WorldWideScience

Sample records for area eastern slovakia

  1. Projected Eastern Slovakia nuclear power plant and its effect on the area settlement structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uvirova, E.

    1986-01-01

    The current situation of and expected changes in the settlement of the Kecerovce locality, where the Eastern Slovakia nuclear power plant will be sited, are discussed. The estimated requisition of agricultural soil and of forests is considered and the questions are outlined of the resettlement of the population in the power plant protective zone. (M.D.). 6 tabs., 4 refs

  2. Regional Development of Eastern Slovakia

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    Monika Hergezelová

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose and Originality: The aim of the work is to provide an overview of regional development in Eastern Slovakia, where are Košice and Prešov Region. The originality of the work lies in the work of enriching the SWOT analysis from the author Eve Rajčáková, which is given in the book deals with the issue of Regional development and regional policy of the European Union and Slovakia. Research question: The conditions of life of people in eastern Slovakia. Method: For writing this contribution will be used method of analysis and statistics. Knowledge on this subject have been looking on the internet and in books and sources of information publicly available. Using the data collected, we dealt with the issue of regional development in the Košice and Prešov regions. Results: The topic was the beginning focused on the overall characteristics of eastern Slovakia. Furthermore, we are at work we dealt with social and economic phenomena in both regions of eastern Slovakia. We focused on GDP, unemployment and tourism, which is in the region is widespread. Society: It is well known that there are obviously different living conditions in eastern Slovakia as in other parts of Slovakia. People are forced to, mainly because of employment, leave their region to move or commute to work to the west. The paper point out the right of this negative phenomenon that is quite visible - high unemployment. Limitations: The limits of work are limited by problems of regional development in eastern Slovakia, mainly focusing on economic and social phenomena in the society.

  3. Research of Rainwater Infiltration in Eastern Slovakia

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    Hudáková Gabriela

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Today precipitation water in the majority of built up and other sealed surface areas no longer reach the water circulation system via natural routes. This can lead to long-term changes to the soil and water resources, reduce the natural local regeneration of the groundwater and have effects on the chemical and biological conditions above and below the ground surface. Reasonable rainwater management leads to maintain or recover a sound and sustainable water cycle. The purpose of this paper is to present objectives and monitoring of a drainage project in Eastern Slovakia, in Kosice city. The paper focuses on percolation facilities in the research area of campus of Technical University and measurements connected with rainwater infiltration.

  4. Deposition of heavy metals from dust fallout in selected areas of Eastern Slovakia

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    Pavel Slančo

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with an evaluation of the deposition of selected heavy metals in the form of a detailed analysis of the dust fallout. The loaded areas of Nižná Slaná and Jelšava with the mining and mineral processing industry of siderite ore and magnesite, the area of Krompachy with the copper metal works, the municipal and industrial environs of Košice and relatively clean area of the National Park of Slovak Paradise were monitored and compared. The results have shown significant differences in the qualitative and quantitative effect on the monitored areas. The values of heavy metals content in the dust fallout of the loaded areas exceeded by order the values detected in the Slovak Paradise. As to the mining areas of Nižná Slaná and Jelšava, the highest content of heavy metals was recorded in the case of Mn and As. The metallurgical area of Krompachy is mostly loaded by Cu, Pb, As and Cd..

  5. Increased frequency of diabetes and other forms of dysglycemia in the population of specific areas of eastern Slovakia chronically exposed to contamination with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radikova, Z.; Koska, J.; Ksinantova, L. [Institute of Experimental Endocrinology, SAS, Bratislava (SK)] (and others)

    2004-09-15

    Some studies suggest that exposure to organochlorine pollutants may affect glucose metabolism and insulin secretion and action. Considerable pollution of water, soil and food chain in Eastern Slovakia was caused by a chemical factory, which was manufacturing PCBs in 1959-1985. The aim of the present preliminary evaluation of data obtained within the EC project PCBRISK was to search for further interrelations between long-term organochlorine pollution and disturbances in glucose homeostasis in large cohorts of population from three districts of Eastern Slovakia.

  6. Landslide and flood hazard assessment in urban areas of Levoča region (Eastern Slovakia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magulova, Barbora; Caporali, Enrica; Bednarik, Martin

    2010-05-01

    The case study presents the use of statistical methods and analysis tools, for hazard assessment of "urbanization units", implemented in a Geographic Information Systems (GIS) environment. As a case study, the Levoča region (Slovakia) is selected. The region, with a total area of about 351 km2, is widely affected by landslides and floods. The problem, for small urbanization areas, is nowadays particularly significant from the socio-economic point of view. It is considered, presently, also an increasing problem, mainly because of climate change and more frequent extreme rainfall events. The geo-hazards are evaluated using a multivariate analysis. The landslide hazard assessment is based on the comparison and subsequent statistical elaboration of territorial dependence among different input factors influencing the instability of the slopes. Particularly, five factors influencing slope stability are evaluated, i.e. lithology, slope aspect, slope angle, hypsographic level and present land use. As a result a new landslide susceptibility map is compiled and different zones of stable, dormant and non-stable areas are defined. For flood hazard map a detailed digital elevation model is created. A compose index of flood hazard is derived from topography, land cover and pedology related data. To estimate flood discharge, time series of stream flow and precipitation measurements are used. The assessment results are prognostic maps of landslide hazard and flood hazard, which presents the optimal base for urbanization planning.

  7. THE MOST IMPORTANT POLLUTANTS OF EASTERN SLOVAKIA WATERS

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    Tatiana Hrušková

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available As the area of the Slovak Republic is 49,036 km², there are many potential contaminants that can affect its population. In the socialist era the town of Strážske located in the Košice Municipal Region was the centre of production of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB inter alia and nowadays about 3,500 metric tonnes of PCB are persisting there and present the greatest PCB environmental risk in the central Europe. The heavy metal contamination in Slovakia is caused by the natural background as well as by the former mining activities. In Slovakia there are about 17 thousand old mining works, i.e. adits, stocks, and impoundments. Contamination of the ground and surface waters in the Spiš–Gemer Ore Mountain (SGOM area is caused by mine drainage. Arsenic, antimony, copper, mercury, cadmium, and zinc are the main pollutants of natural waters. All contaminated areas are currently monitored according to the national and EU legislation and nutrient load reduction programmes. As a result of this the level of inorganic and organic micropollutants in surface water and water reservoirs will be reduced together with the negative impact of water pollution on the environment in Eastern Slovakia region.

  8. Epidemiological Study of Orofacial Clefts among Population of Eastern Slovakia during the Period 1996-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacáková, Diana; Zábavníková, Marianna; Miklošová, Mária; Kúkeľová, Diana; Dankovčík, Róbert

    2016-06-01

    Over the past 18 years, according to data from the Clinic of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, L. Pasteur University Hospital, there have been 493 cases of orofacial clefts (OC) reported in the area of Eastern Slovakia. The aim of this study was to map the occurrence of orofacial clefts reported in the area of Eastern Slovakia during the years 1996-2013. Also, we compared the occurrence of different types of clefts between the groups in relation to gender and ethnicity. The statistical analysis shows relationship between variables of location and gender and gender differences in the occurrence of various types of clefts. Moreover, in comparison with another study which analyzed the years 1985-2000 (1.29/10(3) live births), there was an increase in the incidence (1.42/10(3) live births) of OC in Eastern Slovakia. Our findings seem contradictive to similar studies which discuss ethnic differences in relation to OC. We recognize the relatively high occurrence of OC in Eastern Slovakia, and we link this phenomenon to several extrinsic factors, in particular socioeconomic status and embryotoxic factors. Copyright© by the National Institute of Public Health, Prague 2015.

  9. Real Estate Appraisal in Central-Eastern Europe: Comparative Analysis of Poland and Slovakia

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    Adamuscin Andrej

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The countries in Central-Eastern Europe have been subjected to dynamic economic changes. Researchers from Poland and Slovakia study the history of the creation of and rules by which the real estate appraiser’s profession functions. They also present the methodological basics for property appraisals. The original value of this article is a comparative analysis depicting the similarities and differences occurring in the research area, in two countries from the same region of Europe. The analysis may also influence the methodological discussions of specialists concerning the correctness and purpose of certain approaches, methods or techniques of property appraisal.

  10. Geophysical modeling across Inner and Outer Western Carpathians in Eastern Slovakia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vozar, J.; Bezak, V.; Bielik, M.; Majcin, D.; Vajda, P.; Bilcik, D.

    2017-12-01

    We present a multidimensional geophysical modelling of Central and Eastern Slovakia in the area of contact zone between the Inner and Outer Western Carpathians, and the East Slovakian Basin. Our crustal and lithospheric studies are based on geophysical data collected during CELEBRATION 2000 project and project THERMES. The new magnetotelluric (MT) multidimensional modelling is combined with seismic 2D wide angle refraction profiles and gravimetric modelling. Together with thermal information gathered from the area we constructed new integrated geophysical models of structures included in the evolution of the Carpathian orogen. Preliminary results of MT modelling in Eastern Slovakia suggest more electrically conductive structures in the middle and lower crustal depths in comparison with Central Slovakia, where we observed structures dominated by resistive complexes overlaid by conductive sedimentary formations. The higher conductivities below the East Slovakian Basin restrict penetration depth of the geoelectrical images. The electrically conductive structures are connected with tectono-thermal development in Neogene and presence of volcanic activity. Another significant conductive anomaly is imaged along the contact zone between Inner and Outer Western Carpathians in depths of about 10 - 20km, which is known as the Carpathian Conductivity Anomaly (CCA). In order to improve the depth resolution of MT models we decided to combine geoelectrical images with density and velocity models of the area. We used integrated petrological and geophysical modeling code to obtain thermally consistent lithospheric scale models of the area. A possible preliminary geological interpretation of the northern segment of investigated area suggests a resistive European platform below conductive flysch sediments. The boundary between Inner and Outer Carpthians represented by the Klippen Belt on the surface is changed to the CCA in higher depths. In the direction to the south there are

  11. Gravimetric Model of Quasigeoid in the Area of Slovakia

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    Juraj Papčo

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The gravimetric model of quasigeoid in the area of Slovakia was determined by using the revised and homogenised gravity mapping data in the scale of 1:25 000 from the area of Slovakia, and by using the mean Bouguer gravity anomalies with the resolution of 5´x7.5´ in the area 44°<φ<56° and 12°<λ<30° from abroad and by the digital terrain model DMR-2/ERTS89 with the resolution 3“ in the ellipsoidal latitude and 5“ in the ellipsoidal longitude from the area of Slovakia and the digital terrain model GTOPO30 with the resolution of 30“ in the ellipsoidal latitude and 30“ in the ellipsoidal longitude from abroad. The global part of the height anomaly was determined from the global geopotential model EGM96. The residual part of the height anomaly was determined by the Stokes integral formula. For the solution of the Stokes integra,l the Fast Fourier Transformation method in the spherical approximation was used. The gravimetric quasigeoid was tested by the GPS/levelling method using 46 points distributed on the area of Slovakia. The systematic trend of differences between height anomalies was rejected by the surface polynomial of second degree with 6 coefficients. The standard deviation after removing a systematic trend was 0.017 m

  12. A rainfall distribution and their influence on flood generation in the eastern Slovakia

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    Lenka Gaňová

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to geographically assess the flood occurrence in eastern Slovakia by using one of the methods of multi-criteria analysis – rank sum method. Flood risk assessment is conducted in three specific cases: the long term period 1989–2009, the extremely wet 2010 year, and the extremely dry 2011 year. In the analyses, some of the causative factors for flooding in a basin area are taken into account. We use set of causative factors concerning mostly hydrological and physio-geographical characteristic of the target area that can be measured and evaluated such as soil type, daily precipitation (for the years 1989–2009, 2010, 2011, land use, catchment area and basin slope. For recommendation which causative factors should be preferred we use method of multicriteria analysis – ranking method. In the ranking method (RM, every factor/criterion under consideration is ranked in the order of the decision-maker’s preference. Geographic approach to flood risk assessment provides a descriptive presentation of the results obtained. Geographic information systems as a visualization tool is presented in a manner that aids understanding in a user friendly way.Regarding our task of flood risk assessment, the partial results are three composite maps, which present comparison of flood risk zones in percentage of the area in years 1989–2009, 2010, and 2011. The composite maps are background for risk assessment of the impact of rainfall on flood generation.This study of hydrological data and physio-geographical characteristic was carried out with the purpose of the identification of flood risk occurrence in eastern Slovakia. Results from our study shows, that rainfall distribution has high influence on flood risk of the area. Area percentage with very high flood risk index was calculated for “wet” year 2010 as 11.73 %, for “dry” year 2011 as 0.01 % and for period 1989–2009 as 0.28 %.

  13. Analysis of trends of low flow in river stations in eastern Slovakia

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    Martina Zeleňáková

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The availability of using hypothesis test techniques to identify the long-term trends of hydrological time series is investigated in this study. The aim is to analyse trends of low flows at streams in eastern Slovakia, namely Poprad, Hornád, Bodva, Bodrog river basins. The article presents a methodology for prediction of hydrological drought based on statistical testing of low stream flows by non-parametric statistical test. The main objective is to identify low flow trends in the selected 63 river stations in eastern Slovakia. The stations with human impacts are also evaluated. The Mann-Kendall non-parametric test has been used to detect trends in hydrological time series. Statistically significant trends have been determined from the trend lines for the whole territory of eastern Slovakia. The results indicate that the observed changes in Slovakian river basins do not have a clearly defined trend.

  14. Monitoring of selected essential elements and contaminants at sheep and cow farms in Eastern Slovakia

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    Martina TUNEGOVÁ

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determinate the actual contamination of selected area of Slovakia, in view of its environmental character referred both to the suitability or unsuitability of the use of milk from this area, to other food processing. This article deals with analysis of the content of selected compounds in soil, feed and milk, at the cow and sheep farms. Village in Eastern Slovakia, Tulčík, was the area of investigation. This area is characterized as an area with mild disturbance of environment. 11 compounds have been analyzed (calcium, selenium, cadmium, arsenic, polychlorinated biphenyls – congeners 138, 153, 180, and pesticides - p,p´ DDE, Endosulfan I., Beta-HCH, aflatoxin M1. Samples of soil were collected once a year (spring season, samples of feeds and milk were collected two-times a year (spring and autumn season. Analysis of samples was performed in Eurofins Bel/Novamann (Nové Zámky, Slovak Republic. Analyses were performed by routine methods, according to the valid methodologies. Levels of compounds were obtained and then results have been compared with the most acceptable limits in according to applicable legislation. At both farms, 73.08% (38 samples of analyzed compounds were below the limit of quantification (LOQ and 26.92% (14 samples of compounds were quantifiable. The most significant differences between monitored farms were recorded in soil (27 720 mg·kg-1 Ca, feed (27 620 mg·kg-1 Ca and milk (960 mg·kg-1 Ca. The high content of calcium in soil and feed did not affect the content of calcium in milk. The results showed that the content of toxic elements, polychorinated biphenyls, pesticides and aflatoxin M1 in analyzed area of Eastern Slovakia was very low and under the limit of quantification. It can be concluded, that the use of milk from this area for direct use or for dairy products is appropriate and poses no health risk to the consumers.

  15. Analysis of bachelor study programs of nursing at universities of Eastern Slovakia: a pilot study

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    Gabriela Kuriplachová

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The profile of the nursing studies in Slovakia is harmonized with the criteria of European Directives, enhanced by the adoption of the Declaration of Munich and implemented into the curriculum of educational institutions that provide this traning. Objective: The main objective of the pilot study was to determinate satisfaction of graduates with accredited programs of nursing (prior to the accreditation and after accreditation at two state universities in the eastern region of Slovakia. Methods: The monitored group consisted of total 132 respondents (nursing graduates who completed the 1st degree of nursing study at University of Presov in Presov or University of P. J. Safarik in Kosice in the timeframe 2007-2011. The study was realized during calendar years 2012-2013. One year of nursing clinical practice of graduates was required for this study. Data was collected through a modified questionnaire of feedback used at the University of Presov, Faculty of Health Care within the improvement of curricula program and the whole educational program. Results: Statistically significant differences were observed in area of optional courses of nursing study program (p < 0.05. Compulsory optional courses of nursing program at both universities were more interest and important for clinical practice of graduates after accreditation than before accreditation. Conclusions: The nursing study program meets the educational requirements of European Union. However, study program needs courses, which would be more interesting and effective for clinical practice.

  16. Assessment of natural radioactivity in the selected area of Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porubcanova, B.; Nikodemova, D.; Mojzes, A.

    2014-01-01

    Slovakia is country which has a difficult geological structure. This fact is reflected on values of natural radionuclide concentrations. A chosen area includes various types rocks which have diverse values of radioactive concentrations. Consequently these values were shown by maps which present localities with values of a radioactivity. This research was a first step which will be used like a base for a valorization and assessment of the potential radiation exposure of residents of SR where we can suppose health damage. (authors)

  17. Nižný Hrabovec. A site with evolved levallois technology in Eastern Slovakia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kaminská, Ľ.; Škrdla, Petr; Kozlowski, J. K.; Tomášková, S.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 6, 1-2 (2009), s. 57-64 ISSN 1730-8518 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA800010801 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80010507 Keywords : Eastern Slovakia * Levallois * Bohunician Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  18. Perception of Corporate Social Responsibility in companies of Eastern Slovakia region in 2009 and 2010

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    Iveta Ubrežiová

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the perception of Corporate Social Responsibility in companies of Eastern Slovakia region in 2009 and 2010. It aims to evaluate the survey performed in selected companies with the aim to find answers to the research questions (concerning the rate of perception of Corporate Social Responsibility, the evaluation of using a concept in the company, the importance of engagement in this area and so on and with the assistance of selected methods for the examination. Different companies have framed different definition. Our own definition is that Corporate Social Responsibility is about how companies manage the business processes, to produce an overall positive impact on society. Holme said that Corporate Social Responsibility is the continuing commitment by business to behave ethically and contribute to economic development while improving the quality of life of the workforce and their families as well as of the local community and society. Stakeholders are persons, groups or organizations that has direct or indirect stake in companies actions, objectives and policies (include creditor’s customers, directors, employees, government, owners, suppliers, unions and the community. Based on findings and a comparison of the results is made focusing on stakeholder’s area, and suggestions are offered for the improvement in areas examined.

  19. Agroecology Development in Eastern Europe—Cases in Czech Republic, Bulgaria, Hungary, Poland, Romania, and Slovakia

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    Jan Moudrý

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Agroecology is a discipline of science that is based on several disciplines, primarily ecology and agronomy. Although the first mention of agroecology was more than 100 years ago, it has recently been more intensely developed throughout Eastern European countries, beginning in the 1990s. Basically, such interest developed due to the intensification of agriculture in the second half of the 20th century, which was based on the premise of agricultural research, and related specifically to production. Agroecology is also strongly associated with sustainable agricultural activities, especially organic farming, which began to develop in Eastern European countries around 1990. Due to the unique environment of Eastern European countries, and a combination of several disciplines within them as well as other factors, agroecology in these differing countries can be perceived as somewhat different from one another. This overview focuses on the current state of agroecology in the Czech Republic, Poland, Hungary, Bulgaria, Romania, and Slovakia.

  20. The evaluation of mercury in honey bees and their products from eastern Slovakia

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    Tomas Toth

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals are a major source of environmental pollution, and have a significant impact on ecological quality of the environment. The human activity affects the environment so there is a high risk of metal accumulation. Heavy metals contaminate not only the environment but accumulate in the human body, from which it is difficult to degrade them. The long tradition of beekeeping in the world is proof that bees are irreplaceable and important pollinators of plants and crops, which are necessary to maintain the prosperity of agriculture. Beekeeping up to the present is still popular and is ecologically and economically significant. The aim of this study was to determine total mercury content in the body of bees and their products (bee pollen, honey of selected locations in eastern Slovakia, evaluation of obtained results according to current standards and compared to the values established by the Food Codex of the Slovak Republic and The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA, according to which mercury is a metal that is released into the environment from both natural sources and as a result of human activity. The mercury element can occur as inorganic mercury (mercurous (Hg22+ and mercuric (Hg2+ cations, and organic mercury. Methylmercury (MeHg is by far the most common form of organic mercury in the food chain. The tested bees and their products were collected from apiaries located in the area of the University of Veterinary Medicine and Pharmacy in Košice and the apiary in Rozhanovce. The evaluation of the impact of environmental contamination by hazardous substances is very important regards to the protection of bees and not least to protect the health of people as consumers of food products containing residues of industrial production.

  1. Sero-epidemiological study of Lyme disease among high-risk population groups in eastern Slovakia.

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    Zákutná, Ľubica; Dorko, Erik; Mattová, Eva; Rimárová, Kvetoslava

    2015-01-01

    IIntroduction and objective. The aim of the presented cross-sectional sero-epidemiological study was to determine the current presence of antibodies against B. burgdorferi s.l. in the high-risk groups of the Slovak population, and to identify potential risk factors to LB infections. A group of 277 agricultural and forestry workers - persons with frequent stay in the countryside and employees of State Border and Customs Police - from years 2011-2012 in the Eastern Slovakia were examined in order to assess the seroprevalence of anti-Borrelia antibodies. Sera were screened by commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The study subjects completed a questionnaires with general demographic, epidemiological and clinical data. The results were evaluated statistically. A 25.3% presence of positive and 8.7% presence of borderline IgG antibodies was detected in all investigated groups. The seroprevalence of B. burgdorferi s.l. was significantly higher (P<0.05) among the agricultural and forestry workers when compared to employees of State Border and Customs Police. Higher seropositivity was observed in older subjects over 30 years of age (P=0.004) than those who were younger, and also in males (P=0.045). A significant number of persons with rheumatologic conditions was statistically higher (P=0.020) in the group with seropositivity than in the group with seronegativity. The presented study confirms the higher risk of Borrelia infection in individuals with frequent exposure to ticks in eastern Slovakia. The seropositivity tests confirmed the highest seropositivity in agriculture and forestry workers, middle positivity was confirmed among other sector workers, and lowest positivity in policemen and employees of the Customs and Border Inspection. The outputs also simultaneously filling the gap of missing seroprevalence data among these exposed groups.

  2. Abstracts of contributions presented in the VII. International Conference on the Conservation of the Eastern Imperial Eagle, Bratislava, Slovakia, 2013

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    Deutschová Lucia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available VII. International Conference on the Conservation of the Eastern Imperial Eagle (Aquila heliaca was held on October 2-5, 201 3 in Barónka hotel in Bratislava, Slovakia and it was organised by Raptor Protection of Slovakia (RPS in cooperation with the Czech Society for Ornithology and MME/BirdLife Hungary, under the auspices of the Ministry of Environment, supported by the International Visegrad Fund. Results of 43 experts from ten countries, including three countries of Visegrad region (Slovakia, Czech Republic and Hungary were presented in 20 presentations and five posters. Six contributions are published in Slovak Raptor Journal volume 8, issue 1 (2014 as full papers, further twelve contributions are published here as conference abstracts.

  3. Transformation of tourist landscapes in mountain areas: Case studies from Slovakia

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    Branislav Chrenka

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available After two decades of deregulated free market economy the post-socialist rural mountain areas are being unprecedently commodified. Landscapes of tourist consumption with specific behaviour patterns are produced and reproduced. The paper explores how landscapes are transformed due to massive investments into tourist infrastructure with questionable impacts on quality of life and environmental sustainability. Power relations and related production of space are analysed in three case studies in the selected mountain areas in Slovakia. First, the Oščadnica case study reflects on rural landscape rapidly transformed by massive ski resort development and deforestation. Second, the Tále golf course development case study describes commodification and gentrification processes in Central Slovakia. Third, the High Tatras case study explores how power structures push on the transformation of the oldest and most visited National Park in Slovakia.

  4. Pilot Cross-Sectional Study of Three Zoonoses (Lyme Disease, Tularaemia, Leptospirosis) among Healthy Blood Donors in Eastern Slovakia.

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    Zákutná, Ľubica; Dorko, Erik; Rimárová, Kvetoslava; Kizeková, Marianna

    2015-06-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the seroprevalence of three zoonotic infections among healthy blood donors/volunteers in Eastern Slovakia. Sera from 124 blood donors were investigated for the presence of antibodies against Borrelia burgdorferi, Francisella tularensis and Leptospira pomona. The participants also completed the questionnaire about demographic, exposure and epidemiological characteristics. Two serological methods were used for the diagnosis: the enzyme linked protein A/G assay (ELPAGA) and the Western blot (WB). First, sera were screened by ELPAGA (except for leptospirosis). The observed seroprevalence was 15% for Lyme borreliosis (LB) and 4% for tularaemia (TUL). The results were confirmed by WB. Positive IgG antibodies (WB method) were detected only in 1.6% of examined for LB and 0.8% for TUL. Our results did not identify any antibodies against Leptospira pomona agent in the examined healthy blood donors group. ELPAGA seroprevalence for TUL was significantly higher in blood donors working in the agricultural area in the direct contact with hay, straw, manure, and agricultural land. Our outputs determine tick bite as a significant risk factor for LB. The study confirms the explosion of tick-borne diseases in the healthy population of people. The exposure risk for leptospirosis seems to be minimal. Copyright© by the National Institute of Public Health, Prague 2015.

  5. Identification of urban flood vulnerability in eastern Slovakia by mapping the potential natural sources of flooding - implications for territorial planning

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    Lenka Gaňová

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the presented study was to assess the distribution of flood-risk potential (FRP at the regional scale. A progressive approach integrating geographical information system (GIS with two different methods of multicriteria analysis (MCA – analytic hierarchy process (AHP and ranking method (RM was applied in the process. In the analyses, the most causative factors for flooding were taken into account, urban spatial planning, such as soil type, daily precipitation, land use, size of the catchment and average basin slope. A case study of flood vulnerability identification in the Hornád and Bodrog catchments’ areas in eastern Slovakia has been employed to illustrate two different approaches. Spatial estimation of FRP should be one of the basic steps for complex geoecological evaluation and delimitation of landscape considering water resources management, groundwater pollution, prediction of soil erosion and sediment transport and some other important landscape-ecological factors. The obtained results indicate that RM method shows better results as related to the existing floods in the recent years in Bodrog and Hornád catchment than AHP method.

  6. Malakofauna pohoria Bachureň (východné Slovensko Malacofauna of the Bachureň Mts. (Eastern Slovakia

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    Jozef Šteffek

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Bachureň Mts. are the least known orographic unit of Slovakia from the malacological point of view, therefore it was important to fill this gap in the faunistic research of malacofauna in Slovakia. In order to achieve the maximum mollusc diversity of the Bachureň Mts., various habitat types were the subject of interest. Field work was conducted in the years 2009–2011 at 78 sites. Altogether 108 mollusc species were recorded. In total, nearly 20 000 specimens were collected and identified. Half of all recorded species were representatives of woodland species s. l. From zoogeographical point of view, species with cosmopolitan, Euro-Siberian and Central European distribution made up the highest proportion. Carpathian species were numerous as well. Across the whole mountain, West Carpathian species (Petasina unidentata, Plicuteria lubomirskii and Trochulus villosulus encountered the species with centre in eastern part of the Carpathians (Perforatella dibothrion, Pseudalinda stabilis, Oxychilus orientalis and Vestia gulo. On the basis of spatial distribution of sensitive species indicating undisturbance of habitats, the most valuable biotopes showed to be springs, wetlands and riparian vegetation along the upper parts of the streams with Acicula parcelineata, Bulgarica cana, Macrogastra latestriata, Vertigo angustior, V. antivertigo, V. substriata, and Cochlicopa nitens. Valuable biotopes were dolomite rocks with the occurrence of relict steppe with Pupilla triplicata and well-preserved scree woodlands with V. substriata and B. cana as well.

  7. Human exposure to PCBs and some other presistent organochlorines in eastern Slovakia as a consequence of former PCB production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kocan, A.; Drobna, B.; Petrik, J.; Jursa, S.; Chovancova, J.; Conka, K.; Balla, B.; Sovcikova, E.; Trnovec, T. [Slovak Medical Univ., Bratislava (Czechoslovakia)

    2004-09-15

    Out of estimated 1.3 million tonnes of PCBs totally produced in the world, about 21,500 t were manufactured in 1959-1984 by the chemical plant Chemko situated at the town of Strazske, Michalovce District, eastern Slovakia. Chemko PCB products called Delor 103, Delor 105, Delor 106, Delotherm and Hydelor were used inside former Czechoslovakia chiefly as heat transfer fluids, capacitor and transformer oils, and paint additives. Because of poor production technology, especially in the 1960s and early 1970s, high amounts of PCB waste discharged, into an open, several km long, muddy Chemko effluent canal causing the increased contamination of the nearby Laborec River and Zemplinska Sirava Lake. A higher PCB content in water sediment, surface water, soil, and air has resulted in high exposure of wild fish and food products coming from cattle, swine and poultry kept in the polluted area and fed with locally produced feed. Two previous pilot studies realized in 1993 and 1997-98 indicated that mean PCB levels measured in the blood, adipose tissue and milk of the human population living in the polluted area (Michalovce District) are several times higher if compared with other Slovak districts. The objective of this exposure oriented part of the EU's 5{sup th} Framework Programme PCBRISK project (www.pcbrisk.sk) was to evaluate the PCB and selected organochlorine pesticide exposure of minimally 2,000 adults (equally men and women) and 400 children (equally boys and girls, 8/9 years old) living in the towns and villages of the Michalovce District adjacent to the Laborec River downstream the Chemko plant where higher PCB human levels could be expected and in the towns and villages of the Svidnik and Stropkov Districts lying several tens km upstream the Laborec where lower PCB exposure was expected. The exposure of at least 300 adults out of those 2,000 to dioxins, furans and dioxin-like PCBs was evaluated as well. The assessment of health effects and other factors

  8. Strategies for reducing emissions and depositions in Central and Eastern European countries: The case of Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Harmelen, T.; Stoffer, A.; De Kruijk, H.; Salamonova, A.

    1995-06-01

    A detailed case study on developments and reduction of acidifying SO 2 and NO x emissions from the energy system was conducted for Slovakia. Scenarios and the Energy Flow Optimization Model - Environment (EFOM-ENV) of the European Union (DG 12) were applied for the first time in Slovakia and were similar to those that were used in the other European country studies in preparation of the Second Sulphur Protocol. Slovak SO 2 emissions can be reduced at low marginal costs but high total national costs compared with e.g. the Netherlands. The main reasons for this are the high sulphur content of (brown) coal that has a high share in national energy consumption, a relatively high energy intensity, lower wages, and the fact that most Western countries already have reduced their SO 2 emissions in the past. Marginal NO x emission reduction costs are similar to those of Western countries and national total NO x reduction costs are relatively high. In contrast with fuel switching, retrofitting of existing technologies is an attractive SO 2 and NO x reduction option in the short term. High interest and discount rates due to capital scarcity increases emissions and emission reduction costs. Therefore, short term involvement of Western investors could lead to European cost-effective emission reduction. 17 figs., 5 tabs., 2 appendices, 20 refs

  9. The expansion and occurrence of the Amur sleeper (Perccottus glenii) in eastern Slovakia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Koščo, J.; Lusk, Stanislav; Halačka, Karel; Lusková, Věra

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 3 (2003), s. 329-336 ISSN 0139-7893 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IBS6093007; GA AV ČR KSK6005114 Grant - others:VEGA(SK) 1/9209/02 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6093917 Keywords : Perccottus glenii * invasion * Tisa drainage area Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.494, year: 2003 http://www.ivb.cz/folia/52/3/329-336.pdf

  10. Area Studies and Eastern Europe: How Eastern Europe Collapsed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjana Kasapović

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In the first part, the author outlines the development of area studies in contemporary comparative politics, and points to their importance for the development of political science. In the second part, she examines the methodology – research design and methods – of regional comparatistics, paying particular attention to the problem of defining the region as a central category in this field of comparative politics. The third and central part is focused on the emergence of Eastern Europe as a historical-political and socio-cultural region in the course of history, especially after World War II, and on its dissolution in the processes of democratic transformation of communist regimes in the last two decades. The dissolution of Eastern Europe has resulted in restoration of a tripartite political geography in the area which it used to take up, made up of Central Europe, Southeast Europe and the proper Eastern Europe.

  11. Arsenic mobility from anthropogenic impoundment sediments - Consequences of contamination to biota, water and sediments, Posa, Eastern Slovakia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiller, E.; Jurkovic, L.; Kordik, J.; Slaninka, I.; Jankular, M.; Majzlan, J.; Gottlicher, J.; Steininger, R. [Geological Survey of Slovak Republic, Bratislava (Slovakia). Dept. of Environmental Geochemistry

    2009-11-15

    An impoundment located near the village of Posa, Slovakia, is a significant source of contamination with As originating from the deposited coal fly-ash. Waters penetrating the impoundment are enriched in As and other potentially toxic elements. As a consequence of the contamination, the Kyjov Brook and the Ondava River have been extensively polluted. The mobility and solid-state partitioning of As in the impoundment material and stream sediments were investigated using column leaching and batch extraction tests, and a five-step sequential extraction procedure. Moreover, to investigate the bioavailability of As, two native plant species (Typha latifolia, or cattail, and Phragmites australis, or common reed) growing at the site were collected and analyzed. The As concentrations in representative sediment and water samples ranged from 36.3 to 3210 mg/kg and from 4.05 to 613 {mu} g/L, respectively, both being many times above the background levels. Although a part of As was present in a readily soluble form (6.6%), the majority of As was mainly associated with Fe and Mn oxides (37%) and residual phases (51%). Combined results of the column leaching, batch extraction, and sequential extraction tests, as well as mineralogical analysis, indicated that As mobilisation potential from the sediments is likely controlled by Fe, Al and Mn oxides, and by pH. There was no influence of various anions (PO{sub 4}{sup 3-}, SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, NO{sup 3-}, Cl{sup -} and HCO{sub 3}{sup -}) on As mobility when present in aqueous solution at concentrations analogous to those in the water of the Kyjov Brook. Plants growing in the impoundment had As concentrations 10-100 times greater than did the same plants growing in a relatively non-polluted area.

  12. Magnesium Contamination in Soil at a Magnesite Mining Area of Jelšava-Lubeník (Slovakia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazekašová, D.; Fazekaš, J.; Hronec, O.; Horňak, M.

    2017-10-01

    Magnesium contamination in soil at a magnesite mining area of Jelšava-Lubeník (Slovakia) and their effect to the soil characteristics were determined. Soil samples were collected in the area Jelšava - Lubeník with specific alkaline pollutants, it is one of the most devastated regions of Slovakia and with the alarming degree of environmental damage. Magnesite air pollutants are a mixture of MgO and MgCO3 due to which a soil reaction can move above pH 8. Production of clink accompanies the enormous emissions of dust particles of MgO into the air and the leakage of gaseous compounds, mainly SO2 and NOx. The total content of heavy metals in soils (Pb, Zn, Cr, Mn, Mg) were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry and X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. Soil reaction was determined in solution of 0.01 M CaCl2. The research showed that the investigated sites are mostly strongly alkaline. Based on the obtained results, it can be stated that the contents of Pb, Zn is below the level of toxicity but for Cr, Mn and Mg, it does not apply. Their significant exceedance points contamination in which we can take into account the harmfulness and toxicity.

  13. Geochemical and mineralogical characterization of a neutral, low-sulfide/high-carbonate tailings impoundment, Markušovce, eastern Slovakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiller, Edgar; Petrák, Marián; Tóth, Roman; Lalinská-Voleková, Bronislava; Jurkovič, L'ubomír; Kučerová, Gabriela; Radková, Anežka; Sottník, Peter; Vozár, Jaroslav

    2013-11-01

    Tailings deposits generated from mining activities represent a potential risk for the aquatic environment through the release of potentially toxic metals and metalloids occurring in a variety of minerals present in the tailings. Physicochemical and mineralogical characteristics of tailings such as total concentrations of chemical elements, pH, ratio of acid-producing to acid-neutralizing minerals, and primary and secondary mineral phases are very important factors that control the actual release of potentially toxic metals and metalloids from the tailings to the environment. The aims of this study are the determination of geochemical and mineralogical characteristics of tailings deposited in voluminous impoundment situated near the village of Markušovce (eastern Slovakia) and identification of the processes controlling the mobility of selected toxic metals (Cu, Hg) and metalloids (As, Sb). The studied tailings have unique features in comparison with the other tailings investigated previously because of the specific mineral assemblage primarily consisting of barite, siderite, quartz, and minor sulfides. To meet the aims, samples of the tailings were collected from 3 boreholes and 15 excavated pits and subjected to bulk geochemical analyses (i.e., determination of chemical composition, pH, Eh, acid generation, and neutralization potentials) combined with detailed mineralogical characterization using optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), electron microprobe analysis (EMPA), and micro-X-ray diffraction (μ-XRD). Additionally, the geochemical and mineralogical factors controlling the transfer of potentially toxic elements from tailings to waters were also determined using short-term batch test (European norm EN 12457), sampling of drainage waters and speciation-equilibrium calculations performed with PHREEQC. The tailings mineral assemblage consists of siderite, barite, quartz, and dolomite. Sulfide minerals constitute only a minor proportion of the tailings

  14. Effect of heavy metals on soil enzyme activity at different field conditions in Middle Spis mining area (Slovakia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelovičová, Lenka; Lodenius, Martin; Tulisalo, Esa; Fazekašová, Danica

    2014-12-01

    Heavy metals concentrations were measured in the former mining area located in Hornad river valley (Slovakia). Soil samples were taken in 2012 from 20 sites at two field types (grasslands, heaps of waste material) and two different areas. Total content of heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Zn, Hg), urease (URE), acid phosphatase (ACP), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), soil reaction (pH) were changing depending on the field/area type. The tailing pond and processing plants have been found as the biggest sources of pollution. URE, ACP and ALP activities significantly decreased while the heavy metal contents increased. Significant differences were found among area types in the heavy metal contents and activity of URE. No statistical differences in the content of heavy metals but significant statistical differences for soil pH were found for field types (grassland and heaps). Significant negative correlation was found for URE-Pb, URE-Zn and also between soil reaction and ACP and ALP.

  15. Occurrence and dynamics of Impatiens parviflora depending on various environmental conditions in the protected areas in Slovakia

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    Bobuľská Lenka

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Biological invasion as one of the main threats to natural ecosystems has big economic impact on conservation of nature. Studies of the population biology of invasive species may allow more precise focus on specific plant and soil characteristics involved in invasiveness. The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between selected biological population characteristics of Impatiens parviflora and a few chosen chemical and physical soil features. Sites were selected because of the poor mapping of invasive plants in the protected natural areas and their interactions with specific soil characteristics. Research on I. parviflora was realised during a vegetation season in three forest nature reserves in Prešov district, Slovakia. Some population biological characteristics of I. parviflora as one of the most invasive plant species in Slovakia and Central Europe were surveyed. The correlation between the numbers of plants was analysed, as well as select population biological characteristics of I. parviflora (plant height, width of the largest leaf and the number of flowers/fruits on some select chemical and physical soil attributes (soil pH, bulk density, porosity and soil moisture were analysed. The results suggest that biological characteristics of I. parviflora in three different microhabitats – a meadow (a habitat without tree vegetation, a habitat close to the stumps and a habitat under dense tree vegetation seemed to influence the selected soil parameters. Our results showed that I. parviflora prefers acidic and non-compacted soil conditions. Sunlight and soil moisture do not show statistically significant differences on any biological characteristic of the population. The results also suggest that the autecology of I. parviflora in Western and Central Europe is not very well known and deserves further study.

  16. Heat waves and warm periods in Slovakia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faško, Pavel; Bochníček, Oliver; Markovič, Ladislav; Švec, Marek

    2016-04-01

    The scenarios of climate change caused by human activity show that frequency of occurrence and extent of heat waves in the interior of Europe is increasing. Among the most exposed regions in this regard should the area of southeastern and eastern Austria and south-western Slovakia. The relatively faster increase in the number of heat waves in this area is related also to potential desertification in this region just east of the Alps, since during summer, weather fronts advancing from the west are consequently losing their original features and moderating influence. Summer weather patterns for this area should in the future more closely remind climate typical for some inland areas of southwestern, southern and southeastern Europe. A certain shift of climate zones from south to north should thus modify future climate and Slovakia. Despite the complex natural conditions the existing trends derived from results of meteorological measurements and observations are clear and they confirm warming of climate in this region. Observations and measurements in the recent years of the 21st century confirm, that heat waves are no longer rare phenomenon during summer, but are systematically appearing even in colder regions of northern Slovakia. What is very remarkable and will be necessary to pay more attention to, is the fact that these heat waves are expanding into previously unaffected areas, associated with the lack of rainfall and drought, on larger regional scale. In this study heat wave periods and individual heat events and days are statistically identified in the time series characteristics of air temperature at selected meteorological stations for the period from the mid-20th century until 2015, in case of available historical data even for longer period.

  17. Rural areas of Eastern Germany: modern challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klüter Helmut

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available After the German reunification the agricultural development of eastern territories seemed to have picked up its pace. Yet the main problems those territories are facing today hatched already in the mid-1990s. In our study we address the problems and challenges that hinder sustainable development of East German rural areas. We analyse agricultural statistics and describe the structure of agricultural enterprises, land-use, and other critical dimensions of agriculture. We discuss pros and cons of modern rural areas spatial planning policy and take a critical look at the current status of rural areas. We also put forward a number of concrete proposals aimed at the development of the area and counteracting the negative trends it is now experiencing. Even taking into account all ‘positive’ development trends that are postulated to have occurred since the unification, we underline the crucial necessity of diversification of labour forces and of changing the spatial planning policies in the rural areas of East Germany.

  18. Inorganic Arsenic and Basal Cell Carcinoma in Areas of Hungary, Romania, and Slovakia: A Case–Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonardi, Giovanni; Vahter, Marie; Clemens, Felicity; Goessler, Walter; Gurzau, Eugen; Hemminki, Kari; Hough, Rupert; Koppova, Kvetoslava; Kumar, Rajiv; Rudnai, Peter; Surdu, Simona

    2012-01-01

    Background: Inorganic arsenic (iAs) is a potent carcinogen, but there is a lack of information about cancer risk for concentrations iAs exposure iAs metabolism. Methods: The Arsenic Health Risk Assessment and Molecular Epidemiology (ASHRAM) study, a case–control study, was conducted in areas of Hungary, Romania, and Slovakia with reported presence of iAs in groundwater. Consecutively diagnosed cases of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) of the skin were histologically confirmed; controls were general surgery, orthopedic, and trauma patients who were frequency matched to cases by age, sex, and area of residence. Exposure indices were constructed based on information on iAs intake over the lifetime of participants. iAs metabolism status was classified based on urinary concentrations of methylarsonic acid (MA) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA). Associations were estimated by multivariable logistic regression. Results: A total of 529 cases with BCC and 540 controls were recruited for the study. BCC was positively associated with three indices of iAs exposure: peak daily iAs dose rate, cumulative iAs dose, and lifetime average water iAs concentration. The adjusted odds ratio per 10-μg/L increase in average lifetime water iAs concentration was 1.18 (95% confidence interval: 1.08, 1.28). The estimated effect of iAs on cancer was stronger in participants with urinary markers indicating incomplete metabolism of iAs: higher percentage of MA in urine or a lower percentage of DMA. Conclusion: We found a positive association between BCC and exposure to iAs through drinking water with concentrations < 100 μg/L. PMID:22436128

  19. A randomized controlled trial to evaluate utilization of physical activity recommendations among patients of cardiovascular healthcare centres in Eastern Slovakia: study design and rationale of the AWATAR study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelko, Aurel; Bukova, Alena; Kolarcik, Peter; Bakalar, Peter; Majercak, Ivan; Potocnikova, Jana; Reijneveld, Sijmen A; van Dijk, Jitse P

    2018-04-04

    Guidelines on modifiable risk factors regarding cardiological patients are poorly implemented in clinical practice perhaps due to low health literacy. Several digital tools for improving lifestyle and behavioural intervention were developed. Our primary aim is to evaluate the effectiveness of a digital exercise prescription tool on the adherence to physical activity recommendations among patients with cardiovascular diseases. A randomized controlled trial will be realized in cooperation with Cardiovascular Health Centres in Eastern Slovakia. Patients recruited through their cardiologists, will be randomised at 1:1 ratio to the three-months' experimental condition or control condition. The experimental group will receive standard lifestyle consultation leading to individually optimized prescription of physical activity. The control group will receive standard, usual-cardio-care lifestyle counselling, also in the domain of physical activity. The digital system will be used for optimized exercise prescription. The primary outcome is a change in the patient's adherence to exercise recommendations. Data will be collected in both groups prior to consultation and after 3 months. This study protocol presents background and design of a randomized control trial to investigate the effectiveness of a digital system-provide exercise prescription tool on the adherence to physical activity recommendations. An optimized exercise prescription that better reflects patient's diagnosis, comorbidities and medication can have a significant impact on secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. This trial can provide important evidence about the effectiveness of digital exercise guidance in everyday practice of cardiovascular healthcare. The study was registered on 1st November, 2017 and is available online at ClinicalTrials.gov (ID: NCT03329053 ).

  20. MERCURY IN EDIBLE WILD-GROWN MUSHROOMS FROM HISTORICAL MINING AREASLOVAKIA: BIOACCUMULATION AND RISK ASSESSMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Július Árvay

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, we focused on assessment of the contamination levels of five species (n = 33 of edible wild mushrooms (Macrolepiota procera, Boletus reticulatus, Suillus grevillei, Russula xerampelina and Xerocomellus chrysenteron. We collected samples of above-ground parts of the macroscopic fungi species in historical mining and processing area surrounding Banská Bystrica (Central Slovakia in 2014. Within 2 m radius of the samples, we also took samples of underlying substrate. On the basis of the substrate, along with the monitored contaminant – mercury, we calculated bioaccumulation factors for individual species and their anatomical parts (cap and stipe. From the obtained results of the mercury content in the edible mushrooms, we then determined provisionally tolerable weekly intake (PTWI. The limit value for mercury (0.350 mg Hg kg-1 for an individual with average weight of 70 kg is defined by the World Health Organization (WHO. Our results suggest that despite the relatively low level of Hg in the underlying substrate, the species Macrolepiota procera (1.98 mg kg-1 ± 68.2 (0.41 - 3.20 mg kg-1 DW is characterized by extremely high bioaccumulation ability, as confirmed by the bioaccumulation factors (BAFc = 15.3; BAFs = 8.02. PTWI value was exceeded by almost 20%. In case of the other studied edible wild mushroom species, we did not record any increased risk of mercury intake by consumers. Generally it can be stated that consumption of wild mushrooms represents a relatively small but significant risk of negative impact on the consumer´s health.

  1. Abandoned Smolník mine (Slovakia – a catchment area affected by mining activities

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    Lintnerová, Otília

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Smolník is a historical Cu-mining area that was exploited from the 14th century to 1990. The Smolník mine was definitively closed and flooded in 1990–1994. Acid mine drainage discharging from the flooded mine (pH = 3.83, Fe = 542 mg/l, SO42– = 3642 mg/l, Cu = 1880 µg/l, Zn = 9599 µg/l, As = 108 mg/l acidified and contaminated the Smolník Creek water, which transported pollution into the Hnilec River catchment. The Smolník mine waste area has been used as a model area to document pollution of waters, stream sediments, and soils by metals and other toxic elements. Major goals of this complex study were to document creek water transport of the main pollutants (Fe, sulphates, Cu, Al, As, etc. in the form of suspended solids, to investigate elements mobility in common mine waste (rock and processing waste heaps and tailing impoundment and in the soil on the basis of neutralization and leach experiments. Different methodologies and techniques for sampling and chemical and mineralogical characterization of samples were used and checked to evaluate environmental risk of this abandoned mine area.

  2. Milk Iodine Content in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Paulíková

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to map actual iodine status and its seasonal differences in raw milk of dairy cows, sheep, and goats in various regions of Slovakia. Iodine concentrations were determined in 457 samples of raw milk from dairy cows, 78 samples of sheep, and 16 samples of goat milk collected in various regions of Slovakia from 2002 to 2007. Among all the 457 samples of bovine milk, iodine content below 50 μg l-1 was recorded in 114 samples (24.94%; 294 samples (64.33% ranged between 50 and 200 μg l-1; 19 samples (4.16% from 200 to 500 μg l-1; 17 samples (3.72% between 500 and 1 000 μg l-1, and 13 samples (2.85% showed iodine concentrations over 1 000 μg l-1. regional concentrations showed the highest values in the Western, then Middle and Eastern Slovakia, and the lowest values in Northern Slovakia (p p -1 in 49 sheep (62.8% and in 6 goats below 60 μg l-1 (37.5%, which are indicative of iodine deficiency. When comparing seasonal differences, sheep and goat milk had higher iodine content during the winter feeding period, however, in dairy cows we recorded the opposite ratio. Except for goat milk (p < 0.01 the seasonal differences were not significant.

  3. Preliminary fundamental aspects on the thyroid volume and function in the population of long term heavily polluted area in East Slovakia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langer, P. [Institute of Experimental Endocrinology, SAS, Bratislava (Slovakia); Tajtakova, M. [Safarik Univ., Kosice (Slovakia). First Clinic of Internal Medicine; Kocan, A. [Slovak Health Univ. - IPCM, Bratislava (SK). Research Base] (and others)

    2004-09-15

    Our previous examinations of employees of chemical factory formerly producing polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) repeatedly showed increased thyroid volume as measured by ultrasound as well as increased frequency of thyroperoxidase, thyroglobulin and thyrotropin (TSH) receptor autoantibodies. At the same time a considerable PCB pollution of soil, waters and food chain in large area surrounding that chemical factory was found. The aim of present preliminary evaluation of data obtained within the EC project PCBRISK was to search for further interrelations between long-term organochlorine pollution and fundamental markers of thyroid volume and function in large cohorts of population from three districts of East Slovakia.

  4. Aboveground Net Primary Production of tree cover at the post-disturbance area in the Tatra National Park, Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konôpka Bohdan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Large-scale disturbances under the conditions of Slovakia, caused especially by storm and bark beetle, bring dramatic decline in carbon budget of the country, besides other negative consequences. The largest disturbance in modern history of the Slovak forestry was the storm damage that occurred in November 2004. The Tatra National Park (TNP was one of the most affected regions. Thus, in this territory, two transects (T1 – the Danielov dom site and T2 – near the Horný Smokovec village were established to survey basic dendrometric properties of trees in young stands established after the disaster. The standing stock of aboveground biomass in tree cover for the spring and autumn 2014 was calculated using the recorded variables, i.e. tree height and diameter measured at the stem base, together with the region-specific allometric relations. Then, the Aboveground Net Primary Production (ANPP in tree cover was estimated with respect to its components (stem, branches and foliage. ANPP was 315 g m−2 per year (Transect T1, and 391 g m−2 per year (Transect T2. The differences in the structure of ANPP, i.e. contribution of tree components, were found between transects T1 and T2. They were caused by the contrasting tree species composition, specifically the ratios between Norway spruce and broadleaved species. Broadleaves allocated more biomass production to foliage than spruce. This phenomenon together with higher turnover (once a year of foliage caused that broadleaves manifest higher share of fast-cycling carbon in comparison to the amount of carbon sequestrated in woody parts (stem and branches. High variability of ANPP was found within the transects, i.e. among the plots (microsites. As for the representative estimation of the standing stock of aboveground part of tree cover as well as ANPP at the post-disturbance area in the TNP territory, the survey should be performed on a net of research plots. Only this approach enables reliable estimates

  5. Land associations in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Bandlerová

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The land fragmentation is one of the serious problems in Slovakia which is given by the historical development of the land law. In the past, landowners tried to solve this problem by creation of various forms of land associations oriented to the common cultivation of agricultural land and forest land. Nowadays, the Slovak lawmaker decided to regulate the institute of land associations by the law. Land associations in Slovakia are legal entities conducting agricultural business on agricultural land, forest land or in water areas; moreover, they can provide also other business activities according to particular legal regulations. Land associations conduct business on real estate property or, more commonly, properties, which are usually owned by many co-owners, because the individual cultivation of small part of land plots would not be effective. However, the law is a subject of legal amendments more often than necessary in order to ensure the legal certainty. This paper introduces this recondite legal entity, its activities, its internal government and the ownership rights of its members. A pre-emption right that has a special legal regulation different from the general legal regulations of the pre-emption rights in the Civil Code is one of the special issues.

  6. Roof top extensions for multifamily houses in Slovakia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szekeres, K.

    2010-12-01

    In the countries of the European Union with the exception of Malta, approximately 100.1 million multifamily dwelling units are situated. These dwellings count for an average of 47.5% of the total housing stock in European Union countries. At present in Slovakia and also other countries of Central and Eastern Europe, there are vast housing areas which were built after World War II. Slovakia's multifamily housing stock was privatized during the 1990s. Considering that the economy of Slovakia is not capable of replacing the existing housing fund, which is located in the multifamily houses that were built after World War II, it is necessary to place an increased emphasis on the renovation of this housing fund. The expenditures for the refurbishment of multifamily housing stock in recent decades, when compared with the demand, have been at a very low level. The main problems involving the current multifamily housing stock in Slovakia are: the need for modernization, the low level of energy efficiency, and the insufficient level of building maintenance. One of the options for creating sufficient sources for the renovation of apartment buildings is to utilize the roofs of apartment buildings as construction areas for building additional floors (over - roofing). The means acquired from the sale of the new floors after deducting the costs can be used for renovation. It is a matter of a one-time possibility, which is limited by many factors that depend on the localization and constructive technical solutions for apartment buildings. This article is an outcome of the SuReFit "Sustainable Roof Extension Retrofit for High-Rise Social Housing in Europe" international research project.

  7. Rainfall and runoff regime trends in mountain catchments (Case study area: the upper Hron River basin, Slovakia

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    Blahušiaková Andrea

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of trends and causes of changes of selected hydroclimatic variables influencing the runoff regime in the upper Hron River basin (Slovakia. Different methods for identifying trends in data series are evaluated and include: simple mass curve analysis, linear regression, frequency analysis of flood events, use of the Indicators of Hydrological Alteration software, and the Mann-Kendall test. Analyses are performed for data from two periods (1931-2010 and 1961-2010. The changes in runoff are significant, especially in terms of lower QMax and 75 percentile values. This fact is also confirmed by the lower frequency and extremity of flood events. The 1980s are considered a turning point in the development of all hydroclimatic variables. The Mann-Kendall test shows a significant decrease in runoff in the winter period. The main causes of runoff decline are: the considerable increase in air temperature, the decrease in snow cover depth and changes in seasonal distribution of precipitation amounts.

  8. Eastern wilderness users: perceptions from two small wilderness areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas Palso; Alan Graefe

    2007-01-01

    This study explores perceptions of wilderness recreationists in the eastern United States, with a focus on definitions of wilderness areas and factors that may decrease enjoyment of the wilderness experience. The eventual aim is to compare these data with information collected from wilderness users in the western United States. The few studies performed on this...

  9. The South Eastern Europe Higher Education Area: Is it possible?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.D. Lacrama

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Through history, South Eastern Europe has been a difficult and highly heterogeneous area of the continent. Nevertheless, recent developments have proved that a better future is possible. An important component of this genuine healing process is establishing connections and partnerships among universities inside the region. The present paper advocates the use of modern educational technology in order to implement common scientific and educational programs in this area.

  10. Prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis Infection and Its Association with Sexual Behaviour and Alcohol Use in the Population Living in Separated and Segregated Roma Settlements in Eastern Slovakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babinská, Ingrid; Halánová, Monika; Kalinová, Zuzana; Čechová, Lenka; Čisláková, Lýdia; Madarasová Gecková, Andrea

    2017-12-14

    The aim of the study was to explore sexual behaviour and the occurrence of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) infection in the population living in Roma settlements compared to the majority population in Slovakia and to assess the association between alcohol use and sexual behaviour within both populations. A cross-sectional population-based Hepa-Meta study was conducted in Slovakia in 2011. The final sample comprised 452 Roma and 403 non-Roma respondents. The occurrence of CT was detected by direct proof of the pathogen by PCR. The association between alcohol use and the prevalence of risky sexual behaviour were assessed using a logistic regression. First intercourse at age 15 or younger was reported by 27.9% of Roma (vs. 4.5% of non-Roma); 93.4% of Roma (vs. 77.9% of non-Roma) used condom inconsistently, 22.8% of Roma (vs. 43.9% of non-Roma) used a condom for protection from unwanted pregnancies and only 8.8% of Roma (vs. 21.8% of non-Roma) due to protection against infectious diseases. However, Roma reported having had five or more sexual partners less often compared to the majority (11.5% of Roma vs. 20.6% of non-Roma). Binge drinking at least once a month was associated with a higher number of sexual partners in both groups, but not with condom non-use. The prevalence of CT infection in the Roma population was higher (3.8%) compared to non-Roma (2.7%); however, the difference was not statistically significant. Our study found no differences in the prevalence of CT infection between Roma and non-Roma despite differences in sexual behaviour. Roma begin their sexual life earlier and have unprotected sex more often, but on the other hand, they seem to be much more restrained in terms of the number of sexual partners compared to the majority population.

  11. Geology of wadi atalla - el missikat area, eastern desert, egypt.

    OpenAIRE

    El Kassas, I. A. [ابراهيم علي القصاص; Bakhit, F. S.

    1989-01-01

    Wadi Atalla-El Missikat area covers about 2,000 Km2 in the central Eastern Desert of Egypt, between latitudes 26° 10' and 26° 40' N, and longitudes 33° 15' and 33° 40' E. The area is mainly formed of basement complex except its extreme south-western corner where it is covered by foreland sediments of Nubian sandstone. The area is structurally complicated where it has been subjected to various stages of successive tectonic movements since the Precambrian times. The basement complex in the stud...

  12. Geothermy Energy Used in Relaxation Regions on Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sciranková Lucia

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Slovakia has almost 3 geothermal water swimming pools ( AQUAPARKS , which are an ideal environment for family holidays. Accommodation is available directly in the swimming pools areas, or in their vicinity, for instance in campings, pensions and also in luxury hotels according to your choice.At present has been started investigation for the biggest geothermal project in Central Europe – Kosice basin construction. The Durkov geothermal structure location, which lies in depression of Neogene basement, is about 15 km eastern from town Kosice. The results of three geothermal investigation wells drilled in 1998 –1999 confirmed the presence of geothermal reservoir with heat potential at least 100 MWt. This paper showed utilization geothermy source Durkov on operations large relaxation and production complex with yearly plant.

  13. FLOOD VULNERABILITY IN BODVA RIVER BASIN IN SLOVAKIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZELENAKOVA MARTINA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to generate a composite map for decision makers using selected factors, mainly of natural character, causing floods. In the analyses, some of the causative factors for flooding in a catchment area are taken into account, such as soil type, precipitation, land use, size of catchment and basin slope. A case study of flood vulnerability identification in the Bodva river basin in eastern Slovakia is employed to illustrate the different approaches. A geographical information system (GIS is integrated with multicriteria analysis (MCA in the paper. The identification of flood vulnerability consists of two basic phases. Firstly, the effective factors causing floods are identified. Secondly several approaches to MCA in a GIS environment are applied and these approaches are evaluated in order to prepared flood vulnerability map.

  14. [Familial Mediterranean fever - first experiences in Slovakia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallos, Tomáš; Gálová, Lucia Lukáčiková; Macejková, Eva; Sedlačko, Jozef; Toplak, Nataša; Debeljak, Maruša; Sargsyan, Hasmik; Ilenčíková, Denisa; Kovács, László

    2014-01-01

    Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is the most prevalent genetically determined autoinflammatory disease. FMF significantly decreases the quality of life and limits life expectancy due to the development of amyloidosis in affected individuals. Prevalence of FMF is highest in the south-eastern Mediterraneans. In other parts of the world, its occurance is often restricted to high-risk ethnic groups. In Central Europe, experience with FMF is scarse to none, as in the case of Slovakia, where no cases have been reported, so far. Herein we report the first five patients (3 adults and 2 children, 4 native Slovaks) in whom the diagnosis of FMF could be confirmed in Slovakia. Our experience demonstrates that FMF does occur in low-risk populations in Central Europe. Due to low prevalence and lack of experience, FMF diagnosis may be significantly delayed (4.5-30 years) and undiagnosed cases are to be expected in our population.

  15. Assessment of environmental and health risks in former polymetallic ore mining and smelting area, Slovakia: Spatial distribution and accumulation of mercury in four different ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Árvay, Július; Demková, Lenka; Hauptvogl, Martin; Michalko, Miloslav; Bajčan, Daniel; Stanovič, Radovan; Tomáš, Ján; Hrstková, Miroslava; Trebichalský, Pavol

    2017-10-01

    Former long-term mining and smelting of pollymetallic ores in the Middle Spiš area caused a serious contamination problem of the environment with heavy metals and metalloids, especially mercury (Hg). Several studies have reported concentration of Hg in the area but this paper provides first detailed characterization of Hg contamination of different environmental components in agricultural, forest, grassland and urban ecosystems. The ecosystems are in different distances from emission sources - former mercury and copper smelting plants in NE Slovakia. Total Hg content was studied in soil/substrate samples (n = 234) and characteristic biological samples (Athyrium filix-femina (L.) Roth, Macrolepiota procera (Scop.) Singer, Boletus edulis Bull., Cyanoboletus pulverulentus (Opat.) Gelardi, Vizzini & Simonini, Triticum aestivum (L.), Poa pratensis (L.)) (n = 234) collected in the above-mentioned ecosystems. The level of contamination and environmental risks were assessed by contamination factor (C f ), index of geoaccumulation (I geo ) and potential environmental risk index (PER). To determine the level of transition of Hg from abiotic to biotic environment, bioconcentration factor (BCF) was used. To determine a health risk resulting from regular and long-term consumption of the locally available species, the results of the Hg content were compared with the Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake (PTWI) for Hg defined by World Health Organization. The results suggest that almost 63% of the area belong to the very high risk category and 80% of the sampling sites shown very high contamination factor. Geoaccumulation index showed that almost 30% of the area is very strongly contaminated and only 8% is not contaminated with Hg. Spearman's correlation relationship confirmed that the values of PER, BCF, C f and I geo decreased with an increasing distance from the pollution source. The percentage of contribution to PTWI ranged between 5.76-69.0% for adults and 11.5-138% for

  16. Structural evolution of Halaban Area, Eastern Arabian Shield, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Amri, Yousef; Kassem1, Osama M. K.

    2017-04-01

    Neoproterozoic basement complex comprises a metamorphic/igneous suite (Abt schist and sheared granitoids) with syn-accretionary transpressive structures, unconformably overlain by a post-amalgamation volcanosedimentary sequence. This study aims to attempt to exposed post-accretionary thrusting and thrust-related structures at Halaban area, Eastern Arabian Shield. The Rf/ϕ and Fry methods are utilized on quartz and feldspar porphyroclasts, as well as on mafic crystals, such as hornblende and biotite, in eighteen samples. The X/Z axial ratios range from 1.12 to 4.99 for Rf/ϕ method and from 1.65 to 4.00 for Fry method. The direction of finite strain for the long axes displays clustering along the WNW trend (occasionally N) with slight plunging. Finite strain accumulated without any significant volume change contemporaneously with syn-accretionary transpressive structures. It indicates that the contacts between various lithological units in the Halaban area were formed under brittle to semi-ductile deformation conditions. The penetrative subhorizontal foliation was concurrent with thrusting and shows nearly the same attitudes of tectonic contacts with the overlying nappes. Keywords: Finite strain analysis, volcanosedimentary sequence, Halaban area, Eastern Arabian Shield, Saudi Arabia.

  17. Atoms in Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danis, D.; Feik, K.; Florek, M.; Kmosena, J.; Chrapan, J.; Morovic, M.; Slugen, V.; Seliga, M.; Valovic, J.

    2006-01-01

    In this book the history of development of using of nuclear energy in the Slovak Republic as well as in the Czechoslovakia (before 1993 year) is presented. The aim of the book is to preserve the memory of the period when the creation and development of nuclear physics, technology, nuclear medicine, radioecology and energetics in Slovakia occurred - as witnessed by people who experienced this period and to adapt it to future generations. The Editorial board of the SNUS collected the views of 60 contributors and distinguished workers - Slovakian experts in nuclear science, education and technology. Calling upon a wide spectrum of experts ensured an objective historical description of the period. A huge amount of subjective views on recent decades were collected and supported by a wealth of photographic documentation. This created a synthesised reflection on the history of the 'atoms' in Slovakia. The book contains 15 tables, 192 black and white and 119 colour pictures from around the world and from places involved in the compilation of the study and with the study of atomic science in Slovakia. The main chapters are as follows: Atoms in the world, Atoms in Slovakia, Atoms in the educational system, Atoms in health services (Radiology, Nuclear medicine, Radiation protection, the Cyclotron centre of the Slovak Republic), Radioecology, Other applications of irradiation, Nuclear energetics (Electric energy in the second half of the 20 th century, NPP Bohunice, NPP Mochovce, the back-end of Nuclear energetics, Big names in Nuclear energetics in Slovakia), Chronology and an Appendix entitled 'Slovak companies in nuclear energetics'

  18. GIS-based environmental analysis of fox and canine lungworm distribution: an epidemiological study of Angiostrongylus vasorum and Crenosoma vulpis in red foxes from Slovakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čabanová, Viktória; Miterpáková, Martina; Druga, Michal; Hurníková, Zuzana; Valentová, Daniela

    2018-02-01

    Over a period of intervening years, the distribution of two canine cardiopulmonary metastrongylid nematodes, Angiostrongylus vasorum and Crenosoma vulpis, has been recognised in Central Europe. Here, we report the first epidemiological research conducted in red foxes from Slovakia and the potential influence of selected environmental variables on the parasites' occurrence, quantified by logistic regression. The environmental models revealed that distribution of C. vulpis is not significantly influenced by any environmental variables, and the parasite is present in the whole area under study. Models for A. vasorum revealed some weak influence of environmental variables, as it tends to occur in drier areas with lower proportion of forest. Moreover, A. vasorum shows a typical spatial clustering and occurs in endemic foci identified mainly in the eastern part of Slovakia. A cluster of A. vasorum infection foci was also found in the north-eastern region, where the average winter air temperature regularly falls below - 10 °C.

  19. Human rickettsioses in the Batna area, eastern Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokrani, Khamsa; Tebbal, Soraya; Raoult, Didier; Fournier, Pierre-Edouard

    2012-12-01

    In order to investigate the prevalence of rickettsioses in febrile exanthemas in eastern Algeria, we conducted a prospective serological analysis of all patients presenting with this clinical picture at the Infectious Diseases Department in the Batna Hospital from January 2000 to September 2006. One hundred and eight adult patients were included in the study, 46% of whom younger than 25 years, and 72.5% were admitted from May to September. Patients were tested for antibodies to Rickettsia conorii conorii, R. conorii israelensis, R. aeschlimannii, R. felis, R. sibirica mongolitimonae, R. africae, R. massiliae, R. typhi, and R. prowazekii using microimmunofluorescence and Western blot as confirmation procedure. Both methods confirmed the diagnosis of Mediterranean spotted fever in 5 patients (4.6%), flea spotted fever in 2 patients (1.9%), and R. aeschlimannii infection in 2 patients (1.9%). In addition, 4 patients were diagnosed as having murine typhus (3.7%) and one with epidemic typhus (0.9%). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of R. felis infection and R. aeschlimannii infection in Algeria. In conclusion, at least 5 different kinds of rickettsiosis coexist in eastern Algeria and, being responsible for 13% of cases of febrile exanthemas, should be considered among major causes of this clinical picture in this area. In addition, we emphasize the high incidence of typhus group rickettioses, including epidemic typhus, in this area. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. Press travel to the Mochovce power plant in Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-07-01

    This press dossier gives, first, a general presentation of the Mochovce power plant of the republic of Slovakia (history, technical characteristics, safety aspects, technical particularities of VVER 440/213 reactors (safety analysis, recent improvements), financing of the modernization project). Then, the activities of the Framatome group in central and eastern Europe are presented (partnerships, cooperation agreements and contracts). (J.S.)

  1. Unemployment Policy in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Hergezelová

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose and Originality: Goal of the study is analysis of the unemployment policy in Slovakia and policy measures to increase the employment rate. Research question: What was the development of unemployment in the period from 2006 to September 2016 and what measures were taken by the Ministry of Labour, Social Affairs and Family to reduce the unemployment rate in Slovakia? Method: Comparison of the unemployment rate in period between 2006 to 2016. Information was gathered from online sources and publications. Using the collected data, the individual unemployment rates in all Slovak regions and districts will be compared. Results: During examined period between 2006 and 2016 the highest unemployment rate was 14.40% in 2010. The paper also mentions the economic crisis that struck Slovakia between 2008 and 2010. During this period, the unemployment in Slovakia increased by 4.8%. The primary objective of the government was to reduce the unemployment rate below 10%. This has been achieved in March 2016. The positive news is the tendency of constantly falling unemployment in our country. Society: Unemployment is one of the negative phenomena in society. Job loss or inability to find a job application one is deprived of the possibility to implement and enforce own life goals. Unemployed, unless one can find a job, can enter the phase of adaptation to the lifestyle of the unemployed, which is characterized by resignation, loss of hope, passivity. A person ceases to be active, considering that his work does not make sense. Job loss affects negatively self-peception, lower self-esteem and leads to feelings of inferiority. Limitations: The aim of the Slovak Republic was in 2016 to keep unemployment below 10% and then continue the trend of reducing unemployment by new laws, inviting new investors and put into practice various measures, such as various programs for the unemployed.

  2. BUC implementation in Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chrapciak, V.; Vaclav, J.

    2009-01-01

    Improved calculation methods allow one to take credit for the reactivity reduction associated with fuel burnup. This means reducing the analysis conservatism while maintaining an adequate criticality safety margin. Application of burnup credit requires knowledge of the reactivity state of the irradiated fuel for which application of burnup credit is taken. The isotopic inventory and reactivity has to be calculated with validated codes. We use in Slovakia Gd2 fuel with maximal enrichment of fuel pins 4.4%. Our transport and storage basket KZ-48 with boron steel is licensed for fresh fuel with enrichment 4.4%. In near future (2011 or 2012) we will use a new fuel with maximal enrichment of fuel pins 4.9%. For this fuel we plan to use existing KZ-48 with application of burnup credit application. In cooperation with Slovak Nuclear Regulatory Authority we have started several years ago process of application of burnup credit implementation in Slovakia for WWER-440 reactors. We have already prepared methodology according IAEA methodology. We have validated computational systems (SCALE 5.1 already, SCALE 6 in progress). Slovak Nuclear Regulatory Authority will prepare regulation about application of burnup credit application in Slovakia. Last item is preparation of safety reports (for transport and storage) for the new fuel with average enrichment 4.87% in basket KZ-48 with application of burnup credit application. (Authors)

  3. BUC implementation in Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chrapciak, V.; Vaclav, J.

    2009-01-01

    Improved calculation methods allow one to take credit for the reactivity reduction associated with fuel burnup. This means reducing the analysis conservatism while maintaining an adequate criticality safety margin. Application of burnup credit (BUC) requires knowledge of the reactivity state of the irradiated fuel for which BUC is taken. The isotopic inventory and reactivity has to be calculated with validated codes. We use in Slovakia Gd 2 fuel with maximal enrichment of fuel pins 4.4%. Our transport and storage basket KZ-48 with boron steel is licensed for fresh fuel with enrichment 4.4%. In near future (2011 or 2012) we will use a new fuel with maximal enrichment of fuel pins 4.9%. For this fuel we plan to use existing KZ-48 with BUC application. In cooperation with Slovak Nuclear Regulatory Authority (UJD) we have started several years ago process of BUC implementation in Slovakia for VVER-440 reactors. We have already prepared methodology according IAEA methodology. We have validated computational systems (SCALE 5.1 already, SCALE 6 in progress). UJD will prepare regulation about BUC application in Slovakia. Last item is preparation of safety reports (for transport and storage) for the new fuel with average enrichment 4.87% in basket KZ-48 with BUC application.

  4. Chemical composition and evolution of tourmaline-supergroup minerals from the Sb hydrothermal veins in Rožňava area, Western Carpathians, Slovakia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bačík, Peter; Dikej, Jakub; Fridrichová, Jana; Miglierini, Marcel; Števko, Martin

    2017-09-01

    Tourmaline-supergroup minerals are common gangue minerals in Sb-hydrothermal veins on Betliar - Straková, Čučma - Gabriela and Rožňava - Peter-Pavol vein deposits in the Rožňava area, Slovakia. Tourmaline-supergroup minerals form relatively large prismatic to radial aggregates of parallel black to greyish-black crystals. Tourmaline-supergroup minerals from Betliar - Straková and Rožňava - Peter-Pavol are almost homogeneous with intermediate schorl-dravite composition. Čučma - Gabriela tourmaline have distinct zoning with massive core of the schorlitic-to-feruvitic shifting to schorlitic-to-dravitic composition, and dravitic to magnesio-foititic rim. The tourmaline composition is influenced by two main substitutions, namely Ca(Mg,Fe)Na-1Al-1 and X □AlNa-1(Mg,Fe)-1. Betliar - Straková and Rožňava - Peter-Pavol tourmaline-supergroup minerals exhibit only small extents of the X □AlNa-1(Mg,Fe)-1 substitution. This substitution shifts the composition to magnesio-foitite in Čučma - Gabriela tourmaline. The decrease of Al in the core of Čučma - Gabriela tourmaline crystals is caused by extensive Ca(Mg,Fe)Na-1Al-1 substitution. The unit-cell dimensions of all investigated tourmaline-supergroup minerals indicate an octahedral disorder with the Z (Fe3++Mg) proportion calculated from empirical equations varying between 0.85 and 0.87 apfu (atoms per formula unit). Based on Mössbauer spectra, the Z Fe3+ content varied between 0.25 apfu in Betliar - Straková tourmaline and 0.45 apfu in Čučma - Gabriela sample. Based on Fe/(Fe + Mg) ratio, Betliar - Straková tourmaline is slightly enriched in Fe compared to Rožňava - Peter-Pavol, suggesting the impact of the host-rock composition; first are grown in Fe-richer acidic metarhyolitic rocks, latter in metapelites. In Čučma - Gabriela, the variations in Fe/(Fe + Mg) are very likely reflecting the change in fluid composition. Magnesio-foitite is the product of second-stage crystallization forming rims and

  5. Rickettsia species in fleas collected from small mammals in Slovakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Špitalská, Eva; Boldiš, Vojtech; Mošanský, Ladislav; Sparagano, Olivier; Stanko, Michal

    2015-11-01

    Epidemiological and epizootiological studies of Rickettsia felis and other Rickettsia spp. are very important, because their natural cycle has not yet been established completely. In total, 315 fleas (Siphonaptera) of 11 species of Ceratophyllidae, Hystrichopsyllidae and Leptopsyllidae families were tested for the presence of Rickettsia species and Coxiella burnetii with conventional and specific quantitative real-time PCR assays. Fleas were collected from five rodent hosts (Myodes glareolus, Apodemus flavicollis, Apodemus agrarius, Microtus subterraneus, Microtus arvalis) and three shrew species (Sorex araneus, Neomys fodiens, Crocidura suaveolens) captured in Eastern and Southern Slovakia. Overall, Rickettsia spp. was found in 10.8% (34/315) of the tested fleas of Ctenophthalmus agyrtes, Ctenophthalmus solutus, Ctenophthalmus uncinatus and Nosopsyllus fasciatus species. Infected fleas were coming from A. flavicollis, A. agrarius, and M. glareolus captured in Eastern Slovakia. C. burnetii was not found in any fleas. R. felis, Rickettsia helvetica, unidentified Rickettsia, and rickettsial endosymbionts were identified in fleas infesting small mammals in the Košice region, Eastern Slovakia. This study is the first report of R. felis infection in C. solutus male flea collected from A. agrarius in Slovakia.

  6. The energy future of Central Europe; Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lejon, E.

    1996-01-01

    In this part of the book author deals with the energy future of Central Europe. The energy strategy, structure of energy supplies in Austria, Slovakia, the Czech Republic, Hungary and Bavaria, as well as restructuralization of the energy sources are analysed. From the ecological perspective, the Gabcikovo-Nagymaros Project (GNP) represents a very clear example, since the Project could play a very important role as a part of the strategy to reject nuclear energy , the same strategy that was clearly declared by the Austrian government, as well as for a transportation strategy based more on railroads and navigation. The GNP could serve as an impulse promoting further and more close Central European cooperation in renewable energy sources. It could assist in harmonization of the interest in the sphere of transportation policies of Switzerland, Bavaria, Austria, Slovakia, and Hungary. Such a community oriented towards common interests would definitely be of enormous importance for the development of transportation in Central Europe. Geothermal potential of Slovakia and other Central European states are presented. Surveys conducted in Slovakia show that it is possible to reduce pollution in specific areas by substituting fossil energy sources with geothermal heating a total reduction of pollution by 39,000 tons annually, out of which 159 tons represent the annual reduction of sulfur dioxide pollution. The reduction per GWh of geothermal heat in the particular cities was calculated to be about 527 tons of carbon dioxide and 2.1 ton of sulfur dioxide. Other opportunities for renewable energy in Slovakia, as well as potential of energy savings are estimated

  7. Perceptions of diabetes in rural areas of Eastern Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizeus Rutebemberwa

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: People diagnosed with diabetes mellitus are increasing in sub-Saharan Africa and prompt care seeking depends on perceptions of the illness. Objective: The objective was to explore perceptions of diabetes in rural areas.Method: We conducted a qualitative, explorative and descriptive study in rural eastern Uganda. Eight focus group discussions with community members were conducted. Community members were presented with a story about a person with diabetes symptoms and their perceptions of the diagnosis and treatment elicited. Four focus group discussions with people with diabetes and seven key informant interviews with health workers were conducted. Respondents were asked how the community interpreted symptoms of diabetes, its causes and whether it was curable. Manifest content analysis was used.Results: Some respondents thought people with diabetes symptoms had HIV or were bewitched. Causes of diabetes mentioned included consuming too much fatty food. Some respondents thought diabetes is transmitted through air, sharing utensils with or sitting close to people with diabetes. Some respondents thought that diabetes could heal fast whilst others thought it was incurable. Conclusion: Misdiagnosis may cause delay in seeking proper care. Preventive programmes could build on people’s thinking that too much fatty food causes diabetes to promote diets with less fat. The perception of diabetes as a contagious disease leads to stigmatisation and affects treatment seeking. Seeing diabetes as curable could create patient expectations that may not be fulfilled in the management of diabetes. Rural communities would benefit from campaigns creating awareness of prevention, symptoms, diagnosis and management of diabetes.

  8. Kantian Research in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L'umboír Belás

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the state of the research on Kant’s philosophy in Slovakia, particularly at the University of Prešov. In the first part the authors describe the situation of Kantian research between the 1850s and 1963 as a period during which there was almost no interest in Kant and his philosophy in the region. The main part of the paper deals with the revival of Kantian philosophy, presented by a group of scholars approximately twenty years ago, that gave rise to a series of successful research projects on Kant supported by the Slovak Ministry of Education, Science, Research and Sport. The paper outlines the series of five successive research projects that have been realized since 2004 focusing mainly on Kant’s practical philosophy and its relevance for contemporary society. It summarizes the achievements based on the international cooperation in the research and describes the main events and publications realized so far.

  9. Modern Middle Eastern Fiction: An Approach to Studying the Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Frank A., Comp.

    The annotated listing cites Middle Eastern fiction which has been translated into English and can be used in humanities or social studies classes at the secondary level. The eight works of fiction listed contain materials that can be used to investigate the following topics: 1) contrasts between urban and village styles of life in the Middle East;…

  10. Boarding the Euro Plane : Euro Adoption in the Czech Republic and Slovakia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dandashly, Assem; Verdun, Amy

    2015-01-01

    What explains euro adoption strategies in the Czech Republic and Slovakia? How have each of these two countries performed under the regime they joined (Czech Republic: flexible exchange rates; Slovakia: in the euro area)? How has that experience affected Czech and Slovak policies towards euro

  11. Activities ofWiN Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melicherova, T.

    2015-01-01

    WiN Slovakia activities of the last two years are presented. We always try to join professional and social aspects of events to improve not only our knowledge but mutual relationship and cooperation. List of activities: – The technical visit in the contaminated areas in Belarus. – The excursion to the chemical and radiation laboratories of Slovak Army and the biological and radiation department of Veterinary University in Kosice. – The Open Days in the Slovak Hydrometeorological Institute in Bratislava. – The course on radiation protection in Casta-Papiernicka. All such activities are appreciated by our members and create good platform for next professional and personal relationship. (author)

  12. Long-term runoff changes in regions of Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miklanek, Pavol; Pekarova; Pavla

    2004-01-01

    Mean annual runoff variability includes both natural and anthropogenic (climate change) impacts. Aim of the paper is to identify the long-term trends and the cyclic runoff components of selected Slovak rivers for the period 1931-2000, and of the Danube river for the period 1840-2000. The variability is analysed by the long-term runoff trends of 27 Slovak rivers for the period 1931-2000. The stations were included into the Slovak National Climate Program and they are supposed not to be influenced by anthropogenic activities except of possible climate change. Comparison of the monthly runoff series of the 27 rivers allowed us to draw 3 regions with different runoff trends on the territory of Slovakia (constant trend in Northern and Eastern Slovakia, slow decrease in Central Slovakia, and rapid decrease in Southern Slovakia; The identification of different cyclic components of the runoff series is included. The length of the series allows to identify the 22-year cycles as maximum. By means of the longer runoff series of the Danube river it is shown that the more dry periods occurred in the central Europe and Slovakia in mid 19 th century. The longer Danube series were used also to find the longer runoff cycles of about 31 and 46 years. The mean annual temperature in Europe was lower by 0.6 o C in mid 19 th century compared to 1990s. The temperature increase is put down to climate change impact. The driest period shown by Danube runoff series in mid 19 th century occurred before the start of the climate change. Therefore it is probable that the long-term runoff variability has its own dynamics as well. (Author)

  13. Bilingual education in Slovakia: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Pokrivčáková

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Bilingual education is one of the areas in contemporary education that brings out some important controversies (philosophical, conceptual, sociological, political, economical, etc. and thus calls for extensive and intensive debate. Bilingual education in Europe (and here the European Union countries are meant has gained a very different status, due to the general European policy of developing language diversity and promoting “European plurilingualism and multilingualism”. In Slovakia, one of the younger members of the EU, bilingual education became an extraordinarily popular instrument for the fulfilment of this task.  Since the specifically defined topic of bilingual education and its current status in Slovakia has not been studied and systematically reviewed yet, the research presented in this paper was designed as a single-phenomenon revelatory case study investigating seven research areas: reflection of bilingual education in school legislation and state pedagogical documents, purposes of bilingual education in Slovakia, its organization (levels and types of schools, foreign languages incorporated, teachers, structure of bilingual schools curricula, types of bilingual education applied at Slovak bilingual schools, and how bilingual education is both reflected in and saturated by the latest research findings. The conclusions presented in the paper were collected from multiple sources: state curriculum, statistical data published by the Slovak Ministry of Education or its partner institutions, international treaties on establishing and supporting bilingual sections of schools, bilingual schools curricula, interviews with school directors, teachers, and learners, direct observations at bilingual schools, research studies and research reports, etc. In the conclusion, bilingual education in Slovakia is identified as a unique, dynamically developing system which is both significantly shaped by the foreign language education policy promoted by

  14. Slovakia : Country Procurement Assessment Report

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2001-01-01

    This update of the 1995 CPAR is based on the September 1999 PPA and the findings of the Bank CPAR mission to Slovakia in November 1999. The 1999 Public Procurement Act (PPA) is an improvement upon the previous PPAs in some respects, including the creation of an OPP, more detailed and clear procurement procedures, accreditation of procurement professionals, introduction of the Public Procu...

  15. Gender Wealth Gap in Slovakia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.K. Trommlerová (Sofia Karina)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractNo data on wealth has been available in Slovakia prior to Household Finance and Consumption Survey. Therefore, only studies on labor market participation and wage gender gaps are available to date. These studies indicate that Slovak women earn on average 25% less than men.

  16. Market survey Slovakia. Bio-energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The study presents an overview of Slovakian bioenergy market, its current state and future prospects in terms of size and potentials. In the opening, the basic structure of Slovakian energy sources is presented from IEA energy statistics, then a list of programmes and valid legislation relating to RES follow. Figures from several sources show possible potential accomplishable in biomass utilisation in Slovakia. Some most promising areas containing interesting amounts of unutilised biomass are quoted. Chapter 4 contains overview of programmes supporting the use of RES, examples of already realised projects and some planned projects. In Chapter 5 there is a list of main stakeholders in the bioenergy sector, description of legal requirements and procedures necessary for starting a business in Slovakia and some ways how to promote bioenergy business in Slovakia. As the most promising opportunities identified in Slovakia we can consider projects of biomass utilisation in the form of installation of boilers and creation of distribution channels enabling steady supply of biomass for competitive prices. A lot of waste and other residues from woodworking industries or forestry is available for this purpose. Dutch companies should make maximum use of their technological know-how and try to offer equipment for biomass utilisation. Biogas is produced only on a very limited scale. The reason for that lies in relatively high initial costs that cannot be covered from farming companies and low rentability of realised projects. Still, projects solving disposal of agricultural waste on the one hand and energy production on the other are worth paying attention to. Success stories from the Netherlands could serve as a source of inspiration but doing of thoroughgoing analysis preceding investment itself is of necessity in order to cope with hidden risks and uncertainties. In any case, Dutch companies can offer technological equipment to Slovakian buyers without risks connected with

  17. Status of greenhouses in Eastern Mediterranean coastal areas of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The plastic cover material used was mostly PE (79%) with inclusion of UV+IR. Heating of the greenhouses was only for frost protection purpose which adversely affected crop yields and quality. Only 2% of the greenhouses present in the area was constructed based on projects of engineering designs; the remaining were ...

  18. Shrubs of the Field Irradiator - Gamma area in eastern Manitoba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dugle, J.R.; Mayoh, K.R.; Barclay, P.J.

    1979-11-01

    Detailed descriptions and line drawings are given of over 100 shrub taxa (including semi-woody shrubs and vines) which are common in Manitoba; most of them are found within the Field Irradiator - Gamma (FIG) area or its immediate surroundings. Ecological and morphological notes are included along with a few general remarks on the effects of exposure to long-term gamma radiation. Keys are given for certain genera, small family groups or other critical species groups. This document is intended to facilitate identification of shrubs for experimental purposes in the FIG projects, and it should also be useful to those who are generally interested in the shrubs of Manitoba. (auth)

  19. Climate Prediction Center (CPC)Area-averaged 850-hPa Eastern Pacific Trade Wind Anomalies

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is one of the CPC?s Monthly Atmospheric and SST Indices. It is the 850-hPa trade wind anomalies averaged over the area 5oN ? 5oS, 135oW-120oW (eastern...

  20. Baseline ambient gaseous ammonia concentrations in the Four Corners area and eastern Oklahoma, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sather, Mark E; Mathew, Johnson; Nguyen, Nghia; Lay, John; Golod, George; Vet, Robert; Cotie, Joseph; Hertel, Terry; Aaboe, Erik; Callison, Ryan; Adam, Jacque; Keese, Danielle; Freise, Jeremy; Hathcoat, April; Sakizzie, Brenda; King, Michael; Lee, Chris; Oliva, Sylvia; San Miguel, George; Crow, Leon; Geasland, Frank

    2008-11-01

    Ambient ammonia monitoring using Ogawa passive samplers was conducted in the Four Corners area and eastern Oklahoma, USA during 2007. The resulting data will be useful in the multipollutant management of ozone, nitrogen oxides, and visibility (atmospheric regional haze) in the Four Corners area, an area with growing oil/gas production and increasing coal-based power plant construction. The passive monitoring data also add new ambient ammonia concentration information for the U.S. and will be useful to scientists involved in present and future visibility modeling exercises. Three week integrated passive ammonia samples were taken at five sites in the Four Corners area and two sites in eastern Oklahoma from December, 2006 through December, 2007 (January, 2008 for two sites). Results show significantly higher regional background ammonia concentrations in eastern Oklahoma (1.8 parts per billion (ppb) arithmetic mean) compared to the Four Corners area (0.2 ppb arithmetic mean). Annual mean ammonia concentrations for all Four Corners area sites for the 2007 study ranged from 0.2 ppb to 1.5 ppb. Peak ambient ammonia concentrations occurred in the spring and summer in both areas. The passive samplers deployed at the Stilwell, Oklahoma site compared favorably with other passive samplers and a continuous ammonia monitoring instrument.

  1. Measurement of hydroxylated PCB metabolites for Slovakia maternal blood serums

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, J.S.; Athanasiadou, M; Bergman, A. [Stockholm Univ., Stockholm (Sweden); Charles, J.; Zhao, G.; Hertz-Picciotto, I. [California Univ., Sacramento, CA (United States); Petrik, J.; Kocan, A; Trnovec, T. [Bratislava Inst. of Preventive and Clinical Medicine, Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2005-07-01

    Although it is known that polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have adverse impacts on human health, it is not clear if human health impacts are caused by the PCBs or their related hydroxylated (OH) PCB metabolite compounds. This study measured OH-PCB metabolites in the maternal blood serum specimens from the Svidnik and Michalovce areas in eastern Slovakia where PCBs were intensively produced and inadequately disposed. The aim of the study was to characterize and quantify levels of specific OH-PCB metabolites in Slovakian maternal serums exposed to high environmental PCB levels. All specimens were analyzed for PCBs, and a subset of the samples was analyzed for OH-PCB metabolites. The Wallenburg blood extraction method was adopted to separate the OH-PCBs from the blood serums. Final eluates and calibration standards were spiked with PCB209 as an injection standard before gas chromatography (GC) analysis. OH-PCBs in the samples range from 75{+-}9 per cent to 101{+-}11 per cent. Median concentrations of OH-PCB metabolites of Michalovce samples were approximately twice as high as for the Svidnik samples. Concentrations of OH-PCBs of Michalovce blood samples were comparable to samples obtained from northern Canadian female Inuit and Faroe Island females, and were considered to be among the highest OH-PCB concentrations obtained in human blood. It was concluded that further research is needed to understand the placental transfer of OH-PCBs to the fetus, as well as epidemiological approaches to determine the relationship between the exposure of OH-PCB metabolites and child development. 12 refs., 2 figs.

  2. Role of Slovakia within the IAEA Decommissioning Related Activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michal, V.; Stubna, M.

    2009-01-01

    Slovakia has a long-term experience with the IAEA decommissioning related activities as a recipient of Agency assistance and then as a country offering assistance to others. Background, short 'history' and current status of Slovakian national technical cooperation (TC) projects SLR/4/008 'Robotic Technologies for Decontamination and Decommissioning of the Bohunice A1 NPP' and SLR/3/002 'Management of Radioactive Waste from the A1 Nuclear Power Plant Decommissioning' will be described in paper. The first TC project SLR/4/008 was solved by the main Slovakian counterpart, company VUJE, Inc., from 2001 to 2006. Second TC project SLR/3/002 is ongoing with extension to 2011. Thanks to the implementation of a long-term large-scale 'Project of the A1 NPP Decommissioning - Stage I' (1996-2007), financed by Slovak National Nuclear Account (decommissioning fund), as well as implementation of the IAEA TC national projects a comprehensive know-how in the field of D and D and RAW management was obtained. Moreover, technologies and facilities necessary for implementation of decommissioning and RAW management projects were developed. Thanks to this development Slovakia offers donor assistance to other countries in subjected fields through IAEA TC program. The type and scope of assistance for Armenia, Bulgaria, Egypt, Latvia, Lithuania and The Ukraine is described in the paper. The above-mentioned national projects are not only activities of Slovakia within the IAEA TC program. Regional TC project RER/3/005 'Support in Planning the Decommissioning of Nuclear Power Plants and Research Reactors' has been ongoing from 2007 with accepted extension to 2011. About nine countries from Eastern and Central Europe participate in the project (for the NPPs part) and Slovakia plays the role of LCC (Leading Country Coordinator). On the basis of suggestion of Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic, VUJE is the coordinator of the regional project. Moreover, Slovakia would be the

  3. The vegetation ecology of the Eastern Transvaal Escarpment in the Sabie area. 2. Floristic classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. B. Deall

    1989-10-01

    Full Text Available The indigenous vegetation of the Eastern Transvaal Escarpment in the Sabie area is classified with the aid of the PHYTOTAB program package. Four ecological-formation classes (efc based on floristics. physiognomy and climate correspond to four data subsets. Plant communities in each efc are defined by means of 46 differential species-groups distributed amongst forest, thicket, woodland, shrubland and grassland structural types. Environmental correlation is facilitated by means of 21 habitat types.

  4. Accumulation and environmental risk assessment of heavy metals in soil and plants of four different ecosystems in a former polymetallic ores mining and smelting area (Slovakia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demková, Lenka; Árvay, Július; Bobuľská, Lenka; Tomáš, Ján; Stanovič, Radovan; Lošák, Tomáš; Harangozo, Luboš; Vollmannová, Alena; Bystrická, Judita; Musilová, Janette; Jobbágy, Ján

    2017-04-16

    Heavy metals (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn) in soils and plants of four different ecosystems (forest, grassland, agro and urban ecosystem) at different distances from the source of the pollution were analyzed in order to assess and compare soil contamination in the various ecosystems and determine the potential accumulation of plants depending on the place they inhabit. Correlation relationships among heavy metals in soils differ depending on the ecosystem, and between soil and plant, the heavy metals showed significant correlation for Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn. Contamination factor (C f ), degree of contamination (C d ) and pollution load index (PLI) were used in order to determine the level of environmental contamination of the study area. All studied ecosystems were rated as moderately contaminated (except agroecosystem, which was found as low contamination ecosystem) according to C d and extremely polluted according to PLI. The highest pollution in both cases was found in urban ecosystem, and Cd, Cu and Fe were determined as the biggest pollutants.

  5. Spa and Wellness Tourism in Slovakia (A Geographical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasagranda Anton

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Spa industry is presently an inherent part of Slovak tourism. For this reason, it has become a major interest of scientific and professional literature (economics, management, sociology, or geography. The main topic of this paper is the evaluation of tourism in Slovakia through a geographic analysis. This paper briefly evaluates the development and the importance of spa, spa tourism and wellness and their main research areas and issues. Furthermore, the primary sources of tourism development, the overview of spa tourism and the wellness resorts, the accommodation establishments and the visitation rate are evaluated as well. In conclusion, functional and spatial typification of spa tourism and wellness in Slovakia is presented. The structure of the paper is designed to be appropriate for a comparison with V4 countries.

  6. Effect of reclamation on soil organic carbon pools in coastal areas of eastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianguo; Yang, Wenhui; Li, Qiang; Pu, Lijie; Xu, Yan; Zhang, Zhongqi; Liu, Lili

    2018-06-01

    The coastal wetlands of eastern China form one of the most important carbon sinks in the world. However, reclamation can significantly alter the soil carbon pool dynamics in these areas. In this study, a chronosequence was constructed for four reclamation zones in Rudong County, Jiangsu Province, eastern China (reclaimed in 1951, 1974, 1982, and 2007) and a reference salt marsh to identify both the process of soil organic carbon (SOC) evolution, as well as the effect of cropping and soil properties on SOC with time after reclamation. The results show that whereas soil nutrient elements and SOC increased after reclamation, the electrical conductivity of the saturated soil extract (ECe), pH, and bulk density decreased within 62 years following reclamation and agricultural amendment. In general, the soil's chemical properties remarkably improved and SOC increased significantly for approximately 30 years after reclamation. Reclamation for agriculture (rice and cotton) significantly increased the soil organic carbon density (SOCD) in the top 60 cm, especially in the top 0-30 cm. However, whereas the highest concentration of SOCD in rice-growing areas was in the top 0-20 cm of the soil profile, it was greater at a 20-60 cm depth in cottongrowing areas. Reclamation also significantly increased heavy fraction organic carbon (HFOC) levels in the 0-30 cm layer, thereby enhancing the stability of the soil carbon pool. SOC can thus increase significantly over a long time period after coastal reclamation, especially in areas of cultivation, where coastal SOC pools in eastern China tend to be more stable.

  7. Effect of reclamation on soil organic carbon pools in coastal areas of eastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianguo; Yang, Wenhui; Li, Qiang; Pu, Lijie; Xu, Yan; Zhang, Zhongqi; Liu, Lili

    2018-04-01

    The coastal wetlands of eastern China form one of the most important carbon sinks in the world. However, reclamation can significantly alter the soil carbon pool dynamics in these areas. In this study, a chronosequence was constructed for four reclamation zones in Rudong County, Jiangsu Province, eastern China (reclaimed in 1951, 1974, 1982, and 2007) and a reference salt marsh to identify both the process of soil organic carbon (SOC) evolution, as well as the effect of cropping and soil properties on SOC with time after reclamation. The results show that whereas soil nutrient elements and SOC increased after reclamation, the electrical conductivity of the saturated soil extract (ECe), pH, and bulk density decreased within 62 years following reclamation and agricultural amendment. In general, the soil's chemical properties remarkably improved and SOC increased significantly for approximately 30 years after reclamation. Reclamation for agriculture (rice and cotton) significantly increased the soil organic carbon density (SOCD) in the top 60 cm, especially in the top 0-30 cm. However, whereas the highest concentration of SOCD in rice-growing areas was in the top 0-20 cm of the soil profile, it was greater at a 20-60 cm depth in cottongrowing areas. Reclamation also significantly increased heavy fraction organic carbon (HFOC) levels in the 0-30 cm layer, thereby enhancing the stability of the soil carbon pool. SOC can thus increase significantly over a long time period after coastal reclamation, especially in areas of cultivation, where coastal SOC pools in eastern China tend to be more stable.

  8. Status of nuclear energy in Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomek, J.

    2008-01-01

    In this work author presents the status of nuclear energy in Slovakia. There are the electricity production; NPP operating results in 2007; ENEL-SE vision, mission and strategy, Continuous improvement programs as well as public acceptance of nuclear presented.

  9. VVER fuel cycle development at Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darilek, P.; Chrapiak, V.; Majerik, J.

    1995-01-01

    Four VVER-440 units are now under exploitation at Bohunice-site in Slovakia. Fuel cycle development of Unit No.3 and No.4 (type 213) is discussed and compared with equilibrium cycles in this paper. (author)

  10. Hepatozoon canis infection in Slovakia: imported or autochthonous?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majláthová, Viktória; Hurníková, Zuzana; Majláth, Igor; Petko, Branislav

    2007-01-01

    Tissue samples from nine red foxes (four samples of striated muscle tissue and five samples of heart tissue) that originated from the Michalovce district (Slovakia), an area with endemic occurrence of canine babesiosis were examined by PCR method using primers amplifying a fragment of the 18S rRNA spanning the V4 region of Babesia and Theileria. An unexpected determination of 450 bp DNA fragment of Hepatozoon canis was found in four samples. Partial sequences of the 18S rRNA gene from the H. canis showed 100% similarity with the sequence from Brasil isolate of H. canis from a pampas fox (Pseudalopex gymnocercus) (AY471615) as well as from a fox in Spain (AY150067) and from a dog in Brazil (AY864677). In the present study, we report the first PCR detection of Hepatozoon canis in a naturally infected red fox from Slovakia, a Rhipicephalus sanguineus-free region. We assume that the infection was spread by infected R. sanguineus that might have been brought to Slovakia by travelers, by golden jackals, or by foxes migrating because of expansion of golden jackals and environmental and climate changes.

  11. CD ROM 'Natural heritage of Slovakia'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uradnikova, B.

    2005-01-01

    Centre of Environmental Education Geopark ('Centre') applied environmental education into school and out-of-school institutions. The 'Centre' is working in the fields: environmental education, eco-tourism development, presentation of the cultural landscape and world heritage. The CD ROM 'Natural heritage of Slovakia' was created with aim enhancement of environmental awareness, pedagogy, education and development of eco-tourism on the Slovakia. It abets general review about environment, its components, legislative, history and the present day of nature and landscape protection

  12. Hydrogeology of Valley-Fill Aquifers and Adjacent Areas in Eastern Chemung County, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heisig, Paul M.

    2015-10-19

    The extent, hydrogeologic framework, and potential well yields of valley-fill aquifers within a 151-square-mile area of eastern Chemung County, New York, were investigated, and the upland distribution of till thickness over bedrock was characterized. The hydrogeologic framework of these valleyfill aquifers was interpreted from multiple sources of surficial and subsurface data and an interpretation of the origin of the glacial deposits, particularly during retreat of glacial ice from the region. Potential yields of screened wells are based on the hydrogeologic framework interpretation and existing well-yield data, most of which are from wells finished with open-ended well casing.

  13. A potential archive of Pleistocene uplift and erosion in the eastern Nete basin, Campine area, north-eastern Belgium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beerten, Koen; Leterme, Bertrand

    2013-04-01

    From a geodynamic point of view, the Campine area is situated on the crossroads between distinctive tectonic settings: the subsiding North Sea basin and Roer Valley Graben in the north, and the uplifting Brabant Massif and Ardennes in the south. In general, this has led to overall Cenozoic subsidence of the area and sedimentation of unconsolidated marine sands. However, the morphology of the present-day Nete basin, which is situated in the central and eastern part of the Campine area, is a clear example of an erosional feature and shows evidence of up to 30 m of Quaternary erosion. However, the drivers, timing and rate of landscape development in the Nete basin are poorly constrained. Here, we present and describe geological and geomorphological remnants testifying to past landscape development in the Nete basin, that will help understanding the Quaternary geodynamic evolution (uplift) of the Campine area. The Nete basin is located in northern Belgium and is drained by two small rivers, the Kleine Nete and Grote Nete, that merge into the larger Nete river several km before entering the Lower Scheldt basin. The Nete basin can clearly be identified on topographical maps as a depression, ca. 40 km x 40 km, with valley floors ranging between 10-20 m above sea level (a.s.l.). It is bounded in the north, east and south by erosion resistant geological formations at altitudes between 30 m (north) and 60 m (south). The major direction of drainage is from ENE to WSW and the basin thus opens towards the west. The start of basin development is situated after deposition of Rhine sediments (~ 1 Ma) which form the erosion resistant eastern watershed with the Meuse basin at an altitude of ~ 50 m a.s.l. on top of the Campine Plateau. GIS-based landscape analysis of the topography and the contour map of the Quaternary base confirm the observation that the lowering of the relief from the Campine Plateau down to the floodplain of the Kleine Nete and Grote Nete shows a stepwise

  14. Significance of Airborne Gamma-ray spectrometric data of Umm bisilla Area, central Eastern Desert, Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabie, S I [Nuclear materials authority, Maadi, Cairo, (Egypt)

    1995-10-01

    Umm bisilla area, located in the Central Eastern Desert of Egypt, consists mainly of basement rocks. The present investigation of the airborne spectrometric data is to define the meaningful anomalies from the raw data by applying the significance factor techniques, by calculating the significant radioactive provinces. Determination of the gross structural pattern and broad variations in composition of the crystalline basement, to define the relationships between the tectonic features of the area as interpreted from aeromagnetic data, with the significant anomalies revealed from spectrometric data was carried out through the application of different magnetic techniques. Five significant uraniferous zones were detected associated with Umm Bisilla granite, amphibolite, and grey granite. The intersection of the structural lineaments interpreted from aeromagnetic data illustrated good correlation with the significant uranium anomalous zones interpreted from spectrometric data, and indicated that the concentration is structurally. 15 figs.

  15. Species composition of the vegetation along the Sherichhu River, lower montane area of Eastern Bhutan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tenzin Jamtsho

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available An investigation of the riparian vegetation along the Sherichhu River, lower montane area of Eastern Bhutan was conducted from April to December 2015 to explore the plant communities in terms of species composition. A total number of 18 plots were placed within the remnant patches of the vegetation on either side of the river. In total, 172 species of vascular plant has been recorded. The cluster analysis suggested four types of plant communities in the study area viz., the MallotusDesmodium-Rhus shrubland and the Syzygium venosum woodland communities, which are located in V-shaped valleys and the Albizia-Flueggea woodland and Quercus glauca woodland communities located in U-shaped valleys. In broad-spectrum, the topographic features and environmental variables i.e. litter accumulation and flooding condition might also have some impact on the species composition of the plant communities of this vegetation.

  16. Environmental Studies of Natural Radioactivity at Nugrus -Sikait Area, South Eastern Desert, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sroor, A.; EI-Shershaby, A.; EI- Bahi, S.; Ali, N.; Ibrahim, M.E.

    2008-01-01

    Twenty seven representative samples were collected from two locations; Wadi Nugrus and Wadi Sikait, south Eastern Desert, Egypt. The area is characterized by abnormal radioactivity and has several archaeological sites (Sikait Temple). Emerald mining is a wide spread activity since Pharonic times at Sikait - Nugrus area. The concentration of the natural radionuclides ( 238 U-series, 232 Th-series and 40 K) are measured in all the rock samples by two techniques (HpGe detector and NaI(TI) detector). The Ra e q, and H e x for all samples are also determined. A comparative study between NaI and HpGe- detectors were carried out. The present work indicated that the equilibrium/disequilibrium ratios by using HpGe detector are more precise than that of Nal detectors. The radioactivity at Wadi Nugrus is higher than Wadi Sikait and also higher than the permissible level

  17. COULD MUSHROOMS ACT AS CONCENTRATION PATHWAYS TO INTERNAL CONTAMINA-TION OF SOME MARGINALIZED COMMUNITIES BY 137CS IN SLOVAKIA?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juraj Miššík

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to obtain some preliminary data necessary for the assessment of the possible existence of small-area local sources of contaminated mushrooms in forested areas with comparatively low inventory of man-made 137Cs. On the study plot near Čierne-Svrčinovec (North-western Slovakia 31 samples were collected during periodic sampling in the years 2012-2013 and analysed by gamma-spectrometry. Activities 137Cs in mushrooms from entire sampling plot followed the lognormal distribution with extremely high variation and high positive skew, with projected three-sigma (99.75% range from 0.49 Bq.kg-1 to 1537 Bq.kg-1 (dry weight, d.w. and with geometrical average of 27.4 Bq.kg-1 (d.w.. Another 11 samples were collected or bought from roadside vendors living in Roma slums near villages Richnava and Kluknava (Spiš region, eastern Slovakia. Obtained edible wild mushrooms were in a good shape despite prolonged drought indicating existence of well hidden forested sites in slum surroundings. Highest activity of 137Cs in this set was recorded in Boletus edulis (263.3 ± 20.3 Bq.kg-1 (d.w.. Both geometric mean (49.0 Bq.kg-1 and expectation value (91.2 Bq.kg-1 d.w. of lognormal distribution were higher than that of the study plot on NW Slovakia. No sample exceeded the legal radiohygienic limit for radiocesium contamination. The limited extent of presented study only slightly indicates the possibility of slow changes in spatial redistribution of bioavailable 137Cs in forest ecosystem. However, available data on this subject from different sources suggest that there is no reason for massive occurrence of highly contaminated fruiting bodies in small areas surrounding settlements, where some critical groups of individuals, who are used to consume large amounts of mushrooms from limited geographical area could in such case develop significant internal contamination.

  18. Hydrology of area 8, eastern Coal Province, West Virginia and Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friel, E.A.; Ehlke, T.A.; Hobba, W.A.; Ward, S.M.; Schultz, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    The hydrology of Area 8 in the Ohio River basin in northwestern West Virginia and southeastern Ohio, is influenced by geology and geologic structure. Rocks underlying the area consist of alternating beds of sandstone, siltstone, shale, limestone, and mudstone. Minable coal is contained within the Pennsylvania and Permian rocks. Coal production in 1980 totaled 6.7 million tons from underground mines and one million tons from surface mines. There is a wide range of soil types (29 soil associations) in five land-resource areas. Precipitation averages about 41 inches annually and is greatest at higher altitudes along the eastern boundary of the area. Average annual runoff ranges from 13 to 29 inches per year. The principal land uses are forest and agriculture. Estimated water use during 1980 was 1,170 million gallons per day. Surface-water quality ranges from excellent to poor. The highest iron, manganese and sulfate concentrations were present in mined areas. Well yields range from less than 1 to 350 gallons per minute. Groundwater from the Mississippian rocks contain lesser amounts of dissolved solids than water from the Lower Pennsylvanian rocks. Water high in chloride content is present in some valley areas. (USGS)

  19. Helicopter electromagnetic and magnetic geophysical survey data, Swedeburg and Sprague study areas, eastern Nebraska, May 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, B.D.; Abraham, J.D.; Cannia, J.C.; Minsley, B.J.; Ball, L.B.; Steele, G.V.; Deszcz-Pan, M.

    2011-01-01

    This report is a release of digital data from a helicopter electromagnetic and magnetic survey conducted by Fugro Airborne Surveys in areas of eastern Nebraska as part of a joint hydrologic study by the Lower Platte North and Lower Platte South Natural Resources Districts, and the U.S. Geological Survey. The survey flight lines covered 1,418.6 line km (882 line mile). The survey was flown from April 22 to May 2, 2009. The objective of the contracted survey was to improve the understanding of the relation between surface water and groundwater systems critical to developing groundwater models used in management programs for water resources. The electromagnetic equipment consisted of six different coil-pair orientations that measured resistivity at separate frequencies from about 400 hertz to about 140,000 hertz. The electromagnetic data were converted to georeferenced electrical resistivity grids and maps for each frequency that represent different approximate depths of investigation for each survey area. The electrical resistivity data were input into a numerical inversion to estimate resistivity variations with depth. In addition to the electromagnetic data, total field magnetic data and digital elevation data were collected. Data released in this report consist of flight line data, digital grids, digital databases of the inverted electrical resistivity with depth, and digital maps of the apparent resistivity and total magnetic field. The range of subsurface investigation is comparable to the depth of shallow aquifers. The survey areas, Swedeburg and Sprague, were chosen based on results from test flights in 2007 in eastern Nebraska and needs of local water managers. The geophysical and hydrologic information from U.S. Geological Survey studies are being used by resource managers to develop groundwater resource plans for the area.

  20. Geochemical evolution of groundwater in the Mud Lake area, eastern Idaho, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattray, Gordon W.

    2015-01-01

    Groundwater with elevated dissolved-solids concentrations—containing large concentrations of chloride, sodium, sulfate, and calcium—is present in the Mud Lake area of Eastern Idaho. The source of these solutes is unknown; however, an understanding of the geochemical sources and processes controlling their presence in groundwater in the Mud Lake area is needed to better understand the geochemical sources and processes controlling the water quality of groundwater at the Idaho National Laboratory. The geochemical sources and processes controlling the water quality of groundwater in the Mud Lake area were determined by investigating the geology, hydrology, land use, and groundwater geochemistry in the Mud Lake area, proposing sources for solutes, and testing the proposed sources through geochemical modeling with PHREEQC. Modeling indicated that sources of water to the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer were groundwater from the Beaverhead Mountains and the Camas Creek drainage basin; surface water from Medicine Lodge and Camas Creeks, Mud Lake, and irrigation water; and upward flow of geothermal water from beneath the aquifer. Mixing of groundwater with surface water or other groundwater occurred throughout the aquifer. Carbonate reactions, silicate weathering, and dissolution of evaporite minerals and fertilizer explain most of the changes in chemistry in the aquifer. Redox reactions, cation exchange, and evaporation were locally important. The source of large concentrations of chloride, sodium, sulfate, and calcium was evaporite deposits in the unsaturated zone associated with Pleistocene Lake Terreton. Large amounts of chloride, sodium, sulfate, and calcium are added to groundwater from irrigation water infiltrating through lake bed sediments containing evaporite deposits and the resultant dissolution of gypsum, halite, sylvite, and bischofite.

  1. THE POSSIBILITY OF SAGO STARCH MARKETING IN JAPAN FROM SAGO PRODUCING AREAS IN THE EASTERN PART OF INDONESIA

    OpenAIRE

    Datu, Diyah Yumeina R.; Katsuya, Osozawa

    2011-01-01

    Sago palm (Metroxylon sp.) is distributed and grows naturally in almost every island throughout Indonesia, especially in swampy coastal areas along rivers. After the World War II, the sago cultivation in the regions that surround Malaysia and the Western Indonesia, have been consolidated by the investors while farmers in the eastern Indonesia continue their conventional practice. Recently, these farmers in the eastern part have been shifting from sago production to others crops such as corn a...

  2. Hydrological scenarios of future seasonal runoff distribution in Central Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hlavcova, K; Szolgay, J; Kohnova, S; Balint, G

    2008-01-01

    The hydrological scenarios of future seasonal distributions of runoff in the upper Hron River basin, which was chosen as a representative mountainous region in Central Slovakia, were evaluated. Changes in the future climate were expressed by three different climate change scenarios developed within the framework of the Central and Eastern Europe Climate Change Impact and Vulnerability Assessment Project (CECILIA). The climate change scenarios were constructed using the pattern scaling method from the outputs of transient simulations made by 3 GCMs - ECHAM4/OPYC3, HadCM2 and NCAR DOE-PCM. A conceptual hydrological balance model calibrated with data from the period 1971-2000 was used for modelling changes in runoff with monthly time steps. The runoff change scenarios for the selected basin in the future time horizons of 2025, 2050 and 2100 show changes in the seasonal runoff distribution.

  3. Screening procedure to evaluate effects of air pollution on Eastern Region wildernesses cited as Class I air quality areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mary Beth Adams; Dale S. Nichols; Anthony C. Federer; Keith F. Jensen; Harry Parrott

    1991-01-01

    The USDA Forest Service's Eastern Region manages eight wilderness areas that have been designated as Class I air quality areas by the Federal Clean Air Act. As part of this legislation, Federal land managers are required to consult with air pollution regulators on the potential impacts of proposed air pollution emissions--including phytotoxic gases and acidic...

  4. Gaseous Oxidized Mercury Dry Deposition Measurements in the FourCorners Area and Eastern Oklahoma, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaseous oxidized mercury (GOM) dry deposition measurements using surrogate surface passive samplers were collected in the Four Corners area and eastern Oklahoma from August, 2009–August, 2011. Using data from a six site area network, a characterization of the magnitude and spatia...

  5. Flotation of beryl from milky white quartz veins of Igla area, eastern desert of egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel Monem, H.M.; Aly, M.M.; Abdel Aty, M.A.

    1988-01-01

    Several milky white quartz veins and lenses occur at the Igla area of the central eastern desert. These veins are beryl-bearing and are introduced into breociated rhyolite and porphyritic dolerites as country rock. An effort has been made to up-grade such a low-grade ore material and therefore a head sample assaying about o.28% Be O was prepared. Flotation technique using sodium alkyl-aryl sulfonate as a collector has proven most satisfactory for separating beryl grains at ph value less than 3.5. indeed, a best recovery exceeding 90% Be O could be obtained by adding an activator of some metal chlorides; viz Fe Cl 3 , and Pb Cl 2 and Ca Cl 2 at various PH value. The study has made possible the elaboration of a proposed flow sheet whereby a beryl concentrate assaying 9.35% Be o was obtained with an overall recovery of about 93%

  6. Isotopic characteristics of shells Mytilus galloprovincialis from eastern coastal area of Adriatic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tjaša Kanduč

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Samples of Mytilus galloprovincialis were collected from entire Eastern Adriatic coast to determine δ18O and δ13C performed on calcite and aragonite shell layers. The aim of this work was to check whether shells of M. galloprovincialis are good environmental indicators (water temperature, salinity. Based on measured isotopic composition of oxygen in shell layers and assumed isotopic composition in water temperatures of calcite and aragonite of shell layers were calculated. The calculated temperatures for M. galloprovincialis shell growth of calcite and aragonite shell layer are in good agreement with measured temperatures of sea water. According to our results of δ18O and δ13C in shell layers we canseparate the locations of the investigated area into three groups: those with more influence of fresh water, those with less influence of fresh water and those of marine environments.

  7. Early Permian intrusions in the Paleozoic sediments of the Eastern North Sea area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, O.R.; Andresen, Katrine Juul; Rasmussen, Jens Andreas

    in the Northern Permian Basin which in the eastern North Sea is separated from the Southern Permian Basin by the Ringkøbing-Fyn High. The Permian basins were initiated during thermal subsidence following a late Carboniferous- early Permian rifting phase associated with extensive igneous activity recorded across...... the entire North Sea Basin. The easternmost intrusions and extrusions have been associated to the “Skagerrak-Centered Large Igneous Province” that has an early Permian age of c. 297 Ma. Compared to the Southern Permian Basin which historically has been intensely investigated because of the known presence...... of hydrocarbons within the Paleozoic sediments, the Northern Permian Basin has gained much less interest outside the hydrocarbon producing Mesozoic graben systems. This is mainly due to an apparent lack of potential source rocks. A major E-W striking northward dipping fault system characterizes the study area...

  8. Air Pollution with Heavy Metals and Radionuclides in Slovakia Studied by the Moss Biomonitoring Technique

    CERN Document Server

    Florek, M; Mankovska, B; Oprea, K; Pavlov, S S; Steinnes, E; Sykora, I

    2001-01-01

    Applying the moss biomonitoring technique to air pollution studies in Slovakia, heavy metals, rare-earth elements, actinides (U and Th) were determined in 86 moss samples from the European moss survey 2000 by means of epithermal neutron activation analysis at the IBR-2 reactor (Dubna). Such elements as In, Cu, Cd, Hg and Pb were determined by AAS in the Forest Research Institute, Zvolen (Slovakia). The results of measurement of the natural radionuclides ^{210}Pb, ^{7}Be, ^{137}Cs and ^{40}K in 11 samples of moss are also reported. A comparison with the results from moss surveys 1991 and 1995 revealed previously unknown tendencies of air pollution in the examined areas.

  9. Epidemiology of selected gynaecological malignancies in Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ondrusova, M.; Psenkova, M.; Sadovsky, O.

    2015-01-01

    The study analyses selected trends of descriptive epidemiology of ovarian cancer, endometrial cancer and cervical cancer in Slovakia point to time trends in their development, enabling a prediction of the development of the indicators in the years to come. Based on the results of analyses, it was discovered that the incidence of ovarian cancer and endometrial cancer in women in Slovakia is rising continually and significantly, while mortality in both diagnoses is declining. In respect of cervical cancer, a stabilised trend in incidence was registered, with an important, but very mild drop in mortality values. (author)

  10. Current status of biotechnology in Slovakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuchlík, Stanislav; Turna, Ján

    2013-07-01

    The United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity defines biotechnology as: 'Any technological application that uses biological systems, living organisms, or derivatives thereof, to make or modify products or processes for specific use.' In other words biotechnology is 'application of scientific and technical advances in life science to develop commercial products' or briefly 'the use of molecular biology for useful purposes'. This short overview is about different branches of biotechnology carried out in Slovakia and it shows that Slovakia has a good potential for further development of modern biotechnologies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Deepening the economic integration in the Eastern Partnership: from a Free Trade Area to a Neighbourhood Economic Community?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela DRĂGAN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Different forms of cooperation and regional integration, implying specific institutional agreements and instruments, have been developed in the last decades in the EU neighbourhood. The offer provided by the Eastern Partnership (EaP, which includes both economic and political objectives, has not proven attractive enough for the Eastern Neighbourhood. The region is currently divided between two global powers (EU and Russia and two competing regional integration areas, the Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Area and the Eurasian Single Economic Space. The paper focuses on the main limits of the economic tools included in the EU’s current offer and proposes several directions for EaP’s reform.

  12. Kinematic analysis of the Migif area in the Eastern Desert of Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassem, Osama M. K.

    2014-11-01

    The use of porphyroclasts rotating in a flowing matrix to estimate mean kinematic vorticity number (Wm) is important for quantifying the relative contributions of pure and simple shear in penetratively deformed rocks. The kinematic vorticity number determined for high temperature mylonitic gneisses in the Migif area in the Eastern Desert of Egypt range from ∼0.6 to 0.9. The results from vorticity and strain analyses indicate that deformation in the area deviated from simple shear. It is concluded that nappe stacking occurred early during the thrusting event, probably by brittle imbrications, and that ductile strain was superimposed on the nappe structure at high-pressure as shown by a penetrative subhorizontal foliation is developed subparallel to the tectonic contacts with the under- and overlying nappes. The accumulation of ductile strain during underplating was not by simple shear but involved a component of vertical shortening, which caused the subhorizontal foliation in the Migif area. In most cases, this foliation was formed during thrusting of the nappes onto each other, suggesting that nappe stacking was associated with vertical shortening.

  13. Evaluation of the changes of landscape types of Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zita IZAKOVIČOVÁ

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In the last period landscape protection, its representative types more and more comes to the limelight. In October 2000 the European Landscape Convention - also known as the Florence Convention was adopted. The aims of this Convention are to promote landscape protection, management and planning, and to organise European co-operation on landscape issues.  Contracting states ought to analyse the landscape types on the whole area of their countries, to analyse their features, record their changes, specify motive power and pressure forming them and assess selected types with respect to special values attributed by engaged participants and inhabitants. Knowledge and identification of single landscape types enable the intensification of care of diversity of single landscape types and landscape biodiversity. It is an unavoidable condition in the strategic planning process and effective protection of regionally special landscape.Slovakia signed ELC in 2005 and became an active participant in its implementation. The Institute of the Landscape Ecology of Slovak Academy of Sciences elaborated methodology for specification and evaluation of the representative landscape types of Slovakia (RLTS.RLTS are defined as homogeneous units considering the landscape character, functions and current land-use. GIS (Geographical Information Systems tool was used to create RLTS, in particular by overlaying of abiotic landscape structure (type of relief, quaternary deposits, climatic regions, and soil types and land-cover map (CORINE Land Cover 2006 - CLC at national scale. This process yielded to a patched map of homogeneous areas, which were further interpreted, generalized, and regionalized to a final map of RLTS.Landscape types of Slovakia were defined by the synthesis of the mentioned maps. Totally there were identified 126 basic landscape types. Each landscape type represents unique combination of land-use in different abiotic conditions and gives the unique

  14. Mineral mapping in the Maherabad area, eastern Iran, using the HyMap remote sensing data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molan, Yusuf Eshqi; Refahi, Davood; Tarashti, Ali Hoseinmardi

    2014-04-01

    This study applies matched filtering on the HyMap airborne hyperspectral data to obtain the distribution map of alteration minerals in the Maherabad area and uses virtual verification to verify the results. This paper also introduces "moving threshold" which tries to find an appropriate threshold value to convert gray scale images, produced by mapping methods, to target and background pixels. The Maherabad area, located in the eastern part of the Lut block, is a Cu-Au porphyry system in which quartz-sericite-pyrite, argillic and propylitic alteration are most common. Minimum noise fraction transform coupled with a pixel purity index was applied on the HyMap images to extract the endmembers of the alteration minerals, including kaolinite, montmorillonite, sericite (muscovite/illite), calcite, chlorite, epidote, and goethite. Since there was no access to any portable spectrometer and/or lab spectral measurements for the verification of the remote sensing imagery results, virtual verification achieved using the USGS spectral library and showed an agreement of 83.19%. The comparison between the results of the matched filtering and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses also showed an agreement of 56.13%.

  15. Tectonic setting and strain analysis of Halaban Area, Eastern Arabian Shield, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamri, Y. A., II; Kassem, O. M. K.

    2016-12-01

    Finite strain technique was applied for Abt schist, sheared granitoids and volcanosedimentary rocks exposed at Halaban area, Eastern Arabian Shield. This study aims to attempt to decipher the relationship of these lithologies to nappe contacts and to clarify the nature of subhorizontal foliation pervasively recorded in the Halaban area. The Rf/φ and Fry methods are utilized on quartz and feldspar porphyroclasts, as well as on mafic crystals, such as hornblende and biotite, in eighteen samples. The X/Z axial ratios range from 1.12 to 4.99 for Rf/φ method and from 1.65 to 4.00 for Fry method. The direction of finite strain for the long axes displays clustering along the WNW trend (occasionally N) with slight plunging. The Z axes are subvertical and associated with a subhorizontal foliation. The data reveal oblate strain symmetry (flattening) and the strain magnitudes show no considerable increase towards the tectonic contacts. The obtained finite-strain data demonstrate that the sheared granitoids are mildly to moderately deformed. It is suggested that the accumulation of finite strain was not associated with any significant volume change. The penetrative subhorizontal foliation was concurrent with thrusting and shows nearly the same attitudes of tectonic contacts with the overlying nappes. Field relations and observations, together with finite stain data, are inconsistent with the proposed idea that nappes in orogens resulted from simple-shear deformation.

  16. 222Rn determination in some thermal baths of a central eastern Italian area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desideri, D.; Bruno, M.R.; Roselli, C.

    2004-01-01

    Some recent Italian laws, based on the Euratom Directive 26/96, introduce the obligation of monitoring the exposition to natural radioactivity in particular worksites (thermal baths, mines, basements, etc.). Results of 222 Rn measurements in some thermal baths of Rimini and Pesaro-Urbino provinces (Central Eastern Italy), by Radosys-2000, a complete set suitable to radon concentration measurements with CR-39 plastic alpha-track detectors are reported. Some areas where radon could accumulate (bathing, reaction, muddy, inhalation, insufflation rooms and swimming pools) were selected for the investigation. The dosimeters have been exposed for 98 days. The results show that 222 Rn concentrations are very low in the considered thermal baths (7-71 Bq x m -3 ). Moreover, no difference was observed between the concentrations measured in the therapy rooms (bathing, muddy, inhalation and insufflation rooms, swimming pools) and in the normal areas (passages, reaction rooms, dressing rooms, etc.). The calculated dose contribution to workers was about one tenth of the legally suggested value. (author)

  17. Experience with the ASSET service in Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misak, J.

    1996-01-01

    The experience with the ASSET service in Slovakia is described, including the following: ASSET follow-up mission to Bohunice Unit 1-2 NPP; IAEA peer review of the national Incident Reporting System in the Slovak Republic; ASSET seminar on prevention of incidents, Bratislava, January 8-12, 1996

  18. Experience with the ASSET service in Slovakia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Misak, J [Nuclear Regulatory Authority, Bratislava (Slovakia)

    1997-12-31

    The experience with the ASSET service in Slovakia is described, including the following: ASSET follow-up mission to Bohunice Unit 1-2 NPP; IAEA peer review of the national Incident Reporting System in the Slovak Republic; ASSET seminar on prevention of incidents, Bratislava, January 8-12, 1996.

  19. African Journals Online: Slovakia (Slovak Republic)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Samoa, San Marino, Sao Tome and Principe, Saudi Arabia, Self-Pay, Senegal, Serbia, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Sint Maarten (Dutch part), Slovakia (Slovak Republic), Slovenia, Solomon Islands, Somalia, South Africa, South Sudan, Spain ...

  20. 75 FR 19422 - Notice of Closure of Airport Mesa/Carizzo Creek Shooting Area in Eastern San Diego County, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Land Management [CACA 47740, LLCAD07000 L51030000] Notice of Closure of Airport Mesa/Carizzo Creek Shooting Area in Eastern San Diego County, CA AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of temporary closure. SUMMARY: The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) has...

  1. Review of Research into Enterprise Bankruptcy Prediction in Selected Central and Eastern European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Błażej Prusak

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available In developed countries, the first studies on forecasting bankruptcy date to the early 20th century. In Central and Eastern Europe, due to, among other factors, the geopolitical situation and the introduced economic system, this issue became the subject of researcher interest only in the 1990s. Therefore, it is worthwhile to analyze whether these countries conduct bankruptcy risk assessments and what their level of advancement is. The main objective of the article is the review and assessment of the level of advancement of bankruptcy prediction research in countries of the former Eastern Bloc, in comparison to the latest global research trends in this area. For this purpose, the method of analyzing scientific literature was applied. The publications chosen as the basis for the research were mainly based on information from the Google Scholar and ResearchGate databases during the period Q4 2016–Q3 2017. According to the author’s knowledge, this is the first such large-scale study involving the countries of the former Eastern Bloc—which includes the following states: Poland, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, Ukraine, Hungary, Russia, Slovakia, Czech Republic, Romania, Bulgaria, and Belarus. The results show that the most advanced research in this area is conducted in the Czech Republic, Poland, Slovakia, Estonia, Russia, and Hungary. Belarus Bulgaria and Latvia are on the other end. In the remaining countries, traditional approaches to predicting business insolvency are generally used.

  2. Danish environmental support fund for Eastern Europe. Co-operation development 1991-1996 and programme priority areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-08-01

    The publication gives an account of environmental co-operation between Denmark and 12 countries in Eastern Europe. The basis of co-operation is a country programme, describing present and future priority areas in the recipient countries, as an expression of common understanding between the Danish Environmental Protection Agency and the Ministry of Environment in the recipient countries. The publication also describe the environmental efforts made in 1991-1996 under the Danish Environmental Support Fund for Eastern Europe (DESF) administered by the DEPA. (au)

  3. Occupational Exposures during the U-Exploration Activities at Seila Area, South Eastern Desert, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Razek, Y.A.; Masoud, M.S.; Hanfi, M.Y.; El-Nagdy, M.S.

    2017-01-01

    Twenty trenches distributed over a shear zone at Seila area, South Eastern Desert of Egypt were chosen to study the occupational exposures during the U-exploration activities in these trenches. The average value of the activity concentration of "2'3"8 U, "2"3"2Th and "4"0K in the studied granites are 866 , 57 and 1380 Bq.kg"-"1 respectively. These values are higher than the worldwide average of 33, 45 and 412 Bq/kg. According to these activity concentrations , trenches are divided into the non-regulated and regulated categories. The average value of the annual effective dose due to the terrestrial radionuclides is 0.306 mSv for the non-regulated trenches and 0.958 mSv for the regulated trenches corresponding to the absorbed dose rate 219 nGy.h"-"1 for the non-regulated trenches and 684 nGy.h"-"1 for the regulated trenches. The average measured annual effective dose for non-regulated and regulated trenches is 0.81 and 1.42 mSv respectively. This difference is ascribed to the geometry of the studied trenches. However, the total annual effective dose in the non-regulated and the regulated trenches is lower than the recommended value of 20 mSv

  4. The Khida terrane - Geology of Paleoproterozoic rocks in the Muhayil area, eastern Arabian Shield, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoeser, D.B.; Whitehouse, M.J.; Stacey, J.S.

    2001-01-01

    The bulk of the Arabian Shield of Saudi Arabia is underlain by Neoproterozoic terranes of oceanic affinity that were accreted during Pan-African time (about 680- 640Ma). Geologicalmappingandisotopicinvestigations during the 1980’s,however, provided the first evidence for Paleoproterozoic continental crust within the east- central part of the shield in Saudi Arabia. These studies delineated an older basement domain, herein referred to as the Khida terrane (Fig. l), which is defined as that part of the southern Afif composite terrane underlain by Paleoproterozoicto Archean continental crust (Stoeser and Stacey, 1988). The isotopic and geochronologic work to support our current studies within the Khida terrane are discussed in a companion abstract (Whitehouse et al., this volume). The regional geology and geochronology of the region has been summarized in detail by Johnson (1996). The current study is based on the continued use of samples previously collected in the Khida area by the authors and others as well as new field work conducted by us in 1999. This work further defines the occurrence of late Paleoproterozoic rocks at Jabal Muhayil, which is located at the eastern margin of the exposed terrane (Fig. 1). Our isotopic work is at an early stage and this abstract partly relates geologic problems that remain to be resolved. 

  5. Fault-related carbonate breccia dykes in the La Chilca area, Eastern Precordillera, San Juan, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro de Machuca, Brígida; Perucca, Laura P.

    2015-03-01

    Carbonate fault breccia dykes in the Cerro La Chilca area, Eastern Precordillera, west-central Argentina, provide clues on the probable mechanism of both fault movement and dyke injection. Breccia dykes intrude Upper Carboniferous sedimentary rocks and Triassic La Flecha Trachyte Formation. The timing of breccia dyke emplacement is constrained by cross cutting relationships with the uppermost Triassic unit and conformable contacts with the Early Miocene sedimentary rocks. This study supports a tectonic-hydrothermal origin for these breccia dykes; fragmentation and subsequent hydraulic injection of fluidized breccia are the more important processes in the breccia dyke development. Brecciation can be triggered by seismic activity which acts as a catalyst. The escape of fluidized material can be attributed to hydrostatic pressure and the direction of movement of the material establishes the direction of least pressure. Previous studies have shown that cross-strike structures have had an important role in the evolution of this Andean segment since at least Triassic times. These structures represent pre-existing crustal fabrics that could have controlled the emplacement of the dykes. The dykes, which are composed mostly of carbonate fault breccia, were injected upward along WNW fractures.

  6. Primary immigration and succession of soil organisms on reclaimed opencast coal mining areas in eastern Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wanner, M.; Dunger, W. [Staatliches Museum Naturkunde, Gorlitz (Germany)

    2002-07-01

    Immigration to and colonisation of recultivated opencast coal mining areas by soil organisms were investigated in eastern Germany during the period 1996-1998 in freshly exposed substrates (immigration test) and two up to 46-year-old afforested mine soils (stage-dependent succession). The results indicate that immigration by air is characteristic for protists, soil microarthropods and spiders, while active locomotion is more important for the soil macrofauna. Testate amoebae assemblages showed no evident differences between 30-37-year-old Tertiary afforestations (ash-ameliorated, pyrite-rich, low soil pH) and 46-year-old Pleistocene sites (liming, low pyrite content, moderate soil pH), while comparisons in soil animals revealed pronounced differences in abundance, biomass and species composition. Generally, all investigated soil animal groups indicated taxon-specific immigration and colonisation strategies with pronounced site preferences, dependent on substrate quality, age and afforestation. Within 40 years, a consistent trend is visible from an open pioneer to a woodland community. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that long-term investigations as well as numerous taxa of different trophic levels are essential for a comprehensive evaluation of recultivated mine dumps.

  7. Baylisascaris procyonis in raccoons (Procyon lotor) from eastern Colorado, an area of undefined prevalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez, Deanna J; LeVan, Ivy K; Miller, Michael W; Ballweber, Lora R

    2012-04-30

    Baylisascaris procyonis is a zoonotic parasite that has been documented in raccoons throughout much of the United States; however, no published information on its occurrence is available for the transition zone from the Great Plains to the Rocky Mountains. Because this parasite can cause neural larva migrans and diffuse unilateral subacute neuroretinitis in humans (as well as other hosts), a more complete understanding of the distribution of this parasite seems warranted for public health reasons. The purpose of this study was to begin to fill in the gaps in our knowledge of the distribution of B. procyonis in an area of the US where there is, currently, no published information available. Fifty-three raccoons were collected throughout eastern Colorado during 2007-2010. Forty-six were examined by necropsy and seven by fecal flotation. Age (11 juveniles, 25 adults) and sex (16 males, 19 females) of the raccoons were recorded when intact carcasses were available. When available, feces were further processed for the detection of Giardia and Cryptosporidium using a direct fluorescent antibody detection method. B. procyonis was found in 31 of 53 raccoons (58.5%, 95% CI=44.1%, 71.9%). Mean intensity was 11.7 with a range of 1-49 worms per infected individual. There was no significant difference between age or sex, and the presence of ascarids or the number of ascarids. Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts and Giardia spp. cysts were detected in 11/44 (25%; 95% CI: 13.2, 40.3) and 3/44 (6.9%; 95% CI: 1.4, 18.7) raccoons, respectively. The genotype of the Giardia present could not be determined. The genotype of five of six cryptosporidial isolates was 100% homologous to the skunk genotype while the sixth was 100% homologous to Cryptosporidium parvum. Based on these results, both B. procyonis and Cryptosporidium spp. appear to be prevalent in raccoons of eastern Colorado. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Soil TPH Concentration Estimation Using Vegetation Indices in an Oil Polluted Area of Eastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Linhai; Zhao, Xuechun; Lai, Liming; Wang, Jianjian; Jiang, Lianhe; Ding, Jinzhi; Liu, Nanxi; Yu, Yunjiang; Li, Junsheng; Xiao, Nengwen; Zheng, Yuanrun; Rimmington, Glyn M.

    2013-01-01

    Assessing oil pollution using traditional field-based methods over large areas is difficult and expensive. Remote sensing technologies with good spatial and temporal coverage might provide an alternative for monitoring oil pollution by recording the spectral signals of plants growing in polluted soils. Total petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations of soils and the hyperspectral canopy reflectance were measured in wetlands dominated by reeds (Phragmites australis) around oil wells that have been producing oil for approximately 10 years in the Yellow River Delta, eastern China to evaluate the potential of vegetation indices and red edge parameters to estimate soil oil pollution. The detrimental effect of oil pollution on reed communities was confirmed by the evidence that the aboveground biomass decreased from 1076.5 g m−2 to 5.3 g m−2 with increasing total petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations ranging from 9.45 mg kg−1 to 652 mg kg−1. The modified chlorophyll absorption ratio index (MCARI) best estimated soil TPH concentration among 20 vegetation indices. The linear model involving MCARI had the highest coefficient of determination (R 2 = 0.73) and accuracy of prediction (RMSE = 104.2 mg kg−1). For other vegetation indices and red edge parameters, the R2 and RMSE values ranged from 0.64 to 0.71 and from 120.2 mg kg−1 to 106.8 mg kg−1 respectively. The traditional broadband normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), one of the broadband multispectral vegetation indices (BMVIs), produced a prediction (R 2 = 0.70 and RMSE = 110.1 mg kg−1) similar to that of MCARI. These results corroborated the potential of remote sensing for assessing soil oil pollution in large areas. Traditional BMVIs are still of great value in monitoring soil oil pollution when hyperspectral data are unavailable. PMID:23342066

  9. Detection of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae by ELISA and nested PCR from blood samples and nasal swabs from pigs in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marián Prokeš

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to map the situation of swine mycoplasmoses on four farms in the region of Eastern Slovakia. The primary agent of Enzootic pneumonia of swine is Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae. After reviewing the health status of conventional herds and evaluation of clinical symptoms, paired samples of nasal swabs and venous blood samples were collected from 38 pigs with clinical signs of respiratory disease. Nasal swab samples were tested by nested PCR, while blood samples were used to detect antibodies against M. hyopneumoniae by blocking ELISA. The presence of M. hyopneumoniae was confirmed by nested PCR in four pigs (10.5% and by blocking ELISA in 16 pigs (42.1% of all four farms. This work presents for the first time comparison of different methods to diagnose M. hyopneumoniae infection on pig farms in Eastern Slovakia.

  10. Regulatory control of radiation sources in Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auxtova, L.

    2001-01-01

    In Slovakia, there are two regulatory authorities. Regulatory control of the utilization of nuclear energy, based on the Slovak National Council's law No. 130/1998 on the peaceful uses of nuclear energy, is exercised by the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic. The second regulatory authority - the Ministry of Health - is empowered by law No. 72/1994 on the protection of human health to license radiation sources and is responsible for radiation protection supervision (there are nearly 3000 establishments with sealed sources, radiation generators and unsealed sources in Slovakia). Pursuant to a new radiation protection regulation based on international standards, radiation sources are to be categorized in six classes according to the associated exposure and contamination hazards. A national strategy for improving the safety of radiation sources over their life-cycle and for the management of disused and orphan sources is being prepared for governmental approval. (author)

  11. THE PERFORMANCE OF MUTUAL FUNDS IN SLOVAKIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Tudorache

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A good indicator for the financial markets performance in different countries is the evolution of mutual funds in terms of their inflows and outflows. The goal of the present paper is to analyse the performance of the mutual funds in Slovakia. The research objectives are twofold: to study the flows of funds into and out of mutual funds from Slovakia during the period 2007-2014 and to analyse how investors in Slovakian mutual funds behave in terms of their investment choice. The analysis focuses on identifying patterns in investors' decision making process and on examining the similarity of their behavioural patterns with the ones identi¬fied at international level.

  12. Country policy profile - Slovakia. April 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-04-01

    According to the Directive 2009/28/EC of the European Parliament and of the European Council on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources the target for the share of energy from renewable sources in gross final energy consumption in the year 2020 for Slovakia is 14%, whereas in 2012 it reached 10,6%. The Slovak Republic uses a feed-in tariff system in the promotion of renewable electricity. Energy companies are obliged to purchase and pay for electricity transmitted to the grid. Renewable energy utilization is furthermore incentivised in a form of exemption from excise tax. Currently the Slovak Republic conducts a professional training programme for RES-installers and there are RES-H building obligations. This report monitors the policy changes after the release of the 2013 Progress Report for Slovakia and is regularly updated. In recent months, no significant change in country's RES policies has been reported

  13. Country policy profile - Slovakia. December 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-12-01

    According to the Directive 2009/28/EC of the European Parliament and of the European Council on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources the target for the share of energy from renewable sources in gross final energy consumption in the year 2020 for Slovakia is 14%, whereas in 2012 it reached 10,6%. The Slovak Republic uses a feed-in tariff system in the promotion of renewable electricity. Energy companies are obliged to purchase and pay for electricity transmitted to the grid. Renewable energy utilization is furthermore incentivised in a form of exemption from excise tax. Currently the Slovak Republic conducts a professional training programme for RES-installers and there are RES-H building obligations. This report monitors the policy changes after the release of the 2013 Progress Report for Slovakia and is regularly updated. In recent months, no significant change in country's RES policies has been reported

  14. Environmental monitoring in Slovakia using nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Florek, M.; Holy, K.; Sivo, A.; Sykora, I.; Chudy, M.; Richtarikova, M.; Polaskova, A.; Hola, O.; Meresova, J.; Ondo-Estok, D.; Mankovska, B.; Frontasyeva, M.V.; Ermakov, E.V.

    2005-01-01

    The contamination of the atmosphere of Slovakia by stable elements and also by-,radionuclides as 14 C, 7 Be, 210 Pb and 222 Rn were studied during the last decade using nuclear techniques. The main aims of this research were the better understanding of processes taking place in the atmosphere, the quantification of the atmospheric pollution and its trend, as well as the evaluation of the health risk from this pollution

  15. Utilization of Geothermal Energy in Slovakia

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriel Wittenberger; Ján Pinka

    2005-01-01

    Owing to favourable geological conditions, Slovakia is a country abundant in occurrence of low-enthalpy sources. The Slovakian government sponsors new renewable ecological energy sources, among which belongs the geothermal energy. Geothermal water is utilized for recreation (swimming pools, spas), agriculture (heating of greenhouses, fishing) and heating of houses. The effectivity of utilisation is about 30 % due to its seasonal use. That is why the annual house-heating and the hot water supp...

  16. Governing development of regions- case of Slovakia

    OpenAIRE

    Rudolf Bauer; Jana Knezova; Andrej Steiner

    2014-01-01

    Dynamism of development and competiveness of regions, as spatially and administratively defined units, depend not only on their natural, economic, social, and territorial potential but also on quality of regional development governance. At the time of creation of the regional level of territorial management in Slovakia there was expected that by introducing this new governance level the regional governments would become strong players in the field of regional development policy and provide su...

  17. Globalization and the Hotel Industry in Slovakia

    OpenAIRE

    ALENA DUBCOVÁ; JOZEF PETRIKOVIE; LUCIA ŠOLCOVÁ

    2013-01-01

    The development of tourism in the world and thus in Slovakia is influenced by globalization, which is one of the landmarks of the 21st century. Globalization starts when the internationalization of economic life develops in t he space across the planet. Closely related to internationalization, it enforces the strict territ orial framework that later grew into a wider world of space. The development of globali...

  18. Mineralogical Characterization of The Alteration Facies at Gabal El-Missikat Area, Central Eastern Desert, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Sherif, A.M.

    2013-01-01

    The present study deals with the petrographical, mineralogical and geochemical characteristics of the alteration facies zones recognized around the shear zone at Gabal El-Missikat area, Central Eastern Desert, Egypt. Petrographically, the fresh granitic samples are composed mainly of quartz, K-feldspars (microcline and microcline perthite), plagioclase, biotite. The secondary minerals are sericite, kaolinite, muscovite, chlorite and epidote as well as zircon, apatite, fluorite, titanite and iron oxides as accessory minerals. Two alteration facies zones are recognized and namely as propylitic and advanced argillic. The propylitic facies zone is composed mainly of sericite with minor kaolinite, muscovite, quartz, relics of plagioclases, chlorite and rare epidote as well as zircon, hematite, goethite, magnetite, ilmenite, ilmenorutile, rutile, titanite, apatite, columbite and fluorite and secondary uranium minerals, the advanced argillic facies zone is composed mainly of kaolinite with minor sericite, quartz, muscovite, chlorite and rare epidote as well as zircon, hematite, goethite, magnetite, ilmenite, ilmenorutile, rutile, titanite, apatite and garnet of spessartine type as accessory minerals. The identified minerals in the studied two alteration facies zones can be grouped into three mineral groups which are: the primary minerals (pyrite, magnetite, galena, columbite and gold), the secondary minerals (uranophane, kasolite and wulfenite) and the gangue minerals (anhydrite, barite, celestine, hematite, goethite and fluorite). The identified mineral assemblage of the studied propylitic alteration facies zone may be attributed to strongly alkaline hydrothermal solutions at ph value of more than 7 with temperature varying between 350 and 450°C, while the advanced argillic alteration facies zone is essentially associated with strongly acidic hydrothermal solutions at ph value less than 7 with temperature varying between 150 and 400°C

  19. Competitiveness of Slovakia and the Economic Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Ručinská

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The impacts of financial crisis in the beginning of this year have also been felt by the Slovak economy. It could be argued that the competitiveness of Slovakia is under the influence of the world economic crisis, as it is a small, open and pro-export oriented economy, hence influenced by foreign markets. Because of limited extent of domestic market, the foreign demand plays a key role in economic growth, a role that depends on the development of international economic affairs. As the biggest Slovak trade partners are in a deep recession, it induces a slowdown in the domestic economy as well. Financial problems of numerous banks in these countries, in combination with the growing lack of trust in the performance of the economies have resulted in a decline in demand and consumption, which had its effects on Slovakia as well. Based on our analysis of the manifestations and consequences of the financial crisis we show the effects on competitiveness of Slovakia, as well as on public policy.

  20. Application of thermoluminescence dating on pressed crystalline samples to determine the geological age at some areas in Eastern South, Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Do Duy Khiem; Luu Anh Tuyen; Phan Trong Phuc; Nguyen Thi Ngoc Hue; Pham Thi Hue; La Ly Nguyen; Ha Quang Hai

    2016-01-01

    The terrestrial part of eastern margin of the Mekong Basin is formed by outcrop of the pre-Holocen Cenozoic sequence. Almost previous studies concerned in using relative methods in geologic dating at the Mekong Basin, therefore, the ages of its stratigraphy are still unclear. The thermoluminescence (TL) dating was considered as one of the precise methods in geologic dating. In our study, we used TL dating for some areas at Eastern South, Vietnam including Ba Mieu Formation and the Thu Duc Formation at some areas in Dong Nai province and Ho Chi Minh City. This work has been the first application of TL for in geologic dating by a domestic laboratory. Experimental measurements of TL were performed using pressed crystalline quartz specimens from sediment samples. The results show that the Ba Mieu Formation was deposited about 238±22 ka and the Thu Duc Formation was deposited about 199±21 ka. (author)

  1. Assessment of fish populations and habitat on Oculina Bank, a deep-sea coral marine protected area off eastern Florida

    OpenAIRE

    Harter , Stacey L.; Ribera, Marta M.; Shepard, Andrew N.; Reed, John K.

    2009-01-01

    A portion of the Oculina Bank located off eastern Florida is a marine protected area (MPA) preserved for its dense populations of the ivory tree coral (Oculina varicosa), which provides important habitat for fish. Surveys of fish assemblages and benthic habitat were conducted inside and outside the MPA in 2003 and 2005 by using remotely operated vehicle video transects and digital still imagery. Fish species composition, biodiversity, and grouper densities were used to determine w...

  2. Alternative modelling of brittle structures in a sub-area of the SKB candidate area at Forsmark, eastern Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Askling, Per; Tiren, Sven A.; Beckholmen, Monica; Straeng, Thomas

    2008-11-01

    One way to test the confidence of a presented model is to construct an alternative model. Such work is cognitive process of skill acquisition and also a process of understanding data in the sense of sorting and classifying data. This is of particular interest for the Swedish Radiation Safety Authority (SSM) in their technical review of SKB's on-going site investigation programme for potential repository sites. In this study, an alternative brittle deformation model of a selected part of the SKB candidate area in eastern Sweden was constructed. The input data set was obtained from SKB's database SICADA and is a selected set of data from five cored boreholes drilled from two drill-sites and comprises geophysical borehole logs, geological core-logs, hydrological logs (PFL; Posiva Flow Log) and borehole deviation measurements. Statistical cluster analysis applied on the geophysical borehole data were used to obtain the locations of bedrock with contrasting physical characteristics similar to those of brittle deformation zones. The cluster analysis is an objective procedure, contrasting with SKB's more subjective approach to the single-hole interpretation. Thus some differences are expected which could illustrate the effect of methodology that includes subjective 'expert judgement.' and indicate the possibility of alternative interpretations. The information about brittle structures in the geological boreholes logs was sorted and classification was made according to character of the structures (all fractures, open fractures, partly open fractures, frequency, orientate on/identification of fracture sets, sections of crush rock, and alteration). A separate study was performed to relate rock alteration with structures. The resolution applied in the fracture statistics is one metre, i.e. all studied entities were expressed per metre borehole length. All clusters were structurally characterized by the fractures inside the clusters (orientation and density of fractures) and

  3. Alternative modelling of brittle structures in a sub-area of the SKB candidate area at Forsmark, eastern Sweden.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Askling, Per; Tiren, Sven A.; Beckholmen, Monica; Straeng, Thomas (Geosigma AB, Uppsala (Sweden))

    2008-11-15

    One way to test the confidence of a presented model is to construct an alternative model. Such work is cognitive process of skill acquisition and also a process of understanding data in the sense of sorting and classifying data. This is of particular interest for the Swedish Radiation Safety Authority (SSM) in their technical review of SKB's on-going site investigation programme for potential repository sites. In this study, an alternative brittle deformation model of a selected part of the SKB candidate area in eastern Sweden was constructed. The input data set was obtained from SKB's database SICADA and is a selected set of data from five cored boreholes drilled from two drill-sites and comprises geophysical borehole logs, geological core-logs, hydrological logs (PFL; Posiva Flow Log) and borehole deviation measurements. Statistical cluster analysis applied on the geophysical borehole data were used to obtain the locations of bedrock with contrasting physical characteristics similar to those of brittle deformation zones. The cluster analysis is an objective procedure, contrasting with SKB's more subjective approach to the single-hole interpretation. Thus some differences are expected which could illustrate the effect of methodology that includes subjective 'expert judgement.' and indicate the possibility of alternative interpretations. The information about brittle structures in the geological boreholes logs was sorted and classification was made according to character of the structures (all fractures, open fractures, partly open fractures, frequency, orientate on/identification of fracture sets, sections of crush rock, and alteration). A separate study was performed to relate rock alteration with structures. The resolution applied in the fracture statistics is one metre, i.e. all studied entities were expressed per metre borehole length. All clusters were structurally characterized by the fractures inside the clusters (orientation and

  4. Introduction of a Quality Management System for Vocational Education and Training in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Podařil

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The issue of the quality of vocational education, school, teaching and learning of students should be in the interests of all participants in the education process. The quality of secondary school is the critical element in enhancing the attractiveness of vocational education in Slovakia. Finding an offcial scale that would provide such a information in Slovakia is unfortunately impossible. There is no system for evaluating the quality of vocational education and training (VET at vocational schools. There are no clearly defined criterias, rules or any standards. Speaking of an assessing the level of quality of vocational education on the base of existing outcomes in formal education such as monitoring, final exams, graduation exams is resulting in one-sided evaluation and does not address the systematic coherence and complexivity of this issue. An essential step os to create a functional system of evaluation of VET in Slovakia. The article describes importance of VET which can play a central role in preparing young people for work, developing the skills of adults and responding to the labour market needs of the economy and presents the project Model of the quality evaluation of vocational education and training at secondary vocational schools in Slovakia that is currently ongoing on many secondary vocational schools in western Slovakia and Austria. The aim of the project is to develop and apply an open, flexible and adaptable quality management system. The article not only presents indicators for evaluation but also the way how can be evaluated each of them. The effort of this project is also to create specialized portal with support services that provide transparent, clear and specific information from this area of interest. The introduction of the evaluation framework, the selection of indicators that take established criteria into consideration and assembling of the scale is therefore more than relevant and required

  5. Regional soil erosion assessment in Slovakia using modelling and farmer's participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kenderessy, Pavol; Veihe, Anita

    with cereals, sunflowers and corn and is characterised by poor cultivation practices and use of fertilizers leading to land degradation. As a first step, the initial raster-based modelling of soil loss and deposition has provided acceptable and realistic values. The predicted spatial patterns of erosion...... for erosion risk assessments at the landscape scale in Slovakia using a combination of quantitative and qualitative methods for assessing spatial prediction patterns. The model was set up for the Paríž catchment (239.93 km2) in south-western Slovakia. The area has been intensively cultivated primarily...... are now being identified using farmer participation to ensure that the ‘correct’ hot spot areas are being identified. In the end, scenarios will be set up to assess the effect of farming practices and/or conservation measures on soil erosion rates in the area....

  6. Diversity of bacteria that nodulate Prosopis juliflora in the eastern area of Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benata, Hanane; Mohammed, Ourarhi; Noureddine, Boukhatem; Abdelbasset, Berrichi; Abdelmoumen, Hanaa; Muresu, Rosella; Squartini, Andrea; El Idrissi, Mustapha Missbah

    2008-10-01

    A total of 274 bacterial strains were isolated from the root nodules of Prosopis juliflora, growing in two arid soils of the eastern area of Morocco. A physiological plate screening allowed the selection of 15 strains that could tolerate NaCl concentrations between 175 and 500 mM. These were compared with 15 strains chosen from among the ones which did not tolerate high salinity. The diversity of strains was first assessed by rep-PCR amplification fingerprinting using BOXA1R and ERIC primers. An analysis of the PCR-amplified 16S rDNA gene digestion profiles using five endonucleases indicated the presence of different lineages among the taxa associated with P. juliflora nodules in the soils studied. Nucleotide sequencing of the small subunit rRNA gene and BLAST analysis showed that P. juliflora could host at least six bacterial species in this region and that the identity of those associated with high salt tolerance was clearly distinct from that of the salt-sensitive ones. Among the former, the first type displayed 99% similarity with different members of the genus Sinorhizobium, the second 97% similarity with species within the genus Rhizobium, while the third ribosomal type had 100% homology to Achromobacter xylosoxidans. Within the salt-sensitive isolates the prevailing type observed showed 98% similarity with Rhizobium multihospitium and R. tropici, a second type had 98% similarity to R. giardinii, and a further case displayed 97% colinearity with the Ensifer group including E. maghrebium and E. xericitae. All of the thirty strains encompassing these types re-nodulated P. juliflora in microbiologically controlled conditions and all of them were shown to possess a copy of the nodC gene. This is the first report detecting the betaproteobacterial genus Achromobacter as nodule-forming species for legumes. The observed variability in symbiont species and the abundance of nodulation-proficient strains is in line with the observation that the plant always appears to

  7. [Distributions and seasonal variations of total dissolved inorganic arsenic in the estuaries and coastal area of eastern Hainan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xiu-Hong; Ren, Jing-Ling; Zhang, Gui-Ling; Zhang, Jin-E; Du, Jin-Zhou; Zhu, De-Di

    2012-03-01

    The concentrations of total dissolved inorganic arsenic (TDIAs) were measured by Hydride Generation-Atomic Fluorescence Spectrometry (HG-AFS). Two cruises were carried out in the river, estuary, coastal area and groundwater of eastern Hainan in December 2006 and August 2007. The concentrations of TDIAs in the Wanquan and Wenchang/Wenjiao rivers and their estuaries, coastal area in December 2006 were 4.0-9.4, 1.3-13.3, 13.3-17.3 nmol x L(-1), respectively. The concentrations of TDIAs in the Wanquan and Wenchang/Wenjiao rivers and their estuaries, coastal area in August 2007 were 1.6-15.5, 2.4-15.9, 10.8-17.6 nmol x L(-1), respectively. There was no significantly seasonal variation of TDIAs in the rivers and estuaries during the dry and wet seasons. Compared with other areas in the world, the concentration of TDIAs in the Eastern Hainan remained at pristine levels. TDIAs showed conservatively mixing in the both estuaries. The concentration of TDIAs of groundwater was below detection limit (BDL)-41.7 nmol x L(-1). The submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) to the coastal area was estimated in the drainage basin of Wenchang/Wenjiao river based on the average concentration of TDIAs in the groundwater and SGD water discharge, with the value of 1 153 mol x a(-1). Budget estimation indicated that the SGD discharge is one of the important sources of arsenic in the coastal area.

  8. Size-density metrics, leaf area, and productivity in eastern white pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. C. Innes; M. J. Ducey; J. H. Gove; W. B. Leak; J. P. Barrett

    2005-01-01

    Size-density metrics are used extensively for silvicultural planning; however, they operate on biological assumptions that remain relatively untested. Using data from 12 even-aged stands of eastern white pine (Pinus strobus L.) growing in southern New Hampshire, we compared size-density metrics with stand productivity and its biological components,...

  9. Culicoides midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae as vectors of orbiviruses in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adela Sarvašová

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, rapid spread of Culicoides-borne pathogens such as bluetongue (BT and Schmallenberg viruses have been reported in Europe. In this study we examined the Culicoides populations in farms with wild and domestic ruminants in Eastern Slovakia with the aim to confirm the presence of biting midges serving as potential vectors of important pathogens. The main vector complexes were the Obsoletus complex (54%; n=4,209 and the Pulicaris complex (23%; n=1,796. To estimate the relative abundance of the cryptic species of the Obsoletus complex (Culicoides obsoletus, Culicoides scoticus and Culicoides montanus, we performed the multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR based on ITS-2 and ITS-1 segments, on 125 midges randomly sampled. The relative abundance of C. obsoletus ranged from 5.26% in the farm with wild ruminants to 85.71% in another farm with cattle and sheep. A total of 112 pools of parous and gravid females belonging to the Obsoletus and Pulicaris complexes were tested for virus detection by the real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR for BT virus, as well as for the Epizootic Hemorrhagic Disease Virus (EHDV, with negative results.

  10. Analysis, Evaluation and Measures to Reduce Environmental Risk within Watershed Areas of the Eastern Zauralye District Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasskasova, N. S.; Bobylev, A. V.; Malaev, A. V.

    2017-11-01

    The authors have performed an analysis for the use of watershed areas of the lakes of the Eastern Zauralye district (the territory to the east of Ural) for national economic purposes. The analysis gave a possibility to assess the impact of watersheds depending on the applied technologies on the dump of various runoff into the reservoir waters. The watershed areas of all lakes have been found to be actively used as pastures, farmland and recreational resources. Some of the main sources of solid and liquid industrial waste are cattle farms and agricultural land using outdated equipment and technologies. The study of 26 km of the watershed line areas showed that pollutants (household garbage, fuels and lubricants) and organic substances (phosphorus and nitrogen) got into the waters of the reservoirs. The maximum runoff of solid and liquid waste into the waters of the lakes happens in summer which leads to increased concentrations of organic substances, an increase in productivity of alga and higher aquatic flora determining the degree of eutrophication and trophy in the reservoirs. The average annual trophic status of TSI lakes of the Eastern Zauralye district is 56 which corresponds to the typical phase of eutrophy. The reduced transparency of lakes is also the evidence of an increase in biological productivity of reservoirs, their eutrophication and, as a result, the water quality deterioration. The intensive eutrophication of reservoirs, in its turn, most significantly affects the concentration of the ammonium form of nitrogen, total phosphorus and total nitrogen, increase in pH and deterioration of oxygen condition. The authors have developed various activities to reduce a technogenic risk in the watershed areas of the lakes in the Eastern Zauralye district which can be applied to other areas using the analogy method.

  11. Monitoring of natural radioactivity in Slovakia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikodemova, D; Vladar, M; Gomola, I [Inst. of Preventive and Clinical Medicine, 83301 Bratislava (Slovakia)

    1996-12-31

    The paper deals with two main natural sources of human exposure, i.e. the outdoor photon dose equivalent rate, H{sub x}, and the indoor volume activity [Bq/m{sup 3}]. The estimation of the radiation load from outdoor photon radiation was based on continuous measurements of dose equivalent rates using: 1)Thermoluminescence dosimeter (TLD), types TLD 700 (LiF, Harshaw) in territorial monitoring network, consisting of 66 stations over Slovakia, where integral values are collected for 3 months; 2) Intelligent Environmental Dose Equivalent Proportional Detector, FHZ621B in an International Radiation Information System (IRIS). The system consists of 25 stations (16 working) over the whole Slovakia, situated uniformly at existing hydrometeorological stations. In standard operation a set of average dose equivalent rate, H{sub x}, are transferred every 24 hours into the central database of IRIS. For the measurements of equilibrium equivalent radon concentration (EEC) solid state track detectors type CR-39 (Pershore, UK) were used, exchanged in a period of 6 month during the heating season. Annual values of the effective doses from above natural sources of radiation in Slovakia range from 1.2 mSv to 3.2 mSv/year. This broad range is caused mainly by uncertaintes in calculation procedures of radon effective doses. The effective dose due to exposure radon calculated taking into account, that an annual radon gas concentration of 20 Bq/m{sup 3} is 1 mSv seems to be a very overstinated value. Therefore for protective measures the lower value of the above given range was used. This calculation methods are actually under scrutiny (J.K.). 4 figs., 3 tabs., 7 refs.

  12. Morality, Normativity, and Economic Development in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Karjanen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article examines debates over local economic development policies and practices in contemporary Slovakia, particularly regarding property and land development. Debates about economic development often occur in relation to economic outcomes, driven by quantitative data and empirical assessments provided by city officials or consultants. In this article, I find that such debates are more likely to be driven by normative concerns, including moral outcomes. I develop a theoretical framework to understand why policy debates occur not in purely objective terms, but the more subjective normative and moral frameworks. The analysis provides greater insight into political debates and policymaking in the postsocialist context.

  13. Study of ancient pottery from Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipka, J.; Fusek, G.; Sitek, J.; Hucl, M.; Rausz, J.; Gajdosova, M.

    1990-01-01

    Ancient pottery samples collected from south-west Slovakia were studied through subjective observation and by Moessbauer spectroscopy. This method is convenient for determining the provenance and the manufacture of pottery. Transformations, induced by firing the clay and characterized by Moessbauer spectroscopy, give valuable information regarding the manufacture as, for instance, the final temperature of firing in it. The relative abundance of Fe 2+ and Fe 3+ determines the atmosphere used to fire a pottery. It has been found that the determination of the firing atmosphere obtained through the subjective observation is in good agreement with that obtained using Moessbauer spectroscopy. An unfired and fired clay was also investigated. (orig.)

  14. Education in nuclear engineering in Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slugen, V.

    2005-01-01

    Slovak University of Technology is the largest and also the oldest university of technology in Slovakia. Surely more than 50% of high-educated technicians who work nowadays in nuclear industry have graduated from this university. The Department of Nuclear Physics and Technology of the Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology as a one of seven faculties of this University feels responsibility for proper engineering education and training for Slovak NPP operating staff. The education process is realised via undergraduate (Bc.), graduate (MSc.) and postgraduate (PhD..) study as well as via specialised training courses in a frame of continuous education system. (author)

  15. Chromosomal aberrations in ore miners of Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beno, M.; Vladar, M.; Nikodemova, D.; Vicanova, M.; Durcik, M.

    1998-01-01

    A pilot study was performed in which the incidence of chromosomal aberrations in lymphocytes of miners in ore mines located in Central Slovakia was monitored and related to lifetime underground radon exposure and to lifetime smoking. The conclusions drawn from the results of the study were as follows: the counts of chromosomal aberrations in lymphocytes of miners were significantly higher than in an age matched control group of white-collar staff; the higher counts of chromosomal aberrations could be ascribed to underground exposure of miners and to smoking; a dependence of chromosomal aberration counts on the exposure to radon could not be assessed. (A.K.)

  16. Chemical composition of Kiscellian silty sediment (sivica from the Trobni Dol area, Eastern Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miha Mišič

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Kiscellian marine silt termed »sivica« is widely developed in Tertiary basins of Eastern Slovenia. Chemical composition is rather uniform and reflects the dominance of filosilicates (mainly illite/muscovite, chlorite and montmorillonite and carbonates. PAAS normalised REE and Y abundances are slightly depleted for La, Ce, Pr and Nd, very close to PAAS for Sm, Eu, Gd and Tb, and depleted for Y, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb and Lu.

  17. Environmental inferences and chironomid-based temperature reconstructions from fragmentary records of the Weichselian Early Glacial and Pleniglacial periods in the Niederlausitz area (eastern Germany)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engels, S.; Bohncke, S.J.P.; Bos, J.A.A.; Heiri, O.; Vandenberghe, J.; Wallinga, J.

    2008-01-01

    We inferred past climate conditions from lacustrine sediments intercalated in Weichselian Early Glacial and Early Pleniglacial fluvial and aeolian sediments, exposed in two opencast lignite mines from the Niederlausitz area (eastern Germany). A chronology was established using radiocarbon and

  18. Rb-Sr geochronolgy of the Jervois Range area in the eastern part of the Arunta Block, NT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black, L.P.

    1980-01-01

    New Rb-Sr isotopic data are presented for the Jervois Range area in the eastern part of the Arunta Block. The post-metamorphic Jinka and Jervois Granites yield an age of about 1750 m.y. An alaskitic granite is dated at about 1460 m.y. Pegmatite formation occurred about 1660 m.y. ago. Mineral ages are generally younger than total-rock ages, but no values significantly less than that of the alaskitic granite were found. This means that the Alice Springs Orogeny, which extensively reset large areas of the Arunta Block to the west, did not effect the Jervois area. In this and other geochronological comparisons, the Jervois area seems more akin to the rocks of the Tennant Creek Block, 400 km to the northwest, than to those of the Arunta Block

  19. Nationwide Distribution of Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances in Outdoor Dust in Mainland China From Eastern to Western Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yiming; Sun, Hongwen; Gan, Zhiwei; Hu, Hongwei; Zhao, Yangyang; Chang, Shuai; Zhou, Qixing

    2016-04-05

    From eastern to western areas, per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) were detected at substantial levels in the outdoor dust across mainland China. Urban samples generally showed higher levels compared with those of rural samples. Compared with neutral PFASs, ionizable PFASs (C4-C12 perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids and C4/C8 perfluoroalkyl sulfonic acids) were more abundant, with the highest total concentration up to 1.6 × 10(2) ng/g and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) being a predominant analogue. Fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs) and polyfluoroalkyl phosphoric acid diesters (DiPAPs) were both detected in most samples with total concentrations of 0.12-32 and 0.030-20 ng/g, respectively. Perfluorooctane sulfonamidoethanols/sulfonamides (FOSE/As) were detected at low frequencies (eastern plain areas were characterized by a higher contribution of long-chain ionizable PFASs; whereas the western high plateau areas were characterized by the dominating contribution of short-chain analogues. The difference suggests that the long-range atmospheric transport potential of PFASs from source regions to the inland is probably limited by the increase in altitude, and different sources from adjacent regions may influence the western border area of China.

  20. Application of spatial methods to identify areas with lime requirement in eastern Croatia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogunović, Igor; Kisic, Ivica; Mesic, Milan; Zgorelec, Zeljka; Percin, Aleksandra; Pereira, Paulo

    2016-04-01

    With more than 50% of acid soils in all agricultural land in Croatia, soil acidity is recognized as a big problem. Low soil pH leads to a series of negative phenomena in plant production and therefore as a compulsory measure for reclamation of acid soils is liming, recommended on the base of soil analysis. The need for liming is often erroneously determined only on the basis of the soil pH, because the determination of cation exchange capacity, the hydrolytic acidity and base saturation is a major cost to producers. Therefore, in Croatia, as well as some other countries, the amount of liming material needed to ameliorate acid soils is calculated by considering their hydrolytic acidity. For this research, several interpolation methods were tested to identify the best spatial predictor of hidrolitic acidity. The purpose of this study was to: test several interpolation methods to identify the best spatial predictor of hidrolitic acidity; and to determine the possibility of using multivariate geostatistics in order to reduce the number of needed samples for determination the hydrolytic acidity, all with an aim that the accuracy of the spatial distribution of liming requirement is not significantly reduced. Soil pH (in KCl) and hydrolytic acidity (Y1) is determined in the 1004 samples (from 0-30 cm) randomized collected in agricultural fields near Orahovica in eastern Croatia. This study tested 14 univariate interpolation models (part of ArcGIS software package) in order to provide most accurate spatial map of hydrolytic acidity on a base of: all samples (Y1 100%), and the datasets with 15% (Y1 85%), 30% (Y1 70%) and 50% fewer samples (Y1 50%). Parallel to univariate interpolation methods, the precision of the spatial distribution of the Y1 was tested by the co-kriging method with exchangeable acidity (pH in KCl) as a covariate. The soils at studied area had an average pH (KCl) 4,81, while the average Y1 10,52 cmol+ kg-1. These data suggest that liming is necessary

  1. Groundwater Resources Isotope Study of Eastern and Southeastern Areas of Jordan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Momani, M. R.

    2004-01-01

    Since Jordan depends on the groundwater resources especially for municipal use so, water resources studies and development takes priority on the national level. For this reason the environmental isotope technique and application contributed and supported the hydrological studies as a research tool confirmed some scientific facts including natural and environmental changes of water resources. The isotope analyses has been implemented for upper and deep aquifer systems in the eastern and southeastern areas of Jordan for Hamad, Sirhan, Azraq and Jafr basins. The analyses included the stable isotopes for 18 O, Deuterium ( 2 H) and 13 C also the radioactive isotopes for Tritium ( 3 H ) and 14 C in nineties of the last century until 2002 and this indicates the following: * The origin and mechanism of the nonrenewable groundwater recharge in the deep aquifer systems of (B2/A7) Campanian and Turonian age for Hamad and Azraq basins has been defined. This refers that the groundwater recharge existed within humid, cold and wet climatologic conditions which is completely different from the present climate where the groundwater age exceeds thirty thousand years. * Also this indicates that the stable isotopic composition of the upper aquifers in Hamad and Sirhan basins in Shallala and Rijam aquifers (B5/B4) of Eocene and Paleocene age lie on the Global Meteoric Water Line (GMWL) where the deuterium excess (d) is 10 %. Actually this water is not tritiated and the 14 C content in the groundwater is close to zero which is a strong indication of humid and wet climate where the age of the groundwater range between 20000 and exceeds 300000 years. In comparison this situation with the same aquifer in Jafr basin located in the southeastern part of Jordan, there are differences in the deuterium excess (d), Tritium and 14 C content which depends on the climatologic conditions existed during the recharge period. Also the isotopic signaure for the middle groundwater system (B2/A7) and the

  2. Perspective sources of industrial minerals for building industry in Novohrad (Southern Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beláček Boris

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available Novohrad a region of Southern Slovakia has wealthy industrial history, which was built mostly on local natural raw materials. Some deposits are exhausted, but other are ready to be exploited. Among such industrial minerals are raw materials for building industry. There are industrial minerals for fine and rough ceramics, stones for building and pavement, sand and gravel. The perspective areas are listed on Tab. 1 - 6 and are shown on Fig 1 - 3.

  3. Mapping of incidence and management of invasive species Fallopia japonica at selected locations of northwestern Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paukova, Z.; Krskova, L.

    2011-01-01

    Mapping of one of the most dangerous invasive species Fallopia japonica was conducted at selected locations of northwestern Slovakia: in the cadastral territory of Zazriva, in the village Parnica towards Kralovany, in the village Kralovany and the city of Dolny Kubin - Zaskalie, stretch Timravina in the Lower Orava in late summer and early autumn 2009. We recorded by field survey 24 invading Japanese knotweed in the area of 12.238 m 2 . (authors)

  4. Geological aspects of the high level waste and spent fuel disposal programme in Slovakia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matej, Gedeon; Milos, Kovacik; Jozef, Hok [Geological Survey of Slovak Republic, Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2001-07-01

    An autonomous programme for development of a deep geological high level waste and spent fuel disposal began in 1996. One of the most important parts in the programme is siting of the future deep seated disposal. Geological conditions in Slovakia are complex due to the Alpine type tectonics that formed the geological environment during Tertiary. Prospective areas include both crystalline complexes (tonalites, granites, granodiorites) and Neogene (Miocene) argillaceous complexes. (author)

  5. Acoustic profiling and surface imaging of the coastal area near the subduction zone: the eastern coastal area of Boso Peninsula, Central Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuyama, S.; Sato, T.

    2016-12-01

    The plate motion of the Philippine Sea plate and the Pacific plate influences geology of coastal area in the Pacific side in Japan and sometime causes extensive damage of human activity, such as the Great East Japan Earthquake. It is important to understand the geological structures in a coastal area for disaster prevention. Especially, rapid equipment of geoinformations is highly demanded in the Kanto region where covers capital Tokyo area. Geological Survey of Japan investigated the eastern coastal area in Boso Peninsula, eastern part of the Kanto region, Japan within two years from 2014 to 2015. We obtained seismic sections of ca. 1100 km in total length with a boomer and multi-channel streamer (24 channel with 3.125 m spacing) and report the geological significance of the subsurface structures. The survey area is divided into the northern part of Kujukuri area, the southern part of Kujukuri area, the coastal part of Kujukuri area based on topography and geological structures. In these Kujukuri areas, two strata that show distinct stratification bounded by distinct unconformity distribute and we define them as the Kujukuri A Unit and the Kujukuri B Unit, in ascending order. The lower sequence has some folds and normal faults. These folds that deformed the Kujukuri B Unit extend toward north-northeast in the northern part of Kujukuri area. They contributed to development of wide shelf distributed in this area. In the southern part of Kujukuri area, a lot of faults deformed the Kujukuri B Unit and some of them displaced the Kujukuri A Unit over 10 msec (two way travel). Normal faults developed in the Kujukuri B Unit over 10 msec made grabens and half grabens in the coastal part of Kujukuri area and these grabens and half grabens could make the lowland in the Kujukuri coastal area. The combination of these geological structures identified in the Kujukuri areas could reflect the transition of stress field associated with the subduction of the Philippine Sea plate

  6. LINE CONSTRUCTION OF NONIUS BREED IN SLOVAKIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Mlyneková

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays breeding has become the problem often solved in European states and it has been paid much attention by breeding organizations. In terms of hippology as well as some urgent requirements from the side of nonius breeders we have focussed on this particular breed especially from the reason of its further survival and development in Slovakia. The aim of this paper was to evaluate the growth indicators as well as the achievement level of the stallions since 1927 to the present. Based on our research of the nonius body lines we can state that at present there are 3 stallions that are followers of the N VIII horse line founder. In general, there are 12 stallions that are active within this breed in Slovakia. It was statistically confirmed that this particular breed grew much stronger through the goal-directed breeding work, improved nutrition as well as the immediate breeding site. It was quite complicated to evaluate the performance tests because the individual indicators were significantly influenced by the subjective views of the commitee members performing the evaluation. The next factor which prevents the objective evaluation is the fact that in the period up to 1979, the performance tests were valued by the 100 point system and from the year 1980 by the 10 point system. That is why we take the performance test results into account only as supplemental ones, which can provide a kind of amendment to the observed biological parameters.

  7. A model-based evaluation of Marine Protected Areas: the example of eastern Baltic cod (Gadus morhua callarias L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraus, Gerd; Pelletier, Dominique; Dubreuil, Julien

    2009-01-01

    The eastern Baltic cod stock collapsed as a consequence of climate-driven adverse hydrographic conditions and over fishing and has remained at historically low levels. Spatio-temporal fishing closures [Marine Protected Areas (MPAs)] have been implemented since 1995, to protect and restore......, combining an age-structured population module with a multifleet exploitation module and a management module in a single model environment. The model is parameterized based on (i) the large amount of biological knowledge available for cod and (ii) an analysis of existing spatially disaggregated fishery data...

  8. Ownership and Use of Insecticide-Treated Nets among People Living in Malaria Endemic Areas of Eastern Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aung, Tin; Wei, Chongyi; McFarland, Willi; Aung, Ye Kyaw; Khin, Hnin Su Su

    2016-01-01

    Myanmar has the highest burden of malaria in the Greater Mekong. However, there is limited information on ownership and use of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) in areas of Myanmar most severely affected by malaria. We describe ownership and use of ITNs among people in the malaria-endemic eastern parts of Myanmar and factors associated with ITN use. A cross-sectional household survey using a multi-stage cluster design was conducted in malaria-endemic townships in eastern Myanmar during the high malaria season of August to September, 2014. An effective ITN was defined as 1) a long-lasting insecticide-treated net obtained within the past three years, or 2) any net treated with insecticide within the past year. In 4,679 households, the average number of ITNs per household was higher in rural compared to urban areas (0.6 vs. 0.4, p Myanmar in comparison to the goal of one for every two household members. Use of ITNs was low even when present. Findings are of concern given the study areas were part of enhanced efforts to reduce artemisinin-resistant malaria. Nonetheless, groups vulnerable to malaria such as individuals in rural settings, lower socio-economic households, and workers in high mosquito exposure jobs, had higher rates of ITN ownership. Malaria knowledge was linked to effective ITN use suggesting that distribution campaigns should be complemented by behavior change communications.

  9. Varieties of granitic uranium deposits and favorable exploration areas in the eastern United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, J.J.W.; Ragland, P.C.; Nishimori, R.K.; Greenberg, J.K.; Hauck, S.A.

    1978-01-01

    This paper is divided into three parts. First is an overview of the basic igneous processes that cause concentration of uranium and the types of rocks in which these deposits are most likely to occur. Second is a discussion of the source of uranium and the tectonic environments in which uranium-rich igneouos rocks are likely to form. Third is an application of these principles to the delineation of favorable belts for uranium exploration in crystalline rocks in the eastern United States. The paper is restricted to a discussion of those deposits in which high-uranium concentrations are caused by magmatic processes. 114 refs

  10. Organic petrography:An approach for identification of maceral groups in Gheshlagh coal area, Eastern Alborz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahereh Rabani

    2016-07-01

    megaspore size in the S2 and K5 coal seams is very noticeable. The content of mineral matter of these coal seams varied from 5 to 24.9 vol%. Acknowledgements The authors would like to thank the Eastern Alborz company employees for providing access to mines of the Gheshlagh area and sampling. We appreciate reviews for their constructive suggestions. References Hower, J.C., O'Keefe, J.M.K., Watt, M.A., Pratt, T.J., Eble, C.F., Stucker, J.D., Richardson, A.R. and Kostova, I.J., 2009. Notes on the origin of inertinite macerals in coals: Observations on the importance of fungi in the origin of macrinite. International Journal of Coal Geology, 80(2: 135–143. Hower, J.C. and Wagner, N.J., 2012. Notes on the methods of the combined maceral/ microlithotype determination in coal. International Journal of Coal Geology, 95(47-53: 47–53. International Committee for Coal and Organic Petrology (ICCP, 1998. The new vitrinite classification (ICCP System 1994. Fuel, 77(5: 349–358. International Committee for Coal and Organic Petrology (ICCP, 2001. The new inertinite classification (ICCP System 1994. Fuel, 80(4: 459–471. ISO 7404–3, 2009. Methods for the petrographic analysis of bituminous coal and anthracite- Part 3: method of determining maceral group composition. Geneva, 7 pp, http://www.iso.org/iso/home/store/catalogue_tc/catalogue_detail.htm?csnumber=42831 Parkash, S., 1985. Petrographic studies of coals from Alberta plains, coal research department, Alberta research. Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, 47 pp. Scott, A.C. and Glasspool, I.J., 2007. Observations and experiments on the origin and formation of inertinite group macerals. International Journal of Coal Geology, 70(1-3: 55–66. Stach, E., Mackowsky, M.T., Teichmuller, M., Taylor, G.H., Chandra, D. and Teichmuller, R. 1982. Stach's Textbook of Coal Petrology. Gebruder Borntraeger, Berlin-Stuttgart, 535 pp. Stopes, M.C., 1935. On the petrology of banded bituminous coals. Fuel, 14: 4–13. Suwarna, N. and Hermanto, B., 2007

  11. Museology in Slovakia (Muzeológia na Slovensku

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavol Tišliar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the history of museology in Slovakia as a scientific discipline in general and a specialized university course of study in particular. We discuss the fundamental characteristics of the discipline, including the development of the current conception of museology as a university course and describe the fundamentals of the course as currently implemented in various institutes of tertiary education in Slovakia. In conclusion, we briefly survey the current state of the field in Slovakia, its potential and its possible future development.

  12. Ecology of Lutzomyia longipalpis in an area of visceral leishmaniasis transmission in north-eastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Pietra Lemos; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; da Silva, Fernando José; Guimarães, Vanessa Cristina Fitipaldi Veloso; Gaudêncio, Kamila; Brandão-Filho, Sinval Pinto

    2013-05-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis is a major public health issue in South America, where the disease is rapidly spreading. Changes in ecology and distribution of the principal vector, Lutzomyia longipalpis are among the factors accounting for the increasing incidence of the disease in this region. However, information about the ecology of L. longipalpis is still incipient, which may directly impair the implementation of effective control programs. Herein, the ecology of L. longipalpis was studied in a focus of visceral leishmaniasis in north-eastern Brazil. From August 2009 to August 2010, phlebotomine sand flies were monthly collected in four localities using CDC light traps (~37 per month) and a lantern-baited Shannon trap with mouth aspirators. A total of 24,226 phlebotomine sand flies were collected with light traps and 375 with mouth aspirators. The most abundant species was L. longipalpis, representing 97.9% of the specimens collected with light traps and 91.5% with the mouth aspirator. Other species (Lutzomyia evandroi, Lutzomyia lenti and Lutzomyia sallesi) were found in low numbers. Most phlebotomine sand flies (94.6%) were collected at chicken coops and corrals. No significant correlation was found between the monthly abundance of phlebotomine sand flies and the monthly averages of temperature, relative humidity or rainfall. However, interestingly enough, 82.4% of L. longipalpis specimens were collected in months when relative humidity surpassed 75%. This study points out that this vector is well adapted to live in different habitats and to different climate conditions. It also suggests that some north-eastern populations of L. longipalpis may be more xerotolerant than southern populations. Further studies to assess the relationship between microclimate and L. longipalpis density in different Brazilian regions are advised. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Decision Tree and Texture Analysis for Mapping Debris-Covered Glaciers in the Kangchenjunga Area, Eastern Himalaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adina Racoviteanu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study we use visible, short-wave infrared and thermal Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER data validated with high-resolution Quickbird (QB and Worldview2 (WV2 for mapping debris cover in the eastern Himalaya using two independent approaches: (a a decision tree algorithm, and (b texture analysis. The decision tree algorithm was based on multi-spectral and topographic variables, such as band ratios, surface reflectance, kinetic temperature from ASTER bands 10 and 12, slope angle, and elevation. The decision tree algorithm resulted in 64 km2 classified as debris-covered ice, which represents 11% of the glacierized area. Overall, for ten glacier tongues in the Kangchenjunga area, there was an area difference of 16.2 km2 (25% between the ASTER and the QB areas, with mapping errors mainly due to clouds and shadows. Texture analysis techniques included co-occurrence measures, geostatistics and filtering in spatial/frequency domain. Debris cover had the highest variance of all terrain classes, highest entropy and lowest homogeneity compared to the other classes, for example a mean variance of 15.27 compared to 0 for clouds and 0.06 for clean ice. Results of the texture image for debris-covered areas were comparable with those from the decision tree algorithm, with 8% area difference between the two techniques.

  14. CAS Accelerator Physics (Ion Sources) in Slovakia

    CERN Multimedia

    CAS School

    2012-01-01

    The CERN Accelerator School (CAS) and the Slovak University of Technology jointly organised a specialised course on ion sources, held at the Hotel Senec, Senec, Slovakia, from 29 May to 8 June, 2012.   Following some background lectures on accelerator physics and the fundamental processes of atomic and plasma physics, the course covered a wide range of topics related to ion sources and highlighted the latest developments in the field. Realistic case studies and topical seminars completed the programme. The school was very successful, with 69 participants representing 25 nationalities. Feedback from the participants was extremely positive, reflecting the high standard of the lectures. The case studies were performed with great enthusiasm and produced some excellent results. In addition to the academic programme, the participants were able to take part in a one-day excursion consisting of a guided tour of Bratislava and free time. A welcome event was held at the Hotel Senec, with s...

  15. Globalization and the Hotel Industry in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALENA DUBCOVÁ

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The development of tourism in the world and thus in Slovakia is influenced by globalization, which is one of the landmarks of the 21st century. Globalization starts when the internationalization of economic life develops in t he space across the planet. Closely related to internationalization, it enforces the strict territ orial framework that later grew into a wider world of space. The development of globalization processe s stimulated by the scientific-technical revolution, the growing efforts to promote free trad e through out the world, a principal change in many countries, which are accompanied by expansion o f free business, capital,investment, the impressive development of telecommunications and tr ansport networks, the option on fast- traveling to long distances, watching foreign televi sion programs, understanding and using of foreign experience and practices contributed to the convergence of the world not only economically but also in other spheres.

  16. Care for Haemoglobinopathy Patients in Slovakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fábryová, Viera; Božek, Peter; Drakulová, Monika; Kollárová, Andrea; Striežencová, Zuzana Laluhová; Macichová, Michaela; Sakalová, Adriena

    2017-03-01

    The paper presents the results od 22-year study of screening and follow-up of haemoglobinopathies in Slovakia, an overview of genetic mutations, the coincidence with hereditary haemochromatosis mutations, and the procedure in genetic councelling. Between 1993-2015, in three centres in Bratislava and in one centre in Kosice, carriers of beta-thalassaemic genes or other haemoglobinopathies were searched for. Diagnosis was performed by haematologists, whereby the family history was evaluated, together with the overall clinical condition, blood count and blood smear, iron and haemolysis parameters, mutations of hereditary haemochromatosis, and haemoglobin electrophoresis testing. In the last years the haemoglobin division also examined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). A clinical suspicion of the heterozygous form of beta-thalassaemia or other haemoglobinopathies was documented in 554 patients. Of them 32 (5.8%) were foreigners. 213 (38.45%) patients were genetically examined. In 190 (33.93%) of them heterozygote beta-thalassaemia was confirmed. The most frequent mutations were IVS 1.110 (33.15%), IVS 2.1 (33.15%), and IVS 1.6 (14.7%). Evidence of haemoglobin S (heterozygote sickle cell anaemia) was also notable in two non-relative children, whose fathers were of African origin, and one patient from Ghana. One female patient was followed up for haemoglobin Santa Ana (non-stabile haemoglobin previously diagnosed as mutation de novo). In our group, we took care of pregnant patients with haemoglobinopathies. The study showed that there is a higher number of heterozygotes for beta-thalassaemia and rarely haemoglobinopathies in Slovakia. Over the past years, we have recorded an increase number of foreigners coming to our country. It is necessary to continue in search of pathological gene carriers to avoid serious forms of haemoglobinopathies. Copyright© by the National Institute of Public Health, Prague 2017

  17. Areva attracted to Slovakia by engineers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slovak, K.

    2006-01-01

    The expected growth of demand in nuclear power stations and technologies compelled the French-German company Areva NP to look for other possibilities for expansion. The company belongs to the French energy concern, Areva, which employs almost sixty thousand people worldwide and which last year achieved revenues of ten billion EUR. A joint venture between the French company and the German company Siemens - Areva NP - designs and manufactures software and hardware for security and automation technologies in nuclear power stations. Areva NP Controls, a subsidiary of the company, has been operating in Bratislava from 1 July. The plan is that Slovak engineers will design hardware and software to be used in nuclear power station security systems around the world. The decision to open an engineering office in Bratislava was made after the management at the German head office realised the need for three hundred new engineers. T his many quality people are not available in Germany right now , said Franz Hilbert, the boss of the Slovak subsidiary. The company decided between the Czech Republic, Russia and India. In the end, Bratislava was chosen. F. Hilbert added that Slovakia has many quality people, but that lower labour costs also played a role in the decision-making process. The company plans to employ half of the required three hundred engineers in Bratislava and the remainder in Erlangen. About a dozen engineers are currently working in this Slovak company, some of whom are currently borrowed from partners. The view is that within five years about one hundred engineers will work in Slovakia under domestic management. According to F. Hilbert, the meeting of the Slovak and German cultures is trouble free, even though some differences can still be seen. 'We are better in planning and in fulfilling those plans, while the Slovaks are great at improvising. We are able to complement and learn from each other', said F. Hilbert. (authors)

  18. Gaseous Oxidized Mercury Dry Deposition Measurements in the Southwestern USA: A Comparison between Texas, Eastern Oklahoma, and the Four Corners Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark E. Sather

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Gaseous oxidized mercury (GOM dry deposition measurements using aerodynamic surrogate surface passive samplers were collected in central and eastern Texas and eastern Oklahoma, from September 2011 to September 2012. The purpose of this study was to provide an initial characterization of the magnitude and spatial extent of ambient GOM dry deposition in central and eastern Texas for a 12-month period which contained statistically average annual results for precipitation totals, temperature, and wind speed. The research objective was to investigate GOM dry deposition in areas of Texas impacted by emissions from coal-fired utility boilers and compare it with GOM dry deposition measurements previously observed in eastern Oklahoma and the Four Corners area. Annual GOM dry deposition rate estimates were relatively low in Texas, ranging from 0.1 to 0.3 ng/m2h at the four Texas monitoring sites, similar to the 0.2 ng/m2h annual GOM dry deposition rate estimate recorded at the eastern Oklahoma monitoring site. The Texas and eastern Oklahoma annual GOM dry deposition rate estimates were at least four times lower than the highest annual GOM dry deposition rate estimate previously measured in the more arid bordering western states of New Mexico and Colorado in the Four Corners area.

  19. Rhacochelifer disjunctus (Pseudoscorpiones: Cheliferidae new to the fauna of Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krajčovičová, Katarína

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available An illustrated description of Rhacochelifer disjunctus (L. Koch, 1873 collected in Slovakia is presented. One female was found phoretic on Lepidoptera in a Malaise trap. Another 37 specimens, including both sexes, tritonymphs and a protonymph, collected in the 1950s were deposited in the Natural History Museum in Prague, Czech Republic and identified as well. The discoveries of R. disjunctus specimens at five localities within Slovakia represent the first records of the species for this country.

  20. CASE STUDY: POLICIES, STRATEGIES AND RESPONSES TO PLAGIARISM IN SLOVAKIA

    OpenAIRE

    FOLTYNEK, Tomas; KRAVJAR, Julius; GLENDINNING, Irene

    2014-01-01

    The European project “Impact of Policies for Plagiarism in Higher Education Across Europe“ has identified best practices and gaps related to plagiarism in different European countries. Slovakia is one of interesting ones, where national repository for plagiarism detection was established. However, there are still gaps in terms of policies and overall understanding of plagiarism. This case study describes what happened in Slovakia in last few years, compares the situation with other European c...

  1. Dataset on records of Hericium erinaceus in Slovakia

    OpenAIRE

    Vladimír Kunca; Marek Čiliak

    2017-01-01

    The data presented in this article are related to the research article entitled ?Habitat preferences of Hericium erinaceus in Slovakia? (Kunca and ?iliak, 2016) [FUNECO607] [2]. The dataset include all available and unpublished data from Slovakia, besides the records from the same tree or stem. We compiled a database of records of collections by processing data from herbaria, personal records and communication with mycological activists. Data on altitude, tree species, host tree vital status,...

  2. Discriminations of Younger Granitic Masses at Gabal Qattar Area, North Eastern Desert, Egypt, Using Remote Sensing Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wasfi, S.A.; Lliase, E.L.; Mousa, M.I.

    2009-01-01

    Gabal Qattar area is located in the north Eastern Desert of Egypt between Latitudes 26 degree 52 and 27 degree 08 N, and Longitudes 33 degree 13 and 33 degree 25 E. The exposed rock units, there, from the oldest to the youngest, are meta volcanics; granodiorites- diorite complex; Hammamat sediments and younger granites. Most of the area is densely traversed by felsic and mafic dykes. The Qattarian younger granites are divided into seven granitic areas according to their spectral characters to facilitate the studying and delineating physical characteristic differences between these areas as well as to throw a light about the best conditions of exploration for radioactive mineralizations. This study is based on brightness Digital Number values (DNs) of the granitic areas, predominant trends and densities of the structural lineaments, shape and type of weathering products. Three areas of these seven younger granite areas form Gabal (G.) Qattar, and designated Gr 1, Gr 3 and Gr 4, where the other granite areas which form the G. Urn Dissi (Gr 2), G. Thelma (Gr 5), G. Abu Samyuk (Gr 6) and G. Ayn AI Ruwayshed (Gr 7). Photo geologically, these seven granite areas show some differences in shape, texture, predominant trends and densities of structural lineaments and ability of weathering. This study shows that the seven granite areas could be gathered into three main groups according to their DNs values of Landsat ETM+ spectral bands especially of band 5, where these three main groups representing different, and mainly coincide with the three granite phases previously delineated according to chronological field relation, petrographic and geochemical studies. The Gr 1 area contains all uranium occurrences from locations I to V. This area is characterized by semi circular shape of NW trend, massive appearance with high relief peaks, and high fracture density, where the N 55 degree E, N 5 degree E, N 45 degree E and N 45 degree W are the predominant trends. Some of the N 55

  3. Gaseous Oxidized Mercury Dry Deposition Measurements in Southwestern USA: Comparison between texas, Eastern Oklahoma, and the Four Corners Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaseous oxidized mercury (GOM) dry deposition measurements using aerodynamic surrogate surface passive samplers were collected in central and eastern Texas and eastern Oklahoma, from September 2011 to September 2012.The purpose of this study was to provide an initial characteriza...

  4. Problemy razvitija sel'skoj mestnosti Severo-Vostochnoj Germanii [Rural areas of Eastern Germany: modern challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levchenkov Andrei

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available After the German reunification the agricultural development of eastern territories seemed to have picked up its pace. Yet the main problems those territories are facing today hatched already in the mid-1990s. In our study we address the problems and challenges that hinder sustainable development of East German rural areas. We analyse agricultural statistics and describe the structure of agricultural enterprises, land-use, and other critical dimensions of agriculture. We discuss pros and cons of modern rural areas spatial planning policy and take a critical look at the current status of rural areas. We also put forward a number of concrete proposals aimed at the development of the area and counteracting the negative trends it is now experiencing. Even taking into account all ‘positive’ development trends that are postulated to have occurred since the unification, we underline the crucial necessity of diversification of labour forces and of changing the spatial planning policies in the rural areas of East Germany.

  5. Characterizing areas of potential human exposure to eastern equine encephalitis virus using serological and clinical data from horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocheleau, J-P; Arsenault, J; Ogden, N H; Lindsay, L R; Drebot, M; Michel, P

    2017-03-01

    Eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) is a rare but severe emerging vector-borne disease affecting human and animal populations in the northeastern United States where it is endemic. Key knowledge gaps remain about the epidemiology of EEE virus (EEEV) in areas where its emergence has more recently been reported. In Eastern Canada, viral activity has been recorded in mosquitoes and horses throughout the 2000s but cases of EEEV in humans have not been reported so far. This study was designed to provide an assessment of possible EEEV human exposure by modelling environmental risk factors for EEEV in horses, identifying high-risk environments and mapping risk in the province of Quebec, Canada. According to logistic models, being located near wooded swamps was a risk factor for seropositivity or disease in horses [odds ratio (OR) 4·15, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1·16-14·8) whereas being located on agricultural lands was identified as protective (OR 0·75, 95% CI 0·62-0·92). A better understanding of the environmental risk of exposure to EEEV in Canada provides veterinary and public health officials with enhanced means to more effectively monitor the emergence of this public health risk and design targeted surveillance and preventive measures.

  6. Quantifying human vulnerability in rural areas: case study of Tutova Hills (Eastern Romania)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stângă, I. C.; Grozavu, A.

    2012-06-01

    This paper aims to assess the vulnerability at regional level, the model and the proposed indicators being explicitly intended for an essentially rural region, in this case-Tutova Hills (Eastern Romania). Five categories of variables were taken into account to define the vulnerability components: rural habitat, demographic features, agriculture, environmental quality and emergency situations. For each one, five variables were analyzed and ranked based on the level of determination or subordination. In order to ensure the flexibility of the model and to avoid the criteria duplication in assessing vulnerability, only a single indicator of each category was retained and included in analysis: total number of inhabitants, dependency ratio, weight of arable land on slope categories, weight of land under forestry and road accessibility of villages. The selected indicators were mathematically processed in order to maximize their relevance and to unitary express the results in the spread 0-1. Also, values of each indicator were grouped into four classes, corresponding to the level of vulnerability: low, medium, high and very high. A general index was obtained through the integration of vulnerability factors in an equation based on the geometric mean. Spatial analysis was based on features of the MicroImages TNTmips 7.3. software, which allow the vulnerability mapping. This approach argues and states that vulnerability assessment through indicator-based methods can be made only according to the level and scale of analysis and related to natural or human conditions of a region.

  7. Size resolved mass concentration and elemental composition of atmospheric aerosols over the Eastern Mediterranean area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Smolík

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A Berner low pressure impactor was used to collect size-segregated aerosol samples at Finokalia, located on the north-eastern coast of Crete, Greece during July 2000 and January 2001. Several samples were also collected during the summer campaign aboard the research vessel "AEGAIEO" in the Aegean Sea. Gravimetric analysis and inversion techniques yielded daily PM1 and PM10 mass concentrations. The samples were also analysed by PIXE giving the elemental size distributions of Al, Si, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Sr, S, Cl, Ni, V, Cu, Cr, Zn, and Pb. The crustal elements and sea-salt had a unimodal supermicron size distribution. Sulphur was found predominantly in submicron fractions. K, V, and Ni exhibited a bimodal distribution with a submicron mode produced by forest fires and oil combustion. The anthropogenic elements had broad and not well-defined distributions. The time series for PM1 and PM10 mass and elemental concentrations showed both daily and seasonal variation. Higher mass concentrations were observed during two incursions of Saharan dust, whilst higher concentrations of S, Cu, Zn, and Pb were encountered in samples collected in air masses arriving from northern Greece or the western coast of Turkey. Elevated concentrations of chlorine were found in samples with air masses either originating above the Atlantic Ocean and arriving at Finokalia via western Europe or recirculating over the western coast of the Black Sea.

  8. Agencification in Slovakia: The Current Situation and Lessons Learned

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juraj NEMEC

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available There is little information on agencification in Slovakia. Here we try to fill this gap by focusing on both national and the sub-national governments. Our main goal is to describe the character and scale of agencification in Slovakia. We also wish to test a specific hypothesis, derived from NPM policy convergence theory: that agencification in Slovakia lacks a systematic conceptual framework located in the local context. Our research has unearthed nine countrywide service delivery agencies, plus a large number of decentralized delivery agencies (e.g. public hospitals, universities, schools and public training institutions, and 25 central regulatory agencies. This is not an exhaustive list as there is no official data on agencies. We argue that Slovak agencification – especially during the Dzurinda administrations – was mainly determined by two factors: the EU accession process and the political orientation of the governing coalition. Agencification predicts that increased managerial freedom should improve results. We show that this is true for Slovakia, even though our hypothesis that agencification in Slovakia lacks a systematic local conceptual framework is also shown to be true. We argue that despite many implementation problems, the creation of agencies in Slovakia and elsewhere in CEE was an important step forward.

  9. Response of surface and groundwater on meteorological drought in Topla River catchment, Slovakia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fendekova, Miriam; Fendek, Marian; Vrablikova, Dana; Blaskovicova, Lotta; Slivova, Valeria; Horvat, Oliver

    2016-04-01

    Continuously increasing number of drought studies published in scientific journals reflects the attention of the scientific community paid to drought. The fundamental works among many others were published by Yevjevich (1967), Zelenhasic and Salvai (1987), later by Tallaksen and van Lanen Eds. (2004). The aim of the paper was to analyze the response of surface and groundwater to meteorological drought occurrence in the upper and middle part of the Topla River Basin, Slovakia. This catchment belongs to catchments with unfavourable hydrogeological conditions, being built of rocks with quite low permeability. The basin is located in the north-eastern part of Slovakia covering the area of 1050.05 km2. The response was analyzed using precipitation data from the Bardejov station (long-term annual average of 662 mm in 1981 - 2012) and discharge data from two gauging stations - Bardejov and Hanusovce nad Toplou. Data on groundwater head from eight observation wells, located in the catchment, were also used, covering the same observation period. Meteorological drought was estimated using characterisation of the year humidity and SPI index. Hydrological drought was evaluated using the threshold level method and method of sequent peak algorithm, both with the fixed and also variable thresholds. The centroid method of the cluster analysis with the squared Euclidean distance was used for clustering data according to occurrence of drought periods, lasting for 100 days and more. Results of the SPI index showed very good applicability for drought periods identification in the basin. The most pronounced dry periods occurred in 1982 - 1983, 1984, 1998 and 2012 being classified as moderately dry, and also in 1993 - 1994, 2003 - 2004 and 2007 evolving from moderately to severely dry years. Short-term drought prevailed in discharges, only three periods of drought longer than 100 days occurred during the evaluated period in 1986 - 1987, 1997 and 2003 - 2004. Discharge drought in the

  10. Radon in outdoor air at various sites in Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulko, Martin; Holy, Karol; Muellerova, Monika; Polaskova, Anna; Hola, Olga

    2010-01-01

    Radon 222 was continuously monitored at four sites of Slovakia, viz. at the campus of the Faculty of Mathematics, Physics and Informatics, Comenius University in Bratislava (FMPI CU), at the Slovak Metrological Institute in Bratislava (SMI), at Jaslovske Bohunice (with its nuclear power plant), and at Novaky (coal mining area). The minima and maxima of the daily radon waves occurred at different periods of the day. The average radon activity concentration (RAC) in Novaky was more than twice as high as at the remaining sites, presumably due to a higher rate of radon exhalation from soil. By using the 'box' model, the exhalation rate at Novaky was estimated to be 40 mBq.m -2 .s -1 , which is about 2.5 times that at the FMPI CU in Bratislava. This higher exhalation rate in Novaky is probably caused by a different bedrock in this area. The average annual effective dose from radon and its daughters estimated by the UNSCEAR methodology is 0.06 mSv in the atmosphere of Bratislava and Jaslovske Bohunice and 0.13 mSv in the atmosphere of Novaky

  11. Radon in the atmosphere in two different localities of Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulko, M.; Holy, K.; Polaskova, A.; Simon, J.; Muellerova, M.; Melicherova, T.; Hola, O.

    2006-01-01

    Radon activity concentration in the atmosphere can vary more or less according to the locality of the measurement. In this paper there are compared radon activity concentration (RAC) and equilibrium equivalent concentration (EEC) obtained in two different localities of Slovakia (Bratislava and Jaslovske Bohunice, respectively). The localities are about 55 km apart from each other. Data analyses for 5 months of the year 2005 are presented. A surprisingly good agreement between the localities was found on the variations and mean values. These results imply that the turbulent mixing of air in the atmosphere of both localities is very similar. Various EEC/RAC ratios were found for different months, which might indicate a change in equilibrium factor F during the year. There was also found out that the mean daily courses observed in the two localities are slightly shifted apart. This is probably caused by different orography of the area where the measurement devices are installed and because of an earlier incidence of solar radiation on the measurement area in Jaslovske Bohunice. (authors)

  12. Consumers preferences of shopping centers in Bratislava (Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristína Bilková

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available There have been changes in the shopping behavior and preferences of consumers in the post-communist countries caused by political changes after 1989. Slovakia is not an exception, and it has been observed a change not only at the consumers’ level but also in retail stores. A notable bearer of such changes was the construction of big shopping centers that were a new phenomenon in shopping. They quickly became popular and changed spatial and shopping patterns of consumers. The main aim of this study is to analyze and evaluate the shopping preferences of consumers based on the example of the capital city – Bratislava (at the level of urban districts. The database consists of results of a questionnaire survey carried out in 2011. Respondents were interviewed inside the shopping center. The partial aims focus on the analysis of consumers’ perceptions, the frequency of their shopping and the mode of transport used for shopping. One of the goals of this study is also to evaluate the perception of consumers in terms of the catchment areas of the chosen shopping center, as well as the perceptional classification of retail in the given area and the accessibility of stores.

  13. WHAT SHOULD ESTONIA DO IN ORDER TO INCREASE THE VALUE OF ITS EXPORTS OF GOODS TO SLOVAKIA AND SLOVENIA?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejan Romih

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses Estonia’s trade in goods with the world in general and with Slovakia and Slovenia in particular. Additionally, it also proposes some measures to increase the value of Estonia’s exports of goods to the aforementioned countries, both of which are Estonia’s minor export partners in Central and Eastern Europe. In 2013, the value of Estonia’s exports of goods to Slovakia and Slovenia amounted to €51.3 million and €7.4 million respectively. In order to increase the value of its exports of goods to these two countries, Estonia should increase the competitiveness of Estonian enterprises (especially small- and medium-sized ones in the Slovakian and Slovenian markets and adopt other measures such as increasing the sustainability of the aforementioned enterprises with a view to facilitating their entry into new markets. In recent years, sustainability has become an important factor in competitiveness, which is mainly the result of increased environmental awareness of consumers and other stakeholders, foremost in developed countries (including Slovakia and Slovenia. Sustainable innovation has therefore become an important source of competitive advantage, which is especially true for enterprises operating in competitive markets. Therefore, in order to increase the competitiveness of Estonian enterprises in the aforementioned markets, Estonia should promote sustainable innovation and take certain other measures.

  14. Descriptive Study on the Epidemiology of Lung Cancer in Coal-producing Area in Eastern Yunnan, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jihua LI

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Xuanwei county is located at Late Permian coal-accumulating area in eastern Yunnan and western Guizhou, China. The lung cancer mortality rate in Xuanwei county is among the highest in China and has been attributed to exposure to indoor smoky coal emissions that contain very high levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs. Recent years, the pollution and the higher mortality rate of lung cancer has been watched in the area around Xuanwei, and there is no report about whether the epidemic levels and the pathogen of lung cancer in other area of eastern Yunnan is similar to that in xuanwei. The aim of this study is to epidemic levels and cause of lung cancer in coal-producing area in the east of Yunnan province. Methods 382 study units (nature villages were selected by stratified cluster random sampling from coalproducing area in eastern Yunnan province, China. The villagers who were aged 30-79 years with no history of lung cancer were enrolled. All the participants received an initial single-view posterior-anterior chest radiograph and administered a questionnaire survey (which involves the information of demography, household and fuel use, lifestyle, tobacco and occupational exposure history, family and personal medical history, etc. The subjects with a positive screen by chest x-ray underwent to have a computed tomography scan of the chest and biopsy examination. The confidence interval of the standardized rate ratio were adopted to evaluate the statistical significance of differences in different regions. Results 52,833 villagers were surveyed and screened with X-ray. 604 of them were suspicious lung cancer with an initial chest radiograph, 541 underwent CT scan (362 were diagnosed by CT and 109 were diagnosed by histology. The adjusted positive rates for lung cancer screening with CT is 763.08 per 100,000, the age-standardized rate (ASR with the world standard population is 426.28 per 100,000 (95% confidence

  15. [Dynamics of numbers of commercial fish in early ontogenesis in different areas of the Central-Eastern Atlantic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkhipov, A G; Mamedov, A A; Simonova, T A; Tenitskaia, I A

    2011-01-01

    Changes in the quantitative composition of mass fish species at early stages of ontogenesis in different areas of the Central-Eastern Atlantic (CEA) in warm and cold seasons in 1994-2008 were analyzed in the paper. The most widespread representatives of ichthyocenosis of CEA were: European pilchard (Sardina pilchardus), common scad (Trachurus trachurus), round sardinella (Sardinella aurita), and West-African scad (Trachrus trecae). The data obtained indicate that, within the economic zone of Morocco, fluctuations of numbers at early stages of development in European pilchard and common scad are close over the entire water area under consideration (36 degrees-21 degrees N). The regularities of fluctuations of the numbers of ichthyoplankton are similar to the interannual changes in the biomass of fish in the area of Morocco. In the area of Mauritania (21 degrees-16 degrees N), fluctuations of numbers of the early stages of development of commercial fish cannot be unambiguously correlated with changes in the biomass of adult fish. It is known that, in the economic zone of Mauritania, there are Senegal-Mauritanian populations of round sardinella and West-African scad that inhabit waters of different states and are not completely assessed by our surveys. Therefore, no obvious relation was observed between the considered data.

  16. 76 FR 8765 - Eastern Great Lakes Area Maritime Security Committee; Vacancies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-15

    ..., update, and exercising of the AMS Plan for their area of responsibility. Such matters may include, but...; maritime industry, including labor; other port stakeholders having a special competence in maritime...

  17. 78 FR 11670 - Eastern Great Lakes Area Maritime Security Committee; Vacancies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-19

    ... assist the Captain of the Port in the development, review, update, and exercising of the Area Maritime..., including labor; other port stakeholders having a special competence in maritime security; and port...

  18. Trends of rape in the Mthatha area, Eastern Cape, South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To estimate the trend of sexual assault in the Mthatha area of South Africa. Methods: ... prevention of pregnancy, HIV, and other sexually transmitted infections; .... African communities, it is considered a legitimate right of male sexual.

  19. Agricultural utilisation and potential suitability of the Sysľovské polia Special Protection Area (south-western Slovakia landscape in relation to the habitat requirements of the red-footed falcon (Falco vespertinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zemko Martin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Intensification of land use in an agricultural landscape significantly affects biodiversity also in protected areas. This can be observed in the Sysľovské polia Special Protection Area in relation to the occurrence of the red-footed falcon (Falco vespertinus. The objective of this study was to evaluate the landscape structure and suitability of agrotechnical procedures for the habitat demands of this species in the course of the period from 2004 until 2017. The utilisation was assessed on the basis of four landscape elements representation in 1949 and 2017. The next step was analysis of landscape patches. The aim was to quantify the diversity and the spatial structure of the landscape mosaic using Shannon’s Diversity Index and Evenness Index as well as Simpson’s Diversity Index and Evenness Index and spatial pattern analysis in the Fragstats software programme. Assessment of crop suitability was carried out according to the following criteria: representation of positive/negative agricultural crops, diversity of crops in crop rotation, and (non-observance of crop rotation. It was found that the agricultural landscape use did not change significantly. The study area has been used as an intensively-farmed agricultural landscape for a long time. The landscape elements have remained almost identical, with dominance of arable land. Differences emerged in the analysis of the micropatches, which are represented by natural hedgerows consisting of various species of trees, shrubs and grasses. The results show a decrease in the diversity of patches and changes in the structure of the landscape patches, which may be important in terms of the preservation of the habitat of fauna which form an important part of the F vespertinus diet. On the basis of the evaluation of the suitability of agricultural crop growing, we found that there were some areas showing negative values in all the criteria, and thus they require changes in the crop rotation focusing

  20. Taenia solium Infections in a rural area of Eastern Zambia-a community based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwape, Kabemba E; Phiri, Isaac K; Praet, Nicolas; Muma, John B; Zulu, Gideon; Van den Bossche, Peter; de Deken, Reginald; Speybroeck, Niko; Dorny, Pierre; Gabriël, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Taenia solium taeniosis/cysticercosis is a parasitic infection occurring in many developing countries. Data on the status of human infections in Zambia is largely lacking. We conducted a community-based study in Eastern Zambia to determine the prevalence of human taeniosis and cysticercosis in a rural community. Stool and serum samples were collected from willing participants. Geographical references of the participants' households were determined and household questionnaires administered. Taeniosis was diagnosed in stool samples by coprology and by the polyclonal antibody-based copro-antigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (copro-Ag ELISA), while cysticercosis was diagnosed in serum by the B158/B60 monoclonal antibody-based antigen ELISA (sero-Ag ELISA). Identification of the collected tapeworm after niclosamide treatment and purgation was done using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). A total of 255 households from 20 villages participated in the study, 718 stool and 708 serum samples were collected and examined. Forty-five faecal samples (6.3%) were found positive for taeniosis on copro-Ag ELISA while circulating cysticercus antigen was detected in 5.8% (41/708) individuals. The tapeworm recovered from one of the cases was confirmed to be T. solium on PCR-RFLP. Seropositivity (cysticercosis) was significantly positively related to age (p = 0.00) and to copro-Ag positivity (taeniosis) (p = 0.03) but not to gender. Change point analysis revealed that the frequency of cysticercus antigens increased significantly in individuals above the age of 30. Copro-Ag positivity was not related to age or gender. The following risk factors were noted to be present in the study community: free-range pig husbandry system and poor sanitation with 47.8% of the households visited lacking latrines. This study has recorded high taeniosis and cysticercosis prevalences and identified the need for further studies on transmission

  1. Taenia solium Infections in a rural area of Eastern Zambia-a community based study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kabemba E Mwape

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Taenia solium taeniosis/cysticercosis is a parasitic infection occurring in many developing countries. Data on the status of human infections in Zambia is largely lacking. We conducted a community-based study in Eastern Zambia to determine the prevalence of human taeniosis and cysticercosis in a rural community. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Stool and serum samples were collected from willing participants. Geographical references of the participants' households were determined and household questionnaires administered. Taeniosis was diagnosed in stool samples by coprology and by the polyclonal antibody-based copro-antigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (copro-Ag ELISA, while cysticercosis was diagnosed in serum by the B158/B60 monoclonal antibody-based antigen ELISA (sero-Ag ELISA. Identification of the collected tapeworm after niclosamide treatment and purgation was done using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP. A total of 255 households from 20 villages participated in the study, 718 stool and 708 serum samples were collected and examined. Forty-five faecal samples (6.3% were found positive for taeniosis on copro-Ag ELISA while circulating cysticercus antigen was detected in 5.8% (41/708 individuals. The tapeworm recovered from one of the cases was confirmed to be T. solium on PCR-RFLP. Seropositivity (cysticercosis was significantly positively related to age (p = 0.00 and to copro-Ag positivity (taeniosis (p = 0.03 but not to gender. Change point analysis revealed that the frequency of cysticercus antigens increased significantly in individuals above the age of 30. Copro-Ag positivity was not related to age or gender. The following risk factors were noted to be present in the study community: free-range pig husbandry system and poor sanitation with 47.8% of the households visited lacking latrines. CONCLUSIONS: This study has recorded high taeniosis and cysticercosis prevalences and

  2. Impact of prescribed burning on soils in urban interface areas in Granada (south-eastern Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Montoya Sánchez-Camacho

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We report here on the effects of preventive burning on soils in peri-urban areas in Granada (Spain. The sampling area, located close to the Sacromonte Abbey on the outskirts of the city of Granada,used to be an agricultural plot devoted to olive trees and cereals but is now abandoned to scrub and the odd tree.The soils in question were entisols. Controlled burning was conductedfor six hours over an area of 13,300 m2and samples were taken at three different times: before burning, four days afterwards and a year afterwards. The parameters measured were: pH, organic matter, carbonates, soil moisture and nitrogen. The results reveal that whilst organic matter and nitrogen contents increased, pH, carbonates and soil moisture decreased after burning.

  3. Emission trading in Slovakia is not bound to Kyoto

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slovak, K.; Zackova, K.

    2004-01-01

    After Pentagon published its report problems related to changes in climate became an important discussion topic again. The report indicates that future temperature increase could have fatal impacts like flooding of Netherlands. Representatives of Slovak National Climate Program do not completely share this view. They consider it to be the worst scenario - catastrophic scenario. And they are also positive that the emissions of greenhouse gases that are the main reason for these changes of climate will decrease. EU is currently working on Directives that will support one of the possible solutions - emission trading and will make this trade independent from ratification of the Kyoto protocol. The basic principle is simple - a country with production of the greenhouse gases below the legally set level or below the level set out by international agreement on climatic changes will have some spare emission quotas that can be traded i.e. sold to a country that produces more gases then allowed. And based on such an agreement signed between a Slovak and Japanese company, Japan will be allowed to produce more greenhouse gases if it can prove that there is an area in the world where the production is below the limit. But, at the same time, it will have to pay for this over-production. Starting next year over 12-thousand companies will be allowed to participate in this business. At the moment an act on emission trading is being prepared in Slovakia. It should have been completed by end of January but the approval process is being delayed. Similar acts are under preparation also in other countries and not even the EU member states have passed them yet. The National Allocation Plan in Slovakia should distribute the emission quotas to about 200 companies. Many European politicians consider the emission trade an effective economic tool provided it will be used as motivation for decrease of greenhouse gas production. And so all companies participating in this project will handle in

  4. Cyclical convergence of Central and Eastern European countries to the Euro area core. New methodological approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ileana ALEXE

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The current paper develops an analysis on the degree of business cycle convergence of the new member states of the EU towards the Euro area core (Germany, France, Italy, Belgium, Netherlands and Luxembourg during 1996 – 2010.Unlike the previous research, the study takes into consideration the similarity of cycles, and not their synchronization. Furthermore, from the methodological point of view, it explores the use of survey indicators in the analysis of the cycles, thus in addition to the traditional approach that employs the GDP. The results obtained through clusterization show that the degree of convergence towards Euro area core remains modest.

  5. Changes in the flora of the eastern and southern shore area of lake Piaseczno in the years 2003-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Serafin

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Changes in the flora composition of the eastern and southern shore area of Lake Piaseczno, with predominantly agricultural and recreational land use in the lake catchment, were examined in the years 2003 and 2010. Multifaceted analysis of the flora was made with regard to its botanical, syntaxonomical, and ecological aspects, the identified species were assigned to different historical-geographical groups and range groups, as well as the flora synanthropisation, anthropophytisation and apophytisation indices were calculated and compared. Both the species number and the species floristic composition of the Lake Piaseczno shore zone changed in seven years. The fact that the value of the synanthropisation index remained at a similar level and a slight increase in the anthropophytisation index values are probably related to the decrease in tourist traffic in this area and the diminishing pressure from extensive agriculture. The results of the flora analysis, in terms of the assignment of species to characteristic ecological groups, confirm the specific habitat conditions in the study area and, above all, significant permeability of the substrate and high soil nutrient availability.

  6. HYDROGEOLOGICAL AND HYDROGEOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF A WIDER AREA OF THE REGIONAL WELL FIELD EASTERN SLAVONIA – SIKIREVCI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasna Kopić

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper establishes hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical characteristics of a wider area of the regional well field Eastern Slavonia - Sikirevci. The research was conducted based on data gathered from the area of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Republic of Croatia. The aquifer Velika Kopanica is situated at the territory of the Republic of Croatia in the triangular region formed between Kopanica, Gundinci and Kruševica. The River Sava partially flows through it and the aquifer extends beneath the river to the territory of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina from Donji Svilaj in the West to Domaljevac in the East where its yield is the highest. The thickness of the aquifer decreases towards the water body Odžak. It was determined that the groundwater which is extracted from wells of the wider area of the regional well field contains iron, manganese, natural ammonia and arsenic in values exceeding the maximum allowable concentration for drinking water. The increased values of these parameters are a result of mineral composition and reductive conditions in the aquifer environment. By means of a multivariate statistic cluster analysis, an overview of groups of elements is provided based on geochemical affinity and/or origin.

  7. Diet of dingoes and other wild dogs in peri-urban areas of north-eastern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Benjamin L.; Carmelito, Erin; Amos, Matt; Goullet, Mark S.; Allen, Lee R.; Speed, James; Gentle, Matt; Leung, Luke K.-P.

    2016-03-01

    Knowledge of the resource requirements of urban predators can improve our understanding of their ecology and assist town planners and wildlife management agencies in developing management approaches that alleviate human-wildlife conflicts. Here we examine food and dietary items identified in scats of dingoes in peri-urban areas of north-eastern Australia to better understand their resource requirements and the potential for dingoes to threaten locally fragmented populations of native fauna. Our primary aim was to determine what peri-urban dingoes eat, and whether or not this differs between regions. We identified over 40 different food items in dingo scats, almost all of which were mammals. Individual species commonly observed in dingo scats included agile wallabies, northern brown bandicoots and swamp wallabies. Birds were relatively common in some areas but not others, as were invertebrates. Dingoes were identified as a significant potential threat to fragmented populations of koalas. Dietary overlap was typically very high or near-identical between regions, indicating that peri-urban dingoes ate the same types or sizes of prey in different areas. Future studies should seek to quantify actual and perceived impacts of, and human attitudes towards, peri-urban dingoes, and to develop management strategies with a greater chance of reducing human-wildlife conflicts.

  8. Ethnobotany of babassu palm ( Attalea speciosa Mart. in the Tucuruí Lake Protected Areas Mosaic - eastern Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Ribeiro Araújo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Documenting the ethnobotanical knowledge of populations living in protected areas is important both for science and for the effective conservation of these areas, as it can help to clarify the level of dependency that human communities have on local plant resources. Babassu (Attalea speciosa, Arecaceae is one of the most important non-timber forest resources of rural communities in the Amazon. We explored the ethnobotanical knowledge and uses of babassu by riverine populations inhabiting the Tucuruí Lake Protected Areas Mosaic in the eastern Amazon, by examining the diversity, purposes and descriptions of its uses and aspects of its extraction. Data were collected in 2010 and 2014 from 193 families. A total of 1,226 use records were cited representing 60 different uses. Records were classified into nine use-categories; utensils and tools was the most important category, followed by construction and human food. The use with the greatest purpose consensus value among the informants was thatch. Babassu proved to be an important resource for the livelihood of the local communities in providing shelter, food and reliable energy. Most informants lacked knowledge about sustainable practices and management of this resource.

  9. Radioactivity and uranium potentialities of wadi hammad area, north eastern desert, Egypt. Vol. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salman, A.B.; Shalaby, M.H.; Khamis, H.A.

    1996-01-01

    Late proterozoic, pan-african rocks exposed at Wadi Hammad area are represented by metamorphosed and un metamorphosed sediments and volcanics in addition to different types of intensive rocks. Systematic radiometric survey is conducted at W.Hammad area in order to reveal the distribution of radioactivity and uranium potentialities. Statistical analysis of the field data collected indicate that, high level of δ-radioactivity is linked to the younger granites compared with the other rock types. The tree types of younger granites recorded in the area namely: porphyritic granites, biotite granites, and perthitic leucogranites differ among each other in their ground radioactivity. The increase in ground δ- radioactivity from the porphyritic to biotite granites to perthitic leucogranites corresponds to the increase in the uranium content of these granites. Four radioactive anomalies were discovered in the younger granites of the area of W.Hammad. The genetic relation between certain set of fractures and the distribution of δ- radioactivity in G. El Gulf granites indicates that the area of anomalous radioactivity are structurally controlled by joint sets trending N-S, NNE-SSW and NNW-SSE. The presence of intensive hematitization episyenitization, red and milky silica veins, aplites and pegmatite veins indicate the presence of hydrothermal activities along these fractures. It is worth to mention that, the presence of episyentizied zone associated with radioactive anomaly, represents a good indication for the possibility of hosting uranium deposits in deeper horizon. Moreover, the presence of high back-ground of magnetic uranium in the perthitic leucogranites increases studied the possibility of concentration of uranium by leaching from the granites. 12 figs., 1 tab

  10. Radioactivity and uranium potentialities of wadi hammad area, north eastern desert, Egypt. Vol. 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salman, A B; Shalaby, M H; Khamis, H A [Nuclear Material Authority, Cairo, (Egypt)

    1996-03-01

    Late proterozoic, pan-african rocks exposed at Wadi Hammad area are represented by metamorphosed and un metamorphosed sediments and volcanics in addition to different types of intensive rocks. Systematic radiometric survey is conducted at W.Hammad area in order to reveal the distribution of radioactivity and uranium potentialities. Statistical analysis of the field data collected indicate that, high level of {delta}-radioactivity is linked to the younger granites compared with the other rock types. The tree types of younger granites recorded in the area namely: porphyritic granites, biotite granites, and perthitic leucogranites differ among each other in their ground radioactivity. The increase in ground {delta}- radioactivity from the porphyritic to biotite granites to perthitic leucogranites corresponds to the increase in the uranium content of these granites. Four radioactive anomalies were discovered in the younger granites of the area of W.Hammad. The genetic relation between certain set of fractures and the distribution of {delta}- radioactivity in G. El Gulf granites indicates that the area of anomalous radioactivity are structurally controlled by joint sets trending N-S, NNE-SSW and NNW-SSE. The presence of intensive hematitization episyenitization, red and milky silica veins, aplites and pegmatite veins indicate the presence of hydrothermal activities along these fractures. It is worth to mention that, the presence of episyentizied zone associated with radioactive anomaly, represents a good indication for the possibility of hosting uranium deposits in deeper horizon. Moreover, the presence of high back-ground of magnetic uranium in the perthitic leucogranites increases studied the possibility of concentration of uranium by leaching from the granites. 12 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Illegal drug use among female university students in Slovakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matejovičová, Barbora; Trandžík, Jozef; Schlarmannová, Janka; Boledovičová, Mária; Velemínský, Miloš

    2015-01-20

    This study is focused on the issue of illegal drug use among female university students preparing to become teachers. The main aim was to determine the frequency of drug abuse in a group of young women (n=215, mean age 20.44 years). Using survey methods, we determined that 33.48% of female university students in Slovakia use illegal drugs and 66.51% of students have never used illegal drugs. Differences between these groups were determined using statistical analysis, mostly in 4 areas of survey questions. We determined that education of parents has a statistically significant influence on use of illegal drugs by their children (χ2=10.14; Pstudents not using illegal drugs were interested in how their children spend their free time (68.53%). We confirmed the relationship between consumption of alcohol and illegal drug use (χ2=16.645; Pstudents is marijuana. Our findings are relevant for comparison and generalization regarding causes of the steady increase in number of young people using illegal drugs.

  12. GLOBAL CHALLENGES FOR SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT IN SLOVAKIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalana Bartosova

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper is focused on the evaluation of economic, social and environmental challenges of sustainable agriculture. The selected indicators of the economic challenges of sustainable agriculture imply that agriculture in Slovakia is not in long term be able to ensure competitiveness in the European market, gross agricultural output is characterized by a faster decline in animal production than in crop production and the value of import of agri-food commodities is higher than the value of export. According to selected indicators of social challenges of sustainable agriculture the number of persons working in agriculture has decreasing tendency in last years. The evaluation of selected indicators of environmental challenges of sustainable agriculture implies that area of organic agriculture is the most widely applied sub-measure within the measure agri-environmental payments. For ensuring the balance of the three mentioned dimensions of sustainable agriculture is necessary to increase of local production and consumption of local products, to ensure the protection of nature and landscape, to ensure rural development and to increase the employment opportunities in countryside.

  13. The assessment of EUMETSAT HSAF Snow Products for mountainuos areas in the eastern part of Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akyurek, Z.; Surer, S.; Beser, O.; Bolat, K.; Erturk, A. G.

    2012-04-01

    Monitoring the snow parameters (e.g. snow cover area, snow water equivalent) is a challenging work. Because of its natural physical properties, snow highly affects the evolution of weather from daily basis to climate on a longer time scale. The derivation of snow products over mountainous regions has been considered very challenging. This can be done by periodic and precise mapping of the snow cover. However inaccessibility and scarcity of the ground observations limit the snow cover mapping in the mountainous areas. Today, it is carried out operationally by means of optical satellite imagery and microwave radiometry. In retrieving the snow cover area from satellite images bring the problem of topographical variations within the footprint of satellite sensors and spatial and temporal variation of snow characteristics in the mountainous areas. Most of the global and regional operational snow products use generic algorithms for flat and mountainous areas. However the non-uniformity of the snow characteristics can only be modeled with different algorithms for mountain and flat areas. In this study the early findings of Satellite Application Facilities on Hydrology (H-SAF) project, which is financially supported by EUMETSAT, will be presented. Turkey is a part of the H-SAF project, both in product generation (eg. snow recognition, fractional snow cover and snow water equivalent) for mountainous regions for whole Europe, cal/val of satellite-derived snow products with ground observations and cal/val studies with hydrological modeling in the mountainous terrain of Europe. All the snow products are operational on a daily basis. For the snow recognition product (H10) for mountainous areas, spectral thresholding methods were applied on sub pixel scale of MSG-SEVIRI images. The different spectral characteristics of cloud, snow and land determined the structure of the algorithm and these characteristics were obtained from subjective classification of known snow cover features

  14. Mapping Of The Hydrothermal Alteration Zones At Haimur Gold Mine Area, South Eastern Desert, Egypt, Using Remote Sensing Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madani, A.A.; Abdel Rahman, E.M.; FA WZY, Kh.M.; EMAM, A.

    2003-01-01

    The utilization of the Landsat-7 ETM+ imagery and scanned aerial photograph for mapping hydrothermal alteration zones at the Haimur gold mine area, south Eastern Desert, Egypt and the production of large scale geologic image map, scale 1 :20 000, using fusion technique are the main tasks of this article. The study area lies at the conjunction of two shear zones, namely the Allaqi shear zone (NW-SE) and the Haimur shear zone (NE-SW). The basement rocks covering Haimur gold mine area include ophiolitic blocks and sheets that were tectonically thrusted over and mixed within a matrix of island arc rocks. Principal Component Analysis, band ratios and data fusion are the main remote sensing techniques applied in the present work. The eigenvalue of the first principal component (PCl) includes 95.9% of the information content of the image whereas PC2 and PC5 mark 3.03% and 0.10%, respectively. The PC5 image was found to represent the highly altered rocks in the study area (serpentinites and carbonates), which display dark image signatures. The metagabbros and metapyroclastics can be easily discriminated on the PC1:R, PC2:G and PC5:B false color composite image in which they have dark red and blue image signatures, respectively. The talc carbonates and the serpentinites have bright image signatures on 5/7 band ratio image whereas metapyroxenites have dark image signatures. The talc carbonates are composed mainly of talc, magnesite and calcite with subordinate amounts of fibrous antigorite. These minerals have absorption features near 2.35 m which lead to increase 5/7 band ratio value. The false color composite ratio image 5/7:R, 4/5:G and 3/1:B was merged with scanned high spatial resolution aerial photograph using IHS transformation method. The resultant fused image was then used to delineate the hydrothermal alteration zones as well as listwaenite ridges exposed at the Haimur gold mine area

  15. Geology, Petrography, Geochemistry and Radioactivity Studies on The Dyke Swarms of Gabal Al Aglab area, North Eastern Desert, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eldabe, M.M.M.

    2016-01-01

    Gabal Al Aglab area is located in the North Eastern Desert of Egypt bounded by lat. 27° 14'-27° 19' N and long. 33° 00'-33° 05' E. It is covered by pan African basement rocks. The present study concern with the geology, petrography, geochemistry and radioactivity of various types of the dyke swarms in Gabal Al Aglab area. The field studies revealed that the area comprises the following litho-tectonic units ; Dokhan volcanic (oldest) and Hamammat sedimentary rocks and younger granites are represented by both Gabal Um Twier and Gabal Al Aglab syenogranites (youngest). Many dykes of acidic, intermediate and basic composition have a large extension and dissect all the mentioned rock units. The dyke swarms intruding Gabal Al Aglab area include the acidic (felsite and granite porphyry) dykes, while the intermediate comprise andesite and andesite porphyry and the basic dykes show basalt and dolerites. The chronologic relations of these dykes indicate the following sequence of emplacement beginning with the oldest acidic, followed by intermediate and then basic ones. The geochemical studies indicate that the acidic dykes were derived from a highly differentiated calc- alkaline magma, while the basic and intermediate dykes were developed from magma of subalkaline nature. The dykes were derived from separate magmas and not by magmatic differentiation of single mother magma. The radioactivity of the studied dyke rocks revealed that the high levels of radioactivity mainly linked to the acidity, differentiation and alkalinity characters. Radioactive granitic spot was observed along the contact with some basic dykes due to their thermal effect during its emplacement on the granite, at the northern part of the studied area. This radioactive spot display anomalies with higher values in U and Th contents, than the normal background value of the younger granite.

  16. Megafauna of the UKSRL exploration contract area and eastern Clarion-Clipperton Zone in the Pacific Ocean: Echinodermata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amon, Diva J; Ziegler, Amanda F; Kremenetskaia, Antonina; Mah, Christopher L; Mooi, Rich; O'Hara, Tim; Pawson, David L; Roux, Michel; Smith, Craig R

    2017-01-01

    There is growing interest in mining polymetallic nodules from the abyssal Clarion-Clipperton Zone (CCZ) in the tropical Pacific Ocean. Despite being the focus of environmental studies for decades, the benthic megafauna of the CCZ remain poorly known. In order to predict and manage the environmental impacts of mining in the CCZ, baseline knowledge of the megafauna is essential. The ABYSSLINE Project has conducted benthic biological baseline surveys in the UK Seabed Resources Ltd polymetallic-nodule exploration contract area (UK-1). Prior to these research cruises in 2013 and 2015, no biological studies had been done in this area of the eastern CCZ. Using a Remotely Operated Vehicle and Autonomous Underwater Vehicle, the megafauna within the UKSRL exploration contract area (UK-1) and at a site ~250 km east of the UK-1 area were surveyed, allowing us to make the first estimates of megafaunal morphospecies richness from the imagery collected. Here, we present an atlas of the abyssal echinoderm megafauna observed and collected during the ABYSSLINE cruises to the UK-1 polymetallic-nodule exploration contract area in the CCZ. There appear to be at least 62 distinct morphospecies (13 Asteroidea, 5 Crinoidea, 9 Echinoidea, 29 Holothuroidea and 6 Ophiuroidea) identified mostly by imagery but also using molecular barcoding for a limited number of animals that were collected. This atlas will aid the synthesis of megafaunal presence/absence data collected by contractors, scientists and other stakeholders undertaking work in the CCZ, ultimately helping to decipher the biogeography of the megafauna in this threatened habitat.

  17. Benthic algae of benchmark streams in agricultural areas of eastern Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scudder, Barbara C.; Stewart, Jana S.

    2001-01-01

    Benthic algae were collected from 20 streams in the Western Lake Michigan Drainages by the U.S. Geological Survey in May and June of 1993 as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment program. These streams were selected to represent "benchmark" streams that were minimally affected by human activities, especially agriculture, for comparison to other streams in similar environmental settings. Streams were chosen from four relatively homogeneous units (RHU's) in agricultural areas with differing texture of surficial deposits and bedrock type.

  18. Potential of Progressive Construction Systems in Slovakia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlovska, Maria; Spisakova, Marcela; Mackova, Daniela

    2017-10-01

    Construction industry is a sector with rapid development. Progressive technologies of construction and new construction materials also called modern methods of construction (MMC) are developed constantly. MMC represent the adoption of construction industrialisation and the use of prefabrication of components in building construction. One of these modern methods is also system Varianthaus, which is based on, insulated concrete forms principle and provides complete production plant for wall, ceiling and roof elements for a high thermal insulation house construction. Another progressive construction system is EcoB, which represents an insulated precast concrete panel based on combination of two layers, insulation and concrete, produced in a factory as a whole. Both modern methods of construction are not yet known and wide-spread in the Slovak construction market. The aim of this paper is focused on demonstration of MMC using potential in Slovakia. MMC potential is proved based on comparison of the selected parameters of construction process - construction costs and construction time. The subject of this study is family house modelled in three material variants - masonry construction (as a representative of traditional methods of construction), Varianthaus and EcoB (as the representatives of modern methods of construction). The results of this study provide the useful information in decision-making process for potential investors of construction.

  19. Pedigree Analysis of Holstein Bulls in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Pavlík

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the genetic diversity in Holstein bulls population in Slovakia by the methods of pedigree analysis. The population was represented by the bulls with reserve of frozen semen doses in AI centers. Whole reference population consisted of 169 bulls born from 1997 to 2009. For calculation of diversity parameters the program Endog v.4.8 (Gutiérrez, Goyache, 2005 was used. An average maximal number of generations traced was 9.35, 3.06 complete generations and equivalent number of generations traced was 5.71. An average coefficient of inbreeding was 2.48%, individual increase in inbreeding was 0.53% and average relatedness was 2.72%. The 167 bulls from 169 were inbred (98.82%. An average number of offsprings per bull was 107.70 with maximal number 1,641 offsprings. The effective population size computed via individual increase in inbreeding was 94.50. The effective number of founders was 88, effective number of ancestors 31 and only 13 ancestors described 50% of diversity. From these results we can conclude that the diversity of Holstein bulls is reduced by more factors (inbreeding, high relatedness, bottlenecks. Obtained results point out the need to use new outbred bull lines for mating cows.

  20. Quality control of mammography departments in Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horvathova, M.; Nikodemova, D.

    2007-01-01

    Complete test of publication follows. Considering the fact that mammary gland is the most sensitive organ to ionizing radiation, the Commission of the Ministry of Health of SR for QA in radiology organized a pilot two-run country wide audit conducted in 42 mammography departments that have met the beforehand criteria. During the audit the methods for establishing the individual parameters in technical and clinical part of quality assurance in mammography were elaborated and implemented. Technical and clinical parameters of the imaging process that mostly affect the quality of diagnostic information were followed up. These parameters included: the object thickness compensation, optical density deviation, evaluation of the film quality by means of special phantom, etc. Important measurement of ESDs at participating departments enabled to compare the radiation load of mammography patients in Slovakia with reference values in European guidelines. The uniform standard method for QA at mammography departments was elaborated and published as the regulation of the Ministry of Health for performance of preventive mammography examinations in SR. The presented results show the improved quality of mammography examinations due to regular check-ups of technical and clinical parameters and fulfilment of the required values in all parameters. The audit results are the basis for continuous quality assessment of mammography departments as a main prerequisite for conducting preventive examinations and for health insurance purposes.

  1. Stakeholder involvement in development and implementation of appropriate emergency preparedness routines in Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duranova, T.

    2009-01-01

    The presentation presents the process of stakeholder involvement in development and implementation of appropriate emergency preparedness routines in Slovakia in last five years. The presentation gives detailed information on used practices and real process taken place in Slovakia

  2. Thick massive gas hydrate deposits were revealed by LWD in Off-Joetsu area, eastern margin of Japan Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanahashi, M.; Morita, S.; Matsumoto, R.

    2016-12-01

    GR14 and HR15 survey cruises, which were dedicated to the LWD (Logging While Drilling), were carried out in summers of 2014 and 2015, respectively, by Meiji University and Geological Survey of Japan, AIST to explore the "gas chimney" structures in eastern margin of Japan Sea. Shallow (33 to 172m-bsf, average 136m-bsf) 33 LWD drilling were performed in Oki Trough, Off-Joetsu, and Mogami Trough areas along eastern margin of Japan Sea during two cruises. Schlumberger LWD tools, GeoVISION (resistivity), TeleScope, ProVISION (NMR) and SonicVISION were used during GR14. NeoScope (neutron) was added and SonicScope was replaced for SonicVISION during HR14. The data quality was generally good. "Gas chimney" structures with acoustic blanking columns on the high frequency seismic sections with mound and pockmark morphologic features on the sea bottom, are well developed within survey areas. Every LWD records taken from gas chimney structures during the cruises show high resistivity and acoustic velocity anomalies which suggest the development of gas hydrate. Characteristic development of massive gas hydrate was interpreted at the Umitaka CW mound structure, Off-Joetsu. The mound lies at 890-910m in water depth and has very rough bottom surface, regional high resistivity, regional high heat flow, several natural seep sites, 200m x 300m area, and 10-20m height. 8 LWD holes, J18L to J21L and J23L to J26L, were drilled on and around the mound. There are highly anomalous intervals which suggest the development of massive gas hydrate at J24L, with high resistivity, high Vp and Vs, high neutron porosity, low natural gamma ray intensity, low neutron gamma density, low NMR porosity, low NMR permeability, low formation sigma, from 10 to 110m-bsf with intercalating some thin less hydrate layers. It is interpreted that there is several tens of meter thick massive gas hydrate in the gas chimney mound. It is partly confirmed by the later nearby coring result which showed the repetition of

  3. On the formation of coastal polynyas in the area of Commonwealth Bay, Eastern Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendler, Gerd; Gilmore, Dan; Curtis, Jan

    Antarctica's King George V Land and Adélie Land were first explored by Sir Douglas Mawson and his party during their 1911-1913 expedition. They were astounded by the strength of the katabatic wind, which is so dominant in this area. These strong offshore winds can move the sea ice away from shore, forming coastal polynya, not only in summer but even in midwinter. Poor visibility due to darkness and frequently occurring blowing snow make the study of these polynyas from land-based observations difficult. Recently, coverage of this area by synthetic aperture radar (SAR) satellite imagery, which has a high resolution of 40 m (pixel size 12.5 m), gave additional insight into the characteristics of these polynyas. This high resolution is needed because the width of the polynya is small (10 km or so). Furthermore, of special importance is the fact that SAR data can be obtained during darkness and overcast conditions. Following original Russian work, we modified a simple model for wind-driven coastal polynyas, using actual meteorological data from our coastal automatic weather stations as input. Using mean monthly data for the stations, we show that coastal polynyas are to be expected in the windiest area (Cape Denison-Port Martin); while to the west (Dumont d'Urville) and east (Penguin Point), the average conditions do not produce them. Here, they occur only during strong and long-lasting storms. Our observational data of the polynyas as viewed from SAR and advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) confirm these findings.

  4. Methods of eutrophication assessment in the context of the water framework directive: Examples from the Eastern Mediterranean coastal areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlidou, Alexandra; Simboura, Nomiki; Rousselaki, Eleni; Tsapakis, Manolis; Pagou, Kalliopi; Drakopoulou, Paraskevi; Assimakopoulou, Georgia; Kontoyiannis, Harilaos; Panayotidis, Panayotis

    2015-10-01

    A set of methodological tools were tested in order to assess the eutrophication quality of selected coastal areas in Eastern Mediterranean Sea, Greece, in the context of the Water Framework Directive under various anthropogenic pressures. Three, five-step tools, namely, TRIX, chlorophyll-a (chl-a) biomass classification scheme, and eutrophication index (E.I.) were applied in oligotrophic waters for (a) the whole water column and (b) the euphotic zone. The relationship among the eutrophication assessment indices and the ecological quality status (EcoQ) assessment indices for benthic macroinvertebrates (BENTIX index) and macroalgae (ecological evaluation index-EEIc) was also explored. Agricultural activities and mariculture are the pressures mostly related to the eutrophication assessment of the selected Greek coastal water bodies. Chl-a proved to be the criterion with the best overall correlation with the EcoQ indices, while TRIX with the lowest. Moreover, among the eutrophication indices, E.I. showed better overall agreement with BENTIX showing that probably it reflects the indirect relation of macroinvertebrates with water eutrophication in a better way. Among the eutrophication indices used, TRIX rather overestimated the eutrophication status of the selected coastal areas. The first stage of eutrophication was reflected more efficiently using E.I. than TRIX, but E.I. seems to be a rather sensitive index. A future modification of the high to good boundary of E.I. may be needed in order to demonstrate the high status of the relatively undisturbed Greek coastal sites.

  5. Potential Risk Areas of Aedes albopictus in South-Eastern Iran: A Vector of Dengue Fever, Zika, and Chikungunya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalil Nejati

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of the rapid and global spread of Zika, chikungunya, yellow fever, and dengue fever by Aedes albopictus is well documented and may be facilitated by changes in climate. To avert and manage health risks, climatic and topographic information can be used to model and forecast which areas may be most prone to the establishment of Ae. albopictus. We aimed to weigh and prioritize the predictive value of various meteorological and climatic variables on distributions of Ae. albopictus in south-eastern Iran using the Analytical Hierarchy Process. Out of eight factors used to predict the presence of Ae. albopictus, the highest weighted were land use, followed by temperature, altitude, and precipitation. The inconsistency of this analysis was 0.03 with no missing judgments. The areas predicted to be most at risk of Ae. albopictus-borne diseases were mapped using Geographic Information Systems and remote sensing data. Five-year (2011–2015 meteorological data was collected from 11 meteorological stations and other data was acquired from Landsat and Terra satellite images. Southernmost regions were at greatest risk of Ae. albopictus colonization as well as more urban sites connected by provincial roads. This is the first study in Iran to determine the regional probability of Ae. albopictus establishment. Monitoring and collection of Ae. albopictus from the environment confirmed our projections, though on-going field work is necessary to track the spread of this vector of life-threatening disease.

  6. Nematode assemblages associated with the parthenogenetic lizard Ameivula nativo in six restinga areas along the eastern coast of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, V A; Mascarenhas, J C; Vrcibradic, D; Rocha, C F D

    2017-10-04

    We surveyed the nematode assemblages associated with populations of the parthenogenetic whiptail lizard Ameivula nativo from six coastal restinga areas in eastern Brazil: Setiba, Comboios and Guriri (State of Espirito Santo) and Guaratiba, Prado and Maraú (State of Bahia). A total of five nematode species (Physaloptera retusa, Physalopteroides venancioi, Skrjabinelazia intermedia, Subulura lacertilia and Parapharyngodon sp.) were recorded from the six different populations of A. nativo. There was considerable variation in overall prevalence of infection (1-42%) among study sites, but geographical distance among areas did not influence similarity in the composition of nematode assemblages. Overall intensity of infection was not affected by lizard body size and did not seem to affect host body condition, based on pooled data of all populations. The studied populations of the unisexual A. nativo had relatively low prevalences and intensities of infection compared to some bisexual congeners and to sympatric lizards from other families for which such data are available. We believe that the low richness of the nematode fauna associated with A. nativo, both locally and regionally, may reflect its narrow geographic distribution and the low diversity of habitats it occupies.

  7. Source-receptor probability of atmospheric long-distance dispersal of viruses to Israel from the eastern Mediterranean area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klausner, Z; Klement, E; Fattal, E

    2018-02-01

    Viruses that affect the health of humans and farm animals can spread over long distances via atmospheric mechanisms. The phenomenon of atmospheric long-distance dispersal (LDD) is associated with severe consequences because it may introduce pathogens into new areas. The introduction of new pathogens to Israel was attributed to LDD events numerous times. This provided the motivation for this study which is aimed to identify all the locations in the eastern Mediterranean that may serve as sources for pathogen incursion into Israel via LDD. This aim was achieved by calculating source-receptor relationship probability maps. These maps describe the probability that an infected vector or viral aerosol, once airborne, will have an atmospheric route that can transport it to a distant location. The resultant probability maps demonstrate a seasonal tendency in the probability of specific areas to serve as sources for pathogen LDD into Israel. Specifically, Cyprus' season is the summer; southern Turkey and the Greek islands of Crete, Karpathos and Rhodes are associated with spring and summer; lower Egypt and Jordan may serve as sources all year round, except the summer months. The method used in this study can easily be implemented to any other geographic region. The importance of this study is the ability to provide a climatologically valid and accurate risk assessment tool to support long-term decisions regarding preparatory actions for future outbreaks long before a specific outbreak occurs. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  8. Mixing effects on geothermometric calculations of the Newdale geothermal area in the Eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghanashayam Neupane; Earl D. Mattson; Travis L. McLing; Cody J. Cannon; Thomas R. Wood; Trevor A. Atkinson; Patrick F. Dobson; Mark E. Conrad

    2016-02-01

    The Newdale geothermal area in Madison and Fremont Counties in Idaho is a known geothermal resource area whose thermal anomaly is expressed by high thermal gradients and numerous wells producing warm water (up to 51 °C). Geologically, the Newdale geothermal area is located within the Eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP) that has a time-transgressive history of sustained volcanic activities associated with the passage of Yellowstone Hotspot from the southwestern part of Idaho to its current position underneath Yellowstone National Park in Wyoming. Locally, the Newdale geothermal area is located within an area that was subjected to several overlapping and nested caldera complexes. The Tertiary caldera forming volcanic activities and associated rocks have been buried underneath Quaternary flood basalts and felsic volcanic rocks. Two southeast dipping young faults (Teton dam fault and an unnamed fault) in the area provide the structural control for this localized thermal anomaly zone. Geochemically, water samples from numerous wells in the area can be divided into two broad groups – Na-HCO3 and Ca-(Mg)-HCO3 type waters and are considered to be the product of water-rhyolite and water-basalt interactions, respectively. Each type of water can further be subdivided into two groups depending on their degree of mixing with other water types or interaction with other rocks. For example, some bivariate plots indicate that some Ca-(Mg)-HCO3 water samples have interacted only with basalts whereas some samples of this water type also show limited interaction with rhyolite or mixing with Na-HCO3 type water. Traditional geothermometers [e.g., silica variants, Na-K-Ca (Mg-corrected)] indicate lower temperatures for this area; however, a traditional silica-enthalpy mixing model results in higher reservoir temperatures. We applied a new multicomponent equilibrium geothermometry tool (e.g., Reservoir Temperature Estimator, RTEst) that is based on inverse geochemical modeling which

  9. Ecological status of soils in petroleum mining regions of North-Eastern area of Caspian Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenzhegaliev, A.K.; Asanbaev, I.K.; Auehzova, O.N.; Akasova, A.A.

    1997-01-01

    Comprehensive monitoring of environment (air, water, soil) in populated area adjoining to the Kulsaryneft' deposit is carried out. Purposes of observations are warning and liquidation of petroleum leakages and emission of polluted substances in the case of maximum permissible concentration exceeding. Effectiveness of microbiological methods for liquidation of soils petroleum pollution is emphasized. Active carbon-hydrogen-oxidizing microorganisms for 14 deposits are separated, petroleum in these deposits has distinguished by its content. Researched cultures have tendency to gradual growth of petroleum utilization rate during from 1 up to 7 days. Qualitative changes of petroleum under action of these micro-organisms are determined by method of infrared spectroscopy. There are most typically figures: increase of oxygen containing structures of both the acid and the ether types, and sharp decrease of long-chain paraffins

  10. Ground magnetic exploration for radioactive minerals in Missikat area eastern desert of Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadek, H.S.; Soliman, S.A.; Abdelhady, H.M.; Elsayed, H.I.

    1988-01-01

    The airborne radiometric surveys and subsequent geological investigations proved the occurrence of uranium mineralization in jasperoid vein which cuts across the pink granites of Gebel El Missikat. The Missikat granites are intruded in older granodiorite and diorite exposures where the whole system is intersected by a system of faults and sheers. The relationship between the different structures and the origin of mineralization is not yet understood. The present study is the first step in a systematic approach of subsurface geophysical exploration for the mineral deposits. Ground magnetic survey was conducted along more than 25 lines across the jasperoid vein and separated at 50m while the magnetic measurements were taken at stations spaced 20m apart. The collected data has been reduced and analysed automatically using appropriate advanced software. The interpretation of the resultant magnetic contour map and profiles reveals the subsurface configuration of the different lithologic units in the area. Most of the granodiorites, exposed due west, are just roof pendants where they are underlain by the Missikat granite pluton. In addition it was possible to map the subsurface contacts between the granites and other geologic units beneath the Wadi Alluvium. The structural interpretation of magnetic data succeeded to distinguish additional fault lines and shear zones in the area. In this respect, a system of NE shears parallel to the mineralized vein, was distinguished by the associated weak magnetic anomalies. The anomalies resulting from the vein and shears suggest wider repetition of the mineralization and in addition, they can be used to distinguish the locations of increasing mineral potential in depth. Such locations are recommended for further geophysical exploration using more effective, however, expensive methods such as induced polarization (IP), self potential (SP) and miseala mass. The recommended exploration can be used for precise determination of the

  11. Il commercio nell’area mediorientale: perché è così limitato? (Intra-Middle Eastern Trade: Why Is It so Low?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Askari

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The Middle East has one of the highest ratios of exports to GDP in the world, yet intra-regional trade level is one of the lowest. Intra-Middle Eastern trade is examined in detail to assess the reasons for the low level of regional trade and to recommend policies for promoting trade within the area.

  12. Reactor catastrophe in Chernobyl and the consequences in the area of Eastern Hesse. Reaktorkatastrophe in Tschernobyl und die Folgen in der osthessischen Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diel, F; Meier-Ploeger, A

    1986-01-01

    In this booklet a short assessment of the reactor accident and the resulting radioactive contamination in the area of Eastern Hesse is described. The authors are referring for the most part to results of an investigation carried out by the Umwelt- und Diagnoselabor Fulda (ULF) with the help of the population of Fulda in May 1986.

  13. Molecular assessment of artemisinin resistance markers, polymorphisms in the k13 propeller, and a multidrug-resistance gene in the eastern and western border areas of Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyunt, Myat Htut; Hlaing, Thaung; Oo, Htet Wai; Tin-Oo, Lu-Lu Kyaw; Phway, Hnin Phyu; Wang, Bo; Zaw, Ni Ni; Han, Soe Soe; Tun, Thurein; San, Kyaw Kyaw; Kyaw, Myat Phone; Han, Eun-Taek

    2015-04-15

    As K13 propeller mutations have been recently reported to serve as molecular markers, assessment of K13 propeller polymorphisms in multidrug-resistant gene in isolates from Myanmar, especially the eastern and western border areas, is crucial if we are to understand the spread of artemisinin resistance. A 3-day surveillance study was conducted in the eastern and western border areas in Myanmar, and K13 propeller and Plasmodium falciparum multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 (pfmrp1) mutations were analyzed. Among the 1761 suspected malaria cases screened, a total of 42 uncomplicated falciparum cases from the eastern border and 49 from the western border were subjected to 3 days of surveillance after artemether-lumefantrine treatment. No parasitemic case showing positivity on day 3 was noted from the western border, but 26.2% (11/42) of cases were positive in the eastern border. Although we found no marked difference in the prevalence of the pfmrp1 mutation in the eastern and western borders (36% vs 31%, respectively), K13 mutations were more frequent in the eastern border area (where the 3-day persistent cases were detected; 48% vs 14%). C580Y, M476I, A481V, N458Y, R539T, and R516Y accounted for 68.9% of all K13 mutations significantly associated with day 3 parasitaemia. The K13 mutations were significantly associated with day 3 parasitaemia, emphasizing the importance of K13 surveillance. The low prevalence of K13 mutations and the absence of day 3 parasitaemic cases indicate that artemisinin resistance may not have spread to the western Myanmar border region. Although analysis of multiple K13 mutations is challenging, it should be done at various sentinel sites in Myanmar. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Tax wedge in Croatia, Belgium, Estonia, Germany and Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Gabrilo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyse the taxation of labour income in Croatia, Belgium,Estonia, Germany and Slovakia. Having presented an outline of tax system rules, the paper shows the decomposition of the net average tax wedge for different family types and different income levels based on the OECD methodology. The results show that all observed countries apply a progressive tax schedule, apart from Germany where taxation for higher gross wages is not progressive due to a  cap on the SIC base. When it comes to a taxpayer earning an average gross wage, a Croatian single worker without children has the lowest tax burden, followed by Estonia, Slovakia, Germany and Belgium. However, as regards taxpayers earning 400% of AGW, Estonia has the smallest tax wedge, followed by Slovakia, Germany, Croatia and Belgium. Similar results are obtained by analyzing the tax wedge for couples with two children where one spouse is out of work.

  15. Selected trends in breast cancer epidemiology in Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ondrusova, M.; Psenkova, M.; Mardiak, J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Breast cancer is one of the most prevalent forms of malignant tumors in women and so poses a serious social and economic problem. Aims: By analysing the trends of the basic indicators of breast cancer descriptive epidemiology in Slovakia, the prospective development was predicted, providing the missing information needed to assess the impact of intervention programmes. Results: The age-standardised incidence of breast cancer in Slovakia shows a strongly rising trend by an annual percentage change value of 2.2%, whereby in respect of mortality, after a previous significant decrease in values recorded in the period 2000-2009, stabilisation is registered once again with an annual percentage change of 3.4% (without statistical significance). Conclusion: Adverse trends in the development of breast cancer mortality in Slovakia underline the importance of establishing and monitoring the efficacy of intervention steps as part of organised screening. (author)

  16. Characterisation of atmospheric deposited particles during a dust storm in urban areas of Eastern Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunawardena, Janaka, E-mail: j.gunawardena@qut.edu.au; Ziyath, Abdul M., E-mail: mohamed.ziyath@qut.edu.au; Bostrom, Thor E., E-mail: t.bostrom@qut.edu.au; Bekessy, Lambert K., E-mail: l.bekessy@qut.edu.au; Ayoko, Godwin A., E-mail: g.ayoko@qut.edu.au; Egodawatta, Prasanna, E-mail: p.egodawatta@qut.edu.au; Goonetilleke, Ashantha, E-mail: a.goonetilleke@qut.edu.au

    2013-09-01

    The characteristics of dust particles deposited during the 2009 dust storm in the Gold Coast and Brisbane regions of Australia are discussed in this paper. The study outcomes provide important knowledge in relation to the potential impacts of dust storm related pollution on ecosystem health in the context that the frequency of dust storms is predicted to increase due to anthropogenic desert surface modifications and climate change impacts. The investigated dust storm contributed a large fraction of fine particles to the environment with an increased amount of total suspended solids, compared to dry deposition under ambient conditions. Although the dust storm passed over forested areas, the organic carbon content in the dust was relatively low. The primary metals present in the dust storm deposition were aluminium, iron and manganese, which are common soil minerals in Australia. The dust storm deposition did not contain significant loads of nickel, cadmium, copper and lead, which are commonly present in the urban environment. Furthermore, the comparison between the ambient and dust storm chromium and zinc loads suggested that these metals were contributed to the dust storm by local anthropogenic sources. The potential ecosystem health impacts of the 2009 dust storm include, increased fine solids deposition on ground surfaces resulting in an enhanced capacity to adsorb toxic pollutants as well as increased aluminium, iron and manganese loads. In contrast, the ecosystem health impacts related to organic carbon and other metals from dust storm atmospheric deposition are not considered to be significant. - Highlights: • The dust storm contributed a large fraction of fine particles to pollutant build-up. • The dust storm increased TSS, Al, Fe and Mn loads in build-up on ground surfaces. • Dust storm did not significantly increase TOC, Ni, Cu, Pb and Cd loads in build-up. • Cr and Zn in dust storm deposition were contributed by local anthropogenic sources.

  17. Characterisation of atmospheric deposited particles during a dust storm in urban areas of Eastern Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunawardena, Janaka; Ziyath, Abdul M.; Bostrom, Thor E.; Bekessy, Lambert K.; Ayoko, Godwin A.; Egodawatta, Prasanna; Goonetilleke, Ashantha

    2013-01-01

    The characteristics of dust particles deposited during the 2009 dust storm in the Gold Coast and Brisbane regions of Australia are discussed in this paper. The study outcomes provide important knowledge in relation to the potential impacts of dust storm related pollution on ecosystem health in the context that the frequency of dust storms is predicted to increase due to anthropogenic desert surface modifications and climate change impacts. The investigated dust storm contributed a large fraction of fine particles to the environment with an increased amount of total suspended solids, compared to dry deposition under ambient conditions. Although the dust storm passed over forested areas, the organic carbon content in the dust was relatively low. The primary metals present in the dust storm deposition were aluminium, iron and manganese, which are common soil minerals in Australia. The dust storm deposition did not contain significant loads of nickel, cadmium, copper and lead, which are commonly present in the urban environment. Furthermore, the comparison between the ambient and dust storm chromium and zinc loads suggested that these metals were contributed to the dust storm by local anthropogenic sources. The potential ecosystem health impacts of the 2009 dust storm include, increased fine solids deposition on ground surfaces resulting in an enhanced capacity to adsorb toxic pollutants as well as increased aluminium, iron and manganese loads. In contrast, the ecosystem health impacts related to organic carbon and other metals from dust storm atmospheric deposition are not considered to be significant. - Highlights: • The dust storm contributed a large fraction of fine particles to pollutant build-up. • The dust storm increased TSS, Al, Fe and Mn loads in build-up on ground surfaces. • Dust storm did not significantly increase TOC, Ni, Cu, Pb and Cd loads in build-up. • Cr and Zn in dust storm deposition were contributed by local anthropogenic sources

  18. Total particulate and reactive gaseous mercury in ambient air on the eastern slope of the Mt. Gongga area, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Xuewu; Feng Xinbin; Zhu Wanze; Zheng Wei; Wang Shaofeng; Lu, Julia Y.

    2008-01-01

    Total particulate mercury (TPM) and reactive gaseous mercury (RGM) concentrations in ambient air on the eastern slope of the Mt. Gongga area, Sichuan Province, Southwestern China were monitored from 25 May, 2005 to 29 April, 2006. Simultaneously, Hg concentrations in rain samples were measured from January to December, 2006. The average TPM and RGM concentrations in the study site were 30.7 and 6.2 pg m -3 , which are comparable to values observed in remote areas in Northern America and Europe, but much lower than those reported in some urban areas in China. The mean seasonal RGM concentration was slightly higher in spring (8.0 pg m -3 ) while the minimum mean concentration was observed in winter (4.0 pg m -3 ). TPM concentrations ranged across two orders of magnitude from 5.2 to 135.7 pg m -3 and had a clear seasonal variation: winter (74.1 pg m -3 ), autumn (22.5 pg m -3 ), spring (15.3 pg m -3 ) and summer (10.8 pg m -3 ), listed in decreasing order. The annual wet deposition was 9.1 μg m -2 and wet deposition in the rainy season (May-October) represented over 80% of the annual total. The temporal distribution of TPM and RGM suggested distinguishable dispersion characteristics of these Hg species on a regional scale. Elevated TPM concentration in winter was probably due to regional and local enhanced coal burning and low wet deposition velocity. The RGM distribution pattern is closely related to daily variation in UV radiation observed during the winter sampling period indicating that photo-oxidation processes and diurnal changes in meteorology play an important role in RGM generation

  19. Total particulate and reactive gaseous mercury in ambient air on the eastern slope of the Mt. Gongga area, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, X.W.; Feng, X.B.; Zhu, W.Z.; Zheng, W.; Wang, S.F.; Lu, J.Y. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guiyang (China)

    2008-03-15

    Total particulate mercury (TPM) and reactive gaseous mercury (RGM) concentrations in ambient air on the eastern slope of the Mt. Gongga area, Sichuan Province, Southwestern China were monitored from 25 May, 2005 to 29 April, 2006. Simultaneously, Hg concentrations in rain samples were measured from January to December, 2006. The average TPM and RGM concentrations in the study site were 30.7 and 6.2 pg m{sup -3}, which are comparable to values observed in remote areas in Northern America and Europe, but much lower than those reported in some urban areas in China. The mean seasonal RGM concentration was slightly higher in spring (8.0 pg m{sup -3}) while the minimum mean concentration was observed in winter (4.0 pg m{sup -3}). TPM concentrations ranged across two orders of magnitude from 5.2 to 135.7 Pg m{sup -3} and had a clear seasonal variation: winter (74.1 pg m{sup -3}), autumn (22.5 Pg m{sup -3}), spring (15.3 Pg m{sup -3}) and summer (10.8 Pg m{sup -3}), listed in decreasing order. The annual wet deposition was 9.1 {mu} g m{sup -2} and wet deposition in the rainy season (May-October) represented over 80% of the annual total. The temporal distribution of TPM and RGM suggested distinguishable dispersion characteristics of these Hg species on a regional scale. Elevated TPM concentration in winter was probably due to regional and local enhanced coal burning and low wet deposition velocity. The RGM distribution pattern is closely related to daily variation in UV radiation observed during the winter sampling period indicating that photo-oxidation processes and diurnal changes in meteorology play an important role in RGM generation.

  20. Total particulate and reactive gaseous mercury in ambient air on the eastern slope of the Mt. Gongga area, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu Xuewu [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Geochemistry, Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guiyang 550002 (China); Graduate University of the Chinese Academy Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Feng Xinbin [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Geochemistry, Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guiyang 550002 (China)], E-mail: fengxinbin@vip.skleg.cn; Zhu Wanze [Institute of Mountain Hazards and Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu 610041 (China); Zheng Wei; Wang Shaofeng [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Geochemistry, Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guiyang 550002 (China); Graduate University of the Chinese Academy Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Lu, Julia Y. [Department of Chemistry and Biology, Ryerson University, Toronto, Ont., M5B 2K3 (Canada)

    2008-03-15

    Total particulate mercury (TPM) and reactive gaseous mercury (RGM) concentrations in ambient air on the eastern slope of the Mt. Gongga area, Sichuan Province, Southwestern China were monitored from 25 May, 2005 to 29 April, 2006. Simultaneously, Hg concentrations in rain samples were measured from January to December, 2006. The average TPM and RGM concentrations in the study site were 30.7 and 6.2 pg m{sup -3}, which are comparable to values observed in remote areas in Northern America and Europe, but much lower than those reported in some urban areas in China. The mean seasonal RGM concentration was slightly higher in spring (8.0 pg m{sup -3}) while the minimum mean concentration was observed in winter (4.0 pg m{sup -3}). TPM concentrations ranged across two orders of magnitude from 5.2 to 135.7 pg m{sup -3} and had a clear seasonal variation: winter (74.1 pg m{sup -3}), autumn (22.5 pg m{sup -3}), spring (15.3 pg m{sup -3}) and summer (10.8 pg m{sup -3}), listed in decreasing order. The annual wet deposition was 9.1 {mu}g m{sup -2} and wet deposition in the rainy season (May-October) represented over 80% of the annual total. The temporal distribution of TPM and RGM suggested distinguishable dispersion characteristics of these Hg species on a regional scale. Elevated TPM concentration in winter was probably due to regional and local enhanced coal burning and low wet deposition velocity. The RGM distribution pattern is closely related to daily variation in UV radiation observed during the winter sampling period indicating that photo-oxidation processes and diurnal changes in meteorology play an important role in RGM generation.

  1. Third steam-gas plant in Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haluza, I.

    2006-01-01

    There are currently two large steam/gas plants in Slovakia, in Bratislava and Ruzomberok, and a third company is to start producing electricity and heat using natural gas. Although Siemens and the Swiss company, Advanced Power, have been discussing creating a steam/gas plant in Malzenice close to Trnava, it seems that Adato, Levice will be the first to launch production. Adato plans to build a facility worth 2 bil. Sk (54.05 mil. EUR) at the Gena industrial park in Levice. Although it is to employ only 35 people, the whole region would benefit. Levice wants to attract more investors that will need more electricity and according to the Mayor of Levice, Stefan Misak, the heat produced by the steam/gas plant will represent a good option for old town boilers. The executive officer and sole owner of Adato, Miroslav Gazo, stressed that the company could not cover the whole costs of the planned investment on its own. Several investors have already shown interest in financing the project and one foreign and two local investors are in negotiations. Adato has a state permit, has signed a contract with the town, has found suppliers of technologies abroad and has signed a preliminary contract with energy consumers. The company is not rushing into the project without having a risk assessment in place. W e know that gas prices are going up. But our project will be profitable even under the least optimistic scenarios of gas price development,' said M. Gazo. He is negotiating with the gas utility, Slovensky plynarensky priemysel, and other gas suppliers. (authors)

  2. Development of the mitigation plan for Slovakia energy sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mojik, I.

    1996-12-31

    According to the review of national communications from Annex I countries (FCCC/AGBM/1996/7), Slovakia is in 21st place among countries in descending order of GHG emissions. With respect to GHG emission per capita Slovakia is in 14th place and from the point of view of GHG emissions per GDP unit Slovakia is in 7th place. However, within world wide GHG emissions those originating from Slovakia are nearly negligible, but GHG emissions related to per capita or even to GDP are significantly high. Since energy production is responsible for more than 70% of GHG emissions (88% of CO{sub 2} emission) the high ranking of Slovakia is evidence of the high energy intensity of the Slovak Economy. As is common in countries with economies in transition there is no stable trend in macroeconomical values in Slovakia. Although the general shape of possible development curves is known, in fact the exact level of the real curve is not predictable. According to their analyses the Slovak Republic surely will meet the basic UN FCCC obligation for Annex I countries, i.e. to limit anthropogenic emissions of GHG in the year 2000 to the level of 1990. However, the above mentioned uncertainties are the main reason why they have no firm guaranty of fulfilling their domestic target (20% CO{sub 2} reduction in 2005 compared to 1988). Analyses made within the Country Study program have indicated that there is good possibility of reaching the domestic target but uncertainty is high and certain conditions have to be met.

  3. A GIS Approach for Reconstructing the Litorina Sea Lagoon in Tolkuse-Rannametsa Area, Eastern Gulf of Riga.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habicht, Hando-Laur; Rosentau, Alar; Jõeleht, Argo; Hang, Tiit; Kohv, Marko

    2015-04-01

    The eastern coast of the Gulf of Riga in the NE Baltic Sea is characterized by slow post-glacial isostatic uplift (about 1mm/yr) and slowly undulating low topography. Therefore even small increases in sea-level can easily lead to the flooding of considerable areas. The complex deglaciation history of the Baltic Sea area left, at times, south western Estonia submerged, while at other times, it emerged as terrestrial land. Different transgressive and regressive development stages of the Baltic Sea did not only shape the landscape, but also influenced the locations of the Stone Age settlements which were closely bound to the coastal areas which also include estuaries and lagoonal systems. The coastal region of the Gulf of Riga is abundant in Meso- and Neolithic settlement sites. The present study combines LiDAR, ground-penetrating radar (GPR) and geological data to reconstruct development of the Litorina Sea lagoon in Tolkuse-Rannametsa area and to create prognostic palaeogeographic maps in order to search for Meso- and Neolithic coastal settlement sites. Over 47 km of GPR profiling was done; sediments were described and dated in 37 cores two riverbank outcrops. Diatoms were analysed in the master core. A semi-automatic method for the removal of modern anthropogenic features from LiDAR derived digital elevation model (DEM) was developed, tested and used. In modelling process the impact of sedimentary processes subsequent to the time being modelled was taken into account by employing a backstripping methodology. The differential glacio-isostatic uplift within the study area was taken into account by using interpolated water-level surfaces. Palaeogeographic reconstructions shed new light into region's post-glacial coastal evolution and enabled us to suggest the possible locations of the Stone Age settlements with some of the proposed areas buried under up to 3 m thick peat layer. The results of the current study provide new chronological and shore displacement data

  4. Corelations between tourism and environmental load in the „Slovak Paradise – Slovenský Raj“, E.Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janka Jablonská

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Tourism – and specially nature tourism - is an area, where the interaction between the tourists and environment is very intensive. Tourists are sensitive to the beauty and purity of the environment, but at the same time, the environmental impact of their presence in nature is marked. In order to maintain the beauty and purity of the environment a number of environmental threats are to be alleviated. Further, it seems to be necessary to decrease/regulate the number of tourists, or a set of costly cleaning and revitalising operations are to be implemented. The paper analyses the data available on the tourism related load of one of the most beautiful areas in Slovakia – the „Slovak paradise“, located in E. Slovakia.

  5. A new marsh plant community of Eleocharito palustris-Alismatetum lanceolati (Eleocharito palustris-Sagittarion sagittifoliae alliance in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Hrivnák

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Open and species-poor stands with a dominance of Alisma lanceolatum were recorded in periodically flooded habitats of the southern part of central Slovakia (Ipeľ River catchment area during the summer of 2013. Phytosociological relevés correspond to the association Eleocharito palustris-Alismatetum lanceolati (alliance Eleocharito palustris-Sagittarion sagittifoliae, which is reported and documented here for the first time from the territory of Slovakia. It inhabits predominantly temporarily flooded depressions on agricultural land – wet arable fields and extensively used pastures. Detrended correspondence analysis showed that the variability in species composition was most significantly influenced by water depth, the presence of arable fields in the contact area and water conductivity. Special attention was paid to a detailed description of the floristic composition, habitat requirements, distribution patterns and nomenclature of the community.

  6. Sources of Investment Finance in Firms in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikócziová Jana

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Based on results of the EBRD-World Bank “Business Environment and Enterprise Performance Survey” (BEEPS, the paper provides an explanation of why firms in Slovakia finance the most of their new investments with retained earnings, followed by bank debt, trade credit and external equity, as well as why small firms tend to use more retained earnings and less bank debt than medium and large firms. The financing patterns of firms in Slovakia are compared to the average financing patterns of firms in selected OECD-countries. Furthermore, measures to stimulate corporate investments and their financing are proposed.

  7. Sources of Investment Finance in Firms in Slovakia

    OpenAIRE

    Mikócziová Jana

    2010-01-01

    Based on results of the EBRD-World Bank “Business Environment and Enterprise Performance Survey” (BEEPS), the paper provides an explanation of why firms in Slovakia finance the most of their new investments with retained earnings, followed by bank debt, trade credit and external equity, as well as why small firms tend to use more retained earnings and less bank debt than medium and large firms. The financing patterns of firms in Slovakia are compared to the average financing patterns of firms...

  8. CASE STUDY: POLICIES, STRATEGIES AND RESPONSES TO PLAGIARISM IN SLOVAKIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FOLTYNEK, Tomas

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The European project “Impact of Policies for Plagiarism in Higher Education Across Europe“ has identified best practices and gaps related to plagiarism in different European countries. Slovakia is one of interesting ones, where national repository for plagiarism detection was established. However, there are still gaps in terms of policies and overall understanding of plagiarism. This case study describes what happened in Slovakia in last few years, compares the situation with other European countries and discusses the results. Additionally, the number of occurrences of the terms “plagiarism” and “academic integrity” in media and on the Internet is examined in relation to recent changes.

  9. Mineral resources of Slovakia, questions of classification and valuation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baláž Peter

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available According to the Constitution of Slovak Republic, mineral resources of Slovakia are in the ownership of Slovak Republic. In 1997, 721 exclusive mineral deposits of mineral fuels, metals and industrial minerals were registered in Slovakia. The classification for economic and uneconomic reserves/resources requires an annual updating, concerning changes of market mineral prices and mine production costs. In terms of economic valuation of mineral resources, a new United Nations international classification for reserves/resources appears as a perspective alternative. Changes of geological and mining legislation are necessary for real valuation of Slovak mineral resources.

  10. Dataset on records of Hericium erinaceus in Slovakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunca, Vladimír; Čiliak, Marek

    2017-06-01

    The data presented in this article are related to the research article entitled "Habitat preferences of Hericium erinaceus in Slovakia" (Kunca and Čiliak, 2016) [FUNECO607] [2]. The dataset include all available and unpublished data from Slovakia, besides the records from the same tree or stem. We compiled a database of records of collections by processing data from herbaria, personal records and communication with mycological activists. Data on altitude, tree species, host tree vital status, host tree position and intensity of management of forest stands were evaluated in this study. All surveys were based on basidioma occurrence and some result from targeted searches.

  11. The amount of 137Cs in chosen parts of food chains from localities in the East of Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cipakova, A.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the amount of radiocaesium in chosen parts of food chains from localities in the Eastern Slovakia. Prevailing part of radiocaesium is in the upper layer of soils and specific activity of 137 Cs in the first layer for locality Stara Voda in 2000 achieved 152.4 Bq/kg 1 . On the base of results from modified Tessier sequential extraction method we determined that more than 50 % of this radionuclide is in the soil in not extractable fraction. From studied species of mushrooms the highest value was determined in sample of Rozites caperata the and specific activity achieved 1822.0 Bq/kg 1 d. w. The aim of our study was to determine the amount of caesium in chosen parts of food chains from localities in Eastern Slovakia for period 2000-2004. On the base of obtained results we can conclude that radiocaesium migrates vertically in soils very slowly and prevailing part of caesium is in the upper layer. Prevailing part of radiocaesium is in the not extractable fraction. Extremely low concentration of caesium in soil solution is the factor limiting caesium uptake by the root systems, too. Mushrooms are characterised by high ability to accumulate radiocaesium. (authors)

  12. Structural elements and incremental strain history of the basement rocks of Um Had area, central Eastern Desert, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akawy, Ahmed

    2009-01-01

    The Um Had area, central Eastern Desert, Egypt shows a regional stretching in the NW-SE and a contraction in the NE-SW direction. Major NW-SE folds, small recumbent folds, and local thrusts and reverse faults were recognized. Complicated relation between folds and boudinage was identified. This stretching amount ranges from 1.282 to 1.309. Earlier coaxial and later non-coaxial strains were inferred. The change from axial to non-coaxial stress regime was gradual and the latter was associated with minor clockwise and anticlockwise rotation of structural elements. During the non-coaxial strain, strain fringes were formed as a consequence of the high circulation of fluids in low temperature and high pressure conditions. Superimposed strain fringes indicating right- and left-lateral senses of movement were recognized. At least three generations of fringes were recognized, implying three stages of non-coaxial stretching. Each generation has about 15 increments which show irregular strain gradient and intensity over the different increments. Eastwards, the strain increments became mature and westwards, the finite strain increases. The strongest finite strain was found in a narrow belt delimiting the basement rocks on the west and underlying the Phanerozoic sediments. Chocolate-tablet structure was recorded and indicates later multidirectional tension. Not all Nubia Sandstone exposures are overlying the basement rocks and some are separated by NW-SE normal faults. Major NW-SE normal faults are cutting basement rocks of different ages. (author)

  13. Lithosphere density structure beneath the eastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau and its surrounding areas derived from GOCE gradients data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honglei Li

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A three-dimensional density model of the crust and uppermost mantle is determined by the inversion of a set of GOCE gravity and gradients residual anomalies beneath the eastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau and its surrounding areas. In our work, we choose five independent gravity gradients (Txx, Tzz, Txy, Txz, Tyz to perform density inversion. Objective function is given based on Tikhonov regularization theory. Seismic S-wave velocities play the role of initial constraint for the inversion based on a relationship between density and S-wave velocity. Damped Least Square method is used during the inversion. The final density results offer some insights into understanding the underlying geodynamic processes: (1 Low densities in the margin of the Tibet, along with low wave velocity and resistivity results, yield conversions from soft and weak Tibet to the hard and rigid cratons. (2The lowest densities are found in the boundary of the plateau, instead of the whole Tibet indicates that the effects of extrusion stress environment in the margin affect the changes of the substance there. The substances and environments conditioning for the earthquake preparations and strong deformation in this transitional zone. (3 Evident low-D anomaly in the upper and middle crust in the Lasha terrane and Songpan-Ganzi terrane illustrated the eastward sub-ducted of southeastern Tibet, which could be accounts for the frequent volcano and earthquakes there.

  14. Ground penetrating radar measurements at the ONKALO research tunnel and eastern part of the Olkiluoto investigation area at July 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sipola, V.; Tarvainen, A.-M.

    2007-04-01

    Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) measurements were carried out at ONKALO research site in summer 2006. Measurements included 400 metres of measurements inside ONKALO access tunnel and about 1800 metres of measurements on the ground, at the eastern parts of Olkiluoto investigation area. The purpose of the measurements done inside the access tunnel was to investigate, whether it would be possible to locate deformation structures or long fractures in the rock mass below the tunnel. The purpose of the measurements made on top of the ground was to investigate, whether it would be possible to locate glacio-isostatic faults from the soils. A secondary target was to try and locate the rock surface. The chosen part of ONKALO tunnel was measured using five different frequencies, which enabled comparing the results to each other. It also enabled getting a higher resolution picture of the top rock, than what would have been possible using only one low-frequency antenna. The on-the-ground measurements were measured using only one frequency. (orig.)

  15. Development and Validation of a Data-Based Food Frequency Questionnaire for Adults in Eastern Rural Area of Rwanda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayumi Yanagisawa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to develop and evaluate the validity of a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ for rural Rwandans. Since our FFQ was developed to assess malnutrition, it measured energy, protein, vitamin A, and iron intakes only. We collected 260 weighed food records (WFRs from a total of 162 Rwandans. Based on the WFR data, we developed a tentative FFQ and examined the food list by percent contribution to energy and nutrient intakes. To assess the validity, nutrient intakes estimated from the FFQ were compared with those calculated from three-day WFRs by correlation coefficient and cross-classification for 17 adults. Cumulative contributions of the 18-item FFQ to the total intakes of energy and nutrients reached nearly 100%. Crude and energy-adjusted correlation coefficients ranged from -0.09 (vitamin A to 0.58 (protein and from -0.19 (vitamin A to 0.68 (iron, respectively. About 50%-60% of the participants were classified into the same tertile. Our FFQ provided acceptable validity for energy and iron intakes and could rank Rwandan adults in eastern rural area correctly according to their energy and iron intakes.

  16. The role of the state in stock farming in rural areas: A case study of Hertzog, Eastern Cape, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vimbai R. Jenjezwa

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the role of the state in providing veterinary services to resource-poor stock farmers. Communal stock farmers in most rural areas have low incomes and generally poor access to commercial veterinary healthcare. The state veterinary services thus offer a means for stock farmers to maintain the health of their livestock and receive information on animal healthcare. Interviews and participant observation were used to collect data about animal healthcare practices in Hertzog, a village in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa.The findings were that the state played an important role in animal healthcare and in the education of farmers. However, the lack of a skilled workforce was a constraint to effective service delivery, whilst veterinary educational institutions that disseminate information to the stock farmers were not utilised. It is thus important to fully utilise training centres to educate stock farmers and for more incentives to be given to state employees, so as to attract the necessary skilled personnel to improve service delivery.

  17. Remote Sensing of Leaf Area Index from LiDAR Height Percentile Metrics and Comparison with MODIS Product in a Selectively Logged Tropical Forest Area in Eastern Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonghua Qu

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Leaf area index (LAI is an important parameter to describe the capacity of forests to intercept light and thus affects the microclimate and photosynthetic capacity of canopies. In general, tropical forests have a higher leaf area index and it is a challenge to estimate LAI in a forest with a very dense canopy. In this study, it is assumed that the traditional Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR-derived fractional vegetation cover (fCover has weak relationship with leaf area index in a dense forest. We propose a partial least squares (PLS regression model using the height percentile metrics derived from airborne LiDAR data to estimate the LAI of a dense forest. Ground inventory and airborne LiDAR data collected in a selectively logged tropical forest area in Eastern Amazonia are used to map LAI from the plot level to the landscape scale. The results indicate that the fCover, derived from the first return or the last return, has no significant correlations with the ground-based LAI. The PLS model evaluated by the leave-one-out validation shows that the estimated LAI is significantly correlated with the ground-based LAI with an R2 of 0.58 and a root mean square error (RMSE of 1.13. A data comparison indicates that the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS LAI underestimates the landscape-level LAI by about 22%. The MODIS quality control data show that in the selected tile, the cloud state is not the primary factor affecting the MODIS LAI performance; rather, the LAI from the main radiative transfer (RT algorithm contributes much to the underestimation of the LAI in the tropical forest. In addition, the results show that the LiDAR-based LAI has a better response to the logging activities than the MODIS-based LAI, and that the leaf area reduction caused by logging is about 13%. In contrast, the MODIS-based LAI exhibits no apparent spatial correlation with the LiDAR-based LAI. It is suggested that the main algorithm of MODIS should be

  18. Spatial Variation of Soil Organic Carbon and Total Nitrogen in the Coastal Area of Mid-Eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yan; Pu, Lijie; Liao, Qilin; Zhu, Ming; Yu, Xue; Mao, Tianying; Xu, Chenxing

    2017-07-14

    Soils play an important role in sequestrating atmospheric CO₂. Coastal tidal flats have been intensively reclaimed for food security and living spaces worldwide. We aimed to identify the changes of soil organic carbon (SOC) and total nitrogen (TN) following coastal reclamation and their spatial variation in the coastal area of mid-Eastern China to provide information for coastal cropland management. We measured SOC and TN of 463 soil samples in the coastal plain of mid-Eastern China. The results showed that SOC and TN increased highly from the uncultivated coastal tidal flat (2.49 g·kg -1 and 0.21 g·kg -1 , respectively) to the cropland (10.73 g·kg -1 and 1.3 g·kg -1 , respectively). After long-term cultivation, SOC and TN in the old farmland (12.98 g·kg -1 and 1.49 g·kg -1 , respectively) were greater than those in the young farmland (5.76 g·kg -1 and 0.86 g·kg -1 , respectively). The density of SOC in the uncultivated coastal tidal flat, young farmland, and old farmland were 0.68 kg·C·m -2 , 1.52 kg·C·m -2 , and 3.31 kg·C·m -2 , respectively. The density of TN in the uncultivated coastal tidal flat, young farmland and old farmland were 0.05 kg·N·m -2 , 0.23 kg·N·m -2 , and 0.38 kg·N·m -2 , respectively. The C/N (11.17) in the uncultivated coastal tidal flat was highest comparing to that in the young and old farmland due to lower nitrogen. The C/N increased from 6.78 to 8.71 following cultivation. Reclaimed coastal tidal flats had high carbon and nitrogen sequestration potential that not only mitigated the threat of global warming, but also improved soil fertility for crop production. Coastal management of cropland should consider the spatial distribution of SOC and TN to improve ecosystem services of coastal soils.

  19. Remote sensing detection of gold related alteration zones in Um Rus area, Central Eastern Desert of Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amer, Reda; Kusky, Timothy; El Mezayen, Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) and Phased Array L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR) images covering the Um Rus area in the Central Eastern Desert of Egypt were evaluated for mapping geologic structure, lithology, and gold-related alteration zones. The study area is covered by Pan-African basement rocks including gabbro and granodiorite intruded into a variable mixture of metavolcanics and metasediments. The first three principal component analyses (PCA1, PCA2, PCA3) in a Red-Green-Blue (RGB) of the visible through shortwave-infrared (VNIR + SWIR) ASTER bands enabled the discrimination between lithological units. The results show that ASTER band ratios ((2 + 4)/3, (5 + 7)/6, (7 + 9)/8) in RGB identifies the lithological units and discriminates the granodiorite very well from the adjacent rock units.The granodiorites are dissected by gold-bearing quartz veins surrounded by alteration zones. The microscopic examination of samples collected from the alteration zones shows sericitic and argillic alteration zones. The Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM) and Spectral Information Divergence (SID) supervised classification methods were applied using the reference spectra of the USGS spectral library. The results show that these classification methods are capable of mapping the alteration zones as indicated by field verification work. The PALSAR image was enhanced for fracture mapping using the second moment co-occurrence filter. Overlying extracted faults and alteration zone classification images show that the N30E and N-S fractures represent potential zones for gold exploration. It is concluded that the proposed methods can be used as a powerful tool for ore deposit exploration.

  20. An appraisal of the Permian palaeobiodiversity and geology of the Ib-River Basin, eastern coastal area, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Shreerup; Saxena, Anju; Singh, Kamal Jeet; Chandra, Shaila; Cleal, Christopher J.

    2018-05-01

    The Ib-River Basin situated in the east coastal area of India, in Odisha State is a south-eastern part of the Mahanadi Master Basin. A large number of plant macrofossils belonging to the Glossopteris flora were described and documented between 2006 and 2010 from various localities of the Barakar and Lower Kamthi formations of this basin. The floral components representing leaves, roots and fructifications in these assemblages belong to the Lycopodiales, Equisetales, Sphenophyllales, Filicales, Cordaitales, Cycadales, Ginkgoales, Coniferales and Glossopteridales. In the present study, all the available data pertaining to the biological remains, petrological analyses as well as the geology of this basin are reviewed and analyzed to deduce and reconstruct the biostratigraphy, palaeoclimate, palaeoenvironment and the landscape of this basin during Permian time in general and during the deposition of Barakar (Artinskian - Kungurian) and Lower Kamthi (Lopingian) formations in particular. The floral composition suggests the prevalence of a temperate climate with a slight change from warm moist to warm dry conditions during the deposition of the Barakar Formation and warm and humid during the deposition of Lower Kamthi sediments. Distribution of various plant groups in the Barakar and Lower Kamthi formations have been shown to depict the biodiversity trends. Vegetational reconstructions during the deposition of the Barakar and Lower Kamthi formations around the Ib-River Basin have also been attempted based on all the fossil records from this area. The status of unclassified Barakar and Kamthi formations has been redefined. Apart from megafloristics, the palynology of the basin is also discussed. Possible marine incursions and marine marginal environment in the Ib-Basin during Permian are overtly summarized on the basis of records of acritarchs, typical marine ichnofossils and evidences of wave activity in Lower Gondwana sediments of this Basin.

  1. Assessing missed opportunities for the prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission in an Eastern Cape local service area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rispel, L C; Peltzer, K; Phaswana-Mafuya, N; Metcalf, C A; Treger, L

    2009-03-01

    Prevention of new HIV infections is a critical imperative for South Africa; the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) is one of the most efficacious HIV prevention interventions. Assessment of a PMTCT programme to determine missed opportunities. The Kouga local service area (LSA), bordering Nelson Mandela Bay Municipality (Port Elizabeth) in the Eastern Cape. An assessment was conducted in 2007 before implementing technical support for strengthening the PMTCT programme, including: interviews with 20 PMTCT managers, 4 maternity staff and 27 other health workers on service provision, management, infrastructure, human resources and the health information system; 296 antenatal clinic users on their service perceptions; 70 HIV-positive women on HIV knowledge, infant feeding, coping, support and service perceptions; 8 representatives from community organisations and 101 traditional health practitioners (THPs). Observations were conducted during site visits to health facilities, and the District Health Information System (DHIS) data were reviewed. Staff had high levels of awareness of HIV policies and most had received some relevant training. Nevirapine uptake varied by clinic, with an average of 56%. There were many missed opportunities for PMTCT, with 67% of pregnant women tested for HIV and only 43% of antenatal care attendees tested during a previous pregnancy. Only 6% of HIV-positive women reported support group participation. Reducing missed opportunities for PMTCT requires strengthening of the formal health sector, intersectoral liaison, and greater community support. Priority areas that require strengthening in the formal health sector include HIV counselling and testing; family planning and nutrition counselling; infant follow-up; human resources; and monitoring and evaluation.

  2. Operational Assessment of ICDS Scheme at Grass Root Level in a Rural Area of Eastern India: Time to Introspect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Jyotiranjan; Mahajan, Preetam B; Bhatia, Vikas; Patra, Abhinash K; Hembram, Dilip Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Integrated Child Development Service (ICDS), a flagship program of Government of India (GoI) for early childhood development hasn’t delivered the desired results since its inception four decades ago. This could be due to infrastructural problems, lack of awareness and proper utilization by the local people, inadequate program monitoring and corruption in food supplies, etc. This study is an audit of 36 Anganwadi centres at Khordha district, Odisha, to evaluate the implementation of the ICDS. Aim To assess operational aspects of ICDS program in a rural area of Odisha, in Eastern India. Materials and Methods A total of 36 out of 50 Anganwadi Centres (AWCs) were included in the study. We interviewed the Anganwadi Workers (AWW) and carried out observations on the AWCs using a checklist. We gathered information under three domains manpower resource, material resource and functional aspects of the AWC. Results Most of the AWCs were adequately staffed. Most of the AWWs were well educated. However, more than 85% of the AWCs did not have designated building for daily functioning which resulted in issues related to implementation of program. Water, toilet and electricity facilities were almost non-existent. Indoor air pollution posed a serious threat to the health of the children. Lack of play materials; lack of health assessment tools for promoting, monitoring physical and mental development; and multiple de-motivating factors within the work environment, eventually translated into lack of faith among the beneficiaries in the rural community. Conclusion Inadequate infrastructure and logistic supply were the most prominent issues found, which resulted in poor implementation of ICDS program. Strengthening of grass root level facilities based on need assessment, effective monitoring and supervision will definitely help in revamping the ICDS program in rural areas. PMID:28208890

  3. The Forbidden Fruit of Federalism: Evidence from Romania and Slovakia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bochsler, Daniel; Szöcsik, Edina

    2013-01-01

    or (asymmetric) autonomy, creating self-governed regions by the Hungarian minorities in Romania and Slovakia. The analysis focuses on the positions of the main parties of the ethnic majorities and the Hungarian minority parties in the two countries. In both cases, the parties representing the Hungarian...

  4. International excursion hydrogeology, Slovakia, [September 8 - 15, 1996

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijksma, R.

    1996-01-01

    This is a report of the hydrogeological excursion to Slovakia, held in the period from September 8 up to September 15, 1996. This report is a compilation of the work of the participating students, parts of the excursion guide and also information, provided by the Slovak excursion guides.

  5. PPP projects in transport and telecommunications in Poland and Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna TOMOVÁ

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper informs about public – private partnerships projects in transport and telecommunications in Poland and Slovakia, describing various modes of capital entry. The PPI database of the World Bank is used. Advantages of PPP schemes are discussed for further development of infrastructure sectors.

  6. HEAVY METALS IN MAPLE AND DANDELION LEAVES FROM DIFERENT LAND-USE AREAS IN MOSCOW ’S EASTERN DISTRICT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry V. Vlasov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is based on extensive biogeochemical research conducted in Moscow’s Eastern Administrative District, where motor-vehicle traffic and heavy industry have resulted in some of the highest levels of pollution in the city. For this study, 26 samples of maple leaves (Acer platanoides and 49 samples of dandelion leaves (Taraxacum officinalewere collected on a regular grid at 500–700 m intervals. Concentrations of Fe, Mn, Mo, Cd, Pb, Zn, Cu, As and Sb in these plants were measured using atomic absorption spectrometry after washing, drying and HNO3 + H2O2 digestion. Maples accumulated Sb9,7As4,6Mo2,2Fe2,0Zn1,5 Pb1,4Cu1,2, while dandelions accumulated Mo12,7Pb4,9Cd4,4Fe4,3As3,9Sb2,7Cu1,4 — normalized to concentrations in background samples from an unpolluted site west from Moscow. The plants’ geochemical specialization was detected and compared in the following land-use areas: industrial, traffic, recreational, agricultural, and high-, mid-, and low-rise residential development. For maples, the highest concentration factor levels were found in industrial areas, with accumulations of Sb19As2,4Mo1,7Zn1,7Fe1,5Cu1,4Pb1,4. These levels were 2–5 timeslower for maples in other land-use areas. Dandelions and maples do not accumulate Mnbecause of antagonism between Zn, Mo and Mn in soils. Copper is not concentrated byherbaceous species because of antagonism between Mo and Cu. Differences in  eochemical specialization were shown using the Sb/Mo ratio: in dandelions this was 5 times lower than in background samples, while in maples it was 4.5 times higher. A Zv ratio was used to evaluate the intensity of biogeochemical transformation in urban plants. The highest Zv ratios were found in plants near industrial zones and large roads.

  7. International Expert Team Concludes IAEA Peer Review of Slovakia's Regulatory Framework for Nuclear Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    Full text: An international team of senior nuclear safety and radiation protection experts today concluded an 11-day mission to review the regulatory framework for nuclear safety in Slovakia. At the request of the Slovak Government, the IAEA assembled a team of 12 senior regulatory experts from 12 nations to conduct the Integrated Regulatory Review Service (IRRS) mission involving the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (UJD SR). The international experts also met officials from the Public Health Authority of the Slovak Republic (UVZ SR) regarding the regulation of occupational radiation protection in nuclear facilities. The mission is a peer review based on the IAEA Safety Standards. Marta Ziakova, Chairperson of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of Slovak Republic, declared that ''The IRRS mission has a great value for the future development and orientation of the UJD SR.'' ''Slovakia has established a regulatory framework for nuclear safety which is in line with international standards and practice,'' said Mission Team Leader Andrej Stritar, Director of the Slovenian Nuclear Safety Administration. The main observations of the IRRS Review team included: UJD SR operates with independence and transparency; UJD SR has developed and implemented a systematic training approach to meet its competence needs; and in response to the accident at TEPCO's Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station, UJD SR has reacted and communicated to interested parties, including the public. The good practices identified by the IRRS Review Team include: UJD SR has a comprehensive and well-formalized strategic approach to informing and consulting interested parties; UJD SR has developed and implemented a structured approach to training and developing its staff; and Detailed legal requirements provide a solid basis for on-site and off-site response in nuclear emergencies coordinated with local authorities. The IRRS Review team identified areas for further improvement and believes

  8. Selandian-Thanetian larger foraminifera from the lower Jafnayn Formation in the Sayq area (eastern Oman Mountains)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serra-Kiel, J.; Vicedo, V.; Razin, P.; Grelaud, C.

    2016-07-01

    The larger foraminifera of the lower part of the Jafnayn Formation outcropping in the Wadi Sayq, in the Paleocene series of the eastern Oman Mountains, have been studied and described in detail. The analysis have allowed us to develop a detailed systematic description of each taxa, constraining their biostratigraphic distribution and defining the associated foraminifera assemblages. The taxonomic study has permitted us to identify each morphotype precisely and describe three new taxa, namely, Ercumentina sayqensis n. gen. n. sp. Lacazinella rogeri n. sp. and Globoreticulinidae new family. The first assemblage is characterized by the presence of Coskinon sp., Dictyoconus cf. turriculus Hottinger and Drobne, Anatoliella ozalpiensis Sirel, Ercumentina sayqensis n. gen. n. sp. SerraKiel and Vicedo, Lacazinella rogeri n. sp. Serra-Kiel and Vicedo, Mandanella cf. flabelliformis Rahaghi, Azzarolina daviesi (Henson), Lockhartia retiata Sander, Dictyokathina simplex Smout and Miscellanites globularis (Rahaghi). The second assemblage is constituted by the forms Pseudofallotella persica (Hottinger and Drobne), Dictyoconus cf. turriculus Hottinger and Drobne, Lacazinella rogeri n. sp. Serra-Kiel and Vicedo, Azzarolina daviesi (Henson), Keramosphera? cf. iranica Rahaghi, Lockhartia haimei (Davies), Lockhartia retiata Sander, Sakesaria trichilata Sander, Kathina delseota Smout, Elazigina harabekayisensis Sirel, Daviesina khatiyahi Smout, and Miscellanea juliettae Leppig. The first assemblage can be considered to belong to the Shallow Bentic Zone SBZ2 (early Selandian age), and the second assemblage to the SBZ3 (late Selandian-early Thanetian age).This paper shows, for the first time in the Middle East area, a correlation between the Selandian larger foraminifera and planktonic foraminifera biozones. (Author)

  9. Selandian-Thanetian larger foraminifera from the lower Jafnayn Formation in the Sayq area (eastern Oman Mountains)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serra-Kiel, J.; Vicedo, V.; Razin, P.; Grelaud, C.

    2016-01-01

    The larger foraminifera of the lower part of the Jafnayn Formation outcropping in the Wadi Sayq, in the Paleocene series of the eastern Oman Mountains, have been studied and described in detail. The analysis have allowed us to develop a detailed systematic description of each taxa, constraining their biostratigraphic distribution and defining the associated foraminifera assemblages. The taxonomic study has permitted us to identify each morphotype precisely and describe three new taxa, namely, Ercumentina sayqensis n. gen. n. sp. Lacazinella rogeri n. sp. and Globoreticulinidae new family. The first assemblage is characterized by the presence of Coskinon sp., Dictyoconus cf. turriculus Hottinger and Drobne, Anatoliella ozalpiensis Sirel, Ercumentina sayqensis n. gen. n. sp. SerraKiel and Vicedo, Lacazinella rogeri n. sp. Serra-Kiel and Vicedo, Mandanella cf. flabelliformis Rahaghi, Azzarolina daviesi (Henson), Lockhartia retiata Sander, Dictyokathina simplex Smout and Miscellanites globularis (Rahaghi). The second assemblage is constituted by the forms Pseudofallotella persica (Hottinger and Drobne), Dictyoconus cf. turriculus Hottinger and Drobne, Lacazinella rogeri n. sp. Serra-Kiel and Vicedo, Azzarolina daviesi (Henson), Keramosphera? cf. iranica Rahaghi, Lockhartia haimei (Davies), Lockhartia retiata Sander, Sakesaria trichilata Sander, Kathina delseota Smout, Elazigina harabekayisensis Sirel, Daviesina khatiyahi Smout, and Miscellanea juliettae Leppig. The first assemblage can be considered to belong to the Shallow Bentic Zone SBZ2 (early Selandian age), and the second assemblage to the SBZ3 (late Selandian-early Thanetian age).This paper shows, for the first time in the Middle East area, a correlation between the Selandian larger foraminifera and planktonic foraminifera biozones. (Author)

  10. Thrusting and multiple folding in the Neoproterozoic Pan-African basement of Wadi Hodein area, south Eastern Desert, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdeen, M. M.; Sadek, M. F.; Greiling, R. O.

    2008-09-01

    Detailed field mapping and structural studies of the area around the mouth of Wadi Hodein, some 20 km west of Shalatein at the Red Sea coast in the south Eastern Desert of Egypt, revealed four phases of structural deformation (D1-D4) affecting the Neoproterozoic Pan-African basement rocks. D1 is related to arc-arc collision and is represented by ENE-WSW oriented megascopic upright open folds associated with low angle thrusts and mesoscopic tight, overturned and recumbent F1 folds. Kinematic indicators indicate thrusting towards the SSE. D2 is represented by NNW-SSE oriented megascopic and mesoscopic folds, which are tight, verge towards the WSW and display a left-stepping en echelon pattern. D3 includes major NNW-SSE trending sinistral shear zones that show subordinate reverse fault components and dip steeply towards the ENE. These sinistral shear zones are comparable with the Najd Fault System, as they display a similar sense of movement and relationships to earlier structures. Therefore, they are interpreted to be the continuation of the Najd Shear System in southern Egypt. D2 and D3 are related to accretion of east and west Gondwana. D4 is represented by E-W oriented dextral faults with left-stepping segments. The first three deformation events are in agreement with the general evolutionary model for the East African Orogen in the Arabian-Nubian Shield that begins with NNW-SSE shortening, followed by ENE-WSW compression and subsequent deformation by the NNW-SSE striking Najd Fault System. The E-W dextral faults may be the conjugate shear fractures to the D3 NNW-SSE oriented sinistral wrench faults or are related to a subsequent event, D4. NW-SE oriented gold-bearing quartz veins originated during D1 and were subsequently deformed by D2-D4 events.

  11. Chosen Aspects of Non‑Profit Sector and Volunteering in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Gavurova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The significance of voluntary activities in Slovakia constantly increases as it is one of the fundamental areas, which is of particular interest to chosen communities as well as the general public, with the scope of these activities exceeding religious or social groups and national character. The current situation of voluntary activities is not satisfactory and there is an absence of primary research studies that would provide a relevant and complex overview of the volunteering system. Further worsening the situation is the fact that volunteering actions were not even defined in the legal system until 2011. Evaluation of the existing situation and development of voluntary activities realized in Slovakia is carried out using a questionnaire survey, identifying the fundamental barriers of its development and evaluating the potential for implementing new challenges and trends. The most problematic issue is area of financing, closely related to non‑governmental sector financing issues. A lack of understanding by the donors concerning the process of investing in volunteers, even in high quality programs, is also an important problem, along with the lack of legislation and mistrust. Organization and volunteer motivation was also investigated.

  12. Organic and conventional production in Slovakia: Comparison of selected managerial and financial indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Kozáková

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper addresses the issue to compare organic and conventional agriculture from two points of view. Firstly the managerial point of view examing number of employees and the personal costs per hectare, secondly the owners' view examing profitability of organic farming. Both views result from the specifics of organic farming. Organic production should generate higher employment, higher personal cost and results in lower yields. We evaluated differences between organic and conventional farms in Slovakia over period of years 2009-2012 on a sample of more than 1050 farms in each year. The share of organic farms was 15%. Using t-test as evaluation method we found no significant differences from the managerial point of view (measured by employees per hectare and personal costs per hectare. From the owner' s point of view (measured by return on costs, return on equity and total assets per hectare we conclude that the subsidies successfully compensate the lower revenues of organic farms (there was no significant difference in ROE and ROC. Our results are based on the sample of organic farms with Average utilised area of 850 hectares and reflect the farm structure in Slovakia. We can conclude that large organic farms do not support employment in rural areas and generate comparable profit when compared to conventional farming.

  13. A new high background radiation area in the Geothermal region of Eastern Ghats Mobile Belt (EGMB) of Orissa, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baranwal, V.C.; Sharma, S.P.; Sengupta, D.; Sandilya, M.K.; Bhaumik, B.K.; Guin, R.; Saha, S.K.

    2006-01-01

    A high natural radiation zone is investigated for the first time in a geothermal region of Eastern Ghats Mobile Belt (EGMB) of Orissa state in India. The surrounding area comprises a geothermal region which has surveyed using a portable pulsed Geiger-Muller counter. On the basis of findings of GM counter, an area was marked as a high radiation zone. Soil and rock samples collected from the high radiation zone were analyzed by γ-ray spectrometry (GRS) using NaI(Tl) detector. The radioactivity is found to be contributed mainly by thorium. Concentration of thorium is reported to be very high compared to their normal abundance in crustal rocks. Further, concentrations of 238 U and 40 K are also high compared to normal abundance in crustal rocks but their magnitude is comparatively less than that of thorium. The average concentrations of 238 U (i.e. U(β-γ)), 232 Th and 40 K are found to be 33, 459ppm and 3%, respectively, in soils and 312, 1723ppm and 5%, respectively, in the granitic rocks. Maximum concentrations of 238 U, 232 Th and 40 K are found to be 95, 1194ppm and 4%, respectively, in soils and 1434, 10,590ppm and 8%, respectively, in the granitic rocks. Radioactive element emits various energies in its decay chain. High energies are utilized to estimate the concentration of actual 238 U, 232 Th and 40 K using a NaI(Tl) detector, however, low energies are used for the same in an HPGe detector. Some of the rock samples (eight in number) were also analyzed using HPGe detector for studying the behavior of low energies emitted in the decay series of uranium and thorium. The absorbed gamma dose rate in air and external annual dose rate of the high radiation zone are calculated to be 2431nGy/h and 3.0mSv/y, respectively. It is approximately 10 times greater than the dose rates obtained outside the high radiation zone. The high concentration of uranium and thorium may be one of the possible heat sources together with the normal geothermal gradient for hot springs

  14. Oil-Spill Analysis: Gulf of Mexico Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Lease Sales, Eastern Planning Area, 2003-2007 and Gulfwide OCS Program, 2003-2042

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-09-01

    The Federal Government plans to offer U.S. Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) lands in the Eastern Planning Area of the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) for oil and gas leasing. This report summarizes results of that analysis, the objective of which was to estimate the risk of oil-spill contact to sensitive offshore and onshore environmental resources and socioeconomic features from oil spills accidentally occurring from the OCS activities.

  15. Geochemistry and petrogenesis of lava flows around Linga, Chhindwara area in the Eastern Deccan Volcanic Province (EDVP), India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganguly, Sohini; Ray, Jyotisankar; Koeberl, Christian; Saha, Abhishek; Thöni, Martin; Balaram, V.

    2014-09-01

    Based on systematic three-tier arrangement of vesicles, entablature and columnar joints, three distinct quartz normative tholeiitic lava flows (I, II and III) were recognized in the area around Linga, in the Eastern Deccan Volcanic Province (EDVP). Each of the flows exhibits intraflow chemical variations marked by high Mg#-low Ti, and low Mg#-high Ti contents. The MgO (4.27-7.74 wt.%), Mg# (23.45-41.89) and Zr (161.5-246.3 ppm) of Linga flows suggest an evolved chemistry marked by fractional crystallization and crustal contamination processes. Positive Rb and Th anomalies, negative Nb anomalies, relative enrichment of LILE-LREE with respect to Nb, Nb/Th:3.71-6.77 indicate crustal contamination of magma by continental materials through magma-crust interaction during melt migration and contributions from sub-continental lithospheric mantle (SCLM). Negative K, Sr and Ti anomalies corroborate an intracontinental, rift-controlled tectonic setting for the genesis and evolution of Linga basalts. Chondrite-normalized REE patterns reflect low HREE abundances and prominent LREE/HREE, MREE/HREE fractionation thereby pointing towards partial melting of garnet peridotite mantle source. Nb, Zr, Y variations suggest 10-15% partial melting of mantle source for the derivation of parent tholeiitic melt that suffered crystal fractionation of phenocrystal phases and subsequent liquid immiscibility. Critical evaluation of Srinitial and Ndinitial (65 Ma) isotopic compositions (87Sr/86Srinitial between 0.705656 and 0.706980 and 143Nd/144Ndinitial between 0.512523 and 0.512598) suggests that these basalts were derived from an enriched mantle (∼EM I-EM II) source. The εSr (21.84-41.27) and εNd (-0.28 to 1.10) isotopic signatures defined by higher εSr and lower εNd fingerprint a plume-related source. Positive and negative values of εNd indicate an isotopically heterogeneous mantle source marked by mixing of depleted (DM) and enriched mantle (EM I-EM II) components at the source

  16. Cellular Automata Modelling in Predicting the Development of Settlement Areas, A Case Study in The Eastern District of Pontianak Waterfront City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurhidayati, E.; Buchori, I.; Mussadun; Fariz, T. R.

    2017-07-01

    Pontianak waterfront city as water-based urban has the potential of water resources, socio-economic, cultural, tourism and riverine settlements. Settlements areas in the eastern district of Pontianak waterfront city is located in the triangle of Kapuas river and Landak river. This study uses quantitative-GIS methods that integrates binary logistic regression and Cellular Automata-Markov models. The data used in this study such as satellite imagery Quickbird 2003, Ikonos 2008 and elevation contour interval 1 meter. This study aims to discover the settlement land use changes in 2003-2014 and to predict the settlements areas in 2020. This study results the accuracy in predicting of changes in settlements areas shows overall accuracy (79.74%) and the highest kappa index (0.55). The prediction results show that settlement areas (481.98 Ha) in 2020 and the increasingly of settlement areas (6.80 Ha/year) in 2014-2020. The development of settlement areas in 2020 shows the highest land expansion in Parit Mayor Village. The results of regression coefficient value (0) of flooding variable, so flooding did not influence to the development of settlement areas in the eastern district of Pontianak because the building’s adaptation of rumah panggung’s settlements was very good which have adjusted to the height of tidal flood.

  17. Geophysical exploration for gold and associated minerals, case study: Wadi El Beida area, South Eastern Desert, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sultan, Sultan Awad; Mansour, Salah Ahmed; Santos, Fernando Monteiro; Helaly, Ahmad Sobhy

    2009-01-01

    The occurrences of gold and disseminated sulfides lie as a part of the shearing fault zone that extends from the north to the south of the study area for a length of about 25 km. The gold and disseminated sulfides are located on the alteration shear zone which is composed of quartz–feldspathic highly ferruginated rock (gossans) occupying the eastern and central parts of the area. Mineralogical analyses that were done on bedrock samples of the oxidized and alteration zones indicated that there are two anomalous spots of gold contents; the first one has values ranging from 5 to 49 g ton −1 and the second anomaly has values ranging from 150 to 502.5 g ton −1 . Magnetic, self-potential, resistivity and induced polarization surveys were applied at Wadi El Beida area to delineate the mineral ore deposits in terms of depths and extensions through the structural shearing zone. The quantitative interpretation of magnetic data was carried out by using two techniques; the first is 3D magnetic inversion using Euler deconvolution and the second is magnetic models using the MAGMOD program. The results of the magnetic interpretation indicated that the depths of such ore deposits range from 35.9 to 52.7 m and the half width ranged from 27.2 to 87.8 m. The SP contour maps show negative anomalies with ranges from −70 to 20 mV. Most of these anomalies occupy the shear, silicified zones, alterations and rock contacts. The SP anomalies are correlated with other geophysical ones and also with the geological sources. Quantitative interpretation was done on the selected anomalies along the coded lines on the normal SP contour map. The quantitative interpretation of self-potential anomalies (SP) was carried out using two techniques; the first is a new algorithm constructed by Monteiro Santos (2009) using particle swarm optimization (PSO) and the second is the code constructed by Caglar (2000). The depths range from 20 to 60 m. The gradient resistivity survey was carried out

  18. Geological investigations contributing to the hydrogeological conceptual model in the Meuse/Haute-Marne area, Eastern France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocher, M.; De Hoyos, A.; Hibsch, C.; Viennot, P.

    2010-01-01

    relatively predictable along large correlation profiles, the Oxfordian and Dogger carbonate platform facies show significant lateral variations (respectively, at the km and the 10 km scales). Further new investigations combined fieldwork mapping and seismic reflection analysis. Specific litho-stratigraphic limits were identified in the field using both geo-morphological and/or petrological evidences. Thanks to the low-angle dips, simple 3D surfaces were constructed for each of these limits relying on loose stone mapping and geo-location of the transitions. Where the petrographic changes were quite sharp, and outcropping conditions favourable, this technique locally revealed faults with less than 4 m-vertical offset, below the resolution limit of available seismic profiles. The analysis of selected seismic profiles provided the vertical geometry of the mapped faults. These complementary methods gave consistent results. They improved the knowledge of the structural framework along the southern NNW-SSE striking Gondrecourt fault zone as they pointed out new transverse faults and their right-lateral transform role during the Gondrecourt Graben setting. The WNW-ESE 'en echelon' Poisson fault system, already recognised on the western side of the Gondrecourt Graben, was extended to its eastern side, towards the aquifers recharge area. As a consequence, higher transmissivity values might be considered in the hydrogeological model along these faults. At the metre scale, the porosity values were derived from the stratigraphic facies and fracturing distribution. Statistical analysis on measured minor fractures has been achieved in the Mesozoic limestones outcropping in MHM area. The main trends are the same as for major faults: N040-050 deg. and N130-140 deg.. Minor fracturing is more intense near the regional faults, and locally, the preferential trend is similar to the nearest fault. These results plead for increasing once more the transmissivity values around major faults

  19. Summary of winter honey bee colony losses in Slovakia between the years 2009 and 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Róbert Chlebo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Between the seasons 2009/2010 and 2014/2015 was evaluated 1305 questionnaires in total, received from Slovak beekeepers. Standard questionnaires of COST working group COLOSS were used with sets of questions related to overwintering of bee colonies and possible reasons of its losses. In season 2009/2010 winter losses in Slovakia reached 7.10 %, subsequently in 2010/2011 - 5.96 %, 2011/2012 - 9.70 %, 2012/2013 - 9.50 %, 2013/2014 - 8.84 %, 2014/2015 - 10.00 %. Expected causes of winter mortality (starvation, poor queen´s quality, parasitism, robbery were evaluated in the study to detect the presence of depopulation syndrome of bee colonies - CCD (colony collapse disorder reported from some North American and European areas. As acceptable level of winter losses is generally considered level 10 %, which was not exceeded in any season, thereby Slovakia ranks among countries with the lowest winter mortality of bee colonies worldwide. Possible reason of this situation is most probably multiple Varroa treatment throughout the year, but other reasons are discussed as well in the study.

  20. Cryptic species Anopheles daciae (Diptera: Culicidae) found in the Czech Republic and Slovakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blažejová, Hana; Šebesta, Oldřich; Rettich, František; Mendel, Jan; Čabanová, Viktória; Miterpáková, Martina; Betášová, Lenka; Peško, Juraj; Hubálek, Zdeněk; Kampen, Helge; Rudolf, Ivo

    2018-01-01

    We report the distribution of mosquitoes of the maculipennis complex in two distinct areas of the Czech Republic (Bohemia and South Moravia) and in one locality of neighbouring Slovakia with emphasis on the detection of the newly described cryptic species Anopheles daciae (Linton, Nicolescu & Harbach, 2004). A total of 691 mosquitoes were analysed using a species-specific multiplex PCR assay to differentiate between the members of the maculipennis complex. In the Czech Republic, we found Anopheles maculipennis (with a prevalence rate of 1.4%), Anopheles messeae (49.0%) and Anopheles daciae (49.6%). In Slovakia, only An. messeae (52.1%) and An. daciae (47.9%) were detected. In this study, An. daciae was documented for the first time in the two countries where it represented a markedly higher proportion of maculipennis complex species (with an overall prevalence almost reaching 50%) in comparison to previous reports from Germany, Romania and Poland. The determination of the differential distribution of maculipennis complex species will contribute to assessing risks of mosquito-borne diseases such as malaria or dirofilariasis.

  1. Petrogenesis of the middle Jurassic appinite and coeval granitoids in the Eastern Hebei area of North China Craton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Wenbo; Jiang, Neng; Xu, Xiyang; Hu, Jun; Zong, Keqing

    2017-05-01

    An integrated study of zircon U-Pb ages and Hf-O isotopic compositions, whole rock elemental and Sr-Nd isotope geochemistry was conducted on three lithologically diverse middle Jurassic plutons from the Eastern Hebei area of the North China Craton (NCC), in order to reveal both their petrogenesis and possible tectonic affinity. The three plutons have consistent magmatic zircon U-Pb ages from 167 ± 1 Ma to 173 ± 1 Ma. The Nianziyu pluton has typical characteristics of appinite with low SiO2 (43.7-52.6%), high Ca, Mg, Fe and H2O contents. It possesses subduction-related trace element patterns, enriched Nd-Hf isotopic signatures as well as elevated zircon δ18O values (6.2-7.2‰), arguing for an enriched mantle source metasomatized by fluids related to subduction. The Shuihutong monzogranites have high silica (SiO2 = 75.4-75.9%) and alkali contents, low Ca contents and striking negative Ba, Sr and Eu anomalies. Samples from the pluton have more evolved Nd-Hf isotopic values and are considered to be most likely derived from anatexis of ancient lower continental crust. Hybridization between mantle- and ancient lower crust-derived magmas is proposed for the mafic microgranular enclave-bearing Baijiadian granitoids, which are characterized by variable εNd (t) and εHf(t) values. Integrated with the regional geologic history, we suggest that the formation of the three middle Jurassic plutons were related to the subduction of the Paleo-Pacific ocean plate beneath the NCC. Their petrogenetic differences reflect complex magmatic processes in subduction settings involving melting of multiple sources, possible partly facilitated by fluid metasomatism and water-rich magma injection, accompanied with various degrees of magma mixing. The appearance of middle Jurassic appinitic rocks leads us to propose that the NCC destruction and lithosphere thinning were facilitated and controlled by the weakening of the lithospheric mantle after hydration because of the subduction of the

  2. Investigation of environmental radioactivity in waste dumping areas of the far eastern seas. JAERI`s activities in the 1st Japanese-Korean-Russian joint expedition 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amano, Hikaru; Matsunaga, Takeshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Yabuuchi, Noriaki

    1996-10-01

    Large quantities of radioactive waste have been dumped in the Far Eastern Sea by the former USSR and Russia. In order to survey marine radioactive contamination in the Far Eastern Sea, the first Japanese-Korean-Russian joint expedition was conducted according to the governmental agreement. The joint expedition was conducted at the areas of the Russian radioactive waste dumping site from March 18 1994 to April 6, 1994. JAERI participated in this expedition according to the request from STA Japan, and conducted mainly on-board measurement of marine radioactivities. The results showed that the radionuclides concentrations in seawater and seabed sediment samples from the study site were not different from those in the western North Pacific. This report summarises JAERI`s activities in the expedition. Final report by Japanese-Korean-Russian government and IAEA is annexed. (author)

  3. Investigation of environmental radioactivity in waste dumping areas of the far eastern seas. JAERI's activities in the 1st Japanese-Korean-Russian joint expedition 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amano, Hikaru; Matsunaga, Takeshi; Yabuuchi, Noriaki.

    1996-10-01

    Large quantities of radioactive waste have been dumped in the Far Eastern Sea by the former USSR and Russia. In order to survey marine radioactive contamination in the Far Eastern Sea, the first Japanese-Korean-Russian joint expedition was conducted according to the governmental agreement. The joint expedition was conducted at the areas of the Russian radioactive waste dumping site from March 18 1994 to April 6, 1994. JAERI participated in this expedition according to the request from STA Japan, and conducted mainly on-board measurement of marine radioactivities. The results showed that the radionuclides concentrations in seawater and seabed sediment samples from the study site were not different from those in the western North Pacific. This report summarises JAERI's activities in the expedition. Final report by Japanese-Korean-Russian government and IAEA is annexed. (author)

  4. Epiphytic lichens of apple orchards in Poland, Slovakia, and Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daria Zarabska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Following the study of epiphytic lichens in 30 apple orchards from Poland, Slovakia and Italy the list of 74 taxa was prepared. The most common are the meso- to xerophytic and heliophilous species. The highest number of taxa was observed in Slovak orchards. Moreover, lichens shared with at least one other country were also noted mainly in Slovakia. Bark of apple trees seems to create favourable habitats for Bacidia rubella, which together with Strangospora pinicola were valuable founds in Polish orchards. In Slovak orchards, special attention should be paid to Acrocordia gemmata, Melanelixia glabra and Usnea hirta. Among interesting records in Italian orchards, Phaeophyscia hispidula and Ph. kairamoi can be mentioned.

  5. HUNGARIAN-SLOVAK “COLD WAR” AND THE QUESTION OF “HUNGARIANS ABROAD” IN HUNGARY-SLOVAKIA RELATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina Nelaeva

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The question of EU relations with countries of Central and Eastern Europe (CEE has been widely researched and debated both in political circles and the academia, especially in the light of the EU accession. Such issues as human rights, including minority rights, have been examined in relation to the states’ compliance with the Copenhagen criteria. However, the issue of minority rights (in particular, their prominence in bilateral relations of states after accession has not received much scholarly attention. Hungary and Slovakia, two post-Communist states of CEE, aspired for EU membership for a number of reasons, one of which being the EU potential in bringing societal stability to these countries; both joined the European Union in 2004. The relations between these two countries, however, have not improved, they even worsened. This article seeks to examine the question of worsening relations between Hungary and Slovakia in relation to the issue of minority rights. It argues that an inadequate and inconsistent EU approach to minority rights (generally considered a domestic question can lead to further societal instability in these two countries. Re-conceptualization of the EU approach to minority rights is necessary, if the EU is to remain the stabilizing power in the CEE.

  6. Radiotherapy in Slovakia – what is the way forward?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubinsky, P.

    2011-01-01

    Radiation oncology in Slovakia is placed in precarious position. There is shortage of technology for modern conformal radiotherapy on one side. Paradoxically, technological advances have diverted the specialty away from traditional clinical care on the other side. While technology supplementation and health care infrastructure optimization could not be readily resolved, the focus and status of this field of medicine remains in hands of radiation oncologists. (author)

  7. Analysis of Hydropower Potential Utilization of Watercourses in Slovakia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gejguš, Mirko; Aschbacher, Christine; Sablik, Jozef

    2017-09-01

    This article analyzes the hydropower potential of watercourses in Slovakia, defining water as the most promising and most used renewable energy source. The hydro-energetic potential as a source of energy is determined by the calculation of the technically feasible potential of the watercourses, which is divided into exploited and unused. It also identifies the potential of utilizing the unused technical hydro-energetic potential.

  8. Institutional Framework for Support of Local Entrepreneurship Within Leader Approach in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bumbalová Monika

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Current development of rural areas of Slovakia is not fully reflecting the measures taken at the level of the European Union. Contrary, the differences between the territories seem to be deepening. When analysing the critical factors, job creation together with unemployment seem to be among the most pressing ones. The academics believe that the local entrepreneurship and development of small and medium size enterprises (SME in rural areas have significant impact on accelerating the development of these communities, yet, only limited measures are taken to support them. Therefore, the main objective of the paper is to analyze the institutional framework for support of local SME within implementation of the LEADER approach as a direct instrument of the rural development policy. The emphasis was put on the last programming period (2007 – 2013 and the conditions set for the current programming period (2014 – 2020.

  9. Evaluating Competitiveness of Faculties of Higher Educational Establishments in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rayevnyeva Olena V.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The problem of competitiveness of higher education, efficiency of its functioning and training graduates of higher educational establishments according to the current and future needs of the market are among the key issues of socio-economic development strategy in EU countries. The aim of the study is to determine the competitiveness of faculties of major higher educational establishments based on the use of the cluster analysis and rating evaluations provided by national experts. The paper describes the methodology of rating evaluation of faculties of higher educational establishments in Slovakia on the basis of such components as: educational process; attractiveness of the program; science and research activities; doctoral studies; attracted grants. Shortcomings of the approach to faculty rating evaluations based on the averaged value have been determined. In order to improve analysis of the competitive positions of individual faculties of higher educational establishments in Slovakia, the cluster analysis was used and the results of breaking the faculties into five groups were presented. To forecast changes in the competitive positions of faculties of higher educational establishments in Slovakia, discriminant functions enabling to determine possible qualitative changes in the state of the faculties’ competitiveness due to external or internal factors have been built.

  10. Proceedings of SES International Conference on Can Slovakia secure energy supply and sustainable development without nuclear? Go Nuke Slovakia!

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The Conference proceedings included 28 papers. The Conference included the following sessions: (I): International views; (II): National views; (III): Industry views. Focused in its objective, the is aimed to send a clear, hard-hitting message to decision-makers. This is that: Slovakia cannot secure future energy supply, if it does not complete its partially built reactors and if it closes its safe and effective ones. Nuclear has to remain an indispensable part of the country's future energy mix. The event was opened with invited presentations by officials at the highest level of organisations such as the IAEA, the IEA, OECD/NEA, the NEI, the WNA and WANO, as well as the European Commission and Parliament. This line-up was followed by a host of speakers from the political and nuclear industrial arenas in Slovakia, the Czech Republic, Finland, Hungary and the Russian Federation

  11. Mass loading and episodic variation of molecular markers in PM2.5 aerosols over a rural area in eastern central India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirmalkar, Jayant; Deshmukh, Dhananjay K.; Deb, Manas K.; Tsai, Ying I.; Sopajaree, Khajornsak

    2015-09-01

    The impact of biomass burning in atmospheric aerosols load is poorly known. We investigated the impact of biomass burning through molecular markers on the concentration of PM2.5 aerosol samples collected from a rural site in eastern central India during three episodic periods from October to November 2011. The collected PM2.5 samples were chemically quantified for potassium as well as sugars and dicarboxylic acids using ion chromatography. Levoglucosan and glucose were found as the most abundant sugar compounds and sugar-alcohols showed the predominance of mannitol whereas oxalic acid was the most abundant diacid followed by maleic acid in PM2.5 aerosols. Substantially enhanced concentrations of K+ as well as levoglucosan and glucose were observed in eastern central India. Analysis of the source specific molecular markers and ratios of sugars and diacids infer that combustion of biomass was the major emission sources of organic compounds associated with PM2.5 aerosols over eastern central India. We applied Spearman correlation analysis and principal component analysis to further investigate the sources of measured sugars and diacids. The concentrations of K+ and levoglucosan were significantly correlated with sugars and diacids that verifying their common sources from biomass burning emission. This study demonstrates that biomass burning for domestic heating and cooking purposes and agricultural activities significantly influence the air quality of eastern central India during the investigation period. The obtained data in this research is helpful for the global scientific community to assessments and remedial of air quality parameters in rural areas of developing countries under similar atmospheric circumstances.

  12. A budget impact model for biosimilar infliximab in Crohn's disease in Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Romania, and Slovakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodszky, Valentin; Rencz, Fanni; Péntek, Márta; Baji, Petra; Lakatos, Péter L; Gulácsi, László

    2016-01-01

    To estimate the budget impact of the introduction of biosimilar infliximab for the treatment of Crohn's disease (CD) in Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Romania and Slovakia. A 3-year, prevalence-based budget impact analysis for biosimilar infliximab to treat CD was developed from third-party payers' perspective. The model included various scenarios depending on whether interchanging originator infliximab with biosimilar infliximab was allowed or not. Total cost savings achieved in biosimilar scenario 1 (interchanging not allowed) and BSc2 (interchanging allowed in 80% of the patients) were estimated to €8.0 million and €16.9 million in the six countries. Budget savings may cover the biosimilar infliximab therapy for 722-1530 additional CD patients. Introduction of biosimilar infliximab to treat CD may offset the inequity in access to biological therapy for CD between Central and Eastern European countries.

  13. Neutron activation analysis of sixteenth- and seventeenth-century European blue glass trade beads from the eastern Great Lakes area of North America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hancock, R.G.V.; Chafe, A.; Kenyon, I.

    1994-01-01

    Sixteenth- and seventeenth-century European blue glass trade beads from aboriginal sites in the eastern Great Lakes area of North America have been analysed non-destructively using low neutron dose instrumental neutron activation analysis, so that the beads could be returned to their keepers. Dark blue (cobalt-coloured) beads are readily separable from turquoise (copper-coloured) beads. Differences in the chemistries of the turquoise blue beads appear to be useful in separating glass beads from the two centuries. Low calcium, sixteenth-century turquoise beads tend to disintegrate by a leaching of the alkali metals. (Author)

  14. Hydrogeology of the Ramapo River-Woodbury Creek valley-fill aquifer system and adjacent areas in eastern Orange County, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heisig, Paul M.

    2015-01-01

    The hydrogeology of the valley-fill aquifer system and surrounding watershed areas was investigated within a 23-mile long, fault-controlled valley in eastern Orange County, New York. Glacial deposits form a divide within the valley that is drained to the north by Woodbury Creek and is drained to the south by the Ramapo River. Surficial geology, extent and saturated thickness of sand and gravel aquifers, extent of confining units, bedrock-surface elevation beneath valleys, major lineaments, and the locations of wells for which records are available were delineated on an interactive map.

  15. Development of a regional groundwater flow model for the area of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Eastern Snake River Plain Aquifer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCarthy, J.M.; Arnett, R.C.; Neupauer, R.M.

    1995-03-01

    This report documents a study conducted to develop a regional groundwater flow model for the Eastern Snake River Plain Aquifer in the area of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The model was developed to support Waste Area Group 10, Operable Unit 10-04 groundwater flow and transport studies. The products of this study are this report and a set of computational tools designed to numerically model the regional groundwater flow in the Eastern Snake River Plain aquifer. The objective of developing the current model was to create a tool for defining the regional groundwater flow at the INEL. The model was developed to (a) support future transport modeling for WAG 10-04 by providing the regional groundwater flow information needed for the WAG 10-04 risk assessment, (b) define the regional groundwater flow setting for modeling groundwater contaminant transport at the scale of the individual WAGs, (c) provide a tool for improving the understanding of the groundwater flow system below the INEL, and (d) consolidate the existing regional groundwater modeling information into one usable model. The current model is appropriate for defining the regional flow setting for flow submodels as well as hypothesis testing to better understand the regional groundwater flow in the area of the INEL. The scale of the submodels must be chosen based on accuracy required for the study

  16. Appreciation of landscape aesthetic values in Slovakia assessed by social media photographs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lieskovský Juraj

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Geolocated photos from google Panoramio are used as a proxy for evaluation of aesthetic values appreciation of different landscape types in Slovakia. We collected the photo’s metadata from years 2005 - 2014 and calculated the density of photos uploaded by unique user per square kilometre. Then we compared the photos density in different landscape types. The most appreciated are subalpine and alpine landscape types. The high photo density was also found in urban landscapes where most of the population live. Outside the urban area, we found that less intensive type of landscapes are visually more attractive. From the abiotic landscape categories the most aesthetically valuable are landscapes in giant highlands and glacial giant highlands. The lowland landscape used intensively for agricultural production is less attractive.

  17. Monitoring of 137CS and 40K in the Levice District, Southern Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanta M.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The contamination of the environment, soil and meat of wild animals with radionuclides can negatively affect human health. The aim of our study was to analyse the risk arising from post-Chernobyl contamination of the meat of wild boars (Sus scrofa originating from the district Levice, southern Slovakia, with the radioactive artificial element 137Cs. The level of natural radionuclide 40K was also determined. We examined altogether 45 samples obtained from 9 wild boars hunted in this area during the period of 2013—2015. From each animal we collected and analysed samples from the thigh, stomach contents, stomach muscles and skin. We also examined samples of soil from the locations where these animals were shot. The activity values of radioactive caesium 137Cs determined in this study were very low and therefore the consumption of wild boar meat originating from this location presents no risk to human health.

  18. Evaluation Of The Two Model Biocorridors In Soth-West Part Of Slovakia In Agricultural Landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Debnáriková

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research is to evaluate two different models of biocorridors in south-west part of Slovakia in intensively utilized agricultural landscape. The first biocorridor is a part of fragmented alluvial softwood forest along the Žitava’s river in its unregulated part in cadastral territory Horný Ohaj, district Vráble. This biocorridor should be the representative biocorridor by its structure and plant composition in its area. The second biocorridor is biocorridor composed by Robinia pseudoacacia L. in the village Báb, district Nitra. The research analyzes the structure of the selected biocorridors by using the methods of phytocoenology, evaluate functional integrity by monitoring of their spatial parameters in terrain and by processing maps in the AutoCAD program. At the base of phytocoenological report evaluates occurence of alien species.

  19. Appreciation of landscape aesthetic values in Slovakia assessed by social media photographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieskovský, Juraj; Rusňák, Tomáš; Klimantová, Alexandra; Izsóff, Martin; Gašparovičová, Petra

    2017-11-01

    Geolocated photos from google Panoramio are used as a proxy for evaluation of aesthetic values appreciation of different landscape types in Slovakia. We collected the photo's metadata from years 2005 - 2014 and calculated the density of photos uploaded by unique user per square kilometre. Then we compared the photos density in different landscape types. The most appreciated are subalpine and alpine landscape types. The high photo density was also found in urban landscapes where most of the population live. Outside the urban area, we found that less intensive type of landscapes are visually more attractive. From the abiotic landscape categories the most aesthetically valuable are landscapes in giant highlands and glacial giant highlands. The lowland landscape used intensively for agricultural production is less attractive.

  20. Gypsy Phenylketonuria: A point mutation of the phenylalanine hydroxylase gene in Gypsy families from Slovakia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalanin, J. [Institute for Clinical and Experical Medicine, Praha (Czechoslovakia); Takarada, Y. [Toyobo Research Center, Shiga (Japan); Kagawa, S.; Yamashita, K.; Ohtsuka, N.; Matsuoka, A. [Hyogo College of Medicine, Nishinomiya (Japan)

    1994-01-15

    A direct mutational analysis of the phenylalanine hydroxylase gene (PAH) in Gypsy families with phenylketonuria (PKU) has not yet been presented. However, they obviously represent a group at high risk for this inherited disease. The authors analyzed the PAH loci of 65 Gypsies originating from Eastern Slovakia by a combination of PCR amplification, direct sequencing and ASO hybridization. These studies uncovered 10 {open_quotes}classical PKU{close_quotes} patients to be homozygous for a R252W (CGG-TGG) transition, and 29 heterozygous carriers of this mutation. Fifteen control Caucasoid PKU patients from the Czech and Slovak Republics were selected. In this group they detected R252W mutation in two subjects (6.67% of all mutant alleles). Both were compound heterozygous for two different mutations. Previous haplotype studies of Welsh Gypsies with PKU were uninformative in the determination of heterozygosity. ASO hybridization served effectively for the consequent analyses in Gypsy PKU-related families and to identify the carriers among the unrelated subjects. 19 refs., 2 figs.

  1. Genotypic Characterization of Coagulase-negative Staphylococci Isolated from Sheep Milk in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Pilipčincová

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Hitherto very few reports are available presenting identification and molecular characterization of the coagulase negative staphylococci (CNS from sheep milk in the subclinical stage of mastitis. Furthermore, very scanty data are available on the epidemiological status of CNS in different Slovak provinces. Milk samples from 54 sheep farms located in eastern Slovak region were screened. A total 240 CNS were identified with series of biochemical testes (STAPH-API and subjected further for genotyping with the help of pulse field gel electrophoresis (PFGE. The most frequently occurring CNS species according the biochemical characterization were: S. epidermidis (36.3 %, S. caprae (21.3 %, S. hominis (6.6 %, S. chromogenes (6.3 %, S. xylosus (5.8 %, S. warneri (5.0 % and S. capitis (4.6 %. Further PFGE-based characterization of these isolates revealed six pulsotypes of the S. epidermidis, two of S. caprae, three of S. chromogenes, nine of S. hominis, five of S. capitis and seven of S. xylosus. These results contribute to knowledge of the epidemiological situation of the CNS from the subclinical form of mastitis in Slovakia.

  2. The Flat Tax in Central Europe: Slovakia and the Czech Republic in Comparative Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Michael Ellis

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Why and how have Slovakia and the Czech Republic adopted flat tax policies? That is what this paper answers. This is a curious development given that flat tax policies were noticeably absent from the landscape of most of the world, including Eastern Europe. I argue that two simultaneous processes occur that make adoption viable.  First, at the domestic level, the idea of the flat tax is held in esteem by a number of actors, specifically: elite carriers, tax and financial ministers, think tanks and right-wing political parties. They champion this idea to its adoption, or at the least, introduce the flat tax into the policy-making apparatus. Second, at the international level, policy diffusion of the flat tax takes place. In other words, the experience of previous adopters impacts the decisions of future adopters. Examining both cognitive heuristics theory and rational learning I argue that there are “varieties of diffusion” during the diffusion of the flat tax.

  3. Europeanization in the "Other" Europe: Writing the Nation into "Europe" Education in Slovakia and Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaels, Deborah L.; Stevick, E. Doyle

    2009-01-01

    How is the tension between renewed nationalist and European narratives of belonging being unfolded in the curricula, discourse, and practice of civic education in Slovakia and Estonia. As two post-socialist territories that were "reborn" as independent nation-states in the 1990s, Slovakia and Estonia were confronted with pressure to…

  4. Indicator-based model to assess vulnerability to landslides in urban areas. Case study of Husi city (Eastern Romania)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grozavu, Adrian; Ciprian Margarint, Mihai; Catalin Stanga, Iulian

    2013-04-01

    In the last three or four decades, vulnerability evolved from physical fragility meanings to a more complex concept, being a key element of risk assessment. In landslide risk assessment, there are a large series of studies regarding landslide hazard, but far fewer researches focusing on vulnerability measurement. Furthermore, there is still no unitary understanding on the methodological framework, neither any internationally agreed standard for landslide vulnerability measurements. The omnipresent common element is the existence of elements at risk, but while some approaches are limited to exposure, other focus on the degree of losses (human injuries, material damages and monetary losses, structural dysfunctions etc.). These losses are differently assessed using both absolute and relative values on qualitative or quantitative scales and they are differently integrated to provide a final vulnerability value. This study aims to assess vulnerability to landslides at local level using an indicator-based model applied to urban areas and tested for Husi town (Eastern Romania). The study region is characterized by permeable and impermeable alternating sedimentary rocks, monoclinal geological structure and hilly relief with impressive cuestas, continental temperate climate, and precipitation of about 500 mm/year, rising to 700 m and even more in some rainy years. The town is a middle size one (25000 inhabitants) and it had an ascending evolution in the last centuries, followed by an increasing human pressure on lands. Methodologically, the first step was to assess the landslide susceptibility and to identify in this way those regions within which any asset would be exposed to landslide hazards. Landslide susceptibility was assessed using the logistic regression approach, taking into account several quantitative and qualitative factors (elements of geology, morphometry, rainfall, land use etc.). The spatial background consisted in the Digital Elevation Model and all derived

  5. The survey of dwellings with increased radon levels in Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vicanova, M.

    1998-01-01

    This national survey of indoor radon measurements in a sample of dwellings in Slovakia was organised by the Institute of Preventive and Clinical Medicine in Bratislava. The aim was to find districts and type of dwellings with the highest indoor radon concentrations and to estimate the radiation load of the Slovak population owing the indoor radon exposure. Passive solid state nuclear track detectors were used to measure indoor radon concentrations. The detectors were polyallyldiglycolcarbonate CR-39 which were placed in about 6,000 selected houses (minimum two detectors for every residence). After six months exposed detectors and questionnaires were returned to for analysis. Electrochemical etching combined with a chemical pre-etching process was used for evaluating detectors. Present results are from 3,657 residents (0.2% of total dwellings in Slovakia). It was found that the arithmetic mean of equilibrium equivalent concentration (EEC) was 86 ± 119 Bq m -3 , the geometric mean was about 41 ± 2.22 Bq m -3 and 11% of dwellings (N = 409) have a greater EEC of radon than the action level (200 Bq m -3 ). The national survey results suggest that Slovakia may be among the countries with high radon risk in Central Europe. The population-weighted arithmetic mean is 48 Bq m -3 , the maximum value found was 1500 Bq m -3 and the average annual effective dose from indoor radon exposure is 2.1 mSv. The district with the highest indoor radon concentrations correlate with known presence of uranium in the soil, therefore the soil is probably the main source of radon in Slovak dwellings. This survey of dwellings with increased radon levels supported this conclusion, because the highest radon levels were found in older family houses without cellars. (author)

  6. Global positioning system survey data for active seismic and volcanic areas of eastern Sicily, 1994 to 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonforte, Alessandro; Fagone, Sonia; Giardina, Carmelo; Genovese, Simone; Aiesi, Gianpiero; Calvagna, Francesco; Cantarero, Massimo; Consoli, Orazio; Consoli, Salvatore; Guglielmino, Francesco; Puglisi, Biagio; Puglisi, Giuseppe; Saraceno, Benedetto

    2016-08-01

    This work presents and describes a 20-year long database of GPS data collected by geodetic surveys over the seismically and volcanically active eastern Sicily, for a total of more than 6300 measurements. Raw data were initially collected from the various archives at the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione di Catania—Osservatorio Etneo and organized in a single repository. Here, quality and completeness checks were performed, while all necessary supplementary information were searched, collected, validated and organized together with the relevant data. Once all data and information collections were completed, raw binary data were converted into the universal ASCII RINEX format; all data are provided in this format with the necessary information for precise processing. In order to make the data archive readily consultable, we developed software allowing the user to easily search and obtain the needed data by simple alphanumeric and geographic queries.

  7. Global positioning system survey data for active seismic and volcanic areas of eastern Sicily, 1994 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonforte, Alessandro; Fagone, Sonia; Giardina, Carmelo; Genovese, Simone; Aiesi, Gianpiero; Calvagna, Francesco; Cantarero, Massimo; Consoli, Orazio; Consoli, Salvatore; Guglielmino, Francesco; Puglisi, Biagio; Puglisi, Giuseppe; Saraceno, Benedetto

    2016-08-01

    This work presents and describes a 20-year long database of GPS data collected by geodetic surveys over the seismically and volcanically active eastern Sicily, for a total of more than 6300 measurements. Raw data were initially collected from the various archives at the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione di Catania-Osservatorio Etneo and organized in a single repository. Here, quality and completeness checks were performed, while all necessary supplementary information were searched, collected, validated and organized together with the relevant data. Once all data and information collections were completed, raw binary data were converted into the universal ASCII RINEX format; all data are provided in this format with the necessary information for precise processing. In order to make the data archive readily consultable, we developed software allowing the user to easily search and obtain the needed data by simple alphanumeric and geographic queries.

  8. Vegetation Analysis in the Red Sea-Eastern Desert Ecotone at the Area between Safaga and South Qusseir, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed G. Sheded

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The current work is concerned with the studying the impact of environmental conditions on the vegetation in the arid ecotone located between Red Sea and Eastern Desert from Safaga to south Qusseir. Ninety eight quadrats inside 13 transects were selected to cover the environmental gradient across the ecotone, from the coastal region to the boundary of Eastern Desert. Forty five species were recorded belonged to 24 different families and 38 genera. The perennial species were 38 while the annuals were seven species. Zygophyllum coccineum had the highest presence value (89.8% followed by Tamarix nilotica (56.1% and Zilla spinosa (51.02%. Chamaephytes and Hemicryptophytes were the most prevailed life-forms. Chrological analysis exhibited that SaharoSindian and Sahro-Sindian with its extension to Sudano-Zambezian elements were the most dominant. TWINSPAN classification technique produced three vegetation groups include nine clusters at the fourth level. These groups identified according to the first and second dominant species as follows: Convolvulus hystrix - Panicum turgidum, Tamarix aphylla - Limonium pruinosum and Nitraria retusa - Tamarix nilotica. DECORANA results indicated a reasonable segregation among these groups along the ordination axis 1 and 2. Vegetation analysis showed that ecotonal clusters have highest number of species/cluster, high species richness and high species turnover. Therefore, the largest group existed in the ecotone (34 species while the desert group contained eight species and the coastal group included three species. Among the estimated soil variables in this study, pH, coarse sand, HCO3-, SO42- , clay and PO43- have the highest effect on species distribution. Sodium adsorption ratio (SAR was the effective factor in detecting the ecotonal species, Aeluropus lagopoides and Limonium pruinosum.

  9. ENGAGEMENT AND BURNOUT AMONG NURSING AND PSYCHOLOGY STUDENTS IN SLOVAKIA

    OpenAIRE

    Zuzana Škodová; Ľubica Bánovčinová; Petra Lajčiaková

    2017-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the study was to examine the differences in engagement and burnout syndrome in students of nursing/midwifery and psychology in Slovakia. Design: A cross-sectional design was used. Methods: 171 university students on a baccalaureate program participated in the research (90.9% females; age 20.6 ± 1.3; 80 psychology students, 91 nursing/midwifery students). The School Burnout Inventory (SBI) and Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES) were employed as measurement methods. Results: A...

  10. Case concerning Gabcikovo-Nagymaros project (Hungary/Slovakia). Judgement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    Hungary and Czechoslovakia in 1977 concluded a treaty for the building of dam structures in Slovakia and Hungary for the production of electric power, flood control and improvement of navigation on the Danube. In 1989 Hungary suspended and subsequently abandoned completion of the project alleging that it entailed grave risks to the Hungarian environment and the water supply of Budapest. Slovakia (successor to Czechoslovakia) denied these allegations and insisted that Hungary carry out its treaty obligations. It planned and subsequently put into operation an alternative project only on Slovak territory, whose operation had effects on Hungary's access to the water of the Danube. In this judgement, the Court found: (1) that Hungary was not entitled to suspend and subsequently abandon, in 1989, its part of the works in the dam project, as laid down in the treaty signed in 1977 by Hungary and Czechoslovakia and related instruments; (2) that Czechoslovakia was entitled ti start, in November 1991, preparation of an alternative provisional solution (called V ariant C ) , but not to put that solution into operation in October 1992 as a unilateral measure; (3) that Hungary's notification of termination of the 1977 Treaty and related instruments on 19 May 1992 did not legally terminate them (and they are consequently still in force and govern the relationship between the Parties); (4) and that Slovakia, as successor to Czechoslovakia became a party the Treaty of 1997.As to the future conduct of the Parties, the Court found: (1) that Hungary and Slovakia must negotiate in good faith in the light of the prevailing situation, and must take all necessary measures to ensure the achievement of the objectives of the 1997 Treaty; (2) that, unless the Parties agree otherwise, a joint operational regime for the dam on Slovak territory must be established in accordance with the Treaty of 1977; (3) that each Party must compensate the other Party for the damage caused by its conduct; (4

  11. The biggest investment in the history of Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2009-01-01

    On 11 June 2009 the General Director and Chairman of the Board of Directors of Slovenske elektrarne Paolo Ruzzini and the Prime Minister of the Slovak Republic Robert Fico announced the signature of contracts with the main suppliers for the completion of units 3 and 4 of Mochovce Nuclear Power Plant. Planned investment of Eur 2.775 billion by 2013 for the Mochovce completion is an important commitment for us and especially in this time, such investment can mitigate the impact of global slowdown in economic growth which impacts Slovakia but also other economies of the world. (author)

  12. Moral (or ethical) education in Slovakia and its theoretical basis

    OpenAIRE

    Gluchman Vasil

    2016-01-01

    With regard to existing concept of the moral education (ethics) in Slovakia, the questions of ethics and morals are only one of the partial sections. The dominant role is played by psychology based on Roberto Olivar’s concept with emphasis on pro-socialization and on Erickson’s concept of the psychosocial development. From the philosophy basis point of view, only Aristotle, even in reduced form and Spranger’s concept of the life forms are mentioned. Philosophy and ethics are only complements ...

  13. Dataset on records of Hericium erinaceus in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimír Kunca

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The data presented in this article are related to the research article entitled “Habitat preferences of Hericium erinaceus in Slovakia” (Kunca and Čiliak, 2016 [FUNECO607] [2]. The dataset include all available and unpublished data from Slovakia, besides the records from the same tree or stem. We compiled a database of records of collections by processing data from herbaria, personal records and communication with mycological activists. Data on altitude, tree species, host tree vital status, host tree position and intensity of management of forest stands were evaluated in this study. All surveys were based on basidioma occurrence and some result from targeted searches.

  14. Consumers´ purchasing preferences towards organic food in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdenka Kádeková

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Submitted paper deals with the consumers´ purchasing preferences towards organic food in Slovakia, pointing at the situation on the organic food market in Slovakia finding the consumers' preferences when buying organic food. The results of the questionnaire survey identified the preferences and opinions of respondents about organic food. Paper analyses the questionnaire survey by 227 respondents concerning the purchasing preferences towards organic food in Slovakia. In order to achieve given aim and to ensure deeper analysis of the results, there had been stated 3 assumptions and 5 hypothesis. As the results of the survey proved, 65% of respondents buy organic food, of which 39% of respondents buy organic food at least once a week. Up to 98% of respondents have already met the concept of organic food and know what it means. 37 % of respondents buy mostly organic fruit and vegetables, 18% of respondents buy the most the meat and meat products in organic quality and 13% of respondents prefer dairy products in organic quality. The most preferred place to buy organic food are specialized stores (36 %,to buy organic food directly from the producer is the most popular way for 29 % of respondents, hypermarket and supermarkets are favorite place to buy organic food for 19% of respondents, and 12% of respondents buy organic food mostly in farmers´ markets. Only 4% of respondents prefer another way to buy organic food. Quality of organic food and not using the pesticides is the most important criteria for buying organic food (36%. Price has also really strong influence on purchasing decision, when 34% of respondents are the most affected by the price when purchasing organic food. Package is considered as the least important criteria when buying organic food by 72% of respondents. On the basis of provided results of our survey and formulated hypothesis which were evaluated by Chi-square goodness of fit test, Chi square test of the square contingency and

  15. The invasion history, distribution and colour pattern forms of the harlequin ladybird beetle Harmonia axyridis (Pall.) (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae) in Slovakia, Central Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panigaj, Lubomír; Zach, Peter; Honěk, Alois; Nedvěd, Oldřich; Kulfan, Ján; Martinková, Zdenka; Selyemová, Diana; Viglášová, Sandra; Roy, Helen E

    2014-01-01

    The harlequin ladybird beetle Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae) has invaded and established in Slovakia. Following unintentional introduction in 2008, the spread of the alien coccinellid was very fast. By the end of 2009, it was recorded across the whole country, and by the end of 2012 it was widely distributed and common in various habitats, particularly gardens, orchards and urban areas, where it was most frequent on trees. The rate of eastward spread was approximately 200 km year(-1), similar to the overall rate of spread in Europe. Between 2008 and 2012, the coccinellid was recorded in a total of 153 localities, in altitudes ranging from 98 to 1,250 m. Most records of this species were made in lowlands, hilly areas and valleys separating mountain ridges. However, it was only rarely documented in areas above 700 m a.s.l. The non-melanic colour form (f. succinea) was dominant along a longitudinal transect including eight urban areas across Slovakia, with the frequency of melanic forms (f. spectabilis and f. conspicua together) between 6.3 and 19.2% and a median equal to 10.5%. The invasion history and distribution of H. axyridis in Slovakia are discussed with regard to the time sequence of records, rate of spread, altitudinal distribution, anthropogenic dispersal, effective recording, proportion of melanic forms and other relevant aspects associated with the spread of this successful invader.

  16. The invasion history, distribution and colour pattern forms of the harlequin ladybird beetle Harmonia axyridis (Pall. (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae in Slovakia, Central Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ľubomír Panigaj

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The harlequin ladybird beetle Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae has invaded and established in Slovakia. Following unintentional introduction in 2008, the spread of the alien coccinellid was very fast. By the end of 2009, it was recorded across the whole country, and by the end of 2012 it was widely distributed and common in various habitats, particularly gardens, orchards and urban areas, where it was most frequent on trees. The rate of eastward spread was approximately 200 km year-1, similar to the overall rate of spread in Europe. Between 2008 and 2012, the coccinellid was recorded in a total of 153 localities, in altitudes ranging from 98 to 1,250 m. Most records of this species were made in lowlands, hilly areas and valleys separating mountain ridges. However, it was only rarely documented in areas above 700 m a.s.l. The non-melanic colour form (f. succinea was dominant along alongitudinal transect including eight urban areas across Slovakia, with the frequency of melanic forms (f. spectabilis and f. conspicua together between 6.3 and 19.2% and a median equal to 10.5%. The invasion history and distribution of H. axyridis in Slovakia are discussed with regard to the time sequence of records, rate of spread, altitudinal distribution, anthropogenic dispersal, effective recording, proportion of melanic forms and other relevant aspects associated with the spread of this successful invader.

  17. Selected sociodemographic factors and related differences in patterns of alcohol use among university students in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebena Rene

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alcohol use and misuse and their relation to sociodemograhic factors are well studied among university students in Western European countries and the USA, but less is known about students in Eastern Europe. The historical past as communistic countries might have affected the social life among these populations, which is again one of the main factors determining the alcohol consumption among university students. The aim of our study was to assess the association of selected sociodemographic factors with different patterns of alcohol use among university students in Slovakia. Methods A sample of 813 young adults (mean age 21.1 years, 63.8% females; response rate of 71% from four universities in Kosice answered questions about their sociodemographic background and about alcohol use. To obtain a detailed picture of different aspects, alcohol use was measured by four variables: frequency of alcohol use, heavy episodic drinking, frequency of drunkenness and problem drinking. Four separate logistic regression models were used to assess the association between sociodemographic and alcohol-related variables. To assess the potentially different effects in both genders, all two-way interactions with gender were tested. Results While 41% of the students drank alcohol once a week or more often, 77% reported heavy episodic drinking and 49% had been drunk more than once in the last month. Problem drinking existed in 23.3% of the sample. Gender was consistently associated with all four alcohol-related variables, with males being at higher risk. A higher study year was associated only with lower levels of heavy episodic drinking, but displayed no association with the other studied variables. Living with parents during the semester was consistently associated with less frequent heavy episodic drinking, drunkenness episodes, and problem drinking while having an intimate relationship was associated with less problem drinking only. Conclusions

  18. Buried paleo-sedimentary basins in the north-eastern Black Sea-Azov Sea area and tectonic implications (DOBRE-2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starostenko, Vitaly; Stephenson, Randell; Janik, Tomasz; Tolkunov, Anatoly

    2014-05-01

    A number of independent but inter-related projects carried out under the auspices of various national and international programmes in Ukraine including DARIUS were aimed at imaging the upper lithosphere, crustal and sedimentary basin architecture in the north-eastern Black Sea, southern Crimea and Kerch peninsulas and the Azov Sea. This region marks the transition from relatively undisturbed Precambrian European cratonic crust and lithosphere north of the Azov Sea to areas of significant Phanerozoic tectonics and basin development, in both extensional as well as compressional environments, to the south, including the eastern Black Sea rift, which is the main sedimentary basin of the study area. The wide-angle reflection and refraction (WARR) profile DOBRE-2, a Ukrainian national project with international participation (see below), overlapping some 115 km of the southern end of the DOBREfraction'99 profile (that crosses the intracratonic Donbas Foldbelt) in the north and running to the eastern Black Sea basin in the south, utilised on- and offshore recording and energy sources. It maps crustal velocity structure across the craton margin and documents, among other things, that the Moho deepens from 40 km to ~47 km to the southwest below the Azov Sea and Crimean-Caucasus deformed zone. A regional CDP seismic profile coincident with DOBRE-2, crossing the Azov Sea, Kerch Peninsula and the north-eastern Black Sea southwest to the Ukraine-Turkey border, acquired by Ukrgeofisika (the Ukrainian national geophysical company) reveals in its inferred structural relationships the ages of Cretaceous and younger extensional and subsequent basin inversion tectonic events as well as the 2D geometry of basement displacement associated with post mid-Eocene inversion. A direct comparison of the results of the WARR velocity model and the near-vertical reflection structural image has been made by converting the former into the time domain. The results dramatically demonstrate that

  19. Expansion of the marbled crayfish in Slovakia: beginning of an invasion in the Danube catchment?

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    Boris Lipták

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The marbled crayfish, Procambarus fallax f. virginalis, is a taxon widely available in the aquarium pet trade, which has been introduced to open waters in several European countries and in Madagascar. Recent studies confirmed this parthenogenetically reproducing crayfish as a high-risk invasive species, and vector of the crayfish plague pathogen, Aphanomyces astaci. It has been first discovered in Slovakia in 2010, but the status of the local population was not studied since then. Due to enlarged sampling area around the first report and one locality, where we presupposed the crayfish occurrence, we identified new marbled crayfish populations. Here, we report presence of three newly established marbled crayfish populations in Slovakia. Two populations are located critically close to the Váh River, a major tributary of the Danube River; one of them being directly connected to the Váh River via a side channel during occasional floods. The third established marbled crayfish population was found at the mouth of a thermal stream flowing into the Nitra River, a tributary of the Váh River. In this stream, crayfish coexist with other exotic fish and gastropod species of aquarium origin. We presume that the reported localities may serve as a source for further expansion of the marbled crayfish in the mid-part of the Danube catchment. Floods, active dispersal (including overland, passive dispersal by zoochory or anthropogenic translocations are among the major drivers facilitating the marbled crayfish colonization. We have not detected the crayfish plague pathogen in any of the studied populations. However, if spreading further, the marbled crayfish will encounter established populations of crayfish plague carriers in the Danube River, in which case they may acquire the pathogen by horizontal transmission and contribute to spread of this disease to indigenous European crayfish species.

  20. Energy balance of chosen crops and their potential to saturate energy consumption in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarína Hrčková

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present work was to assess and compare energy inputs and outputs of various crop managements in 2011–2012. Two main crops on arable land and three permanent grasslands were investigated. Silage maize (Zea mays L. and winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. were grown on lowland, whilst two semi-natural grasslands and grassland infested by tufted hair-grass (Deschampsia caespitose (L. P. Beauv were located in mountainous regions of Slovakia. In these crops and grasslands the dry matter yield was measured and subsequently the supplementary energy, energy gain and unifying energy value – tonne of oil equivalent (TOE – were calculated. Silage maize with 233.37 GJ*ha-1 has provided the highest energy gain. In the group of grasslands, grassland infested by tufted hair-grass has offered the highest energy gain (59.77 GJ*ha-1. And this grassland had the lowest requirement on the supplementary energy (3.66 GJ*ha-1, contrary to silage maize with highest one (12.37 GJ*ha-1. The total energy potential of the crop biomasses was confronted with energy consumption in Slovakia. Winter wheat has the biggest energy potential, but it could cover only 19.6% and 11.3% total consumption of electricity or natural gas, respectively. Large area of permanent grasslands and their spatial location make them an important energy reservoir for bioenergy production. But, it is not possible to replace all consumed fossil fuels by bioenergy from these tested renewable energy sources.

  1. Increasing incidence of Geomyces destructans fungus in bats from the Czech Republic and Slovakia.

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    Natália Martínková

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: White-nose syndrome is a disease of hibernating insectivorous bats associated with the fungus Geomyces destructans. It first appeared in North America in 2006, where over a million bats died since then. In Europe, G. destructans was first identified in France in 2009. Its distribution, infection dynamics, and effects on hibernating bats in Europe are largely unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We screened hibernacula in the Czech Republic and Slovakia for the presence of the fungus during the winter seasons of 2008/2009 and 2009/2010. In winter 2009/2010, we found infected bats in 76 out of 98 surveyed sites, in which the majority had been previously negative. A photographic record of over 6000 hibernating bats, taken since 1994, revealed bats with fungal growths since 1995; however, the incidence of such bats increased in Myotis myotis from 2% in 2007 to 14% by 2010. Microscopic, cultivation and molecular genetic evaluations confirmed the identity of the recently sampled fungus as G. destructans, and demonstrated its continuous distribution in the studied area. At the end of the hibernation season we recorded pathologic changes in the skin of the affected bats, from which the fungus was isolated. We registered no mass mortality caused by the fungus, and the recorded population decline in the last two years of the most affected species, M. myotis, is within the population trend prediction interval. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: G. destructans was found to be widespread in the Czech Republic and Slovakia, with an epizootic incidence in bats during the most recent years. Further development of the situation urgently requires a detailed pan-European monitoring scheme.

  2. Detection of CHLAMYDIA PSITTACI in feral pigeons ( COLUMBA LIVIA DOMESTICA in Slovakia and their characterisation

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    Lenka Čechová

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available [b]Introduction and objectives.[/b] [i]Chlamydia psittaci[/i], an obligate intracellular bacterium, which is the etiologic agent of avian chlamydiosis in birds and ornithosis/psittacosis in humans, has been reported to be one of the most common pathogens found in feral pigeons worldwide, and thus constitutes a zoonotic risk. The aim of the study was to investigate pigeons in Slovakia living in areas in close proximity to humans for the presence of C. psittaci, using pharyngeal and cloacal swabs. [b]Material and methods. [/b]122 clinically healthy pigeons from different geographical regions of Slovakia were examined for the presence of [i]C. psittaci[/i]. The adult pigeons of both genders were captured during the summer period in the urban centres of Slovakian towns. Each sample was examined by molecular method PCR, and in the case of positive result the identity of the obtained sequence was examined by a BLAST search. [b]Results.[/b] Of the total number of 244 examined samples, 14 (5.7% showed positivity for [i]C. psittaci[/i] infection, 5 of which were from pharyngeal swabs (4.1% and 9 from cloacal swabs (7.4%. A positive result was detected in 13 pigeons (10.7%. Phylogenetic analysis showed that all the positive samples are genetically very close to genotypes B and genotype E. [b]Conclusion.[/b] Phylogenetic examination of the 14 isolates of [i]C. psittaci[/i] identified in the presented study, based on 23S rRNA gene sequence, revealed their close relationship with [i]C. psittaci[/i] genotypes B and E. Both genotypes are predominantly prevalent in pigeons and both can be transmitted to humans. Therefore, it is necessary to perform screening examinations of animals and analyse the epidemiological factors affecting the way of transmission and circulation of pathogen.

  3. Distribution and harmfulness of field dodder (Cuscuta campestris Yuncker at sugar beet fields in Slovakia

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    Tóth Peter

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available During 2002-2004, field surveys of field dodder (Cuscuta campestris Yunck e r in croplands were done in southwestern Slovakia. From among 150 localities surveyed, 80 were found infested by the field dodder. Within crop plants, C. campestris infested sugar beet (Beta vulgaris, alfalfa (Medicago sativa tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum, potato (Solanum tuberosum, lentil (Lens esculenta, parsley (Pastinaca sativa and onion (Allium cepa. Besides the crops, 18 weed species were also recorded. The species from the genus Polygonum (Polygonaceae were the most important and acted as a significant reservoir of field dodder in cropland. C. campestris was not found in cold climatic regions with altitude higher than 240 m. The impact of field dodder infestation on sugar beet yield was studied during the year of 2004 in two localities (Šalov and Žitavce in southwestern Slovakia. The presence of field dodder markedly reduced both, quantity and quality of sugar beet yield. Weight of heavily infested beets was reduced from 21.6 to 37.4% and sugar content from 12.0 to 15.2%. Such decline of both parameters was also recorded when field dodder was removed together with leaves of sugar beet during growing season at the end of July. The aim of the infested leaves removal was to decrease mass of field dodder seeds. Although the leaf area of sugar beet regenerates, the decrease of quality and quantity was observed. The decline was the same at both localities, no matter whether the fields were irrigated (Šalov or not (Žitavce.

  4. IMPACT OF EDUCATION ON THE FINANCIAL LITERACY: A CASE OF SLOVAKIA

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    Marián Tóth

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Financial crisis in 2008 increased the focus of financial intermediaries and also national authorities for financial education and financial literacy of households. Bank association in Slovakia started to measure and increase the financial literacy of population and government implemented the National standard of financial literacy into the curriculum of grammar schools and high schools. This paper examines the level of financial literacy of students in Slovakia and the influence of determinants education level and education focus. We performed a questionnaire with 10 questions on a sample of 608 students from two Faculties of Slovak University of Agriculture. The questions were linked to 4 areas: interest, risk management, financial market and personal finance. To measure the level of financial literacy we use Index of financial literacy IFIG. Using Index of financial literacy and Mann-Whitney U test techniques we find that education level and education focus are relevant determinants of financial literacy level. Students with bachelor degree have better results when compared to high school students. The success rate measured by the IFIG of bachelor students was 0,658 and the success rate of high school students was 0,577. We also found differences based on the education focus. We compared two groups: students with economic focus of education with students with non-economic focus of education. Based on our results we can conclude that economic focus of education increases the level of financial literacy. The success rate of students with economic focus of education was significantly higher (0,674 compared to the students with non-economic focus of education (0,553.

  5. Differences in the distribution of risk factors for stroke among the high-risk population in urban and rural areas of Eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Te; Sun, Shangwen; Du, Yifeng; Guo, Shougang; Cong, Lin; Cao, Mingfeng; Sun, Qinjian; Sun, Yi; Qu, Chuanqiang

    2016-05-01

    Considering the program of screening for risk factors of stroke in Eastern China, the aim of this study was to compare the distribution differences in risk factors for stroke among the high-risk population living in urban and rural areas. A total of 231,289 residents were screened and basic information collected. Risk factors for stroke among the high-risk population were compared between the urban and rural groups. A total of 117,776 high-risk residents from urban areas and 113,513 from rural areas were included in the analysis. The prevalence of hypertension was much higher in rural areas (73.3%) than that in urban areas (64.1%). Dyslipidemia (48.9% vs. 26.9%), sport lack (46.6% vs. 31.6%), diabetes mellitus (21.3% vs. 16.5%), and atrial fibrillation (18.7% vs. 9.8%) were more prevalent in the urban group, while smoking (26.5% vs. 28.8%), previous stroke (10.1% vs. 16.9%), and transient ischemic attack (20.9% vs. 24.6%) were less prevalent. Among the population at high risk of stroke, there were significant differences in the distribution of the following risk factors between the urban and rural groups: hypertension, atrial fibrillation, dyslipidemia, lack of physical exercise, and a previous stroke.

  6. Analysis of potential fumonisin-producing Fusarium species in corn products from three main maize-producing areas in eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liping; Wang, Jiansheng; Zhang, Chulong; Wang, Qiaomei

    2013-02-01

    Fusarium species are common fungal contaminants of maize and a number of them can produce mycotoxin fumonisins. China is one of the largest maize producers in the world. This study investigated the contamination of maize samples from three areas in eastern China by Fusarium and fumonisin-producing fungi as well as their fumonisin-producing potential. A total of 22 Fusarium strains were isolated, 19 of which were able to produce fumonisin. Among the 19 strains, 16 belonged to F. verticillioides, two to F. subglutinans and one to F. proliferatum. The majority (17/19) of the fumonisin-forming strains were high FB(1) producers, which is a potential health risk for the population in these areas. Fusarium contamination in samples from the mideastern area was the most serious (11 Fusarium strains, with nine producing fumonisin, isolated from 24 samples), followed by the northeastern area (nine Fusarium strains, with all nine producing fumonisin, isolated from 21 samples) and the southeastern area (two Fusarium strains, with one producing fumonisin, isolated from 19 samples). Although the overall levels of FBs and contamination by fumonisin-producing fungi in corn samples were not serious, the contaminating Fusarium strains possessed fairly strong toxicogenic ability and potential risk for food safety. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. 50 Years of nuclear power plants in Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobak, D.; Moncekova, M.; Pritrsky, R.

    2007-01-01

    The publication was prepared to celebration of semi-centennial anniversary of nuclear power plants in Slovakia and presents a free sequel of book '40 years of nuclear power plants in Slovakia'. It contains memories of the observers that are valuable and merits spreading theirs ideas. There are photos in the publication that up to now were not disclosed and that have a unique value not due to their age only. At the same time, the publication expresses an admiration, regard and acknowledgement to all who joined their life with nuclear power. This book contains the following headings: (1) Speech, Lubomir Jahnatek (Minister of Economy of the Slovak Republic); (2) Speech, Jozef Valach; (3) Speech, Paolo Ruzzini; (4) Historic aspects of A1 NPP; (5) Historic Aspects of V1 NPP; (6) Historic Aspects of V2 NPP; (7) A remembrance to Mochovce; (8) Historic Aspects of VYZ; (9) Nuclear power as an integral part of the Slovak power engineering; (10) Under control of supervision; (12) The state health regulation performance in nuclear installations; (13) JAVYS in the Slovak energy sector

  8. Ethnobotanical review of wild edible plants of Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łukasz Łuczaj

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an ethnobotanical review of wild edible plants gathered for consumption from the 19th century to the present day, within the present borders of Slovakia. Twenty-four sources (mainly ethnographic documenting the culinary use of wild plants were analysed. The use of 106 species (over 3% of the Slovak flora has been recorded. Nowadays most of them are no longer used, or used rarely, apart from a few species of wild fruits. The most frequently used plants include the fruits of Rubus idaeus, Fragaria spp., Rubus subgenus Rubus, Vaccinium myrtillus, V. vitis-idaea, Fagus sylvatica, Corylus avellana, Prunus spinosa, Pyrus spp., Malus spp., Crataegus spp. and the leaves of Urtica dioica, Rumex acetosa, Chenopodiaceae species, Cardamine amara, Glechoma spp., Taraxacum spp. and Oxalis acetosella. The most commonly used wild food taxa are nearly identical to those used in Poland, and the same negative association of wild vegetables with famine exists in Slovakia, resulting in their near complete disappearance from the present-day diet.

  9. Governmental Research Support Programs and Private Entities in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maliková Zuzana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses public subsidies aimed to enhance development and innovation in the Slovakian private sector. The paper reviews theoretical approaches of the necessity of public support to research and development activities in order to increase private investment in research and development. An overview of research and development support tools in Slovakia is presented. The analytical part of the work is oriented on a comparative analysis of two granting agencies in Slovakia [Agency for Research and Development (ARD and Agency of Operational Program Research and Development (OPRD]. Special attention is given to direct public financial support. Logit analysis showed a relationship between success of grant applicants and their characteristics. We find that the following have impact on success of the application: Age of the company, amount of the grant required, legal form of the company, and the agency to which the application for grant was submitted. Applicants with legal form Ltd. (limited liability company have a higher chance of receiving grant than other legal forms. The highest chance of success has a request for a grant of up to 500.000 €. According to the results of our analysis, the chance to obtain a grant decreases with each passing year.

  10. Slovakia, the Gabcikovo-Nagymaros Project; and Central European integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lejon, E.

    1996-01-01

    In this chapter of the book author deals with the economic, social, ecological and cultural problems in connection of the Gabcikovo-Nagymaros Project (GNP) with the integration process of the 12 European Communities countries. Slovakia - sometimes also called the corridor between the East and the West - appears to have great potential as a link in the general east-west integration. Such a role could be further reinforced by the close and purposeful cooperation between Slovakia, Hungary, Slovenia, Austria and Bavaria, and it could have a positive signal effect for the whole of Central Europe, as well as for Europe in general. However, this is possible only provided that the former COMECON countries will reduce their tendency to compete for western attention and they will begin, to a larger extent, to lay down the foundations for the indisputable benefits accruing to their population from cooperation and integration. In this respect, the GNP appears to be a crucial issue an the social and political decision on the completion of the Project would become a signal that Central Europe has entered the path towards becoming one of the most important regions of Europe

  11. Application Of NAA And AAS In Environmental Research In Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Florek, M.; Holy, K.; Meresova, J.; Sykora, I.; Frontasveva, M. V.; Ermakova, E.E.; Pavlov, S.S.; Mankovska, B.

    2007-01-01

    The concentrations of 41 chemical elements (heavy metals, rare earths, and actinides) were determined in atmospheric aerosol using nuclear and related analytical techniques. The sampling location was in Bratislava (Slovak Republic). The main goal of this study is the quantification of the atmospheric pollution and its trend. The elemental content in filters was measured using instrumental neutron activation analysis (NAA) at IBR-2 reactor in JINR Dubna and by atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) in Bratislava. The obtained results confirm the decreasing trend of pollution by most of the heavy metals in Bratislava atmosphere, and they are compared with the contents of pollutants in atmosphere of other cities, including Cairo. We determined also the composition of clear filter materials. Results on atmospheric deposition of heavy metals and other trace elements in the whole territory Slovakia using the moss bio monitoring technique are presented, too. The level of the elements found in the bryophytes reflects the relative atmospheric deposition loads of the elements at the investigated sites. Factor analysis was applied to determine possible sources of trace element deposition in the Slovakian moss. The marginal hot spots were revealed near nonferrous ores processing and factories and dumps of stone chips. The trans-boundary contamination by Hg through dry and wet deposition from Czech Republic and Polish is evident in the bordering territory in the north-west part of Slovakia (The Small Black Triangle), known for metallurgical works, coal processing and chemical industries

  12. The Research of Historical Trusses in Northern Regions of Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korenková Renáta

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The blanket research of historical trusses in the territory of Slovakia has been running at our department since 2008. This research is done as teamwork in cooperation with experts from the field of conservation, and it is mainly focused on typology, construction, and the current technical and constructional state of investigated trusses. The long-time support of the grant scheme from the Ministry of Culture allows to get a fair amount of different data related to individual buildings and structures, which enables to carry out the in-depth research. In terms of their conservation and maintenance with an effort to extend their lifetime (the oldest known historical trusses in Slovakia are those of the 13th century, it is necessary to look into the microclimate impact of the under-roof space on wooden roof structures as well as to monitor the contemporary constructional and technical condition of a roof structure itself. The suitable microclimate in the under-roof space is influenced by a number of marginal conditions, constructional solutions of roof details, proper space ventilation etc

  13. Selected trends in colorectal cancer epidemiology in Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ondrusova, M.; Psenkova, M.; Spanik, S.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: In worldwide estimates for the year 2012, the Slovak Republic had the highest value of age-standardised incidence, but real data on a national level have only been available up to 2008. Aims: Colorectal cancer is one of the more preventable malignant tumors, whereby organised screening with adequate participation of the population in risk leads to a significant drop in both incidence and mortality. The aim of the submitted paper is to predict the development of selected indicators of descriptive epidemiology of this disease prospectively. Results: In recent years, a significant growth in the incidence of the disease has been witnessed in Slovakia, rising by 2.3% annually in men and 1.4% in women. Mortality in men is falling substantially by -1% annually, and in women it is -1.6%. Conclusion: The drop in mortality is manifesting later and to a lesser degree in Slovakia than in those countries with long-term organised screening in place. (author)

  14. Interrelationship of migration and housing in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Sika

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Labour mobility is one of the factors that positively influence the balance of the labor market and employment and thus, economic growth. Milton Friedman, in his speech (1968 to the American Economic Association, communicated that the natural rate of unemployment depends on the degree of labor mobility in the economy. In this article we examine the interdependencies between migration and housing in Slovak Republic. Most residents commute to work in Bratislava and Trnava regions and migration between the other regions is not as pronounced. Low migration of population in Slovak Republic is strongly affected by high percentage of private ownership in the housing sector, which is arresting work force trapped in unemployment. In regions of high unemployment it is also high percentage of dwellings owned by households, affecting possibility of employment in other regions, because they have insufficient income to procure reality in the area with availabale work places as there is no sector of rental housing assuch. Based on the forecasts of the house prices development this status in the next 5 years will not change.

  15. Demand for Agricultural Land in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirgasová Katarína

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In general, soil is perceived as an unreplaceable and unrenewable natural resource that allows plants, animals and man to live. It is significant in several ways out of which the most important is the production of food for population, the production of fodder for livestock and the production of raw materials for food and light industry. Due to these as well as the other reasons, land becomes the object of competition between different subjects which are trying to get it and use it. The aim of the paper is to map and to characterise the demand for agricultural land at the agricultural land market based on the certificates on fulfilment of the requirements on purchase of agricultural land. Based on the data collected throughout 31 months, it was proved that the demand for agricultural land is influenced by price, land quality, area, fragmentation of land ownership, distance of the offered plot from a county seat and localisation of a given land plot.

  16. Abundance of ringed seals (Phoca hispida in the Kong Oscars Fjord, Scoresby Sund and adjacent areas in eastern Greenland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E W Born

    1998-06-01

    those reported from other Arctic areas. No significant differences in densities were found between sets of surveys of the same sub-areas. The mean density (2.00 seals/km2, SD=0.22 in the Scoresby Sund area was significantly higher than that found in Kong Oscars Fjord (1.04 seals/km\\ SD=0.15 probably reflecting a higher overall marine productivity in Scoresby Sund. The sum of the point estimates of the visible part of the population in the different sub-areas was 28,882 seals.

  17. Atmospheric concentration characteristics and gas-particle partitioning of PCBs in a rural area of eastern Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandalakis, Manolis; Stephanou, Euripides G.

    2007-01-01

    Atmospheric concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured in 14 successive daytime and nighttime air samples collected from Melpitz, a rural site in eastern Germany. The average total concentration of PCBs was 110+/-80pgm -3 and they were predominately present in the gas phase (∼95%). Composition of individual congeners closely resembled those of Clophen A30 and Aroclor 1232. Partial vapor pressures of PCBs were well correlated with temperature and the steep slopes obtained from Clausius-Clapeyron plots (-4500 to -8000) indicated that evaporation from adjacent land surfaces still controls the atmospheric levels of these pollutants. Particle-gas partitioning coefficients (K P ) of PCBs were well correlated with the respective sub-cooled vapor pressures (P L o ), but the slopes obtained from logK P versus logP L o plots (-0.16 to -0.59) deviated significantly from the expected value of -1. Overall, gas-particle partitioning of PCBs was better simulated by Junge-Pankow than octanol/air partition coefficient-based model

  18. Traditional land use and reconsideration of environmental zoning in the Hawf Protected Area, south-eastern Yemen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slecht, E.; Zaballos, L.G.H.; Quiroz Villarreal, D.K.; Scholte, P.; Buerkert, A.

    2014-01-01

    The Al Hawf area at the Yemen–Oman border hosts a unique fog-derived ecosystem which, due to its high diversity of plant and animal species, merits protection. Given the area's remoteness, poor infrastructure, high population growth and limited exchanges across the Omani border, the local

  19. Molecular detection and phylogenetic analysis of Hepatozoon spp. in questing Ixodes ricinus ticks and rodents from Slovakia and Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamšíková, Zuzana; Silaghi, Cornelia; Rudolf, Ivo; Venclíková, Kristýna; Mahríková, Lenka; Slovák, Mirko; Mendel, Jan; Blažejová, Hana; Berthová, Lenka; Kocianová, Elena; Hubálek, Zdeněk; Schnittger, Leonhard; Kazimírová, Mária

    2016-10-01

    By amplification and sequencing of 18S rRNA gene fragments, Hepatozoon spp. DNA was detected in 0.08 % (4/5057) and 0.04 % (1/2473) of questing Ixodes ricinus ticks from Slovakia and Czech Republic, respectively. Hepatozoon spp. DNA was also detected in spleen and/or lungs of 4.45 % (27/606) of rodents from Slovakia. Prevalence of infection was significantly higher in Myodes glareolus (11.45 %) than in Apodemus spp. (0.28 %) (P Hepatozoon spp. gene amplicons from I. ricinus showed 100 % identity with Hepatozoon canis isolates from red foxes or dogs in Europe. Phylogenetic analysis showed that at least two H. canis 18S rRNA genotypes exist in Slovakia of which one was identified also in the Czech Republic. The finding of H. canis in questing I. ricinus suggests the geographical spread of the parasite and a potential role of other ticks as its vectors in areas where Rhipicephalus sanguineus is not endemic. Sequencing of 18S rRNA gene amplicons from M. glareolus revealed the presence of two closely related genetic variants, Hepatozoon sp. SK1 and Hepatozoon sp. SK2, showing 99-100 % identity with isolates from M. glareolus from other European countries. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrates that 18S rRNA variants SK1 and SK2 correspond to previously described genotypes UR1 and UR2 of H. erhardovae, respectively. The isolate from Apodemus flavicollis (Hepatozoon sp. SK3b) was 99 % identical with isolates from reptiles in Africa and Asia. Further studies are necessary to identify the taxonomic status of Hepatozoon spp. parasitizing rodents in Europe and the host-parasite interactions in natural foci.

  20. Seawater intrusion mapping using electrical resistivity tomography and hydrochemical data. An application in the coastal area of eastern Thermaikos Gulf, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazakis, N; Pavlou, A; Vargemezis, G; Voudouris, K S; Soulios, G; Pliakas, F; Tsokas, G

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the extent and geometrical characteristics of seawater intrusion in the coastal aquifer of the eastern Thermaikos Gulf, Greece. Hydrochemical data and geoelectrical measurements were combined and supplemented to determine the hydrochemical regime of the study site in regard to seawater phenomena. Chemical analysis of groundwater was performed in 126 boreholes and fifteen electrical resistivity tomographies (ERT) were measured, whereas in two sites the ERT measurements were repeated following the wet season. The Cl(-) concentrations recorded reached 2240 mg/L indicating seawater intrusion which was also verified by ionic ratios. The ionic ratios were overlapped and a seawater intrusion map (SWIM) was produced. A significant part of the coastal aquifer (up to 150 km(2)) is influenced by seawater intrusion. The areas with the most intensive salinization are located between Nea Kallikratia-Epanomi and Aggelochori-Peraia. According to the ERTs, in the influenced areas the salinization of the aquifer exceeds 1 km toward the mainland and its depth reaches 200 m. In the area surrounding Thessaloniki airport, the ERTs revealed salinization of the upper aquifer to depths of up to 40 m, whereas the lower aquifer is uninfluenced. This abnormal distribution of seawater intrusion demonstrates the value of geoelectrical methods in the study of seawater intrusion especially in areas with limited available hydrochemical data. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Zinc and copper levels in children with severe plasmodium falciparum malaria in an area of unstable malaria transmission in eastern Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doka, Y. A.

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this study is to measure the levels of zinc and copper in children suffering from plasmodium falciparum malaria in an area of unstable malaria transmission in Eastern Sudan. The importance of the study emanates from the fact that this type of malaria is prevalent in a serious manner and causes many fatalities and problems. In this study the analytic statistical methodology was adopted using Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy. Subject target groups, confirmed microscopically to be infected with malaria, (severe malaria 35 samples and two control groups: 35 samples of uncomplicated malaria and 35 samples of apparently healthy). The study revealed that there is a significant increase in the level of copper for both types of malaria ( the severe and the uncomplicated) while uncomplicated malaria decreased the level of zinc significantly. The study recommended that zinc supplement could be used for the patients suffering from severe malaria. (Author)

  2. Understanding the uplift pattern in Mesozoic and Cenozoic,, eastern Dabie area, China using fission track dating of apatite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Qianhong; Liu Shunsheng

    2002-01-01

    By using the fission track dating technique, a preliminary study was carried out on the fission track ages (FTA) of apatite, their distribution patterns and hints over the tectonics activities during Mesozoic and Cenozoic in the east Dabie area. Attempts were also made to improve the conventional statistical method for the tracks. Ranging from 59.4 +- 3.4 Ma to 105.6 +- 9.8 Ma, the FTA results of apatite spread in the wide range and increased rapidly from the east to the west area. Sine 95 Ma, the uplift rate has been quite slow and asymmetry. The FTA value in the middle area of Xiaotian-Mozitan Fault may imply its uplift in Cretaceous. The faulting should be the main control factor for the uplift of this area

  3. Possible connection between the East Asian summer monsoon and a swing of the haze-fog-prone area in eastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qian; Cao, Ziqi; Sheng, Lifang; Diao, Yina; Wang, Wencai; Zhou, Yang; Qiu, Jingyi

    2018-05-01

    The summer monsoon has recently been hypothesized to influence haze-fog events over China, but the detailed processes involved have yet to be determined. In the present study, we found that the haze-fog-prone area swings over eastern China during boreal summer (May to September), coinciding with the movement of the subtropical monsoon convergence belt (hereinafter referred to simply as the "convergence belt"). Further investigation showed that the convergence belt modulates the spatial distribution of the haze-fog-prone area by altering the regional atmospheric conditions. When the warm and wet summer monsoon air mass pushes northwards and meets with cold air, a frontal zone (namely, the convergence belt) forms. The ascent of warm and wet air along the front strengthens the atmospheric stability ahead of the frontal zone, while the descent of cold and dry air weakens the vertical diffusion at the same place. These processes result in an asymmetric distribution of haze-fog along the convergence belt. Based on the criterion of absolute stability and downdraft, these atmospheric conditions favorable for haze-fog are able to identify 57-79% of haze-fog-prone stations, and the anticipation accuracy is 61-71%. After considering the influence of air pollutants on haze-fog occurrence, the anticipation accuracy rises to 78-79%. Our study reveals a connection between local haze-fog weather phenomena and regional atmospheric conditions and large-scale circulation, and demonstrates one possible mechanism for how the summer monsoon influences the distribution of haze-fog in eastern China.

  4. Security of natural gas supply in Central Europe - Case study: Slovakia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klepac, Jan

    2010-09-15

    Europe's dependence on imported hydrocarbons is increasing. Being the second largest consumer in the world, EU will need of billions of euro over the next 20 years to satisfy the expected energy demand and to replace the ageing infrastructure. Slovakia is the main transport corridor for the Russian gas delivered to the EU countries, 20% of the natural gas consumption in the EU countries is covered by transit through the Slovak territory. Slovakia is also almost 100% dependent on import of the Russian gas. Diversification of the natural gas resources therefore belongs to the key energy security issues in Slovakia.

  5. Slovakia should be more active in pipeline projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirman, K.

    2004-01-01

    European Union is interested also like USA to lower its own dependence on oil distributors from problematic region of Persian Gulf. Therefore the attention is turning on to Russia and to region of Caspian Sea. However except political and safety problems the import of oil from these territories meets also the lack of transport capacities. Slovakia can become the important transit territory, where could flow more Russian or Caspian oil to the European market. After a break-up of Soviet Union Russia lost oil export terminals on the coast of Baltic Sea. These terminals became a part of territories of three independent Baltic countries. The frequent storms in the region of Novorossiysk are disadvantage of Black Sea's ports Novorossiysk and Tuapse. The overloading of Turkish straits Bospor and Dardanely, which connect Black Sea and Mediterranean Sea, is becoming a new and more serious problem. In the present time up to 500 tankers swim over through these straits annually, which transport together around 70 million tones of oil and of oil products. Owing to the rising mining of oil the only one way out is the circumvention of these straits. New pipeline from Baku through Georgia to Turkish terminal Ceyhan on the coast of Mediterranean Sea is the only one but not sufficient solution. Therefore Russia promotes the project of integration of pipelines Druzba and Adria. The intensions is to open the continuous export pipeline way through Belarus, Ukraine, Slovakia and Hungary into Croatian terminal Omisajl on the coast of Adriatic Sea. Other possibility how to rise the oil transit through Slovakia is the construction of pipeline to the refinery OMW in Schweechat near Vienna. In the end of the last year the representatives of Transpetrol, Yukos and OMW signed the contract of its construction in Bratislava. Annual capacity of this pipeline is 2 million tonnes of oil. Other possibility how to transport the Caspian oil is pipeline Odessa-Brody. More then 600 km of this pipeline

  6. Application of high-pass filtering techniques on gravity and magnetic data of the eastern Qattara Depression area, Western Desert, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesham Shaker Zahra

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a reconnaissance study is presented to delineate the subsurface tectonics and lithological inferences of the eastern area of Qattara Depression using the Bouguer gravity and aeromagnetic data. To achieve this goal, several transformation techniques and filtering processes are accomplished on these maps. At first, the total intensity aeromagnetic map is processed through the application of reduction to the magnetic north pole technique. The fast Fourier transform is carried out on the gravity and RTP magnetic data for establishing and defining the residual (shallow sources. The frequency high-pass filtering is used to enhance the anomaly wavelengths associated with the shallow sources. The used processing techniques are the polynomial surface fitting enhancement, Laplacian, Strike Filtering, Enhancement Utilization, Suppression Utilization, Butterworth Filtering Utilization, Butterworth high-pass filter, Euler’s deconvolution and forward modeling. The equivalent depths of the isolated short wavelength anomalies are 0.759 and 0.340 km below the flight surface, and the depths of the intermediate wavelength anomalies are 1.28 and 2.00 km for the gravity and magnetic data, respectively. Finally, the quantitative interpretations of the Bouguer gravity and RTP magnetic maps of the study area, reflect the occurrence of the various types of structures and their components. The main tectonic deformations of the study area have NNW–SSE, NNE–SSW, NE–SW, NW–SE and E–W trends.

  7. Identification, Quantification, and Toxicity of PCDDs and PCDFs in Soils from Industrial Areas in the Central and Eastern Regions of Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Wabel, Mohammad I; El-Saeid, Mohamed H; Usman, Adel R A; Al-Turki, Ali M; Ahmad, Mahtab; Hassanin, Ashraf S; El-Naggar, Ahmed H; Alenazi, Khaled K H

    2016-05-01

    This study was conducted to identify and quantify polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in soil samples collected from selected industrial areas in the central and eastern regions of Saudi Arabia. All the investigated compounds of PCDDs/PCDFs were identified in the studied locations. The average concentrations of PCDDs (sum of seven congeners measured) ranged from 11.5 to 59.6 pg g(-1), with a maximum concentration of 125.7 pg g(-1) at an oil refinery station followed by 100.9 pg g(-1) at a cement factory. The average concentrations of PCDFs (sum of 10 congeners measured) accounted for 11.68-19.35 pg g(-1), with a maximum concentration of 38.67 pg g(-1) at the cement factory. It was generally observed that the soil samples collected from industrial areas have substantially high toxicity equivalence (TEQ) values of PCDDs/PCDFs compared to soils of remote areas. Principal component analysis revealed that the cement factories and oil refineries were the primary sources of PCDDs and PCDFs.

  8. Finite strain analysis of metavolcanics and metapyroclastics in gold-bearing shear zone of the Dungash area, Central Eastern Desert, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassem, Osama M. K.; Abd El Rahim, Said H.

    2014-11-01

    The Dungash gold mine area is situated in an EW-trending quartz vein along a shear zone in metavolcanic and metasedimentary host rocks in the Eastern Desert of Egypt. These rocks are associated with the major geologic structures, which are attributed to various deformational stages of the Neoproterozoic basement rocks. Field geology, finite strain and microstructural analyses were carried out and the relation-ships between the lithological contacts and major/minor structures have been studied. The R f/ϕ and Fry methods were applied on the metavolcano-sedimentary and metapyroclastic samples from 5 quartz veins samples, 7 metavolcanics samples, 3 metasedimentary samples and 4 metapyroclastic samples in Dungash area. Finite-strain data show that a low to moderate range of deformation of the metavolcano-sedimentary samples and axial ratios in the XZ section range from 1.70 to 4.80 for the R f/ϕ method and from 1.65 to 4.50 for the Fry method. We conclude that finite strain in the deformed rocks is of the same order of magnitude for all units of metavolcano-sedimentary rocks. Furthermore, the contact between principal rock units is sheared in the Dungash area under brittle to semi-ductile deformation conditions. In this case, the accumulated finite strain is associated with the deformation during thrusting to assemble nappe structure. It indicates that the sheared contacts have been formed during the accumulation of finite strain.

  9. Identifying eastern Baltic cod nursery grounds using hydrodynamic modelling: knowledge for the design of Marine Protected Areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hinrichsen, Hans-Harald; Kraus, Gerd; Böttcher, Uwe

    2009-01-01

    Knowledge of the spatial and temporal distribution of juvenile cod is essential to closing the life cycle in population dynamic models, and it is a prerequisite for the design of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) aiming at the protection of juveniles. In this study, we use a hydrodynamic model to exa...

  10. Preliminary crustal deformation model deduced from GPS and earthquakes’ data at Abu-Dabbab area, Eastern Desert, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel-Monem S. Mohamed

    2013-06-01

    From the seismic tomography study, the 3D Vp and Vp/Vs crustal models indicate high Vp/Vs values forms an elongated anomaly, in the central part of the study area, that extends from a depth of 12 km to about 1–2 km of depth is obtained. By using this crustal model in relocations all seismicity informed that most of the seismicity strongly tend to occur in a cluster manner exactly above the southern part of the study area. Based on the conducted source mechanism study, it is noticed that shallow earthquakes are associated by a high CLVD ratio (up to 40%. Furthermore, initiation of a high level seismic activity, without a large seismic main shock is observed in the Abu-Dabbab area. The distribution of micro-earthquakes tends to align in an ENE–WSW direction marking a zone of activity verse the Red Sea. The nucleation of the seismic activity beneath the southern part of the Abu-Dabbab crust is more consistent with the obtained crustal deformation result by increasing the crustal movement in the south part than the northern part. Then, based on the obtained results of the above mentioned studies; seismic tomography; source mechanisms, and crustal deformation we conclude that these seismic activities that are associated by crustal deformation are owing to some magma activity beneath the crust of the Abu-Dabbab area.

  11. Composition and conservation of Orchidaceae on an inselberg in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest and floristic relationships with areas of Eastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessanha, Alexandre Soares; Menini Neto, Luiz; Forzza, Rafaela Campostrini; Nascimento, Marcelo Trindade

    2014-06-01

    The Brazilian Atlantic Forest presents high levels of richness and endemism of several taxonomic groups. Within this forest, the Orchidaceae may be highlighted as the richest family of Angiosperms found there, and is highly threatened due to collection and habitat destruction. The inselbergs of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest are mostly unknown regarding their floristic composition, but the available information points to occurrence of endemic species, with adaptations to survive to this dry environment. The objectives of this study were to conduct a floristic survey of the Orchidaceae species on the Maciço do Itaoca, an inselberg located in the Northern region of the State of Rio de Janeiro, make a comparative analysis with other sites in Eastern Brazil, and discuss the geographic distribution, floristic relationships and conservation status of the orchid species present on the inselbergs. The floristic composition of the study area was compared with 24 other locations in Eastern Brazil (of which 13 are inselbergs) and the influence of the types of surrounding vegetation on the composition of the Orchidaceae flora on the inselbergs. On Maciço do Itaoca we recorded 18 species from 17 genera: Brasiliorchis picta, Brassavola tuberculata, Campylocentrum robustum; C sellowii, Catasetum luridum, Cattleya guttata, Cyclopogon congestus, Cyrtopodium glutiniferum, Leptotes bicolor, Lophiaris pumila, Miltonia moreliana, Oeceoclades maculata, Phymatochilum brasiliense, Prescottia plantaginifolia, Pseudolaelia vellozicola, Sarcoglottis fasciculata, Sophronitis cernua. and Vanilla chamissonis. The highest floristic similarity was with the Pedra da Botelha (0.43), an inselberg located in the North of Espírito Santo. This result is probably due to the similarity in altitude and distance from the coast in both areas despite the geographical distance between them. Apparently, little influence is exerted by the types of surrounding vegetation on the composition of the flora of

  12. Innovations and networking fostering tourist destination development in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gajdošík Tomáš

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the implementation of innovations and networking in the sector of tourism in two Slovak mountain destinations of international significance. The main objective of the paper is to identify and evaluate how innovations and networking contribute to tourist destination development in Slovakia. The implementation of institutional innovation resulted in the establishment of formal and informal networks. The developed networks consist of representatives of all sectors co-ordinating all relevant stakeholders. Formal and informal networks and the collaboration among stakeholders have launched other types of innovations in the tourism sector. The interactions and intensity of relations among stakeholders are analysed by network analysis. Destinations are compared with the network of the same size and density through quantitative network characteristics. Based on empirical research we investigate the impact of networks and innovations on tourist destination development. Due to the synergy effect of networking and implementation of multiple innovations, tourist destination development is observed.

  13. Legal status and organizational structure of commodities excange in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nada Petričević

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Commodities exchange is an important element of market economy of a country. Being an organized commodities and capital market, it goes beyond the trade in a trade fair and particular trade in real commodities. It includes trading in exchangeable goods by standard label. As foundation of commodities exchange is expected in Croatia, the paper will explicate its status and operation in Slovakia, an EU member state that is similar to our country. The paper will focus on the legal status and organizational structure of consumer goods market in Bratislava. Although it has existed for just over 15 years, it is important to note that it actually goes back to the pre-Second World War Czechoslovakia. Also, to provide better understanding of its functioning, regulations defining the foundation and functioning of the commodities market will also be presented as well as the profile, method and types of operations, together with its positive effects.

  14. The Specific Character Traits of Young Entrepreneurs in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sobeková Majková Monika

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide scientific researches present the entrepreneurs have to declare specific characteristic traits to be successful in the business. This paper is focused on the comparison of the specific character traits between potential young entrepreneurs and other young people. The aim is to compare the three chosen character traits differences between these two focus groups by using the statistical method of Pearson's chi-square and bring the answers on the questions why some people incline to becoming the entrepreneurs more intensively than others, and what are the differences between them in relation to the character traits and their personality characteristics. The research was conducted among 1233 young people in all regions of Slovakia in 2012. The results show, that young people who plan to become an entrepreneur, are more creative, willing to face the risk, more confident in the solvation of complicated problems and difficult tasks with the opposite group of respondents.

  15. Impact of ICT on Performance of Construction Companies in Slovakia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesároš, Peter; Mandičák, Tomáš

    2017-10-01

    Information and communication technologies became a part of management tools in modern companies. Construction industry and its participants deal with a serious requirement for processing the huge amount of information on construction projects including design, construction, time and cost parameters, economic efficiency and sustainability. To fulfil this requirement, companies have to use appropriate ICT tools. Aim of the paper is to examine the impact of ICT exploitation on performance of construction companies. The impact of BIM tools, ERP systems and controlling system on cost and profit indicators will be measured on the sample of 85 companies from construction industry in Slovakia. Enterprise size, enterprise ownership and role in construction process will be set as independent variables for statistical analyse. The results will be considered for different groups of companies.

  16. CEZ considering building a power station in Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janoska, J.

    2004-01-01

    General Manager of Czech concern CEZ, Martin Roman expecting that his company would probably not succeed in tender for Slovenske elektrarne (SE) shares said for BBC that CEZ was considering the possibility of building a thermal power station in Slovakia that would use Polish coal. He made this statement in a time when an approval by the Slovak cabinet was the only missing step to complete the approval process of contractual documentation related to privatization of SE through Italian Enel. The cabinet only discusses the issue on Wednesday as Slovak Minister of Finance raised objections to its contents. Ivan Miklos asked for guarantees that the state would not be responsible for any future risks resulting from long term contracts concluded by SE

  17. Rare earth elements (REE) as natural and applied tracers in the catchment area of Gessental valley, former uranium mining area of Eastern Thuringia, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buechel, G.; Merten, D.; Geletneky, J. W.; Kothe, E.

    2003-04-01

    Between 1947 and 1990 about 113.000 t of uranium were excavated at the former uranium mining site of Ronneburg (Eastern Thuringia, Germany). The legacy consists of more than 200 million m^3 of metasedimentary rocks rich in organic matter, sulfides and heavy metals originally deposited in mining heaps at the surface. The metasedimentary rocks formed under anoxic conditions about a 400 Mio. years ago are now exposed to oxic conditions. The oxidation of markasite and pyrite results in the formation of H_2SO_4. The formation of acid mine drainage (AMD) leads to high concentrations of uranium, rare earth elements (REE) and other heavy metals in surface water, seepage water and groundwater. This mobilization is due to alteration enhanced by high microbial activity and low pH. The tolerance mechanisms towards heavy metal pollution of soil substrate and surface/groundwater has allowed the selection of microbes which have, e.g. specific transporter genes and which are associated to plants in symbiotic interactions like mycorrhiza. In order to follow the processes linking alteration of metasedimentary rocks to biological systems the use of tracers is needed. One group of such tracers occuring in high concentrations in the water phase at the Ronneburg mining site are the REE (La-Lu) which are featured by very similar chemical behaviour. They show smooth but continuous variations of their chemical behaviour as a function of atomic number. For seepage water of the waste rock dump Nordhalde - sampled over a period of two years - the shale normalized REE patterns show enrichment of heavy REE and only minor variations, although the concentration differs. At sampling points in the surface water and in groundwater rather similar REE patterns were observed. Thus, REE can be used as tracers to identify diffuse inflow of REE-rich acid mine drainage of the dumps into the creek and the sediments. The absolute concentrations of REE in the creek and in ground water are up to 1000 times

  18. Petrology and geochemistry of a peridotite body in Central- Carpathian Paleogene sediments (Sedlice, eastern Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koppa Matúš

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We studied representative samples from a peridotite body situated NE of Sedlice village within the Central- Carpathian Paleogene sediments in the Central Western Carpathians. The relationship of the peridotite to the surrounding Paleogene sediments is not clear. The fractures of the brecciated peridotite margin are healed with secondary magnesite and calcite. On the basis of the presented bulk-rock and electron microprobe data, the wt. % amounts of mineral phases were calculated. Most of calculated “modal” compositions of this peridotite corresponds to harzburgites composed of olivine (∼70-80 wt. %, orthopyroxene (∼17-24 wt. %, clinopyroxene ( < 5 wt. % and minor spinel ( < 1 wt. %. Harzburgites could originate from lherzolitic protoliths due to a higher degree of partial melting. Rare lherzolites contain porphyroclastic 1-2 mm across orthopyroxene (up to 25 wt. %, clinopyroxene (∼ 5-8 wt. % and minor spinel ( < 0.75 wt. %. On the other hand, rare, olivine-rich dunites with scarce orthopyroxene porphyroclasts are associated with harzburgites. Metamorphic mineral assemblage of low-Al clinopyroxene (3, tremolite, chrysotile, andradite, Cr-spinel to chromite and magnetite, and an increase of fayalite component in part of olivine, indicate low-temperature metamorphic overprint. The Primitive Mantle normalized whole-rock REE patterns suggest a depleted mantle rock-suite. An increase in LREE and a positive Eu anomaly may be consequence of interactive metamorphic fluids during serpentinization. Similar rocks have been reported from the Meliatic Bôrka Nappe overlying the Central Western Carpathians orogenic wedge since the Late Cretaceous, and they could be a potential source of these peridotite blocks in the Paleogene sediments.

  19. Economic strategies and migratory trajectories of Vlax Roma from Eastern Slovakia to Leicester, UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markéta Hajská

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is based on long term field research and focuses on a community of family-related Vlax Roma from the Prešov, Sabinov and Košice regions who created a large community in Leicester, UK. The massive wave of labour migration to UK started in 2004, in the year of Slovakia’s accession to the European Union. The migration to Great Britain has been based on family networks and represents an example of chain migration based on the reciprocal help of family networks. Besides their own relatives other different non-related Roma intermediaries had an important influence on their arrival to Britain. The article focuses on the changing economic strategies of new migrants from the group in focus after their replacement to UK. In the years following Slovak accession to the EU, the prospective Romani migrants explored many illegal paths to arrive to Britain in their struggle for a better life. Approximately after a decade since their arrival, we can find this community as fully integrated into the local British working class, spending their time between my work and my house.

  20. Neurobehavioral observation and hearing impairment in children at school age in eastern Slovakia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sovcikova, E.; Trnovec, T.; Petrik, J.; Kocan, A.; Drobna, B.; Wimmerova, S.; Wsolova, L. [Slovak Medical Univ., Bratislava (Slovakia); Hustak, M. [Air Force Military Hospital, Kosice (Slovakia)

    2004-09-15

    Neurotoxicity of PCBs has been reported in humans and confirmed in animal studies. It was shown that PCBs can alter a number of developmental physiological processes in which the thyroid plays an essential role. In children, the prenatal exposure to PCBs was associated with reduced birth weight and poor recognition memory. In children with longer duration of breast feeding implying higher PCB exposure, altered behavior, lengthening of psychomotor activities, worse attention, and worse memory performance were found. The so far published data on the association between PCBs exposure and hearing were based mainly on animal observations. Low-frequency auditory impairments have been documented in PCB exposed rats, including elevated behavioral auditory thresholds, decreased amplitude and prolonged latency auditory evoked brain stem responses. Two papers were related to humans only. The first one reported PCB-associated increased thresholds at two out of eight frequencies on audiometry, but only on the left side, and no deficits on evoked potentials or contrast sensitivity in 7-year-old children prenatally exposed to seafood neurotoxicants. The other paper was focused on hearing impairments in boys of fish-eating mothers, but no individual PCB exposure data were available. The aim of this study was to evaluate the associations between exposure to PCBs and health outcomes assessed, as performance in neurobehavioral tests, thyroid hormones production and hearing status. Selected confounder factors such as heavy metals and health/social background of development in children were also taken into consideration.

  1. Stable isotope composition of human fingernails from Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grolmusová, Zuzana; Rapčanová, Anna; Michalko, Juraj; Čech, Peter; Veis, Pavel

    2014-01-01

    Stable isotope composition of human fingernails has proven to be useful for documenting human dietary information and geographical patterns in archeological, forensic, anthropological and biological studies. Therefore, it is of interest to detect all factors influencing the stable isotopic composition in the certain regions in the world. Carbon and nitrogen isotope data of human fingernail keratin from 52 individuals from Slovakia were reported in this study. The online combustion and continuous flow isotope-ratio mass spectrometer Delta V Advantage was used for δ 13 C and δ 15 N analysis of fingernail keratin samples from 24 vegetarian and 28 omnivorous individuals. A group of people with frequent meat consumption showed enrichment in 13 C and 15 N isotopes in fingernails. A similar trend was observed with increasing seafood in an individual's diet. Moreover a significant difference was revealed between smokers and nonsmokers for both δ 13 C and δ 15 N values. These data were compared to previously published δ 13 C and δ 15 N fingernail values from across the globe. This study brings new information on the stable isotope signature of individuals from Slovakia and characterizes the Central European region for the first time. The stable isotope composition of fingernails is influenced by the frequency of meat and seafood consumption as well as smoking. - Highlights: • This study deals with stable isotope analyses of fingernails from Slovak volunteers. • δ 13 C and δ 15 N values of vegetarian and omnivore fingernails were compared. • Influence of sex, diet and smoking was studied

  2. Stable isotope composition of human fingernails from Slovakia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grolmusová, Zuzana, E-mail: zuzana.grolmusova@geology.sk [Comenius University in Bratislava, Faculty of Mathematics, Physics and Informatics, Department of Experimental Physics, Mlynská dolina F2, 842 48 Bratislava (Slovakia); State Geological Institute of Dionýz Štúr, Laboratory of Isotope Geology, Mlynská dolina 1, 817 04 Bratislava (Slovakia); Rapčanová, Anna [Comenius University in Bratislava, Faculty of Mathematics, Physics and Informatics, Department of Experimental Physics, Mlynská dolina F2, 842 48 Bratislava (Slovakia); Michalko, Juraj; Čech, Peter [State Geological Institute of Dionýz Štúr, Laboratory of Isotope Geology, Mlynská dolina 1, 817 04 Bratislava (Slovakia); Veis, Pavel [Comenius University in Bratislava, Faculty of Mathematics, Physics and Informatics, Department of Experimental Physics, Mlynská dolina F2, 842 48 Bratislava (Slovakia); State Geological Institute of Dionýz Štúr, Laboratory of Isotope Geology, Mlynská dolina 1, 817 04 Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2014-10-15

    Stable isotope composition of human fingernails has proven to be useful for documenting human dietary information and geographical patterns in archeological, forensic, anthropological and biological studies. Therefore, it is of interest to detect all factors influencing the stable isotopic composition in the certain regions in the world. Carbon and nitrogen isotope data of human fingernail keratin from 52 individuals from Slovakia were reported in this study. The online combustion and continuous flow isotope-ratio mass spectrometer Delta V Advantage was used for δ{sup 13}C and δ{sup 15}N analysis of fingernail keratin samples from 24 vegetarian and 28 omnivorous individuals. A group of people with frequent meat consumption showed enrichment in {sup 13}C and {sup 15}N isotopes in fingernails. A similar trend was observed with increasing seafood in an individual's diet. Moreover a significant difference was revealed between smokers and nonsmokers for both δ{sup 13}C and δ{sup 15}N values. These data were compared to previously published δ{sup 13}C and δ{sup 15}N fingernail values from across the globe. This study brings new information on the stable isotope signature of individuals from Slovakia and characterizes the Central European region for the first time. The stable isotope composition of fingernails is influenced by the frequency of meat and seafood consumption as well as smoking. - Highlights: • This study deals with stable isotope analyses of fingernails from Slovak volunteers. • δ{sup 13}C and δ{sup 15}N values of vegetarian and omnivore fingernails were compared. • Influence of sex, diet and smoking was studied.

  3. Review of decommissioning, spent fuel and radwaste management in Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamrich, J.

    2000-01-01

    Two nuclear power plants with two WWER reactors are currently under operation in Jaslovske Bohunice and NPP A-1 is under decommissioning on the same site. At the second nuclear site in the Slovak Republic in Mochovce third nuclear power plant with two units is in operation. In accordance with the basic Slovak legislation (Act on Peaceful Utilisation of Nuclear Energy) defining the responsibilities, roles and authorities for all organisations involved in the decommissioning of nuclear installations Nuclear Regulatory Authority requires submission of conceptual decommissioning plans by the licensee. The term 'decommissioning' is used to describe the set of actions to be taken at the end of the useful life of a facility, in order to retire the facility from service while, simultaneously, ensuring proper protection of the workers, the general public and the environment. This set of activities is in principle comprised of planning and organisation of decommissioning inclusive strategy development, post-operational activities, implementation of decommissioning (physical and radiological characterisation, decontamination, dismantling and demolition, waste and spent fuel management), radiological, aspects, completion of decommissioning as well as ensuring of funding for these activities. Responsibility for nuclear installations decommissioning, radwaste and spent fuel, management in Slovakia is with a subsidiary of Slovak Electric called Nuclear Installations Decommissioning Radwaste and Spent Fuel Management (acronym SE VYZ), established on January 1, 1996. This paper provides description of an approach to planning of the NPP A-1 and NPPs with WWER reactors decommissioning, realisation of treatment, conditioning and disposal of radwaste, as well as spent fuel management in Slovakia. It takes into account that detail papers on all these issues will follow later during this meeting. (author)

  4. Geophysical Data (Gravity and Magnetic) from the Area Between Adana, Kahramanmaras and Hatay in the Eastern Mediterranean Region: Tectonic Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Over, Semir; Akin, Ugur; Sen, Rahime

    2018-01-01

    The gravity and magnetic maps of the area between Adana-Kahramanmaras-Hatay provinces were produced from a compilation of data gathered during the period between 1973 and 1989. Reduced to the pole (RTP) and pseudo-gravity transformation (PGT) methods were applied to the magnetic data, while derivative ratio (DR) processing was applied to both gravity and magnetic data, respectively. Bouguer, RTP and PGT maps show the image of a buried structure corresponding to ophiolites under undifferentiated Quaternary deposits in the Adana depression and Iskenderun Gulf. DR maps show two important faults which reflect the tectonic framework in the study area: (1) the Karatas-Osmaniye Fault extending from Osmaniye to Karatas in the south between Adana and Iskenderun depressions and (2) Amanos Fault (southern part of East Anatolian Fault) in the Hatay region running southward from Turkoglu to Amik Basin along Amanos Mountain forming the actual plate boundary between the Anatolian block (part of Eurasian plate) and Arabian plate.

  5. Preliminary crustal deformation model deduced from GPS and earthquakes’ data at Abu-Dabbab area, Eastern Desert, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Abdel-Monem S.; Hosny, A.; Abou-Aly, N.; Saleh, M.; Rayan, A.

    2013-06-01

    A local geodetic network consisting of eleven benchmarks has been established to study the recent crustal deformation in the Abu-Dabbab area. Seven campaigns of GPS measurements have been collected started from October 2008 and ended in March 2012. The collected data were processed using Bernese version 5.0, and the result values were adjusted to get the more accurate positions of the GPS stations. The magnitudes of horizontal displacements are variable from one epoch to another and in the range of 1-3 (±0.2) mm/yr. Due to the differences in rates of the horizontal displacement; the area is divided into two main blocks. The first one, moves to the east direction of about 3 mm/yr, while the second block, moves to the SW direction of about 6 mm/yr. According to the strain fields that were calculated for the different epochs of measurement, the main force is compression force and is taken the NW-SE to NWW-SEE direction. This force could be because of local and regional tectonic processes affecting on the study area. The maximum values of compression stress are found in the southern central and western part of study area. Estimated accumulation of this strain energy may be considered as an indicator of the possibility of earthquake occurrence. From the seismic tomography study, the 3D Vp and Vp/Vs crustal models indicate high Vp/Vs values forms an elongated anomaly, in the central part of the study area, that extends from a depth of 12 km to about 1-2 km of depth is obtained. By using this crustal model in relocations all seismicity informed that most of the seismicity strongly tend to occur in a cluster manner exactly above the southern part of the study area. Based on the conducted source mechanism study, it is noticed that shallow earthquakes are associated by a high CLVD ratio (up to 40%). Furthermore, initiation of a high level seismic activity, without a large seismic main shock is observed in the Abu-Dabbab area. The distribution of micro-earthquakes tends to

  6. THE DAIRY VALUE CHAIN AND FACTORS AFFECTING CHOICE OF MILK CHANNELS IN HARAR AND DIRE DAWA AREAS, EASTERN ETHIOPIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengistu KETEMA

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The study was aimed at mapping the dairy value chain, assessing constraints and opportunities in the sector, and identifying factors affecting channel choices of producers in Harar and Dire Dawa milkshed areas. Data were collected from 93 producers, six collectors, seven wholesalers, seven retailers, and ten consumers. Both descriptive and econometric analysis were employed. The study revealed that the channel choices available to producers include selling to collectors, wholesalers, retailers, and directly to consumers. The multinomial model output indicated that being in rural areas, breed type, separate milking place, and supply of hay negatively determined the choice to sell to wholesalers, retailers, and consumers. In contrast, education status and milk storage duration positively determined producers’ choice not to sell to collectors. The major recommendations include provision of training, disseminating dairy technologies, encouraging value chain actors to add values; and enhancing collective actions of producers.

  7. Megafauna of the UKSRL exploration contract area and eastern Clarion-Clipperton Zone in the Pacific Ocean: Annelida, Arthropoda, Bryozoa, Chordata, Ctenophora, Mollusca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amon, Diva J; Ziegler, Amanda F; Drazen, Jeffrey C; Grischenko, Andrei V; Leitner, Astrid B; Lindsay, Dhugal J; Voight, Janet R; Wicksten, Mary K; Young, Craig M; Smith, Craig R

    2017-01-01

    There is growing interest in mining polymetallic nodules from the abyssal Clarion-Clipperton Zone (CCZ) in the tropical Pacific Ocean. Despite having been the focus of environmental studies for decades, the benthic megafauna of the CCZ remain poorly known. To predict and manage the environmental impacts of mining in the CCZ, baseline knowledge of the megafauna is essential. The ABYSSLINE Project has conducted benthic biological baseline surveys in the UK Seabed Resources Ltd polymetallic-nodule exploration contract area (UK-1). Prior to ABYSSLINE research cruises in 2013 and 2015, no biological studies had been done in this area of the eastern CCZ. Using a Remotely Operated Vehicle and Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (as well as several other pieces of equipment), the megafauna within the UK Seabed Resources Ltd exploration contract area (UK-1) and at a site ~250 km east of the UK-1 area were surveyed, allowing us to make the first estimates of megafaunal morphospecies richness from the imagery collected. Here, we present an atlas of the abyssal annelid, arthropod, bryozoan, chordate, ctenophore and molluscan megafauna observed and collected during the ABYSSLINE cruises to the UK-1 polymetallic-nodule exploration contract area in the CCZ. There appear to be at least 55 distinct morphospecies (8 Annelida, 12 Arthropoda, 4 Bryozoa, 22 Chordata, 5 Ctenophora, and 4 Mollusca) identified mostly by morphology but also using molecular barcoding for a limited number of animals that were collected. This atlas will aid the synthesis of megafaunal presence/absence data collected by contractors, scientists and other stakeholders undertaking work in the CCZ, ultimately helping to decipher the biogeography of the megafauna in this threatened habitat.

  8. The 2002-2003 excavations in the Dzeravá skala Cave, West Slovakia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kaminská, Ľ.; Kozlowski, J. K.; Svoboda, Jiří

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 42, - (2004), s. 311-322 ISSN 0323-1119 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z8001916 Keywords : West Slovakia * Upper Paleolithic, Upper Pleistocene * fauna, industry Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  9. Environmental changes of the last 30,000 years in the gas hydrate area of Joetsu Basin, eastern margin of Japan Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freire, A.F.M.; Sugai, T. [Tokyo Univ., Kashiwanoha Campus, Chiba (Japan). Dept. of Natural Environmental Studies; Takeuchi, E.; Nagasaka, A.; Hiruta, A.; Ishizaki, O.; Matsumoto, R. [Tokyo Univ., Hongo Campus, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Earth and Planetary Science

    2008-07-01

    The Japan Sea is a semi-isolated marginal sea with an average depth of 1350 metres and a maximum water depth of approximately 3700 metres in the northern basin. This paper presented a study that inferred the age and the nature of the environmental events of the last 30 thousand years using geochemical and sedimentary records from piston cores collected on the gas hydrates bearing-sediments of Joetsu Basin, eastern margin of Japan Sea, south of Sado Islands. Interbedded dark gray thinly laminates and dark brown to gray bioturbated units are common throughout the quaternary sediments of the Japan Sea. They have been explained in terms of glacio-eustatic sea-level change. Active methane venting and gas hydrates have also been recognized, which are widely distributed just beneath the sea floor in the Joetsu Basin, in the eastern margin of the Japan Sea. In order to identify the nature of the organic matter present in the study area and to make a correlation with samples collected in the Pacific Ocean, the study utilized total organic carbon contents and carbon isotopic composition of the gas hydrates bearing-sediments. Using X-ray diffraction analysis, these data were used to apply sequence stratigraphy concepts to locate the holocene/pleistocene boundary and to identify key stratigraphic surfaces, and also to recognize methane flux variations and sulfate-methane interfaces. The paper discussed total organic carbon in the Holocene/Pleistocene boundaries; nature of the organic matter and terrestrial versus marine phytoplankton production; and terrigenous material input. Sulfate oxidation of methane was also discussed. It was concluded that the correlation between the Japan Sea and Pacific Ocean was possible using piston cores. 13 refs., 13 figs.

  10. The health status of the population neighbouring the nuclear power plants in Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Letkovicova, M.; Letkovicova, H.; Branislav Mihaly, B.; Stehlikova, B.

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this study is to ascertain the actual state of the indicators of health in individual villages within the area under investigation, to ascertain the trend of the development of indicators in the area surrounding the nuclear power plant included in the study, to find whether the occurrence of an indicator is accidental or whether it is determined in the village, make a comparison with another area and with the situation in the Slovak Republic as a whole and, consequently, to determine possible influence of the Power Plant on the indicator's value. It is concluded, that objective and comprehensive evaluation of the health of the population of Slovakia is possible. Enough solid and reliable proofs are available to justify the conclusion that, regardless of the length of the power plants' operation, no unfavourable impacts on human health on their territory have been detected even by the most sophisticated research carried out by a large, multidisciplinary team of researchers from various fields of science

  11. Stakeholder involvement in development and design of appropriate emergency preparedness routines in Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duranova, T.; Kusovska, Z.; Metke, E.; Sladek, V.; Sokolikova, A.

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents the process of stakeholder involvement in development and implementation of appropriate emergency preparedness routines in Slovakia in last five years. The paper presents the discussion of good practices, which made the work undertaken valuable and effective. The paper reflects the lessons learned during the course representing five years of stakeholder involvement effort. The paper gives detailed information on used practices and real process taken place in Slovakia. (authors)

  12. The Customer Relationship Management in Terms of Business Practice in Slovakia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urdziková, Jana; Jakábová, Martina; Saniuk, Sebastian

    2012-12-01

    The aim of the article is to present the results of the research on focus on the customer in relation to the use of customer relationship management in selected business subjects in Slovakia. The main goal of the research is the mapping of current state to ensure the principle of customer orientation and utilizing of CRM in organizations and industrial enterprises in Slovakia. This is the mapping of the current situation of that problem in practical conditions and determines potential opportunities for improvement.

  13. A multiple-tracer approach to understanding regional groundwater flow in the Snake Valley area of the eastern Great Basin, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardner, Philip M.; Heilweil, Victor M.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Age tracers and noble gases constrain intra- and inter-basin groundwater flow. • Tritium indicates modern (<60 yr) recharge occurring in all mountain areas. • Noble-gas data identify an important interbasin hydraulic discontinuity. • Further groundwater development may significantly impact Snake Valley springs. - Abstract: Groundwater in Snake Valley and surrounding basins in the eastern Great Basin province of the western United States is being targeted for large-scale groundwater extraction and export. Concern about declining groundwater levels and spring flows in western Utah as a result of the proposed groundwater withdrawals has led to efforts that have improved the understanding of this regional groundwater flow system. In this study, environmental tracers (δ 2 H, δ 18 O, 3 H, 14 C, 3 He, 4 He, 20 Ne, 40 Ar, 84 Kr, and 129 Xe) and major ions from 142 sites were evaluated to investigate groundwater recharge and flow-path characteristics. With few exceptions, δ 2 H and δ 18 O show that most valley groundwater has similar ratios to mountain springs, indicating recharge is dominated by relatively high-altitude precipitation. The spatial distribution of 3 H, terrigenic helium ( 4 He terr ), and 3 H/ 3 He ages shows that modern groundwater (<60 yr) in valley aquifers is found only in the western third of the study area. Pleistocene and late-Holocene groundwater is found in the eastern parts of the study area. The age of Pleistocene groundwater is supported by minimum adjusted radiocarbon ages of up to 32 ka. Noble gas recharge temperatures (NGTs) are generally 1–11 °C in Snake and southern Spring Valleys and >11 °C to the east of Snake Valley and indicate a hydraulic discontinuity between Snake and Tule Valleys across the northern Confusion Range. The combination of NGTs and 4 He terr shows that the majority of Snake Valley groundwater discharges as springs, evapotranspiration, and well withdrawals within Snake Valley rather than

  14. Reservoir-flooded river mouth areas as sediment traps revealing erosion from peat mining areas - Jukajoki case study in eastern Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahvanainen, Teemu; Meriläinen, Henna-Kaisa; Haraguchi, Akira; Simola, Heikki

    2016-04-01

    Many types of soil-disturbing land use have caused excess sedimentation in Finnish lakes. Identification and quantification of catchment sources of sediment material is crucial in cases where demands for remediation measures are considered. We studied recent (50 yr) sediments of four small rivers, all draining to a reservoir impounded in 1971. Catchments of two of the rivers had had peat mining activities from early 1980s until recently, exposing large areas of peat surfaces to erosion. The water level of the reservoir had risen to the river mouth areas of all rivers, while in each case, the river mouth areas still form riverine narrows separable from the main reservoir, hence collecting sedimentation from their own catchments. The original soils under the reservoir water level could readily be observed in core samples, providing a dated horizon under recent sediments. In addition, we used 137Cs-stratigraphies for dating of samples from original river bed locations. As expected, recent sediments of rivers with peat mining influence differed from others e.g. by high organic content and C:N ratios. Stable isotopes 13C and 15N both correlated with C:N (r = 0.799 and r = -0.717, respectively) and they also differentiated the peat-mining influenced samples from other river sediments. Principal components of the physical-chemical variables revealed clearer distinction than any variables separately. Light-microscopy revealed abundance of leafs of Sphagnum mosses in peat-mining influenced river sediments that were nearly absent from other rivers. Spores of Sphagnum were, however, abundant in all river sediments indicating their predominantly airborne origin. We find that combination of several physical-chemical characters rather than any single variable and microscopy of plant remains can result in reliable recognition of peatland-origin of sediment material when non-impacted sites are available for comparison. Dating of disturbed recent sediments is challenging. River

  15. Assessment of Useful Plants in the Catchment Area of the Proposed Ntabelanga Dam in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfred Maroyi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The developmental projects, particularly construction of dams, result in permanent changes of terrestrial ecosystems through inundation. Objective. The present study was undertaken aiming at documenting useful plant species in Ntabelanga dam catchment area that will be impacted by the construction of the proposed dam. Methods. A total of 55 randomly selected quadrats were used to assess plant species diversity and composition. Participatory rural appraisal (PRA methods were used to identify useful plant species growing in the catchment area through interviews with 108 randomly selected participants. Results. A total of 197 plant species were recorded with 95 species (48.2% utilized for various purposes. Use categories included ethnoveterinary and herbal medicines (46 species, food plants (37 species, construction timber and thatching (14 species, firewood (five species, browse, live fence, and ornamental (four species each, and brooms and crafts (two species. Conclusion. This study showed that plant species play an important role in the daily life and culture of local people. The construction of Ntabelanga dam is, therefore, associated with several positive and negative impacts on plant resources which are not fully integrated into current decision-making, largely because of lack of multistakeholder dialogue on the socioeconomic issues of such an important project.

  16. Analysis of the Current Nutrient Management Practices in Semi-Arid Areas of Eastern Kenya: A Nutmon Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karuku, A.M.

    2002-01-01

    Declining soil fertility caused mainly by continuous cultivation without adequate replenishment of nutrients, is a major factor contributing to low crop yields in the arid and semi arid areas of Kenya. Development of appropriate nutrient management strategies for suitable agricultural production in these areas is, therefore, a priority issue. in the study reported here, analyses of the current nutrient management practices were carried out using the nutrient monitoring (NUTMON) approach in order to create farm house-hold awareness on nutrient management aspects. The procedure involved participatory soil and nutrient flow maps and soil sampling at farm level. laboratory analysis of the soil samples was later carried out. Structured questionnaires were used for systematic collection of information on farm management practices in order to quantify flows of materials with emphasis on soil nutrients and cash. Results of the laboratory soil analysis were also presented to the farmers and discussed during feedback sessions. The test was carried out in three places namely, Kibwezi, Kasikeu and Kiomo. In all the three clusters, off-farm income was an important component of the total family income. Farm net cash flow was highest in Kibwezi cluster due to horticultural crop production activities. Household net cash flow was highest in Kasikeu, largely originating from off-farm income. It was concluded that NUTMON methodology appeared a suitable tool for the diagnostic of the farming system analysis and design in the arid and semi-arid lands of Kenya

  17. Uranium concentrations in stream waters and sediments from selected sites in the eastern Seward Peninsula, Koyukuk, and Charley River areas, and across South-Central Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharp, R.R. Jr.; Hill, D.E.

    1978-04-01

    During the summer of 1975, a 6-week reconnaissance was conducted in widespread areas of Alaska as part of the National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) program; Water, stream sediment, and bedrock samples were taken from the eastern Seward Peninsula, from north of Koyukuk River, from the Charley River area, and from across south central Alaska. This report contains the LASL uranium determinations resulting from fluorometric analysis of the water samples and delayed-neutron counting of the stream sediment samples. Results of total uranium for 611 water and 641 sediment samples, from 691 stream locations, are presented. Overlays showing the numbered sample locations and graphically portraying the concentrations of uranium in water and stream sediment samples, at 1:250,000 scale for use with existing National Topographic Map Series (NTMS) sheets and published geologic maps, are provided as plates. The main purposes of this work are to make the uranium data available to the public in the standard computer format used in the NURE Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance (i.e., with a DOE sample number giving the latitude and longitude of each sample location) and to provide uranium concentration overlays at the standard scale of 1:250,000 adopted by the DOE for the NURE program. It also allows a plausible explanation of differences between the uranium values for sediment as determined by acid dissolution/extraction/fluorometry and by delayed-neutron counting that were noted in the earlier report

  18. Current State and Development of Land Degradation Processes Based on Soil Monitoring in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kobza Jozef

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Current state and development of land degradation processes based on soil monitoring system in Slovakia is evaluated in this contribution. Soil monitoring system in Slovakia is consistently running since 1993 year in 5-years repetitions. Soil monitoring network in Slovakia is constructed using ecological principle, taking into account all main soil types and subtypes, soil organic matter, climatic regions, emission regions, polluted and non-polluted regions as well as various land use. The result of soil monitoring network is 318 sites on agricultural land in Slovakia. Soil properties are evaluated according to the main threats to soil relating to European Commission recommendation for European soil monitoring performance as follows: soil erosion and compaction, soil acidification, decline in soil organic matter and soil contamination. The most significant change has been determined in physical degradation of soils. The physical degradation was especially manifested in compacted and the eroded soils. It was determined that about 39% of agricultural land is potentially affected by soil erosion in Slovakia. In addition, slight decline in soil organic matter indicates the serious facts on evaluation and extension of soil degradation processes during the last period in Slovakia. Soil contamination is without significant change for the time being. It means the soils contaminated before soil monitoring process this unfavourable state lasts also at present.

  19. Seawater intrusion mapping using electrical resistivity tomography and hydrochemical data. An application in the coastal area of eastern Thermaikos Gulf, Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazakis, N.; Pavlou, A.; Vargemezis, G.; Voudouris, K.S.; Soulios, G.; Pliakas, F.; Tsokas, G.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the extent and geometrical characteristics of seawater intrusion in the coastal aquifer of the eastern Thermaikos Gulf, Greece. Hydrochemical data and geoelectrical measurements were combined and supplemented to determine the hydrochemical regime of the study site in regard to seawater phenomena. Chemical analysis of groundwater was performed in 126 boreholes and fifteen electrical resistivity tomographies (ERT) were measured, whereas in two sites the ERT measurements were repeated following the wet season. The Cl"− concentrations recorded reached 2240 mg/L indicating seawater intrusion which was also verified by ionic ratios. The ionic ratios were overlapped and a seawater intrusion map (SWIM) was produced. A significant part of the coastal aquifer (up to 150 km"2) is influenced by seawater intrusion. The areas with the most intensive salinization are located between Nea Kallikratia–Epanomi and Aggelochori–Peraia. According to the ERTs, in the influenced areas the salinization of the aquifer exceeds 1 km toward the mainland and its depth reaches 200 m. In the area surrounding Thessaloniki airport, the ERTs revealed salinization of the upper aquifer to depths of up to 40 m, whereas the lower aquifer is uninfluenced. This abnormal distribution of seawater intrusion demonstrates the value of geoelectrical methods in the study of seawater intrusion especially in areas with limited available hydrochemical data. - Highlights: • ERTs determined the geometrical characteristics of the saline aquifer. • An abnormal distribution of seawater intrusion was recorded. • Four ionic ratios overlapped and a seawater intrusion map was produced. • Cl"− concentrations increased significantly from 2005 to 2010 by up to 1800 mg/L.

  20. Apatite fission track analysis for revealing tectonic events of the Bayinguole area in the west section of Eastern Kunlun Mountains, northern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xiaoning; Yuan Wanming; Hao Nana; Duan Hongwei; Feng Yunlei; Zhang Aikui

    2014-01-01

    Background: Qimantage is an important tectonic metallogenic belt in western part of East Kunlun Mountain. It has experienced complex geological evolution, and significant mineralization. However, because of the plateau climate and inaccessibility, fewer research works have been done on this area, especially after Indo-sinian epoch. Purpose: Our work is to research tectonic activity, thermal history and uplifting around Bayinguole river in Qimantage belt. Methods: The apatite fission-track method was applied to research the tectonic setting, simulate the thermal history and calculate the uplift size and uplift speed. Results: A series of apatite fission track ages from granitoid samples in Bayinguole area of Eastern Kunlun Mountain were obtained, ranging from 120 Ma to 47 Ma that might be divided into three groups': 120-100 Ma, 67 Ma and 54-47 Ma. These ages reflected tectonic events in this area very well. Conclusions: The 120-100 Ma and 67 Ma ages present collision-convergences of Gangdese terrane and Himalayan terrane with their north-side terranes in Early Cretaceous and Late Cretaceous respectively. The ages of 54-47 Ma reflect post-orogenic stretching events in Eocene. Three stages of thermal evolution history are revealed by apatite fission track modeling in this area. Stage one 180-140 Ma is in the bottom temperature of apatite fission track anneal zone. Stage two 140-13 Ma records slow cooling. The last stage after 13 Ma records rapid cooling with temperature dropped 50℃. The uplifting ranges for these three stages are 1.0 km, 0.6 km and 1.4 km, respectively. The cumulative amount of uplift is about 3.0 km. The formula calculations for the 3 samples have their rock uplifts of 3623 m, 3317 m and 3769 m, respectively, averaging 3570 m, in accordance with the results based on the 3 stage thermal history. (authors)

  1. Prevalence of depression and anxiety among children in rural and suburban areas of Eastern Uttar Pradesh: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shailendra Kumar Mishra

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Psychiatric morbidity in children and adolescents is a major concern as they become more complex and intense with children's transition into adolescence. Aim: The aim of this study is to assess and compare the prevalence of depression and anxiety among children residing in rural and suburban area of eastern Uttar Pradesh and understand the burden of these problems in our society. Materials and Methods: Children, in the age group 11–18 years, were divided into 2 groups: Group I – 100 children from rural area Tikri; Group II – 100 children from suburban area Sunderpur. Their sociodemographic details were recorded. Children's Depression Inventory and Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale were used to screen for depression and anxiety in children, respectively. The final diagnosis was done using present state examination in accordance with International Classification of Mental and Behavioral Disorders 10. Data were statistically analyzed using Chi-square test. Results: The prevalence of depression was found to be 14.5% while that of anxiety disorder was found to be 15%. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of depression or anxiety in rural and suburban areas (P > 0.05. Depression and anxiety were more prevalent in middle adolescence, in females, and in lower-middle socioeconomic group. Depression was more prevalent in the students of class 9th –12th, whereas anxiety was more in students of lower classes. Depression was more prevalent in joint families. These differences show some important trends regarding factors affecting these problems. Conclusion: This study yields useful information which could be of use in early management of psychiatric disorders present in the community and prevent their development into chronic disorders.

  2. Seawater intrusion mapping using electrical resistivity tomography and hydrochemical data. An application in the coastal area of eastern Thermaikos Gulf, Greece

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazakis, N., E-mail: kazanera@yahoo.com [Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Department of Geology, Lab. of Engineering Geology & Hydrogeology, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Pavlou, A. [Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Department of Geology, Lab. of Engineering Geology & Hydrogeology, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Vargemezis, G. [Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Department of Geology, Lab. of Applied Geophysics, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Voudouris, K.S.; Soulios, G. [Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Department of Geology, Lab. of Engineering Geology & Hydrogeology, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Pliakas, F. [Democritus University of Thrace, Department of Civil Engineering, Xanthi 67100 (Greece); Tsokas, G. [Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Department of Geology, Lab. of Applied Geophysics, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece)

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the extent and geometrical characteristics of seawater intrusion in the coastal aquifer of the eastern Thermaikos Gulf, Greece. Hydrochemical data and geoelectrical measurements were combined and supplemented to determine the hydrochemical regime of the study site in regard to seawater phenomena. Chemical analysis of groundwater was performed in 126 boreholes and fifteen electrical resistivity tomographies (ERT) were measured, whereas in two sites the ERT measurements were repeated following the wet season. The Cl{sup −} concentrations recorded reached 2240 mg/L indicating seawater intrusion which was also verified by ionic ratios. The ionic ratios were overlapped and a seawater intrusion map (SWIM) was produced. A significant part of the coastal aquifer (up to 150 km{sup 2}) is influenced by seawater intrusion. The areas with the most intensive salinization are located between Nea Kallikratia–Epanomi and Aggelochori–Peraia. According to the ERTs, in the influenced areas the salinization of the aquifer exceeds 1 km toward the mainland and its depth reaches 200 m. In the area surrounding Thessaloniki airport, the ERTs revealed salinization of the upper aquifer to depths of up to 40 m, whereas the lower aquifer is uninfluenced. This abnormal distribution of seawater intrusion demonstrates the value of geoelectrical methods in the study of seawater intrusion especially in areas with limited available hydrochemical data. - Highlights: • ERTs determined the geometrical characteristics of the saline aquifer. • An abnormal distribution of seawater intrusion was recorded. • Four ionic ratios overlapped and a seawater intrusion map was produced. • Cl{sup −} concentrations increased significantly from 2005 to 2010 by up to 1800 mg/L.

  3. Spatio-Temporal Variation and Futuristic Emission Scenario of Ambient Nitrogen Dioxide over an Urban Area of Eastern India Using GIS and Coupled AERMOD-WRF Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharadia Dey

    Full Text Available The present study focuses on the spatio-temporal variation of nitrogen dioxide (NO2 during June 2013 to May 2015 and its futuristic emission scenario over an urban area (Durgapur of eastern India. The concentration of ambient NO2 shows seasonal as well as site specific characteristics. The site with high vehicular density (Muchipara shows highest NO2 concentration followed by industrial site (DVC- DTPS Colony and the residential site (B Zone, respectively. The seasonal variation of ambient NO2 over the study area is portrayed by means of Geographical Information System based Digital Elevation Model. Out of the total urban area under consideration (114.982 km2, the concentration of NO2 exceeded the National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS permissible limit over an area of 5.000 km2, 0.786 km2 and 0.653 km2 in post monsoon, winter and pre monsoon, respectively. Wind rose diagrams, correlation and regression analyses show that meteorology plays a crucial role in dilution and dispersion of NO2 near the earth's surface. Principal component analysis identifies vehicular source as the major source of NO2 in all the seasons over the urban region. Coupled AMS/EPA Regulatory Model (AERMOD-Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF model is used for predicting the concentration of NO2. Comparison of the observed and simulated data shows that the model overestimates the concentration of NO2 in all the seasons (except winter. The results show that coupled AERMOD-WRF model can overcome the unavailability of hourly surface as well as upper air meteorological data required for predicting the pollutant concentration, but improvement of emission inventory along with better understanding of the sinks and sources of ambient NO2 is essential for capturing the more realistic scenario.

  4. Hydrogeological modelling of the eastern region of Areco river locally detailed on Atucha I and II nuclear power plants area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grattone, Natalia I.; Fuentes, Nestor O.

    2009-01-01

    Water flow behaviour of Pampeano aquifer was modeled using Visual Mod-flow software Package 2.8.1 with the assumption of a free aquifer, within the region of the Areco river and extending to the rivers of 'Canada Honda' and 'de la Cruz'. Steady state regime was simulated and grid refinement allows obtaining locally detailed calculation in the area of Atucha I and II Nuclear power plants, in order to compute unsteady situations as the consequence of water flow variations from and to the aquifer, enabling the model to study the movement of possible contaminant particles in the hydrogeologic system. In this work the effects of rivers action, the recharge conditions and the flow lines are analyzed, taking always into account the range of reliability of obtained results, considering the incidence of uncertainties introduced by data input system, the estimates and interpolation of parameters used. (author)

  5. Intense methane ebullition from open water area of a shallow peatland lake on the eastern Tibetan Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dan; Wu, Yan; Chen, Huai; He, Yixin; Wu, Ning

    2016-01-15

    Methane fluxes from a shallow peatland lake (3450 m a.s.l., 1.6 km(2) in area, maximum depth peatlands to the lake. The shallowness of the water column could be another important favorable factor for methane-containing bubble formation in the sediment and their transportation to the atmosphere. The methane ebullition must have been enhanced by the low atmospheric pressure (ca. 672 hPa) in the high-altitude environment. For a better understanding on the mechanism of methane emission from alpine lakes, more lakes on the Tibetan Plateau should be studied in the future for their methane ebullition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The impact of a fast track area on quality and effectiveness outcomes: a Middle Eastern emergency department perspective.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Devkaran, Subashnie

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Emergency department (ED) overcrowding is a ubiquitous problem with serious public health implications. The fast track area is a novel method which aims to reduce waiting time, patient dissatisfaction and morbidity. |The study objective was to determine the impact of a fast track area (FTA) on both effectiveness measures (i.e. waiting times [WT] and length of stay [LOS]) and quality measures (i.e. LWBS rates and mortality rates) in non-urgent patients. The secondary objective was to assess if a FTA negatively impacted on urgent patients entering the ED. METHODS: The study took place in a 500 bed, urban, tertiary care hospital in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates. This was a quasi-experimental, which examined the impact of a FTA on a pre-intervention control group (January 2005) (n = 4,779) versus a post-intervention study group (January 2006) (n = 5,706). RESULTS: Mean WTs of Canadian Triage Acuity Scale (CTAS) 4 patients decreased by 22 min (95% CI 21 min to 24 min, P < 0.001). Similarly, mean WTs of CTAS 5 patients decreased by 28 min (95% CI 19 min to 37 min, P < 0.001) post FTA. The mean WTs of urgent patients (CTAS 2\\/3) were also significantly reduced after the FTA was opened (P < 0.001). The LWBS rate was reduced from 4.7% to 0.7% (95% CI 3.37 to 4.64; P < 0.001). Opening a FTA had no significant impact on mortality rates (P = 0.88). CONCLUSION: The FTA improved ED effectiveness (WTs and LOS) and quality measures (LWBS rates) whereas mortality rate remained unchanged.

  7. The development of customers’ satisfaction in the banking sector of Slovakia in the turbulent economic environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav Belás

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Satisfaction of bank’s customers presents important area of building of long-term relationships with the client, which significantly determines the financial performance of commercial banks through successful business. Satisfied customer buy bank’s products, is willing to pay also higher price for the product or service and represents some form of free advertising and considerable less effort, time and money needed for keep him, than to get a new one. This article presents current situation in the banking sector in Slovakia and quantifies changes in the area of customer satisfaction, which occurred during the financial and economic crisis. Customer satisfaction research has been conducted through a questionnaire survey. First research has been carried out on the first half of 2008 on the sample of 298 respondents, ie. the time before the financial crisis. In that time, the greatest satisfaction has been assigned to the availability of bank’s products and services, and the greatest dissatisfaction has been expressed by respondents to the prices of banking products and services. In 2012, this research has been conducted on the sample of 320 respondents. The change of satisfaction factors, respectively dissatisfied bank’s customers compared with 2008 has been investigated by standard statistical methods. Results of our research in 2012 showed satisfaction reduction of bank customers and also changes in respondents’ preferences of the perception of satisfaction factors, respectively dissatisfaction in relation to commercial banks.

  8. Traffic seismicity loaded historical building frequency parameters identification due to most commonly used truck in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papán Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimental investigation and combination with numerical modelling is one of the progressive method in many scientific areas. The structural dynamics including traffic seismicity effects are also becoming an increasing topic. The aim of this paper was to realize the numerical analysis of heritage Upper Gate in Modra - Slovakia and FEM simulation of the lorry T-815 natural vibration. These subsystems are dominant processes in traffic seismicity vibration effects in buildings. For this purpose the variants of FE model by computing program Scia engineering has been created for building and software ADINA for lorry. These models are important for the assessment of the dynamic vibration transmissibility due to mechanical impact load properties. The results of this simulation was evaluated in frequency area. Next part of the investigation was the realisation of the experimental measurement. The results obtained from the experiment were compared with FE analysis. Using of the theoretical analysis, experimental procedures results and FEM simulation of the natural vibration it seem to be the practical application for engineering practice in prediction and assessment buildings vibration due to seismicity induced by traffic.

  9. Environmental policy and the role of foreign assistance in Central- and Eastern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    During the 1990's, a large number of international donors and financing institutions have been active in providing financial support for improving the environment in Central and Eastern Europe. One of these actors have been the Danish Government and its Environmental Support Fund for Central...... policy in their own country and to provide an assessment of the role that foreign assistance has played and could play. Covers the following countries: Czech Republic; Poland; Romania; Russia; Slovakia; Ukraine....

  10. Why pigs are free-roaming: Communities' perceptions, knowledge and practices regarding pig management and taeniosis/cysticercosis in a Taenia solium endemic rural area in Eastern Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thys, Séverine; Mwape, Kabemba E; Lefèvre, Pierre; Dorny, Pierre; Phiri, Andrew M; Marcotty, Tanguy; Phiri, Isaac K; Gabriël, Sarah

    2016-07-30

    Taenia solium cysticercosis is a neglected parasitic zoonosis in many developing countries including Zambia. Studies in Africa have shown that the underuse of sanitary facilities and the widespread occurrence of free-roaming pigs are the major risk factors for porcine cysticercosis. Socio-cultural determinants related to free range pig management and their implications for control of T. solium remain unclear. The study objective was to assess the communities' perceptions, reported practices and knowledge regarding management of pigs and taeniosis/cysticercosis (including neurocysticercosis) in an endemic rural area in Eastern Zambia, and to identify possible barriers to pig related control measures such as pig confinement. A total of 21 focus group discussions on pig husbandry practices were organized separately with men, women and children, in seven villages from Petauke district. The findings reveal that the perception of pigs and their role in society (financial, agricultural and traditional), the distribution of the management tasks among the family members owning pigs (feeding, building kraal, seeking care) and environmental aspects (feed supply, presence of bush, wood use priorities, rainy season) prevailing in the study area affect pig confinement. People have a fragmented knowledge of the pork tapeworm and its transmission. Even if negative aspects/health risks of free-range pigs keeping are perceived, people are ready to take the risk for socio-economic reasons. Finally, gender plays an important role because women, and also children, seem to have a higher perception of the risks but lack power in terms of economic decision-making compared to men. Currently pig confinement is not seen as an acceptable method to control porcine cysticercosis by many farmers in Eastern Zambia, vaccination and treatment seemed to be more appropriate. Embedded in a One Health approach, disease control programs should therefore ensure a complementary appropriate set of control

  11. Rock-block configuration in Uppland and the Aalands-hav basin, the regional surroundings of the SKB site in Forsmark, Sea and land areas, eastern Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beckholmen, Monica; Tiren, Sven A. (GEOSIGMA AB (Sweden))

    2010-12-15

    The Forsmark SKB site lies at the west-northwest trending shoreline in northern Uppland, sheltered from the sea by one of the larger islands in the Uppland archipelago, Graesoe. To assess the structures around Forsmark also in the sea area, the bottom structures of the Aalands-hav basin were investigated by means of depth readings from sea charts. Two rock-block maps with rock blocks at different scales were constructed and analysed for their top surface elevation. The topography in Uppland is more broken in the sea area east and northeast of Forsmark than it is on land. The major structure in the Aalands-hav basin is a westnorth- westerly line that passes southwest of Aaland, with a very steep gradient from the Aaland archipelago down to an exceptionally low sea-floor valley. On its southern side it rises in steps to a low flat basin divided into a deeper western half and a somewhat shallower eastern half. The deep west-north-westerly zone can be traced on-land past Oeregrund and Forsmark. West of Oeregrund however, the main trough swings into a north-northwesterly direction, just west of Graesoe. The southern border south of Oeregrund and Forsmark, shows a major drop in elevation northern side down. Forsmark thus lies on a ribbon with lower ground on both its southern and northern boundaries. This west-north-westerly belt is cut in two by a major north-south lineament that cuts through the archipelago between Aaland and Graesoe with a very deep canyon. This structure was seismically active in June 2006. The southern part of this line constitutes the western border of the low basin and has a steep gradient on its western side up to the Uppland mainland. The deep basin is filled with Jotnian metasediments. South of this basin, the Uppland mainland continues under water towards the east. South of Aaland an east-north-easterly ridge separates the low basin to the north from an east-west trending trough which is the eastern continuation of a major onland structure

  12. Rock-block configuration in Uppland and the Aalands-hav basin, the regional surroundings of the SKB site in Forsmark, Sea and land areas, eastern Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beckholmen, Monica; Tiren, Sven A.

    2010-12-01

    The Forsmark SKB site lies at the west-northwest trending shoreline in northern Uppland, sheltered from the sea by one of the larger islands in the Uppland archipelago, Graesoe. To assess the structures around Forsmark also in the sea area, the bottom structures of the Aalands-hav basin were investigated by means of depth readings from sea charts. Two rock-block maps with rock blocks at different scales were constructed and analysed for their top surface elevation. The topography in Uppland is more broken in the sea area east and northeast of Forsmark than it is on land. The major structure in the Aalands-hav basin is a westnorth- westerly line that passes southwest of Aaland, with a very steep gradient from the Aaland archipelago down to an exceptionally low sea-floor valley. On its southern side it rises in steps to a low flat basin divided into a deeper western half and a somewhat shallower eastern half. The deep west-north-westerly zone can be traced on-land past Oeregrund and Forsmark. West of Oeregrund however, the main trough swings into a north-northwesterly direction, just west of Graesoe. The southern border south of Oeregrund and Forsmark, shows a major drop in elevation northern side down. Forsmark thus lies on a ribbon with lower ground on both its southern and northern boundaries. This west-north-westerly belt is cut in two by a major north-south lineament that cuts through the archipelago between Aaland and Graesoe with a very deep canyon. This structure was seismically active in June 2006. The southern part of this line constitutes the western border of the low basin and has a steep gradient on its western side up to the Uppland mainland. The deep basin is filled with Jotnian metasediments. South of this basin, the Uppland mainland continues under water towards the east. South of Aaland an east-north-easterly ridge separates the low basin to the north from an east-west trending trough which is the eastern continuation of a major onland structure

  13. Genesis of Uranium in the younger granites of gabal abu hawis area, central eastern desert of Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, F.Y.; Moharem, A.F.

    2003-01-01

    The younger granites cropping out in gabal abu hawis area are considered as uraniferous (fertile) granites (the fertile is mainly is mainly attributed to presence of radioactive zircon). Abu hawis granitic pluton is dissected by joints faults of different trends forming two mineralized shear zones in the northern peripheries and southern border. The younger granites hosting uranium mineralizations along the two mineralized shear zones. The uranium minerals include uranophane and carnotite. The altered granites have much lower Th/U ratios (0.03-0.10) than those of the fresh granites (1.69-2.05), indicating strong mobilization of uranium in this pluton by super-heated solutions that resulted from supergence meteoric water as well as U-addition by hypogene fluids. These solutions could pass through the structural network of fractures, joints and fault planes and have leached some of labile uranium from the surrounding rocks and/or the younger granites themselves. Then, changing in the physicochemical conditions of these solutions caused uranium precipitation as uranium minerals filling the cracks in the rock and/or adsorbed on the surface of clay minerals and iron oxides in the two shear zones

  14. THE PROBLEM OF PROTECTING THE NATURAL ENVIRONMENT IN SPATIAL PLANNING IN RURAL AREAS IN SOUTH-EASTERN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogusława Baran-Zgłobicka

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Local planning in Poland encompasses spatial development conditions and directions study for a district (“study” and a local spatial development plan (“local plan”. The study is the only planning document that is required for the entire area of a district. It outlines directions of spatial policy and spatial development. Detailed investigations encompassed nine functionally diverse rural districts in SE Poland. The objective was to assess the description of environmental determinants and the problems of natural resources protection presented in the studies. The adequacy of the adopted approach to the subject matter and its correlation with spatial development directions were analysed. The analysed studies usually provide an exhaustive description of (a natural resources and the nature conservation system along with restrictions in environment use, and (b the problem of raw materials. Not all studies, however, highlight the local, very often unique characteristics of the natural environment. Natural hazards are marginalized in some studies. There is also a lack of concrete solutions for the protection of space and improvement of spatial order.

  15. Sulfur and lead isotope geochemistry of the orogenic gold deposits in the eastern Kunlun area, Qinghai province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Chengyou; Zhang Dequan; Li Daxin; She Hongquan; Zhu Huaping

    2003-01-01

    Based on researches on the basic geological characteristics and sulfur and lead isotopic geochemistry of four typical gold deposits, it is considered that they have many similar geo-geochemical characteristics and are all related genetically to orogenic process. Therefore, they should belong to a type of orogenic gold deposits according to the newest classification of gold deposits provided by Kerrich et al. (2000). There is a big change in the average 34 S values of the sulfides selected from different deposits, varying from -3.7‰-4.4‰ and tower-shape distribution is apparent. The lead isotope in four gold deposits is characterized by high compositions and minor changes, with 206 Pb/ 204 Pb > 18.3380, 207 Pb/ 204 Pb > 15.5555, 208 Pb/ 204 Pb >38.1796 in ores and wall-rocks, it can be concluded that the ore-forming material consisting of sulfur and lead are mainly derived from wall-rocks. Intensive subduction and collision during late Paleozoic and early Mesozoic not only formed deep faults, large-scale shear belt, and low-order folds and faults but also induced fluidization and mineralization, and resulted in formation and zonal distribution of several large or medium gold deposits in this area. (authors)

  16. Benthic and fish population monitoring associated with a marine protected area in the nearshore waters of Grenada, Eastern Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Anderson

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Annual benthic and fish population surveys were completed at five locations in the nearshore waters along Grenada´s southwest coast during 2008-2010. Two survey sites are located in a newly launched Marine Protected Area (MPA. Photo Quadrat (PQ and Point Line Intercept (PLI surveys were used to determine substrate cover. Algae was the primary live cover increasing significantly from 45.9% in 2008 to 52.7% in 2010 (PLI. Algae was also predominant (61.0%-59.3% in the PQ surveys although annual variation was not significant. Hard coral cover ranged from 16.5% to 15.4% (PLI and 11.4% to12.0% (PQ with no significant differences between years. Branching and encrusting corals occurred more frequently than massive corals. In the three annual surveys neither algal cover nor hard coral varied significantly between MPA and non-protected areas (PLI. Relative abundance of fishes along 30x2m belt transects did not vary significantly among years however density of fishes decreased significantly across years for most major groups. Chromis spp. dominated the survey sites at 65.2% in 2008 and 49.8% in 2010, followed by territorial damselfish,11.1% and 15.5%, wrasse increased from 7.3% to 15.5%. Both the substrate cover and fish survey data analyses indicated a stable but degraded community. Annual surveys are planned at these sites for the foreseeable future. Existing and future data from this project will be valuable in determining the efficacy of MPA management, guiding resource management decisions and monitoring the health status of Grenada’s valuable reef systemsUn estudio sobre poblaciones bentónicas y de peces fue realizado en cinco localidades en la zona costera en el suroeste de Grenada entre 2008 y 2010. Dos sitios se ubicaron en una Área Marina Portegida (AMP recientemente creada. Para determinar la cobertura se utilizaron foto-cuadrantes (FQ y transectos de intersección de puntos (TIP. Las algas fueron el principal componente del bentos

  17. Finite-strain analysis of Metavolcano-sedimentary rocks at Gabel El Mayet area, Central Eastern Desert, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassem, Osama M. K.; Abd El Rahim, Said H.

    2010-09-01

    Finite strain was estimated in the metavolcano-sedimentary rocks, which surround by serpentinites of Gabel El Mayet area. Finite strain shows a relationship to nappe contacts between the metavolcano-sedimentary rocks and serpentinite and sheds light on the nature of the subhorizontal foliation typical for the Gable Mayet shear zone. We used the Rf/ ϕ and Fry methods on feldspar porphyroclasts and mafic grains from 10 metasedimentary and six metavolcanic samples in Gabel El Mayet region. Our finite-strain data show that the metavolcano-sedimentary rocks were moderately deformed and axial ratios in the XZ section range from 1.9 to 3.9. The long axes of the finite-strain ellipsoids trend W/WNW in the north and W/WSW in the south of the Gabel El Mayet shear zone. Furthermore, the short axes are subvertical to a subhorizontal foliation. The strain magnitudes increase towards the tectonic contacts between the metavolcano-sedimentary rocks and serpentinite. The data indicate oblate strain symmetry in the metavolcano-sedimentary rocks. Hence, our strain data also indicate flattening strain. We assume that the metasedimentary and metavolcanics rocks have similar deformation behaviour. The fact that finite strain accumulated during the metamorphism indicates that the nappe contacts formed during the accumulation of finite strain and thus during thrusting. We conclude that the nappe contacts formed during progressive thrusting under brittle to semi-brittle deformation conditions by simple shear and involved a component of vertical shortening, which caused the subhorizontal foliation in the Gabel El Mayet shear zone.

  18. Status and prospects of the core surveillance system SCORPIO-VVER in Czech Republic and Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molnar, J.; Vocka, R.

    2011-01-01

    The SCORPIO-VVER core monitoring system has proved since the first installation at Dukovany NPP in 1999 to be a valuable tool for the reactor operators and reactor physicists. It is now installed on four units of Dukovany NPP (Czech Republic) and two units of Bohunice NPP (Slovak Republic) replacing the original Russian VK3 system. By both Czech and Slovak nuclear regulatory bodies it was licensed as a Technical Specification Surveillance tool. Since it's first installation, the development of SCORPIO-VVER system continues along with the changes in WWER reactors operation. The system is being adapted according the utility needs and several notable improvements in physical modules of the system were introduced. The latest most significant changes were done in connection with implementation of a new digital I and C system, loading of the optimized gadolinium bearing Gd2 fuel assemblies, improvements in the area of core design (neutron physics, core thermal hydraulics and fuel thermal mechanics), adaptation of the system to up-rated unit conditions, in design and methodology of the limit and technical specifications checking (implementation of the on-line shutdown margin calculation to the system) and improvements in the predictive part of the system (Strategy Generator). After the currently finished upgrades (Upgrade 2 at EBO Slovakia in 2009, Upgrade 5 at EDU Czech Republic in 2010) the SCORPIO-VVER is still in focus of Central European nuclear power plants with the road map of modification and implementation up to 2015. In April 2011 the Upgrade 3 at EBO Slovakia has been contracted to support the changed reactor technical specification and for support of the new type of fuel planned to load in 2012. During the summer of 2011 the discussions started with EDU NPP in Czech Republic regarding to the future development of the SCORPIO-VVER system up to 2015. Parallel with the support of current installations at NPPs the project of new installations is ongoing. During

  19. [RADIATION HYGIENIC MONITORING AT THE AREA OF THE LOCATION OF THE FAR EASTERN CENTER FOR RADIOACTIVE WASTE MANAGEMENT (FEC "DALRAO"--BRANCH OF FSUE "ROSRAO")].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiselev, S M; Shandala, N K; Akhromeev, S V; Gimadova, T I; Seregin, V A; Titov, A V; Biryukova, N G

    2015-01-01

    Intensification ofactivities in the field of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and radioactive waste (RW) management in the Far East region of Russia assumes an increase of the environmental load on the territories adjacent to the enterprise and settlements. To ensure radiation safety during works on SNF and radioactive waste management in the standard mode of operation and during the rehabilitation works in the contaminated territories, there is need for the optimization of the existing system of radiation-hygienic monitoring, aimed at the implementation of complex dynamic observation of parameters of radiation-hygienic situation and radiation amount of the population living in the vicinity of the Far Eastern Center for Radioactive Waste Management (FEC "DALRAO"). To solve this problem there is required a significant amount of total and enough structured information on the character of the formation of the radiation situation, the potential ways of the spread of man-made pollution to the surrounding area, determining the radiation load on the population living in the vicinity of the object. In this paper there are presented the results of field studies of the radiation situation at the plant FEC "DALRAO", which were obtained during the course of expedition trips in 2009-2012.

  20. NATURAL RADIOACTIVITY LEVEL AND ELEMENTAL COMPOSITION OF SOIL SAMPLES FROM A HIGH BACKGROUND RADIATION AREA ON EASTERN COAST OF INDIA (ODISHA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, S K; Kierepko, R; Sorimachi, A; Omori, Y; Ishikawa, T; Tokonami, S; Prasad, G; Gusain, G S; Ramola, R C

    2016-10-01

    A comprehensive study was carried out to determine the radioactivity concentration of soil samples from different sites of a high background radiation area in the eastern coast of India, Odisha state. The dose rate measured in situ varied from 0.25 to 1.2 µSv h -1 The gamma spectrometry measurements indicated Th series elements as the main contributors to the enhanced level of radiation and allowed the authors to find the mean level of the activity concentration (±SD) for 226 Ra, 228 Th and 40 K as 130±97, 1110±890 and 360±140 Bq kg -1 , respectively. Human exposure from radionuclides occurring outdoor was estimated based on the effective dose rate, which ranged from 0.14±0.02 to 2.15±0.26 mSv and was higher than the UNSCEAR annual worldwide average value 0.07 mSv. Additionally, X-ray fluorescence analysis provided information about the content of major elements in samples and indicated the significant amount of Ti (7.4±4.9 %) in soils. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Morphological correlates of prey consumed by Podarcis melisellensis (Braun, 1877 and P. siculus (Rafinesque, 1810 (Sauria, Lacertidae from two mainland regions in the eastern Adriatic area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stamenković S.Ž.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The correlation between trophic utilization and morphology was studied for two lizard species (Podarcis melisellensis and P. siculus from two mainland localities in the eastern Adriatic area; this is the first report of trophic and morphometric data for P. melisellensis from mainland populations. Variance partitioning showed that most of the variation in morphological traits for the analyzed lizards was the result of differences between species, and to a lesser extent between sexes. Locality did not have a strong effect on the variation of morphological traits. Prey weight is the only characteristic of prey that generally exhibits correlations with morphological characteristics rather than prey size. The pattern of correlations is generally weaker for P. melisellensis than for P. siculus. Optimal foraging theory predictions were generally confirmed: P. siculus is more constrained by trophic resource availability, with a premium on larger and heavier prey consumed in the less productive locality (SM, which can be relaxed in more productive regions (KL. P. melisellensis shows such constraints only for males in the less productive region (SM. Females of both species consume heavier prey. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III43001 i br. 173011

  2. Residents' Self-Reported Health Effects and Annoyance in Relation to Air Pollution Exposure in an Industrial Area in Eastern-Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orru, Hans; Idavain, Jane; Pindus, Mihkel; Orru, Kati; Kesanurm, Kaisa; Lang, Aavo; Tomasova, Jelena

    2018-02-02

    Eastern Estonia has large oil shale mines and industrial facilities mainly focused on electricity generation from oil shale and shale oil extraction, which produce high air pollution emissions. The "Study of the health impact of the oil shale sector-SOHOS" was aimed at identifying the impacts on residents' health and annoyance due to the industrial processing. First, a population-wide survey about health effects and annoyance was carried out. Second, the total and oil shale sectors' emitted concentrations of benzene, phenol, and PM 2.5 were modelled. Third, the differences between groups were tested and relationships between health effects and environmental pollution studied using multiple regression analysis. Compared to the control groups from non-industrial areas in Tartu or Lääne-Viru, residents of Ida-Viru more frequently ( p sector. Next to direct health effects, up to a quarter of the residents of Ida-Viru County were highly annoyed about air pollution. Perceived health risk from air pollution increased the odds of being annoyed. Annoyed people in Ida-Viru had significantly higher odds of experiencing respiratory symptoms during the last 12 months, e.g., wheezing (2.30, 1.31-4.04), chest tightness (2.88, 1.91-4.33 or attack of coughing (1.99, 1.34-2.95).

  3. Description and implementation of a surveillance network for bluetongue in the Balkans and in adjoining areas of south-eastern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dall'Acqua, F; Paladini, C; Meiswinkel, R; Savini, L; Calistri, P

    2006-01-01

    During the recent severe outbreaks of bluetongue (BT) in the Mediterranean Basin, the BT virus (BTV) spread beyond its historical limits into the Balkan region. One of the primary impacts of BT is the cessation in livestock trade which can have severe economic and social consequences. The authors briefly describe the development of the collaborative East-BTnet programme which aims to assist all affected and at-risk Balkan states and adjoining countries in the management of BT, and in the development of individual national surveillance systems. The beneficiary countries involved, and led by the World organisation for animal health (Office International des Epizooties) Collaborating Centre for veterinary training, epidemiology, food safety and animal welfare of the Istituto Zooprofilattico dell'Abruzzo e del Molise 'G. Caporale' in collaboration with the Institute for the Protection and the Security of the Citizen, the European Commission Joint Research Centre (IPSC-JRC), were Albania, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, the Former Yugoslavia Republic of Macedonia, Kosovo, Malta, Romania, Serbia and Montenegro, Slovenia and Turkey. A regional web-based surveillance network is a valuable tool for controlling and managing transboundary animal diseases such as BT. Its implementation in the Balkan region and in adjoining areas of south-eastern Europe is described and discussed.

  4. Evaluation of two MM5-PBL parameterization for solar radiation and temperature estimation in the South-Eastern area of the Iberian Peninsula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz-Arias, J.A.; Pozo-Vasquez, D.; Sanchez-Sanchez, N.; Hayas-Barru, A.; Tovar-Pescador, J.; Montavez, J.P.

    2008-01-01

    We study the relative performance of two different MM5-PBL parametrizations (Blackadar and MRF) simulating hourly values of solar irradiance and temperature in the south-eastern part of the Iberian Peninsula. The evaluation was carried out throughout the different season of the year 2005 and for three different sky conditions: clear-sky, broken-clouds and overcast conditions. Two integrations, one per PBL parameterization, were carried out for every sky condition and season of the year and results were compared with observational data. Overall, the MM5 model, both using the Blackadar or MRF PBL parameterization, revealed to be a valid tool to estimate hourly values of solar radiation and temperature over the study area. The influence of the PBL parameterization on the model estimates was found to be more important for the solar radiation than for the temperature and highly dependent on the season and sky conditions. Particularly, a detailed analysis revealed that, during broken-clouds conditions, the ability of the model to reproduce hourly changes in the solar radiation strongly depends upon the selected PBL parameterization. Additionally, it was found that solar radiation RMSE values are about one order of magnitude higher during broken-clouds and overcast conditions compared to clear-sky conditions. For the temperature, the two PBL parameterizations provide very similar estimates. Only under overcast conditions and during the autumn, the MRF provides significantly better estimates.

  5. Image Quality and Patient Dose Optimisation in Mammography in Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horvathova, M.; Nikodemova, D.; Prikazska, M.

    2003-01-01

    Breast cancer represents also in Slovakia the greatest cancer risk for women, with great incidence and mortality. Conventional film-screen mammography is still the primary breast imaging modality with increasing number of mammography units and mammography examinations. From the radiation protection point of view achievement of good practice in mammography department by implementation of quality assurance play an important role for reduction of patients doses. Introduction of QA needs trained and experienced staff and requires close collaboration between radiologists, medical physicist and radiographers. At the beginning of nineties at the Institute of Preventive and Clinical Medicine we started with a survey of mean glandular doses at 15 existing mammography units in the country. On the basis of a questionnaire in the year 1991 were performed 10 488 mammography examinations, where due to out of date mammography units the mean glandular dose reached more as 3 mGy. In the following years the claim to the modern mammography units kept growing and in the year 1999 the total number of 63 mammography units were operating in Slovakia providing about 101 471 mammography examinations. According to the alarming increase of the number of mammography examinations it is absolutely necessary to work out criteria and principles for Quality Control at mammography workplaces in our country and make it obligatory for the staff of all mammography units. Summarising the CRP results it can be stated that they: 1) Initiated the suggestion of unified QA/QC criteria in mammography and the urgent need to implement them into the national program of radiology image quality improvement; 2) Remitted on unhomogenity not only in the equipment outfit but also in the procedure of evaluation of the measured parameters and imaging quality; 3) Revealed the shortcomings in the everyday practice of mammography units which can be removed only by comprehensive by training of personal in imaging radiology

  6. [The incidence of tularemia in Slovakia in 1997-2008].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurycová, D; Tináková, K; Výrosteková, V; Gacíková, E

    2010-02-01

    Analysis of epidemiological trends in tularemia in the Slovak Republic (SR) over the last 12 years and changes in the epidemiology of this infection. The sources of data for the epidemiological analysis are the SR annual tularemia surveillance report, records of epidemiological investigation of reported cases and knowledge from long-term surveillance of natural foci. The incidence of tularemia was analyzed based on the standard epidemiological indicators and in relation to infection sources and transmission routes. In 1997-2008, a total of 453 tularemia cases were reported from all administrative regions in Slovakia, the mean incidence was 0.71/10(5) population and 95.4% of cases were reported in the West, with the predominance of cases in the Nitra region where the mean incidence was 4/10(5) population. In the outbreak of 2002, the incidence of tularemia was as high as 18 cases/10(5) population. Tularemia cases were reported in all age groups and more than half of the patients were aged between 30 to 59 years. Tularemia cases were 1.9 times more frequent in males than in females. The seasonal trend peaked in summer, month of July. In a greater proportion of cases, 58.5%, the source of infection was other than brown hares, 16.3%, which correlates well with the decrease in the hare tularemia foci in the study period. The most frequent route of transmission was work exposure to contaminated animal feed and bedding and in an dusty environment with increased occurrence of small rodents. The proportion of tick-borne and biting insect-borne cases was 12.8% and 12.4% of cases were not elucidated epidemiologically. Clinical manifestations were ulceroglandular and glandular tularemia in 55.6%, pulmonary tularemia in 21.2 %, oroglandular tularaemia in 18.8% and other forms of tularaemia in 4.4%. The changes in the distribution of sources of infection and routes of transmission resulted in changed epidemiological characteristics and clinical forms of tularemia in Slovakia

  7. Miocene Basaltic Lava Flows and Dikes of the Intervening Area Between Picture Gorge and Steens Basalt of the CRBG, Eastern Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahoon, E. B.; Streck, M. J.

    2016-12-01

    Mid-Miocene basaltic lavas and dikes are exposed in the area between the southern extent of the Picture Gorge Basalt (PGB) and the northern extent of Steens Basalt in a wide corridor of the Malheur National Forest, eastern Oregon. An approximate mid-Miocene age of sampled basaltic units is indicated by stratigraphic relationships to the 16 Ma Dinner Creek Tuff. Lavas provide an opportunity to extend and/or revise distribution areas of either CRBG unit and explore the petrologic transition between them. The PGB and the Steens Basalt largely represent geochemically distinct tholeiitic units of the CRBG; although each unit displays internal complexity. Lavas of PGB are relatively primitive (MgO 5-9 wt.%) while Steens Basalt ranges in MgO from >9 to 3 wt.% but both units are commonly coarsely porphyritic. Conversely, Steens Basalt compositions are on average more enriched in highly incompatible elements (e.g. Rb, Th) and relatively enriched in the lesser incompatible elements (e.g. Y, Yb) compared to the Picture Gorge basalts. These compositional signatures produce inclined and flat patterns on mantle-normalized incompatible trace element plots but with similar troughs and spikes, respectively. New compositional data from our study area indicate basaltic lavas can be assigned as PGB lava flows and dikes, and also to a compositional group chemically distinct between Steens Basalt and PGB. Distribution of lava flows with PGB composition extend this CRBG unit significantly south/southeast closing the exposure gap between PGB and Steens Basalt. We await data that match Steens Basalt compositions but basaltic lavas with petrographic features akin to Steens Basalt have been identified in the study area. Lavas of the transitional unit share characteristics with Upper Steens and Picture Gorge basalt types, but identify a new seemingly unique composition. This composition is slightly more depleted in the lesser incompatible elements (i.e. steeper pattern) on mantle normalized

  8. Time lapse survey plan on the first offshore methane hydrate production test in 2013 around the eastern Nankai Trough area by multi-component OBC seismic tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inamori, T.; Hayashi, T.; Asakawa, E.; Takahashi, H.; Saeki, T.

    2011-12-01

    We are planning to conduct the multi-component ocean bottom cable (hereafter OBC) seismic survey to monitor the methane hydrate dissociation zone at the 1st offshore methane hydrate production test site in the eastern Nankai Trough, Japan, in 2013. We conducted the first OBC survey in the methane hydrate concentrated zone around the eastern Nankai Trough area in 2006 by RSCS which we developed. We obtained to the good image of methane hydrate bearing layer by P-P section as similar as the conventional surface seismic survey. However, we could not obtain the good image from P-S section compared with P-P section. On the other hand, we studied the sonic velocity distribution at the Mallik 2nd production test before and after in 2007, by the sonic tool data. We could clearly delineate the decrease of S-wave velocity, however, we could not detect the decrease of P-wave velocity because of the presence of the dissociated methane gas from methane hydrate. From these reason we guess the S-wave data is more proper to delineate the condition of the methane hydrate zone at the methane hydrate production tests than P-wave data. We are now developing the new OBC system, which we call Deep-sea Seismic System (hereafter DSS). The sensor of the DSS will install three accelerometers and one hydrophone. A feasibility study to detect the methane hydrate dissociation with the DSS was carried out and we found that the methane hydrate dissociation could be detected with the DSS depending on the zone of the dissociation. And the baseline survey will be held at the 1st offshore methane hydrate production test site in summer 2012. Two monitoring surveys are planned after the methane hydrate production test in 2013. We believe that we will get the good images to delineate the methane hydrate dissociated zone from this time lapse survey. The Authors would like to thank METI, MH21 consortium and JOGMEC for permissions to publish this paper.

  9. Petrographic And Geochemical Relationships And Environmentally Significant Trace Element Contents Of Miocene Coals in The Çayirli (Erzincan) Area, Eastern Anatolia, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalcin Erik, Nazan

    2014-05-01

    This study has done related to the petrographic, coal-quality and the environmental influences of the Çayırlı coal field in the Eastern Anatolia. The region is one of the best examples of a continental collision zone in the world and located in a North-south converging collision zone between the Eurasian and the Arabian Plates. The geological units on the North of the basin are the peridotites and on the South, the Upper Triassic to Lower Cretaceous limestone. Tertiary sedimentary units also occupy a significant part of the geological features. Lower Miocene sediments include recifal limestone, marls, green clay and coal seams. The Çayırlı mining area in Eastern Anatolia region, contains these Miocene aged coals. These coals is characterized by high vitrinite and inertinite and low liptinite contents. The coals are Bituminous coal rank, with vitrinite reflectance ranging from 0.53 to 0.58%. Chemically, the coal in this study is characterised by low moisture, ash yield and sulfur content. The Çayırlı coal consist mainly of SiO2 and CaO, with secondary Fe2O3, Al2O3, and minor proportions of TiO2, P2O5 and other oxides. Several trace elements of environmental concern namely As, U and Be in Çayırlı coal are above the world averages, while Ni and Pb concentrations are less than the world average. However, As, Co, Cr, Ni, Pb, U and V contents of this coal are below Turkish averages. It can clearly observed that the concentration of the elements is highest in the high ash coal levels. Among the potentially hazardous trace elements, Be, Co, Ni, Se and U may be of little or no health and environmental concerns, wheras As, Pb, Sb, and Th require further examination for their potential health and environmental concerns. These properties may be related to evaluation of the coal forming environment from more reducing contitions in a marine influenced lower delta plain environment for investigated coals. On the basis of analytical data, there is no possibility that

  10. Why latrines are not used: communities' perceptions and practices regarding latrines in a Taenia solium endemic rural area in Eastern Zambia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Séverine Thys

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Taenia solium cysticercosis is a neglected parasitic zoonosis occurring in many developing countries. Socio-cultural determinants related to its control remain unclear. Studies in Africa have shown that the underuse of sanitary facilities and the widespread occurrence of free-roaming pigs are the major risk factors for porcine cysticercosis. The study objective was to assess the communities' perceptions, practices and knowledge regarding latrines in a T. solium endemic rural area in Eastern Zambia inhabited by the Nsenga ethno-linguistic group, and to identify possible barriers to their construction and use. A total of 21 focus group discussions on latrine use were organized separately with men, women and children, in seven villages of the Petauke district. The themes covered were related to perceived latrine availability (absence-presence, building obstacles and perceived latrine use (defecation practices, latrine management, socio-cultural constraints.The findings reveal that latrines were not constructed in every household because of the convenient use of existing latrines in the neighborhood. Latrines were perceived to contribute to good hygiene mainly because they prevent pigs from eating human feces. Men expressed reluctance to abandon the open-air defecation practice mainly because of toilet-associated taboos with in-laws and grown-up children of the opposite gender. When reviewing conceptual frameworks of people's approach to sanitation, we found that seeking privacy and taboos hindering latrine use and construction were mainly explained in our study area by the fact that the Nsenga observe a traditionally matrilineal descent. These findings indicate that in this local context latrine promotion messages should not only focus on health benefits in general. Since only men were responsible for building latrines and mostly men preferred open defecation, sanitation programs should also be directed to men and address related sanitary taboos in

  11. Preliminary assessment of the computer-based Taenia solium educational program 'The Vicious Worm' on knowledge uptake in primary school students in rural areas in eastern Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, Emma C; Mwape, Kabemba Evans; Van Damme, Inge; Berkvens, Dirk; Zulu, Gideon; Mambwe, Moses; Chembensofu, Mwelwa; Phiri, Isaac Khozozo; Masuku, Maxwell; Bottieau, Emmanuel; Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Speybroeck, Niko; Colston, Angela; Dorny, Pierre; Willingham, Arve Lee; Gabriël, Sarah

    2018-03-01

    The zoonotic helminth Taenia solium is endemic in Zambia, causing human (taeniasis and (neuro)cysticercosis) and pig (porcine cysticercosis) diseases with high health, social and economic burdens. We aimed to evaluate the impact of a health educational program intended to lead to powerful and cumulative improvements in knowledge, attitudes and practices that decrease parasite transmission and disease occurrence. Half-day health education workshops were conducted in three primary schools in the highly endemic Eastern Province of Zambia, using the computer-based T. solium educational program 'The Vicious Worm'. Questionnaires were administered before and after the educational component to determine the program's impact on knowledge uptake in primary school students. In total, 99 students participated: 38 males and 61 females, with a median age of 14 years (range 10-18 years). Baseline general knowledge of T. solium, including awareness of the different human and pig disease states, and disease diagnosis, treatment and prevention, was quite high (average score 62%) and consistent across all three study areas. Participants' knowledge had significantly increased after the educational component, particularly regarding parasite transmission and disease prevention. Preliminary assessment of 'The Vicious Worm' indicates it is an effective tool for the short-term T. solium education of primary school students in Zambia. Follow-up studies are planned to assess the longer term impact of the program on knowledge uptake in the study neighbourhoods. Inclusion of tailored 'The Vicious Worm' educational workshops should be considered in integrated cysticercosis control programs in endemic areas of sub-Saharan Africa. © 2018 The Authors. Tropical Medicine & International Health Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Dissolving current gaps in entrepreneurship education and its impact on business development in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Majdúchová

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents partial outcomes of the research conducted under the cover of the project “V4 Scientific Centers for the Enhancement of Financial Literacy and Entrepreneurship Education“, International Visegrad Fund, Standard Grant No. 21410134. In this paper we focus on dissolving current gaps in entrepreneurship education and its impact on business development in Slovakia (one of participating countries. We do so by using the whole variety of research methods, including structured survey, direct observation, decomposition, implication, etc. We are dealing with the identification of the university education attributes important for the entrepreneurial competences development, followed by further insights into the specific area - university support of individual initiative and entrepreneurial thinking. To avoid the subjective dimension of research outcome, we look at it from two different points of view – students and teachers perceptions. We also use a cross-cultural approach and different cultural dimensions to identify the general perception of normal state of this attribute in the society. The last part of this paper summarizes our recommendations intending to improve the current state of university education system in the field of entrepreneurial competences development.

  13. Sustainable energy and development in disadvantaged communities: New approaches from Bosnia and Herzegovina, Hungary, and Slovakia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Legro, Susan [Eco Ltd (Czech Republic)

    2007-07-01

    This paper examines two community projects implemented by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). The first, Promoting Access to Energy Services to Foster Integration and Human Development for Disadvantaged Communities in Hungary and Slovakia with a Special Focus on the Roma, built on regional development work with isolated communities without reliable access to heat and electricity. The second, Energy Efficiency in Housing in Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH), focused on a network of communities where rebuilding was underway following the Balkans conflict. While the projects took place in different environments, both shared common approaches. First, they focused on community energy planning in areas where infrastructure was severely deficient. Planning was designed so that current investments in building stock would not have to be retrofitted later for efficiency. Second, they linked energy agencies and NGOs with institutions outside of the energy/environment community, such as the National Minority Self Government in Hungary and the Ministry of Refugees in BiH . The projects thus leveraged funds and expertise from new sources while raising awareness of sustainable energy issues in organizations already funding infrastructure.While time and funding were limited by the terms of the grants, both projects established a foundation of information, planning, and partnerships. Both projects included baseline energy studies, training workshops, and practical guides for local leaders. In addition, there were tangible community benefits in education (reliable heat supply for a new kindergarten), jobs creation (wood-chipping in a municipal forest), and business development (contracts for efficient construction)

  14. Heat waves according to warm spell duration index in Slovakia during 1901-2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochníček, Oliver; Faško, Pavel; Markovič, Ladislav

    2017-04-01

    A heat wave is a prolonged period of extremely high temperatures for a particular region. However, there exist no universal definitions for a heat wave as it is relative to a specific area and to a certain time of year. In fact, average temperatures in one region may be considered heat wave conditions in another. For instance, an average day in the Mediterranean would be regarded as heat wave conditions in Northern Europe. We have known that World Meteorological Organization definition of a heatwave which is "when the daily maximum temperature of more than five consecutive days exceeds the average maximum temperature by 5 °C, the normal period being 1961-1990". This rule has been accepted in contribution Heat waves and warm periods in Slovakia (Oliver Bochníček - Pavol Fa\\vsko - Ladislav Markovič) published (presented) in EGU 2016. To move on we have tried another criterion for heat waves evaluation (according to warm spell duration index, WSDI) and period since 1901 (1951) to 2016. Important for many sectors (hydrology, agriculture, transportation and tourism) is, that heat waves have been expected during the whole year and period, that is why it can have various impacts. Heat waves occurrence gave us interesting results especially after the 1990.

  15. Case study of a severe windstorm over Slovakia and Hungary on 25 June 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, André; Kaňák, Ján; Sokol, Alois; Putsay, Mária; Uhrínová, Lucia; Csirmaz, Kálmán; Okon, Ľuboslav; Habrovský, Richard

    2011-06-01

    A system of thunderstorms approached the Slovakia and Hungary in the late evening hours of 25 June 2008, causing extensive damage and peak wind gusts up to 40 m/s. This study examines the macro- and mesosynoptic conditions for the windstorm using soundings, analyses, and forecasts of numerical models (ALADIN, ECMWF). A derecho-like character of the event is discussed. Meteosat Second Generation imagery and convective indices inferred from satellite and model data are used to assess the humidity distribution and the conditional instability of the thunderstorm environment. An intrusion of the environmental dry air into the convective system and intensification of downdrafts is considered to be one of the reasons for the damaging winds observed at some areas. This is supported by the radar imagery showing a sudden drop of radar reflectivity and creation of line echo wave patterns and bow echoes. A numerical simulation provided by the non-hydrostatic MM5 model indicated the development of meso-γ scale vortices embedded in the convective system. The genesis and a possible role of such vortices in creating rear-inflow jets and intensifying the low level winds are investigated with the help of the vorticity equation and several other diagnostic parameters. In addition, the effect of various physical parameterisations on the forecast of the windstorm is evaluated.

  16. Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baret, J.P.; Corcuff, A.; Jousten, M.; Cherie, J.B.; Gorge, X.; Augustin, X.; Belime, F.

    1999-01-01

    By its economical and political impact, nuclear energy has an important contribution the countries of Eastern Europe that goes beyond simple energy source. The most important challenge is to gain a safety culture. Improvements have been noted but the reactors safety must stay a priority of the international cooperation in Eastern Europe. The plan for the completion and improvement of Mochovce nuclear plant is described, the situation of Chernobyl and how to make the sarcophagus in safe is discussed, the experience of a french P.M.E. ( small and medium size firm) called Corys Tess that has chosen to position itself on the Eastern Europe nuclear market is related. (N.C.)

  17. Czech fiasco with oil reserves has not deterred Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haluza, I.

    2004-01-01

    In order to meet its obligation to keep a 90-day emergency reserve of oil and oil products, Slovakia must purchase about 40% of the required volume of these commodities and complete storage capacity for the reserves. In addition, it must also create a system of storage management for the reserves including a regular exchange of the contents of the tanks. If it does not meet the 2008 deadline, EU structural funds will be decreased. In order to create the missing storage capacity, the Sprava statnych hmotnych rezerv (SSHR - Administration of Public Material Reserves) is considering a solution which Slovnaft, a.s. sees as a major risk for the state. Should the hundreds of millions needed for the building of new tanks not be found in the budget, the state would invite private investors to build the tanks, stated SSHR Chairman, Jan Tusim. Private investors will not endanger public control over the emergency reserves. Other countries also lease tanks. But according to information provided by its chairman, SSHR also wants to make the private investors responsible for the regular exchange of the emergency reserves that must be carried out every four to five years. Given an accurate forecast of price development on international markets, a lot of money can be made on these exchanges. Slovnaft stresses that if the state were no longer responsible for the exchange of the tanks' contents, it would be the state that was at risk not the refineries

  18. Environmental radioactivity in Slovakia/Czechoslovakia in 1961 to 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Csupka, S.; Carach, J.; Petrasova, M.

    1978-01-01

    The results are given of environmental monitoring of 90 Sr and 137 Cs in Slovakia between 1961 to 1975. Samples of radioactive fallout, milk and water were taken monthly, samples of forage, cereals and vegetables were taken in the ripening stage, and samples of foodstuffs were taken in shops. The following amounts of samples were used for the analyses: 100 g of soil, 100 g of dry forage, 100 g of dry cereals, 3 kg of fresh fruit and vegetables, 2 l of water, 1 l of milk, 2 kg of fresh meat, and flour and flour products amounting to 2 kg. The samples were dried, burned and mineralized for 24 hours with HCl. After removal of interfering elements, ie., Fe, 140 Ba, 140 La, rare earths, phosphates and 90 Y, the 90 Sr activity was determined by the yttrium method. The yttrium chemical yield was 90%. 137 Cs beta activity was determined after precipitation from a solution in the form of cesium nickel ferrocyanide and after removal of oxalates, alkali elements and rare earth elements. Chemical yield was 60 to 70%. An anticoincidence low-level beta counter by Philips was used in activity measurement. The detection efficiency was 22% for 90 Sr- 90 Y and 17% for 137 Cs. The relative mean square error of the measurement was lower than 15% for 90 Y and 10% for 137 Cs. The measurement results are classified in five parts, viz., radioactivity in fallout, in soils, in water, in plants, and in food. (J.P.)

  19. NATURAL ENEMIES OF DIURAPHIS NOXIA (STERNORRHYNCHA: APHIDIDAE IN SLOVAKIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter TÓTH

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available A study from 2002 documented the occurrence of natural enemies (parasitoid wasps, predatory fl ies, entomopathogenic fungi associated with colonies of the Russian wheat aphid, Diuraphis noxia (Kurdjumov, 1913 (Sternorrhyncha: Aphididae, in the spring barley fi elds in Slovakia. Parasitization by wasps was low (<5.5% with Diaeretiella rapae (McIntosh, 1855 the dominant hymenopterous parasitoid (91% of emerging wasps. The remaining parasitoid guild comprised of Aphidius ervi Haliday, 1834 Aphidius rhopalosiphi DeStefani, 1902, Aphidius picipes (Nees, 1811, Ephedrus plagiator (Nees, 1811, Praon volucre (Haliday, 1833 (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae and two hyperparasites Asaphes suspensus (Nees, 1834 (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae and Lygocerus spp. (Hymenoptera: Ceraphronidae. Predaceous midges (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae were consistently found with densities ranging from 0.1 to 2.5 larvae per aphid colony. The most abundant predaceous midge was Aphidoletes aphidimyza (Rondani, 1847, while Lestodiplosis sp. was recorded infrequently. Four syrphids, Episyrphus balteatus (De Geer, 1776, Melanostoma mellinum (L., 1758, Sphaerophoria rueppellii (Wiedemann, 1830, Sphaerophoria scripta (L., 1758 (Diptera: Syrphidae and one pathogenic fungus, Pandora neoaphidis (Remaudière et Hennebert Humber, were recorded.

  20. Project of new tandem-driven neutron facility in Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strisovska, Jana

    2014-01-01

    New neutron laboratory based on Pelletron R Accelerator with terminal voltage of 2 MV is under construction at the Institute of Physics, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava, Slovakia. The accelerator will be employed as a tunable source of monoenergetic fast neutrons. Using of deuterium and in the future also tritium gas cells is foreseen. These cells will allow to produce fast neutrons with various energies via 2 H(d,n) 3 He and 3 H(p,n) 3 He nuclear reactions. Physics program of new laboratory will be focused on nuclear structure studied via inelastic neutron scattering with gamma ray detection, especially for light singly-closed shell nuclei. Fission cross section measurement and fission gamma rays studies will be performed. Development and testing of neutron detectors, as integral part of future project ALLEGRO, i.e., the demonstrator of fast nuclear reactor cooled with helium gas, is planned. Parallel to neutron program, beams of charged particles will be used for studies of resonant nuclear astrophysics reactions. Start of operation of the laboratory is foreseen in 2015. In the talk, current status, physics program and details of the facility will be presented. (authors)

  1. Innovation in Public Service Delivery: Civic Participation in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata M. Merickova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Participation as such is connected with political, social and civic dimensions. Through participation, citizens can directly or indirectly help to make the public process become more transparent and more efficient. It allows citizens “to see" into a decision-making process, to understand it, as well as contribute and be able to control it. In practice, civic participation has various forms; it includes both formal civic associations and informal groups of citizens that develop activities in order to solve local problems. In this paper we focus on civic participation in the innovation in the provision of public services, i.e. co-creation. Our objective is to map the best practices of co-creation in social innovations at the local government level in Slovakia. The main findings of our analysis are that co-created innovations are mostly initiated by non-governmental actors. Our study uses a qualitative approach and is based on original survey data from our own research, conducted mainly within the LIPSE research project.

  2. PERCEPTION OF BIO-FOOD LABELING BY CONSUMERS IN SLOVAKIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimír Vietoris

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 The paper presents an overview of the present perception of bio-food labeling by consumers in Slovakia. Analyses were realized by the questionnaire survey organized in the period December 2009 to January 2010. In the survey, 388 respondents were interviewed. From the methodological aspect, basic approaches of descriptive statistics have been used, as well as methods of association measurement. The test of robustness tested Chi-Square statistic. The robustness have been judged based on the p-values. Correlations have been tested through the Contingency coefficient and Cramer´s V coefficient. The survey showed that dependency knowledge of logos was confirmed in terms of knowledge of bio-food, education, type of employment, study at FBP faculty and in terms of choice of organic foods by manufacturers. Students of FBP  knows more bio-food logos than other respondents. The second highest dependency was confirmed within selection of bio-food produced individual manufacturers.doi:10.5219/107 

  3. PERFORMANCE OF COLD-BLOODED HORSES IN SLOVAKIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JURAJ MLYNEK

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Horse breeding program is based on an assessment of their exterior, and is largely influenced by the performance. The objective of the work was to analyze the performance characteristics of cold-blooded horses in Slovakia using test of performance characteristics through carriage race. By evaluating the higher forms of utility control we concluded that scores in individual disciplines were very balanced during 2005-2008, which was due to a steady track of the horses involved and the carriagers. By increasing the number of new horses and new competitors in 2009 the average value of scores marked substantial deterioration, but this cannot be seen as degradation of performance of studied horses. By analysis of the factors affecting the score we found out, that gender as the only factor, did not have any significant impact on the studied disciplines of utility control. Carriager and the year of competition were amongst the factors mostly influencing the score. As the most successful line, whose representatives were most frequently and best ranked on the carriage races, we can choose the line of Bayard de Heredia. Its seven representatives participated in the period 2005-2011 altogether for 141-times and their average ranking ranged from 2.2 to 5.4.

  4. Moral (or ethical education in Slovakia and its theoretical basis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gluchman Vasil

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available With regard to existing concept of the moral education (ethics in Slovakia, the questions of ethics and morals are only one of the partial sections. The dominant role is played by psychology based on Roberto Olivar’s concept with emphasis on pro-socialization and on Erickson’s concept of the psychosocial development. From the philosophy basis point of view, only Aristotle, even in reduced form and Spranger’s concept of the life forms are mentioned. Philosophy and ethics are only complements to more psychologically based educational program which is resulting from the problematic division of a social and moral experience into egoistic and prosocial. Egoism is presented in a distorted form and is characterized as the cause of all moral evil. However, there are several different types of understanding of the term egoism in philosophy and ethics as for example psychological and ethical egoism, or self-interest. Ethical egoism or self-interest cannot be identified with selfishness. The main aim of moral education should not be only to form the desired children and youth moral orientation but on the other hand, to form morally self-confident individuals who are able to solve the moral problems, to help the others to solve them as well and to be able to bear moral responsibility for their own deeds.

  5. Selected trends in lung cancer epidemiology in Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ondrusova, M.; Psenkova, M.; Berzinec, P.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The lung cancer is still among the dominant malignant tumors despite declining trend of incidence, especially in men, and also its adverse prognosis remains. Aim: The aim of the study was to analyse the development of long-term trends in incidence and mortality and to produce a prospective estimate of prevalence and overall burden of lung cancer in the population in the Slovak Republic. Results: A significant drop of incidence of the disease in men has been seen in Slovakia since 1988 by a mean annual percentage change of -2.16%, whereby mortality is declining a little faster (by an annual percentage change of -2.87%). Adverse trend has been registered in both indicators in case of lung cancer in women, with incidence rising since 2001 by 5.31% annually and mortality rising by 1.3% for the whole monitored period. Conclusion: The adverse rising trend in the incidence and mortality of lung cancer in women in the Slovak Republic, as well as the slower decline in incidence and mortality in men compared with some countries of Western Europe, will have an impact in future also on total costs for management of this disease. (author)

  6. Petrogenesis and zircon U-Pb dating of skarnified pyroxene-bearing dioritic rocks in Bisheh area, south of Birjand, eastern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malihe Nakhaei

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The study area is located 196 km south of Birjand in eastern border of the Lut block Berberian and King, 1981 in eastern Iran between 59°05′35" and 59°09′12" E longitude and 31°42′29" and 31°44′13" N latitude. The magmatic activity in the Lut block began in the middle Jurassic such as Kalateh Ahani, Shah Kuh and Surkh Kuh granitoids that are among the oldest rocks exposed within the Lut block (Esmaeily et al., 2005; Tarkian et al., 1983; Moradi Noghondar et al., 2011-2012. Eastern Iran, and particularly the Lut block, has great potential for different types of mineralization as skarnification in Bisheh area which has been studied in this paper. The goal of this study is to highlight the geochronology, geochemistry of major and trace elements, Rb-Sr, Sm-Nd isotopes for skarnified pyroxene-bearing diorites. Materials and methods Major element compositions of thirteen samples were determined by wavelength-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (XRF spectrometry, using fused discs and the Phillips PW 1410 XRF spectrometer at Ferdowsi University, Mashhad, Iran. These samples were analysed for trace elements using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS in the Acme Analytical Laboratories, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. Zircon grains were separated from pyroxene diorite porphyrys using heavy liquid and magnetic techniques at the Institute of Earth Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan. Zircon U-Pb dating was performed by laser ablation-inductively-coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS, using an Agilent 7500 s machine and a New Wave UP213 laser ablation system, equipped at the Dr Shen-Su Sun memorial laboratory in the Department of Geosciences, National Taiwan University, Taiwan. Strontium and Nd isotopic analyses were performed on a six-collector Finnigan MAT 261 thermal-ionization mass spectrometer at the University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado, United States. 87Sr/86Sr ratios were determined using four

  7. Chemical characteristics of size-resolved atmospheric aerosols in Iasi, north-eastern Romania: nitrogen-containing inorganic compounds control aerosol chemistry in the area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorgiana Galon-Negru, Alina; Iulian Olariu, Romeo; Arsene, Cecilia

    2018-04-01

    This study assesses the effects of particle size and season on the content of the major inorganic and organic aerosol ionic components in the Iasi urban area, north-eastern Romania. Continuous measurements were carried out over 2016 using a cascade Dekati low-pressure impactor (DLPI) performing aerosol size classification in 13 specific fractions over the 0.0276-9.94 µm size range. Fine-particulate Cl-, NO3-, NH4+, and K+ exhibited clear minima during the warm season and clear maxima over the cold season, mainly due to trends in emission sources, changes in the mixing layer depth and specific meteorological conditions. Fine-particulate SO42- did not show much variation with respect to seasons. Particulate NH4+ and NO3- ions were identified as critical parameters controlling aerosol chemistry in the area, and their measured concentrations in fine-mode (PM2.5) aerosols were found to be in reasonable good agreement with modelled values for winter but not for summer. The likely reason is that NH4NO3 aerosols are lost due to volatility over the warm season. We found that NH4+ in PM2.5 is primarily associated with SO42- and NO3- but not with Cl-. Actually, indirect ISORROPIA-II estimations showed that the atmosphere in the Iasi area might be ammonia rich during both the cold and warm seasons, enabling enough NH3 to be present to neutralize H2SO4, HNO3, and HCl acidic components and to generate fine-particulate ammonium salts, in the form of (NH4)2SO4, NH4NO3, and NH4Cl. ISORROPIA-II runs allowed us to estimate that over the warm season ˜ 35 % of the total analysed samples had very strongly acidic pH (0-3), a fraction that rose to ˜ 43 % over the cold season. Moreover, while in the cold season the acidity is mainly accounted for by inorganic acids, in the warm ones there is an important contribution by other compounds, possibly organic. Indeed, changes in aerosol acidity would most likely impact the gas-particle partitioning of semi-volatile organic acids. Overall, we

  8. Dose rate monitoring and mapping in the eastern part of the 23 wards of the Tokyo metropolitan area after the accident of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Keiichi

    2011-01-01

    Our concern for radioactivity or radiation has become higher after the accident of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. It is important that we know the personal radiation dose. Environmental radiation dose rate monitoring and mapping in the eastern part of the 23 wards of the Tokyo metropolitan area was performed after the accident. Monitoring of the dose rate was measured in the outdoor and the room of the wooden mortar 2-story house at northern Sumida-ku, Tokyo. The dose rate was measured twice a day after the explosion accident on March 15 using Myrate pocket survey meter. The maximum dose rate was 1 μSv/h which measured on March 15, 2011. However the radioactive nuclides did not fall out then. It rained on March 21 and 22, then the radionuclide fell out on the ground surface. There are not large fluctuations of the dose rate afterwards by November 25, 2011. Energy spectrum was measured by using the gamma ray spectrometer to estimate sources of radiation nuclides. Radioactive tellurium 132, iodine 132 of tellurium daughter, iodine 131, cesium 134 and cesium 137 were detected by response matrix method (Minato, 2011). The radioactivity of iodine 131 was detected 12 kBq/m 2 on March 23, however, the radioactivity decreased remarkably after one week. The radioactive nuclei fell out just after accident outbreak, and few radioactive nuclei fall out at present. The radioactive cesium was already absorbed and immobilized on the surface of concrete, asphalt or soil. Dose rate mapping performed in the eastern part of the 23 wards of the Tokyo metropolitan. The measurement range is approximately 10 km east-west and 15 km north-south. The measurement points are 566. Distribution of the dose rate tends to gradually become low in the northeast part towards the southwestern part. However there is locally higher value. Such that place is the slope of levees which faces to the northeast or the super levees which are planted trees in. Dose rate values accord roughly with the

  9. Morphological and light-absorption characteristics of individual BC particles collected in an urban seaside area at Tokaimura, eastern central Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Fengfu; Watanabe, Kazuo; Shinohara, Nobuo; Xu Xueqin; Xu Liangjun; Akagi, Tasuku

    2008-01-01

    To observe surface morphology and light-absorption property of different black carbon (BC) particles, different-sized aerosols were collected in Tokaimura (36.27 o N, 140.36 o E), an urban seaside area of eastern central Japan, using a high-volume Andersen type sampler during a whole year (Jan. to Dec. in 2004). The morphology of individual BC particle separated from different-sized aerosols was observed with Scanning Electron Microscope with Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectrometer (SEM-EDX) and four types of morphology were observed: 50 nm spherical particles, micrometer-sized plates with homogeneous surfaces, micrometer-sized spherical particles with homogeneous surfaces and micrometer-sized spherical particles with small holes on surfaces. The light-absorption property of BC particles with different morphology has been determined by infrared spectrometry (IRS) with a photoacoustic technique in a region of 400-4000 wavenumbers (cm -1 ). All morphology BC particles showed a strong light-absorption during 500-3000 wavenumbers (cm -1 ) with two strong broad peaks in 750-1100 and 1200-2200 wavenumbers (cm -1 ), implying that all morphology BC particles can absorb a significant part of thermal infrared emitted from the earth (wavelength 4000-50,000 nm). The seasonal variation and the size-distribution of aerosols and its chemical components (e.g. C, Na, Cl, NH 4 + , NO 3 - , SO 4 2- , Al, Ca, Mg and Fe) were also measured in this study. More than 55% of non-inorganic carbon (OC + BC) in the atmosphere was detected in the aerosols with a size smaller than 1.1 μm and the concentration of non-inorganic carbon in the atmosphere showed only a faint variation during a whole year, although the concentrations of total aerosols and its chemical components exhibited a distinct variation

  10. Morphological and light-absorption characteristics of individual BC particles collected in an urban seaside area at Tokaimura, eastern central Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Feng Fu; Watanabe, Kazuo; Shinohara, Nobuo; Xu, Xueqin; Xu, Liangjun; Akagi, Tasuku

    2008-04-15

    To observe surface morphology and light-absorption property of different black carbon (BC) particles, different-sized aerosols were collected in Tokaimura (36.27 degrees N, 140.36 degrees E), an urban seaside area of eastern central Japan, using a high-volume Andersen type sampler during a whole year (Jan. to Dec. in 2004). The morphology of individual BC particle separated from different-sized aerosols was observed with Scanning Electron Microscope with Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectrometer (SEM-EDX) and four types of morphology were observed: 50 nm spherical particles, micrometer-sized plates with homogeneous surfaces, micrometer-sized spherical particles with homogeneous surfaces and micrometer-sized spherical particles with small holes on surfaces. The light-absorption property of BC particles with different morphology has been determined by infrared spectrometry (IRS) with a photoacoustic technique in a region of 400-4000 wavenumbers (cm(-1)). All morphology BC particles showed a strong light-absorption during 500-3000 wavenumbers (cm(-1)) with two strong broad peaks in 750-1100 and 1200-2200 wavenumbers (cm(-1)), implying that all morphology BC particles can absorb a significant part of thermal infrared emitted from the earth (wavelength 4000-50,000 nm). The seasonal variation and the size-distribution of aerosols and its chemical components (e.g. C, Na, Cl, NH(4)(+), NO(3)(-), SO(4)(2-), Al, Ca, Mg and Fe) were also measured in this study. More than 55% of non-inorganic carbon (OC+BC) in the atmosphere was detected in the aerosols with a size smaller than 1.1 microm and the concentration of non-inorganic carbon in the atmosphere showed only a faint variation during a whole year, although the concentrations of total aerosols and its chemical components exhibited a distinct variation.

  11. Medicinal plants used by the people of Nsukka Local Government Area, south-eastern Nigeria for the treatment of malaria: An ethnobotanical survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odoh, Uchenna E; Uzor, Philip F; Eze, Chidimma L; Akunne, Theophine C; Onyegbulam, Chukwuma M; Osadebe, Patience O

    2018-05-23

    Malaria is a serious public health problem especially in sub-Saharan African countries such as Nigeria. The causative parasite is increasingly developing resistance to the existing drugs. There is urgent need for alternative and affordable therapy from medicinal plants which have been used by the indigenous people for many years. This study was conducted to document the medicinal plant species traditionally used by the people of Nsukka Local Government Area in south-eastern Nigeria for the treatment of malaria. A total of 213 respondents, represented by women (59.2%) and men (40.8%), were interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire. The results were analysed and discussed in the context of previously published information on anti-malarial and phytochemical studies of the identified plants. The survey revealed that 50 plant species belonging to 30 botanical families were used in this region for the treatment of malaria. The most cited families were Apocynaceae (13.3%), Annonaceae (10.0%), Asteraceae (10.0%), Lamiaceae (10.0%), Poaceae (10.0%), Rubiaceae (10.0%) and Rutaceae (10.0%). The most cited plant species were Azadirachta indica (11.3%), Mangifera indica (9.1%), Carica papaya (8.5%), Cymbopogon citratus (8.5%) and Psidium guajava (8.5%). The present findings showed that the people of Nsukka use a large variety of plants for the treatment of malaria. The identified plants are currently undergoing screening for anti-malarial, toxicity and chemical studies in our laboratory. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Geochemistry, Radioactivity and Gamma-Ray Dose Assesment of Igneous Rocks, of Abu El Hassan El Aswad Area, North Egypt Eastern Desert

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Monem, A.A.; Moussa, E.M.; Abd El Fattah, M.M.G.; Wetait, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    Abu El Hassan Al Aswad area, Northern Eastern Desert, Egypt, is located between lat. 26 degree 45/ and 26 degree 58 / N and long. 33 degree 0/ and 33 degree 11 /50// E, covering approximately 270 km 2 . It is covered by a suite of igneous rocks, which are classified according to their silica and potash contents into ultra basic rock class with the least silica and potash contents, basic rock class, intermediated rock class and acidic rock class with the highest silica and potash contents. The ultra basic rocks with SiO 2 2 (42-57%), K (0.15-0.5), U (0.8-3 ppm) and Th (1-7 ppm), produce the gamma ray doses (AEDE, 0.266 mSv/y; AGDE, 0.1475 mSv/y). The intermediate rocks with SiO 2 (57-65%), K (0-8-2.5%), U (2-8 ppm) and Th (3.5-14.5 ppm) produce the gamma ray doses (AEDE, 0.083 mSv/y; AGDE, 0.4784 mSv/y). The acidic rocks with SiO 2 (65-75%), K (2.6-4.3%), U (4.5-10 ppm) and Th (13-26 ppm) produce the gamma ray doses (AEDE, 0.1692 mSv/y; AGDE, 0.9571 mSv/y).It is suggested that the ultra basic, basic and the intermediated rock classes can be used safely as building materials as well as for indoor and outdoor decorations. The acidic rock class may be used for outdoor decorations but not as building materials or indoor decoration due to its high AGDE values, which when added to the other gamma ray exposure source may exceed the International Accepted Radiation Dose Limit to member of the public which is (1-3 mSv/y)

  13. Applying citizen-science data and mark-recapture models to estimate numbers of migrant golden eagles in an important bird area in eastern North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennhardt, Andrew J.; Duerr, Adam E.; Brandes, David; Katzner, Todd

    2017-01-01

    Estimates of population abundance are important to wildlife management and conservation. However, it can be difficult to characterize the numbers of broadly distributed, low-density, and elusive bird species. Although Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) are rare, difficult to detect, and broadly distributed, they are concentrated during their autumn migration at monitoring sites in eastern North America. We used hawk-count data collected by citizen scientists in a virtual mark–recapture modeling analysis to estimate the numbers of Golden Eagles that migrate in autumn along Kittatinny Ridge, an Important Bird Area in Pennsylvania, USA. In order to evaluate the sensitivity of our abundance estimates to variation in eagle capture histories, we applied candidate models to 8 different sets of capture histories, constructed with or without age-class information and using known mean flight speeds 6 1, 2, 4, or 6 SE for eagles to travel between hawk-count sites. Although some abundance estimates were produced by models that poorly fitted the data (ĉ > 3.0), 2 sets of population estimates were produced by acceptably performing models (cˆ less than or equal to 3.0). Application of these models to count data from November, 2002–2011, suggested a mean population abundance of 1,354 6 117 SE (range: 873–1,938). We found that Golden Eagles left the ridgeline at different rates and in different places along the route, and that typically ,50% of individuals were detected at the hawk-count sites. Our study demonstrates a useful technique for estimating population abundance that may be applicable to other migrant species that are repeatedly detected at multiple monitoring sites along a topographic diversion or leading line.

  14. A current view of the diagnostics and treatment of phenylketonuria in Slovakia

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    Ürge Oto

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available An overview of the diagnostics and treatment of phenylketonuria in Slovakia is presented in this paper. The nature of diseases, incidence and prevalence in Slovakia, its genetic characteristics, current laboratory diagnostics and treatment options are defined. A new method of phenylketonuria screening in Slovakia, which has brought substantial improvement in early detection of the disease and shortening time for definitive diagnosis since 1995 as well as the importance of a tandem MS/MS (mass spectrometry introduced in the diagnosis of inherited metabolic disorders, is presented. The current state of phenylketonuria treatment focusing on low-protein dietary treatment and supplementation of amino acid mixtures is analysed. The use of sapropterin, enzyme replacement therapy, large neutral amino acids supplementation and gene therapy are also discussed.

  15. Predictors and consequences of job insecurity: Comparison of Slovakia and Estonia

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    Lucia Ištoňová

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Job insecurity is a significant current social issue in many European countries. Slovakia and Estonia significantly differ in the prevalence of job insecurity. The main aim of the present study was to compare Slovakia and Estonia in regard to job insecurity by looking at socio-demographic, job and organisational predictors and individual and social consequences based on ESS round five data. The secondary aim was to examine relationships between job insecurity and its predictors as well as job insecurity and its consequences. The analysis covered employed people with unlimited or limited contracts, working 40-50 hours per week, within the age range of 20-60. The results suggested significant differences in the predictors of job insecurity for Slovakia and Estonia. However, the individual, social and economic consequences of job insecurity were similar for both countries. This study contributes to an enhanced understanding of job insecurity predictors and consequences in the European region.

  16. International outsourcing over the business cycle: some intuition for Germany, the Czech Republic and Slovakia

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    Sandrine LEVASSEUR

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we assess the extent to which multinational firms – in the first instance, the German ones – may adjust their international outsourcing over the business cycle in the Czech Republic and Slovakia. For that purpose, we have used monthly data of production for the manufacturing sector as a whole and some of its sub-sectors, since 2000 onwards. Our econometrical estimates suggest that there would be an asymmetry in the international outsourcing across the states of the economy, meaning that multinationals firms would be engaged differently in outsourcing activities, depending on whether bad or good economic times occur. Yet, such an asymmetry is found increasing over the time for German and French multinationals operating in the transport equipment sector of Slovakia. Another conclusion is that international outsourcing made by multinational firms in Slovakia may account for a portion of its large business cycles volatility.

  17. Chevron Texaco wants Kazakh oil to flow through Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janoska, J.

    2004-01-01

    Chevron Texaco is offering Slovakia an option for the diversification of its oil stocks. It plans to use the Druzba pipeline to transport about 3 million tons of Kazakhstan oil. Most of it should be delivered to the refinery in Czech Kralupy. Pipeline administrator, the company Transpetrol, rejects the proposal and argues that adjusting the pipeline designed for heavy Russian oil to allow the transmission of light oil would cost over SKK 2 billion (Eur 50.04 million). Transpetrol is managed by Russian concern Yukos. Russian oil companies view Caspian oil as competition and the reaction of Transpetrol only follows in line with this attitude. It may sound paradoxical, but letting Caspian oil flow through the Transpetrol pipelines would help Russian concerns expand to Western European markets. The refinery in Kralupy is connected to the IKL pipeline, which connects the Czech Republic to the German network close to the German refinery in Ingolstadt. The one-way pipeline that the Czech used to decrease their dependency on Russian oil and the Druzba pipeline in the nineties would remain unused and discussions about an investment in a change of flow direction to allow the transport of oil to Germany would take on an entirely new dimension. The interest of Chevron may therefore indicate major changes in the European oil distribution network. If the flow direction of the IKL pipeline were to change, it would not only be possible to transport Caspian oil, but also Russian oil. What's more, both US and Western European companies have their sights set on Czech and German refineries that get their oil form the Caspian region and they are also interested in capital entry to Russian oil concerns. This scenario is likely to come true in the case of Yukos

  18. ENGAGEMENT AND BURNOUT AMONG NURSING AND PSYCHOLOGY STUDENTS IN SLOVAKIA

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    Zuzana Škodová

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the study was to examine the differences in engagement and burnout syndrome in students of nursing/midwifery and psychology in Slovakia. Design: A cross-sectional design was used. Methods: 171 university students on a baccalaureate program participated in the research (90.9% females; age 20.6 ± 1.3; 80 psychology students, 91 nursing/midwifery students. The School Burnout Inventory (SBI and Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES were employed as measurement methods. Results: A significant negative association between levels of burnout and engagement (R = 0.42; p < 0.01 was found. A linear regression model showed a significant effect of engagement on burnout (β = -0.34; 95% CI: -0.50; -0.19. However, the total explained variance was only 19.4%. Students of psychology scored higher in engagement compared to nursing and midwifery students (t = 6.89; p < 0.001. Conversely, midwifery and nursing students had higher levels of burnout compared to the group of psychology students (t = -4.55; p < 0,001. Conclusion: Nursing is considered to be a high risk profession in terms of development of burnout, which was demonstrated in this study by the higher burnout, and lower engagement levels in nursing and midwifery students. Higher attention to coping mechanisms for stress and burnout symptoms among students of healthcare professions is required in the school curriculum, especially in nursing programs. Keywords: burnout syndrome, engagement, students of nursing, midwifery, students of psychology, School Burnout Inventory (SBI, Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES.

  19. Railway noise annoyance on the railway track in northwest slovakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pultznerova, Alzbeta; Eva, Panulinova; Kucharova, Daniela; Argalasova, Lubica

    2018-01-01

    This paper describes an assessment of noise caused by railway traffic in a large high-loaded railway track in Northwest Slovakia. The measurements of noise levels generated by trains passing through residential neighborhoods were taken. Noise maps were also calculated showing noise pollution generated by the train traffic. In addition, the annoyance level and sleep disturbance of residents affected by railway noise were evaluated by a validated questionnaire on a pilot sample of 107 respondents living near the important railway track. The measurements indicated that the noise levels generated by the passage of the train were extremely high especially at night, clearly exceeding the nighttime limits of equivalent sound pressure level established by the Decree of the Slovak Ministry of Health (No.549/2007) (L Aeq  = 55 dB). Measurements at one point during the night exceeded the limit values of up to 17.4 dB. The residents reported feeling affected by the noise generated by passing trains, which caused irritability, headache, poor concentration, and insomnia. In addition, 19.64% of the residents claimed that nocturnal noise pollution was the most distressing. The results of bivariate analysis showed a higher risk of annoyance especially for railway noise [OR MH  = 7.80 (4.02-15.14)] and the noise from industry [OR MH  = 3.08 (1.72-5.50)] in the exposed location. The effects of railway traffic on annoyance/sleep and psychosocial well-being were evaluated in a few studies. In accordance with our results the railway noise mostly disturbs sleep and rest of the respondents. The pilot survey showed the importance of sleep and rest disturbance by railway noise and the possibilities of getting worse health condition in the future. Noise abatement measures and strategies should, therefore, be implemented in an effective and manageable way increasing the environmental advantages of rail transport.

  20. Gastrointestinal microbiota in children with autism in Slovakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomova, Aleksandra; Husarova, Veronika; Lakatosova, Silvia; Bakos, Jan; Vlkova, Barbora; Babinska, Katarina; Ostatnikova, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    Development of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD), including autism, is based on a combination of genetic predisposition and environmental factors. Recent data propose the etiopathogenetic role of intestinal microflora in autism. The aim of this study was to elucidate changes in fecal microbiota in children with autism and determine its role in the development of often present gastrointestinal (GI) disorders and possibly other manifestations of autism in Slovakia. The fecal microflora of 10 children with autism, 9 siblings and 10 healthy children was investigated by real-time PCR. The fecal microbiota of autistic children showed a significant decrease of the Bacteroidetes/Firmicutes ratio and elevation of the amount of Lactobacillus spp. Our results also showed a trend in the incidence of elevated Desulfovibrio spp. in children with autism reaffirmed by a very strong association of the amount of Desulfovibrio spp. with the severity of autism in the Autism Diagnostic Interview (ADI) restricted/repetitive behavior subscale score. The participants in our study demonstrated strong positive correlation of autism severity with the severity of GI dysfunction. Probiotic diet supplementation normalized the Bacteroidetes/Firmicutes ratio, Desulfovibrio spp. and the amount of Bifidobacterium spp. in feces of autistic children. We did not find any correlation between plasma levels of oxytocin, testosterone, DHEA-S and fecal microbiota, which would suggest their combined influence on autism development. This pilot study suggests the role of gut microbiota in autism as a part of the "gut-brain" axis and it is a basis for further investigation of the combined effect of microbial, genetic, and hormonal changes for development and clinical manifestation of autism. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Soil monitoring as a part of environment monitoring in Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobza, J.

    1997-01-01

    In frame of Soil monitoring system it is going about a lot of methods in advance as follows: methods of soil monitoring sites selection and soil monitoring network construction, as well; methods of soil survey and soil sampling; analytical methods (indicating of chemical, agrochemical and physical properties); soil database and methods of evaluation and interpretation of measured results. The monitoring network was constructed on the base of ecological principles - including the monitoring of all soil types and subtypes, various climatic and emission regions as well as relatively clean regions, lowland and highland. Soil monitoring network in forest land is regular (8 x 8 km) with regard to International monitoring system in Forestry. The soil monitoring network in Slovakia consist of 650 monitoring sites (312 sites in farming land and 338 sites in forest land). In addition soil monitoring network includes also 21 monitoring sites. All monitoring sites are geodesically located and reported on the map at a scale of 1:5000. There are the methods concerning the important soil parameters indication with regard to main soil degradation processes a s follows: soil contamination (heavy metals and organic contaminants); soil acidification; soil salinity; soil erosion (deluometrically by the Cs-137 and remote sensing methods); soil compaction; soil fertility and protection. Analytical control system was elaborated according to Good Laboratory Practice. Evaluation of soil monitoring network results is not simple because it depends on various monitored parameters, on aim of evaluation as well as on the scale of landscape which is object for evaluation. There are used the modern statistical methods in monitoring system which can be: universal; disjunctive; simulated. Used statistical methods are significant for interpretation of measured results as follows: trends in landscape; anisotropy; comparison. The evaluation and interpretation way is very significant with regard not

  2. Intermittent Flooding of Arctic Lagoon Wet Sedge Areas: an investigation of past and future conditions at Arey Lagoon, Eastern Arctic Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, A.; Erikson, L. H.; Richmond, B. M.

    2017-12-01

    Arctic lagoons and mainland coasts support highly productive ecosystems, where soft substrate and coastal wet sedge fringing the shores act as feeding grounds and nurseries for a variety of marine fish and waterfowl. Much tundra vegetation is intolerant to saltwater flooding, but some vegetation cherished by geese for example, is maintained by flooding one to two times per month. The balance of northern ecosystems such as these may be in jeopardy as the Arctic climate is rapidly changing. In this study, sea level rise and 21st century storms are simulated with a numerical model to evaluate changes in ocean-driven flooding of low-lying tundra and coastal wet sedge that fringe the shores of Arey Lagoon, located in eastern Arctic Alaska. Numerically modeled extreme surge levels are projected to increase from a historical range of 0.5 m - 1.3 m (1976-2010) to 1.0 m - 2.0 m by end-of-century (2011-2100). The maximum storm surge of the projected time-period translates to > 6 km2 of flooded tundra, much of which consists of salt-intolerant vegetation. Monthly flood extents that might be expected to maintain halophytic vegetation were calculated by extracting the maximum monthly water levels of months that had more than 21 days ( 70%) of ice-free conditions. Median monthly water levels are shown to range from 0.46 m in 1981-1990 to 0.91 m by the final decades of the 21st century. The temporal trend is strongly linear (r2 = 0.82). An overlay of these water elevations onto a 10 m resolution elevation model shows that monthly flood extents will increase by 26% by the end of the century compared to the present decade (2011 to 2020) (from 2.86 km2 to 3.60 km2). The rate at which the flood extents are projected to increase will dictate if inland succession of salt-tolerant vegetation will survive. By combining the frequency and magnitude of extreme storm surge events with the progression of modeled monthly inland flood extents, it might be possible to identify areas along this

  3. The geostatistics of the metal concentrations in sediments from the eastern Brazilian continental shelf in areas of gas and oil production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, Jose Edvar; de Lacerda, Luiz Drude; Miguens, Flavio Costa; Marins, Rozane Valente

    2014-04-01

    Geostatistical techniques were used to evaluate the differences in the geochemistry of metals in the marine sediments along the Eastern Brazilian continental margin along the states of Ceará and Rio Grande do Norte (Northeastern sector) and Espírito Santo (Southeastern sector). The concentrations of Al, Fe, Mn, Ba, Cd, Cu, Cr, Ni, Pb, V, Hg, and Zn were obtained from acid digestion and quantified using flame atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS), inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). The metals showed a similar order of concentration: Al > Fe > Ba > Mn > V > Ni > Pb > Cr > Zn > Cu, in both the Ceará; and Rio Grande do Norte shelf regions but different in the Espírito Santo shelf (Fe > Al > Mn > Ba > Zn > V > Cr > Ni > Pb > Cu. The concentrations of Hg and Cd were below the detection limit in all areas. A multivariate analysis revealed that the metals of siliciclastic origin on the continental shelf of Ceará are carried by Al. In addition, a large portion of metal deposits is connected to the iron and manganese oxides on the continental margin of Rio Grande do Norte. The metals from the continental supply on the coast of Espírito Santo (Cu, Ni, Ba, and Mn) are associated with Al; whereas Cr, Pb, V, and Zn are associated with iron in this southern area. Geochemical evaluations are needed to distinguish the origin and mineralogical differences of marine sediments within the regions. Scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive spectrometry (SEM/EDS) applied to the sediments from the coast of Ceará showed the morphological diversity of sediment grains: biological fragments, multifaceted particles, aggregates, and crystals occurred in the three regions analyzed. Among these grains, calcite, Mg-calcite, and aragonite were predominant in the northeastern sector, whereas silicates and other minerals were predominant the southeastern sector. Mg, K, Ti, and Zr as well as the

  4. Characterisation of the nematode community of a low-activity cold seep in the recently ice-shelf free Larsen B area, Eastern Antarctic Peninsula.

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    Freija Hauquier

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent climate-induced ice-shelf disintegration in the Larsen A (1995 and B (2002 areas along the Eastern Antarctic Peninsula formed a unique opportunity to assess sub-ice-shelf benthic community structure and led to the discovery of unexplored habitats, including a low-activity methane seep beneath the former Larsen B ice shelf. Since both limited particle sedimentation under previously permanent ice coverage and reduced cold-seep activity are likely to influence benthic meiofauna communities, we characterised the nematode assemblage of this low-activity cold seep and compared it with other, now seasonally ice-free, Larsen A and B stations and other Antarctic shelf areas (Weddell Sea and Drake Passage, as well as cold-seep ecosystems world-wide. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The nematode community at the Larsen B seep site differed significantly from other Antarctic sites in terms of dominant genera, diversity and abundance. Densities in the seep samples were high (>2000 individuals per 10 cm(2 and showed below-surface maxima at a sediment depth of 2-3 cm in three out of four replicates. All samples were dominated by one species of the family Monhysteridae, which was identified as a Halomonhystera species that comprised between 80 and 86% of the total community. The combination of high densities, deeper density maxima and dominance of one species is shared by many cold-seep ecosystems world-wide and suggested a possible dependence upon a chemosynthetic food source. Yet stable (13C isotopic signals (ranging between -21.97±0.86‰ and -24.85±1.89‰ were indicative of a phytoplankton-derived food source. CONCLUSION: The recent ice-shelf collapse and enhanced food input from surface phytoplankton blooms were responsible for the shift from oligotrophic pre-collapse conditions to a phytodetritus-based community with high densities and low diversity. The parthenogenetic reproduction of the highly dominant Halomonhystera species is rather unusual

  5. Evaluating the influence of spatial resolution of Landsat predictors on the accuracy of biomass models for large-area estimation across the eastern USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deo, Ram K.; Domke, Grant M.; Russell, Matthew B.; Woodall, Christopher W.; Andersen, Hans-Erik

    2018-05-01

    Aboveground biomass (AGB) estimates for regional-scale forest planning have become cost-effective with the free access to satellite data from sensors such as Landsat and MODIS. However, the accuracy of AGB predictions based on passive optical data depends on spatial resolution and spatial extent of target area as fine resolution (small pixels) data are associated with smaller coverage and longer repeat cycles compared to coarse resolution data. This study evaluated various spatial resolutions of Landsat-derived predictors on the accuracy of regional AGB models at three different sites in the eastern USA: Maine, Pennsylvania-New Jersey, and South Carolina. We combined national forest inventory data with Landsat-derived predictors at spatial resolutions ranging from 30–1000 m to understand the optimal spatial resolution of optical data for large-area (regional) AGB estimation. Ten generic models were developed using the data collected in 2014, 2015 and 2016, and the predictions were evaluated (i) at the county-level against the estimates of the USFS Forest Inventory and Analysis Program which relied on EVALIDator tool and national forest inventory data from the 2009–2013 cycle and (ii) within a large number of strips (~1 km wide) predicted via LiDAR metrics at 30 m spatial resolution. The county-level estimates by the EVALIDator and Landsat models were highly related (R 2 > 0.66), although the R 2 varied significantly across sites and resolution of predictors. The mean and standard deviation of county-level estimates followed increasing and decreasing trends, respectively, with models of coarser resolution. The Landsat-based total AGB estimates were larger than the LiDAR-based total estimates within the strips, however the mean of AGB predictions by LiDAR were mostly within one-standard deviations of the mean predictions obtained from the Landsat-based model at any of the resolutions. We conclude that satellite data at resolutions up to 1000 m provide

  6. Measurement of natural radioactivity in granites and its quartz-bearing gold at El-Fawakhir area (Central Eastern Desert, Egypt

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    M.A.M. Uosif

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of natural radionuclides (226Ra, 232Th and 40K in Granites and its quartz-bearing gold at El-Fawakhir area (Central Eastern Desert, Egypt were measured by using γ-ray spectroscopy [NaI (Tl 3″ × 3″]. X-Ray Fluorescence technique was used for chemical analyses of the studied samples. The specific activity of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K values are in range (3 ± 0.5 to 43 ± 2 Bqkg−1, (5 ± 0.7 to 41 ± 2 Bqkg−1 and (128 ± 6 to 682 ± 35 Bqkg−1 respectively. The absorbed dose rates ranged from 13.8 to 58.4 nGy h−1, where the total effective dose rates were determined to be between 16.7 and 70.9 μSvy−1. The maximum external hazard index (Hex is 0.3 nGyh−1. The calculated values of the excess lifetime cancer risks (ELCR and annual effective dose rate values are in between (8.48 × 10−5 and 2.63 × 10−4 and (24.2 and 72.9 μSvy−1 respectively. Geochemically, the studied granites consist of major oxides, they are characterized by SiO2, K2O, Na2O, Al2O3, and depleted in CaO, MgO, TiO2, and P2O5. The average absorbed dose rate (Do in air is 37.8 nGyh−1 for the whole studied samples, this value is about 3.78% of the 1.0 mSvy−1 recommended by (ICRP-60,1991 to the public, so there is no radiological risk for the workers in that area.

  7. Management of Spent Sealed Radioactive Sources in Bulgaria, Latvia, Lithuania, Romania and Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angus, M.; Cowley, M.; Moreton, T.; Wells, D.

    2003-01-01

    This study has been performed to consider the situation relating to the regulation and management of spent sealed radioactive sources (SSRS) in five of the Central and Eastern European (C and EE) countries that are being considered for admission to the EU, namely, Bulgaria, Latvia, Lithuania, Romania and Slovakia. Two previous studies have considered the situation in the current EU member states(1) and in the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Poland and Slovenia(2). The general aim of this study has been to acquire a thorough understanding of the management of SSRS in the five countries, in order to recommend improvements in management schemes and to establish whether the application of common disposal criteria would be advantageous. This report is structured in the following manner; following the Introduction (Section 1), there is a description of the current and proposed regulatory requirements in the EU, together with a summarised comparison of the regulatory systems in the five countries with EU standards (Section 2). Sections 3 to 7 are dedicated to each of the five countries. Each of these sections is similarly sub-divided to enable country-by-country and topic-by-topic comparison. In each of Sections 3 to 7 there is an overview, description of the sealed source inventory, regulations, current management practices, retrieval of unregistered (sometimes known as lost or orphan sources) SSRS, conclusions and a description of possible future technical assistance projects. In addition, there is a description in each of Sections 3 to 7 of the management of 226 Ra sources, which is receiving special attention in many countries (Table I provides a summary and comparison of the management of 226 Ra in the five countries).both country-specific and generic recommendations. A common concern in the five countries and many other countries, including the EU member states, is the problem of accidental inclusion of SSRS in consignments of scrap metal. The detection of

  8. Tsunami vulnerability and damage for buildings analyzed by means of two methods (PTVA-3 and SCHEMA) in the area of Augusta and Siracusa, eastern Sicily, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagnoni, Gianluca; Tinti, Stefano

    2015-04-01

    The coast of the eastern Sicily is exposed to tsunamis that can be generated by local earthquakes (e.g. the 1169, 1693, 1908 events) and by earthquakes located in distant seismic zones (see the 365 AD tsunamigenic quake in Western Hellenic Arc). Tsunamis can also be generated by landslides possibly triggered by earthquakes. The Hyblean-Malta steep escarpment running offshore at a small angle with the coast is an ideal place for submarine mass failure occurrences with tsunamigenic effects. The entire eastern coast of Sicily from Messina in the north to Siracusa in the south is under the threat of tsunamis. In the frame of the FP7 European project ASTARTE (Assessment, Strategy And Risk Reduction for Tsunamis in Europe - FP7-ENV2013 6.4-3, Grant 603839), the segment of coast from Augusta to Siracusa was selected to undertake specific and detailed studies of tsunami hazard, vulnerability and damage to test existing methods and develop innovative approaches. The scope of the present work regards vulnerability and damage analyses. We chose to adopt two methods, known in the literature and briefly denoted as PTVA-3 and SCHEMA, that are based on two very different approaches, the former more qualitative and the latter more quantitative. The method PTVA-3 determines the vulnerability and damageability of a building by weighting and ranking a number of attributes covering the structural features of the edifice and the relevant characteristics of the surrounding environment such as the position with respect to the coast, the existence of defensive elements (e.g. walls, breakwaters, vegetation) and also the proximity to potential sources of floating objects that can feed damaging debris flows. On the other hand, the SCHEMA method uses a classification of building and a damage matrix that were derived from experimental fragility and damage curves first established after the Sumatra 2004 tsunami and later refined and adapted to the building stock of the Mediterranean region. The

  9. Influence of the Eastern California Shear Zone on deposition of the Mio-Pliocene Bouse Formation: Insights from the Cibola area, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorsey, Rebecca J.; O'Connell, Brennan; Homan, Mindy B.; Bennett, Scott E. K.

    2017-01-01

    ; Dorsey et al., 2016; O’Connell et al., 2016, 2017). The southern Bouse Formation has been interpreted as recording deposition in either a lake (Spencer and Patchett, 1997; Spencer et al., 2008, 2013; Bright et al., 2016) or shallow marine setting (Buising, 1990; McDougall, 2008; McDougall and Miranda Martínez, 2014; O’Connell et al., 2017).In this paper we summarize key results from five field seasons of detailed stratigraphic analysis south of Cibola, Ariz. ( . 1). The data reveal systematic stratal thinning and thickening, pinch-outs, and wedging patterns in the Bouse Formation that we conclude were produced by syn-depositional tilting in response to growth of normal faults near the eastern margin of the basin. Similar stratal patterns in other nearby areas suggest widespread structural controls on deposition of the Bouse Formation. A palinspastic reconstruction of the lower Colorado River region at 5 Ma, modified from Bennett et al. (2016), provides insight to regional fault geometries in the ECSZ that may have controlled syn-depositional tilting and subsidence in Bouse depocenters shortly prior to and during initiation of the Colorado River.

  10. Maps of surface activity of 137Cs of Slovakia on scale 1:200 000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gluch, A.

    2005-05-01

    The present set of maps (13 maps) arose from the geological project 'Re-ambulation of 137 Cs radioactivity map of Slovakia at scales 1:200 000 and 1:500 000' in phase of indicative geological survey of environmental factors. Maps document the state of contamination of the territory of Slovakia by one of the radioisotopes cesium-137 at the reference date 01.01.2005. In solving of geological tasks were used all available relevant data on measurements of 137 Cs activity from the whole territory of the Slovak Republic for the period from 1990 to 2003 from results of air and ground gamma spectrometric measurements. (authors)

  11. Stephanitis takeyai and S. rhododendri (Heteroptera: Tingidae in Slovakia: first record and economic importance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barta Marek

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This is the first report on the occurrence of andromeda lace bug, Stephanitis (Stephanitis takeyai Drake and Maa, 1955, and rhododendron lace bug, Stephanitis (Stephanitis rhododendri Horvath, 1905, in Slovakia. Syntopic colonies of both species were found on rhododendron shrubs (Rhododendron sp. in south-western Slovakia in 2015. The feeding of the lace bugs resulted in damage to infested rhododendrons. Leaves turned yellow and brown, prematurely dropped what led to continuous drying up of twigs and the whole plants. Details on morphology of adult stages of the two species, description of damage symptoms and economic importance of these pests are presented and discussed.

  12. A Study of the Distribution of Natural Radionuclides and their Environmental Impacts in Halayeb Triangle Area, along the South Eastern Coast of the Red Sea, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salama, M.H.M.; Khedr, R.F.E.

    2017-01-01

    Thirty samples (14 surficial soil, 3 Sea water-3 desalinated water, and 10 plant) were collected from halayeb triangle are a along the south eastern Coast of the Red Sea, Egypt . Distributions of natural radionuclides of "2"2"6 Ra, "2"3"2 Th, "4"0 K and "1"3"7Cs in these samples were determined using γ-ray spectrometry. The average activities of natural radionuclides in all samples in the study are a are 19.38 (3.35-61.09) Bq kg"-"1 for "2"2"6 Ra, 10.87 (1.39-24.28) Bq kg"-"1 for "2"3"2 Th, 245.25 (132.46-531.19) Bq kg"-"1 for "40 K, and 1.48 (0.67 - 2.52) Bq kg"-"1 "1"3"7 Cs for surficial soil samples . These values were 8.59 (1.48-21.57) Bq kg"-"1 for 226 Ra, 11.34 (2. 64-25.44) Bq kg"-"1 for "2"3"2Th, and 254.66(69.73-450.58) Bq kg"-"1 for "4"0K, for plant samples. For sea water samples, the average activity for "2"2"6 Ra is 3.20 (1.99-3.91) Bq kg"-"1, for "2"3"2Th is 1.73(1.24-2.45) Bq kg"-"1, and 15.10 (8.67-23.25) Bq kg"-"1 for "4"0 K. For desalinised water the average activity is under detection limits for "2"2"6Ra, "2"3"2Th, and 13.49 (8.67-17.85) Bq kg"-"1 for "4"0K. A comparison of radionuclide activities in the study area and in other coastal and aquatic environments is given. The radiation hazard parameters (absorbed dose rate, radium equivalent activity, internal hazard index, external hazard index ,annual gonadal dose equivalent); and transfer factor of elements from soil to plant were calculated. The results of measurements will serve as base line data and background reference level for south Egyptian coastlines

  13. Residents’ Self-Reported Health Effects and Annoyance in Relation to Air Pollution Exposure in an Industrial Area in Eastern-Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Orru

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Eastern Estonia has large oil shale mines and industrial facilities mainly focused on electricity generation from oil shale and shale oil extraction, which produce high air pollution emissions. The “Study of the health impact of the oil shale sector—SOHOS” was aimed at identifying the impacts on residents’ health and annoyance due to the industrial processing. First, a population-wide survey about health effects and annoyance was carried out. Second, the total and oil shale sectors’ emitted concentrations of benzene, phenol, and PM2.5 were modelled. Third, the differences between groups were tested and relationships between health effects and environmental pollution studied using multiple regression analysis. Compared to the control groups from non-industrial areas in Tartu or Lääne-Viru, residents of Ida-Viru more frequently (p < 0.05 reported wheezing, chest tightness, shortness of breath, asthma attacks, a long-term cough, hypertension, heart diseases, myocardial infarction, stroke, and diabetes. All health effects except asthma were reported more frequently among non-Estonians. People living in regions with higher levels of PM2.5, had significantly higher odds (p < 0.05 of experiencing chest tightness (OR = 1.13, 95% CI 1.02–1.26, shortness of breath (1.16, 1.03–1.31 or an asthma attack (1.22, 1.04–1.42 during the previous year. People living in regions with higher levels of benzene had higher odds of experiencing myocardial infarction (1.98, 1.11–3.53 and with higher levels of phenol chest tightness (1.44, 1.03–2.00, long-term cough (1.48, 1.06–2.07 and myocardial infarction (2.17, 1.23–3.83. The prevalence of adverse health effects was also higher among those who had been working in the oil shale sector. Next to direct health effects, up to a quarter of the residents of Ida-Viru County were highly annoyed about air pollution. Perceived health risk from air pollution increased the odds of being annoyed. Annoyed

  14. Residents’ Self-Reported Health Effects and Annoyance in Relation to Air Pollution Exposure in an Industrial Area in Eastern-Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idavain, Jane; Pindus, Mihkel; Orru, Kati; Kesanurm, Kaisa; Lang, Aavo; Tomasova, Jelena

    2018-01-01

    Eastern Estonia has large oil shale mines and industrial facilities mainly focused on electricity generation from oil shale and shale oil extraction, which produce high air pollution emissions. The “Study of the health impact of the oil shale sector—SOHOS” was aimed at identifying the impacts on residents’ health and annoyance due to the industrial processing. First, a population-wide survey about health effects and annoyance was carried out. Second, the total and oil shale sectors’ emitted concentrations of benzene, phenol, and PM2.5 were modelled. Third, the differences between groups were tested and relationships between health effects and environmental pollution studied using multiple regression analysis. Compared to the control groups from non-industrial areas in Tartu or Lääne-Viru, residents of Ida-Viru more frequently (p < 0.05) reported wheezing, chest tightness, shortness of breath, asthma attacks, a long-term cough, hypertension, heart diseases, myocardial infarction, stroke, and diabetes. All health effects except asthma were reported more frequently among non-Estonians. People living in regions with higher levels of PM2.5, had significantly higher odds (p < 0.05) of experiencing chest tightness (OR = 1.13, 95% CI 1.02–1.26), shortness of breath (1.16, 1.03–1.31) or an asthma attack (1.22, 1.04–1.42) during the previous year. People living in regions with higher levels of benzene had higher odds of experiencing myocardial infarction (1.98, 1.11–3.53) and with higher levels of phenol chest tightness (1.44, 1.03–2.00), long-term cough (1.48, 1.06–2.07) and myocardial infarction (2.17, 1.23–3.83). The prevalence of adverse health effects was also higher among those who had been working in the oil shale sector. Next to direct health effects, up to a quarter of the residents of Ida-Viru County were highly annoyed about air pollution. Perceived health risk from air pollution increased the odds of being annoyed. Annoyed people in Ida

  15. Rebuilding the eastern Baltic cod stock under environmental change (part II): taking into account the costs of a marine protected area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roeckmann, C.; Tol, R.S.J.; Schneider, U.A.; St.John, M.A.

    2009-01-01

    This study adds a cost analysis of the Eastern Baltic cod fishery to the existing model presented in Röckmann et al. [2007a]. As cost data on this international fishery do not exist, data from Denmark are extrapolated to the whole international fishery. Additionally, unit and total variable costs

  16. Challenges in authorization of exploration and exploitation of radioactive minerals in Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janova, V.; Turner, M.

    2014-01-01

    Slovakia has a long tradition in the peaceful use of nuclear energy which dates back to the 1950s of last century. In parallel with the development of nuclear power uranium exploitation has started. Whereas the development of nuclear power has continued without interruption the uranium exploitation has been suspended during the political and economic restructuralization until 2005. There is also a difference in the acceptance of nuclear power by the local authorities in comparison with uranium exploration and exploitation. Permitting process of exploration activities in the Slovak Republic is regulated by geological law and falls within the competence of the Ministry of Environment. Radioactive minerals are considered as exclusive minerals and their survey is allowed to the applicant only in exploration territory. The exploration area is determined for four years and then extended for additional periods. The opinions of the affected municipalities and self governing regions (which reflect the compliance of the geological project with the objectives and priorities of the economic and social development programs and with the land-use planning documentation) have to be submitted with the application. Meanwhile, the affected municipality and the self governing region are the parties of administrative procedure of designation, change or cancellation of exploration area for radioactive minerals and they have a right of veto. In case, that affected municipality or autonomous region disagree with proposal, the Ministry of the Environment recommends a modification of proposed exploration area. Extraction of minerals is regulated by the mining act that falls under the competency of the Ministry of Economy. The right to mine exclusive deposits has the organization which has got mining license and which a mining area has been determined to. Preferential right for mining area determination has the company, that exploration area was determined and the research was carried out at

  17. REVIEW OF METHODOLOGIES FOR COSTS CALCULATING OF RUMINANTS IN SLOVAKIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana KRUPOVÁ

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to synthesise and analyse the methodologies and the biological aspects of the costs calculation in ruminants in Slovakia. According to literature, the account classification of cost items is most often considered for construction of costing formula. The costs are mostly divided into fixed (costs independent from volume of herd’s production and variable ones (costs connected with improvement of breeding conditions. Cost for feeds and beddings, labour costs, other direct costs and depreciations were found as the most important cost items in ruminants. It can be assumed that including the depreciations into costs of the basic herd takes into consideration the real costs simultaneously invested into raising of young animals in the given period. Costs are calculated for the unit of the main and by-products and their classification is influenced mainly by the type of livestock and production system. In dairy cows is usually milk defined as the main product, and by- products are live born calf and manure. The base calculation unit is kilogram of milk (basic herd of cows and kilogram of gain and kilogram of live weight (young breeding cattle. In suckler cows is a live-born calf the main product and manure is the by-product. The costs are mostly calculated per suckler cow, live-born calf and per kilogram of live weight of weaned calf. Similar division of products into main and by-products is also in cost calculation for sheep categories. The difference is that clotted cheese is also considered as the main product of basic herd in dairy sheep and greasy wool as the by-products in all categories. Definition of the base calculation units in sheep categories followed the mentioned classification. The value of a by-product in cattle and sheep is usually set according to its quantity and intra- plant price of the by-product. In the calculation of the costs for sheep and cattle the “structural ewe” and “structural cow

  18. Comparative Study of Honey Consumption in Slovakia and Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snezhanna Guziy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The current situation on the food market is influenced by various diet trends including eating healthy products. The honey consumption has an increasing tendency because more and more consumers consider honey as a healthy alternative to a refined sugar. The aim of this research paper was to identify consumption patterns regarding honey in terms of annual consumption, its frequency, volume of honey per purchase, consumption structure by family members and factors affecting consumers at honey purchase. The primary data was obtained from a questionnaire survey, which was conducted in Slovakia on the sample of 316 respondents as well as in Russia on the sample of 309 respondents. For a deeper analyses several assumptions were formulated where dependencies between demographic factors (age, education and income, and annual consumption by using Chi-Square Test of Independence and Cramer´V coefficient, as well as, differences in factors affecting consumers at honey purchase by using Friedman test have been statistically tested. Based on the results it was found out that, the majority of Slovak consumers make honey reserves and prefer to buy 1 kg per purchase while the majority of Russian consumers purchase honey if necessary and prefer to buy 0.5 or 2 - 5 kg per purchase. Honey is generally consumed by all family members in both countries. The mostimportant factors for Slovak consumers was the country of origin (2.59 followed by taste (3.51, type (3.97 and price (4.18, while the least important factors were the size of packaging (6.70 and the design of packaging (6.80. For Russian consumers the most important factors werethe type (2.97, design of packaging (3.13, price (3.28 and taste (3.61 while the least important factors were the size of packaging (6.98, brand (6.50 and the country of origin (6.50. The majority of consumers in both countries consume from 2 to 5 kg annually and the only significant dependence was confirmed in case of respondents

  19. New and interesting records of Plecoptera (Insecta) from Slovakia and several autecology notes:

    OpenAIRE

    Krno, Il'ja; Žiak, Matej

    2014-01-01

    During the last five years several important discoveries of stoneflies from Slovakia were recorded, including Leuctra dalmoni Vincon & Murányi 2007, a recently described species and Rhabdiopteryx hamulata (Klapálek 1902), an uncommon Balkan species. We also recorded a curious find of the imago of the endangered species, Capnopsis schilleri (Rostock 1892), after 60 years.

  20. Some comments concerning Rand D and education in radiation protection in Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ftacnikova, S.; Nikodemova, D.

    2003-01-01

    Experience shows that when a country neglects it own research and development spending is at the risk of slowing its economic development. In Slovakia, radiation protection training and research have been neglected in recent years. In some important respects, co-operation through European Union based research and training programs provides an opportunity to improve the situation

  1. Regional mortality by socioeconomic factors in Slovakia : a comparison of 15 years of changes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosicova, Katarina; Bosakova, Lucia; Geckova, Andrea Madarasova; Rosic, Martin; Andrejkovic, Marek; Zezula, Ivan; Groothoff, Johan W.; van Dijk, Jitse P.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Like most Central European countries Slovakia has experienced a period of socioeconomic changes and at the same time a decline in the mortality rate. Therefore, the aim is to study socioeconomic factors that changed over time and simultaneously contributed to regional differences in

  2. Beware of the Dog! Private Linguistic Landscapes in Two "Hungarian" Villages in South-West Slovakia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laihonen, Petteri

    2016-01-01

    This study demonstrates how a single type of sign can be connected to language policy on a larger scale. Focusing on the relationship between language policy and language ideologies, I investigate the private Linguistic Landscape (LL) of Hungarians living in two villages in Slovakia. Through an examination of "beware of the dog" signs,…

  3. Teaching Translation and Interpreting in Slovakia: Is There Anything Other than Levý and Popovic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biloveský, Vladimír; Djovcoš, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Institutional translation and interpreting training has a long lasting tradition in Slovakia mainly thanks to such significant translation scholars as Anton Popovic, František Miko, Ján Vilikovský and many others. However the situation has changed after the Velvet Revolution in 1989 and the education needed to start adapting to the new market…

  4. Health status among young people in Slovakia : comparisons on the basis of age, gender and education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sleskova, M.; Salonna, F.; Madarasova-Geckova, A.; van Dijk, J.P.; Groothoff, J.W.

    2005-01-01

    This study examines the health status of young people in Slovakia. Six subjective health indicators (self-rated health, long-standing illness, vitality, mental health, long-term well-being over the last year and occurrence of health complaints during the previous month) were used to assess the

  5. Curricular Transformation of Education in the Field of Physical and Sport Education in Slovakia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendíková, Elena

    2016-01-01

    The study presents basic information on the curricular transformation of physical and sport education in Slovakia after the year 1989, which is related to the education process in the 21st century. What is more, it points to the basis for modern transformation in relation to sports as well as to insufficient undergraduate teacher training and its…

  6. Chances with self made collectors in Slovakia. Self-construction movement in Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benesch, B.; Huschner, J.

    2005-01-01

    Author presented self-construction movement in Austria together with practical experiences presented by Josef Huschner from Pyhra Solar organisation. As mentioned movement has long tradition in Austria and brought valuable input for next sector of solar energy utilisation development, Austrian partners started discussion about possibilities of initiate similar movement in Slovakia

  7. Impact of EU Enlargement on Business Environment of Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises in Slovakia

    OpenAIRE

    Ján Vravec; Marián Gál; Tomás Sabol

    2005-01-01

    The paper discusses the impact of EU enlargement on business environment in the Slovak Republic. Integration of Slovakia into EU has significantly influenced operating conditions for small and medium enterprises. Prosperity of small and medium enterprises depends mainly on their ability to adapt themselves to these new conditions.

  8. Finds of radioactive materials in Central Slovakia in 1996-1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auxtova, L.; Durec, F.; Adamek, P.

    1998-01-01

    A brief report of finds of radioactive materials out of control in Central Slovakia during period 1996-1998 has been made in this paper. The reasons of the reported events are described if known and some recommendations on safety culture development and implementation have been given. (author)

  9. Late Pliocene carnivores from Včeláre 2 (Southeastern Slovakia)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sabol, M.; Holec, P.; Wagner, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 5 (2008), s. 531-543 ISSN 0031-0301 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : Homotherium * Ursus * Parailurus * Včeláre 2 (Slovakia) Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.369, year: 2008

  10. Ethnobotany of einkorn and emmer in Romania and Slovakia. Towards interpretation of archaeological evidence

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hajnalová, M.; Dreslerová, Dagmar

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 101, - (2010), s. 169-202 ISSN 0031-0506 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAAX00020701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80020508 Keywords : einkorn * tillage * yields * traditional agriculture * prehistoric agriculture * Romania * Slovakia Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  11. Euroguidelines in Central and Eastern Europe (ECEE) conference and the Warsaw Declaration - a comprehensive meeting report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalska, J D; Oprea, C; de Witt, S; Pozniak, A; Gökengin, D; Youle, M; Lundgren, J D; Horban, A

    2017-05-01

    The objective of this paper is to summarize the outcomes of the Euroguidelines in Central and Eastern Europe (ECEE) conference held in Warsaw in February 2016. The main aim of this conference was to facilitate a discussion on European AIDS Clinical Society (EACS) guidelines implementation across the region and neighbouring countries and to present the current obstacles in benchmarking HIV care in Europe. During a 2-day meeting, there were country-based presentations using a predefined template so as to make the data comparable and focus the discussion. Areas covered were country epidemiology, surveillance, national strategy for treatment and prevention, standards of care, access to care and treatment availability. Each participant filled in a questionnaire investigating HIV guidelines usage per country. In total, 16 Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) and neighbouring countries were represented at the conference: Albania, Armenia, Belarus, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, Georgia, Hungary, Lithuania, Moldova, Poland, Romania, Russia, Serbia, Slovakia and Turkey. EACS guidelines version 7.1 were used in 14 (87%) countries. In 11 (69%) countries, national guidelines were available, of which eight had been recently updated. Half of the countries declared that they use World Health Organization (WHO) and Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) guidelines, over one-third the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) HIV testing guidelines and one in five the International Antiviral Society-USA (IAS-USA) Panel guidelines from 2012. Participants declared their will to promote the widespread use of EACS guidelines for HIV infection in the CEE region and neighbouring countries by signing the Warsaw Declaration. They also emphasized the need to increase publishing of data from national cohorts in that region. © 2016 British HIV Association.

  12. Improvement of information on the nuclear energy health effects, the aim of win Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrasova, M.; Nikodemova, D.

    1998-01-01

    International organisation WIN Global and national organisation WIN Slovakia which as a section of Slovak Nuclear Society, offer unique opportunities for the improvement of radiation risk communication. WIN Global was established in 1993 and currently has about 600 members in 39 countries. WIN Slovakia was established in the end of 1997 and has 20 members. WIN Slovakia is the association of women working professionally in the fields of nuclear energy and application of radiation and willing to devote time to public information. Members of WIN Slovakia all have one thing in common: They want the general public to have a better understanding of nuclear and radiation matter. The members of WIN Slovakia would like and plane to make presentations, discuss and give information material on subjects as: energy and sustainable development; radiation, radioactivity, and health effects; medical applications, radiation protection; nuclear energy, uranium mining; nuclear power plants and their safety; radioactive waste; nuclear and environment; natural radiation, radon. In 1996-1997 a comparative risk perception study was carried out in Slovak Republic. Real data were collected through the administration of a questionnaires distributed among a group of 14-17 years old children (N 1 = 308) and teenagers (N 2 = 150). The list of 44 items covered a wide range of risks and hazards, including risks from technology (nuclear power plants, water-dams etc.) pollution (air-, water-, soil, waste management) nature (floods, fire, etc.), life style (smoking, drugs, alcohol abuse) and society (crime, conflicts, war, terror etc.). The questionnaire contains the questions about the sources of risk information. The topic of the study was the self assessment of the knowledge on particular risks too. The results were summarised

  13. Environmental Sensitive Areas (ESAs) changes in the Canyoles river watershed in Eastern Spain since the European Common Agriculture Policies (CAP) implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ángel González Peñaloza, Félix; Cerdà, Artemi

    2014-05-01

    The Enviromental Sensitive Areas (ESAs) approach to study the Land Degradation is a methodology developed by professor Costas Kosmas et al., (1999) to map environmental sensitive areas and then the impact of Land Degradation and desertification on Mediterranean Type Ecosystems (Salvati et al., 2013). This methodology has been applied mainly to the Mediterranean Belt (Lavado Contador et al., 2009), but other authors adapted the methodology to other climatic regions (Izzo et al., 2013). The ESAs methodology allows mapping changes in the distribution of the sensitive areas to Desertification as a consequence of biophysical or human chances. In the Mediterranean countries of Europe, especially Spain, suffered a dramatic change due to the application of the European Common Agricultural Policies (CAP) after 1992. The objective of the CAP was to implemented policies to improve the environmental conditions of agricultural land. This target is especially relevant in Mediterranean areas of Spain, mainly the South and the East of the country. An Environmental Sensitive Area (ESAs) model (Kosmas et al., 2009) was implemented using Geographical Information System (GIS) tools, to identify, assess, monitor and map the levels of sensitivity to land degradation in the Canyoles river watershed, which is a representative landscape of the Mediterranean belt in Eastern Spain The results show that it was found that after the implementation of CAP, the most sensitive areas have expanded. This increase in degraded areas is driven by the expansion of commercial and chemically managed crops that increased the soil erosion (Cerdà et al., 2009) and that few soil conservation strategies were applied (Giménez Morera et al., 2010). Another factor that triggered Desertification processes is the increase in the recurrencesof forest fires as a consequence of land abandonment (Cerdà and Lasanta, 2005; Cerdà and Doerr, 2007). This contributed to an increase of scrubland. Our research show an

  14. A comparison of survey methods for documenting presence of Myotis leibii (Eastern Small-Footed Bats) at roosting areas in Western Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huth, John K.; Silvis, Alexander; Moosman, Paul R.; Ford, W. Mark; Sweeten, Sara E.

    2015-01-01

    Many aspects of foraging and roosting habitat of Myotis leibii (Eastern Small-Footed Bat), an emergent rock roosting-obligate, are poorly described. Previous comparisons of effectiveness of acoustic sampling and mist-net captures have not included Eastern Small-Footed Bat. Habitat requirements of this species differ from congeners in the region, and it is unclear whether survey protocols developed for other species are applicable. Using data from three overlapping studies at two sampling sites in western Virginia’s central Appalachian Mountains, detection probabilities were examined for three survey methods (acoustic surveys with automated identification of calls, visual searches of rock crevices, and mist-netting) for use in the development of “best practices” for future surveys and monitoring. Observer effects were investigated using an expanded version of visual search data. Results suggested that acoustic surveys with automated call identification are not effective for documenting presence of Eastern Small-Footed Bats on talus slopes (basal detection rate of 0%) even when the species is known to be present. The broadband, high frequency echolocation calls emitted by Eastern Small-Footed Bat may be prone to attenuation by virtue of their high frequencies, and these factors, along with signal reflection, lower echolocation rates or possible misidentification to other bat species over talus slopes may all have contributed to poor acoustic survey success. Visual searches and mist-netting of emergent rock had basal detection probabilities of 91% and 75%, respectively. Success of visual searches varied among observers, but detection probability improved with practice. Additionally, visual searches were considerably more economical than mist-netting.

  15. A Community-Based Study to Estimate the Seroprevalence of Trichinellosis and Echinococcosis in the Roma and Non-Roma Population of Slovakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antolová, Daniela; Halánová, Monika; Janičko, Martin; Jarčuška, Peter; Reiterová, Katarína; Jarošová, Júlia; Madarasová Gecková, Andrea; Pella, Daniel; Dražilová, Sylvia

    2018-02-02

    Trichinellosis and cystic and alveolar echinococcosis are serious parasitic diseases transmissible between animals and humans. Moreover, alveolar echinococcosis is considered one of the most dangerous of human helminthoses. Roma communities are particularly numerous in Central and Eastern Europe. They are often concentrated in economically undeveloped regions and live in segregated localities with unsatisfactory housing and sanitary conditions. The study aimed to find out the seroprevalence of Trichinella and Echinococcus infections in the Roma population of segregated settlements and to compare it with the seropositivity of the non-Roma population of eastern Slovakia. Out of 823 samples, three sera showed seropositivity to Trichinella in the ELISA (Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) test. Subsequent Western blot reaction (WB) confirmed seropositivity in two Roma women. ELISA seropositivity to E. multilocularis was recorded in six persons (0.73%), and five (0.61%) respondents were seropositive to E. granulosus , but WB confirmed the presence of antibodies to Echinococcus spp. in one Roma participant. Positive persons suffered from unspecific clinical symptoms; Trichinella -positive persons reported headache, cough, fatigue, and muscle pain. The Echinococcus -positive participant suffered from headache and back pain. The study showed that the worse living conditions of the Roma community did not significantly influence the occurrence of Trichinella and Echinococcus infections in this minority.

  16. A Community-Based Study to Estimate the Seroprevalence of Trichinellosis and Echinococcosis in the Roma and Non-Roma Population of Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Antolová

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Trichinellosis and cystic and alveolar echinococcosis are serious parasitic diseases transmissible between animals and humans. Moreover, alveolar echinococcosis is considered one of the most dangerous of human helminthoses. Roma communities are particularly numerous in Central and Eastern Europe. They are often concentrated in economically undeveloped regions and live in segregated localities with unsatisfactory housing and sanitary conditions. The study aimed to find out the seroprevalence of Trichinella and Echinococcus infections in the Roma population of segregated settlements and to compare it with the seropositivity of the non-Roma population of eastern Slovakia. Out of 823 samples, three sera showed seropositivity to Trichinella in the ELISA (Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay test. Subsequent Western blot reaction (WB confirmed seropositivity in two Roma women. ELISA seropositivity to E. multilocularis was recorded in six persons (0.73%, and five (0.61% respondents were seropositive to E. granulosus, but WB confirmed the presence of antibodies to Echinococcus spp. in one Roma participant. Positive persons suffered from unspecific clinical symptoms; Trichinella-positive persons reported headache, cough, fatigue, and muscle pain. The Echinococcus-positive participant suffered from headache and back pain. The study showed that the worse living conditions of the Roma community did not significantly influence the occurrence of Trichinella and Echinococcus infections in this minority.

  17. Availability of oncological nuclear medicine in the regions of Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lepej, J.; Kaliska, L.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Nuclear medicine (NM) imaging technology, alone and in combination with other imaging modalities, provides clinically significant and useful information in the staging and treatment of the oncological diseases. The main objective of our study was to find out and present the situation vis-a-vis nuclear medicine facilities in the Central European country that soon becomes the new member of EU. For the purposes statistical data of WHO, Slovak Republic (SR) and nuclear medicine department (NMD) were evaluated for the period 1995-2001. Comparison with Czech Republic (CR) was done because of almost similar occurrence of the malignant diseases in these two republics that were a one country till separation in 1993. First nuclear medicine department in Czechoslovakia was established about 55 years ago. Comparing to CR the expenditures on health care per capita in SR is only 67% of CR. The number of gamma cameras, physicians and number of investigations are far from good standard of CR. The number NM departments are significantly low and growth of only 29% compared to CR is alarming. The one main reason is inadequate financial support to the health care and high debts of hospitals running nuclear medicine facilities. Providing radiology departments with new CT and MRI scanners is another reason of less nuclear medicine facilities. During the last five years, though the number of gamma cameras increased by 10%, but the number of investigations did not rise accordingly. Because of bad management of health care services in Slovakia, the latest facilities availability is greatly delayed. However, the exception is the installation of a new PET scanner in 2001. Of late, sentinel lymph node detection was started only with the help of IAEA. Data shows that most of the nuclear medicine centers are around the state capital. It is imperative to have sufficient diagnostic and therapeutic facilities in each region so as to make these available to patients living away from the

  18. The Effects of Transition and War on the Construction of Some Segments of National Identity among Croats and Serbs (An Empirical Survey in the Former War Areas of Western and Eastern Slavonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragutin Babić

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The author analyses the effects of transition and war on the formation of some segments of national identity among Croats and Serbs. The basis for the analysis was an empirical survey conducted in Western and Eastern Slavonia. The analysis included three groups of war migrants and victims of war – indigenous Croats, indigenous Serbs and immigrants. The survey was conducted between September and December 2004, in villages and towns of Western and Eastern Slavonia. It used a survey questionnaire with 48 closed-type questions. The survey took account of the following variables among respondents: sociospatial status, age, gender and level of education. The analysed variable: respondents’ sociospatial status, proved to be in correlation with the perception of some segments of national identity among Croats and Serbs. The results of the survey showed differences in the opinions and evaluations of respondents from Western and Eastern Slavonia. Indigenous Croats, more than indigenous Serbs, stressed the meaning and importance of religion (Catholicism in national identity. Indigenous Croats were more exclusive than indigenous Serbs as to the possibilities of full participation of former Communists in the Croat and Serb national communities. The responses of immigrants were more radical and exclusive in comparison with indigenous persons, and in this regard responses of immigrants in Western Slavonia (mostly ethnic Croats were more radical than responses of immigrants in Eastern Slavonia (mostly ethnic Serbs. Although they were somewhat laced with exclusive opinions on the possibilities of including various subidentities in the national identities of Croats and Serbs, the respondents’ answers indicate that in the post-war period, in former war areas, tolerance is also quite present, more noticeably within one’s own group than towards the other nationality.

  19. ECOLOGICAL STABILITY AS A DETERMINANT OF NITRA REGION DEVELOPMENT IN SLOVAKIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marián KOTRLA

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Nitra region is evaluated based on the analysis of land use ecological stability in the present article, which is significant for its development, particularly in terms of increasing potential for tourism. The coefficient of ecological stability (CES was used to evaluate the ecological stability of the region as a relatively simple ecological indicator for quality of life determination in the region. Three basic methods were used of calculating CES according to the methodology Míchal (1982, Löw et al. (1984 and Miklós (1986. The districts of Nitra region differs by natural conditions from each other. There are represented three types of natural areas: foothill (Zlaté Moravce, upland (Nitra, Levice, Topoľčany and lowland area (Šaľa, Nové Zámky, Komárom. The highest value of CES was in the district of Zlaté Moravce. A higher value of CES was in the district of Topoľčany. The lowest value of CES was evaluated in the district of Šaľa, where do absent ecologically stable elements. Nitra region is classifies as an area of low to median ecological stability, which is critical to the improvement and development of the region need to make eco-stabilizing elements and eco-stabilizing management measures. On the basis of country originality can be expressed the impact of human activity on the landscape and its features. Originality coefficient of the cultural landscape for individual districts of Nitra region is following: Komárno and Levice - 0.16; Nitra - 0.17; Nové Zámky - 0.15; Šaľa - 0.07; Topoľčany - 0.56; Zlaté Moravce - 1.49. Slovakia is in terms of the authenticity of cultural landscapes evaluated coefficient of 2.01. Based on the analysis it can be concluded heterogeneity in the origin of cultural landscapes in the Nitra region.

  20. Zvyšky bratislavských lužných lesov – významné refúgium podunajskej malakofauny Remnants of alluvial woodland in a urbanised area – important refuge for Middle-Danubian land gastropods (Bratislava City, Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juraj Čačaný

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper brings a review of a long-term malacological survey of fragmented urban alluvial woodland, an important refuge of Middle-Danubian terrestrial molluscan fauna. In the area of Bratislava agglomeration we surveyed two softwood and 26 hardwood alluvial forests. Altogether, 52 mollusc species have been recorded during the last 20 years (representing 79% of the total terrestrial mollusc fauna living in the Slovak section of the Danube floodplain. The most frequent species (more than 75% sites were Aegopinella nitens, Helix pomatia, Monachoides incarnatus (every three species at 27 sites, i.e. 96%, Cochlodina laminata (26 sites, 93%, Petasina unidentata (25 sites, Urticicola umbrosus (24 sites, Alinda biplicata (23 sites, and Clausilia pumila (21 sites. The main ecological groups were forest species in general (45%, mainly eurytopic and slightly hygrophilous, hygrophilous species in general (26%, hygrophilous and riparian, euryecious species (16%, semi-steppe (8% and open-country species (5%.

  1. Predictors of health-endangering behaviour among Roma and non-Roma adolescents in Slovakia by gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolarcik, P; Geckova, A M; Orosova, O; van Dijk, J P; Reijneveld, S A

    2010-12-01

    Roma people are commonly described as having an unhealthy lifestyle-for example, an unhealthy diet, intensive smoking, frequent alcohol consumption and a lack of physical activity. However, data about such health-endangering behaviours among Roma adolescents are scarce and of poor quality. The aim of our study is to assess the occurrence of health-endangering behaviours among Slovak Roma adolescents in comparison to non-Roma adolescents, and to assess the impact of parental education and social desirability on the differences found. A cross-sectional study among Roma from separated and segregated settlements in the eastern part of Slovakia (n=330; mean age 14.50 years; interview) and non-Roma adolescents (n=722; mean age 14.86 years; questionnaire) was conducted. The effect of ethnicity and parental education on smoking, drunkenness, drug use and physical activity was analysed separately for boys and girls using logistic regression and adjusted for social desirability. Among girls, Roma adolescents had lower rates of smoking, drunkenness and drug use than non-Roma (ORs from 0.14 to 0.60 compared to non-Roma), but had higher rates of physical inactivity. Among boys, drug use was less frequent among Roma adolescents (OR 0.12, 95% CI 0.03 to 0.46); differences for the other health-endangering behaviours were small and statistically insignificant. The effects of parental education and social desirability were small. In contrast to the scarce evidence, Roma had lower rates of substance abuse, especially among girls. Only physical inactivity rates were higher among Roma girls. A challenge in health promotion among Roma is to maintain their relatively low substance use and to promote physical activity.

  2. The Ability of Tourist Natural Trails to Resist Tourism Load and Possibilities for Reducing the Environmental Impacts : Case Study of the Slovak Paradise National Park (Slovakia

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    Janočková Jana

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The strictly protected natural area of Sucha Bela Gorge, located in the Slovak Paradise National Park, Slovakia, is exposed to environmental degradation by heavy tourist loads. Although educational and technical measures have been put in place, there is ongoing debate whether and how to limit the intensity of tourist visits. This study evaluates the ability of the trail leading through the gorge to resist trampling disturbance and to minimise the environmental impacts in the wider area of Sucha Bela by keeping tourists from moving off the designated areas. Aspects of trail layout, geological and geomorphological structures, terrain altering during the summer season, and acceptable tourist flow were investigated.The results show the current development would be acceptable in the case of limited off-trail movement. It therefore seems appropriate to review the trail allocation and marking, and to focus on environmental education rather than on limiting tourist visits.

  3. THE USE OF CAPITAL AND CONDITION OF ECONOMICALLY WEAK FARMS IN THE SELECTED CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES

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    Aldona SKARŻYŃSKA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows the economic situation of economically weak farms in 8 countries of Central and Eastern Europe(CEE in 2010. The data were obtained from the survey on EU farms carried out under the FADN system. The studyincluded countries in which economically weak farms were the dominant farm type (i.e. Bulgaria, Estonia, Hungary,Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania and Slovakia. The aim of the study was to assess the economic performance ofthose farms and indicate advantages of the competing farm types. The analysis was performed in terms of totalfactor productivity, income levels, assets and debt level. The influence of CAP instruments on managementefficiency was also demonstrated. The study found a high diversity in terms of production potential as well asfinancial condition of farms in particular countries, whereas one point of correspondence between farms is theprevalence of fixed assets, i.e. an excessive assets-to-area ratio, and the dominance of own capital in financingthose assets. Romanian, Polish and Bulgarian farms are characterised by the highest efficiency of use of currentoutlays and, in turn, a lower cost of the production unit, which accounted for 66%, 86% and 87% of the outputvalue respectively. In Latvia, Estonia and Slovenia, the costs exceeded the output value by 6%, 7% and 23%respectively and, as a result, the income of those farms was generated exclusively due to subsidies.

  4. Generation Y Attitudes towards Shopping: A Comparison of the Czech Republic and Slovakia

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    Klapilova Krbova Petra

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a study focused on Generation Y (born between 1980 and 2000 behavior in two neighboring European countries, the Czech Republic and Slovakia. This article identifies and describes basic characteristics of this generation’s general behavior as well as defines specifics of their shopping behavior by examining their attitudes towards retailers, brands, sales and discount offers. The sample consisted of 380 respondents: 162 from Slovakia and 218 from the Czech Republic. Results of the analysis indicate that shopping is perceived as an entertaining and pleasurable leisure activity. A particular product is chosen before the shopping place. Approximately two-thirds of the respondents search for information online, but quite a large percentage prefer both offline searching and purchasing. Brands are considered to be the symbols and guarantors of quality, but also uselessly expensive. Finally, a positive attitude towards sales and discount offers was observed.

  5. The struggle to address woman battering in Slovakia: stories from service providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Susan L; Wasileski, Gabriela

    2015-06-01

    Following the fall of communism, Slovakia found itself in a challenging position: to openly acknowledge the existence of intimate partner violence (IPV) and its disproportionate effect on women and children without an infrastructure to address victim safety, and provide resources and legal help. With collaboration with non-governmental organizations (NGOs), the government responded by developing shelters and introducing legislation that criminalized IPV and created social services for victims. To assess implementation efforts, we conducted in-depth interviews with governmental officials and NGO personnel who provide services for battered women. We focus on the operation and efficacy of shelters to discover what services are most needed for battered women, the criminal justice system's response to IPV, and what long-range goals will facilitate more permanent solutions to the social problem of violence against women in Slovakia. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. A short review of the distribution of short-beaked common dolphins (Delphinus delphis in the central and eastern North Atlantic with an abundance estimate for part of this area

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    Ana Cañadas

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses data from 3 programmes: (1 the North Atlantic Sightings Surveys (NASS surveys undertaken throughout much of the central and eastern North Atlantic north of about 40° N in 1987, 1989, 1995 and 2001; (2 the MICA-93 programme; and (3 the north eastern Atlantic segment of the Small Cetacean Abundance in the North Sea (SCANS survey in 1994. The data from all surveys were used to examine the distribution of common dolphins in the NE Atlantic. No sightings were made north of 57° N. An initial attempt to examine distribution against 4 potential non biological explanatory variables was made. A simple interpretation of the preliminary analyses presented here is that the primary areas for groups of common dolphins were in waters over 15° C and depths of 400-1,000 m (there does appear a link with shelf features, between aro