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Sample records for area effluent treatment

  1. Hanford Facility dangerous waste permit application, liquid effluent retention facility and 200 area effluent treatment facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coenenberg, J.G.

    1997-08-15

    The Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application is considered to 10 be a single application organized into a General Information Portion (document 11 number DOE/RL-91-28) and a Unit-Specific Portion. The scope of the 12 Unit-Specific Portion is limited to Part B permit application documentation 13 submitted for individual, `operating` treatment, storage, and/or disposal 14 units, such as the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility and 200 Area Effluent 15 Treatment Facility (this document, DOE/RL-97-03). 16 17 Both the General Information and Unit-Specific portions of the Hanford 18 Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application address the content of the Part B 19 permit application guidance prepared by the Washington State Department of 20 Ecology (Ecology 1987 and 1996) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 21 (40 Code of Federal Regulations 270), with additional information needs 22 defined by the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments and revisions of 23 Washington Administrative Code 173-303. For ease of reference, the Washington 24 State Department of Ecology alpha-numeric section identifiers from the permit 25 application guidance documentation (Ecology 1996) follow, in brackets, the 26 chapter headings and subheadings. A checklist indicating where information is 27 contained in the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility and 200 Area Effluent 28 Treatment Facility permit application documentation, in relation to the 29 Washington State Department of Ecology guidance, is located in the Contents 30 Section. 31 32 Documentation contained in the General Information Portion is broader in 33 nature and could be used by multiple treatment, storage, and/or disposal units 34 (e.g., the glossary provided in the General Information Portion). Wherever 35 appropriate, the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility and 200 Area Effluent 36 Treatment Facility permit application documentation makes cross-reference to 37 the General Information Portion, rather than duplicating

  2. Hanford Facility dangerous waste permit application, liquid effluent retention facility and 200 area effluent treatment facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application is considered to 10 be a single application organized into a General Information Portion (document 11 number DOE/RL-91-28) and a Unit-Specific Portion. The scope of the 12 Unit-Specific Portion is limited to Part B permit application documentation 13 submitted for individual, 'operating' treatment, storage, and/or disposal 14 units, such as the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility and 200 Area Effluent 15 Treatment Facility (this document, DOE/RL-97-03). 16 17 Both the General Information and Unit-Specific portions of the Hanford 18 Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application address the content of the Part B 19 permit application guidance prepared by the Washington State Department of 20 Ecology (Ecology 1987 and 1996) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 21 (40 Code of Federal Regulations 270), with additional information needs 22 defined by the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments and revisions of 23 Washington Administrative Code 173-303. For ease of reference, the Washington 24 State Department of Ecology alpha-numeric section identifiers from the permit 25 application guidance documentation (Ecology 1996) follow, in brackets, the 26 chapter headings and subheadings. A checklist indicating where information is 27 contained in the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility and 200 Area Effluent 28 Treatment Facility permit application documentation, in relation to the 29 Washington State Department of Ecology guidance, is located in the Contents 30 Section. 31 32 Documentation contained in the General Information Portion is broader in 33 nature and could be used by multiple treatment, storage, and/or disposal units 34 (e.g., the glossary provided in the General Information Portion). Wherever 35 appropriate, the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility and 200 Area Effluent 36 Treatment Facility permit application documentation makes cross-reference to 37 the General Information Portion, rather than duplicating

  3. PEROXIDE DESTRUCTION TESTING FOR THE 200 AREA EFFLUENT TREATMENT FACILITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HALGREN DL

    2010-03-12

    The hydrogen peroxide decomposer columns at the 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) have been taken out of service due to ongoing problems with particulate fines and poor destruction performance from the granular activated carbon (GAC) used in the columns. An alternative search was initiated and led to bench scale testing and then pilot scale testing. Based on the bench scale testing three manganese dioxide based catalysts were evaluated in the peroxide destruction pilot column installed at the 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility. The ten inch diameter, nine foot tall, clear polyvinyl chloride (PVC) column allowed for the same six foot catalyst bed depth as is in the existing ETF system. The flow rate to the column was controlled to evaluate the performance at the same superficial velocity (gpm/ft{sup 2}) as the full scale design flow and normal process flow. Each catalyst was evaluated on peroxide destruction performance and particulate fines capacity and carryover. Peroxide destruction was measured by hydrogen peroxide concentration analysis of samples taken before and after the column. The presence of fines in the column headspace and the discharge from carryover was generally assessed by visual observation. All three catalysts met the peroxide destruction criteria by achieving hydrogen peroxide discharge concentrations of less than 0.5 mg/L at the design flow with inlet peroxide concentrations greater than 100 mg/L. The Sud-Chemie T-2525 catalyst was markedly better in the minimization of fines and particle carryover. It is anticipated the T-2525 can be installed as a direct replacement for the GAC in the peroxide decomposer columns. Based on the results of the peroxide method development work the recommendation is to purchase the T-2525 catalyst and initially load one of the ETF decomposer columns for full scale testing.

  4. PEROXIDE DESTRUCTION TESTING FOR THE 200 AREA EFFLUENT TREATMENT FACILITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The hydrogen peroxide decomposer columns at the 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) have been taken out of service due to ongoing problems with particulate fines and poor destruction performance from the granular activated carbon (GAC) used in the columns. An alternative search was initiated and led to bench scale testing and then pilot scale testing. Based on the bench scale testing three manganese dioxide based catalysts were evaluated in the peroxide destruction pilot column installed at the 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility. The ten inch diameter, nine foot tall, clear polyvinyl chloride (PVC) column allowed for the same six foot catalyst bed depth as is in the existing ETF system. The flow rate to the column was controlled to evaluate the performance at the same superficial velocity (gpm/ft2) as the full scale design flow and normal process flow. Each catalyst was evaluated on peroxide destruction performance and particulate fines capacity and carryover. Peroxide destruction was measured by hydrogen peroxide concentration analysis of samples taken before and after the column. The presence of fines in the column headspace and the discharge from carryover was generally assessed by visual observation. All three catalysts met the peroxide destruction criteria by achieving hydrogen peroxide discharge concentrations of less than 0.5 mg/L at the design flow with inlet peroxide concentrations greater than 100 mg/L. The Sud-Chemie T-2525 catalyst was markedly better in the minimization of fines and particle carryover. It is anticipated the T-2525 can be installed as a direct replacement for the GAC in the peroxide decomposer columns. Based on the results of the peroxide method development work the recommendation is to purchase the T-2525 catalyst and initially load one of the ETF decomposer columns for full scale testing.

  5. Request for modification of 200 Area effluent treatment facility final delisting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BOWMAN, R.C.

    1998-11-19

    A Delisting Petition submitted to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in August 1993 addressed effluent to be generated at the 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility from treating Hanford Facility waste streams. This Delisting Petition requested that 71.9 million liters per year of treated effluent, bearing the designation 'F001' through 'F005', and/or 'F039' that is derived from 'F001' through 'F005' waste, be delisted. On June 13, 1995, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency published the final rule (Final Delisting), which formally excluded 71.9 million liters per year of 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility effluent from ''being listed as hazardous wastes'' (60 FR 31115 now promulgated in 40 CFR 261). Given the limited scope, it is necessary to request a modification of the Final Delisting to address the management of a more diverse multi-source leachate (F039) at the 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility. From past operations and current cleanup activities on the Hanford Facility, a considerable amount of both liquid and solid Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 regulated mixed waste has been and continues to be generated. Ultimately this waste will be treated as necessary to meet the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Land Disposal Restrictions. The disposal of this waste will be in Resource Conservation and Recovery Act--compliant permitted lined trenches equipped with leachate collection systems. These operations will result in the generation of what is referred to as multi-source leachate. This newly generated waste will receive the listed waste designation of F039. This waste also must be managed in compliance with the provisions of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

  6. Request for modification of 200 Area effluent treatment facility final delisting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Delisting Petition submitted to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in August 1993 addressed effluent to be generated at the 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility from treating Hanford Facility waste streams. This Delisting Petition requested that 71.9 million liters per year of treated effluent, bearing the designation 'F001' through 'F005', and/or 'F039' that is derived from 'F001' through 'F005' waste, be delisted. On June 13, 1995, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency published the final rule (Final Delisting), which formally excluded 71.9 million liters per year of 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility effluent from ''being listed as hazardous wastes'' (60 FR 31115 now promulgated in 40 CFR 261). Given the limited scope, it is necessary to request a modification of the Final Delisting to address the management of a more diverse multi-source leachate (F039) at the 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility. From past operations and current cleanup activities on the Hanford Facility, a considerable amount of both liquid and solid Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 regulated mixed waste has been and continues to be generated. Ultimately this waste will be treated as necessary to meet the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Land Disposal Restrictions. The disposal of this waste will be in Resource Conservation and Recovery Act--compliant permitted lined trenches equipped with leachate collection systems. These operations will result in the generation of what is referred to as multi-source leachate. This newly generated waste will receive the listed waste designation of F039. This waste also must be managed in compliance with the provisions of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act

  7. Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application, 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application documentation consists of both Part A and a Part B permit application documentation. An explanation of the Part A revisions associated with this treatment and storage unit, including the current revision, is provided at the beginning of the Part A section. Once the initial Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit is issued, the following process will be used. As final, certified treatment, storage, and/or disposal unit-specific documents are developed, and completeness notifications are made by the US Environmental Protection Agency and the Washington State Department of Ecology, additional unit-specific permit conditions will be incorporated into the Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit through the permit modification process. All treatment, storage, and/or disposal units that are included in the Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application will operate under interim status until final status conditions for these units are incorporated into the Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit. The Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application, 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility contains information current as of May 1, 1993

  8. Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application, 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-01

    The 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application documentation consists of both Part A and a Part B permit application documentation. An explanation of the Part A revisions associated with this treatment and storage unit, including the current revision, is provided at the beginning of the Part A section. Once the initial Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit is issued, the following process will be used. As final, certified treatment, storage, and/or disposal unit-specific documents are developed, and completeness notifications are made by the US Environmental Protection Agency and the Washington State Department of Ecology, additional unit-specific permit conditions will be incorporated into the Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit through the permit modification process. All treatment, storage, and/or disposal units that are included in the Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application will operate under interim status until final status conditions for these units are incorporated into the Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit. The Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application, 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility contains information current as of May 1, 1993.

  9. Biofouling of microfilters at the Savannah River Site F/H-Area Effluent Treatment Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The F/H-Effluent Treatment Facility uses state-of-the-art water treatment processes to remove contaminants from low-level radioactive wastewater at the Savannah River Site. The plant replaces seepage basins that were closed to comply with the 1984 amendments to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The facility removes both radioactive and nonradioactive contaminants from the effluents orginating from onsite waste management facilities. The unit processes involve filtration, ion exchange, activated carbon absorption, and reverse osmosis. The filtration step is prone to considerable fouling, reducing the overall throughput of the facility. The filters utilized in the process are Norton Ceraflo trademark ceramic microfilters. It was discovered that bacteria were primarily responsible for the severe filter fouling. Inorganic fouling was also observed, but was not normally as severe as the bacterial fouling. The bacteria densities necessary to induce severe fouling were not significantly higher than those often found in surface water streams. Diversion of waste streams containing the highest quantity of bacteria, and various methods of source reduction were implemented, which dramatically improved the filter performance. Addition of aluminum nitrate at low pH further improved the filter performance

  10. Biofouling of microfilters at the Savannah River Site F/H-area effluent treatment facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The F/H-Effluent Treatment Facility uses state-of-the-art water treatment processes to remove contaminants from low-level radioactive wastewater at the Savannah River Site, The plant replaces seepage basins that were closed to comply with the 1984 amendments to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The facility removes both radioactive and nonradioactive contaminants from the effluents originating from onsite waste management facilities. The unit processes involve filtration, ion exchange, activated carbon absorption, and reverse osmosis. The filtration step is prone to considerable fouling, reducing the overall throughput of the facility. The Filters utilized in the process are Norton Ceraflo ceramic microfilters. It was discovered that bacteria were primarily responsible for the severe filter fouling. Inorganic fouling was also observed, but was not normally as severe as the bacterial fouling. The bacteria densities necessary to induce severe fouling were not significantly higher than those often found in surface water streams. Diversion of waste streams containing the highest quantity of bacteria, and various methods of source reduction were implemented, which dramatically unproved the filter performance. Addition of aluminum nitrate at low pH further improved the filter performance. (author)

  11. 200 Area effluent treatment facility process control plan 98-02

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le, E.Q.

    1998-01-30

    This Process Control Plan (PCP) provides a description of the background information, key objectives, and operating criteria defining Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) Campaign 98-02 as required per HNF-IP-0931 Section 37, Process Control Plans. Campaign 98-62 is expected to process approximately 18 millions gallons of groundwater with an assumption that the UP-1 groundwater pump will be shut down on June 30, 1998. This campaign will resume the UP-1 groundwater treatment operation from Campaign 97-01. The Campaign 97-01 was suspended in November 1997 to allow RCRA waste in LERF Basin 42 to be treated to meet the Land Disposal Restriction Clean Out requirements. The decision to utilize ETF as part of the selected interim remedial action of the 200-UP-1 Operable Unit is documented by the Declaration of the Record of Decision, (Ecology, EPA and DOE 1997). The treatment method was chosen in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) as amended by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (SARA), the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (known as the Tri-Party Agreement or TPA), and to the extent practicable, the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP).

  12. 200 Area Liquid Effluent Facilities -- Quality assurance program plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP) describes the quality assurance and management controls used by the 200 Area Liquid Effluent Facilities (LEF) to perform its activities in accordance with DOE Order 5700.6C. The 200 Area LEF consists of the following facilities: Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF); Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF); Liquid Effluent Retention facility (LERF); and Truck Loading Facility -- (Project W291). The intent is to ensure that all activities such as collection of effluents, treatment, concentration of secondary wastes, verification, sampling and disposal of treated effluents and solids related with the LEF operations, conform to established requirements

  13. State waste discharge permit application for the 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility and the State-Approved Land Disposal Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-01

    Application is being made for a permit pursuant to Chapter 173--216 of the Washington Administrative Code (WAC), to discharge treated waste water and cooling tower blowdown from the 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) to land at the State-Approved Land Disposal Site (SALDS). The ETF is located in the 200 East Area and the SALDS is located north of the 200 West Area. The ETF is an industrial waste water treatment plant that will initially receive waste water from the following two sources, both located in the 200 Area on the Hanford Site: (1) the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility (LERF) and (2) the 242-A Evaporator. The waste water discharged from these two facilities is process condensate (PC), a by-product of the concentration of waste from DSTs that is performed in the 242-A Evaporator. Because the ETF is designed as a flexible treatment system, other aqueous waste streams generated at the Hanford Site may be considered for treatment at the ETF. The origin of the waste currently contained in the DSTs is explained in Section 2.0. An overview of the concentration of these waste in the 242-A Evaporator is provided in Section 3.0. Section 4.0 describes the LERF, a storage facility for process condensate. Attachment A responds to Section B of the permit application and provides an overview of the processes that generated the wastes, storage of the wastes in double-shell tanks (DST), preliminary treatment in the 242-A Evaporator, and storage at the LERF. Attachment B addresses waste water treatment at the ETF (under construction) and the addition of cooling tower blowdown to the treated waste water prior to disposal at SALDS. Attachment C describes treated waste water disposal at the proposed SALDS.

  14. State waste discharge permit application for the 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility and the State-Approved Land Disposal Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Application is being made for a permit pursuant to Chapter 173--216 of the Washington Administrative Code (WAC), to discharge treated waste water and cooling tower blowdown from the 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) to land at the State-Approved Land Disposal Site (SALDS). The ETF is located in the 200 East Area and the SALDS is located north of the 200 West Area. The ETF is an industrial waste water treatment plant that will initially receive waste water from the following two sources, both located in the 200 Area on the Hanford Site: (1) the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility (LERF) and (2) the 242-A Evaporator. The waste water discharged from these two facilities is process condensate (PC), a by-product of the concentration of waste from DSTs that is performed in the 242-A Evaporator. Because the ETF is designed as a flexible treatment system, other aqueous waste streams generated at the Hanford Site may be considered for treatment at the ETF. The origin of the waste currently contained in the DSTs is explained in Section 2.0. An overview of the concentration of these waste in the 242-A Evaporator is provided in Section 3.0. Section 4.0 describes the LERF, a storage facility for process condensate. Attachment A responds to Section B of the permit application and provides an overview of the processes that generated the wastes, storage of the wastes in double-shell tanks (DST), preliminary treatment in the 242-A Evaporator, and storage at the LERF. Attachment B addresses waste water treatment at the ETF (under construction) and the addition of cooling tower blowdown to the treated waste water prior to disposal at SALDS. Attachment C describes treated waste water disposal at the proposed SALDS

  15. Tritium monitoring in groundwater and evaluation of model predictions for the Hanford Site 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) disposal site, also known as the State-Approved Land Disposal Site (SALDS), receives treated effluent containing tritium, which is allowed to infiltrate through the soil column to the water table. Tritium was first detected in groundwater monitoring wells around the facility in July 1996. The SALDS groundwater monitoring plan requires revision of a predictive groundwater model and reevaluation of the monitoring well network one year from the first detection of tritium in groundwater. This document is written primarily to satisfy these requirements and to report on analytical results for tritium in the SALDS groundwater monitoring network through April 1997. The document also recommends an approach to continued groundwater monitoring for tritium at the SALDS. Comparison of numerical groundwater models applied over the last several years indicate that earlier predictions, which show tritium from the SALDS approaching the Columbia River, were too simplified or overly robust in source assumptions. The most recent modeling indicates that concentrations of tritium above 500 pCi/L will extend, at most, no further than ∼1.5 km from the facility, using the most reasonable projections of ETF operation. This extent encompasses only the wells in the current SALDS tritium-tracking network

  16. Dairy shed effluent treatment and recycling: Effluent characteristics and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fyfe, Julian; Hagare, Dharma; Sivakumar, Muttucumaru

    2016-09-15

    Dairy farm milking operations produce considerable amounts of carbon- and nutrient-rich effluent that can be a vital source of nutrients for pasture and crops. The study aim was to characterise dairy shed effluent from a commercial farm and examine the changes produced by treatment, storage and recycling of the effluent through a two-stage stabilisation pond system. The data and insights from the study are broadly applicable to passive pond systems servicing intensive dairy and other livestock operations. Raw effluent contained mostly poorly biodegradable particulate organic material and organically bound nutrients, as well as a large fraction of fixed solids due to effluent recycling. The anaerobic pond provided effective sedimentation and biological treatment, but hydrolysis of organic material occurred predominantly in the sludge and continually added to effluent soluble COD, nutrients and cations. Sludge digestion also suppressed pH in the pond and increased salt levels through formation of alkalinity. High sludge levels significantly impaired pond treatment performance. In the facultative pond, BOD5 concentrations were halved; however smaller reductions in COD showed the refractory nature of incoming organic material. Reductions in soluble N and P were proportional to reductions in respective particulate forms, suggesting that respective removal mechanisms were not independent. Conditions in the ponds were unlikely to support biological nutrient removal. Recycling caused conservative inert constituents to accumulate within the pond system. Material leaving the system was mostly soluble (86% TS) and inert (65% TS), but salt concentrations remained below thresholds for safe land application. PMID:27213866

  17. Subproject L-045H 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study focuses on the project schedule for Project L-045H, 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility. The 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility is a Department of Energy subproject of the Hanford Environmental Compliance Project. The study scope is limited to validation of the project schedule only. The primary purpose of the study is to find ways and means to accelerate the completion of the project, thereby hastening environmental compliance of the 300 Area of the Hanford site. The ''300 Area'' has been utilized extensively as a laboratory area, with a diverse array of laboratory facilities installed and operational. The 300 Area Process Sewer, located in the 300 Area on the Hanford Site, collects waste water from approximately 62 sources. This waste water is discharged into two 1500 feet long percolation trenches. Current environmental statutes and policies dictate that this practice be discontinued at the earliest possible date in favor of treatment and disposal practices that satisfy applicable regulations

  18. High-yield pulping effluent treatment technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this report is to examine the high-yield (mechanical) pulp processes with respect to environmental issues affected by the discharge of their waste streams. Various statistics are given that support the view that high-yield pulping processes will have major growth in the US regions where pulp mills are located, and sites for projects in the development phase are indicated. Conventional and innovative effluent-treatment technologies applicable to these processes are reviewed. The different types of mechanical pulping or high-yield processes are explained, and the chemical additives are discussed. The important relationship between pulp yield and measure of BOD in the effluent is graphically presented. Effluent contaminants are identified, along with other important characteristics of the streams. Current and proposed environmental limitations specifically related to mechanical pulp production are reviewed. Conventional and innovative effluent-treatment technologies are discussed, along with their principle applications, uses, advantages, and disadvantages. Sludge management and disposal techniques become an intimate part of the treatment of waste streams. The conclusion is made that conventional technologies can successfully treat effluent streams under current waste-water discharge limitations, but these systems may not be adequate when stricter standards are imposed. At present, the most important issue in the treatment of pulp-mill waste is the management and disposal of the resultant sludge

  19. Removal of heavy metals from tannery effluents of Ambur industrial area, Tamilnadu by Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaji, S; Kalaivani, T; Rajasekaran, C; Shalini, M; Vinodhini, S; Priyadharshini, S Sunitha; Vidya, A G

    2015-06-01

    The present study was carried out with the tannery effluent contaminated with heavy metals collected from Ambur industrial area to determine the phycoremediation potential of Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis. Two different concentrations (50 and 100 %) of heavy metals containing tannery effluent treated with A. platensis were analysed for growth, absorption spectra, biochemical properties and antioxidant enzyme activity levels. The effluent treatments revealed dose-dependent decrease in the levels of A. platensis growth (65.37 % for 50 % effluent and 49.32 % for 100 % effluent), chlorophyll content (97.43 % for 50 % effluent and 71.05 % for 100 % effluent) and total protein content (82.63 % for 50 % effluent and 62.10 % for 100 % effluent) that leads to the reduction of total solids, total dissolved solids and total suspended solids. A. platensis with lower effluent concentration was effective than at higher concentration. Treatment with the effluent also resulted in increased activity levels of antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase (14.58 units/g fresh weight for 50 % and 24.57 units/g fresh weight for 100 %) and catalase (0.963 units/g fresh weight for 50 % and 1.263 units/g fresh weight for 100 %). Furthermore, heavy metal content was determined using atomic absorption spectrometry. These results indicated that A. platensis has the ability to combat heavy metal stress by the induction of antioxidant enzymes demonstrating its potential usefulness in phycoremediation of tannery effluent.

  20. Halonitromethanes formation in wastewater treatment plant effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hocheol; Addison, Jesse W; Hu, Jia; Karanfil, Tanju

    2010-03-01

    Halonitromethanes (HNMs) constitute one class of emerging disinfection by-products with high potential health risks. This study investigated the formation and occurrence of HNMs under different disinfection scenarios and the presence of their precursors in municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTPs) effluents. Formation potential tests performed on WWTP effluents revealed that HNM formation occurred in the order of ozonation-chlorination > ozonation-chloramination > chlorination > chloramination. Ozonation alone did not produce any HNM. Municipal WWTP effluents contained some reactive HNM precursors, possibly the by-products of biological treatment processes and/or some moiety of industry or household origin. No effects of nitrate on the formation of HNMs were observed in this study, and nitrification in WWTPs appears to remove appreciable portion of HNM precursors, especially those reactive to chlorine. UV disinfection using low pressure lamps in municipal WWTPs had negligible impact on HNM formation potential. HNM concentrations in the effluents of selected WWTPs were either non-detectable or less than minimum reporting level, except for one WWTP that gave trichloronitromethane concentrations in the range of 0.9-1.5 microg L(-1). No HNMs were observed in the effluents disinfected with UV radiation. Therefore, it appears the typical wastewater disinfection processes involving chlorination or UV treatment in WWTPs do not produce significant amounts of HNMs.

  1. Supercritical water oxidation test bed effluent treatment study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents effluent treatment options for a 50 h Supercritical Water Test Unit. Effluent compositions are calculated for eight simulated waste streams, using different assumed cases. Variations in effluent composition with different reactor designs and operating schemes are discussed. Requirements for final effluent compositions are briefly reviewed. A comparison is made of two general schemes. The first is one in which the effluent is cooled and effluent treatment is primarily done in the liquid phase. In the second scheme, most treatment is performed with the effluent in the gas phase. Several unit operations are also discussed, including neutralization, mercury removal, and evaporation

  2. EFFLUENT TREATMENT FACILITY PEROXIDE DESTRUCTION CATALYST TESTING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HALGREN DL

    2008-07-30

    The 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) main treatment train includes the peroxide destruction module (PDM) where the hydrogen peroxide residual from the upstream ultraviolet light/hydrogen peroxide oxidation unit is destroyed. Removal of the residual peroxide is necessary to protect downstream membranes from the strong oxidizer. The main component of the PDM is two reaction vessels utilizing granular activated carbon (GAC) as the reaction media. The PDM experienced a number of operability problems, including frequent plugging, and has not been utilized since the ETF changed to groundwater as the predominant feed. The unit seemed to be underperforming in regards to peroxide removal during the early periods of operation as well. It is anticipated that a functional PDM will be required for wastewater from the vitrification plant and other future streams. An alternate media or methodology needs to be identified to replace the GAC in the PDMs. This series of bench scale tests is to develop information to support an engineering study on the options for replacement of the existing GAC method for peroxide destruction at the ETF. A number of different catalysts will be compared as well as other potential methods such as strong reducing agents. The testing should lead to general conclusions on the viability of different catalysts and identify candidates for further study and evaluation.

  3. 200 Area treated effluent disposal facility operational test report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document reports the results of the 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (200 Area TEDF) operational testing activities. These completed operational testing activities demonstrated the functional, operational and design requirements of the 200 Area TEDF have been met

  4. Hazard Baseline Downgrade Effluent Treatment Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Hazard Baseline Downgrade reviews the Effluent Treatment Facility, in accordance with Department of Energy Order 5480.23, WSRC11Q Facility Safety Document Manual, DOE-STD-1027-92, and DOE-EM-STD-5502-94. It provides a baseline grouping based on the chemical and radiological hazards associated with the facility. The Determination of the baseline grouping for ETF will aid in establishing the appropriate set of standards for the facility

  5. Precipitated magnetite in alpha effluent treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iron present as a fortuitous component of most nuclear plant effluents can be precipitated as magnetite after suitable chemical treatment. The spinel crystal lattice of the magnetite is able to incorporate a wide range of foreign ions which includes many important radioactive species. Provided the operating conditions are well chosen the precipitated magnetite provides an excellent scavenger for many radionuclides and gives a denser more granular solid product to be separated from the effluent than the more visual scavenging agent ferric hydroxide. The conditions under which magnetite can be formed by precipitation and its properties are presented and compared with those of ferric hydroxide. Because magnetite has a high magnetic susceptibility its separation by high gradient magnetic separation becomes a possibility and data relevant to this is presented. (author)

  6. 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF) Hazards Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CAMPBELL, L.R.

    1999-01-15

    This document establishes the technical basis in support of emergency planning activities for the 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility. The technical basis for project-specific Emergency Action Levels and Emergency Planning Zone is demonstrated.

  7. 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF) Effluent Sampling and Analysis Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BROWN, M.J.

    2000-05-18

    This Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) has been developed to comply with effluent monitoring requirements at the 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF), as stated in Washington State Waste Discharge Permit No. ST 4502 (Ecology 2000). This permit, issued by the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) under the authority of Chapter 90.48 Revised Code of Washington (RCW) and Washington Administrative Code (WAC) Chapter 173-216, is an April 2000 renewal of the original permit issued on April 1995.

  8. Soil aquifer treatment using advanced primary effluent

    KAUST Repository

    Sharma, Saroj K.

    2011-08-01

    Soil aquifer treatment (SAT) using primary effluent (PE) is an attractive option for wastewater treatment and reuse in many developing countries with no or minimal wastewater treatment. One of the main limitations of SAT of PE is rapid clogging of the infiltration basin due to high suspended solid concentrations. Some pre-treatment of PE before infiltration is likely to reduce this limitation, improve performance of SAT and help to implement this technology effectively. The effects of three pre-treatment options namely sedimentation (SED), coagulation (COAG) and horizontal roughing filtration (HRF) on SAT were analyzed by conducting laboratory-scale batch and soil column experiments. The sedimentation and coagulation pre-treatments led to less head loss development and reduction of clogging effect. The head loss development in soil column using PE + COAG and PE + SED was reduced by 85 and 72%, respectively, compared to PE alone without any pretreatment. The overall dissolved organic carbon (DOC) removal of pre-treatments and soil column collectively were 34, 44, 51 and 43.5% for PE without any pre-treatment, PE + SED, PE+ COAG and PE + HRF, respectively. Coagulation pre-treatment of PE was found to be the most effective option in terms of suspended solids, DOC and nitrogen removal. Sedimentation pre-treatment of PE could be attractive where land is relatively less expensive for the construction of sedimentation basins. © IWA Publishing 2011.

  9. Statistical evaluation of effluent monitoring data for the 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CJ Chou; VG Johnson

    2000-04-04

    The 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF) consists of a pair of infiltration basins that receive wastewater originating from the 200 West and 200 East Areas of the Hanford Site. TEDF has been in operation since 1995 and is regulated by State Waste Discharge Permit ST 4502 (Ecology 1995) under the authority of Chapter 90.48 Revised Code of Washington (RCW) and Washington Administrative Code (WAC) Chapter 173-216. The permit stipulates monitoring requirements for effluent (or end-of-pipe) discharges and groundwater monitoring for TEDF. Groundwater monitoring began in 1992 prior to TEDF construction. Routine effluent monitoring in accordance with the permit requirements began in late April 1995 when the facility began operations. The State Waste Discharge Permit ST 4502 included a special permit condition (S.6). This condition specified a statistical study of the variability of permitted constituents in the effluent from TEDF during its first year of operation. The study was designed to (1) demonstrate compliance with the waste discharge permit; (2) determine the variability of all constituents in the effluent that have enforcement limits, early warning values, and monitoring requirements (WHC 1995); and (3) determine if concentrations of permitted constituents vary with season. Additional and more frequent sampling was conducted for the effluent variability study. Statistical evaluation results were provided in Chou and Johnson (1996). Parts of the original first year sampling and analysis plan (WHC 1995) were continued with routine monitoring required up to the present time.

  10. Direct nanofiltration of wastewater treatment plant effluent

    OpenAIRE

    Schrader, Guillo Alexander

    2006-01-01

    Membrane technology, especially nanofiltration, is seen as a suitable technology to polish WWTP effluent to EU WFD standards and consequently produce an effluent quality suitable for agricultural or (in)direct potable usage. The objective of this study was to assess the potential of direct nanofiltration as technique for effluent reclamation.

  11. Two stage treatment of dairy effluent using immobilized Chlorella pyrenoidosa

    OpenAIRE

    Yadavalli, Rajasri; Heggers, Goutham Rao Venkata Naga

    2013-01-01

    Background Dairy effluents contains high organic load and unscrupulous discharge of these effluents into aquatic bodies is a matter of serious concern besides deteriorating their water quality. Whilst physico-chemical treatment is the common mode of treatment, immobilized microalgae can be potentially employed to treat high organic content which offer numerous benefits along with waste water treatment. Methods A novel low cost two stage treatment was employed for the complete treatment of dai...

  12. Direct nanofiltration of wastewater treatment plant effluent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrader, Guillo Alexander

    2006-01-01

    Membrane technology, especially nanofiltration, is seen as a suitable technology to polish WWTP effluent to EU WFD standards and consequently produce an effluent quality suitable for agricultural or (in)direct potable usage. The objective of this study was to assess the potential of direct nanofiltr

  13. Effluent treatment options for nuclear thermal propulsion system ground tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A variety of approaches for handling effluent from nuclear thermal propulsion system ground tests in an environmentally acceptable manner are discussed. The functional requirements of effluent treatment are defined and concept options are presented within the framework of these requirements. System concepts differ primarily in the choice of fission-product retention and waste handling concepts. The concept options considered range from closed cycle (venting the exhaust to a closed volume or recirculating the hydrogen in a closed loop) to open cycle (real time processing and venting of the effluent). This paper reviews the strengths and weaknesses of different methods to handle effluent from nuclear thermal propulsion system ground tests

  14. Petroleum Refinery Effluents Treatment by Advanced Oxidation Process with Methanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petroleum refinery effluents are waste originating from industries primarily engaged in refining crude oil. It is a very complex compound of various oily wastes, water, heavy metals and so on. Conventional processes are unable to effectively remove the chemical oxygen demand (COD) of petroleum refinery effluents. Supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) was proposed to treat petroleum refinery effluents. In this paper, methanol was used to investigate co-oxidative effect of methanol on petroleum refinery effluents treatment. The results indicated that supercritical water oxidation is an effective process for petroleum refinery effluents treatment. Adding methanol caused an increase in COD removal. When reaction temperature is 440 .deg. C, residence time is 20 min, OE is 0.5 and initial COD is 40000 mg/L, and COD removal increases 8.5%

  15. Petroleum Refinery Effluents Treatment by Advanced Oxidation Process with Methanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shoucheng, Wen [Yangtze Univ., HuBei Jingzhou (China)

    2014-02-15

    Petroleum refinery effluents are waste originating from industries primarily engaged in refining crude oil. It is a very complex compound of various oily wastes, water, heavy metals and so on. Conventional processes are unable to effectively remove the chemical oxygen demand (COD) of petroleum refinery effluents. Supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) was proposed to treat petroleum refinery effluents. In this paper, methanol was used to investigate co-oxidative effect of methanol on petroleum refinery effluents treatment. The results indicated that supercritical water oxidation is an effective process for petroleum refinery effluents treatment. Adding methanol caused an increase in COD removal. When reaction temperature is 440 .deg. C, residence time is 20 min, OE is 0.5 and initial COD is 40000 mg/L, and COD removal increases 8.5%.

  16. Integrated treatment of farm effluents in New Zealand's dairy operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolan, N S; Laurenson, S; Luo, J; Sukias, J

    2009-11-01

    Maintaining growth through intensification in the New Zealand dairy industry is a challenge for various reasons, in particular sustainably managing the large volumes of effluent. Dairy farm effluents have traditionally been treated using two-pond systems that are effective in the removal of carbon and suspended solids, however limited in their ability to remove nutrients. In the past these nutrient-rich two-pond treated effluents were disposed of in surface waters. Current environmental concerns associated with the direct discharge of these effluents to surface waters has prompted in developing technologies to either minimise the nutrient content of the effluent or apply effluents to land. Here, we discuss various approaches and methods of treatment that enable producers to sustainably manage farm effluents, including advanced pond treatment systems, stripping techniques to reduce nutrient concentration, land application strategies involving nutrient budgeting models to minimise environmental degradation and enhance fodder quality. We also discuss alternative uses of farm effluents to produce energy and animal feed.

  17. Assessment of wastewater treatment plant effluent effects on fish reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents are known contributors of chemical mixtures into the environment. Of particular concern are endocrine-disrupting compounds that can affect hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis function in exposed organisms. The present study examined t...

  18. ANALYSIS ON EFFLUENT WATER QUALITY AND ELECTRICITY CONSUMPTION AFTER INTRODUCING ADVANCED SEWAGE TREATMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiojiri, Yasuo; Maekawa, Shunich

    We analyze effluent water quality and electricity consumption after in troducing advanced treatment in sewage treatment plant. We define 'advanced treatment ratio' as volume of treated water through advanced treatment processes divided by total volume of treated water in plant. Advanced treatment ratio represents degree of introducing advanced treatment. We build two types of equation. One represents relation between effluent water quality and advanced treatment ratio, the other between electricity consumption and advanced treatment ratio. Each equation is fitted by least squares on 808 samples: 8 fiscal years operation data of 101 plants working in Kanagawa, Tokyo, Saitama and Chiba areas, and coefficient of advanced treatment ratio is estimated. The result is as follows. (1) After introducing advanced treatment aimed at nitrogen removal, T-N in effluent water decreases by 51.3% and electricity consum ption increases by 52.2%. (2) After introducing advanced treatment aimed at phosphorus removal, T-P in effluent water decreases by 27.8%. Using the above result, we try prioritizing 71 plants in Tokyo Bay watershed about raising advanced treatment ratio, so that, in total, pollutant in effluent water decreases with minimized increase of electricity consumption.

  19. Electrocoagulation for the treatment of textile industry effluent--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandegar, V; Saroha, Anil K

    2013-10-15

    Various techniques such as physical, chemical, biological, advanced oxidation and electrochemical are used for the treatment of industrial effluent. The commonly used conventional biological treatment processes are time consuming, need large operational area and are not effective for effluent containing toxic elements. Advanced oxidation techniques result in high treatment cost and are generally used to obtain high purity grade water. The chemical coagulation technique is slow and generates large amount of sludge. Electrocoagulation has recently attracted attention as a potential technique for treating industrial effluent due to its versatility and environmental compatibility. This technique uses direct current source between metal electrodes immersed in the effluent, which causes the dissolution of electrode plates into the effluent. The metal ions, at an appropriate pH, can form wide range of coagulated species and metal hydroxides that destabilize and aggregate particles or precipitate and adsorb the dissolved contaminants. Therefore, the objective of the present manuscript is to review the potential of electrocoagulation for the treatment of industrial effluents, mainly removal of dyes from textile effluent.

  20. Performance evaluation of effluent treatment plant for automobile industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ansari, Farid [Department of Applied Science and Humanities, PDM College of Engineering, Bahadurgarh (Haryana) (India); Pandey, Yashwant K. [School of Energy and Environmental Studies, Devi Ahilya Vishwavidyalaya, Indore (India); Kumar, P.; Pandey, Priyanka [Department of Environmental Science, Post Graduate College Ghazipur (IN

    2013-07-01

    The automobile industry’s wastewater not only contains high levels of suspended and total solids such as oil, grease, dyestuff, chromium, phosphate in washing products, and coloring, at various stages of manufacturing but also, a significant amount of dissolved organics, resulting in high BOD or COD loads. The study reveals the performance, evaluation and operational aspects of effluent treatment plant and its treatability, rather than the contamination status of the real property. The Results revealed that the treated effluent shows most of the parameters are within permissible limits of Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB), India and based on the site visits, discussion with operation peoples, evaluation of process design, treatment system, existing effluent discharge, results of sample analyzed and found that effluent treatment plant of automobile industry are under performance satisfactory.

  1. Effluent variability study for the 200 area treated effluent disposal facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chou, C.J., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-12

    The variability of permitted constituents in grab samples and 24-hr composites of liquid effluent discharged to the Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF) in the 200 East Area of the Hanford Site was evaluated for the period July 1995 through April 1996. The variability study was required as a condition of the wastewater discharge permit issued by the State of Washington Department of Ecology. Results of the statistical evaluation indicated that (1) except for iron, and possibly chloride, there is a very low probability of exceeding existing permit limits, (2) seasonal effects related to intake water quality account for the variability in several chemical constituents and (3) sample type (grab vs 24-hr composite) have little if any effect on monthly mean constituent concentrations.

  2. The Potential of Extended Aeration System for Sago Effluent Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahi A. Rashid

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Sago effluent contains large amount of organic material which has a potential to cause water pollution. In order to reduce this problem, an experiment was conducted to remove organic material from sago effluent using lab scale of Extended Aeration (EA system. Approach: The EA system consisted of the combination of physical and biological treatment unit. For Physical Treatment Unit (PTU, the sago effluent was filtered using 710 µm mesh size filter. For Biological Treatment Unit (BTU, the effluent were mixed and aerated with activated sago sludge for 48 h. The treatment efficiency with respect to Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD, Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD and Total Suspended Solid (TSS removal were evaluated and compared with regulatory requirement by Department of Environment, Malaysia. Results: The result showed, the EA system could reduce BOD, COD and TSS up to 84, 87.8 and 73% respectively, however it did not comply with the regulatory requirement. Conclusion: This study suggested the EA system have potential to be apply on sago effluent, however it should be integrated with additional treatment unit to achieve the effluent quality standard.

  3. Influence of ozonation and activated carbon treatment on the ecotoxicity of wastewater treatment plant effluents

    OpenAIRE

    Magdeburg, Axel

    2015-01-01

    Background. There is growing public and scientific concern about the occurrence of anthropogenic chemicals in the aquatic environment. Surface and groundwater serve as main drinking water resource. Especially in metropolitan areas these water reservoirs are impacted by organic pollutants predominantly originating from wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents. The impact of wastewater derived anthropogenic chemicals is therefore related to environmental and human health concerns. In order t...

  4. Physico-chemical treatment of coke plant effluents for control of water pollution in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghose, M.K. [Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad (India). Center of Mining Environmental

    2002-01-01

    Coal carbonizing industries in India are important and are growing every year. Large quantities of liquid effluents produced in this industry contain a large amount of suspended solids, high biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), phenols, ammonia and other toxic substances, which are causing serious surface water pollution in the area. There is a large number of coke plants in the vicinity of Jharia Coal Field (JCF). The working principle of a coke plant and the effluents produced is described. One large coke plant was chosen to evaluate characteristics of the effluent and to suggest a proper treatment method. Present effluent treatment system was found to be inadequate and a large quantity of a very good quality coke breeze is being lost, which is also causing siltation on the riverbed in addition to surface water pollution. Physico-chemical treatment has been considered as a suitable option for the treatment of coke plant effluents. A scheme has been proposed for the treatment, which can be suitably adopted for the recycling, reuse or safe disposal of the treated effluent. Various unit process and unit operations are discussed. The process may be useful on industrial scale for various sites so as to maintain a clean environment.

  5. Electrochemical treatment of textile dyes and dyehouse effluents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatzisymeon, Efthalia [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Crete, Polytechneioupolis, GR-73100 Chania (Greece); Xekoukoulotakis, Nikolaos P. [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Crete, Polytechneioupolis, GR-73100 Chania (Greece); Coz, Alberto [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Crete, Polytechneioupolis, GR-73100 Chania (Greece); Kalogerakis, Nicolas [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Crete, Polytechneioupolis, GR-73100 Chania (Greece); Mantzavinos, Dionissios [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Crete, Polytechneioupolis, GR-73100 Chania (Greece)]. E-mail: mantzavi@mred.tuc.gr

    2006-09-21

    The electrochemical oxidation of textile effluents over a titanium-tantalum-platinum-iridium anode was investigated. Batch experiments were conducted in a flow-through electrolytic cell with internal recirculation at current intensities of 5, 10, 14 and 20 A, NaCl concentrations of 0.5, 1, 2 and 4% and recirculation rates of 0.81 and 0.65 L/s using a highly colored, synthetic effluent containing 16 textile dyes at a total concentration of 361 mg/L and chemical oxygen demand (COD) of 281 mg/L. Moreover, an actual dyehouse effluent containing residual dyes as well as various inorganic and organic compounds with a COD of 404 mg/L was tested. In most cases, quantitative effluent decolorization was achieved after 10-15 min of treatment and this required low energy consumption; conversely, the extent of mineralization varied between 30 and 90% after 180 min depending on the operating conditions and the type of effluent. In general, treatment performance improved with increasing current intensity and salinity and decreasing solution pH. However, the use of electrolytes not containing chloride (e.g. FeSO{sub 4} or Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) suppressed degradation. Although the acute toxicity of the actual effluent to marine bacteria Vibrio fischeri was weak, it increased sharply following treatment, thus suggesting the formation of persistent toxic by-products.

  6. Demasculinization of male fish by wastewater treatment plant effluent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vajda, A.M.; Barber, L.B.; Gray, J.L.; Lopez, E.M.; Bolden, A.M.; Schoenfuss, H.L.; Norris, D.O.

    2011-01-01

    Adult male fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) were exposed to effluent from the City of Boulder, Colorado wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) under controlled conditions in the field to determine if the effluent induced reproductive disruption in fish. Gonadal intersex and other evidence of reproductive disruption were previously identified in white suckers (Catostomus commersoni) in Boulder Creek downstream from this WWTP effluent outfall. Fish were exposed within a mobile flow-through exposure laboratory in July 2005 and August 2006 to WWTP effluent (EFF), Boulder Creek water (REF), or mixtures of EFF and REF for up to 28 days. Primary (sperm abundance) and secondary (nuptial tubercles and dorsal fat pads) sex characteristics were demasculinized within 14 days of exposure to 50% and 100% EFF. Vitellogenin was maximally elevated in both 50% and 100% EFF treatments within 7 days and significantly elevated by 25% EFF within 14 days. The steroidal estrogens 17??-estradiol, estrone, estriol, and 17??-ethynylestradiol, as well as estrogenic alkylphenols and bisphenol A were identified within the EFF treatments and not in the REF treatment. These results support the hypothesis that the reproductive disruption observed in this watershed is due to endocrine-active chemicals in the WWTP effluent. ?? 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  7. A New Method for Effluent Treatment System Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIBaohong; FANXishan; 等

    2002-01-01

    This paper mainly discusses the design of distributed effluent treatment systems with single contaminant.A new method is put forward and four basic rules are provided.The key point of the method is that global optimality is obtained by guaranteeing the optimality of each step taken in the design.Costs per unit mass of removed contaminant are used as a scale to choose the next combination of an effluent stream and a treatment process.The remaining problem is updated after each choice.As for multiple contaminants,a two-stage method is adopted.At the first stage,the sub-networks for each contamiant are designed by the method mentioned above;at the second stage,the sub-networks are merged together in a new way.Overall,the paper presents a simple but practical framework for the effluent treatment system design.

  8. ADVANCED TREATMENT OF SAHEBGHARANIEH SECONDARY EFFLUENT BY OZONATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Vaezi

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available Chemical oxidation is one of the most suitable treatment methods for reducing organic pollutants and the number of pathogens remaining in secondary effluents. Ozone is the most powerful oxidizing agent commonly used because of it's many advantages over chlorination. In this study the efficiency of ozonation in advanced wastewater treatment of Sahebgharanieh Plant has been determined. Ozone generation has been performed by irradiation of compressed air with 4 special UV lamps. The total output of these lamps was determined to be 0.74 mg ozone per minute at established conditions. Considering 3 periods of ozonation of effluent samples (30, 60 and 120 min and ozone transfer coefficient of 95%, the concentrations of applied ozone for wastewater treatment were specified to be 10.5, 21 and 42 mg/l, respectively. Ozonation of secondary effluents at these periods has resulted in 17, 24 and 30 percent reduction in average COD and about 20, 18 and 32 percent decrease in BOD5. It is believed that the 2 percent increase observed in BOD after 30 minutes is caused by changing some amount of COD to BOD5 by applied ozone. According to the prescribed reduction values it could be concluded that the final effluent of a typical treatment plant would become better qualified for water reuse in irrigation. But it should be declared that the effluent might not be completely disinfected irrespective of about 99.0% decrease determined in MPN of total coliforms. Also it must be noted that this degree of disinfection was accomplished only for 62.5% of samples. Ozonation of effluent samples has caused an increase in pH value which was at least 0.4 of a pH unit.

  9. Performance evaluation of Effluent Treatment Plant of Dairy Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pratiksinh Chavda

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Dairy industry is among the most polluting of the food industries in regard to its large water consumption. Dairy is one of the major industries causing water pollution. Considering the increased milk demand, the dairy industry in India is expected to grow rapidly and have the waste generation and related environmental problems are also assumed increased importance. Poorly treated wastewater with high level of pollutants caused by poor design, operation or treatment systems creates major environmental problems when discharged to the surface land or water. Various operations in a dairy industry may include pasteurization, cream, cheese, milk powder etc. Considering the above stated implications an attempt has been made in the present project to evaluate one of the Effluent Treatment Plant for dairy waste. Samples are collected from three points; Collection tank (CT, primary clarifier (PC and Secondary clarifier (SC to evaluate the performance of Effluent Treatment Plant. Parameters analyzed for evaluation of performance of Effluent Treatment Plant are pH, TDS, TSS, COD, and BOD at 200C The pH, TDS, TSS, COD and BOD removal efficiency of Effluent Treatment Plant were 26.14 %, 33.30 %, 93.85 %, 94.19 % and 98.19 % respectively.

  10. Study and adjustment of ceramic effluent treatment system for reuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Cardoso dos Santos

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The main paper aim was to present the preliminary results referring to the study and adjustment of the effluent treatment system for reuse in the ceramic floor production process. For this propose methods and techniques for solid and liquid separation were carried out. The focus was the less alteration in the treatment plant the better. So, there were analyzed some alternatives for the effluent treatment and, among them, the primary sedimentation without chemicals followed by the coagulation and flocculation applying ferric chlorine and synthetic polymer, sedimentation and filtration presented the best results. Thus, a new layout for the treatment plant was proposed by integrating the existent units in a different way so they could attend the laboratory established conditions.

  11. Cassava starch effluent treatment with concomitant SCP production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manilal, V B; Narayanan, C S; Balagopalan, C

    1991-03-01

    Yeasts and yeast-like organisms were chosen for the aerobic treatment of cassava starch factory effluent. A mixed culture of Candida utills and Endomycopsis fibuliger efficiently and rapidly utilized both starch and free sugars. After 28 h fermentation the protein content of the biomass was 22% (w/w), which remained unchanged during the remainder of the fermentation (60 h). This treatment removed 94% of the COD and 91% of the BOD.

  12. Application of ozone based treatments of secondary effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Smriti; Pathak, Vinita; Tripathi, Devendra Mani; Tripathi, B D

    2011-02-01

    The present work was aimed at studying the efficiency of ozone in oxidation processes, coliform inactivation and Disinfection Byproducts (DBPs) formation, associated with the potential of ozone to increase the Biodegradable Dissolved Organic Carbon (BDOC) in secondary effluent with applied ozone doses of 5.0, 10.0 and 15.0 mg/L for contact times of 2, 5 and 10 min. The wastewater used in this work was collected from the Bhagwanpur Sewage Treatment Plant, Varanasi, India. Results of this experiment showed that 10 mg O(3)/L O(3) for 5 min exposure was found most suitable dose for highest degradation of COD, TOC, UV(254), color, turbidity and total nitrogen parameters. The inactivation range of microbial biomass range was found in between 95% and 98%. Experiment revealed the fact that aldehydes and carboxylic acid formation were significantly related with the ozone dose and exposure time and ozone might enhance the treatment efficiency of secondary effluent treatment.

  13. Phosphorus removal from secondary effluents through integrated constructed treatment system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Jibing; Qin, Yong; Mahmood, Qaisar; Liu, Hanhu; Yang, Dejun

    2011-01-01

    The treatment capacity of an integrated constructed treatment system (CTS) was explored which was designed to reduce phosphorus (P) from secondary effluents. The integrated CTS was combined with vertical-flow constructed wetland, floating bed and sand filter. The vertical wetland was filled from the bottom to the top with gravels, steel slag and peat. Vetiverzizanioides (L.) Nash was selected to grow in the vertical constructed wetland while Coixlacrymajobi L. was grown in floating bed. The results suggested that integrated CTS displayed excellent removal efficiency for chemical oxygen demand (COD), dissolved phosphorus (DP), and total phosphorus (TP). The average COD removal efficiency of the integrated CTS was 90.45% after 40 days of operation, the average DP and TP removal efficiencies of the integrated CTS were 97.43% and 96.40%, respectively. The integrated CTS has good potential in removing COD as well as P from secondary effluents. PMID:21570097

  14. Readiness Assessment Plan, Hanford 200 areas treated effluent disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Readiness Assessment Plan documents Liquid Effluent Facilities review process used to establish the scope of review, documentation requirements, performance assessment, and plant readiness to begin operation of the Treated Effluent Disposal system in accordance with DOE-RLID-5480.31, Startup and Restart of Facilities Operational Readiness Review and Readiness Assessments

  15. Enhanced production of laccase by a marine fungus during treatment of colored effluents and synthetic dyes

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DeSouza-Ticlo, D.; Tiwari, R.; Sah, A.K.; Raghukumar, C.

    enhancement in laccase production was found during treatment of colored effluents from textile, paper and pulp mill and distillery waste. Industrial effluents and synthetic dyes added to the growing culture of this fungus were decolorized to a great extent...

  16. STUDY ON THE REUSE OF ZAMYAD FACTORY WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT EFFLUENT IN IRRIGATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Massoudinejad, M. Manshouri, A.R. Yazdanbakhsh

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Considering the population increase in the cities and also the increase of per capita water consumption in these societies, the use of treated effluents for the green area irrigation has been taken into consideration. Human ever–increasing needs to green area in municipal societies and on the other hand the limitations in water supplies cause a new review in wastewater reuse. Also making use of treated effluents in irrigation has some limitations including clogging of the soil porosities, increasing of the chemicals and toxic substances to plants and increasing the probability of groundwater pollution. In this research, considering the indicators using recognition of the effluent’s quality, at the first stage compound samples of domestic wastewater treatment effluents of Zamyad Factory were taken. The samples were tested from the viewpoint of quality. Results showed that the indicator of Sodium Adsorption Ratio, Sodium Percentage, amounts of chloride, and electrical conductivity comparing to Food and Agriculture Organization and Department of the Environment of Iran standards were higher than the standard levels. Also parameters such as TDS, TSS, BOD, COD, anions and cations were in standard levels. Results also showed that the increase of some of the undesirable parameters was not related to the operation of wastewater treatment plant. Therefore, in order to make the standard effluent, different methods may be proposed and the most practical and economical one is dilution by using 50% mixing with raw water.

  17. Contribution of Wastewater Treatment Plant Effluents to Nutrient Dynamics in Aquatic Systems: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Richard O.; Migliaccio, Kati W.

    2009-08-01

    Excessive nutrient loading (considering nitrogen and phosphorus) is a major ongoing threat to water quality and here we review the impact of nutrient discharges from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) to United States (U.S.) freshwater systems. While urban and agricultural land uses are significant nonpoint nutrient contributors, effluent from point sources such as WWTPs can overwhelm receiving waters, effectively dominating hydrological characteristics and regulating instream nutrient processes. Population growth, increased wastewater volumes, and sustainability of critical water resources have all been key factors influencing the extent of wastewater treatment. Reducing nutrient concentrations in wastewater is an important aspect of water quality management because excessive nutrient concentrations often prevent water bodies from meeting designated uses. WWTPs employ numerous physical, chemical, and biological methods to improve effluent water quality but nutrient removal requires advanced treatment and infrastructure that may be economically prohibitive. Therefore, effluent nutrient concentrations vary depending on the particular processes used to treat influent wastewater. Increasingly stringent regulations regarding nutrient concentrations in discharged effluent, along with greater freshwater demand in populous areas, have led to the development of extensive water recycling programs within many U.S. regions. Reuse programs provide an opportunity to reduce or eliminate direct nutrient discharges to receiving waters while allowing for the beneficial use of reclaimed water. However, nutrients in reclaimed water can still be a concern for reuse applications, such as agricultural and landscape irrigation.

  18. Readiness plan, Hanford 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility: Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF) is designed for the collection, treatment, and eventual disposal of liquid waste from the 300 Area Process Sewer (PS) system. The PS currently discharges water to the 300 Area Process Trenches. Facilities supported total 54 buildings, including site laboratories, inactive buildings, and support facilities. Effluent discharges to the process sewer from within these facilities include heating, ventilation, and air conditioning systems, heat exchangers, floor drains, sinks, and process equipment. The wastewaters go through treatment processes that include iron coprecipitation, ion exchange and ultraviolet oxidation. The iron coprecipitation process is designed to remove general heavy metals. A series of gravity filters then complete the clarification process by removing suspended solids. Following the iron coprecipitation process is the ion exchange process, where a specific resin is utilized for the removal of mercury. The final main unit operation is the ultraviolet destruction process, which uses high power ultraviolet light and hydrogen peroxide to destroy organic molecules. The objective of this readiness plan is to provide the method by which line management will prepare for a Readiness Assessment (RA) of the TEDF. The self-assessment and RA will assess safety, health, environmental compliance and management readiness of the TEDF. This assessment will provide assurances to both WHC and DOE that the facility is ready to start-up and begin operation

  19. Functional design criteria for Project W-252, Phase II Liquid Effluent Treatment and Disposal: Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document provides the functional design criteria required for the Phase 2 Liquid Effluent Treatment and Disposal Project, Project W-252. Project W-252 shall provide new facilities and existing facility modifications required to implement Best Available Technology/All Known, Available, and Reasonable Methods of Prevention, Control, and Treatment (BAT/AKART) for the 200 East Phase II Liquid Effluent Streams. The project will also provide a 200 East Area Phase II Effluent Collection System (PTECS) for connection to a disposal system for relevant effluent streams to which BAT/AKART has been applied. Liquid wastestreams generated in the 200 East Area are currently discharged to the soil column. Included in these wastestreams are cooling water, steam condensate, raw water, and sanitary wastewaters. It is the policy of the DOE that the use of soil columns to treat and retain radionuclides and nonradioactive contaminants be discontinued at the earliest practical time in favor of wastewater treatment and waste minimization. In 1989, the DOE entered into an interagency agreement with Ecology and EPA. This agreement is referred to as the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement). Project W-252 is one of the projects required to achieve the milestones set forth in the Tri-Party Agreement. One of the milestones requires BAT/AKART implementation for Phase II streams by October 1997. This Functional Design Criteria (FDC) document provides the technical baseline required to initiate Project W-252 to meet the Tri-Party Agreement milestone for the application of BAT/AKART to the Phase II effluents

  20. Toxicity Evaluation of Wastewater Treatment Plant Effluents Using Daphnia magna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Movahedian, B Bina, GH Asghari

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Toxicity evaluation is an important parameter in wastewater quality monitoring as it provides the complete response of test organisms to all compounds in wastewater. The water flea Daphnia magna straus is the most commonly used zooplankton in toxicological tests. The objective of this study was to evaluate the acute toxicity of effluents from different units of Isfahan Wastewater Treatment Plant (IWTP. The samples were taken from four different physical and biological units. The acute toxicity tests were determined using Daphnia magna. The immobility of Daphnia was determined after 48h. Toxicity results showed that 48h-LC50 and ATU values for raw wastewater were 30% (v/v and 3.33, respectively. It was also found that LC50 values after 48 h for preliminary, primary, and secondary effluents were 32%, 52% and 85% (v/v, respectively. The ATU values for these effluents were 3.1, 1.9, and 1.8, correspondingly. The efficiency levels of preliminary, primary, and secondary units for removal of toxicity were found as 6%, 38.9% and 8%, in that order. Overall, the present investigation indicated that toxicity removal by up to 50% might be achieved in IWPT. Based on the obtained results and regarding the improvement of water quality standards, coupled with public expectations in Iran, it is necessary to consider more stringent water quality policies for regular monitoring and toxicity assessment.

  1. Performance and Loading of Domestic Wastewater Treatment Plants Receiving Aquaculture Processing Effluent.

    OpenAIRE

    GOVERE; SIMBARASHE; MAHLATINI PRECIOUS; NDABANINGI ANGELINE

    2011-01-01

    This study dealt with the loading and performance of a domestic wastewater treatment plant when receiving combined influent from an aquaculture processing factory and an urban settlement in Kariba town, Zimbabwe. The methodological framework was a case study approach involving a local aquaculture factory and two treatment plants. In the study effluent from Nyamhunga treatment plant, which receives both domestic and aquaculture effluent, acted as the treatment. Effluent from a similarsized pla...

  2. A study on sludge minimization during the treatment of pickling effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhal, Anupam; Tewari, V K; Prakash, Satya

    2006-04-01

    In pickling industries, a lot of sludge is generated during the treatment of pickling effluent and there is severe problem of its disposal. Disposal of this sludge as per the Hazardous Waste (Management & Handling) Rules, 1989 is not easy. Its transportation and construction of lined disposal sites pose very severe problems. In the normal practice, the sludge is being disposed of at the sides of roads and railway tracks to fill low lying areas. This may cause serious health hazards. Considering these problems, a study has been undertaken to minimize the sludge generation during the treatment of pickling effluent by neutralizing it with lime, sodium hydroxide and combination of both. An attempt has been made to do an economic evaluation of the above process. PMID:17913186

  3. Testing for Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Systems: Identification of Technologies for Effluent Treatment in Test Facilities Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Develop a comprehensive understanding of requirements for a facility that could safely conduct effluent treatment for a Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) rocket...

  4. Seminar on long term research into liquid effluent treatment,

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A one-day Seminar on Long Term Research into Liquid Waste Treatment was held at Harwell on 30th January 1986. The Seminar was sponsored by the Department of the Environment and was attended by ninety-five delegates representing industry, universities, DoE, CEGB and the AEA. The purpose of the meeting was to provide an opportunity for people working in the field of liquid effluent treatment to obtain up-to-date information on the nature and status of research being carried out in the United Kingdom. Nine presentations on research activity described work being undertaken on ultrafiltration and associated techniques, electrical processes and ion exchange. The presenters were from BNF plc, CEGB, Imperial College, University of Salford, University of Reading and from Harwell. (author)

  5. Membrane separation processes for the treatment of uranium bearing effluent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Membrane processes are gaining acceptance over conventional methods such as chemical precipitation, ion exchange and adsorption etc. in the field of radioactive waste treatment, owing to their simplicity of operation. Moreover, the amount of secondary wastes generated are much less. The present paper deals with the treatment of uranium bearing effluents using ultrafiltration(UF) and reverse osmosis(RO). A RO/UF unit based on plate module configuration utilizing cellulose acetate membranes has been used for the experiments. The studies indicated that not only uranium but also its β-emitting daughter products can be contained, producing a permeate stream, safe enough for discharging into the environment. (author). 3 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  6. Recycling of dyehouse effluents by biological and chemical treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krull, R.; Doepkens, E. [Inst. of Biochemical Engineering, Technical Univ. of Braunschweig, Braunschweig (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    The introduction of the production integrated environmental protection by closing raw material cycles is shown exemplary for the textile finishing industry. Colored process water with a high content of dissolved organic dyes has always been a non-trivial problem for the sewage engineering sector. The recycling of process water of textile mills is often hindered by remaining color of water-soluable azo dyes after conventional wastewater treatment. Rising costs of emitted wastewater, lawful limits and restricted availability of water makes it of great interest to introduce sophisticated techniques helping to purify dye effluents and to recycle process water. A combined biological and chemical process of purification and recycling of residual dyehouse split flows into the production was developed, investigated and installed by a textile finishing company which produces 330,000 m{sup 3} colored wastewater effluents per year. The process contains anaerobic dye-cleavage, aerobic mineralization of cleavage-products and the decolorization and partial oxidation of traces of dyeresiduals by advanced oxidation. (orig.)

  7. Cross-flow filtration with different ceramic membranes for polishing wastewater treatment plant effluent

    OpenAIRE

    Farsi, Ali; Hammer Jensen, Sofie; Roslev, Peter; Boffa, Vittorio; Christensen, Morten Lykkegaard

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays the need for sustainable water treatment is essential because water shortages are increasing. Depending on the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent constituents, the effluent cannot be simply discharged to environment because it contains toxic ions and organic micropollutants which are harmful for aquatic organism. A possible strategy to avoid this is to polish the effluent by membrane processes. Different ceramic membranes were studied to test their ability to remove inorganic...

  8. Application of nanofiltration to the treatment of uranium mill effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanofiltration is widely used in water treatment due to the lower energy requirements and higher yields than reverse osmosis. Separation characteristics are dependent on both the molecular size and charge of the dissolved species in the feed solution as well as membrane properties. In this investigation the potential of nanofiltration to remove dissolved species from uranium mill effluent has been studied. The background behind the application is discussed and the results of the first testwork programme are presented. An initial screening of seventeen commercially available membranes was completed and it was found that uranium rejections of greater than 75% were consistently achieved. Selected membranes also showed potential for the separation of radium, sulfate and manganese. (author)

  9. Treatment of uranium and thorium bearing nitrate effluent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indigenously designed Advanced Heavy Water Reactor utilises (Th-LEU)O2 MOX as the fuel. During fabrication of MOX fuel, pellets not meeting the quality requirements will be recycled by wet processing for the recovery of uranium and thorium. The present study investigates the feasibility of various processes on the treatment of thorium bearing effluent arising from wet processing of reject MOX pellets. Process involving the reductive precipitation of uranium by sodium dithionite followed by adsorption of thorium onto inorganic sorbent, MST was developed and optimized. Reproducibility of the process under scale up conditions was also established. Under the optimized parameters, percentage removal obtained for uranium, thorium and radium was 99%, 97% and 98% respectively. (author)

  10. Cross-flow filtration with different ceramic membranes for polishing wastewater treatment plant effluent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farsi, Ali; Hammer Jensen, Sofie; Roslev, Peter;

    Nowadays the need for sustainable water treatment is essential because water shortages are increasing. Depending on the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent constituents, the effluent cannot be simply discharged to environment because it contains toxic ions and organic micropollutants which...... pore size is 15 nm), mesoporous γ-alumina (5 nm), microporous TiO2 (1nm) and microporous hybrid silica (adsorption...

  11. Treatment efficiency of effluent prawn culture by wetland with floating aquatic macrophytes arranged in series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henares, M N P; Camargo, A F M

    2014-11-01

    The efficiency of a series of wetland colonized with Eichhornia crassipes and Salvinia molesta to treat the effluent of a giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) broodstock pond was evaluated in this study. The experimental design was completely randomized and was performed in 9 rectangular tanks (1.6 m3) with three treatments (constructed wetlands) and three replicates. The treatment types included: a wetland colonized with E. crassipes and S. molesta (EcSm) arranged sequentially, a wetland with E. crassipes only (Ec) and a wetland with S. molesta only (Sm). The means of suspended particulate material (SPM), total inorganic nitrogen (TIN), total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN), P-orthophosphate (PO4-P) and total phosphorus (TP) of the treated effluents were compared using ANOVA followed by Tukey's test (Pwetlands exhibited lower SPM concentrations. The Ec wetland reduced TIN, TKN, PO4-P and TP by 46.0, 43.7, 44.4 and 43.6%, respectively. In the EcSm wetland, the reduction of TIN (23.0%), TKN (33.7%) and PO4-P (26.7%) was similar to the Sm wetland (19.8% TIN, 30.9% TKN and 23.8% PO4-P). The Ec wetland was more efficient in treating pond effluent due likely to the higher root surface of E. crassipes, which forms an extensive area favorable to retention and adsorption of debris and absorption of nutrients. PMID:25627602

  12. Ultrafiltration fouling trend simulation of a municipal wastewater treatment plant effluent with model wastewater

    OpenAIRE

    TORA GRAU, MIRIAM; Soler Cabezas, José Luis; Vincent Vela, Maria Cinta; Mendoza Roca, José Antonio; Martínez Francisco, Francisco Juan

    2015-01-01

    Secondary treatment effluents from Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plants require tertiary treatments to be reused in agriculture. Among tertiary treatment technologies, ultrafiltration has been proven to be a reliable reclamation process. Nevertheless this technique has an important disadvantage: membrane fouling. This phenomenon causes decline in permeate flux with time and increases the operational costs. Due to the fact that secondary effluents from Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plants co...

  13. Electro-coagulation applied to the treatment of industrial effluents; Electrocoagulation appliquee en traitement des effluents industriels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laplace, C.; Leboucher, G.; Coste, M. [Anjou Recherche, Vivendi Water, 78 - Maisons-Laffitte (France)

    2001-07-01

    The electro-coagulation is a water treatment technic in electrolysis cell with double anode. In substitution to the coagulant reagent often used in water de-pollution, it realizes also the coloring decomposition, the DCO abatement and sometimes improving the sludges processing. The technic presents meanwhile some limitations as its poor treatment capacity and the necessity of a high effluent conductivity. An example of application shows that this technic is economically competitive. (A.L.B.)

  14. Optimal policies for activated sludge treatment systems with multi effluent stream generation

    OpenAIRE

    Gouveia R.; Pinto J.M.

    2000-01-01

    Most industrial processes generate liquid waste, which requires treatment prior to disposal. These processes are divided into sectors that generate effluents with time dependent characteristics. Each sector sends the effluent to wastewater treatment plants through pumping-stations. In general, activated sludge is the most suitable treatment and consists of equalization, aeration and settling tanks. During the treatment, there is an increase in the mass of microorganisms, which needs to be rem...

  15. Alkaline hydrothermal synthesis of homogeneous titania microspheres with urchin-like nanoarchitectures for dye effluent treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → Alkali-hydrothermal treatments of a remnant of Ti-H2O2 reaction achieve titania microspheres. → Inhibited heterogeneous nucleation and low supersaturation contribute to the uniform size. → Radially aligned anatase nanowires construct the microspheres. → The microspheres possess a BET surface area of 45.4 m2/g. → The microspheres exhibit a high activity to assist photodegradation of rhodamine B in water. - Abstract: The heterogeneous photocatalysis technique to treat dye effluents demands micrometer-sized titania aggregates with one-dimensional nanostructures, which possess high photocatalytic activity and at the same time facilitate the catalyst-recovery from a slurry system. In this study, the solution remained after interactions between metallic Ti and hydrogen peroxide was subjected to an alkaline hydrothermal treatment. Microspheres with extremely uniform sizes of ca. 2 μm in diameter were achieved after a subsequent proton exchange followed by calcination in air. The microspheres were urchin-like aggregates of radially assembled nanowires, which consisted of chain-like anatase single crystallites with an average diameter of 20-25 nm. The homogeneous microspheres calcinated at 600 oC possessed a surface area of 45.4 m2/g and exhibited an excellent activity to assist photodegradation of rhodamine B in water, which is significantly higher than that of P25 titania nanoparticles. Because of the much easier recovery of the photocatalyst, the homogeneous microspheres synthesized herein may find practical applications in efficient photocatalytic treatments of dye effluents.

  16. Wastewater viruses and their elimination during treatment of polluted effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viruses are a biological pollution in wastewaters. Their elimination results from treatment processes of polluted effluents in the sewage treatment plant or in the lagooning pilot plant. Bacteriophages are regarded as viruses models and as indicators of faecal contamination. In an experimental study, two pilot plants laboratories have been used (natural lagooning and activated sludge pilot) to follow and evaluate the elimination rate of somatic coliphage X-174 or the ARN F-specific one MS2. The two phages removal, ranging to 99 % in the two systems, are related with previous values on enteric viruses. The main factors of viral removal and inactivation (adsorption to solid matters, microbial activities, solar radiations, dissolved matters) have been studied too. Adsorption of infectious particles to solid matters is a very significant process. This was obtained in the pilot plant laboratory experiment and in in vitro study (X-174 or MS2 in the presence of the kaolinite or the montmorillonite). Otherwise, 12 hours of solar rays exposition were efficient ro inactivate nearly the whole phagic suspension. The ciliate protozoan Tetrahymena pyriformis does not seem to have an important role for elimination of phages (X-174 and MS2)

  17. Technologies for the treatment of effluents from uranium mines, mills and tailings. Proceedings of a technical committee meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effluent treatment is an important aspect of uranium mining and milling operations that continues through decommissioning and site rehabilitation. During the life of a mine, effluent treatment is an integral part of the operation with all effluent either being recycled to the mill or processed through a water treatment plant before being released into the environment. During decommissioning and rehabilitation, effluent treatment must continue either through a water treatment plant of by using passive treatment techniques. Because of the recent closing of several uranium mines or mining districts, particularly in eastern Europe, effluent treatment is becoming an ever increasing concern. Therefore the IAEA convened a technical committee meeting (TCM) so that experts from different countries could discuss information and knowledge on effluent treatment processes and methods. The papers presented at the meeting describe techniques for treatment of effluents from uranium production operations - both past and present. This publication contains ten papers presented at the meeting; each of the papers was indexed separately

  18. Mixed waste characterization, treatment, and disposal focus area. Technology summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    This paper presents details about the technology development programs of the Department of Energy. In this document, waste characterization, thermal treatment processes, non-thermal treatment processes, effluent monitors and controls, development of on-site innovative technologies, and DOE business opportunities are applied to environmental restoration. The focus areas for research are: contaminant plume containment and remediation; mixed waste characterization, treatment, and disposal; high-level waste tank remediation; landfill stabilization; and decontamination and decommissioning.

  19. Applicability of Fenton Process for Treatment of Industrial Effluents: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Mehali Mehta; Swati Parekh

    2014-01-01

    Wastewater and effluent treatment has undergone innovative changes over the years. Traditional wastewater treatment has yielded to modern and path-breaking procedures which are more efficient and effective. The world of difficulties and unknown has opened new avenues and paths to highly feasible effluent treatment procedures, so the vigorous importance of advanced oxidation procedures. This review paper will delineate the increasing importance of various advanced oxidation process...

  20. Isolation and Purification of Lactobacillus Acidophilus and Analyzing its Influence on Effluent Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Vellingiri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Out of various activities in textile industry, wet processing produces about 70% of the effluents. Of late textile industry is giving importance for the eco-friendly processes to protect the environment. The effluents degrade the quality of water and cause injury to the existing organisms and aquatic life. When biological treatments are given to the textile effluents it results in significant reduction in the effluent characteristics and the resultant becomes environmental friendly. This successful bio-culture treatment uses aquatic organisms to purify effluent and refresh the water. A number of bio-cultural species are widely used in the treatment of effluents. Lactobacillus acidophilus is one such bacterium used in the effluent purification. Lactobacillus acidophilus has the ability to remove, assimilate and decompose the biodegradable organic matters present in the effluents. In addition to these, the present research study attempts to control the levels of total suspended solids (TSS, improve the dissolved oxygen content, reduce the chemical oxygen demand (COD and biological oxygen demand (BOD.

  1. Heavy oil processing impacts refinery and effluent treatment operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thornthwaite, P. [Nalco Champion, Northwich, Cheshire (United Kingdom)

    2013-11-01

    Heavy oils are becoming more common in Europe. The processing of heavier (opportunity or challenge) crudes, although financially attractive, introduce additional challenges to the refiner. These challenges are similar whether they come from imported crudes or in the future possibly from shale oils (tight oils). Without a strategy for understanding and mitigating the processing issues associated with these crudes, the profit potential may be eroded by decreased equipment reliability and run length. This paper focuses on the impacts at the desalter and how to manage them effectively while reducing the risks to downstream processes. Desalters have to deal with an increased viscosity, density (lower API gravity), higher solids loading, potential conductivity issues, and asphaltene stability concerns. All these factors can lead to operational problems impacting downstream of the desalter, both on the process and the water side. The other area of focus is the effluent from the desalter which can significantly impact waste water operations. This can take the form of increased oil under-carry, solids and other contaminants originating from the crudes. Nalco Champion has experience in working with these challenging crudes, not only, Azeri, Urals and African crudes, but also the Canadian oil sands, US Shale oil, heavy South American crudes and crudes containing metal naphthenates. Best practices will be shared and an outlook on the effects of Shale oil will be given. (orig.)

  2. Research Areas: Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    The development of more effective and less toxic treatments is fundamental to improving outcomes for patients with cancer. NCI is leading efforts on several fronts to develop and evaluate new cancer treatments.

  3. Treatment of Alkaline Stripped Effluent in Aerated Constructed Wetlands: Feasibility Evaluation and Performance Enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keli He

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Ammonium stripping has gained increasing interest for nitrogen recovery in anaerobically digested effluents. However, the stripped effluents often still do not meet discharge standards, having high pH and residual pollutants. Constructed wetlands (CWs are an easy to operate ecosystem and have a long history of application in treatment of wastewaters with extreme pH, such as acid mine drainage. However, knowledge of the mechanistic details involved in the use of CWs to treat high alkaline drainage, such as stripped effluent, is insufficient. This study explored the feasibility and effectiveness of using three sub-surface horizontal flow CWs to treat high alkaline stripped effluent (pH > 10. Two intensification strategies—intermittent aeration and effluent recirculation—were evaluated to enhance nitrogen depuration performance. The results show that the treatment of alkaline stripped effluent is feasible due to the high buffering capacity of the wetlands. Effluent recirculation combined with intermittent artificial aeration improves nitrogen removal, with 71% total nitrogen (TN removal. Ammonia volatilization from the surface of the wetlands in high alkaline conditions only contributed to 3% of the total removed ammonium. The microbial abundance and activity had significant diversity for the various enhancement strategies used in the constructed wetland systems. Anammox is an important process for nitrogen removal in CWs treating alkaline stripped effluent, and possible enhancements of this process should be investigated further.

  4. Photo-Electrochemical Treatment of Reactive Dyes in Wastewater and Reuse of the Effluent: Method Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mireia Sala

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the efficiency of a photo-electrochemical method to remove color in textile dyeing effluents is discussed. The decolorization of a synthetic effluent containing a bi-functional reactive dye was carried out by applying an electrochemical treatment at different intensities (2 A, 5 A and 10 A, followed by ultraviolet irradiation. The combination of both treatments was optimized. The final percentage of effluent decolorization, the reduction of halogenated organic volatile compound and the total organic carbon removal were the determinant factors in the selection of the best treatment conditions. The optimized method was applied to the treatment of nine simulated dyeing effluents prepared with different reactive dyes in order to compare the behavior of mono, bi, and tri-reactive dyes. Finally, the nine treated effluents were reused in new dyeing processes and the color differences (DECMC (2:1 with respect to a reference were evaluated. The influence of the effluent organic matter removal on the color differences was also studied. The reuse of the treated effluents provides satisfactory dyeing results, and an important reduction in water consumption and salt discharge is achieved.

  5. Soil Aquifer Treatment: Assessment and Applicability of Primary Effluent Reuse in Developing Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abel, C.D.T.

    2014-01-01

    This thesis showed that soil aquifer treatment (SAT) is an effective polishing technology for reuse of primary effluent. The study experimentally revealed relatively high removal of suspended solids, bulk organic matter, nutrients, pharmaceutically active compounds and pathogens indicators under var

  6. Closure report for CAU 93: Area 6 steam cleaning effluent ponds, Nevada Test Site. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    The Steam Cleaning Effluent Ponds (SCEP) waste unit is located in Area 6 at the Nevada Test Site. The SCEPs are evaporation basins formerly used for the disposal of untreated liquid effluent discharged from steam cleaning activities associated with Buildings 6-623 and 6-800. This closure report documents the strategy and analytical results that support the clean closure or closure in place of each of the components within CAU 93. In addition, the report documents all deviations from the approved closure plan and provides rationale for all deviations.

  7. Closure report for CAU 93: Area 6 steam cleaning effluent ponds, Nevada Test Site. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Steam Cleaning Effluent Ponds (SCEP) waste unit is located in Area 6 at the Nevada Test Site. The SCEPs are evaporation basins formerly used for the disposal of untreated liquid effluent discharged from steam cleaning activities associated with Buildings 6-623 and 6-800. This closure report documents the strategy and analytical results that support the clean closure or closure in place of each of the components within CAU 93. In addition, the report documents all deviations from the approved closure plan and provides rationale for all deviations

  8. Treatment of textile industry effluents using orange waste: a proposal to reduce color and chemical oxygen demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Farias Silva, Carlos Eduardo; da Silva Gonçalves, Andreza Heloiza; de Souza Abud, Ana Karla

    2016-01-01

    Various agricultural residues have been tested as biosorbents due to their low cost, high surface area, and favorable surface chemistry. In this work, a sweet orange albedo was tested as a biosorbent for treatment of real textile effluents. The orange albedo powder was prepared by drying the residue at 50 °C and milling to 30 mesh, and then used for dye adsorption from a alkaline (pH = 10.71) effluent. The adsorption process was studied in batch experiments at 30 °C by measuring color removal and chemical oxygen demand (COD). The color removal was found not to be significantly altered when the effluent was used in its raw state, while COD increased probably due to albedo degradation. For the effluent diluted to 60% (Veffluent VH2O(-1)), color and COD removal percentages of approximately 89% were obtained. It was found that pH played a very significant role on the adsorption process, as the treated albedo displayed a relative pHPZC* of 4.61, and the highest dye removal efficiencies were reached at pH lower than 2. The COD was strongly influenced by the effluent dilution. The effectiveness in eliminating color and COD shows that orange albedo can be potentially used as a biosorbent to treat textile wastewater. PMID:27533873

  9. Fungal Biosorption, An Innovative Treatment for the Decolourisation and Detoxification of Textile Effluents

    OpenAIRE

    Antonella Pannocchia; Antonella Mangiavillano; Valeria Prigione; Pietro Giansanti; Valeria Tigini; Giovanna Cristina Varese

    2010-01-01

    Textile effluents are among the most difficult-to-treat wastewaters, due to their considerable amount of recalcitrant and toxic substances. Fungal biosorption is viewed as a valuable additional treatment for removing pollutants from textile wastewaters. In this study the efficiency of Cunninghamella elegans biomass in terms of contaminants, COD and toxicity reduction was tested against textile effluents sampled in different points of wastewater treatment plants. The results showed that C. ele...

  10. Pre-treatment and membrane ultrafiltration using treated palm oil mill effluent (POME)

    OpenAIRE

    Wong Pui Wah; Nik Meriam Sulaiman; Meenakshisundaram Nachiappan; Balaraman Varadaraj

    2002-01-01

    Treatment of palm oil mill effluent (POME) has always been a topic of research in Malaysia. This effluent that is extremely rich in organic content needs to be properly treated to minimize environmental hazards before it is released into watercourses. The common practice for treating POME in Malaysia involves a combination of aerobic and anaerobic methods. The purpose of tertiary treatment is to allow the treated water to be reused in the mill operations for other purposes such as feed water....

  11. The treatment and disposal of tritiated effluents. Technology and safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study on the disposal of tritiated effluents has been conducted in coordination with investigations carried out at NUKEM GmbH under the heading ''Compilation of Safety-Related Data for an Industrial Disposal of Tritiated Effluents on the Basis of Large-Scale Invenstigations''. The findings of this study were adopted, in particular with a view to tritium exchange rates ascertained experimentally. After some introductory remarks on the origin of tritium, its properties and its behaviour in a reprocessing plant three alternative methods for the disposal of tritiated effluents produced during reprocessing are described in the present study and compared with each other under various aspects. The study is based on the concept of a 1400 t/a reprocessing plant for LWR fuel, which annually produces 3000 m3 of tritiated waste water with a tritium content of 6.5 x 1012 Bq/m3 as well as a residual fission product and actinide content. (orig./RW)

  12. Crab shell-based biosorption technology for the treatment of nickel-bearing electroplating industrial effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayaraghavan, K; Palanivelu, K; Velan, M

    2005-03-17

    This paper discusses the possible application of a biosorption system with acid-washed crab shells in a packed bed up-flow column for the removal of nickel from electroplating industrial effluents. Between two nickel-bearing effluents, effluent-1 is characterized by considerable amount of light metals along with trace amounts of lead and copper. Effluent-2 is characterized by relatively low conductivity, total dissolved solids and total hardness compared to effluent-1. Crab shells exhibited uptakes of 15.08 and 20.04 mg Ni/g from effluent-1 and effluent-2, respectively. The crab shell bed was regenerated using 0.01 M EDTA (pH 9.8, aq. NH3) and reused for seven sorption-desorption cycles. The EDTA elution provided elution efficiencies up to 99% in all the seven cycles. This, together with the data from regeneration efficiencies for seven cycles, provided evidence that the reusability of crab shell in the treatment of nickel-bearing electroplating industrial effluents is viable. PMID:15752873

  13. Occurrence of disinfection byproducts in United States wastewater treatment plant effluents

    KAUST Repository

    Krasner, Stuart W.

    2009-11-01

    Effluents from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) contain disinfection byproducts (DBPs) of health concern when the water is utilized downstream as a potable water supply. The pattern of DBP formation was strongly affected by whether or not the WWTP achieved good nitrification. Chlorine addition to poorly nitrified effluents formed low levels of halogenated DBPs, except for (in some cases) dihalogenated acetic acids, but often substantial amounts of N-nitrosodimethyamine (NDMA). Chlorination of well-nitrified effluent typically resulted in substantial formation of halogenated DBPs but much less NDMA. For example, on a median basis after chlorine addition, the well-nitrified effluents had 57 μg/L of trihalomethanes [THMs] and 3 ng/L of NDMA, while the poorly nitrified effluents had 2 μg/L of THMs and 11 ng/L of NDMA. DBPs with amino acid precursors (haloacetonitriles, haloacetaldehydes) formed at substantial levels after chlorination of well-nitrified effluent. The formation of halogenated DBPs but not that of NDMA correlated with the formation of THMs in WWTP effluents disinfected with free chlorine. However, THM formation did not correlate with the formation of other DBPs in effluents disinfected with chloramines. Because of the relatively high levels of bromide in treated wastewater, bromine incorporation was observed in various classes of DBPs. © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  14. Treatment option evaluation for liquid effluent secondary streams on the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study, conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC), examines the range of secondary waste types and volumes likely to result from treatment of contaminated liquid effluents. Alternatives for treatment of these effluents were considered, taking into account the implementation of the ''best-available technology'' as assumed in current and ongoing engineering studies for treating the various liquid effluent waste streams. These treatment alternatives, and potential variations in the operating schedules for Hanford Site facilities generating contaminated liquid effluents, were evaluated to project an estimated range for the volume of each of the various secondary waste streams that are likely to be generated. The conclusions and recommendations were developed, based on these estimates. 23 refs., 34 figs., 16 tabs

  15. Reproductive responses of male fathead minnows exposed to wastewater treatment plant effluent, effluent treated with XAD8 resin, and an environmentally relevant mixture of alkylphenol compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, L.B.; Lee, K.E.; Swackhamer, D.L.; Schoenfuss, H.L.

    2007-01-01

    On-site, continuous-flow experiments were conducted during August and October 2002 at a major metropolitan wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) to determine if effluent exposure induced endocrine disruption as manifested in the reproductive competence of sexually mature male fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas). The fathead minnows were exposed in parallel experiments to WWTP effluent and WWTP effluent treated with XAD8 macroreticular resin to remove the hydrophobic-neutral fraction which contained steroidal hormones, alkylphenolethoxylates (APEs), and other potential endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs). The effluent composition varied on a temporal scale and the continuous-flow experiments captured the range of chemical variability that occurred during normal WWTP operations. Exposure to WWTP effluent resulted in vitellogenin induction in male fathead minnows, with greater response in October than in August. Concentrations of ammonia, APEs, 17??-estradiol, and other EDCs also were greater in October than in August, reflecting a change in effluent composition. In the October experiment, XAD8 treatment significantly reduced vitellogenin induction in the male fathead minnows relative to the untreated effluent, whereas in August, XAD8 treatment had little effect. During both experiments, XAD8 treatment removed greater than 90% of the APEs. Exposure of fish to a mixture of APEs similar in composition and concentration to the WWTP effluent, but prepared in groundwater and conducted at a separate facility, elicited vitellogenin induction during both experiments. There was a positive relation between vitellogenin induction and hepatosomatic index (HSI), but not gonadosomatic index (GSI), secondary sexual characteristics index (SSCI), or reproductive competency. In contrast to expectations, the GSI and SSCI increased in males exposed to WWTP effluent compared to groundwater controls. The GSI, SSCI, and reproductive competency were positively affected by XAD8 treatment of

  16. Algae Removal by Electro-coagulation Process, Application for Treatment of the Effluent from an Industrial Wastewater Treatment Plant

    OpenAIRE

    GH Azarian; AR Mesdaghinia; F.Vaezi; R Nabizadeh; D. Nematollahi

    2007-01-01

    Background: Although stabilization ponds and lagoons are suitable treatment processes due to simplicity of operation and low per capital costs, the effluents of these systems have too high of a total suspended solids concentration to be discharged into receiving waters. This problem is mainly caused by algae. In this study, an electro-coagulation reactor was examined to re­move algae from the final effluent of the wastewater treatment plant belong to Bu-Ali Industrial Estates (Hamadan...

  17. Passive secondary biological treatment systems reduce estrogens in dairy shed effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadd, Jennifer B; Northcott, Grant L; Tremblay, Louis A

    2010-10-01

    Steroid estrogens are found at high concentrations in untreated dairy shed effluents. Reduction of estrogenic activity and steroid estrogen concentrations was assessed in two systems used to treat dairy shed effluents: the two-pond system and the advanced pond system. Both include anaerobic and aerobic treatment stages. Samples of effluent were collected from the systems and analyzed for free estrogens, conjugated estrogens and total estrogenic activity using E-Screen assay. Both systems showed increases of up to 8000% in aqueous free estrogens and estrogenic activity after anaerobic treatment, followed by decreases after aerobic treatment (36-83%). The complete systems decreased total steroid estrogen concentrations by 50-100% and estrogen activity by 62-100%, with little difference between systems. Removal rates were lower in winter for both systems. Final effluents from the advanced pond system contained total estrogens at <15-1400 ng/L and estrogenic activity at 3.2-43 ng/L. Final effluent from the two-pond system contained total estrogens at <15-300 ng/L and estrogenic activity at 3.3-25 ng/L. At times the final effluent EEQs exceeded guideline values for protection of freshwater fish and suggest further treatment may be required.

  18. Alkaline hydrothermal synthesis of homogeneous titania microspheres with urchin-like nanoarchitectures for dye effluent treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Jin-Ming, E-mail: msewjm@zju.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, Zhejiang University, ZheDa Road 38, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Song, Xiao-Mei [State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, Zhejiang University, ZheDa Road 38, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Yan, Mi, E-mail: mse_yanmi@zju.edu.cn [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, ZheDa Road 38, Hangzhou 310027 (China)

    2011-10-30

    Highlights: {yields} Alkali-hydrothermal treatments of a remnant of Ti-H{sub 2}O{sub 2} reaction achieve titania microspheres. {yields} Inhibited heterogeneous nucleation and low supersaturation contribute to the uniform size. {yields} Radially aligned anatase nanowires construct the microspheres. {yields} The microspheres possess a BET surface area of 45.4 m{sup 2}/g. {yields} The microspheres exhibit a high activity to assist photodegradation of rhodamine B in water. - Abstract: The heterogeneous photocatalysis technique to treat dye effluents demands micrometer-sized titania aggregates with one-dimensional nanostructures, which possess high photocatalytic activity and at the same time facilitate the catalyst-recovery from a slurry system. In this study, the solution remained after interactions between metallic Ti and hydrogen peroxide was subjected to an alkaline hydrothermal treatment. Microspheres with extremely uniform sizes of ca. 2 {mu}m in diameter were achieved after a subsequent proton exchange followed by calcination in air. The microspheres were urchin-like aggregates of radially assembled nanowires, which consisted of chain-like anatase single crystallites with an average diameter of 20-25 nm. The homogeneous microspheres calcinated at 600 {sup o}C possessed a surface area of 45.4 m{sup 2}/g and exhibited an excellent activity to assist photodegradation of rhodamine B in water, which is significantly higher than that of P25 titania nanoparticles. Because of the much easier recovery of the photocatalyst, the homogeneous microspheres synthesized herein may find practical applications in efficient photocatalytic treatments of dye effluents.

  19. Silage effluent management: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebrehanna, M M; Gordon, R J; Madani, A; VanderZaag, A C; Wood, J D

    2014-10-01

    Silage effluent is a potent wastewater that can be produced when ensiling crops that have a high moisture content (MC). Silage effluent can cause fish-kills and eutrophication due to its high biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and nutrient content, respectively. It has a high acidity (pH ≈ 3.5-5) making it corrosive to steel and damaging to concrete, which makes handling, storage and disposal a challenge. Although being recognized as a concentrated wastewater, most research has focused on preventing its production. Despite noted imprecision in effluent production models-and therefore limited ability to predict when effluent will flow-there has been little research aimed at identifying effective reactive management options, such as containment and natural treatment systems. Increasing climate variability and intensifying livestock agriculture are issues that will place a greater importance on developing comprehensive, multi-layered management strategies that include both preventative and reactive measures. This paper reviews important factors governing the production of effluent, approaches to minimize effluent flows as well as treatment and disposal options. The challenges of managing silage effluent are reviewed in the context of its chemical constituents. A multi-faceted approach should be utilized to minimize environmental risks associated with silage effluent. This includes: (i) managing crop moisture content prior to ensiling to reduce effluent production, (ii) ensuring the integrity of silos and effluent storages, and (iii) establishing infrastructure for effluent treatment and disposal. A more thorough investigation of constructed wetlands and vegetated infiltration areas for treating dilute silage effluent is needed. In particular, there should be efforts to improve natural treatment system design criteria by identifying pre-treatment processes and appropriate effluent loading rates. There is also a need for research aimed at understanding the effects of

  20. F/H effluent treatment facility. Technical data summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan, J P; Stimson, R E

    1984-12-01

    This document provides the technical basis for the design of the facility. Some of the sections are described with options to permit simplification of the process, depending on the effluent quality criteria that the facility will have to meet. Each part of the F/HETF process is reviewed with respect to decontamination and concentration efficiency, operability, additional waste generation, energy efficiency, and compatability with the rest of the process.

  1. F/H effluent treatment facility. Technical data summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document provides the technical basis for the design of the facility. Some of the sections are described with options to permit simplification of the process, depending on the effluent quality criteria that the facility will have to meet. Each part of the F/HETF process is reviewed with respect to decontamination and concentration efficiency, operability, additional waste generation, energy efficiency, and compatability with the rest of the process

  2. Efficiency of combined process of ozone and bio-filtration in the treatment of secondary effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Smriti; Tripathi, B D

    2011-07-01

    The present work was aimed at studying the efficiency of the combined process of biofiltration with ozonation to improve the quality of secondary effluent. The secondary effluent from the Dinapur Sewage Treatment Plant Varanasi, India was used in this work. The process of biofiltration with the plant species of Eichornia crassipes and Lemna minor, at a flow rate of 262 ml min(-1) and plant density of 30 mg L(-1) for 48 h, in combination with the process of ozonation with ozone dose of 10 mg L(-1) and contact time of 5 min was applied. Results revealed that combined process was statistically most suitable for the highest degradation of physico-chemical and microbial parameters with improving BDOC value. The biofiltration process is able to remove highest percentage of toxic heavy metals from the secondary effluent without production of toxicity. This technique is highly recommendable for tropical wastewater where sewage is mixed with industrial effluents. PMID:21550800

  3. Soil Washing and Effluent Treatment for Contaminated Soil with Toxic Metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Jung-Seok; Kwon, Man Jae [KIST Gangneung Institute, Gangneung (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Jin-Min [Gangneung-Wonju National University, Gangneung (Korea, Republic of); Baek, Kitae [Chonbuk National University, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-15

    This study evaluated the optimal soil washing conditions for toxic metals considering the removal efficiency of toxic metals from contaminated soils as well as from soil washing effluents. In the contaminated soils, As was the major contaminant and extracted by sodium hydroxide solution better than by sulfuric acid. However, in the case of the treatment of soil washing effluents, sodium hydroxide was less effective extractant because soil organic matter extracted by sodium hydroxide prevented the solid-liquid phase separation and toxic metal removal. In the treatment of soil washing effluents with sulfuric acid, toxic metals in the effluents were mostly precipitated at the pH above 6.5. In addition, granular ferric oxide (GFO) as an adsorbent enhanced the removal of As and Pb indicating that toxic metals in the washing effluents can be removed almost completely by the use of combined adsorption-neutralization process. This study suggests that soil washing techniques for toxic metals should be optimized based on the physical and chemical properties of the contaminated soils, the nature of chemical extractant, and the removal efficiency and effectiveness of toxic metals from the soils as well as soil washing effluents.

  4. Human infective potential of Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia duodenalis and Enterocytozoon bieneusi in urban wastewater treatment plant effluents

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Cryptosporidiosis, giardiasis, and microsporidiosis are important waterborne diseases. In the standard for wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents in China and...

  5. Biological monitoring of Upper Three Runs Creek, Savannah River Plant, Aiken County, South Carolina. Final report on macroinvertebrate stream assessments for F/H area ETF effluent discharge, July 1987--February 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Specht, W.L.

    1991-10-01

    In anticipation of the fall 1988 start up of effluent discharges into Upper Three Creek by the F/H Area Effluent Treatment Facility of the Savannah River Site, Aiken, SC, a two and one half year biological study was initiated in June 1987. Upper Three Runs Creek is an intensively studied fourth order stream known for its high species richness. Designed to assess the potential impact of F?H area effluent on the creek, the study includes qualitative and quantitative macroinvertebrate stream surveys at five sites, chronic toxicity testing of the effluent, water chemistry and bioaccumulation analysis. This final report presents the results of both pre-operational and post-operational qualitative and quantitative (artificial substrate) macroinvertebrate studies. Six quantitative and three qualitative studies were conducted prior to the initial release of the F/H ETF effluent and five quantitative and two qualitative studies were conducted post-operationally.

  6. Molecular analysis of bacterial isolates and total community DNA from kraft pulp mill effluent treatment systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortin, N; Fulthorpe, R R; Allen, D G; Greer, C W

    1998-06-01

    Chloroaliphatics are major components of bleached kraft mill effluents. Gene probes and oligonucleotide primers were developed to monitor kraft pulp mill effluent treatment systems for the presence of key genes (dehalogenases) responsible for the dehalogenation of chloroaliphatic organics. The primers were used for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis of genomic DNA extracted from dehalogenating bacterial isolates and from total community DNA extracted from water and sediments of mill effluent treatment system. PCR amplification with oligonucleotide primers designed from dhlB, encoding the haloacid dehalogenase from Xanthobacter autotrophicus, revealed the presence of dehalogenase genes in both aerated lagoons and stabilization basins. Similarly, positive results were obtained with mmoX primers designed from the soluble methane monooxygenase gene of Methylococcus capsulatus Bath. The haloacetate dehalogenase encoding gene (dehH2) from Moraxella sp. was typically not detected in mill effluent treatment systems unless the biomass was selectively enriched. DNA sequence analysis of several PCR fragaments revealed significant similarity to known dehalogenase amd methane monooxygenase genes. The results indicated a broad distribution of known dehalogenation genes and bacteria with chloroorganic-degrading potential in the mill effluent treatment systems. PMID:9734304

  7. Dragon Fruit Foliage Plant-Based Coagulant for Treatment of Concentrated Latex Effluent: Comparison of Treatment with Ferric Sulfate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juferi Idris

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of dragon fruit foliage as a natural coagulant for treatment of concentrated latex effluent was investigated and compared with ferric sulfate, a chemical coagulant. Dragon fruit is a round and often red-colored fruit with scales-like texture and is native to south American countries which is also cultivated and heavily marketed in southeast Asian countries. Its foliage represents a part of its overall plant system. Latex effluent is one of the main byproduct from rubber processing factories in Malaysia. Three main parameters investigated were chemical oxygen demand (COD, suspended solids (SS, and turbidity of effluent. Coagulation experiments using jar test were performed with a flocculation system where the effects of latex effluent pH as well as coagulation dosage on coagulation effectiveness were examined. The highest recorded COD, SS, and turbidity removal percentages for foliage were observed for effluent pH 10 at 94.7, 88.9, and 99.7%, respectively. It is concluded that the foliage showed tremendous potential as a natural coagulant for water treatment purposes. The foliage could be used in the pretreatment stage of Malaysian latex effluent prior to secondary treatment.

  8. Effects of wastewater treatment plant effluent inputs on planktonic metabolic rates and microbial community composition in the Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaquer-Sunyer, Raquel; Reader, Heather E.; Muthusamy, Saraladevi; Lindh, Markus V.; Pinhassi, Jarone; Conley, Daniel J.; Kritzberg, Emma S.

    2016-08-01

    The Baltic Sea is the world's largest area suffering from eutrophication-driven hypoxia. Low oxygen levels are threatening its biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. The main causes for eutrophication-driven hypoxia are high nutrient loadings and global warming. Wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) contribute to eutrophication as they are important sources of nitrogen to coastal areas. Here, we evaluated the effects of wastewater treatment plant effluent inputs on Baltic Sea planktonic communities in four experiments. We tested for effects of effluent inputs on chlorophyll a content, bacterial community composition, and metabolic rates: gross primary production (GPP), net community production (NCP), community respiration (CR) and bacterial production (BP). Nitrogen-rich dissolved organic matter (DOM) inputs from effluents increased bacterial production and decreased primary production and community respiration. Nutrient amendments and seasonally variable environmental conditions lead to lower alpha-diversity and shifts in bacterial community composition (e.g. increased abundance of a few cyanobacterial populations in the summer experiment), concomitant with changes in metabolic rates. An increase in BP and decrease in CR could be caused by high lability of the DOM that can support secondary bacterial production, without an increase in respiration. Increases in bacterial production and simultaneous decreases of primary production lead to more carbon being consumed in the microbial loop, and may shift the ecosystem towards heterotrophy.

  9. Biological treatment of the liquid effluents of a paper industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this paper is to determine the effect of the microorganisms Candida utilis and Candida tropicalis in the reduction of the chemical oxygen demand (COD) of the liquid effluents of a producing factory of paper kraft type, by means of fermentations made to pH of 5 and a 30 centigrade degrees during 6 days. The biological processing is preceded by a physicochemical process of directed acidulation to reduce pH of the effluent (liquor black) from its initial value, of approximately 13, to 5, in order to it is adapted for the growth of yeast. In this process, which forms precipitated, that is necessary to eliminate by centrifugation and filtration to facilitate the growth of the microorganisms, with is obtained one first removal of the COD of the order of 70 %. With the biological processing obtains for both yeasts a percentage of removal of 45 -50% of the COD surplus. The total removal of the COD, that is to say, obtained with the pre-cure and the fermentation it is of the order of 84% for the yeast. Additionally the possibility studied of implementing some complementary procedures to the biological processing, with a view to obtaining greater growth of yeast in the black liquor and thus obtaining additional reductions in the OCD of the same one

  10. State waste discharge permit application: 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (Project W-049H)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of the original Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Concent Order negotiations, US DOE, US EPA and the Washington State Department of Ecology agreed that liquid effluent discharges to the ground to the Hanford Site are subject to permitting in the State Waste Discharge Permit Program (SWDP). This document constitutes the SWDP Application for the 200 Area TEDF stream which includes the following streams discharged into the area: Plutonium Finishing Plant waste water; 222-S laboratory Complex waste water; T Plant waste water; 284-W Power Plant waste water; PUREX chemical Sewer; B Plant chemical sewer, process condensate, steam condensate; 242-A-81 Water Services waste water

  11. Potential risks of effluent from acid mine drainage treatment plants at abandoned coal mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Jaehwan; Kang, Sung-Wook; Ji, Wonhyun; Jo, Hun-Je; Jung, Jinho

    2012-06-01

    The lethal and sublethal toxicity of effluent from three acid mine drainage treatment plants were monitored from August 2009 to April 2010 using Daphnia magna (reference species) and Moina macrocopa (indigenous species). Acute lethal toxicity was observed in Samma effluent due to incomplete neutralization of acid mine drainages by the successive alkalinity producing system (SAPS). Additionally, there was no significant difference in toxicity values (TU) between D. magna and M. macrocopa (p < 0.05). Toxicity identification results of the final effluent collected in January 2010 showed that Al and Zn were key toxicants in addition to acidic pH. Unlike the Samma effluent, both Hwangji and Hamtae effluent had pH values that were near neutrality and showed either no acute toxicity or toxicity values less than 1 TU. However, the feeding rates of D. magna and M. macrocopa were significantly reduced when compared to the control (p < 0.05). These findings suggest that the Hamtae and Hwangji effluent likely have a sublethal effect on aquatic organisms in receiving water bodies. PMID:22415647

  12. Design and development of effluent treatment plants for the Sellafield reprocessing factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel has been carried out at Sellafield since the early 1950s. The storage of fuel in water filled ponds prior to reprocessing and the reprocessing operation itself results in the generation of a number of radioactive liquid effluents. The highly active liquors are stored in stainless steel tanks and will, with the commissioning of the Windscale Vitrification Plant, be converted into glass for long term storage and disposal. The medium and low active liquors are, after appropriate treatment, discharged to sea well below the Authorised Limits which are set by the appropriate Regulatory Bodies. Since 1960 these have been the Department of the Environment and the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food. Even though the discharges have been well below the limits set, BNFL have for many years adopted a policy of reducing the levels of activity still further. Considerable progress has already been made, by changing reprocessing operations regimes but more importantly by the development and construction of specialised effluent treatment plants. Further reductions are, however, planned. Two major effluent treatment plants form the main basis of BNFL's policy to reduce activity discharges from Sellafield. The first, the Site Ion Exchange Effluent Plant, to treat storage pond water was brought into operation in 1985. The second, the enhanced Actinide Removal Plant to treat medium and low active effluents, is programmed to operate in 1992. (author)

  13. Fungal Biosorption, An Innovative Treatment for the Decolourisation and Detoxification of Textile Effluents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella Pannocchia

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Textile effluents are among the most difficult-to-treat wastewaters, due to their considerable amount of recalcitrant and toxic substances. Fungal biosorption is viewed as a valuable additional treatment for removing pollutants from textile wastewaters. In this study the efficiency of Cunninghamella elegans biomass in terms of contaminants, COD and toxicity reduction was tested against textile effluents sampled in different points of wastewater treatment plants. The results showed that C. elegans is a promising candidate for the decolourisation and detoxification of textile wastewaters and its versatility makes it very competitive compared with conventional sorbents adopted in industrial processes.

  14. Utilization of ultraviolet radiation in effluent disinfestation of domestic waste treatment systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ultraviolet radiation disinfection of Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Biodigestor (UASB) and UASB with aerated lagoon pos-treatment effluents is possible to be reached utilizing a single low pressure mercury lamp arc (15 W nominal power) in a shell tube flow through reactor (1.2 L useful volume). Fecal coliforms, total coliforms and colifages were used as microbiological parameters. For fecal coliforms, about 3 logarithmic units (log. un.) was removed from UASB with aerated lagoon pos-treatment effluent and 4 log. un. from UASB effluent with 7 and 30 seconds of hydraulic retention time, respectively. Good empirical correlations were obtained between microbiological parameters and hydraulic retention times. (author). 4 refs, 1 fig, 3 tabs

  15. Algal-based immobilization process to treat the effluent from a secondary wastewater treatment plant (WWTP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He Shengbing, E-mail: heshengbing@sjtu.edu.cn [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiaotong University, 800 DongChuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China); Xue Gang [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Donghua University, Shanghai 200051 (China)

    2010-06-15

    Algal-based immobilization process was applied to treat the effluent from a secondary wastewater treatment plant. Batch test proved that algae could attach onto fiber-bundle carrier in 7 days, and then the algal-based immobilization reactor could reduce TN (total nitrogen) and TP (total phosphorus) significantly within 48 h. Based on the above investigations, the hydraulic retention time (HRT) of the algal-based immobilization reactor in continuous operation mode was determined to be 2 days. During the 91 days of experiment on the treating secondary effluent of Guang-Rao wastewater treatment plant, it was found that the fiber-bundle carrier could collect the heterobacteria and nitrifying bacteria gradually, and thus improved the COD removal efficiency and nitrification performance step by step. Results of the continuous operation indicated that the final effluent could meet the Chinese National First A-level Sewage Discharge Standard when the algal-based immobilization reactor reached steady state.

  16. [Antibiotic resistance of bacteria to 6 antibiotics in secondary effluents of municipal wastewater treatment plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Sun-Qin; Li, Yi; Huang, Jing-Jing; Wei, Bin; Hu, Hong-Ying

    2011-11-01

    Prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in wastewater effluents is concerned as an emerging contaminant. To estimate antibiotic resistance in secondary effluents of municipal wastewater treatment plants, antibiotic tolerance of heterotrophic bacteria, proportion of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and hemi-inhibitory concentrations of six antibiotics (penicillin, ampicillin, cefalexin, chloramphenicol, tetracycline and rifampicin) were determined at two wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Beijing. The results showed that proportions of ampicillin-resistant bacteria in WWTP-G and chloramphenicol-resistant bacteria in WWTP-Q were highest to 59% and 44%, respectively. The concentrations of ampicillin-resistant bacteria in the effluents of WWTP-G and WWTP-Q were as high as 4.0 x 10(3) CFU x mL(-1) and 3.5 x 10(4) CFU x mL(-1), respectively; the concentrations of chloramphenicol-resistant bacteria were 4.9 x 10(2) CFU x mL(-1) and 4.6 x 10(4) CFU x mL(-1), respectively. The data also indicated that the hemi-inhibitory concentrations of heterotrophic bacteria to 6 antibiotics were much higher than common concentrations of antibiotics in sewages, which suggested that antibiotic-resistant bacteria could exist over a long period in the effluents with low concentrations of antibiotics. Antibiotic-resistant bacteria could be a potential microbial risk during sewage effluent reuse or emission into environmental waters. PMID:22295644

  17. Treatment of textile effluent in a developed phytoreactor with immobilized bacterial augmentation and subsequent toxicity studies on Etheostoma olmstedi fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watharkar, Anuprita D. [Department of Biotechnology, Shivaji University, Kolhapur (India); Khandare, Rahul V. [School of Life Sciences, North Maharashtra University, Jalgaon (India); Waghmare, Pankajkumar R.; Jagadale, Ashwini D.; Govindwar, Sanjay P. [Department of Biochemistry, Shivaji University, Kolhapur (India); Jadhav, Jyoti P., E-mail: jpj_biochem@unishivaji.ac.in [Department of Biotechnology, Shivaji University, Kolhapur (India); Department of Biochemistry, Shivaji University, Kolhapur (India)

    2015-02-11

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A phytoreactor was developed and augmented with immobilized bacteria. • This consortium showed enhanced treatment than the individual species. • Oxido-reductases from P. crinitum and B. pumilus could decolorize the effluent. • Characterization of effluent samples endorsed the efficacy of consortial strategy. • Toxicity studies revealed the less toxic nature of the consortium treated effluent. - Abstract: A static hydroponic bioreactor using nursery grown plants of Pogonatherum crinitum along with immobilized Bacillus pumilus cells was developed for the treatment of textile wastewater. Independent reactors with plants and immobilized cells were also kept for performance and efficacy evaluation. The effluent samples characterized before and after their treatment showed that the plant–bacterial consortium reactor was more efficient than those of individual plant and bacterium reactors. COD, BOD, ADMI, conductivity, turbidity, TDS and TSS of the textile effluent was found to be reduced by 78, 70, 93, 4, 90, 13 and 70% respectively within 12 d by the consortial set. HPTLC analysis revealed the transformation of the textile effluent to new products. The phytotoxicity study on Phaeseolus mungo and Sorghum vulgare seeds showed reduced toxicity of treated effluents. The animal toxicity study performed on Etheostoma olmstedi fishes showed the toxic nature of untreated effluent giving extreme stress to fishes leading to death. Histology of fish gills exposed to treated effluent was found to be less affected. The oxidative stress related enzymes like superoxide dismutase and catalase were found to show decreased activities and less lipid peroxidation in fishes exposed to treated effluent.

  18. Treatment of textile effluent in a developed phytoreactor with immobilized bacterial augmentation and subsequent toxicity studies on Etheostoma olmstedi fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A phytoreactor was developed and augmented with immobilized bacteria. • This consortium showed enhanced treatment than the individual species. • Oxido-reductases from P. crinitum and B. pumilus could decolorize the effluent. • Characterization of effluent samples endorsed the efficacy of consortial strategy. • Toxicity studies revealed the less toxic nature of the consortium treated effluent. - Abstract: A static hydroponic bioreactor using nursery grown plants of Pogonatherum crinitum along with immobilized Bacillus pumilus cells was developed for the treatment of textile wastewater. Independent reactors with plants and immobilized cells were also kept for performance and efficacy evaluation. The effluent samples characterized before and after their treatment showed that the plant–bacterial consortium reactor was more efficient than those of individual plant and bacterium reactors. COD, BOD, ADMI, conductivity, turbidity, TDS and TSS of the textile effluent was found to be reduced by 78, 70, 93, 4, 90, 13 and 70% respectively within 12 d by the consortial set. HPTLC analysis revealed the transformation of the textile effluent to new products. The phytotoxicity study on Phaeseolus mungo and Sorghum vulgare seeds showed reduced toxicity of treated effluents. The animal toxicity study performed on Etheostoma olmstedi fishes showed the toxic nature of untreated effluent giving extreme stress to fishes leading to death. Histology of fish gills exposed to treated effluent was found to be less affected. The oxidative stress related enzymes like superoxide dismutase and catalase were found to show decreased activities and less lipid peroxidation in fishes exposed to treated effluent

  19. Treatment of a Textile Effluent from Dyeing with Cochineal Extracts Using Trametes versicolor Fungus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Arroyo-Figueroa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Trametes versicolor (Tv fungus can degrade synthetic dyes that contain azo groups, anthraquinone, triphenylmethane polymers, and heterocyclic groups. However, no references have been found related to the degradation of natural dyes, such as the carminic acid that is contained in the cochineal extract. Experiments to determine the decolorization of the effluent used in the cotton dyeing process with cochineal extract by means of Tv fungus were done. Treatments to determine decolorization in the presence or absence of Kirk's medium, glucose, and fungus, with an addition of 50% (v v-1 of nonsterilized effluent were performed. Physicochemical characterization was performed at the start and end of the treatment. Degradation kinetics were determined. A direct relationship was found between the dry weight of fungi, pH, and the decolorization system, with higher decolorization at lower pH levels (pH ~4.3. High decolorization (81% ± 0.09; 88% ± 0.17; and 99% ± 0.04 for three of the eight treatments (Kirk's medium without glucose, Kirk's medium with glucose, and without medium with glucose, respectively was found. Toxicity tests determined an increase in the initial effluent toxicity (7.33 TU compared with the final treatment (47.73 TU in a period of 11 days. For this system, a degradation sequence of the carminic acid structure present in the effluent by the Tv fungus is suggested, in which it is seen that metabolites still containing aromatic structures are generated.

  20. Treatment of a textile effluent from dyeing with cochineal extracts using Trametes versicolor fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo-Figueroa, Gabriela; Ruiz-Aguilar, Graciela M L; López-Martínez, Leticia; González-Sánchez, Guillermo; Cuevas-Rodríguez, Germán; Rodríguez-Vázquez, Refugio

    2011-01-01

    Trametes versicolor (Tv) fungus can degrade synthetic dyes that contain azo groups, anthraquinone, triphenylmethane polymers, and heterocyclic groups. However, no references have been found related to the degradation of natural dyes, such as the carminic acid that is contained in the cochineal extract. Experiments to determine the decolorization of the effluent used in the cotton dyeing process with cochineal extract by means of Tv fungus were done. Treatments to determine decolorization in the presence or absence of Kirk's medium, glucose, and fungus, with an addition of 50% (v v-1) of nonsterilized effluent were performed. Physicochemical characterization was performed at the start and end of the treatment. Degradation kinetics were determined. A direct relationship was found between the dry weight of fungi, pH, and the decolorization system, with higher decolorization at lower pH levels (pH ~4.3). High decolorization (81% ± 0.09; 88% ± 0.17; and 99% ± 0.04) for three of the eight treatments (Kirk's medium without glucose, Kirk's medium with glucose, and without medium with glucose, respectively) was found. Toxicity tests determined an increase in the initial effluent toxicity (7.33 TU) compared with the final treatment (47.73 TU) in a period of 11 days. For this system, a degradation sequence of the carminic acid structure present in the effluent by the Tv fungus is suggested, in which it is seen that metabolites still containing aromatic structures are generated. PMID:21552764

  1. Application of the Ulva pertusa bioassay for a toxicity identification evaluation and reduction of effluent from a wastewater treatment plant

    OpenAIRE

    Youn-Jung eKim; Young-Seok eHan; Eunhee eKim; Jinho eJung; Sang-Hoon eKim; Soon-Joo eYoo; Gi-Sik eShin; Jeongju eOh; Areum ePark; Hoon eChoi; Mi-Sung eKim; Murray eBrown; Taejun eHan

    2015-01-01

    A toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) based on Ulva pertusa spore release was conducted in 3 phases for the identification of the major toxicants in effluent from a wastewater treatment plant (WTP) and the receiving water in an adjacent stream. The toxicity of the final effluent (FE), as compared with raw wastewater, and primary and secondary effluent, showed a greater change over 12-monthly sampling events and appeared to have impacts on the toxicity of the downstream water with a signi...

  2. Effect of Ozone Treatment on Nano-Sized Silver Sulfide in Wastewater Effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thalmann, Basilius; Voegelin, Andreas; von Gunten, Urs; Behra, Renata; Morgenroth, Eberhard; Kaegi, Ralf

    2015-09-15

    Silver nanoparticles used in consumer products are likely to be released into municipal wastewater. Transformation reactions, most importantly sulfidation, lead to the formation of nanoscale silver sulfide (nano-Ag2S) particles. In wastewater treatment plants (WWTP), ozonation can enhance the effluent quality by eliminating organic micropollutants. The effect of ozonation on the fate of nano-Ag2S, however, is currently unknown. In this study, we investigate the interaction of ozone with nano-Ag2S and evaluate the effect of ozonation on the short-term toxicity of WWTP effluent spiked with nano-Ag2S. The oxidation of nano-Ag2S by ozone resulted in a stoichiometric factor (number of moles of ozone required to oxidize one mole of sulfide to sulfate) of 2.91, which is comparable to the results obtained for the reaction of bisulfide (HS(-)) with ozone. The second-order rate constant for the reaction of nano-Ag2S with ozone (k = 3.1 × 10(4) M(-1) s(-1)) is comparable to the rate constant of fast-reacting micropollutants. Analysis of the ozonation products of nano-Ag2S by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) revealed that ozonation dominantly led to the formation of silver chloride in WWTP effluent. After ozonation of the Ag2S-spiked effluent, the short-term toxicity for the green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii increased and reached EC50 values comparable to Ag(+). This study thus reveals that ozone treatment of WWTP effluent results in the oxidation of Ag2S and, hence, an increase of the Ag toxicity in the effluent, which may become relevant at elevated Ag concentrations. PMID:26270654

  3. Application of electron beam irradiation combined to conventional treatment to treat industrial effluents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, C. L.; Sampa, M. H. O.; Rela, P. R.; Oikawa, H.; Cherbakian, E. H.; Sena, H. C.; Abe, H.; Sciani, V.

    2000-03-01

    A preliminary study to combine electron beam irradiation process with biological treatment was carried out. Experiments were conducted using samples from a governmental wastewater treatment plant (WTP) that receives about 20% of industrial wastewater, with the objective of destroying the refractory organic pollutants and to obtain a better performance of this plant. Samples from five different steps of WTP were collected and irradiated in the electron beam accelerator in a batch system with 5.0, 10.0 and 20.0 kGy doses. The main results showed a removal of 99% of all organic compound analysed in the industrial receiver unit (IRU) effluent and in the coarse bar screen (CBS) effluent with a 20 kGy dose, and for the medium bar screen (MBS) and primary sedimentation (PS) effluent a 10 kGy dose was sufficient. In the case of final effluent (FE), a dose of 5 kGy removed the remaining organic compounds and dyes present after biological treatment.

  4. Reason Analysis of Discharge Excessive Pollutants for Electroplating Effluent Treatment%电镀废水化学处理稳定达标难的原因分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴旭升

    2015-01-01

    废水处理是电镀集中区建设成功的关键,政府和企业投入了大量的资源,但经常没有好的结果,本文根据电镀废水的特点、废水分质现状、处理能力,结合电镀废水处理的工程设计特点、电镀添加剂等相关现状,分析导致废水处理效果波动的原因,希望对电镀废水处理的稳定达标有所帮助。%Wastewater treatment is a key to successful construction of centralized areas for electroplating industry, government and enterprises in the electroplating industry have been paying attention to the electroplating effluent treatment and made huge investment for them. But nowadays pollutant in effluent from a few factories remains not to come up to the standard. Combining the characteristics of electroplating effluent, the distributary actuality, effluent treatment ability, effluent treatment engineering design, additive for electroplating in present affecting treatment efficiency, the reason of discharge excessive pollutants for electroplating effluent treatment was analyzed, hoping to improve electroplating effluent treatment come up to the standard.

  5. Biological hazard evaluation of a pharmaceutical effluent before and after a photo-Fenton treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novoa-Luna, Karen Adriana; Mendoza-Zepeda, Arisbeht; Natividad, Reyna; Romero, Rubi; Galar-Martínez, Marcela; Gómez-Oliván, Leobardo Manuel

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the biological hazard of a pharmaceutical effluent before and after treatment. For the former, the determined 96h-LC50 value was 1.2%. The photo-Fenton treatment catalyzed with an iron-pillared clay reduced this parameter by 341.7%. Statistically significant increases with respect to the control group (PPCT, oxidative stress, genotoxic damage and LC50 in Hyalella azteca. PMID:27392336

  6. Continuous fungal treatment of non-sterile veterinary hospital effluent: pharmaceuticals removal and microbial community assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Badia-Fabregat, Marina; Lucas, Daniel; M. A. PEREIRA; Alves, M. M.; Pennanen, Taina; Fritze, Hannu; Rodríguez-Mozaz, Sara; Barceló, Damià; Vicent, Teresa; Caminal, Glòria

    2016-01-01

    Source point treatment of effluents with a high load of pharmaceutical active compounds (PhACs), such as hospital wastewater, is a matter of discussion among the scientific community. Fungal treatments have been reported to be successful in degrading this type of pollutants and, therefore, the white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor was applied for the removal of PhACs from veterinary hospital wastewater. Sixty-six percent removal was achieved in a non-sterile batch bioreactor inoculated with T....

  7. Biological hazard evaluation of a pharmaceutical effluent before and after a photo-Fenton treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novoa-Luna, Karen Adriana; Mendoza-Zepeda, Arisbeht; Natividad, Reyna; Romero, Rubi; Galar-Martínez, Marcela; Gómez-Oliván, Leobardo Manuel

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the biological hazard of a pharmaceutical effluent before and after treatment. For the former, the determined 96h-LC50 value was 1.2%. The photo-Fenton treatment catalyzed with an iron-pillared clay reduced this parameter by 341.7%. Statistically significant increases with respect to the control group (Pphoto-Fenton process decreases the presence of PCT, oxidative stress, genotoxic damage and LC50 in Hyalella azteca.

  8. Efficient decolorization and detoxification of textile industry effluent by Salvinia molesta in lagoon treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandanshive, Vishal V; Rane, Niraj R; Gholave, Avinash R; Patil, Swapnil M; Jeon, Byong-Hun; Govindwar, Sanjay P

    2016-10-01

    Salvinia molesta, an aquatic fern was observed to have a potential of degrading azo dye Rubine GFL up to 97% at a concentration of 100mg/L within 72h using 60±2g of root biomass. Both root as well as stem tissues showed induction in activities of the enzymes such as lignin peroxidase, veratryl alcohol oxidase, laccase, tyrosinase, catalase, DCIP reductase and superoxide dismutase during decolorization of Rubine GFL. FTIR, GC-MS, HPLC and UV-visible spectrophotometric analysis confirmed phytotransformation of the model dye into smaller molecules. Analysis of metabolites revealed breakdown of an azo bond of Rubine GFL by the action of lignin peroxidase and laccase and formation of 2-methyl-4-nitroaniline and N-methylbenzene-1, 4-diamine. Anatomical tracing of dye in the stem of S. molesta confirmed the presence of dye in tissues and subsequent removal after 48h of treatment. The concentration of chlorophyll pigments like chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and carotenoid was observed during the treatment. Toxicity analysis on seeds of Triticum aestivum and Phaseolus mungo revealed the decreased toxicity of dye metabolites. In situ treatment of a real textile effluent was further monitored in a constructed lagoon of the dimensions of 7m×5m×2m (total surface area 35m(2)) using S. molesta for 192h. This large scale treatment was found to significantly reduce the values of COD, BOD5 and ADMI by 76%, 82% and 81% considering initial values 1185, 1440mg/L and 950 units, respectively. PMID:27268973

  9. F/H Area ETF effluent (H-016 outfall) Ceriodaphnia survival/reproduction test, test date: December 12, 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This toxicity test was conducted to determine if the effluent from the F/H area of Savannah River Plant, affects the survival or reproduction of the test organisms during a seven day period. The test involved exposing the text organisms ceriodaphnia, to a series of dilutions of the effluent. At each dilution the survival and reproduction of ten test organisms was recorded. Each effluent dilution was compared to a control set of test organisms. Survival data were analyzed by Fisher's Exact Test and the Trimmed Spearman-Karber method to determine the effluent concentration necessary to cause statistically significant (p=0.05) mortality. Reproduction data was analyzed for normality, homogeneity of variance and equality of replicates among dilutions to determine appropriate statistical test for analysis of statistical differences in reproduction among dilutions. Results are summarized

  10. Evaluation of wastewater effluents for soil aquifer treatment in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, W; Choi, H; Kim, J; Kim, I S

    2004-01-01

    Soil batch and column experiments were performed to characterize the wastewater effluents from seven different wastewater treatment plants in the Jonnam province, South Korea, with the purpose of evaluating the effluents for possible application of a soil aquifer treatment (SAT) in Korea. Batch experiments were conducted to measure the biodegradable dissolved organic carbon (BDOC) while 1 m soil columns, for simulating SAT, were employed to further analyze dissolved organic carbon (DOC) removal. The soils were collected from a river bottom in Jonnam. The BDOC fractions and the residual DOC concentrations for the effluents ranged from 19.3 to 59.9% and from 1.0 to 7.5 mg/L, respectively, depending on the reaction time. Applying the tentative criteria based on the data obtained for the BDOC and residual DOC, three effluents, from Gwangju, Hwasoon, and Jangsung, were found to be the most suitable for SAT applications. It was also concluded that the site characteristics should be also considered with regard to the retention time when evaluating the feasibility of SAT application in a certain region.

  11. Submerged aerated bio-filter (SAB)--a post treatment option for UASB effluent treating sewage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudhir, Padigala; Gaur, Rubia Zahid; Khan, Abid Ali; Kazmi, A A; Mehrotra, Indu

    2013-07-01

    This paper presents exploratory results of the performance of submerged aerated bio-filter (SAB-1.5 L) for the post treatment of UASB effluent treating sewage in order to bring the effluent quality in compliance with discharge standards. The study was carried out in three stages with varied dissolved oxygen (DO) levels of 0 to 2.0, 2.0 to 4.0, 4.0 to 6.0 and > 6.0 mg/L. The hydraulic retention time (HRT) and hydraulic loading rate (HLR) were maintained 0.67 h & 0.1 m3/ m2 x h respectively in all stage of study. The performance in terms of BOD removal efficiency was increased with increase in DO levels. Results revealed that the average BOD and SS removal efficiencies in phases 3 and 4 were 51.3 and 59.5% and 58.8 and 67.5% respectively. Significant ammonical nitrogen (NH4-N) removal of 60% was observed in phase 4. The BOD and SS in phases 3 and 4 were reduced to well below the effluent disposal standards. The SAB at DO ≥ 4 mg/L can be considered a viable alternative for the post treatment of effluent from UASB treating domestic wastewater.

  12. Treatment and utilization of septic tank effluent using vertical-flow constructed wetlands and vegetable hydroponics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Li-Hua; Luo, Shi-Ming; Zhu, Xi-Zhen; Liu, Ying-Hu

    2003-01-01

    Vertical flow constructed wetlands is a typical ecological sanitation system for sewage treatment. The removal rates for COD, BOD5, SS, TN, and TP were 60%, 80%, 74%, 49% and 79%, respectively, when septic tank effluent was treated by vertical flow filter. So the concentration of COD and BOD5 in the treated effluent could meet the quality standard for irrigation water. After that the treated effluent was used for hydroponic cultivation of water spinach and romaine lettuce, the removal efficiencies of the whole system for COD, BOD5, SS, TN and TP were 71.4%, 97.5%, 96.9%, 86.3%, and 87.4%, respectively. And it could meet the integrated wastewater discharge standard for secondary biological treatment plant. It was found that using treated effluent for hydroponic cultivation of vegetables could reduce the nitrate content in vegetables. The removal rates for total bacteria and coliform index by using vertical flow bed system with cinder substrate were 80%-90% and 85%-96%, respectively.

  13. Treatment and utilization of septic tank effluent using vertical-flow constructed wetlands and vegetable hydroponics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Vertical flow constructed wetlands is a typical ecological sanitation system for sewage treatment. The removal rates for COD, BOD5, SS, TN, and TP were 60%, 80%, 74%, 49% and 79%, respectively, when septic tank effluent was treated by vertical flow filter. So the concentration of COD and BOD5 in the treated effluent could meet the quality standard for irrigation water. After that the treated effluent was used for hydroponic cultivation of water spinach and romaine lettuce, the removal efficiencies of the whole system for COD, BOD5, SS, TN and TP were 71.4%, 97.5%, 96.9%, 86.3%, and 87.4%, respectively. And it could meet the integrated wastewater discharge standard for secondary biological treatment plant. It was found that using treated effluent for hydroponic cultivation of vegetables could reduce the nitrate content in vegetables. The removal rates for total bacteria and coliform index by using vertical flow bed system with cinder substrate were 80%-90% and 85%-96%, respectively.

  14. [Advanced Treatment of Effluent from Industrial Park Wastewater Treatment Plant by Ferrous Ion Activated Sodium Persulfate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Song-mei; Zhou, Zhen; Gu, Ling-yun; Jiang, Hai-tao; Ren, Jia-min; Wang, Luo-chun

    2016-01-15

    Fe(II) activated sodium persulfate (PS) technology was used for advanced treatment of effluent from industrial park wastewater treatment plant. Separate and combined effects of PS/COD, Fe(II)/PS and pH on COD and TOC removal were analyzed by the response surface methodology. Variations of organic substances before and after Fe(II)-PS oxidation were characterized by UV-Vis spectrometry, gel chromatography and three-dimensional fluorescence. PS/COD and Fe(II)/PS had significant effect on COD removal, while all the three factors had significant effect on TOC removal. The combined effect of PS/COD and pH had significant effect on COD removal. COD and TOC removal efficiencies reached 50.7% and 60.6% under optimized conditions of PS/COD 3.47, Fe(II)/PS 3.32 and pH 6.5. Fe(II)-PS oxidation converted macromolecular organic substances to small ones, and reduced contents of protein-, humic- and fulvic-like substances.

  15. Large area radiation source for water and wastewater treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Michael T.; Lee, Seungwoo; Kloba, Anthony; Hellmer, Ronald; Kumar, Nalin; Eaton, Mark; Rambo, Charlotte; Pillai, Suresh

    2011-06-01

    There is a strong desire for processes that improve the safety of water supplies and that minimize disinfection byproducts. Stellarray is developing mercury-free next-generation x-ray and UV-C radiation sources in flat-panel and pipe form factors for water and wastewater treatment applications. These new radiation sources are designed to sterilize sludge and effluent, and to enable new treatment approaches to emerging environmental concerns such as the accumulation of estrogenic compounds in water. Our UV-C source, based on cathodoluminescent technology, differs significantly from traditional disinfection approaches using mercury arc lamps or UV LEDs. Our sources accelerate electrons across a vacuum gap, converting their energy into UV-C when striking a phosphor, or x-rays when striking a metallic anode target. Stellarray's large area radiation sources for wastewater treatment allow matching of the radiation source area to the sterilization target area for maximum coverage and improved efficiency.

  16. Effluent treatment plant for pharmaceutical unit at Bahipheru - case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This project has been awarded to environ (Pvt) Ltd., on turnkey basis, and is an integrated waste treatment facility for pharmaceuticals companies, manufacturing paracetamole, aspirin and various pharmaceuticals intermediates, from phenol as basic raw material. A highly toxic waste water, containing high concentrations of phenolics and sulfate ions is generated at this plant and has to be treatment before final disposal into an irrigation channel. (author)

  17. Biological Treatment of Textile Effluent Using Candida zeylanoides and Saccharomyces cerevisiae Isolated from Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. P. Abioye

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the efficacy of yeasts isolated from soil in the treatment of textile wastewater. Two yeast species were isolated from soil; they were identified as Candida zeylanoides and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The yeasts were inoculated into flask containing effluent and incubated for 15 days. Saccharomyces cerevisiae showed the most significant treatment capacity with a 66% reduction in BOD; this was followed closely by Candida zeylanoides with 57.3% reduction in BOD and a consortium of the two species showed the least remediation potential of 36.9%. The use of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida zeylanoides in treatment of textile wastewater will help to limit the adverse environmental and health implications associated with disposal of untreated effluent into water bodies.

  18. Uptake of three antibiotics and an anti-epileptic drug by wheat plants spray irrigated with wastewater treatment plant effluent

    Science.gov (United States)

    With rising demands on water supplies necessitating water reuse, wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent is often used to irrigate agricultural lands. Emerging contaminants, like pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), are frequently found in effluent due to limited removal during WWT...

  19. Lamella dissolved air flotation treatment of fish farming effluents as a part of an integrated farming and effluent treatment concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokela, Petri; Lepistö, Raghida

    2014-01-01

    Nutrient emissions from fish farming can be reduced by a bag pen, i.e., a floating circular basin which serves simultaneously both as a fish cultivation tank and a swirl separation tank. Solid matter (excreta and uneaten feed) is collected at the bottom of the bag pen and pumped as an underflow to a dissolved air flotation (DAF) unit for nutrient removal. DAF equipped with lamella elements was studied in real conditions. Altogether 3000 rainbow trout females (2.0 kg each) were cultivated. Solid-water mixture was pumped from the bottom of the bag pen to an equalizing basin using a sequence of 2-min pumping followed by a 4-min pause. In some tests the influent was pumped directly and continuously from the bag pen to DAF. The influent quality changed substantially: average suspended solids (SS) and phosphorus (P) concentrations were 290 mg l⁻¹ ± 110 mg l⁻¹ and 3.2 mg l⁻¹ ± 1.2 mg l⁻¹, respectively. When the influent was fresh and P strongly associated with SS, DAF without precipitation chemicals produced up to 86% SS and 83% P removals. The influence of chemical doses was studied using 6.4-29.2 mg Fe l⁻¹ with hydraulic loadings (HLs) of 11.0-11.7 m h⁻¹. SS and P removal did not change substantially and the effluent concentration levelled at 30 mg SS l⁻¹ and 0.20-0.30 mg P l⁻¹, respectively. The lamella DAF, coupled with ferric precipitation, produced up to 90% P and 80% nitrogen reductions. HLs, excluding recycle water flow and lamella projection, up to 21 m h⁻¹ could be used. PMID:25176307

  20. Post-treatment of secondary wastewater treatment plant effluent using a two-stage fluidized bed bioreactor system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safari, Golam Hossein; Yetilmezsoy, Kaan; Mahvi, Amir Hossein; Zarrabi, Mansur

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the performance of a two-stage fluidized bed reactor (FBR) system for the post-treatment of secondary wastewater treatment plant effluents (Shahrak Gharb, Tehran, Iran). The proposed treatment scheme was evaluated using pilot-scale reactors (106-L of capacity) filled with PVC as the fluidized bed (first stage) and gravel for the filtration purpose (second stage). Aluminum sulfate (30 mg/L) and chlorine (1 mg/L) were used for the coagulation and disinfection of the effluent, respectively. To monitor the performance of the FBR system, variation of several parameters (biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), chemical oxygen demand (COD), turbidity, total phosphorous, total coliform and fecal coliform) were monitored in the effluent wastewater samples. The results showed that the proposed system could effectively reduce BOD5 and COD below 1.95 and 4.06 mg/L, respectively. Turbidity of the effluent could be achieved below 0.75 NTU, which was lower than those reported for the disinfection purpose. The total phosphorus was reduced to 0.52 mg/L, which was near the present phosphorous standard for the prevention of eutrophication process. Depending on both microorganism concentration and applied surface loading rates (5-10 m/h), about 35 to 75% and 67 to 97% of coliform were removed without and with the chlorine addition, respectively. Findings of this study clearly confirmed the efficiency of the FBR system for the post-treatment of the secondary wastewater treatment plant effluents without any solid problem during the chlorination. PMID:24499570

  1. Global hepatic gene expression in rainbow trout exposed to sewage effluents: A comparison of different sewage treatment technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuklev, Filip, E-mail: filip.cuklev@neuro.gu.se [Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Department of Physiology, The Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Box 434, SE-405 30 Goeteborg (Sweden); Gunnarsson, Lina, E-mail: lina.gunnarsson@fysiologi.gu.se [Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Department of Physiology, The Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Box 434, SE-405 30 Goeteborg (Sweden); Cvijovic, Marija, E-mail: marija.cvijovic@chalmers.se [Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Department of Physiology, The Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Box 434, SE-405 30 Goeteborg (Sweden); Department of Mathematical Sciences, Chalmers University of Technology and University of Gothenburg, SE-412 96 Goeteborg (Sweden); Kristiansson, Erik, E-mail: erik.kristiansson@chalmers.se [Department of Mathematical Sciences, Chalmers University of Technology and University of Gothenburg, SE-412 96 Goeteborg (Sweden); Rutgersson, Carolin [Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Department of Physiology, The Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Box 434, SE-405 30 Goeteborg (Sweden); Bjoerlenius, Berndt, E-mail: berndtb@kth.se [Stockholm Water Company, Vaermdoevaegen 23, SE-131 55 Stockholm (Sweden); Larsson, D.G. Joakim, E-mail: joakim.larsson@fysiologi.gu.se [Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Department of Physiology, The Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Box 434, SE-405 30 Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2012-06-15

    Effluents from sewage treatment plants contain a mixture of micropollutants with the potential of harming aquatic organisms. Thus, addition of advanced treatment techniques to complement existing conventional methods has been proposed. Some of the advanced techniques could, however, potentially produce additional compounds affecting exposed organisms by unknown modes of action. In the present study the aim was to improve our understanding of how exposure to different sewage effluents affects fish. This was achieved by explorative microarray and quantitative PCR analyses of hepatic gene expression, as well as relative organ sizes of rainbow trout exposed to different sewage effluents (conventionally treated, granular activated carbon, ozonation (5 or 15 mg/L), 5 mg/L ozone plus a moving bed biofilm reactor, or UV-light treatment in combination with hydrogen peroxide). Exposure to the conventionally treated effluent caused a significant increase in liver and heart somatic indexes, an effect removed by all other treatments. Genes connected to xenobiotic metabolism, including cytochrome p450 1A, were differentially expressed in the fish exposed to the conventionally treated effluents, though only effluent treatment with granular activated carbon or ozone at 15 mg/L completely removed this response. The mRNA expression of heat shock protein 70 kDa was induced in all three groups exposed to ozone-treated effluents, suggesting some form of added stress in these fish. The induction of estrogen-responsive genes in the fish exposed to the conventionally treated effluent was effectively reduced by all investigated advanced treatment technologies, although the moving bed biofilm reactor was least efficient. Taken together, granular activated carbon showed the highest potential of reducing responses in fish induced by exposure to sewage effluents. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Livers of trout exposed to different sewage effluents were analysed by microarray. Black

  2. Quantitative detection of powdered activated carbon in wastewater treatment plant effluent by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krahnstöver, Therese; Plattner, Julia; Wintgens, Thomas

    2016-09-15

    For the elimination of potentially harmful micropollutants, powdered activated carbon (PAC) adsorption is applied in many wastewater treatment plants (WWTP). This holds the risk of PAC leakage into the WWTP effluent and desorption of contaminants into natural water bodies. In order to assess a potential PAC leakage, PAC concentrations below several mg/L have to be detected in the WWTP effluent. None of the methods that are used for water analysis today are able to differentiate between activated carbon and solid background matrix. Thus, a selective, quantitative and easily applicable method is still needed for the detection of PAC residues in wastewater. In the present study, a method was developed to quantitatively measure the PAC content in wastewater by using filtration and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), which is a well-established technique for the distinction between different solid materials. For the sample filtration, quartz filters with a temperature stability up to 950 °C were used. This allowed for sensitive and well reproducible measurements, as the TGA was not affected by the presence of the filter. The sample's mass fractions were calculated by integrating the mass decrease rate obtained by TGA in specific, clearly identifiable peak areas. A two-step TGA heating method consisting of N2 and O2 atmospheres led to a good differentiation between PAC and biological background matrix, thanks to the reduction of peak overlapping. A linear correlation was found between a sample's PAC content and the corresponding peak areas under N2 and O2, the sample volume and the solid mass separated by filtration. Based on these findings, various wastewater samples from different WWTPs were then analyzed by TGA with regard to their PAC content. It was found that, compared to alternative techniques such as measurement of turbidity or total suspended solids, the newly developed TGA method allows for a quantitative and selective detection of PAC concentrations down to 0

  3. Quantitative detection of powdered activated carbon in wastewater treatment plant effluent by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krahnstöver, Therese; Plattner, Julia; Wintgens, Thomas

    2016-09-15

    For the elimination of potentially harmful micropollutants, powdered activated carbon (PAC) adsorption is applied in many wastewater treatment plants (WWTP). This holds the risk of PAC leakage into the WWTP effluent and desorption of contaminants into natural water bodies. In order to assess a potential PAC leakage, PAC concentrations below several mg/L have to be detected in the WWTP effluent. None of the methods that are used for water analysis today are able to differentiate between activated carbon and solid background matrix. Thus, a selective, quantitative and easily applicable method is still needed for the detection of PAC residues in wastewater. In the present study, a method was developed to quantitatively measure the PAC content in wastewater by using filtration and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), which is a well-established technique for the distinction between different solid materials. For the sample filtration, quartz filters with a temperature stability up to 950 °C were used. This allowed for sensitive and well reproducible measurements, as the TGA was not affected by the presence of the filter. The sample's mass fractions were calculated by integrating the mass decrease rate obtained by TGA in specific, clearly identifiable peak areas. A two-step TGA heating method consisting of N2 and O2 atmospheres led to a good differentiation between PAC and biological background matrix, thanks to the reduction of peak overlapping. A linear correlation was found between a sample's PAC content and the corresponding peak areas under N2 and O2, the sample volume and the solid mass separated by filtration. Based on these findings, various wastewater samples from different WWTPs were then analyzed by TGA with regard to their PAC content. It was found that, compared to alternative techniques such as measurement of turbidity or total suspended solids, the newly developed TGA method allows for a quantitative and selective detection of PAC concentrations down to 0

  4. Plant and soil modifications by continuous surface effluent application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tedesco, M.J.; Levien, R. [Rio Grande do Sul Univ., Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Dept. of Solos; Mohrdieck, F.G.; Rodrigues, N.R. [CORSAN-SITEL, Triunfo, RS (Brazil). Polo Petroquimico do Sul. Dept. de Operacao e Manutencao; Flores, A.I.P.

    1993-12-31

    In order to study the effects on soil and plants of the liquid effluent generated by a the Integrated Liquid Effluent Treatment System of a large Brazilian petrochemical complex, a field study was conducted in four areas which received the effluent and compared to control sites. This work presents some results of this study. 12 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  5. Effects of wastewater effluent discharge and treatment facility upgrades on environmental and biological conditions of Indian Creek, Johnson County, Kansas, June 2004 through June 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Jennifer L.; Stone, Mandy L.; Rasmussen, Teresa J.; Foster, Guy M.; Poulton, Barry C.; Paxson, Chelsea R.; Harris, Theodore D.

    2014-01-01

    Indian Creek is one of the most urban drainage basins in Johnson County, Kansas, and environmental and biological conditions of the creek are affected by contaminants from point and other urban sources. The Johnson County Douglas L. Smith Middle Basin (hereafter referred to as the “Middle Basin”) and Tomahawk Creek Wastewater Treatment Facilities (WWTFs) discharge to Indian Creek. In summer 2010, upgrades were completed to increase capacity and include biological nutrient removal at the Middle Basin facility. There have been no recent infrastructure changes at the Tomahawk Creek facility; however, during 2009, chemically enhanced primary treatment was added to the treatment process for better process settling before disinfection and discharge with the added effect of enhanced phosphorus removal. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Johnson County Wastewater, assessed the effects of wastewater effluent on environmental and biological conditions of Indian Creek by comparing two upstream sites to four sites located downstream from the WWTFs using data collected during June 2004 through June 2013. Environmental conditions were evaluated using previously and newly collected discrete and continuous data and were compared with an assessment of biological community composition and ecosystem function along the upstream-downstream gradient. This study improves the understanding of the effects of wastewater effluent on stream-water and streambed sediment quality, biological community composition, and ecosystem function in urban areas. After the addition of biological nutrient removal to the Middle Basin WWTF in 2010, annual mean total nitrogen concentrations in effluent decreased by 46 percent, but still exceeded the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) wastewater effluent permit concentration goal of 8.0 milligrams per liter (mg/L); however, the NPDES wastewater effluent permit total phosphorus concentration goal of 1.5 mg/L or less was

  6. Distinguishing phosphate from fertilizers and wastewater treatment plant effluents in Western Canada using oxygen isotope measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fau, Veronique; Nightingale, Michael; Tamburini, Frederica; Mayer, Bernhard

    2014-05-01

    The successful application of oxygen isotope ratios as a tracer for phosphate in aquatic ecosystems requires that different sources of phosphate are isotopically distinct. The objective of this study was to determine whether the oxygen isotope ratios of phosphate from fertilizers and effluents from wastewater treatment plants in Western Canada are isotopically distinct. Therefore, we carried out oxygen isotope analyses on phosphate in effluent from five different wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) in the Bow River watershed of Alberta, Canada. Samples were collected directly from the final effluent (post-UV) in Banff and Canmore upstream of Calgary, and from effluents of Calgary's WWTPs at Bonnybrook, Fish Creek and Pine Creek. We also carried out oxygen isotope analyses on a variety of phosphate-containing fertilizers that are widely used in Western Canada. Historically, most of the phosphate contained in manufactured fertilizers sold in Alberta came from two distinct deposits: 1) a weathered Pliocene igneous carbonatite located in eastern Canada, and 2) the Permian Phosphoria Formation in the western USA. Phosphate (PO43-) contained in the water or the fertilizer was concentrated and quantitatively converted to pure silver phosphate (Ag3PO4). The silver phosphate was then reduced with carbon in an oxygen free environment using a TC/EA pyrolysis reactor linked to a mass spectrometer where 18O/16O ratios of CO were measured in continuous flow mode. Preparation of samples for δ18OPO4 analyses was conducted using the Magnesium Induced Coprecipitation (MAGIC) method. Expected oxygen isotope ratios for phosphate in equilibrium with water (δ18Oeq) were calculated using the Longinelli and Nuti equation: T (° C) = 111.4 - 4.3 (δ18Oeq - δ18Owater). Measured δ18O values of phosphate for fertilizer samples varied from 8 to 25 oÈ®n average, fertilizer samples of sedimentary origin had higher δ18O values (15.8) than those of igneous origin (11.5). Phosphate isotopic

  7. [Treatment of coloured industrial effluents with Pleurotus spp].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Suyén; Fernández, Maikel; Bermúdez, Rosa C; Morris, Humberto

    2003-12-01

    The decolouration of fermentation residues (vinasse) and liquid extract of coffee pulp by the mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus was studied in addition to laccase activity. The fungus was inhibited in both residues when they remained undiluted. In submerged cultivation on wastewaters a good production of biomass (14.8 g/l for vinasse and 5.4 g/l for extract of coffee pulp) and also laccase activity (14.1 U/ml for vinasse and 3.0 U/ml for extract of coffee pulp) up to the 10 days of fermentation was observed, being significantly greater in the culture with vinasse. It was shown that treatment with this mushroom reduces both the chemical oxygen demand and the colour, contributing to their biological treatment.

  8. High efficient treatment of citric acid effluent by Chlorella vulgaris and potential biomass utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Changling; Yang, Hailin; Xia, Xiaole; Li, Yuji; Chen, Luping; Zhang, Meng; Zhang, Ling; Wang, Wu

    2013-01-01

    The efficiency of treating citric acid effluent by green algae Chlorella was investigated. With the highest growth rate, Chlorella vulgaris C9-JN2010 that could efficiently remove nutrients in the citric acid effluent was selected for scale-up batch experiments under the optimal conditions, where its maximum biomass was 1.04 g l(-1) and removal efficiencies of nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus, total organic carbon, chemical oxygen demand and biochemical oxygen demand) were above 90.0%. Algal lipid and protein contents were around 340.0 and 500.0 mg · g(-1) of the harvested biomass, respectively. Proportions of polyunsaturated fatty acids in the lipids and eight kinds of essential amino acids in algal protein were 74.0% and 40.0%, respectively. Three major fatty acids were hexadecanoic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid and docosadienoic acid. This specific effluent treatment process could be proposed as a dual-beneficial approach, which converts nutrients in the high strength citric acid effluent into profitable byproducts and reduces the contaminations.

  9. Treatment of industrial effluents in constructed wetlands: challenges, operational strategies and overall performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shubiao; Wallace, Scott; Brix, Hans; Kuschk, Peter; Kirui, Wesley Kipkemoi; Masi, Fabio; Dong, Renjie

    2015-06-01

    The application of constructed wetlands (CWs) has significantly expanded to treatment of various industrial effluents, but knowledge in this field is still insufficiently summarized. This review is accordingly necessary to better understand this state-of-the-art technology for further design development and new ideas. Full-scale cases of CWs for treating various industrial effluents are summarized, and challenges including high organic loading, salinity, extreme pH, and low biodegradability and color are evaluated. Even horizontal flow CWs are widely used because of their passive operation, tolerance to high organic loading, and decolorization capacity, free water surface flow CWs are effective for treating oil field/refinery and milking parlor/cheese making wastewater for settlement of total suspended solids, oil, and grease. Proper pretreatment, inflow dilutions through re-circulated effluent, pH adjustment, plant selection and intensifications in the wetland bed, such as aeration and bioaugmentation, are recommended according to the specific characteristics of industrial effluents. PMID:25792030

  10. Treatment of industrial effluents in constructed wetlands: challenges, operational strategies and overall performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shubiao; Wallace, Scott; Brix, Hans; Kuschk, Peter; Kirui, Wesley Kipkemoi; Masi, Fabio; Dong, Renjie

    2015-06-01

    The application of constructed wetlands (CWs) has significantly expanded to treatment of various industrial effluents, but knowledge in this field is still insufficiently summarized. This review is accordingly necessary to better understand this state-of-the-art technology for further design development and new ideas. Full-scale cases of CWs for treating various industrial effluents are summarized, and challenges including high organic loading, salinity, extreme pH, and low biodegradability and color are evaluated. Even horizontal flow CWs are widely used because of their passive operation, tolerance to high organic loading, and decolorization capacity, free water surface flow CWs are effective for treating oil field/refinery and milking parlor/cheese making wastewater for settlement of total suspended solids, oil, and grease. Proper pretreatment, inflow dilutions through re-circulated effluent, pH adjustment, plant selection and intensifications in the wetland bed, such as aeration and bioaugmentation, are recommended according to the specific characteristics of industrial effluents.

  11. Textile effluent treatment in a UASB reactor followed by submerged aerated biofiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraz, A D N; Kato, M T; Florencio, L; Gavazza, S

    2011-01-01

    An upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB)-submerged aerated biofilter (SAB) system that treats effluents from a jeans factory was evaluated. The 210-day operational period was divided into three phases (PI, PII and PIII), each with a different hydraulic retention time (HRT in h) and organic loading rate (OLR in kg COD/m3.d). In PI, the best performance was achieved using the UASB (HRT 24, OLR 1.3) with COD and color removal efficiencies of 59 and 64%, respectively; the corresponding values were 77 and 86% for the final effluent. In PII, the efficiencies were 50 and 55% using the UASB (HRT 16, OLR 1.2), respectively, and 69 and 81% for the final system effluent, respectively. In PIII, the UASB (HRT 12 and ORL 3.2) showed the poorest performance; the efficiencies decreased to 48 and 50%, respectively. The same phenomenon occurred in the system with corresponding efficiencies decreasing to 69 and 61%. Throughout the experiment, the system removal efficiencies were between 57 and 88% for nitrogen and between 14 and 63% for sulfate. The final effluent showed relatively non-toxicity or moderate toxicity using Daphnia magna as an indicator. Therefore, the overall results showed that the use of a sequential anaerobic-aerobic system is promising for treatment of textile industrial wastewater. PMID:22335099

  12. Comparative effectiveness of extraction and adsorption methods in treatment of phenolic effluents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehppel, C.A.; Kochetkova, R.P.

    1982-01-01

    This paper compares two methods of decontamination and refinement of industrial phenolic effluents: first, extraction by means of butyl acetate; second, adsorption on activated semicoke. The method of adsorption is valid for phenols in water, but not valid for pyroligneous effluents containing various homologs: ketones, fatty acids, pyridine bases and ammonia. The effectiveness of the two methods of purifying industrial effluents was investigated and effects of the treatment of waste water containing a mixture of phenols and homologs were studied in an industrial setting, with negative results, and under laboratory conditions. In the laboratory, effectiveness of refinement by both methods was determined according to the coefficients of distribution of summary phenols (Kr). A table presents the results of this laboratory investigation, and shows that the coefficients of distribution (Kr) are very close in number in both the extractive and adsorbent methods of refinement. However, in the extraction of phenols by butyl acetate 25 kg per ton of phenols are lost constituting 20-25% of the cost. In dephenolization by semicoke the adsorbent regenerates the solvent by means of benzol resulting in the production of marketable phenols. Activated semicoke is recommended for refining industrial effluents in the production of phenol, several plastic masses and additives for fuels and lubricants. (In Russian)

  13. Treatment of effluent of psiculture with aquatic eichornia crassipes floating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto José Hussar

    Full Text Available Having in view to evaluate the performance of watery wine lagoons, on water treatment of draining off on pisciculture tank, was installed an experiment on three boxes of cement-asbestos, being one utilized as equalization tank and the others two cultivated with floating aquatic macrophytas known as watery wine (Eichornia crassipes. The removals of Chemical Demand of Oxygen (CDO, Total Nitrogen (N, Nitrate (NO3, Ammoniac Nitrogen (NH3, Total Phosphorus (P, Muddy (M, Color and pH had been surveyed in the period of evaluation. The average removal presented the following values: 77.7% to CDO; 76.9% to N; 79.5% to NO3; 82.9% to NH3; 95.4% to P and 92.1% to M. The gotten results could conclude that the performance of the system had a satisfatory reduction of the following parameters, when compared to other works, as: CDO, NO3, NH3 and M. To N and P the removal by the system was superior in relation to other researches related to waste treatment of domestic drain, pig culture and pisciculture. About the pH in the treatment system, the same behaved on a way very favorable in relation with the nitrification and denitrification.

  14. Treatment of the Bleaching Effluent from Sulfite Pulp Production by Ceramic Membrane Filtration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Ebrahimi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Pulp and paper waste water is one of the major sources of industrial water pollution. This study tested the suitability of ceramic tubular membrane technology as an alternative to conventional waste water treatment in the pulp and paper industry. In this context, in series batch and semi-batch membrane processes comprising microfiltration, ultrafiltration and nanofiltration, ceramic membranes were developed to reduce the chemical oxygen demand (COD and remove residual lignin from the effluent flow during sulfite pulp production. A comparison of the ceramic membranes in terms of separation efficiency and performance revealed that the two-stage process configuration with microfiltration followed by ultrafiltration was most suitable for the efficient treatment of the alkaline bleaching effluent tested herein, reducing the COD concentration and residual lignin levels by more than 35% and 70%, respectively.

  15. APPLICATION OF PACT SYSTEM TO INCREASE TEHRAN OIL REFINERY EFFLUENT TREATMENT EFFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Mesdaghinia

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available This research was done in order to determine the basic criteria for “Tehran Oil Refinery Effluemt TreatmentUnit” to prove the feasibility of the application of powdered activated carbon in aeration zone of activated sludge System. The main stages of this research included: determination of qualitative and quantitative characteristics of raw wastewater preparation of two pilot scale units of activated sludge (As and powdered activated carbon technology (PACT, study of correlation between independent variables of powdered activated carbon concentration, hydraulic detention time, and microbial detention time with the concentrations of COD, B0D5 and TSS of the effluent. Results indicated the efficiency increase of Tehran oil refinery effluent treatment by PACT process , which besides increasing COD5 , BOD5 , Oil and TSS removal, improves also nitrogen and phosphorus removal Conditions and activated sludge sedimentation, comparing as system.

  16. Westinghouse Hanford Company effluent discharges and solid waste management report for calendar year 1989: 200/600 Areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents calendar year 1989 radiological and nonradiological effluent discharge data from facilities in the 200 Areas and the 600 Area of the Hanford Site. Both summary and detailed effluent data are presented. In addition, radioactive and nonradioactive solid waste storage and disposal data for calendar year 1989 are furnished. Where appropriate, comparisons to previous years are made. The intent of the report is to demonstrate compliance of Westinghouse Hanford Company-operated facilities with administrative control values for radioactive constituents and applicable guidelines and standards (including Federal permit limits) for nonradioactive constituents. 11 refs., 20 tabs

  17. A review on economical treatment of wastewaters and effluents by adsorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mall, I.D.; Upadhyay, S.N.; Sharma, Y.C. [University of Roorkee, Roorkee (India). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1996-12-31

    The review gives an overview of the application of non-conventional materials for treatment of wastewater and industrial effluents. Based on the findings, it is concluded that the easily available and economical materials can serve as alternates to the more costly activated carbon/activated charcoal, including sphagnum peat, sawdust, volcanic ashes, clays, coal fly ash, coal and other materials. 157 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. Treatment of a Textile Effluent from Dyeing with Cochineal Extracts Using Trametes versicolor Fungus

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriela Arroyo-Figueroa; Graciela M. L. Ruiz-Aguilar; Leticia López-Martínez; Guillermo González-Sánchez; Germán Cuevas-Rodríguez; Refugio Rodríguez-Vázquez

    2011-01-01

    Trametes versicolor (Tv) fungus can degrade synthetic dyes that contain azo groups, anthraquinone, triphenylmethane polymers, and heterocyclic groups. However, no references have been found related to the degradation of natural dyes, such as the carminic acid that is contained in the cochineal extract. Experiments to determine the decolorization of the effluent used in the cotton dyeing process with cochineal extract by means of Tv fungus were done. Treatments to determine decolorization in t...

  19. Soil Aquifer Treatment: Assessment and Applicability of Primary Effluent Reuse in Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Abel, C.D.T.

    2014-01-01

    This thesis showed that soil aquifer treatment (SAT) is an effective polishing technology for reuse of primary effluent. The study experimentally revealed relatively high removal of suspended solids, bulk organic matter, nutrients, pharmaceutically active compounds and pathogens indicators under various operating conditions. Furthermore, the tools and water quality prediction model developed based on laboratory, pilot and field data could be used for proper design, execution and operation of ...

  20. Detection of Ammonia-Oxidizing Archaea in Fish Processing Effluent Treatment Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Devivaraprasad Reddy, A.; Subrahmanyam, Gangavarapu; Shivani Kallappa, Girisha; Karunasagar, Iddya; Karunasagar, Indrani

    2014-01-01

    Ammonia oxidation is the rate limiting step in nitrification and thus have an important role in removal of ammonia in natural and engineered systems with participation of both ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB). However, their relative distribution and activity in fish processing effluent treatment plants (FPETPs) though significant, is hitherto unreported. Presence of AOA in sludge samples obtained from FPETPs was studied by amplification and sequencing of t...

  1. Valorisation of Moringaoleifera waste: treatment and reuse of textile dye effluents

    OpenAIRE

    Vilaseca Vallvé, M. Mercedes; López Grimau, Víctor; Gutiérrez Bouzán, María Carmen

    2015-01-01

    This work is focused on the valorisation of an agricultural waste as natural coagulant to treat wastewater from the textile industry. In this paper, the waste of Moringaoleifera oil extraction is used as coagulant to remove five reactive dyes from synthetic textile effluents. Moringaoleifera shows better results for dye removal than conventional treatment of coagulation-flocculation with FeCl3 and polyelectrolyte. Treated water can be reused in new dyeing processes of cotton fabrics with high...

  2. Aerobic effluent treatment with lower electric power consumption. Survey of results from questionnaire sent out to Swedish pulp and paper mills with biological effluent treatment plants; Aerob rening med laegre elfoerbrukning. Sammanstaellning av enkaetsvar fraan svenska skogsindustrier med biologisk rening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sivard, Aasa; Simon, Olle

    2010-12-15

    A survey of the energy situation at 23 Swedish pulp and paper mills with aerobic effluent treatment plants has been performed. The electricity consumption for aeration equipment is about 80 % of the total electricity consumption. Proposed measures to increase energy efficiency are regular measurements of energy consumption, better control of the oxygen level in some mills and evaluation of measures to use the heat in process effluent before and after biological treatment

  3. Global hepatic gene expression in rainbow trout exposed to sewage effluents: a comparison of different sewage treatment technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuklev, Filip; Gunnarsson, Lina; Cvijovic, Marija; Kristiansson, Erik; Rutgersson, Carolin; Björlenius, Berndt; Larsson, D G Joakim

    2012-06-15

    Effluents from sewage treatment plants contain a mixture of micropollutants with the potential of harming aquatic organisms. Thus, addition of advanced treatment techniques to complement existing conventional methods has been proposed. Some of the advanced techniques could, however, potentially produce additional compounds affecting exposed organisms by unknown modes of action. In the present study the aim was to improve our understanding of how exposure to different sewage effluents affects fish. This was achieved by explorative microarray and quantitative PCR analyses of hepatic gene expression, as well as relative organ sizes of rainbow trout exposed to different sewage effluents (conventionally treated, granular activated carbon, ozonation (5 or 15 mg/L), 5 mg/L ozone plus a moving bed biofilm reactor, or UV-light treatment in combination with hydrogen peroxide). Exposure to the conventionally treated effluent caused a significant increase in liver and heart somatic indexes, an effect removed by all other treatments. Genes connected to xenobiotic metabolism, including cytochrome p450 1A, were differentially expressed in the fish exposed to the conventionally treated effluents, though only effluent treatment with granular activated carbon or ozone at 15 mg/L completely removed this response. The mRNA expression of heat shock protein 70 kDa was induced in all three groups exposed to ozone-treated effluents, suggesting some form of added stress in these fish. The induction of estrogen-responsive genes in the fish exposed to the conventionally treated effluent was effectively reduced by all investigated advanced treatment technologies, although the moving bed biofilm reactor was least efficient. Taken together, granular activated carbon showed the highest potential of reducing responses in fish induced by exposure to sewage effluents. PMID:22575374

  4. Control system of liquid effluents generated in treatment with I-131

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years, nuclear medicine has developed greatly in our country and around the world. Techniques for both medical diagnosis and therapy have increased the use of radiopharmaceuticals, notably the I-131. In Mexico there are around 150 nuclear medicine establishments authorized by the Comision Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear y Salvaguardias. Most of these establishments do not have an appropriate facility for the treatment of radioactive liquid effluents, to ensure compliance with the concentration limits established in the regulations. The Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ) developed and implemented successfully, a control system of radioactive effluents (named SACEL) from a nuclear medicine facility. This system ensures an effective compliance with regulations and also better management and control of these radioactive effluents. Calculations and design of SACEL were made with respect to I-131, because is one of the most commonly used in radiotherapy and medical diagnostics, besides its half-life is greater in relation to other radionuclides. SACEL is comprised of four storage tanks and decay and a fifth tank for measuring the concentration of I-131 and later discharge to the drain; these tanks are connected to an automated system that controls the effluents passage. The calculation to determine the volume of the tanks was carried out according to the demand that has the hospital, to the maximum activity being poured in effluents and time required to decay. In this paper the design and installation of SACEL system, in addition to functioning as a facility that enables the Hospital meet the required standards is presented. Dose calculations performed with MCNPX and the methodology used in the calibration of the detection system is also presented. (Author)

  5. Treatment of liquid effluent from uranium mines and mills. Report of a co-ordinated research project 1996-2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treatment and control of liquid effluents produced during uranium mining and milling operations is an integral part of environmental project management. Research has continued to add to the large body of science that has been built up around the treatment of radioactive and non-radioactive effluents to minimize their long-term environmental impact. The objective of the meetings on which this publication is based was to exchange information on active effluent treatment technologies that have application during operations and passive treatment techniques such as constructed wetlands and use of micro-organisms that are applicable during project reclamation and long-term care and maintenance. Papers describe effluent treatment case histories from active uranium mining and processing operations as well as effluent treatment research on both active and passive systems that have potential application under a wide range of operating and post-operational conditions including new information on high-density sludge from effluent neutralization (Australia), aerated manganese hydroxide for removal of radium (China), nanofiltration and macropore resins to treat mine water (Australia and China), in situ microbial treatment and permeable reactive walls for treatment of contaminated groundwater (Germany), construction of wetlands to treat mine water runoff (Australia and Germany), biogenic granules to remove 226Ra from mill effluent (India), self-remediation of acidic in situ leach aquifers (Kazakhstan) and sorption characteristics of soil for self-remediation of contaminated groundwater (Hungary). These and other topics presented in this publication will be of interest to technical personnel who deal with day-to-day practical aspects of liquid effluent control and treatment at uranium production facilities worldwide

  6. Treatment of colored effluents with lignin-degrading enzymes: An emerging role of marine-derived fungi

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raghukumar, C.; DeSouza-Ticlo, D.; Verma, A.K.

    laccase, manganese-peroxidase and lignin peroxidases are useful in the treatment of colored industrial effluents and other xenobiotics. Free mycelia, mycelial pellets, immobilized fungi or their lignin-degrading enzymes fromterrestrial fungi have been...

  7. Human infective potential of Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia duodenalis and Enterocytozoon bieneusi in urban wastewater treatment plant effluents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cryptosporidiosis, giardiasis, and microsporidiosis are important waterborne diseases. In the standard for wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents in China and other countries, fecal coliform is the only microbial indicator, raising concerns about the potential for pathogen t...

  8. Endocrine disrupting alkylphenolic chemicals and other contaminants in wastewater treatment plant effluents, urban streams, and fish in the Great Lakes and Upper Mississippi River Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Larry B.; Loyo-Rosales, Jorge E.; Rice, Clifford P.; Minarik, Thomas A.; Oskouie, Ali K.

    2015-01-01

    Urban streams are an integral part of the municipal water cycle and provide a point of discharge for wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents, allowing additional attenuation through dilution and transformation processes, as well as a conduit for transporting contaminants to downstream water supplies. Domestic and commercial activities dispose of wastes down-the-drain, resulting in wastewater containing complex chemical mixtures that are only partially removed during treatment. A key issue associated with WWTP effluent discharge into streams is the potential to cause endocrine disruption in fish. This study provides a long-term (1999-2009) evaluation of the occurrence of alkylphenolic endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and other contaminants discharged from WWTPs into streams in the Great Lakes and Upper Mississippi River Regions (Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, Minnesota, and Ohio). The Greater Metropolitan Chicago Area Waterways, Illinois, were evaluated to determine contaminant concentrations in the major WWTP effluents and receiving streams, and assess the behavior of EDCs from their sources within the sewer collection system, through the major treatment unit processes at a WWTP, to their persistence and transport in the receiving stream. Water samples were analyzed for alkylphenolic EDCs and other contaminants, including 4-nonylphenol (NP), 4-nonylphenolpolyethoxylates (NPEO), 4-nonylphenolethoxycarboxylic acids (NPEC), 4-tert-octylphenol (OP), 4-tert-octylphenolpolyethoxylates (OPEO), bisphenol A, triclosan, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), and trace elements. All of the compounds were detected in all of the WWTP effluents, with EDTA and NPEC having the greatest concentrations. The compounds also were detected in the WWTP effluent dominated rivers. Multiple fish species were collected from river and lake sites and analyzed for NP, NPEO, NPEC, OP, and OPEO. Whole-body fish tissue analysis indicated widespread occurrence of alkylphenolic compounds

  9. Endocrine disrupting alkylphenolic chemicals and other contaminants in wastewater treatment plant effluents, urban streams, and fish in the Great Lakes and Upper Mississippi River Regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Larry B; Loyo-Rosales, Jorge E; Rice, Clifford P; Minarik, Thomas A; Oskouie, Ali K

    2015-06-01

    Urban streams are an integral part of the municipal water cycle and provide a point of discharge for wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents, allowing additional attenuation through dilution and transformation processes, as well as a conduit for transporting contaminants to downstream water supplies. Domestic and commercial activities dispose of wastes down-the-drain, resulting in wastewater containing complex chemical mixtures that are only partially removed during treatment. A key issue associated with WWTP effluent discharge into streams is the potential to cause endocrine disruption in fish. This study provides a long-term (1999-2009) evaluation of the occurrence of alkylphenolic endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and other contaminants discharged from WWTPs into streams in the Great Lakes and Upper Mississippi River Regions (Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, Minnesota, and Ohio). The Greater Metropolitan Chicago Area Waterways, Illinois, were evaluated to determine contaminant concentrations in the major WWTP effluents and receiving streams, and assess the behavior of EDCs from their sources within the sewer collection system, through the major treatment unit processes at a WWTP, to their persistence and transport in the receiving stream. Water samples were analyzed for alkylphenolic EDCs and other contaminants, including 4-nonylphenol (NP), 4-nonylphenolpolyethoxylates (NPEO), 4-nonylphenolethoxycarboxylic acids (NPEC), 4-tert-octylphenol (OP), 4-tert-octylphenolpolyethoxylates (OPEO), bisphenol A, triclosan, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), and trace elements. All of the compounds were detected in all of the WWTP effluents, with EDTA and NPEC having the greatest concentrations. The compounds also were detected in the WWTP effluent dominated rivers. Multiple fish species were collected from river and lake sites and analyzed for NP, NPEO, NPEC, OP, and OPEO. Whole-body fish tissue analysis indicated widespread occurrence of alkylphenolic compounds

  10. Conventional methods and emerging wastewater polishing technologies for palm oil mill effluent treatment: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, Wai Loan; Kassim, Mohd Azraai; Muda, Khalida; Loh, Soh Kheang; Affam, Augustine Chioma

    2015-02-01

    The Malaysian palm oil industry is a major revenue earner and the country is ranked as one of the largest producers in the world. However, growth of the industry is synonymous with a massive production of agro-industrial wastewater. As an environmental protection and public health concern, the highly polluting palm oil mill effluent (POME) has become a major attention-grabber. Hence, the industry is targeting for POME pollution abatement in order to promote a greener image of palm oil and to achieve sustainability. At present, most palm oil mills have adopted the ponding system for treatment. Due to the successful POME pollution abatement experiences, Malaysia is currently planning to revise the effluent quality standards towards a more stringent discharge limits. Hence, the current trend of POME research focuses on developing tertiary treatment or polishing systems for better effluent management. Biotechnologically-advanced POME tertiary (polishing) technologies as well as other physicochemical methods are gaining much attention as these processes are the key players to push the industry towards the goal of environmental sustainability. There are still ongoing treatment technologies being researched and the outcomes maybe available in a while. However, the research completed so far are compiled herein and reported for the first time to acquire a better perspective and insight on the subject with a view of meeting the new standards. To this end, the most feasible technology could be the combination of advanced biological processes (bioreactor systems) with extended aeration, followed by solids separation prior to discharge. Chemical dosing is favoured only if effluent of higher quality is anticipated. PMID:25463585

  11. Conventional methods and emerging wastewater polishing technologies for palm oil mill effluent treatment: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, Wai Loan; Kassim, Mohd Azraai; Muda, Khalida; Loh, Soh Kheang; Affam, Augustine Chioma

    2015-02-01

    The Malaysian palm oil industry is a major revenue earner and the country is ranked as one of the largest producers in the world. However, growth of the industry is synonymous with a massive production of agro-industrial wastewater. As an environmental protection and public health concern, the highly polluting palm oil mill effluent (POME) has become a major attention-grabber. Hence, the industry is targeting for POME pollution abatement in order to promote a greener image of palm oil and to achieve sustainability. At present, most palm oil mills have adopted the ponding system for treatment. Due to the successful POME pollution abatement experiences, Malaysia is currently planning to revise the effluent quality standards towards a more stringent discharge limits. Hence, the current trend of POME research focuses on developing tertiary treatment or polishing systems for better effluent management. Biotechnologically-advanced POME tertiary (polishing) technologies as well as other physicochemical methods are gaining much attention as these processes are the key players to push the industry towards the goal of environmental sustainability. There are still ongoing treatment technologies being researched and the outcomes maybe available in a while. However, the research completed so far are compiled herein and reported for the first time to acquire a better perspective and insight on the subject with a view of meeting the new standards. To this end, the most feasible technology could be the combination of advanced biological processes (bioreactor systems) with extended aeration, followed by solids separation prior to discharge. Chemical dosing is favoured only if effluent of higher quality is anticipated.

  12. Treatment of hexavalent chromium Cr (VI) in tanning effluent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most common chemical used in chrome tanning is basic chromium sulphate (BCS). Manufacturing of BCS involves many steps producing liquid waste. Waste generated at every stage contains Cr (VI), which must be reduced to Cr (III) before being disposed to the environment. Different methods were studied for the reduction of toxic Cr (III). Pickle liquor (waste of electroplating industry) can also be used for the reduction of hexavalent chromium Cr (vi) along with other reducing materials / chemicals. In an electroplating process metal is treated with HCl or H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ to remove scales and rust, the pickled items are then washed with water, washing contains FeCl/sub 2/ or fees/sub 4/ respectively called pickle liquor. During waste treatment pH adjustment to 6.0 - 9.0 and settling the sludge, is discharged to the lagoon. The sludge obtained is dried and disposed off in landfills. Other reducing agents like sodium bisulphite and sulfur dioxide were also studied, but pickle liquor was found to be more effective and economical. (author)

  13. Algae Removal by Electro-coagulation Process, Application for Treatment of the Effluent from an Industrial Wastewater Treatment Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GH Azarian

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although stabilization ponds and lagoons are suitable treatment processes due to simplicity of operation and low per capital costs, the effluents of these systems have too high of a total suspended solids concentration to be discharged into receiving waters. This problem is mainly caused by algae. In this study, an electro-coagulation reactor was examined to re­move algae from the final effluent of the wastewater treatment plant belong to Bu-Ali Industrial Estates (Hamadan City.  Methods: For the continuous flow electro-coagulation reactor used in these experiments three aluminum anodes were util­ized. This type of metal was selected because it could introduce the flocculation agent into the effluent, thereby algae could be removed by both mechanisms of electro-flotation and electro-flocculation. Results: The results of treatment were remarkably good and the efficiencies of total suspended solids (TSS and chlorophyll a removal reached to as high as 99.5% and about 100% by applying a power input of about 550 W. In fact, this level of power input was needed for complete removal of algae in a low retention time of 15 minutes. Meanwhile, by applying less power input of about 100Wdm-3, the required time for a relatively same treatment was reached to 30 minutes.Conclusion: It is expected that this method which is also known as a multiple contaminants removal process will be consid­ered as a suitable alternative for final polishing of effluents from lagoons and similar treatment systems. 

  14. Using sorbent waste materials to enhance treatment of micro-point source effluents by constructed wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Verity; Surridge, Ben; Quinton, John; Matthews, Mike

    2014-05-01

    Sorbent materials are widely used in environmental settings as a means of enhancing pollution remediation. A key area of environmental concern is that of water pollution, including the need to treat micro-point sources of wastewater pollution, such as from caravan sites or visitor centres. Constructed wetlands (CWs) represent one means for effective treatment of wastewater from small wastewater producers, in part because they are believed to be economically viable and environmentally sustainable. Constructed wetlands have the potential to remove a range of pollutants found in wastewater, including nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and carbon (C), whilst also reducing the total suspended solids (TSS) concentration in effluents. However, there remain particular challenges for P and N removal from wastewater in CWs, as well as the sometimes limited BOD removal within these treatment systems, particularly for micro-point sources of wastewater. It has been hypothesised that the amendment of CWs with sorbent materials can enhance their potential to treat wastewater, particularly through enhancing the removal of N and P. This paper focuses on data from batch and mesocosm studies that were conducted to identify and assess sorbent materials suitable for use within CWs. The aim in using sorbent material was to enhance the combined removal of phosphate (PO4-P) and ammonium (NH4-N). The key selection criteria for the sorbent materials were that they possess effective PO4-P, NH4-N or combined pollutant removal, come from low cost and sustainable sources, have potential for reuse, for example as a fertiliser or soil conditioner, and show limited potential for re-release of adsorbed nutrients. The sorbent materials selected for testing were alum sludge from water treatment works, ochre derived from minewater treatment, biochar derived from various feedstocks, plasterboard and zeolite. The performance of the individual sorbents was assessed through

  15. EFFLUENT TREATMENT FACILITY (ETF) WASTE STREAM STABILIZATION TESTING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. Department of Energy Hanford Site, the location of plutonium production for the US nuclear weapons program, is the focal point of a broad range of waste remediation efforts. This presentation will describe the development of cementitious waste forms for evaporated Hanford waste waters from several sources. Basin 42 waste water and simulants of proposed Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant secondary wastes and Demonstration Bulk Vitrification System secondary wastes were solidified in cementitious matrices termed ''dry cementitious formulation.'' Solidification of these brines was difficult to deal with because of high sulfate contents. Two approaches were explored. The first was based on compositions similar to sulphoaluminate-belite cements. The main component of these cements is 4CaO · 2Al2O3 · SO4. When hydrating in the presence of sulfate, these cements rapidly form ettringite. The goal was to consume the sulfate by rapidly forming ettringite. Forming ettringite before the mixture has filly set minimizes the potential for deleterious expansion at a later date. These formulations were developed based on mixtures of calcium-aluminate cement, a glassy blast-furnace slag, class F fly ash, and Portland cement. A second approach was based on using high alumina cement like ciment fondu. In this case the grout was a mixture of ciment fondu, a glassy blast-furnace slag, class f fly ash, and Portland cement. The literature shows that for concretes based on equal amounts of ciment fondu and blast furnace slag, cured at either 20 C or 38 C, the compressive strength increased continuously over a period of 1 year. In this second approach, enough reactive calcium aluminate was added to fully consume the sulfate at an early age. The results of this study will be presented. Included will be results for expansion and bleed water testing, adiabatic temperature rise, microstructure development, and the phase chemistry of the hydrated materials. The results of

  16. Enhanced performance of a submerged membrane bioreactor with powdered activated carbon addition for municipal secondary effluent treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hongjun; Wang, Fangyuan; Ding, Linxian; Hong, Huachang; Chen, Jianrong; Lu, Xiaofeng

    2011-09-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of PAC-MBR process treating municipal secondary effluent. Two laboratory-scale submerged MBRs (SMBR) with and without PAC addition were continuously operated in parallel for secondary effluent treatment. Approximately 63%TOC, 95% NH(4)(+)-N and 98% turbidity in secondary effluent were removed by the PAC-MBR process. Most organics in the secondary effluent were found to be low molecular weight (MW) substances, which could be retained in the reactor and then removed to some extent by using PAC-MBR process. Parallel experiments showed that the addition of PAC significantly increased organic removal and responsible for the largest fraction of organic removal. Membrane fouling analysis showed the enhanced membrane performance in terms of sustainable operational time and filtration resistances by PAC addition. Based on these results, the PAC-MBR process was considered as an attractive option for the reduction of pollutants in secondary effluent. PMID:21794980

  17. Treatment of textile effluent by chemical (Fenton's Reagent) and biological (sequencing batch reactor) oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The removal of organic compounds and colour from a synthetic effluent simulating a cotton dyeing wastewater was evaluated by using a combined process of Fenton's Reagent oxidation and biological degradation in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR). The experimental design methodology was first applied to the chemical oxidation process in order to determine the values of temperature, ferrous ion concentration and hydrogen peroxide concentration that maximize dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and colour removals and increase the effluent's biodegradability. Additional studies on the biological oxidation (SBR) of the raw and previously submitted to Fenton's oxidation effluent had been performed during 15 cycles (i.e., up to steady-state conditions), each one with the duration of 11.5 h; Fenton's oxidation was performed either in conditions that maximize the colour removal or the increase in the biodegradability. The obtained results allowed concluding that the combination of the two treatment processes provides much better removals of DOC, BOD5 and colour than the biological or chemical treatment alone. Moreover, the removal of organic matter in the integrated process is particularly effective when Fenton's pre-oxidation is carried out under conditions that promote the maximum increase in wastewater biodegradability.

  18. Effluent treatment from hot laundry of Instalacao Nuclear de Agua Pressurizada (INAP), by chemical precipitation processes and reverse osmosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among the many types of radioactive effluents which will be generated at the Instalacao Nuclear de Agua Pressurizada (INAP), that is in development by the Centro Tecnologico da Marinha em Sao Paulo (CTMSP), there is a specific one, arising from the laundry of this facility. Besides the presence of traces of radioactive materials in this effluent, it is present in its composition a significant quantify of detergent, difficulting its treatment by the techniques usually employed in the effluents treatment systems of nuclear facilities and consequently its release to the environment. In this work, a synthetic solution was prepared based on data available in literature and project documentation of the laundry of INAP. It was studied the treatment of this effluent by chemical precipitation with calcium oxide and reverse osmosis treatment. The results got during the treatment assays showed that the used processes are efficient to treat the effluent that will be generated at the laundry of INAP, obtaining a purified stream, that represents 90% of the effluent fed at the treatment system, with a higher quality than the water used for industrial processes, becoming its reutilisation in the water used for industrial processes, becoming its reutilisation in the INAP feasible, minimizing any negative impact to the environment. (author)

  19. Opportunities for membrane technologies in the treatment of mining and mineral process streams and effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The membrane separation technologies of microfiltration, ultrafiltration, nanofiltration, and reverse osmosis are suitable for treating many dilute streams and effluents generated in mining and mineral processing. Membrane technologies are capable of treating these dilute streams in order to produce clean permeate water for recycle and a concentrate that can potentially be used for valuable metals recovery. Membrane technologies can be utilized alone, or in combination with other techniques as a polishing step, in these separation processes. A review of potential applications of membranes for the treatment of different process streams and effluents for water recycling and pollution control is given here. Although membranes may not be optimum in all applications, these technologies are recognized in the mining sector for the many potential advantages they can provide. 59 refs

  20. Treatment and decolorization of biologically treated Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) using banana peel as novel biosorbent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Rafie Rushdy; Chong, Mei Fong

    2014-01-01

    Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) treatment has always been a topic of research in Malaysia. This effluent that is extremely rich in organic content needs to be properly treated to minimize environmental hazards before it is released into watercourses. The main aim of this work is to evaluate the potential of applying natural, chemically and thermally modified banana peel as sorbent for the treatment of biologically treated POME. Characteristics of these sorbents were analyzed with BET surface area and SEM. Batch adsorption studies were carried out to remove color, total suspended solids (TSS), chemical oxygen demand (COD), tannin and lignin, and biological oxygen demand (BOD) onto natural banana peel (NBP), methylated banana peel (MBP), and banana peel activated carbon (BPAC) respectively. The variables of pH, adsorbent dosage, and contact time were investigated in this study. Maximum percentage removal of color, TSS, COD, BOD, and tannin and lignin (95.96%, 100%, 100%, 97.41%, and 76.74% respectively) on BPAC were obtained at optimized pH of 2, contact time of 30 h and adsorbent dosage of 30 g/100 ml. The isotherm data were well described by the Redlich-Peterson isotherm model with correlation coefficient of more than 0.99. Kinetic of adsorption was examined by Langergren pseudo first order, pseudo second order, and second order. The pseudo second order was identified to be the governing mechanism with high correlation coefficient of more than 0.99. PMID:24321284

  1. Toxicity assays applied for evaluation of ionizing radiation and zeolites adsorption as treatment technologies for coloured effluent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Textile industry is one raising commercial activity in Brazil. This activity has been generating important environmental interferences such as colour and bad biological effects into aquatic environment. Liquid textile effluents are toxic to lived organisms and may present low biological degradability. Although foreseen at federal regulation, the effluent quality is not controlled by toxicity assays in the country. These assays are carried out to determine the potential effects of chemical substances and effluents to cause negative effects to the exposed organisms. The present work aimed whole toxicity evaluation as well as the applicability of two different treatment techniques: ionizing radiation and zeolite adsorption. The efficacy of them were evaluated using eco toxicity bases and real effluents. Two different industries from Sao Paulo State contributed to this project supplying their real effluents. The samples were collected at a Textile Industry and at a Chemical Industry (dying producer) and after the measurement of whole toxicity the samples were submitted to treatments. Toxicity assays were carried out for Daphnia similis and for Vibrio fischeri. Sample irradiations were performed at an Electron Beam Accelerator at CTR/IPEN. Zeolites treatment is an P and D activity from CQMA/IPEN which contributed to this Project. Zeolites v/ere prepared from fly ash previously being used as an adsorber material. Both treatments (electron irradiation and zeolite adsorption) resulted on important toxicity and colour reduction. Concerning irradiation the effluents from chemical industry required higher radiation doses than that from textile activity. The radiation dose to be suggested is 40 kGy (toxicity reduction > 60%) for the chemical effluents and 0.5 kGy for the textile effluents (toxicity reduction > 90%). When zeolite adsorption was evaluated the Z1M6 resulted in 85%o v/hole toxicity reduction and ZC6 resulted in very low efficiency for the effluents of chemical

  2. Pre-treatment and membrane ultrafiltration using treated palm oil mill effluent (POME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wong Pui Wah

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of palm oil mill effluent (POME has always been a topic of research in Malaysia. This effluent that is extremely rich in organic content needs to be properly treated to minimize environmental hazards before it is released into watercourses. The common practice for treating POME in Malaysia involves a combination of aerobic and anaerobic methods. The purpose of tertiary treatment is to allow the treated water to be reused in the mill operations for other purposes such as feed water. The proposed treatment will also ensure the industry to meet a more stringent discharge standard in terms of the BOD, COD and nitrogen values. In this study membrane ultrafiltration is used as the tertiary treatment method. Before the actual membrane operation was conducted, the samples were pre-treated using three separate method namely filtration, centrifugation and coagulation. It was found that the combination of filtrationultrafiltration treatment POME produced the best-treated sample quality in terms of pollutant contents elimination, namely % BOD, % COD and % nitrogen removal.

  3. Optimal policies for activated sludge treatment systems with multi effluent stream generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gouveia R.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Most industrial processes generate liquid waste, which requires treatment prior to disposal. These processes are divided into sectors that generate effluents with time dependent characteristics. Each sector sends the effluent to wastewater treatment plants through pumping-stations. In general, activated sludge is the most suitable treatment and consists of equalization, aeration and settling tanks. During the treatment, there is an increase in the mass of microorganisms, which needs to be removed. Sludge removal represents the major operating costs for wastewater treatment plants. The objective of this work is to propose an optimization model to minimize sludge generation using a superstructure in which the streams from pumping-stations can be sent to the equalization tank. In addition, the aeration tank is divided into cells that can be fed in series and parallel. The model relies on mass balances, kinetic equations, and the resulting Nonlinear Programming problem generates the best operational strategy for the system feed streams with a high substrate removal. Reductions of up to 30 % can be achieved with the proposed strategy maintened BOD efficiency removal upper than 98 %.

  4. Applicability and costs of nanofiltration in combination with photocatalysis for the treatment of dye house effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samhaber, Wolfgang M; Nguyen, Minh Tan

    2014-01-01

    Nanofiltration (NF) is a capable method for the separation of dyes, which can support and even improve the applicability of photocatalysis in effluent-treatment processes. The membrane process usually will need a special pre-treatment to avoid precipitation and fouling on the membrane surface. Conceptually NF can be applied in the pre-treatment prior to the catalytic reactor or in connection with the reactor to separate the liquid phase from the reaction system and to recycle finely suspended catalysts and/or organic compounds. When concerning such reaction systems on a bigger scale, cost figures will prove the usefulness of those concepts. Different applications of photocatalysis on the lab-scale have been published in recent years. Membrane technology is used almost in all those processes and an overview will be given of those recently published systems that have been reported to be potentially useful for a further scale-up. NF membranes are mostly used for the more sophisticated separation step of these processes and the additional costs of the NF treatment, without any associated equipments, will be described and illustrated. The total specific costs of industrial NF treatment processes in usefully adjusted and designed plants range from 1 to 6 US$/m(3) treated effluent. Combination concepts will have a good precondition for further development and upscaling, if the NF costs discussed here in detail will be, together with the costs of photocatalysis, economically acceptable.

  5. Applicability and costs of nanofiltration in combination with photocatalysis for the treatment of dye house effluents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang M. Samhaber

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Nanofiltration (NF is a capable method for the separation of dyes, which can support and even improve the applicability of photocatalysis in effluent-treatment processes. The membrane process usually will need a special pre-treatment to avoid precipitation and fouling on the membrane surface. Conceptually NF can be applied in the pre-treatment prior to the catalytic reactor or in connection with the reactor to separate the liquid phase from the reaction system and to recycle finely suspended catalysts and/or organic compounds. When concerning such reaction systems on a bigger scale, cost figures will prove the usefulness of those concepts. Different applications of photocatalysis on the lab-scale have been published in recent years. Membrane technology is used almost in all those processes and an overview will be given of those recently published systems that have been reported to be potentially useful for a further scale-up. NF membranes are mostly used for the more sophisticated separation step of these processes and the additional costs of the NF treatment, without any associated equipments, will be described and illustrated. The total specific costs of industrial NF treatment processes in usefully adjusted and designed plants range from 1 to 6 US$/m3 treated effluent. Combination concepts will have a good precondition for further development and upscaling, if the NF costs discussed here in detail will be, together with the costs of photocatalysis, economically acceptable.

  6. Coagulant recovery from water treatment plant sludge and reuse in post-treatment of UASB reactor effluent treating municipal wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Abhilash T; Ahammed, M Mansoor

    2014-09-01

    In the present study, feasibility of recovering the coagulant from water treatment plant sludge with sulphuric acid and reusing it in post-treatment of upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor effluent treating municipal wastewater were studied. The optimum conditions for coagulant recovery from water treatment plant sludge were investigated using response surface methodology (RSM). Sludge obtained from plants that use polyaluminium chloride (PACl) and alum coagulant was utilised for the study. Effect of three variables, pH, solid content and mixing time was studied using a Box-Behnken statistical experimental design. RSM model was developed based on the experimental aluminium recovery, and the response plots were developed. Results of the study showed significant effects of all the three variables and their interactions in the recovery process. The optimum aluminium recovery of 73.26 and 62.73 % from PACl sludge and alum sludge, respectively, was obtained at pH of 2.0, solid content of 0.5 % and mixing time of 30 min. The recovered coagulant solution had elevated concentrations of certain metals and chemical oxygen demand (COD) which raised concern about its reuse potential in water treatment. Hence, the coagulant recovered from PACl sludge was reused as coagulant for post-treatment of UASB reactor effluent treating municipal wastewater. The recovered coagulant gave 71 % COD, 80 % turbidity, 89 % phosphate, 77 % suspended solids and 99.5 % total coliform removal at 25 mg Al/L. Fresh PACl also gave similar performance but at higher dose of 40 mg Al/L. The results suggest that coagulant can be recovered from water treatment plant sludge and can be used to treat UASB reactor effluent treating municipal wastewater which can reduce the consumption of fresh coagulant in wastewater treatment.

  7. Treatment of dairy effluent model solutions by nanofiltration and reverse osmosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Kyrychuk

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Dairy industry generates a large amount of wastewaters that have high concentrations and contain milk components. Membrane processes have been shown to be convenient for wastewater treatment recovering milk components present in wastewaters and producing treated water. Materials and methods. The experiments were carried out in an unstirred batch sell using nanofiltration membranes OPMN-P (ZAO STC “Vladipor”, Russian Federation and reverse osmosis membranes NanoRo, ZAO (“RM Nanotech”, Russian Federation. The model solutions of dairy effluents –diluted skim and whole milk were used. Results. The nanofiltration and reverse osmosis membranes showed the same permeate flux during the concentration of model solutions of dairy effluents. The reason of this was likely membrane fouling with feed components. The fouling indexes indicated the fouling factor that was higher for RO. The higher permeate quality was obtainedwith RO membranes. The NF permeate containing up to 0.4 g/L of lactose and 0.75 g/L of mineral salts can be discharged or after finishing trеatment (e.g. RO or other can be reused. The obtained NF and RO retentate corresponds to milk in composition and can be used for non-food applications or as feed supplement for animals. Conclusions.The studied RO and NF membranes can be used for concentration of dairy effluents at low pressure. They showed better performance and separation characteristics comparing with data of other membranes available in the literature.

  8. Treatment of Pulp Mill D-Stage Bleaching Effluent Using a Pilot-Scale Electrocoagulation System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perng, Yuan-Shing; Wang, Eugene I-Chen

    2016-03-01

    A pilot-scale study was conducted using electrocoagulation technology to treat chlorine dioxide bleaching-stage effluent of a local pulp mill, with the purpose of evaluating the treatment performance. The operating variables were the current density (0 ~ 133.3 A/m(2)) and hydraulic retention time (HRT, 6.5 ~ 16.25 minutes). Water quality indicators investigated were the conductivity, suspended solids (SS), chemical oxygen demand (COD), true color, and hardness. The results showed that electrocoagulation technology can be used to treat D-stage bleaching effluent for water reuse. Under the operating conditions studied, the removal of conductivity and COD always increased with increases in either the current density or HRT. The highest removals obtained at 133.3 A/m(2) and an HRT of 16.25 minutes for conductivity, SS, COD, true color, and hardness were respectively 44.2, 98.5, 75.0, 85.9, and 36.9% with aluminum electrodes. Iron electrodes were not applicable to the D-stage effluent due to formation of dark-colored ferric complexes.

  9. Phenol removal efficiencies of sewage treatment processes and ecological risks associated with phenols in effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Wenjue; Wang, Donghong; Xu, Xiaowei

    2012-05-30

    Phenols pose a risk to the environment and to human health. Phenols found in rivers mainly originate from sewage treatment plants (STPs). In this paper, analytical procedures, based on deconvolution technology and retention time locking technology, were investigated to simultaneously identify and determine the concentrations of fifty different phenols in sewage water and effluents. Seventeen different phenols were found in sewage and five - including two regulated phenols (phenol and 2,4,6-trichlorophenol) and three un-regulated phenols (2-chlorophenol, 2,5-dichlorophenol and 2,4-dichloro-3-ethyl-6-nitrophenol) - were identified in effluents of five STPs. A number of processes undertaken in five STPs were also investigated. These processes can be used to remove phenols at efficiency levels of between 88.95% and 99.97%. Among the processes tested, a combination of anaerobic/anoxic/oxic (A(2)/O), continuous microfiltration (CMF), ozone oxidation (O(3)), and chlorination, appeared to be the best option for the removal of key phenols. Among the five phenols identified in effluents, 2,5-dichlorophenol (1.89 μg/L) and 2,4-dichloro-3-ethyl-6-nitrophenol (22.6 μg/L) pose the greatest ecological risk to receiving waters.

  10. Removal of stigmasterol from Kraft mill effluent by aerobic biological treatment with steroidal metabolite detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamorro, Soledad; Vergara, Juan P; Jarpa, Mayra; Hernandez, Victor; Becerra, Jose; Vidal, Gladys

    2016-10-14

    Stigmasterol is a phytosterol contained in Kraft mill effluent that is able to increase over 100% after aerobic biological treatment. This compound can act as an endocrine disrupter as its structure is similar to that of cholesterol. The aim of this study was to evaluate the removal of stigmasterol from Kraft mill effluents treated by a moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) with steroidal metabolite detection. The MBBR was operated for 145 days, with a hydraulic retention time of 2 days. Stigmasterol and steroidal metabolites were detected by gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector during MBBR operation. The results show that the MBBR removed 87.4% of biological oxygen demand (BOD5), 61.5% of chemical oxygen demand (COD), 24.5% of phenol and 31.5% of lignin, expressed in average values. The MBBR system successfully removed 100% of the stigmasterol contained in the influent (33 µg L(-1)) after 5 weeks of operation. In that case, the organic load rate was 0.343 kg COD m(-3) d(-1). Furthermore, different steroidal compounds (e.g., testosterone propionate, stigmast-4-en-3-one, 5α-pregnan-12-one-20α-hydroxy, 5α-pregnane-3,11,20-trione and 3α-hydroxy-5α-androstane-11,17-dione were detected in the Kraft mill effluent as potential products of phytosterol biotransformation. PMID:27399163

  11. Treatment of an automobile effluent from heavy metals contamination by an eco-friendly montmorillonite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovo G. Akpomie

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Unmodified montmorillonite clay was utilized as a low cost adsorbent for the removal of heavy metals from a contaminated automobile effluent. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy were used to characterize the adsorbent. Batch sorption experiments were performed at an optimum effluent pH of 6.5, adsorbent dose of 0.1 g, particle size of 100 μm and equilibrium contact time of 180 min. Thermodynamic analysis was also conducted. Equilibrium data were analyzed by the Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin and Dubinin–Radushkevich models. A heterogeneous surface of the adsorbent was indicated by the Freundlich model. The Langmuir maximum adsorption capacity of the montmorillonite for metals was found in the following order: Zn (5.7 mg/g > Cu (1.58 mg/g > Mn (0.59 mg/g > Cd (0.33 mg/g > Pb (0.10 mg/g ≡ Ni (0.10 mg/g. This was directly related to the concentration of the metal ions in solution. The pseudo-first order, pseudo-second order, intraparticle diffusion and liquid film diffusion models were applied for kinetic analysis. The mechanism of sorption was found to be dominated by the film diffusion mechanism. The results of this study revealed the potential of the montmorillonite for treatment of heavy metal contaminated effluents.

  12. Grape bagasse as an alternative natural adsorbent of cadmium and lead for effluent treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work investigated the utilization of grape bagasse as an alternative natural adsorbent to remove Cd(II) and Pb(II) ions from laboratory effluent. X-ray diffractometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance, thermogravimetric analyses, surface analysis, porosity and porous size were used for characterization of the material. Batch experiments were carried out to evaluate the adsorption capacity of the material. Parameters such as adsorption pH and contact time were optimized for the maximum accumulation onto the solid surface. The pH values found were 7 and 3 for Cd(II) and Pb(II), respectively, and contact time was 5 min for both metals. Adsorption capacity for metals were calculated from adsorption isotherms by applying the Langmueir model and found to be 0.774 and 0.428 mmol g-1 for Cd(II) and Pb(II), respectively. The competition between metals for the same adsorption sites on grape bagasse was also evaluated, showing an increasing affinity for Pb(II) over Cd(II) when only these metals are present. The potential of this material was demonstrated by efficient metal removal from laboratory effluent using a glass column. The results indicate that the referred material could be employed as adsorbent for effluent treatment, especially due to its easy acquisition and low cost as well as the fast adsorption involved

  13. Biological treatment of paper pulp effluents: the application of ligninolytic white rot-fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, C; Fajardo, S.; Manzanares, P.

    1996-07-01

    Biological treatments using white-rot fungi, based in their ability to degrade lignin, can constitute an interesting approach to remove colour and toxic compounds usually contained in paper pulp effluents due to the presence of recalcitrant lignin derived molecules. In this work, strains A-137 and A-136 (IJFM collection, CIB-CSIC, Madrid) of Trameles versicolor, a ligninolytic white-rot fungus that have been frequently reported in relation to degradation of lignin, have been used for decolorisation studies of the straw alkaline-pulping effluent from SAICA factory (Zaragoza, Spain). From results obtained it can be concluded that decolorisation percentages about 80% can be obtained in 4-6 days (for maximum initial colour effluent between 12,000 and 15,000 CU) and total phenolics content can be reduced in about 90%. Mn-dependent peroxidase (about 20 IU/I) and high values of laccase activities (up to 700 IU/I) were produced, what may be of great interest to set up ligninolytic enzymes production processes for industrial uses. (Author) 19 refs.

  14. Assembly, start and operation of an activated sludge reactor for the industrial effluents treatment: physico chemical and biological parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Regina Assalin

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Although of the immense available bibliography regarding the activated sludge process, little it is found in relation to the basic procedure to be adopted to implant, to activate and to monitor a reactor of activated sludge in laboratory scales. This article describes the assembly, departure and operation of an activated sludge system, operating in continuous process, at a laboratory scale, to study effluents treatments, using as example, Kraft E1 pulp mill effluent. Factors as biodegradability of the effluent to be treated, stationary state of the reactor, conventional operation parameters as physical chemistry and biological parameters are presented.

  15. Comparison of the MBBR denitrification carriers for advanced nitrogen removal of wastewater treatment plant effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Quan; Wang, Haiyan; Hang, Qianyu; Deng, Yangfan; Liu, Kai; Li, Chunmei; Zheng, Shengzhi

    2015-09-01

    The moving bed biofilm reactors (MBBRs) were used to remove the residual NO3(-)-N of wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent, and the MBBR carriers for denitrification were compared. The results showed that high denitrification efficiency can be achieved with polyethylene, polypropylene, polyurethane foam, and haydite carriers under following conditions: 7.2 to 8.0 pH, 24 to 26 °C temperature, 12 h hydraulic retention time (HRT), and 25.5 mg L(-1) external methanol dosage, while the WWTP effluent total nitrogen (TN) was between 2.6 and 15.4 mg L(-1) and NO3(-)-N was between 0.2 and 12.6 mg L(-1). The MBBR filled with polyethylene carriers had higher TN and NO3(-)-N removal rate (44.9 ± 19.1 and 83.4 ± 13.0%, respectively) than those with other carriers. The minimum effluent TN and NO3(-)-N of polyethylene MBBR were 1.6 and 0.1 mg L(-1), respectively, and the maximum denitrification rate reached 23.0 g m(-2) day(-1). When chemical oxygen demand (COD)/TN ratio dropped from 6 to 4, the NO3(-)- N and TN removal efficiency decreased significantly in all reactors except for that filled with polyethylene, which indicated that the polyethylene MBBR can resist influent fluctuation much better. The three-dimensional excitation-emission matrix analysis showed that all the influent and effluent of MBBRs contain soluble microbial products (SMPs)-like organics and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), which can be removed better by MBBRs filled with haydite and polyethylene carriers. The nitrous oxide reductase (nosZ)-based terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis suggested that the dominant bacteria in polyethylene MBBR are the key denitrificans.

  16. [Sodium hypochlorite disinfection on effluent of MBR in municipal wastewater treatment process].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Jing-Ru; Li, Kui-Xiao; Zhou, Jun; Gan, Yi-Ping; Huang, Guo-Zhong

    2011-08-01

    Sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) used in wastewater disinfection was assessed by examining its performances in lab fed by the effluent from a MBR treatment plant. The influence of sodium hypochlorite initial concentrations (0.5-3.0 mg/L) on the presence of indicator microorganisms (total coliforms, fecal coliforms), disinfection by-products (DBPs) concentrations and the acute toxicity were evaluated. Results indicate the total coliforms and the fecal coliform were 1500-2400 and 10-40 CFU/L, which is difficult to meet the present reclaimed water quality standards. A chlorine dose of 2.0 mg/L and contact for 1 h could achieve a 3 lg indicator bacteria reduction in MBR effluent samples. THMs (trihalomethanes) analysis indicated that concentrations of THMs increase with the raise of the active chlorine dose. After adding sodium hypochlorite 1 h the concentrations of trihalomethanes (THMs) were 16.22, 7.35 microg/L respectively and chloroform (TCM) accounted for 87% of THMs, the haloacetic acids (HAAs) was involved trichloroacetic acid (TCAA) 2.01 microg/L, dichloroacetic acid (DCAA) 1.58 microg/L and under the national limits. Luminescence bacteria acute toxicity analysis showed that the chlorinated effluent has higher inhibition rate (48%) in comparison to the control with a chlorine dosage of 3.0 mg/L. The results which could provide theoretical basis to production show that NaClO disinfection not only can inactivate microbe with the DBPs and acute toxicity of the effluent under the safety limits, but also meet the requirement of health and safety. PMID:22619952

  17. EU-wide monitoring survey on emerging polar organic contaminants in wastewater treatment plant effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loos, Robert; Carvalho, Raquel; António, Diana C; Comero, Sara; Locoro, Giovanni; Tavazzi, Simona; Paracchini, Bruno; Ghiani, Michela; Lettieri, Teresa; Blaha, Ludek; Jarosova, Barbora; Voorspoels, Stefan; Servaes, Kelly; Haglund, Peter; Fick, Jerker; Lindberg, Richard H; Schwesig, David; Gawlik, Bernd M

    2013-11-01

    In the year 2010, effluents from 90 European wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) were analyzed for 156 polar organic chemical contaminants. The analyses were complemented by effect-based monitoring approaches aiming at estrogenicity and dioxin-like toxicity analyzed by in vitro reporter gene bioassays, and yeast and diatom culture acute toxicity optical bioassays. Analyses of organic substances were performed by solid-phase extraction (SPE) or liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) followed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) or gas chromatography high-resolution mass spectrometry (GC-HRMS). Target microcontaminants were pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), veterinary (antibiotic) drugs, perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), organophosphate ester flame retardants, pesticides (and some metabolites), industrial chemicals such as benzotriazoles (corrosion inhibitors), iodinated x-ray contrast agents, and gadolinium magnetic resonance imaging agents; in addition biological endpoints were measured. The obtained results show the presence of 125 substances (80% of the target compounds) in European wastewater effluents, in concentrations ranging from low nanograms to milligrams per liter. These results allow for an estimation to be made of a European median level for the chemicals investigated in WWTP effluents. The most relevant compounds in the effluent waters with the highest median concentration levels were the artificial sweeteners acesulfame and sucralose, benzotriazoles (corrosion inhibitors), several organophosphate ester flame retardants and plasticizers (e.g. tris(2-chloroisopropyl)phosphate; TCPP), pharmaceutical compounds such as carbamazepine, tramadol, telmisartan, venlafaxine, irbesartan, fluconazole, oxazepam, fexofenadine, diclofenac, citalopram, codeine, bisoprolol, eprosartan, the antibiotics trimethoprim, ciprofloxacine, sulfamethoxazole, and clindamycine, the insect repellent N,N'-diethyltoluamide (DEET), the pesticides

  18. Applicability of Fenton Process for Treatment of Industrial Effluents: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehali Mehta

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Wastewater and effluent treatment has undergone innovative changes over the years. Traditional wastewater treatment has yielded to modern and path-breaking procedures which are more efficient and effective. The world of difficulties and unknown has opened new avenues and paths to highly feasible effluent treatment procedures, so the vigorous importance of advanced oxidation procedures. This review paper will delineate the increasing importance of various advanced oxidation processes including Fenton treatment for wastewater. Advanced oxidation processes (AOP’s, which involve and includes the in-situ generation of highly potent chemical oxidants such as the hydroxyl radical, have emerged as an important avenue of technologies to accelerate the non-selective oxidation and thus the destruction of a wide range of non-degradable organic contaminants in wastewater which cannot be eliminated biologically. Advanced oxidation processes (AOP are technologies based on the generation of highly reactive species, the hydroxyl radicals, used in oxidative degradation procedures for organic compounds dissolved or dispersed in aquatic media. These processes are promising alternatives for decontamination of media containing dissolved recalcitrant organic substances, which would not be efficiently removed by conventional methods.

  19. 300 Area process sewer piping upgrade and 300 Area treated effluent disposal facility discharge to the City of Richland Sewage System, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is proposing to upgrade the existing 300 Area Process Sewer System by constructing and operating a new process sewer collection system that would discharge to the 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility. The DOE is also considering the construction of a tie-line from the TEDF to the 300 Area Sanitary Sewer for discharging the process wastewater to the City of Richland Sewage System. The proposed action is needed because the integrity of the old piping in the existing 300 Area Process Sewer System is questionable and effluents might be entering the soil column from leaking pipes. In addition, the DOE has identified a need to reduce anticipated operating costs at the new TEDF. The 300 Area Process Sewer Piping Upgrade (Project L-070) is estimated to cost approximately $9.9 million. The proposed work would involve the construction and operation of a new process sewer collection system. The new system would discharge the effluents to a collection sump and lift station for the TEDF. The TEDF is designed to treat and discharge the process effluent to the Columbia River. The process waste liquid effluent is currently well below the DOE requirements for radiological secondary containment and is not considered a RCRA hazardous waste or a State of Washington Hazardous Waste Management Act dangerous waste. A National Pollutant Discharge Elimination, System (NPDES) permit has been obtained from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for discharge to the Columbia River. The proposed action would upgrade the existing 300 Area Process Sewer System by the construction and operation of a new combined gravity, vacuum, and pressurized process sewer collection system consisting of vacuum collection sumps, pressure pump stations, and buried polyvinyl chloride or similar pipe. Two buildings would also be built to house a main collection station and a satellite collection station.

  20. Treatment of emerging contaminants in wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) effluents by solar photocatalysis using low TiO2 concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Low TiO2 concentration suitable for removal of contaminants in WWTP effluents. ► The low concentration of TiO2 limits the reaction rate due to the loss of photons. ► Contaminant degradation >85% is possible after a certain reaction time. ► New developments in CPC photoreactors with as large an O.D. are necessary. - Abstract: The optimal photocatalyst concentration for industrial wastewater treatment in current photoreactor designs is several hundreds of milligrams per liter. However, the elimination of emerging contaminants (ECs), which are present at extremely low concentrations in waste water treatment plants (WWTP) effluents might be accomplished at much lower catalyst (TiO2) concentrations. One of the main drawbacks of reducing catalyst loading below the optimum is the loss of useful photons which instead are transmitted through the TiO2 suspension without being absorbed by the catalyst. Accordingly, in this work, laboratory and solar pilot-scale experiments were performed with real WWTP effluents to evaluate the kinetics of photocatalytic degradation of 52 emerging contaminants under realistic (ppb) concentrations. The analysis of the samples was accomplished by solid phase extraction (SPE) followed by liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC–MS). In view of the results, low concentrations of TiO2 of the order of tens of milligrams per liter were found to be insufficient for the degradation of the ECs in photoreactors with a short light-path length (29 cm). However, it was established that solar reactors of diameters of several hundreds of millimetres could be used for the efficient removal of ECs from WWTP effluents. The results presented show a general methodology for selecting the most efficient reactor diameter on the basis of the desired catalyst concentration.

  1. Evaluation of Shiraz wastewater treatment plant effluent quality for agricultural irrigation by Canadian Water Quality Index (CWQI)

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad A Baghapour; Simin Nasseri; Babak Djahed

    2013-01-01

    Background Using treated wastewater in agriculture irrigation could be a realistic solution for the shortage of fresh water in Iran, however, it is associated with environmental and health threats; therefore, effluent quality assessment is quite necessary before use. The present study aimed to evaluate the physicochemical and microbial quality of Shiraz wastewater treatment plant effluent for being used in agricultural irrigation. In this study, 20 physicochemical and 3 microbial parameters w...

  2. Dissolved effluent organic matter: Characteristics and potential implications in wastewater treatment and reuse applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael-Kordatou, I; Michael, C; Duan, X; He, X; Dionysiou, D D; Mills, M A; Fatta-Kassinos, D

    2015-06-15

    Wastewater reuse is currently considered globally as the most critical element of sustainable water management. The dissolved effluent organic matter (dEfOM) present in biologically treated urban wastewater, consists of a heterogeneous mixture of refractory organic compounds with diverse structures and varying origin, including dissolved natural organic matter, soluble microbial products, endocrine disrupting compounds, pharmaceuticals and personal care products residues, disinfection by-products, metabolites/transformation products and others, which can reach the aquatic environment through discharge and reuse applications. dEfOM constitutes the major fraction of the effluent organic matter (EfOM) and due to its chemical complexity, it is necessary to utilize a battery of complementary techniques to adequately describe its structural and functional character. dEfOM has been shown to exhibit contrasting effects towards various aquatic organisms. It decreases metal uptake, thus potentially reducing their bioavailability to exposed organisms. On the other hand, dEfOM can be adsorbed on cell membranes inducing toxic effects. This review paper evaluates the performance of various advanced treatment processes (i.e., membrane filtration and separation processes, activated carbon adsorption, ion-exchange resin process, and advanced chemical oxidation processes) in removing dEfOM from wastewater effluents. In general, the literature findings reveal that dEfOM removal by advanced treatment processes depends on the type and the amount of organic compounds present in the aqueous matrix, as well as the operational parameters and the removal mechanisms taking place during the application of each treatment technology. PMID:25917290

  3. Treatment of Effluent from a Factory of Paints Using Solar Photo-Fenton Process

    OpenAIRE

    Alam Gustavo Trovó; Oswaldo Gomes; Antonio Eduardo da Hora Machado

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated the use of Fenton reactions induced by solar radiation in the treatment of effluent from a factory of paints for buildings, after prior removal of the suspended solids. The increase of H2O2 concentration from 100 to 2500 mg L−1 for a [Fe2+] = 105 mg L−1 contributed to the reduction of DOC, COD, and toxicity. Our best results were achieved using 1600 mg L−1 H2O2, with 90% of DOC and COD removal and a complete removal of the toxicity with respect to Artemia salina. Additionally, th...

  4. Enhanced performance of a submerged membrane bioreactor with powdered activated carbon addition for municipal secondary effluent treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Hongjun, E-mail: hjlin@zjnu.cn [College of Geography and Environmental Sciences, Zhejiang Normal University, 688 Yingbin Avenue, Jinhua, Zhejiang Province 321004 (China); Wang, Fangyuan; Ding, Linxian; Hong, Huachang [College of Geography and Environmental Sciences, Zhejiang Normal University, 688 Yingbin Avenue, Jinhua, Zhejiang Province 321004 (China); Chen, Jianrong, E-mail: cjr@zjnu.cn [College of Geography and Environmental Sciences, Zhejiang Normal University, 688 Yingbin Avenue, Jinhua, Zhejiang Province 321004 (China); Lu, Xiaofeng [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Shanghai 201800 (China)

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: {yields} The first study to investigate the feasibility of PAC-MBR process treating municipal secondary effluent. {yields} The study revealed that most organics in the secondary effluent were low molecular weight (MW) substances, which could be retained in the reactor and then removed to some extent by PAC-MBR process. {yields} The study suggested that the action of biomass and the PAC is mutual and synergistic. - Abstract: The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of PAC-MBR process treating municipal secondary effluent. Two laboratory-scale submerged MBRs (SMBR) with and without PAC addition were continuously operated in parallel for secondary effluent treatment. Approximately 63%TOC, 95% NH{sub 4}{sup +}-N and 98% turbidity in secondary effluent were removed by the PAC-MBR process. Most organics in the secondary effluent were found to be low molecular weight (MW) substances, which could be retained in the reactor and then removed to some extent by using PAC-MBR process. Parallel experiments showed that the addition of PAC significantly increased organic removal and responsible for the largest fraction of organic removal. Membrane fouling analysis showed the enhanced membrane performance in terms of sustainable operational time and filtration resistances by PAC addition. Based on these results, the PAC-MBR process was considered as an attractive option for the reduction of pollutants in secondary effluent.

  5. Treatment of liquid effluent from uranium mines and mills during and after operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Australian research programme examined three separate topics, all related to the processing of uranium mill effluents. The topics covered conventional line treatment of process liquor and the application of the emerging technologies, nanofiltration and wetlands, to the treatment of higher quality run-off waters. The investigation of the lime treatment processes focused on changes in operating strategies to increase the density of the resulting sludge. The wetland study examined factors potentially limiting bacterial sulphate reduction, namely carbon limitation and competition with iron reducing bacteria for carbon and energy. For the wetland sediment used in the experimental programme, it was found iron reduction activity was not likely to significantly limit sulphate reduction. Carbon limitation of bacterial activity was, however, found to be a significant factor in poor sulphate removal efficiency. The use of green algae as a low cost, rapidly produced carbon source to promote sulphate reduction was then investigated. Reduction of sulphate by bacteria grown on algeal biomass was demonstrated at benchscales less than 10 kg of biomass was required to drive bacterial reduction of 1t of sulphate. The final topic investigated the potential of nanofiltration to remove dissolved species from typical uranium mill effluents. The separation performance was found to vary significantly with membrane type, but rejection of divalent methods ions was generally high, with good selectivity over single valent ions. (author)

  6. Clay-starch combination for micropollutants removal from wastewater treatment plant effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Amin, M F; Heijman, S G J; Rietveld, L C

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a new, more effective and cost-effective treatment alternative is investigated for the removal of pharmaceuticals from wastewater treatment plant effluent (WWTP-eff). The potential of combining clay with biodegradable polymeric flocculants is further highlighted. Flocculation is viewed as the best method to get the optimum outcome from clay. In addition, flocculation with cationic starch increases the biodegradability and cost of the treatment. Clay is naturally abundantly available and relatively inexpensive compared to conventional adsorbents. Experimental studies were carried out with existing naturally occurring pharmaceutical concentrations found and measured in WWTP-eff with atrazine spiking for comparison between the demineralised water and WWTP-eff matrix. Around 70% of the total measured pharmaceutical compounds were removable by the clay-starch combination. The effect of clay with and without starch addition was also highlighted. PMID:27054745

  7. Removal of pollutants from pulp and paper mill effluent by anaerobic and aerobic treatment in pilot scale bioreactor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, P.; Katiyar, D.; Gupta, M.;

    2011-01-01

    Pilot-scale anaerobic and aerobic treatment in a two-step bioreactor was performed for the removal of pollutants from pulp and paper mill effluent. After seven days of anaerobic treatment, colour (45%), lignin (60%), COD (26%) and adsorbable organic halogen (AOX) (20%) were reduced. The anaerobic......Pilot-scale anaerobic and aerobic treatment in a two-step bioreactor was performed for the removal of pollutants from pulp and paper mill effluent. After seven days of anaerobic treatment, colour (45%), lignin (60%), COD (26%) and adsorbable organic halogen (AOX) (20%) were reduced....... The anaerobically treated effluent was then treated in a bioreactor in the presence of a fungal strain (Aspergillus fumigatus) or a bacterial strain (Pseudomonas ovalis). The results of this study indicated a reduction in colour (76% and 56%), lignin (78% and 68%), COD (85% and 78%) and AOX (70% and 82...

  8. Comparative study of leaching of silver nanoparticles from fabric and effective effluent treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Aneesh Pasricha; Sant Lal Jangra; Nahar Singh; Neeraj Dilbaghi; K. N. Sood; Kanupriya Arora; Renu Pasricha

    2012-01-01

    Nano silver (Agn) is employed as an active antimicrobial agent,but the environmental impact of Agn released from commercial products is unknown.The quantity of nanomaterial released from consumer products during use should be determined to assess the environmental risks of advancement of nanotechnology.This work investigated the amount of silver released from three different types of fabric into water during washing.Three different types of fabric were loaded with chemically synthesized Ag nanoparticles and washed repeatedly under simulated washing conditions.Variable leaching rates among fabric types suggest that the manufacturing process may control the release of silver reaching the waste water treatment plants.In an attempt to recover the Agn for reutilizatlon and to save it from polluting water,the effluents from the wash were efficiently treated with bacterial strains.This treatment was based on biosorption and was very efficient for the elimination of silver nanoparticles in the wash water.The process ensured the recovery of the Agn leached into the effluent for reutilization,thus preventing environmental repercussions.

  9. Comparison of zinc complexation properties of dissolved organic matter from surface waters and wastewater treatment plant effluents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Tao

    2005-01-01

    Unlike natural organic matter(NOM), wastewater organic matter(WWOM) from wastewater treatment plant effluents has not been extensively studied with respect to complexation reactions with heavy metals such as copper or zinc. In this study, organic matter from surface waters and a wastewater treatment plant effluent were concentrated by reverse osmosis(RO) method. The samples were treated in the laboratory to remove trace metals and major cations. The zinc complexing properties of both NOM and the WWOM were studied by square wave anodic stripping voltammetry(SWASV). Experimental data were compared to predictions using the Windermere Humic Aqueous Model(WHAM) Version VI. We found that the zinc binding of WWOM was much stronger than that of NOM and not well predicted by WHAM. This suggests that in natural water bodies that receive wastewater treatment plant effluents the ratio of WWOM to NOM must be taken into account in order to accurately predict free zinc activities.

  10. Treatment of industrial effluents using electron beam accelerator and adsorption with activated carbon. A comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several methods are used In the pollutant removal from Industrial and domestic wastewater. However when the degradation of toxic organic pollutants, mainly the recalcitrant is objectified, the conventional treatments usually do not meet the desirable performance in the elimination or decrease the impact when the effluent are released to the environment what takes to the research of alternative methods that seek the improvement of the efficiency of the wastewater treatment systems jointly employees or separately. This work presents a study of degradation/removal of pollutants organic compounds comparing two methods using radiation from industrial electron beam and granular activated carbon (GAC). The removal efficiency of the pollutants was evaluated and it was verified that the efficiency of adsorption with activated carbon is similar to the radiation method. The obtained results allowed to evaluated the relative costs of these methods. (author)

  11. Treatment of industrial effluents using electron beam accelerator and adsorption with activated carbon: a comparative study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira Sampa, M.H. de E-mail: mhosampa@ipen.br; Rela, Paulo Roberto; Las Casas, Alexandre; Nunes Mori, Manoel; Lopes Duarte, Celina

    2004-10-01

    This paper presents preliminary results of a study that compares the use of electron beam processing and activated carbon adsorption to clean up a standardized organic aqueous solution and a real industrial effluent. The electron beam treatment was performed in a batch system using the IPEN's Electron Beam Accelerators from Radiation Dynamics Inc., Dynamitron 37.5 kW. The granular activated carbon removal treatment was performed using charcoal made from wood 'pinus'. If the adequate irradiation dose is delivered to the organic pollutant, it is possible to conclude for the studied compounds that the Electron Beam Process is similar to the activated carbon process in organic removal efficiency.

  12. An advanced anaerobic biofilter with effluent recirculation for phenol removal and methane production in treatment of coal gasification wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yajie; Tabassum, Salma; Zhang, Zhenjia

    2016-09-01

    An advanced anaerobic biofilter (AF) was introduced for the treatment of coal gasification wastewater (CGW), and effluent recirculation was adopted to enhance phenol removal and methane production. The results indicated that AF was reliable in treating diluted CGW, while its efficiency and stability were seriously reduced when directly treating raw CGW. However, its performance could be greatly enhanced by effluent recirculation. Under optimal effluent recirculation of 0.5 to the influent, concentrations of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total phenol in the effluent could reach as low as 234.0 and 14.2mg/L, respectively. Also, the rate of methane production reached 169.0mLCH4/L/day. Though CGW seemed to restrain the growth of anaerobic microorganisms, especially methanogens, the inhibition was temporary and reversible, and anaerobic bacteria presented strong tolerance. The activities of methanogens cultivated in CGW could quickly recover on feeding with glucose wastewater (GW). However, the adaptability of anaerobic bacteria to the CGW was very poor and the activity of methanogens could not be improved by long-term domestication. By analysis using the Haldane model, it was further confirmed that high effluent recirculation could result in high activity for hydrolytic bacteria and substrate affinity for toxic matters, but only suitable effluent recirculation could result in high methanogenic activity.

  13. Epicoccum nigrum and Cladosporium sp. for the treatment of oily effluent in an air-lift reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queissada, Daniel Delgado; da Silva, Flávio Teixeira; Penido, Juliana Sundfeld; Siqueira, Carolina Dell'Aquila; de Paiva, Tereza Cristina Brazil

    2013-01-01

    The metalworking industry is responsible for one of the most complex and difficult to handle oily effluents. These effluents consist of cutting fluids, which provide refrigeration and purification of metallic pieces in the machining system. When these effluents are biologically treated, is important to do this with autochthonous microorganisms; the use of these microorganisms (bioaugmentation) tends to be more efficient because they are already adapted to the existing pollutants. For this purpose, this study aimed to use two indigenous microorganisms, Epicoccum nigrum and Cladosporium sp. for metalworking effluent treatment using an air-lift reactor; the fungus Aspergillus niger (laboratory strain) was used as a reference microorganism. The original effluent characterization presented considerable pollutant potential. The color of the effluent was 1495 mg Pt/L, and it contained 59 mg/L H2O2, 53 mg/L total phenols, 2.5 mgO2/L dissolved oxygen (DO), and 887 mg/L oil and grease. The COD was 9147 mgO2/L and the chronic toxicity factor was 1667. Following biotreatment, the fungus Epicoccum nigrum was found to be the most efficient in reducing (effective reduction) the majority of the parameters (26% COD, 12% H2O2, 59% total phenols, and 40% oil and grease), while Cladosporium sp. was more efficient in color reduction (77%). PMID:24294260

  14. An advanced anaerobic biofilter with effluent recirculation for phenol removal and methane production in treatment of coal gasification wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yajie; Tabassum, Salma; Zhang, Zhenjia

    2016-09-01

    An advanced anaerobic biofilter (AF) was introduced for the treatment of coal gasification wastewater (CGW), and effluent recirculation was adopted to enhance phenol removal and methane production. The results indicated that AF was reliable in treating diluted CGW, while its efficiency and stability were seriously reduced when directly treating raw CGW. However, its performance could be greatly enhanced by effluent recirculation. Under optimal effluent recirculation of 0.5 to the influent, concentrations of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total phenol in the effluent could reach as low as 234.0 and 14.2mg/L, respectively. Also, the rate of methane production reached 169.0mLCH4/L/day. Though CGW seemed to restrain the growth of anaerobic microorganisms, especially methanogens, the inhibition was temporary and reversible, and anaerobic bacteria presented strong tolerance. The activities of methanogens cultivated in CGW could quickly recover on feeding with glucose wastewater (GW). However, the adaptability of anaerobic bacteria to the CGW was very poor and the activity of methanogens could not be improved by long-term domestication. By analysis using the Haldane model, it was further confirmed that high effluent recirculation could result in high activity for hydrolytic bacteria and substrate affinity for toxic matters, but only suitable effluent recirculation could result in high methanogenic activity. PMID:27593269

  15. Epicoccum nigrum and Cladosporium sp. for the treatment of oily effluent in an air-lift reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Delgado Queissada

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The metalworking industry is responsible for one of the most complex and difficult to handle oily effluents. These effluents consist of cutting fluids, which provide refrigeration and purification of metallic pieces in the machining system. When these effluents are biologically treated, is important to do this with autochthonous microorganisms; the use of these microorganisms (bioaugmentation tends to be more efficient because they are already adapted to the existing pollutants. For this purpose, this study aimed to use two indigenous microorganisms, Epicoccum nigrum and Cladosporium sp. for metalworking effluent treatment using an air-lift reactor; the fungus Aspergillus niger (laboratory strain was used as a reference microorganism. The original effluent characterization presented considerable pollutant potential. The color of the effluent was 1495 mg Pt/L, and it contained 59 mg/L H2O2, 53 mg/L total phenols, 2.5 mgO2/L dissolved oxygen (DO, and 887 mg/L oil and grease. The COD was 9147 mgO2/L and the chronic toxicity factor was 1667. Following biotreatment, the fungus Epicoccum nigrum was found to be the most efficient in reducing (effective reduction the majority of the parameters (26% COD, 12% H2O2, 59% total phenols, and 40% oil and grease, while Cladosporium sp. was more efficient in color reduction (77%.

  16. Enhancing treatment efficiency of swine wastewater by effluent recirculation in vertical-flow constructed wetland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Livestock wastewater has been a major contributor to Chinese cultural eutrophication of surface waters. Constructed wetlands are under study as a best management practice to treat wastewater from dairy and swine operations, but the removal efficiency of pollutants is relatively low. Enhancing the treatment efficiency of livestock wastewater by effluent recirculation was investigated in a pilot-scale vertical-flow constructed wetland. The wetland system was composed of downflow and upflow stages, on which narrow-leafPhragmites communis and common reed Phragmites Typhia are planted, respectively; each stage has a dimension of4 m2 (2 m × 2 m). Wastewater from facultative pond was fed into the system intermittently at a flow rate of 0.4 m3/d. Recirculation rates of 0, 25%, 50%, 100% and 150% were adopted to evaluate the effect of the recirculation rate on pollutants removal. It shows that with effluent recirculation the average removal efficiencies of NH4-N, biological oxygen demand (BOD5) and suspended solids(SS)obviously increase to 61.7%, 81.3%, and 77.1%, respectively, in comparison with the values of 35.6%, 50.2%, and 49.3% without effluent recirculation. But the improvement of TP removal is slight, only from 42.3% to 48.9%. The variations of NH4-N, dissolved oxygen(DO) and oxidation-reduction potential(ORP) of inflow and outflow reveal that the adoption of effluent recirculation is beneficial to the formation of oxide environment in wetland. The exponential relationships with excellent correlation coefficients (R2 >0.93)are found between the removal rates of NH4-N and BOD5 and the recirculation rates. With recirculation the pH value of the outflow decreases as the alkalinity is consumed by gradually enhanced nitrification process. When recirculation rate is kept constant 100%, the ambient temperature appears to affect NH4-N removal, but does not have significant influence on BOD5 removal.

  17. Treatment of colored and real industrial effluents through electrocoagulation using solar energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirkarami, Azam; Olya, Mohammad Ebrahim; Tabibian, Sahar

    2013-01-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the removal of Acid Orange 2 (sodium 4-[(2E)-2-(2-oxonaphthalen-1-ylidene) hydrazinyl] benzenesulfonate) and Reactive Blue 19 (2-Anthracenesulfonicacid,1-amino-9,10-dihydro-9,10-dioxo-4-[[3-[[2-(sulfooxy) ethyl] sulfonyl] phenyl] amino]-,sodium salt (1:2)) from synthesized and real effluents through electrocoagulation using solar cells for the purpose of improving economic efficiency of the process. The impact of a number of key operating parameters was explored including current density, anode type, temperature, pH, and electrolyte concentration. The current density of 45 Am(-2) proved to be the optimum level for both dyes. The same optimum alternatives were found for the other parameters in both cases: iron anode, a temperature level of 25°C, a pH of 7, and an electrolyte concentration of 15 mg L(-1). Both effluent samples were subjected to COD (chemical oxygen demand) and TOC (total organic carbon) tests. Cost analysis was performed for the treatment process.

  18. Hydrotalcites: a highly efficient ecomaterial for effluent treatment originated from carbon nanotubes chemical processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, O. L.; Stéfani, D.; Parizotto, N. V.; Souza Filho, A. G.

    2011-07-01

    It has been reported that a mixture of carboxylated carbonaceous fragments (CCFs), so called oxidation debris, are generated during carbon nanotubes chemical processing using oxidant agents such as HNO3. The elimination of these fragments from carbon nanotubes surface has been point out to be a crucial step for an effective functionalization of the nanotubes as well as for improving the material. However, this process can introduce a potential environmental problem related water contamination because these CCFs can be viewed as a mixture of carbonaceous polyaromatic systems similar to humic substances and dissolved organic matter (DOM). The negative aspects of humic substances and DOM to water quality and wastewater treatment are well known. Since carbon nanotubes industry expands at high rates it is expected that effluent containing oxidation debris will increase since HNO3 chemical processing is the most applied method for purification and functionalization of carbon nanotubes. In this work, we have demonstrated that Hydrotalcites (HT) are highly efficient to remove oxidation debris from effluent solution originated from HNO3-treated multiwalled carbon nanotubes. The strategy presented here is a contribution towards green chemistry practices and life cycle studies in carbon nanotubes field.

  19. Evaporation Of Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Direct Feed Low Activity Waste Effluent Management Facility Core Simulant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamson, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Nash, C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Mcclane, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); McCabe, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-09-01

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream (LAW Melter Off-Gas Condensate, LMOGC) from the off-gas system. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream during full WTP operations is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation, and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility. However, during the Direct Feed LAW (DFLAW) scenario, planned disposition of this stream is to evaporate it in a new evaporator, in the Effluent Management Facility (EMF), and then return it to the LAW melter. It is important to understand the composition of the effluents from the melter, and new evaporator so that the disposition of these streams can be accurately planned and accommodated. Furthermore, alternate disposition of the LMOGC stream would eliminate recycling of problematic components, and would reduce the need for closely integrated operation of the LAW melter and the Pretreatment Facilities. Long-term implementation of this option after WTP start-up would decrease the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of glass waste, amongst the other operational complexities such a recycle stream presents. In order to accurately plan for the disposition path, it is key to experimentally determine the fate of contaminants. To do this, testing is needed to accurately account for the buffering chemistry of the components, determine the achievable evaporation end point, identify insoluble solids that form, and determine the distribution of key regulatory-impacting constituents.

  20. Treatment of Effluent from a Factory of Paints Using Solar Photo-Fenton Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alam Gustavo Trovó

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the use of Fenton reactions induced by solar radiation in the treatment of effluent from a factory of paints for buildings, after prior removal of the suspended solids. The increase of H2O2 concentration from 100 to 2500 mg L−1 for a [Fe2+] = 105 mg L−1 contributed to the reduction of DOC, COD, and toxicity. Our best results were achieved using 1600 mg L−1 H2O2, with 90% of DOC and COD removal and a complete removal of the toxicity with respect to Artemia salina. Additionally, through increasing Fe2+ concentration from 15 to 45 mg L−1, the DOC removal rate increased 11 times, remaining almost constant in the range above 45 until 105 mg L−1. Under our best experimental conditions, 80% of DOC removal was achieved after an accumulated dose of 130 kJ m−2 of UVA radiation (82±17 min of solar irradiation under an average UVA irradiance of 34.1±7.3 W m−2, while 40% of DOC removal was reached after 150 min under only thermal Fenton reactions. The results suggest the effectiveness of implementation of solar photo-Fenton process in the decontamination and detoxification of effluents from factories of paints for buildings.

  1. Concentrations and Toxic Equivalency of Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Polish Wastewater Treatment Plant Effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbaniak, Magdalena; Kiedrzyńska, Edyta

    2015-10-01

    Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are widely recognized as important sources of toxic contaminants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). An example is given in the present paper, where concentrations of 12 dioxin-like PCBs (dl-PCBs) congeners were investigated in effluents from 14 WWTPs of different sizes, using gas chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry. The results obtained demonstrate that the smallest WWTPs are characterized by the highest total dl-PCB concentration of 102.69 pg/L, roughly twice those of medium-size and large WWTPs, i.e. 41.14 and 48.29 pg/L, respectively. In all cases, the concentrations obtained were generated mostly by increased contributions of PCB-77, PCB-105 and PCB-118 which constituted 48 %-59 % of the mean dl-PCB concentration. The results also reveal a predominance of mono-ortho over non-ortho PCBs. All three types of WWTP effluent were found to have similar toxic equivalency (TEQ) values, ranging from 0.31 for large to 0.37 pg TEQ/L for medium WWTPs.

  2. Leachability and physical stability of solidified and stabilized pyrite cinder sludge from dye effluent treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerkez Đurđa V.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This work is concerned with exploring the possibilities of using solidification/stabilization (S/S treatment for toxic sludge generated in dye effluent treatment, when pyrite cinder is used as catalytic iron source in the modified heterogeneous Fenton process. S/S treatment was performed by using different clay materials (kaolin, bentonite and native clay from the territory of Vojvodina and fly ash in order to immobilize toxic metals and arsenic presented in sludge. For the evaluation of the extraction potential of toxic metals and the effectiveness of the S/S treatment applied, four single-step leaching tests were performed. Leaching test results indicated that all applied S/S treatments were effective in immobilizing toxic metals and arsenic presented in sludge. X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed the formation of pozzolanic products, and compressive strength measurement proved the treatment efficacy. It can be concluded that the S/S technique has significant potential for solving the problem of hazardous industrial waste and its safe disposal. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III43005 i br. TR37004

  3. Water quality in a surface-flow constructed treatment wetland polishing tertiary effluent from a municipal wastewater treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beutel, Marc W

    2012-01-01

    Constructed treatment wetlands (CTWs) are unique ecotechnologies that can sustainably treat a range of wastewaters. This study focused on a 0.23 ha vegetated surface-flow CTW polishing nitrate-rich (3-6 mg-N/L) tertiary effluent from a municipal wastewater treatment plant. Water quality was monitored longitudinally in the fall of 2009 and 2010. The CTW cooled water by from around 20 °C to albedo (0.1-0.2) and convective transfer coefficient (0.1-0.9 MJ/m(2) d °C), were within ranges reported in the literature. In both years, dissolved oxygen decreased through the wetland from 6-7 mg/L to 3-4 mg/L, yielding an oxygen mass consumption rate of 0.08-0.09 g/m(2) d. Longitudinal nitrate profiles were well represented by the P-k-C* model (2009 R(2) = 0.88; 2010 R(2) = 0.92). First order removal rates were 20.2 m/yr in 2009 and 29.0 m/yr in 2010 at a P value of 6.0. Levels of ammonia and total phosphorus increased negligibly through the wetland, remaining below 0.25 mg/L. This study shows that vegetated surface-flow CTWs are well suited to cool and polish low-BOD nitrate-dominated tertiary effluents with little degradation of other water quality parameters of concern, including phosphorus and ammonia. PMID:22925872

  4. Areas permitted for irrigation, storage, evaporation, and disposal of treated sewage effluent in the upper Carson River Basin, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set consists of areas permitted for irrigation, storage, evaporation, and disposal of treated sewage effluent in the Upper Carson River Basin, California...

  5. Facility effluent monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gleckler, B.P.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the facility effluent monitoring programs and provides an evaluation of effluent monitoring data. These evaluations are useful in assessing the effectiveness of effluent treatment and control systems, as well as management practices.

  6. Integrated Biomarker Responses of Effluents from Municipal Sewage Treatment Works in Goldfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, G. H.; Xia, J.; Zhang, H. Z.; Wang, C.

    2010-11-01

    The organic toxicants were extracted from the effluents from municipal sewage treatment works (STWs) in Nanjing (Chengbei, Suojincun and Jiangxinzhou STWs) by using solid phase extraction. AChE, GST, EROD, GPx and Na+/K+-ATPase activities in goldfish (Carassius auratus) were determmed after exposure of the extracted components. The extracts of water samples from the three STWs induced AChE, GST, EROD and Na+/K+-ATPase activities. The responses of enzymatic activities were mostly significant for those exposures of intermediate polar components, weakly polar components and/or nonpolar hexane extracts. Integrated biomarker response (IBR) index were calculated and used to evaluate an integrated impact of organic toxicants from different sampling sites. The order of negative biological effects of the three STWs was Jiangxinzhou>Chengbei>Suojincun.

  7. Radiocarbon measurements of dissolved organic carbon in sewage-treatment-plant effluent and domestic sewage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In an attempt to better characterize dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in several specific sources to Lake Kasumigaura, such as sewage-treatment-plant effluent (STPE), domestic sewage (DS) and forest stream (FS), we analyzed radiocarbon (14C) and stable carbon isotopic compositions (13C) of the DOCs. The measurements of 14C for DOC were performed by an accelerator mass spectrometer (AMS) at the National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES-TERRA) in Japan. The Δ14C and δ13C values of the DOCs in several sources to Lake Kasumigaura, have low carbon isotopic values, ranging from -470 per mille to -79 per mille and from -27.9 per mille to -24.2 per mille , respectively. These carbon isotopic values are substantially different from those of Lake Kasumigaura. These results imply different origins for the DOC in Lake Kasumigaura. The 14C and 13C analyses of DOC led to a useful classification for DOCs in Lake Kasumigaura, Japan.

  8. Water feed and effluent treatment for hydrogen sulfide-water system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This invention provides a feed and effluent treatment system for improving the recovery of a gas (e.g. H2S) from solution in a liquid (e.g. water) when the liquid also contains dissolved nonvolatile components (e.g. the salts of sea water) at low temperatures. In a gas/liquid contact process in which the gas is at least partially soluble in the liquid, a portion of the liquid is extracted after it passes through a hot zone, the pressure of the liquid is reduced by flashing it through pressure reduction means to remove a portion of the dissolved gas, and the gas thus recovered is returned to the process

  9. SECONDARY WASTE/ETF (EFFLUENT TREATMENT FACILITY) PRELIMINARY PRE-CONCEPTUAL ENGINEERING STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MAY TH; GEHNER PD; STEGEN GARY; HYMAS JAY; PAJUNEN AL; SEXTON RICH; RAMSEY AMY

    2009-12-28

    This pre-conceptual engineering study is intended to assist in supporting the critical decision (CD) 0 milestone by providing a basis for the justification of mission need (JMN) for the handling and disposal of liquid effluents. The ETF baseline strategy, to accommodate (WTP) requirements, calls for a solidification treatment unit (STU) to be added to the ETF to provide the needed additional processing capability. This STU is to process the ETF evaporator concentrate into a cement-based waste form. The cementitious waste will be cast into blocks for curing, storage, and disposal. Tis pre-conceptual engineering study explores this baseline strategy, in addition to other potential alternatives, for meeting the ETF future mission needs. Within each reviewed case study, a technical and facility description is outlined, along with a preliminary cost analysis and the associated risks and benefits.

  10. SECONDARY WASTE/ETF (EFFLUENT TREATMENT FACILITY) PRELIMINARY PRE-CONCEPTUAL ENGINEERING STUDY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This pre-conceptual engineering study is intended to assist in supporting the critical decision (CD) 0 milestone by providing a basis for the justification of mission need (JMN) for the handling and disposal of liquid effluents. The ETF baseline strategy, to accommodate (WTP) requirements, calls for a solidification treatment unit (STU) to be added to the ETF to provide the needed additional processing capability. This STU is to process the ETF evaporator concentrate into a cement-based waste form. The cementitious waste will be cast into blocks for curing, storage, and disposal. Tis pre-conceptual engineering study explores this baseline strategy, in addition to other potential alternatives, for meeting the ETF future mission needs. Within each reviewed case study, a technical and facility description is outlined, along with a preliminary cost analysis and the associated risks and benefits.

  11. Fuzzy logic based risk assessment of effluents from waste-water treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabanillas, Julián; Ginebreda, Antoni; Guillén, Daniel; Martínez, Elena; Barceló, Damià; Moragas, Lucas; Robusté, Jordi; Darbra, Rosa Ma

    2012-11-15

    This paper presents a new methodology to assess the risk of water effluents from waste-water treatment plants (WWTPs) based on fuzzy logic, a well-known theory to deal with uncertainty, especially in the environmental field where data are often lacking. The method has been tested using the effluent's pollution data coming from 22 waste-water treatment plants (WWTPs) located in Catalonia (NE Spain). Thirty-eight pollutants were analyzed along three campaigns performed yearly from 2008 to 2010. Whereas 9 compounds have been detected in more than 70% of the samples analyzed, 7 compounds have been found at levels equal or higher than the river Environmental Quality Standards set by the Water Framework Directive. Upon combination of both criteria (presence and concentration), compounds of greatest environmental concern in the WWTP studied are nickel, the herbicide diuron, and the endocrine disruptors nonyl and octylphenol. It is remarkable the low variability of the pollutant concentration just differing for the case of nickel and zinc. These low values of exposure together with other pollutants' characteristics provide a medium or low risk assessment for all the WWTPs. The results of this new method have been compared with COMMPS procedure, a solid method developed in the context of the Water Framework Directive, and they show that the fuzzy model is more conservative than COMMPS. This is due to different reasons: the fuzzy model takes into account the persistence of chemical compounds whereas COMMPS does not; the fuzzy model includes the weights provided by an expert group inquired in previous works and also considers the uncertainty of the environmental data, avoiding the crisp values and offering a range of overlapping between the different fuzzy sets. However, the results even if being more conservative with fuzzy logic, are in good agreement with a solid methodology such as the COMMPS procedure.

  12. Removal and transformation of dissolved organic matter in secondary effluent during granular activated carbon treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liang-liang WEI; Qing-liang ZHAO; Shuang XUE; Ting JIA

    2008-01-01

    This paper focused on the removal and transformation of the dissolved organic matter (DOM) in secondary effluent during the granular activated carbon (GAC) treatment. Using XAD-8/XAD-4 resins, DOM was fractionated into five classes:hydrophobic acid (HPO-A), hydrophobic neutral (HPO-N), transphilic acid (TPI-A), transphilic neutral (TPI-N) and hydrophilic fraction (HPI). Subsequently, the water quality parameters of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), absorbance of ultraviolet light at 254 nm (UV-254), specific ultraviolet light absorbance (SUVA) and trihalomethane formation potential (THMFP) were analyzed for the unfractionated and fractionated water samples. The results showed that the order of the DOC removal with respect to DOM fractions was observed to be HPI>HPO-A>HPO-N>TPI-A>TPI-N. During the GAC treatment, the THMFP of the unfractionated water samples decreased from 397.4 μg/L to 176.5 μg/L, resulting in a removal efficiency of 55.6%. The removal order of the trihalomethanes (THMs) precursor was as follows: HPO-A>TPI-A>TPI-N>HPO-N>HPI. By the GAC treatment, the specific THMFP of HPO-A, TPI-A, TPI-N and the original unfractionated water samples had a noticeable decrease, while that of HPO-N and HPI showed a converse trend. The Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) results showed that the hydroxide groups, carboxylic acids, aliphatie C-H were significantly reduced by GAC treatment.

  13. Application of Non-Thermal Plasma to the Treatment of Effluent Discharged Into River Choumlou in Bafoussam, West Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estella T. Njoyim

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Most rivers in urban areas of developing countries are the of effluents discharged from industries. This is the case of River Choumlou (in Bafoussam-West Region, Cameroon which receives all discharges from “Brasseries du Cameroun”, Bafoussam branch. The objective of this work was to determine the level of organic contaminants in water samples and to treat the polluted samples using the non-thermal gliding arc plasma. Nonthermal plasma consists of charged particles, radicals and excited molecules. The aim was to show the interest of such a process for cleaning up of surface waters (real effluent and to cope with the protection of our environment. Due to the fact that pollution of streams and rivers from the discharge of sewage and industrial wastes poses a major problem to the environment, the researchers were particularly interested in investigating the oxidizing and acidifying properties of non-thermal plasma on polluted surface water. Samples were collected upstream and downstream from the brewery’s effluent outlet. Samples taken at the point R1 (downstream were first analyzed by volumetric and instrumental methods in order to determine the organoleptic, physico-chemical and organic parameters. These samples were then exposed to the gliding discharge in humid air for a time period of between 3-30 minutes. After 30 minutes of exposure, a decrease in turbidity (24.09%, BOD5 (44.93% and COD (48.92% were observed resulting in transparency apparition; with a decrease in pH (7.9 to 3 due to the formation of acidifying species in solution. These results reflect a considerable reduction in the pollution load of the water collected at R1. This work shows that the effectiveness of the Gliding Arc in wastewater treatment is attributed to the oxidizing power of the hydroxyl radical and acidifying power of the nitrogen monoxide radical formed in the plasma. Despite the low rate of reduction of COD and BOD5 in 30 min, it can be said that the plasma

  14. Effluents quaity of woolen industrial units and efficiency of wastewater treatment plant at Jorbir, Bikaner, Rajasthan (India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendra Singh

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Bikaner is one of the largest woolen scouring processing and industrial hub of the Asia. There are large no. Of woolen scouring and dying units in this city. However there are certain rules and regulations regarding the effluents expulsion and pollution control standards provided by national and international laws. The present work is an attempt for assessment of effluent and pollution parameters followed by woolen units as well as the efficiency of city waste water treatment plant. However subject is significantly related with public health , but the result s shows a poor performance and unawareness of state government.

  15. Electrochemical treatment of olive mill wastewater: Treatment extent and effluent phenolic compounds monitoring using some uncommon analytical tools

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chokri Belaid; Moncef Khadraoui; Salma Mseddi; Monem Kallel; Boubaker Elleuch; Jean Francois Fauvarque

    2013-01-01

    Problems related with industrials effluents can be divided in two parts:(1) their toxicity associated to their chemical content which should be removed before discharging the wastewater into the receptor media; (2) and the second part is linked to the difficulties of pollution characterisation and monitoring caused by the complexity of these matrixes.This investigation deals with these two aspects,an electrochemical treatment method of an olive mill wastewater (OMW) under pla ttmized expanded titanium electrodes using a modified Grignard reactor for toxicity removal as well as the exploration of the use of some specific analytical tools to monitor effluent phenolic compounds elimination.The results showed that electrochemical oxidation is able to remove/mitigate the OMW pollution.Indeed,87% of OMW color was removed and all aromatic compounds were disappeared from the solution by anodic oxidation.Moreover,55% of the chemical oxygen demand (COD) and the total organic carbon (TOC) were reduced.On the other hand,UV-Visible spectrophotometry,Gaz chromatography/mass spectrometry,cyclic voltammetry and 13C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR)showed that the used treatment seems efficaciously to eliminate phenolic compounds from OMW.It was concluded that electrochemical oxidation in a modified Gaignard reactor is a promising process for the destruction of all phenolic compounds present in OMW.Among the monitoring analytical tools applied,cyclic voltammetry and 13C NMR are among the techniques that are introduced for the first time to control the advancement of the OMW treatment and gave a close insight on polyphenols disappearance.

  16. Radiation treatment of gaseous and liquid effluents for contaminant removal. Proceedings of a technical meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Technical Meeting on Radiation Processing of Gaseous and Liquid Effluents conducted in Sofia, Bulgaria, 7-10 September 2004, discussed and evaluated issues related to the status and future trends in radiation application for environmental protection. Five experts from Bulgaria, India, the Republic of Korea, Poland, and the United States of America were invited to provide their experiences in this field. Twenty cost-free participants and observers - from Bulgaria, India, Lithuania, Poland and Ukraine -joined the meeting, and 15 papers in total were presented. Research and development in radiation processing of gaseous and liquid effluents is undertaken in three fields: electron beam flue gas treatment (SOx and NOx removal), wastewater purification and sewage sludge sterilization. Wastewater or sludge treatment and flue gas purification all differ from technological points of view, but they are common services and applications of environmental radiation technology applications, based mostly on electron accelerators. The technical meeting discussed new development in the field of radiation applications in environmental service, especially the status and prospects of radiation processing of gaseous and liquid effluents. Progress in the field of electron accelerators and gamma sources is crucial for routine application of the technology. Cost reduction and improvement of technical reliability are substantial especially for high power of accelerators and high activity of the sources needed for environmental applications. Environmental applications were carefully reviewed in accordance with the existing regulations and state of the art knowledge. The comparison with conventional commercial technologies was addressed as well. In flue gas treatment, applicability of the technology using different fossil fuels (coal, lignite, oil, etc.) was reviewed. The elaborated materials cover the technical and economical evaluation of the technologies. The possible applications of

  17. Occurrence of Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts in effluent from sewage treatment plant from eastern Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sroka, Jacek; Stojecki, Krzysztof; Zdybel, Jolanta; Karamon, Jacek; Cencek, Tomasz; Dutkiewicz, Jacek

    2013-01-01

    Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia lamblia (synonyms: Giardia duodenalis, Giardia intestinalis) are emerging protozoa causing disease in humans and animals worldwide. These parasites can pose a serious threat to immunocompromised people, for whom the symptoms are more severe and may include abdominal pain, watery diarrhoea, nausea, headaches, malaise, and fever. One of the sources of these parasites can be treated wastewater from wastewater treatment plants (WTPs). Samples of treated wastewater (effluent), each of 10 L volume, were collected from 13 municipal WTPs located in eastern Poland. Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts were separated by the immunomagnetic method. The presence and/or concentration of protozoan (oo)cysts in effluent samples were determined by direct immunofluorescent microscopy, nested PCR and Real Time PCR. Viability of (oo)cysts was determined by double-staining with the use of Live/Dead BacLight kit (Invitrogen). Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts were detected in 8 WTPs (61.5%) and Giardia spp. cysts in 11 WTPs (84.6%) by microscopic analysis. Both pathogens were detected in samples from 7 WTPs. Median concentrations of Cryptosporidium and Giardia (oo)cysts in 13 examined samples were 2.2/L and 6.6/L, respectively, while mean concentrations were 28.5/L and 113.6/L, respectively. In positive samples, Cryptosporidium oocysts concentrations ranged from 0.4 - 154.1 oocysts per litre, and Giardia cysts concentrations ranged from 0.7 - 660 cysts per litre. By nested PCR, Giardia DNA was detected in 4 samples of the 13 examined, (30.8%) while Cryptosporidium DNA was never detected. In Real Time PCR, positive results for Giardia were obtained in 5 samples (38.5%) and in none of the samples for Cryptosporidium, with the exception of one equivocal result. Viable (oo)cysts of Cryptosporidium and Giardia were detected in 3 out of 4 samples examined, in the ranges of 12.5 - 60% and 50 - 100% of total (oo)cysts, respectively. In view of our preliminary

  18. Advanced biological treatment of aqueous effluent from the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many of the processing steps in the nuclear fuel cycle generate aqueous effluent streams bearing contaminants that can, because of their chemical or radiological properties, pose an environmental hazard. Concentration of such contaminants must be reduced to acceptable levels before the streams can be discharged to the environment. Two classes of contaminants, nitrates and heavy metals, are addressed in this study. Specific techniques aimed at the removal of nitrates and radioactive heavy metals by biological processes are being developed, tested, and demonstrated. Although cost comparisons between biological processes and current treatment methods will be presented, these comparisons may be misleading because biological processes yield environmentally better end results which are difficult to price. The fluidized-bed biological denitrification process is an environmentally acceptable and economically sound method for the disposal of nonreusable sources of nitrate effluents. A very high denitrification rate can be obtained in a FBR as the result of a high concentration of denitrification bacteria in the bioreactor and the stagewise operation resulting from plug flow in the reactor. The overall denitrification rate in an FBR ranges from 20- to 100-fold greater than that observed for an STR bioreactor. It has been shown that the system can be operated using Ca2+, Na+, or NH4+ cations at nitrate concentrations up to 1 g/liter without inhibition. Biological sorption of uranium and other radionuclides (particularly the actinides) from dilute aqueous waste streams shows considerable promise as a means of recovering these valuable resources and reducing the environmental impact, however, further development efforts are required

  19. EFFLUENT TREATMENT OF PHARMACEUTICAL INDUSTRY BY USING SUBSURFACE FLOW WETLAND SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mega Anggraeni

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Constructed wetland is one of the alternatives to increase water quality before it flowed into waterways. Sub Surface Flow Wetland System is one type of the constructed wetland for waste water treatment which is using symbiotic relation between water plants and microorganism around rooting system (rhizosphere in media. Cyperus alternifolius and Canna indica, L. as well as gravel and sand media are plants and medias that can be used in constructed wetland. This research aimed to analyze the effectiveness of plant species between Cyperus alternifolius and Canna indica, L. as well as the effectiveness of gravel and sand media to decrease nitrite, ammoniak, BOD, and COD concentrations. Four reactors SSF-Wetlands with dimension of 120 cm x 30 cm x 50 cm were used in this research. The study was conducted over 12 days following the  acclimatization of plants for 7 days. Data analysis were performed by comparing the degradation coefficient (k of BOD, COD, nitrite, and ammonia concentrations with retention time of the effluent. The results showed that  the degradation rate for the reactor with with gravel media and Cyperus alternifolius for nitrite variable was 0.60,  ammonia 0.49, BOD 0.45, and COD 0.36. Cyperus alternifolius have a higher effectiveness in reducing the concentration of nitrite, ammonia , BOD and COD than Canna indica , L. Reactors with gravel media have higher effectiveness in reducing BOD , COD , ammonia and nitrite concentration than sand media. Keywords : Canna indica. L. , Cyperus alternifolius, SSF - Wetland, , WWTP effluent of pharmaceutical industry

  20. Fate of secondary effluent dissolved organic matter during soil-aquifer treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUE Shuang; ZHAO QingLiang; WEI LiangLiang; WANG LiNa; LIU ZhiGang

    2007-01-01

    The reduction of mass and trihalomethane formation potential (THMFP) of dissolved organic matter (DOM) and its fractions from secondary effluent during laboratory-scale soil-aquifer treatment (SAT) soil columns were studied. Reduction in dissolved organic carbon (DOC), absorbance of ultraviolet light at 254 nm (UV-254), biodegradable dissolved organic carbon (BDOC) and nonbiodegradable dissolved organic carbon (NBDOC) for the bulk DOM averaged 72.35%, 53.98%, 97.49% and 35.33% across the soil columns, respectively. Using XAD-8 and XAD-4 resins, DOM was fractionated into 3 fractions: hydrophobic acid (HPO-A), transphilic acid (TPI-A) and hydrophilic fraction (HPI). HPO-A was removed by 61.06%, TPI-A by 54.86% and HPI by 74.95% as DOC as a consequence of the laboratory-scale SAT, respectively. The reduction of THMFP from HPO-A, TPI-A and HPI was 27.24%, 26.24% and 36.08%, respectively. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) spectra revealed that the HPO-A isolated from the secondary effluent contained more aromatic functional groups than the corresponding TPI-A. Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrum analysis illustrated that TPI-A had decreased hydrocarbon and increased aromatics content in the SAT columns. Specific ultraviolet light absorbance (SUVA) and specific THMFP for each DOM fraction increased across the soil columns and HPI exhibited greater increase in both than HPO-A and TPI-A. The most problematic THM precursor was found to be HPO-A with its high quantity present in recharged water and high chlorine reactivity.

  1. Chemometrics quality assessment of wastewater treatment plant effluents using physicochemical parameters and UV absorption measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platikanov, S; Rodriguez-Mozaz, S; Huerta, B; Barceló, D; Cros, J; Batle, M; Poch, G; Tauler, R

    2014-07-01

    Chemometric techniques like Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Partial Least Squares Regression (PLS) are used to explore, analyze and model relationships among different water quality parameters in wastewater treatment plants (WWTP). Different data sets generated by laboratory analysis and by an automatic multi-parametric monitoring system with a new designed optical device have been investigated for temporal variations on water quality parameters measured in the water influent and effluent of a WWTP over different time scales. The obtained results allowed the discovery of the more important relationships among the monitored parameters and of their cyclic dependence on time (daily, monthly and annual cycles) and on different plant management procedures. This study intended also the modeling and prediction of concentrations of several water components and parameters, especially relevant for water quality assessment, such as Dissolved Organic Matter (DOM), Total Organic Carbon (TOC) nitrate, detergent, and phenol concentrations. PLS models were built to correlate target concentrations of these constituents with UV spectra measured in samples collected at (1) laboratory conditions (in synthetic water mixtures); and at (2) WWTP conditions (in real water samples from the plant). Using synthetic water mixtures, specific wavelengths were selected with the aim to establish simple and reliable prediction models, which gave good relative predictions with errors of around 3-4% for nitrates, detergent and phenols concentrations and of around 15% for the DOM in external validation. In the case of nitrate and TOC concentrations modeling in real water samples from the effluent of the WWTP using the reduced spectral data set, results were also promising with low prediction errors (less than 20%).

  2. Evaluation of Shiraz Wastewater Treatment Plant Effluent Quality for Agricultural Irrigation by Canadian Water Quality Index (CWQI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad A Baghapour

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background:Using treated wastewater in agriculture irrigation could be a realistic solution for the shortage of fresh water in Iran, however, it is associated with environmental and health threats; therefore, effluent quality assessment is quite necessary before use. The present study aimed to evaluate the physicochemical and microbial quality of Shiraz wastewater treatment plant effluent for being used in agricultural irrigation. In this study, 20 physicochemical and 3 microbial parameters were measured during warm (April to September and cold months (October to march. Using the measured parameters and the Canadian Water Quality Index, the quality of the effluent was determined in both warm and cold seasons and in all the seasons together.Results:The calculated index for the physicochemical parameters in the effluent was equal (87 in warm and cold months and it was obtained as 85 for the seasons all together. When the microbial parameters were used in order to calculate the index, it declined to 67 in warm and cold seasons and 64 in all the seasons together. Also, it was found that three physicochemical parameters (TDS, EC, and NO3 and three microbial parameters (Fecal coliform, Helminthes egg, and Total coliform had the most contribution to the reduction of the index value.Conclusions:The results showed that the physicochemical quality of Shiraz Wastewater Treatment Plant Effluent was good for irrigation in the warm, cold, and total of the two kinds of seasons. However, by applying the microbial parameter, the index value declined dramatically and the quality of the effluent was marginal.

  3. Appraisal of potential for injection-well recharge of the Hueco bolson with treated sewage effluent : preliminary study at the northeast El Paso area, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garza, Sergio; Weeks, Edwin P.; White, Donald E.

    1980-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the City of El Paso and the Texas Department of Water Resources, made a preliminary study of specific factors related to recharging the Hueco bolson in the northeast El Paso area with treated sewage effluent. The city is interested in the location and spacing of injection wells relative to (1) maintaining the injected effluent in the aquifer for a predetermined amount of time (residence time) before it is pumped out, (2) recovery by pumping of as much of the injected effluent as possible, and (3) the long-term effects of injection on water-level declines.

  4. Selection of natural treatment processes for algae removal from stabilisation ponds effluents in Brasilia, using multicriterion methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neder, K D; Carneiro, G A; Queiroz, T R; de Souza, M A A

    2002-01-01

    A multicriterion methodology is used in the evaluation and selection of the most appropriate alternative(s) for removing algae from stabilisation ponds effluents in a case study in Brasilia. For this purpose, five different natural treatment processes are tested at pilot scale: rock filter, sand filter, floating aquatic plants, constructed wetlands, and overland flow. These pilot units were constructed in Brasilia and set in parallel, each one receiving a portion of the effluent that comes from an existing wastewater treatment plant composed of preliminary treatment, UASB reactors, and high-rate stabilisation ponds. Several evaluation criteria are used in order to relate the capabilities of the post-treatment processes to the multiple objectives in this case. Two multicriterion decision-aid methods--compromise programming and ELECTRE-III--are used to select the most satisfying processes. The top ranking alternatives are indicated for subsequent studies, considering the possible implementation of these technologies to existing plants. PMID:12361031

  5. Occurrence and removal of pharmaceuticals in wastewater treatment plants at the Spanish Mediterranean area of Valencia

    OpenAIRE

    Gracia Lor, Emma; Sancho Llopis, Juan Vicente; Serrano Gallego, Roque; Hernández Hernández, Félix

    2012-01-01

    A survey on the presence of pharmaceuticals in urban wastewater of a Spanish Mediterranean area (Castellon province) was carried out. The scope of the study included a wide variety of pharmaceuticals belonging to different therapeutical classes. For this purpose, 112 samples, including influent and effluent wastewater, from different conventional wastewater treatment plants were collected. Two monitoring programmes were carried out along several seasons. The first was in June 2008 and January...

  6. Mercury in ground water, septage, leach-field effluent, and soils in residential areas, New Jersey coastal plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barringer, J.L.; Szabo, Z.; Schneider, D.; Atkinson, W.D.; Gallagher, R.A.

    2006-01-01

    Water samples were collected from domestic wells at an unsewered residential area in Gloucester County, New Jersey where mercury (Hg) concentrations in well water were known to exceed the USEPA maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 2000 ng/L. This residential area (the CSL site) is representative of more than 70 such areas in southern New Jersey where about 600 domestic wells, sampled previously by State and county agencies, yielded water containing Hg at concentrations that exceed the MCL. Recent studies indicate that background concentrations of Hg in water from this unconfined sand and gravel aquifer system are iron concentrations indicate that reductive dissolution of iron hydroxides in soils may release Hg to the percolating effluent. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Baseline study of methane emission from anaerobic ponds of palm oil mill effluent treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yacob, Shahrakbah; Ali Hassan, Mohd; Shirai, Yoshihito; Wakisaka, Minato; Subash, Sunderaj

    2006-07-31

    The world currently obtains its energy from the fossil fuels such as oil, natural gas and coal. However, the international crisis in the Middle East, rapid depletion of fossil fuel reserves as well as climate change have driven the world towards renewable energy sources which are abundant, untapped and environmentally friendly. Malaysia has abundant biomass resources generated from the agricultural industry particularly the large commodity, palm oil. This paper will focus on palm oil mill effluent (POME) as the source of renewable energy from the generation of methane and establish the current methane emission from the anaerobic treatment facility. The emission was measured from two anaerobic ponds in Felda Serting Palm Oil Mill for 52 weeks. The results showed that the methane content was between 35.0% and 70.0% and biogas flow rate ranged between 0.5 and 2.4 L/min/m(2). Total methane emission per anaerobic pond was 1043.1 kg/day. The total methane emission calculated from the two equations derived from relationships between methane emission and total carbon removal and POME discharged were comparable with field measurement. This study also revealed that anaerobic pond system is more efficient than open digesting tank system for POME treatment. Two main factors affecting the methane emission were mill activities and oil palm seasonal cropping. PMID:16125215

  8. Purification ability and carbon dioxide flux from surface flow constructed wetlands treating sewage treatment plant effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Haiming; Lin, Li; Zhang, Jian; Guo, Wenshan; Liang, Shuang; Liu, Hai

    2016-11-01

    In this study, a two-year experiment was carried out to investigate variation of carbon dioxide (CO2) flux from free water surface constructed wetlands (FWS CW) systems treating sewage treatment plant effluent, and treatment performance was also evaluated. The better 74.6-76.6% COD, 92.7-94.4% NH4(+)-N, 60.1-84.7% TN and 49.3-70.7% TP removal efficiencies were achieved in planted CW systems compared with unplanted systems. The planted CW was a net CO2 sink, while the unplanted CW was a net CO2 source in the entire study period. An obvious annual and seasonal variability of CO2 fluxes from different wetland systems was also presented with the average CO2 flux ranging from -592.83mgm(-2)h(-1) to 553.91mgm(-2)h(-1) during 2012-2013. In addition, the net exchange of CO2 between CW systems and the atmosphere was significantly affected by air temperature, and the presence of plants also had the significant effect on total CO2 emissions. PMID:27544264

  9. Optimization of Electrochemical Treatment Process Conditions for Distillery Effluent Using Response Surface Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arulmathi, P; Elangovan, G; Begum, A Farjana

    2015-01-01

    Distillery industry is recognized as one of the most polluting industries in India with a large amount of annual effluent production. In this present study, the optimization of electrochemical treatment process variables was reported to treat the color and COD of distillery spent wash using Ti/Pt as an anode in a batch mode. Process variables such as pH, current density, electrolysis time, and electrolyte dose were selected as operation variables and chemical oxygen demand (COD) and color removal efficiency were considered as response variable for optimization using response surface methodology. Indirect electrochemical-oxidation process variables were optimized using Box-Behnken response surface design (BBD). The results showed that electrochemical treatment process effectively removed the COD (89.5%) and color (95.1%) of the distillery industry spent wash under the optimum conditions: pH of 4.12, current density of 25.02 mA/cm(2), electrolysis time of 103.27 min, and electrolyte (NaCl) concentration of 1.67 g/L, respectively.

  10. Enhanced anaerobic treatment of CSTR-digested effluent from chicken manure: The effect of ammonia inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhan-Guang; Zhou, Xue-Fei; Zhang, Ya-Lei; Zhu, Hong-Guang

    2012-01-01

    The effect of ammonia inhibition was evaluated during the enhanced anaerobic treatment of digested effluent from a 700m(3) chicken-manure continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR). A 12.3L internal circulation (IC) reactor inoculated with an anaerobic granular sludge and operated at 35±1°C was employed for the investigation. With a corresponding organic loading rate of 1.5-3.5kg-COD/m(3)d over a hydraulic retention time of 1.5d, a maximum volumetric biogas production rate of 1.2m(3)/m(3)d and TCOD (total COD) removal efficiency ranging from 70% to 80% was achieved. However, the continual increase in the influent TAN content led to ammonia inhibition in the methanogenesis system. The SCOD/TAN (soluble COD/total ammonia nitrogen) ratio was presented to be the key controlling factor for the anaerobic treatment of semi-digested chicken manure, and further validation through shock loading and ammonia inhibition experiments was conducted. The threshold value of the SCOD/TAN ratio was determined to be 2.4 (corresponding to a TAN of 1250mg/L) at an influent pH of 8.5-9.

  11. Energy efficient treatment of A-stage effluent: pilot-scale experiences with shortcut nitrogen removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seuntjens, D; Bundervoet, B L M; Mollen, H; De Mulder, C; Wypkema, E; Verliefde, A; Nopens, I; Colsen, J G M; Vlaeminck, S E

    2016-01-01

    Energy autarky of sewage treatment plants, while reaching chemical oxygen demand (COD) and N discharge limits, can be achieved by means of shortcut N-removal. This study presents the results of a shortcut N-removal pilot, located at the biological two-'stage (high/low rate) wastewater treatment plant of Breda, The Netherlands. The pilot treated real effluent of a high-rate activated sludge (COD/N = 3), fed in a continuous mode at realistic loading rates (90-100 g N/(m(3)·d)). The operational strategy, which included increased stress on the sludge settling velocity, showed development of a semi-granular sludge, with average particle size of 280 μm (ø(4,3)), resulting in increased suppression of nitrite-oxidizing bacteria. The process was able to remove part of the nitrogen (51 ± 23%) over nitrite, with COD/N removal ratios of 3.2 ± 0.9. The latter are lower than the current operation of the full-scale B-stage in Breda (6.8-9.4), showing promising results for carbon-efficient N-removal, while producing a well settling sludge (SVI(30) < 100 mL/g). PMID:27148716

  12. Treatment of bio-digester effluent by electrocoagulation using iron electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present paper deals with chemical oxygen demand (COD) reduction of a bio-digester effluent (BDE) in a batch electrocoagulation (EC) reactor using iron electrode. A central composite (CC) experimental design has been employed to evaluate the individual and interactive effects of four independent parameters on the COD removal efficiency. The parameters studied are current density (j): 44.65-223.25 A/m2; initial pH (pH0): 2-8; inter-electrode distance (g): 1-3 cm and electrolysis time (t): 30-150 min. The results have been analyzed using Pareto analysis of variance (ANOVA). Analysis showed a high coefficient of determination value (R2 = 0.8547) and satisfactory prediction for second-order regression model. Graphical response surface and contour plots have been used to locate the optimum values of studied parameters. Maximum COD and color reduction of 50.5% and 95.2%, respectively, was observed at optimum conditions. Present study shows that EC technique can be employed in distilleries to reduce the pollution load before treatment in aerobic treatment plants to meet the discharge standards.

  13. Palm oil mill effluent treatment and utilization to ensure the sustainability of palm oil industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasanudin, U; Sugiharto, R; Haryanto, A; Setiadi, T; Fujie, K

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the current condition of palm oil mill effluent (POME) treatment and utilization and to propose alternative scenarios to improve the sustainability of palm oil industries. The research was conducted through field survey at some palm oil mills in Indonesia, in which different waste management systems were used. Laboratory experiment was also carried out using a 5 m(3) pilot-scale wet anaerobic digester. Currently, POME is treated through anaerobic digestion without or with methane capture followed by utilization of treated POME as liquid fertilizer or further treatment (aerobic process) to fulfill the wastewater quality standard. A methane capturing system was estimated to successfully produce renewable energy of about 25.4-40.7 kWh/ton of fresh fruit bunches (FFBs) and reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by about 109.41-175.35 kgCO2e/tonFFB (CO2e: carbon dioxide equivalent). Utilization of treated POME as liquid fertilizer increased FFB production by about 13%. A palm oil mill with 45 ton FFB/hour capacity has potential to generate about 0.95-1.52 MW of electricity. Coupling the POME-based biogas digester and anaerobic co-composting of empty fruit bunches (EFBs) is capable of adding another 0.93 MW. The utilization of POME and EFB not only increases the added value of POME and EFB by producing renewable energy, compost, and liquid fertilizer, but also lowers environmental burden. PMID:26398023

  14. Baseline study of methane emission from anaerobic ponds of palm oil mill effluent treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yacob, Shahrakbah; Ali Hassan, Mohd; Shirai, Yoshihito; Wakisaka, Minato; Subash, Sunderaj

    2006-07-31

    The world currently obtains its energy from the fossil fuels such as oil, natural gas and coal. However, the international crisis in the Middle East, rapid depletion of fossil fuel reserves as well as climate change have driven the world towards renewable energy sources which are abundant, untapped and environmentally friendly. Malaysia has abundant biomass resources generated from the agricultural industry particularly the large commodity, palm oil. This paper will focus on palm oil mill effluent (POME) as the source of renewable energy from the generation of methane and establish the current methane emission from the anaerobic treatment facility. The emission was measured from two anaerobic ponds in Felda Serting Palm Oil Mill for 52 weeks. The results showed that the methane content was between 35.0% and 70.0% and biogas flow rate ranged between 0.5 and 2.4 L/min/m(2). Total methane emission per anaerobic pond was 1043.1 kg/day. The total methane emission calculated from the two equations derived from relationships between methane emission and total carbon removal and POME discharged were comparable with field measurement. This study also revealed that anaerobic pond system is more efficient than open digesting tank system for POME treatment. Two main factors affecting the methane emission were mill activities and oil palm seasonal cropping.

  15. Treatment of bio-digester effluent by electrocoagulation using iron electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Mayank; Ponselvan, F. Infant Anto; Malviya, Jodha Ram [Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee 247667 (India); Srivastava, Vimal Chandra, E-mail: vimalcsr@yahoo.co.in [Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee 247667 (India); Mall, Indra Deo, E-mail: id_mall2000@yahoo.co.in [Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee 247667 (India)

    2009-06-15

    The present paper deals with chemical oxygen demand (COD) reduction of a bio-digester effluent (BDE) in a batch electrocoagulation (EC) reactor using iron electrode. A central composite (CC) experimental design has been employed to evaluate the individual and interactive effects of four independent parameters on the COD removal efficiency. The parameters studied are current density (j): 44.65-223.25 A/m{sup 2}; initial pH (pH{sub 0}): 2-8; inter-electrode distance (g): 1-3 cm and electrolysis time (t): 30-150 min. The results have been analyzed using Pareto analysis of variance (ANOVA). Analysis showed a high coefficient of determination value (R{sup 2} = 0.8547) and satisfactory prediction for second-order regression model. Graphical response surface and contour plots have been used to locate the optimum values of studied parameters. Maximum COD and color reduction of 50.5% and 95.2%, respectively, was observed at optimum conditions. Present study shows that EC technique can be employed in distilleries to reduce the pollution load before treatment in aerobic treatment plants to meet the discharge standards.

  16. Posttreatment of effluent from coke-plant wastewater treatment system in sequencing batch reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, H. [Nanyang Technological Univ., Singapore (Singapore). School of Civil and Structural Engineering; Gu, G.; Song, L. [Tongji Univ., Shanghai (China). School of Environmental Engineering

    1997-03-01

    The performance of sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) for the treatment of effluent from a conventional coke-plant wastewater biological treatment system has been evaluated. The results showed that an operating mode that incorporated two anoxic portions, one ahead of the aeration period and one after the aeration, was superior to the other modes (prearranged denitrification and postarranged denitrification) for nitrogen removal. The 4-h anoxic fill probably allowed some substrates in the influent to be stored in the biomass and led to subsequent storage-induced denitrification in the second anoxic portion during the reaction period. Under these conditions, the ammonia nitrogen (NH{sub 3}-N) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) reductions were 83.5 and 65.2%, respectively. During the fill period of an SBR, the organics concentration was reduced, probably due to the adsorption of organics onto activated sludge and dilution of the mixed liquor. Some readily biodegradable organics in the influent, such as phenol and o-cresol, were utilized by denitrifiers as a carbon source. A 16-h aeration significantly reduced the concentrations of o-cresol, 3,4-dimethyl phenol, and 2-quinoline alcohol, while reductions in quinoline, isoquinoline, indol, and methyl quinoline were limited.

  17. Optimization of Electrochemical Treatment Process Conditions for Distillery Effluent Using Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Arulmathi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Distillery industry is recognized as one of the most polluting industries in India with a large amount of annual effluent production. In this present study, the optimization of electrochemical treatment process variables was reported to treat the color and COD of distillery spent wash using Ti/Pt as an anode in a batch mode. Process variables such as pH, current density, electrolysis time, and electrolyte dose were selected as operation variables and chemical oxygen demand (COD and color removal efficiency were considered as response variable for optimization using response surface methodology. Indirect electrochemical-oxidation process variables were optimized using Box-Behnken response surface design (BBD. The results showed that electrochemical treatment process effectively removed the COD (89.5% and color (95.1% of the distillery industry spent wash under the optimum conditions: pH of 4.12, current density of 25.02 mA/cm2, electrolysis time of 103.27 min, and electrolyte (NaCl concentration of 1.67 g/L, respectively.

  18. Purification ability and carbon dioxide flux from surface flow constructed wetlands treating sewage treatment plant effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Haiming; Lin, Li; Zhang, Jian; Guo, Wenshan; Liang, Shuang; Liu, Hai

    2016-11-01

    In this study, a two-year experiment was carried out to investigate variation of carbon dioxide (CO2) flux from free water surface constructed wetlands (FWS CW) systems treating sewage treatment plant effluent, and treatment performance was also evaluated. The better 74.6-76.6% COD, 92.7-94.4% NH4(+)-N, 60.1-84.7% TN and 49.3-70.7% TP removal efficiencies were achieved in planted CW systems compared with unplanted systems. The planted CW was a net CO2 sink, while the unplanted CW was a net CO2 source in the entire study period. An obvious annual and seasonal variability of CO2 fluxes from different wetland systems was also presented with the average CO2 flux ranging from -592.83mgm(-2)h(-1) to 553.91mgm(-2)h(-1) during 2012-2013. In addition, the net exchange of CO2 between CW systems and the atmosphere was significantly affected by air temperature, and the presence of plants also had the significant effect on total CO2 emissions.

  19. Alternatives for biodigester effluent treatment: economic impact; Impacto economico de um sistema de tratamento dos efluentes de biodigestores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miele, Marcelo; Kunz, Airton; Correa, Juliano Corulli; Steinmetz, Ricardo [EMBRAPA Suinos e Aves, Concordia, SC (Brazil)], email: marcelo@cnpsa.embrapa.br; Bortoli, Marcelo [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this study was to present a prospective economic impact assessment of a biodigester liquid effluent treatment system. This system developed by Embrapa Swine and Poultry is composed by a N removal module and a P one, which can be attached to a biodigester, technology widely diffused in Brazil. Biodigesters do not remove nutrients (NPK) with high pollution potential of water resources and demanding high effluent transport costs. The analysis was based on Net Present Value (NPV) technique, using prototype performance information, market prices and wastewater analysis. The N module reduces more than ten times the surface needed to spread effluents. The P module attains the standard for discharge in water resources and makes this element available as fertilizer. The system has a significant impact on swine production costs, what can be reduced in farms which produces its own energy from manure. High effluent distribution costs also turn treatment more attractive. The study concludes that this is a promising technology which has to be validated. Financial support is needed to implement a real scale prototype to validate it. (author)

  20. Multiple response optimization of the coagulation process for upgrading the quality of effluent from municipal wastewater treatment plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Na; Hu, Yi; Lu, Yong-Ze; Zeng, Raymond J.; Sheng, Guo-Ping

    2016-05-01

    To meet the high quality standard of receiving water, the coagulation process using polyferric chloride (PFC) was used to further improve the water quality of effluent from wastewater treatment plants. Uniform design (UD) coupled with response surface methodology (RSM) was adopted to assess the effects of the main influence factors: coagulant dosage, pH and basicity, on the removal of total organic carbon (TOC), NH4+-N and PO43--P. A desirability function approach was used to effectively optimize the coagulation process for the comprehensive removal of TOC, NH4+-N and PO43--P to upgrade the effluent quality in practical application. The optimized operating conditions were: dosage 28 mg/L, pH 8.5 and basicity 0.001. The corresponding removal efficiencies for TOC, NH4+-N and PO43--P were 77.2%, 94.6% and 20.8%, respectively. More importantly, the effluent quality could upgrade to surface water Class V of China through coagulation under optimal region. In addition, grey relational analysis (GRA) prioritized these three factors as: pH > basicity > dosage (for TOC), basicity > dosage > pH (for NH4+-N), pH > dosage > basicity (for PO43--P), which would help identify the most important factor to control the treatment efficiency of various effluent quality indexes by PFC coagulation.

  1. Combined anaerobic digestion and photocatalytic treatment of distillery effluent in fluidized bed reactors focusing on energy conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apollo, Seth; Aoyi, Ochieng

    2016-09-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) can remove substantial amount of organic load when applied in treating distillery effluent but it is ineffective in colour reduction. Conversely, photodegradation is effective in colour reduction but has high energy requirement. A study on the synergy of a combined AD and ultra violet (UV) photodegradation treatment of distillery effluent was carried out in fluidized bed reactors to evaluate pollution reduction and energy utilization efficiencies. The combined process improved colour removal from 41% to 85% compared to that of AD employed as a stand-alone process. An overall corresponding total organic carbon (TOC) reduction of 83% was achieved. The bioenergy production by the AD step was 14.2 kJ/g total organic carbon (TOC) biodegraded while UV lamp energy consumption was 0.9 kJ/mg TOC, corresponding to up to 100% colour removal. Electrical energy per order analysis for the photodegradation process showed that the bioenergy produced was 20% of that required by the UV lamp to photodegrade 1 m(3) of undiluted pre-AD treated effluent up to 75% colour reduction. It was concluded that a combined AD-UV system for treatment of distillery effluent is effective in organic load removal and can be operated at a reduced cost. PMID:26824301

  2. Volume and activity reduction by biological treatment and ultrafiltration of laundry effluent waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefan Rosenberger; Bernhard Christ [RWE NUKEM GmbH (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    An innovative patented treatment process (BIBRA) combining biological treatment and a separator centrifuge was developed in the Gundremmingen NPP starting in 1995. To date this process has been successfully implemented in the German NPP of Gundremmingen, Kahl, Brunsbuettel, Stade, Isar 1 and Neckarwestheim. This new process has not only significantly reduced the TOC content in the effluent and waste volumes (6,600 m{sup 3} result in only 160 kg final waste) of BWR and PWR but at the same time has increased the decontamination factor to 20 and more. The cost savings experienced within the plant are more than 125000 euros/a. These savings do not account the additional substantial savings on handling, disposal containers, transportation, interim storage and final disposal. In order to advance the biological treatment of radioactive wastes it is therefore required to find an alternative separation mechanism without loosing the advantages of discharging the inactive salts. An engineering review of possible separation processes that could help to remove these residual activity was conducted. It determined that crossflow filtration and in particular micro-filtration or ultrafiltration were the most promising technologies to further improve the separation efficiency. Ultrafiltration is able to remove bacteria, proteins and similar while allowing dissolved materials such ad salts to pass. Drawback for crossflow filtration systems is that they can experience significant problems with fouling (blocking) of the membranes from suspended solids (TSS) which typically requires the introduction of aggressive chemicals and that all these systems generate an effluent concentrate of typically 2% to 10 % of their throughput. In case of e.g. 6600 m{sup 3}/a waste generation a volume between 120 and 600 m{sup 3}/a concentrate would require additional treatment and conditioning. Almost at the same time as the biological treatment process was developed in Germany, RWE NUKEM matured

  3. Impact of Shrimp Farm Effluent on Water Quality in Coastal Areas of the World Heritage-Listed Ha Long Bay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thuyet D. Bui

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Shrimp farming has rapidly developed in coastal areas of the World Heritage-listed Ha Long Bay since the last decade. Effluent discharged from shrimp farms with high levels of nutrient waste may cause eutrophication in receiving waterways. Therefore, assessing water quality at tidal creeks receiving shrimp farm effluent in coastal areas of Ha Long Bay supports environmental protection and decision making for sustainable development of the region. Approach: Water samples were collected at 3 different locations for spatial assessment: inside sections of creeks directly receiving farm effluent (IEC, from main creeks adjacent to points of effluent discharge outside concentrated shrimp farms (OEC and a few kilometers away from shrimp farm (ASF. Samples were taken on 3 occasions for temporal assessment. Parameters related to nutrient waste from shrimp farms, including: Total Ammonia Nitrogen (TAN, Nitrite-Nitrogen (NO2-N, Nitrate-Nitrogen (NO3-N, Total Phosphorus (TP, Dissolved Orthophosphate (PO4-P, Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD, Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD, Total Suspended Solid (TSS, Chlorophyll-a (Chl-a, Temperature, Salinity, pH and Dissolved Oxygen (DO were determined using standard methods. Results: There were statistically significant differences in the concentrations of TAN, NO2-N, NO3-N, TP, PO4-P, BOD, COD and Chl-a among IEC, OEC, ASF and the levels of these parameters increased after shrimp crops, especially after the main shrimp crop of the season in North Vietnam. The concentrations of TAN, NO3-N, TP, BOD, COD, Chl-a, TSS at IEC sites were higher than recommended for protecting aquatic ecosystems. Principal Component Analysis (PCA efficiently summarized patterns of co-variation in water quality parameters among locations and study times. Conclusion/Recommendations: The findings of this study indicate that greater awareness of the environmental impacts of shrimp farms is required if this industry is to be sustainable

  4. BONE MEAL AS ALTERNATIVE TREATMENT FOR ACIDIC AND METAL CONTAMINATED ACID MINE DRAINAGE WATER EFFLUENT: LAB SCALE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolyn Payus

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The typical methods of treatment for acidic and metal contaminated water effluent such as the Acid Mine Drainage (AMD will always focus on either civil engineering methods, such as disposal, excavation, drainage and encapsulation or process based technologies such as effluent washing and treatment. These techniques are not environmental friendly, costly and unsustainable, thus environmental damaging. Nowadays, there is a growing need for an alternative remediation treatment that is innovative and more natural in order to prevent pollution in the environment. Therefore, in this study, a new alternative treatment, that is more organic, biodegradable and cost effective, using bone meal was presented. In this research, bone meal comprising of chicken bones were used as an alternative passive treatment to determine its potential in neutralizing and removing heavy metals from the abandoned cooper mine, Mamut Acid Mine Drainage (AMD waste water effluent. A pretreatment process for bone meal was performed by incineration process where it was heated up in the furnace at 500°C for 24 h after it was cleaned, crushed, boiled and dried. Batch experiment test has been carried out to test whether the selected bone meal sizes 45, 75 and 150 µm was able to neutralize the AMD Mamut water samples. Inductive Plasma Couple-Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES test was carried out to test the concentration of the heavy metals before and after the treatment. The surface morphology of bone meal was examined by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM. Enlargement of pores after the neutralization treatment was seen on the surface morphology of the bone meal by SEM analyses. A significant rising of pH from 2.98 to 5.69 within 6 h 30 min was observed during neutralization process and 99% removal of Fe, Zn, Al, Cu and 36% removal of Mg concentration was achieved after the treatment through the neutralization treatment of the AMD waste water effluent. The results from this

  5. Application of the Ulva pertusa bioassay for a toxicity identification evaluation and reduction of effluent from a wastewater treatment plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youn-Jung eKim

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A toxicity identification evaluation (TIE based on Ulva pertusa spore release was conducted in 3 phases for the identification of the major toxicants in effluent from a wastewater treatment plant (WTP and the receiving water in an adjacent stream. The toxicity of the final effluent (FE, as compared with raw wastewater, and primary and secondary effluent, showed a greater change over 12-monthly sampling events and appeared to have impacts on the toxicity of the downstream water with a significant correlation (r2 = 0.89, p < 0.01. In Phase I, toxicity characterization indicated that cations were likely to be the responsible toxicants for the FE. In Phase II, cations such as Cu, Ni, and Zn were found in the FE at higher concentrations than the EC50 concentrations determined for the standard corresponding metals. When the concentrations of each metal in the FE samples were plotted against the respective toxicity units, only zinc showed a statistically significant correlation with toxicity (r2 = 0.86, p < 0.01. In Phase III, using spiking and mass balance approaches, it was confirmed that Zn was the major toxicant in the effluent from the WTP. Following a change in the Fenton reagent used, to one with a lower Zn content, the toxicity of the FE greatly decreased in subsequent months. The TIE developed here enabled the toxicity of FEs of the WTP to be tracked and for Zn, originating from a reagent used for Fenton treatment, to be successfully identified as the key toxicant. The TIE method based on U. pertusa demonstrated utility as a low cost and simple tool to identify the risk factors for industrial effluents and provided information on regulatory control and management.

  6. Treatment and Valorization of Palm Oil Mill Effluent through Production of Food Grade Yeast Biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joy O. Iwuagwu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Palm oil mill effluent (POME is high strength wastewater derived from processing of palm fruit. It is generated in large quantities in all oil palm producing nations where it is a strong pollutant amenable to microbial degradation being rich in organic carbon, nitrogen, and minerals. Valorization and treatment of POME with seven yeast isolates was studied under scalable conditions by using POME to produce value-added yeast biomass. POME was used as sole source of carbon and nitrogen and the fermentation was carried out at 150 rpm, 28 ± 2°C using an inoculum size of 1 mL of 106 cells. Yeasts were isolated from POME, dump site, and palm wine. The POME had chemical oxygen demand (COD 114.8 gL−1, total solid 76 gL−1, total suspended solid (TSS 44 gL−1 and total lipid 35.80 gL−1. Raw POME supported accumulation of 4.42 gL−1 dry yeast with amino acid content comparable or superior to the FAO/WHO standard for feed use SCP. Peak COD reduction (83% was achieved with highest biomass accumulation in 96 h using Saccharomyces sp L31. POME can be used as carbon source with little or no supplementation to achieve waste-to-value by producing feed grade yeast with reduction in pollution potential.

  7. Factorial design of a solar photocatalytic process to treatment of wastewater effluent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francisco, Adriana Ribeiro; Paterniani, Jose Euclides Stipp [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FEAGRI/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Agricola], E-mail: adriana.francisco@agr.unicamp.br; Kuwakino, Adriana Yuri [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (CESET/UNICAMP), Limeira, SP (Brazil). Centro Superior de Educacao Tecnologica

    2008-07-01

    Advanced treatments are attributed to improving the quality of various types of waste such as the sanitary wastewater. The heterogeneous photocatalysis is an alternative that allows to improve the effluents conditions. This is possible because many chemical compounds of environmental concern can be degraded using UV radiation on a semiconductor. However, to enable the efficiency of the process photocatalytic is necessary to conduct a study of optimization to establish favorable conditions between selected variables. The aim of this work was a reactor solar photocatalytic optimization using factorial design 2{sup k}, depending on variables: mass (TiO{sub 2}), time (min) and flow of air (L min{sup -1}), using as analytical response the removal of color. The experiment was conducted at the Faculty of Agricultural Engineering (FEAGRI) and it was used the sanitary wastewater of there. The results indicated that there were significant efficiency using combinations mass = 1000 mg L{sup -1}, time = 360 min and flow of air = 5 L min{sup -1}. In the calculations of factorial design, the time showed a marked positive effect of 7.76, while the flow of air, when in excess, had an inhibitor behavior, even getting positive effect. (author)

  8. THE USE OF BIOREACTORS COUPLED WITH MEMBRANES FOR THE TREATMENT OF EFFLUENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bergamasco R.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this paper are to verify the viability of operating a bioreactor coupled with a membrane, and to analyze the global mechanisms witch need to be considered in the bioreactional concept in the separation by membrane. In order to meet the proposed objectives, a culture with a synthetic substratum (ethanol was utilized. A mineral membrane with the following characteristics was used: a pore diameter of 0.2 m m, 19 channels of a 4 mm diameter, a width of 0.85 m, a filtering surface area of 0.2 m2, a pressure of 2 bar and a tangential velocity of 2 m/s. The experiments consisted of modifying the residence time of the substratum within the reactor. The following measurements were taken: chemical oxygen demand (COD, concentration of biomass and filtered flow. The results show a treated effluent of good quality, indicating that the time of hydraulic residence time influences the efficiency of the system and is influenced by the restriction of the filtered flow by a fast fouling of the membrane

  9. Whole-body monitor, hand-feet monitor, gaseous effluent, area monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The following gaseous (iodine, noble gases and aerosols) effluents monitoring equipment developed by INVAP may be installed in any nuclear facility with a ventilation system that expels air through a chimney. Should the facility fail to have such a ventilation system - hence the extraction chimney - INVAP can offer an alternative system: a portable gaseous-effluent measuring equipment which can be installed, for example, in the hall of the reactor. Basically, the system consists of forcing, by means of an aspiration pump, a known and fixed air flow fraction from the chimney (or the hall) and to retain the aerosols continuously in a glass microfiber filter. Aerosols are thus measured according to a specially-designed geometry which confronts the filter with the plastic scintillator. The gas thus obtained is free from aerosols. It then passes through a carbon-activated filter which retains iodine. This filter has a coaxial geometry, lodging inside an INa (Tl) gamma radiation-sensitive scintillator. Both scintillators are optically coupled to their respective photomultipliers. Their pulses are processed with a load preamplifier and a discriminating amplifier in order to store them in counters to be periodically read by the intelligent controller. Actual monitoring will be carried out by means of independent measuring channels for iodine and aerosols, with each channel featuring remote reading and alarms (for instance, at the Control Room). Data thus acquired will be processed by an intelligent controller (INVAP Mod. SAPP-09) which will perform the following functions: - Calculation and unit conversion in order to inform in a TRC total and incremental activity released by the installation during a pre-set period established by the operator. - Calculation, including statistical errors, to determine whether incremental alarm values and pre-set totals are adequate or whether they have been exceeded, providing the results. - Process-control operations (counting failure

  10. Wastewater treatment plant effluent alters pituitary gland gonadotropin mRNA levels in juvenile coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Louisa B; Schultz, Irvin R; da Silva, Denis A M; Ylitalo, Gina M; Ragsdale, Dave; Harris, Stephanie I; Bailey, Stephanie; Pepich, Barry V; Swanson, Penny

    2016-09-01

    It is well known that endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) present in wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents interfere with reproduction in fish, including altered gonad development and induction of vitellogenin (Vtg), a female-specific egg yolk protein precursor produced in the liver. As a result, studies have focused on the effects of EDC exposure on the gonad and liver. However, impacts of environmental EDC exposure at higher levels of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonad axis are less well understood. The pituitary gonadotropins, follicle-stimulating hormone (Fsh) and luteinizing hormone (Lh) are involved in all aspects of gonad development and are subject to feedback from gonadal steroids making them a likely target of endocrine disruption. In this study, the effects of WWTP effluent exposure on pituitary gonadotropin mRNA expression were investigated to assess the utility of Lh beta-subunit (lhb) as a biomarker of estrogen exposure in juvenile coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch). First, a controlled 72-h exposure to 17α-ethynylestradiol (EE2) and 17β-trenbolone (TREN) was performed to evaluate the response of juvenile coho salmon to EDC exposure. Second, juvenile coho salmon were exposed to 0, 20 or 100% effluent from eight WWTPs from the Puget Sound, WA region for 72h. Juvenile coho salmon exposed to 2 and 10ng EE2L(-1) had 17-fold and 215-fold higher lhb mRNA levels relative to control fish. Hepatic vtg mRNA levels were dramatically increased 6670-fold, but only in response to 10ng EE2L(-1) and Fsh beta-subunit (fshb) mRNA levels were not altered by any of the treatments. In the WWTP effluent exposures, lhb mRNA levels were significantly elevated in fish exposed to five of the WWTP effluents. In contrast, transcript levels of vtg were not affected by any of the WWTP effluent exposures. Mean levels of natural and synthetic estrogens in fish bile were consistent with pituitary lhb expression, suggesting that the observed lhb induction may be due to

  11. Human infective potential of Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia duodenalis and Enterocytozoon bieneusi in urban wastewater treatment plant effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jiawen; Feng, Yaoyu; Hu, Yue; Villegas, Eric N; Xiao, Lihua

    2016-06-01

    Cryptosporidiosis, giardiasis, and microsporidiosis are important waterborne diseases. In the standard for wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents in China and other countries, the fecal coliform count is the only microbial indicator, raising concerns about the potential for pathogen transmission through WWTP effluent reuse. In this study, we collected 50 effluent samples (30 L/sample) from three municipal WWTPs in Shanghai, China, and analyzed for Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia duodenalis and Enterocytozoon bieneusi by microscopy and/or polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Moreover, propidium monoazide (PMA)-PCR was used to assess the viability of oocysts/cysts. The microscopy and PCR-positive rates for Cryptosporidium spp. were 62% and 40%, respectively. The occurrence rates of G. duodenalis were 96% by microscopy and 92-100% by PCR analysis of three genetic loci. Furthermore, E. bieneusi was detected in 70% (35/50) of samples by PCR. Altogether, 10 Cryptosporidium species or genotypes, two G. duodenalis genotypes, and 11 E. bieneusi genotypes were found, most of which were human-pathogenic. The chlorine dioxide disinfection employed in WWTP1 and WWTP3 failed to inactivate the residual pathogens; 93% of the samples from WWTP1 and 83% from WWTP3 did not meet the national standard on fecal coliform levels. Thus, urban WWTP effluents often contain residual waterborne human pathogens. PMID:27280607

  12. Evaluation of radioecological impact of the effluents from the mineral treatment unit on Antas Reservoir - Caldas - MG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronqui, Leilane B.; Gomes, Heliana A.; Nascimento, Marcos Roberto Lopes [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Laboratorio]. E-mail: leilanebio@yahoo.com.br; hgomes@cnen.gov.br; pmarcos@cnen.gov.br; Seleghim, Mirna H.R. [Sao Carlos Univ., SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Biologia. Dept. de Ecologia e Biologia Evolutiva]. E-mail: mirnaiqsc@usp.br

    2005-07-01

    The Antas Reservoir (AR) is an aquatic body that was built in 1982 for supplying of the Mineral Treatment Unit - Brazilian Nuclear Industries (UTM/INB), an uranium mining and processing facility. Currently the reservoir receives the treated effluents from pit mine (PM) and the sterile piles. This study was conducted in order to survey the possible environmental impact caused by this nuclear installation on the AR (points 041 and 014S). During the period of eight months, these two water bodies (points 041, 014 and PM) were evaluated through the physical chemical variables as well as radiological and microbiological variables. According to the results obtained it was verified that this nuclear installation discharged effluents into the AR outside the standards established by the current regulation for manganese (3.13 mg.L{sup -1}) and fluoride (7.12 mg.L{sup -1}) in class 3 water. Such results agreed with the biological analysis, since the P041 that receives the treated effluent from the PM presented the smallest diversity and biomass of protozooplanktonic organisms, indicating a possible environmental impact in this ecosystem due to the discharge of effluent by this mining company. (author)

  13. Toxicities of sediments below 10 effluent outfalls to near-coastal areas of the Gulf of Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chemical quality and toxicities of sediments collected in the receiving waters below 10 wastewater outfalls to Northwest Florida coastal areas were evaluated at multiple stations during 1994--1996. Eight types of toxicity tests using 11 test species were used to assess acute and chronic toxicity of the sediments collected below industrial, municipal, power generation and pulp mill outfalls. The primary objectives of the study were to evaluate the relative ability of different assessment procedures to detect toxicity and to provide some much-needed perspective on the impact of major point sources on sediment quality in Gulf of Mexico estuaries. The major chemical contaminants were heavy metals and PAHs. Acute and chronic toxicities were noted. Results of tests with sediment collected at the same location but several months later often differed. The most sensitive species were mysids and an estuarine amphipod. The least sensitive species were fish and macrophyte seedlings. There was poor correlation of effluent toxicity to sediment toxicity in the receiving water. Toxicity of the effluents was greater than that of the sediments. Overall, the unavailability of relevant chronic toxicity methods, uncertain criteria for choice of control stations, lack of guidance on frequency of testing and the dynamic physical and chemical characteristics of sediments are factors that need consideration if sediment monitoring is to be part of the NPDES regulatory process

  14. Problem of waste effluents in wood industry - the possibilities of biological treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Muck, Tadeja

    2015-01-01

    Wood industry does not pollute waters to a great extend, nevertheless we must be aware that the problem still exists. Waste effluents in wood industry contain very high portion of dangerous and toxic substance - formaldehyde. That is why it is inevitably vital to start with detailed analysis of waste effluents and with studies of possibilities of decontamination. Statistical analysis are showing that wood industry are not well aware of the fact how quickly the ecological balance can be destro...

  15. STUDY OF PHYSIO-CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS AND BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT OF MOLASSES-BASED DISTILLERY EFFLUENT

    OpenAIRE

    Anupama Chaudhary* AK Sharma and Birbal Singh

    2013-01-01

    Molasses based distilleries are recognized as of major polluting industries with a large amount of annual effluent production. Modi Distillery, located at Modi Nagar in western Uttar Pradesh, is a molasses-based distillery with a capacity of 26 KLPD. Being an alcohol-processing unit, we estimated capacity and efficiency of Modi distillery that discharges highly polluted effluent to small drainage with a very high biological oxygen demand (BOD) (42,000-51,000mg/ltr) and chemical oxygen demand ...

  16. Reducing the Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1 for its application to an industrial wastewater treatment plant treating winery effluent wastewater

    OpenAIRE

    García-Diéguez, Carlos; Bernard, Olivier; ROCA, ENRIQUE

    2013-01-01

    International audience The Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1 (ADM1) is a complex model which is widely accepted as a common platform for anaerobic process modeling and simulation. However, it has a large number of parameters and states that hinder its calibration and use in control applications. A principal component analysis (PCA) technique was extended and applied to simplify the ADM1 using data of an industrial wastewater treatment plant processing winery effluent. The method shows that t...

  17. Selection of a bioassay battery to assess toxicity in the affluents and effluents of three water-treatment plants

    OpenAIRE

    Paola Bohórquez-Echeverry; Marcela Duarte-Castañeda; Nubia León-López; Claudia Campos-Pinilla; Fabián Caicedo-Carrascal; Myriam Vásquez-Vásquez

    2012-01-01

    The assessment of water quality includes the analysis of both physical-chemical and microbiological parameters. However,none of these evaluates the biological effect that can be generated in ecosystems or humans. In order to define the most suitable organismsto evaluate the toxicity in the affluent and effluent of three drinking-water treatment plants, five acute toxicity bioassays were used,incorporating three taxonomic groups of the food chain. Materials and methods. The bioassays used were...

  18. Wetland-based passive treatment systems for gold ore processing effluents containing residual cyanide, metals and nitrogen species

    OpenAIRE

    Álvarez, R.; Ordóñez, A.; Loredo, J; Younger, P.L.

    2013-01-01

    Gold extraction operations generate a variety of wastes requiring responsible disposal in compliance with current environmental regulations. During recent decades, increased emphasis has been placed on effluent control and treatment, in order to avoid the threat to the environment posed by toxic constituents. In many modern gold mining and ore processing operations, cyanide species are of most immediate concern. Given that natural degradation processes are known to reduce the toxicity of cyan...

  19. Comparison the Effect of Disinfection of Yasuj Sewage Effluent with UV/Paa/Naocl Combined Treatment : A Pilot Plant Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SA Sadat

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Introduction & objective: Disinfection of effluent swage treatment plant, is one of the the most important stage of treatment effluent that has been done with purpose of water sources protection or water reuse.Chlorine compounds are the most common disinfectants that have been ever used for this idea.Todays,with attention to the production of dangerous by-products,that can cause by using chlorine compounds in water, other disinfections such as H2o2,paa and uv ,o3 combinations of two or three of them has been stated for replacing items. This study designed to compare the disinfection efficiency of combinations of three common disinfectants mentioned above in pilot plant study. Materials & Methods: This is an empirical study that was done on sewage effluent of Yasuj wastewater treatment plant in 1387. During sample operations, through 5 months, each 10 days, two sample sets with different concentrations of each disinfectant compound were experimented on determining total coliforms(TC, fecal coliforms(FC, fecal streptococci(FS according to standard methods for waste water experiments. Reseived data was analysed by SPSS software and ANOVA, statistical test. Results: This study indicates that combined methods Paa/Naocl/UV, Paa/UV, Naocl/UV, in order from left to right, has the most efficiency in decreasing total coliforms and Paa/Naocl/UV have the most efficiency and UV the least efficiency and Paa/UV, Naocl/UV have the same efficiency in decreasing fecal coliforms. all the combined disinifection methods that have been used in this research most times completely eliminate fecal streptococci from swage of Yasouj wastewater treatment plant. Conclusion:The result indicate that combined uses of Paa, Naocl, with UV for disinfection sewage effluent make an intensive effect on disinfectant materials over each other and consequently increasing efficiency of this method in deactivation total coliforms, fecal coliforms, fecal streptococci .

  20. Baseline study of methane emission from open digesting tanks of palm oil mill effluent treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yacob, Shahrakbah; Hassan, Mohd Ali; Shirai, Yoshihito; Wakisaka, Minato; Subash, Sunderaj

    2005-06-01

    Anthropogenic release of greenhouse gases, especially CO2 and CH4 has been recognized as one of the main causes of global warming. Several measures under the Kyoto Protocol 1997 have been drawn up to reduce the greenhouse gases emission. One of the measures is Clean Development Mechanisms (CDM) that was created to enable developed countries to cooperate with developing countries in emission reduction activities. In Malaysia, palm oil industry particularly from palm oil mill effluent (POME) anaerobic treatment has been identified as an important source of CH4. However, there is no study to quantify the actual CH4 emission from the commercial scale wastewater treatment facility. Hence, this paper shall address the CH4 emission from the open digesting tanks in Felda Serting Hilir Palm Oil Mill. CH4 emission pattern was recorded for 52 weeks from 3600 m3 open digesting tanks. The findings indicated that the CH4 content was between 13.5% and 49.0% which was lower than the value of 65% reported earlier. The biogas flow rate ranged between 0.8l min(-1)m(-2) and 9.8l min(-1)m(-2). Total CH4 emission per open digesting tank was 518.9 kgday(-1). Relationships between CH4 emission and total carbon removal and POME discharged were also discussed. Fluctuation of biogas production was observed throughout the studies as a result of seasonal oil palm cropping, mill activities, variation of POME quality and quantity discharged from the mill. Thus only through long-term field measurement CH4 emission can be accurately estimated. PMID:15894045

  1. Plutonium solubility and speciation to be applied to the separation of hydrothermal waste treatment effluent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the most complex problems concerning nuclear waste management and the restoration of plutonium production sites is the treatment and disposition of mixed and TRU wastes. Hydrothermal oxidation, which has been shown to be effective in oxidizing a wide variety of organic material to CO2, /water, salts and other nonhazardous oxides, is a promising new technology for the treatment and volume reduction of actinide-containing waste. Information on the speciation and solubility of plutonium under process effluent conditions will facilitate the development of separation techniques for removing it from the treated solutions. Such a strongly oxidizing environment will generate plutonium(VI); and upon the destruction of organics, hydrothermal reactor solutions will contain carbonate. The authors are investigating the solubility and speciation of the plutonium(VI) carbonate system as a function of ionic strength (0.1 to 5.0 M). Formation constants for the tris- and biscarbonato complexes of plutonium(IV) were determined to be, log β130 = 17.7 and log β120 = 13.6, respectively, by spectrophotometry. These formation constants indicate that PuO2CO3(aq) is the plutonium (VI) carbonate solution species with the largest relevant stability range. The authors prepared and characterized the corresponding solid using XRD, EXAFS, and diffuse reflectance, and initiated solubility experiments in 0.1, 0.2, 0.5, 1, 2, and 5 M NaCl at 22 ± 1 C under 100% CO2. Data collected thus far yield the solubility products, log Ksp mol2/kg2 = -12.9 (0.1 m NaCl), -12.4 (0.2 m NaCl), -12.5 (0.5 m NaCl), -12.3 (1 m NaCl), -12.2 (2 m NaCl), -12.3 (5 m NaCl)

  2. Baseline study of methane emission from open digesting tanks of palm oil mill effluent treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yacob, Shahrakbah; Hassan, Mohd Ali; Shirai, Yoshihito; Wakisaka, Minato; Subash, Sunderaj

    2005-06-01

    Anthropogenic release of greenhouse gases, especially CO2 and CH4 has been recognized as one of the main causes of global warming. Several measures under the Kyoto Protocol 1997 have been drawn up to reduce the greenhouse gases emission. One of the measures is Clean Development Mechanisms (CDM) that was created to enable developed countries to cooperate with developing countries in emission reduction activities. In Malaysia, palm oil industry particularly from palm oil mill effluent (POME) anaerobic treatment has been identified as an important source of CH4. However, there is no study to quantify the actual CH4 emission from the commercial scale wastewater treatment facility. Hence, this paper shall address the CH4 emission from the open digesting tanks in Felda Serting Hilir Palm Oil Mill. CH4 emission pattern was recorded for 52 weeks from 3600 m3 open digesting tanks. The findings indicated that the CH4 content was between 13.5% and 49.0% which was lower than the value of 65% reported earlier. The biogas flow rate ranged between 0.8l min(-1)m(-2) and 9.8l min(-1)m(-2). Total CH4 emission per open digesting tank was 518.9 kgday(-1). Relationships between CH4 emission and total carbon removal and POME discharged were also discussed. Fluctuation of biogas production was observed throughout the studies as a result of seasonal oil palm cropping, mill activities, variation of POME quality and quantity discharged from the mill. Thus only through long-term field measurement CH4 emission can be accurately estimated.

  3. A note on the utilisation of the water hyacinth (eichhornia crassipes) for the treatment of tannery effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Water hyacinth is an aquatic weed which grows quickly in ponds, ditches and streams. It clogs drains, irrigation canals and run-off streams promoting back waters and flood conditions. By its prolific growth it competes with other aquatic weeds and causes destruction of the ecosystems of inland waters. Other damaging effects of water hyacinth include incubation of insects and disease vectors, hindrance to navigation, interference with fishing, increased loss of water by plant transpiration, restriction of desirable aquatic plant growth, depletion of oxygen in water and destruction of recreation values of inland waters. It has been observed from the literature that world-wide attempts have been made to destroy water hyacinth for the reasons enumerated above. But recently emphasis has been given to its utilisation rather than its destruction. Reports are available on its use in paper and pulp industries, for production of biogas, as a food for animals and as fertilizer. Water hyacinth has been used in oxidation ponds for the treatment of digested sugar wastes and effluents of septic tanks, but no work has been reported as yet on use of water hyacinth in the treatment of tannery effluents. The waste water from a tannery is highly coloured with a foul odour and contains toxic materials like phenols, sulphides and chromium in addition to bio-degradable matter like proteins, flesh, hair, etc. The untreated effluents when let into streams deplete the dissolved oxygen of the stream and destroy the aquatic life. Similarly, when the untreated effluents are let off into sewers they choke the sewers, or when let off on land they cause ground water pollution. The conventional methods of treatment of sewage, namely the trickling filter activated sludge process are equally applicable for the treatment of tannery waste water. But these methods are known to be costly both in construction and maintenance. Certain low-cost waste treatment methods have been developed involving the use

  4. Field study of moving bed biofilm reactor technology for post-treatment of wastewater lagoon effluent at 1 degree C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almomani, Fares A; Delatolla, Robert; Ormeci, Banu

    2014-08-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the potential use ofmoving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) systems as ammonia removal post-treatment units for wastewater (WW) treatment lagoons that demonstrate large temperature changes throughout their operational year (1 - 20 degrees C). The study was carried out over a six-month period using laboratory-scale MBBR reactors fed with incoming effluent from a full-scale lagoon. The study shows that significant average ammonia removal rates of 0.26 and 0.11 kgN/m . d were achieved at 20 degrees C and 1C. The increase in the ammonia removal rates with increasing temperature from 1 degrees C to 20 degrees C showed a strong correlation to an applied temperature correction coefficient model. No significant accumulation of effluent nitrite was observed at 1 degrees C or after being fed with synthetic wastewater (SWW); indicating that cold temperatures and transitions from real WW to SWW did not stress the nitrifiers. Furthermore, the study demonstrates that changes in temperature or changes from real WW to SWW do not affect the mass of biofilm attached per MBBR carrier. Hence, based on the results of this study, it is concluded that MBBR is a promising technology for post-treatment ammonia removal of WW lagoon effluent.

  5. Application of novel consortium TSR for treatment of industrial dye manufacturing effluent with concurrent removal of ADMI, COD, heavy metals and toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Tallika L; Patel, Bhargav C; Kadam, Avinash A; Tipre, Devayani R; Dave, Shailesh R

    2015-01-01

    The present study was aimed towards the effective bio-treatment of actual industrial effluent containing as high as 42,000 mg/L COD (chemical oxygen demand), >28,000 ADMI (American Dye Manufacturers Institute) color value and four heavy metals using indigenous developed bacterial consortium TSR. Mineral salt medium supplemented with as low as 0.02% (w/v) yeast extract and glucose was found to remove 70% ADMI, 69% COD and >99% sorption of heavy metals in 24 h from the effluent by consortium TSR. The biodegradation of effluent was monitored by UV-vis light, HPLC (high performance liquid chromatography), HPTLC (high performance thin layer chromotography) and FTIR (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy) and showed significant differences in spectra of untreated and treated effluent, confirming degradation of the effluent. Induction of intracellular azoreductase (107%) and NADH-DCIP reductase (128%) in addition to extracellular laccase (489%) indicates the vital role of the consortium TSR in the degradation process. Toxicity study of the effluent using Allium cepa by single cell gel electrophoresis showed detoxification of the effluent. Ninety per cent germination of plant seeds, Triticum aestivum and Phaseolus mungo, was achieved after treatment by consortium TSR in contrast to only 20% and 30% germination of the respective plants in case of untreated effluent. PMID:25945844

  6. Application of novel consortium TSR for treatment of industrial dye manufacturing effluent with concurrent removal of ADMI, COD, heavy metals and toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Tallika L; Patel, Bhargav C; Kadam, Avinash A; Tipre, Devayani R; Dave, Shailesh R

    2015-01-01

    The present study was aimed towards the effective bio-treatment of actual industrial effluent containing as high as 42,000 mg/L COD (chemical oxygen demand), >28,000 ADMI (American Dye Manufacturers Institute) color value and four heavy metals using indigenous developed bacterial consortium TSR. Mineral salt medium supplemented with as low as 0.02% (w/v) yeast extract and glucose was found to remove 70% ADMI, 69% COD and >99% sorption of heavy metals in 24 h from the effluent by consortium TSR. The biodegradation of effluent was monitored by UV-vis light, HPLC (high performance liquid chromatography), HPTLC (high performance thin layer chromotography) and FTIR (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy) and showed significant differences in spectra of untreated and treated effluent, confirming degradation of the effluent. Induction of intracellular azoreductase (107%) and NADH-DCIP reductase (128%) in addition to extracellular laccase (489%) indicates the vital role of the consortium TSR in the degradation process. Toxicity study of the effluent using Allium cepa by single cell gel electrophoresis showed detoxification of the effluent. Ninety per cent germination of plant seeds, Triticum aestivum and Phaseolus mungo, was achieved after treatment by consortium TSR in contrast to only 20% and 30% germination of the respective plants in case of untreated effluent.

  7. Super-fine powdered activated carbon (SPAC) for efficient removal of micropollutants from wastewater treatment plant effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonvin, Florence; Jost, Livia; Randin, Lea; Bonvin, Emmanuel; Kohn, Tamar

    2016-03-01

    In an effort to mitigate the discharge of micropollutants to surface waters, adsorption of micropollutants onto powdered activated carbon (PAC) after conventional wastewater treatment has been identified as a promising technology for enhanced removal of pharmaceuticals and pesticides from wastewater. We investigated the effectiveness of super-fine powdered activated carbon, SPAC, (ca. 1 μm mean particle diameter) in comparison to regular-sized PAC (17-37 μm mean diameter) for the optimization of micropollutant removal from wastewater. Adsorption isotherms and batch kinetic experiments were performed for 10 representative micropollutants (bezafibrate, benzotriazole, carbamazepine, diclofenac, gabapentin, mecoprop, metoprolol, ofloxacin, sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim) onto three commercial PACs and their super-fine variants in carbonate buffer and in wastewater effluent. SPAC showed substantially faster adsorption kinetics of all micropollutants than conventional PAC, regardless of the micropollutant adsorption affinity and the solution matrix. The total adsorptive capacities of SPAC were similar to those of PAC for two of the three tested carbon materials, in all tested waters. However, in effluent wastewater, the presence of effluent organic matter adversely affected micropollutant removal, resulting in lower removal efficiencies especially for micropollutants with low affinity for adsorbent particles in comparison to pure water. In comparison to PAC, SPAC application resulted in up to two-fold enhanced dissolved organic carbon (DOC) removal from effluent wastewater. The more efficient adsorption process using SPAC translates into a reduction of contact time and contact tank size as well as reduced carbon dosing for a targeted micropollutant removal. In the tested effluent wastewater (5 mg/L DOC), the necessary dose to achieve 80% average removal of indicator micropollutants (benzotriazole, diclofenac, carbamazepine, mecoprop and sulfamethoxazole) ranged

  8. Upgrade of three municipal wastewater treatment lagoons using a high surface area media

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    John WANC; Peng JINt; Paul L. BISHOP; Fuzhi LI

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Lagoon-based municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are facing difficulties meeting the needs of rapid population growth as well as the more stringent requirements of discharge permits. Three municipal WWTPs were modified using a high surface area media with upgraded fine-bubble aeration systems. Performance data collected showed very promising results in terms of five-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), ammonia (NH3) and total suspended solids (TSS) removal. Two-year average ammonia effluents were 4.1 mg. L-1 for Columbia WWTP, 4 mg. L-1 for Larchmont WWTP and 2.1 mg. L-1 for Laurelville WWTE respectively. Two- year average BOD5 effluents were 6.8, 4.9 and 2.7 mg.Ll, and TSS effluents were 15.0, 9.6 and 7.5 mg.L-L The systems also showed low fecal coliform (FC) levels in their effluents.

  9. Pathway-based approaches for assessment of real-time exposure to an estrogenic wastewater treatment plant effluent on fathead minnow reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents are known contributors of chemical mixtures into the environment. Of particular concern are endocrine-disrupting compounds, such as estrogens, that can affect hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis function in exposed organisms. The presen...

  10. Toxicity Identification and Evaluation for the Effluent from Wastewater Treatment Plant in Industrial Complex using D.magna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S.; Keum, H.; Chun Sang, H.

    2015-12-01

    In recent years, the interests on the impacts of industrial wastewater on aquatic ecosystem have increased with concern about ecosystem protection and human health. Whole effluent toxicity tests are used to monitor toxicity by unknown toxic chemicals as well as conventional pollutants from industrial effluent discharges. This study describes the application of TIE (toxicity identification evaluation) procedures to an acutely toxic effluent from a wastewater treatment plant in industrial complex which was toxic to Daphnia magna. In TIE phase I (characterization step), the toxic effects by heavy metals, organic compounds, oxidants, volatile organic compounds, suspended solids and ammonia were screened and revealed that the source of toxicity is far from these toxicants group. Chemical analysis (TIE phase II) on TDS showed that the concentration of chloride ion (6,900 mg/L) was substantially higher than that predicted from EC50 for D. magna. In confirmation step (TIE phase III), chloride ion was demonstrated to be main toxicant in this effluent by the spiking approach, species sensitivity approach and deletion approach. Calcium, potassium, magnesium, sodium, fluorine, sulfate ion concentration (450, 100, 80, 5,300, 0.66, 2,200mg/L) was not shown toxicity from D. magna. Finally, we concluded that chloride was the most contributing toxicant in the waste water treatment plant. Further research activities are needed for technical support of toxicity identification and evaluation on the various types of wastewater treatment plant discharge in Korea. Keywords : TIE, D. magna, Industrial waste water Acknowledgement This research was supported by a grant (15IFIP-B089908-02) from Plant Research Program funded by Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport of Korean government

  11. Design of polyelectrolyte multilayer membranes for ion rejection and wastewater effluent treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanyal, Oishi

    Polyelectrolyte multilayer (PEM) membranes present a special class of nanostructured membranes which have potential applications in a variety of water treatment operations. These membranes are fabricated by the layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly of alternately charged polyelectrolytes on commercial membrane surfaces. A large variety of polyelectrolytes and their varied deposition conditions (pH, number of bilayers etc.) allow very fine tuning of the membrane performance in terms of permeability and rejection. The first part of this thesis is about the application of PEM membranes to the removal of perchlorate ion from water. Being a monovalent ion, it is most effectively removed by a reverse osmosis (RO) membrane. However, these membranes inherently have very low fluxes which lead to high pressure requirements. In our work, we modified the surface of a nanofiltration (NF) membrane by the LbL assembly of oppositely charged polyelectrolytes. The appropriate tuning of the LbL conditions led to the development of a membrane with significantly higher flux than RO membranes but with equivalent perchlorate rejection. This was one of the best trade-offs offered by PEM membranes for monovalent ion rejection as has been reported in literature so far. While PEM membranes have mostly shown great potential in ion-rejection studies, they have seldom been tested for real wastewater effluents. The second part of this thesis, therefore, deals with evaluating the applicability of PEM membranes to treating an electrocoagulation (EC)-treated high strength wastewater. Two types of very commonly used polyelectrolyte combinations were tried out -- one of which was an ionically crosslinked system and the other one was covalently crosslinked. Both the types of PEM membranes showed a high level of COD reduction from the feed stream with higher fluxes than commercial RO membranes. One major challenge in using membranes for wastewater treatment is their fouling propensity. Like many other

  12. Bio sorption of uranium with Sargassum filipendula: use in treatment of effluents of laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    International and National Standards establish methodologies for the management of radioactive waste in order to comply with radiological protection principles. Thus, it is necessary to find alternatives with both low cost and effective results. This work studied the use of brown algae Sargassum filipendula in its ability to remove uranium in waste generated in the environmental analysis laboratories of the Institute of Radiation Protection and Dosimetry. At first, the kinetics of bio sorption was studied. This experiment was conducted on a batch at concentrations of 1 mg/L and 100 mg/L. Mathematical models of the first and second order were used to fit the experimental results. In evaluating the maximum removal capacity by marine biomass on a batch, different uranium concentrations were analyzed, and iso terms of bio sorption were plotted. The experimental results have been adjusted by Langmuir and Freundlich models. The Freundlich model presented the best correlation coefficients (0.99 and 0.94) for studies with an hour and three hours of contact, respectively. In order to determine the best conditions for removal of uranium using the Sargassum filipendula, it was necessary to hold experiments in a continuous flow. A study on the critical height of bed depth was carried out by filling a column with different masses of seaweed. It was obtained a lower outlet concentration o f uranium (0.07 mg/L) in 40 cm bed depth. This best height of bed was applied to the waste treatment of SEANA laboratories. It was monitored the increase of retention in biomass for a known quantity of uranium. The results showed an excellent uptake of uranium (1.25 mg U/g of biomass) even in the presence of other metals and reagents. Decontamination of the effluent for uranium reached values below those set by CONAMA for water classes I and II, making it possible to reuse the water. (author)

  13. Effluent treatment process in molasses-based distillery industries: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Distillery effluent is a contaminated stream with high chemical oxygen demand (COD) varying from 45,000 to 75,000 mg/l and low pH values of between 4.3 and 5.3. Different processes covering aerobic, anaerobic as well as physico-chemical methods which have been employed to this effluent has been given in this review paper. Among the different methods available, it was found that 'An Inverse Anaerobic Fluidization' to be a better choice for treating effluent from molasses-based distillery industries using an inverse anaerobic fluidized-bed reactor (IAFBR). This technology has been widely applied as an effective step in removing 80-85% of the COD in the effluent stream. Therefore, in this review, attention has been paid to highlight in respect of fluidization phenomena, process performance, stability of the system, operating parameters, configuration of inverse anaerobic fluidization and suitable carrier material employed in an inverse anaerobic fluidized-bed reactor especially for treating this effluent

  14. Selection of a bioassay battery to assess toxicity in the affluents and effluents of three water-treatment plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Bohórquez-Echeverry

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The assessment of water quality includes the analysis of both physical-chemical and microbiological parameters. However,none of these evaluates the biological effect that can be generated in ecosystems or humans. In order to define the most suitable organismsto evaluate the toxicity in the affluent and effluent of three drinking-water treatment plants, five acute toxicity bioassays were used,incorporating three taxonomic groups of the food chain. Materials and methods. The bioassays used were Daphnia magna and Hydraattenuata as animal models, Lactuca sativa and Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata as plant models, and Photobacterium leioghnathi asbacterial model. To meet this objective, selection criteria of the organisms evaluated and cluster analysis were used to identify the mostsensitive in the affluent and effluent of each plant. Results. All organisms are potentially useful in the assessment of water quality bymeeting four essential requirements and 17 desirable requirements equivalent to 100% acceptability, except P. leioghnathi which doesnot meet two essential requirements that are the IC50 for the toxic reference and the confidence interval. The animal, plant and bacterialmodels showed different levels of sensitivity at the entrance and exit of the water treatment systems. Conclusions. H. attenuata, P.subcapitata and P. leioghnathi were the most effective organisms in detecting toxicity levels in the affluents and D. magna, P. subcapitataand P. leioghnathi in the effluents.

  15. Characterization of an acidification and equalization tank (AET operating as a primary treatment of swine liquid effluent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrício Motteran

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This work evaluated the potential of the acidification equalization tank (AET used as a primary treatment unit, treating the hog farming wastewater. The treatment system consisted of a degritter with a triangular-notch weir, for measuring the flow, a static sieve, and an acidification and equalization tank (AET, an anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR, an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB reactor, a settling tank, a greenhouse for fertirrigation and two infiltration ponds. The AET had a net capacity of 8,000 liters, internally covered with asphalt blanket, worked based on surface loading rates application. The unit operated continuously, with its flow varying from 0.1 to 10 L s-1. To determine the efficiency, the following parameters were measured: pH; COD; BOD; volatile and fixed solids; settleable solids; total, intermediate and partial alkalinity and total acidity. The COD removal varied from 5 to 20%. The average pH was 7.3 and the total, intermediate and partial alkalinity in the effluent, were 1919, 846, 1197 mg L-1, respectively. The total acidity in the effluent was 34 mg L-1. The influent and effluent total BOD and oil & grease concentrations were 3436 and 3443 mg L-1, and 415 and 668 mg L-1, respectively. It was found that the AET worked properly concerning the acidification, equalization and sedimentation processes, confirming low cost of implementation and easy operation, when compared to other traditional decanters.

  16. Influence of bentonite in polymer membranes for effective treatment of car wash effluent to protect the ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiran, S Aditya; Arthanareeswaran, G; Thuyavan, Y Lukka; Ismail, A F

    2015-11-01

    In this study, modified polyethersulfone (PES) and cellulose acetate (CA) membranes were used in the treatment of car wash effluent using ultrafiltration. Hydrophilic sulfonated poly ether ether ketone (SPEEK) and bentonite as nanoclay were used as additives for the PES and CA membrane modification. Performances of modified membranes were compared with commercial PES membrane with 10kDa molecular weight cut off (MWCO). The influencing parameters like stirrer speed (250-750rpm) and transmembrane pressure (100-600kPa) (TMP) were varied and their effects were studied as a function of flux. In the treatment of car wash effluent, a higher permeate flux of 52.3L/m(2)h was obtained for modified CA membrane at TMP of 400kPa and stirrer speed of 750rpm. In comparison with modified PES membrane and commercial PES membrane, modified CA membranes showed better performance in terms of flux and flux recovery ratio. The highest COD removal (60%) was obtained for modified CA membrane and a lowest COD removal (47%) was observed for commercial PES membrane. The modified membranes were better at removing COD, turbidity and maintained more stable flux than commercial PES membrane, suggesting they will provide better economic performance in car wash effluent reclamation.

  17. Treatment of textile effluent by chemical (Fenton's Reagent) and biological (sequencing batch reactor) oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, Carmen S.D. [LSRE - Laboratory of Separation and Reaction Engineering, Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Porto, R. Dr. Roberto Frias, s/n, 4200-465 Porto (Portugal); Madeira, Luis M. [LEPAE - Laboratory for Process, Environmental and Energy Engineering, Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Porto, R. Dr. Roberto Frias, s/n, 4200-465 Porto (Portugal); Boaventura, Rui A.R., E-mail: bventura@fe.up.pt [LSRE - Laboratory of Separation and Reaction Engineering, Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Porto, R. Dr. Roberto Frias, s/n, 4200-465 Porto (Portugal)

    2009-12-30

    The removal of organic compounds and colour from a synthetic effluent simulating a cotton dyeing wastewater was evaluated by using a combined process of Fenton's Reagent oxidation and biological degradation in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR). The experimental design methodology was first applied to the chemical oxidation process in order to determine the values of temperature, ferrous ion concentration and hydrogen peroxide concentration that maximize dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and colour removals and increase the effluent's biodegradability. Additional studies on the biological oxidation (SBR) of the raw and previously submitted to Fenton's oxidation effluent had been performed during 15 cycles (i.e., up to steady-state conditions), each one with the duration of 11.5 h; Fenton's oxidation was performed either in conditions that maximize the colour removal or the increase in the biodegradability. The obtained results allowed concluding that the combination of the two treatment processes provides much better removals of DOC, BOD{sub 5} and colour than the biological or chemical treatment alone. Moreover, the removal of organic matter in the integrated process is particularly effective when Fenton's pre-oxidation is carried out under conditions that promote the maximum increase in wastewater biodegradability.

  18. Influence of bentonite in polymer membranes for effective treatment of car wash effluent to protect the ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiran, S Aditya; Arthanareeswaran, G; Thuyavan, Y Lukka; Ismail, A F

    2015-11-01

    In this study, modified polyethersulfone (PES) and cellulose acetate (CA) membranes were used in the treatment of car wash effluent using ultrafiltration. Hydrophilic sulfonated poly ether ether ketone (SPEEK) and bentonite as nanoclay were used as additives for the PES and CA membrane modification. Performances of modified membranes were compared with commercial PES membrane with 10kDa molecular weight cut off (MWCO). The influencing parameters like stirrer speed (250-750rpm) and transmembrane pressure (100-600kPa) (TMP) were varied and their effects were studied as a function of flux. In the treatment of car wash effluent, a higher permeate flux of 52.3L/m(2)h was obtained for modified CA membrane at TMP of 400kPa and stirrer speed of 750rpm. In comparison with modified PES membrane and commercial PES membrane, modified CA membranes showed better performance in terms of flux and flux recovery ratio. The highest COD removal (60%) was obtained for modified CA membrane and a lowest COD removal (47%) was observed for commercial PES membrane. The modified membranes were better at removing COD, turbidity and maintained more stable flux than commercial PES membrane, suggesting they will provide better economic performance in car wash effluent reclamation. PMID:25869419

  19. Reduction of dioxin-like toxicity in effluents by additional wastewater treatment and related effects in fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Diana; Benisek, Martin; Blaha, Ludek; Dondero, Francesco; Giesy, John P; Köhler, Heinz-R; Richter, Doreen; Scheurer, Marco; Triebskorn, Rita

    2016-10-01

    Efficiency of advanced wastewater treatment technologies to reduce micropollutants which mediate dioxin-like toxicity was investigated. Technologies compared included ozonation, powdered activated carbon and granular activated carbon. In addition to chemical analyses in samples of effluents, surface waters, sediments, and fish, (1) dioxin-like potentials were measured in paired samples of effluents, surface waters, and sediments by use of an in vitro biotest (reporter gene assay) and (2) dioxin-like effects were investigated in exposed fish by use of in vivo activity of the mixed-function, monooxygenase enzyme, ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) in liver. All advanced technologies studied, based on degradation or adsorption, significantly reduced dioxin-like potentials in samples and resulted in lesser EROD activity in livers of fish. Results of in vitro and in vivo biological responses were not clearly related to quantification of targeted analytes by use of instrumental analyses. PMID:27262214

  20. Reagent dyes in textile effluents: new eliminating treatments; Colorantes reactivos en los efluentes textiles: nuevos tratamientos para su eliminacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierrez, M. C.; Crespi, M. [Institut d' Investigacio Textil i Cooperacion Industrial de Tarrasa (Spain)

    1999-07-01

    Textile effluents containing reagent dyes are the most difficult to decolour, Among the techniques described for eliminating them from textile waste waters, chemical coagulation is the most commonly employed, followed by ozonization. Adsorption by active carbon is also employed, either by putting carbon powder in the biological reactor or using it as a tertiary treatment, having the effluent pass through columns of granulated active carbon. However, this technique is expensive and is only justified when the treated water is partially recycled. Ultra-infiltration and nanofiltration are allowed in countries where it is permitted to discharge the concentrate directly into the sea or when it is cost-effective to incinerate it. The remaining technologies are still at the research stage in pilot plants. They include electrochemical techniques that provide excellent results and have a promising future in industry. (Author) 41 refs.

  1. Radiological effluent and onsite area monitoring report for the Nevada Test Site (January 1986-December 1986)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report documents the environmental surveillance program at the Nevada Test Site as conducted by the Department of Energy (DOE) onsite radiological safety contractor from January 1986 through December 1986. It presents results and evaluations of radioactivity measurements in air and water, and of direct gamma radiation exposure rates. It establishes relevant correlations between the data recorded and DOE concentration guides (CG's). External gamma exposure levels and radioactivity in air and water on the Nevada Test Site were low compared to DOE guidelines. The highest average gross beta concentration in air was 0.005% of the DOE concentration guide (CG). The highest average Pu-239 concentration was 7.7% of the standard. The highest average tritium concentration was 0.39% of the standard. Kr-85 concentrations increased slightly from CY-1985 to CY-1986. Xe-133 remained nondetectable with some exceptions. The highest average gross beta concentration in potable water remained within the applicable standard for drinking water. The highest average Pu-239 concentration from contaminated waters was 0.0005% of the concentration guide. The highest average tritium concentration in noncontaminated water was 6% of the level for drinking water required by the National Interim Primary Drinking Water Regulation. The amounts of tritium-bearing effluent released to contaminated waste ponds was calculated and reported to DOE Headquarters. Gamma radiation measurements were roughly the same in CY-1986 relative to the previous year. All surveillance results from the Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) indicate that no detectable releases of radioactive materials occurred in that network in 1986. 29 refs., 14 figs., 23 tabs

  2. Pathway-based approaches for assessment of real-time exposure to an estrogenic wastewater treatment plant effluent on fathead minnow reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallin, Jenna E.; Jensen, Kathleen M.; Kahl, Michael D.; Villeneuve, Daniel L.; Lee, Kathy E.; Schroeder, Anthony L.; Mayasich, Joe; Eid, Evan P.; Nelson, Krysta R.; Milsk, Rebecca Y.; Blackwell, Brett R.; Berninger, Jason P.; LaLone, Carlie A.; Blanskma, Chad; Jicha, Terri M.; Elonen, Colleen M.; Johnson, Rodney C.; Ankley, Gerald T.

    2016-01-01

    Wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents are known contributors of chemical mixtures into the environment. Of particular concern are endocrine-disrupting compounds, such as estrogens, which can affect the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis function in exposed organisms. The present study examined reproductive effects in fathead minnows exposed for 21 d to a historically estrogenic WWTP effluent. Fathead minnow breeding pairs were held in control water or 1 of 3 effluent concentrations (5%, 20%, and 100%) in a novel onsite, flow-through system providing real-time exposure. The authors examined molecular and biochemical endpoints representing key events along adverse outcome pathways linking estrogen receptor activation and other molecular initiating events to reproductive impairment. In addition, the authors used chemical analysis of the effluent to construct a chemical-gene interaction network to aid in targeted gene expression analyses and identifying potentially impacted biological pathways. Cumulative fecundity was significantly reduced in fish exposed to 100% effluent but increased in those exposed to 20% effluent, the approximate dilution factor in the receiving waters. Plasma vitellogenin concentrations in males increased in a dose-dependent manner with effluent concentration; however, male fertility was not impacted. Although in vitro analyses, analytical chemistry, and biomarker responses confirmed the effluent was estrogenic, estrogen receptor agonists were unlikely the primary driver of impaired reproduction. The results provide insights into the significance of pathway-based effects with regard to predicting adverse reproductive outcomes.

  3. Pathway-based approaches for assessment of real-time exposure to an estrogenic wastewater treatment plant effluent on fathead minnow reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallin, Jenna E; Jensen, Kathleen M; Kahl, Michael D; Villeneuve, Daniel L; Lee, Kathy E; Schroeder, Anthony L; Mayasich, Joe; Eid, Evan P; Nelson, Krysta R; Milsk, Rebecca Y; Blackwell, Brett R; Berninger, Jason P; LaLone, Carlie A; Blanksma, Chad; Jicha, Terri; Elonen, Colleen; Johnson, Rodney; Ankley, Gerald T

    2016-03-01

    Wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents are known contributors of chemical mixtures into the environment. Of particular concern are endocrine-disrupting compounds, such as estrogens, which can affect the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis function in exposed organisms. The present study examined reproductive effects in fathead minnows exposed for 21 d to a historically estrogenic WWTP effluent. Fathead minnow breeding pairs were held in control water or 1 of 3 effluent concentrations (5%, 20%, and 100%) in a novel onsite, flow-through system providing real-time exposure. The authors examined molecular and biochemical endpoints representing key events along adverse outcome pathways linking estrogen receptor activation and other molecular initiating events to reproductive impairment. In addition, the authors used chemical analysis of the effluent to construct a chemical-gene interaction network to aid in targeted gene expression analyses and identifying potentially impacted biological pathways. Cumulative fecundity was significantly reduced in fish exposed to 100% effluent but increased in those exposed to 20% effluent, the approximate dilution factor in the receiving waters. Plasma vitellogenin concentrations in males increased in a dose-dependent manner with effluent concentration; however, male fertility was not impacted. Although in vitro analyses, analytical chemistry, and biomarker responses confirmed the effluent was estrogenic, estrogen receptor agonists were unlikely the primary driver of impaired reproduction. The results provide insights into the significance of pathway-based effects with regard to predicting adverse reproductive outcomes.

  4. Are combined AOPs effective for toxicity reduction in receiving marine environment? Suitability of battery of bioassays for wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent as an ecotoxicological assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Garduño, B; Rueda-Márquez, J J; Manzano, M A; Garrido-Pérez, C; Martín-Díaz, M L

    2016-03-01

    Ecotoxicological assessment of three different wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents D1, D2 and D3 was performed before and after tertiary treatment using combination of advanced oxidation processes (AOPs). A multibarrier treatment (MBT) consisting of microfiltration (MF), hydrogen peroxide photolysis (H2O2/UVC) and catalytic wet peroxide oxidation (CWPO) was applied for all effluents. Sparus aurata, Paracentrotus lividus, Isochrysis galbana and Vibrio fischeri, representing different trophic levels, constituted the battery of bioassays. Different acute toxicity effects were observed in each WWTP effluents tested. The percentage of sea urchin larval development and mortality fish larvae were the most sensitive endpoints. Significant reduction (p MBT process. Base on obtained results, tested battery of bioassays in pT-method framework can be recommended for acute toxicity preliminary evaluation of WWTP effluents for the marine environment. PMID:26741736

  5. Lagrangian sampling of wastewater treatment plant effluent in Boulder Creek, Colorado, and Fourmile Creek, Iowa, during the summer of 2003 and spring of 2005--Hydrological and chemical data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Larry B.; Keefe, Steffanie H.; Kolpin, Dana W.; Schnoebelen, Douglas J.; Flynn, Jennifer L.; Brown, Gregory K.; Furlong, Edward T.; Glassmeyer, Susan T.; Gray, James L.; Meyer, Michael T.; Sandstrom, Mark W.; Taylor, Howard E.; Zaugg, Steven D.

    2011-01-01

    This report presents methods and data for a Lagrangian sampling investigation into chemical loading and in-stream attenuation of inorganic and organic contaminants in two wastewater treatment-plant effluent-dominated streams: Boulder Creek, Colorado, and Fourmile Creek, Iowa. Water-quality sampling was timed to coincide with low-flow conditions when dilution of the wastewater treatment-plant effluent by stream water was at a minimum. Sample-collection times corresponded to estimated travel times (based on tracer tests) to allow the same "parcel" of water to reach downstream sampling locations. The water-quality data are linked directly to stream discharge using flow- and depth-integrated composite sampling protocols. A range of chemical analyses was made for nutrients, carbon, major elements, trace elements, biological components, acidic and neutral organic wastewater compounds, antibiotic compounds, pharmaceutical compounds, steroid and steroidal-hormone compounds, and pesticide compounds. Physical measurements were made for field conditions, stream discharge, and time-of-travel studies. Two Lagrangian water samplings were conducted in each stream, one in the summer of 2003 and the other in the spring of 2005. Water samples were collected from five sites in Boulder Creek: upstream from the wastewater treatment plant, the treatment-plant effluent, and three downstream sites. Fourmile Creek had seven sampling sites: upstream from the wastewater treatment plant, the treatment-plant effluent, four downstream sites, and a tributary. At each site, stream discharge was measured, and equal width-integrated composite water samples were collected and split for subsequent chemical, physical, and biological analyses. During the summer of 2003 sampling, Boulder Creek downstream from the wastewater treatment plant consisted of 36 percent effluent, and Fourmile Creek downstream from the respective wastewater treatment plant was 81 percent effluent. During the spring of 2005

  6. Removal of organic contaminants from secondary effluent by anodic oxidation with a boron-doped diamond anode as tertiary treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Segura, Sergi, E-mail: sergigarcia@ub.edu [Advanced Water Management Centre, The University of Queensland, Level 4, Gehrmann Bld. (60), St Lucia, QLD 072 (Australia); Laboratori d’Electroquímica dels Materials i del Medi Ambient, Departament de Química Física, Facultat de Química, Universitat de Barcelona, Martí i Franquès 1-11, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Keller, Jürg [Advanced Water Management Centre, The University of Queensland, Level 4, Gehrmann Bld. (60), St Lucia, QLD 072 (Australia); Brillas, Enric [Laboratori d’Electroquímica dels Materials i del Medi Ambient, Departament de Química Física, Facultat de Química, Universitat de Barcelona, Martí i Franquès 1-11, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Radjenovic, Jelena, E-mail: j.radjenovic@awmc.uq.edu.au [Advanced Water Management Centre, The University of Queensland, Level 4, Gehrmann Bld. (60), St Lucia, QLD 072 (Australia)

    2015-02-11

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Mineralization of secondary effluent by anodic oxidation with BDD anode. • Complete removal of 29 pharmaceuticals and pesticides at trace level concentrations. • Organochlorine and organobromine byproducts were formed at low μM concentrations. • Chlorine species evolution assessed to evaluate the anodic oxidation applicability. - Abstract: Electrochemical advanced oxidation processes (EAOPs) have been widely investigated as promising technologies to remove trace organic contaminants from water, but have rarely been used for the treatment of real waste streams. Anodic oxidation with a boron-doped diamond (BDD) anode was applied for the treatment of secondary effluent from a municipal sewage treatment plant containing 29 target pharmaceuticals and pesticides. The effectiveness of the treatment was assessed from the contaminants decay, dissolved organic carbon and chemical oxygen demand removal. The effect of applied current and pH was evaluated. Almost complete mineralization of effluent organic matter and trace contaminants can be obtained by this EAOP primarily due to the action of hydroxyl radicals formed at the BDD surface. The oxidation of Cl{sup −} ions present in the wastewater at the BDD anode gave rise to active chlorine species (Cl{sub 2}/HClO/ClO{sup −}), which are competitive oxidizing agents yielding chloramines and organohalogen byproducts, quantified as adsorbable organic halogen. However, further anodic oxidation of HClO/ClO{sup −} species led to the production of ClO{sub 3}{sup −} and ClO{sub 4}{sup −} ions. The formation of these species hampers the application as a single-stage tertiary treatment, but posterior cathodic reduction of chlorate and perchlorate species may reduce the risks associated to their presence in the environment.

  7. Removal of organic contaminants from secondary effluent by anodic oxidation with a boron-doped diamond anode as tertiary treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Mineralization of secondary effluent by anodic oxidation with BDD anode. • Complete removal of 29 pharmaceuticals and pesticides at trace level concentrations. • Organochlorine and organobromine byproducts were formed at low μM concentrations. • Chlorine species evolution assessed to evaluate the anodic oxidation applicability. - Abstract: Electrochemical advanced oxidation processes (EAOPs) have been widely investigated as promising technologies to remove trace organic contaminants from water, but have rarely been used for the treatment of real waste streams. Anodic oxidation with a boron-doped diamond (BDD) anode was applied for the treatment of secondary effluent from a municipal sewage treatment plant containing 29 target pharmaceuticals and pesticides. The effectiveness of the treatment was assessed from the contaminants decay, dissolved organic carbon and chemical oxygen demand removal. The effect of applied current and pH was evaluated. Almost complete mineralization of effluent organic matter and trace contaminants can be obtained by this EAOP primarily due to the action of hydroxyl radicals formed at the BDD surface. The oxidation of Cl− ions present in the wastewater at the BDD anode gave rise to active chlorine species (Cl2/HClO/ClO−), which are competitive oxidizing agents yielding chloramines and organohalogen byproducts, quantified as adsorbable organic halogen. However, further anodic oxidation of HClO/ClO− species led to the production of ClO3− and ClO4− ions. The formation of these species hampers the application as a single-stage tertiary treatment, but posterior cathodic reduction of chlorate and perchlorate species may reduce the risks associated to their presence in the environment

  8. Preservation of natural aquatic ecosystems by application of bottom coal ash based bioreactor for in situ treatment of anthropogenic effluents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anker, Y.; Nisnevitch, M.; Tal, M.; Cahan, R.; Michael, E.

    2012-12-01

    One consequence of global climate change is recharge decrease at sub tropical and Mediterranean regions to both the surface and the ground fresh water resources. As a general rule, when water source quantity is reduced, the level of salination, as well as chemical and biological pollutants, tends to increase. The situation is more severe whenever the drainage basin is (a) heavily populated from urban, industrial and agricultural areas, (b) has wide areas of thin or non soil cover and (c) has a karstic structure and morphology. These latter conditions are typical to many regions around the Middle East; whereas pollution hazard to Mid Eastern streams is greater than to those in more humid regions owing to their relative small size and poor dilution capacity. The consequence of this ongoing and increasing anthropogenic pollution is endangerment of natural aquatic habitats and due to decrease in fresh water supply availability also to human sustainability. The ecological impact may involve transition of ephemeral (Wadi) streams into intermittent ones with the accompanied biodiversity change or extinction once the pollution is extreme. The impact on indigenous human communities might be as severe owing to drinking water quality decrease and the consequent decrease id quantity as well as damage to dryland farming. In setting of operations applied to the Yarkon Taninim watershed (central Israel) management, a pilot biofilter facility for sustainable preservation and rehabilitation of natural fluvial ecosystems was tested. This biofilter is planned to operate through low impact concept assimilating natural treatment processes occurring during runoff recharge through a porous flow media. The facility is constructed out of several grain sizes of bottom coal ash aggregate, which was found to be a better microbial mats growing stratum, compared to common natural aggregates such as tuff and lime pebbles (and also has an EPA directive for wastewater treatment). The biofilter is

  9. In vivo and In vitro neurochemical-based assessments of wastewater effluents from the Maumee River area of concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arini, Adeline; Cavallin, Jenna E; Berninger, Jason P; Marfil-Vega, Ruth; Mills, Marc; Villeneuve, Daniel L; Basu, Niladri

    2016-04-01

    Wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents contain potentially neuroactive chemicals though few methods are available to screen for the presence of such agents. Here, two parallel approaches (in vivo and in vitro) were used to assess WWTP exposure-related changes to neurochemistry. First, fathead minnows (FHM, Pimephales promelas) were caged for four days along a WWTP discharge zone into the Maumee River (Ohio, USA). Grab water samples were collected and extracts obtained for the detection of alkylphenols, bisphenol A (BPA) and steroid hormones. Second, the extracts were then used as a source of in vitro exposure to brain tissues from FHM and four additional species relevant to the Great Lakes ecosystem (rainbow trout (RT), river otter (RO), bald eagle (BE) and human (HU)). The ability of the wastewater (in vivo) or extracts (in vitro) to interact with enzymes (monoamine oxidase (MAO) and glutamine synthetase (GS)) and receptors (dopamine (D2) and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDA)) involved in dopamine and glutamate-dependent neurotransmission were examined on brain homogenates. In vivo exposure of FHM led to significant decreases of NMDA receptor binding in females (24-42%), and increases of MAO activity in males (2.8- to 3.2-fold). In vitro, alkylphenol-targeted extracts significantly inhibited D2 (66% in FHM) and NMDA (24-54% in HU and RT) receptor binding, and induced MAO activity in RT, RO, and BE brains. Steroid hormone-targeted extracts inhibited GS activity in all species except FHM. BPA-targeted extracts caused a MAO inhibition in FHM, RT and BE brains. Using both in vivo and in vitro approaches, this study shows that WWTP effluents contain agents that can interact with neurochemicals important in reproduction and other neurological functions. Additional work is needed to better resolve in vitro to in vivo extrapolations (IVIVE) as well as cross-species differences.

  10. Pollution control technologies for the treatment of palm oil mill effluent (POME) through end-of-pipe processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ta Yeong; Mohammad, Abdul Wahab; Jahim, Jamaliah Md; Anuar, Nurina

    2010-07-01

    Palm oil production is one of the major industries in Malaysia and this country ranks one of the largest productions in the world. In Malaysia, the total production of crude palm oil in 2008 was 17,734,441 tonnes. However, the production of this amount of crude palm oil results in even larger amounts of palm oil mill effluent (POME). In the year 2008 alone, at least 44 million tonnes of POME was generated in Malaysia. Currently, the ponding system is the most common treatment method for POME but other processes such as aerobic and anaerobic digestion, physicochemical treatment and membrane filtration may also provide the palm oil industries with possible insights into the improvement of POME treatment processes. Generally, open ponding offers low capital and operating costs but this conventional method is becoming less attractive because the methane produced is wasted to the atmosphere and the system can not be certified for Carbon Emission Reduction trading. On the other hand, anaerobic digestion of POME provides the fastest payback of investment because the treatment enables biogas recovery for heat generation and treated effluent for land application. Lastly, it is proposed herewith that wastewater management based on the promotion of cleaner production and environmentally sound biotechnologies should be prioritized and included as a part of the POME management in Malaysia for attaining sustainable development. This paper thus discusses and compares state-of-the-art POME treatment methods as well as their individual performances.

  11. Comparison of contaminants of emerging concern removal, discharge, and water quality hazards among centralized and on-site wastewater treatment system effluents receiving common wastewater influent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Bowen; Price, Amy E; Scott, W Casan; Kristofco, Lauren A; Ramirez, Alejandro J; Chambliss, C Kevin; Yelderman, Joe C; Brooks, Bryan W

    2014-01-01

    A comparative understanding of effluent quality of decentralized on-site wastewater treatment systems, particularly for contaminants of emerging concern (CECs), remains less understood than effluent quality from centralized municipal wastewater treatment plants. Using a novel experimental facility with common influent wastewater, effluent water quality from a decentralized advanced aerobic treatment system (ATS) and a typical septic treatment system (STS) coupled to a subsurface flow constructed wetland (WET) were compared to effluent from a centralized municipal treatment plant (MTP). The STS did not include soil treatment, which may represent a system not functioning properly. Occurrence and discharge of a range of CECs were examined using isotope dilution liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry during fall and winter seasons. Conventional parameters, including total suspended solids, carbonaceous biochemical oxygen demand and nutrients were also evaluated from each treatment system. Water quality of these effluents was further examined using a therapeutic hazard modeling approach. Of 19 CECs targeted for study, the benzodiazepine pharmaceutical diazepam was the only CEC not detected in all wastewater influent and effluent samples over two sampling seasons. Diphenhydramine, codeine, diltiazem, atenolol, and diclofenac exhibited significant (ptreatment systems was generally not influenced by season. However, significant differences (pwater quality indicators were observed among the various treatment technologies. For example, removal of most CECs by ATS was generally comparable to MTP. Lowest removal of most CECs was observed for STS; however, removal was improved when coupling the STS to a WET. Across the treatment systems examined, the majority of pharmaceuticals observed in on-site and municipal effluent discharges were predicted to potentially present therapeutic hazards to fish.

  12. Coupling in vitro and in vivo neurochemical-based assessments of wastewater effluents from the Maumee River Area of Concern (AOC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Here we utilize in vivo and in vitro approaches to study whether real world effluents released in the Maumee River (Toledo, OH) Area of Concern (AOC) contain neuroactive substances that may impair fish reproduction and behavior. Our approaches help extend the concept of endocrine...

  13. Anaerobic Digestion and Biogas Production: Combine Effluent Treatment with Energy Generation in UASB Reactor as Biorefinery Annex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Berni

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The issue of residues and industrial effluents represents an unprecedented environmental challenge in terms of recovery, storage, and treatment. This work discusses the perspectives of treating effluents through anaerobic digestion as well as reporting the experience of using an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB reactor as biorefinery annex in a pulp and paper industrial plant to be burned in the boilers. The performance of the reactors has shown to be stable under considerable variations in load and showed a significant potential in terms of biogas production. The reactors UASB treated 3600.00 m3 of effluent daily from a production of 150.00 tons. The biogas generation was 234.000 kg/year/mill, equivalent in combustible oil. The results of methane gas generated by the anaerobic system UASB (8846.00 kcal/m3 dislocate the equivalent of 650.0 kg of combustible oil (10000.00 kcal/kg per day (or 234.000 kg/year. The production of 8846.00 Kcal/m3 of energy from biogas can make a run at industrial plant for 2 hours. This substitution can save US$ 128.700 annually (or US$ 550.0 of fuel oil/tons. The companies are invested in the use of the biogas in diesel stationary motors cycle that feed the boilers with water in case of storage electricity.

  14. Uptake of Three Antibiotics and an Antiepileptic Drug by Wheat Crops Spray Irrigated with Wastewater Treatment Plant Effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Alison M; Williams, Clinton F; Andrews, Danielle M; Woodward, Emily E; Watson, John E

    2016-03-01

    With rising demands on water supplies necessitating water reuse, wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent is often used to irrigate agricultural lands. Emerging contaminants, like pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), are frequently found in effluent due to limited removal during WWTP processes. Concern has arisen about the environmental fate of PPCPs, especially regarding plant uptake. The aim of this study was to analyze uptake of sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim, ofloxacin, and carbamazepine in wheat ( L.) plants that were spray-irrigated with WWTP effluent. Wheat was collected before and during harvest, and plants were divided into grain and straw. Subsamples were rinsed with methanol to remove compounds adhering to surfaces. All plant tissues underwent liquid-solid extraction, solid-phase extraction cleanup, and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis. Residues of each compound were present on most plant surfaces. Ofloxacin was found throughout the plant, with higher concentrations in the straw (10.2 ± 7.05 ng g) and lower concentrations in the grain (2.28 ± 0.89 ng g). Trimethoprim was found only on grain or straw surfaces, whereas carbamazepine and sulfamethoxazole were concentrated within the grain (1.88 ± 2.11 and 0.64 ± 0.37 ng g, respectively). These findings demonstrate that PPCPs can be taken up into wheat plants and adhere to plant surfaces when WWTP effluent is spray-irrigated. The presence of PPCPs within and on the surfaces of plants used as food sources raises the question of potential health risks for humans and animals.

  15. Characterization of sorption sites and differential stress response of microalgae isolates against tannery effluents from ranipet industrial area-An application towards phycoremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaji, S; Kalaivani, T; Sushma, B; Pillai, C Varneetha; Shalini, M; Rajasekaran, C

    2016-08-01

    Phycoremediation ability of microalgae namely Oscillatoria acuminate and Phormidium irrigum were validated against the heavy metals from tannery effluent of Ranipet industrial area. The microalgae species were cultured in media containing tannery effluent in two different volumes and the parameters like specific growth rate, protein content and antioxidant enzyme activities were estimated. FTIR spectroscopy was carried out to know the sorption sites interaction. The antioxidant enzymes namely superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione (GSH) contents were increased in microalgae species indicating the free radical scavenging mechanism under heavy metal stress. SOD activity was 0.502 and 0.378 units/gram fresh weight, CAT activity was 1.36 and 0.256 units/gram fresh weight, GSH activity was 1.286 and 1.232 units/gram fresh weight respectively in the effluent treated microalgae species. Bio sorption efficiency for Oscillatoria acuminate and Phormidium irrigum was 90% and 80% respectively. FTIR analysis revealed the interaction of microalgae species with chemical groups present in the tannery effluent. From the results, the microalgae Oscillatoria acuminate possess high antioxidant activity and bio sorption efficiency when compared to Phormidium irrigum and hence considered useful in treating heavy metals contaminated effluents. PMID:26587690

  16. LITERATURE REVIEW ON IMPACT OF GLYCOLATE ON THE 2H EVAPORATOR AND THE EFFLUENT TREATMENT FACILITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adu-Wusu, K.

    2012-05-10

    Glycolic acid (GA) is being studied as an alternate reductant in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) feed preparation process. It will either be a total or partial replacement for the formic acid that is currently used. A literature review has been conducted on the impact of glycolate on two post-DWPF downstream systems - the 2H Evaporator system and the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF). The DWPF recycle stream serves as a portion of the feed to the 2H Evaporator. Glycolate enters the evaporator system from the glycolate in the recycle stream. The overhead (i.e., condensed phase) from the 2H Evaporator serves as a portion of the feed to the ETF. The literature search revealed that virtually no impact is anticipated for the 2H Evaporator. Glycolate may help reduce scale formation in the evaporator due to its high complexing ability. The drawback of the solubilizing ability is the potential impact on the criticality analysis of the 2H Evaporator system. It is recommended that at least a theoretical evaluation to confirm the finding that no self-propagating violent reactions with nitrate/nitrites will occur should be performed. Similarly, identification of sources of ignition relevant to glycolate and/or update of the composite flammability analysis to reflect the effects from the glycolate additions for the 2H Evaporator system are in order. An evaluation of the 2H Evaporator criticality analysis is also needed. A determination of the amount or fraction of the glycolate in the evaporator overhead is critical to more accurately assess its impact on the ETF. Hence, use of predictive models like OLI Environmental Simulation Package Software (OLI/ESP) and/or testing are recommended for the determination of the glycolate concentration in the overhead. The impact on the ETF depends on the concentration of glycolate in the ETF feed. The impact is classified as minor for feed glycolate concentrations {le} 33 mg/L or 0.44 mM. The ETF unit operations that will have

  17. Wetland-based passive treatment systems for gold ore processing effluents containing residual cyanide, metals and nitrogen species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, R; Ordóñez, A; Loredo, J; Younger, P L

    2013-10-01

    Gold extraction operations generate a variety of wastes requiring responsible disposal in compliance with current environmental regulations. During recent decades, increased emphasis has been placed on effluent control and treatment, in order to avoid the threat to the environment posed by toxic constituents. In many modern gold mining and ore processing operations, cyanide species are of most immediate concern. Given that natural degradation processes are known to reduce the toxicity of cyanide over time, trials have been made at laboratory and field scales into the feasibility of using wetland-based passive systems as low-cost and environmentally friendly methods for long-term treatment of leachates from closed gold mine tailing disposal facilities. Laboratory experiments on discrete aerobic and anaerobic treatment units supported the development of design parameters for the construction of a field-scale passive system at a gold mine site in northern Spain. An in situ pilot-scale wetland treatment system was designed, constructed and monitored over a nine-month period. Overall, the results suggest that compost-based constructed wetlands are capable of detoxifying cyanidation effluents, removing about 21.6% of dissolved cyanide and 98% of Cu, as well as nitrite and nitrate. Wetland-based passive systems can therefore be considered as a viable technology for removal of residual concentrations of cyanide from leachates emanating from closed gold mine tailing disposal facilities. PMID:24089077

  18. Pre-Treatment Effect of Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME during Hydrogen Production by a Local Isolate Clostridium butyricum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syafawati Ahmad Kamal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME could become a very good carbon feedstock for hydrogen production in fermentation process if it is well prepared and being  utilised based on its fermentable constituents composed in POME. In this research, the effectiveness of pre-treatment methods on POME was examined based on total carbohydrate (TC and chemical oxygen demand (COD. Several pre-treatment methods such as heat, acid and alkaline were introduced to POME to increase the total carbohydrate content in POME medium. These mediums were further used in fermentation process to ensure the effect of pre-treatment method in term of hydrogen production. The highest hydrogen yield was 2.18 mol H2 / mol total carbohydrate given by POME using alkalineheat-supernatant pre-treatment in bioreactor 2L

  19. Occurrence of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes in a sewage treatment plant and its effluent-receiving river.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jian; Xu, Yan; Wang, Hongmei; Guo, Changsheng; Qiu, Huiyun; He, Yan; Zhang, Yuan; Li, Xiaochen; Meng, Wei

    2015-01-01

    The extensive use of antibiotics has caused the contamination of both antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in the environment. In this study, the abundance and distribution of antibiotics and ARGs from a sewage treatment plant (STP) and its effluent-receiving river in Beijing China were characterized. Three classes of antibiotics including tetracycline, sulfonamide and quinolone were quantified by LC-MS/MS. In the secondary effluent they were detected at 195, 2001 and 3866 ng L(-1), respectively, which were higher than in the receiving river water. A total of 13 ARGs (6 tet genes: tetA, tetB, tetE, tetW, tetM and tetZ, 3 sulfonamide genes: sul1, sul2 and sul3, and 4 quinolone genes: gryA, parC, qnrC and qnrD) were determined by quantitative PCR. For all ARGs, sulfonamide resistance genes were present at relatively high concentrations in all samples, with the highest ARG concentration above 10(-1). ARGs remained relatively stable along each sewage treatment process. The abundances of detected ARGs from the STP were also higher than its receiving river. Bivariate correlation analysis showed that relative tet gene copies (tetB/16S-rRNA and tetW/16S-rRNA) were strongly correlated with the concentrations of tetracycline residues (r(2)>0.8, presistance gene (qnrC/16S-rRNA) and the concentrations of enrofloxacin (ENR) was also determined. The difference of ARGs levels in the raw influent and secondary effluent suggested that the STP treatment process may induce to increase the abundance of resistance genes. The results showed that the sewage was an important repository of the resistance genes, which need to be effectively treated before discharge into the natural water body.

  20. Analysis of bacteria, parasites, and heavy metals in lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and rocket salad (Eruca sativa L.) irrigated with treated effluent from a biological wastewater treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikaido, Meire; Tonani, Karina A A; Julião, Fabiana C; Trevilato, Tânia M B; Takayanagui, Angela M M; Sanches, Sérgio M; Domingo, José L; Segura-Muñoz, Susana I

    2010-06-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the viability of using treated residuary water from the Biological Wastewater Treatment Plant of Ribeirão Preto to grow vegetables, through the characterization and quantification of parasites, coliforms, and heavy metals. Three equal cultivation areas were prepared. The first was irrigated with treated/chlorinated (0.2 mg L(-1)) wastewater, the second one with treated wastewater without chlorination, and the third site with potable water, which was the control group. The presence of Hymenolepis nana, Enterobius vermicularis, nematode larvae, and Entamoeba coli was verified in lettuce (Lactuca sativa) samples. Although nematode larvae were observed in rocket salad (Eruca sativa L.), no significant differences were found between the number of parasites and type of irrigation water used. No significant differences were found between the number of fecal coliforms in vegetables and the different types of irrigation. However, the vegetables irrigated with treated effluent without chlorination showed higher levels of fecal coliforms. The risk of pathogens is reduced with bleach addition to the treated effluent at 0.2 mg/L. Concentration of heavy metals in vegetables does not mean significant risks to human health, according with the parameters recommended by the World Health Organization.

  1. Are perfluoroalkyl acids in waste water treatment plant effluents the result of primary emissions from the technosphere or of environmental recirculation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipovic, Marko; Berger, Urs

    2015-06-01

    Wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) have been suggested to be one of the major pathways of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) from the technosphere to the aquatic environment. The origin of PFAAs in WWTP influents is either from current primary emissions or a result of recirculation of PFAAs that have been residing and transported in the environment for several years or decades. Environmental recirculation can then occur when PFAAs from the environment enter the wastewater stream in, e.g., tap water. In this study 13 PFAAs and perfluorooctane sulfonamide were analyzed in tap water as well as WWTP influent, effluent and sludge from three Swedish cities: Bromma (in the metropolitan area of Stockholm), Bollebygd and Umeå. A mass balance of the WWTPs was assembled for each PFAA. Positive mass balances were observed for PFHxA and PFOA in all WWTPs, indicating the presence of precursor compounds in the technosphere. With regard to environmental recirculation, tap water was an important source of PFAAs to the Bromma WWTP influent, contributing >40% for each quantified sulfonic acid and up to 30% for the carboxylic acids. The PFAAs in tap water from Bollebygd and Umeå did not contribute significantly to the PFAA load in the WWTP influents. Our results show that in order to estimate current primary emissions from the technosphere, it may be necessary to correct the PFAA emission rates in WWTP effluents for PFAAs present in tap water, especially in the case of elevated levels in tap water.

  2. Analysis of bacteria, parasites, and heavy metals in lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and rocket salad (Eruca sativa L.) irrigated with treated effluent from a biological wastewater treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikaido, Meire; Tonani, Karina A A; Julião, Fabiana C; Trevilato, Tânia M B; Takayanagui, Angela M M; Sanches, Sérgio M; Domingo, José L; Segura-Muñoz, Susana I

    2010-06-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the viability of using treated residuary water from the Biological Wastewater Treatment Plant of Ribeirão Preto to grow vegetables, through the characterization and quantification of parasites, coliforms, and heavy metals. Three equal cultivation areas were prepared. The first was irrigated with treated/chlorinated (0.2 mg L(-1)) wastewater, the second one with treated wastewater without chlorination, and the third site with potable water, which was the control group. The presence of Hymenolepis nana, Enterobius vermicularis, nematode larvae, and Entamoeba coli was verified in lettuce (Lactuca sativa) samples. Although nematode larvae were observed in rocket salad (Eruca sativa L.), no significant differences were found between the number of parasites and type of irrigation water used. No significant differences were found between the number of fecal coliforms in vegetables and the different types of irrigation. However, the vegetables irrigated with treated effluent without chlorination showed higher levels of fecal coliforms. The risk of pathogens is reduced with bleach addition to the treated effluent at 0.2 mg/L. Concentration of heavy metals in vegetables does not mean significant risks to human health, according with the parameters recommended by the World Health Organization. PMID:19639268

  3. Effect of high salinity on anaerobic treatment of low strength effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozalp, G; Gomec, C Y; Ozturk, I; Gonuldinc, S; Altinbas, M

    2003-01-01

    In anaerobic treatment, it is obligatory to know the effect of potentially inhibitory compounds due to the fact that methane formation may retard severely and may proceed slower than organic acid production. One of the most important inhibitory substances in anaerobic treatment is high salinity. In many cases, the main collectors of a municipal sewer system should have been built in the coastal zone and below the ground water level due to the available topography of wastewater catchments area, which is carrying the risk of seawater infiltration. Besides, one of the most convenient methods for leachate control is to treat landfill leachates with domestic wastewaters in the central municipal wastewater treatment plants such as in Istanbul. Thus, the nitrogen load of the treatment plants increase significantly. In this study, the effects of high salinity and ammonium nitrogen levels on mesophilic anaerobic tretament processes were investigated. In the first part of the study, high salinity effect on anaerobic treatment was investigated by feeding synthetic wastewater containing high salinity between 0.15%-1.5% ratios. In the second part of the study, the simultaneous effect of high salinity and ammonia (1.5% salinity+1,000 mg NH3/l) was examined by a lab-scale Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Bed Reactor (UASBR). Results indicated no significant inhibition in both cases and effective COD removals (89%) and total biogas productions having methane content of 84% could be achieved. PMID:14753538

  4. Integrated assessment of wastewater treatment plant effluent estrogenicity in the Upper Murray River, Australia, using the native Murray rainbowfish (Melanotaenia fluviatilis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vajda, Alan M.; Kumar, Anupama; Woods, Marianne; Williams, Mike; Doan, Hai; Tolsher, Peter; Kookana, Rai S.; Barber, Larry B.

    2016-01-01

    The contamination of major continental river systems by endocrine-active chemicals (EACs) derived from the discharge of wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents can affect human and ecosystem health. As part of a long-term effort to develop a native fish model organism for assessment of endocrine disruption in Australia's largest watershed, the Murray-Darling River Basin, the present study evaluated endocrine disruption in adult males of the native Australian Murray rainbowfish (Melanotaenia fluviatilis) exposed to effluent from an activated sludge WWTP and water from the Murray River during a 28-d, continuous-flow, on-site experiment. Analysis of the WWTP effluent and river water detected estrone and 17β-estradiol at concentrations up to approximately 25 ng L−1. Anti-estrogenicity of effluent samples was detected in vitro using yeast-based bioassays (yeast estrogen screen) throughout the experiment, but estrogenicity was limited to the first week of the experiment. Histological evaluation of the testes indicated significant suppression of spermatogenesis by WWTP effluent after 28 d of exposure. Plasma vitellogenin concentrations and expression of vitellogenin messenger RNA in liver were not significantly affected by exposure to WWTP effluent. The combination of low contaminant concentrations in the WWTP effluent, limited endocrine disrupting effects in the Murray rainbowfish, and high in-stream dilution factors (>99%) suggest minimal endocrine disruption impacts on native Australian fish in the Murray River downstream from the WWTP outfall. 

  5. Integrated assessment of wastewater treatment plant effluent estrogenicity in the Upper Murray River, Australia, using the native Murray rainbowfish (Melanotaenia fluviatilis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vajda, Alan M; Kumar, Anupama; Woods, Marianne; Williams, Mike; Doan, Hai; Tolsher, Peter; Kookana, Rai S; Barber, Larry B

    2015-05-01

    The contamination of major continental river systems by endocrine-active chemicals (EACs) derived from the discharge of wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents can affect human and ecosystem health. As part of a long-term effort to develop a native fish model organism for assessment of endocrine disruption in Australia's largest watershed, the Murray-Darling River Basin, the present study evaluated endocrine disruption in adult males of the native Australian Murray rainbowfish (Melanotaenia fluviatilis) exposed to effluent from an activated sludge WWTP and water from the Murray River during a 28-d, continuous-flow, on-site experiment. Analysis of the WWTP effluent and river water detected estrone and 17β-estradiol at concentrations up to approximately 25 ng L(-1) . Anti-estrogenicity of effluent samples was detected in vitro using yeast-based bioassays (yeast estrogen screen) throughout the experiment, but estrogenicity was limited to the first week of the experiment. Histological evaluation of the testes indicated significant suppression of spermatogenesis by WWTP effluent after 28 d of exposure. Plasma vitellogenin concentrations and expression of vitellogenin messenger RNA in liver were not significantly affected by exposure to WWTP effluent. The combination of low contaminant concentrations in the WWTP effluent, limited endocrine disrupting effects in the Murray rainbowfish, and high in-stream dilution factors (>99%) suggest minimal endocrine disruption impacts on native Australian fish in the Murray River downstream from the WWTP outfall.

  6. Effect of pyrolysis temperature on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons toxicity and sorption behaviour of biochars prepared by pyrolysis of paper mill effluent treatment plant sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, Parmila; Saroha, Anil K

    2015-09-01

    The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) toxicity and sorption behaviour of biochars prepared from pyrolysis of paper mill effluent treatment plant (ETP) sludge in temperature range 200-700 °C was studied. The sorption behaviour was found to depend on the degree of carbonization where the fractions of carbonized and uncarbonized organic content in the biochar act as an adsorption media and partition media, respectively. The sorption and partition fractions were quantified by isotherm separation method and isotherm parameters were correlated with biochar properties (aromaticity, polarity, surface area, pore volume and ash content). The risk assessment for the 16 priority EPA PAHs present in the biochar matrix was performed and it was found that the concentrations of the PAHs in the biochar were within the permissible limits prescribed by US EPA (except BC400 and BC500 for high molecular weight PAHs). PMID:26048085

  7. Constructed Wetlands Systems Batch: removal of Biochemical Oxygen Demand and pH regulation for treatment dairy effluent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Vieira de Mendonça

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This work assessed the effectiveness of using constructed wetlands (CW's to treat dairy effluent. The purpose of the research was to evaluate the influence of substrates and cultivated plants on the efficiency of Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD removal and pH regulation in six experimental units operating at pilot scale. Six CW's for dairy sewage treatment were constructed in 100-liter High-Density Polyethylene Ethylene (HDPE tanks. Three constructed wetlands containing fine gravel (0 mm and another three with a mix of 20% sand and 80% fine gravel (0 mm were used in the filtering stage. Four experimental units were planted with the macrophytes Typha dominguensis (cattail and Hedychium coronarium (pond lily, the selected plants for this study, and two others were maintained as control units. A minimum average of 77.8% and a maximum of 95.2% BOD efficiency removal were achieved and a pH range of 5 to 9 was maintained as required by the Brazilian Resolution CONAMA N. 430 /2011 in order to release the effluent into a waterway. The six treatments showed similar removal of biodegradable carbonaceous compounds with no significant differences between the treatments at a 95% confidence level. This work showed that CW’s operating in batch can be used to treat dairy raw water for BOD removal and pH regulation.

  8. Estonian waterworks treatment plants: clearance of residues, discharge of effluents and efficiency of removal of radium from drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trotti, F; Caldognetto, E; Forte, M; Nuccetelli, C; Risica, S; Rusconi, R

    2013-12-01

    Considerable levels of radium were detected in a certain fraction of the Estonian drinking water supply network. Some of these waterworks have treatment systems for the removal of (mainly) iron and manganese from drinking water. Three of these waterworks and another one equipped with a radium removal pilot plant were examined, and a specific study was conducted in order to assess the environmental compatibility of effluents and residues produced in the plants. (226)Ra and (228)Ra activity concentrations were analysed in both liquid (backwash water) and solid (sand filter and sediment) materials to evaluate their compliance, from the radiological point of view, with current Estonian legislation and international technical documents that propose reference levels for radium in effluents and residues. Also with regard to water treatment by-products, a preliminary analysis was done of possible consequences of the transposition of the European Basic Safety Standards Draft into Estonian law. Radium removal efficiency was also tested in the same plants. Iron and manganese treatment plants turned out to be scarcely effective, whilst the radium mitigation pilot plant showed a promising performance.

  9. The effect of aeration and effluent recycling on domestic wastewater treatment in a pilot-plant system of duckweed ponds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-shalom, Miriam; Shandalov, Semion; Brenner, Asher; Oron, Gideon

    2014-01-01

    Three pilot-scale duckweed pond (DP) wastewater treatment systems were designed and operated to examine the effect of aeration and effluent recycling on treatment efficiency. Each system consisted of two DPs in series fed by pre-settled domestic sewage. The first system (duckweed+ conventional treatment) was 'natural' and included only duckweed plants. The second system (duckweed aeration) included aeration in the second pond. The third system (duckweed+ aeration+ circulation) included aeration in the second pond and effluent recycling from the second to the first pond. All three systems demonstrated similarly efficient removal of organic matter and nutrients. Supplemental aeration had no effect on either dissolved oxygen levels or on pollutant removal efficiencies. Although recycling had almost no influence on nutrient removal efficiencies, it had a positive impact on chemical oxygen demand and total suspended solids removals due to equalization of load and pH, which suppressed algae growth. Recycling also improved the appearance and growth rate of the duckweed plants, especially during heavy wastewater loads.

  10. Novel physico-biological treatment for the remediation of textile dyes-containing industrial effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez, M S; Moscoso, F; Rodríguez, A; Sanromán, M A; Deive, F J

    2013-10-01

    In this work, a novel remediation strategy consisting of a sequential biological and physical process is proposed to remove dyes from a textile polluted effluent. The decolorization ability of Anoxybacillus flavithermus in an aqueous effluent containing two representative textile finishing dyes (Reactive Black 5 and Acid Black 48, as di-azo and antraquinone class, respectively) was proved. The decolorization efficiency for a mixture of both dyes reached almost 60% in less than 12h, which points out the suitability of the selected microorganism. In a sequential stage, an aqueous biphasic system consisting of non-ionic surfactants and a potassium-based organic salt, acting as the salting out agent, was investigated. The phase segregation potential of the selected salts was evaluated in the light of different thermodynamic models, and remediation levels higher than 99% were reached.

  11. Functional design criteria for project W-252, phase II liquid effluent treatment and disposal. Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is the Functional Design Criteria for Project W-252. Project W-252 provides the scope to provide BAT/AKART (best available technology...) to 200 Liquid Effluent Phase II streams (B-Plant). This revision (Rev. 2) incorporates a major descoping of the project. The descoping was done to reflect a combination of budget cutting measures allowed by a less stringent regulatory posture toward the Phase II streams

  12. Treatment of industrial effluents for neutralization and sulphate removal / Johannes Philippus Maree

    OpenAIRE

    Maree, Johannes Philippus

    2006-01-01

    1.1 Background: Acid mine water containing sulphate and high concentrations of dissolved heavy metals, including iron(II), can have pH values as low as 2.5. Environmental pollution caused by such effluents are major contributors to the salinisation of receiving water, and may prove toxic to both fauna and flora. Acid, sulphate-rich solutions are produced bacteriologically from pyrite present in waste dumps from mining and metallurgical operations and from spent sulphuric acid u...

  13. Assessing the effectiveness of chemical treatment with nanomaterials in improving the quality of different industrial effluents

    OpenAIRE

    Nogueira, Verónica Inês Jesus Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    Industrial activities are the major sources of pollution in all environments. Depending on the type of industry, various levels of organic and inorganic pollutants are being continuously discharged into the environment. Although, several kinds of physical, chemical, biological or the combination of methods have been proposed and applied to minimize the impact of industrial effluents, few have proved to be totally effective in terms of removal rates of several contaminants, toxicity reduction ...

  14. Treatment of petrochemical secondary effluent by an up-flow biological aerated filter (BAF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, L Y; Wu, C Y; Zhou, Y X; Zuo, J E; Ding, Y

    2016-01-01

    In this study, petrochemical secondary effluent was treated by a 55 cm diameter pilot-scale biological aerated filter (BAF) with a media depth of 220 cm. Volcanic rock grains were filled as the BAF media. Median removal efficiency of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) was 29.35 and 57.98%, respectively. Moreover, the removal profile of the COD, NH3-N, total nitrogen and total organic carbon demonstrated that the filter height of 140 cm made up to 90% of the total removal efficiency of the final effluent. By gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, removal efficiencies of 2-chloromethyl-1,3-dioxolane, and benzonitrile, indene and naphthalene were obtained, ranging from 30.12 to 63.01%. The biomass and microbial activity of the microorganisms on the filter media were in general reduced with increasing filter height, which is consistent with the removal profile of the contaminants. The detected genera Defluviicoccus, Betaproteobacteria_unclassified and the Blastocatella constituted 1.86-6.75% of the identified gene, enhancing the COD and nitrogen removal in BAF for treating petrochemical secondary effluent. PMID:27120658

  15. Recovery and Treatment of Effluent Containing NHD%含NHD废水的回收处理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏水林; 赵浩; 李大治

    2013-01-01

    对NHD溶液污染的原因进行了分析,提出了防止污染可采取的措施,重点介绍了含NHD废水的回收工艺.多年来的实际应用情况表明:含NHD废水回收装置对污染严重的NHD溶液和过滤器反冲洗含NHD废水的回收有较理想的效果,且装置流程简单、操作方便、投资少、回收率高,经济和环保效益明显.%An analysis is made of the causes for NHD solution pollution,feasible measures are proposed for prevention of pollution,and points of importance are given for the process of recovery of effluent containing NHD.Its actual use for several years shows that the recovery plant for effluent containing NHD gives ideal results for heavily polluted NHD solution and effluent containing NHD for backwashing of the filter.The plant has a simple flowsheet,is convenient to operate,low in investment,high in recovery,and economic and environmental effect is evident.

  16. TREATMENT OF GASEOUS EFFLUENTS ISSUED FROM RECYCLING – A REVIEW OF THE CURRENT PRACTICES AND PROSPECTIVE IMPROVEMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patricia Paviet-Hartmann; William Kerlin; Steven Bakhtiar

    2010-11-01

    The objectives of gaseous waste management for the recycling of nuclear used fuel is to reduce by best practical means (ALARA) and below regulatory limits, the quantity of activity discharged to the environment. The industrial PUREX process recovers the fissile material U(VI) and Pu(IV) to re-use them for the fabrication of new fuel elements e.g. recycling plutonium as a Mixed Oxide (MOX) fuel or recycling uranium for new enrichment for Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR). Meanwhile the separation of the waste (activation and fission product) is performed as a function of their pollution in order to store and avoid any potential danger and release towards the biosphere. Raffinate, that remains after the extraction step and which contains mostly all fission products and minor actinides is vitrified, the glass package being stored temporarily at the recycling plant site. Hulls and end pieces coming from PWR recycled fuel are compacted by means of a press leading to a volume reduced to 1/5th of initial volume. An organic waste treatment step will recycle the solvent, mainly tri-butyl phosphate (TBP) and some of its hydrolysis and radiolytic degradation products such as dibutyl phosphate (HDPB) and monobutyl phosphate (H2MBP). Although most scientific and technological development work focused on high level waste streams, a considerable effort is still under way in the area of intermediate and low level waste management. Current industrial practices for the treatment of gaseous effluents focusing essentially on Iodine-129 and Krypton-85 will be reviewed along with the development of novel technologies to extract, condition, and store these fission products. As an example, the current industrial practice is to discharge Kr-85, a radioactive gas, entirely to the atmosphere after dilution, but for the large recycling facilities envisioned in the near future, several techniques such as 1) cryogenic distillation and selective absorption in solvents, 2) adsorption on activated

  17. Duckweed based wastewater stabilization ponds for wastewater treatment (a low cost technology for small urban areas in Zimbabwe)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalu, J. M.; Ndamba, J.

    A three-year investigation into the potential use of duckweed based wastewater stabilizations ponds for wastewater treatment was carried out at two small urban areas in Zimbabwe. The study hoped to contribute towards improved environmental management through improving the quality of effluent being discharged into natural waterways. This was to be achieved through the development and facilitation of the use of duckweed based wastewater stabilizations ponds. The study was carried out at Nemanwa and Gutu Growth Points both with a total population of 23 000. The two centers, like more than 70% of Zimbabwe’s small urban areas, relied on algae based ponds for domestic wastewater treatment. The final effluent is used to irrigate gum plantations before finding its way into the nearest streams. Baseline wastewater quality information was collected on a monthly basis for three months after which duckweed ( Lemna minor) was introduced into the maturation ponds to at least 50% pond surface cover. The influent and effluent was then monitored on a monthly basis for chemical, physical and bacteriological parameters as stipulated in the Zimbabwe Water (Waste and Effluent Disposal) regulations of 2000. After five months, the range of parameters tested for was narrowed to include only those that sometimes surpassed the limits. These included: phosphates, nitrates, pH, biological oxygen demand, iron, conductivity, chemical oxygen demand, turbidity, total dissolved solids and total suspended solids. Significant reductions to within permissible limits were obtained for most of the above-mentioned parameters except for phosphates, chemical and biological oxygen demand and turbidity. However, in these cases, more than 60% reductions were observed when the influent and effluent levels were compared. It is our belief that duckweed based waste stabilization ponds can now be used successfully for the treatment of domestic wastewater in small urban areas of Zimbabwe.

  18. Treatment of emerging contaminants in wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) effluents by solar photocatalysis using low TiO{sub 2} concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prieto-Rodriguez, L.; Miralles-Cuevas, S. [Plataforma Solar de Almeria-CIEMAT, Carretera de Senes Km 4, 04200 (Tabernas, Almeria) (Spain); Oller, I. [Plataforma Solar de Almeria-CIEMAT, Carretera de Senes Km 4, 04200 (Tabernas, Almeria) (Spain); CIESOL, Joint Centre of the University of Almeria-CIEMAT, 04120 Almeria (Spain); Agueera, A. [Pesticide Residue Research Group, University of Almeria, 04120 Almeria (Spain); CIESOL, Joint Centre of the University of Almeria-CIEMAT, 04120 Almeria (Spain); Puma, G. Li [Photocatalysis and Photoreaction Engineering, Department of Chemical Engineering, Loughborough University, Loughborough LE11 3TU (United Kingdom); Malato, S., E-mail: sixto.malato@psa.es [Plataforma Solar de Almeria-CIEMAT, Carretera de Senes Km 4, 04200 (Tabernas, Almeria) (Spain); CIESOL, Joint Centre of the University of Almeria-CIEMAT, 04120 Almeria (Spain)

    2012-04-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Low TiO{sub 2} concentration suitable for removal of contaminants in WWTP effluents. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The low concentration of TiO{sub 2} limits the reaction rate due to the loss of photons. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Contaminant degradation >85% is possible after a certain reaction time. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer New developments in CPC photoreactors with as large an O.D. are necessary. - Abstract: The optimal photocatalyst concentration for industrial wastewater treatment in current photoreactor designs is several hundreds of milligrams per liter. However, the elimination of emerging contaminants (ECs), which are present at extremely low concentrations in waste water treatment plants (WWTP) effluents might be accomplished at much lower catalyst (TiO{sub 2}) concentrations. One of the main drawbacks of reducing catalyst loading below the optimum is the loss of useful photons which instead are transmitted through the TiO{sub 2} suspension without being absorbed by the catalyst. Accordingly, in this work, laboratory and solar pilot-scale experiments were performed with real WWTP effluents to evaluate the kinetics of photocatalytic degradation of 52 emerging contaminants under realistic (ppb) concentrations. The analysis of the samples was accomplished by solid phase extraction (SPE) followed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). In view of the results, low concentrations of TiO{sub 2} of the order of tens of milligrams per liter were found to be insufficient for the degradation of the ECs in photoreactors with a short light-path length (29 cm). However, it was established that solar reactors of diameters of several hundreds of millimetres could be used for the efficient removal of ECs from WWTP effluents. The results presented show a general methodology for selecting the most efficient reactor diameter on the basis of the desired catalyst concentration.

  19. A sensitive ferricyanide-mediated biochemical oxygen demand assay for analysis of wastewater treatment plant influents and treated effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Mark A; Welsh, David T; John, Richard; Catterall, Kylie; Teasdale, Peter R

    2013-02-01

    Representative and fast monitoring of wastewater influent and effluent biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) is an elusive goal for the wastewater industry and regulatory bodies alike. The present study describes a suitable assay, which incorporates activated sludge as the biocatalyst and ferricyanide as the terminal electron acceptor for respiration. A number of different sludges and sludge treatments were investigated, primarily to improve the sensitivity of the assay. A limit of detection (LOD) (2.1 mg BOD₅ L⁻¹) very similar to that of the standard 5-day BOD₅ method was achieved in 4 h using raw influent sludge that had been cultured overnight as the biocatalyst. Reducing the microbial concentration was the most effective means to improve sensitivity and reduce the contribution of the sludge's endogenous respiration to total ferricyanide-mediated (FM) respiration. A strong and highly significant relationship was found (n = 33; R = 0.96; p treatment plant (WWTP) influent and treated effluent, as well as several grey water samples. The activated sludge FM-BOD assay presented here is an exceptional surrogate method to the standard BOD₅ assay, providing representative, same-day BOD analysis of WWTP samples with a comparable detection limit, a 4-fold greater analytical range and much faster analysis time. The industry appeal of such an assay is tremendous given that ~90% of all BOD₅ analysis is dedicated to measurement of WWTP samples, for which this assay is specifically designed. PMID:23200506

  20. Water treatments in semi-closed cooling circuits and their impact on the quality of effluents discharged by CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Santos Leite Cima Gomes, J; Kleiner, S

    2008-01-01

    The main goal of this study is to assess the impact of the discharges of the semi-closed water cooling circuits of CERN (European Center for Nuclear Research) on the overall quality of CERN's effluents, taking as guidelines the international legislation supported on the knowledge of the water systems of CERN. In order to reach this goal, a thorough analysis of the functioning of the semi-closed water cooling systems of CERN's particle accelerators was done, as well as, an analysis of the treatment that is done to prevent the proliferation of bacteria such as Legionella. The products used in these water treatments, as well as their impact, were also researched. In addition, a study of the applicable regulation to CERN's effluent was done. This study considered not only the regulation of France and Switzerland (CERN's host states) but also the international regulation from the European community, Portugal Germany, Spain, U.S. and Canada, having in view a better understanding of the limit values of the parameter...

  1. A sensitive ferricyanide-mediated biochemical oxygen demand assay for analysis of wastewater treatment plant influents and treated effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Mark A; Welsh, David T; John, Richard; Catterall, Kylie; Teasdale, Peter R

    2013-02-01

    Representative and fast monitoring of wastewater influent and effluent biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) is an elusive goal for the wastewater industry and regulatory bodies alike. The present study describes a suitable assay, which incorporates activated sludge as the biocatalyst and ferricyanide as the terminal electron acceptor for respiration. A number of different sludges and sludge treatments were investigated, primarily to improve the sensitivity of the assay. A limit of detection (LOD) (2.1 mg BOD₅ L⁻¹) very similar to that of the standard 5-day BOD₅ method was achieved in 4 h using raw influent sludge that had been cultured overnight as the biocatalyst. Reducing the microbial concentration was the most effective means to improve sensitivity and reduce the contribution of the sludge's endogenous respiration to total ferricyanide-mediated (FM) respiration. A strong and highly significant relationship was found (n = 33; R = 0.96; p BOD₅ and FM-BOD equivalent values for a diverse range of samples including wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) influent and treated effluent, as well as several grey water samples. The activated sludge FM-BOD assay presented here is an exceptional surrogate method to the standard BOD₅ assay, providing representative, same-day BOD analysis of WWTP samples with a comparable detection limit, a 4-fold greater analytical range and much faster analysis time. The industry appeal of such an assay is tremendous given that ~90% of all BOD₅ analysis is dedicated to measurement of WWTP samples, for which this assay is specifically designed.

  2. Treatment of cosmetic effluent in different configurations of ceramic UF membrane based bioreactor: Toxicity evaluation of the untreated and treated wastewater using catfish (Heteropneustes fossilis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Priya; Dey, Tanmoy Kumar; Sarkar, Sandeep; Swarnakar, Snehasikta; Mukhopadhyay, Aniruddha; Ghosh, Sourja

    2016-03-01

    Extensive usage of pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) and their discharge through domestic sewage have been recently recognized as a new generation environmental concern which deserves more scientific attention over the classical environmental pollutants. The major issues of this type of effluent addressed in this study were its colour, triclosan and anionic surfactant (SDS) content. Samples of cosmetic effluent were collected from different beauty treatment salons and spas in and around Kolkata, India and treated in bioreactors containing a bacterial consortium isolated from activated sludge samples collected from a common effluent treatment plant. Members of the consortium were isolated and identified as Klebsiella sp., Pseudomonas sp., Salmonella sp. and Comamonas sp. The biotreated effluent was subjected to ultrafiltration (UF) involving indigenously prepared ceramic membranes in both side-stream and submerged mode. Analysis of the MBR treated effluent revealed 99.22%, 98.56% and 99.74% removal of colour, triclosan and surfactant respectively. Investigation of probable acute and chronic cyto-genotoxic potential of the untreated and treated effluents along with their possible participation in triggering oxidative stress was carried out with Heteropneustes fossilis (Bloch). Comet formation recorded in both liver and gill cells and micronucleus count in peripheral erythrocytes of individuals exposed to untreated effluent increased with duration of exposure and was significantly higher than those treated with UF permeates which in turn neared control levels. Results of this study revealed successful application of the isolated bacterial consortium in MBR process for efficient detoxification of cosmetic effluent thereby conferring the same suitable for discharge and/or reuse. PMID:26714296

  3. Formulation and preparation on Hanford Waste Treatment Plan direct feed low activity waste effluent management facility core simulant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCabe, Daniel J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Nash, Charles A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL; Adamson, Duane J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL

    2016-05-01

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream (LAW Melter Off-Gas Condensate, LMOGC) from the off-gas system. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream during full WTP operations is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility. However, during the Direct Feed LAW (DFLAW) scenario, planned disposition of this stream is to evaporate it in a new evaporator in the Effluent Management Facility (EMF) and then return it to the LAW melter. It is important to understand the composition of the effluents from the melter and new evaporator so that the disposition of these streams can be accurately planned and accommodated. Furthermore, alternate disposition of the LMOGC stream would eliminate recycling of problematic components, and would enable less integrated operation of the LAW melter and the Pretreatment Facilities. Alternate disposition would also eliminate this stream from recycling within WTP when it begins operations and would decrease the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of glass waste, amongst the other problems such a recycle stream present. This LAW Melter Off-Gas Condensate stream will contain components that are volatile at melter temperatures and are problematic for the glass waste form, such as halides and sulfate. Because this stream will recycle within WTP, these components accumulate in the Melter Condensate stream, exacerbating their impact on the number of LAW glass containers that must be produced. Diverting the stream reduces the halides and sulfate in the recycled Condensate and is a key outcome of this work. This overall program examines the potential treatment and immobilization of this stream to enable alternative disposal. The objective of this task was to formulate and prepare a simulant of the LAW Melter

  4. Method for treatment of a surface area of steel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bhowmik, S.; Aaldert, P.J.

    2009-01-01

    The invention relates to a method for treatment of a surface area of steel by polishing said surface area and performing a plasma treatment of said surface area wherein the plasma treatment is performed at at least atmospheric conditions and wherein the plasma treatment is carried out at a power of

  5. Endocrine disrupting alkylphenolic chemicals and other contaminants in wastewater treatment plant effluents, urban streams and fish in the Great Lakes Region and Upper Mississippi River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban streams are an integral part of the municipal wastewater treatment process by providing a point of discharge for wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents and additional attenuation through dilution and transformation processes. The receiving surface waters also are a conduit for contaminan...

  6. A New Method for Effluent Treatment System Design%一种新的废水处理系统设计方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李保红; 樊希山; 姚平经

    2002-01-01

    This paper mainly discusses the design of distributed effluent treatment systems with single contaminant. A new method is put forward and four basic rules are provided. The key point of the method is that global optimality is obtained by guaranteeing the optimality of each step taken in the design. Costs per unit mass of removed contaminant are used as a scale to choose the next combination of an effluent stream and a treatment process. The remaining problem is updated after each choice. As for multiple contaminants, a two-stage method is adopted. At the first stage, the sub-networks for each contaminant are designed by the method mentioned above;at the second stage, the sub-networks are merged together in a new way. Overall, the paper presents a simple but practical framework for the effluent treatment system design.

  7. Effect of Hydraulic Loading Rate on the Efficiency of Effluent Treatment in a Recirculating Puffer Aquaculture System Coupled with Constructed Wetlands

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Jiabo; SHI Yonghai; ZHANG Genyu; LIU Jianzhong; ZHU Yazhu

    2014-01-01

    Constructed wetlands (CWs) were integrated into an indoor recirculating aquaculture system of obscure puffer (Takifugu obscurus) for effluent treatment. The effect of hydraulic loading rate (HLR) on the efficiency of effluent treatment by CWs was ex-amined for over a month. The CWs were operated under brackish conditions (salinity 7.4-7.6) at 3 different HLRs (0.762, 0.633, and 0.458 m d-1) 3 times, 10 days each. Overall, the CWs exhibited high efficiency in removal of total ammonium nitrogen (by 81.03-92.81%) and nitrite nitrogen (by 99.40%-99.68%). The efficiency of CWs in removal of total ammonium nitrogen, nitrate nitrogen, total Kjeldahl nitrogen, total phosphorous, and total suspended solids (TSS) increased with the decrease of HLR. The CWs operated at the 3 HLRs in a decreasing trend proves to be effective, providing a useful method for effluent treatment in commercial puffer aquaculture systems.

  8. Adsorption studies on treatment of textile dyeing industrial effluent by flyash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, V.V.B.; Rao, S.R.M. [Osmania University, Hyderabad (India). College of Technology

    2006-02-01

    Textile effluents are highly toxic as they contain a large number of metal complex dyes. The high concentration of such dyes causes many water borne diseases and increases the BOD of the receiving waters. On the other hand, flyash is a major pollutant generated in coal-based thermal power plants and has potentiality for use as an adsorbent. In the present work, adsorption studies were made in treating the dye solutions of methylene blue and Congo red textile dyes by using flyash. Effects of quantity of adsorbent, time of contact, initial effluent concentration, pH and temperature have been investigated experimentally and the results were compared with those obtained by using activated carbon. The first-order adsorption rate constants were determined and found decreasing with temperature. The results obtained were fitted by Langmuir model since monolayer formation observed. Also, Langmuir adsorption isotherm parameters were estimated from the experimental data obtained for both methylene blue and Congo red dyes using both the adsorbents.

  9. Impact of effluent organic matter on low-pressure membrane fouling in tertiary treatment

    KAUST Repository

    Ayache, C.

    2013-05-01

    This study aims at comparing low-pressure membrane fouling obtained with two different secondary effluents at bench and pilot-scale based on the determination of two fouling indices: the total fouling index (TFI) and the hydraulically irreversible fouling index (HIFI). The main objective was to investigate if simpler and less costly bench-scale experimentation can substitute for pilot-scale trials when assessing the fouling potential of secondary effluent in large scale membrane filtration plants producing recycled water. Absolute values for specific flux and total fouling index for the bench-scale system were higher than those determined from pilot-scale, nevertheless a statistically significant correlation (r2 = 0.63, α = 0.1) was obtained for the total fouling index at both scales. On the contrary no such correlation was found for the hydraulically irreversible fouling index. Advanced water characterization tools such as excitation-emission matrix fluorescence spectroscopy (EEM) and liquid chromatography with organic carbon detection (LC-OCD) were used for the characterization of foulants. On the basis of statistical analysis, biopolymers and humic substances were found to be the major contribution to total fouling (r2 = 0.95 and r2 = 0.88, respectively). Adsorption of the low molecular weight neutral compounds to the membrane was attributed to hydraulically irreversible fouling (r2 = 0.67). © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Electrocoagulation of palm oil mill effluent as wastewater treatment and hydrogen production using electrode aluminum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasution, M Ansori; Yaakob, Z; Ali, Ehsan; Tasirin, S M; Abdullah, S R S

    2011-01-01

    Palm oil mill effluent (POME) is highly polluting wastewater generated from the palm oil milling process. Palm oil mill effluent was used as an electrolyte without any additive or pretreatment to perform electrocoagulation (EC) using electricity (direct current) ranging from 2 to 4 volts in the presence of aluminum electrodes with a reactor volume of 20 L. The production of hydrogen gas, removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD), and turbidity as a result of electrocoagulation of POME were determined. The results show that EC can reduce the COD and turbidity of POME by 57 and 62%, respectively, in addition to the 42% hydrogen production. Hydrogen production was also helpful to remove the lighter suspended solids toward the surface. The production of Al(OH)XHO at the aluminum electrode (anode) was responsible for the flocculation-coagulation process of suspended solids followed by sedimentation under gravity. The production of hydrogen gas from POME during EC was also compared with hydrogen gas production by electrolysis of tap water at pH 4 and tap water without pH adjustment under the same conditions. The main advantage of this study is to produce hydrogen gas while treating POME with EC to reduce COD and turbidity effectively. PMID:21712603

  11. Advanced monitoring and supervision of biological treatment of complex dairy effluents in a full-scale plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, Eugenio F; Omil, Francisco; Garrido, Juan M; Arrojo, Belén; Méndez, Ramón

    2004-01-01

    The operation of a wastewater treatment plant treating effluents from a dairy laboratory was monitored by an advanced system. This plant comprises a 12 m(3) anaerobic filter (AF) reactor and a 28 m(3) sequential batch reactor (SBR) coupled in series and is equipped with the following on-line measurement devices: biogas flow meter, feed and recycling flow meters, temperature sensor, dissolved oxygen analyzer, and redox meter. Other parameters such as chemical oxygen demand (COD), volatile fatty acids (VFA), etc. were determined off-line. The plant has been in operation for 634 days, the influent flow rate being 6-8 m(3)/d. COD concentration of the influent ranged between 8 and 12 kg COD/m(3), resulting in COD values in the effluent around 50-200 mg/L. The behavior of the system was studied using the set of measurements collected by the data acquisition program especially developed for this purpose. Monitoring of variables such as anaerobic reactor temperature permitted the detection and prevention of several failures such as temperature shocks in the AF reactor. Besides, off-line measurements such as the alkalinity or the VFA content, together with the on-line measurements, provided immediate information about the state of the plant and the detection of several anomalies, such as organic overloads in the SBR, allowing the implementation of several fast control actions.

  12. Use of submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactor (SAMBR) containing powdered activated carbon (PAC) for the treatment of textile effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baêta, B E L; Ramos, R L; Lima, D R S; Aquino, S F

    2012-01-01

    This work investigated the use of submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactors (SAMBRs) in the presence and absence of powdered activated carbon (PAC) for the treatment of genuine textile wastewater. The reactors were operated at 35 °C with an HRT of 24 h and the textile effluent was diluted (1:10) with nutrient solution containing yeast extract as the source of the redox mediation riboflavin. The results showed that although both SAMBRs exhibited an excellent performance, the presence of PAC inside SAMBR-1 enhanced reactor stability and removal efficiency of chemical oxygen demand (COD), volatile fatty acids (VFA), turbidity and color. The median removal efficiencies of COD and color in SAMBR-1 were, 90 and 94% respectively; whereas for SAMBR-2 (without PAC) these values were 79 and 86%, In addition, the median values of turbidity and VFA were 8 NTU and 8 mg/L for SAMBR-1 and 14 NTU and 26 mg/L for SAMBR-2, indicating that the presence of PAC inside SAMBR-1 led to the production of an anaerobic effluent of high quality regarding such parameters. PMID:22508114

  13. Evaluation of the use of powdered activated carbon in membrane bioreactor for the treatment of bleach pulp mill effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, Míriam C S; Lange, Liséte C; Borges, Cristiano P

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, the use of powered activated carbon (PAC) in membrane bioreactor (MBR) employed in the treatment of bleach pulp mill effluents was evaluated. The MBR was operated with hydraulic residence time of 9.5 h and PAC concentration of 10 g/L. The addition of PAC to the MBR reduced the average concentration of chemical oxygen demand (COD) in the permeate from 215 mg/L (82% removal efficiency) to 135 mg/L (88% removal efficiency), producing an effluent that can be reused on bleaching stage. Moreover, the addition of PAC to the MBR resulted in the reduction in applied pressure and provided a more stable operation during the monitoring period. This occurrence was probably due to the increase of critical flux after the addition of PAC. The fouling mechanism was investigated and the results showed that controlling the concentration of soluble microbial products (SMP) and extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) by using PAC and keeping the operational flux below critical flux is of major importance for MBR operational sustainability. PMID:25327019

  14. Combined electrocoagulation and TiO{sub 2} photoassisted treatment applied to wastewater effluents from pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boroski, Marcela; Rodrigues, Angela Claudia; Garcia, Juliana Carla; Sampaio, Luiz Carlos; Nozaki, Jorge [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Estadual de Maringa, Avenida Colombo 5790, Maringa-PR 87020-900 (Brazil); Hioka, Noboru [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Estadual de Maringa, Avenida Colombo 5790, Maringa-PR 87020-900 (Brazil)], E-mail: nhioka2@yahoo.com.br

    2009-02-15

    The treated wastewater consists of refractory materials and high organic content of hydrolyzed peptone residues from pharmaceutical factory. The combination of electrocoagulation (EC) followed by heterogeneous photocatalysis (TiO{sub 2}) conditions was maximized. The EC: iron cathode/anode (12.50 cm x 2.50 cm x 0.10 cm), current density 763 A m{sup -2}, 90 min and initial pH 6.0. As EC consequence, the majority of the dissolved organic and suspended material was removed (about 91% and 86% of the turbidity and chemical oxygen demand (COD), respectively). After EC, refractory residues still remained in the effluent. The subsequent photocatalysis: UV/TiO{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} (mercury lamps), pH 3.0, 4 h irradiation, 0.25 g L{sup -1} TiO{sub 2} and 10 mmol L{sup -1} H{sub 2}O{sub 2} shows high levels of inorganic and organic compounds eliminations. The obtained COD values: 1753 mg L{sup -1} for the sample from the factory, 160 mg L{sup -1} after EC and 50 mg L{sup -1} after EC/photocatalyzed effluents pointed out that the combined treatment stresses this water purification.

  15. Immunotoxic potential of aeration lagoon effluents for the treatment of domestic and hospital wastewaters in the freshwater mussel Elliptio complanata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagné, Francois; André, Chantale; Fortier, Marlène; Fournier, Michel

    2012-01-01

    Municipal wastewaters are major sources of pollution for the aquatic biota. The purpose of this study was to determine the levels of some pharmaceutical products and the immunotoxic potential of a municipal wastewater aeration lagoon for the treatment of the domestic wastewaters of a small town with wastewater inputs from a 400-bed hospital complex. Endemic mussels were collected, caged and placed in the final aeration lagoon and at sites 1 km upstream and 1 km downstream of the effluent outfall in the receiving river for a period of 14 days. The results showed that the final aeration lagoon contained high levels of total coliforms, conductivity and low dissolved oxygen (2.9 mg/L) as well as detectable amounts of trimethoprim, carbamazepine, gemfibrozil, and norfloxacin at concentrations exceeding 50 ng/L. The lagoon effluent was indeed toxic to the mussel specimens, as evidenced by the appearance of mortality after 14 days (10% mortality), decreased mussel weight-to-shell-length ratio and loss of hemocyte viability. The number of adhering hemocytes, phagocytic activity, total nitrite levels and arachidonic cyclooxygenase activity were significantly higher in mussels placed in the final aeration lagoon. A multivariate analysis also revealed that water pH, conductivity, total coliforms and dissolved oxygen were the endpoints most closely linked with phagocytic activity, the amount of adhering hemocytes and loss of hemocyte viability. In conclusion, exposure of mussels to treated aerated lagoon wastewater is deleterious to freshwater mussels where the immune system is compromised. PMID:22893952

  16. Effect of agitation on the performance of an anaerobic sequencing batch biofilm reactor in the treatment of dairy effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penteado, T Z; Santana, R S S; Dibiazi, A L B; de Pinho, S C; Ribeiro, R; Tommaso, G

    2011-01-01

    Agitation rate is an important parameter in the operation of Anaerobic Sequencing Biofilm Batch Reactors (ASBBRs), and a proper agitation rate guarantees good mixing, improves mass transfer, and enhances the solubility of the particulate organic matter. Dairy effluents have a high amount of particulate organic matter, and their anaerobic digestion presents inhibitory intermediates (e.g., long-chain fatty acids). The importance of studying agitation in such batch systems is clear. The present study aimed to evaluate how agitation frequency influences the anaerobic treatment of dairy effluents. The ASBBR was fed with wastewater from milk pasteurisation process and cheese manufacture with no whey segregation. The organic matter concentration, measured as chemical oxygen demand (COD), was maintained at approximately 8,000 mg/L. The reactor was operated with four agitation frequencies: 500 rpm, 350 rpm, 200 rpm, and no agitation. In terms of COD removal efficiency, similar results were observed for 500 rpm and 350 rpm (around 90%) and for 200 rpm and no agitation (around 80%). Increasing the system's agitation thus not only improved the global efficiency of organic matter removal but also influenced volatile acid production and consumption and clearly modified this balance in each experimental condition. PMID:21411951

  17. Combined electrocoagulation and TiO2 photoassisted treatment applied to wastewater effluents from pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The treated wastewater consists of refractory materials and high organic content of hydrolyzed peptone residues from pharmaceutical factory. The combination of electrocoagulation (EC) followed by heterogeneous photocatalysis (TiO2) conditions was maximized. The EC: iron cathode/anode (12.50 cm x 2.50 cm x 0.10 cm), current density 763 A m-2, 90 min and initial pH 6.0. As EC consequence, the majority of the dissolved organic and suspended material was removed (about 91% and 86% of the turbidity and chemical oxygen demand (COD), respectively). After EC, refractory residues still remained in the effluent. The subsequent photocatalysis: UV/TiO2/H2O2 (mercury lamps), pH 3.0, 4 h irradiation, 0.25 g L-1 TiO2 and 10 mmol L-1 H2O2 shows high levels of inorganic and organic compounds eliminations. The obtained COD values: 1753 mg L-1 for the sample from the factory, 160 mg L-1 after EC and 50 mg L-1 after EC/photocatalyzed effluents pointed out that the combined treatment stresses this water purification

  18. Utilization of ultraviolet radiation in effluent disinfestation of domestic waste treatment systems; Utilizacao da radiacao ultravioleta na desinfeccao de efluentes de sistemas de tratamento de esgotos domesticos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camacho, P.R.R. [Companhia de Tecnologia de Saneamento Ambiental, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Andrade e Silva, L.G. de [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    1995-12-31

    Ultraviolet radiation disinfection of Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Biodigestor (UASB) and UASB with aerated lagoon pos-treatment effluents is possible to be reached utilizing a single low pressure mercury lamp arc (15 W nominal power) in a shell tube flow through reactor (1.2 L useful volume). Fecal coliforms, total coliforms and colifages were used as microbiological parameters. For fecal coliforms, about 3 logarithmic units (log. un.) was removed from UASB with aerated lagoon pos-treatment effluent and 4 log. un. from UASB effluent with 7 and 30 seconds of hydraulic retention time, respectively. Good empirical correlations were obtained between microbiological parameters and hydraulic retention times. (author). 4 refs, 1 fig, 3 tabs.

  19. Application of hydrothermal treatment to affect the fermentability of Pinus radiata pulp mill effluent sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, John; Smit, Anne-Marie; Wijeyekoon, Suren; McDonald, Ben; Baroutian, Saeid; Gapes, Daniel

    2014-10-01

    A hybrid technique incorporating a wet oxidation stage and secondary fermentation step was used to process Pinus radiata pulp mill effluent sludge. The effect of hydrothermal oxidation at high temperature and pressure on the hydrolysis of constituents of the waste stream was studied. Biochemical acidogenic potential assays were conducted to assess acid production resulting from anaerobic hydrolysis of the wet oxidised hydrolysate under acidogenic conditions. Significant degradation of the lignin, hemicellulose, suspended solids, carbohydrates and extractives were observed with wet oxidation. In contrast, cellulose showed resistance to degradation under the experimental conditions. Extensive degradation of biologically inhibitory compounds by wet oxidation did not show a beneficial impact on the acidogenic or methanogenic potential compared to untreated samples. PMID:25125197

  20. MICROFILTRATION AS ADVANCED TREATMENT PROCESS FOR AN EFFLUENT OF BEEF CATTLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Osório da Silva

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to clarify an effluent of a cattle slaughter industry by means of polmeric membranes ofmicrofiltration (porosity of 0.4 μm with the purpose of removing its turbidity, COD, total suspended solids,volatile solids, inorganic phosphorus and ammonia nitrogen. And also the characteristics of the flow behaviorand transmembrane pressure, and permeate temperature for this wastewater. It was noted that the efficiencyregarding the removal of physical-chemical parameters was 98%, for Turbidity; 97%, for TSS; 97%, for VSS; 92%, for COD; 9%, for N-NH4- and 49%, for P-PO4 3-. Frequency operation of 35 Hz presented the highest permeate flux (18 L.h-1.m-2, lowest temperature and transmembrane pressure. Result showed that tangentialfiltration process is satisfactory in terms of macromolecules and turbidity removal.

  1. Treatment of Textile Dye Effluent Using a Self-made Positively Charged Nanofiltration Membrane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Ruihua; YANG Bingchao; ZHENG Dongsheng; CHEN Guohua; GAO Congjie

    2012-01-01

    A self-made positively charged nanofiltration (NF) membrane was used to treat textile dye effluent to generate water for reuse,and the factors affecting nanofiltration process such as operating pressure,feed flow and membrane cleaning were investigated.With an applied pressure of 1.0 MPa and a feed flow of 40 L/h,this NF membrane has a removal of 93.3% for CODcr and a reduction of approximately 51.0% in TDS,salinity and conductivity achieving the chroma removal of 100%.The permeate obtained through this membrane is suitable for recycling.Moreover,the membrane could be reused after being cleaned with 1% NaOH solution.

  2. Research on Phthalic Acid Esters Removal and Its Health Risk Evaluation by Combined Process for Secondary Effluent of Wastewater Treatment Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simin Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the treatment effect of the “coagulation-sedimentation-O3-biological sand filtration-GAC” combined process on phthalic acid esters in secondary effluent of municipal wastewater treatment plant and meanwhile evaluate its health risk. The results indicated that when the concentrations of DBP and DiOP in secondary effluent were at range of 0.41 mg/L–0.814 mg/L and 0.23 mg/L–0.36 mg/L, the average total removal rates of DBP and DiOP were 85.10% and 68.11%, and the average concentration of DBP and DiOP in effluent were 0.089 mg/L and 0.091 mg/L, respectively. The quality of the effluent met the requirement of the ornamental scenic environment water in The Quality of Urban Wastewater Recycling and Scenic Environment Water (GB/T 18921-2002, and the health risks of DBP and DiOP in effluent were at range of 1.99 × 10−12 –2.15 × 10−12/a and 1.48 × 10−11 –1.85 × 10−11/a, respectively, which is lower than the acceptable maximum risk level: 1.0 × 10−6.

  3. Genotoxicity of swine effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Techio, V H; Stolberg, J; Kunz, A; Zanin, E; Perdomo, C C

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed at the investigation of genotoxic effects of swine effluents from different stages of a treatment system for swine wastes through bioassay of stamen hairs and micronuclei in Tradescantia (clone BNL 4430). No significant differences (p≥0.05) regarding the genic mutations were found in the bioassay of stamen hairs, independently of the effluent analysed. For the genotoxicity test with micronuclei, the plants exposed to raw wastes, to sludge, and to effluent of the biodigester have presented higher rates of chromosomal damages (micronuclei), with significant differences in relation to the control group and other effluent of the waste treatment system (p≤0.05). The association between the chemical parameters and the genotoxicity data have shown that the variables COD and TKN have presented significant correlation (p≤0.05) with the number of mutagenic events in the tetrads.

  4. Variation of nitrogen and phosphorus in soil fertirrigated with effluent of primary treatment of wastewater from swine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Afonso Ferreira

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This study had the objective of evaluating the variation of nitrogen and phosphorus in soil fertirrigated with effluent of primary treatment of wastewater from swine. Tomatos of the variety Fanny TY were cultivated in lisymeters of drainage under protected environment and fertirrigated with filtered wastewater from swine (FWS at different doses with and without application of additional fertilizer. The results showed that: increments in the FWS doses resulted in more abortion of phosphorus; in comparison to the initial conditions, there was increase in the concentration of available phosphorus, specially in the superficial layers; FWS addition resulted in increments in the nitrogen concentration in the superficial layers, while the chemical application of fertilizer resulted in larger displacement in the soil profile.

  5. Influence of stocking density on the vermicomposting of an effluent treatment plant sludge amended with cow dung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Anoop; Garg, V K

    2016-07-01

    This paper reports the effect of earthworm population density on the vermicomposting of effluent treatment plant sludge of a bakery industry. Four waste mixtures containing 0, 10, 20, and 30 % sludge along with cow dung with five different worm population densities were established for 14 weeks under controlled moisture and temperature conditions. The results showed that average worm biomass, growth and cocoon production were lesser at higher population densities. Sexual maturity was attained in 3rd to 5th week in all waste mixtures. Worm growth was inversely related to worm population density in the waste mixture. Results also indicated that lower worm population is favorable to worm biomass production. On the other hand, mineralization and stabilization of the waste mixtures were more at higher worm populations.

  6. Addition of Al and Fe salts during treatment of paper mill effluents to improve activated sludge settlement characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agridiotis, V; Forster, C F; Carliell-Marquet, C

    2007-11-01

    Metal salts, ferrous sulphate and aluminium chloride, were added to laboratory-scale activated sludge plant treating paper mill effluents to investigate the effect on settlement characteristics. Before treatment the sludge was filamentous, had stirred sludge volume index (SSVI) values in excess of 300 and was moderately hydrophobic. The use of FeSO4.7H2O took three weeks to reduce the SSVI to 90. Microscopic examination showed that Fe had converted the filamentous flocs into a compact structure. When the iron dosing was stopped, the sludge returned to its bulking state within four weeks. In a subsequent trial, the addition of AlCl3 initially resulted in an improvement of the settlement index but then caused deterioration of the sludge properties. It is possible that aluminium was overdosed and caused charge reversal, increasing the SSVI. PMID:17113285

  7. Dissolved organic matter removal during coal slag additive soil aquifer treatment for secondary effluent recharging: Contribution of aerobic biodegradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Liangliang; Li, Siliang; Noguera, Daniel R; Qin, Kena; Jiang, Junqiu; Zhao, Qingliang; Kong, Xiangjuan; Cui, Fuyi

    2015-06-01

    Recycling wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent at low cost via the soil aquifer treatment (SAT), which has been considered as a renewable approach in regenerating potable and non-potable water, is welcome in arid and semi-arid regions throughout the world. In this study, the effect of a coal slag additive on the bulk removal of the dissolved organic matter (DOM) in WWTP effluent during SAT operation was explored via the matrix configurations of both coal slag layer and natural soil layer. Azide inhibition and XAD-resins fractionation experiments indicated that the appropriate configuration designing of an upper soil layer (25 cm) and a mixture of soil/coal slag underneath would enhance the removal efficiency of adsorption and anaerobic biodegradation to the same level as that of aerobic biodegradation (31.7% vs 32.2%), while it was only 29.4% compared with the aerobic biodegradation during traditional 50 cm soil column operation. The added coal slag would preferentially adsorb the hydrophobic DOM, and those adsorbed organics could be partially biodegraded by the biomass within the SAT systems. Compared with the relatively lower dissolved organic carbon (DOC), ultraviolet light adsorption at 254 nm (UV-254) and trihalomethane formation potential (THMFP) removal rate of the original soil column (42.0%, 32.9%, and 28.0%, respectively), SSL2 and SSL4 columns would enhance the bulk removal efficiency to more than 60%. Moreover, a coal slag additive in the SAT columns could decline the aromatic components (fulvic-like organics and tryptophan-like proteins) significantly. PMID:25845997

  8. Comparison of different model solutions to simulate membrane fouling in the ultrafiltration of a secondary effluent from a municipal wastewater treatment plant

    OpenAIRE

    TORA GRAU, MIRIAM; Soler Cabezas, José Luis; Vincent Vela, Maria Cinta; Mendoza Roca, José Antonio; Martínez Francisco, Francisco Juan

    2014-01-01

    The quality of the secondary treatment effluent (STE) from a municipal wastewater treatment plant (MWWTP) is not good enough for some applications such as agriculture. Membrane ultrafiltration (UF) has been proven to be a reliable tertiary treatment to achieve the needed water quality. The productivity of the UF processes depends on the membrane fouling. The aim of this work is to prepare a model wastewater that could mimic the fouling trend of a STE wastewater from a MWWTP. Several model was...

  9. Conceptual design report, TWRS Privatization Phase I, Liquid effluent transfer systems, subproject W-506

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document includes Conceptual Design Report (CDR) for providing liquid effluent lines for routing waste from two Private Contractor (PC) facilities to existing storage, treatment, and disposal facilities in the 200-East Area

  10. Method Description, Quality Assurance, Environmental Data, and other Information for Analysis of Pharmaceuticals in Wastewater-Treatment-Plant Effluents, Streamwater, and Reservoirs, 2004-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Patrick J.; Smith, Steven G.; Kolpin, Dana W.; Zaugg, Steven D.; Buxton, Herbert T.; Furlong, Edward T.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Wastewater-treatment-plant (WWTP) effluents are a demonstrated source of pharmaceuticals to the environment. During 2004-09, a study was conducted to identify pharmaceutical compounds in effluents from WWTPs (including two that receive substantial discharges from pharmaceutical formulation facilities), streamwater, and reservoirs. The methods used to determine and quantify concentrations of seven pharmaceuticals are described. In addition, the report includes information on pharmaceuticals formulated or potentially formulated at the two pharmaceutical formulation facilities that provide substantial discharge to two of the WWTPs, and potential limitations to these data are discussed. The analytical methods used to provide data on the seven pharmaceuticals (including opioids, muscle relaxants, and other pharmaceuticals) in filtered water samples also are described. Data are provided on method performance, including spike data, method detection limit results, and an estimation of precision. Quality-assurance data for sample collection and handling are included. Quantitative data are presented for the seven pharmaceuticals in water samples collected at WWTP discharge points, from streams, and at reservoirs. Occurrence data also are provided for 19 pharmaceuticals that were qualitatively identified. Flow data at selected WWTP and streams are presented. Between 2004-09, 35-38 effluent samples were collected from each of three WWTPs in New York and analyzed for seven pharmaceuticals. Two WWTPs (NY2 and NY3) receive substantial inflows (greater than 20 percent of plant flow) from pharmaceutical formulation facilities (PFF) and one (NY1) receives no PFF flow. Samples of effluents from 23 WWTPs across the United States were analyzed once for these pharmaceuticals as part of a national survey. Maximum pharmaceutical effluent concentrations for the national survey and NY1 effluent samples were generally less than 1 ug/L. Four pharmaceuticals (methadone, oxycodone

  11. Comparing removal efficiency and reaction rates of organic micro-pollutants during ozonation from different municipal waste water treatment plants effluents in Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El-taliawy, Haitham; Ekblad, Maja; Nilsson, Filip;

    2015-01-01

    The Removal of about 50 micro-pollutants from 7 waste water treatment plant effluents –in Sweden- was tested on pilot scale. Different ozone doses and two different pilots with different reactor sizes and retention times were tested. Ozone reaction rates depended on DOC concentration in the water...

  12. Fungal bio-treatment of spruce wood with Trametes versicolor for pitch control: Influence on extractive contents, pulping process parameters, paper quality and effluent toxicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, van T.A.; Kuster, B.; Claassen, F.W.; Tienvieri, T.; Bertaud, F.; Lennon, G.; Petit-Concil, M.; Sierra-Alvarez, R.

    2007-01-01

    Lipophilic low molar-mass constituents in wood chips for the paper industry result in low quality pulp, pitch deposition, and effluent toxicity. New biotechnological solutions such as fungal pre-treatment of wood chips can reduce pitch problems. This laboratory-scale study focuses on the potential a

  13. Simultaneously bio treatment of textiles and food industries effluent at difference ratios with the aid of e-beam radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakar, Khomsaton Abu; Selambakkannu, Sarala; Ting, Teo Ming; Shariff, Jamaliah

    2012-09-01

    The combination of irradiation and biological technique was used to study COD, BOD5 and colour removal of textiles effluent in the presence of food industry wastewater at two different ratios. Two biological treatment system, the first consisting a mix of unirradiated textile and food industry wastewater and the second a mix of irradiated textile wastewater and food industry wastewater were operated in parallel. The experiment was conducted by batch. For the first batch the ratio was use for textile wastewater and food industry wastewater in biological treatment was 1:1. Meanwhile, for the second batch the ratio used for textile wastewater and food industry wastewater in biological treatment was 1:2. The results obtained for the first and second batch varies from each other. After irradiation, COD reduce in textile wastewater for the both batches are roughly 29% - 33% from the unirradiated wastewater. But after undergoing the biological treatment the percentage of COD reduction for first batch and second batch was 62.1% and 80.7% respectively. After irradiation the BOD5 of textile wastewater reduced by 22.2% for the first batch and 55.1% for the second batch. But after biological treatment, the BOD5 value for the first batch was same as its initial, 36mg/l and 40.4mg/l for the second batch. Colour had decreased from 899.5 ADMI to 379.3 ADMI after irradiation and decrease to 109.3 after undergoes biological treatment for the first batch. Meantime for the batch two, colour had decreased from 1000.44 ADMI to 363.40 ADMI after irradiation and dropped to 79.20 ADMI after biological treatment. The experiment show that 1:2 ratio show better reduction on COD, BOD5 and colour, compared to the ratio of 1:1.

  14. Treatment of pulp and paper industry bleaching effluent by electrocoagulant process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sridhar, R., E-mail: sridhar36k@yahoo.co.in [Department of Chemical Engineering, Kongu Engineering College, Perundurai, Erode 638052, TN (India); Sivakumar, V., E-mail: drvsivakumar@yahoo.com [Department of Food Technology, Kongu Engineering College, Perundurai, Erode 638052, TN (India); Prince Immanuel, V., E-mail: princeimmanuel79@yahoo.com [Department of Chemical Engineering, Erode Sengunthar Engineering College, Thudupathi, Erode 638057, TN (India); Prakash Maran, J., E-mail: prakashmaran@gmail.com [Department of Food Technology, Kongu Engineering College, Perundurai, Erode 638052, TN (India)

    2011-02-28

    The experiments were carried out in an electrocoagulation reactor with aluminum as sacrificial electrodes. The influence of electrolysis time, current density, pH, NaCl concentration, rotational speed of the stirrer and electrode distance on reduction of color, COD and BOD were studied in detail. From the experimental results, 15 mA/cm{sup 2} current density, pH of 7, 1 g/l NaCl, 100 rpm, 28 deg, C temperature and 3 cm electrode distance were found to be optimum for maximum reduction of color, COD and BOD. The reduction of color, COD and BOD under the optimum condition were found to be 94%, 90% and 87% respectively. The electrode energy consumption was calculated and found to be varied from 10.1 to 12.9 kWh/m{sup 3} depending on the operating conditions. Under optimal operating condition such as 15 mA/cm{sup 2} current density, pH of 7, 1 g/l NaCl, 100 rpm, 28 deg, C temperature and 3 cm electrode distance, the operating cost was found to be 1.56 US $/m{sup 3}. The experimental results proved that the electrocoagulation is a suitable method for treating bleaching plant effluents for reuse.

  15. Epicoccum nigrum and Cladosporium sp. for the treatment of oily effluent in an air-lift reactor

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Delgado Queissada; Flávio Teixeira da Silva; Juliana Sundfeld Penido; Carolina Dell'Aquila Siqueira; Tereza Cristina Brazil de Paiva

    2013-01-01

    The metalworking industry is responsible for one of the most complex and difficult to handle oily effluents. These effluents consist of cutting fluids, which provide refrigeration and purification of metallic pieces in the machining system. When these effluents are biologically treated, is important to do this with autochthonous microorganisms; the use of these microorganisms (bioaugmentation) tends to be more efficient because they are already adapted to the existing pollutants. For this pur...

  16. Assessment of options for the treatment of Sizewell PWR liquid effluent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the origins of PWR liquid waste streams, their composition and rates of arising. Data has been collected from operational PWRs and estimates obtained for Sizewell B PWR liquid waste streams. Current liquid waste treatment practices are reviewed and assessments made of established and novel treatment techniques which could be applicable to Sizewell B. A short list of treatment options is given and recommendations are made relating to established treatment technologies suitable for Sizewell B and also to development work on more novel treatments which could lead to a reduction in waste disposal volumes. (author)

  17. Immunotoxic potential of aeration lagoon effluents for the treatment of domestic and hospital wastewaters in the freshwater mussel Elliptio complanata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Francois Gagné; Chantale André; Marlène Fortier; Michel Fournier

    2012-01-01

    Municipal wastewaters are major sources of pollution for the aquatic biota.The purpose of this study was to determine the levels of some pharmaceutical products and the immunotoxic potential of a municipal wastewater aeration lagoon for the treatment of the domestic wastewaters of a small town with wastewater inputs from a 400-bed hospital complex.Endemic mussels were collected,caged and placed in the final aeration lagoon and at sites 1 km upstream and 1 km downstream of the effluent outfall in the receiving river for a period of 14 days.The results showed that the final aeration lagoon contained high levels of total coliforms,conductivity and low dissolved oxygen (2.9 mg/L) as well as detectable amounts of trimethoprim,carbamazepine,gemfibrozil,and norfloxacin at concentrations exceeding 50 ng/L.The lagoon effluent was indeed toxic to the mussel specimens,as evidenced by the appearance of mortality after 14 days (10% mortality),decreased mussel weight-to-shell-length ratio and loss of hemocyte viability.The number of adhering hemocytes,phagocytic activity,total nitrite levels and arachidonic cyclooxygenase activity were significantly higher in mussels placed in the final aeration lagoon.A multivariate analysis also revealed that water pH,conductivity,total coliforms and dissolved oxygen were the endpoints most closely linked with phagocytic activity,the amount of adhering hemocytes and loss of hemocyte viability.In conclusion,exposure of mussels to treated aerated lagoon wastewater is deleterious to freshwater mussels where the immune system is compromised.

  18. A Study on Membrane Bioreactor for Water Reuse from the Effluent of Industrial Town Wastewater Treatment Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Hosseinzadeh

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Considering the toxic effects of heavy metals and microbial pathogens in industrial wastewaters, it is necessary to treat metal and microbial contaminated wastewater prior to disposal in the environment. The purpose of this study is to assess the removal of heavy metals pollution and microbial contamination from a mixture of municipal and industrial wastewater using membrane bioreactor. Methods: A pilot study with a continuous stream was conducted using a 32-L-activated sludge with a flat sheet membrane. Actual wastewater from industrial wastewater treatment plant was used in this study. Membrane bioreactor was operated with a constant flow rate of 4 L/hr and chemical oxygen demand, suspended solids concentration, six heavy metals concentration, and total coliform amounts were recorded during the operation. Results: High COD, suspended solids, heavy metals, and microbial contamination removal was measured during the experiment. The average removal percentages obtained by the MBR system were 81% for Al, 53% for Fe, 94% for Pb, 91% for Cu, 59% for Ni, and 49% for Cr which indicated the presence of Cu, Ni, and Cr in both soluble and particle forms in mixed liquor while Al, Fe, and Pb were mainly in particulate form. Also, coliforms in the majority of the samples were <140 MPN/100mL that showed that more than 99.9% of total coliform was removed in MBR effluent. Conclusion: The Membrane Biological Reactor (MBR showed a good performance to remove heavy metals and microbial matters as well as COD and suspended solids. The effluent quality was suitable for reusing purposes.

  19. Treatment of Common Effluent Treatment Plant Wastewater in a Sequential Anoxic-Oxic Batch Reactor by Developed Bacterial Consortium VN11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattaraj, Sananda; Purohit, Hemant J; Sharma, Abhinav; Jadeja, Niti B; Madamwar, Datta

    2016-06-01

    A laboratory-scale anoxic-oxic sequential reactor system was seeded with acclimatized mixed microbial consortium for the treatment of common effluent treatment plant (CETP) wastewater having 7000-7400 mg L(-1) of COD and 3000-3400 mg L(-1) of BOD. Initially, CETP wastewater was treated under anoxic reactor at 5000 mg L(-1) of MLSS concentrations, 5.26 ± 0.27 kg COD m(-3) day(-1) of organic loading rate (OLR) and 36 h of hydraulic retention time (HRT). Further, the effluent of anoxic reactor was treated in oxic reactor with an OLR of 6.6 ± 0.31 kg COD m(-3) day(-1) and 18 h HRT. Maximum color and COD removal were found to be 72 and 85 % at total HRT of 2.25 days under anoxic-oxic sequential reactor at 37 °C and pH 7.0. The UV-VIS, FTIR, NMR and GCMS studies showed that majority of peaks observed in untreated wastewater were either shifted or disappeared after sequential treatment. Phytotoxicity study with the seeds of Vigna radiata and Triticum aestivum showed more sensitivity toward the CETP wastewater, while the products obtained after sequential treatment does not have any inhibitory effects. The results demonstrated that the anoxic-oxic reactor fed with bacterial consortium VN11 could bring about efficient bioremediation of industrial wastewaters.

  20. Removal of selected endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) during ferrate(VI) treatment of secondary wastewater effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bin; Ying, Guang-Guo; Zhao, Jian-Liang; Liu, Shan; Zhou, Li-Jun; Chen, Feng

    2012-05-01

    We investigated the removal efficiencies of 68 selected endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) spiked in a wastewater matrix by ferrate (Fe(VI)) and further evaluated the degradation of these micropollutants present in secondary effluents of two wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) by applying Fe(VI) treatment technology. Fe(VI)treatment resulted in selective oxidation of electron-rich organic moieties of these target compounds, such as phenol, olefin, amine and aniline moieties. But Fe(VI) failed to react with triclocarban, 3 androgens, 7 acidic pharmaceuticals, 2 neutral pharmaceuticals and erythromycin-H(2)O.Thirty-one target EDCs and PPCPs were detected in the effluents of the two WWTPs with concentrations ranging from 0.2 ± 0.1 ng L(-1) to 1156 ± 182 ng L(-1).Fe(VI) treatment resulted in further elimination of the detected EDCs and PPCPs during Fe(VI) treatment of the secondary wastewater effluents. The results from this study clearly demonstrated the effectiveness of Fe(VI) treatment as a tertiary treatment technology for a broad spectrum of micropollutants in wastewater. PMID:22342241

  1. Novel Adsorbent-Reactants for Treatment of Ash and Scrubber Pond Effluents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bill Batchelor; Dong Suk Han; Eun Jung Kim

    2010-01-31

    The overall goal of this project was to evaluate the ability of novel adsorbent/reactants to remove specific toxic target chemicals from ash and scrubber pond effluents while producing stable residuals for ultimate disposal. The target chemicals studied were arsenic (As(III) and As(V)), mercury (Hg(II)) and selenium (Se(IV) and Se(VI)). The adsorbent/reactants that were evaluated are iron sulfide (FeS) and pyrite (FeS{sub 2}). Procedures for measuring concentrations of target compounds and characterizing the surfaces of adsorbent-reactants were developed. Effects of contact time, pH (7, 8, 9, 10) and sulfate concentration (0, 1, 10 mM) on removal of all target compounds on both adsorbent-reactants were determined. Stability tests were conducted to evaluate the extent to which target compounds were released from the adsorbent-reactants when pH changed. Surface characterization was conducted with x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) to identify reactions occurring on the surface between the target compounds and surface iron and sulfur. Results indicated that target compounds could be removed by FeS{sub 2} and FeS and that removal was affected by time, pH and surface reactions. Stability of residuals was generally good and appeared to be affected by the extent of surface reactions. Synthesized pyrite and mackinawite appear to have the required characteristics for removing the target compounds from wastewaters from ash ponds and scrubber ponds and producing stable residuals.

  2. Treatment of effluent containing uranium with magnetic zeolite; Tratamento de efluente contendo uranio com zeolita magnetica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craesmeyer, Gabriel Ramos

    2013-07-01

    Within this work, a magnetic-zeolite composite was successfully synthesized using ferrous sulfate as raw material for the magnetic part of the composite, magnetite, and coal fly ash as raw material for the zeolitic phase. The synthesis of the zeolitic phase was made by alkali hydrothermal treatment and the magnetite nanoparticles were obtained through Fe{sup 2+} precipitation on alkali medium. The synthetic process was repeated many times and showed good reproducibility comparing the zeolitic nanocomposite from different batches. The final product was characterized using infrared spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence, scanning electron microscopy with coupled EDS. Specific mass, specific surface area and other physicochemical proprieties. The main crystalline phases found in the final product were magnetite, zeolites types NaP1 and hydroxysodalite, quartz and mullite, those last two remaining from the raw materials. Uranium removal capacity of the magnetic zeolite composite was tested using batch techniques. The effects of contact time and initial concentration of the adsorbate over the adsorption process were evaluated. Equilibrium time was resolved and the following kinetics and diffusion models were evaluated: pseudo-first order kinetic model, pseudo-second order kinetic model and interparticle diffusion model. A contact time of 120 min turned out to be enough to reach equilibrium of the adsorption process. The rate of adsorption followed the pseudo-second order model and the intra particle diffusion did not turn out to be a speed determinant step. Two adsorption isotherms models, the Langmuir model and the Freundlich model, were also evaluated. The Langmuir model was the best fit for the obtained experimental data. Using the best fitted adsorption isotherm and kinetic model, the theoretical maximum adsorption capacity of uranium over the composite was determined for both models. The maximum removal capacity calculated was 20.7 mg.g{sup -1

  3. Treatment Of Metal-Mine Effluents By Limestone Neutralization And Calcite Co-Precipitation (Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Geological Survey - Leetown Science Center and the Colorado School of Mines have developed a remediation process for the treatment of metals in circumneutral mining influenced waters. The process involves treatment with a pulsed limestone bed (PLB) system, followed by c...

  4. Treatment Of Metal-Mine Effluents By Limestone Neutralization And Calcite Co-Precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Geological Survey - Leetown Science Center and the Colorado School of Mines have developed a remediation process for the treatment of metals in circumneutral mining influenced waters. The process involves treatment with a pulsed limestone bed (PLB) system, followed by c...

  5. Comparison of UASB and EGSB reactors performance, for treatment of raw and deoiled palm oil mill effluent (POME)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anaerobic digestion of palm oil mill effluent (POME) and deoiled POME was investigated both in batch assays and continuous reactor experiments using up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) and expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) reactors. The methane potential determined from batch assays of POME and deoiled POME was 503 and 610 mL-CH4/gVS-added, respectively. For the treatment of POME in continuously fed reactors, both in UASB and EGSB reactors more than 90% COD removal could be obtained, at HRT of 5 days, corresponding to OLR of 5.8 gVS/(L-reactor.d). Similar methane yields of 436-438 mL-CH4/gVS-added were obtained for UASB and EGSB respectively. However, for treatment of deoiled POME, both UASB and EGSB reactors could operate at lower OLR of 2.6 gVS/(L-reactor.d), with the methane yield of 600 and 555 mL-CH4/gVS-added for UASB and EGSB, respectively. The higher methane yield achieved from the deoiled POME was attributed to lower portion of biofibers which are more recalcitrant compared the rest of organic matter in POME. The UASB reactor was found to be more stable than EGSB reactor under the same OLR, as could be seen from lower VFA concentration, especially propionic acid, compared to the EGSB reactor.

  6. Fish larval deformity caused by aldehydes and unknown byproducts in ozonated effluents from municipal wastewater treatment systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zhiming; Zhang, Yu; Yuan, Hongying; Tian, Zhe; Yang, Min

    2014-12-01

    Ozonated secondary effluents (SEs) from municipal wastewater treatment plants (MWTPs) have been found to cause developmental retardation of fish embryos. This study explored the potential cause of the embryo toxicity formed in ozonated SEs by exposing Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) (d-rR) embryos to ozonated SE from a MWTP in Tianjin, China. The increase of ozone dose from 0.26 to 0.96 mg O3/mg DOC0 (consumed ozone per initial DOC), which produced total aldehyde (mixture of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, propionaldehyde, and glyoxal) from 41.5 to 114.7 μg/L, resulted in an increase in the percentage of deformed larvae from 2.2% to 24.1%. Increases in larval deformity and embryo mortality were also observed in ozonated SEs from other MWTPs. The exposure experiment using the mixture aldehyde solution showed that the production of aldehydes could explain approximately 13.6% of larval deformity caused by ozonation of SEs. Pilot experimental results in Tianjin and Beijing, China showed that biofiltration as a post-treatment technology was effective in removing the aldehydes as well as reducing embryo toxicity caused by ozonation. PMID:25243655

  7. Enhanced degradation of persistent pharmaceuticals found in wastewater treatment effluents using TiO{sub 2} nanobelt photocatalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Robert; Hu, Anming, E-mail: a2hu@uwaterloo.ca; Li, Wenjuan; Zhou, Y. Norman [University of Waterloo, Centre for Advanced Materials Joining, Department of Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering (Canada)

    2013-10-15

    Pharmaceuticals in wastewater effluents are a current and emerging global problem and the development of cost-effective methods to facilitate their removal is needed to mitigate this issue. Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs), in particular UV/TiO{sub 2}, have potential for wastewater treatment. In this study, TiO{sub 2} anatase phase nanobelts (30-100 nm in width and 10 {mu}m in length) have been synthesized using a high temperature hydrothermal method as a means to photocatalyze the oxidation of pharmaceutical contaminants. We have investigated a model dye (malachite green), three pharmaceuticals and personal care products-naproxen, carbamazepine, and theophylline-that are difficult to oxidize without AOP processes. TiO{sub 2} nanobelts were exposed to 365 nm UV illumination and the measured photocatalytic degradation rates and adsorption parameters of pharmaceuticals were explored using kinetic models. Furthermore we have determined the degree of pharmaceutical degradation as a function of solution pH, illumination time, temperature, and concentration of contaminant. In addition, the roles of active oxygen species-hydroxyl radial (OH{center_dot}), positive holes (h{sup +}), and hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2})-involved were also investigated in the degradation process. These studies offer additional applications of hierarchical TiO{sub 2} nanobelt membranes, including those harnessing sunlight for water treatment.

  8. Reutilização de efluente de tingimentos de fibras acrílicas pós-tratamento fotoeletroquímico Reuse of a effluent from the dyeing of acrylic fabrics after photoelectrochemical treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Lucas

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available On a laboratory scale effluents were produced from bichromic dyeing of acrylic fabrics with the basic dyes Blue Astrazon FGGL 300% and Yellow Gold Astrazon GL 200%. The residual dyeing baths were subjected to a photoelectrochemical treatment and reused in a second dyeing process. In the reutilization study, dyeings with treated effluent were compared with standard dyeings with distilled water. The results of dyeings using 100% of treated effluent were unsatisfactory, but the substitution of 10 to 30% of the treated effluent by distilled water resulted in reduced and more acceptable values for difference in colour intensity (ΔE between 1.86 and 0.3.

  9. Prevalence of Antimicrobial Resistant and Virulent Salmonella spp. in Treated Effluent and Receiving Aquatic Milieu of Wastewater Treatment Plants in Durban, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ejovwokoghene C. Odjadjare

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we evaluated the impact of treated wastewater effluent from two wastewater treatment plants on the physicochemical parameters and Salmonella spp. load of receiving rivers. Presumptive Salmonella spp. were obtained at all sampled points including the discharge points, with counts ranging from 0 to 4.14 log cfu/mL at both plants. Turbidity, chemical and biological oxygen demand were found to be high and mostly above the required limit for treated wastewater discharge. However, recorded nitrate and phosphate values were very low. Of the 200 confirmed Salmonella spp. isolates recovered from the treated effluent and receiving surface waters, 93% harbored the spiC gene, 84% harbored the misL gene, and 87.5% harbored the orfL gene while 87% harbored the pipD gene. The antibiotic resistance profile revealed that the isolates were resistant to sulfamethoxazole, nalidixic acid and streptomycin, but susceptible to quinolones and third generation β-lactams. These results indicate that in South Africa treated effluents are still a major source of contamination of rivers with pathogens such as Salmonella. Appropriate steps by the regulatory authorities and workers at the treatment plants are needed to enforce stipulated guidelines in order to prevent pollution of surface water resources due to the discharge of poorly treated effluents.

  10. Prevalence of Antimicrobial Resistant and Virulent Salmonella spp. in Treated Effluent and Receiving Aquatic Milieu of Wastewater Treatment Plants in Durban, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odjadjare, Ejovwokoghene C; Olaniran, Ademola O

    2015-08-18

    In this study, we evaluated the impact of treated wastewater effluent from two wastewater treatment plants on the physicochemical parameters and Salmonella spp. load of receiving rivers. Presumptive Salmonella spp. were obtained at all sampled points including the discharge points, with counts ranging from 0 to 4.14 log cfu/mL at both plants. Turbidity, chemical and biological oxygen demand were found to be high and mostly above the required limit for treated wastewater discharge. However, recorded nitrate and phosphate values were very low. Of the 200 confirmed Salmonella spp. isolates recovered from the treated effluent and receiving surface waters, 93% harbored the spiC gene, 84% harbored the misL gene, and 87.5% harbored the orfL gene while 87% harbored the pipD gene. The antibiotic resistance profile revealed that the isolates were resistant to sulfamethoxazole, nalidixic acid and streptomycin, but susceptible to quinolones and third generation β-lactams. These results indicate that in South Africa treated effluents are still a major source of contamination of rivers with pathogens such as Salmonella. Appropriate steps by the regulatory authorities and workers at the treatment plants are needed to enforce stipulated guidelines in order to prevent pollution of surface water resources due to the discharge of poorly treated effluents.

  11. Prevalence of Antimicrobial Resistant and Virulent Salmonella spp. in Treated Effluent and Receiving Aquatic Milieu of Wastewater Treatment Plants in Durban, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odjadjare, Ejovwokoghene C; Olaniran, Ademola O

    2015-08-01

    In this study, we evaluated the impact of treated wastewater effluent from two wastewater treatment plants on the physicochemical parameters and Salmonella spp. load of receiving rivers. Presumptive Salmonella spp. were obtained at all sampled points including the discharge points, with counts ranging from 0 to 4.14 log cfu/mL at both plants. Turbidity, chemical and biological oxygen demand were found to be high and mostly above the required limit for treated wastewater discharge. However, recorded nitrate and phosphate values were very low. Of the 200 confirmed Salmonella spp. isolates recovered from the treated effluent and receiving surface waters, 93% harbored the spiC gene, 84% harbored the misL gene, and 87.5% harbored the orfL gene while 87% harbored the pipD gene. The antibiotic resistance profile revealed that the isolates were resistant to sulfamethoxazole, nalidixic acid and streptomycin, but susceptible to quinolones and third generation β-lactams. These results indicate that in South Africa treated effluents are still a major source of contamination of rivers with pathogens such as Salmonella. Appropriate steps by the regulatory authorities and workers at the treatment plants are needed to enforce stipulated guidelines in order to prevent pollution of surface water resources due to the discharge of poorly treated effluents. PMID:26295245

  12. Correlation between DNAPL distribution area and dissolved concentration in surfactant enhanced aquifer remediation effluent: a two-dimensional flow cell study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Bin; Li, Huiying; Du, Xiaoming; Zhong, Lirong; Yang, Bin; Du, Ping; Gu, Qingbao; Li, Fasheng

    2016-02-01

    During the process of surfactant enhanced aquifer remediation (SEAR), free phase dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) may be mobilized and spread. The understanding of the impact of DNAPL spreading on the SEAR remediation is not sufficient with its positive effect infrequently mentioned. To evaluate the correlation between DNAPL spreading and remediation efficiency, a two-dimensional sandbox apparatus was used to simulate the migration and dissolution process of 1,2-DCA (1,2-dichloroethane) DNAPL in SEAR. Distribution area of DNAPL in the sandbox was determined by digital image analysis and correlated with effluent DNAPL concentration. The results showed that the effluent DNAPL concentration has significant positive linear correlation with the DNAPL distribution area, indicating the mobilization of DNAPL could improve remediation efficiency by enlarging total NAPL-water interfacial area for mass transfer. Meanwhile, the vertical migration of 1,2-DCA was limited within the boundary of aquifer in all experiments, implying that by manipulating injection parameters in SEAR, optimal remediation efficiency can be reached while the risk of DNAPL vertical migration is minimized. This study provides a convenient visible and quantitative method for the optimization of parameters for SEAR project, and an approach of rapid predicting the extent of DNAPL contaminant distribution based on the dissolved DNAPL concentration in the extraction well.

  13. Correlation between DNAPL distribution area and dissolved concentration in surfactant enhanced aquifer remediation effluent: A two-dimensional flow cell study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bin; Li, Huiying; Du, Xiaoming; Zhong, Lirong; Yang, Bin; Du, Ping; Gu, Qingbao; Li, Fasheng

    2016-02-01

    During the process of surfactant enhanced aquifer remediation (SEAR), free phase dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) may be mobilized and spread. The understanding of the impact of DNAPL spreading on the SEAR remediation is not sufficient with its positive effect infrequently mentioned. To evaluate the correlation between DNAPL spreading and remediation efficiency, a two-dimensional sandbox apparatus was used to simulate the migration and dissolution process of 1,2-DCA (1,2-dichloroethane) DNAPL in SEAR. Distribution area of DNAPL in the sandbox was determined by digital image analysis and correlated with effluent DNAPL concentration. The results showed that the effluent DNAPL concentration has significant positive linear correlation with the DNAPL distribution area, indicating the mobilization of DNAPL could improve remediation efficiency by enlarging total NAPL-water interfacial area for mass transfer. Meanwhile, the vertical migration of 1,2-DCA was limited within the boundary of aquifer in all experiments, implying that by manipulating injection parameters in SEAR, optimal remediation efficiency can be reached while the risk of DNAPL vertical migration is minimized. This study provides a convenient visible and quantitative method for the optimization of parameters for SEAR project, and an approach of rapid predicting the extent of DNAPL contaminant distribution based on the dissolved DNAPL concentration in the extraction well.

  14. Biosorption of synthetic dyes (Direct Red 89 and Reactive Green 12) as an ecological refining step in textile effluent treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guendouz, Samira; Khellaf, Nabila; Zerdaoui, Mostefa; Ouchefoun, Moussa

    2013-06-01

    With the use of cost-effective natural materials, biosorption is considered as an ecological tool that is applied worldwide for the remediation of pollution. In this study, we proposed Lemna gibba biomass (LGB), a lignocellulosic sorbent material, for the removal of two textile dyes, Direct Red 89 (DR-89) and Reactive Green 12 (RG-12). These azo dyes commonly used in dying operations of natural and synthetic fibres are the most important pollutants produced in textile industry effluents. For this purpose, batch biosorption experiments were carried out to assess the efficacy of LGB on dye treatment by evaluating the effect of contact time, biomass dosage, and initial dye concentration. The results indicated that the bioremoval efficiency of 5 mg L(-1) DR-89 and RG-12 reached approximately 100 % after 20 min of the exposure time; however, the maximum biosorption of 50 mg L(-1) DR-89 and 15 mg L(-1) RG-12 was determined to be about 60 and 47 %, respectively. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy used to explain the sorption mechanism showed that the functional groups of carboxylic acid and hydroxyl played a major role in the retention of these pollutants on the biomass surface. The modelling results using Freundlich, Langmuir, Temkin, Elovich, and Dubini Radushkevich (D-R) isotherms demonstrated that the DR-89 biosorption process was better described with the Langmuir theory (R (2) =0.992) while the RG-12 biosorption process fitted well by the D-R isotherm equation (R (2) =0.988). The maximum biosorption capacity was found to be 20.0 and 115.5 mg g(-1) for DR-89 and RG-12, respectively, showing a higher ability of duckweed biomass for the bioremoval of the green dye. The thermodynamic study showed that the dye biosorption was a spontaneous and endothermic process. The efficacy of using duckweed biomass for the bioremoval of the two dyes was limited to concentrations ≤50 mg L(-1), indicating that L. gibba biomass may be suitable in the refining step

  15. Whole effluent toxicity assessment at a wastewater treatment plant upgraded with a full-scale post-ozonation using aquatic key species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magdeburg, Axel; Stalter, Daniel; Oehlmann, Jörg

    2012-08-01

    Ozonation as final wastewater (WW) polishing step, following conventional activated sludge treatment is increasingly implemented in sewage treatment for contaminant degradation to prevent surface water pollution. While the oxidative degradation of chemicals has been extensively investigated, the in vivo toxicological characteristics of ozonated whole effluents are rarely a matter of research. In the present study, whole effluents were toxicologically evaluated with an in vivo test battery before and after full-scale ozonation and subsequent sand filtration on site at a treatment plant. One aquatic plant (duckweed, Lemna minor) and five invertebrate species of different systematic groups (Lumbriculus variegatus, Chironomus riparius, Potamopyrgus antipodarum, Daphnia magna) were exposed to the effluents in a flow-through-designed test system with a test duration of 7-28 d. None of the considered toxicity endpoints correlated with the pollutant elimination. A tendency towards an increased toxicity after ozonation was apparent in three of the test systems showing [statistically] significant adverse effects in the L. variegatus toxicity test (decrease in reproduction and biomass). After sand filtration, adverse effects were reduced to a similar level like after conventional treatment. Solely the Daphnia reproduction test revealed beneficial effects after ozonation in combination with sand filtration. Results of the test battery indicate the formation of adverse oxidation products during WW ozonation. L. variegatus appeared to be the most sensitive of the five test species. Sand filtration effectively removes or detoxifies toxic oxidation products, as toxic effects were subsequently reduced to the level after conventional treatment. PMID:22560180

  16. TREATMENT AND RESOURCE REUSE OF 1,2,4-ACID PRODUCING EFFLUENT WITH MACROPOROUS POLYMERIC ADSORBENT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The treatment and resource reuse of 1,2,4-acid producing wastewater by self-mademacroporous adsorption resin ND,A-107 was studied in this paper. Optimum adsorption anddesorption process parameters were acquired by systematically study. The polymeric resin NDA-10 7indicated good adsorption & desorption of 1,2, 4-acid in the wastewater. The removal efficiency of1,2,4-acid, CODer is about 78%, 72% respectively. It is evident that this adsorption process is anefficient treatment method for 1,2,4-acid producing wastewater. At the same time, the accumulationand resource reuse of l,2, 4-acid can be realized in this process.

  17. Treatment of 2-phenylamino-3-methyl-6-di-n-butylaminofluoran production effluent by combination of biological treatments and Fenton's oxidation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    High strength refractory organic stream is produced during the production of 2-phenylamino-3-methyl-6-di-n-butylaminofluoran(One Dye Black 2, abbr. ODB 2), a novel heat-sensitive material with a promising market. In this study, a combination of acidificationprecipitation, primary biological treatment, Fenton's oxidation and another biological treatment was successfully used for the removal of COD from 18000-25000 mg/L to below 200 mg/L from the ODB 2 production wastewater in a pilot experiment. A COD removal of 70%-80% was achieved by acidification-precipitation under a pH of 2.5-3.0. The first step biodegradation permitted an average COD removal of 70% under an hydraulic residence time (HRT) of 30 h. By batch tests, the optimum conditions of Fenton's oxidation were acquired as: Fe2+ dose 6.0 mmol/L; H2O2 dose 3000 mg/L; and reaction time 6 h. The second step biological treatment could ensure an effluent COD below 200 mg/L under an HRT of 10 h following the Fenton's treatment.

  18. Advances in ultrafiltration membrane technology for water purification and effluent treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper aims at presenting the advances made in ultrafiltration (UF) membrane separation technology with an emphasis on the potential areas of its applications and some of R and D works carried out in this direction in our laboratory in BARC. (author)

  19. Sources and distribution of nitrate in ground water at a farmed field irrigated with sewage treatment-plant effluent, Tallahassee, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berndt, M.P.

    1990-01-01

    The city of Tallahassee, Florida began applying sewage treatment-plant effluent to a sprayfield southeast of the city in 1980. Fertilizers containing inorganic nitrogen were also applied in conjunction with the operation of a commercial farm at this site. Analysis of groundwater in the surficial aquifer and the Upper Floridan aquifer have indicated that nitrate concentrations in some wells exceed the prescribed drinking water maximum contaminant level of 10 mg/L (nitrate as nitrogen). Nitrate concentrations greater than the maximum contaminant level were not detected in samples from monitoring wells outside the sprayfield boundary. Analyses of water from the unsaturated zone indicated that conversion of organic nitrogen and ammonia to nitrate was complete before the nitrogen- enriched water reached the water table. Groundwater samples from wells in the surficial and Upper Floridan aquifers less than 100 ft deep located inside sprayed areas had mean concentrations of nitrate much higher than samples from similar wells located outside sprayed areas at the southeast sprayfield. These shallow wells inside the sprayed areas were the only wells in which the maximum contaminant level for nitrate was exceeded. Analyses of the nitrogen isotope ratios in groundwater were used to determine whether the major source of nitrogen was treated sewage or fertilizers. The nitrogen isotope ratios in contaminated groundwater at the southeast sprayfield were compared to those at another sprayfield southwest of the city, where treated sewage was the sole source of nitrogen. Statistical analyses indicated a significant difference in the nitrogen isotope ratios at the two sites, indicating that both nitrogen sources are significant at the southeast sprayfield. (USGS)

  20. Dynamics of microbiological parameters, enzymatic activities and worm biomass production during vermicomposting of effluent treatment plant sludge of bakery industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Anoop; Suthar, S; Garg, V K

    2015-10-01

    This paper reports the changes in microbial parameters and enzymatic activities during vermicomposting of effluent treatment plant sludge (ETPS) of bakery industry spiked with cow dung (CD) by Eisenia fetida. Six vermibins containing different ratios of ETPS and CD were maintained under controlled laboratory conditions for 15 weeks. Total bacterial and total fungal count increased upto 7th week and declined afterward in all the bins. Maximum bacterial and fungal count was 31.6 CFU × 10(6) g(-1) and 31 CFU × 10(4) g(-1) in 7th week. Maximum dehydrogenase activity was 1921 μg TPF g(-1) h(-1) in 9th week in 100 % CD containing vermibin, whereas maximum urease activity was 1208 μg NH4 (-)N g(-1) h(-1) in 3rd week in 100 % CD containing vermibin. The enzyme activity and microbial counts were lesser in ETPS containing vermibins than control (100 % CD). The growth and fecundity of the worms in different vermibins were also investigated. The results showed that initially biomass and fecundity of the worms increased but decreased at the later stages due to non-availability of the palatable feed. This showed that quality and palatability of food directly affect biological parameters of the system. PMID:25982984

  1. Biological denitrification using poly(butylene succinate) as carbon source and biofilm carrier for recirculating aquaculture system effluent treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Song-Ming; Deng, Ya-Le; Ruan, Yun-Jie; Guo, Xi-Shan; Shi, Ming-Ming; Shen, Jia-Zheng

    2015-09-01

    Nitrate removal is essential for the sustainable operation of recirculating aquaculture system (RAS). This study evaluated the heterotrophic denitrification using poly(butylene succinate) as carbon source and biofilm carrier for RAS wastewater treatment. The effect of varied operational conditions (influent type, salinity and nitrate loading) on reactor performance and microbial community was investigated. The high denitrification rates of 0.53 ± 0.19 kg NO3(-)-N m(-3) d(-1) (salinity, 0‰) and 0.66 ± 0.12 kg NO3(-)-Nm(-3) d(-1) (salinity, 25‰) were achieved, and nitrite concentration was maintained below 1mg/L. In addition, the existence of salinity exhibited more stable nitrate removal efficiency, but caused adverse effects such as excessive effluent dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and dissimilation nitrate reduce to ammonia (DNRA) activity. The degradation of PBS was further confirmed by SEM and FTIR analysis. Illumina sequencing revealed the abundance and species changes of functional denitrification and degradation microflora which might be the primary cause of varied reactor performance. PMID:26093254

  2. Thermo-alkali-stable catalases from newly isolated Bacillus sp. for the treatment and recycling of textile bleaching effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paar, A; Costa, S; Tzanov, T; Gudelj, M; Robra, K H; Cavaco-Paulo, A; Gübitz, G M

    2001-08-23

    Three thermoalkaliphilic bacteria, which were grown at pH 9.3-10 and 60-65 degrees C were isolated out of a textile wastewater drain. The unknown micro-organisms were identified as thermoalkaliphilic Bacillus sp. Growth conditions were studied and catalase activities and stabilities compared. Catalases from Bacillus SF showed high stabilities at 60 degrees C and pH 9 (t1/2=38 h) and thus this strain was chosen for further investigations, such as electron microscopy, immobilization of catalase and hydrogen peroxide degradation studies. Degradation of hydrogen peroxide with an immobilized catalase from Bacillus SF enabled the reuse of the water for the dyeing process. In contrast, application of the free enzyme for treatment of bleaching effluents, caused interaction between the denaturated protein and the dye, resulting in reduced dye uptake, and a higher color difference of 1.3DeltaE* of dyed fabrics compared to 0.9DeltaE* when using the immobilized enzyme.

  3. Study of the behaviour of inorganic ion exchangers in the treatment of medium active effluents. Pt.5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes some results obtained for a generic programme of work for the Department of the Environment on the potential application of inorganic ion exchangers for the treatment of medium active effluents. The results from a preliminary investigation of the encapsulation of six ion exchangers (hydrous titanium oxide, hydrous manganese oxide, titanium and zirconium phosphates, polyantimonic acid and copper hexacyanoferrate(II) (CuFC)) in cement are reported. Compressive strength tests showed the presence of the exchangers reduced the strength of the cement but in all cases 33.3 wt% loadings of the exchangers resulted in homogeneous waste forms with adequate strength (≥ 4.5 MN m-2) for transport/storage. The results from a series of leach tests investigating the rate of release of caesium from cement samples containing caesium-loaded CuFC, are also reported. It was found that the presence of CuFC reduces the cumulative fraction of caesium leached but not the overall leach rate. (author)

  4. Dynamics of microbiological parameters, enzymatic activities and worm biomass production during vermicomposting of effluent treatment plant sludge of bakery industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Anoop; Suthar, S; Garg, V K

    2015-10-01

    This paper reports the changes in microbial parameters and enzymatic activities during vermicomposting of effluent treatment plant sludge (ETPS) of bakery industry spiked with cow dung (CD) by Eisenia fetida. Six vermibins containing different ratios of ETPS and CD were maintained under controlled laboratory conditions for 15 weeks. Total bacterial and total fungal count increased upto 7th week and declined afterward in all the bins. Maximum bacterial and fungal count was 31.6 CFU × 10(6) g(-1) and 31 CFU × 10(4) g(-1) in 7th week. Maximum dehydrogenase activity was 1921 μg TPF g(-1) h(-1) in 9th week in 100 % CD containing vermibin, whereas maximum urease activity was 1208 μg NH4 (-)N g(-1) h(-1) in 3rd week in 100 % CD containing vermibin. The enzyme activity and microbial counts were lesser in ETPS containing vermibins than control (100 % CD). The growth and fecundity of the worms in different vermibins were also investigated. The results showed that initially biomass and fecundity of the worms increased but decreased at the later stages due to non-availability of the palatable feed. This showed that quality and palatability of food directly affect biological parameters of the system.

  5. Catalytic thermal treatment (catalytic thermolysis) of a rice grain-based biodigester effluent of an alcohol distillery plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prajapati, Abhinesh Kumar; Chaudhari, Parmesh Kumar; Mazumdar, Bidyut; Choudhary, Rumi

    2015-01-01

    The catalytic thermolysis (CT) process is an effective and novel approach to treat rice grain-based biodigester effluent (BDE) of the distillery plant. CT treatment of rice grain-based distillery wastewater was carried out in a 0.5 dm(3) thermolytic batch reactor using different catalysts such as CuO, copper sulphate and ferrous sulphate. With the CuO catalyst, a temperature of 95°C, catalyst loading of 4 g/dm(3) and pH 5 were found to be optimal, obtaining a maximum chemical oxygen demand (COD) and colour removal of 80.4% and 72%, respectively. The initial pH (pHi) was an important parameter to remove COD and colour from BDE. At higher pHi (pH 9.5), less COD and colour reduction were observed. The settling characteristics of CT-treated sludge were also analysed at different temperatures. It was noted that the treated slurry at a temperature of 80°C gave best settling characteristics. Characteristics of residues are also analysed at different pH. PMID:25833556

  6. Study of the behaviour of inorganic ion exchangers in the treatment of medium active effluents. Part 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes some results obtained from a generic programme of work for the Department of the Environment on the potential application of inorganic ion exchangers for the treatment of medium active effluents. The results from a preliminary investigation of the encapsulation of six ion exchangers (hydrous titanium oxide, hydrous manganese oxide, titanium and zirconium phosphates, polyantimonic acid and copper hexacyanoferrate (II) (CuFC)) in cement are reported. Compression strength tests showed the presence of the exchangers reduced the strength of the cement but in all cases 33.3 wt% loadings of the exchangers resulted in homogeneous waste forms with adequate strength (≥ 4.5 MNm-2) for disposal in a waste repository. The results from a series of leach tests investigating the rate of release of caesium from cement samples containing caesium-loaded CuFC, are also reported. It was found that the presence of CuFC reduces the cumulative fraction of caesium leached but not the overall leach rate. (author)

  7. The behaviour of an anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR as the first stage in the biological treatment of hog farming effluents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Motteran

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This present paper reports a study of the efficiency of an anaerobic Baffled Reactor (ABR composed of three chambers working as the first stage of a biological treatment system for swine wastewater, over a period of 116 days. The average value of the volumetric organic loading rate (VOLR was 17.8 kgCODtotal m-3 d-1, the biological organic loading rates (BOLR based on total and filtered COD influents of 14381 mg L-1 and 3610 mg L-1, respectively, were: 1.3 kgCODtotal kgTVS d-1 and 0.98 kgCODfiltered kgTVS d-1, respectively, and the hydraulic loading rate (HLR was about 1.4 m³ m-3 d-1. The average removal efficiency for total COD was 80% at a hydraulic retention time (HRT of about 18 hours. The average alkalinity in the effluent was 3801 mgCaCO3 L-1. The average removal efficiencies for oil and grease and total soluble solids were 41% and 78%, respectively. The sludge granulation and biogas production in the ABR were quite different between the first and third compartment, showing a distinct microbial consortium in each chamber. Through this research it was confirmed that this type of reactor can be employed as the first stage in a system treating swine wastewater.

  8. Fatty acid rich effluent from acidogenic biohydrogen reactor as substrate for lipid accumulation in heterotrophic microalgae with simultaneous treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkata Mohan, S; Prathima Devi, M

    2012-11-01

    Acid-rich effluent generated from acidogenic biohydrogen production process was evaluated as substrate for lipid synthesis by integrating with heterotrophic cultivation of mixed microalgae. Experiments were performed both with synthetic volatile fatty acids (SVFA) and fermented fatty acids (FFA) from biohydrogen producing reactor. Fatty acid based platform evidenced significant influence on algal growth as well as lipid accumulation by the formation of triglycerides through fatty acid synthesis. Comparatively FFA documented higher biomass and lipid productivity (1.42mg/ml (wet weight); 26.4%) than SVFAs ((HAc+HBu+HPr), 0.60mg/ml; 23.1%). Lipid profiles varied with substrates and depicted 18 types of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids with wide fuel and food characteristics. The observed higher concentrations of Chl b over Chl a supports the biosynthesis of triacylglycerides. Microalgae diversity visualized the presence of lipid accumulating species viz., Scenedesmus sp. and Chlorella sp. Integration of microalgae cultivation with biohydrogen production showed lipid productivity for biodiesel production along with additional treatment.

  9. Catalytic thermal treatment (catalytic thermolysis) of a rice grain-based biodigester effluent of an alcohol distillery plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prajapati, Abhinesh Kumar; Chaudhari, Parmesh Kumar; Mazumdar, Bidyut; Choudhary, Rumi

    2015-01-01

    The catalytic thermolysis (CT) process is an effective and novel approach to treat rice grain-based biodigester effluent (BDE) of the distillery plant. CT treatment of rice grain-based distillery wastewater was carried out in a 0.5 dm(3) thermolytic batch reactor using different catalysts such as CuO, copper sulphate and ferrous sulphate. With the CuO catalyst, a temperature of 95°C, catalyst loading of 4 g/dm(3) and pH 5 were found to be optimal, obtaining a maximum chemical oxygen demand (COD) and colour removal of 80.4% and 72%, respectively. The initial pH (pHi) was an important parameter to remove COD and colour from BDE. At higher pHi (pH 9.5), less COD and colour reduction were observed. The settling characteristics of CT-treated sludge were also analysed at different temperatures. It was noted that the treated slurry at a temperature of 80°C gave best settling characteristics. Characteristics of residues are also analysed at different pH.

  10. Electro-coagulation treatment efficiency of graphite, iron and aluminum electrodes using alum and wood ash electrolytes on a Kraft pulp and paper mill effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orori, O B; Etiégni, L; Senelwa, K; Mwamburi, M M; Balozi, K B; Barisa, G K; Omutange, E S

    2010-01-01

    Specific power consumption and reduction of BOD, COD, TS, pH, and chemical elements were used to determine the treatment efficiency of Fe, graphite and Al electrodes with alum and wood ash as supporting electrolytes on the effluent from a Kraft pulp and paper mill in Kenya. Five sampling points were selected along mill's effluent treatment system: primary settling tank (SP1), first aerated lagoon (SP2), second aerated lagoon (SP3), stabilization pond (SP4), and at discharge point (SP5). Operating costs were also compared between treatments. Graphite electrodes combined with alum showed the lowest power consumption (0.5 to 3.9 mWh/m³), followed by Al and Fe. All the electrodes reduced color from a maximum of 3,200°H to the minimum local standard of 15°H. However Al electrode with alum was the most effective method for BOD and COD reduction by over 60% and 58.8% respectively and generated less sludge at all sampling points. The cost of treatment was lowest with graphite electrode (US$0.006 to 0.0008 per m³ of effluent), but highest with Al electrodes combined with wood ash (US$31.74 to 8.34 per m³). Further study is required for the effectiveness of increasing the concentration of wood ash leachate at higher concentration and current density. PMID:20935369

  11. What have we learned from worldwide experiences on the management and treatment of hospital effluent? — An overview and a discussion on perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study overviews lessons learned from experimental investigations on dedicated treatment systems of hospital effluent carried out worldwide in the last twenty years. It includes 48 peer reviewed papers from 1995 to 2015 assessing the efficacy of different treatment levels (preliminary, primary, secondary and polishing) of hospital wastewater in removing a wide spectrum of pharmaceutical compounds as well as conventional contaminants. Moreover, it highlights the rationale and the reasons for each study: reducing the discharge of micropollutants in surface water, improving existing wastewater treatment technologies and reducing the risk of spread of pathogens causing endemic diseases and finally, it offers a critical analysis of the conclusions and suggestions of each study. The most investigated technologies are membrane bioreactors equipped with ultrafiltration membranes in the secondary step, ozonation followed by activated carbon filtration (in powder and in granules) in the polishing step. Interesting research projects deal with photo-Fenton processes acting as primary treatments to enhance biodegradation before biological treatment, and as a polishing step, thus further reducing micro-contaminant occurrence. Investment and operational costs are also presented and discussed for the different treatment technologies tested worldwide, in particular membrane bioreactors and various advanced oxidation processes. This study also discusses the need for further research to evaluate toxicity resulting from advanced oxidation processes as well as the need to develop an accurate feasibility study that encompasses technical, ecotoxicological and economic aspects to identify the best available treatment in the different situations from a global view point. - Highlights: • Different technologies for a dedicated treatment of hospital effluent are discussed. • Photo-Fenton process seems to be a promising preliminary treatment. Membrane bioreactor is a proper secondary

  12. What have we learned from worldwide experiences on the management and treatment of hospital effluent? — An overview and a discussion on perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verlicchi, P., E-mail: paola.verlicchi@unife.it [Department of Engineering, University of Ferrara, Via Saragat 1, I-44122 Ferrara (Italy); Terra& Acqua Tech Technopole of the University of Ferrara, Via Borsari 46, 44123 Ferrara (Italy); Al Aukidy, M., E-mail: mustafakether.alaukidi@unife.it [Department of Engineering, University of Ferrara, Via Saragat 1, I-44122 Ferrara (Italy); Zambello, E., E-mail: elena.zambello@unife.it [Department of Engineering, University of Ferrara, Via Saragat 1, I-44122 Ferrara (Italy)

    2015-05-01

    This study overviews lessons learned from experimental investigations on dedicated treatment systems of hospital effluent carried out worldwide in the last twenty years. It includes 48 peer reviewed papers from 1995 to 2015 assessing the efficacy of different treatment levels (preliminary, primary, secondary and polishing) of hospital wastewater in removing a wide spectrum of pharmaceutical compounds as well as conventional contaminants. Moreover, it highlights the rationale and the reasons for each study: reducing the discharge of micropollutants in surface water, improving existing wastewater treatment technologies and reducing the risk of spread of pathogens causing endemic diseases and finally, it offers a critical analysis of the conclusions and suggestions of each study. The most investigated technologies are membrane bioreactors equipped with ultrafiltration membranes in the secondary step, ozonation followed by activated carbon filtration (in powder and in granules) in the polishing step. Interesting research projects deal with photo-Fenton processes acting as primary treatments to enhance biodegradation before biological treatment, and as a polishing step, thus further reducing micro-contaminant occurrence. Investment and operational costs are also presented and discussed for the different treatment technologies tested worldwide, in particular membrane bioreactors and various advanced oxidation processes. This study also discusses the need for further research to evaluate toxicity resulting from advanced oxidation processes as well as the need to develop an accurate feasibility study that encompasses technical, ecotoxicological and economic aspects to identify the best available treatment in the different situations from a global view point. - Highlights: • Different technologies for a dedicated treatment of hospital effluent are discussed. • Photo-Fenton process seems to be a promising preliminary treatment. Membrane bioreactor is a proper secondary

  13. Electrochemical treatment of heavy metals (Cu2+, Cr6+, Ni2+) from industrial effluent and modeling of copper reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunsom, M; Pruksathorn, K; Damronglerd, S; Vergnes, H; Duverneuil, P

    2005-02-01

    An electrochemical technique was tested in a laboratory scale to treat heavy metals (Cu2+, Cr6+ and Ni2+) from plating industrial effluent. The experiments were performed in a membrane reactor having a capacity of 1 l. Stainless-steel sheets with surface area of 0.011 m2 and titanium coated with ruthenium oxide were used as cathode and anode, respectively. The electrolyte was circulated at a constant flow rate (0.42 l/min) and the pH was kept constant at 1. Applied current densities were 10 and 90 A/m2. According to the experiment, it was found that a membrane reactor with plane electrode was capable for treating plating wastewater with low energy consumption (42.30 kWh/kg metal) and low operating cost (5.43 US dollars/m3). More than 99% of metal reduction was achieved and the final concentrations of copper, chromium and nickel in treated water were 0.10-0.13, 0.19-0.20 and 0.05-0.13 ppm, respectively. The brightener had no effect on copper reduction whereas hexavalent chromium had strong effect. The kinetic of copper reduction in the presence of hexavalent chromium was modeled as a two-step process with respect to copper concentration. PMID:15707634

  14. Micro-pollutant removal from wastewater treatment plant effluent by activated carbon

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, J.

    2016-01-01

    In the recent years, the removal of micro-pollutants from treated wastewater has been highly advocated throughout Europe and the rest of the world. The relevant regulations and the suitable techniques have been proposed accordingly, which promoted the innovation of the conventional wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Activated carbon adsorption and advanced oxidation are regarded as the most promising technologies to attenuate micro-pollutant concentration in the treated wastewater (i.e. the...

  15. APPLICATION OF PACT SYSTEM TO INCREASE TEHRAN OIL REFINERY EFFLUENT TREATMENT EFFICIENCY

    OpenAIRE

    A. Mesdaghinia; S Nasseri; N. Djaafarzadeh

    1992-01-01

    This research was done in order to determine the basic criteria for “Tehran Oil Refinery Effluemt TreatmentUnit” to prove the feasibility of the application of powdered activated carbon in aeration zone of activated sludge System. The main stages of this research included: determination of qualitative and quantitative characteristics of raw wastewater preparation of two pilot scale units of activated sludge (As) and powdered activated carbon technology (PACT), study of correlation between ind...

  16. Celluloses filled ENR/PVC membranes for palm oil mill effluent (POME) treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamsuddin, Mohd Razali; Abdullah, Ibrahim; Othaman, Rizafizah

    2013-11-01

    Membranes from composite materials have been used especially in water treatment applications. In this paper the composite membranes of celluloses filled ENR/PVC were successfully prepared for POME treatment application. The preparation of the membrane involves solution blending, casting, phase inversion and drying methods. Two types of fillers, cellulose (Cell) and cellulose grafting polymethyl methacrylate (Cell-g-PMMA) were added into ENR/PVC matrix in various compositions (1, 5, 10, 15 and 20 wt%) to determine the effect of the filler to the performance of the membrane. The membranes were characterized by using FTIR and SEM. Membrane properties in terms of porosity and water flux were examined using mathematical calculation. FTIR spectrum shows the existence of stretching vibration from the functional group of ester carbonyl, -C=O at peak 1725 cm-1 that belongs to Cell-g-PMMA filler in ENR/PVC/Cell-g-PMMA membrane which makes the membranes slightly hydrophobic. SEM micrographs exhibit that pores were formed on both ENR/PVC/Cell and ENR/PVC/Cell-g-PMMA membranes. Water flux test indicates that ENR/PVC/Cell-20% was the highest because the addition of Cell increases the hydrophilicity of the membrane. In POME treatment, ENR/PVC/Cell-20% and ENR/PVC/Cell-g-PMMA-10% showed the highest decolorization.

  17. Anaerobic treatment of olive mill wastewater and piggery effluents fermented with Candida tropicalis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Garcia, Gregorio [Department of Chemical and Process Engineering, University of Sheffield, S1 3JD Sheffield (United Kingdom); Johnson, Anbu Clemensis, E-mail: acj265@yahoo.com [Department of Chemical and Process Engineering, University of Sheffield, S1 3JD Sheffield (United Kingdom)] [School of Environmental Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Perlis, 02600 Jejawi, Perlis (Malaysia); Bachmann, Robert T. [Department of Chemical and Process Engineering, University of Sheffield, S1 3JD Sheffield (United Kingdom)] [Malaysian Institute of Chemical and Bioengineering Technology, Universiti Kuala Lumpur, 1988 Vendor City, 7800 Taboh Naning, Alor Gajah, Melaka (Malaysia); Williams, Ceri J. [Yorkshire-Forward, Victoria House, Victoria Place, LS11 5AE Leeds (United Kingdom); Burgoyne, Andrea; Edyvean, Robert G.J. [Department of Chemical and Process Engineering, University of Sheffield, S1 3JD Sheffield (United Kingdom)

    2009-05-30

    Olive mill wastewater (OMW) contains high concentrations of phenolic compounds that are inhibitory to many microorganisms making it difficult to treat biologically prior to discharge in waterways. The total mono-cyclic phenol reduction in OMW in this study was carried out by aerobic pre-treatment using the yeast Candida tropicalis in a 18 L batch reactor at 30 deg. C for 12 days followed by anaerobic co-digestion. A COD removal of 62% and a reduction in the total mono-cyclic phenol content by 51% of the mixture was achieved in the aerobic pre-treatment. Pig slurry was added as co-substrate to supplement the low nitrogen levels in the olive mill wastewater. Subsequent anaerobic treatment was carried out in a 20 L fixed-bed reactor at 37 deg. C and HRT between 11 and 45 days. After a long start-up period, the OLR was increased from 1.25 to 5 kg COD m{sup -3} day{sup -1} during the last 30 days, resulting in subsequent increase in overall COD removal and biogas production, up to maximum values of 85% and 29 L{sub biogas}L{sub reactor}{sup -1}day{sup -1}, respectively. Methane content of the biogas produced from the anaerobic digestion ranged between 65% and 74%.

  18. Anaerobic treatment of olive mill wastewater and piggery effluents fermented with Candida tropicalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Garcia, Gregorio; Johnson, Anbu Clemensis; Bachmann, Robert T; Williams, Ceri J; Burgoyne, Andrea; Edyvean, Robert G J

    2009-05-30

    Olive mill wastewater (OMW) contains high concentrations of phenolic compounds that are inhibitory to many microorganisms making it difficult to treat biologically prior to discharge in waterways. The total mono-cyclic phenol reduction in OMW in this study was carried out by aerobic pre-treatment using the yeast Candida tropicalis in a 18 L batch reactor at 30 degrees C for 12 days followed by anaerobic co-digestion. A COD removal of 62% and a reduction in the total mono-cyclic phenol content by 51% of the mixture was achieved in the aerobic pre-treatment. Pig slurry was added as co-substrate to supplement the low nitrogen levels in the olive mill wastewater. Subsequent anaerobic treatment was carried out in a 20L fixed-bed reactor at 37 degrees C and HRT between 11 and 45 days. After a long start-up period, the OLR was increased from 1.25 to 5 kg COD m(-3)day(-1) during the last 30 days, resulting in subsequent increase in overall COD removal and biogas production, up to maximum values of 85% and 29 L(biogas)L(reactor)(-1)day(-1), respectively. Methane content of the biogas produced from the anaerobic digestion ranged between 65% and 74%.

  19. Influence of effluents from a Wastewater Treatment Plant on nutrient distribution in a coastal creek from southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac Rodrigues Santos

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The hypothesis that effluents treated through activated sludge process cause changes in nutrient biogeochemistry of receiving water bodies was investigated in Vieira creek, southern Brazil. Dissolved oxygen, suspended matter, and pH did not vary among the sampling stations. Nutrient, biochemical oxygen demand, and conductivity values were significantly higher downstream from the Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP effluents. Further downstream, nitrate concentrations were higher due to ammonium nitrification, organic matter remineralization and/or the occurrence of unidentified sources. Per capita nutrient emission factors were estimated to be 0.16 kg P.yr-1 and 4.14 kg N.yr-1. Under pristine conditions, low N:P ratios were observed, which were significantly increased downstream due to the high ammonium input. The mixing zone of the nitrogen-rich waters from Vieira creek with the phosphorus-enriched waters from Patos lagoon estuary was considered under high risk of eutrophication. The results could be useful for planning and management of WWTP-effluent receiving waters in temperate regions from developing countries.A hipótese de que efluentes urbanos tratados através de um sistema de lodo ativado causam alterações na qualidade de água de ambientes aquáticos foi investigada no Arroio Vieira, Rio Grande, RS. Amostras de água foram coletadas a montante e a jusante dos emissários de uma estação de tratamento de esgoto (ETE. Oxigênio, material em suspensão e pH não variaram espacialmente. Já os valores para os nutrientes e para a demanda bioquímica do oxigênio foram significativamente maiores a jusante dos efluentes. Mais a jusante, as concentrações de nitrato aumentam devido à nitrificação do nitrogênio amoniacal, remineralização da matéria orgânica e/ou ocorrência de outros aportes não-identificados. A emissão de nutrientes per capita após o tratamento dos efluentes domésticos (0.16 kg P ano-1 e 4.14 kg N ano-1

  20. Physic-Chemical treatment and demineralization by EDR to reutilize the effluent of an urban waste water treatment plant; Tratamiento fisico-quimico y desmineralizacion por electrodialisis reversible para reutilizar el efluente de una EDAR urbana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres Corral, M.; Pino, M.P. del; Gil Lodos, M.; Rodriguez Garcia, M.

    1998-12-01

    Etudes held at the research and development center DEREA placed at Gran Canaria, Canary islands, have proved the viability of regenerating urban waste waters treating the effluent of an urban waste water treatment plant (WWTP del surest) with a physic-chemical treatment followed by a demineralization by electrodialysis reversal. The physic-chemical system was composed of the following units: 1 coagulation tank, 3 floculators, 1 lamellar decanter, 1 pH neutralization system, 1 chlorination system, 1 multi bed filter with chemicals reservoir, dosifiers for lime, FeCl{sub 3} polielectrolytes, sulfuric acid, and NaOCl. The physic-chemical system treated daily about 250-300 cubic meters of the effluents of the EDAR del surest, without chlorination effluent, and worked with a 90% recovery (got 90 m``3 for each 100 feeded). (Author)

  1. Effects of wastewater treatment plant effluent inputs on planktonic metabolic rates and microbial community composition in the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaquer-Sunyer, Raquel; Reader, Heather E.; Muthusamy, Saraladevi;

    2016-01-01

    community composition, and metabolic rates: gross primary production (GPP), net community production (NCP), community respiration (CR) and bacterial production (BP). Nitrogen-rich dissolved organic matter (DOM) inputs from effluents increased bacterial production and decreased primary production...

  2. Problematika formaldehida v odpadnih vodah lesne industrije: Problem of waste effluents in wood industry - the possibilities of biological treatment:

    OpenAIRE

    Muck, Tadeja

    1999-01-01

    Wood industry does not pollute waters to a great extend, nevertheless we must be aware that the problem still exists. Waste effluents in wood industry contain very high portion of dangerous and toxic substance - formaldehyde. That is why it is inevitably vital to start with detailed analysis of waste effluents and with studies of possibilities of decontamination. Statistical analysis are showing that wood industry are not well aware of the fact how quickly the ecological balance can be destro...

  3. Effect of organic loading rate on methane and volatile fatty acids productions from anaerobic treatment of palm oil mill effluent in UASB and UFAF reactors

    OpenAIRE

    Sumate Chaiprapat; Poonsuk Prasertsan; Piyarat Boonsawang; Ronnachai Chaisri

    2007-01-01

    Anaerobic treatment of palm oil mill effluent (POME) with the separation of the acidogenic and methanogenic phase was studied in an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor and an up-flowanaerobic filter (UFAF) reactor. Furthermore, the effect of OLR on methane and volatile fatty acid productions in UASB and UFAF reactors was investigated. In this research, UASB as acidogenic reactor wasused for volatile fatty acid production and UFAF as methanogenic reactor was used for methane produc...

  4. Prevalence of Antimicrobial Resistant and Virulent Salmonella spp. in Treated Effluent and Receiving Aquatic Milieu of Wastewater Treatment Plants in Durban, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Ejovwokoghene C. Odjadjare; Ademola O. Olaniran

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the impact of treated wastewater effluent from two wastewater treatment plants on the physicochemical parameters and Salmonella spp. load of receiving rivers. Presumptive Salmonella spp. were obtained at all sampled points including the discharge points, with counts ranging from 0 to 4.14 log cfu/mL at both plants. Turbidity, chemical and biological oxygen demand were found to be high and mostly above the required limit for treated wastewater discharge. However, re...

  5. Reconnaissance of contaminants in selected wastewater-treatment-plant effluent and stormwater runoff entering the Columbia River, Columbia River Basin, Washington and Oregon, 2008-10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morace, Jennifer L.

    2012-01-01

    Toxic contamination is a significant concern in the Columbia River Basin in Washington and Oregon. To help water managers and policy makers in decision making about future sampling efforts and toxic-reduction activities, a reconnaissance was done to assess contaminant concentrations directly contributed to the Columbia River through wastewater-treatment-plant (WWTP) effluent and stormwater runoff from adjacent urban environments and to evaluate instantaneous loadings to the Columbia River Basin from these inputs.

  6. Simulation of Groundwater Mound Resulting from Proposed Artificial Recharge of Treated Sewage Effluent Case study – Gaza waste water treatment plant, Palestine

    OpenAIRE

    Aish, Adnan Mousa

    2010-01-01

    Mounding of the groundwater table beneath recharge sources is of concern as the raised water table approaches closely to near-surface facilities or features. The shape and height of the mound depend on several factors including the recharge rate, hydraulic conductivity and thickness of the aquifer. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the suitability of the study area for a rapid infiltration system of treated wastewater effluent without causing excessive mounding of the water table. A ...

  7. Kinetics of pulp mill effluent treatment by ozone-based processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The wastewaters generated from wood pulping and paper production processes are traditionally treated by biological and physicochemical processes. In order to reduce chemical oxygen demand (COD) and color to meet increasingly strict discharge standards, advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) are being adapted as polishing treatment units. Various ozone-based processes were used in this study to treat simulated wastewaters prepared from black liquor from a hardwood Kraft pulp mill in Taiwan. The experimental results showed that the COD and color were primarily removed by direct ozone oxidation and activated carbon adsorption. While the addition of activated carbon could enhance the COD and color removal during ozonation, the addition of hydrogen peroxide improved the color removal only. For the various ozone-based treatment processes, kinetic models were developed to satisfactorily predict the COD and color removal rates. According to the kinetic parameters obtained from the various ozone-based processes, the enhanced COD and color removal of ozonation in the presence of activated carbon was attributed to the regeneration of the activated carbon by ozonation. These kinetic models can be used for reactor design and process design to treat pulping wastewater using ozone-based processes.

  8. Analysis of Secondary Chemistry and Treatment of Burn Wounds with Nonthermal Plasma Induced Effluent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golkowski, Mark; Plimpton, S. Reed; Golkowski, Czeslaw

    2013-10-01

    Exploitation of non-thermal plasmas in the biomedical setting is a rapidly growing field with a large number of diverse technologies under investigation. Potential applications of such devices range from instrument sterilization to clinical therapy. One of the key hurdles to the implementation of non-thermal plasma technologies in the relatively poor understanding of the chemical processes taking place. Our group has recently completed precise analysis of chemical species created by our indirect exposure non-thermal plasma device with hydrogen peroxide additives. Reactive nitrogen and oxygen species are observed using optical absorption spectroscopy. We report the unique detection of short lived hydroxyl radicals at a significant distance from the discharge using electron paramagnetic spin resonance trapping. The hydroxyl radicals are shown to be generated in secondary ozonide based chemical processes away from the discharge. The plasma device is applied to a porcine model of infected full thickness burn wounds. The bacteria load reduction after treatment with our device is shown to be 10-100 fold improvement over Silvadene which is the main treatment currently used in the clinic. Partially funded by NIH SBIR R43 AI096594.

  9. Multi-pollutant treatment of crystalline cellulosic effluent: Function of dissolved oxygen on process control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanthi Sravan, J; Naresh Kumar, A; Venkata Mohan, S

    2016-10-01

    Treatment of crystalline cellulose based wastewater was carried out in periodic discontinuous batch reactor (PDBR). Specific influence of dissolved oxygen on treatment of crystalline cellulosic (CC) wastewater was evaluated in three different microenvironments such as aerobic, anoxic and anaerobic. PDBR-aerobic biosystem documented relatively higher substrate degradation [2.63kgCOD/m(3)-day (92%)] in comparison to PDBR-anoxic [2.12kgCOD/m(3)-day (71%)] and PDBR-anaerobic [1.81kgCOD/m(3)-day (63%)], which is in accordance with the observed DO levels. Similarly, multipollutants viz., phosphates and nitrates removal was observed to be higher in aerobic followed by anoxic and anaerobic operations. Higher nitrate removal in aerobic operation might be attributed to the efficient denitrification carried out by the biocatalyst, which utilizes both nitrates and oxygen as oxidizing agents. Multiscan spectral profiles depicted reduction in color intensity in all three microenvironments that correlated with the substrate degradation observed. Despite the high organic load, PDBR functioned well without exhibiting process inhibition. PMID:27005787

  10. Technical area status report for second-stage destruction and offgas treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report was sponsored by the Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP), which was established by the Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM), Office of Technology Development (OTD). DOE/EM carries the charter to direct and coordinate waste management and site remediation throughout the DOE complex. Within EM, the OTD established the MWIP to identify and develop new technologies for treatment of DOE low-level mixed waste. This report represents the second TASR for the Second-Stage Destruction and Offgas Treatment technical area. This TASR updates technology information, a design methodology for air pollution control systems for mixed waste treatment, and technology development needs for DOE/EM. The TASRs form the basis of a technology development program that addresses the highest priority DOE environmental needs and is coordinated with other technology development efforts both inside and outside DOE. The main functions of the second-stage destruction and offgas treatment system are to treat the gaseous effluent from the primary treatment process to acceptable levels for release to the atmosphere. Specific functions include (1) destruction of volatile organics; (2) capture of particulate matter; (3) capture of volatile metals; (4) capture and control of volatile, condensed-phase, and solid-phase radionuclides; (5) control of acid gases; (6) NOx abatement; and (7) gas cooling and reheating as required to perform these functions

  11. Technical area status report for second-stage destruction and offgas treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    French, N.B. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States); Dalton, J.D. [Science Applications International Corp., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Vavruska, J. [Equinox Ltd., Santa Fe, NM (United States)

    1994-08-01

    This report was sponsored by the Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP), which was established by the Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM), Office of Technology Development (OTD). DOE/EM carries the charter to direct and coordinate waste management and site remediation throughout the DOE complex. Within EM, the OTD established the MWIP to identify and develop new technologies for treatment of DOE low-level mixed waste. This report represents the second TASR for the Second-Stage Destruction and Offgas Treatment technical area. This TASR updates technology information, a design methodology for air pollution control systems for mixed waste treatment, and technology development needs for DOE/EM. The TASRs form the basis of a technology development program that addresses the highest priority DOE environmental needs and is coordinated with other technology development efforts both inside and outside DOE. The main functions of the second-stage destruction and offgas treatment system are to treat the gaseous effluent from the primary treatment process to acceptable levels for release to the atmosphere. Specific functions include (1) destruction of volatile organics; (2) capture of particulate matter; (3) capture of volatile metals; (4) capture and control of volatile, condensed-phase, and solid-phase radionuclides; (5) control of acid gases; (6) NO{sub x} abatement; and (7) gas cooling and reheating as required to perform these functions.

  12. Geochemical and hydrologic characterization of the effluent draining from U12e, U12n, and U12t tunnels, area 12, Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, C.E.; Gillespie, L.; Gillespie, D.

    1993-05-01

    The objective of the Tunnel Effluent Characterization Project at the Nevada Test Site was to characterize the tunnel effluents in terms of rate of discharge, pH, temperature, specific conductivity, turbidity, and aqueous chemistry. The parameters were monitored for one year to identify hazardous constituents within the effluent and to characterize temporal variations.

  13. Treatment of Remazol Brilliant Blue Dye Effluent by Advanced Photo Oxidation Process in TiO2/UV and H2O2/UV reactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Verma

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Advanced oxidation processes involving TiO2/UV and H2O2/UV were evaluated for their potential use in decolorization of textile dye effluents. A coil photo reactor, consisting of UV radiation source and a spiral coil coated with TiO2, was used to treat synthetic effluent of Remazol Brilliant Blue dye. The TiO2 coating was performed using the sol-gel technique. The effects of UV radiation, TiO2 coatings and dye concentration were studied and the results were compared to dye treatment involving H2O2. The maximum dye removal efficiencies were 7.3, 12.2 and 12.5 % for uncoated, single coat and dual coat of TiO2, respectively. The decolorization efficiency was inversely related to dye concentration of the effluent. The treatments with UV only, TiO2 only, UV+TiO2, H2O2 only and UV+H2O2 resulted in color reduction of 7.6, 2.3, 12.5, 4.1 and 99.9 % respectively. The maximum decolorization occurred in ≤ 100 min in all cases. The temperature varied from 29.2 to 54.7°C for UV+TiO2 treatment and no change in reactor temperature was observed when UV was not used.

  14. Effect of by-pass and effluent recirculation on nitrogen removal in hybrid constructed wetlands for domestic and industrial wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrijos, V; Gonzalo, O G; Trueba-Santiso, A; Ruiz, I; Soto, M

    2016-10-15

    Hybrid constructed wetlands (CWs) including subsurface horizontal flow (HF) and vertical flow (VF) steps look for effective nitrification and denitrification through the combination of anaerobic/anoxic and aerobic conditions. Several CW configurations including several configurations of single pass systems (HF + HF, VF + VF, VF + HF), the Bp(VF + HF) arrangement (with feeding by-pass) and the R(HF + VF) system (with effluent recirculation) were tested treating synthetic domestic wastewater. Two HF/VF area ratios (AR) were tested for the VF + HF and Bp(VF + HF) systems. In addition, a R(VF + VF) system was tested for the treatment of a high strength industrial wastewater. The percentage removal of TSS, COD and BOD5 was usually higher than 95% in all systems. The single pass systems showed TN removal below the threshold of 50% and low removal rates (0.6-1.2 g TN/m(2) d), except the VF + VF system which reached 63% and 3.5 g TN/m(2) d removal but only at high loading rates. Bp(VF + HF) systems required by-pass ratios of 40-50% and increased TN removal rates to approximately 50-60% in a sustainable manner. Removal rates depended on the AR value, increasing from 1.6 (AR 2.0) to 5.2 g TN/m(2) d (AR 0.5), both working with synthetic domestic wastewater. On real domestic wastewater the Bp (VF + HF) (AR 0.5 and 30% by-pass) reached 2.5 g TN/m(2) d removal rate. Effluent recirculation significantly improved the TN removal efficiency and rate. The R(HF + VF) system showed stable TN removals of approximately 80% at loading rates ranging from 2 to 8 g TN/m(2) d. High TN removal rates (up to 73% TN and 8.4 g TN/m(2) d) were also obtained for the R(VF + VF) system treating industrial wastewater. PMID:27441816

  15. Recycling of treated domestic effluent from an on-site wastewater treatment system for hydroponics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyama, N; Nair, J; Ho, G E

    2005-01-01

    An alternative method to conserve water and produce crops in arid regions is through hydroponics. Application of treated wastewater for hydroponics will help in stripping off nutrients from wastewater, maximising reuse through reduced evaporation losses, increasing control on quality of water and reducing risk of pathogen contamination. This study focuses on the efficiency of treated wastewater from an on-site aerobic wastewater treatment unit. The experiment aimed to investigate 1) nutrient reduction 2) microbial reduction and 3) growth rate of plants fed on wastewater compared to a commercial hydroponics medium. The study revealed that the chemical and microbial quality of wastewater after hydroponics was safe and satisfactory for irrigation and plant growth rate in wastewater hydroponics was similar to those grown in a commercial medium.

  16. Control system of liquid effluents generated in treatment with I-131; Sistema de control de efluentes liquidos generados en el tratamiento con I-131

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia M, T.; Ruiz C, M. A.; Angeles C, A.; Ramirez S, R., E-mail: teodoro.garcia@inin.gob.mx [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2015-09-15

    In recent years, nuclear medicine has developed greatly in our country and around the world. Techniques for both medical diagnosis and therapy have increased the use of radiopharmaceuticals, notably the I-131. In Mexico there are around 150 nuclear medicine establishments authorized by the Comision Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear y Salvaguardias. Most of these establishments do not have an appropriate facility for the treatment of radioactive liquid effluents, to ensure compliance with the concentration limits established in the regulations. The Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ) developed and implemented successfully, a control system of radioactive effluents (named SACEL) from a nuclear medicine facility. This system ensures an effective compliance with regulations and also better management and control of these radioactive effluents. Calculations and design of SACEL were made with respect to I-131, because is one of the most commonly used in radiotherapy and medical diagnostics, besides its half-life is greater in relation to other radionuclides. SACEL is comprised of four storage tanks and decay and a fifth tank for measuring the concentration of I-131 and later discharge to the drain; these tanks are connected to an automated system that controls the effluents passage. The calculation to determine the volume of the tanks was carried out according to the demand that has the hospital, to the maximum activity being poured in effluents and time required to decay. In this paper the design and installation of SACEL system, in addition to functioning as a facility that enables the Hospital meet the required standards is presented. Dose calculations performed with MCNPX and the methodology used in the calibration of the detection system is also presented. (Author)

  17. Survey on possibility of Disinfection of Isfahan North Wastewater Treatment Plant Effluent by Low and Medium Pressure Ultraviolet Systems in Pilot ScaleSystems in Pilot Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Movahedian Attar

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available "n "n "nBackgrounds and Objectives:Today, due to health, environmental and economical problems, of chlorine application, UV radiation is better option than chlorine for disinfection of effluent. The aim of this study was disinfection of secondary effluent with UV radiation."nMaterials and Methods: Two types of UV disinfection system including low pressure (LP and medium pressure (MP was used to disinfection of Isfahan North Wastewater Treatment Plant (INWWTP effluent without pretreatment. Single and combined lamps were operated to evaluate the removal of total and fecal coliforms (TC and FC, and fecal streptococcus (FS. TSS, iron, hardness, UV absorption and transmittance were analyzed in order to observe the fouling of the quartz sleeves. "nResults: After using LP lamp with dose of 161 mws/cm2, TC and FC content was declined to standard level (1000 TC, and 400 FC/100ml. In addition, disinfection with MP lamp was led to FS content of 400 MPN/100 mL. Combination of LP and MP, with dose of 460 mws/cm2 could be met the environmental requirements of TC & FC, and the FS count was reached to 400 MPN/100 mL with dose of 237 mws/cm2. Maximum photo-reactivation percentage of coliforms after LP and MP lamps were appeared 15 and 3 percent respectively, while it was not observed for FS."nConclusion: High fluctuation in secondary effluent quality of INWWTP mainly TSS concentration was caused to decline of the UVT value. Therefore, disinfection of effluent by LP, MP and even combined both systems are not applicable in conventional UV dose. Hence, using advanced process unit before UV disinfection system is necessary for removal of TSS.

  18. Disruption of the stress response in wastewater treatment works effluent-exposed three-spined sticklebacks persists after translocation to an unpolluted environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pottinger, Tom G; Matthiessen, Peter

    2016-04-01

    The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal/interrenal (HPA/I) axis plays a key role in responding to biotic and abiotic challenges in all vertebrates. Recent studies have shown that the apical response of the HPI axis to stressors in three-spined sticklebacks varies in proportion to the concentration of wastewater treatment works (WWTW) effluent to which the fish are exposed. This study was conducted to determine whether between-site variation in stress responsiveness among WWTW effluent-exposed sticklebacks is persistent or reversible. Sticklebacks from eight sites in north-west England affected by WWTW effluent and exhibiting between-population variation in HPI axis reactivity, were moved to a clean-water aquarium environment. After five months in the contaminant-free environment the responsiveness of these fish to a standardised stressor was determined, by measuring the rate of stress-induced cortisol release across the gills, and compared with the responses of fish newly sampled from the eight original capture sites. Inter-site differences in the reactivity of the HPI axis, proportional to the effluent concentration at each site, persisted among the translocated female sticklebacks for at least 5 months. In male fish however, the direct relationship between stress responsiveness and site-specific effluent was not evident 5 months post-translocation. These results support previous observations that the HPA/I axis, a non-reproductive endocrine system, is vulnerable to modulation by anthropogenic factors in fish and show for the first time that, in female fish at least, this modulation is not transient. The mechanisms underlying these observations, and the implications for the fitness and resilience of affected populations, requires investigation. PMID:26821232

  19. Contamination of nonylphenolic compounds in creek water, wastewater treatment plant effluents, and sediments from Lake Shihwa and vicinity, Korea: Comparison with fecal pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Minkyu; Furlong, Edward T.; Moon, Hyo-Bang; Yu, Jun; Choi, Hee-Gu

    2011-01-01

    Nonylphenolic compounds (NPs), coprostanol (COP), and cholestanol, major contaminants in industrial and domestic wastewaters, were analyzed in creek water, wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent, and sediment samples from artificial Lake Shihwa and its vicinity, one of the most industrialized regions in Korea. We also determined mass discharge of NPs and COP, a fecal sterol, into the lake, to understand the linkage between discharge and sediment contamination. Total NP (the sum of nonylphenol, and nonylphenol mono- and di-ethoxylates) were 0.32–875 μg L-1 in creeks, 0.61–87.0 μg L-1 in WWTP effluents, and 29.3–230 μg g-1 TOC in sediments. Concentrations of COP were 0.09–19.0 μg L-1 in creeks, 0.11–44.0 μg L-1 in WWTP effluents, and 2.51–438 μg g-1 TOC in sediments. The spatial distributions of NPs in creeks and sediments from the inshore region were different from those of COP, suggesting that Lake Shihwa contamination patterns from industrial effluents differ from those from domestic effluents. The mass discharge from the combined outfall of the WWTPs, located in the offshore region, was 2.27 kg d-1 for NPs and 1.00 kg d-1 for COP, accounting for 91% and 95% of the total discharge into Lake Shihwa, respectively. The highest concentrations of NPs and COP in sediments were found in samples at sites near the submarine outfall of the WWTPs, indicating that the submarine outfall is an important point source of wastewater pollution in Lake Shihwa.

  20. 2013 Annual Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mike Lewis

    2014-02-01

    This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Wastewater Reuse Permit (#LA-000141-03), for the wastewater land application site at the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant from November 1, 2012, through October 31, 2013. The report contains, as applicable, the following information: • Site description • Facility and system description • Permit required monitoring data and loading rates • Status of compliance conditions and activities • Discussion of the facility’s environmental impacts. During the 2013 permit year, no wastewater was land-applied to the irrigation area of the Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant and therefore, no effluent flow volumes or samples were collected from wastewater sampling point WW-014102. However, soil samples were collected in October from soil monitoring unit SU-014101.

  1. In vitro assessment of retinoic acid and aryl hydrocarbon receptor activity of treated effluent from 39 wastewater-treatment plants in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allinson, M; Shiraishi, F; Salzman, S A; Allinson, G

    2011-11-01

    This project involved the collection of final effluent samples from 39 wastewater-treatment plants (WWTPs) in Victoria, Australia, in late summer (late February to early March 2007). The 39 WWTPs included 15 lagoon-based plants and 24 with activated sludge-based processes. Samples were collected and subjected to measurement of retinoic acid receptor (RAR) and aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) activity of the dissolved phase using yeast-based recombinant receptor-reporter gene bioassays. More than 90% of the effluents examined in this study elicited RAR activity (<0.5-198 ng/l a-t-RA equivalents [EQ]). All of the effluents had AhR activity (16-279 ng/l βNF EQ). Notwithstanding the paucity of comparative data, on the whole, the levels of RAR and AhR activity observed in this pilot survey of Victorian WWTP effluents were greater than those recently reported internationally. One assumption commonly made is that WWTP discharges will be diluted significantly in the receiving environment, further decreasing the potential risk of the discharges. Making this assumption may not be appropriate for some of Victoria's more ephemeral waterways or where effluent is discharged to an enclosed water body, such as a lake or terminal wetland. However, even where WWTP discharges represent all of the environmental flow in the warmer months, the observed RAR and AhR activity (as all-trans-retinoic acid (RA) and 2,3,7,8-tetrachloro-dibenzo-p-dioxin [TCDD] EQ, respectively) was still significantly lower than the concentrations of RA, and 2,3,7,8-TCCD known to cause developmental malformations in fish larvae after short-term exposure to these chemicals. Of perhaps greater concern, WWTP effluent can contain significant suspended solids (essentially biosolids), which may be a considerable sink for some hormonally active, hydrophobic compounds, and which may in turn increase the long-term exposure risk for aquatic fauna. Further studies of the nuclear and AhR activity of WWTP effluent suspended

  2. Aplicação de radiação UV artificial e solar no tratamento fotocatalítico de efluentes de curtume Application of artificial and solar UV radiation in the photocatalytic treatment of a tannery effluent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salomão de Andrade Pascoal

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Tannery effluents are very dangerous for the environment since they contain large amounts of dangerous and biorecalcitrant contaminants (organic matter and Cr(VI. This paper reports the efficiency of heterogeneous photocatalysis, based on the application of solar and artificial radiation, furnished by UV lamps, using TiO2 fixed on a flat plate, in the treatment of synthetic effluents. The results of COD and Cr(VI demonstrate that the use of solar radiation is the most efficient way to perform the photocatalytic treatment of these effluents since a minimum removal of 62 and 61% was observed for Cr(VI and organic matter, respectively.

  3. Study on the behaviour of inorganic ion exchangers in the treatment of medium active effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarises some of the results from an ongoing experimental programme of work for the Department of the Environment on the potential use of inorganic ion exchangers for the treatment of medium active waste streams. The effect of irradiation up to a total dose of 10 M Gy on the absorption of fission products and actinides over a range of experimental conditions by selected ion exchangers is described. The ion exchangers tested were polyantimonic acid, hydrous titanium oxide, manganese dioxide, potassium copper hexacyanoferrate II, titanium phosphate and zirconium phosphate. Manganese dioxide and potassium copper hexacyanoferrate II were unaffected by irradiation. Polyantimonic acid showed a decreasing performance with increasing total dose. Zirconium phosphate, titanium phosphate and oxide showed a decreasing performance up to a total dose of 2.19 M Gy with an apparent recovery in performance on increasing the total dose to 10 M Gy. The effect of conditioning time on some of the irradiated absorbers could have influenced the uptake data above 1.25 M Gy. (author)

  4. Effluents from MBT plants: Plasma techniques for the treatment of VOCs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Dielectric Barrier Discharge was applied to remove methyl ethyl ketone from air. • Methyl ethyl ketone was chosen since it represents emissions from MBT plants. • The removal efficiency was linearly dependent on time, power and energy density. • Besides CO2, methyl nitrate and 2,3-butanedione were the main byproducts formed. • The removal efficiency can be increased by increasing the convective flow. - Abstract: Mechanical–biological treatments (MBTs) of urban waste are growing in popularity in many European countries. Recent studies pointed out that their contribution in terms of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and other air pollutants is not negligible. Compared to classical removal technologies, non-thermal plasmas (NTP) showed better performances and low energy consumption when applied to treat lowly concentrated streams. Therefore, to study the feasibility of the application of NTP to MBTs, a Dielectric Barrier Discharge reactor was applied to treat a mixture of air and methyl ethyl ketone (MEK), to simulate emissions from MBTs. The removal efficiency of MEK was linearly dependent upon time, power and specific input energy. Only 2–4% of MEK was converted to carbon dioxide (CO2), the remaining carbon being involved in the formation of byproducts (methyl nitrate and 2,3-butanedione, especially). For future development of pilot-scale reactors, acting on residence time, power, convective flow and catalysts will help finding a compromise between energy consumption, desired abatement and selectivity to CO2

  5. Effluents from MBT plants: plasma techniques for the treatment of VOCs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragazzi, Marco; Tosi, Paolo; Rada, Elena Cristina; Torretta, Vincenzo; Schiavon, Marco

    2014-11-01

    Mechanical-biological treatments (MBTs) of urban waste are growing in popularity in many European countries. Recent studies pointed out that their contribution in terms of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and other air pollutants is not negligible. Compared to classical removal technologies, non-thermal plasmas (NTP) showed better performances and low energy consumption when applied to treat lowly concentrated streams. Therefore, to study the feasibility of the application of NTP to MBTs, a Dielectric Barrier Discharge reactor was applied to treat a mixture of air and methyl ethyl ketone (MEK), to simulate emissions from MBTs. The removal efficiency of MEK was linearly dependent upon time, power and specific input energy. Only 2-4% of MEK was converted to carbon dioxide (CO2), the remaining carbon being involved in the formation of byproducts (methyl nitrate and 2,3-butanedione, especially). For future development of pilot-scale reactors, acting on residence time, power, convective flow and catalysts will help finding a compromise between energy consumption, desired abatement and selectivity to CO2. PMID:25168185

  6. Effluents from MBT plants: Plasma techniques for the treatment of VOCs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ragazzi, Marco, E-mail: marco.ragazzi@unitn.it [Department of Civil, Environmental and Mechanical Engineering, University of Trento, Via Mesiano 77, I-38123 Trento (Italy); Tosi, Paolo, E-mail: paolo.tosi@unitn.it [Department of Physics, University of Trento, Via Sommarive 5, I-38123 Trento (Italy); Rada, Elena Cristina, E-mail: elena.rada@unitn.it [Department of Civil, Environmental and Mechanical Engineering, University of Trento, Via Mesiano 77, I-38123 Trento (Italy); Torretta, Vincenzo, E-mail: vincenzo.torretta@uninsubria.it [Department of Biotechnologies and Life Sciences, University of Insubria, Via G.B. Vico 46, I-21100 Varese (Italy); Schiavon, Marco, E-mail: marco.schiavon@unitn.it [Department of Civil, Environmental and Mechanical Engineering, University of Trento, Via Mesiano 77, I-38123 Trento (Italy); Department of Biotechnologies and Life Sciences, University of Insubria, Via G.B. Vico 46, I-21100 Varese (Italy)

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • Dielectric Barrier Discharge was applied to remove methyl ethyl ketone from air. • Methyl ethyl ketone was chosen since it represents emissions from MBT plants. • The removal efficiency was linearly dependent on time, power and energy density. • Besides CO{sub 2}, methyl nitrate and 2,3-butanedione were the main byproducts formed. • The removal efficiency can be increased by increasing the convective flow. - Abstract: Mechanical–biological treatments (MBTs) of urban waste are growing in popularity in many European countries. Recent studies pointed out that their contribution in terms of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and other air pollutants is not negligible. Compared to classical removal technologies, non-thermal plasmas (NTP) showed better performances and low energy consumption when applied to treat lowly concentrated streams. Therefore, to study the feasibility of the application of NTP to MBTs, a Dielectric Barrier Discharge reactor was applied to treat a mixture of air and methyl ethyl ketone (MEK), to simulate emissions from MBTs. The removal efficiency of MEK was linearly dependent upon time, power and specific input energy. Only 2–4% of MEK was converted to carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), the remaining carbon being involved in the formation of byproducts (methyl nitrate and 2,3-butanedione, especially). For future development of pilot-scale reactors, acting on residence time, power, convective flow and catalysts will help finding a compromise between energy consumption, desired abatement and selectivity to CO{sub 2}.

  7. Post-Closure Monitoring Report for Corrective Action Unit 339: Area 12 Fleet Operations Steam Cleaning Effluent Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. B. Campbell

    2002-09-01

    The Area 12 Fleet Operations Steam Cleaning Effluent site is located in the southeastern portion of the Area 12 Camp at the Nevada Test Site. This site is identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (1996) as Corrective Action Site (CAS) 12-19-01 and is the only CAS assigned to Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 339. Post-closure sampling and inspection of the site were completed on March 27, 2002. Post-closure monitoring activities were scheduled biennially (every two years) in the Post-Closure Monitoring Plan provided in the Closure Report for CAU 339: Area 12 Fleet Operations Steam Cleaning Effluent, Nevada Test Site (U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office [DOEN], 1997). A baseline for the site was established by sampling in 1997. Based on the recommendations from the 1999 post-closure monitoring report (DOE/NV, 1999), samples were collected in 2000, earlier than originally proposed, because the 1999 sample results did not provide the expected decrease in total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) concentrations at the site. Sampling results from 2000 (DOE/NV, 2000) and 2001 (DOE/NV, 2001) revealed favorable conditions for natural degradation at the CAU 339 site, but because of differing sample methods and heterogeneity of the soil, data results from 2000 and later were not directly correlated with previous results. Post-closure monitoring activities for 2002 consisted of the following: (1) Soil sample collection from three undisturbed plots (Plots A, B, and C, Figure 2). (2) Sample analysis for TPH as oil and bio-characterization parameters (Comparative Enumeration Assay [CEA] and Standard Nutrient Panel [SNP]). (3) Site inspection to evaluate the condition of the fencing and signs. (4) Preparation and submittal of the Post-Closure Monitoring Report.

  8. Integrated management of liquid effluents at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This poster session illustrates the integrated approach that the Hanford Site has taken in managing high-priority liquid effluent streams. These waste waters are produced from a variety of process- and utility-related sources. The Hanford Site approach to management of liquid effluents focusses on eliminating the source, reusing where possible, and treating and disposing of the water that cannot be eliminated or recycled prior to disposal. Thirteen of the high-priority waste water streams have been or will be eliminated by the end of 1995. Some of these streams have been eliminated as the result of shutting down the associated operation. However, the elimination of other streams has been the result of process modifications, equipment substitutions, or recycling. Several of the waste water streams will receive treatment at the individual generating facility before being discharged into a new industrial sewer (the 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility). The industrial sewer will collect treated streams from various plants in the 200 Areas and dispose of the clean effluent at two uncontaminated new 20,235-square meter (5-acre) ponds permitted by Washington State. Finally, condensate from the 200 Areas tank waste evaporator and waste water from operations in the 300 Area will be treated at two end-of-the-pipe treatment facilities. The 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility will treat condensate (a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (1)-listed waste) from the tank waste evaporator, thereby allowing the waste to be delisted prior to disposal. The treated effluent will be pumped to a state-approved land disposal site selected to maximize the migration time to the river. This disposal site allows for the decay of tritium, which will be present in the condensate but cannot be removed using current technologies

  9. Fate of sulfamethoxazole, 4-nonylphenol, and 17β-estradiol in groundwater contaminated by wastewater treatment plant effluent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Larry B.; Keefe, Steffanie H.; LeBlanc, Denis R.; Bradley, Paul M.; Chapelle, Francis H.; Meyer, Michael T.; Loftin, Keith A.; Koplin, Dana W.; Rubio, Fernando

    2009-01-01

    Organic wastewater contaminants (OWCs) were measured in samples collected from monitoring wells located along a 4.5-km transect of a plume of groundwater contaminated by 60 years of continuous rapid infiltration disposal of wastewater treatment plant effluent. Fifteen percent of the 212 OWCs analyzed were detected, including the antibiotic sulfamethoxazole (SX), the nonionic surfactant degradation product 4-nonylphenol (NP), the solvent tetrachloroethene (PCE), and the disinfectant 1,4-dichlorobenzene (DCB). Comparison of the 2005 sampling results to data collected from the same wells in 1985 indicates that PCE and DCB are transported more rapidly in the aquifer than NP, consistent with predictions based on compound hydrophobicity. Natural gradient in situ tracer experiments were conducted to evaluate the subsurface behavior of SX, NP, and the female sex hormone 17β-estradiol (E2) in two oxic zones in the aquifer: (1) a downgradient transition zone at the interface between the contamination plume and the overlying uncontaminated groundwater and (2) a contaminated zone located beneath the infiltration beds, which have not been loaded for 10 years. In both zones, breakthrough curves for the conservative tracer bromide (Br−) and SX were nearly coincident, whereas NP and E2 were retarded relative to Br− and showed mass loss. Retardation was greater in the contaminated zone than in the transition zone. Attenuation of NP and E2 in the aquifer was attributed to biotransformation, and oxic laboratory microcosm experiments using sediments from the transition and contaminated zones show that uniform-ring-labeled 14C 4-normal-NP was biodegraded more rapidly (30−60% recovered as 14CO2 in 13 days) than 4-14C E2 (20−90% recovered as 14CO2in 54 days). There was little difference in mineralization potential between sites.

  10. Clear and present danger? The use of a yeast biosensor to monitor changes in the toxicity of industrial effluents subjected to oxidative colour removal treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, Patrick O; Knight, Andrew W; Billinton, Nicholas; Cahill, Paul A; Dalrymple, Ian M; Hawkyard, Christopher J; Stratton-Campbell, Duncan; Walmsley, Richard M

    2007-12-01

    Discharges of coloured effluents into surface waters provide conspicuous evidence of the impact of industry on the environment. The textile industry is an obvious candidate for sources of such discharges. Conventional treatment methods appear to alleviate this situation by removing colour, however the affect on toxicity is less obvious. The objective of this study was to examine the changes in effluent toxicity during the course of two alternative wastewater treatment methods, ozonation and electrochemical oxidation, using a novel toxicity biosensor, GreenScreen EM. The biosensor is capable of measuring both general acute toxicity (cytotoxicity), and more specifically genotoxicity, that is damage to a cell's DNA structure, replication or distribution, caused by substances that may be mutagenic and/or carcinogenic. The biosensor utilises a modified strain of the brewers yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, incorporating a gene encoding green fluorescent protein (GFP) linked to the inducible promoter of the DNA damage responsive RAD54 gene. Upon exposure to a genotoxin, the production of GFP is up-regulated in parallel with RAD54, and the resulting cellular fluorescence provides a measure of genotoxicity. Acute toxicity is simultaneously determined by monitoring relative total growth of the cell culture during incubation. The results presented in this paper show that a reduction in colouration does not necessarily correspond to a reduction in effluent toxicity.

  11. 300 Area waste acid treatment system closure plan. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This section provides a description of the Hanford Site, identifies the proposed method of 300 Area Waste Acid Treatment System (WATS) closure, and briefly summarizes the contents of each chapter of this plan

  12. Bioassay of Estrogenic Activity of Effluent and Influent in a Farm Wastewater Treatment Plant Using an in vitro Recombinant Assay with Yeast Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIANG-MING LI; FANG-NI LUO; GuI-XIA LIU; PING-TING ZHU

    2008-01-01

    Objective Environmental estrogens at an elevated concentration are known to produce adverse effects on human and animal life. However, the majority of researches have been focused on ndustrial discharges, while the impact of livestock wastes as a source of endocrine disrupters in aquatic environments has been rarely elucidated. In order to investigate the contribution of environmental estrogens from livestock, the estrogenic activity in water samples from a farm wastewater treatment plant was analyzed by a recombinant yeast screening method. Methods The extracts prepared from 15 selected water samples from the farm wastewater treatment plant, among which 6 samples were from pre-treatment section (influents) and 9 from post-treatment section (effluents), were analyzed for estrogenic activity by cellar bioassay. Yeast cells transfected with the expression plasmid of human estrogen receptor and the Lac Z reporter plasmid encoding β-galactossidase, were used to measure the estrogen-like compounds in the farm wastewater treatment plant. Results The wastewater samples from influents showed a higher estrogenic potency than the effluent samples showing a low induction of β-galactossidase relative to solvent control condition. By comparison with a standard curve for 1713-estradiol (E2), estrogenic potency in water samples from the influents was calculated as E2-equivalent and ranged from 0.1 to 150 pM E2-equivalent. The estrogenic potency in water samples from the effluents was significantly lower than that in the influents, and 7 water samples had less detectable limit in the total of 9 samples. Conclusion Yeast bioassay of estrogenic activity in most of the samples from the farm wastewater after disposal by traditional sewage treatment showed negative results.

  13. 300 Area waste acid treatment system closure plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application is considered to be a single application organized into a General Information Portion (document number DOERL-91-28) and a Unit-Specific Portion. The scope of the Unit-Specific Portion includes closure plan documentation submitted for individual, treatment, storage, and/or disposal units undergoing closure, such as the 300 Area Waste Acid Treatment System. Documentation contained in the General Information Portion is broader in nature and could be used by multiple treatment, storage, and/or disposal units (e.g., the glossary provided in the General Information Portion). Whenever appropriate, 300 Area Waste Acid Treatment System documentation makes cross-reference to the General Information Portion, rather than duplicating text. This 300 Area Waste Acid Treatment System Closure Plan (Revision 2) includes a Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application, Part A, Form 3. Information provided in this closure plan is current as of April 1999

  14. 300 Area waste acid treatment system closure plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LUKE, S.N.

    1999-05-17

    The Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application is considered to be a single application organized into a General Information Portion (document number DOERL-91-28) and a Unit-Specific Portion. The scope of the Unit-Specific Portion includes closure plan documentation submitted for individual, treatment, storage, and/or disposal units undergoing closure, such as the 300 Area Waste Acid Treatment System. Documentation contained in the General Information Portion is broader in nature and could be used by multiple treatment, storage, and/or disposal units (e.g., the glossary provided in the General Information Portion). Whenever appropriate, 300 Area Waste Acid Treatment System documentation makes cross-reference to the General Information Portion, rather than duplicating text. This 300 Area Waste Acid Treatment System Closure Plan (Revision 2) includes a Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application, Part A, Form 3. Information provided in this closure plan is current as of April 1999.

  15. Toxicity assays applied for evaluation of ionizing radiation and zeolites adsorption as treatment technologies for coloured effluent; Aplicacao de ensaios de toxicidade na avaliacao da eficiencia da radiacao ionizante e da adsorcao em zeolitas para o tratamento de efluentes coloridos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higa, Marcela Cantelli

    2008-07-01

    Textile industry is one raising commercial activity in Brazil. This activity has been generating important environmental interferences such as colour and bad biological effects into aquatic environment. Liquid textile effluents are toxic to lived organisms and may present low biological degradability. Although foreseen at federal regulation, the effluent quality is not controlled by toxicity assays in the country. These assays are carried out to determine the potential effects of chemical substances and effluents to cause negative effects to the exposed organisms. The present work aimed whole toxicity evaluation as well as the applicability of two different treatment techniques: ionizing radiation and zeolite adsorption. The efficacy of them were evaluated using eco toxicity bases and real effluents. Two different industries from Sao Paulo State contributed to this project supplying their real effluents. The samples were collected at a Textile Industry and at a Chemical Industry (dying producer) and after the measurement of whole toxicity the samples were submitted to treatments. Toxicity assays were carried out for Daphnia similis and for Vibrio fischeri. Sample irradiations were performed at an Electron Beam Accelerator at CTR/IPEN. Zeolites treatment is an P and D activity from CQMA/IPEN which contributed to this Project. Zeolites v/ere prepared from fly ash previously being used as an adsorber material. Both treatments (electron irradiation and zeolite adsorption) resulted on important toxicity and colour reduction. Concerning irradiation the effluents from chemical industry required higher radiation doses than that from textile activity. The radiation dose to be suggested is 40 kGy (toxicity reduction > 60%) for the chemical effluents and 0.5 kGy for the textile effluents (toxicity reduction > 90%). When zeolite adsorption was evaluated the Z1M6 resulted in 85%o v/hole toxicity reduction and ZC6 resulted in very low efficiency for the effluents of chemical

  16. Application of chitin and chitosan extracted from silkworm chrysalides in the treatment of textile effluents contaminated with remazol dyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julliana Isabelle Simionato

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Chitin extracted from silkworm chrysalides was used to prepare chitosan applied in this investigation. Adsorption studies were carried out in column and in aqueous suspension with two dyes, blue remazol (RN and black remazol 5 (RB. The study showed that adsorption is better in the chitosan-packed column than in the chitin-packed one. However, the comparison of the adsorption in column and in suspension revealed better results for the latter. The plotted Langmuir isotherm did not indicate significant difference in the theoretical capacity of saturation of the monolayer (Qo for either dye. The application of the adsorption process to actual conditions was evaluated by adsorption assays of actual textile effluents. In acid pH, chitosan adsorbed the dyes responsible for the effluent coloration completely. This study showed that the use of chitosan obtained from silkworm chrysalides is a viable alternative for the immobilization of dyes in textile industry effluents.

  17. Degradation of polychlorinated biphenyls in aqueous solutions after UV-peroxide treatment: focus on toxicity of effluent to primary producers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Dennis N; Macawile, Maria Cristina A; Abella, Leonila C; Gallardo, Susan M

    2011-09-01

    The combination of UV irradiation and hydrogen peroxide (UV-H(2)O(2)) was shown to be effective in treating water spiked with 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobipheny (PCB 153), reducing its concentration by as much as 98%. To test the toxicity of the effluent, bioassays involving three species of primary producers were performed. Results showed the effluent exerting an adverse effect on the algae Scenedesmus bijugatus and the duckweed Lemna paucicostata. On the other hand, exposure of the mungbean Vigna radiata to the effluent revealed mostly no statistically significant adverse effect or growth stimulation. This suggested that on an exposure period of 96 h, higher forms of chlorophyll-bearing species such as plants are relatively unaffected by trace concentrations of PCBs and degradation products, while less differentiated species like algae and duckweeds are vulnerable. PMID:21531462

  18. A hybrid process of biofiltration of secondary effluent followed by ozonation and short soil aquifer treatment for water reuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucker, I; Mamane, H; Cikurel, H; Jekel, M; Hübner, U; Avisar, D

    2015-11-01

    The Shafdan reclamation project facility (Tel Aviv, Israel) practices soil aquifer treatment (SAT) of secondary effluent with hydraulic retention times (HRTs) of a few months to a year for unrestricted agricultural irrigation. During the SAT, the high oxygen demand (>40 mg L(-1)) of the infiltrated effluent causes anoxic conditions and mobilization of dissolved manganese from the soil. An additional emerging problem is the occurrence of persistent trace organic compounds (TrOCs) in reclaimed water that should be removed prior to reuse. An innovative hybrid process based on biofiltration, ozonation and short SAT with ∼22 d HRT is proposed for treatment of the Shafdan secondary effluent to overcome limitations of the existing system and to reduce the SAT's physical footprint. Besides efficient removal of particulate matter to minimize clogging, coagulation/flocculation and filtration (5-6 m h(-1)) operated with the addition of hydrogen peroxide as an oxygen source efficiently removed dissolved organic carbon (DOC, to 17-22%), ammonium and nitrite. This resulted in reduced effluent oxygen demand during infiltration and oxidant (ozone) demand during ozonation by 23 mg L(-1) and 1.5 mg L(-1), respectively. Ozonation (1.0-1.2 mg O3 mg DOC(-1)) efficiently reduced concentrations of persistent TrOCs and supplied sufficient dissolved oxygen (>30 mg L(-1)) for fully oxic operation of the short SAT with negligible Mn(2+) mobilization (<50 μg L(-1)). Overall, the examined hybrid process provided DOC reduction of 88% to a value of 1.2 mg L(-1), similar to conventional SAT, while improving the removal of TrOCs and efficiently preventing manganese dissolution. PMID:26255129

  19. The use of high rate algal ponds for the treatment of marine effluent from a recirculating fish rearing system

    OpenAIRE

    Pagand, Pascal; Blancheton, Jean-Paul; Lemoalle, J; Casellas, C.

    2000-01-01

    A high rate algal pond (HRAP) system was used to treat effluent from a recirculating sea water aquaculture system in southern France. Dicentrarchus labrax L. were farmed at a high density, with effluents containing an average of 10 mg L-1 dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) and 1.3 mg L-1 reactive phosphorus (RP). On a yearly basis, the algal pond removed 59% of the dissolved nitrogen and 56% of the phosphorus input, which was converted into 3.3 kg DW m(-2) algae. Green macroalgae were dominan...

  20. Managing medical treatment waste and effluent: the point of view of a nuclear medicine practitioner; Gestion des dechets et effluents issus de traitements medicaux: le point de vue d'un praticien de medecine nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karcher, G. [Chef du Service de medecine nucleaire de l' Hopital d' adultes de Brabois - CHU, 54 - Nancy (Meurthe-et-Moselle) (France)

    2011-02-15

    The nuclear medicine department of the Nancy CHU hospital is one of the largest in France: 16.000 patients are welcomed each year and 4.000 persons undergo a tomography there. 5 shielded and isolated rooms, dedicated to Iodine{sup 131} treatment, allow the care of 150 to 200 patients each year. The head of the nuclear medicine department gives his meaning about the new regulation on the management of radioactive effluents. According to him, regulations are necessary but the values of the imposed thresholds have to be scientifically justified. Another point is that a lot of money is spent on radiation protection issues while the radioactive risks are almost null, which leads to wasting money. The elaboration of the radioprotection regulations must be made not as a whole but on a specific basis according to the domain: nuclear power plants, research reactors or nuclear medicine, it applies. (A.C.)

  1. Heavy metals removal from acid mine drainage water using biogenic hydrogen sulphide and effluent from anaerobic treatment: Effect of pH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez-Rodriguez, A.M. [Departamento de Sistemas Fisicos, Quimicos y Naturales, Facultad de Ciencias Ambientales, Universidad Pablo de Olavide. Carretera de Utrera, km 1. 41013 Sevilla (Spain); Duran-Barrantes, M.M. [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica, Facultad de Quimica, Universidad de Sevilla, C/Profesor Garcia Gonzalez, s/n, 41071 Sevilla (Spain); Borja, R., E-mail: rborja@cica.es [Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (CSIC), Instituto de la Grasa, Avda. Padre Garcia Tejero 4, 41012 Sevilla (Spain); Sanchez, E.; Colmenarejo, M.F. [Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (CSIC), Centro de Ciencias Medioambientales, C/Serrano, 115-duplicado, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Raposo, F. [Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (CSIC), Instituto de la Grasa, Avda. Padre Garcia Tejero 4, 41012 Sevilla (Spain)

    2009-06-15

    Four alternatives (runs A, B, C and D) for heavy metals removal (Fe, Cu, Zn and Al) from acid mine drainage water (AMDW) produced in the mining areas of the Huelva Province, Spain, were evaluated. In run A, the anaerobic effluent from the treatment of acid mine drainage water (cheese whey added as a source of carbon) was mixed with the raw AMDW. The pH increased to 3.5 with the addition of KOH. In run B, biogas with around 30% of hydrogen sulphide obtained in the anaerobic reactor was sparged to the mixture obtained in run A, but in this case at a pH of 5.5. In run C, the pH of the raw AMDW was increased to 3.5 by the addition of KOH solution. Finally, in run D, the pH of the raw AMDW was increased to 5.5 by the addition of KOH solution and further biogas was sparged under the same conditions as in run A. It was found that heavy metal removal was a function of pH. At a pH of 3.5 most of the iron was removed while Zn and Cu were partially removed. At a pH of 5.5 the removal of all metals increased considerably. The best results were obtained in run B where the percentages of removal of Fe, Cu, Zn and Al achieved values of 91.3, 96.1, 79.0 and 99.0%, respectively. According to the experimental results obtained tentative schemas of the flow diagram of the processes were proposed.

  2. Comparison of UASB and EGSB reactors performance, for treatment of raw and deoiled palm oil mill effluent (POME)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fang, Cheng; O-Thong, Sompong; Boe, Kanokwan;

    2011-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion of palm oil mill effluent (POME) and deoiled POME was investigated both in batch assays and continuous reactor experiments using up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) and expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) reactors. The methane potential determined from batch assays of POME...

  3. Treatment of Dairy Manure Effluent Using Freshwater Algae in Outdoor Pilot-Scale Raceways: Algal Production and Nutrient Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    An alternative practice to land spreading of manure effluents is to grow crops of algae on the nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) present in these liquid slurries. The objective of this study was to determine how algal productivity, nutrient removal efficiency, and elemental composition of turf algae ...

  4. Normal water irrigation as an alternative to effluent irrigation in improving rice grain yield and properties of a paper mill effluent affected soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boruah, D; Hazarika, S

    2010-07-01

    Rice crop (var. Luit) was grown under controlled conditions in paper mill effluent contaminated soil and irrigated with undiluted paper mill effluent as well as normal water and compared the results against a control treatment consisting of similar unaffected soil irrigated with normal water. The effluent was alkaline (pH 7.5), containing high soluble salts (EC 2.93 dS m(-1)), chloride (600 mg L(-1)) and total dissolved solids (1875 mg L(-1)). At maximum tillering (MT) stage effluent irrigation significantly (P < 0.05) reduced the leaf numbers per hill and leaf area by 19.8 and 36.4 %, respectively. Tiller number and maximum root length were reduced by 19.3% and 12.5%, respectively at fifty percent flowering (FF) stage. Effluent irrigated crop recorded significant reduction in the dry matter production (17.5-24.9%) and grain yield (19%). Unfilled grain was increased by 10.7%. Higher concentration of sodium, calcium and magnesium in the effluent irrigated soil affected K uptake. Available soil P was lowest while available N, K, S and exchangeable and water soluble Na, K, Ca, Mg were highest in effluent irrigated soil. Chloride content found to increase (3-7 folds) while microbial biomass carbon reduced (10-37%). The adverse effect of the paper mill effluent on the crop as well as on the affected soil could be reduced significantly through normal water irrigation. PMID:21391395

  5. Performance of 14 full-scale sewage treatment plants: comparison between four aerobic technologies regarding effluent quality, sludge production and energy consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera, I; Sáez, K; Vidal, G

    2013-01-01

    The performance of 14 Full-Scale Sewage Treatment Plants (STPs) was evaluated. STPs were divided into four aerobic technologies: a) Aerated Lagoon (AL), and three configurations of activated sludge technologies, b) conventional (CAS), c) Extended Aeration (EA), d) Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR). Comparison between these configurations were made regarding: a) control parameters, organic loading rate (OLR), Mixed Liquor Volatile Suspended Solids (MLVSS) concentrations, Food to Microorganism ratio (F/M), sludge age (theta(c)), Hydraulic Retention Time (HRT) and return sludge ratio (R); b) effluent quality, through 5-day Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD5), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Total Suspended Solids (TSS), Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen (TKN), Total Phosphorus (TP); and c) indicators related to sludge production (on a dry basis) and electrical energy consumption. Also, complementary costs analyses were made. The results show that in terms of effluent quality, for all configurations organic matter (BOD5 and COD) and TKN removal efficiency were up to 90%, while TSS and TP were up to 90% and 50%, respectively. However, CAS, EA, SBR, and AL had stability problems with effluent concentrations. The results of the electrical energy consumption and sludge production analyses show that SBRs reduce these indicators by 40%. Cost analysis showed that CAS, EA, SBR and AL had similar cost structures, with more than 50% of total operating and maintenance cost being related to electrical energy and sludge management. Therefore, SBR could be defined as the configuration with a more stable performance. PMID:24350481

  6. Recovery and biological oxidation of dissolved methane in effluent from UASB treatment of municipal sewage using a two-stage closed downflow hanging sponge system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuura, Norihisa; Hatamoto, Masashi; Sumino, Haruhiko; Syutsubo, Kazuaki; Yamaguchi, Takashi; Ohashi, Akiyoshi

    2015-03-15

    A two-stage closed downflow hanging sponge (DHS) reactor was used as a post-treatment to prevent methane being emitted from upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) effluents containing unrecovered dissolved methane. The performance of the closed DHS reactor was evaluated using real municipal sewage at ambient temperatures (10-28 °C) for one year. The first stage of the closed DHS reactor was intended to recover dissolved methane from the UASB effluent and produce a burnable gas with a methane concentration greater than 30%, and its recovery efficiency was 57-88%, although the amount of dissolved methane in the UASB effluent fluctuated in the range of 46-68 % of methane production greatly depending on the temperature. The residual methane was oxidized and the remaining organic carbon was removed in the second closed DHS reactor, and this reactor performed very well, removing more than 99% of the dissolved methane during the experimental period. The rate at which air was supplied to the DHS reactor was found to be one of the most important operating parameters. Microbial community analysis revealed that seasonal changes in the methane-oxidizing bacteria were key to preventing methane emissions. PMID:25576697

  7. Application of activated sludge process followed by physical-chemical processes in the treatment of industrial saline effluent for reuse - doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v35i2.13006

    OpenAIRE

    Milene Carvalho Bongiovani; Márcia Dezotti; Geraldo André Thurler Fontoura

    2013-01-01

    The treatment of complex effluent with high salinity and sometimes with toxicity rates from a chemical plant is investigated. Two reactors were monitored continuously: control reactor R1 and reactor R2 adapted for saline effluent with 25h-HRT. The adaptation process to saline effluent (0 - 100%) was effective in removing COD and N-NH4+, respectively with 70 and 85% efficiency. After adaptation, the sequence coagulation/flocculation (40 mg L-1 PAC coagulant and 0.3 mg L-1 cationic polymer), ra...

  8. Markers of anthropogenic contamination: A validated method for quantification of pharmaceuticals, illicit drug metabolites, perfluorinated compounds, and plasticisers in sewage treatment effluent and rain runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, John L; Swinden, Julian; Hooda, Peter S; Barker, James; Barton, Stephen

    2016-09-01

    An effective, specific and accurate method is presented for the quantification of 13 markers of anthropogenic contaminants in water using solid phase extraction (SPE) followed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). Validation was conducted according to the International Conference on Harmonisation (ICH) guidelines. Method recoveries ranged from 77 to 114% and limits of quantification between 0.75 and 4.91 ng/L. A study was undertaken to quantify the concentrations and loadings of the selected contaminants in 6 sewage treatment works (STW) effluent discharges as well as concentrations in 5 rain-driven street runoffs and field drainages. Detection frequencies in STW effluent ranged from 25% (ethinylestradiol) to 100% (benzoylecgonine, bisphenol-A (BPA), bisphenol-S (BPS) and diclofenac). Average concentrations of detected compounds in STW effluents ranged from 3.62 ng/L (ethinylestradiol) to 210 ng/L (BPA). Levels of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) as well as the plasticiser BPA were found in street runoff at maximum levels of 1160 ng/L, 647 ng/L and 2405 ng/L respectively (8.52, 3.09 and 2.7 times more concentrated than maximum levels in STW effluents respectively). Rain-driven street runoff may have an effect on levels of PFCs and plasticisers in receiving rivers and should be further investigated. Together, this method with the 13 selected contaminants enables the quantification of various markers of anthropogenic pollutants: inter alia pharmaceuticals, illicit drugs and their metabolites from humans and improper disposal of drugs, while the plasticisers and perfluorinated compounds may also indicate contamination from industrial and transport activity (street runoff). PMID:27348563

  9. Removal of Micropollutants from Secondary Effluents and Sludge by Various Processes in Rural and Peri-urban Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Choubert, J.M.; Tahar, A.; Budzinski, H.; Miège, C.; Esperanza, M.; Dherret, L.; Crétollier, C.; Bados, P.; Le Menach, K.; Noyon, N.; Coquery, M.

    2014-01-01

    International audience The present work details the results of a comprehensive study dealing with the fate of several families of micropollutants (with various physicochemical properties) through tertiary treatment processes of water and through sludge treatments. Powerful and sensitive analytical techniques were used: 16 metals and 39 organics (pharmaceuticals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, alkylphenols, pesticides) were analysed in wastewaters; 14 metals and 62 organic hydrophobic mi...

  10. Oestrogenic activity of a textile industrial wastewater treatment plant effluent evaluated by the E-screen test and MELN gene-reporter luciferase assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiliro, Tiziana, E-mail: tiziana.schiliro@unito.it [Department of Public Health and Microbiology, University of Torino, Via Santena 5bis, 10126 Torino (Italy); Porfido, Arianna [Department of Public Health and Microbiology, University of Torino, Via Santena 5bis, 10126 Torino (Italy); Spina, Federica; Varese, Giovanna Cristina [Department of Life Sciences and Systems Biology, University of Torino, Viale Mattioli 25, 10125 Torino (Italy); Gilli, Giorgio [Department of Public Health and Microbiology, University of Torino, Via Santena 5bis, 10126 Torino (Italy)

    2012-08-15

    This study quantified the biological oestrogenic activity in the effluent of a textile industrial wastewater treatment plant (IWWTP) in northwestern Italy. Samples of the IWWTP effluent were collected monthly, both before and after tertiary treatment (ozonation). After solid phase extraction, all samples were subjected to two in vitro tests of total estrogenic activity, the human breast cancer cell line (MCF-7 BUS) proliferation assay, or E-screen test, and the luciferase-transfected human breast cancer cell line (MELN) gene-reporter assay, to measure the 17{beta}-oestradiol equivalent quantity (EEQ). In the E-screen test, the mean EEQ values were 2.35 {+-} 1.68 ng/L pre-ozonation and 0.72 {+-} 0.58 ng/L post-ozonation; in the MELN gene-reporter luciferase assay, the mean EEQ values were 4.18 {+-} 3.54 ng/L pre-ozonation and 2.53 {+-} 2.48 ng/L post-ozonation. These results suggest that the post-ozonation IWWTP effluent had a lower oestrogenic activity (simple paired t-tests, p < 0.05). The average reduction of estrogenic activity of IWWTP effluent after ozonation was 67 {+-} 26% and 52 {+-} 27% as measured by E-screen test and MELN gene-reporter luciferase assay, respectively. There was a positive and significant correlation between the two tests (Rho S = 0.650, p = 0.022). This study indicates that the environmental risk is low because oestrogenic substances are deposited into the river via IWWTP at concentrations lower than those at which chronic exposure has been reported to affect the endocrine system of living organisms. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The two in vitro tests are suited for oestrogenic activity assessment in textile WWTP. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer There is a significant correlation between the results of the two in vitro tests. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The oestrogenic activity of the effluent is reduced by ozonation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The input of estrogenic substances into the river via textile WWTP is low.

  11. Oestrogenic activity of a textile industrial wastewater treatment plant effluent evaluated by the E-screen test and MELN gene-reporter luciferase assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study quantified the biological oestrogenic activity in the effluent of a textile industrial wastewater treatment plant (IWWTP) in northwestern Italy. Samples of the IWWTP effluent were collected monthly, both before and after tertiary treatment (ozonation). After solid phase extraction, all samples were subjected to two in vitro tests of total estrogenic activity, the human breast cancer cell line (MCF-7 BUS) proliferation assay, or E-screen test, and the luciferase-transfected human breast cancer cell line (MELN) gene-reporter assay, to measure the 17β-oestradiol equivalent quantity (EEQ). In the E-screen test, the mean EEQ values were 2.35 ± 1.68 ng/L pre-ozonation and 0.72 ± 0.58 ng/L post-ozonation; in the MELN gene-reporter luciferase assay, the mean EEQ values were 4.18 ± 3.54 ng/L pre-ozonation and 2.53 ± 2.48 ng/L post-ozonation. These results suggest that the post-ozonation IWWTP effluent had a lower oestrogenic activity (simple paired t-tests, p < 0.05). The average reduction of estrogenic activity of IWWTP effluent after ozonation was 67 ± 26% and 52 ± 27% as measured by E-screen test and MELN gene-reporter luciferase assay, respectively. There was a positive and significant correlation between the two tests (Rho S = 0.650, p = 0.022). This study indicates that the environmental risk is low because oestrogenic substances are deposited into the river via IWWTP at concentrations lower than those at which chronic exposure has been reported to affect the endocrine system of living organisms. -- Highlights: ► The two in vitro tests are suited for oestrogenic activity assessment in textile WWTP. ► There is a significant correlation between the results of the two in vitro tests. ► The oestrogenic activity of the effluent is reduced by ozonation. ► The input of estrogenic substances into the river via textile WWTP is low.

  12. Genotoxicity of industrial wastes and effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claxton, L D; Houk, V S; Hughes, T J

    1998-06-01

    In excess of several million pounds of genotoxic and/or carcinogenic industrial wastes are released into the U.S. environment each year. Chemical characterization of these waste materials can rarely provide an adequate assessment of their genotoxicity and potential hazard. Bioassays do not require prior information about chemical composition and can effectively assess the genotoxicity of complex waste materials. The most commonly used genotoxicity assay has been the Salmonella mutagenicity assay. Results with this system have shown that the genotoxic potency of industrial wastes can vary over 10 orders of magnitude, from virtually nondetectable to highly potent. Industries employing similar industrial processes generally release wastes of similar potency. Extremely high potency wastes include those from furazolidone and nitrofurfural production. Pulp and paper mills, steel foundries, and organic chemical manufacturing facilities also discharge wastes of noteworthy potency. Treatment and remediation of some wastes, such as pulp and paper mill effluents, have been shown to reduce or eliminate genotoxicity. However, in other cases, treatment and remediation have been shown to enhance genotoxicity, such as for fungal treatment of oils. Analyses of samples collected from areas known to receive industrial wastes and effluents have shown that genotoxins can accumulate in the receiving environment and have adverse effects on indigenous biota. The evaluation of hazardous wastes and effluents by genotoxicity assays may provide data useful not only for hazard identification but for comparative risk assessment.

  13. Correlation of radioactive-waste-treatment costs and the environmental impact of waste effluents in the nuclear fuel cycle: conversion of yellow cake to uranium hexafluoride. Part II. The solvent extraction-fluorination process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A cost/benefit study was made to determine the cost and effectiveness of radioactive waste (radwaste) treatment systems for decreasing the release of radioactive materials and chemicals from a model uranium hexafluoride (UF6) production plant using the solvent extraction-fluorination process, and to evaluate the radiological impact (dose commitment) of the release materials on the environment. The model plant processes 10,000 metric tons of uranium per year. Base-case waste treatment is the minimum necessary to operate the process. Effluents meet the radiological requirements listed in the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 10, Part 20 (10 CFR 20), Appendix B, Table II, but may not be acceptable chemically at all sites. Additional radwaste treatment techniques are applied to the base-case plant in a series of case studies to decrease the amounts of radioactive materials released and to reduce the amounts of radioactive materials released and to reduce the radiological dose commitment to the population in the surrounding area. The costs for the added waste treatment operations and the corresponding dose committment are correlated with the annual cost for treatment of the radwastes. The status of the radwaste treatment methods used in the case studies is discussed. Much of the technology used in the advanced cases will require development and demonstration, or else is proprietary and unavailable for immediate use. The methodology and assumptions for the radiological doses are found in ORNL-4992

  14. Correlation of radioactive-waste-treatment costs and the environmental impact of waste effluents in the nuclear fuel cycle: conversion of yellow cake to uranium hexafluoride. Part II. The solvent extraction-fluorination process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sears, M.B.; Etnier, E.L.; Hill, G.S.; Patton, B.D.; Witherspoon, J.P.; Yen, S.N.

    1983-03-01

    A cost/benefit study was made to determine the cost and effectiveness of radioactive waste (radwaste) treatment systems for decreasing the release of radioactive materials and chemicals from a model uranium hexafluoride (UF/sub 6/) production plant using the solvent extraction-fluorination process, and to evaluate the radiological impact (dose commitment) of the release materials on the environment. The model plant processes 10,000 metric tons of uranium per year. Base-case waste treatment is the minimum necessary to operate the process. Effluents meet the radiological requirements listed in the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 10, Part 20 (10 CFR 20), Appendix B, Table II, but may not be acceptable chemically at all sites. Additional radwaste treatment techniques are applied to the base-case plant in a series of case studies to decrease the amounts of radioactive materials released and to reduce the amounts of radioactive materials released and to reduce the radiological dose commitment to the population in the surrounding area. The costs for the added waste treatment operations and the corresponding dose committment are correlated with the annual cost for treatment of the radwastes. The status of the radwaste treatment methods used in the case studies is discussed. Much of the technology used in the advanced cases will require development and demonstration, or else is proprietary and unavailable for immediate use. The methodology and assumptions for the radiological doses are found in ORNL-4992.

  15. Membrane processes for the treatment of exhausted effluents from leather industry; Processi a membrana per il trattamento degli effluenti esausti dell'industria conciaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cassano, A.; Molinari, R.; Drioli, E. [Arcavata di Rende Univ. della Calabria, Arcavata di Rende, CS (Italy). Istituto di Ricerca su Membrane e Modellistica di Reattori Chimici

    2001-03-01

    This paper considers the potentiality of some membrane processes such as ultrafiltration (UF), nano filtration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO), in the treatment of exhausted effluents produced by the tanning cycle, based on the experimental results of the Research Group. [Italian] In questo studio vengono analizzate le potenzialita' applicative di alcuni processi a membrana, quali ultrafiltrazione (UF), nanofiltrazione (NF) e osmosi inversa (Ol), nel trattamento degli effluenti esausti del ciclo conciario, sulla base di risultati sperimentali del gruppo di ricerca del Cnr-Irmerc.

  16. Treatment of anaerobic digester effluents of nylon wastewater through chemical precipitation and a sequencing batch reactor process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Haiming; Song, Qianwu; Wang, Wenjun; Wu, Shaowei; Dai, Jiankun

    2012-06-30

    Chemical precipitation, in combination with a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) process, was employed to remove pollutants from anaerobic digester effluents of nylon wastewater. The effects of the chemicals along with various Mg:N:P ratios on the chemical precipitation (struvite precipitation) were investigated. When brucite and H(3)PO(4) were applied at an Mg:N:P molar ratio of 3:1:1, an ammonia-removal rate of 81% was achieved, which was slightly more than that (80%) obtained with MgSO(4)·7H(2)O and Na(2)HPO(4)·12H(2)O at Mg:N:P molar ratios greater than the stoichiometric ratio. To further reduce the ammonia loads of the successive biotreatment, an overdose of phosphate with brucite and H(3)PO(4) was applied during chemical precipitation. The ammonia-removal rate at the Mg:N:P molar ratio of 3.5:1:1.05 reached 88%, with a residual PO(4)-P concentration of 16 mg/L. The economic analysis showed that the chemical cost of chemical precipitation could be reduced by about 41% when brucite and H(3)PO(4) were used instead of MgSO(4)·7H(2)O and Na(2)HPO(4)·12H(2)O. The subsequent biological process that used a sequencing batch reactor showed high removal rates of contaminants. The quality of the final effluent met the requisite effluent-discharging standards.

  17. Individual treatment of hotel and restaurant waste water in rural areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hulle, S W H; Ghyselbrecht, N; Vermeiren, T J L; Depuydt, V; Boeckaert, C

    2012-01-01

    About 25 hotels, restaurants and pubs in the rural community Heuvelland are situated in the area designated for individual water treatment. In order to meet the legislation by the end of 2015, each business needs to install an individual waste water treatment system (IWTS). To study this situation, three catering businesses were selected for further research. The aim of the study was to quantify the effluent quality and to assess IWTS performance for these catering businesses. First of all, the influence of discharging untreated waste water on the receiving surface water was examined. The results showed a decrease in water quality after the discharge point at every business. With the collected data, simulations with the software WEST were performed. With this software two types of IWTSs with different (buffer) volumes were modelled and tested for each catering business. The first type is a completely mixed activated sludge reactor and the second type is a submerged aerobic fixed-bed reactor. The results of these simulations demonstrate that purification with an IWTS is possible if the capacity is large enough and if an adequate buffer volume is installed and if regular maintenance is performed. PMID:22629640

  18. In vivo and in vitro neurochemical-based assessments of wastewater effluents from the Maumee River area of concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) were caged for four days at multiple locations upstream and downstream of a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) discharge into the Maumee River (USA, OH). Grab water samples collected at the same location were extracted using several different ...

  19. Prevalence and Treatment of Children's Asthma in Rural Areas Compared with Urban Areas in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen-Jing Zhu; Hai-Xia Ma; Hui-Ying Cui; Xu Lu; Ming-Jun Shao; Shuo Li; Yan-Qing Luo

    2015-01-01

    Background:The prevalence of childhood asthma has been increasing in China.This study aimed to compare the prevalence,diagnosis,and treatment of asthmatic children from urban and rural areas in Beijing,China.Methods:Schools,communities,and kindergartens were randomly selected by cluster random sampling from urban and rural areas in Beijing.Parents were surveyed by the same screening questionnaires.On-the-spot inquiries,physical examinations,medical records,and previous test results were used to diagnose asthmatic children.Information on previous diagnoses,treatments,and control of symptoms was obtained.Results:From 7209 children in rural areas and 13,513 children in urban areas who completed screening questionnaires,587 children were diagnosed as asthma.The prevalence of asthma in rural areas was lower than in urban areas (1.25% vs.3.68%,x2 =100.80,P < 0.001).The diagnosis of asthma in rural areas was lower than in urban areas (48.9% vs.73.9%,x2 =34.6,P < 0.001).Compared with urban asthmatic children (56.5%),only 35.6% of rural asthmatic children received inhaled corticosteroids (P < 0.05).The use ofbronchodilators was also lower in rural areas than in urban areas (56.5% vs.66.4%,x2 =14.2,P < 0.01).Conclusion:The prevalence of asthma in children was lower in rural areas compared with children in the urban area of Beijing.A considerable number of children were not diagnosed and inadequately treated in rural areas.

  20. Effects of temperature, plant configuration and loading on the effluent concentration of biological sewage treatment plants; Einfluss von Temperatur, Anlagenkonfiguration und Auslastung auf die Ablaufkonzentration bei der biologischen Abwasserreinigung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durth, A.

    2000-07-01

    The design of wastewater treatment plants is generally based on the maximum growth rate of the nitrifiers, which is smaller and shows a stronger dependency on temperature than the growth rate of heterotrophic bacteria. This 'kinetic temperature influence' is usually described by exponential equations with a temperature coefficient {theta}. Using these equations for the design of treatment plants results in large volumes of the aeration basin, followed by high investment cost and consumption of large space. On the other hand, long-term effluent data from various plants reveal a small or even no temperature influence on the effluent concentrations. This effect has to be attributed to other influences, which can only be taken into account by modelling the process as a whole. Therefore, the aim of this thesis is to quantify the temperature influence on the effluent concentration of biological treatment by modelling the entire treatment process. (orig.)

  1. Prevalence and Treatment of Children's Asthma in Rural Areas Compared with Urban Areas in Beijing

    OpenAIRE

    Wen-Jing Zhu; Hai-Xia Ma; Hui-Ying Cui; Xu Lu; Ming-Jun Shao; Shuo Li; Yan-Qing Luo; Qiang Wang; Chun-Yu Xu; Dong-Qun Xu; Chuan-He Liu; Yu-Zhi Chen

    2015-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of childhood asthma has been increasing in China. This study aimed to compare the prevalence, diagnosis, and treatment of asthmatic children from urban and rural areas in Beijing, China. Methods: Schools, communities, and kindergartens were randomly selected by cluster random sampling from urban and rural areas in Beijing. Parents were surveyed by the same screening questionnaires. On-the-spot inquiries, physical examinations, medical records, and previous test resu...

  2. Micropollutant degradation, bacterial inactivation and regrowth risk in wastewater effluents: Influence of the secondary (pre)treatment on the efficiency of Advanced Oxidation Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannakis, Stefanos; Voumard, Margaux; Grandjean, Dominique; Magnet, Anoys; De Alencastro, Luiz Felippe; Pulgarin, César

    2016-10-01

    In this work, disinfection by 5 Advanced Oxidation Processes was preceded by 3 different secondary treatment systems present in the wastewater treatment plant of Vidy, Lausanne (Switzerland). 5 AOPs after two biological treatment methods (conventional activated sludge and moving bed bioreactor) and a physiochemical process (coagulation-flocculation) were tested in laboratory scale. The dependence among AOPs efficiency and secondary (pre)treatment was estimated by following the bacterial concentration i) before secondary treatment, ii) after the different secondary treatment methods and iii) after the various AOPs. Disinfection and post-treatment bacterial regrowth were the evaluation indicators. The order of efficiency was Moving Bed Bioreactor > Activated Sludge > Coagulation-Flocculation > Primary Treatment. As far as the different AOPs are concerned, the disinfection kinetics were: UVC/H2O2 > UVC and solar photo-Fenton > Fenton or solar light. The contextualization and parallel study of microorganisms with the micropollutants of the effluents revealed that higher exposure times were necessary for complete degradation compared to microorganisms for the UV-based processes and inversed for the Fenton-related ones. Nevertheless, in the Fenton-related systems, the nominal 80% removal of micropollutants deriving from the Swiss legislation, often took place before the elimination of bacterial regrowth risk.

  3. Micropollutant degradation, bacterial inactivation and regrowth risk in wastewater effluents: Influence of the secondary (pre)treatment on the efficiency of Advanced Oxidation Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannakis, Stefanos; Voumard, Margaux; Grandjean, Dominique; Magnet, Anoys; De Alencastro, Luiz Felippe; Pulgarin, César

    2016-10-01

    In this work, disinfection by 5 Advanced Oxidation Processes was preceded by 3 different secondary treatment systems present in the wastewater treatment plant of Vidy, Lausanne (Switzerland). 5 AOPs after two biological treatment methods (conventional activated sludge and moving bed bioreactor) and a physiochemical process (coagulation-flocculation) were tested in laboratory scale. The dependence among AOPs efficiency and secondary (pre)treatment was estimated by following the bacterial concentration i) before secondary treatment, ii) after the different secondary treatment methods and iii) after the various AOPs. Disinfection and post-treatment bacterial regrowth were the evaluation indicators. The order of efficiency was Moving Bed Bioreactor > Activated Sludge > Coagulation-Flocculation > Primary Treatment. As far as the different AOPs are concerned, the disinfection kinetics were: UVC/H2O2 > UVC and solar photo-Fenton > Fenton or solar light. The contextualization and parallel study of microorganisms with the micropollutants of the effluents revealed that higher exposure times were necessary for complete degradation compared to microorganisms for the UV-based processes and inversed for the Fenton-related ones. Nevertheless, in the Fenton-related systems, the nominal 80% removal of micropollutants deriving from the Swiss legislation, often took place before the elimination of bacterial regrowth risk. PMID:27403873

  4. ARCHETYPES OF CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS SYSTEMS FOR TREATMENT OF AQUICULTURE EFFLUENT = PROTÓTIPOS DE SISTEMAS CONSTRUÍDOS DE ÁREAS ALAGADAS PARA TRATAMENTO DE EFLUENTES DE PISCICULTURA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Naves Domingos

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aquaculture is an activity that finishes causing eutrofization them water bodies in which its effluent one is launched, decurrent of the nutrition and prophylaxes used in its reservoirs. The components that cause greater problems are those that contain nitrogen and phosphorus. The management used in the aquiculture must be guided in such way to prevent the eutrofization and to provide treatment of effluent and water reuse. Constructed wetland system (CWS’s has been efficient for treatment of waters, effluent and domestic and industrial sewer, being pertinent so that physical, chemical and biological processes occur similar as they happen in natural ecosystems. Initially some archetypes of CWS’s had been simulated, in laboratory scale, using 46 L reservoirs, with aeration system, being vegetated with a polyculture of aquatic macrophytes, for effluent treatment of tanks of Tilapia of the Nile creation. The analyzed types of support matrix had been: soil of cerrado area; soil plus brick fragments (1:1 (aggregate; soil plus brick fragments (3:1; and brick fragments. The results had demonstrated that CWS’s contend soil plus aggregate was efficient to treat the effluent one used in this study. After the stabilization of CWS’s, better efficiencies had been observed in the system only contend brick fragments or only soil, depending on the analyzed parameter. = A piscicultura é uma atividade que acarreta o processo de eutrofização nos corpos de água nos quais seu efluente é lançado, decorrente da nutrição e profilaxias utilizadas em seus tanques de criação. Os compostos que contribuem para o processo de eutrofização são aqueles que contêm nutrientes, como nitrogênio e fósforo. Os manejos utilizados na piscicultura devem ser orientados de tal modo a se evitar o processo de eutrofização, e contemplar tratamentos dos efluentes. Sistemas construídos de áreas alagadas Cosntructed Wetland System - CWS’s têm mostrado efici

  5. Fate of thiabendazole through the treatment of a simulated agro-food industrial effluent by combined MBR/Fenton processes at μg/L scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez Peréz, J A; Carra, I; Sirtori, C; Agüera, A; Esteban, B

    2014-03-15

    This study has been carried out to assess the performance of a combined system consisting of a membrane bioreactor (MBR) followed by an advanced oxidation process (Fenton/Photo-Fenton) for removing the fungicide thiabendazole (TBZ) in a simulated agro-food industrial wastewater. Previous studies have shown the presence of TBZ in the effluent of an agro-food industry treated by activated sludge in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR), thus reinforcing the need for alternative treatments for removal. In this study, a simulated agro-food industry effluent was enriched with 100 μg L(-1) TBZ and treated by combined MBR/Fenton and MBR/solar photo-Fenton systems. Samples were directly injected into a highly sensitive liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole-linear ion trap-mass spectrometer (LC-QqLiT-MS/MS) analytical system to monitor the degradation of TBZ even at low concentration levels (ng L(-1)). Results showed that the biological treatment applied was not effective in TBZ degradation, which remained almost unaltered; although most dissolved organic matter was biodegraded effectively. Fenton and solar photo-Fenton, were assayed as tertiary treatments. The experiments were run without any pH adjustment by using an iron dosage strategy in the presence of excess hydrogen peroxide. Both treatments resulted in a total degradation of TBZ, obtaining more than 99% removal in both cases. To assure the total elimination of contaminants in the treated waters, transformation products (TPs) of TBZ generated during Fenton degradation experiments were identified and monitored by liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-QTOF-MS/MS). Up to four TPs could be identified. Two of them corresponded to mono-hydroxylated derivatives, typically generated under hydroxyl radicals driven processes. The other two corresponded with the hydrolysis of the TBZ molecule to yield benzoimidazole and thiazole-4-carboxamidine. All of them were also degraded during the

  6. Fate of thiabendazole through the treatment of a simulated agro-food industrial effluent by combined MBR/Fenton processes at μg/L scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez Peréz, J A; Carra, I; Sirtori, C; Agüera, A; Esteban, B

    2014-03-15

    This study has been carried out to assess the performance of a combined system consisting of a membrane bioreactor (MBR) followed by an advanced oxidation process (Fenton/Photo-Fenton) for removing the fungicide thiabendazole (TBZ) in a simulated agro-food industrial wastewater. Previous studies have shown the presence of TBZ in the effluent of an agro-food industry treated by activated sludge in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR), thus reinforcing the need for alternative treatments for removal. In this study, a simulated agro-food industry effluent was enriched with 100 μg L(-1) TBZ and treated by combined MBR/Fenton and MBR/solar photo-Fenton systems. Samples were directly injected into a highly sensitive liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole-linear ion trap-mass spectrometer (LC-QqLiT-MS/MS) analytical system to monitor the degradation of TBZ even at low concentration levels (ng L(-1)). Results showed that the biological treatment applied was not effective in TBZ degradation, which remained almost unaltered; although most dissolved organic matter was biodegraded effectively. Fenton and solar photo-Fenton, were assayed as tertiary treatments. The experiments were run without any pH adjustment by using an iron dosage strategy in the presence of excess hydrogen peroxide. Both treatments resulted in a total degradation of TBZ, obtaining more than 99% removal in both cases. To assure the total elimination of contaminants in the treated waters, transformation products (TPs) of TBZ generated during Fenton degradation experiments were identified and monitored by liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-QTOF-MS/MS). Up to four TPs could be identified. Two of them corresponded to mono-hydroxylated derivatives, typically generated under hydroxyl radicals driven processes. The other two corresponded with the hydrolysis of the TBZ molecule to yield benzoimidazole and thiazole-4-carboxamidine. All of them were also degraded during the

  7. The 300 area waste acid treatment system closure plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 300 Area Waste Acid Treatment System (WATS) is located within operable units 300-FF-2 (source) and 300-FF-5 (groundwater), as designated in the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) . Operable units 300-FF-2 and 300-FF-5 are scheduled to be remediated using the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) process. Thus, any remediation of the 300 Area WATS with respect to contaminants not produced by those facilities and soils and groundwater will be deferred to the CERCLA RI/FS process. Final closure activities will be completed in 3 phases and certified in accordance with the 300 Area WATS closure plan by the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). It is anticipated that the 300 Area WATS closure would take 2 years to complete

  8. Safety evaluation of liquid radioactive effluents treatment system in a BWR reactor, through the LIQM03 code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work we made a safety evaluation of the liquid radioactive effluents system in a plant using a BWR similar to that now installed in Laguna Verde. For that purpose, the computation program ORIGENwas modified, in order to keep up to date and adapt it to the PDP 10 computer, which is operating at the Computation Department of the Nuclear Center of Mexico, the code LIQM03 was the result of this modification. As usual in this work we dealt with problems which were solved opportunely, now we have at our disposal the code LIQM03 which will be in the future a very useful tool for this kind of evaluations. (author)

  9. Biological treatment of UASB paper mill effluent at high temperatures; Tratamiento biologico de efluente UASB de papelera a altas temperaturas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopetegui, J.; Sancho, L. [CEIT-Seccion de Ingenieria Medioambiental. San Sebastian (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    Paper mill UASB effluent water was biologically treated in an aerobic thermophilic completely mixed activated sludge reactor. The system worked in a continuous mode at 55 degree centigree biomass recirculation. The COD removal efficiency at different SRT (3,5 and 12 days) served to confirm the feasibility and skills of a thermophilic biomass in degrading this kind of wastewater. The second step was to use this adapted biomass for studying bacterial yield in batch testes. At that point, it was interesting to compare the results with those appeared in other reference related to thermophilic bacteria. (Author) 19 refs.

  10. The Utilization of Water Hyacinth (Eichhorniacrassipes) as Aquatic Macrophage Treatment System (AMATS) in Phytoremediation for Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME)

    OpenAIRE

    Innocent Chukwunonso Ossai; Fauziah S. H.; Ghufran Redzwan

    2014-01-01

    The need for edible oil has increased resulting with a consequent boost in palm oil production. As a result, production of palm oil mill effluent (POME) which is one of the by-products of the milling process has also increased. In Malaysia, palm oil industry is identified as one of the agricultural industries that generate the highest pollution load into the rivers throughout the country. Some palm oil mills store POME in ponds or lagoons in the hope of treating and detoxifying it. Often ti...

  11. Groundwater screening evaluation/monitoring plan: 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (Project W-049H). Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnett, D.B.; Davis, J.D.; Collard, L.B.; Freeman, P.B.; Chou, C.J.

    1995-05-01

    This report consists of the groundwater screening evaluation required by Section S.8 of the State Waste Discharge Permit for the 200 Area TEDF. Chapter 1.0 describes the purpose of the groundwater monitoring plan. The information in Chapter 2.0 establishes a water quality baseline for the facility and is the groundwater screening evaluation. The following information is included in Chapter 2.0: Facility description;Well locations, construction, and development data; Geologic and hydrologic description of the site and affected area; Ambient groundwater quality and current use; Water balance information; Hydrologic parameters; Potentiometric map, hydraulic gradients, and flow velocities; Results of infiltration and hydraulic tests; Groundwater and soils chemistry sampling and analysis data; Statistical evaluation of groundwater background data; and Projected effects of facility operation on groundwater flow and water quality. Chapter 3.0 defines, based on the information in Chapter 2.0, how effects of the TEDF on the environment will be evaluated and how compliance with groundwater quality standards will be documented in accordance with the terms and conditions of the permit. Chapter 3.0 contains the following information: Media to be monitored; Wells proposed as the point of compliance in the uppermost aquifer; Basis for monitoring well network and evidence of monitoring adequacy; Contingency planning approach for vadose zone monitoring wells; Which field parameters will be measured and how measurements will be made; Specification of constituents to be sampled and analyzed; and Specification of the sampling and analysis procedures that will be used. Chapter 4.0 provides information on how the monitoring results will be reported and the proposed frequency of monitoring and reporting. Chapter 5.0 lists all the references cited in this monitoring plan. These references should be consulted for additional or more detailed information.

  12. Groundwater screening evaluation/monitoring plan: 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (Project W-049H). Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report consists of the groundwater screening evaluation required by Section S.8 of the State Waste Discharge Permit for the 200 Area TEDF. Chapter 1.0 describes the purpose of the groundwater monitoring plan. The information in Chapter 2.0 establishes a water quality baseline for the facility and is the groundwater screening evaluation. The following information is included in Chapter 2.0: Facility description;Well locations, construction, and development data; Geologic and hydrologic description of the site and affected area; Ambient groundwater quality and current use; Water balance information; Hydrologic parameters; Potentiometric map, hydraulic gradients, and flow velocities; Results of infiltration and hydraulic tests; Groundwater and soils chemistry sampling and analysis data; Statistical evaluation of groundwater background data; and Projected effects of facility operation on groundwater flow and water quality. Chapter 3.0 defines, based on the information in Chapter 2.0, how effects of the TEDF on the environment will be evaluated and how compliance with groundwater quality standards will be documented in accordance with the terms and conditions of the permit. Chapter 3.0 contains the following information: Media to be monitored; Wells proposed as the point of compliance in the uppermost aquifer; Basis for monitoring well network and evidence of monitoring adequacy; Contingency planning approach for vadose zone monitoring wells; Which field parameters will be measured and how measurements will be made; Specification of constituents to be sampled and analyzed; and Specification of the sampling and analysis procedures that will be used. Chapter 4.0 provides information on how the monitoring results will be reported and the proposed frequency of monitoring and reporting. Chapter 5.0 lists all the references cited in this monitoring plan. These references should be consulted for additional or more detailed information

  13. Zero effluent; Efluente zero

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monteiro, Silvio Rogerio; Santos, Angelo Francisco dos [Liquigas Distribuidora S.A., Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    A scenery of water shortage and the search for profitability improvement obligate the companies to exercise their creativity and to adopt alternative methods to the conventional ones to preserve the environmental resources. The 'Effluent Zero' project comes from a paradigms changing that the environmental preservation is a necessary cost. It brings a new analysis approach of this problem with the purpose to adapt the investments and operational costs with the effluents treatment to the demands of the productive processes. In Liquigas, the project brought significant results; made a potential reduction of nearly 90% in the investments of the effluents treatment systems. That means nearly 13% in reduction in the total investments in modernization and upgrade of the existents companies installations and of 1,6% in the total operational costs of the Company. Further more, it has contributed for a reduction of until 43% of the water consumption in the bottling process of the Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG). This way, the project resulted in effective actions of environmental protection with relevant economic benefits. (author)

  14. What have we learned from worldwide experiences on the management and treatment of hospital effluent? - an overview and a discussion on perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verlicchi, P; Al Aukidy, M; Zambello, E

    2015-05-01

    This study overviews lessons learned from experimental investigations on dedicated treatment systems of hospital effluent carried out worldwide in the last twenty years. It includes 48 peer reviewed papers from 1995 to 2015 assessing the efficacy of different treatment levels (preliminary, primary, secondary and polishing) of hospital wastewater in removing a wide spectrum of pharmaceutical compounds as well as conventional contaminants. Moreover, it highlights the rationale and the reasons for each study: reducing the discharge of micropollutants in surface water, improving existing wastewater treatment technologies and reducing the risk of spread of pathogens causing endemic diseases and finally, it offers a critical analysis of the conclusions and suggestions of each study. The most investigated technologies are membrane bioreactors equipped with ultrafiltration membranes in the secondary step, ozonation followed by activated carbon filtration (in powder and in granules) in the polishing step. Interesting research projects deal with photo-Fenton processes acting as primary treatments to enhance biodegradation before biological treatment, and as a polishing step, thus further reducing micro-contaminant occurrence. Investment and operational costs are also presented and discussed for the different treatment technologies tested worldwide, in particular membrane bioreactors and various advanced oxidation processes. This study also discusses the need for further research to evaluate toxicity resulting from advanced oxidation processes as well as the need to develop an accurate feasibility study that encompasses technical, ecotoxicological and economic aspects to identify the best available treatment in the different situations from a global view point.

  15. What have we learned from worldwide experiences on the management and treatment of hospital effluent? - an overview and a discussion on perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verlicchi, P; Al Aukidy, M; Zambello, E

    2015-05-01

    This study overviews lessons learned from experimental investigations on dedicated treatment systems of hospital effluent carried out worldwide in the last twenty years. It includes 48 peer reviewed papers from 1995 to 2015 assessing the efficacy of different treatment levels (preliminary, primary, secondary and polishing) of hospital wastewater in removing a wide spectrum of pharmaceutical compounds as well as conventional contaminants. Moreover, it highlights the rationale and the reasons for each study: reducing the discharge of micropollutants in surface water, improving existing wastewater treatment technologies and reducing the risk of spread of pathogens causing endemic diseases and finally, it offers a critical analysis of the conclusions and suggestions of each study. The most investigated technologies are membrane bioreactors equipped with ultrafiltration membranes in the secondary step, ozonation followed by activated carbon filtration (in powder and in granules) in the polishing step. Interesting research projects deal with photo-Fenton processes acting as primary treatments to enhance biodegradation before biological treatment, and as a polishing step, thus further reducing micro-contaminant occurrence. Investment and operational costs are also presented and discussed for the different treatment technologies tested worldwide, in particular membrane bioreactors and various advanced oxidation processes. This study also discusses the need for further research to evaluate toxicity resulting from advanced oxidation processes as well as the need to develop an accurate feasibility study that encompasses technical, ecotoxicological and economic aspects to identify the best available treatment in the different situations from a global view point. PMID:25698384

  16. Continuous-flow photocatalytic treatment of pharmaceutical micropollutants: Activity, inhibition, and deactivation of TiO2 photocatalysts in wastewater effluent

    KAUST Repository

    Carbonaro, Sean

    2013-01-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) photocatalysts have been shown to be effective at degrading a wide range of organic micropollutants during short-term batch experiments conducted under ideal laboratory solution conditions (e.g., deionized water). However, little research has been performed regarding longer-term photocatalyst performance in more complex matrices representative of contaminated water sources (e.g., wastewater effluent, groundwater). Here, a benchtop continuous-flow reactor was developed for the purpose of studying the activity, inhibition, and deactivation of immobilized TiO2 photocatalysts during water treatment applications. As a demonstration, degradation of four pharmaceutical micropollutants (iopromide, acetaminophen, sulfamethoxazole, and carbamazepine) was monitored in both a pH-buffered electrolyte solution and a biologically treated wastewater effluent (WWE) to study the effects of non-target constituents enriched in the latter matrix. Reactor performance was shown to be stable over 7d when treating micropollutants in buffered electrolyte, with 7-d averaged kobs values (acetaminophen=0.97±0.10h-1; carbamazepine=0.50±0.04h-1; iopromide=0.49±0.03h-1; sulfamethoxazole=0.79±0.06h-1) agreeing closely with measurements from short-term circulating batch reactions. When reactor influent was switched to WWE, treatment efficiencies decreased to varying degrees (acetaminophen=40% decrease; carbamazepine=60%; iopromide=78%; sulfamethoxazole=54%). A large fraction of the catalyst activity was recovered upon switching back to the buffered electrolyte influent after 4d, suggesting that much of the observed decrease resulted from reversible inhibition by non-target constituents (e.g., scavenging of photocatalyst-generated OH). However, there was also a portion of the decrease in activity that was not recovered, indicating WWE constituents also contributed to photocatalyst deactivation (acetaminophen=6% deactivation; carbamazepine=24%; iopromide=16

  17. Design of a treatment pilot by electro-coagulation and electro-flotation of high charged liquid effluents; Conception d'un pilote de traitement par electrocoagulation-electroflottation d'effluents liquides fortement charges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cames, M.C.; Leclerc, J.P.; Valentin, G.; Sanchez-Calvo, L.; Lapicque, F. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS-ENSIC), Lab. des Sciences du Genie Chimique, 54 - Nancy (France); Rostan, A.; Muller, P. [Centre de Recherche pour l' Environnement, l' Energie et le Dechet, Vivendi Environnement, 78 - Limay (France)

    2001-07-01

    The possibilities of the electro-coagulation and electro-flotation process has been studied on many industrial effluents by cells. The results show that the process efficiency is conditioned by the effluent nature and the dissolved aluminium quantity, what ever the initial rate of Carbon Organic Total (COT). Other parameters as the current density and the circulation speed are not significant. (A.L.B.)

  18. Uptake of Cd(II) and Pb(II) by microalgae in presence of colloidal organic matter from wastewater treatment plant effluents