82.910 36.450 Fluoride 21.770 12.440 (b) Subpart K—Solvent...

  12. 40 CFR 408.57 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... control technology (BCT). 408.57 Section 408.57 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Remote Alaskan Crab Meat Processing Subcategory § 408.57 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the... technology (BCT). Except as provided in §§ 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to...

  13. 40 CFR 408.52 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... technology currently available. 408.52 Section 408.52 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... CATEGORY Remote Alaskan Crab Meat Processing Subcategory § 408.52 Effluent limitations guidelines... technology currently available. Except as provided in §§ 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point...

  14. 40 CFR 408.42 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... technology currently available. 408.42 Section 408.42 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... CATEGORY Non-Remote Alaskan Crab Meat Processing Subcategory § 408.42 Effluent limitations guidelines... technology currently available. Except as provided in §§ 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point...

  15. 40 CFR 408.47 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... control technology (BCT). 408.47 Section 408.47 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Non-Remote Alaskan Crab Meat Processing Subcategory § 408.47 Effluent limitations guidelines... control technology (BCT). Except as provided in §§ 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point...

  16. 40 CFR 408.237 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... control technology (BCT). 408.237 Section 408.237 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Effluent limitations guidelines... control technology (BCT). Except as provided in §§ 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point...

  17. 40 CFR 417.152 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... available (BPT): (a) For normal operation of spray drying towers as defined above, the following values... operation of a spray drying tower, but only when a high rate of wet scrubbing is in operation which produces... CATEGORY Manufacture of Spray Dried Detergents Subcategory § 417.152 Effluent limitations...

  18. 40 CFR 419.12 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ratio of 2.2 to 1 to the applicable effluent limitations for BOD5. 2 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. ...) Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart... organic carbon (TOC) based upon an analysis of any single grab or composite sample. (2) If...

  19. 40 CFR 419.22 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... data are not available, the effluent limitations for TOC shall be established at a ratio of 2.2 to 1 to...) Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart... (TOC) based upon an analysis of any single grab or composite sample. (2) If contaminated runoff...

  20. 40 CFR 419.42 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... available, the effluent limitations for TOC shall be established at a ratio of 2.2 to 1 to the applicable... as provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart must... exceed 15 mg/l oil and grease and 110 mg/l total organic carbon (TOC) based upon an analysis of...

  1. 40 CFR 419.32 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... available, the effluent limitations for TOC shall be established at a ratio of 2.2 to 1 to the applicable... provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart must achieve... analysis of any single grab or composite sample. (2) If contaminated runoff is commingled or treated...

  2. Offsite dose calculation manual guidance: Standard radiological effluent controls for boiling water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains guidance which may be voluntarily used by licensees who choose to implement the provision of Generic Letter 89-- 01, which allows Radiological Effluent Technical Specifications (RETS) to be removed from the main body of the Technical Specifications and placed in the Offsite Dose Calculation Manual (ODCM). Guidance is provided for Standard Effluent Controls definitions, Controls for effluent monitoring instrumentation, Controls for effluent releases, Controls for radiological environmental monitoring, and the basis for Controls. Guidance on the formulation of RETS has been available in draft form for a number of years; the current effort simply recasts those RETS into Standard Radiological Effluent Controls for application to the ODCM. 11 tabs

  3. Endocrine disrupting alkylphenolic chemicals and other contaminants in wastewater treatment plant effluents, urban streams, and fish in the Great Lakes and Upper Mississippi River Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Larry B.; Loyo-Rosales, Jorge E.; Rice, Clifford P.; Minarik, Thomas A.; Oskouie, Ali K.

    2015-01-01

    Urban streams are an integral part of the municipal water cycle and provide a point of discharge for wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents, allowing additional attenuation through dilution and transformation processes, as well as a conduit for transporting contaminants to downstream water supplies. Domestic and commercial activities dispose of wastes down-the-drain, resulting in wastewater containing complex chemical mixtures that are only partially removed during treatment. A key issue associated with WWTP effluent discharge into streams is the potential to cause endocrine disruption in fish. This study provides a long-term (1999-2009) evaluation of the occurrence of alkylphenolic endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and other contaminants discharged from WWTPs into streams in the Great Lakes and Upper Mississippi River Regions (Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, Minnesota, and Ohio). The Greater Metropolitan Chicago Area Waterways, Illinois, were evaluated to determine contaminant concentrations in the major WWTP effluents and receiving streams, and assess the behavior of EDCs from their sources within the sewer collection system, through the major treatment unit processes at a WWTP, to their persistence and transport in the receiving stream. Water samples were analyzed for alkylphenolic EDCs and other contaminants, including 4-nonylphenol (NP), 4-nonylphenolpolyethoxylates (NPEO), 4-nonylphenolethoxycarboxylic acids (NPEC), 4-tert-octylphenol (OP), 4-tert-octylphenolpolyethoxylates (OPEO), bisphenol A, triclosan, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), and trace elements. All of the compounds were detected in all of the WWTP effluents, with EDTA and NPEC having the greatest concentrations. The compounds also were detected in the WWTP effluent dominated rivers. Multiple fish species were collected from river and lake sites and analyzed for NP, NPEO, NPEC, OP, and OPEO. Whole-body fish tissue analysis indicated widespread occurrence of alkylphenolic compounds

  4. Endocrine disrupting alkylphenolic chemicals and other contaminants in wastewater treatment plant effluents, urban streams, and fish in the Great Lakes and Upper Mississippi River Regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Larry B; Loyo-Rosales, Jorge E; Rice, Clifford P; Minarik, Thomas A; Oskouie, Ali K

    2015-06-01

    Urban streams are an integral part of the municipal water cycle and provide a point of discharge for wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents, allowing additional attenuation through dilution and transformation processes, as well as a conduit for transporting contaminants to downstream water supplies. Domestic and commercial activities dispose of wastes down-the-drain, resulting in wastewater containing complex chemical mixtures that are only partially removed during treatment. A key issue associated with WWTP effluent discharge into streams is the potential to cause endocrine disruption in fish. This study provides a long-term (1999-2009) evaluation of the occurrence of alkylphenolic endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and other contaminants discharged from WWTPs into streams in the Great Lakes and Upper Mississippi River Regions (Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, Minnesota, and Ohio). The Greater Metropolitan Chicago Area Waterways, Illinois, were evaluated to determine contaminant concentrations in the major WWTP effluents and receiving streams, and assess the behavior of EDCs from their sources within the sewer collection system, through the major treatment unit processes at a WWTP, to their persistence and transport in the receiving stream. Water samples were analyzed for alkylphenolic EDCs and other contaminants, including 4-nonylphenol (NP), 4-nonylphenolpolyethoxylates (NPEO), 4-nonylphenolethoxycarboxylic acids (NPEC), 4-tert-octylphenol (OP), 4-tert-octylphenolpolyethoxylates (OPEO), bisphenol A, triclosan, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), and trace elements. All of the compounds were detected in all of the WWTP effluents, with EDTA and NPEC having the greatest concentrations. The compounds also were detected in the WWTP effluent dominated rivers. Multiple fish species were collected from river and lake sites and analyzed for NP, NPEO, NPEC, OP, and OPEO. Whole-body fish tissue analysis indicated widespread occurrence of alkylphenolic compounds

  5. 77 FR 76099 - Yorkville ETF Trust and Yorkville ETF Advisors, LLC; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-26

    ... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Courtney S. Thornton, Senior Counsel at (202) 551-6812, or David P. Bartels... advertised, marketed or otherwise held out as a traditional open-end investment company or a mutual fund... the Trust nor any Fund will be advertised or marketed as an open-end investment company or a...

  6. 78 FR 54298 - Horizons ETFs Management (USA) LLC and Horizons ETF Trust; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-03

    ...''), and shareholders redeeming their Shares will receive an in-kind transfer of specified instruments... investment company from suspending the right of redemption or postponing the date of payment of redemption... interest of shareholders of the Fund. 8. Each Fund will maintain and preserve permanently in an...

  7. ETFs:A New Fund%ETFs:基金家族新成员

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    由游; 沈魏

    2004-01-01

    1992年美国证券交易所推出基于S&PS00指数的SPDR基金,宣告了交易所交易基金的诞生。由于其具有很多优点,因此很快为市场的各方参与者所接受,在美国市场取得了巨大成功。同时,ETFs引起了欧洲、亚洲和大洋洲等很多证券市场的关注,在全球范围内得到迅速发展,资产规模以指数形式快速增长。据SSGA(道富全球投资)统计,截止到2001

  8. Decolorization and detoxification of two textile industry effluents by the laccase/1-hydroxybenzotriazole system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzina, Ouafa; Daâssi, Dalel; Zouari-Mechichi, Héla; Frikha, Fakher; Woodward, Steve; Belbahri, Lassaad; Rodriguez-Couto, Susana; Mechichi, Tahar

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this work was to determine the optimal conditions for the decolorization and the detoxification of two effluents from a textile industry-effluent A (the reactive dye bath Bezactive) and effluent B (the direct dye bath Tubantin)-using a laccase mediator system. Response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to optimize textile effluents decolorization. A Box-Behnken design using RSM with the four variables pH, effluent concentration, 1-hydroxybenzotriazole (HBT) concentration, and enzyme (laccase) concentration was used to determine correlations between the effects of these variables on the decolorization of the two effluents. The optimum conditions for pH and concentrations of HBT, effluent and laccase were 5, 1 mM, 50 % and 0.6 U/ml, respectively, for maximum decolorization of effluent A (68 %). For effluent B, optima were 4, 1 mM, 75 %, and 0.6 U/ml, respectively, for maximum decolorization of approximately 88 %. Both effluents were treated at 30 °C for 20 h. A quadratic model was obtained for each decolorization through this design. The experimental and predicted values were in good agreement and both models were highly significant. In addition, the toxicity of the two effluents was determined before and after laccase treatment using Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Bacillus cereus, and germination of tomato seeds.

  9. Performance of the freshwater shrimp Atyaephyra desmarestii as indicator of stress imposed by textile effluents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Fidalgo

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Textile plants consume large volumes of water and produce a great amount of wastewaters, which can be important sources of toxic discharges in receiving environments. The objective of this study was to evaluate the acute toxicity of textile effluents on the freshwater shrimp A. desmarestii. A whole effluent toxicity test procedure was used to determine the aggregate toxicity of three samples taken before and after wastewater treatment in a textile mill. The following LC50 − 48 h values (%, v/v were calculated: Untreated effluent −29% effluent (sample 1, 22% effluent (sample 2, and 47% (sample 3; Treated effluent −73% effluent (sample 1, 74% effluent (sample 2, and > 100% (sample 3. Based upon acute toxicity units (TUa = 100/LC50, untreated effluent varied from toxic in samples 1 and 3 (2.00 ≤ TUa ≤ 4.00 to very toxic in sample 2 (TUa > 4.0, whereas treated effluent varied from no toxic in sample 3 to moderately toxic in samples 1 and 2 (1.33 ≤ TUa ≤ 1.99. Despite some limitations and constraints related to innate variability of industrial effluents, our results suggested that A. desmarestii can be a promising and potential test organism for assessing toxicity of complex chemical mixtures.

  10. ASSESSMENT OF DISTILLERY EFFLUENT IRRIGATION ON SOIL MICROBES AND ITS BIOREMEDIATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tripathi D. M

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study deals with the assessment of toxicity of distillery effluent on soil microorganisms and its quality improvement through bioremediation using Pseudomonas spp. Under lab scale experiment, different dilutions of distillery effluent i.e. 25%, 50%, 75% were used to examine effects on physico-chemical parameters of effluent and on soil microflora e.g. algae, bacteria, fungi and actinomycetes. The results revealed that dilution may reduce significantly the metal contents and other toxicants in the effluent as well as in the soil. Statistical analysis revealed that bioremediation of distillery effluent using Pseudomonas spp. caused significant reduction in BOD, COD, TDS, TN, TP and color. The study indicates that raw distillery effluent is harmful for soil microflora and bioremediation improves the quality of distillery effluent making it suitable as a soil amendment.

  11. Sensitivity bioassays of the Cnesterodon decemmaculatus and Pimephales promelasin a series of samples of effluent and reference toxicant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Saona

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study compared the toxicological sensitivity quantified by the 50% lethal dose of acute toxicity bioassays of Cnesterodon decemmaculatusand Pimephales promelasin benchmark exposure to toxic industrial effluents, wastewater effluents and reference toxicants. At the same time, the toxicological sensitivity of C. decemmaculatusrelated to the size was assayed. Both species were analyzed with 16 bioassays mated by the same substance or compound and a good agreement rL= 0.75 was observed. No significant differences in the overall analysis for effluents and potassium dichromate appeared in toxicological analysis of sensitivity to size. In contrast, significant difference in sensitivity was observed in assays with sodium dodecyl sulfate. Previous studies of the acute bioassays of C. decemmaculatusas well as the results obtained in this work accredit the use of this species in the ecotoxicological evaluation.This work contributes to generate specific ecotoxicological tools employing a native species (C. decemmaculatus and provides comparative information with an internationally accepted species used in reference bioassays (P. promelas. Progress of these studies as a priority research area will contribute to consolidate analytical tools, to develop professional skills and to strengthen institutions that manage the water resources in Uruguay.

  12. Economic valuation of environmental benefits of removing pharmaceutical and personal care products from WWTP effluents by ozonation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinos-Senante, M; Reif, R; Garrido-Baserba, M; Hernández-Sancho, F; Omil, F; Poch, M; Sala-Garrido, R

    2013-09-01

    Continuous release of pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) present in effluents from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is nowadays leading to the adoption of specific measures within the framework of the Directive 2000/60/EC (Water Framework Directive). The ozonation process, normally employed for drinking water production, has also proven its potential to eliminate PPCPs from secondary effluents in spite of their low concentrations. However, there is a significant drawback related with the costs associated with its implementation. This lack of studies is especially pronounced regarding the economic valuation of the environmental benefits associated to avoid the discharge of these pollutants into water bodies. For the first time the shadow prices of 5 PPCPs which are ethynilestradiol, sulfamethoxazole, diclofenac, tonalide and galaxolide from treated effluent using a pilot-scale ozonation reactor have been estimated. From non-sensitive areas their values are -73.73; -34.95; -42.20; -10.98; and -8.67 respectively and expressed in €/kg. They represent a proxy to the economic value of the environmental benefits arisen from undischarged pollutants. This paper contributes to value the environmental benefits of implementing post-treatment processes aimed to achieve the quality standards required by the Priority Substances Directive.

  13. Characterisation of the ecotoxicity of hospital effluents: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orias, Frédéric; Perrodin, Yves

    2013-06-01

    The multiple activities that take place in hospitals (surgery, drug treatments, radiology, cleaning of premises and linen, chemical and biological analysis laboratories, etc.), are a major source of pollutant emissions into the environment (disinfectants, detergents, drug residues, etc.). Most of these pollutants can be found in hospital effluents (HWW), then in urban sewer networks and WWTP (weakly adapted for their treatment) and finally in aquatic environments. In view to evaluating the impact of these pollutants on aquatic ecosystems, it is necessary to characterise their ecotoxicity. Several reviews have focused on the quantitative and qualitative characterisation of pollutants present in HWW. However, none have focused specifically on the characterisation of their experimental ecotoxicity. We have evaluated this according to two complementary approaches: (i) a “substance” approach based on the identification of the experimental data in the literature for different substances found in hospital effluents, and on the calculation of their PNEC (Predicted Non Effect Concentration), (ii) a “matrix” approach for which we have synthesised ecotoxicity data obtained from the hospital effluents directly. This work first highlights the diversity of the substances present within hospital effluents, and the very high ecotoxicity of some of them (minimum PNEC observed close to 0,01 pg/L). We also observed that the consumption of drugs in hospitals was a predominant factor chosen by authors to prioritise the compounds to be sought. Other criteria such as biodegradability, excretion rate and the bioaccumulability of pollutants are considered, though more rarely. Studies of the ecotoxicity of the particulate phase of effluents must also be taken into account. It is also necessary to monitor the effluents of each of the specialised departments of the hospital studied. These steps is necessary to define realistic environmental management policies for hospitals

  14. Characterisation of the ecotoxicity of hospital effluents: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The multiple activities that take place in hospitals (surgery, drug treatments, radiology, cleaning of premises and linen, chemical and biological analysis laboratories, etc.), are a major source of pollutant emissions into the environment (disinfectants, detergents, drug residues, etc.). Most of these pollutants can be found in hospital effluents (HWW), then in urban sewer networks and WWTP (weakly adapted for their treatment) and finally in aquatic environments. In view to evaluating the impact of these pollutants on aquatic ecosystems, it is necessary to characterise their ecotoxicity. Several reviews have focused on the quantitative and qualitative characterisation of pollutants present in HWW. However, none have focused specifically on the characterisation of their experimental ecotoxicity. We have evaluated this according to two complementary approaches: (i) a “substance” approach based on the identification of the experimental data in the literature for different substances found in hospital effluents, and on the calculation of their PNEC (Predicted Non Effect Concentration), (ii) a “matrix” approach for which we have synthesised ecotoxicity data obtained from the hospital effluents directly. This work first highlights the diversity of the substances present within hospital effluents, and the very high ecotoxicity of some of them (minimum PNEC observed close to 0,01 pg/L). We also observed that the consumption of drugs in hospitals was a predominant factor chosen by authors to prioritise the compounds to be sought. Other criteria such as biodegradability, excretion rate and the bioaccumulability of pollutants are considered, though more rarely. Studies of the ecotoxicity of the particulate phase of effluents must also be taken into account. It is also necessary to monitor the effluents of each of the specialised departments of the hospital studied. These steps is necessary to define realistic environmental management policies for hospitals

  15. Amélioration de la qualité microbiologique des effluents secondaires par stockage en bassins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trad-Rais M.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Microbiological quality improvement of secondary effluent by reservoir storage. Storing secondary effluents is of particular interest for water resource management. It constitutes further treatment which reduces the microbial contamination of water to a level where it can be used for the irrigation of all crops, without restriction. The storage of treated wastewater takes place during the winter, ensuring that such a resource is not lost and enabling a larger area to be irrigated during the dry season, thereby increasing agricultural production. Storage trials in reservoirs were conducted in north-eastern Tunisia. Their objective was to determine the length and conditions of secondary effluent decontamination as well as the impact of seasonal storage on water quality. The results indicate that the decontamination of effluents slows down with increased reservoir depth. For a depth of less than 150 cm, a reduction of fecal coliforms in the order of 3 log units is attained in 3 days when the average temperature of the water ranges from 22 to 25 degrees C; when this temperature is between 25.5 and 28 degrees C, the same reduction takes 8 days. Below 20 degrees C, decontamination is considerably reduced: for a mean water temperature ranging from 12.5 to 18 degrees C, the reduction of fecal coliforms reaches 3 log units only after a retention time of 17 days in the reservoir. Seasonal storage from 2 to 7 months does not affect the bacteriological quality of water: after decontamination, no proliferation of bacterial indicators occurs during storage.

  16. Application of ozone based treatments of secondary effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Smriti; Pathak, Vinita; Tripathi, Devendra Mani; Tripathi, B D

    2011-02-01

    The present work was aimed at studying the efficiency of ozone in oxidation processes, coliform inactivation and Disinfection Byproducts (DBPs) formation, associated with the potential of ozone to increase the Biodegradable Dissolved Organic Carbon (BDOC) in secondary effluent with applied ozone doses of 5.0, 10.0 and 15.0 mg/L for contact times of 2, 5 and 10 min. The wastewater used in this work was collected from the Bhagwanpur Sewage Treatment Plant, Varanasi, India. Results of this experiment showed that 10 mg O(3)/L O(3) for 5 min exposure was found most suitable dose for highest degradation of COD, TOC, UV(254), color, turbidity and total nitrogen parameters. The inactivation range of microbial biomass range was found in between 95% and 98%. Experiment revealed the fact that aldehydes and carboxylic acid formation were significantly related with the ozone dose and exposure time and ozone might enhance the treatment efficiency of secondary effluent treatment.

  17. Radioactive effluents in the Savannah River: Summary report for 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winn, W.G.

    1991-09-01

    Researchers at the Savannah River Site have low-level radiometric studies of the Savannah River to distinguish between the effluent contributions of the Savannah River Site and Plant Vogtle. Since the startup of Plant Vogtle in 1987, researchers have routinely detected neutron-activated isotopes in controlled releases, but all have routinely detected neutron-activated isotopes in controlled releases, but all have been well below the Department of Energy`s (DOE) guidelines. The study has found that processing improvement at Plant Vogtle during 1989 have lowered the activities of effluents from Plant Vogtle. These studies will continue on a routine basis because they provide disturbing trends before actual health concerns evolve.

  18. Radioactive effluents in the Savannah River: Summary report for 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winn, W.G.

    1991-09-01

    Researchers at the Savannah River Site have low-level radiometric studies of the Savannah River to distinguish between the effluent contributions of the Savannah River Site and Plant Vogtle. Since the startup of Plant Vogtle in 1987, researchers have routinely detected neutron-activated isotopes in controlled releases, but all have routinely detected neutron-activated isotopes in controlled releases, but all have been well below the Department of Energy's (DOE) guidelines. The study has found that processing improvement at Plant Vogtle during 1989 have lowered the activities of effluents from Plant Vogtle. These studies will continue on a routine basis because they provide disturbing trends before actual health concerns evolve.

  19. A Novel Technique to Prevent Effluent Spillage During Percutaneous Cystolithotripsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shenoy SP

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Our objective was to design an efficient system for collection of refluxing irrigant during performance of percutaneous cystolithotripsy (PCL to avoid the messy spillage and its undesirable consequences on the patient, the operating team and the operating room environment. A closed drainage system using a long sleeve surgical glove, 10 millimeter laparoscopic trocar, 30 french Amplatz sheath, Y-tubing and linen thread was designed for performing PCL without disconnection during the procedure. While the refluxing effluent was efficiently drained, minimizing spillage, the calculus fragments were collected in a distensible receptacle adjacent to the Amplatz sheath. Three procedures were performed over a year on males with large bladder calculi. The system designed by us was easy to set up, lent itself to easy unhindered performance of the procedure, and spillage of effluent was minimized.

  20. Study and adjustment of ceramic effluent treatment system for reuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Cardoso dos Santos

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The main paper aim was to present the preliminary results referring to the study and adjustment of the effluent treatment system for reuse in the ceramic floor production process. For this propose methods and techniques for solid and liquid separation were carried out. The focus was the less alteration in the treatment plant the better. So, there were analyzed some alternatives for the effluent treatment and, among them, the primary sedimentation without chemicals followed by the coagulation and flocculation applying ferric chlorine and synthetic polymer, sedimentation and filtration presented the best results. Thus, a new layout for the treatment plant was proposed by integrating the existent units in a different way so they could attend the laboratory established conditions.