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Sample records for area determines forest

  1. Determination of Time Effect on Change of Recreational Tendencies: Recreation Area of Kafkasor Forest, Artvin

    OpenAIRE

    Cengiz, T.

    2009-01-01

    Kafkasor Forest Area which is close to the Artvin (Turkey) city center is an important recreational area. “Kafkasör Festival” is arranged in July every year. However, the area is intensively used during the festivals, and irregular usage and lack of equipment damage the area. Because of the intensity of festival activities, the area can not respond the needs and the determined visitor necessities don’t be used in planning. Hence, redefining the visitor demand should be determined.The research...

  2. Determination of Destructed and Infracted Forest Areas with Multi-temporal High Resolution Satellite Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seker, D. Z.; Unal, A.; Kaya, S.; Alganci, U.

    2015-12-01

    Migration from rural areas to city centers and their surroundings is an important problem of not only our country but also the countries that under development stage. This uncontrolled and huge amount of migration brings out urbanization and socio - economic problems. The demand on settling the industrial areas and commercial activities nearby the city centers results with a negative change in natural land cover on cities. Negative impacts of human induced activities on natural resources and land cover has been continuously increasing for decades. The main human activities that resulted with destruction and infraction of forest areas can be defined as mining activities, agricultural activities, industrial / commercial activities and urbanization. Temporal monitoring of the changes in spatial distribution of forest areas is significantly important for effective management and planning progress. Changes can occur as spatially large destructions or small infractions. Therefore there is a need for reliable, fast and accurate data sources. At this point, satellite images proved to be a good data source for determination of the land use /cover changes with their capability of monitoring large areas with reasonable temporal resolutions. Spectral information derived from images provides discrimination of land use/cover types from each other. Developments in remote sensing technology in the last decade improved the spatial resolution of satellites and high resolution images were started to be used to detect even small changes in the land surface. As being the megacity of Turkey, Istanbul has been facing a huge migration for the last 20 years and effects of urbanization and other human based activities over forest areas are significant. Main focus of this study is to determine the destructions and infractions in forest areas of Istanbul, Turkey with 2.5m resolution SPOT 5 multi-temporal satellite imagery. Analysis was mainly constructed on threshold based classification of

  3. Determination of priority areas for the re-establishment of forest cover, based on the use of geotechnologies

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson Wellausen Dias; Celso de Souza Catelani; Getulio Teixeira Batista; Marcelo dos Santos Targa

    2012-01-01

    The determination of priority areas for the re-establishment of forest cover in watersheds is directly associated to the probability of effective success of restoration processes. However, considering the complexity of the analysis and the large amount of spatial data necessary to accomplish that purpose, state of the art technological tools capable of processing multi-criteria analysis to support decision making are necessary. Thus, the current work developed for an area of 476 km² correspon...

  4. Determination of priority areas for the re-establishment of forest cover, based on the use of geotechnologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Wellausen Dias

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The determination of priority areas for the re-establishment of forest cover in watersheds is directly associated to the probability of effective success of restoration processes. However, considering the complexity of the analysis and the large amount of spatial data necessary to accomplish that purpose, state of the art technological tools capable of processing multi-criteria analysis to support decision making are necessary. Thus, the current work developed for an area of 476 km² corresponding to the Una river watershed in the municipal district of Taubaté, SP, used a multi-criteria analysis based on the continuous classification and on Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP paired comparisons techniques, available in the complete GIS package named SPRING (Georeferenced Information Processing System for generating a map of priority areas for the re-establishment of forest cover in that watershed. Results revealed a large area (26.6% of the entire watershed falling in the “Extreme Priority” class for forest cover re-establishment, what indicates the urgent need of environmental recovery of this basin considering that it is used for Taubaté city water supply. Results from this research support the decision making for resource optimization applied to priority areas in an operational way.

  5. Solid Waste Management in Recreational Forest Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spooner, Charles S.

    The Forest Service, U. S. Department of Agriculture, requested the Bureau of Solid Waste Management to conduct a study of National Forest recreation areas to establish waste generation rates for major recreation activities and to determine the cost of solid waste handling for selected Forest Service Districts. This report describes the 1968 solid…

  6. Forest area assessment in the Slovenian forest inventory design

    OpenAIRE

    Hladnik, David; Žižek Kulovec, Laura

    2012-01-01

    In Slovenia, data on forest area are obtained within the framework of forest management planning and data of the actual agriculture and forest land use. The article shows the differences in the assessment methodology of forest cover and spatial structure of forests. In accordance with the concept of national forest inventories, the article suggests upgrading of the existing concept of forest inventories which, in the last decade, have been subordinate to forest management areas and difference...

  7. Ecotourism Development in Recreational Forest Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Md. A.H. Bhuiyan; Chamhuri Siwar; Shaharuddin M. Ismail; Rabiul Islam

    2011-01-01

    Problem statement: This study explored the issues and strategies of ecotourism development in recreational forest areas of Malaysia. There are a number of forest recreational areas and reserves. The recreation forests are designated and managed under the forestry department. These recreational areas of scenic beauty comprise about 0.05% of the total forest reserves in Peninsular Malaysia. Ecotourism should be set in natural areas with special biological, ecological, or cultural interest. Obje...

  8. Global Forest Area Trends Underestimate Threats from Forest Fragmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forest loss and fragmentation of the remainder threaten the ecological attributes and functions which depend upon forests1. Forest interior area is particularly valued because it is relatively remote from human influence2, 3, 4, 5. Recent global assessments report declines in t...

  9. US Forest Service Special Status Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting land areas that have distinct management/use authorities or agreements for Forest Service action. Includes: Cost Share Agreement...

  10. US Forest Service National Wilderness Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting parcels of Forest Service land congressionally designated as wilderness such as National Wilderness Areas. This map service...

  11. US Forest Service Recreation Area Activities

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting the recreation area activity information that the Forest Service collects through the Recreation Portal and shares with the...

  12. Ecotourism Development in Recreational Forest Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. A.H. Bhuiyan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: This study explored the issues and strategies of ecotourism development in recreational forest areas of Malaysia. There are a number of forest recreational areas and reserves. The recreation forests are designated and managed under the forestry department. These recreational areas of scenic beauty comprise about 0.05% of the total forest reserves in Peninsular Malaysia. Ecotourism should be set in natural areas with special biological, ecological, or cultural interest. Objective: The aim of this study was to illustrate the potentiality to develop ecotourism in the recreational forests of ECER, especially in Sekayu recreational forest area. Approach: The data for analysis is obtained from the secondary sources. Results: The study showed that there are opportunities and potentialities in the recreational forests of ECER for ecotourism development. These are suitable location, availabilities of recreational forests, attractive natural beauty, pollution free environment, limited natural disaster and infrastructure development. There is some strategiesecological integrity, tourism urbanization, forest tourism development, government role and tour operator initiatives can be followed for ecotourism development in the recreational forests of this region. Conclusion: Appropriate policy, initiative and tourism development activities can be ensured ecotourism development in the recreational forests of Malaysia as well as ECER. In Sekayu, community participation must be increased for the sustainable ecotourism development in the forest.

  13. Confocal Microscopy for Process Monitoring and Wide-Area Height Determination of Vertically-Aligned Carbon Nanotube Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Piwko

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Confocal microscopy is introduced as a new and generally applicable method for the characterization of the vertically-aligned carbon nanotubes (VACNT forest height. With this technique process control is significantly intensified. The topography of the substrate and VACNT can be mapped with a height resolution down to 15 nm. The advantages of confocal microscopy, compared to scanning electron microscopy (SEM, are demonstrated by investigating the growth kinetics of VACNT using Al2O3 buffer layers with varying thicknesses. A process optimization using confocal microscopy for fast VACNT forest height evaluation is presented.

  14. Determining Suitable Investment Areas for the Forest Products Industry: an Example from the Black Sea Region in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Akyüz, Kadri Cemil; Akyüz, İlker; SERİN, Hasan; CINDIK, Hicabi

    2004-01-01

    Investment decisions and regional development are significant for economic development and the welfare of society. The most suitable decision should be made by using multivariable statistical techniques in both public and private sector investments, because various factors may affect such investments. In this study the aim was to direct the preferences of private sector investments in the forest products industry in the Black Sea region, which lags behind the other regions from the point of v...

  15. Determination of fire safety distance for pump stations in forest area%森林输油站场防火安全距离的确定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王新; 张华兵; 曹涛; 程万洲; 赵志明; 韩强忠

    2013-01-01

    Heat radiation from forest fire would cause damage to the equipments in pump stations.Constructing fire-proof barrier around pump station is one of the most effective ways to reduce the fire heat radiation hazard.Rational forest fire proof safety distance can ensure the safety of the pump station and save land occupation at the same time.A safety distance calculation model is built based on solid fire radiation model and heat radiation damage code.Taking the Mohe Pump Station as an example,heat radiation flux at different distance from forest fires is calculated by the model,and effects of fire intensity,flame tilt angle and flame temperature on the safety distance from forest fires are analyzed.The safety distance for fire control of Mohe Pump Station is calculated,which provides basis to the determination of safety fire prevention distances for pump stations in forest area.%森林火灾对站场热辐射的危害问题越来越突出,在站场周边开辟防火隔离带是减少火灾热辐射危害的有效方式之一.合理确定站场防火安全距离,不仅可以确保站场安全,还可以节约土地资源.采用固体火焰辐射模型和热辐射伤害准则,建立了森林输油站场防火安全距离的计算模型.应用该模型,计算了不同距离处森林火灾对于漠河输油站场的热辐射通量,分析了火灾火线强度、火焰倾角及火焰温度等因素对于防火安全距离确定的影响作用.以漠河站为例,计算得出了防火的安全距离,为确定森林输油站场防火安全距离提供了有效的参考依据.

  16. Organization of private forest sector in Timok forest area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vojislav Milijic

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Today, private forest owners (PFOs in Serbia cooperate in form of private forest owners associations (PFOAs. Currently, there are 20 PFOAs, of which 15 are in Timok region. Initiatives of PFOs from Timok forest area, animated the owners from other parts of the country and led to foundation of Serbian Federation of Forest Owners' Associations. Twelve of PFOAs from Timok forest area are the founders of Serbian private forest owners' umbrella organization. Restructuring of Public Enterprise (PE "Srbijasume", which started in 2001, led to development of private small and medium forest enterprises, engaged as contractors of PE for harvesting, timber transport and construction of forest roads. The objectives of this paper are to elaborate if there are differences between PFOs in Serbia and Timok region and to analyze organization of private forest owners in Timok forest area. In order to reach these objectives, results of PRIFORT project were used. This project focused on four countries of Western Balkans region: Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Serbia and Macedonia. The aim of this project was to explore precondition for formation of PFOs in this region. Quantitative survey (n = 350 of randomly selected PFOs was conducted in nine municipalities in Serbia, of which two were in Timok region (n = 100. The results show that there are differences between PFOs in Serbia and Timok region in number of PFOs, size of private property and in additional incentives. These results also indicate that economic interest is a motive for establishment of PFOAs and that state support is very important for their development. Since a number of PFOs are entrepreneurs, it can be assumed that, further development of theirs organizations could lead to development of SMEs clusters. 

  17. Plant traits determine forest flammability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zylstra, Philip; Bradstock, Ross

    2016-04-01

    Carbon and nutrient cycles in forest ecosystems are influenced by their inherent flammability - a property determined by the traits of the component plant species that form the fuel and influence the micro climate of a fire. In the absence of a model capable of explaining the complexity of such a system however, flammability is frequently represented by simple metrics such as surface fuel load. The implications of modelling fire - flammability feedbacks using surface fuel load were examined and compared to a biophysical, mechanistic model (Forest Flammability Model) that incorporates the influence of structural plant traits (e.g. crown shape and spacing) and leaf traits (e.g. thickness, dimensions and moisture). Fuels burn with values of combustibility modelled from leaf traits, transferring convective heat along vectors defined by flame angle and with plume temperatures that decrease with distance from the flame. Flames are re-calculated in one-second time-steps, with new leaves within the plant, neighbouring plants or higher strata ignited when the modelled time to ignition is reached, and other leaves extinguishing when their modelled flame duration is exceeded. The relative influence of surface fuels, vegetation structure and plant leaf traits were examined by comparing flame heights modelled using three treatments that successively added these components within the FFM. Validation was performed across a diverse range of eucalypt forests burnt under widely varying conditions during a forest fire in the Brindabella Ranges west of Canberra (ACT) in 2003. Flame heights ranged from 10 cm to more than 20 m, with an average of 4 m. When modelled from surface fuels alone, flame heights were on average 1.5m smaller than observed values, and were predicted within the error range 28% of the time. The addition of plant structure produced predicted flame heights that were on average 1.5m larger than observed, but were correct 53% of the time. The over-prediction in this

  18. Biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions from forested areas in Turkey: Determination of specific emission rates for thirty-one tree species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aydin, Yagmur Meltem; Yaman, Baris; Koca, Husnu; Dasdemir, Okan; Kara, Melik; Altiok, Hasan; Dumanoglu, Yetkin; Bayram, Abdurrahman [Department of Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Dokuz Eylul University, Tinaztepe Campus, Buca, Izmir (Turkey); Tolunay, Doganay [Department of Soil Science and Ecology, Faculty of Forestry, Istanbul University, Bahcekoy, Istanbul (Turkey); Odabasi, Mustafa [Department of Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Dokuz Eylul University, Tinaztepe Campus, Buca, Izmir (Turkey); Elbir, Tolga, E-mail: tolga.elbir@deu.edu.tr [Department of Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Dokuz Eylul University, Tinaztepe Campus, Buca, Izmir (Turkey)

    2014-08-15

    Normalized biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emission rates for thirty one tree species that cover the 98% of national forested areas in Turkey were determined. Field samplings were performed at fourteen different forested areas in Turkey using a specific dynamic enclosure system. The selected branches of tree species were enclosed in a chamber consisted of a transparent Nalofan bag. The air-flows were sampled from both inlet and outlet of the chamber by Tenax-filled sorbent tubes during photosynthesis of trees under the presence of sunlight. Several environmental parameters (temperature, humidity, photosynthetically active radiation-PAR, and CO{sub 2}) were continuously monitored inside and outside the enclosure chamber during the samplings. Collected samples were analyzed using a gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC/MS) system equipped with a thermal desorber (TD). Sixty five BVOCs classified in five major groups (isoprene, monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, oxygenated sesquiterpenes, and other oxygenated compounds) were analyzed. Emission rates were determined by normalization to standard conditions (1000 μmol/m{sup 2} s PAR and 30 °C temperature for isoprene and 30 °C temperature for the remaining compounds). In agreement with the literature, isoprene was mostly emitted by broad-leaved trees while coniferous species mainly emitted monoterpenes. Several tree species such as Sweet Chestnut, Silver Lime, and European Alder had higher monoterpene emissions although they are broad-leaved species. High isoprene emissions were also observed for a few coniferous species such as Nordmann Fir and Oriental Spruce. The highest normalized total BVOC emission rate of 27.1 μg/g h was observed for Oriental Plane while South European Flowering Ash was the weakest BVOC emitter with a total normalized emission rate of 0.031 μg/g h. Monoterpene emissions of broad-leaved species mainly consisted of sabinene, limonene and trans-beta-ocimene, while alpha-pinene, beta

  19. LANDSCAPING RECREATIONAL AREAS FOR WALKING IN A MOUNTAIN FOREST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivonin V. M.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is the substantiation of recreational zones in the mountain forests for walking tourists. The article contains a functional zoning, design and spatial solution of landscapes of these zones. The aesthetic and recreational value of forests recreational areas increases the implementation of thinning. Implementation of thinning in the territory of the forest zone allocates places for relaxing and walking. This is the basis of functional separation of recreational areas. Coordinates of the objects of recreational areas (inputs and outputs, the center of the composition, toilets, natural monuments, gazebos, crossing trails and wooden sculptures are determined using GPS satnav. We can determine the spatial composition of landscapes with forest vegetation, relief and water space. This allows you to allocate places for sight-seeing platforms. Small architectural forms must be in harmony with the surrounding landscape. Walking paths form the basis recreation areas. Turns and bends of routes for walking must comply with the elements of the landscape. Areas for recreation are usually located along the trail in of water bodies and in places of disclosure prospects. The recreation area is limited to with an enclosure which fits into the forest landscapes. In this case, the fence should not interfere with of migration of small animals (herpetofauna, insectivores, and others. The harmony of landscape elements serves as a criterion of completion of design. In the recreation area fire prevention measures have to be carried out by tenants. Permissible load of tourists to recreation areas is determined by a special technique. Conclusions: there was proposed a new kind of recreation facilities in the mountain forests - the zone for walking tourists. When carrying out forestry works, there will be a minimum of expenses on arrangement of the zone. Negative consequences to the forest environment would also be minimized

  20. Selecting areas for legal reserves in araucaria forest

    OpenAIRE

    Bernardo Ferreira Alves de Brito; Maurício Savi; João de Deus Medeiros

    2005-01-01

    The Atlantic Mixed Forest (araucaria forest), a typical forest of southern Brazil, possesses species of very high commercial value such as Araucaria angustifolia and Ocotea porosa. This forest originally covered about 200,000 – 250,000 km². Unfortunately, the native araucaria forests are disappearing, largely due to the conversion of forest lands to agriculture, logging and pasture. Remaining forest cover represents less than 1% of the pre-settlement forest area. Many species, which live on t...

  1. Forest Area Derivation from SENTINEL-1 Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dostálová, Alena; Hollaus, Markus; Milenković, Milutin; Wagner, Wolfgang

    2016-06-01

    The recently launched Sentinel-1A provides the high resolution Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data with very high temporal coverage over large parts of European continent. Short revisit time and dual polarization availability supports its usability for forestry applications. The following study presents an analysis of the potential of the multi-temporal dual-polarization Sentinel-1A data for the forest area derivation using the standard methods based on Otsu thresholding and K-means clustering. Sentinel-1 data collected in winter season 2014-2015 over a test area in eastern Austria were used to derive forest area mask with spatial resolution of 10m and minimum mapping unit of 500 m2. The validation with reference forest mask derived from airborne full-waveform laser scanning data revealed overall accuracy of 92 % and kappa statistics of 0.81. Even better results can be achieved when using external mask for urban areas, which might be misclassified as forests when using the introduced approach based on SAR data only. The Sentinel-1 data and the described methods are well suited for forest change detection between consecutive years.

  2. Evaluation of Recreational Areas in Reservoir Serie of Belgrad Forest From Forest Management Point of View

    OpenAIRE

    Özcan, Mehmet; Destan, Sinan

    2010-01-01

     ã€€The aim of this study was to implement a developed and tested methodology to determine the function of forest recreation, which can be useful for forest management and planning. In the study, structural components that are effective in evaluation of categories and types of seven recreational areas (Bentler, Falih Rıfkı Atay, Irmak, Kirazlıbent, Kömürcübent, Neşetsuyu and M.Akif Ersoy) in The Bentler Planning Unit of Belgrad Forest were rendered into a measurable situation and digitized. O...

  3. Comparative analysis of harmonized forest area stimates for European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seebach, Lucia Maria; Strobl, P.; Miguel-Ayanz, J. San;

    2011-01-01

    -based maps, covering Europe with recognized official forest statistics. It was found that the major cause of disagreements between official statistics and map-derived forest area originates from the general issue of accounting for land cover instead of land use. Consequently, CORINE land cover results had...... the best accordance with official statistics due to its focus on land use. The other maps overestimated the forest area in mountainous countries and showed underestimation in countries with large forest area or open forest formations....

  4. FOREST AREA DERIVATION FROM SENTINEL-1 DATA

    OpenAIRE

    Dostálová, Alena; Hollaus, Markus; Milenković, Milutin; Wagner, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    The recently launched Sentinel-1A provides the high resolution Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data with very high temporal coverage over large parts of European continent. Short revisit time and dual polarization availability supports its usability for forestry applications. The following study presents an analysis of the potential of the multi-temporal dual-polarization Sentinel-1A data for the forest area derivation using the standard methods based on Otsu thresholding and K-means clusterin...

  5. 36 CFR 293.17 - National Forest Primitive Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... National Forests classified as Primitive on the effective date of the Wilderness Act, September 3, 1964... prohibitions for those areas of National Forest classified as Primitive on the effective date of the Wilderness... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false National Forest...

  6. Problems and relevant strategies on natural forest protection in Changbai Mountain forest area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xian-cheng

    2003-01-01

    Changbai Mountain forest area is not only is a national timber base but also a green ecological defense for Songliao Plain of NE China. The Natural Forest Protection Project of this area has an important bearing on the social and economic sustainable development of Jilin Province or even the whole forest area in NE China. This paper summarized general conditions of natural forest in Changbai Mountain state-owned forest area and put forward six problems need to be urgently solved and five strategic suggestions on natural forest protection and sustainable management.

  7. US Forest Service Special Interest Management Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www that depicts National Forest System land parcels that have management or use limits placed on them by the Forest Service. Examples include:...

  8. Edaphic characteristics of Austrian pine (Pinus nigra Arn.) forests in the Višegrad area

    OpenAIRE

    Blagojević Velibor D.; Knežević Milan N.; Košanin Olivera D.; Kapović-Solomun Marijana B.; Lučić Radovan J.; Eremija Saša M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the results of soil research in Austrian pine (Pinus nigra Arn.) forest communities in the Višegrad area, carried out to determine the basic soil characteristics and eco-production potential of forest habitats as an important basis and framework for the successful management of these forests on the principles of sustainable development. Austrian pine forests in this region are an important and ecologically valuable community. The complex...

  9. US Forest Service Roadless Areas: Colorado Roadless Rule

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service, available on the www that depicts the boundaries of Roadless Areas designated by the Colorado Roadless Rule of 2012 and managed by the US Forest...

  10. US Forest Service Aerial Fire Retardant Avoidance Areas: Terrestrial

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service depicting aerial fire retardant avoidance areas delivered as part of the 2011 Nationwide Aerial Application of Fire Retardant on National Forest...

  11. Depauperate avifauna in plantations compared to forests and exurban areas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David G Haskell

    Full Text Available Native forests are shrinking worldwide, causing a loss of biological diversity. Our ability to prioritize forest conservation actions is hampered by a lack of information about the relative impacts of different types of forest loss on biodiversity. In particular, we lack rigorous comparisons of the effects of clearing forests for tree plantations and for human settlements, two leading causes of deforestation worldwide. We compared avian diversity in forests, plantations and exurban areas on the Cumberland Plateau, USA, an area of global importance for biodiversity. By combining field surveys with digital habitat databases, and then analyzing diversity at multiple scales, we found that plantations had lower diversity and fewer conservation priority species than did other habitats. Exurban areas had higher diversity than did native forests, but native forests outscored exurban areas for some measures of conservation priority. Overall therefore, pine plantations had impoverished avian communities relative to both native forests and to exurban areas. Thus, reports on the status of forests give misleading signals about biological diversity when they include plantations in their estimates of forest cover but exclude forested areas in which humans live. Likewise, forest conservation programs should downgrade incentives for plantations and should include settled areas within their purview.

  12. Assessment of forest geospatial patterns over the three giant forest areas of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ming-shi; ZHU Zhi-liang; LU Heng; XU Da; LIU An-xing; PENG Shi-kui

    2008-01-01

    Geospatial patterns of forest fragmentation over the three traditional giant forested areas of China (Northeastern, southwestern and Southern China) were analyzed comparatively and reported based on a 250-m resolution land cover dataset. Specifically, the spatial patterns of forest fragmentation were characterized by combining geospatial metrics and forest fragmentation models. The driving forces resulting in the differences of the forest spatial patterns were also investigated. Results suggested that forests in southwest China had the highest severity of forest fragmentation, followed by south region and northeast region. The driving forces of forest fragmentation in China were primarily the giant population and improper exploitation of forests. In conclusion, the generated information in the study provided valuable insights and implications as to the fragmentation patterns and the conservation of biodiversity or genes, and the use of the chosen geospatial metrics and forest fragmentation models was quite useful for depicting forest fragmentation patterns.

  13. Selecting areas for legal reserves in araucaria forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Ferreira Alves de Brito

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The Atlantic Mixed Forest (araucaria forest, a typical forest of southern Brazil, possesses species of very high commercial value such as Araucaria angustifolia and Ocotea porosa. This forest originally covered about 200,000 – 250,000 km². Unfortunately, the native araucaria forests are disappearing, largely due to the conversion of forest lands to agriculture, logging and pasture. Remaining forest cover represents less than 1% of the pre-settlement forest area. Many species, which live on the araucaria forest, are threatened with extinction. In 2002, Brazilian administrative decrees MMA no 507 and 508 established the areas for conservation (legally protected areas in araucaria forests. These decrees were modified by the additional publication of administrative decrees no 176 and 178, starting off the work in this areas. With the help of techniques from institutions such as MMA, IBAMA, FATMA/SC, IAP/PR, UFSC, and environmental groups, the “Araucaria Task-Force” was created. The methodology adopted included the effective participation of local bodies, municipalities and landowners. The work was aimed at the establishment of the biological conservation bases in the Atlantic Rain Forest. Four forest fragments were identified and analyzed, and the most significant areas for conservation were indicated.

  14. Planning Forest Opening with Forest Roads

    OpenAIRE

    Krč, Janez; Beguš, Jurij

    2013-01-01

    The article presents the model for determining inaccessible forest areas by density of forest roads. The model is based on the GIS analysis of the distances between the existing network of public and forest roads and inaccessible forest areas, sizes of excluded forest areas, and forest site potentials. In order to increase forest road density, the following must be done: (1) construct connecting roads to the inaccessible forest areas and (2) construct new forest roads with different density i...

  15. [Physiological-ecological effects of Populus davidiana--Quercus liaotungensis mixed forest in Ziwuling forest area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Juan; Shangguan, Zhouping

    2006-06-01

    This paper studied the soil physical- properties under Populus davidiana, Quercus liaotungensis, and Populus davidiana--Quercus liaotungensis mixed forest in the Ziwuling forest area of Loess Plateau, and the leaf photosysthetic characteristics of these three types of forests. The results showed that soil moisture content in 0 - 300 cm layer was the highest under P. davidiana forest, and obviously increased below 200 cm in depth under P. davidiana--Q. liaotungensis mixed forest, which was 10.5% - 19.76% higher than that under Q. liaotungensis forest. In 0 - 60 cm layer, P. davidiana forest showed the highest soil bulk density and the lowest soil porosity, while P. davidiana--Q. liaotungensis mixed forest presented the lowest soil bulk density and the highest soil porosity, and both of these indices surpassed their corresponding values under pure forests, which indicated that the mixed forest could make effective use of water in deep soil, and obviously improved soil physical and chemical properties. P. davidiana and Q. liaotungensis had a higher content of leaf chlorophyll than P. davidiana--Q. liaotungensis mixed forest, and Q. liaotungensis presented the highest leaf chlorophyll content. Q. liaotungensis had the highest photosynthetic rate and stomatal conductance, followed by P. davidiana, and by P. davidiana--Q. liaotungensis mixed forest. The water use efficiency of the forests ranked in the decreasing order of Q. liaotungensis in pure forest, Q. liaotungensis in mixed forest, P. davidiana in mixed forest, and P. davidiana in pure forest. Q. liaotungensis in mixed forest presented the highest F(v)/F(m) and F(v)/F(o), and did not remarkably differ from those in pure forest, but in the mixed forest, the F(v)/F(m) and F(v)/F(o) of P. davidiana were markedly lower than those of P. davidiana in pure forest. Both the q(p) and NPQ of P. davidiana and Q. liaotungensis in pure forests were higher than those in mixed forest, respectively. In Ziwuling forest area, Q

  16. Non-timber forest products and household incomes in Bonga forest area, southwestern Ethiopia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ermias Melaku; Zeleke Ewnetu; Demel Teketay

    2014-01-01

    We identified the major non-timber forest products (NTFPs), their contributions to household incomes, and the determinants influenc-ing engagement of households in using NTFPs in the Bonga forest area of Gimbo and Decha Districts of Kaffa Zone, southwest Ethiopia. Six Kebeles (the lowest administrative unit in Ethiopia) were sampled from two Districts and 150 households were randomly sampled using propor-tional-to-size techniques based on the number of farm households in each Kebele. Secondary data were collected from and focus group discussions were conducted with selected individuals. The farmers diversified liveli-hood activities such as crop and livestock production, collection of NTFPs and off-farm activities. NTFPs played a significant role in household incomes. The contribution from the major NTFPs (forest coffee, honey and spices) accounted for 47% of annual household in-come. The role of NTFPs was influenced by a number of factors. Vari-ables including being native to the area (+), total land holding (+), pos-session of livestock (+) and access to extension (+) significantly affected forest coffee production. Age of household head (-), land holding (+) and distance of the market from the residence (-) significantly affected honey production. Size of landholding (+), distance to market (-) and distance of the forest from the residence (-) were significant variables determining the NTFP incomes derived by the households. Attention is needed in the design of policies and strategies for the well-being of households to the contribution of NTFPs to local incomes and the variables that affect the collection of NTFPs must be considered.

  17. PROPERTIES OF ECTOHUMUS OF THE FOREST SOILS LOCATED AT MANUMENTAL OAKS OF FOREST AREAS IN THE OPOLE REGION

    OpenAIRE

    Izabella Pisarek; Elżbieta Gołąbek

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work was to determine the diversity of qualitative humic substances in the ectohumus horizon of the forest soil profiles. The analyzed soils were located in protected landscape areas and nature parks – Bory Niemodlińskie and Lasy Stobrawsko-Turawskie, and occurred under the tree stands of trees which were 200-600 years old – Quercus robur. The analyzed soils represent 15 soil profiles belonging to Podzols, Cambisols and Dystric Cambisols. Properties of forest habitat specific...

  18. 2008 USDA Forest Service Lidar: Sandy River Study Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Watershed Sciences, Inc. collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data for the Sandy River study area in collaboration with the USDA Forest Service. The areas...

  19. US Forest Service Aerial Fire Retardant Hydrographic Avoidance Areas: Aquatic

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map services on the www depicting aerial retardant avoidance areas for hydrographic feature data. Aerial retardant avoidance area for hydrographic feature data...

  20. Protected areas: mixed success in conserving East Africa's evergreen forests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion Pfeifer

    Full Text Available In East Africa, human population growth and demands for natural resources cause forest loss contributing to increased carbon emissions and reduced biodiversity. Protected Areas (PAs are intended to conserve habitats and species. Variability in PA effectiveness and 'leakage' (here defined as displacement of deforestation may lead to different trends in forest loss within, and adjacent to, existing PAs. Here, we quantify spatial variation in trends of evergreen forest coverage in East Africa between 2001 and 2009, and test for correlations with forest accessibility and environmental drivers. We investigate PA effectiveness at local, landscape and national scales, comparing rates of deforestation within park boundaries with those detected in park buffer zones and in unprotected land more generally. Background forest loss (BFL was estimated at -9.3% (17,167 km(2, but varied between countries (range: -0.9% to -85.7%; note: no BFL in South Sudan. We document high variability in PA effectiveness within and between PA categories. The most successful PAs were National Parks, although only 26 out of 48 parks increased or maintained their forest area (i.e. Effective parks. Forest Reserves (Ineffective parks, i.e. parks that lose forest from within boundaries: 204 out of 337, Nature Reserves (six out of 12 and Game Parks (24 out of 26 were more likely to lose forest cover. Forest loss in buffer zones around PAs exceeded background forest loss, in some areas indicating leakage driven by Effective National Parks. Human pressure, forest accessibility, protection status, distance to fires and long-term annual rainfall were highly significant drivers of forest loss in East Africa. Some of these factors can be addressed by adjusting park management. However, addressing close links between livelihoods, natural capital and poverty remains a fundamental challenge in East Africa's forest conservation efforts.

  1. Protected areas: mixed success in conserving East Africa's evergreen forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeifer, Marion; Burgess, Neil D; Swetnam, Ruth D; Platts, Philip J; Willcock, Simon; Marchant, Robert

    2012-01-01

    In East Africa, human population growth and demands for natural resources cause forest loss contributing to increased carbon emissions and reduced biodiversity. Protected Areas (PAs) are intended to conserve habitats and species. Variability in PA effectiveness and 'leakage' (here defined as displacement of deforestation) may lead to different trends in forest loss within, and adjacent to, existing PAs. Here, we quantify spatial variation in trends of evergreen forest coverage in East Africa between 2001 and 2009, and test for correlations with forest accessibility and environmental drivers. We investigate PA effectiveness at local, landscape and national scales, comparing rates of deforestation within park boundaries with those detected in park buffer zones and in unprotected land more generally. Background forest loss (BFL) was estimated at -9.3% (17,167 km(2)), but varied between countries (range: -0.9% to -85.7%; note: no BFL in South Sudan). We document high variability in PA effectiveness within and between PA categories. The most successful PAs were National Parks, although only 26 out of 48 parks increased or maintained their forest area (i.e. Effective parks). Forest Reserves (Ineffective parks, i.e. parks that lose forest from within boundaries: 204 out of 337), Nature Reserves (six out of 12) and Game Parks (24 out of 26) were more likely to lose forest cover. Forest loss in buffer zones around PAs exceeded background forest loss, in some areas indicating leakage driven by Effective National Parks. Human pressure, forest accessibility, protection status, distance to fires and long-term annual rainfall were highly significant drivers of forest loss in East Africa. Some of these factors can be addressed by adjusting park management. However, addressing close links between livelihoods, natural capital and poverty remains a fundamental challenge in East Africa's forest conservation efforts. PMID:22768074

  2. Trends of forest area and population and the impact of population on forest area per hectare in Serbia without APS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranković Nenad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Socio-economic changes throughout history have shaped the attitude towards the forest and most significant ones are changes in terms of population. Over the centuries population and population density have had a significant impact on deforestation and the reduction of forest areas. Therefore, it is important to check what kind of trends are concerned and how population growth affects forest areas, forest cover and forest area per capita. These elements are important for assessing the direction, intensity of activity and the degree of success in the implementation of all forest policy measures in Serbia. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 43007: Istraživanja klimatskih promena i njihovog uticaja na životnu sredinu - praćenje uticaja, adaptacija i ublažavanje, podprojekat, br. 43007/16-III: Socio-ekonomski razvoj, ublažavanje i adaptacija na klimatske promene

  3. US Forest Service Region 3 Wilderness Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This file contains a feature class depicting National Forest System land parcels that have a Congressionally designated boundary. Examples include National...

  4. Soil Quality Index Determination Models for Restinga Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonilha, R. M.; Casagrande, J. C.; Soares, R. M.

    2012-04-01

    The Restinga Forest is a set of plant communities in mosaic, determined by the characteristics of their substrates as a result of depositional processes and ages. In this complex mosaic are the physiognomies of restinga forests of high-stage regeneration (high restinga) and middle stage of regeneration (low restinga), each with its plant characteristics that differentiate them. Located on the coastal plains of the Brazilian coast, suffering internal influences both the continental slopes, as well as from the sea. Its soils come from the Quaternary and are subject to constant deposition of sediments. The climate in the coastal type is tropical (Köppen). This work was conducted in four locations: (1) Anchieta Island, Ubatuba, (2) Juréia-Itatins Ecological Station, Iguape, (3) Vila das Pedrinhas, Comprida Island; and (4) Cardoso Island, Cananeia. The soil samples were collect at a depths of 0 to 5, 0-10, 0-20, 20-40 and 40 to 60cm for the chemical and physical analysis. Were studied the additive and pondering additive models to evaluate soil quality. It was concluded: a) the comparative additive model produces quantitative results and the pondering additive model quantitative results; b) as the pondering additive model, the values of Soil Quality Index (SQI) for soils under forest of restinga are low and realistic, demonstrating the small plant biomass production potential of these soils, as well as their low resilience; c) the values of SQI similar to areas with and without restinga forest give quantitative demonstration of the restinga be considered as soil phase; d) restinga forest, probably, is maintained solely by the cycling of nutrients in a closed nutrient cycling; e) for the determination of IQS for soils under restinga vegetation the use of routine chemical analysis is adequate. Keywords: Model, restinga forest, Soil Quality Index (SQI).

  5. Forest stand height determination from low point density airborne laser scanning data in Roznava Forest enterprise zone (Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smreček R

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The presented paper discusses the potential of low point density airborne laser scanning (ALS data for use in forestry management. Scanning was carried out in the Rožnava Forest enterprise zone, Slovakia, with a mean laser point density of 1 point per 3 m2. Data were processed in SCOP++ using the hierarchic robust filtering technique. Two DTMs were created from airborne laser scanning (ALS and contour data and one DSM was created using ALS data. For forest stand height, two normalised DSMs (nDSMs were created by subtraction of the DSM and DTM. The forest stand heights derived from these nDSMs and the application of maximum and mean zonal functions were compared with those contained in the current Forest Management Plan (FMP. The forest stand heights derived from these data and the application of maxima and mean zonal functions were compared with those contained in the current Forest management plan. The use of the mean function and the contour-derived DTM resulted in forest stand height being underestimated by approximately 3% for stands of densities 0.9 and 1.0, and overestimated by 6% for a stand density of 0.8. Overestimation was significantly greater for lower forest stand densities: 81% for a stand density of 0.0 and 37% for a density of 0.4, with other discrepancies ranging between 15 and 30%. Although low point density ALS should be used carefully in the determination of other forest stand parameters, this low-cost method makes it useful as a control tool for felling, measurement of disaster areas and the detection of gross errors in the FMP data. Through determination of forest stand height, tree felling in three forest stands was identified. Because of big differences between the determined forest stand height and the heights obtained from the FMP, tree felling was verified on orthoimages.

  6. Species diversity and area-relationships in Danish beech forests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lawesson, J.E.; Blust, de G.; Grashof, C.; Firbanks, L.; Honnay, O.; Hermy, M.; Hobitz, P.; Jensen, L.M.

    1998-01-01

    The vascular flora of 62 Danish beech forests of eastern Jutland ranging in size from 1-445 ha, was investigated for species-area relations. Species richness reflecting total diversity, forest diversity, and of different habitat groups, were corrected for non-linearity by means of a log-log power fu

  7. Energy of forest systems in the Three Gorge Reservoir Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    The energy of three forest ecosystems in the Three Gorge Reservoir Area were analyzed. The results showed that the existing energy were 151.2438, 139.2014 and 175.1659 (x1010 J/hm2), the annual net fixed energy were 38.8924, 31.2214 and 46.8231 (x1010J/hm2), and the utilization efficiency of light energy were 1.16, 0.99 and 1.40 for the Quercus acutissima forest(Q.A.), the Pinus massoniana forest (P.M.), and the Queresus acutissima and Pinus massoniana mixed forest (Q.P.), respectively. In the Three Gorge Reservoir Area, the energy efficiency of Quercus acutissima and Pinus massoniana mixed forest is the best.

  8. Forest soil inventory and permanent forest soil monitoring areas in Bavaria - Results in higher mountaneous regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Bavarian forest soil inventory and permanent forest soil monitoring areas programme are important constituents of the Bavarian concept of preventive environmental protection. They afford information on nutrition and pollution of soils in forests, chemical composition of the soil and pollution with heavy metals and radionucleids. Relations between the state of the forests, nutrition and characteristic values of soil chemistry are to are to be elucidated. 46 forest areas and 14 areas under permanent monitoring are located in the peak regions of the Bavarian Alps. Needles of fir trees often display a lack of nitrogen and phosphor. Ph-values, exchange capacities and alkaline saturation are naturally high in lime locations and lower on rocks rich in quartz and silicate. Nitrogen and magnesium reserves in the soil are clearly above average whereas phosphor and sodium reserves are clearly below. Relations between bad conditions of tree tops and low needle level values can be statistically proven for nitrogen only. (orig./EW)

  9. Determination of minimum flood flow for regeneration of floodplain forest from inundated forest width-stage curve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Song-hao SHANG; Xiao-min MAO

    2010-01-01

    Floods are essential for the regeneration and growth of floodplain forests in arid and semiarid regions.However,river flows,and especially flood flows,have decreased greatly with the increase of water diversion from rivers and/or reservoir regulation,resulting in severe deterioration of floodplain ecosystems.Estimation of the flood stage that will inundate the floodplain forest is necessary for the forest's restoration or protection.To balance water use for economic purposes and floodplain forest protection,the inundated forest width method is proposed for estimating the minimum flood stage for floodplain forests from the inundated forest width-stage curve.The minimum flood stage is defined as the breakpoint of the inundated forest width-stage curve,and is determined directly or analytically from the curve.For the analytical approach,the problem under consideration is described by a multi-objective optimization model,which can be solved by the ideal point method.Then,the flood flow at the minimum flood stage(minimum flood flow),which is useful for flow regulation,can be calculated from the stage-discharge curve.In order to protect the forest in a river floodplain in a semiarid area in Xinjiang subject to reservoir regulation upstream,the proposed method was used to determine the minimum flood stage and flow for the forest.Field survey of hydrology,topography,and forest distribution was carried out at typical cross sections in the floodplain.Based on the survey results,minimum flood flows for six typical cross sections were estimated to be between 306 m3/s and 393 m3/s.Their maximum,393 m3/s,was considered the minimum flood flow for the study river reach.This provides an appropriate flood flow for the protection of floodplain forest and can be used in the regulation of the upstream reservoir.

  10. US Forest Service Roadless Areas: Idaho Roadless Rule

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service, available on the www, that depicts the Inventoried Roadless Areas that were used in the Final Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the 2008...

  11. Forest Management Plan Area 1 Erie National Wildlife Refuge 1985

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The management objective on Area l at Erie National Wildlife Refuge is to increase forest diversity in order to benefit all indigenous species with primary...

  12. US Forest Service Roadless Areas: 2001 Roadless Rule

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service, available on the www, that depicts the official data for the 2001 Roadless Area Conservation Rule (36 CFR 294, Subpart B). It contains the...

  13. A Forest Planning Approach with Respect to the Creation of Overmature Reserved Areas in Managed Forests

    OpenAIRE

    Jan Kašpar; Róbert Maru&scaronk; Robert Hlavatý

    2015-01-01

    Forest harvest planning to maximize economic benefits also has to consider additional criteria such as the biodiversity functioning of the managed forest. The biodiversity requirements are determined by the size, shape, and distribution of harvest units and forest stands. A multiple criteria approach is presented where the harvesting volume is maximized while the environmental aspects are also considered. Multiple criteria programming and integer programming techniques are used to find an opt...

  14. Tropical Deforestation, Community Forests, and Protected Areas in the Maya Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Velazquez

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Community forests and protected areas have each been proposed as strategies to stop deforestation. These management strategies should be regarded as hypotheses to be evaluated for their effectiveness in particular places. We evaluated the community-forestry hypothesis and the protected-area hypothesis in community forests with commercial timber production and strict protected areas in the Maya Forest of Guatemala and Mexico. From land-use and land cover change (LUCC maps derived from satellite images, we compared deforestation in 19 community forests and 11 protected areas in both countries in varying periods from 1988 to 2005. Deforestation rates were higher in protected areas than in community forests, but the differences were not significant. An analysis of human presence showed similar deforestation rates in inhabited protected areas and recently inhabited community forests, but the differences were not significant. There was also no significant difference in deforestation between uninhabited protected areas, uninhabited community forests, and long-inhabited community forests. A logistic regression analysis indicated that the factors correlated with deforestation varied by country. Distance to human settlements, seasonal wetlands, and degree and length of human residence were significant in Guatemala, and distance to previous deforestation and tropical semideciduous forest were significant in Mexico. Varying contexts and especially colonization histories are highlighted as likely factors that influence different outcomes. Poorly governed protected areas perform no better as a conservation strategy than poorly governed community forests with recent colonists in active colonization fronts. Long-inhabited extractive communities perform as well as uninhabited strict protected areas under low colonization pressure. A review of costs and benefits suggests that community forests may generate more local income with lower costs. Small sample sizes

  15. Determination of minimum flood flow for regeneration of floodplain forest from inundated forest width-stage curve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song-hao Shang

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Flood is essential for the regeneration and growth of floodplain forests in arid and semiarid regions. However, river flow, especially the flood, had changed greatly with the increase of water diversion from rivers and/or reservoir regulation, which may result in severer deterioration of the floodplain ecosystems. The estimation of appropriate flood stage to inundate the floodplain forests is necessary for their restoration or protection in flow regulation. To balance the economical water use and flood for the floodplain forest, we proposed the inundated forest width method to estimate minimum flood stage for floodplain forests from the inundated forest width – stage curve. The minimum flood stage was defined as the breakpoint of the inundated forest width – stage curve, and could be determined directly from the curve or analytically. For the latter case, the problem under consideration was described by a multi-objective optimization model, which can be solved by the ideal point method. In order to protect the forest in a river floodplain in semiarid area in Xinjiang that subjected to reservoir regulation in the upstream, the proposed method was used to determine the minimum flood stage and flow for the forest. Field survey on hydrology, topography and forest distribution was carried out at representative cross sections in the floodplain. Based on the surveying results, minimum flood flows for six representative cross sections were estimated to be 306 m3/s to 393 m3/s. Their maximum, 393 m3/s, was taken as the minimum flood flow for the studying river reach. It provides an appropriate flood flow for the protection of floodplain forest and can be used in the regulation of the upstream reservoir.

  16. Attribution and Characterisation of Sclerophyll Forested Landscapes Over Large Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Simon; Soto-Berelov, Mariela; Suarez, Lola; Wilkes, Phil; Woodgate, Will; Haywood, Andrew

    2016-06-01

    conducted a total of 67 ground-based method-to-method pairwise comparisons across 11 plots in five sites, incorporating the previously mentioned LAI methods. Out of the 67 comparisons, 29 had an RMSE ≥ 0.5 LAIe. This has important implications for the validation of remotely sensed products since ground based techniques themselves exhibit LAI variations greater than internationally recommended guidelines for satellite product accuracies. 2. Two methods of canopy height derivation are proposed and tested over a large area (4 Million Ha). 99th percentile maximum height achieved a RMSE of 6.6%, whilst 95th percentile dominant height a RMSE = 10.3%. Vertical canopy complexity (i.e. the number of forest layers of strata) was calculated as the local maxima of vegetation density within the LiDAR canopy profile and determined using a cubic spline smoothing of Pgap. This was then validated against in-situ and LiDAR observations of canopy strata with an RMSE 0.39 canopy layers. 3. Preliminary results are presented of landcover characterisation using LandTrendr analysis of Landsat LEDAPS data. kNN is then used to link these features to a dense network of 800 field plots sites.

  17. Characteristics and dynamics of sandy natural forests in sandy forest-steppe ecotone in the northern area of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The research was carried out on sandy natural forest ecosystems in sandy forest-steppe ecotone in the northern area of China from 1980's. In this paper, we introduced the concept and origin, distribution and actuality, types and succession of sandy natural forests in the northern area of China. The conservation value and strategy for sandy natural forests were also discussed. We hope to supply some scientific basis for performing "the Natural Forest Protection Program" reasonably in China.

  18. Digitally determining forest inventory units with an ecological classification system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG; Lina; WANG; Qingli; Guofan; Shao; DAI; Limin; WANG; Shunzhong; LI; Xiufen

    2006-01-01

    Management-level forest resource data in China were obtained with a combination of two forest inventories. However, inconsistencies in the spatial attributes of forest data vary between the two inventory types and between two inventories of the same type. The inconsistencies make it inconvenient for long-term forest management planning with digital technologies. Ecological Land Types (ELTs) and Ecological Land Type Phases (ELTPs) have been mapped in selected forestry regions in northeast China, where important forest industries are located. The boundaries of ELTs are determined by geomorphic conditions, which are quantified by Digital Elevation Models (DEM); ELTPs are classified by overlaying ELTs with forest vegetation data layers that are obtained with both remotely sensed and ground data. The ELTPs represent the divisions of land in terms of both natural and human-induced forest conditions, and therefore they are reliable units for forest inventories and management. This paper introduces a case study for digitally determining forest inventory units in Benxi City, Liaoning Province, northeast China. The general objective of the study was to explain how a compatible forest inventory system should be designed and why the compatible forest inventory system was significant to digital forestry in China.

  19. Which Models Are Appropriate for Six Subtropical Forests: Species-Area and Species-Abundance Models

    OpenAIRE

    Shi Guang Wei; Lin Li; Zhen Cheng Chen; Ju Yu Lian; Guo Jun Lin; Zhong Liang Huang; Zuo Yun Yin

    2014-01-01

    The species-area relationship is one of the most important topic in the study of species diversity, conservation biology and landscape ecology. The species-area relationship curves describe the increase of species number with increasing area, and have been modeled by various equations. In this paper, we used detailed data from six 1-ha subtropical forest communities to fit three species-area relationship models. The coefficient of determination and F ratio of ANOVA showed all the three models...

  20. Forest classes and tree cover gradient: tick habitat in encroached areas of southern Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanwambeke, S O; Van Doninck, J; Artois, J; Davidson, R K; Meyfroidt, P; Jore, S

    2016-03-01

    Forest, in particular deciduous forest, is a key element in determining areas with a high probability of tick presence. The way forest is generally monitored may be ill suited to some landscapes where Ixodes ricinus is found, as forest is usually characterised using crisp land cover classes. However, tree vegetation can be found outside of forests and continuous gradations of tree density can be found in a variety of landscapes. In this paper we investigate the probability of tick presence in southern Norway using landscape description based both on land cover classes and continuous data describing the tree cover fraction. Both perspectives on the landscape are significant in the logistic model, indicating that the usual approach based solely on land cover classes may not be comprehensive enough in capturing tick habitat, and characterising the landscape with variables focused on single specific elements may be insufficient. PMID:26692382

  1. Forest Intervention Areas (ZIF): a new approach for forest management in Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, S.; Coelho, C.; Soares, J.

    2012-04-01

    Portugal is the EU eighth country with more forest and other wooded area cover by surface area. However, it is also at the top of the EU countries most affected by forest fires. Several factors have been launched as possible causes, namely arson and negligence, which has been combined with harsh climate, steep slopes and a weakened rural context, characterized by depopulation and ageing, forest mismanagement, farmland abandonment and absence of an effective spatial planning. Forest fires of 2003 and 2005, which were particularly severe and intense, highlighted the need to restructure the legal and institutional setting of forest management in Portugal. These events proved to be very harmful, not only for the socio-economic context, but also in terms of desertification, soil erosion, loss of water supply and losses on soil organic matter. The EU funded DESIRE project (1) aimed to established promising sustainable land management (SLM) conservation strategies in several areas throughout the world affected by desertification, promoting joint work between scientists and local stakeholders. Forest fires are one of the major causes of desertification in Portugal and Mação and Góis municipalities were selected as DESIRE study sites. The decision support methodology developed under DESIRE was based on the notion that stakeholder participation in decision-making will develop more legitimate, effective and successful decisions. The reduction of burned area was the goal defined in the Portuguese stakeholder workshops and the Forest Intervention Area (ZIF) was selected as the needed approach towards SLM. The aim of this communication is to present the outline and context of ZIF approach in Portugal and to explore the social perception over the success or failure of this approach at Mação municipality. ZIF is a territorial unit where the main land use is forestry. This approach assembles and organizes small forest holders and defines a joint intervention for forest

  2. Tracking Forest and Open Area Effects on Snow Accumulation by Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Photogrammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lendzioch, T.; Langhammer, J.; Jenicek, M.

    2016-06-01

    Airborne digital photogrammetry is undergoing a renaissance. The availability of low-cost Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) platforms well adopted for digital photography and progress in software development now gives rise to apply this technique to different areas of research. Especially in determining snow depth spatial distributions, where repetitive mapping of cryosphere dynamics is crucial. Here, we introduce UAV-based digital photogrammetry as a rapid and robust approach for evaluating snow accumulation over small local areas (e.g., dead forest, open areas) and to reveal impacts related to changes in forest and snowpack. Due to the advancement of the technique, snow depth of selected study areas such as of healthy forest, disturbed forest, succession, dead forest, and of open areas can be estimated at a 1 cm spatial resolution. The approach is performed in two steps: 1) developing a high resolution Digital Elevation Model during snow-free and 2) during snow-covered conditions. By substracting these two models the snow depth can be accurately retrieved and volumetric changes of snow depth distribution can be achieved. This is a first proof-of-concept study combining snow depth determination and Leaf Area Index (LAI) retrieval to monitor the impact of forest canopy metrics on snow accumulation in coniferous forest within the Šumava National Park, Czech Republic. Both, downward-looking UAV images and upward-looking LAI-2200 canopy analyser measurements were applied to reveal the LAI, controlling interception and transmitting radiation. For the performance of downward-looking images the snow background instead of the sky fraction was used. In contrast to the classical determination of LAI by hemispherical photography or by LAI plant canopy analyser, our approach will also test the accuracy of LAI measurements by UAV that are taken simultaneously during the snow cover mapping campaigns. Since the LAI parameter is important for snowpack modelling, this method presents

  3. Potential cultivation areas of Saffron and its economic effects on forest dwellers welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armin Mashayekhan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The maintenance of natural forest and forest dwellers welfare are vital to biodiversity conservation. For this purpose, introducing of Saffron cultivation as innovation in agricultural activities outside of the forest could be a key factor. To achieve this goal, it is necessary to determine the agronomic suitability and the appropriate spatial pattern for the Saffron cultivation. Geographic Information System (GIS was used to identify suitable areas for Saffron cultivation in the North of Khorasan Province, Iran. Relevant environment components such as climate factors (temperature and rainfall, topography (Digital Elevation Model and slope and land-use were considered. The results of this study were specially looking for potential cultivation areas for expanding Saffron and to develop suitable map for Saffron cultivation. We found that 69% (1887 ha of agricultural land have currently suitable for Saffron cultivation in North of Khorasan, Iran. The map of land suitability for cultivation of Saffron can be practiced for improving livelihood and forest conservation.

  4. Analysis of Socio-Economic Factors Influencing Forest Dwellers' Participation in Reforestation and Development of Forest Areas (The Case Study of West Mazandaran, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Faham

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study was to investigate the links between forest dwellers’ participation in reforestation and development of forest areas in west Mazandaran of Iran and a set of socio-economic variables. The statistical population includes all forest dwellers living in villages, which locate in the west Mazandaran in Iran and had been covered by local forestry cooperative. A sample of 110 forest dwellers were selected by the use of proportional random sampling method. A questionnaire was used to collect data. For determining the validity of questionnaire, the content validity was used. Cronbach's alpha was used to measure reliability of the index measuring level of participation in reforestation and development of forest areas that its extent was 0.86 and showed that mentioned variable had high reliability. The data were analyzed by the use of descriptive and inferential statistics such as extent of mean, standard deviation, coefficient of variation, correlation analysis and regression analysis. The findings revealed that age, level of literacy, level of participation in extension-education courses, using level of communication channels and information resources, level of forest dependency, social participation, social solidarity, economic and social motivations are positively and significantly (p<0.01 correlated with level of forest dwellers' participation in reforestation and development of forest areas. Household size is positively and significantly (p<0.05 correlated with level of forest dwellers' participation in reforestation and development of forest areas. The result of multiple regression showed that variables of level of participation in extension-education courses, age, household size, level of economic motivation, social solidarity and level of literacy could explain 51.4% of the variation in the level of forest dwellers' participation in reforestation and development of forest areas.

  5. Representative landscapes in the forested area of Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardille, Jeffrey A; White, Joanne C; Wulder, Mike A; Holland, Tara

    2012-01-01

    Canada is a large nation with forested ecosystems that occupy over 60% of the national land base, and knowledge of the patterns of Canada's land cover is important to proper environmental management of this vast resource. To this end, a circa 2000 Landsat-derived land cover map of the forested ecosystems of Canada has created a new window into understanding the composition and configuration of land cover patterns in forested Canada. Strategies for summarizing such large expanses of land cover are increasingly important, as land managers work to study and preserve distinctive areas, as well as to identify representative examples of current land-cover and land-use assemblages. Meanwhile, the development of extremely efficient clustering algorithms has become increasingly important in the world of computer science, in which billions of pieces of information on the internet are continually sifted for meaning for a vast variety of applications. One recently developed clustering algorithm quickly groups large numbers of items of any type in a given data set while simultaneously selecting a representative-or "exemplar"-from each cluster. In this context, the availability of both advanced data processing methods and a nationally available set of landscape metrics presents an opportunity to identify sets of representative landscapes to better understand landscape pattern, variation, and distribution across the forested area of Canada. In this research, we first identify and provide context for a small, interpretable set of exemplar landscapes that objectively represent land cover in each of Canada's ten forested ecozones. Then, we demonstrate how this approach can be used to identify flagship and satellite long-term study areas inside and outside protected areas in the province of Ontario. These applications aid our understanding of Canada's forest while augmenting its management toolbox, and may signal a broad range of applications for this versatile approach. PMID

  6. Large-scale patterns of turnover and Basal area change in Andean forests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selene Báez

    Full Text Available General patterns of forest dynamics and productivity in the Andes Mountains are poorly characterized. Here we present the first large-scale study of Andean forest dynamics using a set of 63 permanent forest plots assembled over the past two decades. In the North-Central Andes tree turnover (mortality and recruitment and tree growth declined with increasing elevation and decreasing temperature. In addition, basal area increased in Lower Montane Moist Forests but did not change in Higher Montane Humid Forests. However, at higher elevations the lack of net basal area change and excess of mortality over recruitment suggests negative environmental impacts. In North-Western Argentina, forest dynamics appear to be influenced by land use history in addition to environmental variation. Taken together, our results indicate that combinations of abiotic and biotic factors that vary across elevation gradients are important determinants of tree turnover and productivity in the Andes. More extensive and longer-term monitoring and analyses of forest dynamics in permanent plots will be necessary to understand how demographic processes and woody biomass are responding to changing environmental conditions along elevation gradients through this century.

  7. Large-Scale Patterns of Turnover and Basal Area Change in Andean Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blundo, Cecilia; Aguilar, Manuel; Aguirre, Nikolay; Aquirre, Zhofre; Álvarez, Esteban; Cuesta, Francisco; Farfán-Ríos, William; García-Cabrera, Karina; Grau, Ricardo; Linares-Palomino, Reynaldo; Malizia, Lucio R.; Cruz, Omar Melo; Osinaga, Oriana; Reynel, Carlos; Silman, Miles R.

    2015-01-01

    General patterns of forest dynamics and productivity in the Andes Mountains are poorly characterized. Here we present the first large-scale study of Andean forest dynamics using a set of 63 permanent forest plots assembled over the past two decades. In the North-Central Andes tree turnover (mortality and recruitment) and tree growth declined with increasing elevation and decreasing temperature. In addition, basal area increased in Lower Montane Moist Forests but did not change in Higher Montane Humid Forests. However, at higher elevations the lack of net basal area change and excess of mortality over recruitment suggests negative environmental impacts. In North-Western Argentina, forest dynamics appear to be influenced by land use history in addition to environmental variation. Taken together, our results indicate that combinations of abiotic and biotic factors that vary across elevation gradients are important determinants of tree turnover and productivity in the Andes. More extensive and longer-term monitoring and analyses of forest dynamics in permanent plots will be necessary to understand how demographic processes and woody biomass are responding to changing environmental conditions along elevation gradients through this century. PMID:25973977

  8. 78 FR 34031 - Burned Area Emergency Response, Forest Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-06

    ... level. 2523.4--Suppression-Damaged Areas Clarified that costs for suppression-damage rehabilitation... Response activities on National Forest System lands. Agency regulations at 36 CFR 220.6(d)(2) (73 FR 43093... cost-effective response actions. This interim directive supersedes the existing directive located...

  9. Modelling recreational visits to forests and nature areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de S.; Goossen, C.M.

    2002-01-01

    Besides their ecological and production function, the social function of forests and nature areas is becoming more and more important However, data, norms, and planning tools for this social function are limited. This makes it difficult for policy makers to do justice to this function, especially in

  10. Averting biodiversity collapse in tropical forest protected areas

    OpenAIRE

    Laurance, William F.; Carolina Useche, D.; Rendeiro, Julio; Kalka, Margareta; Bradshaw, Corey J A; Sloan, Sean P.; Laurance, Susan G.; Campbell, Mason; Abernethy, Kate; Alvarez, Patricia; Arroyo-Rodriguez, Victor; Ashton, Peter; Benítez-Malvido, Julieta; Blom, Allard; Bobo, Kadiri S.

    2012-01-01

    The rapid disruption of tropical forests probably imperils global biodiversity more than any other contemporary phenomenon(1-3). With deforestation advancing quickly, protected areas are increasingly becoming final refuges for threatened species and natural ecosystem processes. However, many protected areas in the tropics are themselves vulnerable to human encroachment and other environmental stresses(4-9). As pressures mount, it is vital to know whether existing reserves can sustain their bi...

  11. Impact of heavy metals on forest trees from mining areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truby, P. [Albert-Ludwigs Univ., Freiburg Bertoldstr (Germany). Inst. of Soil Science and Forest Nutrition

    2003-07-01

    Abandoned ore mines from the early Middle Ages in Germany are covered with vegetation and forest trees. A study was conducted in old mining areas of the southern Black Forest and in recent mining areas in the Northern Eifel Mountain to investigate the uptake and distribution of heavy metals by forest trees in heavily contaminated sites. The objective was to quantify the total uptake, trace the pathways of internal distribution, and examine the role of uptake by leafs. It was shown that medieval ore mine spoils from the Black Forest Silver fir and Douglas fir have taken up relatively high amounts of heavy metals. Lead content in the stemwood of a 120 year old tree was found to be 120 {mu}g/g d.m, but there was no apparent negative effect on tree growth and vitality. The trees from the Eifel site had individual heavy metal distribution patterns resulting from soils that are contaminated with zinc, lead, cadmium, and copper. Heavy metals were taken up mostly by the roots, with no significant leaf uptake. At all sites, the roots were mycorrhized but the number of species was reduced with the most abundant species being cenococcum. There was no evidence of specific damage to trees caused by heavy metal toxicity, even in highly contaminated soils and areas of high atmospheric input. 17 refs., 3 tabs., 11 figs.

  12. Forest Understory Fire in the Brazilian Amazon in ENSO and Non-ENSO Years: Area Burned and Committed Carbon Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alencar, A.; Nepstad, D.; Ver-Diaz, M. Del. C.

    2004-01-01

    "Understory fires" that burn the floor of standing forests are one of the most important types of forest impoverishment in the Amazon, especially during the severe droughts of El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) episodes. However, we are aware of no estimates of the areal extent of these fires for the Brazilian Amazon and, hence, of their contribution to Amazon carbon fluxes to the atmosphere. We calculated the area of forest understory fires for the Brazilian Amazon region during an El Nino (1998) and a non El Nino (1995) year based on forest fire scars mapped with satellite images for three locations in eastern and southern Amazon, where deforestation is concentrated. The three study sites represented a gradient of both forest types and dry season severity. The burning scar maps were used to determine how the percentage of forest that burned varied with distance from agricultural clearings. These spatial functions were then applied to similar forest/climate combinations outside of the study sites to derive an initial estimate for the Brazilian Amazon. Ninety-one percent of the forest area that burned in the study sites was within the first kilometer of a clearing for the non ENSO year and within the first four kilometers for the ENSO year. The area of forest burned by understory forest fire during the severe drought (ENSO) year (3.9 millions of hectares) was 13 times greater than the area burned during the average rainfall year (0.2 million hectares), and twice the area of annual deforestation rate. Dense forest was, proportionally, the forest area most affected by understory fires during the El Nino year, while understory fires were concentrated in transitional forests during the year of average rainfall. Our estimate of aboveground tree biomass killed by fire ranged from 0.06 Pg to 0.38 Pg during the ENSO and from 0,004 Pg to 0,024 Pg during the non ENSO.

  13. Distribution and area of mangrove forest in Pising Bay coastal area North Kabaena Island Southeast Sulawesi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Salam Tarigan

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available esearched of mangrove forest in Pising Bay, North Kabaena Island Southeast Sulawesi was carried out on April 2006. Data digital Landsat 7ETM+ parth/raw 113/064 was used for mangrove mapping. Classification method was done is multispectral supervised with artificial neural networks algortms. Analysis and data validation from field survey, it is estimated that distribution and areas of mangrove forest in Pising Bay, North Kabaena Island Southeast Sulawesi is 152.128 Ha. Mangrove in Pising Bay dominated by rhizophora apiculata, rhizophora mucronata; and the forest is relatively in good condition.

  14. Forest Conservation Opportunity Areas - Liberal Model (ECO_RES.COA_FORREST33)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This layer designates areas with potential for forest conservation. These are areas of natural or semi-natural forest land cover patches that are at least 75 meters...

  15. USDA Forest Service Roadless Areas: Potential Biodiversity Conservation Reserves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerry Cesareo

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available In January 2001, approximately 23 x 106 ha of land in the U.S. National Forest System were slated to remain roadless and protected from timber extraction under the Final Roadless Conservation Rule. We examined the potential contributions of these areas to the conservation of biodiversity. Using GIS, we analyzed the concordance of inventoried roadless areas (IRAs with ecoregion-scale biological importance and endangered and imperiled species distributions on a scale of 1:24,000. We found that more than 25% of IRAs are located in globally or regionally outstanding ecoregions and that 77% of inventoried roadless areas have the potential to conserve threatened, endangered, or imperiled species. IRAs would increase the conservation reserve network containing these species by 156%. We further illustrate the conservation potential of IRAs by highlighting their contribution to the conservation of the grizzly bear (Ursos arctos, a wide-ranging carnivore. The area created by the addition of IRAs to the existing system of conservation reserves shows a strong concordance with grizzly bear recovery zones and habitat range. Based on these findings, we conclude that IRAs belonging to the U.S. Forest Service are one of the most important biotic areas in the nation, and that their status as roadless areas could have lasting and far-reaching effects for biodiversity conservation.

  16. Vegetation Diversity Quality in Mountainous Forest of Ranu Regulo Lake Area, Bromo Tengger Semeru National Park, East Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jehan Ramdani Hariyati

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this research was to study vegetation diversity quality in mountainous forest of Ranu Regulo Lake area in Bromo Tengger Semeru National Park (TNBTS, East Java. Field observation was carried out by vegetation analysis using sampling plots of 25x25 m2 for trees, 5x5 m2 for poles, 1x1 m2 for ground surface plants. Community structure of each lake side was determined by calculating vegetation's density, basal area, frequency, important value and stratification of species. While vegetations diversity was estimated by taxa richness, Shannon-Wiener diversity index, and rate of endemism. Each lake side forests were compared by Morisita community similarity index. Data were tabulated by Microsoft Excel 2007. The result showed that based on existed vegetation, mountainous forest surrounding Ranu Regulo Lake consisted of four ecosystems, i.e. heterogenic mountainous forest, pine forest, acacia forest and bushes. Bushes Area has two types of population, edelweiss and Eupatorium odoratum invaded area. Vegetation diversity quality in heterogenic mountainous forest of Ranu Regulo TNBTS was the highest, indicated by its multi-stratification to B stratum trees of 20-30m high. Heterogenic mountainous forest’s formation was Acer laurinum and Acmena accuminatissima for trees, Chyatea for poles. Taxa richness was found 59 species and 30 families, while the others were found below 28 species and 17 families. Diversity Index of heterogenic mountainous forest is the highest among others for trees is 2.31 and 3.24 for poles and second in bushes (H=3.10 after edelweiss ecosystem (H=3.39. Highest rate of endemism reached 100% for trees in heterogenic mountainous forest, 87% for poles in edelweiss area and 89% for bushes also in heterogenic mountainous forest. Trees, poles and herbs most similarity community showed by pine and acacia forest. Based on those five characters, vegetation diversity quality in Ranu Regulo Lake area was medium for heterogenic mountainous

  17. Edaphic characteristics of Austrian pine (Pinus nigra Arn. forests in the Višegrad area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blagojević Velibor D.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of soil research in Austrian pine (Pinus nigra Arn. forest communities in the Višegrad area, carried out to determine the basic soil characteristics and eco-production potential of forest habitats as an important basis and framework for the successful management of these forests on the principles of sustainable development. Austrian pine forests in this region are an important and ecologically valuable community. The complexity of the geological structure and relief dynamics are dominant environmental factors that condition the expressed variability of soils in the study area. Forest communities of Austrian pine are formed on the peridotites and serpentinites, eutric ranker (haplic leptosol, eutric cambisol (haplic cambisols and pseudogley (haplic planosol, dense granular and marl limestones calcomelanosol (mollic leptosol, rendzina (rendzic leptosol and calcocambisol (leptic cambisol. The productivity of these soils is highly correlated with depth and texture composition, and the impact of these factors is linked with soil type, climate and other site conditions. In the research area, soil types with low production potential such as rankers, rendzinas, limestone and dolomite calcomelanosol are dominant. Deeper variants of eutric cambisol, pseudogley and calcocambisol can be classified as soils with moderate to high production potential.

  18. Evaluation of the forest ecosystem health in Beijing area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Li; Han Hai-rong; Ma Qin-yan; Liu Hong-wen; Xia Wei-wei; Cheng Xiao-qin

    2007-01-01

    The evaluation of ecosystem health has become one of the main research topics of ecosystem science, thus more and more assessment methods and frameworks have been put forward in recent years. However, the attention people pay to ecosystem health is actually more about what the social functions the ecosystem affords, which depend on the integrity and maintenance of the ecosystem structure and function, and the intensity of disturbance from outside. Accordingly, this research commenced from three main aspects,selected the evaluation indices, and then established the Evaluation Index System of Beijing Forest Ecosystem Health (EIS-BFEH).In the EIS-BFEH, each of the three foundations contained an easily-operated and standard sub-index system, which compounded the specific natural and social conditions of Beijing and was concrete enough to measure and evaluate. Then with the method of the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP), the comprehensive index (CI) could be obtained, which represented the health of the forest ecosystem. As a case study, the forest ecosystems in the Badaling area were sampled, evaluated, compared and ranked by use of the EIS-BFEH. The result show that the health of natural forests is much better than that of plantations in the Badaling forest center: the average comprehensive index of the former is 7.9, while the latter is only 6.6. From the results, it could also be found that there are nine units in the healthy state, two units in the subhealthy state, and only one unit of Robinia pseudoacacia in the morbid state.

  19. Study of Value Assessment Model of Forest Biodiversity Based on the Habitat Area in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Zhang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Forest biodiversity is an important part of biodiversity. There is an essential significance of studying forest biodiversity assessment for promoting the conservation of biodiversity and enhancing biodiversity management in China. This study collected forest biodiversity habitat area, output value of forestry and so on forest biodiversity assessment-related data from 2001 to 2010 in China and using optimal control methods in cybernetics to establish value assessment model of forest biodiversity based on the data of habitat area, as well as calculated the optimal price for forest biodiversity assessment. The result showed that forest biodiversity habitat assessment of the optimal price is 9,970 RMB Yuan/ha and there is a dynamic model for forest biodiversity assessment. Finally, the study suggested that studies of forest biodiversity assessment in China, in particular, studying of valuation of forest biodiversity should consider using shadow price and the social, economic and other factors should be taken into account

  20. SPATIAL FOREST HARVEST PLANNING CONSIDERING MAXIMUM OPERATIONAL AREAS

    OpenAIRE

    Andrey Lessa Derci Augustynczik; Julio Eduardo Arce; Arinei Carlos Lindbeck da Silva

    2015-01-01

    One of the biggest challenges that forest managers face in forest planning is related to logistic issues of forest harvesting. The operational planning of forest harvesting must consider simultaneously the economic and environmental concerns, searching for increasing the efficiency and mitigating environmental damage related to the opening of forest cover. The inclusion of spatial aspects in forest harvesting is usually done through adjacency constraints. The main approaches to solve this sor...

  1. Study of Value Assessment Model of Forest Biodiversity Based on the Habitat Area in China

    OpenAIRE

    Ying Zhang; Hui Li; Ye Feng

    2014-01-01

    Forest biodiversity is an important part of biodiversity. There is an essential significance of studying forest biodiversity assessment for promoting the conservation of biodiversity and enhancing biodiversity management in China. This study collected forest biodiversity habitat area, output value of forestry and so on forest biodiversity assessment-related data from 2001 to 2010 in China and using optimal control methods in cybernetics to establish value assessment model of forest biodiversi...

  2. Inventory of Small Forest Areas Using an Unmanned Aerial System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Puliti

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Acquiring high spatial and temporal resolution imagery from small unmanned aerial systems (sUAS provides new opportunities for inventorying forests at small scales. Only a few studies have investigated the use of UASs in forest inventories, and the results are inconsistent and incomplete. The present study used three-dimensional (3D variables derived from UAS imagery in combination with ground reference data to fit linear models for Lorey’s mean height (hL, dominant height (hdom, stem number (N, basal area (G, and stem volume (V. Plot-level cross validation revealed adjusted R2 values of 0.71, 0.97, 0.60, 0.60, and 0.85 for hL, hdom, N, G, and V, respectively, with corresponding RMSE values of 1.4 m, 0.7 m, 538.2 ha−1, 4.5 m2∙ha−1, and 38.3 m3∙ha−1. The respective relative RMSE values were 13.3%, 3.5%, 39.2%, 15.4%, and 14.5% of the mean ground reference values. The mean predicted values did not differ significantly from the reference values. The results revealed that the use of UAS imagery can provide relatively accurate and timely forest inventory information at a local scale. In addition, the present study highlights the practical advantages of UAS-assisted forest inventories, including adaptive planning, high project customization, and rapid implementation, even under challenging weather conditions.

  3. 77 FR 39575 - Special Areas; Roadless Area Conservation; Applicability to the National Forests in Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-03

    ... timber cutting, sale, or removal and road construction/reconstruction have the greatest likelihood of... maintenance of water conveyance structures Restricting LCZs, while permitting access to current and future... construction and timber harvest activities. Excluding ski areas under permit or lands allocated in forest...

  4. What is the importance of open habitat in a predominantly closed forest area to the dung beetle (Coleoptera, Scarabaeinae assemblage?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio C. Costa

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available What is the importance of open habitat in a predominantly closed forest to the dung beetle assemblage? The Atlantic Forest in Brazil is one of the most highly disturbed ecosystems and is mainly represented by fragmented areas. However, in places where human disturbances have ceased, certain areas are showing a natural regeneration pattern. The aim of the present study was to determine how the dung beetle assemblage responds to distinct habitat structures in a fragment of Atlantic Forest. For such, open and closed forest areas were sampled in a fragment of the Atlantic Forest in the northeastern region of Brazil. Pitfall traps baited with excrement and carrion were used to collect the beetles. A total of 7,267 individuals belonging to 35 species were captured. Canthon chalybaeus and C. mutabilis were restricted to open areas. Nearly 90% of the individuals of C. aff. simulans and Deltochilum aff. irroratum were identified in these areas. A higher percentage (> 50% of Canthon staigi, Dichotomius aff. depressicolis and D. aff. sericeus occurred in closed areas. Abundance differed between areas, with higher values in closed areas. Richness was not influenced by the habitat structure. NMDS ordination exhibited the segregation of areas and ANOSIM confirmed that this variable explained the assemblage of dung beetle species. The findings of the present study validate that open areas are associated to more restrictive conditions, limiting a higher abundance of dung beetle. Although situated near preserved fragments, the studied open areas increase the heterogeneity of the general landscape.

  5. US Forest Service Wilderness Areas: Legal Status 2 - Grid Polygon Fill

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting status of parcels for Forest Service land congressionally designated as wilderness such as National Wilderness Areas. This map...

  6. The Performance of Forestry Human Resources in Licensing Forest Utilization, The Lease of Forest Area, and The Release of Forest Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurtjahjawilasa

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Performance assesment includes the quantity and quality measurements of individual or group works within organization in carrying out duties and functions. It is based on norms, standard operational procedure (SOP, and specified criteria in an organization. Factors affecting quality and quantity of individual performance in an organization are skills, experience, ability, competence, willingness, energy, technology, leadership, compensation, clarity of purpose, and security. This study aims to identify and analyze the performance of forestry human resources (HR related to licensing forest utilization, releasing forest area, and leasing forest area. The results of the study are: (1 the performance of forestry HR in licensing forest utilization was relatively still poor; (2 the structure (rules, norms, cultural cognitive of forestry HR was unclear and is not well developed; and (3 the culture of learning organization, including personal mastery, mental models, shared vision, team learning, and system thinking is still insufficient and needs to be developed at the ministerial, provincial, and district/city levels. Some suggestions for improving the performance of forestry HR are: (1 establishing an appraisal team/task force of forestry HR performance; (2 developing commitment for high quality service at the bureaucratic elites and their highest level networks; and (3 considering the development of one stop licensing supported by online system to promote transparency and public accountability.

  7. Total atmospheric mercury deposition in forested areas in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jin-Su; Seo, Yong-Seok; Kim, Moon-Kyung; Holsen, Thomas M.; Yi, Seung-Muk

    2016-06-01

    In this study, mercury (Hg) was sampled weekly in dry and wet deposition and throughfall and monthly in litterfall, and as it was volatilized from soil from August 2008 to February 2010 to identify the factors influencing the amount of atmospheric Hg deposited to forested areas in a temperate deciduous forest in South Korea. For this location there was no significant correlation between the estimated monthly dry deposition flux (litterfall + throughfall - wet deposition) (6.7 µg m-2 yr-1) and directly measured dry deposition (9.9 µg m-2 yr-1) likely due primarily to Hg losses from the litterfall collector. Dry deposition fluxes in cold seasons (fall and winter) were lower than in warmer seasons (spring and summer). The volume-weighted mean (VWM) Hg concentrations in both precipitation and throughfall were highest in winter, likely due to increased scavenging by snow events. Since South Korea experiences abundant rainfall in summer, VWM Hg concentrations in summer were lower than in other seasons. Litterfall fluxes were highest in the late fall to early winter, when leaves were dropped from the trees (September to November). The cumulative annual Hg emission flux from soil was 6.8 µg m-2 yr-1. Based on these data, the yearly deposition fluxes of Hg calculated using two input approaches (wet deposition + dry deposition or throughfall + litterfall) were 6.8 and 3.6 µg m-2 yr-1, respectively. This is the first reported study which measured the amount of atmospheric Hg deposited to forested areas in South Korea, and thus our results provide useful information to compare against data related to Hg fate and transport in this part of the world.

  8. Transpiration of urban forests in the Los Angeles metropolitan area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pataki, Diane E; McCarthy, Heather R; Litvak, Elizaveta; Pincetl, Stephanie

    2011-04-01

    Despite its importance for urban planning, landscape management, and water management, there are very few in situ estimates of urban-forest transpiration. Because urban forests contain an unusual and diverse mix of species from many regions worldwide, we hypothesized that species composition would be a more important driver of spatial variability in urban-forest transpiration than meteorological variables in the Los Angeles (California, USA) region. We used constant-heat sap-flow sensors to monitor urban tree water use for 15 species at six locations throughout the Los Angeles metropolitan area. For many of these species no previous data on sap flux, water use, or water relations were available in the literature. To scale sap-flux measurements to whole trees we conducted a literature survey of radial trends in sap flux across multiple species and found consistent relationships for angiosperms vs. gymnosperms. We applied this relationship to our measurements and estimated whole-tree and plot-level transpiration at our sites. The results supported very large species differences in transpiration, with estimates ranging from 3.2 +/- 2.3 kg x tree(-1) x d(-1) in unirrigated Pinus canariensis (Canary Island pine) to 176.9 +/- 75.2 kg x tree(-1) x d(-1) in Platanus hybrida (London planetree) in the month of August. Other species with high daily transpiration rates included Ficus microcarpa (laurel fig), Gleditsia triacanthos (honeylocust), and Platanus racemosa (California sycamore). Despite irrigation and relatively large tree size, Brachychiton populneas (kurrajong), B. discolor (lacebark), Sequoia sempervirens (redwood), and Eucalyptus grandis (grand Eucalyptus) showed relatively low rates of transpiration, with values < 45 kg x tree(-1) x d(-1). When scaled to the plot level, transpiration rates were as high as 2 mm/d for sites that contained both species with high transpiration rates and high densities of planted trees. Because plot-level transpiration is highly

  9. Sustaining Jamaica's forests: The protected areas resource conservation project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berke, Philip R.; Beatley, Timothy

    1995-07-01

    This study examines Jamaica's attempt to protect a tropical forest reserve. The biophysical setting, and the types and magnitude of forest development pressures are reviewed. Next, Jamaica's approach to developing new land-use strategies and compatible environmental protection and economic development programs are examined. Finally, the practical and theoretical implications by which institutions can be designed to encourage planning for sustainable development are reviewed. The implications suggest how to provide an appropriate mix of cooperation and market competition, by which people acting in their own interests accomplish socially equitable economic development, while protecting the environment for the benefit of future generations. The experience illustrates that effective long-term protection of natural areas requires the building of local relationships and support, the development of local economic activities supportive of conservation, the defining of clear boundaries, and significant monitoring and enforcement. Long-term protection of the Blue and John Crow mountains, and other important natural areas of Jamaica, will also require the development of a workable and enforceable system of land-use planning for the island, and adjustments to the economic incentive structure so that sustainable, nonextractive uses of natural capital are placed on equal footing with other economic uses (e.g., coffee production).

  10. Patch size determines the strength of edge effects on carabid beetle assemblages in urban remnant forests

    OpenAIRE

    Soga, Masashi; Kanno, Nozomi; Yamaura, Yuichi; Koike, Shinsuke

    2013-01-01

    Habitat fragmentation due to urbanization is increasing rapidly worldwide. Although patch area and edge effect are both important determinants of species diversity and the number of individuals in fragmented landscapes, studies that tested interaction between two effects were limited. Here we examined the interaction between area and edge effects on species richness and the number of individuals of carabids in highly fragmented forests in Tokyo, central Japan. We surveyed carabids in each of ...

  11. Boreal ditched forest and peatland are more vulnerable to forest fire than unditched areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, Stephan J.; Granath, Gustav; Landahl, Anna; Fölster, Jens

    2016-04-01

    During summer of 2014 the largest wildfire in Swedish modern history occurred. The fire was ignited in a forest close to the Swedish town Sala and incinerated a total of 14 000 ha. The frequency of wildfires is expected to increase, due to effects of climate change such as increased temperature and decreased precipitation during the summer months. Wildfires can have a considerable impact on aquatic ecosystems and previous studies of wildfires have shown elevated concentrations of nutrients, cat- and anions. The area of the fire mainly consists of forestland, peatland and lakes and has been affected by acidification and intensive forestry. To assess the fire severity and the effects on the water chemistry, the fire severity were analyzed and classified using aerial phtographs and high resolution LIDAR data. The analysis indicated that increased fire intensity caused increased fire severity and that drained forested areas were more vulnerable to fire than undrained peatland. Measurements of water chemistry were conducted at nine streams and ten lakes inside the affected area. At two sites sensors for multiple parameters were deployed. During the initial three months of the post-fire period large peaks of ammonia-N and sulphate were observed in the streams and in a majority of the lakes while DOC was suppressed. In one stream Gärsjöbäcken the median concentrations of ammonia-N were 79 times higher after the fire. Due to nitrification the elevated concentrations of ammonia-N-nitrogen caused elevated concentrations of nitrate-nitrogen. The initial peak of sulphate caused a drop in ANC but after the peak had past ANC increased due to elevated concentrations of base cations. Correlation analysis of fire severity and water chemistry indicated that the maximum concentrations of ammonia-N increased with severely burned canopies in drained forested peatlands and in scorched open peatland. In a future climate with increased dry spells extensive ditching operations in

  12. Impact of mining on tree diversity of the silica mining forest area at Shankargarh, Allahabad, India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kumud Dubey; K.P.Dubey

    2011-01-01

    The Shankargarh forest area is rich in silica,a major mineral used in glass industry.Extensive open cast silica mining has severely damaged the forest as well as productivity of the region.An understanding of the impact of mining on the environment partienlarly on vegetation characteristics is a prerequisite for further management of these mining sites,especially in the selection of species for reclamation works.The present paper deals with the study of the tree composition of silica mining area of Shgankargarh forest,at both disturbed and undisturbed sites.Tree vegetation study was conducted at undisturbed and disturbed sites of Shankargarh forests using standard quadrate method.Density,abundance and frequency values of tree species were calculated.Species were categorized into different classes according to their frequency.The importance value index (IVI) for each species was determined.Species diversity,Concentration of dominance,Species richness and Evenness index were calculated for the undisturbed and disturbed sites.The distribution pattern of the species was studied by using Whifford's index.Similarity index between tree composition of disturbed and undisturbed sites was determined by using Jaccard's and Sorenson's index of similarity.Tree species showed a drastic reduction in their numbers in disturbed sites compared to that of the undisturbed sites.The phytosociological indices also illustrated the impact of mining on the tree composition of the area.The present study led to the conclusion that resultant tree vegetation analysis can be used as important tool for predicting the suitability of particular species for revegetating the mined areas.

  13. Minimum sampling area and a biodiversity of riparian broad-leaved/Korean pine forest in Erdaobaihe forested watershed, Changbai Mountain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Riparian zone is an important component of forested watershed. Species component, structure, and distribution pattern of plant community in riparian zone are different from those of forest far away from the riparian zone because of edge effect and influence of river, and their minimum sampling areas are also different. To study the minimum area and a biodiversity of broad-leaved/Korean pine forest in riparian zone, three 8 m × 32 m sampling belts were selected and distributed at elevation of 800 m, 900 m, and 1000 m. In the riparian broad-leaved/Korean pine forest, mean minimum sampling areas including 60%, 80%, and 90% of total species were 80 m2 (8 m×10 m), 180 m2 (12 m×15 m), and 320 m2 (16 m × 20 m) respectively; The corresponding mean minimum areas of non-riparian forest were about 260 m2, 380 m2, and 480 m2; and the former were smaller than the latter. In the riparian zone, species richness, Shannon-Weiner index and species evenness were also higher than those in non-riparian forest. On the contrary, species dominance in forest community was higher than that in riparian zone.

  14. Calibration of FARSITE fire area simulator in Iranian northern forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Jahdi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Wildfire simulators based on empirical or physical models need to be locally calibrated and validated when used under conditions that differ from those where the simulators were originally developed. This study aims to calibrate FARSITE fire spread model considering a set of recent wildfires occurred in Northern Iran forests. Site specific fuel models in the study areas were selected by sampling the main natural vegetation type complexes and assigning standard fuel models. Overall, simulated fires presented reliable outputs that accurately replicated the observed fire perimeters and behavior. Standard fuel models of Scott and Burgan (2005 afforded better accuracy in the simulated fire perimeters than the standard fuel models of Anderson (1982. The best match between observed and modeled burned areas was observed on herbaceous type fuel models. Fire modeling showed a high potential for estimating spatial variability in fire spread and behavior in the study areas. This work represents a first step in the application of fire spread modeling on Northern Iran for wildfire risk monitoring and management.

  15. Forests and Forest Cover, Polygon shapefile in ESRI format (only county forest areas), Published in 1999, Burnett County, WI.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Forests and Forest Cover dataset, was produced all or in part from Hardcopy Maps information as of 1999. It is described as 'Polygon shapefile in ESRI format...

  16. Which Models Are Appropriate for Six Subtropical Forests: Species-Area and Species-Abundance Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Shi Guang; Li, Lin; Chen, Zhen Cheng; Lian, Ju Yu; Lin, Guo Jun; Huang, Zhong Liang; Yin, Zuo Yun

    2014-01-01

    The species-area relationship is one of the most important topic in the study of species diversity, conservation biology and landscape ecology. The species-area relationship curves describe the increase of species number with increasing area, and have been modeled by various equations. In this paper, we used detailed data from six 1-ha subtropical forest communities to fit three species-area relationship models. The coefficient of determination and F ratio of ANOVA showed all the three models fitted well to the species-area relationship data in the subtropical communities, with the logarithm model performing better than the other two models. We also used the three species-abundance distributions, namely the lognormal, logcauchy and logseries model, to fit them to the species-abundance data of six communities. In this case, the logcauchy model had the better fit based on the coefficient of determination. Our research reveals that the rare species always exist in the six communities, corroborating the neutral theory of Hubbell. Furthermore, we explained why all species-abundance figures appeared to be left-side truncated. This was due to subtropical forests have high diversity, and their large species number includes many rare species. PMID:24755956

  17. Diversity and Species Composition of Subaerial Algal Communities in Forested Areas of Meghalaya, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Kharkongor

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The study deals with a comparative study on diversity and species composition of subaerial algal communities from tree barks of closed undisturbed sacred grove, mixed plantation, and open disturbed forest. A total of 85 taxa had been recorded, 30 cyanobacteria and 55 algal species belonging to six classes of algae. Sacred grove harboured the highest subaerial algal diversity compared to those of plantation and open disturbed forest. There was a strong significant difference in species composition among the three different sampling areas. High number of diatoms with 14 species was recorded in sacred grove. Cyanobacteria with 22 species were the frequent group in disturbed forest whereas Trentepohliales dominated in plantation. Canonical correspondence analysis confirmed that high photon irradiance favored the growth of cyanobacteria in disturbed forest. The abundance of Trentepohliales members correlated to high rainfall and photon irradiance. High diversity and presence of many diatom species in undisturbed Mawphlang sacred grove were associated with low photon irradiance and high relative humidity and could also be due to a presence of suitable substrata formed by the growth of mosses. Sunlight, relative humidity, and rainfall were the important factors which played a major role in determining the diversity and distribution of subaerial algal communities.

  18. Study on the Development of Under-forest Economy in Guangdong Mountain Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing; CHEN; Hongou; ZHANG; Qitao; WU

    2015-01-01

    From the origin and connotation of the under-forest economy,this paper analyzed plight of the development of under-forest economy in Guangdong mountain areas. It discussed benefits of under-forest economy,favorable conditions and development path of under-forest economy in Guangdong mountain areas. Results indicate that developing under-forest economy is an essential path for realizing green growth and coordinated development of Guangdong mountain areas. However,due to terrain,market,management and technology reasons,the under-forest economy is still not fully developed in Guangdong mountain areas. The development path of under-forest economy suitable for Guangdong mountain areas should be based on ecological protection and oriented towards maximizing ecological,economic and social benefits. Guangdong mountain areas have in-born natural and resource advantages,economic pull of development mode and market demand change,and favorable condition of policy encouragement for development of under-forest economy. Finally,it came up with recommendations for development of under-forest economy in Guangdong mountain areas from development mode,industrial distribution and development direction.

  19. Observed Differences in the Human Footprint and Forest Fragmentation in the Primary Forest Area of the Democratic Republic of Congo: A Remote Sensing Study for 2000-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinario, G.

    2015-12-01

    Conflict in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) and neighboring countries has caused the displacement of people internally and internationally sometimes leading to drastic changes in the impact that traditional slash and burn shifting cultivation has on the forest ecosystem. In other areas, the lack of infrastructure and governance has isolated and protected areas of core forest from large scale exploitation. Observing specific patterns of forest fragmentation caused either by the expansion of existing rural complex areas or of isolated forest perforations has allowed us to track the differential growth of the human footprint throughout forested area of the country during the period 2000-2010. Our methodological approach involved the development of a model of shifting cultivation and forest fragmentation in which spatial rules applied morphological image processing to the Forets d'Afrique Central Evaluee par Teledetection (FACET) product. The result is a disaggregated classification of the primary forest into patch, edge, perforated, fragmented and core forest subtypes which we subsequently re-aggregated into homogenous anthropogenic macro-areas of rural complex and isolated forest perforations. We tracked how subsequent forest loss observed in 2005 and 2010 grew or shrunk these areas, presumably with differential impacts on the forest ecosystem. Using this approach we were able to map forest degradation by contextualizing the contribution of forest loss to change in different types of areas, highlighting how it can be greatly underestimated by a non contextualized per-pixel assessment of forest cover loss.

  20. Soil and water acidification of forest soils in the low-polluted area of Schoenbuch forest reservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At a comparatively low atmospheric pollution load of two wood-covered catchment areas the coniferous forest stand is characterized by increased material depositons and large element concentrations in the main root space. This leads to accumulation of acidifying agents and heavy metals in the seepage water. The heavy metals which pass into the recipients with the displaced soil solution determine most of the dispersion of dissolved heavy metals in the plateau landscape. On the other hand, the fraction of heavy metals bound to airborne particulates predominates in the valley landscape because of the stronger relief and the resulting sediment transport. In the shallow groundwaters, the sulfates and nitrate concentrations are much higher than in the deeper ground waters. (orig.)

  1. PROPERTIES OF ECTOHUMUS OF THE FOREST SOILS LOCATED AT MANUMENTAL OAKS OF FOREST AREAS IN THE OPOLE REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabella Pisarek

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to determine the diversity of qualitative humic substances in the ectohumus horizon of the forest soil profiles. The analyzed soils were located in protected landscape areas and nature parks – Bory Niemodlińskie and Lasy Stobrawsko-Turawskie, and occurred under the tree stands of trees which were 200-600 years old – Quercus robur. The analyzed soils represent 15 soil profiles belonging to Podzols, Cambisols and Dystric Cambisols. Properties of forest habitat specificity influenced the physicochemical and chemical properties of the analyzed soils. We observed particularly strong expressions of acidity, pH and salinity, and a diversity of chemical and optical properties of humic substances. The content of organic matter in the analyzed soil horizons showed considerable variation, as indicated by a coefficient of variation (V equal to 61%. The composition of humic substances of forest litter is characterized by a gradual change of functional groups that usually consists in the decrease of carbohydrates, the relative increase of carboxyl and alkyl carbon, and decay of lignin. In the investigated soils, we observed that the transformation processes of organic matter led to humic substances which were predominantly humus with a lower level of humification, as evidenced by the indexes: A2/4, A2/6, A4/6, ∆logK. Therefore, variation of the observed properties of humic substances indicates a different direction in the transformation process of organic matter. Such a transformation depends very much on the habitat and nature of supplied organic matter.

  2. Satellite images as primers to target priority areas for field surveys of indicators of ecological sustainability in tropical forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Amuchastegui, Naikoa

    Sustainable management of tropical forests has been identified as one of the main objectives for global conservation of carbon stocks. In order to achieve this, managers need tools to establish whether or not their management practices are sustainable. Several tool development initiatives have undertaken the creation of sets of criteria and indicators to aid managers to target, if not achieve, sustainability. The question of how to assess these indicators remains to be answered from an operational viewpoint, where logistical constraints become critical and priorization becomes necessary. The present dissertation sought to determine whether satellite imagery can be used, in conjunction with standard forest management data, to identify priority areas for field surveys of indicators of ecological sustainability of managed tropical forests. It presents a novel approach to the assessment of CIFOR indicator I.2.1.2: "The change in diversity of habitats as a result of human interventions is maintained within critical limits as defined by natural variation and/or regional conservation objectives" by means of semivariography of remote sensing data. It shows the Wide Dynamic Range Vegetation Index (WDRVI) is a good alternative for the detection and quantification of tropical forests structural heterogeneity and its dynamic change. The differences observed between forest management units and natural areas forest structural heterogeneity were used to identify priority areas for field survey of ecological sustainability indicators and evaluate how these priorities were reflected in dung beetles community structure and composition. The link between forest structural heterogeneity dynamic change, forest logging intensity and dung beetle community structure and composition is established. A logging intensity threshold of 4 trees per hectare is identified as the limit between significant or not significant differences in forest structure dynamic changes and dung beetles community

  3. Anuran amphibians in an Atlantic Forest area at Serra do Tabuleiro, Santa Catarina, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Milena Wachlevski; Luciana Kreutz Erdtmann; Paulo Christiano de Anchietta Garcia

    2014-01-01

    The Atlantic Forest is a priority area for the conservation of amphibians, with some regions already showing knowledge gaps. We analyzed the composition and richness of anuran species in an area of dense ombrophilous forest at Serra do Tabuleiro, the seasonal richness variation, and the daily activity of males during vocalization shifts. We collected samples of anurans from two permanent ponds and from a track within the forest for 14 months. We recorded 32 anuran species,...

  4. GEOSTATISTICS APPLIED TO THE STUDY OF SOIL PHYSIOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS IN SEASONAL DECIDUOUS FOREST AREAS

    OpenAIRE

    Eleandro J. Brun; Carlos R. S. da Silva; Sandro Vaccaro; Rubens M. Rondon Neto

    2010-01-01

    Methods of geostatistics were used in the identification of size and structure of space variability of some physiochemical attributes of soils under seasonal deciduous forest areas, which were called mature forest, secondary forest and “capoeirão”. The areas, located in Santa Tereza, RS, were sampled during the period of 2002 and 2003, comprising the soil classes: Argiluvic Chernosol, Cambisol Ta and Litholic Neosol. Systematic sampling was performed with regular spacing grid of points varyin...

  5. Assessment of Recently Unchanged Forested Areas in the United States Using Landsat-WELD and LIDAR Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyukavina, A.; Potapov, P.; Hansen, M. C.

    2012-12-01

    According to the USDA Forest Service Forest Inventory Analysis Program (2006) the amount of forestland in the United States has remained relatively constant in the past century and is estimated at an average of 755 million acres. However, forested areas are the subject of various land use activities, leading to disturbances altering forest ecology and biodiversity. Therefore the objective of the current research is to assess the extent of recently unchanged and relatively unfragmented (forest patch area >100 km2) forest areas in different WWF-defined terrestrial ecoregions of the contiguous US. Landsat-based WELD tree cover product for the year 2006 and tree cover loss product for 2006-2010 were used as input data for GIS-analysis aimed to identify recently unchanged core forest areas. More than 1.2 million ICESat-GLAS shots facilitated distinguishing between core and recently disturbed forests' vertical structure. Analysis of core forest areas distribution by ecoregion showed that in several ecoregions, such as Piney Woods, Southeastern Mixed forests and Southeastern Conifer forests, due to the high forest use intensity unfragmented recently unchanged forests occupy less than 30% of ecoregion forest area, though total forested area in these regions remains high. We've also analyzed the protection status of core forest areas in terms of potential forest disturbances in the years to come.

  6. Estimation of effective plant area index for South Korean forests using LiDAR system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KWAK; Doo-Ahn; LEE; Woo-Kyun; KAFATOS; Menas; SON; Yowhan; CHO; Hyun-Kook; LEE; Seung-Ho

    2010-01-01

    Light Detection and Ranging(LiDAR) systems can be used to estimate both vertical and horizontal forest structure.Woody components,the leaves of trees and the understory can be described with high precision,using geo-registered 3D-points.Based on this concept,the Effective Plant Area Indices(PAIe) for areas of Korean Pine(Pinus koraiensis),Japanese Larch(Larix leptolepis) and Oak(Quercus spp.) were estimated by calculating the ratio of intercepted and incident LIDAR laser rays for the canopies of the three forest types.Initially,the canopy gap fraction(GLiDAR) was generated by extracting the LiDAR data reflected from the canopy surface,or inner canopy area,using k-means statistics.The LiDAR-derived PAIe was then estimated by using GLIDAR with the Beer-Lambert law.A comparison of the LiDAR-derived and field-derived PAIe revealed the coefficients of determination for Korean Pine,Japanese Larch and Oak to be 0.82,0.64 and 0.59,respectively.These differences between field-based and LIDAR-based PAIe for the different forest types were attributed to the amount of leaves and branches in the forest stands.The absence of leaves,in the case of both Larch and Oak,meant that the LiDAR pulses were only reflected from branches.The probability that the LiDAR pulses are reflected from bare branches is low as compared to the reflection from branches with a high leaf density.This is because the size of the branch is smaller than the resolution across and along the 1 meter LIDAR laser track.Therefore,a better predictive accuracy would be expected for the model if the study would be repeated in late spring when the shoots and leaves of the deciduous trees begin to appear.

  7. Leaf Area Index (LAI) Estimation in Boreal Mixedwood Forest of Ontario, Canada Using Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) and WorldView-2 Imagery

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Treitz; Graham Pope

    2013-01-01

    Leaf Area Index (LAI) is an important input variable for forest ecosystem modeling as it is a factor in predicting productivity and biomass, two key aspects of forest health. Current in situ methods of determining LAI are sometimes destructive and generally very time consuming. Other LAI derivation methods, mainly satellite-based in nature, do not provide sufficient spatial resolution or the precision required by forest managers for tactical planning. This paper focuses on estimating LAI from...

  8. Geotechnology-Based Modeling to Optimize Conservation of Forest Network in Urban Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Mingjun; Zhou, Zhixiang; Wang, Pengcheng; Xiao, Wenfa; Wu, Changguang; Lord, Elizabeth

    2016-03-01

    Forest network development in urban areas faces the challenge from forest fragmentation, human-induced disturbances, and scarce land resources. Here, we proposed a geotechnology-based modeling to optimize conservation of forest network by a case study of Wuhan, China. The potential forest network and their priorities were assessed using an improved least-cost path model and potential utilization efficiency estimation. The modeling process consists of four steps: (i) developing species assemblages, (ii) identifying core forest patches, (iii) identifying potential linkages among core forest patches, and (iv) demarcating forest networks. As a result, three species assemblages, including mammals, pheasants, and other birds, were identified as the conservation targets of urban forest network (UFN) in Wuhan, China. Based on the geotechnology-based model, a forest network proposal was proposed to fulfill the connectivity requirements of selected species assemblages. The proposal consists of seven forest networks at three levels of connectivity, named ideal networks, backbone networks, and comprehensive network. The action priorities of UFN plans were suggested to optimize forest network in the study area. Additionally, a total of 45 forest patches with important conservation significance were identified as prioritized stepping-stone patches in the forest network development. Urban forest conserve was also suggested for preserving woodlands with priority conservation significance. The presented geotechnology-based modeling is fit for planning and optimizing UFNs, because of the inclusion of the stepping-stone effects, human-induced pressures, and priorities. The framework can also be applied to other areas after a sensitivity test of the model and the modification of the parameters to fit the local environment.

  9. Geotechnology-Based Modeling to Optimize Conservation of Forest Network in Urban Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Mingjun; Zhou, Zhixiang; Wang, Pengcheng; Xiao, Wenfa; Wu, Changguang; Lord, Elizabeth

    2016-03-01

    Forest network development in urban areas faces the challenge from forest fragmentation, human-induced disturbances, and scarce land resources. Here, we proposed a geotechnology-based modeling to optimize conservation of forest network by a case study of Wuhan, China. The potential forest network and their priorities were assessed using an improved least-cost path model and potential utilization efficiency estimation. The modeling process consists of four steps: (i) developing species assemblages, (ii) identifying core forest patches, (iii) identifying potential linkages among core forest patches, and (iv) demarcating forest networks. As a result, three species assemblages, including mammals, pheasants, and other birds, were identified as the conservation targets of urban forest network (UFN) in Wuhan, China. Based on the geotechnology-based model, a forest network proposal was proposed to fulfill the connectivity requirements of selected species assemblages. The proposal consists of seven forest networks at three levels of connectivity, named ideal networks, backbone networks, and comprehensive network. The action priorities of UFN plans were suggested to optimize forest network in the study area. Additionally, a total of 45 forest patches with important conservation significance were identified as prioritized stepping-stone patches in the forest network development. Urban forest conserve was also suggested for preserving woodlands with priority conservation significance. The presented geotechnology-based modeling is fit for planning and optimizing UFNs, because of the inclusion of the stepping-stone effects, human-induced pressures, and priorities. The framework can also be applied to other areas after a sensitivity test of the model and the modification of the parameters to fit the local environment.

  10. Geotechnology-Based Modeling to Optimize Conservation of Forest Network in Urban Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Mingjun; Zhou, Zhixiang; Wang, Pengcheng; Xiao, Wenfa; Wu, Changguang; Lord, Elizabeth

    2016-03-01

    Forest network development in urban areas faces the challenge from forest fragmentation, human-induced disturbances, and scarce land resources. Here, we proposed a geotechnology-based modeling to optimize conservation of forest network by a case study of Wuhan, China. The potential forest network and their priorities were assessed using an improved least-cost path model and potential utilization efficiency estimation. The modeling process consists of four steps: (i) developing species assemblages, (ii) identifying core forest patches, (iii) identifying potential linkages among core forest patches, and (iv) demarcating forest networks. As a result, three species assemblages, including mammals, pheasants, and other birds, were identified as the conservation targets of urban forest network (UFN) in Wuhan, China. Based on the geotechnology-based model, a forest network proposal was proposed to fulfill the connectivity requirements of selected species assemblages. The proposal consists of seven forest networks at three levels of connectivity, named ideal networks, backbone networks, and comprehensive network. The action priorities of UFN plans were suggested to optimize forest network in the study area. Additionally, a total of 45 forest patches with important conservation significance were identified as prioritized stepping-stone patches in the forest network development. Urban forest conserve was also suggested for preserving woodlands with priority conservation significance. The presented geotechnology-based modeling is fit for planning and optimizing UFNs, because of the inclusion of the stepping-stone effects, human-induced pressures, and priorities. The framework can also be applied to other areas after a sensitivity test of the model and the modification of the parameters to fit the local environment. PMID:26661451

  11. Sensitivity Analysis of an Optimal Access Road Location in HillyForest Area: A GIS Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd I. Hasmadi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available There are various models for establishing the efficient forest road allocation and evaluating optimum density of forest roads network for the transport of timber commodity. Most of them are based on the calculation of common timber transport costs and costs for forest roads. Today, forest road design from traditional method continues to be transformed by remote sensing technology and advancement of GIS. It is now possible for a forester to analyze many different road location alternatives over a large geographic area in a minimal amount of time. A computer programming using GIS, digital terrain data and sensitivity analysis for locating optimal forest road access in a hill area is presented. The optimal access road location specifies destination (starting point and target (ending point of the desired path. These paths were allocated by calculated each individual criteria by given weights placed on each cell. Therefore, the objective of this work is to describe an attempt to compute the optimal allocation of forest road corridor in hilly area of Peninsular Malaysia using GIS approach and sensitivity analysis to satisfy the result. Finally, the model minimizes total cost of construction and forest environmental impacts resulting from a specific access road. Sensitivity analysis should be explored further to understand the effects of uncertainty in derivation of model parameter on model outputs. It is concluded that the location of optimal access path were established in the area can reduce the cost and environmental impact to the forest ecosystem.

  12. Use of satellite remote sensing for determining cloud immersion and biogeography of cloud forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asefi Najafabady, S.; Welch, R. M.; Nair, U.; Lawton, R. O.; Ray, D.

    2006-12-01

    Tropical montane cloud forests (TMCFs) are ecosystems characterized by frequent and prolonged immersion in orographic clouds. TMCFs are biologically rich and diverse and they lie at the core of several of the global biological hotspots identified for conservation purposes. Recent studies show that TMCFs are sensitive to global and regional scale climate changes. Vegetation in TMCFs directly harvest water from clouds, which is usually termed horizontal precipitation, and is an important input to local hydrological cycle. Mosses and ferns present within the TMCFs absorbs moisture during rainfall and releases slowly over time thereby providing another important hydrological function, namely modulation of runoff. In spite of the ecological and hydrological importance of TMCFs, there is scant information regarding the geographical distribution of the TMCFs. One source of information that is currently available is the atlas of the potential cloud forest distribution published by the United Nations Environmental Program. However, this compilation does not directly consider the defining characteristics of cloud forests, namely frequency of immersion in cloud forests, in their classisification scheme. This talk will present the use of NASA MODIS satellite data to determine cloud immersion frequency and thus the biogeography of cloud forests. The MODIS derived cloud top heights and cloud thickness estimated from MODIS retrieval of cloud microphysical properties is used to estimate cloud base height. If the estimate cloud base height at a location is less than or equal to the surface elevation at that point, then that location is defined as experiencing cloud immersion. This classification procedure was applied to determine cloud immersion frequency at two study sites, namely Hawaii and Monteverde, Costa Rica. The cloud immersion frequency maps identifies some of the know cloud forest locations in these study areas. Comparison against a blended product created using numerical

  13. Floristic diversity in urban forest area of NEERI Campus, Nagpur, Maharashtra (India).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Rakhi B; Chaudhari, P R; Wate, S R

    2008-01-01

    This study has been carried out to assess the diverse floristic wealth in urban forest area of NEERI campus at Nagpur, Maharashtra (India). This urban forest is ecologically important to maintain the atmospheric temperature around 2 degrees C below and higher relative humidity as compared to other urban areas. The water table is also observed to be shallower in this area as compared to other areas. Therefore, the biological diversity of this urban forest was studied, as it is directly related to ecology of the area. Floristic survey of NEERI premises recorded 135 vascular plants including 16 monocots and 119 dicots, belonging to 115 genera and 53 families. The taxa included 4 types of grasses, 55 herbs, 30 shrubs and 46 trees. The large number of species within very small area (43 ha) indicates rich biodiversity in this forest area. It is also observed that this forest patch has tall trees, with good density and rich cover of shrubs and herbs on forest floor indicating well knit plant community. These characteristics have given immense ecological importance to this urban forest area. Detailed vegetation study revealed that positive co-operation in the plant communities can significantly maintain species diversity in the environment.

  14. Inventory of small forest areas using an unmanned aerial system

    OpenAIRE

    Stefano Puliti; Hans Ole Ørka; Terje Gobakken; Erik Næsset

    2015-01-01

    Acquiring high spatial and temporal resolution imagery from small unmanned aerial systems (sUAS) provides new opportunities for inventorying forests at small scales. Only a few studies have investigated the use of UASs in forest inventories, and the results are inconsistent and incomplete. The present study used three-dimensional (3D) variables derived from UAS imagery in combination with ground reference data to fit linear models for Lorey’s mean height (hL), dominant height (hdom), stem num...

  15. Diversity of the soil biota in burned areas of southern taiga forests (Tver oblast)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gongalsky, K. B.; Zaitsev, A. S.; Korobushkin, D. I.; Saifutdinov, R. A.; Yazrikova, T. E.; Benediktova, A. I.; Gorbunova, A. Yu.; Gorshkova, I. A.; Butenko, K. O.; Kosina, N. V.; Lapygina, E. V.; Kuznetsova, D. M.; Rakhleeva, A. A.; Shakhab, S. V.

    2016-03-01

    Relations between soil biota diversity and its contribution to the performance of some ecosystem functions were assessed based on the results obtained in undisturbed and burned spruce forests near the Central Forest Nature Biosphere Reserve (Tver oblast). In August 2014, in two 4-year-old burned areas, abiotic parameters of the soils, indicators of the state of the microbial communities, the number, taxonomic diversity, and the abundance of the main groups of soil invertebrates (testate amoebae, nematodes, enchytraeids, mites, collembolans, and the mesofauna as a whole) were determined. In the soils of the burned areas, higher CO2, CH4, and N2O emissions were observed. The number of bacterial cells remained similar, and the total length of active mycelium was not significantly different. All this implies a certain intensification of biogenic processes promoting the mobilization of carbon and nitrogen after fire. The number of most of the groups of soil animals was lower (not always significantly) in the burned area than that in the soils of the undisturbed forests. The changes in the taxonomic diversity were specific for each taxon studied. Overall, the diversity of invertebrates was related to the litter thickness. However, the high taxonomic diversity of soil fauna did not always correspond to the active functioning of the ecosystem. Thus, for some taxa, a quite close correlation was found, for instance, between the total number of species (of testate amoebae in particular) and the berry crop, as well as between the soil mesofauna population and the dead wood stock. The total diversity of the investigated taxa included in the detrital trophic web was the most reliable indicator of the carbon stock in the burned areas.

  16. Effects of the Free Trade Area of the Americas on Forest Resources

    OpenAIRE

    Turner, James A.; BUONGIORNO, Joseph; Zhu, Shushuai

    2005-01-01

    The effects of the Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA) agreement on the forest sectors and resources of member countries are investigated. A model of wood supply within the spatial partial-equilibrium Global Forest Products Model is developed to link international trade and deforestation. The direct effects of tariff changes and the indirect effects of income changes induced by trade liberalization are considered. The FTAA has a small positive impact on the region's forest resources. Highe...

  17. Forecasting Areas Vulnerable to Forest Conversion in the Tam Dao National Park Region, Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duong Dang Khoi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Tam Dao National Park (TDNP is a remaining primary forest that supports some of the highest levels of biodiversity in Vietnam. Forest conversion due to illegal logging and agricultural expansion is a major problem that is hampering biodiversity conservation efforts in the TDNP region. Yet, areas vulnerable to forest conversion are unknown. In this paper, we predicted areas vulnerable to forest changes in the TDNP region using multi-temporal remote sensing data and a multi-layer perceptron neural network (MLPNN with a Markov chain model (MLPNN-M. The MLPNN-M model predicted increasing pressure in the remaining primary forest within the park as well as on the secondary forest in the surrounding areas. The primary forest is predicted to decrease from 18.03% in 2007 to 15.10% in 2014 and 12.66% in 2021. Our results can be used to prioritize locations for future biodiversity conservation and forest management efforts. The combined use of remote sensing and spatial modeling techniques provides an effective tool for monitoring the remaining forests in the TDNP region.

  18. The Area of Forest Stand Identification and Required Quantity of Surveys in Tree Stands of Forest Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Ziganshin

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Often the authors of scientific papers, both young and older generations, do not indicate in their articles and books the accuracy and reliability of their investigation. Sometimes they naively believe that in forestry enough once-accepted standard for the required quantity of surveys, forgetting that mathematical statistics, as in all of mathematics, should be guided by the so-called «domain of existence» of this or that regularity of certain numerical ratios. In particular, in forest inventory, as well as in forest science it is required to identify the full area of tree stand or forest stands, biogeocoenoses, or forest type compartment (sub-compartment, because at different ages and with different stand density to achieve the same accuracy and a confidence interval will require a completely different area of identifying and unequal number of measurements of a tree inventory indices. «Complete» we consider the stand, where the whole range of a tree diameter distribution is represented and statistically reliable. Academician V. N. Sukachev recommended studying forest types following the necessary area of their identification. It is not correct, based on the part of tree stand or forest stand, to accurately identify and evaluate quantitative and qualitative indicators of the biogeocoenoses. The author, based on his wide and long-term forest survey experience of different tree stands and tree species, of different age and density, tried to bring together the results of the research to develop regulatory requirements dictated by different inventory signs’ variability in different cases. The greater the variability (variation feature, the higher its entropy (uncertainty, disorder, and the greater the quantity of surveys (measurements have to perform, to achieve the practical necessity of accuracy and reliability of the inventory work. The beginning of the article provides a rigorous and complete interpretation of «tree stand» and «forest

  19. Evaluating Landscape Connectivity for Puma concolor and Panthera onca Among Atlantic Forest Protected Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castilho, Camila S.; Hackbart, Vivian C. S.; Pivello, Vânia R.; dos Santos, Rozely F.

    2015-06-01

    Strictly Protected Areas and riparian forests in Brazil are rarely large enough or connected enough to maintain viable populations of carnivores and animal movement over time, but these characteristics are fundamental for species conservation as they prevent the extinction of isolated animal populations. Therefore, the need to maintain connectivity for these species in human-dominated Atlantic landscapes is critical. In this study, we evaluated the landscape connectivity for large carnivores (cougar and jaguar) among the Strictly Protected Areas in the Atlantic Forest, evaluated the efficiency of the Mosaics of Protected Areas linked to land uses in promoting landscape connectivity, identified the critical habitat connections, and predicted the landscape connectivity status under the implementation of legislation for protecting riparian forests. The method was based on expert opinion translated into land use and land cover maps. The results show that the Protected Areas are still connected by a narrow band of landscape that is permeable to both species and that the Mosaics of Protected Areas increase the amount of protected area but fail to increase the connectivity between the forested mountain ranges (Serra do Mar and Serra da Mantiqueira). Riparian forests greatly increase connectivity, more than tripling the cougars' priority areas. We note that the selection of Brazilian protected areas still fails to create connectivity among the legally protected forest remnants. We recommend the immediate protection of the priority areas identified that would increase the structural landscape connectivity for these large carnivores, especially paths in the SE/NW direction between the two mountain ranges.

  20. Atmospheric heavy metal input to forest soils in rural areas of Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovmand, M F; Kemp, Kaare

    2007-01-01

    Atmospheric bulk deposition of heavy metals (HM) was measured from 1972/73 to the present time at five to ten forest sites in rural areas of Denmark. From 1979, HM in aerosols were measured at one to four forest sites. On the basis of these long-term continuous measurements, the atmospheric inputs...

  1. Securing tropical forest carbon: the contribution of protected areas to REDD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scharlemann, J.P.W.; Kapos, V.; Campbell, A.;

    2010-01-01

    Forest loss and degradation in the tropics contribute 6-17% of all greenhouse gas emissions. Protected areas cover 217.2 million ha (19.6%) of the world's humid tropical forests and contain c. 70.3 petagrams of carbon (Pg C) in biomass and soil to 1 m depth. Between 2000 and 2005, we estimate tha...

  2. 75 FR 11511 - Rogue River-Siskiyou National Forest; Mt. Ashland Ski Area Expansion, Jackson County, OR

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-11

    ... Forest Service Rogue River-Siskiyou National Forest; Mt. Ashland Ski Area Expansion, Jackson County, OR...-03004-PA, to conditionally authorize expansion of the Mt. Ashland Ski Area. SUMMARY: In September 2004, the Forest Service issued a Record of Decision (ROD) for the Mt. Ashland Ski Area (MASA)...

  3. Determination of forest fire causes in Portugal (1966-2010)

    OpenAIRE

    Lourenço, L; S. Fernándes; Nunes, A; Bento-Gonçalves, A.; A. Vieira

    2013-01-01

    The main goal of this study is to analyse the most important causes affecting fire ignitions in Portugal mainland, between 1996 and 2010. The forest fire database was provided by the Portuguese Government Forest Services (National Forest Authority, AFN), that group the causes in six main categories (negligent usage of fire, accidental, structural causes, incendiary, natural and unknown). The analysis of the causes of the forest fires ignitions shows that the greatest part was not investig...

  4. Deforestation and Forest Management in Southern Ethiopia: Investigations in the Chencha and Arbaminch Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assefa, Engdawork; Bork, Hans-Rudolf

    2014-02-01

    Long-term human impacts are considered to be the prime cause of unsustainable forest exploitation in Ethiopia. Yet there exist well-established systems and a wealth of local experience in maintaining and managing forests. This study explores the trends and driving forces of deforestation plus traditional practices regarding sustainable forest use and management in the Chencha and Arbaminch areas, Southern Ethiopia. Satellite image analysis (images from 1972, 1984 and 2006) combined with field surveys were used to detect and map changes in forest cover. Household interviews and group discussions with experienced and knowledgeable persons were also employed. The results show a 23 % decline in forest cover between 1972 and 2006 with the most significant change from 1986 to 2006. Change was greatest in the lowlands and remarkable episodic forest changes also occurred, suggesting nonlinear spatial and temporal forest cover dynamics. According to farmers, the main driver of deforestation is agricultural land expansion in response to local population increases and a decline in agricultural production. Growing local and regional fuel wood demand is another chief cause. Despite these issues, remarkable relicts of natural forests remain and trees on farmland, around homesteads and on fields in every village are basic elements of farm activities and social systems. This demonstrates the effect of cumulative traditional knowledge and long-term local experience with forest management and preservation. Therefore, these practices should be promoted and advanced through the integration of local knowledge and forest management practices in the design and implementation of sustainable environmental planning and management.

  5. 36 CFR 293.16 - Special provisions governing the Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness, Superior National Forest...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special provisions governing the Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness, Superior National Forest, Minnesota. 293.16 Section 293.16 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WILDERNESS-PRIMITIVE...

  6. New Approach for forest inventory estimation and timber harvesting planning in mountain areas: the SLOPE project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Prandi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Forests represent an important economic resource for mountainous areas being for a few region and mountain communities the main form of income. However, wood chain management in these contexts differs from the traditional schemes due to the limits imposed by terrain morphology, both for the operation planning aspects and the hardware requirements. In fact, forest organizational and technical problems require a wider strategic and detailed level of planning to reach the level of productivity of forest operation techniques applied on flatlands. In particular, a perfect knowledge of forest inventories improves long-term management sustainability and efficiency allowing a better understanding of forest ecosystems. However, this knowledge is usually based on historical parcel information with only few cases of remote sensing information from satellite imageries. This is not enough to fully exploit the benefit of the mountain areas forest stocks where the economic and ecological value of each single parcel depends on singletree characteristics. The work presented in this paper, based on the results of the SLOPE (Integrated proceSsing and controL systems fOr sustainable forest Production in mountain arEas project, investigates the capability to generate, manage and visualize detailed virtual forest models using geospatial information, combining data acquired from traditional on-the-field laser scanning surveys technologies with new aerial survey through UAV systems. These models are then combined with interactive 3D virtual globes for continuous assessment of resource characteristics, harvesting planning and real-time monitoring of the whole production.

  7. Forest canopy structural parameters and Leaf Area Index retrieval using multi-sensors synergy observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Zhuo; Wang, Jindi; Song, Jinling; Zhou, Hongmin; Pang, Yong; Cai, Wenwen; Chen, Baisong

    2009-08-01

    Leaf Area Index (LAI) is a key vegetation structural parameter in ecosystem. Our new approach is on forest LAI retrieval by GOMS model (Geometrical-Optical model considering the effect of crown shape and Mutual Shadowing) inversion using multi-sensor observations. The mountainous terrain forest area in Dayekou in Gansu province of China is selected as our study area. The model inversion method by integrating MODIS, MISR and LIDAR data for forest canopy LAI retrieval is proposed. In the MODIS sub-pixel scale, four scene components' spectrum (sunlit canopy, sunlit background, shaded canopy and shaded background) of GOMS model are extracted from SPOT data. And tree heights are extracted from airborne LIDAR data. The extracted four scene components and tree heights are taken as the a priori knowledge applied in GOMS model inversion for improving forest canopy structural parameters estimation accuracy. According to the field investigation, BRDF data set of needle forest pixels is collected by combining MODIS BRDF product and MISR BRF product. Then forest canopy parameters are retrieved based on GOMS. Finally, LAI of forest canopy is estimated by the retrieved structural parameters and it is compared with ground measurement. Results indicate that it is possible to improve the forest canopy structural parameters estimation accuracy by combining observations of passive and active remote sensors.

  8. New Approach for forest inventory estimation and timber harvesting planning in mountain areas: the SLOPE project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prandi, F.; Magliocchetti, D.; Poveda, A.; De Amicis, R.; Andreolli, M.; Devigili, F.

    2016-06-01

    Forests represent an important economic resource for mountainous areas being for a few region and mountain communities the main form of income. However, wood chain management in these contexts differs from the traditional schemes due to the limits imposed by terrain morphology, both for the operation planning aspects and the hardware requirements. In fact, forest organizational and technical problems require a wider strategic and detailed level of planning to reach the level of productivity of forest operation techniques applied on flatlands. In particular, a perfect knowledge of forest inventories improves long-term management sustainability and efficiency allowing a better understanding of forest ecosystems. However, this knowledge is usually based on historical parcel information with only few cases of remote sensing information from satellite imageries. This is not enough to fully exploit the benefit of the mountain areas forest stocks where the economic and ecological value of each single parcel depends on singletree characteristics. The work presented in this paper, based on the results of the SLOPE (Integrated proceSsing and controL systems fOr sustainable forest Production in mountain arEas) project, investigates the capability to generate, manage and visualize detailed virtual forest models using geospatial information, combining data acquired from traditional on-the-field laser scanning surveys technologies with new aerial survey through UAV systems. These models are then combined with interactive 3D virtual globes for continuous assessment of resource characteristics, harvesting planning and real-time monitoring of the whole production.

  9. Identifying priority areas for conservation: a global assessment for forest-dependent birds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graeme M Buchanan

    Full Text Available Limited resources are available to address the world's growing environmental problems, requiring conservationists to identify priority sites for action. Using new distribution maps for all of the world's forest-dependent birds (60.6% of all bird species, we quantify the contribution of remaining forest to conserving global avian biodiversity. For each of the world's partly or wholly forested 5-km cells, we estimated an impact score of its contribution to the distribution of all the forest bird species estimated to occur within it, and so is proportional to the impact on the conservation status of the world's forest-dependent birds were the forest it contains lost. The distribution of scores was highly skewed, a very small proportion of cells having scores several orders of magnitude above the global mean. Ecoregions containing the highest values of this score included relatively species-poor islands such as Hawaii and Palau, the relatively species-rich islands of Indonesia and the Philippines, and the megadiverse Atlantic Forests and northern Andes of South America. Ecoregions with high impact scores and high deforestation rates (2000-2005 included montane forests in Cameroon and the Eastern Arc of Tanzania, although deforestation data were not available for all ecoregions. Ecoregions with high impact scores, high rates of recent deforestation and low coverage by the protected area network included Indonesia's Seram rain forests and the moist forests of Trinidad and Tobago. Key sites in these ecoregions represent some of the most urgent priorities for expansion of the global protected areas network to meet Convention on Biological Diversity targets to increase the proportion of land formally protected to 17% by 2020. Areas with high impact scores, rapid deforestation, low protection and high carbon storage values may represent significant opportunities for both biodiversity conservation and climate change mitigation, for example through Reducing

  10. Identifying priority areas for conservation: a global assessment for forest-dependent birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Graeme M; Donald, Paul F; Butchart, Stuart H M

    2011-01-01

    Limited resources are available to address the world's growing environmental problems, requiring conservationists to identify priority sites for action. Using new distribution maps for all of the world's forest-dependent birds (60.6% of all bird species), we quantify the contribution of remaining forest to conserving global avian biodiversity. For each of the world's partly or wholly forested 5-km cells, we estimated an impact score of its contribution to the distribution of all the forest bird species estimated to occur within it, and so is proportional to the impact on the conservation status of the world's forest-dependent birds were the forest it contains lost. The distribution of scores was highly skewed, a very small proportion of cells having scores several orders of magnitude above the global mean. Ecoregions containing the highest values of this score included relatively species-poor islands such as Hawaii and Palau, the relatively species-rich islands of Indonesia and the Philippines, and the megadiverse Atlantic Forests and northern Andes of South America. Ecoregions with high impact scores and high deforestation rates (2000-2005) included montane forests in Cameroon and the Eastern Arc of Tanzania, although deforestation data were not available for all ecoregions. Ecoregions with high impact scores, high rates of recent deforestation and low coverage by the protected area network included Indonesia's Seram rain forests and the moist forests of Trinidad and Tobago. Key sites in these ecoregions represent some of the most urgent priorities for expansion of the global protected areas network to meet Convention on Biological Diversity targets to increase the proportion of land formally protected to 17% by 2020. Areas with high impact scores, rapid deforestation, low protection and high carbon storage values may represent significant opportunities for both biodiversity conservation and climate change mitigation, for example through Reducing Emissions from

  11. Environmental management and sustainable development in forested mountain areas of northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    This paper studied the sustainable development through a reasonable management of the social,economic and natural environment in a forested mountain area of northeast China. In order to show the local peopie how to manage their most important forest resource, we analyzed the life-history process of the key species and the influencing factors that were associated with the forest regeneration and sustainability. Pollination and fertilization were mainly affected by weather conditions. Light intensity under the forest canopy was the key factor that controlled seedlings growth and saplings survival. Periodic seeds setting caused the fluctuations of rodents and other related animals in the food chain. Squirrels played a very important role in the forest regeneration, theses animals were the absolutely indispensable components of the forest ecosystem. How to understand the coevolutionary relationships among species in the forest ecosystems was very important for the conservation of biodiversity and maintenance of ecosystem integrity. In conservation of the natural resources, we studied the social and economic environment of the forested mountain area. It is very hard to effectively protect the forest resources and maintain the normal life of the local people under the regime of the "unified administration and enterprise system". Reforms are needed both in administrative institutions and in enterprise management. In the end, this paper proposed that we should not only protect the trees, the related animals, the ecological habitats, and the whole forest ecosystems, but also consider the human activities and their basic requirements so as to realize a sustainable development in the forested mountain areas.

  12. US Forest Service Roadless Areas: 2001, Idaho, and Colorado Rules Combined

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service, available on the www, that depicts the Inventoried Roadless Areas that were used in the Final Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the 2001...

  13. Determination of leakage areas in nuclear piping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keim, E. [Siemens/KWU, Erlangen (Germany)

    1997-04-01

    For the design and operation of nuclear power plants the Leak-Before-Break (LBB) behavior of a piping component has to be shown. This means that the length of a crack resulting in a leak is smaller than the critical crack length and that the leak is safely detectable by a suitable monitoring system. The LBB-concept of Siemens/KWU is based on computer codes for the evaluation of critical crack lengths, crack openings, leakage areas and leakage rates, developed by Siemens/KWU. In the experience with the leak rate program is described while this paper deals with the computation of crack openings and leakage areas of longitudinal and circumferential cracks by means of fracture mechanics. The leakage areas are determined by the integration of the crack openings along the crack front, considering plasticity and geometrical effects. They are evaluated with respect to minimum values for the design of leak detection systems, and maximum values for controlling jet and reaction forces. By means of fracture mechanics LBB for subcritical cracks has to be shown and the calculation of leakage areas is the basis for quantitatively determining the discharge rate of leaking subcritical through-wall cracks. The analytical approach and its validation will be presented for two examples of complex structures. The first one is a pipe branch containing a circumferential crack and the second one is a pipe bend with a longitudinal crack.

  14. Reversion Of Disused Fishpond Lease Agreement Areas To Mangrove Forests In Region VI, Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    Alice Joan G. Ferrer; Jinky C. Hopanda; Michael Q. Orquejo; Alan Dino E. Moscoso; Resurreccion B. Sadaba

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on evaluating the reversion of disused Fishpond Lease Agreement areas in Region VI (Western Visayas), Philippines to mangrove forests. The rehabilitation and restoration of mangrove areas are important given the substantial decline of mangrove forests in the country, particularly in Region VI. The study used a two-stage and five-step evaluation process. The first stage assessed the processes of Fishpond Lease Agreement (FLA) cancellation and reversion of jurisdiction over d...

  15. Analysis of Socio-Economic Factors Influencing Forest Dwellers' Participation in Reforestation and Development of Forest Areas (The Case Study of West Mazandaran, Iran)

    OpenAIRE

    E. Faham; A. Rezvanfar; T. Shamekhi

    2008-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to investigate the links between forest dwellers participation in reforestation and development of forest areas in west Mazandaran of Iran and a set of socio-economic variables. The statistical population includes all forest dwellers living in villages, which locate in the west Mazandaran in Iran and had been covered by local forestry cooperative. A sample of 110 forest dwellers were selected by the use of proportional random sampling method. A questionnaire...

  16. Determination of Land Use/ Land Cover Changes in Igneada Alluvial (Longos) Forest Ecosystem, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bektas Balcik, F.

    2012-12-01

    Alluvial (Longos) forests are one of the most fragile and threatened ecosystems in the world. Typically, these types of ecosystems have high biological diversity, high productivity, and high habitat dynamism. In this study, Igneada, Kirklareli was selected as study area. The region, lies between latitudes 41° 46' N and 41° 59' N and stretches between longitudes 27° 50' E and 28° 02' E and it covers approximately 24000 (ha). Igneada Longos ecosystems include mixed forests, streams, flooded (alluvial) forests, marshes, wetlands, lakes and coastal sand dunes with different types of flora and fauna. Igneada was classified by Conservation International as one of the world's top 122 Important Plant Areas, and 185 Important Bird Areas. These types of wild forest in other parts of Turkey and in Europe have been damaged due to anthropogenic effects. Remote sensing is very effective tool to monitor these types of sensitive regions for sustainable management. In this study, 1984 and 2011 dated Landsat 5 TM data were used to determine land cover/land use change detection of the selected region by using six vegetation indices such as Tasseled Cap index of greenness (TCG), brightness (TCB), and wetness (TCW), ratios of near-infrared to red image (RVI), normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), and soil-adjusted vegetation index (SAVI). Geometric and radiometric corrections were applied in image pre-processing step. Selective Principle Component Analysis (PCA) change detection method was applied to the selected vegetation index imagery to generate change imagery for extracting the changed features between the year of 1984 and 2011. Accuracy assessment was applied based on error matrix by calculating overall accuracy and Kappa statistics.

  17. Ecological determinants of mean family age of angiosperm trees in forest communities in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Hong; Chen, Shengbin

    2016-01-01

    Species assemblage in a local community is determined by the interplay of evolutionary and ecological processes. The Tropical Niche Conservatism hypothesis proposes mechanisms underlying patterns of biodiversity in biological communities along environmental gradients. This hypothesis predicts that, among other things, clades in areas with warm or wet environments are, on average, older than those in areas with cold or dry environments. Focusing on angiosperm trees in forests, this study tested the age-related prediction of the Tropical Niche Conservatism hypothesis. We related the mean family age of angiosperm trees in 57 local forests from across China with 23 current and paleo-environmental variables, which included all major temperature- and precipitation-related variables. Our study shows that the mean family age of angiosperm trees in local forests was positively correlated with temperature and precipitation. This finding is consistent with the age-related prediction of the Tropical Niche Conservatism hypothesis. Approximately 85% of the variance in the mean family age of angiosperm trees was explained by temperature-related variables, and 81% of the variance in the mean family age of angiosperm trees was explained by precipitation-related variables. Climatic conditions at the Last Glacial Maximum did not explain additional variation in mean family age after accounting for current environmental conditions. PMID:27354109

  18. Ecological determinants of mean family age of angiosperm trees in forest communities in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Hong; Chen, Shengbin

    2016-01-01

    Species assemblage in a local community is determined by the interplay of evolutionary and ecological processes. The Tropical Niche Conservatism hypothesis proposes mechanisms underlying patterns of biodiversity in biological communities along environmental gradients. This hypothesis predicts that, among other things, clades in areas with warm or wet environments are, on average, older than those in areas with cold or dry environments. Focusing on angiosperm trees in forests, this study tested the age-related prediction of the Tropical Niche Conservatism hypothesis. We related the mean family age of angiosperm trees in 57 local forests from across China with 23 current and paleo-environmental variables, which included all major temperature- and precipitation-related variables. Our study shows that the mean family age of angiosperm trees in local forests was positively correlated with temperature and precipitation. This finding is consistent with the age-related prediction of the Tropical Niche Conservatism hypothesis. Approximately 85% of the variance in the mean family age of angiosperm trees was explained by temperature-related variables, and 81% of the variance in the mean family age of angiosperm trees was explained by precipitation-related variables. Climatic conditions at the Last Glacial Maximum did not explain additional variation in mean family age after accounting for current environmental conditions. PMID:27354109

  19. Influence of roads on small rodents population in fragmented forest areas, South Korea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shin-JaeRHIM; Chang-BaeLEE; Wee-HaenaHUR; Young-SuPARK; Seo-YoonCHO; RenzhuPIAO; Woo-ShinLEE

    2003-01-01

    The road effect on small rodent population is investigated at 8 fragmented forest areas in the Baekdudaegan moun-tain range, South Korea in September 2001, We especially focused on the distribution and body condition of small rodents near the roads, Korean field mouse (Apodemus peninsulae) seems to be more sensitive to the existence of a road than striped field mouse (Apodemus agradus), Korean field mouse prefers interior forest area to around road. Striped field mouse is a habitat generalist and has wide distributional range around road, but Korean field mouse is forest-inhabiting species and their distribu-tion is limited in forest area. These results suggest the effect of road is different on each small rodent species and their habitat preferences.

  20. PHYTOSOCIOLOGICAL STRUCTURE OF THE TREE COMPONENT OF TWO SEASONAL EVERGREEN FOREST AREAS, RIO DAS PACAS BASIN, QUERÊNCIA, MATO GROSSO STATE, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sustanis Horn Kunz

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1980509813317This study aimed to describe the tree component structure of two patches of Evergreen Seasonal Forest in Pacas River Basin in Querência municipality in Mato Grosso state, Brazil. The point-centered quarter method was applied to systematically distribute 200 points in pristine forest and 100 points in managed forest. In each quarter, the nearest tree to the sampling point with diameter at breast height equal or greater than 10 cm was included. Estimates of local species richness were obtained with the Jackknife 1 and the Jaccard index was used to determinate floristic similarity between the patches. Although the two forest patches have had distinct historical uses, with tree component structure distinct, the areas presented high floristic similarity (Cj=0.67, the local species richness was alike (57 species in pristine forest and 52 in managed forest and the species with the highest importance value was the same in the both patches - Ocotea leucoxylon (Sw. Laness. Despite the anthropogenic disturbances in the past, it is possible to conclude that the managed forest is in an advanced stage of regeneration as expected for the evergreen seasonal forests pattern since this forest is naturally less diverse than the Amazon ombrophilous forests.

  1. Calibration and assessment of seasonal changes in leaf area index of a tropical dry forest in different stages of succession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalácska, M; Calvo-Alvarado, J C; Sánchez-Azofeifa, G A

    2005-06-01

    A simple measure of the amount of foliage present in a forest is leaf area index (LAI; the amount of foliage per unit ground surface area), which can be determined by optical estimation (gap fraction method) with an instrument such as the Li-Cor LAI-2000 Plant Canopy Analyzer. However, optical instruments such as the LAI-2000 cannot directly differentiate between foliage and woody components of the canopy. Studies investigating LAI and its calibration (extracting foliar LAI from optical estimates) in tropical forests are rare. We calibrated optical estimates of LAI from the LAI-2000 with leaf litter data for a tropical dry forest. We also developed a robust method for determining LAI from leaf litter data in a tropical dry forest environment. We found that, depending on the successional stage of the canopy and the season, the LAI-2000 may underestimate LAI by 17% to over 40%. In the dry season, the instrument overestimated LAI by the contribution of the woody area index. Examination of the seasonal variation in LAI for three successional stages in a tropical dry forest indicated differences in timing of leaf fall according to successional stage and functional group (i.e., lianas and trees). We conclude that when calculating LAI from optical estimates, it is necessary to account for the differences between values obtained from optical and semi-direct techniques. In addition, to calculate LAI from litter collected in traps, specific leaf area must be calculated for each species rather than from a mean value for multiple species. PMID:15805093

  2. Mapping permanent preservation areas and natural forest fragments as subsidy to the registration of legal reserve areas in rural properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Paulo Soares

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The major objective of this work was to identify and quantify forest fragments suitable to be used as private protected land in rural properties located in the São Bartolomeu creek watershed, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The methodological procedures included: mapping of 78 forest fragments through the visual interpretation of an Ikonos II satellite image; delineation of Permanent Preservation Areas (PPAs from a hydrographically conditioned digital elevation model and mapping of 292 rural properties through interviews with owners, with the aid of a printed Ikonos II image. The generated maps were overlapped (crossed, allowing the identification of forest fragments that could be used as private protected land in rural property. The result indicated that, from the total of properties evaluated, only 41 (14.04% have more than 20% of forest cover, and therefore, are in condition to attend the environmental law for private protected land.

  3. Simulation for Artificial Forest Succession in Hilly-gully Area of Loess Plateau, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, J., Jr.; Zhao, Z.; Yang, Y.

    2015-12-01

    The wide and large afforestation caused the great changes of surface albedo, water cycles, soil compositions and regional climate conditions on the Loess Plateau. There was increasing evidence showed that many problems had been occurred since ecological protection program began. Whether the artificial forest would adapt to environmental conditions on Loess Plateau is still controversial. In this paper, LANDIS-II, a spatially explicit model which included extension modules such as succession, disturbance, seed propagation, forest management, carbon dynamics and climate change, was applied to simulate dynamic natural succession of forests for coming 300 years in hilly-gully area of Loess Plateau. The results showed that (1) During the advancement of succession, the study area was occupied by different communities and appeared different succession stage successively under the condition of without considering the disturbance; (2) The current artificial forest has changed from 93.31% of Robinia pseudoacacia to exit the forest community in 50 years; (3) Platycladus oriental was the dominant species of coniferous trees and Populus davidiana was the dominant species of deciduous trees; (4)During the late succession stage, Platycladus oriental replaced Pinus tabulaeformis becoming the largest areal proportion of dominant tree species. The simulating of the natural succession in hilly-gully area of Loess Plateau forests at large space and long term scales, could provide a scientific basis for rational allocation of forest resources and forest management. In addition, our work clarifies the challenges and opportunities for the application of the model in the artificial forest and in hilly-gully area of Loess Plateau, China.

  4. Vegetation structure determination using LIDAR data and the forest growth parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybansky, M.; Brenova, M.; Cermak, J.; van Genderen, J.; Sivertun, Å.

    2016-06-01

    The goal of this paper is to identify the main vegetation factors in the terrain, which are important for the analysis of forest structure. Such an analysis is important for forestry, rescue operations management during crises situations and disasters such as fires, storms, earthquakes and military analysis (transportation, cover, concealment, etc.). For the forest structure determination, both LIDAR and the forest growth prediction analysis were used. As main results, the vegetation height, tree spacing and stem diameters were determined

  5. Predicting long-term streamflow variability in moist eucalypt forests using forest growth models and a sapwood area index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaskierniak, D.; Kuczera, G.; Benyon, R.

    2016-04-01

    A major challenge in surface hydrology involves predicting streamflow in ungauged catchments with heterogeneous vegetation and spatiotemporally varying evapotranspiration (ET) rates. We present a top-down approach for quantifying the influence of broad-scale changes in forest structure on ET and hence streamflow. Across three catchments between 18 and 100 km2 in size and with regenerating Eucalyptus regnans and E. delegatensis forest, we demonstrate how variation in ET can be mapped in space and over time using LiDAR data and commonly available forest inventory data. The model scales plot-level sapwood area (SA) to the catchment-level using basal area (BA) and tree stocking density (N) estimates in forest growth models. The SA estimates over a 69 year regeneration period are used in a relationship between SA and vegetation induced streamflow loss (L) to predict annual streamflow (Q) with annual rainfall (P) estimates. Without calibrating P, BA, N, SA, and L to Q data, we predict annual Q with R2 between 0.68 and 0.75 and Nash Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE) between 0.44 and 0.48. To remove bias, the model was extended to allow for runoff carry-over into the following year as well as minor correction to rainfall bias, which produced R2 values between 0.72 and 0.79, and NSE between 0.70 and 0.79. The model under-predicts streamflow during drought periods as it lacks representation of ecohydrological processes that reduce L with either reduced growth rates or rainfall interception during drought. Refining the relationship between sapwood thickness and forest inventory variables is likely to further improve results.

  6. LITTER PRODUCTION AND NUTRIENT ADDITION IN ATLANTIC FOREST AREAS IN SANTA MARIA DE JETIBÁ, ES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geângelo Petene Calvi

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was accomplished on Espíndula Farm, Santa Maria de Jetibá (ES, with the objective of evaluating the litter and nutrients deposition in areas with different succession stadiums. Two areas were selected with different vegetable coverings, defined as: (SF Secondary Forest, with about 25 ha of area, corresponding to an old area of cassava cultivation with about 50 years in process of ecological succession and where today there is a secondary forest and an Old Secondary Forest (OSF corresponding to a forest area that has just been submitted to a selective wood extraction for use of the farm itself. In each one of vegetal areas, approximately 0.1 ha was delimited and in these ten conical collectors were randomized distributed. The litter collections were accomplished monthly from November 2003 to October 2005. After drying, the material was stratified and the total contributed and the contribution of the different fractions, and the nutritious addition were evaluated. It was not verified significant differences among the total of litter deposited among the areas, being the highest production values observed in the summer, 5.70 Mg ha-1 (SF and 5.73 Mg ha-1(OSF, possibly due to the winds and rain mechanical action. The fraction of higher contribution was the foliar, corresponding to 74.62% for the SF area and 69.46% for the OSF area

  7. New Approach for forest inventory estimation and timber harvesting planning in mountain areas: the SLOPE project

    OpenAIRE

    Prandi, F.; Magliocchetti, D.; A. Poveda; R. De Amicis; M. Andreolli; F. Devigili

    2016-01-01

    Forests represent an important economic resource for mountainous areas being for a few region and mountain communities the main form of income. However, wood chain management in these contexts differs from the traditional schemes due to the limits imposed by terrain morphology, both for the operation planning aspects and the hardware requirements. In fact, forest organizational and technical problems require a wider strategic and detailed level of planning to reach the level of productivity o...

  8. Rapid, High-Resolution Forest Structure and Terrain Mapping over Large Areas using Single Photon Lidar

    OpenAIRE

    Anu Swatantran; Hao Tang; Terence Barrett; Phil DeCola; Ralph Dubayah

    2016-01-01

    Single photon lidar (SPL) is an innovative technology for rapid forest structure and terrain characterization over large areas. Here, we evaluate data from an SPL instrument - the High Resolution Quantum Lidar System (HRQLS) that was used to map the entirety of Garrett County in Maryland, USA (1700 km2). We develop novel approaches to filter solar noise to enable the derivation of forest canopy structure and ground elevation from SPL point clouds. SPL attributes are compared with field measur...

  9. A Multidimensional Environmental Value Orientation Approach to Forest Recreation Area Tourism Market Segmentation

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng-Ping Wang; Ching Li; Sung-Ta Liu

    2016-01-01

    This paper uses multidimensional environmental value orientations as the segmentation bases for analyzing a natural destination tourism market of the National Forest Recreation Areas in Taiwan. Cluster analyses identify two segments, Acceptance and Conditionality, within 1870 usable observations. Independent sample t test and crosstab analyses are applied to examine these segments’ forest value orientations, sociodemographic features, and service demands. The Acceptance group tends to be pote...

  10. Ecological Function Value of Tropical Forests in the Central Mountainous Areas of Hainan Island

    OpenAIRE

    GAO, Jing; ZHOU, Zuguang

    2013-01-01

    The integrated value of the ecological function of tropical forests in the central mountainous areas of Hainan Island was 33.0648 billion yuan•a-1 in 2010 (soil improvement, soil consolidation, soil nutrient maintenance, water storage and moisture regulation, water purification, carbon sequestration, oxygen releasing, air purification, biodiversity conservation, eco-tourism), equivalent to 16.1% of GDP in Hainan Province this year (205.212 billion yuan). The tropical forests in the central ...

  11. Using Tree Detection Algorithms to Predict Stand Sapwood Area, Basal Area and Stocking Density in Eucalyptus regnans Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominik Jaskierniak

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Managers of forested water supply catchments require efficient and accurate methods to quantify changes in forest water use due to changes in forest structure and density after disturbance. Using Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR data with as few as 0.9 pulses m−2, we applied a local maximum filtering (LMF method and normalised cut (NCut algorithm to predict stocking density (SDen of a 69-year-old Eucalyptus regnans forest comprising 251 plots with resolution of the order of 0.04 ha. Using the NCut method we predicted basal area (BAHa per hectare and sapwood area (SAHa per hectare, a well-established proxy for transpiration. Sapwood area was also indirectly estimated with allometric relationships dependent on LiDAR derived SDen and BAHa using a computationally efficient procedure. The individual tree detection (ITD rates for the LMF and NCut methods respectively had 72% and 68% of stems correctly identified, 25% and 20% of stems missed, and 2% and 12% of stems over-segmented. The significantly higher computational requirement of the NCut algorithm makes the LMF method more suitable for predicting SDen across large forested areas. Using NCut derived ITD segments, observed versus predicted stand BAHa had R2 ranging from 0.70 to 0.98 across six catchments, whereas a generalised parsimonious model applied to all sites used the portion of hits greater than 37 m in height (PH37 to explain 68% of BAHa. For extrapolating one ha resolution SAHa estimates across large forested catchments, we found that directly relating SAHa to NCut derived LiDAR indices (R2 = 0.56 was slightly more accurate but computationally more demanding than indirect estimates of SAHa using allometric relationships consisting of BAHa (R2 = 0.50 or a sapwood perimeter index, defined as (BAHaSDen½ (R2 = 0.48.

  12. Assessing the potential for pesticide leaching for the pine forest areas of Tenerife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Diaz, R; Loague, K

    2001-09-01

    Currently, no guidelines cover use of pesticides in the forested areas of the Canary island of Tenerife. An index-based model (Li) was used to rank the leaching potential of 50 pesticides that are, or could be, used for management purposes in the pine forest areas of Tenerife. Once the pesticides with the greatest leaching potential were identified, regional-scale groundwater vulnerability assessments, with consideration for data uncertainties, were generated using soil, climatic, and chemical information in a geographic information system framework for all pine forest areas of the island. Process-based simulations with the pesticide root zone model for the areas and pesticides of highest vulnerability were conducted to quantitatively characterize the leaching potentials. Carbofuran, hexazinone, picloram, tebuthiuron, and triclopyr were each identified as being potential leachers.

  13. Determination of forest fire causes in Portugal (1966-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Lourenço

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this study is to analyse the most important causes affecting fire ignitions in Portugal mainland, between 1996 and 2010. The forest fire database was provided by the Portuguese Government Forest Services (National Forest Authority, AFN, that group the causes in six main categories (negligent usage of fire, accidental, structural causes, incendiary, natural and unknown.The analysis of the causes of the forest fires ignitions shows that the greatest part was not investigated (84%, whilst the knowledge of cause only occurred in 8% of fires. At national level, the results show that incendiary and the negligent usage of the fire are the most important motivations behind forest fires, with almost 40% of the identified causes. At regional scale, fires caused by negligence seems to be more common in the north due to traditional agricultural practices such as pasture renewal, the burning of agricultural and forest debris and hunting practices. In the Alentejo, accidental causes mainly associated with crop harvesting machinery, were the primary reason for the outbreak of forest fires.

  14. Capability of Integrated MODIS Imagery and ALOS for Oil Palm, Rubber and Forest Areas Mapping in Tropical Forest Regions

    OpenAIRE

    Sheriza Mohd Razali; Arnaldo Marin; Ahmad Ainuddin Nuruddin; Helmi Zulhaidi Mohd Shafri; Hazandy Abdul Hamid

    2014-01-01

    Various classification methods have been applied for low resolution of the entire Earth’s surface from recorded satellite images, but insufficient study has determined which method, for which satellite data, is economically viable for tropical forest land use mapping. This study employed Iterative Self Organizing Data Analysis Techniques (ISODATA) and K-Means classification techniques to classified Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Surface Reflectance satellite image into...

  15. Structure and dynamics of a beech forest in a fully protected area in the northern Apennines (Sasso Fratino, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianchi L

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Sasso Fratino Nature Reserve (National Park of Casentino Forests, northern Apennines is a quite rare example of natural Apennine forest. The Reserve was established in 1959, aiming to protect a forest, although not a virgin one, low-intensively disturbed in the past by comparison with other neighbouring stands. Causes of such a low disturbance are the very limited accessibility of the area due to the very steep slopes characterising the site morphology, as well as historical features. The forest is a pure beech stand from 1250 m a.s.l. upwards, below this altitude is a mixed beech and silver fir forest. The study focuses on the understanding of the processes driving the evolution of the forest in the absence of human activities. To achieve this goal, 9 permanent, long-term research plots were established at different altitudes, in order to investigate on forest dynamics and regeneration processes. Simplified (single-layer stand structures are more frequent where canopy gaps are absent. Two-layered structures are the result of the occurrence of canopy gaps, which allow the settlement, and subsequently the establishment, of a lower regeneration layer. Where the gap dimensions allow canopy closure, this kind of structure persists. When the gaps are quite large, the regeneration layer reaches the top layer and the structure stand tends, once more, toward a single-layer. Multilayered structures are extremely rare at plot level and become evident only at a wider scale. Our surveys indicate also a high variability of tree diameter distribution patterns in the forest stands. Such variability could be strictly related to the heterogeneity of site characteristics as well as to the effects of disturbance factors (both natural and anthropic. Concerning altitude, we observed an increase both of site index (dominant height and species diversity in the regeneration layer, moving from higher (1500 m to lower (900 m altitudes. As a whole, our observations show

  16. Multitemporal analysis of landscape metrics for monitoring forested patterns in coastal and mountainous areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carone, M. T.; Imbrenda, V.; Lanfredi, M.; Macchiato, M.; Simoniello, T.

    2009-04-01

    The role of forested areas for the maintaining of an acceptable landscape balance is crucial. As an example, they contribute to higher biodiversity levels directly and to cleaner fluvial waters indirectly, thus, the degradation of such ecosystems has strong repercussions on many ecological processes. In order to preserve their natural stability, monitoring forest temporal dynamics is very important for a correct management, particularly, in fragile Mediterranean environments that are highly vulnerable to both natural and human-induced perturbations. For analysing the evolution of forested patterns, especially in areas with a strong human presence, landscape metrics are a basilar tool since they allow for evaluating the structure of landscape patterns at different spatio-temporal scales and the relationship between natural environment and human environment. Starting from this premise, we selected a set of Landscape Metrics to evaluate the temporal dynamics of forested covers in two different environments (coastal and mountainous) located in Basilicata Region, Southern Italy. The first one (area A) is located along the Ionian coast and is largely characterized by evergreen forests; in such an area, even if many sites are protected by the European Community (SCI), forests are subjected to a strong incidence of human activities mainly linked to agriculture and tourism as well as to frequent fire events and coastal erosion processes that favour salt-water intrusion. The second one (area B) is a high heterogeneous mountainous area, which also comprehends alluvial planes. The particular configuration of the territory allows for the presence of a very rich faunal and vegetation biodiversity; thus, it is partially under the protection of a National Park, but there are also many critical anthropical activities (e.g. oil drilling, agriculture, etc.). The landscape ecology analyses were performed on multi temporal land cover maps, obtained from hybrid classifications of a time

  17. A practical and automated approach to large area forest disturbance mapping with remote sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdogan, Mutlu

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, I describe a set of procedures that automate forest disturbance mapping using a pair of Landsat images. The approach is built on the traditional pair-wise change detection method, but is designed to extract training data without user interaction and uses a robust classification algorithm capable of handling incorrectly labeled training data. The steps in this procedure include: i) creating masks for water, non-forested areas, clouds, and cloud shadows; ii) identifying training pixels whose value is above or below a threshold defined by the number of standard deviations from the mean value of the histograms generated from local windows in the short-wave infrared (SWIR) difference image; iii) filtering the original training data through a number of classification algorithms using an n-fold cross validation to eliminate mislabeled training samples; and finally, iv) mapping forest disturbance using a supervised classification algorithm. When applied to 17 Landsat footprints across the U.S. at five-year intervals between 1985 and 2010, the proposed approach produced forest disturbance maps with 80 to 95% overall accuracy, comparable to those obtained from traditional approaches to forest change detection. The primary sources of mis-classification errors included inaccurate identification of forests (errors of commission), issues related to the land/water mask, and clouds and cloud shadows missed during image screening. The approach requires images from the peak growing season, at least for the deciduous forest sites, and cannot readily distinguish forest harvest from natural disturbances or other types of land cover change. The accuracy of detecting forest disturbance diminishes with the number of years between the images that make up the image pair. Nevertheless, the relatively high accuracies, little or no user input needed for processing, speed of map production, and simplicity of the approach make the new method especially practical for forest cover

  18. Effect of forest vegetation on runoff and sediment production in sloping lands of Loess area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xiaoming; YU Xinxiao; WU Sihong; WEI Tianxing; ZHANG Xuepei

    2006-01-01

    According to fixed-position data for 1985-2003 from nine runoff plots of Caijiachuan watershed which lies in Jixian County of Shanxi Province in Loess area,this paper studied the relationship between vegetation and runoff and sediment production in sloping lands in detail,which helps to provide scientific basis for vegetation m-construction and studies on environmental transformation of water and sediment in watersheds of Loess area.Although,many study results testify that forest vegetation has an important function in soil and water conservation and cutting runoff,the effect of vegetation on runoff and sediment transmission is complicated,and this needs to be studied in depth.The results of the paper showed the following.Firstly,the natural secondary forest performs better function of soil and water conservation than artificial Robinia pseudoacacia forest,and runoff and sediment produced in the former in individual rainfall were 65%-82% and 23%-92% of those pro duced in the latter.At the same time,better correlative relationship between runoff and sediment production and rainfall and rainfall intensity were testified by multiple regression,but the correlation decreased gradually with the increase of canopy density of forest.Secondly,the difference of runoff and sediment production in several land use types was very distinct,and the amount of runoff and sediment produced from Ostryopsis davidiana forest and natural secondary forest were the least,and runoff and sediment produced from in artificial Robinia pseudoacacia forest and Pinus tabulaeformis forest were 5-fold as much as those from O.davidiana forest.Besides,runoff and sediment produced in mixed planting of apple trees and crops were 16.14-fold and 2.96-fold than those of O.davidiana forest,respectively,but the amount decreased obviously after high-standard soil preparation in the case of the former.Thirdly,based on gray cognate analyses of factors affecting runoff and sediment production in sloping land

  19. Identifying priority areas for conservation and management in diverse tropical forests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karel Mokany

    Full Text Available The high concentration of the world's species in tropical forests endows these systems with particular importance for retaining global biodiversity, yet it also presents significant challenges for ecology and conservation science. The vast number of rare and yet to be discovered species restricts the applicability of species-level modelling for tropical forests, while the capacity of community classification approaches to identify priorities for conservation and management is also limited. Here we assessed the degree to which macroecological modelling can overcome shortfalls in our knowledge of biodiversity in tropical forests and help identify priority areas for their conservation and management. We used 527 plant community survey plots in the Australian Wet Tropics to generate models and predictions of species richness, compositional dissimilarity, and community composition for all the 4,313 vascular plant species recorded across the region (>1.3 million communities (grid cells. We then applied these predictions to identify areas of tropical forest likely to contain the greatest concentration of species, rare species, endemic species and primitive angiosperm families. Synthesising these alternative attributes of diversity into a single index of conservation value, we identified two areas within the Australian wet tropics that should be a high priority for future conservation actions: the Atherton Tablelands and Daintree rainforest. Our findings demonstrate the value of macroecological modelling in identifying priority areas for conservation and management actions within highly diverse systems, such as tropical forests.

  20. Identifying priority areas for conservation and management in diverse tropical forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokany, Karel; Westcott, David A; Prasad, Soumya; Ford, Andrew J; Metcalfe, Daniel J

    2014-01-01

    The high concentration of the world's species in tropical forests endows these systems with particular importance for retaining global biodiversity, yet it also presents significant challenges for ecology and conservation science. The vast number of rare and yet to be discovered species restricts the applicability of species-level modelling for tropical forests, while the capacity of community classification approaches to identify priorities for conservation and management is also limited. Here we assessed the degree to which macroecological modelling can overcome shortfalls in our knowledge of biodiversity in tropical forests and help identify priority areas for their conservation and management. We used 527 plant community survey plots in the Australian Wet Tropics to generate models and predictions of species richness, compositional dissimilarity, and community composition for all the 4,313 vascular plant species recorded across the region (>1.3 million communities (grid cells)). We then applied these predictions to identify areas of tropical forest likely to contain the greatest concentration of species, rare species, endemic species and primitive angiosperm families. Synthesising these alternative attributes of diversity into a single index of conservation value, we identified two areas within the Australian wet tropics that should be a high priority for future conservation actions: the Atherton Tablelands and Daintree rainforest. Our findings demonstrate the value of macroecological modelling in identifying priority areas for conservation and management actions within highly diverse systems, such as tropical forests.

  1. Economic Benefits Generated by Protected Areas: the Case of the Hoge Veluwe Forest, the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Hein

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Eliciting the economic benefits provided by protected areas is important in order to ensure that they are properly considered in policy and decision making. There are relatively few studies that provide a comprehensive overview of the economic benefits provided by European forest ecosystems, in spite of the large share of forests in the protected area system in most countries. An economic valuation of the ecosystem services supplied by the Hoge Veluwe forest in the Netherlands is presented. The Hoge Veluwe forest is one of the largest and most well-known protected areas in the country. The services included in the study are wood production, supply of game, groundwater recharge, carbon sequestration, air filtration, recreation, and nature conservation. A conservative estimate of the total economic benefits generated by the forest is around 2000 Euro/ha/year, which is more than three times higher than the per hectare-value generated by nearby agricultural land. The study provides an analysis of the economic value of eight ecosystem services, discusses the uncertainties of the value estimates, and examines the implications for financing protected area management.

  2. An analysis of briquette value chain at the Limsko forest area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranković Nenad

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Value creation represents an increase in the value of assets in the manufacturing process. Business processes that lead to value creation can be presented as a value chain. For wood products, total value creation takes place in the complex processes of production and exchange between forestry and timber industry. The research on the use of biomass for energy purposes is increasing in recent decades. Within the research on value chain, in our country were, to less extent were represented those related to woody biomass products. In this sense, the aim of the research is to determine the organization of woody biomass products (briquettes value chain and its analysis in the Limsko forest area. A “door-to-door” survey was used as a research technique. Data collection was conducted in the period from April to May of 2013. In total, 19 representatives of enterprises, which are participants in the woody biomass products value chain in the Limsko forest area were surveyed. Manufacturing enterprise, located in Nova Varoš, was analysed as the main participant in this chain. In addition, its suppliers (15, wholesaler (1, retailer (1, and consumer (1 were analysed. The manufacturing enterprise exclusively used raw material produced in sawmills. The results indicate that an increase in value occurs, primarily, during the transportation of raw materials from sawmill to the manufacturing enterprise. The next increase in value occurs during the storage of raw materials within the manufacturing enterprise and with the emergence of new stages in the production process, as well as during the transportation of products to the wholesaler, retailer and consumer.

  3. Introduction: Relationships Between Protected Areas and Sustainable Forest Management: Where are We Heading?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda F Wiersma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between protected areas and forest management has been one that has often been fraught with conflict. New practices in the forest sector and new ecological insights have led more recently to better co-operation in some regions, although it is debatable to what extent cooperative approaches are desirable. In this introduction to the special section on the relationships between protected areas and sustainable forest management, we outline the history of the forestry and protected areas sectors in Canada, and the evolution of the relationships between them. We define key terms for the debate and offer a novel framework for understanding the relationship between the two sectors as management regimes that occur along parallel continua of sustainability. This framework is contrasted against real-world findings from across Canada, and with examples from elsewhere in the world.

  4. Spatial Aggregation of Forest Songbird Territories and Possible Implications for Area Sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Bourque

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Habitat area requirements of forest songbirds vary greatly among species, but the causes of this variation are not well understood. Large area requirements could result from advantages for certain species when settling their territories near those of conspecifics. This phenomenon would result in spatial aggregations much larger than single territories. Species that aggregate their territories could show reduced population viability in highly fragmented forests, since remnant patches may remain unoccupied if they are too small to accommodate several territories. The objectives of this study were twofold: (1 to seek evidence of territory clusters of forest birds at various spatial scales, lags of 250-550 m, before and after controlling for habitat spatial patterns; and (2 to measure the relationship between spatial autocorrelation and apparent landscape sensitivity for these species. In analyses that ignored spatial variation of vegetation within remnant forest patches, nine of the 17 species studied significantly aggregated their territories within patches. After controlling for forest vegetation, the locations of eight out of 17 species remained significantly clustered. The aggregative pattern that we observed may, thus, be indicative of a widespread phenomenon in songbird populations. Furthermore, there was a tendency for species associated with higher forest cover to be more spatially aggregated [ERRATUM].

  5. A Global Analysis of Deforestation in Moist Tropical Forest Protected Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spracklen, B D; Kalamandeen, M; Galbraith, D; Gloor, E; Spracklen, D V

    2015-01-01

    Protected areas (PAs) have been established to conserve tropical forests, but their effectiveness at reducing deforestation is uncertain. To explore this issue, we combined high resolution data of global forest loss over the period 2000-2012 with data on PAs. For each PA we quantified forest loss within the PA, in buffer zones 1, 5, 10 and 15 km outside the PA boundary as well as a 1 km buffer within the PA boundary. We analysed 3376 tropical and subtropical moist forest PAs in 56 countries over 4 continents. We found that 73% of PAs experienced substantial deforestation pressure, with >0.1% a(-1) forest loss in the outer 1 km buffer. Forest loss within PAs was greatest in Asia (0.25% a(-1)) compared to Africa (0.1% a(-1)), the Neotropics (0.1% a(-1)) and Australasia (Australia and Papua New Guinea; 0.03% a(-1)). We defined performance (P) of a PA as the ratio of forest loss in the inner 1 km buffer compared to the loss that would have occurred in the absence of the PA, calculated as the loss in the outer 1 km buffer corrected for any difference in deforestation pressure between the two buffers. To remove the potential bias due to terrain, we analysed a subset of PAs (n = 1804) where slope and elevation in inner and outer 1 km buffers were similar (within 1° and 100 m, respectively). We found 41% of PAs in this subset reduced forest loss in the inner buffer by at least 25% compared to the expected inner buffer forest loss (P<0.75). Median performance (P) of subset reserves was 0.87, meaning a reduction in forest loss within the PA of 13%. We found PAs were most effective in Australasia (P = 0.16), moderately successful in the Neotropics (P = 0.72) and Africa (p = 0.83), but ineffective in Asia (P = 1). We found many countries have PAs that give little or no protection to forest loss, particularly in parts of Asia, west Africa and central America. Across the tropics, the median effectiveness of PAs at the national level improved with gross domestic product per

  6. 76 FR 3015 - Prohibitions in Areas Designated by Order; Closure of National Forest System Lands To Protect...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-19

    ... Service regulations at 36 CFR part 261, subpart B, establish prohibitions relating to acts or omissions... Forest Service 36 CFR Part 261 RIN 0596-AC93 Prohibitions in Areas Designated by Order; Closure of National Forest System Lands To Protect Privacy of Tribal Activities AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA....

  7. Fire Impact on Subtaiga Larch Forest Ecosystems of the Eastern Khentey Area in Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. N. Krasnoshchekov

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The data of experimental studies on post-fire dynamics in subtaiga larch forests in the Eastern Khentey area in Mongolia are analyzed in the paper. It has been revealed that ground litter-humus fires are the major destructive factor in forest dynamics. The impact of intense ground fire on root systems causes tree mortality, and the survival of the trees after a fire depends on character and severity of the fire damage. In extreme fire situations dead larch tree stands are replaced by secondary birch forests. The characteristics and dynamics of the lower forest vegetation layers under the influence of fires of varying intensity and duration are presented. The negative fire impact on soil properties is shown.

  8. Mechanisms of Forest Restoration in Landslide Treatment Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Chang Chen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Reforestation after a landslide facilitates competition between herbaceous plants and arborous plants. Tangible variations in grassland areas in regions susceptible to landslides can only be found within collections of trees. A landslide area in the Sule Watershed was investigated. Relative illuminance results reveal that the Rhodes grass (Chloris gayana Kunth biomass in this landslide area increases with relative illuminance. A comparison of regions with tree islands indicates that the size of the grassland areas decreased and the number of tree islands increased during 2005–2010. Furthermore, a germination experiment in a soil-seed bank indicates that more woody plant species exist around the tree island than in other areas in the landslide region. Trees in a tree island change the micro-climate of the landslide region, and they gather as many nutrients and as much moisture as possible, enabling vegetation to expand around the tree island. Additionally, the area with Rhodes grass and its biomass declined annually in the tree island region. Investigation results show that tree islands and soil-seed banks are suited to reforestation in landslide regions. The pioneering research will assist regional landslide management in Taiwan.

  9. Spatially Explicit Large Area Biomass Estimation: Three Approaches Using Forest Inventory and Remotely Sensed Imagery in a GIS

    OpenAIRE

    Steen Magnussen; Joan E. Luther; Richard A. Fournier; White, Joanne C.; Michael A. Wulder

    2008-01-01

    Forest inventory data often provide the required base data to enable the large area mapping of biomass over a range of scales. However, spatially explicit estimates of above-ground biomass (AGB) over large areas may be limited by the spatial extent of the forest inventory relative to the area of interest (i.e., inventories not spatially exhaustive), or by the omission of inventory attributes required for biomass estimation. These spatial and attributional gaps in the forest inventory may resu...

  10. Euglossine bees (Apidae) in Atlantic forest areas of São Paulo State, southeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Duran Cordeiro, Guaraci; Boff, Samuel; Almeida Caetano, Tiago; Fernandes, Paulo; Alves-Dos-Santos, Isabel

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the diversity of euglossine bees in ten areas of Atlantic Forest Domain in São Paulo State, Brazil. Bees were collected with odor baits for 2 years, from March 2007 to March 2009. From a standardized effort during the first year of sampling, we compare the four areas using indexes of diversity, evenness, and similarity of euglossine communities. In the second year, we added six new places for presenting a general overview on the Atlantic forest in São Paulo. A total of 2,395 i...

  11. Diversity of myxomycetes in an environmentally protected area of Atlantic Forest in northeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Antônia Aurelice Aurélio Costa; Andrea Carla Caldas Bezerra; Vitor Xavier de Lima; Laise de Holanda Cavalcanti

    2014-01-01

    The present study was carried out on three trails, each presenting a different degree of disturbance, within the Pau-Ferro Forest Environmentally Protected Area, a 600 ha area of highland forest located in the municipality of Areia (06°58'12"S; 35°42'15"W; elevation, 400-600 m), in the state of Paraíba, Brazil. In 2005, we analyzed the species richness, abundance, constancy and phenology of myxomycetes over seven consecutive months (rainy and dry seasons) in five types of microhabitats: dead ...

  12. 78 FR 33047 - Humboldt-Toiyabe National Forest, Carson Ranger District Mt. Rose Ski Tahoe-Atoma Area...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-03

    ... Linda Crawley, Team Leader, Humboldt- Toiyabe National Forest, 1200 Franklin Way, Sparks, Nevada 89431..., and takes advantage of both the location and topography of the area while strategically...

  13. Changes in the structure due to strong winds in forest areas in the Pantanal, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Maria Salis

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The Pantanal climate presents marked seasonality and eventually strong winds occur, especially in the beginning of the rainy season, which may last from September or October until April. A phytosociological study was conducted to evaluate the effects of a strong wind on the composition and structure of two forest formations in Pantanal wetland, a semideciduous forest (19º 15’ 32’’S and 55º 45’ 23.7’’W and a forested savanna - “cerradão” (19° 17’ 21’’S and 55º 45’ 8.9’’W, with trees with diameter at breast height (DBH ≥ 5 cm. After the strong wind, a reduction of 6% of the basal area and volume in the semideciduous forest was observed, mainly due to the uprooting of Xylopia aromatica trees. In the forested savanna, the basal area and volume reduction was even higher; an estimated 10%, representing 69 uprooted trees per hectare, mainly of Copaifera martii trees. In both areas it was observed that the uprooted trees presented an average height and diameter bigger than the trees that remained intact. Usually, the trees that were uprooted presented higher wood density and the species that had broken branches had a lower density.

  14. A Measure of the Forest Protected Areas Benefits for the Surrounding Population: A Case Study of the Bouaflé Protected Forest (CÔTE D'IVOIRE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouame, B. N. P.

    2015-12-01

    Côte d'Ivoire located in West Africa, registers high level of biodiversity which occurs mainly in forest land. The country has suffered severe deforestation. However, deforestation and forest degradation release Greenhouse Gases into the atmosphere which contributes to Climate Change. In order to address the deforestation, many actions are taken, one of which is the implementation of protected areas within countries. These measures put restrictions on the access of local communities to forest services. However, local communities supplement their daily livelihood from forests, especially from timber and non-timber forest products. What are the effects of forests conservation in protected areas on surrounding population? This study focuses on the Bouaflé protected forest (foret classée de Bouaflé) in the western part of Côte d'Ivoire. The forest is 20350 ha and was made a protected forest in 1974. It is one of the most deforested protected areas in the country. Firstly, we described the perception of forest benefits by the population. Secondly, we estimated the benefits of forest conservation using a contingent valuation approach, particularly the Willingness to Pay (WTP) methodology. From our sample size of 156 households, it appears that most of the individuals are aware of the importance of the forest (94 % against 6%). According to the estimate of the benefits, it results on average, people are willing to pay 1658.491F CFA (2.53 Euros). The median WTP is 1000 FCFA. This study will be helpful by adding to the scientific literature and for inducing local people implication in conservation.

  15. Propensity of farmers to conserve forest within REDD+ projects in areas affected by armed-conflict

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nunez, Augusto Carlos Castro; Mertz, Ole; Quintero, Marcela

    2016-01-01

    The implementation of carbon-storage efforts in countries experiencing armed conflicts or confronting illegal activities (such as illicit crop cultivation) will permit additional tropical forests to be protected for climate change mitigation. Yet, despite these potential gains, the appropriate...... areas to conserve forests for climate change mitigation. Such questions include, for what reasons and under what circumstances would such farmer participate in climate change mitigation activities? In this paper we address these questions by developing an econometric Logit model to understand factors...... influencing the propensity to conserve forest of farmers from 14 villages in Colombia. These villages are located in a region recognized as a stronghold of guerrilla insurgencies and as the center for illegal crop cultivation. The region was selected as it is also the proposed target area for piloting...

  16. IMPACTS OF SELECTIVE LOGGING IN FOREST AREAS UNDER FRAGMENTATION IN WESTERN AMAZON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Cláudio de Oliveira

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available The continuous increase of the economic pressures on humid tropical forests,especially through the expansion of the agriculture and pasture border, led to deforestationaround the road axes, resulting in a mosaic of isolated fragments. The hypothesis that thereare significant impacts in terms of aboveground alive standing biomass among areas underfragmentation process was tested. The standards of biomass distribution among four areasaround the highways BR 364 and BR 364 were evaluated through allometric equations. Thedynamics of biomass, in primary forests, is possibly related to the process of forestfragmentation, or either. The smallest values for the variable basal area (20.3m2.ha-1 andbiomass (384 t.ha-1 are found in the smallest forest fragments. The effect of the selectivelogging was evident and showed a drastic reduction in biomass for the species logged.

  17. [Response of the ant community to attributes of fragments and vegetation in a northeastern Atlantic Rain Forest area, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Juliana P; Iannuzzi, Luciana; Leal, Inara R

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of forest fragmentation on ant richness in a landscape of Atlantic Forest in Northeast Brazil. More specifically, the ant richness was related to the attributes of fragments (area and distance from the fragment central point to the edge), landscape (forest cover surrounding the fragments), and tree community (plant density, richness, and percentage of shade tolerant species). The surveys were carried out in 19 fragments located in Alagoas State from October 2007 to March 2008. Samples were collected through a 300 m transect established in the center of each fragment, where 30 1-m² leaf litter samples were collected at 10 m intervals. A total of 146 ant species was collected, which belonged to 42 genera, 24 tribes and nine subfamilies. The attributes of fragments and landscape did not influence ant richness. On the other hand, tree density explained ca. 23% of ant richness. In relation to functional groups, both density and richness of trees explained the richness of general myrmicines (the whole model explained ca. 42% of the variation in this group) and percentage of shade tolerant trees explained the richness of specialist predator ants (30% for the whole model). These results indicate that ant fauna is more influenced by vegetation integrity than by fragment size, distance to edge or forest cover surrounding fragments. PMID:21271055

  18. Estimating forest crown area removed by selection cutting: a linked regression-GIS approach based on stump diameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, S.C.; Kupfer, J.A.; Wilson, R.R.; Cooper, R.J.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to develop a model that could be used to provide a spatial representation of uneven-aged silvicultural treatments on forest crown area. We began by developing species-specific linear regression equations relating tree DBH to crown area for eight bottomland tree species at White River National Wildlife Refuge, Arkansas, USA. The relationships were highly significant for all species, with coefficients of determination (r(2)) ranging from 0.37 for Ulmus crassifolia to nearly 0.80 for Quercus nuttalliii and Taxodium distichum. We next located and measured the diameters of more than 4000 stumps from a single tree-group selection timber harvest. Stump locations were recorded with respect to an established gl id point system and entered into a Geographic Information System (ARC/INFO). The area occupied by the crown of each logged individual was then estimated by using the stump dimensions (adjusted to DBHs) and the regression equations relating tree DBH to crown area. Our model projected that the selection cuts removed roughly 300 m(2) of basal area from the logged sites resulting in the loss of approximate to 55 000 m(2) of crown area. The model developed in this research represents a tool that can be used in conjunction with remote sensing applications to assist in forest inventory and management, as well as to estimate the impacts of selective timber harvest on wildlife.

  19. 75 FR 54542 - Special Areas; Roadless Area Conservation; Applicability to the National Forests in Idaho...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... correction; request for comment. SUMMARY: The Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), is proposing to make administrative corrections affecting Big Creek Fringe, French Creek, Placer Creek,...

  20. [Simulation of water and carbon fluxes in harvard forest area based on data assimilation method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ting-Long; Sun, Rui; Zhang, Rong-Hua; Zhang, Lei

    2013-10-01

    Model simulation and in situ observation are the two most important means in studying the water and carbon cycles of terrestrial ecosystems, but have their own advantages and shortcomings. To combine these two means would help to reflect the dynamic changes of ecosystem water and carbon fluxes more accurately. Data assimilation provides an effective way to integrate the model simulation and in situ observation. Based on the observation data from the Harvard Forest Environmental Monitoring Site (EMS), and by using ensemble Kalman Filter algorithm, this paper assimilated the field measured LAI and remote sensing LAI into the Biome-BGC model to simulate the water and carbon fluxes in Harvard forest area. As compared with the original model simulated without data assimilation, the improved Biome-BGC model with the assimilation of the field measured LAI in 1998, 1999, and 2006 increased the coefficient of determination R2 between model simulation and flux observation for the net ecosystem exchange (NEE) and evapotranspiration by 8.4% and 10.6%, decreased the sum of absolute error (SAE) and root mean square error (RMSE) of NEE by 17.7% and 21.2%, and decreased the SAE and RMSE of the evapotranspiration by 26. 8% and 28.3%, respectively. After assimilated the MODIS LAI products of 2000-2004 into the improved Biome-BGC model, the R2 between simulated and observed results of NEE and evapotranspiration was increased by 7.8% and 4.7%, the SAE and RMSE of NEE were decreased by 21.9% and 26.3%, and the SAE and RMSE of evapotranspiration were decreased by 24.5% and 25.5%, respectively. It was suggested that the simulation accuracy of ecosystem water and carbon fluxes could be effectively improved if the field measured LAI or remote sensing LAI was integrated into the model.

  1. Grass snake populations’ features of the forest biogeocoenoses in the Samara river area

    OpenAIRE

    V. Y. Gasso

    2011-01-01

    Results of 7-years research of the grass snake population in forest ecosystems of the Samara River area (Dnipropetrovsk province, Ukraine) are presented. The population is of high abundance but have a tendency to decrease. Population’s sex ratio, spatial structure, snakes’ morphometric parameters and pholidosis are described. Those characteristics reflect the population specificity, which was formed by microevolutional processes.

  2. Using basal area to estimate aboveground carbon stocks in forests: La Primavera Biosphere's Reserve, Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balderas Torres, A.; Lovett, J.C.

    2012-01-01

    Increasing use of woody plants for greenhouse gas mitigation has led to demand for rapid, cost-effective estimation of forest carbon stocks. Bole diameter is readily measured and basal area can be correlated to biomass and carbon through application of allometric equations. We explore different form

  3. Economic benefits generated by protected areas: the case of the Hoge Veluwe forest, the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hein, L.G.

    2011-01-01

    Eliciting the economic benefits provided by protected areas is important in order to ensure that they are properly considered in policy and decision making. There are relatively few studies that provide a comprehensive overview of the economic benefits provided by European forest ecosystems, in spit

  4. Fine-scale habitat structure complexity determines insectivorous bird diversity in a tropical forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castaño-Villa, Gabriel J.; Ramos-Valencia, Santiago A.; Fontúrbel, Francisco E.

    2014-11-01

    Habitat complexity in reforested stands has been acknowledged as a key factor that influences habitat use by birds, being especially critical for habitat disturbance-sensitive species such as tropical understory insectivorous birds. Most studies regarding the relationship between forest structure and species diversity were conducted at the landscape scale, but different diversity patterns may emerge at a finer scale (i.e., within a habitat patch). We examined a tropical reforested area (State of Caldas, Colombia), hypothesizing that insectivorous bird richness, abundance, and foraging guild abundance would increase as intra-habitat complexity increases. We established 40 monitoring plots within a reforested area, measured their structural features, and determined their relationships with species richness, total abundance, and foraging guild abundance, using Generalized Additive Models. We found that the increasing variation in basal area, stem diameter, and number of stems was positively correlated with species richness, total abundance, and foraging guild abundance. Relationships between richness or abundance and structural features were not lineal, but showing curvilinear responses and thresholds. Our results show that heterogeneity on basal area, stem diameter, and the number of stems was more correlated to insectivorous bird richness and abundance than the average of those structural features. Promoting structural variation on reforested areas by planting species with different growth rates may contribute to increase the richness and abundance of a tropical vulnerable group of species such as the understory insectivorous birds.

  5. Periodic Comprehensive Forest Inventory on Production Forest Management in Papua Province

    OpenAIRE

    Financio Dorebayo; Endang Suhendang; Muhdin

    2015-01-01

    The periodic comprehensive forest inventory (inventarisasi hutan menyeluruh berkala called IHMB) is Indonesian forest stands inventory which based on compartment at forest effective area of forest management unit (FMU). To preserve sustainable forest management, IHMB implementation are used as a benchmark on the determinate of maximum cutting area and large of timber volume that can be produced by FMU to preparing long-term forest planning. The purpose of this study is to assess t...

  6. State power and protected areas: Dynamics and contradictions of forest conservation in Madhya Pradesh, India

    OpenAIRE

    Véron René; Fehr Garry

    2011-01-01

    The traditionally coercive and state-controlled governance of protected areas for nature conservation in developing countries has in many cases undergone change in the context of widespread decentralization and liberalization. This article examines an emerging "mixed" (coercive, community- and market-oriented) conservation approach in managed-resource protected areas and its effects on state power through a case study on forest protection in the central Indian state of Madhya Pradesh. The fin...

  7. Leaf Area Index (LAI Estimation of Boreal Forest Using Wide Optics Airborne Winter Photos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline Stenberg

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A new simple airborne method based on wide optics camera is developed for leaf area index (LAI estimation in coniferous forests. The measurements are carried out in winter, when the forest floor is completely snow covered and thus acts as a light background for the hemispherical analysis of the images. The photos are taken automatically and stored on a laptop during the flights. The R2 value of the linear regression of the airborne and ground based LAI measurements was 0.89.

  8. Determinants of Regional Variability in Litter Production of Forests in the Southern Yucatan: Environmental Gradients or Human Legacy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, D.; Lawrence, D.; Foster, D. R.

    2001-05-01

    The Southern Yucatan is the deforestation frontier for the largest block of dry tropical forest north of Brazil. Our goal was to assess how human disturbance alters patterns of productivity driven by natural gradients of precipitation and soil fertility. We sampled litter production and soils in three regions (rainfall 890-1420 mm yr-1). We studied 8-10 stands 2-25 yrs old plus 2-3 mature forest stands per region (36 in total). Litter was collected monthly from four 1-m2 traps within a 500-m2 area, and summed for 1999. Soil chemical and physical properties varied little across the region, but organic matter increased (10.9-13.3% soils 0-15 cm deep) with annual precipitation. Annual litter production was analyzed as a function of region, forest age, number of previous cycles of shifting cultivation, and total number of years in corn production. Region had no significant effect on production, though there was a trend toward higher production in the wettest region. Litterfall increased with age, and production in old secondary forests was not significantly different from that in mature forests. Land-use intensity was negatively correlated with litter production, which declined as a function of both number of cycles and total number of years in corn. In stepwise regression models, age and number of years in corn were the only significant predictors of litter production. Human history, rather than environmental gradients, seems to determine regional variation in productivity in the Yucatan.

  9. Interaction between the society around forest area with the use of biodiversity in the natural forest ecosystem of Bedugul-Pancasari, Bali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BRAMANTYO TRI ADI NUGROHO

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Natural ecosystem forest of Bedugul-Pancasari represents an area which located in Tabanan regency, Bali province. This ecosystem area consist of eight laid orchard at strategic area so that do not deny by many society forest exploit variety involve residing in the area. This research aimed to get the information about variance factors that influence the extraction of nature resources by the village and also to know the respondent characteristic. The result from frequency distribution table showed the age of respondent 20-35 (45% was the biggest group which taken the forest biodiversities around Bedugul-Pancasari forest. The respondent who taken the biggest forest biodiversity has income from 50,000-185,000 rupiahs (42% and 82% as a farmer. The age, the distance between house and forest, and the number of family member variables influenced the respondents to take the forest biodiversities. The Cramer’s V value for each variable is 0.592, 0.691 and 0.723 that indicated there was correlation.

  10. Valuation of Forest Resources in Watershed Areas: Selected Applications in Makiling Forest Reserve

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco, Herminia A.; Espiritu, Nena O.

    1999-01-01

    The valuation of resources found in the watershed area is important in assessing the impacts of changes in the watershed. While the change will have positive impacts which are short-term in nature, there are long-term environmental damages associated with economic benefits. This paper gives a rational judgment on the soundness of such changes through cost and benefit analysis. The watershed approach is utilized to capture the effects that are relevant in the analysis.

  11. Anuran amphibians in an Atlantic Forest area at Serra do Tabuleiro, Santa Catarina, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Wachlevski

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The Atlantic Forest is a priority area for the conservation of amphibians, with some regions already showing knowledge gaps. We analyzed the composition and richness of anuran species in an area of dense ombrophilous forest at Serra do Tabuleiro, the seasonal richness variation, and the daily activity of males during vocalization shifts. We collected samples of anurans from two permanent ponds and from a track within the forest for 14 months. We recorded 32 anuran species, among which Aplastodiscus cochranae, A. ehrhardti, and Hypsiboas poaju are included in the list of endangered species in the state. The highest number of species was associated to spring and summer. The most frequent anuran species were H. bischoffi, Adenomera araucaria, and Physalaemus nanus, registered throughout the study period. The daily activity of males was concentrated between 8 p.m. and 12 p.m., but some species keep vocalizing overnight, indicating that vocal activity can differ among species undergoing the same weather conditions. The diversity of anurans recorded in our study was high, including endangered species and species with poor biological knowledge, reinforcing the relevance of Serra do Tabuleiro as a priority area for preserving the Atlantic Forest.

  12. Ecological Function Value of Tropical Forests in the Central Mountainous Areas of Hainan Island

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing; GAO; Zuguang; ZHOU

    2013-01-01

    The integrated value of the ecological function of tropical forests in the central mountainous areas of Hainan Island was 33.064 8 billion yuan/a in 2010(soil improvement,soil consolidation,soil nutrient maintenance,water storage and moisture regulation,water purification,carbon sequestration,oxygen releasing,air purification,biodiversity conservation,eco-tourism),equivalent to 16.1%of GDP in Hainan Province this year(205.212 billion yuan).The tropical forests in the central mountainous areas of Hainan Island make great contribution to Hainan Island’s ecology,and play an important role in maintaining the stability of the ecological environment in Hainan Island.Through the understanding of major ecological function value of tropical forests,it is necessary to make people cherish the tropical forests in the central ecological function conservation areas of Hainan Province,and spontaneously throw themselves into the ecological environment protection and construction,to promote the rapid and sustainable development of construction in Hainan Province as an international tourism island.

  13. Towards prediction of redistribution of fallout radiocesium on forested area discharged from Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Satoru; Aoyama, Michio; Ito, Eriko; Shichi, Koji; Takata, Daisuke; Masaya, Masumori; Sekiya, Nobuhito; Kobayashi, Natsuko; Takano, Naoto; Kaneko, Shinji; Tanoi, Keitaro; Nakanishi, Tomoko

    2015-04-01

    Redistribution of fallout 137Cs on forested area discharged from Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP) is an issue of major concern for the people in Fukushima and its surrounding areas. To approach this question we investigated global fallout 137Cs (137Cs-GFO) from nuclear weapon tests in the atmosphere in the 1950s and 60s, and 137Cs distribution derived from FNPP (137Cs-FK) within the whole trees contaminated directly. We examined concentrations and amounts of 137Cs-GFO in surface soils (0-5, 5-15 and 15-30 cm in depth) of 3470 samples at 316 sites all over Japan, which were collected just before the accident of FNPP. We determined 137Cs-GFO activities by NaI well-type scintillation counter with its accuracy verified using measurements by a germanium detector. We divided 316 sampling sites into 10 groups separated by one longitudinal line and four transversal lines on the terrain of Japan islands, then analyzed rainfall and geomorphological effects on 137Cs-GFO inventories. In addition to this dataset, we collected three whole tree samples of 26 year-old Quercus serrata at a contaminated area by FNPP accident in April, 2014 and examined concentrations of 137Cs-FK of above- and belowground tree parts by a germanium detector. We estimated an average of 137Cs-GFO inventories of forest soils in Japan to be 1.7 ± 1.4 kBq m-2 as of 2008. 137Cs-GFO inventories varied largely from 0-7.9 kBq m-2 among the country and accumulated greater in the north-western part along the Sea of Japan side. We detected rainfall effect on 137Cs-GFO inventories, which were greater where winter rainfall was large. As for vertical distribution of 137Cs-GFO, 44% of 137Cs-GFO remained within the uppermost 5 cm of soil profiles whereas the rest of 56% existed in 5-30 cm in depth. This indicated that considerable downward migration of 137Cs-GFO has happened during these fifty years in forest soils in Japan. However, multiple linear regression analysis by geomorphological factors related to soil

  14. Habitat characteristics of forest fragments determine specialisation of plant-frugivore networks in a mosaic forest landscape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lackson Chama

    Full Text Available Plant-frugivore networks play a key role in the regeneration of sub-tropical forest ecosystems. However, information about the impact of habitat characteristics on plant-frugivore networks in fragmented forests is scarce. We investigated the importance of fruit abundance, fruiting plant species richness and canopy cover within habitat fragments for the structure and robustness of plant-frugivore networks in a mosaic forest landscape of South Africa. In total, 53 avian species were involved in fruit removal of 31 fleshy-fruiting plant species. Species specialisation was always higher for plants than for frugivores. Both species and network-level specialisation increased with increasing fruit abundance and decreased with increasing fruiting plant species richness and canopy cover within fragments. Interaction diversity was unaffected by fruit abundance and canopy cover, but increased slightly with increasing fruiting plant species richness. These findings suggest that especially the availability of resources is an important determinant of the structure of plant-frugivore networks in a fragmented forest landscape.

  15. Drift and transmission FT-IR spectroscopy of forest soils: an approach to determine decomposition processes of forest litter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method is described to characterize organic soil layers using Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy. The applicability of FT-IR, either dispersive or transmission, to investigate decomposition processes of spruce litter in soil originating from three different forest sites in two climatic regions was studied. Spectral information of transmission and diffuse reflection FT-IR spectra was analyzed and compared. For data evaluation Kubelka Munk (KM) transformation was applied to the DRIFT spectra. Sample preparation for DRIFT is simpler and less time consuming in comparison to transmission FT-IR, which uses KBr pellets. A variety of bands characteristics of molecular structures and functional groups has been identified for these complex samples. Analysis of both transmission FT-IR and DRIFT, showed that the intensity of distinct bands is a measure of the decomposition of forest litter. Interferences due to water adsorption spectra were reduced by DRIFT measurement in comparison to transmission FT-IR spectroscopy. However, data analysis revealed that intensity changes of several bands of DRIFT and transmission FT-IR were significantly correlated with soil horizons. The application of regression models enables identification and differentiation of organic forest soil horizons and allows to determine the decomposition status of soil organic matter in distinct layers. On the basis of the data presented in this study, it may be concluded that FT-IR spectroscopy is a powerful tool for the investigation of decomposition dynamics in forest soils. (author)

  16. Malaria prevalence, risk factors and spatial distribution in a hilly forest area of Bangladesh.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ubydul Haque

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Malaria is a major public health concern in Bangladesh and it is highly endemic in the Chittagong Hill Tracts where prevalence was 11.7% in 2007. One sub-district, Rajasthali, had a prevalence of 36%. Several interventions were introduced in early 2007 to control malaria. This study was undertaken to evaluate the impacts of these intensive early stage interventions on malaria in Bangladesh. This prevalence study assesses whether or not high malaria prevalence remains, and if so, which areas and individuals remain at high risk of infection. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A 2-stage cluster sampling technique was used to sample 1,400 of 5,322 (26.3% households in Rajasthali, and screened using a rapid diagnostic test (Falci-vax. Overall malaria prevalence was 11.5%. The proportions of Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax and infection with both species were 93.2%, 1.9% and 5.0%, respectively. Univariate, multivariate logistic regression, and spatial cluster analyses were performed separately. Sex, age, number of bed nets, forest cover, altitude and household density were potential risk factors. A statistically significant malaria cluster was identified. Significant differences among risk factors were observed between cluster and non-cluster areas. CONCLUSION AND SIGNIFICANCE: Malaria has significantly decreased within 2 years after onset of intervention program. Both aspects of the physical and social environment, as well as demographic characteristics are associated with spatial heterogeneity of risk. The ability to identify and locate these areas provides a strategy for targeting interventions during initial stages of intervention programs. However, in high risk clusters of transmission, even extensive coverage by current programs leaves transmission ongoing at reduced levels. This indicates the need for continued development of new strategies for identification and treatment as well as improved understanding of the patterns and

  17. [Structure and ecological benefits of urban forest in Shenyang build-up area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhibin; He, Xingyuan; Chen, Wei; Li, Yuehui; Li, Haimei

    2003-12-01

    Investigations were made in the sampling plots covering 243 km2 of the Shenyang urban area, and the results were used as the input for the Urban Forest Management Information System (UFMIS), which was developed based on the model of CITY green. With this system, and using tree species, tree density, tree height grade distribution, tree DBH (diameter at beast height) grade distribution, and tree health condition as parameters, the land use and forest structure in Shenyang City were analyzed. It was found that there were 1,914,500 trees in Shenyang, belonging to 136 species. The 25 dominant species accounted for 84.78% of the total number of trees, and the forest coverage was 9.765%. Trees with DBH 0.5 m accounted for 82.8% of the total, and the young, middle-aged and old trees occupied 27%, 58% and 15% of the total, respectively. The healthy status of 84% of the trees was above middle level. Therefore, the forest in Shenyang urban is at a stable stage. According to the statistical results from UFMIS, the ecological value of forest in Shenyang urban is as high as 26,526,955. 1 USD in terms of economy. PMID:15031897

  18. The Influence of Typical Forest Types on Soil Erosion Resistance in the Water Source Areas of Central Yunnan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yangyi; ZHAO; Xu; DUAN; Shumiao; SHU

    2015-01-01

    In order to clarify the influence of different forest types on soil erosion resistance in water source area of Central Yunnan,with the soils under three different kinds of typical forest in Yizhe watershed as the research object,this paper uses field simulation method and principal component analysis to analyze the soil erosion resistance of three kinds of soils. The results show that there is a significant difference in the shear strength of soil among three types of typical forest,and the size of soil shear strength is in the order of Pinus yunnanensis forest land >mixed broadleaf-conifer forest land > eucalyptus forest land. The difference in the soil erosion coefficient among different forests is not significant,and the soil erosion resistance is highest in mixed broadleaf-conifer forest land( 39. 0%),followed by eucalyptus woodland( 37. 0%)and Pinus yunnanensis forest land( 24. 0%). Under heavy rain intensity and long duration of rainfall,the ability of soil under eucalyptus ×Pinus yunnanensis mixed forests to resist disintegration is more obvious. Using principal component analysis to analyze soil erosion resistance of soils under three different forests,we get the comprehensive evaluation model for soil erosion resistance: Y = 0. 763Y1+ 0. 236Y2. The soil erosion resistance is in the order of mixed broadleaf-conifer forest land( 0. 150) > eucalyptus forest land( 0. 127) > Pinus yunnanensis forest land(-0. 079),indicating that the mixed forests have better water loss and soil erosion control effect than pure forests.

  19. Predicting forested catchment evapotranspiration and streamflow from stand sapwood area and Aridity Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Patrick

    2016-04-01

    Estimating the water balance of ungauged catchments has been the subject of decades of research. An extension of the fundamental problem of estimating the hydrology is then understanding how do changes in catchment attributes affect the water balance component? This is a particular issue in forest hydrology where vegetation exerts such a strong influence on evapotranspiration (ET), and consequent streamflow (Q). Given the primacy of trees in the water balance, and the potential for change to species and density through logging, fire, pests and diseases and drought, methods that directly relate ET/Q to vegetation structure, species, and stand density are very powerful. Plot studies on tree water use routinely use sapwood area (SA) to calculate transpiration and upscale to the stand/catchment scale. Recent work in south eastern Australian forests have found stand-wide SA to be linearly correlated (R2 = 0.89) with long term mean annual loss (P-Q), and hence, long term mean annual catchment streamflow. Robust relationships can be built between basal area (BA), tree density and stand SA. BA and density are common forest inventory measurements. Until now, no research has related the fundamental stand attribute of SA to streamflow. The data sets include catchments that have been thinned and with varying age classes. Thus far these analyses have been for energy limited systems in wetter forest types. SA has proven to be a more robust biometric than leaf area index which varies seasonally. That long term ET/Q is correlated with vegetation conforms to the Budyko framework. Use of a downscaled (20 m) Aridity Index (AI) has shown distinct correlations with stand SA, and therefore T. Structural patterns at a the hillslope scale not only correlate with SA and T, but also with interception (I) and forest floor evaporation (Es). These correlations between AI and I and Es have given R2 > 0.8. The result of these studies suggest an ability to estimate mean annual ET fluxes at sub

  20. [Dynamic changes of soil ecological factors in Ziwuling secondary forest area under human disturbance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhengchao; Shangguan, Zhouping

    2005-09-01

    As a widespread natural phenomenon, disturbance is considered as a discrete event occurred in natural ecosystems at various spatial and temporal scales. The occurrence of disturbance directly affects the structure, function and dynamics of ecosystems. Forest logging and forestland assart, the common human disturbances in forest area, have caused the dynamic changes of forest soil ecological factors in a relatively consistent environment. A study on the dynamics of soil bulk density, soil organic matter, soil microbes and other soil ecological factors under different human disturbance (logging and assart, logging but without assart, control) were conducted in the Ziwuling secondary forest area. The results indicated that human disturbance had a deep impact on the soil ecological factors, with soil physical and chemical properties become bad, soil organic matter decreased from 2.2% to 0.8%, and soil stable aggregates dropped more than 30%. The quantity of soil microbes decreased sharply with enhanced human disturbance. Soil organic matter and soil microbes decreased more than 50% and 90%, respectively, and soil bulk density increased from 0.9 to 1.21 g x cm(-3) with increasing soil depth. Ditch edge level also affected the dynamics of soil factors under the same disturbance, with a better soil ecological condition at low-than at high ditch edge level.

  1. Birds of two protected areas in the southern range of the Brazilian Araucaria forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismael Franz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Over 70% of threatened birds in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, south Brazil, inhabit forest environments. The creation and maintenance of protected areas is one of the most important measures aiming to mitigate these problems. However, the knowledge of the local biodiversity is essential so that these areas can effectively preserve the natural resources. Between 2004 and 2009 we sampled the avifauna in two conservation units in Rio Grande do Sul: Floresta Nacional de Canela (FNC and Parque Natural Municipal da Ronda (PMR, both representative of the Mixed Humid Forest (Araucaria Forest. A total of 224 species was recorded, 116 at FNC and 201 at PMR, ten of which threatened regionally: Pseudastur polionotus, Odontophorus capueira, Patagioenas cayennensis, Amazona pretrei, A. vinacea, Triclaria malachitacea, Campephilus robustus, Grallaria varia, Procnias nudicollis and Sporophila melanogaster. Richness and species composition seem to be related to different stages of forest conservation, to size and connectivity, as well as to the diversity of environments. The better conservation of PMR compared to FNC, allied to its geographic position, results in a richer avifauna, with a larger amount of rare and endangered species, as well as species sensitive to disturbance and endemic to the Atlantic Rainforest. We suggest management actions aiming the conservation and the long-term recovery of natural environments at these sites.

  2. Wide-Area Mapping of Forest with National Airborne Laser Scanning and Field Inventory Datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monnet, J.-M.; Ginzler, C.; Clivaz, J.-C.

    2016-06-01

    Airborne laser scanning (ALS) remote sensing data are now available for entire countries such as Switzerland. Methods for the estimation of forest parameters from ALS have been intensively investigated in the past years. However, the implementation of a forest mapping workflow based on available data at a regional level still remains challenging. A case study was implemented in the Canton of Valais (Switzerland). The national ALS dataset and field data of the Swiss National Forest Inventory were used to calibrate estimation models for mean and maximum height, basal area, stem density, mean diameter and stem volume. When stratification was performed based on ALS acquisition settings and geographical criteria, satisfactory prediction models were obtained for volume (R2 = 0.61 with a root mean square error of 47 %) and basal area (respectively 0.51 and 45 %) while height variables had an error lower than 19%. This case study shows that the use of nationwide ALS and field datasets for forest resources mapping is cost efficient, but additional investigations are required to handle the limitations of the input data and optimize the accuracy.

  3. Diversity of myxomycetes in an environmentally protected area of Atlantic Forest in northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônia Aurelice Aurélio Costa

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out on three trails, each presenting a different degree of disturbance, within the Pau-Ferro Forest Environmentally Protected Area, a 600 ha area of highland forest located in the municipality of Areia (06°58'12"S; 35°42'15"W; elevation, 400-600 m, in the state of Paraíba, Brazil. In 2005, we analyzed the species richness, abundance, constancy and phenology of myxomycetes over seven consecutive months (rainy and dry seasons in five types of microhabitats: dead tree trunks, the bark of living trees, basidiomata, ground litter and aerial litter. A total of 753 specimens of 48 species were obtained from the trails known as Flores (4 km, Boa Vista (3 km and Cumbe (700 m. The Sørensen similarity coefficient revealed that the three trails are similar. The most constant and abundant species were Hemitrichia calyculata, H. serpula, Arcyria cinerea, A. denudata and Ceratiomyxa fruticulosa. Although myxomycetes sporulate throughout the year, some species have well-defined sporulation seasons. In terms of the constancy and abundance of species, Trichiaceae is the most important family in the rain forest studied, which is representative of the highland forests of northeastern Brazil.

  4. Estimating leaf area index in coniferous and deciduous forests in Sweden using Landsat optical sensor data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eklundh, Lars

    2003-03-01

    This paper reports on research to estimate leaf area index (LAI) in Swedish forests with satellite sensor data. The study is part of a research programme that aims at generating input data for process-oriented forest carbon models. Field-work was carried out in two areas in Sweden about 530 km apart, in the nemoral and boreo-nemoral forest regions. Various ways of estimating LAI in the field were tested, including litter-traps, allometric equations, and light transmission measurements. The capability of Landsat TM and ETM+ for LAI-mapping was investigated with the Nilson and Kuusk forest reflectance model. Results point to channel 3 and the mid-IR channels as particularly important for LAI estimation in coniferous stands, however, modelled reflectances were strongly influenced by background reflectances (particularly at low densities) and leaf optical properties. Top-of-canopy reflectances were derived from Landsat TM and ETM+, and their relationships with field-estimated LAI analysed. Among several vegetation indices tested, the Moisture Stress Index (TM5 / TM4) was one of the best indices for LAI in coniferous stands. In deciduous stands relationships based on the Simple Ratio were superior, however, the explanatory power in deciduous stands was lower than in coniferous stands.

  5. ALTM system in Amazonian forest areas; Sistema ALTM em areas da Floresta Amazonica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sallem Filho, Silas; Bonatto, Amarildo [Esteio Engenharia e Aerolevantamentos S.A., Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    Airborne Laser Scanning provides faster and more accurate Digital Elevation Model and Digital Terrain Model tasks compared to conventional photogrammetry. The system generates Laser pulses towards the terrain, perpendicular to the flight line, scanning the terrain surface and recording the distances from the sensor to the ground for each pulse. The main characteristics of the system is the measurement of the first and the last return for each pulse, allowing the objects identification that are above the ground as, for example, vegetation. With this capability it is possible the determination of volumes and biomass estimate, besides the virtual removal of vegetation covering. The Digital Terrain Models are used for Digital Ortho photos rectification and to obtain contour lines for topography maps. The correct points classification according the elevation, allows the representation of the terrain with larger amount of points than the stereo plotting, in areas densely vegetated where the operator esteems the height of the vegetable covering to interpret the terrain. Some additional products, as hypsometric images and intensity images helps in the identification of features on pipeline projects as well as the obtaining of the obstacles height. (author)

  6. Community hygiene problems and environmental protection measures in the area of natural monument "Zvezdara forest"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samardžić Ivan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Community hygiene conditions and equipment represent significant indicators of the quality management of green areas. As a space of exceptional importance for protection of forest complex and biodiversity in an urban environment, Zvezdara forest is placed under protection as a natural monument by an act of the Assembly of the City of Belgrade, where measures of environmental protection and preservation of this area, as one of the most important green areas in this part of the city, are also defined (wind protection role, enrichment of the air with oxygen, thermoregulation, etc., but as well as a space for sports, recreation, picnics. This research presents the community hygiene problems (“illegal landfills”, lack of garbage cans, hydrants, public toilets and drinking fountains, etc. and environmental issues (“wild” construction, landslides, etc.. The aim of this research is the recommendations of environmental protection measures and removal of community hygiene and environmental issues, presented in the final part of this research paper, which could be used in the future during preparation of planning documents, in order to achieve better environmental management in the area of Zvezdara forest. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 176008

  7. Mapping regional patterns of large forest fires in Wildland-Urban Interface areas in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modugno, Sirio; Balzter, Heiko; Cole, Beth; Borrelli, Pasquale

    2016-05-01

    Over recent decades, Land Use and Cover Change (LUCC) trends in many regions of Europe have reconfigured the landscape structures around many urban areas. In these areas, the proximity to landscape elements with high forest fuels has increased the fire risk to people and property. These Wildland-Urban Interface areas (WUI) can be defined as landscapes where anthropogenic urban land use and forest fuel mass come into contact. Mapping their extent is needed to prioritize fire risk control and inform local forest fire risk management strategies. This study proposes a method to map the extent and spatial patterns of the European WUI areas at continental scale. Using the European map of WUI areas, the hypothesis is tested that the distance from the nearest WUI area is related to the forest fire probability. Statistical relationships between the distance from the nearest WUI area, and large forest fire incidents from satellite remote sensing were subsequently modelled by logistic regression analysis. The first European scale map of the WUI extent and locations is presented. Country-specific positive and negative relationships of large fires and the proximity to the nearest WUI area are found. A regional-scale analysis shows a strong influence of the WUI zones on large fires in parts of the Mediterranean regions. Results indicate that the probability of large burned surfaces increases with diminishing WUI distance in touristic regions like Sardinia, Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur, or in regions with a strong peri-urban component as Catalunya, Comunidad de Madrid, Comunidad Valenciana. For the above regions, probability curves of large burned surfaces show statistical relationships (ROC value > 0.5) inside a 5000 m buffer of the nearest WUI. Wise land management can provide a valuable ecosystem service of fire risk reduction that is currently not explicitly included in ecosystem service valuations. The results re-emphasise the importance of including this ecosystem service

  8. Mapping regional patterns of large forest fires in Wildland-Urban Interface areas in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modugno, Sirio; Balzter, Heiko; Cole, Beth; Borrelli, Pasquale

    2016-05-01

    Over recent decades, Land Use and Cover Change (LUCC) trends in many regions of Europe have reconfigured the landscape structures around many urban areas. In these areas, the proximity to landscape elements with high forest fuels has increased the fire risk to people and property. These Wildland-Urban Interface areas (WUI) can be defined as landscapes where anthropogenic urban land use and forest fuel mass come into contact. Mapping their extent is needed to prioritize fire risk control and inform local forest fire risk management strategies. This study proposes a method to map the extent and spatial patterns of the European WUI areas at continental scale. Using the European map of WUI areas, the hypothesis is tested that the distance from the nearest WUI area is related to the forest fire probability. Statistical relationships between the distance from the nearest WUI area, and large forest fire incidents from satellite remote sensing were subsequently modelled by logistic regression analysis. The first European scale map of the WUI extent and locations is presented. Country-specific positive and negative relationships of large fires and the proximity to the nearest WUI area are found. A regional-scale analysis shows a strong influence of the WUI zones on large fires in parts of the Mediterranean regions. Results indicate that the probability of large burned surfaces increases with diminishing WUI distance in touristic regions like Sardinia, Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur, or in regions with a strong peri-urban component as Catalunya, Comunidad de Madrid, Comunidad Valenciana. For the above regions, probability curves of large burned surfaces show statistical relationships (ROC value > 0.5) inside a 5000 m buffer of the nearest WUI. Wise land management can provide a valuable ecosystem service of fire risk reduction that is currently not explicitly included in ecosystem service valuations. The results re-emphasise the importance of including this ecosystem service

  9. Development and application of a resin-bag method to determine available nitrogen in forest soils

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, G.; Harrison, A.F.; Grimshaw, H. M.

    1986-01-01

    A resin-bag method was compared to a conventional KC1 extraction procedure for determining available nitrogen in forest soil. Under controlled growth room conditions, both the amounts of ammonium and nitrate nitrogen adsorbed by resin-bags and extracted by 6% KC1 correlated well with the uptake of nitrogen by birch seedlings from 6 widely differing soils. Also, resin-bags placed in situ under 5 differing forest stands and one upland grassland plot gave a close relationship b...

  10. Large-scale road detection in forested mountainous areas using airborne topographic lidar data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraz, António; Mallet, Clément; Chehata, Nesrine

    2016-02-01

    In forested mountainous areas, the road location and characterization are invaluable inputs for various purposes such as forest management, wood harvesting industry, wildfire protection and fighting. Airborne topographic lidar has become an established technique to characterize the Earth surface. Lidar provides 3D point clouds allowing for fine reconstruction of ground topography while preserving high frequencies of the relief: fine Digital Terrain Models (DTMs) is the key product. This paper addresses the problem of road detection and characterization in forested environments over large scales (>1000 km2). For that purpose, an efficient pipeline is proposed, which assumes that main forest roads can be modeled as planar elongated features in the road direction with relief variation in orthogonal direction. DTMs are the only input and no complex 3D point cloud processing methods are involved. First, a restricted but carefully designed set of morphological features is defined as input for a supervised Random Forest classification of potential road patches. Then, a graph is built over these candidate regions: vertices are selected using stochastic geometry tools and edges are created in order to fill gaps in the DTM created by vegetation occlusion. The graph is pruned using morphological criteria derived from the input road model. Finally, once the road is located in 2D, its width and slope are retrieved using an object-based image analysis. We demonstrate that our road model is valid for most forest roads and that roads are correctly retrieved (>80%) with few erroneously detected pathways (10-15%) using fully automatic methods. The full pipeline takes less than 2 min per km2 and higher planimetric accuracy than 2D existing topographic databases are achieved. Compared to these databases, additional roads can be detected with the ability of lidar sensors to penetrate the understory. In case of very dense vegetation and insufficient relief in the DTM, gaps may exist in

  11. Net Assimilation Rate Determines the Growth Rates of 14 Species of Subtropical Forest Trees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuefei Li

    Full Text Available Growth rates are of fundamental importance for plants, as individual size affects myriad ecological processes. We determined the factors that generate variation in RGR among 14 species of trees and shrubs that are abundant in subtropical Chinese forests. We grew seedlings for two years at four light levels in a shade-house experiment. We monitored the growth of every juvenile plant every two weeks. After one and two years, we destructively harvested individuals and measured their functional traits and gas-exchange rates. After calculating individual biomass trajectories, we estimated relative growth rates using nonlinear growth functions. We decomposed the variance in log(RGR to evaluate the relationships of RGR with its components: specific leaf area (SLA, net assimilation rate (NAR and leaf mass ratio (LMR. We found that variation in NAR was the primary determinant of variation in RGR at all light levels, whereas SLA and LMR made smaller contributions. Furthermore, NAR was strongly and positively associated with area-based photosynthetic rate and leaf nitrogen content. Photosynthetic rate and leaf nitrogen concentration can, therefore, be good predictors of growth in woody species.

  12. Current state and temporal evolution of the chemical composition of atmospheric depositions in forest areas of the CONECOFOR network

    OpenAIRE

    Marchetto A; Arisci S.; Tartari GA; Balestrini R; Tait D

    2014-01-01

    Current state and temporal evolution of the chemical composition of atmospheric depositions in forest areas of the CONECOFOR network. Since 1997, atmospheric deposition was sampled and analyzed in the permanent plots of the Italian network for the evaluation of forest health (CONECOFOR), under the coordination of the Italian Forest Service. This paper presents the results of the activity carried out in 2009, when the EU-funded LIFE+ “FutMon” project allowed to extend the sampling network to 2...

  13. Spatial and seasonal variations of leaf area index (LAI) in subtropical secondary forests related to floristic composition and stand characters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wenjuan; Xiang, Wenhua; Pan, Qiong; Zeng, Yelin; Ouyang, Shuai; Lei, Pifeng; Deng, Xiangwen; Fang, Xi; Peng, Changhui

    2016-07-01

    Leaf area index (LAI) is an important parameter related to carbon, water, and energy exchange between canopy and atmosphere and is widely applied in process models that simulate production and hydrological cycles in forest ecosystems. However, fine-scale spatial heterogeneity of LAI and its controlling factors have yet to be fully understood in Chinese subtropical forests. We used hemispherical photography to measure LAI values in three subtropical forests (Pinus massoniana-Lithocarpus glaber coniferous and evergreen broadleaved mixed forests, Choerospondias axillaris deciduous broadleaved forests, and L. glaber-Cyclobalanopsis glauca evergreen broadleaved forests) from April 2014 to January 2015. Spatial heterogeneity of LAI and its controlling factors were analysed using geostatistical methods and the generalised additive models (GAMs) respectively. Our results showed that LAI values differed greatly in the three forests and their seasonal variations were consistent with plant phenology. LAI values exhibited strong spatial autocorrelation for the three forests measured in January and for the L. glaber-C. glauca forest in April, July, and October. Obvious patch distribution pattern of LAI values occurred in three forests during the non-growing period and this pattern gradually dwindled in the growing season. Stem number, crown coverage, proportion of evergreen conifer species on basal area basis, proportion of deciduous species on basal area basis, and forest types affected the spatial variations in LAI values in January, while stem number and proportion of deciduous species on basal area basis affected the spatial variations in LAI values in July. Floristic composition, spatial heterogeneity, and seasonal variations should be considered for sampling strategy in indirect LAI measurement and application of LAI to simulate functional processes in subtropical forests.

  14. The Influence of Typical Forest Types on Soil Erosion Resistance in the Water Source Areas of Central Yunnan

    OpenAIRE

    ZHAO, Yangyi; Duan, Xu; SHU, Shumiao

    2015-01-01

    In order to clarify the influence of different forest types on soil erosion resistance in water source area of Central Yunnan, with the soils under three different kinds of typical forest in Yizhe watershed as the research object, this paper uses field simulation method and principal component analysis to analyze the soil erosion resistance of three kinds of soils. The results show that there is a significant difference in the shear strength of soil among three types of typical forest, and th...

  15. Standardized Assessment of Biodiversity Trends in Tropical Forest Protected Areas: The End Is Not in Sight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudrot, Lydia; Ahumada, Jorge A; O'Brien, Timothy; Alvarez-Loayza, Patricia; Boekee, Kelly; Campos-Arceiz, Ahimsa; Eichberg, David; Espinosa, Santiago; Fegraus, Eric; Fletcher, Christine; Gajapersad, Krisna; Hallam, Chris; Hurtado, Johanna; Jansen, Patrick A; Kumar, Amit; Larney, Eileen; Lima, Marcela Guimarães Moreira; Mahony, Colin; Martin, Emanuel H; McWilliam, Alex; Mugerwa, Badru; Ndoundou-Hockemba, Mireille; Razafimahaimodison, Jean Claude; Romero-Saltos, Hugo; Rovero, Francesco; Salvador, Julia; Santos, Fernanda; Sheil, Douglas; Spironello, Wilson R; Willig, Michael R; Winarni, Nurul L; Zvoleff, Alex; Andelman, Sandy J

    2016-01-01

    Extinction rates in the Anthropocene are three orders of magnitude higher than background and disproportionately occur in the tropics, home of half the world's species. Despite global efforts to combat tropical species extinctions, lack of high-quality, objective information on tropical biodiversity has hampered quantitative evaluation of conservation strategies. In particular, the scarcity of population-level monitoring in tropical forests has stymied assessment of biodiversity outcomes, such as the status and trends of animal populations in protected areas. Here, we evaluate occupancy trends for 511 populations of terrestrial mammals and birds, representing 244 species from 15 tropical forest protected areas on three continents. For the first time to our knowledge, we use annual surveys from tropical forests worldwide that employ a standardized camera trapping protocol, and we compute data analytics that correct for imperfect detection. We found that occupancy declined in 22%, increased in 17%, and exhibited no change in 22% of populations during the last 3-8 years, while 39% of populations were detected too infrequently to assess occupancy changes. Despite extensive variability in occupancy trends, these 15 tropical protected areas have not exhibited systematic declines in biodiversity (i.e., occupancy, richness, or evenness) at the community level. Our results differ from reports of widespread biodiversity declines based on aggregated secondary data and expert opinion and suggest less extreme deterioration in tropical forest protected areas. We simultaneously fill an important conservation data gap and demonstrate the value of large-scale monitoring infrastructure and powerful analytics, which can be scaled to incorporate additional sites, ecosystems, and monitoring methods. In an era of catastrophic biodiversity loss, robust indicators produced from standardized monitoring infrastructure are critical to accurately assess population outcomes and identify

  16. Influence of lowland forests on subsurface salt accumulation in shallow groundwater areas

    OpenAIRE

    Tóth, Tibor; Balog, Kitti; Szabó, András; PÁSZTOR László; Jobbágy, Esteban G.; Marcelo D. Nosetto; GRIBOVSZKI, Zoltán

    2013-01-01

    In flat sedimentary plains in areas with a sub-humid climate, tree planting on grasslands and arable lands creates strong hydrological shifts. As a result of deep rooting and high water uptake of trees, groundwater levels drop and subsurface salt accumulation increases. Tree planting has expanded globally and in Hungary it reached rates of 15 000 ha year−1, being focused mainly in the Great Hungarian Plain where forests replace grasslands and crops in a region with widespread shallow groundwa...

  17. Standardized Assessment of Biodiversity Trends in Tropical Forest Protected Areas: The End Is Not in Sight.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydia Beaudrot

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Extinction rates in the Anthropocene are three orders of magnitude higher than background and disproportionately occur in the tropics, home of half the world's species. Despite global efforts to combat tropical species extinctions, lack of high-quality, objective information on tropical biodiversity has hampered quantitative evaluation of conservation strategies. In particular, the scarcity of population-level monitoring in tropical forests has stymied assessment of biodiversity outcomes, such as the status and trends of animal populations in protected areas. Here, we evaluate occupancy trends for 511 populations of terrestrial mammals and birds, representing 244 species from 15 tropical forest protected areas on three continents. For the first time to our knowledge, we use annual surveys from tropical forests worldwide that employ a standardized camera trapping protocol, and we compute data analytics that correct for imperfect detection. We found that occupancy declined in 22%, increased in 17%, and exhibited no change in 22% of populations during the last 3-8 years, while 39% of populations were detected too infrequently to assess occupancy changes. Despite extensive variability in occupancy trends, these 15 tropical protected areas have not exhibited systematic declines in biodiversity (i.e., occupancy, richness, or evenness at the community level. Our results differ from reports of widespread biodiversity declines based on aggregated secondary data and expert opinion and suggest less extreme deterioration in tropical forest protected areas. We simultaneously fill an important conservation data gap and demonstrate the value of large-scale monitoring infrastructure and powerful analytics, which can be scaled to incorporate additional sites, ecosystems, and monitoring methods. In an era of catastrophic biodiversity loss, robust indicators produced from standardized monitoring infrastructure are critical to accurately assess population outcomes

  18. Standardized Assessment of Biodiversity Trends in Tropical Forest Protected Areas: The End Is Not in Sight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudrot, Lydia; Ahumada, Jorge A; O'Brien, Timothy; Alvarez-Loayza, Patricia; Boekee, Kelly; Campos-Arceiz, Ahimsa; Eichberg, David; Espinosa, Santiago; Fegraus, Eric; Fletcher, Christine; Gajapersad, Krisna; Hallam, Chris; Hurtado, Johanna; Jansen, Patrick A; Kumar, Amit; Larney, Eileen; Lima, Marcela Guimarães Moreira; Mahony, Colin; Martin, Emanuel H; McWilliam, Alex; Mugerwa, Badru; Ndoundou-Hockemba, Mireille; Razafimahaimodison, Jean Claude; Romero-Saltos, Hugo; Rovero, Francesco; Salvador, Julia; Santos, Fernanda; Sheil, Douglas; Spironello, Wilson R; Willig, Michael R; Winarni, Nurul L; Zvoleff, Alex; Andelman, Sandy J

    2016-01-01

    Extinction rates in the Anthropocene are three orders of magnitude higher than background and disproportionately occur in the tropics, home of half the world's species. Despite global efforts to combat tropical species extinctions, lack of high-quality, objective information on tropical biodiversity has hampered quantitative evaluation of conservation strategies. In particular, the scarcity of population-level monitoring in tropical forests has stymied assessment of biodiversity outcomes, such as the status and trends of animal populations in protected areas. Here, we evaluate occupancy trends for 511 populations of terrestrial mammals and birds, representing 244 species from 15 tropical forest protected areas on three continents. For the first time to our knowledge, we use annual surveys from tropical forests worldwide that employ a standardized camera trapping protocol, and we compute data analytics that correct for imperfect detection. We found that occupancy declined in 22%, increased in 17%, and exhibited no change in 22% of populations during the last 3-8 years, while 39% of populations were detected too infrequently to assess occupancy changes. Despite extensive variability in occupancy trends, these 15 tropical protected areas have not exhibited systematic declines in biodiversity (i.e., occupancy, richness, or evenness) at the community level. Our results differ from reports of widespread biodiversity declines based on aggregated secondary data and expert opinion and suggest less extreme deterioration in tropical forest protected areas. We simultaneously fill an important conservation data gap and demonstrate the value of large-scale monitoring infrastructure and powerful analytics, which can be scaled to incorporate additional sites, ecosystems, and monitoring methods. In an era of catastrophic biodiversity loss, robust indicators produced from standardized monitoring infrastructure are critical to accurately assess population outcomes and identify

  19. Natural Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection in ticks from a forest area of Selenge province, Mongolia

    OpenAIRE

    G Javkhlan; B Enkhtaivan; B Baigal; Myagmarsuren, P.; Battur, B.; Battsetseg, B

    2014-01-01

    Anaplasma phagocytophilum is a zoonotic agent of public health importance, infecting both humans and animals. An investigation of the presence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum as well as Anaplasma platys was conducted in a forest area of Selenge province, Mongolia, where ticks are widely distributed and tick-borne diseases are highly endemic. Ticks were collected and tested using polymerase chain reaction based on groEL methodology. Anaplasma phagocytophilum was detected in 14 (6%) of Ixodes pers...

  20. Identifying priority areas for Conservation in Mexican Tropical deciduous forest based on Tree Species

    OpenAIRE

    Eva M. Cué Bär; José Luis Villaseñor; Juan J. Monrroe; Guillermo Ibarra-Manríquez

    2006-01-01

    The main objective was to identify and rank areas for the conservation of exclusive, or nearly exclusive, tree species of the tropical deciduous forest in Mexico, a land cover type greatly endangered worldwide. A list of 425 tree species (67.5% endemic to Mexico), including 56 families and 185 genera registered at the state level, was compiled from an exhaustive revision of specialized floristic literature. The conservation status of these species was assessed by registering their presence in...

  1. Streblidae (Diptera) on bats (Chiroptera) in an area of Atlantic Forest, state of Rio de Janeiro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenço, Elizabete Captivo; Patrício, Priscilla Maria Peixoto; Pinheiro, Michele da Costa; Dias, Renan Medeiros; Famadas, Kátia Maria

    2014-01-01

    Because of the few records of Streblidae on bats, despite extensive study on these mammals in the state of Rio de Janeiro, a survey was carried out in an area of Atlantic Forest, in the municipality of Nova Iguaçu, known as the Tinguá region. Thirteen species were added to the list of Streblidae in the state of Rio de Janeiro, of which two were new records for Brazil. Thirty-one species have now been reported this state.

  2. Gamma generalized linear model to investigate the effects of climate variables on the area burned by forest fire in northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Futao Guo; Guangyu Wang; John L Innes; Xiangqing Ma; Long Sun; Haiqing Hu

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine a suitable model for investigating the effects of climate factors on the area burned by forest fire in the Tahe forest region, Daxing’an Mountains, in northeast China. The response variables were the area burned by lightning-caused fire, human-caused fire, and total burned area. The predictor variables were nine climate variables collected from the local weather station. Three regression models were utilized, including multiple linear regression, log-linear model (log-transformation on both response and predictor variables), and gamma-generalized linear model. The goodness-of-fit of the models were compared based on model fitting statistics such as R2, AIC, and RMSE. The results revealed that the gamma-generalized linear model was generally superior to both multiple linear regression model and log-linear model for fitting the fire data. Further, the best models were selected based on the criteria that the climate variables were statistically significant at a=0.05. The gamma best models indicated that maximum wind speed, precipitation, and days that rainfall greater than 0.1 mm had significant impacts on the area burned by the lightning-caused fire, while the mean temperature and minimum relative humidity were the main drivers of the burned area caused by human activities. Overall, the total burned area by forest fire was significantly influenced by days that rainfall greater than 0.1 mm and minimum rela-tive humidity, indicating that the moisture condition of forest stands determine the burned area by forest fire.

  3. Local and landscape factors determining occurrence of phyllostomid bats in tropical secondary forests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Daniel Avila-Cabadilla

    Full Text Available Neotropical forests are being increasingly replaced by a mosaic of patches of different successional stages, agricultural fields and pasture lands. Consequently, the identification of factors shaping the performance of taxa in anthropogenic landscapes is gaining importance, especially for taxa playing critical roles in ecosystem functioning. As phyllostomid bats provide important ecological services through seed dispersal, pollination and control of animal populations, in this study we assessed the relationships between phyllostomid occurrence and the variation in local and landscape level habitat attributes caused by disturbance. We mist-netted phyllostomids in 12 sites representing 4 successional stages of a tropical dry forest (initial, early, intermediate and late. We also quantitatively characterized the habitat attributes at the local (vegetation structure complexity and the landscape level (forest cover, area and diversity of patches. Two focal scales were considered for landscape characterization: 500 and 1000 m. During 142 sampling nights, we captured 606 individuals representing 15 species and 4 broad guilds. Variation in phyllostomid assemblages, ensembles and populations was associated with variation in local and landscape habitat attributes, and this association was scale-dependent. Specifically, we found a marked guild-specific response, where the abundance of nectarivores tended to be negatively associated with the mean area of dry forest patches, while the abundance of frugivores was positively associated with the percentage of riparian forest. These results are explained by the prevalence of chiropterophilic species in the dry forest and of chiropterochorous species in the riparian forest. Our results indicate that different vegetation classes, as well as a multi-spatial scale approach must be considered for evaluating bat response to variation in landscape attributes. Moreover, for the long-term conservation of phyllostomids in

  4. Preliminary ethnobotanical studies of the Rwenzori Mountain forest area in Bundibugyo District, Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Oryem-Origa

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Ethnobotanical studies of the Rwenzori Mountain forest area in Bundibugyo District in Uganda were carried out between May and December 1991, and covered the northern part of the Rwenzori Mountain slopes occupied by the Bakonjo people. The presence of a major footpath through the forest with numerous utility trails radiating from it showed that some forest resources are being sought by the local population. Plant biodiversity is high, as is indicated by the fact that in a study plot of only 4 250 m , a total of 115 plant species, 101 genera and 57 families were identified from a collection of 300 plant specimens. Seventy-seven plant species were found to be of some importance to the local communities. Out of the 77 useful plant species recorded:  22 species were used for medicinal purposes; 16 for firewood; 13 for construction, joinery and furniture;  12 for craftwork; 10 provided edible fruits and vegetables; and 27 were used for a variety of other purposes. These other purposes include construction of shrines, covering of granary floors, use as toilet paper, carry ing luggage, and fodder for goats, sheep and cattle. Arundinaria alpina K. Schum. (bamboo is the species that is most extensively harvested from the forest.

  5. Nest density as determinants for habitat utilizations of Bornean orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus wurmbii in degraded forests of Gunung Palung National Park, West Kalimantan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DIDIK PRASETYO

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Prasetyo D, Sugardjito J (2011 Nest density as determinants for habitat utilizations of Bornean orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus wurmbii in degraded forests of Gunung Palung National Park, West Kalimantan. Biodiversitas 12: 164-170. Conversion of forests into non-forests areas particularly for the development of timber industry and oil palm plantation in Ketapang district, West Kalimantan province was drastically increased recently. We have conducted an assessmment for the density of Bornean orangutans Pongo pygmaeus wurmbii L. in degraded forests of the boundary of Gunung Palung National Park, West Kalimantan in 2004 and 2005. We used line-transects nest-count to survey 39,6 km length at 13 sites including 7 in side the park and the other 6 situated out side the park which holds a difference status of forest management. The differences of nest density between degraded forests habitat was calculated. The old degraded forest which has been logged for 5 years or more, were containing more new nests in a cluster compared to the recently as well as currently logged. The highest number of orangutan’s nests could be found in the old degraded forest in side the park, whereas the lowest one was obtained in the currently logged protection forest with the density of 3.70 ind/km2 and 0.06 ind/km2 respectively. We compare these results with the survey undertaken previously in the area when the logging and forest conversion activities have just begun in the region in 2001.

  6. An energy-based model accounting for snow accumulation and snowmelt in a coniferous forest and in an open area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matějka, Ondřej; Jeníček, Michal

    2016-04-01

    An energy balance approach was used to simulate snow water equivalent (SWE) evolution in an open area, forest clearing and coniferous forest during winter seasons 2011/12 and 2012/13 in the Bystřice River basin (Krušné Mountains, Czech Republic). The aim was to describe the impact of vegetation on snow accumulation and snowmelt under different forest canopy structure and trees density. Hemispherical photographs were used to describe the forest canopy structure. Energy balance model of snow accumulation and melt was set up. The snow model was adjusted to account the effects of forest canopy on driving meteorological variables. Leaf area index derived from 32 hemispherical photographs of vegetation and sky was used to implement the forest influence in the snow model. The model was evaluated using snow depth and SWE data measured at 16 localities in winter seasons from 2011 to 2013. The model was able to reproduce the SWE evolution in both winter seasons beneath the forest canopy, forest clearing and open area. The SWE maximum in forest sites was by 18% lower than in open areas and forest clearings. The portion of shortwave radiation on snowmelt rate was by 50% lower in forest areas than in open areas due to shading effect. The importance of turbulent fluxes was by 30% lower in forest sites compared to openings because of wind speed reduction up to 10% of values at corresponding open areas. Indirect estimation of interception rates was derived. Between 14 and 60% of snowfall was intercept and sublimated in the forest canopy in both winter seasons. Based on model results, the underestimation of solid precipitation (heated precipitation gauge used for measurement) at the weather station Hřebečná was revealed. The snowfall was underestimated by 40% in winter season 2011/12 and by 13% in winter season 2012/13. Although, the model formulation appeared sufficient for both analysed winter seasons, canopy effects on the longwave radiation and ground heat flux were not

  7. ECOLOGICAL FEATURES OF ALGAE COMMUNITIES IN FOREST FLOOR OF PINE PLANTATIONS OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF LANDSCAPES IN STEPPE AREA OF UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maltsev Yevhen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The steppe zone of Ukraine features a large variety of types of natural landscapes that together significantly differ in microclimatic, soil, hydrological and geobotanic conditions. Such a diversity of forest conditions affects not only the trees, but also on all biotic components of forest ecosystems including algae. Purpose of the study was establish systematic position of species, dominant and subdominant, leading families of algae for plantings in forest floor of pine plantations of the valley-terrace and inundable-terrace landscapes in steppe area of Ukraine. In general, in the forest floor of Samara pine forest marked 34 species of algae with 4 divisions, most of which related to green: Chlorophyta – 22 (65%, Xanthophyta – 8 (23%, Bacillariophyta – 2 (6% and Eustigmatophyta – 2 (6%. Among the leading families of the greatest number of species belonged to: Pleurochloridaceae (7 species, Chlorococcaceae (5, Chlamydomonadaceae (4. During all studied seasons in base of algae communities were species resistant to extreme values of all climatic conditions. Total in forest floor of pine forest in Altagir forest marked 42 species of algae with 5 divisions: Chlorophyta - 23 (55 %, Xanthophyta - 9 (21 %, Cyanophyta - 5 (12 %, Bacillariophyta - 3 (7% and Eustigmatophyta – 2 (5%. Systematic structure of list species determine three family, which have the number of species in excess of the average number (2: Pleurochloridaceae, Chlamydomonadaceae and Myrmeciaceae. The base of algae community are moisture-loving and shade-tolerant species, which may be the result of favorable moisture regime. In the forest floor of pine plantings in forest floor of pine plantations of the valley-terrace (Samara pine forest and inundable-terrace (Altagir forest landscapes found 64 species of algae with 5 divisions, which are dominated by green algae - 37 species (58%, that exceed xanthophytes - 15 (23%, blue-green 5 (8 %, eustigmatofites 4 (6% and diatoms 3 (5

  8. 76 FR 21272 - Special Areas; Roadless Area Conservation; Applicability to the National Forests in Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-15

    ... sensitive to the economic consequences of Federal land management, whether for tourism or other purposes... management direction for conserving roadless areas on NFS land in Colorado in the Federal Register (73 FR...-specific rule to provide management direction for conserving and managing inventoried roadless areas...

  9. Ecological restoration of peatlands in steppe and forest-steppe areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minayeva, Tatiana; Sirin, Andrey; Dugarjav, Chultem

    2016-04-01

    Peatlands in the arid and semi-arid regions of steppe and forest steppe belt of Eurasia have some specific features. That demands the special approach to their management and restoration. The distribution of peatlands under conditions of dry climate is very limited and they are extremely vulnerable. Peatlands in those regions are found in the highlands where temperate conditions still present, in floodplains where they can get water from floods and springs, or in karst areas. Peatlands on watersheds present mainly remains from the more humid climate periods. Water and carbon storage as well as maintenance of the specific biodiversity are the key ecosystem natural functions of peatlands in the steppe and forest steppe. The performance of those functions has strong implications for people wellness and livelihood. Anyhow, peatlands are usually overlooked and poorly represented in the systems of natural protected areas. Land management plans, mitigation and restoration measures for ecosystems under use do not usually include special measures for peatlands. Peatlands'use depends on the traditional practices. Peat extraction is rather limited in subhumid regions but still act as one of the threats to peatlands. The most of peatlands are used as pastures and grasslands. In densely populated areas large part of peatlands are transformed to the arable lands. In many cases peatlands of piedmonts and highlands are affected by industrial developments: road construction, mining of subsoil resources (gold, etc.). Until now, the most of peatlands of steppe and forest steppe region are irreversibly lost, what also effects water regime, lands productivity, biodiversity status. To prevent further dramatic changes the ecological restoration approach should be introduced in the subhumid regions. The feasibility study to assess the potential for introducing ecological restoration techniques for peatlands in the arid and semi-arid conditions had been undertaken in steppe and forest

  10. Biomonitoring the effects of air pollution on forest ecosystems in an urban area, Helsinki, Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maekinen, A.; Pihlstroem, M. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Ecology and Systematics

    1995-12-31

    Single bioindicators have been used for a long time in air pollution monitoring in the Helsinki area (e.g. lichen studies since 1933). In the mid-eighties local authorities became aware of the need for regular integrated monitoring. Important objectives were: (a) to collect timeseries for the evaluation of natural variation e.g. weather in different parameters (b) to detect small, gradual, changes resulting from pollution control measures. The intensive monitoring of coniferous forests in the metropolitan area of Helsinki started in 1988. (author)

  11. Can we detect water stressed areas in forest thanks thermal infrared remote sensing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nourtier, Marie; Chanzy, André; Bes, Bernard; Mariotte, Nicolas

    2010-05-01

    In Mediterranean and mountainous areas, an increase of mortality in forest is observed after important drought events. In the context of climate changes, a study of the impact of drought stress on forest is necessary. In order to detect water stress over the whole forest at different periods of the year, we propose the use of a spatialisable indicator, easily measurable: crown surface temperature. As previous works were not conclusive concerning the potentiality of this indicator in forest (Duchemin, 1998a, 1998b, Pierce et al., 1990), we set up an experimentation to study the surface temperature evolution linked to the transpiration at tree scale, during the spring and summer periods on silver fir (Abies alba) forest of Mont Ventoux (south of France). At the same time, several thermal infrared images of the mountainside were acquired corresponding to different levels of transpiration. The signal of surface temperature is studying via the evolution of the difference between measured surface temperature and calculated surface temperature for a tree at maximum transpiration rate. At tree scale, there is a difference of 4 °C of amplitude in the signal of surface temperature between maximum and zero transpiration conditions. The difficulty resides in taking into account the influence of climatic conditions, source of variability in the signal uncorrelated with transpiration evolution. Indices of surface temperature, built to include this influence of climatic conditions, permit to reduce this variability. Another source of variability lies in the percentage of branches present in the area of measurement. Indeed branches have a thermal dynamic differing from the needles one and, considering comparison between trees, the percentage of branches varies. At the mountainside scale, contrasted areas in terms of surface temperature indices are observable. By comparing different dates, corresponding to different levels of drought, it is possible to locate areas with precocious

  12. Effect of size and surrounding forest vegetation on chemical properties of soil in forest gaps

    OpenAIRE

    Özcan M; Gökbulak F

    2015-01-01

    Forest gaps have different microclimatic conditions as compared to the surrounding areas, depending on gap size and surrounding forest types and affec­ting the biological, chemical, physical, and hydrological processes in the forest openings. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of forest gap size and surrounding forest cover type (beech or mixed stands) on the soil of forest opening by analyzing several soil chemical soil properties (pH, electrical conductivity - EC, organ...

  13. Ecological Capability Assessment for Multiple-Use in Forest Areas Using GIS- Based Multiple Criteria Decision Making Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasan Babaie-Kafaky

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: A valuable Source of plant and animal various species in the west of Iran is Zagros forests that, misuses by foresters and local societies has caused severe degradation. In this study, forest areas ecological assessment was carried out with a (GIS-based MCDM approach for multiple-use planning in order to reduce degradation and improving sustainability. Approach: All of possible land uses were evaluated separately. The AHP was used to defining weight of criteria and sub-criteria. Sub-criteria were mapped at GIS environment using available data, fieldwork and IRSp6 data. A priority map for each land use was created using GIS-based WLC model. The final priority map was produced of overlying all priority maps. Ecological capability map were generated with editing priority map using present land use map, IRSp6 data, forest laws and fieldwork. Results: The Weights of criteria and sub- criteria was defined for all land uses with CRConclusion: The results of this study showed that various land uses meaning multiple-use can be exist in area study that executing of those will be cause decreasing of foresters dependence to forest trees, decreasing of degradation and forest sustainability. Thus, this integrated approach could be benefit forest planners and decision makers. Recommendation: Through this study, we aimed at suggesting to forest management and other stakeholders an approach that is scientifically sound and practical.

  14. Appropriate density of water and soil conservation of Pinus tabulaeformis and Robinia pseudoacacia forests in loess area, North China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianjun ZHANG; Chengliang ZHANG; Wei HE; Lei NA

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, based on a long-term monitor-ing of water cycle in the water and soil conservation forest stands of Pinus tabulaeformis and Robinia pseu-doacacia, the soil moisture deficit is calculated. Following the principles of runoff-collecting forestry and applying the forest structure investigation results, the authors developed a formula to calculate appropriate density for forests on the basis of different diameters at breast height (DBH). Using this method to manage forests, the natural water requirement of forests can be met and soil drought can be avoided. In addition, with long-term monitoring of soil moisture in stands, the authors also give an appropriate managing density specifically for the water and soil conservation forests of P.tabulaeformis and R.pseudoacacia in the loess area which is according to soil moisture content,or with the lowest soil moisture content and invalid moisture frequency as the indexes.

  15. Forest conservation and the clean development mechanism. Lessons from the Costa Rican protected areas project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deforestation is currently the source of about 20% of anthropogenic CO2 emissions. Avoided deforestation has, nonetheless, been ruled out as a Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) category in the Kyoto Protocol's first commitment period, because several methodological issues were considered too difficult to resolve. This paper explores whether CDM issues such as (1) carbon quantification, (2) additionality and baseline setting, (3) leakage risks, (4) non-permanence risks, and (5) sustainable development can be adequately dealt with in large, diversified forest conservation projects. To this aim, it studies the case of the Costa Rican Protected Areas Project (PAP), an Activities Implemented Jointly (AIJ) project which was meant to consolidate the national park system to avoid deforestation, promote the growth of secondary forests and regenerate pastures on an area that, in total, covers 10% of the national territory. The case study examines how the issues mentioned above have been addressed in the project design and in the certification process. It is found that baseline uncertainties are the major problem in this case. Nonetheless, the case suggests the possibility to address CDM issues by specific requirements for project design and very conservative and temporary crediting. Provided that other case studies support this conclusion, eligibility of well-designed forest conservation projects under the CDM in the second commitment period may be worth considering, given the secondary benefits of avoided deforestation

  16. Relationship of Thematic Mapper simulator data to leaf area index of temperate coniferous forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, David L.; Spanner, Michael A.; Running, Steven W.; Teuber, Kurt B.

    1987-01-01

    Regional relationships between remote sensing data and the leaf area index (LAI) of coniferous forests were analyzed using data acquired by an Airborne Thematic Mapper. Eighteen coniferous forest stands with a range of projected leaf area index of 0.6-16.1 were sampled from an environmental gradient in moisture and temperature across west-central Oregon. Spectral radiance measurements to account for atmospheric effects were acquired above the canopies from a radiometer mounted on a helicopter. A strong positive relationship was observed between LAI of closed canopy forest stands and the ratio of near-infrared and red spectral bands. A linear regression based on LAI explained 83 percent of the variation in the ratio of the atmospherically corrected bands. A log-linear equation fit the asymptotic characteristic of the relationship better, explaining 91 percent of the variance. The positive relationship is explained by a strong asymptotic inverse relationship between LAI and red radiation and a relatively flat response between LAI and near-infrared radiation.

  17. Optimizing any-aged management of mixed boreal forest under residual basal area constraints

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Timo Pukkala; Erkki Lähde; Olavi Laiho

    2014-01-01

    The current trend of forest management in many countries is reduced use of clear-felling and planting, and increased use of continuous cover management. In Finland, the new forest act of 2014 made all types of cuttings equally allowable on the condition that if the post-cutting residual stand basal area is too low, the stand must be regenerated within certain time frame. Forest landowner can freely choose between even-and uneven-aged management. This study developed a method for opti-mizing the timing and type of cuttings without the need to categorize the management system as either even-aged or uneven-aged. A management system that does not set any requirements on the sequence of post-cutting diameter distributions is called any-aged management. Planting or sow-ing was used when stand basal area fell below the required minimum basal area and the amount of advance regeneration was less than required in the regulations. When the cuttings of 200 stands managed earlier with even-aged silviculture were optimized with the developed system, final felling followed by artificial regeneration was selected for almost 50%of stands. Reduction of the minimum basal area limit greatly decreased the use of artificial regeneration but improved profitability, suggesting that the truly optimal management would be to use natural regeneration in financially mature stands. The optimal type of thinning was high thinning in 97-99%of cases. It was calculated that the minimum basal area re-quirement reduced the mean net present value of the stands by 12-16%when discount rate was 3-5%.

  18. A Multidimensional Environmental Value Orientation Approach to Forest Recreation Area Tourism Market Segmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Ping Wang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses multidimensional environmental value orientations as the segmentation bases for analyzing a natural destination tourism market of the National Forest Recreation Areas in Taiwan. Cluster analyses identify two segments, Acceptance and Conditionality, within 1870 usable observations. Independent sample t test and crosstab analyses are applied to examine these segments’ forest value orientations, sociodemographic features, and service demands. The Acceptance group tends to be potential ecotourists, while still recognizing the commercial value of the natural resources. The Conditionality group may not possess a strong sense of ecotourism, given that its favored services can affect the environment. Overall, this article confirms the use of multidimensional environmental value orientation approaches can generate a comprehensive natural tourist segment comparison that benefits practical management decision making.

  19. Study on Vegetation Root Strength of Pioneer Plants for Forest Areas in Taiwan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jun-bin; LIANG Da-qing; YE Xu-rong

    2005-01-01

    Forest plant roots may restrain the occurrence of shallow landslides for forest land and pioneer tree species can also reduce runoff and soil erosion;thus they are useful practical ecological materials for landslide control and erosion control.In this study,two important pioneer plant species;Formosan Alder (Alnus formosana Makino) and Roxburgh Sumac (Rhus chinensis Mill.Var.roxburghi i(DC.) Rehd.) were selected at landslide areas under vegetation treatments for soil and water conservation.In order to obtain the root strength model for the factors affecting pulling resistance and root tensile strength,experimental materials were tested and the data were analyzed using regression techniques.These models could be used to provide the index of slope stability and to quantify the root-strength using non-destructive methods.

  20. Effectiveness of strict vs. multiple use protected areas in reducing tropical forest fires: a global analysis using matching methods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Nelson

    Full Text Available Protected areas (PAs cover a quarter of the tropical forest estate. Yet there is debate over the effectiveness of PAs in reducing deforestation, especially when local people have rights to use the forest. A key analytic problem is the likely placement of PAs on marginal lands with low pressure for deforestation, biasing comparisons between protected and unprotected areas. Using matching techniques to control for this bias, this paper analyzes the global tropical forest biome using forest fires as a high resolution proxy for deforestation; disaggregates impacts by remoteness, a proxy for deforestation pressure; and compares strictly protected vs. multiple use PAs vs indigenous areas. Fire activity was overlaid on a 1 km map of tropical forest extent in 2000; land use change was inferred for any point experiencing one or more fires. Sampled points in pre-2000 PAs were matched with randomly selected never-protected points in the same country. Matching criteria included distance to road network, distance to major cities, elevation and slope, and rainfall. In Latin America and Asia, strict PAs substantially reduced fire incidence, but multi-use PAs were even more effective. In Latin America, where there is data on indigenous areas, these areas reduce forest fire incidence by 16 percentage points, over two and a half times as much as naïve (unmatched comparison with unprotected areas would suggest. In Africa, more recently established strict PAs appear to be effective, but multi-use tropical forest protected areas yield few sample points, and their impacts are not robustly estimated. These results suggest that forest protection can contribute both to biodiversity conservation and CO2 mitigation goals, with particular relevance to the REDD agenda. Encouragingly, indigenous areas and multi-use protected areas can help to accomplish these goals, suggesting some compatibility between global environmental goals and support for local livelihoods.

  1. Relationships between burned area, forest cover loss, and land cover change in the Brazilian Amazon based on satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanin, T.; van der Werf, G. R.

    2015-10-01

    Fires are used as a tool in the deforestation process. Yet, the relationship between fire and deforestation may vary temporally and spatially depending on the type of deforestation and climatic conditions. This study evaluates spatiotemporal dynamics of deforestation and fire represented by burned area over the 2002-2012 period in the Brazilian Legal Amazon. As a first step, we compared newly available Landsat-based maps of gross forest cover loss from the Global Forest Change (GFC) project with maps of deforestation extent from the Amazon Deforestation Monitoring Project (PRODES) produced by the Brazilian National Institute for Space Research (INPE). As a second step, we rescaled the Landsat-based data to the 500 m resolution of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) burned area data (MCD64A1) and stratified this using MODIS land cover data to study the role of burned area in forest cover loss and deforestation. We found that while GFC forest cover loss and PRODES deforestation generally agreed on spatial and temporal dynamics, there were several key differences between the data sets. Both showed a decrease in the extent of forest cover loss or deforestation after 2004, but the drop was larger and more continuous in PRODES than in GFC. The observed decrease in forest cover loss or deforestation rates over our study period was mainly due to lower clearing rates in the evergreen broadleaf forests in the states of Mato Grosso, Pará, and Rondônia. GFC indicated anomalously high forest cover loss in the years 2007 and 2010, which was not reported by PRODES. The burned area data indicated that this was predominantly related to increased burned area occurring outside of the tropical forest area during these dry years, mainly in Pará. This indicated that fire and forest loss dynamics in woodlands or secondary forests may be equally important as deforestation in regulating atmospheric CO2 concentrations. In addition to the decrease in forest cover

  2. BIODIVERSITY MANAGEMENT APPROACHES FOR STREAM-RIPARIAN AREAS: PERSPECTIVES FOR PACIFIC NORTHWEST HEADWATER FORESTS, MICROCLIMATES, AND AMPHIBIANS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stream-riparian areas represent a nexus of biodiversity, with disproportionate numbers of species tied to and interacting within this key habitat. New research in Pacific Northwest headwater forests, especially the characterization of microclimates and amphibian distributions, is...

  3. Comparison of vertical resolved leaf area index measurements in an open canopy savannah-type forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piayda, Arndt; Cuntz, Matthias; Dubbert, Maren; Werner, Christiane; Pereira, Joao S.

    2013-04-01

    Leaf area index (LAI) is a very important vegetation parameter in soil-vegetation-atmosphere exchange modeling. To represent the structure of ecosystems in vertically distributed modeling, vertical resolved LAI distributions as well as vertically and angular gap fraction (Pgap) distributions are needed, but rarely available. Additionally, former studies neglect woody plant components when using light interception or digital photography based methods for LAI or Pgap observations. This can lead to significantly biased results, particularly in semi-arid savannah-type ecosystems with low LAI values. The objective of this study is to compare three non-destructive LAI measurement techniques in a sparse savannah-type cork oak canopy in central Portugal in order to derive vertically resolved LAI as well as vertically and angular resolved Pgap. Since established canopy analyzers, such as the LAI-2000, rely on diffuse light conditions, which are rarely realized in semi-arid regions, we also employed fast, digital cover photography (DCP) working independently from diffuse light conditions. We used vertical and angular distributed DCP and applied object-based image analysis techniques to exclude woody plant components from Pgap estimation and LAI determination. We compared the results with vertically distributed LAI-2000 measurements, and additionally with vertical estimates based on easily measurable forest canopy parameters. We employed bootstrap resampling methods to determine the accuracy of all measurements depending on sample size. Leaf inclination measurements indicate planophile leaf orientation. Thus LAI was calculated with Pgap and the leaf inclination information. This led to a spatial averaged LAI of 0.52 +- 0.06 for DCP while LAI-2000 measurements resulted in 0.67 +- 0.07. Uncertainty bounds of LAI converge much faster with increasing sample size for the DCP than for the LAI-2000. This allows a more efficient sampling design, which is of great importance in

  4. Quantifying forest vertical structure to determine bird habitat quality in the Greenbelt Corridor, Denton, TX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsubayashi, Shiho

    This study presents the integration of light detection and range (LiDAR) and hyperspectral remote sensing to create a three-dimensional bird habitat map in the Greenbelt Corridor of the Elm Fork of the Trinity River. This map permits to examine the relationship between forest stand structure, landscape heterogeneity, and bird community composition. A biannual bird census was conducted at this site during the breeding seasons of 2009 and 2010. Census data combined with the three-dimensional map suggest that local breeding bird abundance, community structure, and spatial distribution patterns are highly influenced by vertical heterogeneity of vegetation surface. For local breeding birds, vertical heterogeneity of canopy surface within stands, connectivity to adjacent forest patches, largest forest patch index, and habitat (vegetation) types proved to be the most influential factors to determine bird community assemblages. Results also highlight the critical role of secondary forests to increase functional connectivity of forest patches. Overall, three-dimensional habitat descriptions derived from integrated LiDAR and hyperspectral data serve as a powerful bird conservation tool that shows how the distribution of bird species relates to forest composition and structure at various scales.

  5. [C and N allocation patterns in planted forests and their release patterns during leaf litter decomposition in subalpine area of west Sichuan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zeng-wen; Duan, Er-jun; Pan, Kai-wen; Zhang, Li-ping; Du, Hong-xia

    2009-01-01

    With the planted forest ecosystems of Cercidiphyllum japonicum, Betula utilis, Pinus yunnansinsis, and Picea asperata in subalpine area of west Sichuan as test objects, their total biomass and the C and N contents in soils and tree organs were determined. The results showed that the allocation of C in tree organs had less correlation with the age of the organs, while that of N and C/N ratio had closer relationship with the age. The N content in young organs was higher than that in aged ones, whereas the C/N ratio was higher in aged organs than in young organs, and higher in the leaf litters of needle-leaved forests than in those of broad-leaved forests. There was an obvious enrichment of C and N in the topsoil of test forests. The accumulated amounts of C and N in the whole planted forest ecosystem, including tree, litter, and 0-40 cm soil layer, were 176.75-228.05 t x hm(-2) and 11.06-16.54 t x hm(-2), respectively, and the nutrients allocation ratio between soil-litter and tree was (1.9-3.3):1 for C and (15.6-41.5):1 for N. Needle-leaved forests functioned as a stronger "C-sink" than broad-leaved forests. The decomposition rate of the leaf litters in needle-leaved forests was larger than that in broad-leaved forests, with the turnover rate being 2.2-3.7 years and 3.9-4.2 years, respectively. During the decomposition of leaf litter, the C in all of the four forests released at super-speed, with the turnover rate being 1.9-3.4 years. As for N, it also released at super-speed in C. japonicum and B. utilis forests, with the turnover rate being 1.9-3.2 years, but released at low speed in P. yunnansinsis and P. asperata forests, with the turnover rate being 6.7-8.5 years. PMID:19449557

  6. Estimation of Tropical Forest Leaf Area Index Using Medium-Footprint Lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, S. L.; Dubayah, R. O.; Clark, D. B.; Hofton, M. A.; Blair, J. B.

    2008-12-01

    As an important descriptor of forest canopy structure and productivity, leaf surface area strongly relates to respiration, photosynthesis, canopy dynamics, and other biophysical processes. Leaf Area Index (LAI), the amount of one sided leaf area per unit of ground area, has been an important parameter in a variety of ecosystem models. We explore the use of medium-footprint airborne scanning lidar to estimate the spatial distribution of LAI at a landscape scale. Direct estimates of LAI were collected on vertical transects at 71 sites stratified across a tropical wet forest landscape at La Selva Biological Station in Costa Rica. Vertical canopy structure information was collected by the Laser Vegetation Imaging Sensor (LVIS) over La Selva in March of 2005. We analyze the relationship between field-derived LAI estimates and three-dimensional lidar-derived canopy structure information, specifically waveforms and waveform-derived metrics. We also assess the potential of lidar data to scale local estimates of LAI to the landscape level.

  7. Relationships between burned area, forest cover loss and land use change in the Brazilian Amazon based on satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanin, T.; van der Werf, G. R.

    2015-06-01

    Fires are used as a tool in the deforestation process. Yet, the relationship between fire and deforestation may vary temporally and spatially depending on the type of deforestation and climatic conditions. This study evaluates spatiotemporal dynamics of deforestation and fire represented by burned area over the 2002-2012 period in the Brazilian Legal Amazon. As a first step, we compared newly available Landsat-based maps of gross forest cover loss from the Global Forest Change (GFC) project with maps of deforestation extent from the Amazon Deforestation Monitoring Project (PRODES) produced by the Brazilian National Institute for Space Research (INPE). As a second step, we rescaled the Landsat-based data to the 500 m resolution of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) burned area data (MCD64A1) and stratified this using MODIS land cover data to study the role of burned area in forest cover loss and deforestation. We found that while GFC forest cover loss and PRODES deforestation generally agreed on spatial and temporal dynamics, there were several key differences between the datasets. Both showed a decrease in the extent of forest cover loss or deforestation after 2004, but the drop was larger and more continuous in PRODES than in GFC. The observed decrease in forest cover loss or deforestation rates over our study period was mainly due to lower clearing rates in the evergreen broadleaf forests in the states of Mato Grosso, Pará and Rondônia. GFC indicated anomalous high forest cover loss in the years 2007 and 2010 not reported by PRODES. The burned area data showed that this was predominantly related to increased fire activity occurring outside of the tropical forest area during these dry years, mainly in Pará. This indicates that fire and forest loss dynamics in woodlands or secondary forests may be equally important as deforestation in regulating atmospheric CO2 concentrations. In addition to the decrease in forest cover loss rates, we also

  8. Identification of a system of ecologically homogeneous areas and of priority intervention levels for forest plantation planning in Sicily

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pizzurro GM

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Afforestation and reforestation activities in Sicily have been widespreaded in the last century. The results of forestation activities indicate the need to adopt a operational tools to promote the extension of forest surface at regional and sub-regional levels. In this view, with the aim to produce useful tools for forest plantation planning, the entire regional area was analysed and ecologically homogeneous areas have been identified to join and target arboriculture and/or forestation plantation activities, to choose tree and shrub species for different environments and to identify priority areas of intervention. The map of Rivas-Martinez bioclimate and the map of litological types were used as basic information layers to map pedo-climatic homogeneous areas. In order to mitigate disruptive hydrogeological effects and to reduce desertification risk and forest fragmentation, the Corine Land Cover map (CLC2000, the hydrogeological bond map and the desertification risk map were used to identify areas characterized by urgent need of forest activities at high priority level. A total of 23 ecologically homogeneous areas have been identified in Sicily, while more than a quarter of the regional surface has been characterized as highest priority intervention level. At sub-regional level, the target of the analysis was carried out at administrative province and at hydrographic basin level.

  9. Increasing wood mobilization through Sustainable Forest Management in protected areas of Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Maesano

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 14 false false false IT JA X-NONE The European Community has long recognized the need to further promote renewable energy. Under the overall objective to support and enhance sustainable management, the promotion of the use of forest biomass could help to mitigate climate change by substituting fossil fuel, increasing carbon stock in wood products and improve energy self-sufficiency enhancing security of supply and providing job opportunities in rural areas. To what extent Italian forests can satisfy an increased wood demand, without compromising the others Ecosystem Services (ESs remains an open question. Our aim was to assess the potential supply of woody biomass from the network of protected areas in Italy considering the felling constraints. We estimated the theoretical annual potential increment from forest inventory data performing a correlation with the Corine Land Cover 2006 at the IV level with a 1:100,000 resolution elaborated in a GIS (Geographic Information System environment. The average annual potential increment at national level available for felling was 4.4 m3ha-1. Within the network of protected areas (EUAP and Natura 2000, the average annual increment, available to felling, was 0.98 m3ha-1, respectively, 0.81 m3ha-1 from coppice and 1.14 m3ha-1 from non-coppice forests. Based on data obtained from this study, the availability of wood materials could be increased of almost 20 % at national level by pursuing an active management within the network of protected areas. In Italy, the actual level of resource utilization is rather low; increasing felling together with the implementation of an active management within protected areas could allow satisfying, theoretically, the Italian wood consumption. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabella normale"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0

  10. Dispersal syndromes in the largest protection area of the Atlantic Forest in the state of Paraiba, Brazil

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    Camila Ângelo Jerônimo Domingues

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The diaspore dispersal process is crucial for plant reproduction, since the diaspores must reach a suitable site to germinate. This paper aimed to study morphological aspects of diaspores and determine the dispersal syndromes of species occurring in the largest protection area of the Atlantic Forest in the state of Paraiba, Brazil, the Guaribas Biological Reserve. One conducted a monthly collection of fruits/seeds within the period from September 2007 to February 2009. All diaspores of the fruiting species were collected. After analyzing characteristics such as fruit and seed consistency, odor, color, size, and weight, one determined the dispersal syndrome of each species. One collected 3,080 diaspores belonging to 136 different species distributed into 27 families. Zoochory was the most abundant dispersal syndrome (58%, with 79 fruits adapted to it, followed by autochory (29%, and anemochory (13%. Throughout the study period, one found fruiting species, with a predominance of zoochoric fruits, a predictable fact in the Atlantic Forest, which provides fleshy fruits all the year round.

  11. Changing Forestry Policy by Integrating Water Aspects into Forest/Vegetation Restoration in Dryland Areas in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yanhui; Mike Bonell; Karl-Heinz Feger; YU Pengtao; XIONG Wei; XU Lihong

    2012-01-01

    Restoration forestry (forest rehabilitation) or re-vegetation is one effective measure to solve environmental problems, notably soil erosion. It may be further stimulated by the Clean Development Mechanism for carbon sequestration. However, there is an intensive and on-going debate about the adverse effects arising from afforestation in dryland areas, such as soil drying up which may cause further damage to the success of forest restoration, and the water yield reduction from watershed which may harm the regional development. On other hand, some preliminary studies showed a possibility that these adverse effects may be diminished more or less by properly designing the system structure and spatial distribution of forest/vegetation in a watershed. However, it is urgent to develop an evidence-based and sustainable new forestry policy for harmonizing forest-water interrelation. As a leading country in afforestation, China is beginning to develop a more trans-disciplinary and cross-sectoral forestry policy for harmonizing forestry development with water management. The main points of the changing new forestry policy should include: (1) Establishing a regional development strategy focusing on harmonized forest-water relations; (2) Taking forest-water interactions as an important part of evaluation; (3) Reducing the 'eco-water' quota of forests through technical advancement; (4) Developing and extending water-adaptive forest management practices; (S) Strengthening forest ecohydrological research and decision support ability.

  12. Analysis of climatic and anthropogenic changes effects on spectral vegetation indices in forest areas derived from satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoran, M. A.

    2010-05-01

    Multifunctional role of forest is revealed by: short and long-term responses and reactions to a fast changing environment, forest being able to provide ecological and social services, to assure a forest-wood chain that meet the needs for forest based goods and products. Forest vegetation cover characteristics, including land cover and phenology, affect processes such as water cycle, absorption and re-emission of solar radiation, momentum transfer, carbon cycle, and latent and sensible heat fluxes.The climate system responds in complex ways to changes in forcing that may be natural or humaninduced. Drastic climate change over the last two decades has greatly increased the importance of global environmental study. In frame of this research, forest changes monitoring through satellite remote sensing can continually observe various surface processes playing an increasingly important role in large-scale environmental monitoring. Thresholding based on biophysical variables derived from time trajectories of satellite data is a new approach to classifying forest land cover changes. The input data are composite values of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). Fusion technique was applied to Landsat TM, LANDSAT ETM, and IKONOS imagery for a forested area, Cernica, placed at the North Eastern part of Bucharest town, Romania, over a period 1989-2007. Specific aim of this paper is to assess, forecast, and mitigate the risks of climatic changes on forest systems.

  13. Combining Spectral and Texture Features Using Random Forest Algorithm: Extracting Impervious Surface Area in Wuhan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Zhenfeng; Zhang, Yuan; Zhang, Lei; Song, Yang; Peng, Minjun

    2016-06-01

    Impervious surface area (ISA) is one of the most important indicators of urban environments. At present, based on multi-resolution remote sensing images, numerous approaches have been proposed to extract impervious surface, using statistical estimation, sub-pixel classification and spectral mixture analysis method of sub-pixel analysis. Through these methods, impervious surfaces can be effectively applied to regional-scale planning and management. However, for the large scale region, high resolution remote sensing images can provide more details, and therefore they will be more conducive to analysis environmental monitoring and urban management. Since the purpose of this study is to map impervious surfaces more effectively, three classification algorithms (random forests, decision trees, and artificial neural networks) were tested for their ability to map impervious surface. Random forests outperformed the decision trees, and artificial neural networks in precision. Combining the spectral indices and texture, random forests is applied to impervious surface extraction with a producer's accuracy of 0.98, a user's accuracy of 0.97, and an overall accuracy of 0.98 and a kappa coefficient of 0.97.

  14. The community resource management area mechanism: a strategy to manage African forest resources for REDD+.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asare, Rebecca A; Kyei, Andrew; Mason, John J

    2013-01-01

    Climate change poses a significant threat to Africa, and deforestation rates have increased in recent years. Mitigation initiatives such as REDD+ are widely considered as potentially efficient ways to generate emission reductions (or removals), conserve or sustainably manage forests, and bring benefits to communities, but effective implementation models are lacking. This paper presents the case of Ghana's Community Resource Management Area (CREMA) mechanism, an innovative natural resource governance and landscape-level planning tool that authorizes communities to manage their natural resources for economic and livelihood benefits. This paper argues that while the CREMA was originally developed to facilitate community-based wildlife management and habitat protection, it offers a promising community-based structure and process for managing African forest resources for REDD+. At a theoretical level, it conforms to the ecological, socio-cultural and economic factors that drive resource-users' decision process and practices. And from a practical mitigation standpoint, the CREMA has the potential to help solve many of the key challenges for REDD+ in Africa, including definition of boundaries, smallholder aggregation, free prior and informed consent, ensuring permanence, preventing leakage, clarifying land tenure and carbon rights, as well as enabling equitable benefit-sharing arrangements. Ultimately, CREMA's potential as a forest management and climate change mitigation strategy that generates livelihood benefits for smallholder farmers and forest users will depend upon the willingness of African governments to support the mechanism and give it full legislative backing, and the motivation of communities to adopt the CREMA and integrate democratic decision-making and planning with their traditional values and natural resource management systems. PMID:23878338

  15. The community resource management area mechanism: a strategy to manage African forest resources for REDD+.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asare, Rebecca A; Kyei, Andrew; Mason, John J

    2013-01-01

    Climate change poses a significant threat to Africa, and deforestation rates have increased in recent years. Mitigation initiatives such as REDD+ are widely considered as potentially efficient ways to generate emission reductions (or removals), conserve or sustainably manage forests, and bring benefits to communities, but effective implementation models are lacking. This paper presents the case of Ghana's Community Resource Management Area (CREMA) mechanism, an innovative natural resource governance and landscape-level planning tool that authorizes communities to manage their natural resources for economic and livelihood benefits. This paper argues that while the CREMA was originally developed to facilitate community-based wildlife management and habitat protection, it offers a promising community-based structure and process for managing African forest resources for REDD+. At a theoretical level, it conforms to the ecological, socio-cultural and economic factors that drive resource-users' decision process and practices. And from a practical mitigation standpoint, the CREMA has the potential to help solve many of the key challenges for REDD+ in Africa, including definition of boundaries, smallholder aggregation, free prior and informed consent, ensuring permanence, preventing leakage, clarifying land tenure and carbon rights, as well as enabling equitable benefit-sharing arrangements. Ultimately, CREMA's potential as a forest management and climate change mitigation strategy that generates livelihood benefits for smallholder farmers and forest users will depend upon the willingness of African governments to support the mechanism and give it full legislative backing, and the motivation of communities to adopt the CREMA and integrate democratic decision-making and planning with their traditional values and natural resource management systems.

  16. Rapid, High-Resolution Forest Structure and Terrain Mapping over Large Areas using Single Photon Lidar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swatantran, Anu; Tang, Hao; Barrett, Terence; DeCola, Phil; Dubayah, Ralph

    2016-01-01

    Single photon lidar (SPL) is an innovative technology for rapid forest structure and terrain characterization over large areas. Here, we evaluate data from an SPL instrument - the High Resolution Quantum Lidar System (HRQLS) that was used to map the entirety of Garrett County in Maryland, USA (1700 km(2)). We develop novel approaches to filter solar noise to enable the derivation of forest canopy structure and ground elevation from SPL point clouds. SPL attributes are compared with field measurements and an existing leaf-off, low-point density discrete return lidar dataset as a means of validation. We find that canopy and ground characteristics from SPL are similar to discrete return lidar despite differences in wavelength and acquisition periods but the higher point density of the SPL data provides more structural detail. Our experience suggests that automated noise removal may be challenging, particularly over high albedo surfaces and rigorous instrument calibration is required to reduce ground measurement biases to accepted mapping standards. Nonetheless, its efficiency of data collection, and its ability to produce fine-scale, three-dimensional structure over large areas quickly strongly suggests that SPL should be considered as an efficient and potentially cost-effective alternative to existing lidar systems for large area mapping. PMID:27329078

  17. AREA-BASED SNOW DAMAGE CLASSIFICATION OF FOREST CANOPIES USING BI- TEMPORAL LIDAR DATA

    OpenAIRE

    M. Vastaranta; Korpela, I.; Uotila, A.; Hovi, A.; M. Holopainen

    2012-01-01

    Multitemporal LiDAR data provide means for mapping structural changes in forest canopies. We demonstrate the use of area-based estimation method for snow damage assessment. Change features of bi-temporal LiDAR point height distributions were used as predictors in combination with in situ training data. In the winter 2009–2010, snow damages occurred in Hyytiälä (62°N, 24°E), southern Finland. Snow load resulted in broken, bent and fallen trees changing the canopy structure. The damages w...

  18. Research of vertical migration of radionuclides in the soil at testing 'Red forest' area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Researches of vertical migration of Chernobyl origin radionuclides at testing 'Red forest' rea in 5-km ChNPP-zone were carried out. The γ- and β- spectrometer measurements of soil samples were carried out using the anticompton spectrometer and a beta spectrometer. Presence of 60Co, 134, 137Cs, 154,155Eu, 241Am to depth of 30 cm in all soil cuts was fixed. The sites with sod-low-podzol sandy soils on alluvial sands contain 137Cs, 90Sr and 241Am to depth of 60 cm. The presence 243Am and 243Cm was found in the top layers of soils at territory of testing area.

  19. History and Productivity Determine the Spatial Distribution of Key Habitats for Biodiversity in Norwegian Forest Landscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magne Sætersdal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Retention forestry, including the retention of woodland key habitats (WKH at the forest stand scale, has become an essential management practice in boreal forests. Here, we investigate the spatial distribution of 9470 habitat patches, mapped according to the Complementary Habitat Inventory method (CHI habitats, as potential WKHs in 10 sample areas in Norway. We ask whether there are parts of the forest landscapes that have consistently low or high density of CHI habitats compared to the surveyed landscape as a whole, and therefore have a low or high degree of conflict with harvesting, respectively. We found that there was a general pattern of clumped distribution of CHI habitats at distances up to a few kilometres. Furthermore, results showed that most types of CHI habitats were approximately two to three times as common in the 25% steepest slopes, lowest altitudes and highest site indices. CHI habitats that are most common in old-growth forests were found at longer distances from roads, whereas habitats rich in deciduous trees were found at shorter distances from roads than expected. Both environmental factors and the history of human impact are needed to explain the spatial distribution of CHI habitats. The overrepresentation of WKHs in parts of the forest landscapes represents a good starting point to develop more efficient inventory methods.

  20. Spatio-temporal changes of forest and vineyard surfaces in areas with sandy soils from southern Oltenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remus PRĂVĂLIE

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study examines the spatial and temporal dynamics of forest and vineyard areas in the last three decades in areas occupied by sandy soils in southern Oltenia. Areas with sandy soils in this zone are considered vulnerable elements of the environment as a result of deflation phenomenon that occurs after the disappearance of vegetation. It is therefore necessary to analyze the current state of sandy soils covered by forest vegetation and vineyards, these two categories of vegetation playing a vital role in their stabilization. The results obtained show that in the last three decades forest areas decreased by approx. 2700 ha (11.6% being replaced by sandy soils, while vineyards areas have diminished with 22% (1638 ha, with negative consequences of ecological, climatic and social nature

  1. Gamma-ray remote sensing of soil properties in a forested area near Batlow, NSW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In forested and agricultural areas, reflective remote sensing methods are of limited utility for soil studies due to the variable effects of vegetation. Airborne gamma-ray remote sensing is presented here as a useful technique for soils. Short wavelength gamma-rays are detected from the upper 0.30-0.45 m of the soil . They are emitted from radioactive elements in the soil and largely pass through vegetation cover. In this paper, images of gamma parent elements (K, Th and U) are presented and element associations with soil properties and vegetation are analysed for a forested area near Batlow, NSW. Effects of vegetation are evident in gamma-ray data and in Landsat TM along powerlines and in clearings. A technique for removing this effect in the gamma-ray data is demonstrated. Detailed soil and rock chemistry together with ground gamma-spectrometer measurements were collected to support the interpretation and analysis of the image data. The work focuses mainly on the variation of soil properties within areas mapped as granodiorite lithology. Many areas of deep red soils are accurately mapped by the radiometric K data. The precise origin of these soils is not clear and their parent materials may include contributions from aeolian deposition, in situ weathering of granodiorite, and remnant basalt. . In areas of granodiorite, K patterns are interpreted to be a function of the degree of mineral weathering and can be related to soil depth and erosion status. This study demonstrates the effectiveness of gamma-ray remote sensing for directly mapping soil units and properties (authors). Copyright (1998) Remote Sensing and Photogrammetry Association of Australasia Ltd

  2. Cation export by overland flow in a recently burnt forest area in north-central Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, A I; Serpa, D; Ferreira, R V; Rodríguez-Blanco, M L; Pinto, R; Nunes, M I; Cerqueira, M A; Keizer, J J

    2015-08-15

    The current fire regime in the Mediterranean Basin constitutes a serious threat to natural ecosystems because it drastically enhances surface runoff and soil erosion in the affected areas. Besides soil particles themselves, soil cations can be lost by fire-enhanced overland flow, increasing the risk of fertility loss of the typically shallow and nutrient poor Mediterranean soils. Although the importance of cations for land-use sustainability is widely recognized, cation losses by post-fire runoff have received little research attention. The present study aimed to address this research gap by assessing total exports of Na(+), K(+), Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) in a recently burnt forest area in north-central Portugal. These exports were compared for two types of planted forest (eucalypt vs. maritime pine plantations), two types of parent materials (schist vs. granite) and for two spatial scales (micro-plot vs. hill slope). The study sites were a eucalypt plantation on granite (BEG), a eucalypt plantation on schist (BES) and a maritime pine plantation on schist (BPS). Overland flow samples were collected during the first six months after the wildfire. Cation losses differed strikingly between the two forest types on schist, being higher at the eucalypt than pine site. This difference was evident at both spatial scales, and probably due to the extensive cover of a needle cast from the scorched pine crowns. The role of parent material in cation export was less straightforward as it varied with spatial scale. Cation losses were higher for the eucalypt plantation on schist than for that on granite at the micro-plot scale, whereas the reverse was observed at the hill slope scale. Finally, cation yields were higher at the micro-plot than slope scale, in agreement with the general notion of scaling-effect in runoff generation. PMID:25897728

  3. Effects of forest vegetation on runoff and sediment transport of watershed in Loess area,west China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xiaoming; YU Xinxiao; WU Sihong; LIU Huifang

    2007-01-01

    This paper aims to study the effects of vegetation on runoff and sediment transport at the watershed scale,and to provide a theoretical basis for afforestation in the Loess area,in the nested Caijiachuan watershed,Jixian County,Shanxi Province of west China.Forest watersheds and farmland watersheds with similar ten'ain features were selected through cluster analysis to study their runoff and sediment transport characteristics.Results showed that compared with farmland watersheds,runoff generation time in forest watersheds was delayed remarkably,and peak flow was reduced greatly,which indicates that vegetation played an important role in holding and absorbing rainfall.Besides,with the increase of forest coverage,the runoff amount,runoff depth and runoff coefficient decreased during the rainy seasons.The runoff depth and runoff coefficient of farmland watersheds in the rainy season were 5-20-fold as much as that of forest watersheds,and runoff and sediment yield of watersheds with low forest coverage were 2.7-2.9-fold and 3-5-fold as great as those with high coverage during rainstorms,and low forest coverage had larger variation in sediment hydrograph.For the complexity and scale dependence of the influence of forest vegetation on runoff,forest hydrological functions based on regional scale or watershed scale were worthy of further studies.

  4. Lycophytes and ferns composition of Atlantic Forest conservation units in western Paraná with comparisons to other areas in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayara Lautert

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study surveyed lycophyte and fern species in four forest fragments in western Paraná, Brazil, and compared them to 15 other fragments with different plant formations from the Atlantic Forest biome in southern Brazil. In total, five lycophyte species (in two families and two genera and 98 species and two varieties of ferns (in 16 families and 38 genera were registered in the four fragments. The most represented families were Pteridaceae (23 spp., Polypodiaceae (18 spp., Aspleniaceae (13 spp., and Thelypteridaceae (11 spp.. Asplenium (12 spp., Thelypteris (10 spp., and Blechnum (seven spp. were among the most represented genera. The occurrence of Dicksonia sellowiana was noteworthy because it was associated with seasonal semideciduous forest and is threatened in Brazil. Similarity among areas was determined by a cluster analysis (UPGMA and Sørensen’s index and the relation between similarity and geographic distance was determined through Matel’s analysis. The analyses revealed greater similarity among the four study areas and, for these areas as a whole, greater similarity to fragments in Rio Grande do Sul, which is evidence that these areas have similar environmental conditions.

  5. Polarimetric Scattering Properties of Landslides in Forested Areas and the Dependence on the Local Incidence Angle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Shibayama

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the local incidence angle dependence of several polarimetric indices corresponding to landslides in forested areas. Landslide is deeply related to the loss of human lives and their property. Various kinds of remote sensing techniques, including aerial photography, high-resolution optical satellite imagery, LiDAR and SAR interferometry (InSAR, have been available for landslide investigations. SAR polarimetry is potentially an effective measure to investigate landslides because fully-polarimetric SAR (PolSAR data contain more information compared to conventional single- or dual-polarization SAR data. However, research on landslide recognition utilizing polarimetric SAR (PolSAR is quite limited. Polarimetric properties of landslides have not been examined quantitatively so far. Accordingly, we examined the polarimetric scattering properties of landslides by an assessment of how the decomposed scattering power components and the polarimetric correlation coefficient change with the local incidence angle. In the assessment, PolSAR data acquired from different directions with both spaceborne and airborne SARs were utilized. It was found that the surface scattering power and the polarimetric correlation coefficient of landslides significantly decrease with the local incidence angle, while these indices of surrounding forest do not. This fact leads to establishing a method of effective detection of landslide area by polarimetric information.

  6. Ectoparasitic flies (Diptera, Streblidae) of bats (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae) in an Atlantic Forest area, southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    França, D S; Pereira, S N; Maas, A C S; Martins, M A; Bolzan, D P; Lima, I P; Dias, D; Peracchi, A L

    2013-11-01

    We studied infestation rates and parasite-host associations between streblid flies and phyllostomid bats in an Atlantic Forest area of Rio de Janeiro state, southeastern Brazil. We captured 301 individuals from seven Phyllostomidae bat species. Out of that total, 69 bats had been parasitised by nine Streblidae species; the most frequent species were Trichobius joblingi and Trichobius tiptoni. The species Paraeuctenodes longipes, associated with Anoura geoffroyi, was the most frequent species. The highest mean intensity was observed for Paraeuctenodes longipes, associated with A. geoffroyi, and Paratrichobius longicrus associated with Artibeus lituratus, both ectoparasite species with a mean intensity of five individuals per bat. Trichobius joblingi exhibited the highest mean abundance, which was over three on its host species. Streblid richness in the study area was similar to the richness found in other studies carried out in the Atlantic Forest. We observed that streblid richness in this biome depends more on inherent characteristics of each physiognomy and on the host-species than on the sampling effort.

  7. The potential for LiDAR technology to map fire fuel hazard over large areas of Australian forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Owen F; Gordon, Christopher E

    2016-10-01

    Fuel load is a primary determinant of fire spread in Australian forests. In east Australian forests, litter and canopy fuel loads and hence fire hazard are thought to be highest at and beyond steady-state fuel loads 15-20 years post-fire. Current methods used to predict fuel loads often rely on course-scale vegetation maps and simple time-since-fire relationships which mask fine-scale processes influencing fuel loads. Here we use Light Detecting and Remote Sensing technology (LiDAR) and field surveys to quantify post-fire mid-story and crown canopy fuel accumulation and fire hazard in Dry Sclerophyll Forests of the Sydney Basin (Australia) at fine spatial-scales (20 × 20 m cell resolution). Fuel cover was quantified in three strata important for crown fire propagation (0.5-4 m, 4-15 m, >15 m) over a 144 km(2) area subject to varying fire fuel ages. Our results show that 1) LiDAR provided a precise measurement of fuel cover in each strata and a less precise but still useful predictor of surface fuels, 2) cover varied greatly within a mapped vegetation class of the same fuel age, particularly for elevated fuel, 3) time-since-fire was a poor predictor of fuel cover and crown fire hazard because fuel loads important for crown fire propagation were variable over a range of fire fuel ages between 2 and 38 years post-fire, and 4) fuel loads and fire hazard can be high in the years immediately following fire. Our results show the benefits of spatially and temporally specific in situ fuel sampling methods such as LiDAR, and are widely applicable for fire management actions which aim to decrease human and environmental losses due to wildfire. PMID:27558828

  8. Restoration of Natural Environment by Creation of Environmental Protection Forests in Urban Areas : Growth and development of environmental protection forests on the Yokohama National University campus

    OpenAIRE

    Miyawaki, Akira; Fujiwara, Kazue

    1988-01-01

    The creation of environmental protection forests is a basic ecological method for restorlng the natural environment in urban areas which are utilized intensively and are dominated by non-biological materials and several forms of energy (Miyawaki 1982, Miyawaki, et al. 1987). The result of "Ecological greenery planting : Tree planting" shows that seedlings of 0.5m height grew to 9m and developed into true environmental protection forests over a period of 11years. Maintenance was not required a...

  9. Survey of Forest Elephants Loxodonta cyclotis (Matschie, 1900 (Mammalia: Proboscidea: Elephantidae in the Bia Conservation Area, Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Danquah

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Information on elephant ranges and numbers is vital for effective conservation and management, especially in western Africa where elephant populations are small and scattered.  The Bia Conservation Area (BCA in southwestern Ghana is a priority site for the conservation of Forest Elephants in western Africa.  A dung count was conducted using a systematic segmented track line design to determine the density and distribution of the BCA elephant population.  The mean density of dung-piles was 452.15 per sq.km. and mean dung survival time was estimated to be 54.64 days (SD 2 days, leading to an estimate of 146 elephants (95% confidence interval 98-172 with a density of 0.48/km2 for the BCA. This estimate probably makes the Bia forest elephant population the largest in Ghana.  Records of BCA elephant activities were also made.  This study augments the Regional African Elephant Database and should facilitate strategic planning and management programmes.

  10. Tools for forming strategies for remediation of forests and park areas in northern Europe after radioactive contamination: background and techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report compiles background information that can be used in planning appropriate countermeasures for forest and park areas in Denmark, Sweden, Finland and Norway, in case a nuclear accident results in large-scale contamination of forests. The information is formulated to inform the forestry sector and radiation protection experts about the practicality of both forest management techniques and mechanical cleanup methods, for use in their planning of specific strategies that can lead to an optimal use of contaminated forests. Decisions will depend on the site and the actual situation after radioactive deposition to forested areas, but the report provides background information from investigations performed before an accident occurs that will make the process more effective. The report also discusses the radiological consequences of producing energy from biomass contaminated by a major nuclear accident, both in the context of normal bio-fuel energy production and as a means of reducing potentially severe environmental problems in the forest by firing power plants with highly contaminated forest biomass. (au)

  11. Leaf Area Index and Biomass Assessment over Tropical Peatland Forest Ecosystem Using ALOS PalSAR and Envisat ASAR Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijaya, Arief; Susanti, Ari; Liesenberg, Veraldo; Wardhana, Wahyu; Yanto, Edi; Soeprijadi, Djoko; McFarlane, Craig; Qomar, Nurul

    2011-03-01

    Provision of accurate forest parameter properties is important as a basis for forest resources monitoring and carbon cycle assessment. The present study aims to model leaf area index (LAI), above ground biomass and carbon stocks over tropical peatland forests using single polarization SAR, full polarimetry SAR (PolSAR) data. Single band ALOS Palsar data (HH band, acquired on November 17, 2008) and polarimetric data (HH, VV, HV and VH, collected on April 4 and May 5, 2007) are used for the study. A series of ENVISAT ASAR data (5 datasets) collected in 2004 - 2005 are also used to model the forest properties. Landsat ETM data collected on January 22, 2009 is also used as a reference. The relationship between forest parameters and normalized radar backscattering is estimated using empirical models, and preliminary results show that Polarimetric SAR data has better correlations with the LAI and biomass than single polarimetry SAR data. The field data were collected during field work in March - April 2009 and the reliability of identified forest classes was also assessed from available Landsat ETM data. Analysis will be conducted on the basis of statistical correlations between radar data and modeled forest properties, such as LAI, biomass and tree age. This study focuses on a unique tropical peatland ecosystem in Kampar Peninsula, Sumatera, Indonesia, which has great potentials as carbon sinks and/or sources. Only few studies have been conducted in the study area due to limited satellite and field observation data.

  12. Tools for forming strategies for remediation of forests and park areas in northern Europe after radioactive contamination: background and techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hubbard, L. [Swedish Radiation Protection Authority, SSI (Sweden); Rantavaara, A. [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Autority, STUK (Finland); Andersson, K. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark); Roed, J. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark)

    2002-01-01

    This report compiles background information that can be used in planning appropriate countermeasures for forest and park areas in Denmark, Sweden, Finland and Norway, in case a nuclear accident results in large-scale contamination of forests. The information is formulated to inform the forestry sector and radiation protection experts about the practicality of both forest management techniques and mechanical cleanup methods, for use in their planning of specific strategies that can lead to an optimal use of contaminated forests. Decisions will depend on the site and the actual situation after radioactive deposition to forested areas, but the report provides background information from investigations performed before an accident occurs that will make the process more effective. The report also discusses the radiological consequences of producing energy from biomass contaminated by a major nuclear accident, both in the context of normal bio-fuel energy production and as a means of reducing potentially severe environmental problems in the forest by firing power plants with highly contaminated forest biomass. (au)

  13. Empirical Determination of Competence Areas to Computer Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zendler, Andreas; Klaudt, Dieter; Seitz, Cornelia

    2014-01-01

    The authors discuss empirically determined competence areas to K-12 computer science education, emphasizing the cognitive level of competence. The results of a questionnaire with 120 professors of computer science serve as a database. By using multi-dimensional scaling and cluster analysis, four competence areas to computer science education…

  14. A technique for determining prosthetic joint contact areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, S M; Moran, J M; Stahurski, T M; Cepulo, A J

    1984-01-01

    A technique to determine the contact areas of total joint replacements has been developed. A thin film of petroleum jelly is deposited by the metallic component on the plastic component when load is applied. Fingerprint powder is then used to highlight the petroleum jelly coated area. Experimental data produced using this technique was found to be in good agreement with theoretical predictions.

  15. Automated Generation of Digital Terrain Model using Point Clouds of Digital Surface Model in Forest Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshikazu Kamiya

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available At present, most of the digital data acquisition methods generate Digital Surface Model (DSM and not a Digital Elevation Model (DEM. Conversion from DSM to DEM still has some drawbacks, especially the removing of off terrain point clouds and subsequently the generation of DEM within these spaces even though the methods are automated. In this paper it was intended to overcome this issue by attempting to project off terrain point clouds to the terrain in forest areas using Artificial Neural Networks (ANN instead of removing them and then filling gaps by interpolation. Five sites were tested and accuracies assessed. They all give almost the same results. In conclusion, the ANN has ability to obtain the DEM by projecting the DSM point clouds and greater accuracies of DEMs were obtained. If the size of the hollow areas resulting from the removal of DSM point clouds are larger the accuracies are reduced.

  16. Measuring and modelling transpiration of pine and oak forest stands in a Mediterranean mountain area (Vallcebre, NE Spain)

    OpenAIRE

    Poyatos López, Rafael

    2006-01-01

    [eng] This doctoral dissertation contains five applied reseaches about these subjectes: 1. "Transpiration of montane Pinus sylvestris L. and Quercus pubescens Willd. forest stands measured with sap flow sensors in NE Spain." Stand transpiration was measured during the 2003 and 2004 growing seasons using heat dissipation sap flow sensors in a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and a pubescent oak (Quercus pubescens Willd.) forest located in a montane area of the Eastern Pyrenees (NE Spain). Over...

  17. Evaluation of Annual Allowable Cut (AAC Determination of Teak Forest Plantations in Perum Perhutani, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohman Rohman

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The degradation of teak forest plantations in Java that are managed by Perum Perhutani (PP continues to happen, and this is caused by some risk factors such as illegal logging, grazing, forest fire, and encroachment. However, these risk factors have not been considered by PP notably in annual allowable cut (AAC determination of yield regulation. Therefore, the AAC value could be overestimated. The research was aimed at evaluating the method of AAC determination and proposing an alternative method that considers the risk factors. This research was conducted with a series of data analysis approach from the data on five planning periods. The research result showed that forest damage occurs in varied situations. On average, the rate of deforestation accounted for 0.8% per annum.The calculation of AAC by considering the rate of damage risk in normal condition approximately made up 70.8%. Thus, compared to another method without considering damage risk rate, overestimation constituted 29.2%. In brief, this had an impact on the decline of timber stock.Keywords: teak forest plantation, Perum Perhutani, casualty per cent, AAC

  18. Analysis of physical parameters related with water infiltration in tropical soils located in edges forest in urban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Márcia Longo, Regina; Cunha, Jessica C. M.; Lammoglia, Rafaella; Mendes, Deborah R.; Mungilioli, Sarah S.; Damame, Desiree B.; Demamboro, Antônio C.; Bettine, Sueli C.; Ribeiro, Admilson I.; Fengler, Felipe H.

    2015-04-01

    A very important factor for water infiltration into the soil in urban forest systems and suffering constant anthropogenic pressures is the analysis of soil compaction where these forests are or will be established. In this context, this work aimed to promote studies on physical parameters related to distribution of pores, compaction and soil biological activity in forest remnants border areas located in urban watersheds in Campinas / SP - Brazil. The Forest of Santa Genebra (22°49'45 "S and 47°06'33" W) has an average altitude of 680m and tropical climate of altitude, has an area of 251 ha and a nine kilometer perimeter. It constitutes 85% of Semideciduos forests and 15% swamp forest. Due to its location close to urban centers, roads and agricultural areas under direct influence of the anthropic means. For the present study analyzes were performed: particle size, soil density, porosity, matters organic, of biopores, and root distribution (primary, secondary and tertiary) and seedlings in 40 points on the perimeter of the forest equidistant 200m remaining edge. The analysis of the results allowed us to observe that areas suffer direct influence of human activities surrounding. With the results set correlations between the different parameters in order to allow a better understanding of the dynamics of water infiltration into the soil under these conditions and the quantity of tertiary roots, biopores and soil density were the best indicator of environmental quality as suffer direct influence of the surrounding areas, especially those near the most urbanized regions. In general, it can be observed that human activities such as deforestation and vehicle traffic, animals and people, promoted soil compaction and consequent changes in water infiltration into the soil in areas of edges of this remnant of these consequences affect direct numerous parameters that directly influence the dynamics of an ecosystem restoration that is now significantly affected by the

  19. Understanding the role of fog in forest hydrology: Stable isotopes as tools for determining input and partitioning of cloud water in montane forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholl, M.; Eugster, W.; Burkard, R.

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the hydrology of tropical montane cloud forests (TMCF) has become essential as deforestation of mountain areas proceeds at an increased rate worldwide. Passive and active cloud-water collectors, throughfall and stemflow collectors, visibility or droplet size measurements, and micrometeorological sensors are typically used to measure the fog water inputs to ecosystems. In addition, stable isotopes may be used as a natural tracer for fog and rain. Previous studies have shown that the isotopic signature of fog tends to be more enriched in the heavier isotopes 2H and 18O than that of rain, due to differences in condensation temperature and history. Differences between fog and rain isotopes are largest when rain is from synoptic-scale storms, and fog or orographic cloud water is generated locally. Smaller isotopic differences have been observed between rain and fog on mountains with orographic clouds, but only a few studies have been conducted. Quantifying fog deposition using isotope methods is more difficult in forests receiving mixed precipitation, because of limitations in the ability of sampling equipment to separate fog from rain, and because fog and rain may, under some conditions, have similar isotopic composition. This article describes the various types of fog most relevant to montane cloud forests and the importance of fog water deposition in the hydrologic budget. A brief overview of isotope hydrology provides the background needed to understand isotope applications in cloud forests. A summary of previous work explains isotopic differences between rain and fog in different environments, and how monitoring the isotopic signature of surface water, soil water and tree xylem water can yield estimates of the contribution of fog water to streamflow, groundwater recharge and transpiration. Next, instrumentation to measure fog and rain, and methods to determine isotopic concentrations in plant and soil water are discussed. The article concludes with

  20. Species composition and minimum sampling area of a riparian mixed broadleaved-Korean pine forest in Changbai Mountain Nature Reserve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI Fang-zhou; XU Dong; DENG Hong-bing

    2011-01-01

    Riparian areas are unique although often small component of the overall watershed landscape. The structure of riparian forests along Erdaobai River on the north slope of Changhai Mountain were investi- gated by using field data collected from eight sampling transects perpen- dicular to the Erdaobai River channel. Two kinds of species-area satura- tion curves were used to examine the relationship between species num- ber and minimum sampling area. The results showed that riparian gym- nosperms accounted for a high proportion of all gymnosperms in the Changbai Mountain Nature Reserve while riparian ferns and angiosperms accounted for a relatively low proportion. The average minimum sam- pling areas of riparian forest that included 60%, 80%, and 90% of the community species pool were about 85, 185, and 328 m, respectively; while those for nonriparian forest were about 275, 390, and 514 m, correspondingly.

  1. A Comparative Analysis of Burned Area Datasets in Canadian Boreal Forest in 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez-Casillas, Laia; Moreno-Ruiz, José Andrés

    2013-01-01

    The turn of the new millennium was accompanied by a particularly diverse group of burned area datasets from different sensors in the Canadian boreal forests, brought together in a year of low global fire activity. This paper provides an assessment of spatial and temporal accuracy, by means of a fire-by-fire comparison of the following: two burned area datasets obtained from SPOT-VEGETATION (VGT) imagery, a MODIS Collection 5 burned area dataset, and three different datasets obtained from NOAA-AVHRR. Results showed that burned area data from MODIS provided accurate dates of burn but great omission error, partially caused by calibration problems. One of the VGT-derived datasets (L3JRC) represented the largest number of fire sites in spite of its great overall underestimation, whereas the GBA2000 dataset achieved the best burned area quantification, both showing delayed and very variable fire timing. Spatial accuracy was comparable between the 5 km and the 1 km AVHRR-derived datasets but was remarkably lower in the 8 km dataset leading, us to conclude that at higher spatial resolutions, temporal accuracy was lower. The probable methodological and contextual causes of these differences were analyzed in detail. PMID:23818817

  2. Determination of biogenic volatile organic compound fluxes from Harvard Forest using PTR-TOF-MS (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinney, K. A.; Munger, J. W.; Liu, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Forest emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) are the largest source of reactive non-methane hydrocarbons to the atmosphere, yet studies suggest that the understanding of the nature and quantity of emitted compounds remains incomplete. Recent findings have indicated the presence of reactive BVOCs within and above forest canopies that have not been quantified previously. Here we report new measurements of BVOC emissions from and concentrations above Harvard Forest, a mixed forest in the Eastern U.S., from June 8 to September 30, 2012 using Proton Transfer Reaction Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (PTR-TOF-MS). PTR-TOF-MS represents an advance over previous quadrupole-based PTR-MS measurements in that it captures a full, high-resolution (m/Δm ca. 4000) mass spectrum on every scan, resulting in positive identification of molecular formulas. In addition, scans are recorded at high time resolution (5 Hz), allowing true (non-disjunct) eddy covariance fluxes to be determined for each mass-to-charge ratio. Concentration and flux measurements were made simultaneously using a high-sensitivity quadrupole PTR-MS, and results from the two techniques are compared. Measured concentrations of most species agree to within 5%. As in past seasons, isoprene is the major BVOC emitted at Harvard Forest, reaching average midday mixing ratios of ca. 4 ppbv, and its emissions are closely tied to local temperature and light levels. Diurnal and seasonal patterns in emissions of isoprene, monoterpenes, methanol, acetone, and MEK are reported and compared with past measurements at the site. In addition, eddy covariance fluxes are calculated for all mass peaks to assess emissions of previously unidentified BVOCs from Harvard Forest.

  3. Determination of Tree Mortality Rate in Public Urban Areas at Early Stages After Planting

    OpenAIRE

    Miranda, Victor

    2015-01-01

    Measuring urban tree mortality rates during the first several years after planting is a growing field of study for urban forestry practitioners. Mortality rates for timber species in forest stands have been measured extensively over time, but stand level mortality research in urban forests has remained localized and isolated until the 1990’s. By concentrating research in this area, practitioners will be in a better position to understand the best practices for urban forest mana...

  4. Quantifying differences in biodiversity between a tropical forest area and a grassland area subject to traditional burning

    OpenAIRE

    Nangendo, G.; A. Stein; Gelens, M.; de Gier, A.; Albricht, R.

    2002-01-01

    Mosaics of natural forest and grassland tracts in sub-Saharan Africa provide differences in woody species biodiversity. These mosaics are of considerable interest as they are a major biodiversity bank. Their richness is felt to be threatened, for example by local burning. This study focuses on the impact of burning on biodiversity in the Budongo Forest Reserve in Uganda. Woody species at different development stages are compared between a forest stratum and the adjacent grassland stratum. Spa...

  5. Principles and practices of countermeasures to be carried out following radioactive contamination of forest areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An earlier article featured a comprehensive list of specific measures aimed at reducing radiation levels within forest ecosystems. All these measures were assessed globally in terms of their expected effectiveness and practical limitations. This study considers the same measures but focuses on differences between three widely distributed forest ecosystems in Europe: Mediterranean calcicolous evergreen forest, temperate mesotrophic deciduous forest and boreal acidophilous coniferous forest. From this analysis, it emerges that the relatively wide range of countermeasures which, in theory, could be applied to forest ecosystems is much more limited when considering specific ecosystems and the variation between ecosystems

  6. Pressure Indicators of Wood Resource Use in an Atlantic Forest Area, Northeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Medeiros, Patrícia Muniz; de Almeida, Alyson Luiz Santos; da Silva, Taline Cristina; de Albuquerque, Ulysses Paulino

    2011-03-01

    Wood resources are often used to support the needs of the local population. In order to protect biodiversity and resources, conservation strategies need to consider what types of wood use have the strongest impacts on forested areas. This study aimed to identify the use categories that put higher pressure on an Atlantic forest region located in the municipality of Igarassu in Pernambuco, northeastern Brazil. To conduct the study, we measured the volume of all wood products in 62 surveyed residences and registered the average replacement time for such products. The fuelwood category was most important locally and accounted for 92% of annual wood consumption. However, the construction category harvests more destructively and concentrates on the consumption of a few wood species. Therefore we recommend the fuelwood category to be the main focus of conservation effforts. In addition, the most important species for construction purposes (e.g., Eschweilera ovata (Cambess.) Miers, Apuleia leiocarpa (Vogel) J.F. Macbr. and Pogonophora schomburgkiana Miers ex Benth) should also be considered as a priority for conservation.

  7. Monitoring of wildfires in boreal forests using large area AVHRR NDVI composite image data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasischke, E.S.; French, N.H.F. (Environmental Research Inst. of Michigan, Ann Arbor (United States)); Harrell, P.; Christensen, N.L. Jr. (Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States)); Ustin, S.L. (Univ. of California, Davis (United States)); Barry, D. (U.S. Bureau of Land Management, Fairbanks, AK (United States))

    1993-06-01

    Normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) composite image data, produced from AVHRR data collected in 1990, were evaluated for locating and mapping the areal extent of wildfires in the boreal forests of Alaska during that year. A technique was developed to map forest fire boundaries by subtracting a late-summer AVHRR NDVI image from an early summer scene. The locations and boundaries of wildfires within the interior region of Alaska were obtained from the Alaska Fire Service, and compared to the AVHRR-derived fire-boundary map. It was found that AVHRR detected 89.5% of all fires with sizes greater than 2,000ha with no false alarms and that, for most cases, the general shape of the fire boundary detected by AVHRR matched those mapped by field observers. However, the total area contained within the fire boundaries mapped by AVHRR were only 61% of those mapped by the field observers. However, the AVHRR data used in this study did not span the entire time period during which fires occurred, and it is believed the areal estimates could be improved significantly if an expanded AVHRR data set were used.

  8. Grassland Species Collected in an Area of the Amazon Dense Rain Forest Southern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. P. Florentino

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The knowledge related to floristic composition and all strata, including herbaceous, are needed to characterize and understand the dynamics of tropical forests. This study aimed to investigate the floristic composition of herbs in an area of ??tropical rain forest of Mato Grosso, producing a list of herbaceous species are on site. All individuals and herbaceous hemiepiphytes above 5 cm were recorded. Inventoried 7,965 individuals, representing 70 species. The angiosperms were represented by 10 families, with the most representative families in number of species Cyperaceae and Poaceae. Ferns were represented by 13 families, the family Pteridaceae as the richest in species. These results reinforce the need to increase the sampling effort for the herbaceous layer, especially floristic surveys for Southern Amazon as of 70 species inventoried 11espies not have records for the state of Mato Grosso. The Amazon of Mato Grosso suffers severe pressure from deforestation, as part of the region known as the Arc of Deforestation. This fact combined with the results of this work shows the urgency to intensify the sampling effort in this region that presents itself as a void in terms of surveys of plant diversity.Keywords: floristic composition, plant diversity, ferns

  9. Influence of lowland forests on subsurface salt accumulation in shallow groundwater areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tóth, Tibor; Balog, Kitti; Szabó, András; Pásztor, László; Jobbágy, Esteban G; Nosetto, Marcelo D; Gribovszki, Zoltán

    2014-01-01

    In flat sedimentary plains in areas with a sub-humid climate, tree planting on grasslands and arable lands creates strong hydrological shifts. As a result of deep rooting and high water uptake of trees, groundwater levels drop and subsurface salt accumulation increases. Tree planting has expanded globally and in Hungary it reached rates of 15 000 ha year(-1), being focused mainly in the Great Hungarian Plain where forests replace grasslands and crops in a region with widespread shallow groundwater. We performed soil and groundwater observations in 31 pairs of forest and control plots in the region, including gradients of initial water table depth and salinity, soil layering, and tree species and age. Accumulated tree biomass was positively correlated with soil salinization rates following tree planting, being also affected by species (poplar > common oak > black locust) and stand age. Differences among tree species effects appeared to be related to their growth rates. Due to downward deep percolation and salt leaching episodes during the Hungarian winters, the observed salt accumulation rates were lower than those described under similar settings in the warmer Argentine Pampas. PMID:25228311

  10. Evaluation of Vertical Lacunarity Profiles in Forested Areas Using Airborne Laser Scanning Point Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Székely, B.; Kania, A.; Standovár, T.; Heilmeier, H.

    2016-06-01

    The horizontal variation and vertical layering of the vegetation are important properties of the canopy structure determining the habitat; three-dimensional (3D) distribution of objects (shrub layers, understory vegetation, etc.) is related to the environmental factors (e.g., illumination, visibility). It has been shown that gaps in forests, mosaic-like structures are essential to biodiversity; various methods have been introduced to quantify this property. As the distribution of gaps in the vegetation is a multi-scale phenomenon, in order to capture it in its entirety, scale-independent methods are preferred; one of these is the calculation of lacunarity. We used Airborne Laser Scanning point clouds measured over a forest plantation situated in a former floodplain. The flat topographic relief ensured that the tree growth is independent of the topographic effects. The tree pattern in the plantation crops provided various quasi-regular and irregular patterns, as well as various ages of the stands. The point clouds were voxelized and layers of voxels were considered as images for two-dimensional input. These images calculated for a certain vicinity of reference points were taken as images for the computation of lacunarity curves, providing a stack of lacunarity curves for each reference points. These sets of curves have been compared to reveal spatial changes of this property. As the dynamic range of the lacunarity values is very large, the natural logarithms of the values were considered. Logarithms of lacunarity functions show canopy-related variations, we analysed these variations along transects. The spatial variation can be related to forest properties and ecology-specific aspects.

  11. Spatial distribution pattern of Mezilaurus itauba (Meins.) Taub. Ex mez. in a seasonal forest area of the southern Amazon, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Ebert A; Brito Da Costa R; Brondani GE

    2016-01-01

    Spatial analysis of forest tree distribution is a powerful tool to respond to basic ecological questions, and represent a useful support to strategies of genetic conservation and sustainable management practices of forest resources. Spatial analysis techniques combined with the use of Geographical Information Systems have been commonly applied to the study of stochastic processes in order to determine the existence of clusters to be related to microenviromental conditions and/or genetic facto...

  12. Mapping Forest Fire Susceptibility in Temperate Mountain Areas with Expert Knowledge. A Case Study from Iezer Mountains, Romanian Carpathians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihai, Bogdan; Savulescu, Ionut

    2014-05-01

    Forest fires in Romanian Carpathians became a frequent phenomenon during the last decade, although local climate and other environmental features did not create typical conditions. From 2004, forest fires affect in Romania more than 100 hectares/year of different forest types (deciduous and coniferous). Their magnitude and frequency are not known, since a historical forest fire inventory does not exist (only press papers and local witness for some selected events). Forest fires features the summer dry periods but there are dry autumns and early winter periods with events of different magnitudes. The application we propose is based on an empirical modeling of forest fire susceptibility in a typical mountain area from the Southern Carpathians, the Iezer Mountains (2462 m). The study area features almost all the altitudinal vegetation zones of the European temperate mountains, from the beech zone, to the coniferous zone, the subalpine and the alpine zones (Mihai et al., 2007). The analysis combines GIS and remote sensing models (Chuvieco et al., 2012), starting from the ideas that forest fires are featured by the ignition zones and then by the fire propagation zones. The first data layer (ignition zones) is the result of the crossing between the ignition factors: lightning - points of multitemporal occurence and anthropogenic activities (grazing, tourism and traffic) and the ignition zones (forest fuel zonation - forest stands, soil cover and topoclimatic factor zonation). This data is modelled from different sources: the MODIS imagery fire product (Hantson et al., 2012), detailed topographic maps, multitemporal orthophotos at 0.5 m resolution, Landsat multispectral imagery, forestry cadastre maps, detailed soil maps, meteorological data (the WorldClim digital database) as well as the field survey (mapping using GPS and local observation). The second data layer (fire propagation zones) is the result of the crossing between the forest fuel zonation, obtained with the

  13. Sarmatian Monuments in the Forest-Steppe Interfluve Area Between the Don and the Volga Rivers (Zoning Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berestnev Roman Sergeevich

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the zoning of Sarmatian antiquities in the forest-steppe interfluve area between the Don and the Volga rivers. On the basis of the analysis, the authors allocate four areas of burial monuments in the Northern periphery of the Asian Sarmatia (the river in Voronezh, the Middle Don, the Upper Don, the area between the Khoper and the Volga rivers. The stages of the forest-steppe area development by the Sarmatians in the Don River, the Khoper river and the right bank of the Volga river were also studied. The first stage is characterized by the general description of Sarmatian monuments located in the forest-steppe area between the Volga and the Khoper. The authors carry out the detailed review of the distinctive features of the funeral rites and some peculiar details: stratigraphy, structures beneath barrows, forms of burial pits, postures of the deceased, orientation, use of fire, imported and domestic utensils, weapons and ornaments. Archaeological materials are compared with the data of ancient sources (Claudius Ptolemy. The result of the study consists in the comparative analysis of the binding of specific ethnic groups in the allocated areas. The authors attribute the Sarmatians on the Voronezh river with the Gippofagi ancient authors; the Aseyes and the Sakata – with the area of monuments in the forest between the Volga and the Khoper.

  14. Effects of human activities on rivers located in protected areas of the Atlantic Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Luisa Kuhlmann

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available AIM: This study evaluated the impacts of anthropogenic activities upstream of conservation areas on the Paraibuna river and its implications for freshwater biodiversity. METHODS: The study was carried out in two units, Cunha and Santa Virginia, of the Serra do Mar State Park (SP, located in the Atlantic Rain Forest. Five sampling sites were defined, four along the Paraibuna river and one in the Ipiranga river, the latter fully inserted into the protected area. Physical, chemical, microbiological and ecotoxicological data were obtained from surface water as well as aquatic macroinvertebrates. RESULTS: The results showed that the waters of the Paraibuna river have low anthropogenic interference. However, conductivity, turbidity, coliforms, iron, total phosphorus and nitrate showed a gradient improving its water quality from upstream to downstream, indicating the existence of erosion and introduction of organic debris in the basin. The BMWP index, varying from 58 to 190, also showed the good condition of the river to aquatic biota, with predominant Excellent quality diagnosis. The values of this index and the richness index (S outlined a similar gradient but with the lowest values recorded in P3. CONCLUSIONS: The results showed that the upstream activities alter the natural condition of the Paraibuna river and its biota and that the protected areas provides environmental services reducing these impacts. The ideal situation in order to ensure the conservation of the freshwater biota of the Paraibuna river would be the incorporation of parts of the upstream area into the protected area and convert occupied areas into Sustainable Use Area, that guarantee the adoption of sustainable techniques to the existing land uses and the application of aquatic life protection indicators for monitoring the water quality of the river.

  15. Inventário florestal a 100% em pequenas áreas sob manejo florestal madeireiro Forest inventory to 100% in small areas under wood forest management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique José Borges de Araujo

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O inventário é uma etapa básica do manejo florestal em que é avaliado a composição da floresta e a sua potencialidade para o manejo. O inventário a 100% tem o propósito de determinar o estoque de madeira existente para fins de planejamento da exploração. Este trabalho apresenta resultados de inventário florestal a 100% de um projeto de manejo florestal comunitário madeireiro conduzido pela Embrapa Acre em parceria com um grupo de produtores do Projeto de Colonização Pedro Peixoto, no estado Acre. A área total inventariada foi de 206,8 ha, composta por 57 talhões de tamanho médio de 3,6 ha cada um, correspondente a 48% da área total sob manejo de 12 pequenas propriedades. Foram abordadas todas as árvores com DAP ³ a 50,0 cm. Os resultados foram expressos, por espécie, por propriedade e para a área total em: número total de árvores (NT; abundância por hectare (AB; volume total (VT; volume por hectare (V; área basal total (ABsT; área basal por hectare (ABs; índice de importância da espécie (IND; e condição de aproveitamento da tora. Para a área total os resultados foram: NT = 3.518 árvores; AB = 17,01 árvores.ha-1; VT = 21.667,41 m³; V = 104,77 m³.ha-1; ABsT = 1.413,77 m²; e ABs = 6,84 m².ha-1. Foram reconhecidas em campo 204 espécies, pertencentes a 136 gêneros e a 43 famílias. Foi observado acentuada concentração dos dados dendrométricos em poucas espécies, pois somente cinco espécies respondem por um terço (33,6% do IND total.The inventory is a basic stage of the forest management in that is evaluated the composition of the forest and its potentiality for the management. The inventory to 100% has the purpose of determining the stock existent of wood logs for ends of planning of the exploration. This paper presents results of forest inventory to 100% of a wood forest management communitary project lead by Embrapa Acre in partnership with a group of small farmers of the Pedro Peixoto Colonization

  16. Extracting Canopy Surface Texture from Airborne Laser Scanning Data for the Supervised and Unsupervised Prediction of Area-Based Forest Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikko T. Niemi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Area-based analyses of airborne laser scanning (ALS data are an established approach to obtain wall-to-wall predictions of forest characteristics for vast areas. The analyses of sparse data in particular are based on the height value distributions, which do not produce optimal information on the horizontal forest structure. We evaluated the complementary potential of features quantifying the textural variation of ALS-based canopy height models (CHMs for both supervised (linear regression and unsupervised (k-Means clustering analyses. Based on a comprehensive literature review, we identified a total of four texture analysis methods that produced rotation-invariant features of different order and scale. The CHMs and the textural features were derived from practical sparse-density, leaf-off ALS data originally acquired for ground elevation modeling. The features were extracted from a circular window of 254 m2 and related with boreal forest characteristics observed from altogether 155 field sample plots. Features based on gray-level histograms, distribution of forest patches, and gray-level co-occurrence matrices were related with plot volume, basal area, and mean diameter with coefficients of determination (R2 of up to 0.63–0.70, whereas features that measured the uniformity of local binary patterns of the CHMs performed poorer. Overall, the textural features compared favorably with benchmark features based on the point data, indicating that the textural features contain additional information useful for the prediction of forest characteristics. Due to the developed processing routines for raster data, the CHM features may potentially be extracted with a lower computational burden, which promotes their use for applications such as pre-stratification or guiding the field plot sampling based solely on ALS data.

  17. Modelling Determinants of Tree Planting and Retention on Farm for Improvement of Forest Cover in Central Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Vincent Onguso Oeba; Otor, Samuel C. J.; James B. Kung’u; Muchiri, M. N.

    2012-01-01

    Farm forestry has proved to be an important enterprise for small- and large-scale farmers worldwide. It has the potential of improving forest/tree cover across the globe. In Kenya, the forest cover is less than 2%. The country envisions achieving 10% forest cover over the next decade through promotion of farm forestry. However, the decision to plant trees on farmers’ land could be difficult. The study aimed to analyze the determinants of tree retention on farm for improvement of forest cover....

  18. A Study on Forest Species Diversity and Its Ecological Service Function in the Plateau Area of Western Sichuan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DengYu-Lin; WangYu-kuan; PengPei-hao

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a study on species diversity and its ecological service function in the plateau area in western Sichuan. The results show that species diversity in the plantations on the cutover land has a tendency to increase and that its ecological service function is to be improved with stand age growing. The species diversity in forest communities is also gradually increased on different succession stage till reaching a climax level. But the species diversity in the climax community is slightly decreased before it reaches a relatively constant status. Ecological service function of diversity is gradually strengthened with the progress of succession. In addition, species diversity in a stand in a similar site and at a same age differs among forest types. Species diversity index within a coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest is larger than that within a coniferous forest. Meanwhile, species diversity enriches as the tree density increases.

  19. General and biochemical properties of forest soils on serpentinized areas of Galicia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use agricultural and forest soils is normal in the territory of the Autonomous Community of Galicia for submitting the physical, chemical and agroclimatic optimum. The region has areas by the characteristics of the environment has been impossible to use agricultural and forestry. Serpentinite soils developed on frequently drew attention to the high degree of infertility, caused by nutrient deficiency and excess toxic metal content. The results of general physical and chemical properties have been analyzed of the total metal content and biochemical parameters of 28 soils on serpentinite in A Coruna Galicia, Spain. The infertility of soil organic matter, nutrients and low microbial activity and biochemistry have been caused by high level of pH and nutritional imbalance due to the high content of Mg2+. OM (organic matter) content, total N, soluble P and exchangeable K+, were lower due to the underdevelopment of vegetation and the potential toxic effects that have metal on the biological activity in the middle. (author)

  20. Natural Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection in ticks from a forest area of Selenge province, Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Javkhlan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Anaplasma phagocytophilum is a zoonotic agent of public health importance, infecting both humans and animals. An investigation of the presence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum as well as Anaplasma platys was conducted in a forest area of Selenge province, Mongolia, where ticks are widely distributed and tick-borne diseases are highly endemic. Ticks were collected and tested using polymerase chain reaction based on groEL methodology. Anaplasma phagocytophilum was detected in 14 (6% of Ixodes persulcatus ticks and four (1% Dermacentor nuttalli ticks; infection of Anaplasma platys was detected in 1% of Ixodes persulcatus ticks and 10% of Dermacentor nuttalli ticks. The phylogenetic tree showed that the Anaplasma phagocytophilum clustered with the Russian group, most likely due to similar geographical locations. This finding is significant for both veterinary and public health officials given that these agents can cause both animal and human illness.

  1. Improving Change Detection in Forest Areas Based on Stereo Panchromatic Imagery Using Kernel MNF

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tian, Jiaojiao; Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg; Reinartz, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to develop an efficient method for forest change detection using multitemporal stereo panchromatic imagery. Due to the lack of spectral information, it is difficult to extract reliable features for forest change monitoring. Moreover, the forest changes often occur togeth...

  2. Meteorological effects on the 3D sound propagation inside an inhomogeneous forest area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrid Ziemann

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The influence of trees on sound propagation is currently discussed to reduce the sound exposure near transport infrastructure or industrial areas. This influence is direct due to reflection and scattering at the trees themselves as well as indirect through meteorological and ground effects modified by the trees. Previous investigations provide a mixed picture of sound attenuation within forested areas, in particular for the temporally and spatially variable meteorological influence. Thus, a three-dimensional model chain of atmospheric and acoustic models was adapted and applied to special meteorological and vegetation-specific conditions. A meteorological mesoscale model was applied to simulate temperature and wind fields within an inhomogeneous forest site. The meteorological quantities are used as diurnally variable input data for the acoustic FDTD (finite-difference time-domain-model to simulate the sound propagation. Thereby, the effects of vegetation elements, impedance ground surface, and sound refraction are considered. The simulations are related to outdoor measurements, which were performed in early autumn 2011 near Dresden (Germany. The sound propagation of artificial signals was measured along sound paths of up to 190 m length through a clearing as well as through an old spruce stand. Results of the comparison between measurement and model simulations are presented and possible applications of these results with regard to noise protection aspects are discussed. The model results confirm the measured diurnal cycle of sound levels at the receiver positions. Simulations with and without trees suggest an excess attenuation of the trees by about 4 dB per 100 m already for low frequencies.

  3. Natural Regeneration of Beech Forests in the Strict Protected Area of the Plitvice Lakes National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav Dubravac

    2013-12-01

    quality presentation of the obtained results. For a long-term scientifically based plan, with the aim of reaching the most favourable decisions on the future of forest stands in protected areas, particularly in today’s conditions of climatic changes, continuous improvement and expansion of monitoring methods by means of a network of permanent experimental plots in all protected forest areas is necessary.

  4. KNOWLEDGE OF THE SOIL CHEMICAL COMPOSITION IN AREAS OF ECOLOGICAL SUCCESSION FOREST FIR (Abies guatemalensis REHDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Vicente Martínez-Arévalo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Chemical composition ( pH , elements major and minor , % S.B., CIC , % M.O. and N.T on soils in open areas and forest fir (Abies guatemalensis Rehder in a successional gradient was studied. These results were related to vegetation through correlation analysis and Canonical Correspondence analysis. The aim was to show the relationships present between vegetation and soil chemistry through ecological succession in areas of cold climate. The results indicate that the vegetation is composed of 82 species of which 20 are the lower herbaceous layer, 34 the herbaceous layer of the upper, 21 shrubs and seven trees. The chemical characteristics of the soil through five successional stages have only few significant differences and not show a clear tendency to increase according to the degree of ecosystem development. A low percentage of correlations between vegetation and soil chemical characteristics are presented. The correspondence canonical analysis shows that the features that correlate with sites through vegetation are the K, and % S.B. and CIC. One can conclude that the approach of the study of the chemical composition of soils in areas of ecological sequence is complex, especially in high regions where, besides other factors, the temperature and humidity play an important role on the soil-vegetation dynamic.

  5. The Area of Forest Stand Identification and Required Quantity of Surveys in Tree Stands of Forest Elements

    OpenAIRE

    R. A. Ziganshin

    2015-01-01

    Often the authors of scientific papers, both young and older generations, do not indicate in their articles and books the accuracy and reliability of their investigation. Sometimes they naively believe that in forestry enough once-accepted standard for the required quantity of surveys, forgetting that mathematical statistics, as in all of mathematics, should be guided by the so-called «domain of existence» of this or that regularity of certain numerical ratios. In particular, in forest invent...

  6. Rainfall and throughfall chemistry in the Atlantic Forest: a comparison between urban and natural areas (São Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. Forti

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Two areas in the Atlantic Forest (São Paulo State, Brazil, with contrasting environments in respect of human occupation, were monitored from 1999 to 2001. One area named PEFI (23°38'08''-23°40'18'' S and 46°36'48''-46°38'00'' W at an altitude of 798 m a.s.l., 526.4 ha in area and about 50 km from the sea, lies in a State Park within the largest metropolis of South America - São Paulo. The other area, named CUNHA (between 23°13'18'' and 23°16'10'' S and 45°02'53'' and 45°05'15'' W about 1050 m a.s.l. with an area of 2854 ha and about 15 km from the sea, is also within a State Park in the Atlantic Forest, but is surrounded by rural areas and small villages. For each area, the rainfall and throughfall chemistry were examined and pH and Na+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, NH4+, Cl-, NO3- and SO42- as well as trace metals were determined. Compared with PEFI, CUNHA is characterised by low chemical fluxes and the largest differences are for the ions such as Ca2+, H+, NO3- and SO42- which are mainly anthropogenic in origin. Differences in throughfall chemical fluxes are linked to the nutritional status of the trees.

  7. Leaf Area Index (LAI Estimation in Boreal Mixedwood Forest of Ontario, Canada Using Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR and WorldView-2 Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Treitz

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Leaf Area Index (LAI is an important input variable for forest ecosystem modeling as it is a factor in predicting productivity and biomass, two key aspects of forest health. Current in situ methods of determining LAI are sometimes destructive and generally very time consuming. Other LAI derivation methods, mainly satellite-based in nature, do not provide sufficient spatial resolution or the precision required by forest managers for tactical planning. This paper focuses on estimating LAI from: (i height and density metrics derived from Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR; (ii spectral vegetation indices (SVIs, in particular the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI; and (iii a combination of these methods. For the Hearst Forest of Northern Ontario, in situ measurements of LAI were derived from digital hemispherical photographs (DHPs while remote sensing variables were derived from low density LiDAR (i.e., 1 m−2 and high spatial resolution WorldView-2 data (2 m. Multiple Linear Regression (MLR models were generated using these variables. Results from these analyses demonstrate: (i moderate explanatory power (i.e., R2 = 0.53 for LiDAR height and density metrics that have proven to be related to canopy structure; (ii no relationship when using SVIs; and (iii no significant improvement of LiDAR models when combining them with SVI variables. The results suggest that LiDAR models in boreal forest environments provide satisfactory estimations of LAI, even with narrow ranges of LAI for model calibration. Models derived from low point density LiDAR in a mixedwood boreal environment seem to offer a reliable method of estimating LAI at high spatial resolution for decision makers in the forestry community. This method can be easily incorporated into simultaneous modeling efforts for forest inventory variables using LiDAR.

  8. Effects of community succession dynamics on forest biodiversity in eastern mountainous area of Heilongjiang Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Plant, insect and forest structures of 25 forest communities were investigated in Mao'ershan Experimental Forest Farm and Liangshui Experimental Forest Farm during 1994-1995. The paper used continuum index (Ci) as a parameter, to quantitatively describe forest community succession stage. Relationships between the biodiversity and continuum index of forest community were studied. The annual species and family diversities in forest plant community showed nonlinear correlation with continuum index, and the largest diversities were during the middle stage of succession. The diversities of total insect community and herbivorous insect group were negatively related with Ci, that of spide group and parasitic insect group was positively related. The pattern diversity and coverage weight diversity index foliage height increased with continuum index.

  9. Regime-dependent determinants of Euro area sovereign CDS spreads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blommestein, H.J.; Eijffinger, Sylvester; Qian, Zongxin

    2016-01-01

    We study the determinants of sovereign CDS spreads of five Euro area countries (Greece, Ireland, Italy, Portugal, and Spain) after the collapse of Lehman Brothers. We find that global and/or European Monetary Union (EMU)-wide factors are the main drivers of changes in the sovereign CDS spreads in ou

  10. Sand fly vectors (Diptera, Psychodidae) of American visceral leishmaniasis areas in the Atlantic Forest, State of Espírito Santo, southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Israel de Souza; Ferreira, Adelson Luiz; Valim, Valéria; Carvalho, Felipe dos Santos; da Silva, Giovana Marques; Falcão, Alda Lima; Dietze, Reynaldo; Falqueto, Aloísio

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the sand fly fauna of American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL) endemic areas within the Central Atlantic Forest Biodiversity Corridor, State of Espírito Santo, southeastern Brazil. The sand fly captures were performed between January, 1989 and December, 2003 in localities where autochthonous cases of AVL were recorded, as well as in their boundary areas. Sand flies were collected from surrounding houses and domestic animal shelters using two to five CDC automatic light traps, and manual captures were also performed using mouth aspirators in one illuminated Shannon trap during the first four hours of the night. We used cladistic analysis to determine the geographic relationships among the collected sand fly species as well as the index species for the occurrence of other sand flies. A total of 62,469 sand flies belonging to 17 species and eight genera was collected in 164 localities from nine municipalities with AVL records. The richness (S=17) and diversity (H=0.971) of sand flies were lower than in conservation areas and similar to modified environments in the Atlantic Forest of Espírito Santo. Lutzomyia longipalpis was identified in 79 localities. The cladistic analysis identified Evandromyia lenti as the index species for Lutzomyia longipalpis. The latter seems to be the main vector of AVL in the Central Atlantic Forest Biodiversity Corridor due to its high abundance and distribution matching the disease occurrence. Therefore, Evandromyia lenti may be used as an index species for the occurrence of Lutzomyia longipalpis.

  11. Areas of Agreement and Disagreement Regarding Ponderosa Pine and Mixed Conifer Forest Fire Regimes: A Dialogue with Stevens et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odion, Dennis C; Hanson, Chad T; Baker, William L; DellaSala, Dominick A; Williams, Mark A

    2016-01-01

    In a recent PLOS ONE paper, we conducted an evidence-based analysis of current versus historical fire regimes and concluded that traditionally defined reference conditions of low-severity fire regimes for ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) and mixed-conifer forests were incomplete, missing considerable variability in forest structure and fire regimes. Stevens et al. (this issue) agree that high-severity fire was a component of these forests, but disagree that one of the several sources of evidence, stand age from a large number of forest inventory and analysis (FIA) plots across the western USA, support our findings that severe fire played more than a minor role ecologically in these forests. Here we highlight areas of agreement and disagreement about past fire, and analyze the methods Stevens et al. used to assess the FIA stand-age data. We found a major problem with a calculation they used to conclude that the FIA data were not useful for evaluating fire regimes. Their calculation, as well as a narrowing of the definition of high-severity fire from the one we used, leads to a large underestimate of conditions consistent with historical high-severity fire. The FIA stand age data do have limitations but they are consistent with other landscape-inference data sources in supporting a broader paradigm about historical variability of fire in ponderosa and mixed-conifer forests than had been traditionally recognized, as described in our previous PLOS paper. PMID:27195808

  12. Applying the Ecosystem Approach to Select Priority Areas for Forest Landscape Restoration in the Yungas, Northwestern Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ianni, Elena; Geneletti, Davide

    2010-11-01

    This paper proposes a method to select forest restoration priority areas consistently with the key principles of the Ecosystem Approach (EA) and the Forest Landscape Restoration (FLR) framework. The methodology is based on the principles shared by the two approaches: acting at ecosystem scale, involving stakeholders, and evaluating alternatives. It proposes the involvement of social actors which have a stake in forest management through multicriteria analysis sessions aimed at identifying the most suitable forest restoration intervention. The method was applied to a study area in the native forests of Northern Argentina (the Yungas). Stakeholders were asked to identify alternative restoration actions, i.e. potential areas implementing FLR. Ten alternative fincas—estates derived from the Spanish land tenure system—differing in relation to ownership, management, land use, land tenure, and size were evaluated. Twenty criteria were selected and classified into four groups: biophysical, social, economic and political. Finca Ledesma was the closest to the economic, social, environmental and political goals, according to the values and views of the actors involved in the decision. This study represented the first attempt to apply EA principles to forest restoration at landscape scale in the Yungas region. The benefits obtained by the application of the method were twofold: on one hand, researchers and local actors were forced to conceive the Yungas as a complex net of rights rather than as a sum of personal interests. On the other hand, the participatory multicriteria approach provided a structured process for collective decision-making in an area where it has never been implemented.

  13. Total belowground carbon flux in subalpine forests is related to leaf area index, soil nitrogen, and tree height

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berryman, Erin Michele; Ryan, Michael G.; Bradford, John B.; Hawbaker, Todd J.; Birdsey, R.

    2016-01-01

    In forests, total belowground carbon (C) flux (TBCF) is a large component of the C budget and represents a critical pathway for delivery of plant C to soil. Reducing uncertainty around regional estimates of forest C cycling may be aided by incorporating knowledge of controls over soil respiration and TBCF. Photosynthesis, and presumably TBCF, declines with advancing tree size and age, and photosynthesis increases yet C partitioning to TBCF decreases in response to high soil fertility. We hypothesized that these causal relationships would result in predictable patterns of TBCF, and partitioning of C to TBCF, with natural variability in leaf area index (LAI), soil nitrogen (N), and tree height in subalpine forests in the Rocky Mountains, USA. Using three consecutive years of soil respiration data collected from 22 0.38-ha locations across three 1-km2 subalpine forested landscapes, we tested three hypotheses: (1) annual soil respiration and TBCF will show a hump-shaped relationship with LAI; (2) variability in TBCF unexplained by LAI will be related to soil nitrogen (N); and (3) partitioning of C to TBCF (relative to woody growth) will decline with increasing soil N and tree height. We found partial support for Hypothesis 1 and full support for Hypotheses 2 and 3. TBCF, but not soil respiration, was explained by LAI and soil N patterns (r2 = 0.49), and the ratio of annual TBCF to TBCF plus aboveground net primary productivity (ANPP) was related to soil N and tree height (r2 = 0.72). Thus, forest C partitioning to TBCF can vary even within the same forest type and region, and approaches that assume a constant fraction of TBCF relative to ANPP may be missing some of this variability. These relationships can aid with estimates of forest soil respiration and TBCF across landscapes, using spatially explicit forest data such as national inventories or remotely sensed data products.

  14. Forests and Forest Cover, Forest areas as captured by orthophotography. Contains some attribution of forest type depending on imagery and ground-truthing if available., Published in 2007, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Howard County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Forests and Forest Cover dataset, published at 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of 2007. It is described...

  15. Forest Age and Plant Species Composition Determine the Soil Fungal Community Composition in a Chinese Subtropical Forest

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Yu Ting; Wubet, Tesfaye; Trogisch, Stefan; Both, Sabine; Scholten, Thomas; Bruelheide, Helge; Buscot, François

    2013-01-01

    Fungal diversity and community composition are mainly related to soil and vegetation factors. However, the relative contribution of the different drivers remains largely unexplored, especially in subtropical forest ecosystems. We studied the fungal diversity and community composition of soils sampled from 12 comparative study plots representing three forest age classes (Young: 10–40 yrs; Medium: 40–80 yrs; Old: ≥80 yrs) in Gutianshan National Nature Reserve in South-eastern China. Soil fungal...

  16. Object-Based Coregistration of Terrestrial Photogrammetric and ALS Point Clouds in Forested Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polewski, P.; Erickson, A.; Yao, W.; Coops, N.; Krzystek, P.; Stilla, U.

    2016-06-01

    Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS) and terrestrial photogrammetry are methods applicable for mapping forested environments. While ground-based techniques provide valuable information about the forest understory, the measured point clouds are normally expressed in a local coordinate system, whose transformation into a georeferenced system requires additional effort. In contrast, ALS point clouds are usually georeferenced, yet the point density near the ground may be poor under dense overstory conditions. In this work, we propose to combine the strengths of the two data sources by co-registering the respective point clouds, thus enriching the georeferenced ALS point cloud with detailed understory information in a fully automatic manner. Due to markedly different sensor characteristics, coregistration methods which expect a high geometric similarity between keypoints are not suitable in this setting. Instead, our method focuses on the object (tree stem) level. We first calculate approximate stem positions in the terrestrial and ALS point clouds and construct, for each stem, a descriptor which quantifies the 2D and vertical distances to other stem centers (at ground height). Then, the similarities between all descriptor pairs from the two point clouds are calculated, and standard graph maximum matching techniques are employed to compute corresponding stem pairs (tiepoints). Finally, the tiepoint subset yielding the optimal rigid transformation between the terrestrial and ALS coordinate systems is determined. We test our method on simulated tree positions and a plot situated in the northern interior of the Coast Range in western Oregon, USA, using ALS data (76 x 121 m2) and a photogrammetric point cloud (33 x 35 m2) derived from terrestrial photographs taken with a handheld camera. Results on both simulated and real data show that the proposed stem descriptors are discriminative enough to derive good correspondences. Specifically, for the real plot data, 24

  17. WIDE-AREA MAPPING OF FOREST WITH NATIONAL AIRBORNE LASER SCANNING AND FIELD INVENTORY DATASETS

    OpenAIRE

    Monnet, J.-M.; C. Ginzler; Clivaz, J.-C.

    2016-01-01

    Airborne laser scanning (ALS) remote sensing data are now available for entire countries such as Switzerland. Methods for the estimation of forest parameters from ALS have been intensively investigated in the past years. However, the implementation of a forest mapping workflow based on available data at a regional level still remains challenging. A case study was implemented in the Canton of Valais (Switzerland). The national ALS dataset and field data of the Swiss National Forest Inventory w...

  18. Macromycetes of beech forests within the eastern part of the Fagus area in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Lisiewska

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the author's view on the habitat if individual forest communities based on the fungi she has collected and gives a comparison of the mycoflora of beech forest in Poland and in south and central Europe. The beech forest were studied by the phytosociological method. Fruit bodies occurring on the soil, in the litter and on rotten wood were studied.

  19. Estimation of leaf area index and foliage clumping in deciduous forests using digital photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chianucci, Francesco; Cutini, Andrea

    2013-04-01

    Rapid, reliable and meaningful estimates of leaf area index (LAI) are essential to the characterization of forest ecosystems. In this contribution the accuracy of both fisheye and non-fisheye digital photography for the estimation of forest leaf area in deciduous stands was evaluated. We compared digital hemispherical photography (DHP), the most widely used technique that measures the gap fraction at multiple zenith angles, with methods that measure the gap fraction at a single zenith angle, namely 57.5 degree photography and cover photography (DCP). Comparison with other different gap fraction methods used to calculate LAI such as canopy transmittance measurements from AccuPAR ceptometer and LAI- 2000 Plant Canopy Analyzer (PCA) were also performed. LAI estimated from all these indirect methods were compared with direct measurements obtained by litter traps (LAILT). We applied these methods in 10 deciduous stands of Quercus cerris, Castanea sativa and Fagus sylvatica, the most common deciduous species in Italy, where LAILT ranged from 3.9 to 7.3. DHP and DCP provided good indirect estimates of LAILT, and outperformed the other indirect methods. The DCP method provided estimates of crown porosity, crown cover, foliage cover and the clumping index at the zenith, but required assumptions about the light extinction coefficient at the zenith (k), to accurately estimate LAI. Cover photography provided good indirect estimates of LAI assuming a spherical leaf angle distribution, even though k appeared to decrease as LAI increased, thus affecting the accuracy of LAI estimates in DCP. In contrast, the accuracy of LAI estimates in DHP appeared insensitive to LAILT values, but the method was sensitive to photographic exposure, gamma-correction and was more time-consuming than DCP. Foliage clumping was estimated from all the photographic methods by analyzing either gap size distribution (DCP) or gap fraction distribution (DHP). Foliage clumping was also calculated from PCA and

  20. Forest Fragmentation and Landscape Transformation in a Reindeer Husbandry Area in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivinen, Sonja; Berg, Anna; Moen, Jon; Östlund, Lars; Olofsson, Johan

    2012-02-01

    Reindeer husbandry and forestry are two main land users in boreal forests in northern Sweden. Modern forestry has numerous negative effects on the ground-growing and arboreal lichens that are crucial winter resources for reindeer husbandry. Using digitized historical maps, we examined changes in the forest landscape structure during the past 100 years, and estimated corresponding changes in suitability of forest landscape mosaics for the reindeer winter grazing. Cover of old coniferous forests, a key habitat type of reindeer herding system, showed a strong decrease during the study period, whereas clear-cutting and young forests increased rapidly in the latter half of the 20th century. The dominance of young forests and fragmentation of old-growth forests (decreased patch sizes and increased isolation) reflect decreased amount of arboreal lichens as well as a lowered ability of the landscape to sustain long-term persistence of lichens. The results further showed that variation in ground lichen cover among sites was mainly related to soil moisture conditions, recent disturbances, such as soil scarification and prescribed burning, and possibly also to forest history. In general, the results suggest that the composition and configuration of the forest landscape mosaic has become less suitable for sustainable reindeer husbandry.

  1. Root weevils of artificial forests in Ukraine steppe area (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Cleonini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volovnik S. V.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Seven species of root weevils (Cleonini: were found in man-made forests in the steppe of Ukraine. They are Asproparthenis punctiventris, Bothynoderes affinis, Bothynoderes declivis, Cleonis pigra, Cyphocleonus dealbatus, Pachycerus segnis, Temnorhinus strabus. All these species were registered in open habitats, namely forest borders, glades, sides of the roads, slopes, and connected with plants from Asteraceae, Chenopodiacea, Boraginaceae. If beet plantations situated near artificial forests then A. punctiventris, B. affinis, B. declivis could damage them in case of mass reproduction. C.dealbatus is a potential pest of the ornamental camoniles. Literary data as to real damage caused to artificial forests by root weevils need to be proved.

  2. TLS monitoring of snowpack distribution in a mountain forested areas: Analysis of canopy disturbance on snow evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revuelto, Jesús; López-Moreno, Juan Ignacio; Azorin-Molina, Cesar; Alonso, Esteban; San Miguel, Alba

    2016-04-01

    Forested mountain areas at high elevations show important interaction with snowpack distribution and its evolution in time, and thus in many cases are the limit of the cryosphere in mountain zones. Such interactions have significant consequences in the hydrologic response of mountain rivers. Thereby observing the evolution of snowpack in forested areas has a big importance form a basic science perspective and also for water management. This work presents a detailed comparison of small scale effect of forest characteristics on snowpack distribution in Central Pyrenees, before and after a strong modification of canopies features. The snowpack distribution has been obtained using a novel remote sensing technology (Terrestrial Laser Scanner, TLS), with high spatial resolution (0.25m) over a 1000m2 study area for 27 survey dates along three snow seasons. Between the second and the third snow season a strong canopy pruning was performed in the study site, and thereby the snowpack evolution with both canopy configurations was compared. A Principal Component Analysis has been applied to analyze the snowpack distributions observed during the study period. Results obtained have shown that despite large differences in Canopy radius (1.2 m) and Canopy height (2.5m), not a different snowpack evolution was observed. For both Canopy configurations the variable with higher importance on snowpack distribution is the snow depth amount. The change in forest structure has important implications in the decrease of Canopy areas and the increase of Open areas (proportionally to Canopy change), but not a different interaction with forest structure was observed. The canopy pruning realized in the study site is typically accomplished for fire risk reduction and this shows the consequences that such action has in snowpack distribution and that hereby these may have in water management possibly delaying peak runoff.

  3. Tree Species Establishment in Urban Forest in Relation to Vegetation Composition, Tree Canopy Gap Area and Soil Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Ilze Jankovska; Guntis Brūmelis; Oļģerts Nikodemus; Raimonds Kasparinskis; Vita Amatniece; Gustavs Straupmanis

    2015-01-01

    The study of density and growth of pine, birch and oak seedlings and saplings in canopy gaps in the urban boreal forest in Riga, Latvia, indicates that natural regeneration can increase diversity in small gaps caused by tree mortality, and can ensure conversion from even-aged pine forest. Abundant regeneration in small gaps showed that light (gap area) was only one of the factors affecting tree regeneration in the gaps. The depth of the O layer and pH were suggested to be important factors fo...

  4. Using low density LiDAR data to map Mediterranean forest characteristics by means of an area-based approach and height threshold analysis

    OpenAIRE

    J. Guerra-Hernández; Tomé, M.; E. González-Ferreiro

    2016-01-01

    This study reports progress in forest inventory methods involving the use of low density airborne LiDAR data and an area-based approach (ABA). It also emphasizes the usefulness of the Spanish countrywide LiDAR dataset for mapping forest stand attributes in Mediterranean stone pine forest characterized by complex orography. Lowdensity airborne LiDAR data (0.5 first returns m–2) was used to develop individual regression models for a set of forest stand variables in different types of forest. Li...

  5. Determinants of International Competiveness Patterns in Neighboring Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Hojjat Mehdi

    2014-01-01

    International competitiveness is a main source of economic advancement which results in higher standards of living. This paper examines the determinants of international competitiveness as it defines international competitiveness and discusses two common conceptions that are required to achieve higher level of economic competitiveness: government policies and culture. It further explains a research methodology which is known as “Innovation Matrix†. Data is collected from two areas: compet...

  6. Forest Age and Plant Species Composition Determine the Soil Fungal Community Composition in a Chinese Subtropical Forest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Ting Wu

    Full Text Available Fungal diversity and community composition are mainly related to soil and vegetation factors. However, the relative contribution of the different drivers remains largely unexplored, especially in subtropical forest ecosystems. We studied the fungal diversity and community composition of soils sampled from 12 comparative study plots representing three forest age classes (Young: 10-40 yrs; Medium: 40-80 yrs; Old: ≥80 yrs in Gutianshan National Nature Reserve in South-eastern China. Soil fungal communities were assessed employing ITS rDNA pyrotag sequencing. Members of Basidiomycota and Ascomycota dominated the fungal community, with 22 putative ectomycorrhizal fungal families, where Russulaceae and Thelephoraceae were the most abundant taxa. Analysis of similarity showed that the fungal community composition significantly differed among the three forest age classes. Forest age class, elevation of the study plots, and soil organic carbon (SOC were the most important factors shaping the fungal community composition. We found a significant correlation between plant and fungal communities at different taxonomic and functional group levels, including a strong relationship between ectomycorrhizal fungal and non-ectomycorrhizal plant communities. Our results suggest that in subtropical forests, plant species community composition is the main driver of the soil fungal diversity and community composition.

  7. Tree Species Establishment in Urban Forest in Relation to Vegetation Composition, Tree Canopy Gap Area and Soil Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilze Jankovska

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The study of density and growth of pine, birch and oak seedlings and saplings in canopy gaps in the urban boreal forest in Riga, Latvia, indicates that natural regeneration can increase diversity in small gaps caused by tree mortality, and can ensure conversion from even-aged pine forest. Abundant regeneration in small gaps showed that light (gap area was only one of the factors affecting tree regeneration in the gaps. The depth of the O layer and pH were suggested to be important factors for the establishment and growth of pine and birch. For oak, the main factors for establishment and growth were favorable moisture, higher pH and N concentration. Knowledge of ecological factors affecting the establishment of seedlings and growth of saplings of the most common trees species in the urban boreal forest is needed to predict successional trajectories and to aid management.

  8. Land Planarian Assemblages in Protected Areas of the Interior Atlantic Forest: Implications for Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negrete, Lisandro; Colpo, Karine D.; Brusa, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    Land planarians are an interesting group of free-living flatworms that can be useful as bioindicators because of their high sensitivity to environmental changes and low dispersal capacity. In this study, we describe and compare assemblages of land planarians from areas with different conservation degrees of the Interior Atlantic Forest (Misiones, Argentina), and assess factors that could be related to their abundance and richness. Eight sites were tracked in search of land planarians in Reserva de Vida Silvestre Urugua-í (RVSU) and Campo Anexo Manuel Belgrano (CAMB). Diurnal and nocturnal surveys were performed in each site along nine sampling campaigns. We collected 237 individuals belonging to 18 species of the subfamily Geoplaninae. All sites were dominated by Geoplana sp. 1 and Pasipha hauseri. The richness estimators showed that there would be more species in RVSU than in CAMB. The abundance and richness of land planarians was high during the night and after rainfalls, suggesting an increased activity of flatworms under such conditions. The abundance and richness of land planarians were also related to the conservation condition of the sites. Disturbed sites showed less abundance and richness, and were segregated from non-disturbed ones by nmMDS analysis. Beta diversity between sites was higher than expected, indicating that the species turnover between sites contributed more to the total richness (gamma diversity) than the alpha diversity. PMID:24598934

  9. Dynamics of leaf area index and canopy openness of three forest types in a warm temperate zone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weiguo SANG; Sha CHEN; Guangqi LI

    2008-01-01

    Deciduous broad-leaved forests (DBF), Larix principis-rupprechtii (LF) and Pinus tabulaeformis planta-tions (PF) are three typical forest communities in the warm temperate zone of the Dongling Mountains. In this study, we used an indirect method, hemispheric pho-tography, to measure and analyze the dynamics of leaf area index (LAI) and canopy openness of the three forest communities. The results show that the LAI values of DBF and LF increased gradually with plant growth and development. The highest LAI value appeared in August, while canopy openness changed inversely with LAI. The lowest value appeared in November. DBF maintained a higher LAI in August and had a more open canopy in November compared with LF. For PF, we observed little changes in the LAI and canopy openness which was attributed to the leaf retention of this evergreen species. However, a similar relation between LAI and canopy openness was found for the three forest communities: canopy openness varied inversely with LAI. The relation is exponential and significant. Therefore, canopy open-ness is a good indicator of LAI in forests. This result can be used to test the validity of the LAI based on remote sensing and to provide a reference for the study of the canopy heterogeneity and its effect. This also benefits modeling for fluxes of carbon, water and energy from the level of the stand to landscape.

  10. Analysis of floristic composition and structure as an aid to monitoring protected areas of dense rain forest in southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Cardoso-Leite

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available To study forest composition and structure, as well as to facilitate management plans and monitoring programs, we conducted a phytosociological survey in the PE Caverna do Diabo State Park and the Quilombos do Médio Ribeira Environmentally Protected Area, both located within the state of São Paulo, Brazil. We analyzed 20 plots of 400 m² each, including only individuals with a circumference at breast height > 15 cm. We employed cluster analysis and ordination (principal component analysis and correspondence analysis, including species data and abiotic data. We evaluated 1051 individuals, belonging to 155 species in 48 families. Of those 155, 18 were threatened species, 33 were endemic species, and 92 (59.4% were secondary species. The overall Shannon index was 4.524, one of the highest recorded for a dense rainforest in southeastern Brazil. We found that our sample plots fell into three blocks. The first was forest in which there had been human disturbance, showing low species richness, minimal density, and a small relative quantity of biomass. The second was undisturbed mature forest, showing a comparatively larger quantity of biomass. The third was mature forest in which there had been natural intermediate disturbance (dead trees, showing higher species richness and greater density. We identified various groups of species that could be used in monitoring these distinct forest conditions.

  11. AREA-BASED SNOW DAMAGE CLASSIFICATION OF FOREST CANOPIES USING BI- TEMPORAL LIDAR DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Vastaranta

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Multitemporal LiDAR data provide means for mapping structural changes in forest canopies. We demonstrate the use of area-based estimation method for snow damage assessment. Change features of bi-temporal LiDAR point height distributions were used as predictors in combination with in situ training data. In the winter 2009–2010, snow damages occurred in Hyytiälä (62°N, 24°E, southern Finland. Snow load resulted in broken, bent and fallen trees changing the canopy structure. The damages were documented at the tree level at permanent field plots and dense LiDAR data from 2007 and 2010 were used in the analyses. A 5 × 5-m grid was established in one pine%ndash;spruce stand and change metrics from the LiDAR point height distribution were extracted for the cells. Cells were classified as damaged (n = 43 or undamaged (n = 42 based on the field data. Stepwise logistic regression detected the damaged cells with an overall accuracy of 78.6% (Kappa = 0.57. The best predictors were differences in h-distribution percentage points 5, 35, 40, 50 and 70 of first-or-single return data. The tentative results from the single stand suggest that dense bi-temporal LiDAR data and an area-based approach could be feasible in mapping canopy changes. The accuracy of the point h-distribution is dependent on the pulse density per grid cell. Depending on the time span between LiDAR acquisitions, the natural changes of the h- distributions due to tree growth need to be accounted for as well as differences in the scanning geometry, which can substantially affect the LiDAR h-metrics.

  12. Recognition of large scale deep-seated landslides in forest areas of Taiwan using high resolution topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ching-Weei; Tseng, Chih-Ming; Tseng, Yi-Hsing; Fei, Li-Yuan; Hsieh, Yu-Chung; Tarolli, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    Large deep-seated landslides can be reactivated during intense events, and they can evolve into destructive failures. They are generally difficult to recognize in the field, especially when they develop in densely forested areas. A detailed and constantly updated inventory map of such phenomena, and the recognition of their topographic signatures is absolutely a key tool for landslide risk mitigation. The aim of this work is to test in forested areas, the performance of the new automatic and objective methodology developed by Tarolli et al. (2012) for geomorphic features extraction (landslide crowns) from high resolution topography (LiDAR derived Digital Terrain Models - DTMs). The methodology is based on the detection of landslides through the use of thresholds obtained by the statistical analysis of variability of landform curvature. The study was conducted in a high-risk area located in the central-south Taiwan, where an accurate field survey on landsliding processes and a high-quality set of airborne laser scanner elevation data are available. The area has been chosen because some of the deep-seated landslides are located near human infrastructures and their reactivation is highly dangerous. Thanks to LiDAR's capability to detect the bare ground elevation data in forested areas, it was possible to recognize in detail landslide features also in remote regions difficult to access. The results, if compared with the previous work of Tarolli et al. (2012), mainly focused on shallow landslides, and in a not forested area, indicate that for deep-seated landslides, where the crowns are more evident, and they are present at large scale, the tested methodology performs better (higher quality index). The method can be used to interactively assist the interpreter/user on the task of deep-seated landslide hazard mapping, and risk assessment planning of such regions.

  13. Synchronous estimation of DTM and fractional vegetation cover in forested area from airborne LIDAR height and intensity data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    We proposed a method to separate ground points and vegetation points from discrete return,small footprint airborne laser scanner data,called skewness change algorithm.The method,which makes use of intensity of laser scanner data,is especially applicable in steep,and forested areas.It does not take slope of forested area into account,while other algorithms consider the change of slope in steep forested area.The ground points and vegetation points can be used to estimate digital terrain model(DTM) and fractional vegetation cover,respectively.A few vegetation points which were classified into the ground points were removed as noise before the generation of DTM.This method was tested in a test area of 10000 square meters.A LiteMapper -5600 laser system was used and a flight was carried out over a ground of 700―800 m.In this tested area,a total number of 1546 field measurement ground points were measured with a total station TOPCON GTS-602 and TOPCON GTS -7002 for validation of DTM and the mean error value is -18.5 cm and the RMSE(root mean square error) is ±20.9 cm.A data trap sizes of 4m in diameter from airborne laser scanner data was selected to compute vegetation fraction cover.Validation of fractional vegetation cover was carried out using 15 hemispherical photographs,which are georeferenced to centimeter accuracy by differential GPS.The gap fraction was computed over a range of zenith angles 10° using the gap light analyzer(GLA) from each hemispherical photograph.The R2 for the regression of fractional vegetation cover from these ALS data and the respective field measurements is 0.7554.So this study presents a method for synchronous estimation of DTM and fractional vegetation cover in forested area from airborne LIDAR height and intensity data.

  14. Epiphytic bryophytes growing on Laurus azorica (Seub.) Franco in three laurel forest areas in Tenerife (Canary Islands)

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Mancebo, Juana M.; Romaguera, Francisco; Losada-Lima, Ana; Suárez, Andrés

    2004-05-01

    We examined bryophyte species growing on Laurus azorica, in three localities of the laurel forest in Tenerife (Canary Islands), in order to determine differences in species composition, richness and cover, that depend on variations in mist frequency and density. Among the 35 bryophyte species found (26 liverworts and nine mosses), 16 occurred in all three locations while nine species occurred in only one location. Detrended correspondence analysis and canonical correspondence analysis revealed that the epiphyte-phorophyte relationship varied in terms of cover, richness and bryophyte composition, depending on the humidity conditions (related to mist frequency and plot height) and tree age. In spite of differences in the dominant species found at each locality, the community types have many species in common and may be seen as a natural unit of the communities involved. Variation in the dominant species at each locality is mainly related to a trade off between humidity conditions and tree diameter, and the speed of the successional processes. Plot aspect was the only variable among those considered with no significant influence, which might be related to the closed canopy conditions. Variation in cover, richness and bryophyte composition related to plot height and tree diameter increased in the drier location. Cover was positively related to species richness in all analyses. This is related to low diversity during initial colonization and the fact that the highest biomass species, related to later successional stages, also occur on younger trees, especially in the more humid areas.

  15. Quantifying differences in biodiversity between a tropical forest area and a grassland area subject to traditional burning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nangendo, G.; Stein, A.; Gelens, M.; Gier, de A.; Albricht, R.

    2002-01-01

    Mosaics of natural forest and grassland tracts in sub-Saharan Africa provide differences in woody species biodiversity. These mosaics are of considerable interest as they are a major biodiversity bank. Their richness is felt to be threatened, for example by local burning. This study focuses on the i

  16. Input and turnover of forest tree litter in the Forsmark and Oskarshamn areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The site investigations reported here were conducted to provide data for the comprehensive descriptive ecosystem model that is being constructed. This report provides estimates of annual inputs of aboveground litter from trees (dry mass and amounts of C and N), litter decomposition rates and changes in organic and inorganic components in litter during decomposition. The study in the Forsmark area comprised two Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst) stands (sites F1 and F3), and a mixed stand of Norway spruce and alder (Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertn.) (site F2). The study in the Oskarshamn area comprised one common oak stand (Quercus robur L.) (site O1), one Scots pine stand (Pinus silvestris L.) (site O2) and one Norway spruce stand (site O3). In the Forsmark area, the aboveground litterfall from trees was of similar magnitude at sites F1 and F2, but considerably lower at site F3. At the former sites the average annual litterfall amounted to 195 and 231 gdw/m2 respectively, whereas the latter site received only 136 gdw/m2. There was also a large variation in annual litterfall between stands in the Oskarshamn area. The spruce stand at site O3 exhibited the highest litterfall (almost 400 gdw/m2), followed by the oak stand at site O1 (with almost 300 gdw/m2), whereas the pine stand at site O2 had the lowest (less than 150 gdw/m2). The proportion of needles/leaves in the total litterfall varied between 65% and 75% for the stands. The amount of carbon (C) returned in aboveground litterfall amounted to between 60 and 110 gdw/m2/yr at the forest sites within the Forsmark area. The corresponding range for the sites in the Oskarshamn area was 70 to 190 gdw/m2/yr. At sites O1 and O2 in Oskarshamn, about 3.6 gdw/m2/yr of nitrogen (N) were returned annually to the forest floor by the aboveground litterfall. This was over four times the N amount deposited in the Scots pine stand in the same area (about 0.8 gdw/m2/yr). At the Forsmark sites, the N return in litterfall varied

  17. Input and turnover of forest tree litter in the Forsmark and Oskarshamn areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mjoefors, Kristina; Johansson, Maj-Britt; Nilsson, Aake [Dept. of Forest Soi ls, Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences (Sweden); Hyvoenen, Riitta [Dept. of Eco logy, Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences (Sweden)

    2007-04-15

    The site investigations reported here were conducted to provide data for the comprehensive descriptive ecosystem model that is being constructed. This report provides estimates of annual inputs of aboveground litter from trees (dry mass and amounts of C and N), litter decomposition rates and changes in organic and inorganic components in litter during decomposition. The study in the Forsmark area comprised two Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst) stands (sites F1 and F3), and a mixed stand of Norway spruce and alder (Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertn.) (site F2). The study in the Oskarshamn area comprised one common oak stand (Quercus robur L.) (site O1), one Scots pine stand (Pinus silvestris L.) (site O2) and one Norway spruce stand (site O3). In the Forsmark area, the aboveground litterfall from trees was of similar magnitude at sites F1 and F2, but considerably lower at site F3. At the former sites the average annual litterfall amounted to 195 and 231 gdw/m{sup 2} respectively, whereas the latter site received only 136 gdw/m{sup 2}. There was also a large variation in annual litterfall between stands in the Oskarshamn area. The spruce stand at site O3 exhibited the highest litterfall (almost 400 gdw/m{sup 2}), followed by the oak stand at site O1 (with almost 300 gdw/m{sup 2}), whereas the pine stand at site O2 had the lowest (less than 150 gdw/m{sup 2}). The proportion of needles/leaves in the total litterfall varied between 65% and 75% for the stands. The amount of carbon (C) returned in aboveground litterfall amounted to between 60 and 110 gdw/m{sup 2}/yr at the forest sites within the Forsmark area. The corresponding range for the sites in the Oskarshamn area was 70 to 190 gdw/m{sup 2}/yr. At sites O1 and O2 in Oskarshamn, about 3.6 gdw/m{sup 2}/yr of nitrogen (N) were returned annually to the forest floor by the aboveground litterfall. This was over four times the N amount deposited in the Scots pine stand in the same area (about 0.8 gdw/m{sup 2}/yr). At the

  18. Artemisia: Active and Interactive Monitoring of the Forests in Protected Areas Aimed at the Sustainable Management of Nature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clelia Cirillo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available To pursue the usage of forests resources in the processes of economic and social development it is determining that the principles of natural heritage protection join in a concept of progress, based on evolution and technological innovation; the realization of innovative investigation and representation tools turns out to be useful to ease the integration of forests’ resources in shared development processes aimed at enhancing the cooperation of local actors, and to ease the territory’s sustainable growth and the development of the natural heritage. The integrated management of the actions aimed at protecting and easing the ecologic and recreative functioning of forests, which are increasingly exposed to pressures caused by several catastrophic factors, requires the tuning of modelling and active monitoring systems of the forests based on social networks and volunteering for the processes of data updating.

  19. CLASSIFICATION OF FOREST ROADS AND DETERMINATION OF ROUTE USING GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrício Silva

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Geographic Information System (GIS is an indispensable software tool in forest planning. In forestry transportation, GIS can manage the data on the road network and solve some problems in transportation, such as route planning. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the pattern of the road network and define transport routes using GIS technology. The present research was conducted in a forestry company in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The criteria used to classify the pattern of forest roads were horizontal and vertical geometry, and pavement type. In order to determine transport routes, a data Analysis Model Network was created in ArcGIS using an Extension Network Analyst, allowing finding a route shorter in distance and faster. The results showed a predominance of horizontal geometry classes average (3 and bad (4, indicating presence of winding roads. In the case of vertical geometry criterion, the class of highly mountainous relief (4 possessed the greatest extent of roads. Regarding the type of pavement, the occurrence of secondary coating was higher (75%, followed by primary coating (20% and asphalt pavement (5%. The best route was the one that allowed the transport vehicle travel in a higher specific speed as a function of road pattern found in the study.

  20. Determining management strategies for the Sarikum Nature Protection Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öztürk, Sevgi

    2015-03-01

    In recent years, many environmental problems have become important factors in promoting the economic need to develop tourist activity: climate change such as energy wars, increasing hunger and aridity, population increases in urban areas, excessive and unthinking use of natural resources, difficult international relations, economic competition, and increasing environmental stress. Trends in global tourism have changed with changes in culture and our attitude to nature. Changes in both the profile and consumption patterns of tourists have called for the need to balance the use of natural and cultural assets with the need to adequately protect them. In this study, the Sarikum Nature Protection Area (SNPA) was selected as a case study because of its significance as a Turkish wetland area and the variety of different ecosystems coexisting within it. The study focussed on management strategies, but also provides a broader strategy for an area that currently has no management plan. Strengths and weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT) analyses of the area were gathered and analyzed using R'WOT analysis (ranking + SWOT), a multi-criteria assessment method, in order to determine strategies, obtain the participation of interest groups, and assess their opinions and attitudes. The analysis showed the following: the rich biological diversity and the existence of endemic species were the reserve's most significant strength; the presence of natural areas in surrounding regions was the most significant opportunity; the shortage of infrastructure and lack of legal regulation of ecotourism was the most significant weakness; and the lack of a management plan was the most immediate threat.

  1. Determining management strategies for the Sarikum Nature Protection Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öztürk, Sevgi

    2015-03-01

    In recent years, many environmental problems have become important factors in promoting the economic need to develop tourist activity: climate change such as energy wars, increasing hunger and aridity, population increases in urban areas, excessive and unthinking use of natural resources, difficult international relations, economic competition, and increasing environmental stress. Trends in global tourism have changed with changes in culture and our attitude to nature. Changes in both the profile and consumption patterns of tourists have called for the need to balance the use of natural and cultural assets with the need to adequately protect them. In this study, the Sarikum Nature Protection Area (SNPA) was selected as a case study because of its significance as a Turkish wetland area and the variety of different ecosystems coexisting within it. The study focussed on management strategies, but also provides a broader strategy for an area that currently has no management plan. Strengths and weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT) analyses of the area were gathered and analyzed using R'WOT analysis (ranking + SWOT), a multi-criteria assessment method, in order to determine strategies, obtain the participation of interest groups, and assess their opinions and attitudes. The analysis showed the following: the rich biological diversity and the existence of endemic species were the reserve's most significant strength; the presence of natural areas in surrounding regions was the most significant opportunity; the shortage of infrastructure and lack of legal regulation of ecotourism was the most significant weakness; and the lack of a management plan was the most immediate threat. PMID:25678353

  2. Determining Suitable Areas for More Efficient Hazelnut Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saralioglu, E.; Yildirim, D.; Gungor, O.

    2016-06-01

    Turkey is the largest hazelnut producer and exporter in the world with approximately 75% worldwide production and 70-75% of world exports, yet according to FAO; annual yield gain rate is significantly lower than Italy and USA. While Turkey produces 0.94 ton/hectare hazelnut, average yield rates for USA, Italy and Spain are 2.6 ton/hectare, 1.68 ton/hectare and 1 ton/hectare, respectively. Hazelnut production in Turkey is primarily concentrated along Black Sea coast centered Giresun and Trabzon provinces. The purpose of this study is to propose a methodology to further improve the efficiency in hazelnut production by determining the most significant geographical criteria and using them for spatial queries and analysis in ArcGIS environment to detect most fertile hazelnut plantation areas. For the study, the Surmene district of Trabzon is selected for pilot region. A thematic map of hazelnut plantation areas created from the classification of WorldView-2 image of the district was used as the base map. Furthermore, a database is created with layers and cost maps using multicriteria decision methods. Detected most suitable areas for hazelnut production area are compared with the present situation. Proposed methodology and the database can be used by officials for better management of hazelnut production in Turkey, therefore in the world.

  3. Hyperparasitoid wasps (Hymenoptera: Trigonalidae) reared from dry forest and rain forest caterpillars of Area de Conservacion, Guanacaste, Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Five species of Trigonalidae, hyperparasites of Ichneumonidae (Hymenoptera) and Tachinidae (Diptera) that parasitize caterpillars (Lepidoptera), have been reared during the ongoing caterpillar inventory of Area de Conservación Guanacaste (ACG), Guanacaste Province, northwestern Costa Rica: Lycogaste...

  4. 松江河林区森林资源变化分析及可持续经营对策探讨%Analysis of Forest Resources Changes and Sustainable Management Countermeasures in Songjianghe Forest Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王得印; 施晓文

    2014-01-01

    对松江河林业局辖区森林资源二期调查数据进行了对比,从林地面积、森林覆盖率、林木蓄积、龄组结构及林分消长动态等方面深入分析了各调查因子的变化原因,总结林区森林资源变化特点,并从实现森林可持续经营的角度提出了松江河林区森林经营建议。%Two phases of investigations gained the detailed forest resources data of Songjianghe forest bu-reau.The data were used for analyzing the changes of forest land area,the forest coverage rate,standing crop,the age group structure and the dynamic changes of forest.The changes of forest resources character-istics were summarized.Some advices about forest management of Songjianghe forest area were proposed from the perspective of sustainable forest management.

  5. History of natural resource use and environmental impacts in an interfluvial upland forest area in western Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders Siren

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Much of the research done on environmental impacts by Amazonian indigenous peoples in the past focus on certain areas where archaeological remains are particularly abundant, such as the Amazon River estuary, the seasonally inundated floodplain of the lower Amazon, and various sites in the forest-savannah mosaic of the southern Amazon The environmental history of interfluvial upland areas has received less attention. This study reconstructed the history of human use of natural resources in an upland area of 1400 km2 surrounding the indigenous Kichwa community of Sarayaku in the Ecuadorian Amazon, based on oral history elicited from local elders as well as historical source documents and some modern scientific studies. Although data is scarce, one can conclude that the impacts of humans on the environment have varied in time and space in quite intricate ways. Hunting has affected, and continues affecting, basically the whole study area, but it is now more concentrated in space than what it has probably ever been before. Also forest clearing has become more concentrated in space but, in addition, it has gone from affecting only hilltops forests to affecting alluvial plains as well as hilltops and, lately, also the slopes of the hills.

  6. Using lidar data to analyse sinkhole characteristics relevant for understory vegetation under forest cover-case study of a high karst area in the dinaric mountains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Kobal

    Full Text Available In this article, we investigate the potential for detection and characterization of sinkholes under dense forest cover by using airborne laser scanning data. Laser pulse returns from the ground provide important data for the estimation of digital elevation model (DEM, which can be used for further processing. The main objectives of this study were to map and determine the geomorphometric characteristics of a large number of sinkholes and to investigate the correlations between geomorphology and vegetation in areas with such characteristics. The selected study area has very low anthropogenic influences and is particularly suitable for studying undisturbed karst sinkholes. The information extracted from this study regarding the shapes and depths of sinkholes show significant directionality for both orientation of sinkholes and their distribution over the area. Furthermore, significant differences in vegetation diversity and composition occur inside and outside the sinkholes, which indicates their presence has important ecological impacts.

  7. Climatic gradients and human development pressure determine spatial patterns of forest fragmentation in the Great Lakes basin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, W. S.; Hart, S.

    2015-12-01

    Over half of temperate forest area globally has been fragmented or deforested by human activities. Our objective was to gain insight into the combination of climatic, ecological, and social factors that control complex spatial patterns of forest cover and fragmentation at the regional scale. Our study area was the US portion of the land area of the Laurentian Great Lakes basin (USGL basin) of the Upper Midwest, USA, covering ca. 300,000 km2 and home to 25 million people. While this region was historically forested, today there are regional gradients in forest cover as well as complex spatial patterns of agriculture, human settlements, and tree cover. This includes large expanses of fragmented forests in the wildland-urban interface or the forest transition zone. We used structural equation modeling to test models of social and climatic-ecological factors to explain spatial patterns of forest cover and fragmentation. This is a model-driven approach to statistical analysis that is used to test proposed causal "structures" of direct and indirect relationships among variables. It is an innovative approach that makes use of large spatial datasets to test understanding. We assembled numerous spatial data layers at 1 km2 resolution across the USGL basin. We found that 64% to 75% of variance in tree cover and forest connectivity was explained through a relatively simple model combining climatic gradients and human development pressure. Human development pressure was best represented as a measurement model that explained 45% of variance in road density and 87% of housing unit density, while significantly explaining patterns of forest fragmentation. Climate could be represented by a single variable, temperature: where temperature was higher, tree cover and forest connectivity was lower due to human land use. Temperatures did not help to explain patterns of human development as roads and housing, but did affect forest fragmentation through land use as cropland. This suggests

  8. Comparing modelled and remotely sensed leaf area dynamics in an Aleppo pine semiarid forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquato, Marta; Medici, Chiara; Friend, Andrew D.; Francés, Félix

    2013-04-01

    Much of the Earth's terrestrial surface is subject to arid climatic water stress. In these regions, plant ecosystems are controlled by water availability, inducing a tight interconnection between the hydrological cycle and the vegetation dynamics. For this reason, and to fully reproduce water-controlled ecosystems' behaviour, it is essential to jointly model vegetation and the hydrological cycle. In this work, the performance of a parsimonious dynamic vegetation model, suitable for the inclusion in a conceptual ecohydrological model, is tested in a semi-arid Aleppo Pine forest area in the south-east of Spain. The model simulates gross primary production (GPP) as a function of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (APAR) and the light use efficiency (LUE). Net primary production (NPP) is then calculated taking into account maintenance respiration. The modelling is focused particularly on simulating foliar biomass, which is obtained from NPP through an allocation equation based on the maximum LAI sustainable by the system, and considering turnover. An analysis of the information offered by MODIS EVI, NDVI, and LAI products was performed in order to investigate vegetation dynamics in the study site and to select the best indices to be used to evaluate the ecohydrological model's performance. EVI is reported in literature (Huete et al., 2002) to be sensitive to canopy structure, particularly to leaf area index (LAI). In accordance with the phenological cycle timing described for the Aleppo pine in similar climates (Muñoz et al., 2003), the EVI showed maximum values in spring and minimum values in winter. Similar results were found applying the aforementioned vegetation model to the study area. Contrasting simulated LAI with the EVI series, a correlation coefficient r = 0.57 was found. Concerning NDVI, its own definition links this index to the "greenness" of the target, so that it appears highly linked to chlorophyll content and vegetation condition, but only

  9. EVALUATION OF VERTICAL LACUNARITY PROFILES IN FORESTED AREAS USING AIRBORNE LASER SCANNING POINT CLOUDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Székely

    2016-06-01

    Logarithms of lacunarity functions show canopy-related variations, we analysed these variations along transects. The spatial variation can be related to forest properties and ecology-specific aspects.

  10. Comparative Analysis of Plant Diversity of Pinus tabulaeformis Forests in Ten Regions of Beijing Mountainous Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Liping; Xing Shaohua; Zhao Bo; Wang Qingchun; Cui Guofa

    2006-01-01

    Based on investigations during 1998-2003,shrubs and herbs,as well as indicators of similarity and diversity in Pinus tabulaeformis forests of ten regions around Beijing were compared and analyzed,and protection measures were suggested.Generally,the shrubs and herbs in P.tabulaeformis forests of Shidu,Mutianyu,and Yunfengshan are rich in species diversity and have great similarities.The percentages of common species in each of these three paired regions are above 50%,while many peculiar plant species that could not be found in the other nine regions exist in Labagoumen.As for plant diversity indices,plants in the P.tabulaeformis forests of Baihuashan,Shidu,and Labagoumen occur more frequently than in other regions,while the number of plants in Tanjiesi and Miaofengshan are far less.Some endangered orchid species were found distributed in P.tabulaeformis forests with a clumped spatial pattern but rarely appeared in other forest types,indicating that P.tabulaeformis forests are ideal habitats for orchid species.

  11. Exploring Simple Algorithms for Estimating Gross Primary Production in Forested Areas from Satellite Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramakrishna R. Nemani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Algorithms that use remotely-sensed vegetation indices to estimate gross primary production (GPP, a key component of the global carbon cycle, have gained a lot of popularity in the past decade. Yet despite the amount of research on the topic, the most appropriate approach is still under debate. As an attempt to address this question, we compared the performance of different vegetation indices from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS in capturing the seasonal and the annual variability of GPP estimates from an optimal network of 21 FLUXNET forest towers sites. The tested indices include the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI, Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI, Leaf Area Index (LAI, and Fraction of Photosynthetically Active Radiation absorbed by plant canopies (FPAR. Our results indicated that single vegetation indices captured 50–80% of the variability of tower-estimated GPP, but no one index performed universally well in all situations. In particular, EVI outperformed the other MODIS products in tracking seasonal variations in tower-estimated GPP, but annual mean MODIS LAI was the best estimator of the spatial distribution of annual flux-tower GPP (GPP = 615 × LAI − 376, where GPP is in g C/m2/year. This simple algorithm rehabilitated earlier approaches linking ground measurements of LAI to flux-tower estimates of GPP and produced annual GPP estimates comparable to the MODIS 17 GPP product. As such, remote sensing-based estimates of GPP continue to offer a useful alternative to estimates from biophysical models, and the choice of the most appropriate approach depends on whether the estimates are required at annual or sub-annual temporal resolution.

  12. Domestic dogs in rural area of fragmented Atlantic Forest: potential threats to wild animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edilberto Martinez

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Domestic dogs' skills such as hunting and herding shifted as man migrated from rural areas to developing urban centers and led to a change in human-dog relationship and in the purpose of these animals in the properties. The countryside of Viçosa is characterized by small coffee farms surrounded by borders with fragments from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. The close proximity of these environments favors the encounter between domestic and wild animals which may lead to dog attacks to wild animals and, consequently, disease transmission. The aim of this study was to understand the role of dogs in the rural environment and assess the possible risks they offer to native fauna. The data were obtained from structured questionnaires answered by dogs' owners from rural Viçosa. Results regarding the socioeconomic status of the owners revealed that the majority belonged to either the middle class or low educational level categories. In addition, it was observed that there is a preference for male dogs due to its guard activity and that most dogs live unconstrained. Even though most dogs are provided with good food management, 58% of them prey on wildlife. However, more than half of the dogs do not consume their prey which can be explained by the inherited ability of artificial selection but 36.5% of them have scavenger diet. Most of the dogs were immunized against rabies, whereas, only 28.8% were immunized against infectious diseases such as leptospirosis, distemper and parvovirus. In conclusion, the management of dogs by rural owners, mainly unrestrained living, and allied to inadequate vaccination coverage suggest that dogs are predators of Viçosa's rural wildlife and potential disseminators of disease.

  13. The effect of land use history on natural forest rehabilitation at corridor area of Gunung Halimun Salak National Park, West Java Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Dian Rosleine; Eizi Suzuki; Atih Sundawiati; Wardi Septiana; Desy Ekawati

    2014-01-01

    Corridor area of Gunung Halimun Salak National Park was degraded and fragmented by human activities. However, little is known about recovery process in tropical degraded forest under different land use history. To clarify vegetation structure and forest recovery related to land use history we placed 22 plots (11 of 10 × 10 m2 in abandoned plantation and 11 of 20 × 20 m2 in secondary forest, respectively). DCA (Detrended correspondence analysis) discriminated the plots into three community gro...

  14. Setting Priorities for Urban Forest Planning. A Comprehensive Response to Ecological and Social Needs for the Metropolitan Area of Rome (Italy)

    OpenAIRE

    Giulia Capotorti; Barbara Mollo; Laura Zavattero; Ilaria Anzellotti; Laura Celesti-Grapow

    2015-01-01

    Urban forests represent key elements of green infrastructure and provide essential ecosystem services in both the ecological and social spheres. Therefore, forestation planning plays a decisive role in the sustainable development strategies of metropolitan areas and addresses the challenge of maintaining biodiversity while improving human health and well-being. The aim of this work is to present a methodological approach that can be used to identify priorities in urban forest planning and can...

  15. Comparison of structural diversity of tree-crop associations in Peripheral and Buffer zones of Gachabari Sal forest area, Bangladesh

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M.M. Rahman; H. Vacik; F. Begum; A. Nishad; K.K. Islam

    2007-01-01

    The structural diversity of different tree-crop associations were studied at Gachabari Sal forest area of Madhupur Garh on Buffer and Peripheral Zone during 2006. The total density, basal area of trees in the Buffer and Peripheral Zone were 155.5 tree·hm-2,795.4 trees·bm-2 and 3.9 m2·hm-2, 5.8 m2·hm-2, respectively. No regeneration and natural trees were found in Peripheral Zone and the Zone is totally occupied by exotic species where the Buffer Zone comprised of both natural and exotic trees. The Peripheral Zone belonged to younger and smaller trees whereas the Buffer Zone belonged to mixture of smaller, taller, younger and mature trees simultaneously. For the practicing of different agroforestry systems both Zones have lost their original characters of Sal forest.

  16. Determination of hand and palm area as a ratio of body surface area in Indian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agarwal Pawan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Accurate estimation of body surface area (BSA burn is important. In small and patchy burns, the patient′s hand is used to estimate percentage of burn which is traditionally considered as 1%. There is discrepancy about what percentage of TBSA is constituted by the palm and hand. Therefore, this study was designed to determine correctly the TBSA represented by the palmar surface of the entire hand and palm in the Indian population. Material and Methods: 300 healthy adult (male and female and 300 healthy children (male and female were included in the study. TBSA was calculated using DuBois formula and hand and palm surface area was calculated using hand tracing on plain paper. The hand/palm percentage of BSA (ratio was determined by dividing hand/palm surface area by total BSA. Results: The mean hand and palm ratio for adults was 0.92% and 0.50%, respectively. The mean hand and palm ratio in children was 1.06% and 0.632%, respectively. Conclusion: The hand area (palm plus digits is more closely represented to 1% of TBSA in Indian population.

  17. Population dynamics of Euryoryzomys russatus and Oligoryzomys nigripes (Rodentia, Cricetidae) in an Atlantic forest area, Santa Catarina Island, Southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Maurício Eduardo Graipel; Luiz Gustavo Rodrigues Oliveira-Santos; Marilena Altenfelder Arruda Campos; Pâmela Castro Antunes

    2009-01-01

    The population dynamics and reproductive issues of two species of rodents of the family Cricetidae, Rice Rats (Euryoryzomys russatus) and Pygmy Rice Rats (Oligoryzomys nigripes), were studied for 24 months in an Atlantic Forest area in southern Brazil. Euryoryzomys russatus presented density-dependent population fluctuation, and recruitment was positively associated with temperature. Oligoryzomys nigripes displayed the lowest abundance, greatest population fluctuation and shortest permanence ...

  18. Surface resistance calibration for a hydrological model using evapotranspiration retrieved from remote sensing data in Nahe catchment forest area

    OpenAIRE

    Bie, W.; Casper, M. C.; Reiter, P.; Vohland, M.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a method combining graphical and statistical techniques is proposed for surface resistance calibration in a distributed hydrological model, WaSiM-ETH, by comparing daily evapotranspiration simulated by model WaSiM-ETH with corresponding daily evapotranspiration retrieved from remote sensing images. The study area locates in Nahe catchment (Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany, 4065 km2) forest regions. The remote sensing based observations are available for a very limited number of da...

  19. Ethnomedicinal studies on plants used by Yanadi tribe of Chandragiri reserve forest area, Chittoor District, Andhra Pradesh, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataru Savithramma

    2016-03-01

    Conclusion: There is no record of traditional medicinal knowledge of these villages so far, hence the present study is aimed to document the information on medicinal plants used by Yanadi tribe in Chandragiri reserve forest area. Correlation of ethnomedicinal uses with Dr. Duke's Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical database clearly indicates the high medicinal significance of claimed data of this Yanadi tribe. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2016; 5(1.000: 49-56

  20. Impact of payments for environmental services and protected areas on local livelihoods and forest conservation in northern Cambodia

    OpenAIRE

    Clements, Tom; E J Milner-Gulland

    2014-01-01

    The potential impacts of payments for environmental services (PES) and protected areas (PAs) on environmental outcomes and local livelihoods in developing countries are contentious and have been widely debated. The available evidence is sparse, with few rigorous evaluations of the environmental and social impacts of PAs and particularly of PES. We measured the impacts on forests and human well-being of three different PES programs instituted within two PAs in northern Cambodia, using a panel ...

  1. Sandflies (Diptera, Psychodidae) from forest areas in Botucatu municipality, central western São Paulo State, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Cutolo, André Antonio; Galati, Eunice Aparecida Bianchi; Von Zuben, Claudio José

    2013-01-01

    Background The study of the distribution and ecology of sandfly species is essential for epidemiological surveillance and estimation of the transmission risk of Leishmania spp. infection. Findings In the present study, sandflies were captured in native fragmented forest areas in Rubião Júnior district, Botucatu municipality, São Paulo state, Brazil, between September 2001 and January 2005. A minimum of two automatic light traps were installed per night from 6 pm to 8 am, in different months, ...

  2. Experimentally Determined Interfacial Area Between Immiscible Fluids in Porous Media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crandall, Dustin; Niessner, J; Hassanizadeh, S.M; Smith, Duane

    2008-01-01

    When multiple fluids flow through a porous medium, the interaction between the fluid interfaces can be of great importance. While this is widely recognized in practical applications, numerical models often disregard interactios between discrete fluid phases due to the computational complexity. And rightly so, for this level of detail is well beyond most extended Darcy Law relationships. A new model of two-phase flow including the interfacial area has been proposed by Hassarizadeh and Gray based upon thermodynamic principles. A version of this general equation set has been implemented by Nessner and Hassarizadeh. Many of the interfacial parameters required by this equation set have never been determined from experiments. The work presented here is a description of how the interfacial area, capillary pressure, interfacial velocity and interfacial permeability from two-phase flow experiments in porous media experiments can be used to determine the required parameters. This work, while on-going, has shown the possibility of digitizing images within translucent porous media and identifying the location and behavior of interfaces under dynamic conditions. Using the described methods experimentally derived interfacial functions to be used in larger scale simulations are currently being developed. In summary, the following conclusions can be drawn: (1) by mapping a pore-throat geometry onto an image of immiscible fluid flow, the saturation of fluids and the individual interfaces between the fluids can be identified; (2) the resulting saturation profiles of the low velocity drainage flows used in this study are well described by an invasion percolation fractal scaling; (3) the interfacial area between fluids has been observed to increase in a linear fashion during the initial invasion of the non-wetting fluid; and (4) the average capillary pressure within the entire cell and representative elemental volumes were observed to plateau after a small portion of the volume was

  3. Conversion parameters determination for stand biomass estimation of four subtropical forest types based on national forest inventory system%亚热带4种森林生物量估算转换参数的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯燕南; 吴惠俐; 项文化; 邓湘雯

    2016-01-01

    Synthesis of stand biomass data of 4 typical forests (Cunninghamia lanceonata forest,Pinus massoniana forest, deciduous broadleaved forest and evergreen broadleaved forest) from National Forest Inventory in subtropical area, we determine conversion parameters for stand biomass estimation based on stand volumes and analyzed how stand characteristics affect the parameters. The results showed that: (1) The mean values of wood basic density (Wd) of dominant trees ofCunninghamia lanceonata forest,Pinus massoniana forest, deciduous broadleaved forest and evergreen broadleaved forest were 0.313 3, 0.412 5, 0.502 1 and 0.527 4, respectively. The Wd was affected by tree provenance, species, site conditions, stand age (A), stand density(D) and other factors. (2) The mean values of biomass expansion factor (Bef) ofCunninghamia lanceonata forest,Pinus massoniana forest, deciduous broadleaved forest and evergreen broadleaved forest were 1.308 9, 1.265 4, 1.423 3 and 1.308 9, respectively, and the mean values of root: shoot ratio (R) were 0.169 4, 0.177 2, 0.239 1 and 0.263 5, respectively. (3) TheBef and R values of these four forests were increased with the increases ofA, average diameter at breast height (Dbh) and average tree height (H), and reduced with the increases ofD, excepted the R values of thePinus massoniana forest had no obvious change with A. Due to obvious differences between these four forests, so we should select conversion parameters according to specific forest when estimating forest biomass.%对我国亚热带森林资源调查中典型的4种森林类型(杉木林、马尾松林、落叶阔叶林和常绿阔叶林)的林分生物量数据进行整合分析,计算4种森林类型从林分蓄积量估算林分生物量的主要转换参数平均值,并分析影响转换参数的林分因子。结果表明:(1)杉木林、马尾松林、落叶阔叶林和常绿阔叶林4种森林类型中优势树种的木材基本密度平均值分别为0.3133

  4. Determination and Distribution of Critical Loads: Application to the Forest Soils in the Autonomous Region of Madrid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The critical loads of acidity and sulphur have been determined for forest soils within the north and northwest of the Autonomous Region of Madrid. The SMB-CCE and SMB-PROFILE steady state models have been applied using a 1 km x 1 km resolution. The forest ecosystems have been characterised according to the soil and forest type, slope and climatic data using a Geographic Information System. In order to estimate the critical loads, processes such as weathering rate of the parent material, atmospheric deposition. critical alkalinity leaching rate and nutrients absorbed by the vegetation have been considered. In general the forest soils present high critical load values for acidity and sulphur. The more sensitive zones are found in the north of the Sierra of Guadarrama. Independent of the applied methods, the results are associated to the types of soils where Leptosols have the lowest, Cambisoles and Regosoles intermediate and Luvisoles the most elevated values. (Author) 40 refs

  5. Consequences of suppressing natural vegetation in drainage areas for freshwater ecosystem conservation: considerations on the new "Brazilian forest code"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Henrique Ongaro Pinheiro

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The input of particulate and dissolved organic matter (POM and DOM, respectively from terrestrial ecosystem drainage basins is an important energy and nutrient source in limnic food chains. Studies indicated that semi-deciduous seasonal forests located in drainage areas in Brazil have the potential to produce 7.5 - 10.3 Mg ha−1/year of POM. The global increase in vegetation destruction, such as forests, threatens this allochthonous resource and can have significant impacts on river and lake communities and food chains. Therefore, it is critical that exploitation and occupation protocols are updated to protect the transition areas between terrestrial and limnic ecosystems. This review highlights the existing knowledge of these ecosystem interactions and proposes responsible sustainable methods for converting the vegetation in drainage basins. This was based on Brazilian ecosystem data and the new "Brazilian Forest Code." This study also considers the importance of including flood tracks in permanently protected areas to improve Brazilian legislation and protect hydric resources.

  6. Land use change from forest to olive grove soils in a toposequence in Mediterranean areas (South of Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Maria Luisa; Parras-Alcántara, Luis; Lozano-García, Beatriz

    2014-05-01

    Olive grove (OG) is the most important crop in Andalusia (South of Spain), the main production area in the world. Throughout its development over the years, land use change (LUC) has been one of the most common phenomena, causing soil erosion and the loss of soil quality. This effect is aggravated by the climatic conditions and poor soil management practices. This study examined the effect of LUC from natural forest to OG in a toposequence (summit, backslope, toeslope) of a calcisols-regosols-vertisols sequence in Torredecampo (South of Spain). The studied parameters were soil organic carbon (SOC) and nitrogen content; C and N stock; and stratification ratio (SR). Total SOC (T-SOC) was low for both forest and OG soils, with a pattern of decrease from the highest (summit) to the lowest topographical position (toeslope) in forest soils, but not for OG soils, where the highest T-SOC was found in the lowest topographical position. T-SOC was more than 40% higher in forest soils than in OG soils in the summit and backslope, but not in the toeslope. This can be explained by the difference in tree and vegetative coverage from both soil uses. Natural vegetation prevents that erosion diminishes soil quality and carbon content, as well as excessive erosion from higher to lower topographical positions. SOC stock in forest soils remained evenly distributed in the three topographical positions. However, the trend for the studied olive OG soils was to have the highest SOC stock in the toeslope and the lowest in the summit. Erosion and subsequent sediment deposition in the toeslope could also be the reason behind this difference between forest and OG soils. TN followed a pattern of decrease with depth in the OG soils, but not in the forest soils. This could be because of increased erosion and fertiliser leaching caused by the lack of vegetative cover. As for TN stock, it was higher in forest soils than in OG soils, with an exception (toeslope). In this case, the exception can also

  7. Estimation of Vegetation Aerodynamic Roughness of Natural Regions Using Frontal Area Density Determined from Satellite Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasinski, Michael F.; Crago, Richard

    1994-01-01

    Parameterizations of the frontal area index and canopy area index of natural or randomly distributed plants are developed, and applied to the estimation of local aerodynamic roughness using satellite imagery. The formulas are expressed in terms of the subpixel fractional vegetation cover and one non-dimensional geometric parameter that characterizes the plant's shape. Geometrically similar plants and Poisson distributed plant centers are assumed. An appropriate averaging technique to extend satellite pixel-scale estimates to larger scales is provided. ne parameterization is applied to the estimation of aerodynamic roughness using satellite imagery for a 2.3 sq km coniferous portion of the Landes Forest near Lubbon, France, during the 1986 HAPEX-Mobilhy Experiment. The canopy area index is estimated first for each pixel in the scene based on previous estimates of fractional cover obtained using Landsat Thematic Mapper imagery. Next, the results are incorporated into Raupach's (1992, 1994) analytical formulas for momentum roughness and zero-plane displacement height. The estimates compare reasonably well to reference values determined from measurements taken during the experiment and to published literature values. The approach offers the potential for estimating regionally variable, vegetation aerodynamic roughness lengths over natural regions using satellite imagery when there exists only limited knowledge of the vegetated surface.

  8. Biogeochemical Influences on the Determination of Water Chemistry in a Temperate Forest Basin: Factors Determining the pH value

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohte, Nobuhito; Tokuchi, Naoko; Suzuki, Masakazu

    1995-01-01

    In order to clarify the mechanism of pH determination in a temperate forest watershed in Japan, intensive hydrochemical observations that included in situ measurement of dissolved pCO2 were carried out in 1991 and 1992. From the variations of observed pCO2 and pH and estimated alkalinity associated with the hydrological process, the factors determining pH were described. There were two hydrological processes which have different determining hydrochemical processes: (1) rainfall and throughfall to infiltration in the soil layer to stable groundwater and (2) stable groundwater to spring water to stream water. In the first process, pH is influenced by infiltration from the low pCO2 layer to the high CO2 layer and by an increase of alkalinity, which is mainly caused by an exchange reaction and chemical weathering. In the shallow soil layer the protons for alkalinity generation are supplied by acid deposits from rainfall and throughfall, microbial acid production, and CO2 dissolution reaction. In the deeper layer an increase of alkalinity caused by Na+ generation becomes remarkable as depth increases. This process is strongly controlled by chemical weathering. In the second process, pH increases with CO2 degassing around the spring point. The alkalinity is kept at the same level as that of the stable groundwater. These results suggests that the biochemically supplied CO2 in soil not only directly controls the pH determination, but also has influences on the alkalinity generation as another determining factor of pH.

  9. Improving winter leaf area index estimation in coniferous forests and its significance in estimating the land surface albedo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rong; Chen, Jing M.; Pavlic, Goran; Arain, Altaf

    2016-09-01

    Winter leaf area index (LAI) of evergreen coniferous forests exerts strong control on the interception of snow, snowmelt and energy balance. Simulation of winter LAI and associated winter processes in land surface models is challenging. Retrieving winter LAI from remote sensing data is difficult due to cloud contamination, poor illumination, lower solar elevation and higher radiation reflection by snow background. Underestimated winter LAI in evergreen coniferous forests is one of the major issues limiting the application of current remote sensing LAI products. It has not been fully addressed in past studies in the literature. In this study, we used needle lifespan to correct winter LAI in a remote sensing product developed by the University of Toronto. For the validation purpose, the corrected winter LAI was then used to calculate land surface albedo at five FLUXNET coniferous forests in Canada. The RMSE and bias values for estimated albedo were 0.05 and 0.011, respectively, for all sites. The albedo map over coniferous forests across Canada produced with corrected winter LAI showed much better agreement with the GLASS (Global LAnd Surface Satellites) albedo product than the one produced with uncorrected winter LAI. The results revealed that the corrected winter LAI yielded much greater accuracy in simulating land surface albedo, making the new LAI product an improvement over the original one. Our study will help to increase the usability of remote sensing LAI products in land surface energy budget modeling.

  10. Activity patterns and diet of the howler monkey Alouatta belzebul in areas of logged and unlogged forest in Eastern Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinto, A. C. B.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available This work compared the activity patterns and diet of a group of Alouatta belzebul in areas of logged and unlogged forest in eastern Amazonia. An instantaneous scan sampling procedure was used for the behavioral study (9.3 ± 1.9 complete observation days/month from February to November 2000. Fruit availability was estimated monthly. Activity budgets were not significantly different between sites. Rest was the predominant activity in both sites (53.6 % and 48.7 %, respectively. Average daily path length was 683.5 ± 215.1 m (n = 93, and the home range was 17.8 ha, including 7 ha in unlogged forest and 10.8 ha in the logged forest. Neither fruit availability nor diet varied significantly between sites. The diet was predominantly folivorous (43.4 % and 46.6 % in unlogged and logged forest, respectively and frugivorous (43.9 % and 42.8 %. The spatial use by the group was positively related to fruit sources. This study documented the ability of a ranging group of A. belzebul to survive in a habitat influenced by reduced impact logging without dramatically influencing its activity patterns and diet

  11. A Conceptual Framework for Characterizing Forest Areas with High Societal Values: Experiences from the Pacific Northwest of USA and Central Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simončič, Tina; Spies, Thomas A.; Deal, Robert L.; Bončina, Andrej

    2015-07-01

    In recent decades, much work has been invested to describe forest allocations with high societal values. Yet, few comparative analyses have been conducted on their importance and differences across the regions of the globe. This paper introduces a conceptual framework to characterize forest priority areas defined as areas with identified higher importance of societal values in the context of multi-objective forest management. The six dimensions of the framework (designation objective, prioritization of objectives, governance, permanency, spatial scale, and management regime) characterize the general approach (integrative vs. segregative) to multi-objective forest management and explain the form and role of priority areas for providing forest services. The framework was applied in two case study regions—Pacific Northwest of USA (PNW) and Central Europe (CE). Differences between the regions exist in all dimensions. Late-successional and riparian reserves are specific to the PNW, while protection against natural hazards is specific to CE. In PNW, priority areas are mainly focused on public lands whereas in CE they include public and private lands. Priority areas in PNW are designated in a much larger spatial context and have longer time commitments. In CE, integration of management objectives on priority areas prevails, whereas in PNW priority areas tend to be designated for single objectives. In CE, greater tolerance of timber management within priority areas compared to PNW is allowed. Convergent trends in application of priority areas between the regions indicate mixing of segregation and integration approaches to forest management.

  12. The results of monitoring of forest phytocoenoses in the area affected by the hydroelectric power structures Gabcikovo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The evaluation of trends of the vegetation development is based on the monitoring of forest phytocoenoses at 12 monitoring areas during the years 1990-1994. Conditions of forest ecosystems differentiate according to local factors and the location of the area of interest. These are the following types of monitoring areas: 1) relatively stable areas, e.g. Erced, Stary les, Kralovska luka, Rusovske ostrovy 2B, Bodicka brana, Ostrovne lucky 3C; 2) areas subjected to more or less remarkable changes with the characteristic of: a) anthropogenic influence, e.g. Horna vrbina, Klucovec, b) negative long-term destruction of vegetation cover, e.g. Kopac, Rusovske ostrovy 2A, Topolove hony, c) negative influence of Hydro-power Water Structures (HWS), e.g. Dobrohost, Istragov, Ostrovne lucky 3A. The absence of floods appears to be a limiting factor, therefore they had to be simulated in 1995. Legislative protection of all monitoring areas against anthropogenic intervention (chopping and selection of trees) is needed to distinguish these influences from the effect of HWS. (author). 5 tabs., 1 map, 12 refs

  13. Line - organised convection putting fire to forest area of Halkidiki, Northern Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlachou, M.; Brikas, D.; Pytharoulis, I.

    2010-09-01

    The organisation of convection in a line often coincides with the end of heat waves in the Southern Balkans. This was indeed the case on the 21st of August 2006, when the tail of an eastward moving cold front put an end to the preceding heat wave and, at the same time, triggered thunderstorms and windstorms in Southern Bulgaria and Northern Greece. The associated electric activity initiated a fire in Kassandra, Halkidiki, Greece. Due to the prolonged drought and the strong winds, the fire spread quickly. It lasted for three days, costing two human lives, burning an extended forest area, as well as destroying hotels and resort facilities. Availabla data are: i) European Centre for Medium - range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) analyses, ii) RADAR reflectivity data from the Weather Modification Dept. of the Hellenic Agricultural Insurance Organisation and iii) surface and upper air data from the airport ‘Makedonia’ of Thessaloniki, Greece. The heat wave, that affected Greece during the 5 - day period prior to the line convection, was associated with the establishment of a hot, but very stable at low levels, boundary layer, probably modified part of the Saharan air layer, advected to the area of interest. Destabilisation occurred due to surface heating, as well as upper level cold air advection. From the synoptic point of view, upward motion prevails under the inflection point of the subtropical and polar jet streams, indicating once more how important are, for upper level divergence, the curvature changes along the flow. In the meso-α scale, the line convection formed along and just ahead of a shallow, frontogenetically active cold frontal zone. Hence, the line under study may be called a squall line. It is suggested that such zones play a key role in triggering severe weather in the same area, as well as cyclogenesis in the Mediterranean area. Previous studies have shown numerous severe weather events to occur along such zones. In the meso-β scale, the line under

  14. Planning a red squirrel conservation area: using a spatially explicit population dynamics model to predict the impact of felling and forest design plans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lurz, P.W.W.; Geddes, N.; Lloyd, A.J.; Shirley, M.D.E.; Rushton, B.; Burlton, B.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the use of a spatially explicit population model (SEPM) to investigate the effects of different forest management strategies on a red squirrel conservation area. The study was based in woodland managed by Forest Enterprise, which manages 75 000 ha of woodlands in Northumberland,

  15. Indirect estimations and spatial variation in leaf area index of coniferous, deciduous and mixed forest stands in Forsmark and Laxemar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two sites in Sweden are investigated for a potential deep repository of the nuclear waste, the Laxemar investigation area (57 deg 5 min N, 16 deg 7 min E) and the Forsmark investigation area (60 deg 4 min N, 18 deg 2 min E). In the characterisation of these sites, development of site descriptive models is an important part. Leaves are the main surface were an exchange of matter and energy between the atmosphere and the biosphere takes place, and leaf area index (LAI) of the vegetation cover is an important variable correlated to a number of ecophysiological parameters and hereby an important parameter in ecosystem models. In the investigation areas, LAI of boreal and temperate ecosystems were therefore estimated indirectly through optical measurements using the LAI-2000 (LI-COR, Cambridge UK) and TRAC (Tracing Radiation and Architecture of Canopies). On average, measured maximum LAI was 3.40 in Laxemar and 3.43 in Forsmark; minimum LAI was 1.65 in Laxemar and 1.97 in Forsmark. Forest inventory data showed that LAI is positively correlated with basal area, stand height, stand volume and breast height tree diameter. For the coniferous stands, there was also a linearly negative relationship with age. In the Laxemar investigation area, there were no significant relationships for LAI with a satellite derived kNN (kNearest Neighbor) data set with stand height, stand volume and stand age. The kNN data set can therefore not be used to extrapolate measured LAI over the Laxemar investigation area. There were significant relationships between LAI and the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) for coniferous, deciduous and mixed forest stands in the Laxemar investigation area. A NDVI image could be used to extrapolate LAI over the entire investigation area. For the Forsmark investigation area, effective LAI for all stands were correlated to NDVI and this relationship could then be used for extrapolation. The effective LAI image was afterwards corrected for average

  16. Indirect estimations and spatial variation in leaf area index of coniferous, deciduous and mixed forest stands in Forsmark and Laxemar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tagesson, Torbern [Dept. of Physical Geography and Ecosystem Analysis, Lund Univ., Lund (Sweden)

    2006-12-15

    Two sites in Sweden are investigated for a potential deep repository of the nuclear waste, the Laxemar investigation area (57 deg 5 min N, 16 deg 7 min E) and the Forsmark investigation area (60 deg 4 min N, 18 deg 2 min E). In the characterisation of these sites, development of site descriptive models is an important part. Leaves are the main surface were an exchange of matter and energy between the atmosphere and the biosphere takes place, and leaf area index (LAI) of the vegetation cover is an important variable correlated to a number of ecophysiological parameters and hereby an important parameter in ecosystem models. In the investigation areas, LAI of boreal and temperate ecosystems were therefore estimated indirectly through optical measurements using the LAI-2000 (LI-COR, Cambridge UK) and TRAC (Tracing Radiation and Architecture of Canopies). On average, measured maximum LAI was 3.40 in Laxemar and 3.43 in Forsmark; minimum LAI was 1.65 in Laxemar and 1.97 in Forsmark. Forest inventory data showed that LAI is positively correlated with basal area, stand height, stand volume and breast height tree diameter. For the coniferous stands, there was also a linearly negative relationship with age. In the Laxemar investigation area, there were no significant relationships for LAI with a satellite derived kNN (kNearest Neighbor) data set with stand height, stand volume and stand age. The kNN data set can therefore not be used to extrapolate measured LAI over the Laxemar investigation area. There were significant relationships between LAI and the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) for coniferous, deciduous and mixed forest stands in the Laxemar investigation area. A NDVI image could be used to extrapolate LAI over the entire investigation area. For the Forsmark investigation area, effective LAI for all stands were correlated to NDVI and this relationship could then be used for extrapolation. The effective LAI image was afterwards corrected for average

  17. Large-scale determinants of diversity across Spanish forest habitats: accounting for model uncertainty in compositional and structural indicators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin-Quller, E.; Torras, O.; Alberdi, I.; Solana, J.; Saura, S.

    2011-07-01

    An integral understanding of forest biodiversity requires the exploration of the many aspects it comprises and of the numerous potential determinants of their distribution. The landscape ecological approach provides a necessary complement to conventional local studies that focus on individual plots or forest ownerships. However, most previous landscape studies used equally-sized cells as units of analysis to identify the factors affecting forest biodiversity distribution. Stratification of the analysis by habitats with a relatively homogeneous forest composition might be more adequate to capture the underlying patterns associated to the formation and development of a particular ensemble of interacting forest species. Here we used a landscape perspective in order to improve our understanding on the influence of large-scale explanatory factors on forest biodiversity indicators in Spanish habitats, covering a wide latitudinal and attitudinal range. We considered six forest biodiversity indicators estimated from more than 30,000 field plots in the Spanish national forest inventory, distributed in 213 forest habitats over 16 Spanish provinces. We explored biodiversity response to various environmental (climate and topography) and landscape configuration (fragmentation and shape complexity) variables through multiple linear regression models (built and assessed through the Akaike Information Criterion). In particular, we took into account the inherent model uncertainty when dealing with a complex and large set of variables, and considered different plausible models and their probability of being the best candidate for the observed data. Our results showed that compositional indicators (species richness and diversity) were mostly explained by environmental factors. Models for structural indicators (standing deadwood and stand complexity) had the worst fits and selection uncertainties, but did show significant associations with some configuration metrics. In general

  18. Long-Lasting Insecticidal Hammocks for controlling forest malaria: a community-based trial in a rural area of central Vietnam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngo Duc Thang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In Vietnam, malaria remains a problem in some remote areas located along its international borders and in the central highlands, partly due to the bionomics of the local vector, mainly found in forested areas and less vulnerable to standard control measures. Long Lasting Insecticidal Hammocks (LLIH, a tailored and user-friendly tool for forest workers, may further contribute in reducing the malaria burden. Their effectiveness was tested in a large community-based intervention trial carried out in Ninh Thuan province in Central Vietnam. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Thirty villages (population 18,646 were assembled in 20 clusters (1,000 individuals per cluster that were randomly allocated to either the intervention or control group (no LLIH after stratification according to the pre-intervention P. falciparum antibody prevalence ( or =30%. LLIH were distributed to the intervention group in December 2004. For the following 2 years, the incidence of clinical malaria and the prevalence of infection were determined by passive case detection at community level and by bi-annual malariometric surveys. A 2-fold larger effect on malaria incidence in the intervention as compared to the control group was observed. Similarly, malaria prevalence decreased more substantially in the intervention (1.6-fold greater reduction than in the control group. Both for incidence and prevalence, a stronger and earlier effect of the intervention was observed in the high endemicity stratum. The number of malaria cases and infections averted by the intervention overall was estimated at 10.5 per 1,000 persons and 5.6/100 individuals, respectively, for the last half of 2006. In the high endemicity stratum, the impact was much higher, i.e. 29/1000 malaria cases and 15.7 infections/100 individuals averted. CONCLUSIONS: LLIH reduced malaria incidence and prevalence in this remote and forested area of Central Vietnam. As the targets of the newly-launched Global Malaria Action

  19. Prediction of detailed enzyme functions and identification of specificity determining residues by random forests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chioko Nagao

    Full Text Available Determining enzyme functions is essential for a thorough understanding of cellular processes. Although many prediction methods have been developed, it remains a significant challenge to predict enzyme functions at the fourth-digit level of the Enzyme Commission numbers. Functional specificity of enzymes often changes drastically by mutations of a small number of residues and therefore, information about these critical residues can potentially help discriminate detailed functions. However, because these residues must be identified by mutagenesis experiments, the available information is limited, and the lack of experimentally verified specificity determining residues (SDRs has hindered the development of detailed function prediction methods and computational identification of SDRs. Here we present a novel method for predicting enzyme functions by random forests, EFPrf, along with a set of putative SDRs, the random forests derived SDRs (rf-SDRs. EFPrf consists of a set of binary predictors for enzymes in each CATH superfamily and the rf-SDRs are the residue positions corresponding to the most highly contributing attributes obtained from each predictor. EFPrf showed a precision of 0.98 and a recall of 0.89 in a cross-validated benchmark assessment. The rf-SDRs included many residues, whose importance for specificity had been validated experimentally. The analysis of the rf-SDRs revealed both a general tendency that functionally diverged superfamilies tend to include more active site residues in their rf-SDRs than in less diverged superfamilies, and superfamily-specific conservation patterns of each functional residue. EFPrf and the rf-SDRs will be an effective tool for annotating enzyme functions and for understanding how enzyme functions have diverged within each superfamily.

  20. Radiological protection principles concerning the use for forest and agricultural purposes and as public gardens (parks) and residential areas of areas contaminated from uranium mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With regard to uses of contaminated areas for forest and agricultural purposes as well as for uses as public gardens (parks) and residential areas, all relevant exposure pathways have to be evaluated. Assuming conditions as realistic as possible but sufficiently conservative, the dose estimates reveal that the external gamma dose rate and the potential activity input into the ground water are exposure pathways of relevance for all uses of contaminated areas considered here. Additional specific exposures pathways of relevance in cases of uses as residential areas and as public gardens are the ingestion of dust and soil contaminated with long-lived alpha emitters by children playing outdoors as well as the consumption of local products in cases of agricultural uses. (orig./DG)

  1. Spatial distribution pattern of Mezilaurus itauba (Meins. Taub. Ex mez. in a seasonal forest area of the southern Amazon, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebert A

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Spatial analysis of forest tree distribution is a powerful tool to respond to basic ecological questions, and represent a useful support to strategies of genetic conservation and sustainable management practices of forest resources. Spatial analysis techniques combined with the use of Geographical Information Systems have been commonly applied to the study of stochastic processes in order to determine the existence of clusters to be related to microenviromental conditions and/or genetic factors. The present study focused on the distribution patterns of individuals of Mezilaurus itauba in a seasonal forest of the southern Amazon, with the aim of providing information about the spatial arrangement of these species at the juvenile and adult stages. Ripley’s K function with radius of 10, 20 and 30 m was used to describe spatial distribution patterns. The hypothesis of complete spatial randomness (CSR of individuals was tested by constructing confidence envelopes for the Ripley’s K function through Monte Carlo simulations using a Poisson homogeneous process. The results obtained suggest a general random distribution of individuals, though a tendency to clustering at close distances was detected for individuals classified as adults (DBH > 50 cm. Contrastingly, a completely randomized spatial pattern was found for juveniles trees (DBH < 50 cm. Our results provide a useful baseline for the development of sustainable management plans and conservation of Mezilaurus itauba, as well as for other economically-exploited, native tree species in the southern Amazon forest.

  2. Groundwater Quality Assessment for Waste Management Area U: First Determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waste Management Area U (TWA U) is located in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. The area includes the U Tank Farm, which contains 16 single-shell tanks and their ancillary equipment and waste systems. WMA U is regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) as stipulated in 40 CFR Part 265, Subpart F, which is incorporated into the Washington State dangerous waste regulations (WAC 173-303400) by reference. Groundwater monitoring at WMA U has been guided by an interim status indicator evaluation program. As a result of changes in the direction of groundwater flow, background values for the WMA have been recalculated several times during its monitoring history. The most recent recalculation revealed that one of the indicator parameters, specific conductance, exceeded its background value in downgradient well 299-W19-41. This triggered a change from detection monitoring to a groundwater quality assessment program. The major contributors to the higher specific conductance are nonhazardous constituents, such as bicarbonate, calcium, chloride, magnesium, sodium and sulfate. Chromium, nitrate, and technetium-99 are present and are increasing; however, they are significantly below their drinking water standards. The objective of this study is to determine whether the increased concentrations of chromium, nitrate, and technetium-99 in groundwater are from WMA U or from an upgradient source. Interpretation of groundwater monitoring data indicates that both the nonhazardous constituents causing elevated specific conductance in groundwater and the tank waste constituents present in groundwater at the WMA are a result of surface water infiltration in the southern portion of the WMA. There is evidence that both upgradient and WMA sources contribute to the nitrate concentrations that were detected. There is no indication of an upgradient source for the chromium and technetium-99 that was detected. Therefore, a source of contamination appears to

  3. Groundwater Quality Assessment for Waste Management Area U: First Determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FN Hodges; CJ Chou

    2000-08-04

    Waste Management Area U (TWA U) is located in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. The area includes the U Tank Farm, which contains 16 single-shell tanks and their ancillary equipment and waste systems. WMA U is regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) as stipulated in 40 CFR Part 265, Subpart F, which is incorporated into the Washington State dangerous waste regulations (WAC 173-303400) by reference. Groundwater monitoring at WMA U has been guided by an interim status indicator evaluation program. As a result of changes in the direction of groundwater flow, background values for the WMA have been recalculated several times during its monitoring history. The most recent recalculation revealed that one of the indicator parameters, specific conductance, exceeded its background value in downgradient well 299-W19-41. This triggered a change from detection monitoring to a groundwater quality assessment program. The major contributors to the higher specific conductance are nonhazardous constituents, such as bicarbonate, calcium, chloride, magnesium, sodium and sulfate. Chromium, nitrate, and technetium-99 are present and are increasing; however, they are significantly below their drinking water standards. The objective of this study is to determine whether the increased concentrations of chromium, nitrate, and technetium-99 in groundwater are from WMA U or from an upgradient source. Interpretation of groundwater monitoring data indicates that both the nonhazardous constituents causing elevated specific conductance in groundwater and the tank waste constituents present in groundwater at the WMA are a result of surface water infiltration in the southern portion of the WMA. There is evidence that both upgradient and WMA sources contribute to the nitrate concentrations that were detected. There is no indication of an upgradient source for the chromium and technetium-99 that was detected. Therefore, a source of contamination appears to

  4. Climatic Changes Effects On Spectral Vegetation Indices For Forested Areas Analysis From Satellite Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Climate-induced changes at the land surface may in turn feed back on the climate itself through changes in soil moisture, vegetation, radiative characteristics, and surface-atmosphere exchanges of water vapor. Thresholding based on biophysical variables derived from time trajectories of satellite data is a new approach to classifying forest land cover via remote . sensing .The input data are composite values of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). Classification accuracies are function of the class, comparison method and season of the year. The aim of the paper is forest biomass assessment and land-cover changes analysis due to climatic effects

  5. Viewing forests from below: fine root mass declines relative to leaf area in aging lodgepole pine stands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoonmaker, A S; Lieffers, V J; Landhäusser, S M

    2016-07-01

    In the continued quest to explain the decline in productivity and vigor with aging forest stands, the most poorly studied area relates to root system change in time. This paper measures the wood production, root and leaf area (and mass) in a chronosequence of fire-origin lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Loudon) stands consisting of four age classes (12, 21, 53, and ≥100 years), each replicated ~ five times. Wood productivity was greatest in the 53-year-old stands and then declined in the ≥100-year-old stands. Growth efficiency, the quantity of wood produced per unit leaf mass, steadily declined with age. Leaf mass and fine root mass plateaued between the 53- and ≥100-year-old stands, but leaf area index actually increased in the older stands. An increase in the leaf area index:fine root area ratio supports the idea that older stand are potentially limited by soil resources. Other factors contributing to slower growth in older stands might be lower soil temperatures and increased self-shading due to the clumped nature of crowns. Collectively, the proportionally greater reduction in fine roots in older stands might be the variable that predisposes these forests to be at a potentially greater risk of stress-induced mortality. PMID:27041684

  6. Evolution of Forest Systems: the Role of Biogeochemical Cycles in Determining Sustainable Forestry Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner T. Flueck

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The exploitation of natural resources such as forests leads to sustainable forest management (SFM. The key question is how to define and parametrize “sustainable use.” Promoting forest use that conserves spatial characteristics of forest landscapes and the structure and composition of forest stands was proposed as a way of maintaining elements of biodiversity such as species richness and genetic variation. However, to establish the parameter space for sustainable forest use, it is essential to consider the nutrient requirements of forest systems, that is, plants and animals, the need for fertilizer application, and the effects on biogeochemical cycles, a cornerstone of biological evolution and, thus, biodiversity. The use of forest products is inevitably tied to exporting biomass from those ecosystems because products are used elsewhere, thus changing natural practically steady-state ecosystems to open ones. Continued biomass export results in soil acidification and nutrient removal. Among macronutrients, phosphorus takes a key position, but several others have been shown to be depleted in managed-forest systems. Micronutrients are more crucial for forest-dwelling animals, particularly those nutrients that are only essential to animals. Depletion of their reserves, selenium for instance, through biomass export will not affect plants, and initial subclinical effects on animals are difficult to detect. The generalized effect may be reflected in changing rates of recruitment or disease resistance, and thus ecosystem processes. Forest products and their export reduces soil-nutrient reserves, and slash burning and water runoff further add to cumulative losses of several minerals. Such impacts from forest products need to be addressed, particularly for mammals and their unique needs for several microelements. Biogeochemical cycles disturbed by exporting forest products will affect plants and animals and, therefore, ecosystems and their processes

  7. Evaluating the condition of a mangrove forest of the Mexican Pacific based on an estimated leaf area index mapping approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacs, J M; King, J M L; Flores de Santiago, F; Flores-Verdugo, F

    2009-10-01

    Given the alarming global rates of mangrove forest loss it is important that resource managers have access to updated information regarding both the extent and condition of their mangrove forests. Mexican mangroves in particular have been identified as experiencing an exceptional high annual rate of loss. However, conflicting studies, using remote sensing techniques, of the current state of many of these forests may be hindering all efforts to conserve and manage what remains. Focusing on one such system, the Teacapán-Agua Brava-Las Haciendas estuarine-mangrove complex of the Mexican Pacific, an attempt was made to develop a rapid method of mapping the current condition of the mangroves based on estimated LAI. Specifically, using an AccuPAR LP-80 Ceptometer, 300 indirect in situ LAI measurements were taken at various sites within the black mangrove (Avicennia germinans) dominated forests of the northern section of this system. From this sample, 225 measurements were then used to develop linear regression models based on their relationship with corresponding values derived from QuickBird very high resolution optical satellite data. Specifically, regression analyses of the in situ LAI with both the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and the simple ration (SR) vegetation index revealed significant positive relationships [LAI versus NDVI (R (2) = 0.63); LAI versus SR (R (2) = 0.68)]. Moreover, using the remaining sample, further examination of standard errors and of an F test of the residual variances indicated little difference between the two models. Based on the NDVI model, a map of estimated mangrove LAI was then created. Excluding the dead mangrove areas (i.e. LAI = 0), which represented 40% of the total 30.4 km(2) of mangrove area identified in the scene, a mean estimated LAI value of 2.71 was recorded. By grouping the healthy fringe mangrove with the healthy riverine mangrove and by grouping the dwarf mangrove together with the poor condition

  8. Taxonomic identity determines N2 fixation by canopy trees across lowland tropical forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurzburger, Nina; Hedin, Lars O

    2016-01-01

    Legumes capable of fixing atmospheric N2 are abundant and diverse in many tropical forests, but the factors determining ecological patterns in fixation are unresolved. A long-standing idea is that fixation depends on soil nutrients (N, P or Mo), but recent evidence shows that fixation may also differ among N2-fixing species. We sampled canopy-height trees across five species and one species group of N2-fixers along a landscape P gradient, and manipulated P and Mo to seedlings in a shadehouse. Our results identify taxonomy as the major determinant of fixation, with P (and possibly Mo) only influencing fixation following tree-fall disturbances. While 44% of trees did not fix N2, other trees fixed at high rates, with two species functioning as superfixers across the landscape. Our results raise the possibility that fixation is determined by biodiversity, evolutionary history and species-specific traits (tree growth rate, canopy stature and response to disturbance) in the tropical biome.

  9. 76 FR 65681 - Black Hills National Forest, Mystic Ranger District, South Dakota, Calumet Project Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-24

    ... an existing insect and disease epidemic (mountain pine beetle), creating a landscape condition more... provide habitat diversity and wildfire protection by enhancing natural fuel breaks. Reduce the amount of... to ecosystem components including forest resources, from the existing insect and disease...

  10. Use of Polar Orbiting Earth Observatories to Create a Synoptic Inventory of North American Forested Areas Affected by Wildfire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohlberg, R.; Carroll, M.; Townshend, J.; McCarty, J.

    2005-12-01

    The authors will discuss a newly developed algorithm which utilizes the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument onboard the Terra and Aqua satellites to derive an ongoing inventory of forested areas affected by wildfire. The experimental data set has been developed at a spatial resolution of 250 m and a temporal resolution of 16 days. The intent is to provide a near real-time inventory of fire-affected forested landscapes. The method allows for discrimination between those areas which were recently burned and those which were burned previously in the same or earlier fire seasons. This is an automated and repeatable method for delineating fire-affected forest at a country scale. By relying entirely on satellite observations, the product is intended to be internally consistent, avoiding potential bias and omission introduced by ground and airborne-based mapping. The data set is intended for use at a national and regional scale to update forest inventories in a rapid fashion, and to direct land management efforts. This moderate resolution product can then be used to direct detailed inventory and characterization efforts utilizing fine resolution instruments and in situ observation. Additional features of the data set provide the ability to gain a basic understanding of the spatial distribution of burn severity. Based upon user requirements, such as the need to monitor specific events of national importance, the methods presented can be adapted to provide results on a daily basis. We will present validation results using perimeter and progression maps produced for large fires in the western United States and Alaska. Special attention will be given to future operational opportunities as we move to the next generation instrument, VIIRS, which will first launch aboard the NPP platform and later on a planned series of NPOESS satellites.

  11. Burn severity and areas of daily fire growth for 42 forest fires in Idaho and Montana, 2005 - 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, Donovan Shayne

    This work consisted of two studies of burn severity using infrared perimeter maps and satellite-inferred burn severity data, differenced Normalized Burn Ratio, from 42 wildland fires from central Idaho and western Montana from 2005 to 2007, and 2011. Study 1 examined the proportion of burn severity categories for individual daily areas burned. We defined 2,697 areas, from which we calculated the proportion of three burn severity classes. The proportion of high severity was weakly correlated with size of area burned. Large areas burned do not consistently produced larger proportions of high severity. Study 2 analyzed burn severity relative to 20 environmental variables using the Random Forest machine learning algorithm. We used ten daily weather observations, eight 34-yr climate percentiles, seven topographical index measurements, and four vegetation characteristics from 10,819 randomly located points. We found that higher percentage existing vegetation cover had larger influences on changes in burn severity.

  12. Impacts of management and climate change on nitrate leaching in a forested karst area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Dirnböck; Johannes, Kobler; David, Kraus; Rüdiger, Grote; Ralf, Kiese

    2016-01-01

    Forest management and climate change, directly or indirectly, affect drinking water resources, both in terms of quality and quantity. In this study in the Northern Limestone Alps in Austria we have chosen model calculations (LandscapeDNDC) in order to resolve the complex long-term interactions of management and climate change and their effect on nitrogen dynamics, and the consequences for nitrate leaching from forest soils into the karst groundwater. Our study highlights the dominant role of forest management in controlling nitrate leaching. Both clear-cut and shelterwood-cut disrupt the nitrogen cycle to an extent that causes peak concentrations and high fluxes into the seepage water. While this effect is well known, our modelling approach has revealed additional positive as well as negative impacts of the expected climatic changes on nitrate leaching. First, we show that peak nitrate concentrations during post-cutting periods were elevated under all climate scenarios. The maximal effects of climatic changes on nitrate concentration peaks were 20-24 mg L(-1) in 2090 with shelterwood or clear-cut management. Second, climate change significantly decreased the cumulative nitrate losses over full forest rotation periods (by 10-20%). The stronger the expected temperature increase and precipitation decrease (in summer), the lesser were the observed nitrate losses. However, mean annual seepage water nitrate concentrations and cumulative nitrate leaching were higher under continuous forest cover management than with shelterwood-cut and clear-cut systems. Watershed management can thus be adapted to climate change by either reducing peak concentrations or long-term loads of nitrate in the karst groundwater.

  13. Impacts of management and climate change on nitrate leaching in a forested karst area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Dirnböck; Johannes, Kobler; David, Kraus; Rüdiger, Grote; Ralf, Kiese

    2016-01-01

    Forest management and climate change, directly or indirectly, affect drinking water resources, both in terms of quality and quantity. In this study in the Northern Limestone Alps in Austria we have chosen model calculations (LandscapeDNDC) in order to resolve the complex long-term interactions of management and climate change and their effect on nitrogen dynamics, and the consequences for nitrate leaching from forest soils into the karst groundwater. Our study highlights the dominant role of forest management in controlling nitrate leaching. Both clear-cut and shelterwood-cut disrupt the nitrogen cycle to an extent that causes peak concentrations and high fluxes into the seepage water. While this effect is well known, our modelling approach has revealed additional positive as well as negative impacts of the expected climatic changes on nitrate leaching. First, we show that peak nitrate concentrations during post-cutting periods were elevated under all climate scenarios. The maximal effects of climatic changes on nitrate concentration peaks were 20-24 mg L(-1) in 2090 with shelterwood or clear-cut management. Second, climate change significantly decreased the cumulative nitrate losses over full forest rotation periods (by 10-20%). The stronger the expected temperature increase and precipitation decrease (in summer), the lesser were the observed nitrate losses. However, mean annual seepage water nitrate concentrations and cumulative nitrate leaching were higher under continuous forest cover management than with shelterwood-cut and clear-cut systems. Watershed management can thus be adapted to climate change by either reducing peak concentrations or long-term loads of nitrate in the karst groundwater. PMID:26439862

  14. US Forest Service Forest Health Protection Insect and Disease Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — This data is a compilation of forest insect, disease and abiotic damage mapped by aerial detection surveys on forested areas in the United States. US Forest...

  15. [The genera of Bethylidae (Hymenoptera: Chrysidoidea) in four areas of Atlantic Rain Forest from Espírito Santo, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugrabi, Daniele F; Alencar, Isabel D C C; Barreto, Francisco C C; Azevedo, Celso O

    2008-01-01

    The generic richness and abundance of Bethylidae collected in four different hillside areas of Atlantic rain forest from Espírito Santo, Brazil were studied. The sites are Santa Maria de Jetibá (SMJ), Domingos Martins (DM), Pancas (P) and Atílio Vivacqua (AV). A total of 2,840 specimens of 12 genera were collected. Lepidosternopsis Ogloblin and Bakeriella Kieffer are first recorded from the State. Richness of taxa was calculated using first-order Jackknife richness with EstimateS program. Genera accumulation curves were ran to evaluate the samples. Abundance data were adjusted to the geometric distribution. Parameter k was used to compare areas. The generic profile was not equal for the sites we studied. The areas were considered disturbed. SMJ and DM presented genera richness bigger than in P and AV. The differences in the sites reflect the different preservation of each environment. Pseudisobrachium Kieffer and Dissomphalus Ashmead are most dominant genera in SMJ, DM and P, and Anisepyris Kieffer in AV. This study emphasizes the fact of Dissomphalus as the most abundant genus in rain forests. The generic profile found in AV is similar to that of some areas of Brazilian savannah. PMID:18506293

  16. Developing a Topographic Model to Predict the Northern Hardwood Forest Type within Carolina Northern Flying Squirrel (Glaucomys sabrinus coloratus) Recovery Areas of the Southern Appalachians

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew Evans; Richard Odom; Lynn Resler; W. Mark Ford; Steve Prisley

    2014-01-01

    The northern hardwood forest type is an important habitat component for the endangered Carolina northern flying squirrel (CNFS; Glaucomys sabrinus coloratus) for den sites and corridor habitats between boreo-montane conifer patches foraging areas. Our study related terrain data to presence of northern hardwood forest type in the recovery areas of CNFS in the southern Appalachian Mountains of western North Carolina, eastern Tennessee, and southwestern Virginia. We recorded overstory species co...

  17. CEREALS ASSESSMENT TOWARDS CONTAMINATION OF PHYTOPATHOGENIC FUNGI IN FOREST-STEPPE AREA OF UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. B. Yekimova

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The usage of high-quality seed, not affected by pathogens and fungi promote the high and stable yields. The condition of seeds determines their germination, seedling damage and adult plants, which ultimately affects the yield and on their quality. The significant risk of seed infection was registered in years with high humidity in the pre-harvest and harvest period. Therefore, along with the traditional seed control it is necessary to conduct phytopahtology expertise, allowing to identify the species composition of the microflora of seeds and the degree of infection with different pathogens. Smut disease - a solid and loose smut of wheat, hard and loose smut of barley - cause crop losses are clear - in the form of the destruction of the ear, and hidden - in the form of a reduction in seed germination, reduce winter hardiness, plant growth inhibition. Pathogens root rot causing blight, Fusarium and Helminthosporium that insignificantly demand on environmental conditions and extremely plastic. They have large set of enzymes that can exist on a variety of substrates, and therefore are widely distributed in nature and cause considerable damage to crops. Especially significant losses occur if the humidity during the ripening grain observed for several seasons, which leads to accumulation of the infection naturally. The aim of research was to assess the contamination of grain of spring wheat and barley phytopathogenic fungi in one of the main grain regions of Ukraine - the southern forest. The research conducted during the summer 2014 and compared with the results of previous years. Samples were taken from different plots. Seed contamination of samples by various phytopathogenic fungi was determined by the number of infected kernels per 100 seed sample. Frequency of registered species was recorded. For every studied sample we set the percentage of species. Analysis of the grain on the fungal infection and avdelenie in pure culture was performed

  18. CEREALS ASSESSMENT TOWARDS CONTAMINATION OF PHYTOPATHOGENIC FUNGI IN FOREST-STEPPE AREA OF UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yekimova V. B.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The usage of high-quality seed, not affected by pathogens and fungi promote the high and stable yields. The condition of seeds determines their germination, seedling damage and adult plants, which ultimately affects the yield and on their quality. The significant risk of seed infection was registered in years with high humidity in the pre-harvest and harvest period. Therefore, along with the traditional seed control it is necessary to conduct phytopahtology expertise, allowing to identify the species composition of the microflora of seeds and the degree of infection with different pathogens. Smut disease - a solid and loose smut of wheat, hard and loose smut of barley - cause crop losses are clear - in the form of the destruction of the ear, and hidden - in the form of a reduction in seed germination, reduce winter hardiness, plant growth inhibition. Pathogens root rot causing blight, Fusarium and Helminthosporium that insignificantly demand on environmental conditions and extremely plastic. They have large set of enzymes that can exist on a variety of substrates, and therefore are widely distributed in nature and cause considerable damage to crops. Especially significant losses occur if the humidity during the ripening grain observed for several seasons, which leads to accumulation of the infection naturally. The aim of research was to assess the contamination of grain of spring wheat and barley phytopathogenic fungi in one of the main grain regions of Ukraine - the southern forest. The research conducted during the summer 2014 and compared with the results of previous years. Samples were taken from different plots. Seed contamination of samples by various phytopathogenic fungi was determined by the number of infected kernels per 100 seed sample. Frequency of registered species was recorded. For every studied sample we set the percentage of species. Analysis of the grain on the fungal infection and avdelenie in pure culture was performed

  19. Environmental Studies in the Boreal Forest Zone: Summer IPY Institute at Central Boreal Forest Reserve, Fedorovskoe, Tver area, Russia (14-28 August, 2007)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparrow, E. B.; Kurbatova, Y.; Groisman, P.; Alexeev, V.

    2007-12-01

    The Summer Institute was organized by the International Arctic Research Center (IARC) at the University of Alaska Fairbanks, in collaboration with the A.N. Severtsov Institute for Ecology and Evolution of the Russian Academy of Sciences in Moscow, Russia, and the Central Forest State Nature Biosphere Reserve in Fedorovskoe, Russia. The Institute was arranged as a part of the education/outreach activities of the International Polar Year (IPY) at the University of Alaska and the Northern Eurasia Earth Science Partnership Initiative (NEESPI) and was held in Russia. The Institute provided a unique opportunity for participants to learn about the climate and environment of Northern Eurasia from leading scientists and educators, in a wide spectrum of polar and Earth system science disciplines from meteorology, biology, chemistry, and earth system modeling. Additionally, the Institute attendees observed and participated in the biospheric research activities under the guidance of experienced scientists. During a two-week-interval, the School attendees heard 40 lectures, attended several field trips and participated in three brainstorming Round Table Workshop Sessions devoted to perspectives of the boreal forest zone research and major unresolved problems that it faces. Thirty professors and experts in different areas of climate and biosphere research from Russia, the United States, Germany, Finland, and Japan, shared their expertise in lectures and in round table discussions with the Institute participants. Among the Institute participants there were 31 graduate students/early career scientists from six countries (China, Russia, Estonia, Finland, UK, and the United States) and eight K-12 teachers from Russia. The two groups joined together for several workshop sessions and for the field work components of the Institute. The field work was focused on land-atmosphere interactions and wetland studies in the boreal forest zone. Several field trips in and outside the Forest

  20. Tropical Forest Fire Susceptibility Mapping at the Cat Ba National Park Area, Hai Phong City, Vietnam, Using GIS-Based Kernel Logistic Regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dieu Tien Bui

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The Cat Ba National Park area (Vietnam with its tropical forest is recognized as being part of the world biodiversity conservation by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO and is a well-known destination for tourists, with around 500,000 travelers per year. This area has been the site for many research projects; however, no project has been carried out for forest fire susceptibility assessment. Thus, protection of the forest including fire prevention is one of the main concerns of the local authorities. This work aims to produce a tropical forest fire susceptibility map for the Cat Ba National Park area, which may be helpful for the local authorities in forest fire protection management. To obtain this purpose, first, historical forest fires and related factors were collected from various sources to construct a GIS database. Then, a forest fire susceptibility model was developed using Kernel logistic regression. The quality of the model was assessed using the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC curve, area under the ROC curve (AUC, and five statistical evaluation measures. The usability of the resulting model is further compared with a benchmark model, the support vector machine (SVM. The results show that the Kernel logistic regression model has a high level of performance in both the training and validation dataset, with a prediction capability of 92.2%. Since the Kernel logistic regression model outperforms the benchmark model, we conclude that the proposed model is a promising alternative tool that should also be considered for forest fire susceptibility mapping in other areas. The results of this study are useful for the local authorities in forest planning and management.

  1. Morphological variation of Laguncularia racemosa (L. C. F. Gaertn. (Combretaceae in mangrove areas and in transition areas between mangrove and restinga forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda Carrion Bartz

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive responses to the interaction of abiotic factors that operate at different spatial and temporal scales may reflect on the distribution of species, due to their interaction with the environment. This study aimed to check differences in the structure of individuals between populations of Laguncularia racemosa (L. C. F. Gaertn. (Combretaceae distributed in mangrove areas and in transition areas between mangrove and restinga forest, using leaf morphological characteristics and plant architecture. Environmental variables were analyzed, such as soil nutrients and salinity level. The transition area showed lower salinity of pore water and soil pH, probably due to the high levels of aluminum. Laguncularia racemosa individuals in the mangrove area had larger leaves than the population in the transition area, with larger leaf area, specific leaf area, and leaf density, and smaller leaf volume. In mangrove, L. racemosa individuals had higher height and basal trunk diameter and lower canopy density and percentage of leaves subject to herbivory, but a higher number of senescent leaves. Such results may be related to the contrasting environmental conditions and significant differences in water salinity and soil nutrients.

  2. Using low density LiDAR data to map Mediterranean forest characteristics by means of an area-based approach and height threshold analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Guerra-Hernández

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study reports progress in forest inventory methods involving the use of low density airborne LiDAR data and an area-based approach (ABA. It also emphasizes the usefulness of the Spanish countrywide LiDAR dataset for mapping forest stand attributes in Mediterranean stone pine forest characterized by complex orography. Lowdensity airborne LiDAR data (0.5 first returns m–2 was used to develop individual regression models for a set of forest stand variables in different types of forest. LiDAR data is now freely available for most of the Spanish territory and is provided by the Spanish National Aerial Photography Program (Plan Nacional de Ortofotografía Aérea, PNOA. The influence of height thresholds (MHT: Minimun Height Threshold and BHT: Break Height Threshold used in extracting LiDAR metrics was also investigated. The best regression models explained 61-85%, 67-98% and 74-98% of the variability in ground-truth stand height, basal area and volume, respectively. The magnitude of error for predicting structural vegetation parameters was higher in closed deciduous and mixed forest than in the more homogeneous coniferous stands. Analysis of height thresholds (HT revealed that these parameters were not particularly important for estimating several forest attributes in the coniferous forest; nevertheless, substantial differences in volume modelling were observed when the height thresholds (MHT and BHT were increased in complex structural vegetation (mixed and deciduous forest. A metric-by-metric analysis revealed that there were significant differences in most of the explanatory variables computed from different height thresholds (HBT and MHT.The best models were applied to the reference stands to yield spatially explicit predictions about the forest resources. Reliable mapping of biometric variables was implemented to facilitate effective and sustainable management strategies and practices in Mediterranean Forest ecosystems.

  3. Spatial disparities of regional forest land change based on ESDA and GIS at the county level in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hualin XIE; Chih-Chun KUNG; Yuluan ZHAO

    2012-01-01

    Forest land is the essential and important natural resource that provides strong support for human survival and development.Research on forest land changes at the county level about its characteristics,rules,and spatial patterns is,therefore,important for regional resource protection and the sustainable development of the social economy.In this study we selected the GIS and Geoda software package to explore the spatial disparities of forest land changes at the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei area county level,based on the global and local spatial autocorrelation analyses of exploratory spatial data.The results show that:1) during 1985-2000,the global spatial autocorrelation of forest land change is significant in the study area.The global Moran's I value is 0.3122 for the entire time period and indicates significant positive spatial correlation (p < 0.05).Moran's I value of forest land change decreases from 0.3084 at the time stage Ⅰ to 0.3024 at the time stage Ⅱ; 2) the spatial clustering characteristics of forest land changes appear on the whole in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei area.Moran's I value decreases from the time stage Ⅰ to time stage Ⅱ,which means that trend of spatial clustering of forest land change is weakened in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei area; 3) the grid map of the local Moran's I for each county reflects local spatial homogeneity of forest land change,which means that spatial clustering about regions of high value and low value is especially significant.The regions with "High-High" correlation are mainly located in the north hilly area.However,the regions with "Low-Low" correlation were distributed in the middle of the study area.Therefore,protection strategies and concrete measures should be put in place for each regional cluster in the study area.

  4. Affecting factors of preferential flow in the forest of the Three Gorges area, Yangtze River

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Jinhua; ZHANG Hongjiang; HE Fan; QI Shenglin; SUN Yanhong; ZHANG Youyan; SHI Yuhu

    2007-01-01

    In order to study the factors affecting preferential flow,a 2.9 m-long,2.6 m-deep soil profile was dug in the Quxi watershed,Yangtze River.To analyze the influence of rainfall on preferential flow,the preferential flow process was observed when the rainfalls were recorded.Soil physical and infiltration characteristics were also measured to study their effect on preferential flow.The results showed that the rainfall amount that could cause preferential flow was over 26 mm.There are four types of rainfall in the Three Gorges area,namely gradually dropping rain,even rain,sudden rain and peak rain.Preferential flow process was found to be relevant to the rainfall process.It was determined that with different rainfall types,preferential flow appeared at different times,occurring first in peak rain,followed by sudden rain,gradually dropping rain,and then even rain.Preferential flow would appear when the rainfall intensity was over 0.075 mm/min.In the studied area,the coarse soil particles increased with the soil depth,and for the deeper soil layer,the coarse particles promote the formation of preferential flow.Preferential flow accelerates the steady infiltration rate in the 83-110 cm soil horizon,and the quickly moving water in this horizon also enhanced the further formation and development of preferential flow.

  5. What is the impact of kelp forest density and/or area on fisheries?

    OpenAIRE

    Araujo, Rita; Bartsch, Inka; Bekkby, Trine; Erzini, Karim; Sousa-Pinto, Isbel

    2013-01-01

    Background: Kelp forests are highly productive ecosystem engineers of rocky cold-water marine coastlines, providing shelter, habitat and food for a variety of associated organisms. Several factors have been related with an observed trend of kelp deforestation in some regions of the globe. The effect of this trend on fisheries has been poorly studied. The European directives addressing the conservation of marine habitats highlight the need to increase the knowledge about the relationship be...

  6. Surface resistance calibration for a hydrological model using evapotranspiration retrieved from remote sensing data in Nahe catchment forest area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bie, W.; Casper, M. C.; Reiter, P.; Vohland, M.

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, a method combining graphical and statistical techniques is proposed for surface resistance calibration in a distributed hydrological model, WaSiM-ETH, by comparing daily evapotranspiration simulated by model WaSiM-ETH with corresponding daily evapotranspiration retrieved from remote sensing images. The study area locates in Nahe catchment (Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany, 4065 km2) forest regions. The remote sensing based observations are available for a very limited number of days but representative for most soil moisture conditions. By setting canopy resistance (rc) at 150 s/m, soil surface resistance (rse) at 250 s/m or at 300 s/m for deciduous forest and setting rc at 300 s/m, rse at 600 s/m or at 650 s/m for pine forest, the model exhibits its best overall performance in space and time. It is also found that with sufficient soil moisture, the model exhibits its best performance in space scale.

  7. Determinants of compliance with hunting regulations under Joint Forest Management in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Martin Reinhardt; Meilby, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated the effect of Joint Forest Management (JFM) on the number of bushmeat hunters in a forest reserve in the Udzungwa Mountains of Tanzania and tested whether their response to regulations was best characterized by instrumental or normative explanations. A multinomial model based...

  8. Investigation and comparison of natural regeneration structure of forest stands in protected and non-protected areas in Arasbaran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alijanpour, Ahmad; Mahmoudzadeh, Ahmad

    2007-05-15

    In this study, a part of Arasbaran forest stands in two protected and non-protected areas have been compared for quantitative and qualitative factors of regeneration. Thus, using aerial photographs of 1967 in the scale of 1:20000, the similarity of these stands was examined and the comparable stands were chosen. Afterward, 77 circle plots of 0.01 ha in protected area and in the same way 77 circle plots of 0.01 ha in non-protected area with a grid size of 250x250 m were established. In each plot, all species with diameter at breast height (dbh) from zero to 7.5 cm were measured. According to the results the number of regeneration average in protected area was significantly higher than that in non-protected area. Oak and Hornbeam regeneration percentages showed highest significant difference in the selected areas. Additionally, these two species have the highest mixture percentage. The regeneration structure in both areas includes high and coppice systems, but coppice is prevalent. In both regions cutting, branching and grazing are the most important destructive factors, and the effects of these factors are higher in non-protected area.

  9. Observation of underground water level in the area of forest estate "Sremska Mitrovica " during 2000 and 2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorović Miroljub

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Observation of underground water level in the area of "Jasensko-Belilo", which belongs to the Forest Estate "Sremska Mitrovica", started in 1999. The measurements were performed by means of 2 piezometers set up approximately perpendicularly to the river Sava, forming profile number 1 (Fig.1. The results of these measurements (Fig. 2, 3 show a significant lowering of groundwater level in 2000. The reason is most likely the unfavorable rainfall amount and distribution during that year (Table 2. A much better situation was during 2001 when the minimal groundwater level was up to 2 meters and it was considered to be the result of a favorable amount of rainfall and its distribution during the year (Tables 2, 3. It was noticed that Carpinus betulus appears instead of flowering ash (Fraxinus ornus, which is a good sign that generally the level of underground water is lowering. Also, the phenomenon that pedunculate oak (Quercus robur gradually loses its natural regeneration capability also confirms the trend of lowering underground water level. If this trend continues, oak will be in a very near future naturally substituted by less valuable species, probably Turkey oak (Quercus cerris. If groundwater wells along the river Sava reach the vicinity of this area, which is a plan for the Belgrade city water supply, the trend of groundwater table lowering will be even more expressed and it will certainly endanger the existence of all valuable forest species in this area.

  10. From communal forests to protected areas: The implications of tenure changes in natural resource management in Guatemala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvel Elías

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Protected area initiatives have sometimes led to conflicts with indigenous peoples who depend on forests for their livelihoods. This article examines the efforts to promote formal protection in the communal forests of the Guatemalan highlands. It analyses the institutional mechanisms used to create protected areas in the context of a history of profound inequity and of Guatemala′s new law recognising the existence of communal lands for the first time. Rather than supporting communal institutions and land rights, however, conservation efforts have strengthened the role of municipal governments, leading to fundamental changes in local governance and livelihood strategies and displacing community participation in natural resource management. The article responds to the following questions: What is the relationship between conservation discourse and the demands of indigenous peoples? How are the daily local practices of natural resource access and use modified with the creation of protected areas? What implications do these processes have on local territorial management institutions? And how can conservation mechanisms be designed to strengthen indigenous peoples′ rights?

  11. Rainfall-soil moisture relations in landslide-prone areas of a tropical rain forest, Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Matthew C.; Torres-Sanchez, Angel J.

    1990-01-01

    Soil moisture conditions are not well documented in steep, tropical landslide-prone terrain. In the 11,330 ha Caribbean National Forest (CNF) in northeastern Puerto Rico more than 170 landslides that occurred from one to approximately 60 years ago have been mapped. Most of these landslides are shallow, with failure depths of 0.5 ot 7 m, and are associated with periods of intense, prolonged rainfall. Annual rainfall in the CNF ranges from 2,500 to more than 4,000 mm. Rainfall intensities of up to 65 mm/h have been recorded in the area during hurricanes.

  12. Discussion and Analysis of Forest Sustainable Management in Thousand-isle Lake Area Based on the Forest Carbon Sink%基于森林碳汇的千岛湖区森林可持续经营探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐高福

    2012-01-01

      千岛湖作为国家级重点风景名胜区、国家级森林公园、国家级重点湿地,不论从森林景观角度还是从生态角度看,其地位均十分重要,人们对千岛湖区山水资源管护,尤其是发挥森林碳汇在森林可持续经营中的作用更为关切和敏感。通过对千岛湖森林资源现状及其森林碳汇的影响分析,结合多年的森林经营经验,根据国家有关政策,并借鉴相关研究成果,提出了基于森林碳汇的千岛湖区森林可持续经营的实施途径和经营措施%  Thousand-isle Lake as a national key scenic spot, a national forest park, a national key wetland, its status is very important no matter from the perspective of forest landscape or from ecological. People are more concerned and sensitive to landscape resources management in Thousand-isle Lake area, especially the function of forest carbon sink in forest sustainable management. Through the impact analysis of Thousand-isle Lake forest resources current situation and its forest carbon sink, combined with years of forest management experience, according to the national policy, and using relevant research results for reference, put forward the implementation methods, basic principle and measures of forest sustainable management in Thousand-isle Lake area based on the forest carbon sink.

  13. Evaluating Potential of MODIS-based Indices in Determining “Snow Gone” Stage over Forest-dominant Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navdeep S. Sekhon

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available “Snow gone” (SGN stage is one of the critical variables that describe the start of the official forest fire season in the Canadian Province of Alberta. In this paper, our objective is to evaluate the potential of MODIS-based indices for determining the SGN stage. Those included: (i enhanced vegetation index (EVI, (ii normalized difference water index (NDWI using the shortwave infrared (SWIR spectral bands centered at 1.64 µm (NDWI1.64µm and at 2.13 µm (NDWI2.13µm, and (iii normalized difference snow index (NDSI. These were calculated using the 500 m 8-day gridded MODIS-based composites of surface reflectance data (i.e., MOD09A1 v.005 for the period 2006–08. We performed a qualitative evaluation of these indices over two forest fire prone natural subregions in Alberta (i.e., central mixedwood and lower boreal highlands. In the process, we generated and compared the natural subregion-specific lookout tower sites average: (i temporal trends for each of the indices, and (ii SGN stage using the ground-based observations available from Alberta Sustainable Resource Development. The EVI-values were found to have large uncertainty at the onset of the spring and unable to predict the SGN stages precisely. In terms of NDSI, it showed earlier prediction capabilities. On the contrary, both of the NDWI’s showed distinct pattern (i.e., reached a minimum value before started to increase again during the spring in relation to observed SGN stages. Thus further analysis was carried out to determine the best predictor by comparing the NDWI’s predicted SGN stages with the ground-based observations at all of the individual lookout tower sites (approximately 120 in total across the study area. It revealed that NDWI2.13µm demonstrated better prediction capabilities (i.e., on an average approximately 90% of the observations fell within ±2 periods or ±16 days of deviation in comparison to NDWI1.64µm (i.e., on an average approximately 73% of the

  14. DO3SE modelling of soil moisture to determine ozone flux to European forest trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Schaub

    2011-12-01

    soil drying events being captured well across all sites and reductions in transpiration with the onset of drought being predicted with reasonable accuracy. The more complex methods which incorporate hydraulic resistance and plant capacitance perform less well, with predicted drying cycles consistently underestimating the rate and magnitude of water lost from the soil. A sensitivity analysis showed that model performance was strongly dependent upon the local parameterisation of key model drivers such as the maximum stomatal conductance, soil texture, root depth and leaf area index. The results suggest that the simple modelling methods that relate gsto directly to soil water content and potential provide adequate estimates of soil moisture and influence on gsto such that they are suitable to be used to assess the potential risk posed by O3 to forest trees across Europe.

  15. DO3SE modelling of soil moisture to determine ozone flux to forest trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Schaub

    2012-06-01

    magnitude of soil drying events being captured well across all sites and reductions in transpiration with the onset of drought being predicted with reasonable accuracy. The more complex methods, which incorporate hydraulic resistance and plant capacitance, perform less well, with predicted drying cycles consistently underestimating the rate and magnitude of water loss from the soil. A sensitivity analysis showed that model performance was strongly dependent upon the local parameterisation of key model drivers such as the maximum gsto, soil texture, root depth and leaf area index. The results suggest that the simple modelling methods that relate gsto directly to soil water content and potential provide adequate estimates of soil moisture and influence on gsto such that they are suitable to be used to assess the potential risk posed by O3 to forest trees across Europe.

  16. Surface Soil Preparetion for Leguminous Plants Growing in Degraded Areas by Mining Located in Amazon Forest-Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irio Ribeiro, Admilson; Hashimoto Fengler, Felipe; Araújo de Medeiros, Gerson; Márcia Longo, Regina; Frederici de Mello, Giovanna; José de Melo, Wanderley

    2015-04-01

    The revegetation of areas degraded by mining usually requires adequate mobilization of surface soil for the development of the species to be implemented. Unlike the traditional tillage, which has periodicity, the mobilization of degraded areas for revegetation can only occur at the beginning of the recovery stage. In this sense, the process of revegetation has as purpose the establishment of local native vegetation with least possible use of inputs and superficial tillage in order to catalyze the process of natural ecological succession, promoting the reintegration of areas and minimizing the negative impacts of mining activities in environmental. In this context, this work describes part of a study of land reclamation by tin exploitation in the Amazon ecosystem in the National Forest Jamari- Rondonia Brazil. So, studied the influence of surface soil mobilization in pit mine areas and tailings a view to the implementation of legumes. The results show that the surface has areas of mobilizing a significant effect on the growth of leguminous plants, areas for both mining and to tailings and pit mine areas.

  17. Determination and accuracy of VOC-fluxes above the pine/oak forest at Castelporziano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schween, J. H.; Dlugi, R.; Hewitt, C. N.; Foster, P.

    Concentrations of α-pinene, β-pinene and limonene were determined as two or three point profiles above the Mediterranean pine/oak forest at Castelporziano, Italy. Based on these, as well as on micrometecrological data, the fluxes of these compounds were estimated using the modified Bowen-ratio method and a log-profile fit. The accuracy of the calculated fluxes was estimated, resulting in errors around 50%, which were mainly produced by the relatively small concentration gradients observed. The dependence of emission fluxes on surface temperature was interpolated by three equations of the form F( T) = Fsexp( β·( T - TS)) for the three compounds. The three resulting temperature exponents β were significantly greater than the value for monoterpenes given by Guenther et al. (1993, J. Geophysical Research18, 12,609-12,617). It is also greater than the corresponding value derived by Bertin et al. (1997, Atmospheric; Environment) from the isoprene model of Guenther et al. (1993, J. Geophysical Research18, 12,609-12,617).

  18. Alternatives for Bulgarian forests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Päivinen, R.; Nabuurs, G.J.

    2001-01-01

    The European Forest Information Scenario Model (EFISCEN) is an area-based forest matrix model, which is especially suitable for projections of forest resources of large areas under assumptions of total national felling. EFISCEN uses time steps of five years and national forest inventory data. The in

  19. Observations on lycaenid butterflies from Panbari Reserve Forest and adjoining areas, Kaziranga, Assam, northeastern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monsoon Jyoti Gogoi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A checklist of 116 taxa of Lycaenidae (Blues along with notes on important species in low elevation forest of Panbari Reserve, Kaziranga - West Karbi Hills, upper Assam is reported in this paper based on surveys conducted during 2007–2012 and some recent sightings till date.  Important sightings include Blue Gem Poritia erycinoides elsiei, Square-band Brownie Miletis nymphys porus, Plain Plushblue Flos apidanus ahamus, Blue Royal Ancema carmentalis, Elwes Silverline Spindasis elwesi, Artipe skinneri, etc. 

  20. Identifying Standing Dead Trees in Forest Areas Based on 3d Single Tree Detection from Full Waveform LIDAR Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, W.; Krzystek, P.; Heurich, M.

    2012-07-01

    In forest ecology, a snag refers to a standing, partly or completely dead tree, often missing a top or most of the smaller branches. The accurate estimation of live and dead biomass in forested ecosystems is important for studies of carbon dynamics, biodiversity, and forest management. Therefore, an understanding of its availability and spatial distribution is required. So far, LiDAR remote sensing has been successfully used to assess live trees and their biomass, but studies focusing on dead trees are rare. The paper develops a methodology for retrieving individual dead trees in a mixed mountain forest using features that are derived from small-footprint airborne full waveform LIDAR data. First, 3D coordinates of the laser beam reflections, the pulse intensity and width are extracted by waveform decomposition. Secondly, 3D single trees are detected by an integrated approach, which delineates both dominate tree crowns and understory small trees in the canopy height model (CHM) using the watershed algorithm followed by applying normalized cuts segmentation to merged watershed areas. Thus, single trees can be obtained as 3D point segments associated with waveform-specific features per point. Furthermore, the tree segments are delivered to feature definition process to derive geometric and reflectional features at single tree level, e.g. volume and maximal diameter of crown, mean intensity, gap fraction, etc. Finally, the spanned feature space for the tree segments is forwarded to a binary classifier using support vector machine (SVM) in order to discriminate dead trees from the living ones. The methodology is applied to datasets that have been captured with the Riegl LMSQ560 laser scanner at a point density of 25 points/m2 in the Bavarian Forest National Park, Germany, respectively under leaf-on and leaf-off conditions for Norway spruces, European beeches and Sycamore maples. The classification experiments lead in the best case to an overall accuracy of 73% in a leaf

  1. Advanced multivariate techniques to investigate vegetation-environmental complex of pine forests of moist temperate areas of Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forty one stands of conifer forests of moist temperate areas, covering the natural limits of this forest type, in northern Pakistan were investigated. Multivariate techniques including cluster analysis (Ward's agglomerative method and TWINSPAN a divisive method) as well as ordination DECORANA) were used to explore vegetation composition and structure of canopy trees and under storey (shrubs and herbs) vegetation and their relationship with the associated environmental factors. Classification of over storey trees derived by TWINSPAN and Ward's methods showed some similarities in groups. Among the topographic variables, only elevation was found to be significant (P < 0.01) while edaphic variables showed no significant difference in group means. For under storey vegetation some similarities were also recorded between TWINSPAN and Ward's method. Among environmental variables elevation (P < 0.001), aspect (P< 0.05), canopy cover (P < 0.001) and soil pH (P < 0.01) were found to be significant. In many cases relationship of axes in DCA stand ordination and environmental variables were also significantly correlated, however axis two of under storey ordination did not show any significant correlation with any environmental variables. Present study showed similarities between Ward's cluster analysis of tree vegetation and under storey vegetation data, despite a long history of anthropogenic disturbance in these areas. (author)

  2. Coexistence and geographical distribution of Leguminosae in an area of Atlantic forest in the semi-arid region of Brazil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jacira R. LIMA; Vidal F. MANSANO; Francisca S. ARA(U)JO

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the factors that affect plant species distribution and coexistence in areas with high plant species diversity is a challenge for ecologists.According to some authors,species occupy specific niches,but for others,species coexistence and geographical distribution patterns are random.Floristic composition of the family Leguminosae was studied on moist and dry slopes of the Baturité mountains in semi-arid northeastern Brazil and was compared with findings for other plant formations elsewhere in Brazil.Substantial floristic differences were found between the moist windward and dry leeward slopes of the Baturité mountains despite their close geographical proximity.The leeward slope was slightly more diverse than the windward slope.Similarity analyses showed that the windward face is floristically allied to the Amazon forest,whereas the leeward slope is similar to other dry-area formations of northeastern Brazil,such as thorny woodland (caatinga) and seasonal forests.The strong floristic differences that were observed between the windward and leeward slopes corroborate the theory of ecological niche conservatism,which holds that species occurrence is closely linked to environmental factors,such as temperature and precipitation.

  3. HISTORICAL MEMORY OF HUNTERS IN THE STEPPE AND FOREST-STEPPE AREAS OF ALTAI KRAI (BASED ON SOCIAL RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitalii Valeriyevich Kulish

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Goal of research. The article deals with hunters’ characteristics of steppe and forest-steppe areas of Altai Krai as specific subject of preservation and development of historical memory. The scope of the research is peculiarities of historical memory of hunters. The author devotes attention to the process of preservation by hunters’ historical memory in micro-toponymic system of neighbourhoods of localities and offers some recommendations for this preservation.Method and methodology of research. The research based on quantitative and qualitative methods: interviewing and group discussions.Results. Research results give information about specificity of historical memory of hun-ters. Historical memory of hunters of steppe and forest-steppe areas of Altai Krai can be cha-racterized by following peculiarities: it keeps information about out-of-the-way and unknown for main population historical places; it keeps micro-toponymic system of neighbourhoods of locality; it actualizes primary «real» or episodic memory; assures intergenerational continuity; becomes an important addition or explicitation for description, research, reconstruction of main historical events; assures reproduction of traditions as the most stable mental element of historical memory of population. This memory can fulfill its reproduction function for a long time in case when society and government focus attention on hunters.Use of results. Research results can be used in socioforecasting and management of social systems.

  4. Distribution and diversity of airborne microflora under mangrove forest at sandspit area karachi, pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fungi and bacteria are heterotrophic decomposers that grow on organic matter and occupy various habitats in mangrove forests. This paper deals with the distribution and diversity of air-borne microbiota (fungi and bacteria) under a mangrove forest at Sandspit, Pakistan. A permanent stand was set up at Sandspit to observe the qualitative and quantitative variations throughout the year, using petri plate techniques. During the study, a total of 16 fungal species, viz., Aspergillus niger, A. fumigatus, A. sulphureus, A. terreus, A. wentii, A. flavus, Alternaria alternata, A. maritima, A. porri, Alternaria sp., Rhizopus varians, Mucormucedo, Penicillium sp., P. notatum, Dreshellera biseptata, Exosporiella fungorum, Cladosporium oxysporum and 14420 +- 267 bacterial colonies were recorded from the selected site. The study revealed that the fungi were the major component of airborne microflora in mangrove environment. It was observed that both fungal species and number of bacterial colonies were higher in summer than in winter. It is anticipated that the temperature and salinity of sea-water directly affect the diversity of fungi and bacteria in mangroves environment. The maximum diversity H' (1.906) was recorded in August whereas the minimum H' (1.053) was recorded in March. It is hoped that this research will add to our knowledge pertaining to the distribution and diversity of the airborne microbiota (bacteria and fungi) in mangrove ecosystem. (author)

  5. Improved progressive TIN densification filtering algorithm for airborne LiDAR data in forested areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaoqian; Guo, Qinghua; Su, Yanjun; Xue, Baolin

    2016-07-01

    Filtering of light detection and ranging (LiDAR) data into the ground and non-ground points is a fundamental step in processing raw airborne LiDAR data. This paper proposes an improved progressive triangulated irregular network (TIN) densification (IPTD) filtering algorithm that can cope with a variety of forested landscapes, particularly both topographically and environmentally complex regions. The IPTD filtering algorithm consists of three steps: (1) acquiring potential ground seed points using the morphological method; (2) obtaining accurate ground seed points; and (3) building a TIN-based model and iteratively densifying TIN. The IPTD filtering algorithm was tested in 15 forested sites with various terrains (i.e., elevation and slope) and vegetation conditions (i.e., canopy cover and tree height), and was compared with seven other commonly used filtering algorithms (including morphology-based, slope-based, and interpolation-based filtering algorithms). Results show that the IPTD achieves the highest filtering accuracy for nine of the 15 sites. In general, it outperforms the other filtering algorithms, yielding the lowest average total error of 3.15% and the highest average kappa coefficient of 89.53%.

  6. The Problem of property rights infringement through annulment decisions in forest areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gökçe Gençay

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Both in the world and in Turkey the boundaries and possessions of forestlands and all other premises are conducted through land surveying and the premises land surveyed are secured through recording to land register. However, land surveying and property identifying of all forestlands and premises have not been completed and recorded to land register in Turkey yet. In this study, whether opening land actions for annulment against the registered lands which remains within the forest boundaries, and the cancellation of those title deeds without any compensation is a violation of right to property or not was examined, evaluated, and discussed in the framework of Turkish Legal System, the European Convention on Human Rights and the European Court of Human Rights decisions, and some results have been obtained in this regard. It was found out in the high court decisions given in recent years that a certain amount of compensation should be given for the title deeds canceled on the grounds that they remained within the forest boundaries. Moreover, it can be seen that the citizens’ seeking compensation from the state or applying to the ECHR has been minimized through not cancelling the title deeds with the recent legislative changes.

  7. Tree species composition in areas of Atlantic Forest in southeastern Brazil is consistent with a new system for classifying the vegetation of South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Vasconcellos Eisenlohr

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Rigorous and well-defined criteria for the classification of vegetation constitute a prerequisite for effective biodiversity conservation strategies. In 2009, a new classification system was proposed for vegetation types in extra-Andean tropical and subtropical South America. The new system expanded upon the criteria established in the existing Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics classification system. Here, we attempted to determine whether the tree species composition of the formations within the Atlantic Forest Biome of Brazil is consistent with this new classification system. We compiled floristic surveys of 394 sites in southeastern Brazil (between 15º and 25ºS; and between the Atlantic coast and 55ºW. To assess the floristic consistency of the vegetation types, we performed non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS ordination analysis, followed by multifactorial ANOVA. The vegetation types, especially in terms of their thermal regimes, elevational belts and top-tier vegetation categories, were consistently discriminated in the first NMDS axis, and all assessed attributes showed at least one significant difference in the second axis. As was expected on the basis of the theoretical background, we found that tree species composition, in the areas of Atlantic Forest studied, was highly consistent with the new system of classification. Our findings not only help solidify the position of this new classification system but also contribute to expanding the knowledge of the patterns and underlying driving forces of the distribution of vegetation in the region.

  8. Composition of mixed flocks of understory forest birds in areas of the Atlantic coast and lowlands of Santa Catarina state, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Antonio Guimarães Azevedo

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available An accompaniment of forest mixed flocks was carried in two localities of Santa Catarina, southern Brazil, one on a forest hillside of the Atlantic on the Island of Santa Catarina (June to September, 2000 and another in a quaternary plain forest of the Volta Velha Reserve, Itapoá (June to November, 2000. Sixty-four species of birds were registered from the 79 identified flocks, 33 of which showed a frequency of occurrence above 10%. The flocks had an average number of six species. The nuclear species responsible for the aggregation and compacting of the flocks, for the two localities was Basileuterus culicivorus. The mixed flocks presented little difference in their composition in the two areas. This is probably due to the history of the colonization and the distinct forest formations of the two areas involved.

  9. Spatial patterns and stability of soil water content in forested slope and terraced area on the Loess Plateau, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Guoce; Li, Zhanbin; Li, Peng

    2016-04-01

    Soil water content (SWC) plays a vital role in hydrological and vegetation restoration processes. It is the principal limiting factor for vegetation restoration on the Loess Plateau of China. This study aimed to analyze the spatial patterns and stability of SWC in a terraced area containing jujube trees (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.) and a forested slope with Chinese pine (Pinus tabulaeformis Carr.) following rainfall. The SWCs in nine soil layers at intervals of 0.2 m down to a depth of 1.8 m were measured at 21 locations both in the terraces and in the forested slope from July 19 to September 3 in 2014. The results showed that the SWCs at different soil depths were normally distributed. The SWC in terraces and forestland at each soil depth all had strong temporal stability. The temporal stability of SWC was lower in the 0-0.4 m soil layer than at the deeper soil depths. The representative locations for SWC were depth-dependent and the number of representative locations was not constant. The mean SWC was largest in the lower terrace slopes. The lowest mean SWC in the forested slope was at the mid-slope point due to the highest root distribution. The 0.4-0.6 m soil depth was generally the wettest in both terraces and forestland. The driest soil depth in terraces was 1.0-1.2 m while the driest soil depth in forestland was 0.8-1.0 m. The SWC had a significant positive correlation with clay and silt content. Moerover, the SWC had a significant positive correlation with SOC and did not have a significant correlation with root conten in the terraced area. But in the forested slope, the SWC had a significant negative correlation with roots and did not have a significant correlation with SOC. Although it is feasible to use the representative locations of SWC to represent the mean SWC of a hillslope over a period of time, the cumulative absolute error increases with the cumulative number of days. In conclusion, the SWC at different soil depths and locations showed strong spatial

  10. Determination of Reactive Surface Area of Melt Glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourcier,W.L.; Roberts, S.; Smith, D.K.; Hulsey, S.; Newton,L.; Sawvel, A.; Bruton, C.; Papelis, C.; Um, W.; Russell, C. E.; Chapman,J.

    2000-10-01

    A comprehensive investigation of natural and manmade silicate glasses, and nuclear melt glass was undertaken in order to derive an estimate of glass reactive surface area. Reactive surface area is needed to model release rates of radionuclides from nuclear melt glass in the subsurface. Because of the limited availability of nuclear melt glasses, natural volcanic glass samples were collected which had similar textures and compositions as those of melt glass. A flow-through reactor was used to measure the reactive surface area of the analog glasses in the presence of simplified NTS site ground waters. A measure of the physical surface area of these glasses was obtained using the BET gas-adsorption method. The studies on analog glasses were supplemented by measurement of the surface areas of pieces of actual melt glass using the BET method. The variability of the results reflect the sample preparation and measurement techniques used, as well as textural heterogeneity inherent to these samples. Based on measurements of analog and actual samples, it is recommended that the hydraulic source term calculations employ a range of 0.001 to 0.01 m{sup 2}/g for the reactive surface area of nuclear melt glass.

  11. Measuring the Determinants of Relative Economic Performance of Rural Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Sheela; Rahman, Sanzidur; Errington, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the determinants of economic performance of 149 English rural Local Authority Districts (LADs). A Three Stage Least Square (3SLS) estimation procedure was employed to jointly determine the influence of a wide range of indicators representing economic, human, cultural and environmental capital, as well as less tangible or "soft"…

  12. Community Diversity of Cunninghamia lanceolata Forest in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area.%三峡库区杉木林群落多样性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖文发; 程瑞梅; 李建文; 马娟; 韩景军

    2001-01-01

    The Three Gorges Reservoir Area is located in the moist sub-tropical region. Cunninghamia lanceolata forest is one of its important vegetation types. According to the investigation, there are 8 kinds of community type of Cunninghamia lanceolata forest in the area. The vertical structure of this community is complicated, it can be divided into tree, shrub and herbaceous layers. The diversity variation among the communities is: shrub layer>herb layer>tree layer. The trend is “mid-altitude bulge” in community diversity along altitude. It might relate to the environmental factor and artificial disturbance in the research area.

  13. Use of morphometric soil aggregates parameters to evaluate the reclamation process in mined areas located at amazon forest - Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, A. I.; Fengler, F. H.; Longo, R. M.; Mello, G. F.; Damame, D. B.; Crowley, D. E.

    2015-12-01

    Brazil has a high mineral potential that have been explored over the years. A large fraction of these mineral resources are located in Amazon region, which is known for its large biodiversity and world climate importance. As the policies that control the Amazon preservation are relatively new, several mining activities have been exploring the Amazon territory, promoting a large process of degradation. Once the mining activities have a high potential of environmental changes the government created polices to restrain the mining in Amazon forests and obligate mining companies to reclaim theirs minded areas. However, the measurement of reclamation development still is a challenging task for the Professionals involved. The volume and complexity of the variables, allied to the difficulty in identifying the reclamation of ecosystem functionalities are still lack to ensure the reclamation success. In this sense this work aims to investigate the representativeness of morphometric soil aggregates parameters in the understanding of reclamation development. The study area is located in the National Forest of Jamari, State of Rondônia. In the past mining companies explored the region producing eight closed mines that are now in reclamation process. The soil aggregates morphometric measurements: geometric mean diameter (GMD), aggregate circularity index, and aggregate roundness, were choose based in its obtaining facility, and their association to biological activity. To achieve the proposed objective the aggregates of eight sites in reclamation, from different closed mines, where chosen and compared to Amazon forest and open mine soil aggregates. The results were analyzed to one way ANOVA to identifying differences between areas in reclamation, natural ecosystem, and open mine. It was obtained differences for GMD and circularity index. However, only the circularity index allowed to identifying differences between the reclamation sites. The results allowed concluding: (1

  14. Forest Typification to Characterize the Structure and Composition of Old-growth Evergreen Forests on Chiloe Island, North Patagonia (Chile

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    Jan R. Bannister

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The Evergreen forest type develops along the Valdivian and North-Patagonian phytogeographical regions of the south-central part of Chile (38° S–46° S. These evergreen forests have been scarcely studied south of 43° S, where there is still a large area made up of old-growth forests. Silvicultural proposals for the Evergreen forest type have been based on northern Evergreen forests, so that the characterization of the structure and composition of southern Evergreen forests, e.g., their typification, would aid in the development of appropriate silvicultural proposals for these forests. Based on the tree composition of 46 sampled plots in old-growth forests in an area of >1000 ha in southern Chiloé Island (43° S, we used multivariate analyses to define forest groups and to compare these forests with other evergreen forests throughout the Archipelago of North-Patagonia. We determined that evergreen forests of southern Chiloé correspond to the North-Patagonian temperate rainforests that are characterized by few tree species of different shade tolerance growing on fragile soils. We discuss the convenience of developing continuous cover forest management for these forests, rather than selective cuts or even-aged management that is proposed in the current legislation. This study is a contribution to forest classification for both ecologically- and forestry-oriented purposes.

  15. The influence of weather and fuel type on the fuel composition of the area burned by forest fires in Ontario, 1996-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podur, Justin J; Martell, David L

    2009-07-01

    Forest fires are influenced by weather, fuels, and topography, but the relative influence of these factors may vary in different forest types. Compositional analysis can be used to assess the relative importance of fuels and weather in the boreal forest. Do forest or wild land fires burn more flammable fuels preferentially or, because most large fires burn in extreme weather conditions, do fires burn fuels in the proportions they are available despite differences in flammability? In the Canadian boreal forest, aspen (Populus tremuloides) has been found to burn in less than the proportion in which it is available. We used the province of Ontario's Provincial Fuels Database and fire records provided by the Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources to compare the fuel composition of area burned by 594 large (>40 ha) fires that occurred in Ontario's boreal forest region, a study area some 430,000 km2 in size, between 1996 and 2006 with the fuel composition of the neighborhoods around the fires. We found that, over the range of fire weather conditions in which large fires burned and in a study area with 8% aspen, fires burn fuels in the proportions that they are available, results which are consistent with the dominance of weather in controlling large fires. PMID:19688931

  16. Structure of forest ecosystems and leaf area index of wood plants -results of monitoring over the years 1991-1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monitored characteristics and their dynamics over the last four vegetation seasons reveal the following conclusions: 1) Changes of monitored parameters (e.g. the structure of tree and shrub layer, the leaf area index) are slow, drab and insignificant at the permanent monitoring representing a major part of forest ecosystems of the area affected by the Hydroelectric power structures Gabcikovo. Despite the absence of floods, the ground water level is at a sufficient height to contact rhisosphere of wood plants and the recorded changes are in accord with growth regularities. 2) An increase of the ground water level in the upper part of the monitored territory and a partial renaturation of hydropedological conditions led to an improvement of production-ecological parameters of the area. Changes of its structure are of positive tendency, the leaf area index is stabilised at high values and somewhere even increased (in 1994 being by 70-80% higher than in 1991). 3) Localities with a permanent decrease of the ground water level (band along the old river-bed of the Danube, a dry triangle among the old river-bed of the Danube, the inlet canal and the river arm supplied by the intake structure at Dobrohost and other places) were afflicted by negative changes, locally indicating destruction of tree and shrub layers, with the leaf area index significantly reduced by 20-30%. (author). 1 tab., 5 refs

  17. Managing artisanal and small-scale mining in forest areas: perspectives from a poststructural political ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirons, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Artisanal and small-scale mining (ASM) is an activity intimately associated with social deprivation and environmental degradation, including deforestation. This paper examines ASM and deforestation using a broadly poststructural political ecology framework. Hegemonic discourses are shown to consistently influence policy direction, particularly in emerging approaches such as Corporate Social Responsibility and the Forest Stewardship Council. A review of alternative discourses reveals that the poststructural method is useful for critiquing the international policy arena but does not inform new approaches. Synthesis of the analysis leads to conclusions that echo a growing body of literature advocating for policies to become increasingly sensitive to local contexts, synergistic between actors at difference scales, and to be integrated across sectors. PMID:22180922

  18. Diffusion and export dynamics of 137Cs deposited on the forested area in Fukushima after the nuclear power plant accident in March 2011. Preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A massive amount of radioactive substances, including cesium-137 (137Cs), emitted from the disabled nuclear power plant, has been deposited on the forested areas in the northeastern region of Honshu Island, Japan after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident. Forests in these regions are particularly important, not only for the forest products industry but also for source areas of drinking water and for residential environments. To clarify the mechanisms of diffusion and export of 137Cs deposited on the forested ecosystem, we initiated intensive field observations in a small catchment that included forest and farmlands. Specifically, we were interested in the Kami-Oguni River catchment that is located in the northern part of Fukushima Prefecture. The following expected major pathways of 137Cs export and diffusion were investigated: 1) transportation of dissolved and particulate or colloidal forms via hydrological processes within a forested catchment and export dynamics through the stream, and 2) diffusion through the food web in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems of forests. Preliminary findings indicated the following: 1) Most of the 137Cs was discharged as suspended matter. High water flow generated by storm acted to accelerate the transportation of 137Cs from the forested catchments. Thus, the estimation of 137Cs export requires precise evaluation of the high flow acceleration during storm events; 2) Because litter and its detritus may form the biggest pool of 137Cs in the forested ecosystem, 137Cs diffusion occurs more rapidly through the detritus food chain than the grazing food chain. Most predators have already ingested 137Cs, particularly in aquatic environments. An urgent question that needs to be addressed is when and how 137Cs diffuses through grazing food chains and how rapidly this process occurs. To elucidate or to be able to predict these phenomena, the mechanisms of 137Cs release from litter and soil's organic matter need to be clarified

  19. Impact of payments for environmental services and protected areas on local livelihoods and forest conservation in northern Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, Tom; Milner-Gulland, E J

    2015-02-01

    The potential impacts of payments for environmental services (PES) and protected areas (PAs) on environmental outcomes and local livelihoods in developing countries are contentious and have been widely debated. The available evidence is sparse, with few rigorous evaluations of the environmental and social impacts of PAs and particularly of PES. We measured the impacts on forests and human well-being of three different PES programs instituted within two PAs in northern Cambodia, using a panel of intervention villages and matched controls. Both PES and PAs delivered additional environmental outcomes relative to the counterfactual: reducing deforestation rates significantly relative to controls. PAs increased security of access to land and forest resources for local households, benefiting forest resource users but restricting households' ability to expand and diversify their agriculture. The impacts of PES on household well-being were related to the magnitude of the payments provided. The two higher paying market-linked PES programs had significant positive impacts, whereas a lower paying program that targeted biodiversity protection had no detectable effect on livelihoods, despite its positive environmental outcomes. Households that signed up for the higher paying PES programs, however, typically needed more capital assets; hence, they were less poor and more food secure than other villagers. Therefore, whereas the impacts of PAs on household well-being were limited overall and varied between livelihood strategies, the PES programs had significant positive impacts on livelihoods for those that could afford to participate. Our results are consistent with theories that PES, when designed appropriately, can be a powerful new tool for delivering conservation goals whilst benefiting local people. PMID:25492724

  20. Plant species composition in a temperate forest: Multi-scale patterns and determinants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazol, Antonio; Ibáñez, Ricardo

    2010-11-01

    We examine the spatial patterns of plant species composition at different scales in a hierarchical sampling design with two surveys of contrasting scale. Additionally, environmental and spatial variables are used to explain the observed patterns. Five datasets were analyzed in this study. The first was obtained as a result of a large-scale spatial survey, in which the study site (132 ha) was divided into 102 large plots of 20 × 20 m. The remaining four datasets were obtained from a small-scale spatial survey, in which four of the former plots were also divided into 100 small plots of 2 × 2 m. Spatial patterns of plant species composition in both spatial surveys were quantified and the factors that influenced them were assessed using multi-scale pattern analysis (MSPA). Over the large-scale survey the topographic structure of the study site created a spatially structured environment, influencing species composition, and the spatial variables indicated that the environment was structured at a broad scale (relative to grain size and extent of the survey). In the small-scale survey the microenvironmental variables that influenced species composition were also spatially structured at a broad scale (relative to grain size and extent of the survey). However, the analyses point to the existence of spatial autocorrelation that seems to be structured at finer scales than the environmental heterogeneity in both study surveys. This study indicates that species composition in this temperate forest is not only determined by the environmental variables studied at either of the two spatial scales considered (large- and small-scale surveys). In both scales, the pure spatial component present in the analyses may be indicating the influence of unmeasured environmental variables and/or biotic processes on species composition patterns. However, while environmental heterogeneity has a broad-scale domain, biotic processes seem to work at finer scales, as is indicated by the spatial

  1. Natural Forest Types and Their Differential Species on Genya Mountain-Artvin

    OpenAIRE

    Güner, Sinan

    2002-01-01

    To be successful in forestry practices, all factors affecting forests and the interactions among them should be determined. It is important to study and understand the structure and dynamics of forests and make an inventory of existing and non-degraded homogeneous areas of natural forest types in the country. This study was conducted to determine different forest types and their differential species on Genya Mountain in Artvin. Based on the results determined by the Braun-Blanquet method, a t...

  2. Precision of Nest Method in Estimating Orangutan Population and Determination of Important Ecological Factors for Management of Conservation Forest

    OpenAIRE

    Yanto Santosa; Dede Aulia Rahman

    2012-01-01

    Orangutan as an umbrella species is closely interlinked with sustainable forest management meaning that the protection of this species has implications on the protection of other species and maintain ecosystem stability.  The total natural habitat required to support orangutan’s population could only be determined by the appropriate population size. It is associated with the carrying capacity to accommodate or fulfill the habitat requirements of a wildlife population. Selection and delineatio...

  3. Combining remote sensing and GIS climate modelling to estimate daily forest evapotranspiration in a Mediterranean mountain area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Cristóbal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Evapotranspiration monitoring allows us to assess the environmental stress on forest and agricultural ecosystems. Nowadays, Remote Sensing and Geographical Information Systems (GIS are the main techniques used for calculating evapotranspiration at catchment and regional scales. In this study we present a methodology, based on the energy balance equation (B-method, that combines remote sensing imagery with GIS climate modelling to estimate daily evapotranspiration (ETd for several dates between 2003 and 2005. The three main variables needed to compute ETd were obtained as follows: (i Land surface temperature by means of the Landsat-5 TM and Landsat-7 ETM+ thermal band, (ii air temperature by means of multiple regression analysis and spatial interpolation from meteorological ground stations data at satellite pass, and (iii net radiation by means of the radiative balance. We calculated ETd using remote sensing data at different spatial and temporal scales (TERRA/AQUA MODIS and Landsat-5 TM/Landsat-7 ETM+ and combining three different approaches to calculate the B parameter. We then compared these estimates with sap flow measurements from a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. stand in a Mediterranean mountain area. This procedure allowed us to better understand the limitations of ETd modelling and how it needs to be improved, especially in heterogeneous forest areas. The method using Landsat data resulted in a good agreement, with a mean RMSE value of about 0.6 mm day−1 and an estimation error of ±30%. The poor agreement obtained using MODIS data reveals that ETd retrieval from coarse resolution remote sensing data is troublesome in these heterogeneous areas, and therefore further research is necessary on this issue.

  4. Non-destructive models for leaf area determination in canola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francilene de L. Tartaglia

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The leaf is a very important structure of the plants, since it allows gas exchanges and the transformation of light energy into chemical energy. This study aimed to generate and test mathematical models for leaf area estimation in canola based on leaf dimensions. Two experiments were conducted with canola in 2014, in which leaves were collected in different phenological stages with different sizes and shapes. Subsequently, leaf length, width and area were measured (with automatic meter in 606 leaves, which included 371 ovate and 235 lanceolate leaves. The models were generated using length, width and length versus width as independent variables and leaf area as dependent variable. The models were validated using a group of leaves different from those used to generate the models. A total of 27 models were obtained and those with best statistics and higher simplicity were selected. The polynomial model LA = 0.88735 W2 + 0.93503 W and the power model LA = 1.1282 W1.9396 can be used for both types of leaves and have high accuracy in the estimation of canola leaf area.

  5. Surface fuels quantification in forest plantations and remaining of atlantic forest in the “Brejo” region in Paraíba State, Brazil”

    OpenAIRE

    Patrícia Carneiro Souto; José Edimar V. Costa Júnior; Felipe Carlos P. de Almeida; Sócrates Martins; Isaías Ezequiel L. de Araújo; Jacob Silva Souto

    2009-01-01

    Studies on the accumulation of combustible material in native forests and plantations are mainly important tool for estimating the risk of forest fires. This study aimed to determine the amount of combustible material in forest stands and in the remaining rain forest located in the municipality of Areia, in Brejo of Paraiba. The collection of combustible material was carried out in plots of 1m ², randomly selected areas. The fuel accumulated in the different areas were classified according to...

  6. Litterfall and Leaf Area Index Before and After Selective Logging in Tapaj¢s National Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueira, M. A.; da Rocha, H.; Goulden, M. L.; Miller, S. D.; Menton, M.; Doughty, C.; Freitas, H.; da Sousa, C. A.; Maia, A.

    2002-12-01

    We are using measurements of litterfall to study the Leaf Area Index (LAI) of the selectively logged site in the Tapajos National Forest, Santarém, Par , as a component of the Large Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia (LBA). The surface fluxes of water, energy and CO2 between the atmosphere and ecosystems are largely controlled by the physical structure of the canopy and the amount of green biomass (the LAI). The effect of perturbations such as logging on these processes is not well understood. We installed 30 1-m2 litter traps in an 18-ha block upwind of the eddy covariance tower and collected litter bi-weekly beginning in September 2000. The site was selectively logged in September 2001, and observations prior to this point indicate the litterfall dynamics of undisturbed forest. Litterfall varied seasonally from September 2000 to September 2001, with comparatively high rates beginning in May and continuing through the dry season. The May leaf drop preceded the beginning of the dry season, implying that it was not a direct result of drought. The May increase coincided with a decline in daytime CO2 uptake measured by eddy covariance, indicating that both LAI and canopy photosynthesis decreased beginning in May. The integrated litterfall observations prior to logging suggest an overall LAI of 5 m2m-2, which agrees with independent assessments of LAI made by fisheye photography during the 2000 wet season.

  7. Malaria in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, an Atlantic Forest area: an assessment using the health surveillance service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Bortolasse Miguel

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The lethality of malaria in the extra-Amazonian region is more than 70 times higher than in Amazonia itself. Recently, several studies have shown that autochthonous malaria is not a rare event in the Brazilian southeastern states in the Atlantic Forest biome. Information about autochthonous malaria in the state of Rio de Janeiro (RJ is scarce. This study aims to assess malaria cases reported to the Health Surveillance System of the State of Rio de Janeiro between 2000-2010. An average of 90 cases per year had parasitological malaria confirmation by thick smear. The number of malaria notifications due to Plasmodium falciparum increased over time. Imported cases reported during the period studied were spread among 51% of the municipalities (counties of the state. Only 35 cases (4.3% were autochthonous, which represents an average of 3.8 new cases per year. Eleven municipalities reported autochthonous cases; within these, six could be characterised as areas of residual or new foci of malaria from the Atlantic Forest system. The other 28 municipalities could become receptive for transmission reintroduction. Cases occurred during all periods of the year, but 62.9% of cases were in the first semester of each year. Assessing vulnerability and receptivity conditions and vector ecology is imperative to establish the real risk of malaria reintroduction in RJ.

  8. National Parks and Protected Areas and the Role for Employment in Tourism and Forest Sectors: a Swedish Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Fredman

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The development of national parks and other protected areas has been widely promoted because of its potential for regional development in peripheral and sparsely populated areas. The argument is that the economic and social benefits seen in national parks in the USA and UK will also occur in the Swedish context in the form of an increased tourism-related labor market. Our aim was to analyze the possibility of such a development both in light of the policy visions of positive regional and local development and from the adversary point of view that protection of land is making it more difficult for 15 sparsely populated mountain municipalities in Sweden to prosper. We used a database covering the entire population of the area for 1991 to 2001. Our results show that factors other than the protected areas are connected to the development of a tourism labor market. The most positively correlated variables for change in tourism employment are population growth and proximity to ski lifts. Positive population development is also correlated to a positive change in the number of people employed in forest sectors. Thus, one of the main outcomes is that the assumed and almost automatic positive relation between nature conservation and tourism can is questionable.

  9. Bushmeat networks link the forest to urban areas in the trifrontier region between Brazil, Colombia, and Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie van Vliet

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have intended to quantify urban consumption and trade in Amazonian towns. However, little is still known about the different ways in which bushmeat is made available in urban areas, including commercial and noncommercial flows, and how those flows contribute to link forests to urban livelihoods. In this study we qualitatively describe the structure and functioning of bushmeat flows in terms of species, catchment area, stakeholders involved, and the motivations for their activity in the main towns of the Amazon trifrontier region between Brazil, Colombia, and Peru. We show that bushmeat trade to urban areas exists under an organized but invisible commodity chain providing a source of income to about 195 persons. Bushmeat is made available either directly from the hunter to the urban consumer, at the main market place, or in food stalls and restaurants. On the Colombian border, the trade is totally invisible, whereas in Peru and Brazil, bushmeat is sold in open markets despite regulations. The catchment area comprises the main rivers: up to Caballococha along the Amazon River, along the Atacuary River in Peru, along the Javari River between Peru and Brazil, and along the Loretoyacu and Amacayacu rivers in Colombia and in periurban forests. Although the trade is rather localized (no commercial flows to larger towns, international transborder trade is commonplace, disregarding Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora regulations. Bushmeat clients in urban areas are mainly nonindigenous or mestizos who can afford bushmeat as a luxury meal. Instead, indigenous people in urban areas do not access bushmeat through the market but rather through their social networks with whom they maintain noncommercial flows including immediate exchange and long-term exchange mechanisms. Although bushmeat is no longer consumed as a daily meal among urban and periurban indigenous families, it constitutes what could be

  10. Groundwater Quality Assessment for Waste Management Area U: First Determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodges, Floyd N.; Chou, Charissa J.

    2000-08-04

    As a result of the most recent recalculation one of the indicator parameters, specific conductance, exceeded its background value in downgradient well 299-W19-41, triggering a change from detection monitoring to groundwater quality assessment program. The major contributors to the higher specific conductance are nonhazardous constituents (i.e., sodium, calcium, magnesium, chloride, sulfate, and bicarbonate). Nitrate, chromium, and technetium-99 are present and are increasing; however, they are significantly below their drinking waster standards. Interpretation of groundwater monitoring data indicates that both the nonhazardous constituents causing elevated specific conductance in groundwater and the tank waste constituents present in groundwater at the waste management area are a result of surface water infiltration in the southern portion of the facility. There is evidence for both upgradient and waste management area sources for observed nitrate concentrations. There is no indication of an upgradient source for the observed chromium and technetium-99.

  11. Precision of Nest Method in Estimating Orangutan Population and Determination of Important Ecological Factors for Management of Conservation Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanto Santosa

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Orangutan as an umbrella species is closely interlinked with sustainable forest management meaning that the protection of this species has implications on the protection of other species and maintain ecosystem stability.  The total natural habitat required to support orangutan’s population could only be determined by the appropriate population size. It is associated with the carrying capacity to accommodate or fulfill the habitat requirements of a wildlife population. Selection and delineation of core and wilderness zones as habitat preference should be based on the results of preference test shown by the spatial distribution of orangutan population. Value of the coefficient  of  variation (CV was used to observe the precision of the population estimation and to identify important ecological factors in selection of nesting trees.  The study resulted in varied CV spatial values for various habitat types: 22.60%,  11.20%, and 13.30% for heath, lowland dipterocarp, and peat swamp forest, respectively. In the other side, CV temporal values for various habitat types were 5.35%, 22.60%, and 17.60% for heath, lowland dipterocarp, and peat swamp forest, respectively. This indicated that the population density in each type of forest ecosystems had a variation based on location and did not varied according to time of survey.  The use of  nest survey technique showed good reliable results in estimating orangutan population density.  Efforts to improve the precision of estimation can be done by formulating r value as the harmonic average of nest production rates and t as the average of nest decay time per nest category. Selection of habitat preference and nest trees were influenced by food availability thus should form important consideration in conducting nest survey to avoid bias in estimating orangutan populations.Keywords: conservation forest management, nest survey, orangutan, population size, ecological factors

  12. US Forest Service Healthy Forest Restoration Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting areas designated within National Forest System Lands, in 37 States, that are eligible for insect and disease treatments under...

  13. US Forest Service Administrative Forest Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting all the National Forest System lands administered by an unit. These areas encompasse private lands, other governmental agency...

  14. A proposal for a transnational forest network area for elephants in Côte d'Ivoire and Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parren, M.P.E.; Leede, de B.M.; Bongers, F.

    2002-01-01

    Forest elephants Loxodonta africana cyclotis in Ghana and eastern Côte d'Ivoire live in small isolated populations and number fewer than 1,000 individuals in total. To ensure the long-term survival of these elephants the present forest reserves need to be linked into a network by forest corridors. T

  15. Periodic Comprehensive Forest Inventory on Production Forest Management in Papua Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Financio Dorebayo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The periodic comprehensive forest inventory (inventarisasi hutan menyeluruh berkala called IHMB is Indonesian forest stands inventory which based on compartment at forest effective area of forest management unit (FMU. To preserve sustainable forest management, IHMB implementation are used as a benchmark on the determinate of maximum cutting area and large of timber volume that can be produced by FMU to preparing long-term forest planning. The purpose of this study is to assess the suitability and accuracy of the IHMB implementation results to arranging forest management plan that aims to produce sustainable timber. Data were gathered with direct observation on FMU (PT Bts and PTSMS in Papua Province. Data analysis using descriptive statistic method and the sampling is using purposive sampling method. The study showed that the data and information collected in accordance with IHMB guidelines have not covered all the necessary data to arranged forest management plans based on the sustainability forest principles to appropriate with the criteria and indicators of sustainability. IHMB Implementation is the important activity on FMU. The sense of word “comprehensive” on IHMB is meaningfully only covered the forest area, without including all components of the data and information on forest ecosystem.

  16. Analysis and Assessment of the Spatial and Temporal Distribution of Burned Areas in the Amazon Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francielle da Silva Cardozo

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyze the spatial and temporal distribution of burned areas in Rondônia State, Brazil during the years 2000 to 2011 and evaluate the burned area maps. A Linear Spectral Mixture Model (LSMM was applied to MODIS surface reflectance images to originate the burned areas maps, which were validated with TM/Landsat 5 and ETM+/Landsat 7 images and field data acquired in August 2013. The validation presented a correlation ranging from 67% to 96% with an average value of 86%. The lower correlation values are related to the distinct spatial resolutions of the MODIS and TM/ETM+ sensors because small burn scars are not detected in MODIS images and higher spatial correlations are related to the presence of large fires, which are better identified in MODIS, increasing the accuracy of the mapping methodology. In addition, the 12-year burned area maps of Rondônia indicate that fires, as a general pattern, occur in areas that have already been converted to some land use, such as vegetal extraction, large animal livestock areas or diversified permanent crops. Furthermore, during the analyzed period, land use conversion associated with climatic events significantly influenced the occurrence of fire in Rondônia and amplified its impacts.

  17. GIS applied to location of fires detection towers in domain area of tropical forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eugenio, Fernando Coelho; Rosa Dos Santos, Alexandre; Fiedler, Nilton Cesar; Ribeiro, Guido Assunção; da Silva, Aderbal Gomes; Juvanhol, Ronie Silva; Schettino, Vitor Roberto; Marcatti, Gustavo Eduardo; Domingues, Getúlio Fonseca; Alves Dos Santos, Gleissy Mary Amaral Dino; Pezzopane, José Eduardo Macedo; Pedra, Beatriz Duguy; Banhos, Aureo; Martins, Lima Deleon

    2016-08-15

    In most countries, the loss of biodiversity caused by the fires is worrying. In this sense, the fires detection towers are crucial for rapid identification of fire outbreaks and can also be used in environmental inspection, biodiversity monitoring, telecommunications mechanisms, telemetry and others. Currently the methodologies for allocating fire detection towers over large areas are numerous, complex and non-standardized by government supervisory agencies. Therefore, this study proposes and evaluates different methodologies to best location of points to install fire detection towers considering the topography, risk areas, conservation units and heat spots. Were used Geographic Information Systems (GIS) techniques and unaligned stratified systematic sampling for implementing and evaluating 9 methods for allocating fire detection towers. Among the methods evaluated, the C3 method was chosen, represented by 140 fire detection towers, with coverage of: a) 67% of the study area, b) 73.97% of the areas with high risk, c) 70.41% of the areas with very high risk, d) 70.42% of the conservation units and e) 84.95% of the heat spots in 2014. The proposed methodology can be adapted to areas of other countries.

  18. GIS applied to location of fires detection towers in domain area of tropical forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eugenio, Fernando Coelho; Rosa Dos Santos, Alexandre; Fiedler, Nilton Cesar; Ribeiro, Guido Assunção; da Silva, Aderbal Gomes; Juvanhol, Ronie Silva; Schettino, Vitor Roberto; Marcatti, Gustavo Eduardo; Domingues, Getúlio Fonseca; Alves Dos Santos, Gleissy Mary Amaral Dino; Pezzopane, José Eduardo Macedo; Pedra, Beatriz Duguy; Banhos, Aureo; Martins, Lima Deleon

    2016-08-15

    In most countries, the loss of biodiversity caused by the fires is worrying. In this sense, the fires detection towers are crucial for rapid identification of fire outbreaks and can also be used in environmental inspection, biodiversity monitoring, telecommunications mechanisms, telemetry and others. Currently the methodologies for allocating fire detection towers over large areas are numerous, complex and non-standardized by government supervisory agencies. Therefore, this study proposes and evaluates different methodologies to best location of points to install fire detection towers considering the topography, risk areas, conservation units and heat spots. Were used Geographic Information Systems (GIS) techniques and unaligned stratified systematic sampling for implementing and evaluating 9 methods for allocating fire detection towers. Among the methods evaluated, the C3 method was chosen, represented by 140 fire detection towers, with coverage of: a) 67% of the study area, b) 73.97% of the areas with high risk, c) 70.41% of the areas with very high risk, d) 70.42% of the conservation units and e) 84.95% of the heat spots in 2014. The proposed methodology can be adapted to areas of other countries. PMID:27110968

  19. Body surface area determined by whole-body CT scanning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villa, Chiara; Primeau, Charlotte; Hesse, Ulrik;

    2016-01-01

    Calculation of the estimated body surface area (BSA) by body height and weight has been a challenge in the past centuries due to lack of a well-documented gold standard. More recently, available techniques such as 3D laser surface scanning and CT scanning may be expected to quantify the BSA...... in an easier and more accurate way. This study provides the first comparison between BSA obtained from post-mortem whole-body CT scans and BSA calculated by nine predictive formulae. The sample consisted of 54 male cadavers ranging from 20 to 87 years old. 3D reconstructions were generated from CT scans using...

  20. Response of the endangered tropical dry forests to climate change and the role of Mexican Protected Areas for their conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto-Torres, David A; Navarro-Sigüenza, Adolfo G; Santiago-Alarcon, Diego; Rojas-Soto, Octavio R

    2016-01-01

    Assuming that co-distributed species are exposed to similar environmental conditions, ecological niche models (ENMs) of bird and plant species inhabiting tropical dry forests (TDFs) in Mexico were developed to evaluate future projections of their distribution for the years 2050 and 2070. We used ENM-based predictions and climatic data for two Global Climate Models, considering two Representative Concentration Pathway scenarios (RCP4.5/RCP8.5). We also evaluated the effects of habitat loss and the importance of the Mexican system of protected areas (PAs) on the projected models for a more detailed prediction of TDFs and to identify hot spots that require conservation actions. We identified four major distributional areas: the main one located along the Pacific Coast (from Sonora to Chiapas, including the Cape and Bajío regions, and the Balsas river basin), and three isolated areas: the Yucatán peninsula, central Veracruz, and southern Tamaulipas. When considering the effect of habitat loss, a significant reduction (~61%) of the TDFs predicted area occurred, whereas climate-change models suggested (in comparison with the present distribution model) an increase in area of 3.0-10.0% and 3.0-9.0% for 2050 and 2070, respectively. In future scenarios, TDFs will occupy areas above its current average elevational distribution that are outside of its present geographical range. Our findings show that TDFs may persist in Mexican territory until the middle of the XXI century; however, the challenges about long-term conservation are partially addressed (only 7% unaffected within the Mexican network of PAs) with the current Mexican PAs network. Based on our ENM approach, we suggest that a combination of models of species inhabiting present TDFs and taking into account change scenarios represent an invaluable tool to create new PAs and ecological corridors, as a response to the increasing levels of habitat destruction and the effects of climate change on this ecosystem. PMID

  1. Response of the endangered tropical dry forests to climate change and the role of Mexican Protected Areas for their conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto-Torres, David A; Navarro-Sigüenza, Adolfo G; Santiago-Alarcon, Diego; Rojas-Soto, Octavio R

    2016-01-01

    Assuming that co-distributed species are exposed to similar environmental conditions, ecological niche models (ENMs) of bird and plant species inhabiting tropical dry forests (TDFs) in Mexico were developed to evaluate future projections of their distribution for the years 2050 and 2070. We used ENM-based predictions and climatic data for two Global Climate Models, considering two Representative Concentration Pathway scenarios (RCP4.5/RCP8.5). We also evaluated the effects of habitat loss and the importance of the Mexican system of protected areas (PAs) on the projected models for a more detailed prediction of TDFs and to identify hot spots that require conservation actions. We identified four major distributional areas: the main one located along the Pacific Coast (from Sonora to Chiapas, including the Cape and Bajío regions, and the Balsas river basin), and three isolated areas: the Yucatán peninsula, central Veracruz, and southern Tamaulipas. When considering the effect of habitat loss, a significant reduction (~61%) of the TDFs predicted area occurred, whereas climate-change models suggested (in comparison with the present distribution model) an increase in area of 3.0-10.0% and 3.0-9.0% for 2050 and 2070, respectively. In future scenarios, TDFs will occupy areas above its current average elevational distribution that are outside of its present geographical range. Our findings show that TDFs may persist in Mexican territory until the middle of the XXI century; however, the challenges about long-term conservation are partially addressed (only 7% unaffected within the Mexican network of PAs) with the current Mexican PAs network. Based on our ENM approach, we suggest that a combination of models of species inhabiting present TDFs and taking into account change scenarios represent an invaluable tool to create new PAs and ecological corridors, as a response to the increasing levels of habitat destruction and the effects of climate change on this ecosystem.

  2. Relative roles of local disturbance, current climate and palaeoclimate in determining phylogenetic and functional diversity in Chinese forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Feng

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The main processes underlying the generation and maintenance of biodiversity include both local factors such as competition and abiotic filtering and regional forces such as palaeoclimate, speciation and dispersal. While the effects of regional and local drivers on species diversity are increasingly studied, their relative importance for other aspects of diversity, notably phylogenetic and functional diversity is so far little studied. Here, we link data from large Chinese forest plots to data on current and Last Glacial Maximum (LGM climate as well as local disturbance regimes to study their relative roles in determining woody plant phylogenetic and functional diversity in this important hotspot for woody plant diversity. Local disturbance was the best predictor of functional diversity as represented by maximum canopy height (Hmax, probably reflecting the dominant role of competition for light in determining the forest Hmax structure. In contrast, the LGM-present anomaly in temperature was the factor with the strongest explanatory power for phylogenetic diversity, with modern climate also important. Hence, local contemporary and regional historical factors have highly contrasting importance for the geographic patterns of the functional and phylogenetic aspects of Chinese forest woody plant diversity. Importantly, contemporary factors are of overriding importance for functional diversity, while palaeoclimate has left a strong signature in the phylogenetic diversity patterns.

  3. Evaluation of Soil Nutrients for Different Forest Types in Xing'an Mountains Forest Area%大小兴安岭林区不同林型土壤养分综合评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王芳; 黄玫; 孙希华; 龚亚珍; 王军邦

    2013-01-01

    This study is based on the field data obtained for the main forest types in Xing an mountains region, including coniferous forest, mixed forest, birch forest, pine forest and Mongolian oak forest. By using statistical method, the vertical distribution characteristics of soil organic matter, total nitrogen, available phosphorus and potassium are analyzed and the soil nutrient status is evaluated. Results indicate that the contents of soil organic matter, total nitrogen, available phosphorus and potassium are different significantly among various forest soil(0-40 cm) types. The contents of organic matter, total nitrogen and available phosphorus in the soils of birch forest and mixed forest are the highest, followed by that in coniferous forest and then Mongolian oak forest. The available potassium content in soils of the Mongolian oak forest and birch forest is the highest and in the mixed forest, the lowest. The improved Nemerow comprehensive index is used to evaluate soil quality. The results show that the contents of organic matter and total nitrogen are especially abundant in Xing'an Mountain forest soils, and the content of available phosphorus is in the medium to high level. The overall soil nutrient of the studied forests is in a relatively high level, but the content of available potassium is in a low level. Lack of available potassium has become a major limitation in this area.%基于大小兴安岭地区主要林型野外采样数据,利用统计学方法分析了红松林、针阔混交林、白桦林、樟子松林和蒙古栎林土壤有机质、全氮、速效磷和速效钾的垂直分布特征,并对土壤养分状况进行了综合评价.结果表明,不同林型土壤(0-40 cm)有机质、全氮、速效磷、速效钾养分含量差异显著.有机质、全氮、速效磷3种土壤养分的总体分布是白桦林、针阔混交林比较高,针叶林次之,蒙古栎林比较低;而速效钾含量以蒙古栎林、白桦林为最高,针阔混交

  4. Empirical Determination of Political Cultures as a Basis for Effective Coordination of Forest Management Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pokorny, B.; Schanz, H.

    2003-01-01

    To design viable strategies to implement sustainable forest management, tools are needed that allow the understanding and management of the driving forces behind conflicting opinions and divergent solutions. The approach of Thompson et al. (1990) to cultural theory-because of its descriptive power-m

  5. Determination of The Minimal Amount of Water for Effective Suppression of The Thermal Decomposition of Forest Combustible Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhdanova Alena О.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Forest fires are big problem for whole the world community. The development of new effective methods is needed to increase the efficiency of the firefighting. We have investigated experimentally the suppression of thermal decomposition of different typical forest combustibles using water aerosol. Droplet sizes were 0.02-0.2mm; the concentration −3.8·10−5 m3 of water/m3, the flow rate −0.00035 l/s, flow velocity −2 m/s. Registration of the aerosol propagation and interaction with combustibles was done by high-speed video camera using Shadow Photography and Particle Tracking Velocimetry methods. The effective water volumes for fire suppression were determined together with corresponding suppression times. The obtained results could be used for improvement of the fire-fighting technologies.

  6. Air Quality Deterioration of Urban Areas Caused by Wildfires in a Natural Reservoir Forest of Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noel Carbajal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Many regions of the world suffer loss of vegetation and reduced air quality due to wildfires. Studies on aerosol emissions by wildfires often discuss the negative effects of atmospheric contaminants from a regional or mesoscale perspective. The occurrence of wildfires reveals that a high percentage takes place close to large urban areas. Very high concentration of pollutants and PM10 particulate matter reach urban zones and millions of inhabitants. These events of high pollutant concentrations are seasonally recurrent. There are many large urban areas in the world that often undergo severe air deterioration due to wildfires smoke. We document the extreme impact of wildfire that occurs in the Protected Area of Flora and Fauna La Primavera located in neighborhood of Guadalajara, a large urban zone in Mexico. The simultaneous emissions of aerosols by 60 wildfires were simulated and compared with observed data. The plume generated by the wildfires reached large areas of the central part of Mexico. The principal characteristics of smog emissions (CO, NO2, and PM10 over the urban area were acceptably reproduced. Observed and modeled CO, PM10, and NO2 data indicated that aerosol plumes generated by the wildfires increased notably the concentrations over the metropolitan zone of Guadalajara.

  7. Factors controlling the diurnal variation of CO above a forested area in southeast Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gros, V. [Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Mainz (Germany); Tsigaridis, K.; Kanakidou, M. [University of Crete, Heraklion (Greece). Department of Chemistry, Environmental Chemical Processes Laboratory; Bonsang, B. [Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l' Environement, Gif sur Yvette (France); Pio, C. [University of Aveiro (Portugal). Departamento de Ambiente

    2002-07-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) measurements have been performed in a forested site in central Greece in the framework of the AEROBIC (AEROsol formation from Biogenic Carbon) campaign in summer 1997. The mean CO observed during the whole campaign ranged between 114 and 250 ppbv (mean of 170{+-}27 ppbv), reflecting continental influence. The observed mean diurnal cycle of CO presented a minimum in the early morning due to the efficient deposition of CO in a shallow nocturnal layer sealed from the free tropospheric air during the night (loss rates of about 2 ppbv h{sup -1}). in the early morning and in the late afternoon, a sharp and fluctuating increase of CO was observed as the consequence of CO primary sources, likely by local traffic as suggested by the concomitant enhancements of black carbon (BC) and other combustion tracers. The morning pollution peak (6:30-8:30 local time) preceded slightly the opening of the nocturnal layer to the free troposphere, which resulted in CO reduction down to background levels at about 10:00. During the day (10:00-17:00), a slight but regular increase was observed on CO levels. For lack of simultaneous increase of other anthropogenic tracers, this CO enhancement has been attributed to its photochemical formation initiated by the oxidation of reactive biogenic hydrocarbons. This observed net production of CO averaging 1.2 ppbv h{sup -1} is quite well reproduced by a box model containing an explicit chemical scheme of isoprene and {alpha}- and {beta}-pinene and taking into account the measured mixing ratios and the reactivity of all biogenic organic reactive compounds when uncertainties in measurements and modelling are considered. (author)

  8. The Human and Physical Determinants of Wildfires and Burnt Areas in Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Noam; Tessler, Naama; Smith, Andrew; McAlpine, Clive

    2016-09-01

    Wildfires are expected to increase in Mediterranean landscapes as a result of climate change and changes in land-use practices. In order to advance our understanding of human and physical factors shaping spatial patterns of wildfires in the region, we compared two independently generated datasets of wildfires for Israel that cover approximately the same study period. We generated a site-based dataset containing the location of 10,879 wildfires (1991-2011), and compared it to a dataset of burnt areas derived from MODIS imagery (2000-2011). We hypothesized that the physical and human factors explaining the spatial distribution of burnt areas derived from remote sensing (mostly large fires, >100 ha) will differ from those explaining site-based wildfires recorded by national agencies (mostly small fires, planted forests and near built-up areas, whereas the largest wildfires were located in more remote regions, often associated with military training areas and herbaceous vegetation. We conclude that to better understand wildfire dynamics, consolidation of wildfire databases should be achieved, combining field reports and remote sensing. As nearly all wildfires in Mediterranean landscapes are caused by human activities, improving the management of forest areas and raising public awareness to fire risk are key considerations in reducing fire danger.

  9. Structuring of Forest Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Farber

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Structuring forest communities is considered as a pre-studying procedure. The paper defines the fundamental structuring terms and describes the theory behind it. Factors hampering forest typology development are discussed. The areas of forest typology promising regarding sustainable and multi-purposed forest management are outlined.

  10. 20 CFR 654.13 - Determination of areas of substantial unemployment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Determination of areas of substantial unemployment. 654.13 Section 654.13 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... 10582 § 654.13 Determination of areas of substantial unemployment. An area of substantial...

  11. Do species traits determine patterns of wood production in Amazonian forests?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. R. Baker

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the relationships between plant traits and ecosystem properties at large spatial scales is important for predicting how compositional change will affect carbon cycling in tropical forests. Here, we examine the relationships between species wood density, maximum height and wood production for 60 Amazonian forest plots. Firstly, we examine how community-level species traits vary across Amazonia. Average species maximum height and wood density are low in western, compared to eastern, Amazonia and are negatively correlated with aboveground wood productivity and soil fertility. Secondly, we compare biomass growth rates across functional groups defined on the basis of these two traits. In similar size classes, biomass growth rates vary little between trees that differ in wood density and maximum height. However, biomass growth rates are generally higher in western Amazonia across all functional groups. Thirdly, we ask whether the data on the abundance and average biomass growth rates of different functional groups is sufficient to predict the observed, regional-scale pattern of wood productivity. We find that the lower rate of wood production in eastern compared to western Amazonia cannot be estimated on the basis of this information. Overall, these results suggest that the correlations between community-level trait values and wood productivity in Amazonian forests are not causative: direct environmental control of biomass growth rates appears to be the most important driver of wood production at regional scales. This result contrasts with findings for forest biomass where variation in wood density, associated with variation in species composition, is an important driver of regional-scale patterns. Tropical forest wood productivity may therefore be less sensitive than biomass to compositional change that alters community-level averages of these plant traits.

  12. Developing a Topographic Model to Predict the Northern Hardwood Forest Type within Carolina Northern Flying Squirrel (Glaucomys sabrinus coloratus Recovery Areas of the Southern Appalachians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Evans

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The northern hardwood forest type is an important habitat component for the endangered Carolina northern flying squirrel (CNFS; Glaucomys sabrinus coloratus for den sites and corridor habitats between boreo-montane conifer patches foraging areas. Our study related terrain data to presence of northern hardwood forest type in the recovery areas of CNFS in the southern Appalachian Mountains of western North Carolina, eastern Tennessee, and southwestern Virginia. We recorded overstory species composition and terrain variables at 338 points, to construct a robust, spatially predictive model. Terrain variables analyzed included elevation, aspect, slope gradient, site curvature, and topographic exposure. We used an information-theoretic approach to assess seven models based on associations noted in existing literature as well as an inclusive global model. Our results indicate that, on a regional scale, elevation, aspect, and topographic exposure index (TEI are significant predictors of the presence of the northern hardwood forest type in the southern Appalachians. Our elevation + TEI model was the best approximating model (the lowest AICc score for predicting northern hardwood forest type correctly classifying approximately 78% of our sample points. We then used these data to create region-wide predictive maps of the distribution of the northern hardwood forest type within CNFS recovery areas.

  13. Photochemical Age Determinations in the Phoenix Metropolitan Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleinman, Lawrence I.; Daum, Peter H.; Lee, Y.- N.; Nunnermacker, L. J.; Springston, S. R.; Weinstein-Lloyd, J.; Hyde, P.; Doskey, Paul; Rudolph, Jochen; Fast, Jerome D.; Berkowitz, Carl M.

    2003-02-05

    An extensive VOC data set was gathered as part of a photochemical oxidant field campaign conducted in the Phoenix air basin in the late spring of 1998. Sampling was done at the surface and by aircraft at mid-boundary layer height; in regions with emission sources and downwind in the urban plume. VOC concentration ratios were used to calculate photochemical age, defined as the time integrated exposure of an air mass to OH radical. Based on the VOC ratios of 15 compounds (with OH reactivity varying between acetylene and p,m-xylene), we present estimates for photochemical age and dilution factors for several regions within the air basin. Geographic trends are in agreement with the expectation that pollutants are transported in a generally eastward direction so that older and more dilute mixtures occur to the east of the city. Photochemical ages determined from aircraft samples agree with those determined at a downwind surface site. The bias in photochemical age that occurs because fresh pollutants are added to an aged mixture has been quantified by using a particle trajectory model. A combination of trajectory results (actual age of the pollutants in an air mass) and photochemical age yields an estimate of the average OH concentration experienced by the air parcel. OH obtained in this way is somewhat lower, but has the same trends as OH concentrations calculated using a photochemical box model that is constrained with observed concentrations coincident with the VOC samples.

  14. Variation of forest surface and carbon fixation in mountain areas of the Regione Veneto (Italy and the application of the Kyoto protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anfodillo T

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The Parties that have signed the Kyoto Protocol must reduce global emissions of Greenhouse Gasses (GHG during the First Commitment Period (2008 - 2012 by at least 5% with respect to 1990. This share is 6.5% for Italy. The Kyoto Protocol lays down some measures for reducing GHG emissions, which include actions in agriculture and forestry. it will thus be possible to take emissions and absorptions resulting from land use changes into account in the National Balances. Given the widespread forests in Italy, it is very important to have an assessment of the aptitude of this sector to act as a carbon sink. In this study we analysed the variation of forestland cover in a mountain area of the Veneto Region (NE Italy. The analysis was done by comparing aerial photos taken in 1991 with orthophotos reported to 2003, by photointerpretation of points with casual distribution on sample areas, according to a stratified sampling. We estimated a statistically relevant increment of about 0.095% of forest land only up to 1500 m compared to the estimated forest cover for 1990 (about 42 ha, underlining how this low increase is mainly due to forest management. The second step was to estimate the fixed carbon in the areas where forests increased. This was achieved by collecting biometrical data in the field, and then using allometric functions. The annual carbon sink was estimated as 0.69 Mg ha-1 year-1. Comparing these results with previous studies done in the pre-alpine region we estimate the annual increment of the forest area in the whole Veneto region to be about 409.94 ha and that the total carbon sink is about 282.86 Mg C year-1. A method for estimating carbon sink in afforestation/reforestation areas is proposed that could also be applied to other sites in Italy.

  15. Current state and temporal evolution of the chemical composition of atmospheric depositions in forest areas of the CONECOFOR network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marchetto A

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Current state and temporal evolution of the chemical composition of atmospheric depositions in forest areas of the CONECOFOR network. Since 1997, atmospheric deposition was sampled and analyzed in the permanent plots of the Italian network for the evaluation of forest health (CONECOFOR, under the coordination of the Italian Forest Service. This paper presents the results of the activity carried out in 2009, when the EU-funded LIFE+ “FutMon” project allowed to extend the sampling network to 22 sites. Long-term trends will also be evaluated for the sampling sites with the longest time series. The sampling of open field bulk deposition was performed in a clearance close to the CONECOFOR permanent plots, while throughfall deposition and stemflow (in beech stand, only were sampled in the plot. Deposition samples were collected weekly and sent to the laboratories, where they were analyzed for pH, conductivity, major ions, and total carbon and nitrogen. Most measured variables showed a strong geographical gradient. For example, nitrogen deposition was relatively high in the Po plain (where the emissions of nitrogen oxides and ammonia are the highest and surrounding hills, reaching 10-20 kgN ha-1 y-1 in the open field and 13-25 kgN ha-1 y-1 in the throughfall. Sulphate deposition also showed a marked geographical gradient. Deposition of marine aerosol also had an important impact on the chemical composition of atmospheric deposition in Italy, together with the episodic deposition of Saharan dust, which showed a marked gradient, with highest values in the southernmost plots. Trend analysis was carried out on 10 sites running since the beginning of the program. A general negative trend in sulphate concentration was detected, paralleled in most plots by a positive trend in deposition pH, in good agreement with the strong reduction in the emission of sulphur dioxide recorded in the last decades. Nitrogen concentration also showed a significant decrease

  16. Dense Point Cloud Extraction from UAV Captured Images in Forest Area

    OpenAIRE

    Tao, Wang; Lei, Yan; Mooney, Peter

    2011-01-01

    LIDAR (Light Detection And Ranging) is widely used in forestry applications to obtain information about tree density, composition, change, etc. An advantage of LIDAR is its ability to get this information in a 3D structure. However, the density of LIDAR data is low, the acquisition of LIDAR data is often very expensive, and it is difficult to be utilised in small areas. In this article we present an alternative to LIDAR by using a UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) to acquire ...

  17. The role of frugivorous birds and bats in the colonization of cloud forest plant species in burned areas in western Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rost, J.

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The extension of montane cloud forests in western Mexico is threatened by several disturbances that limit their extension. In this study we aim to assess the contribution of birds and bats in the dispersal and colonization of cloud–forest plants in contiguous surface–burned pine forests. We sampled seed rain and sapling establishment over one year in two surface–burned sites, which differed in the size of their closest cloud forest patch. A total of 17 plant species were found, most of which were late–successional trees, shrubs and climbers. Distance influenced the seed rain of only one dispersed taxon (Solanum sp. and had no effect on the sapling distribution of this or other plants. In turn, marked differences were found between sites, with more seeds dispersed and higher sapling density in the site that was next to the larger cloud forest patch. The role of long–distance dispersers and the existence of seed banks before fire could explain the little importance of distance from seed source on seed dispersal and sapling distribution. Nevertheless, dispersal by birds and bats before or after fire facilitates the regeneration and conservation of cloud forests in disturbed areas formerly occupied by other habitats.

  18. 林改后少数民族地区-石林县林农林权流转行为研究%Study on Forest Right Transition Behavior in Minority Area of Shilin after Collective Forest Right Reform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁发林

    2012-01-01

    Forest land right transition behavior is an important content of post forest tenure system reform. Through empirical research, using the method of quantitative analysis, the author has studied the forest right transition behavior in the minority area of Shilin county in 2011. It was found, family labor adequacy, effects of natural disasters, and whether lack of funding or technology has significant impact on forest right circulation behavior. Proposals have been put forward to improve the service system of forest right circulation, explore new development pattern, and improve the financial service system and so on.%林地流转行为是后林权制度改革的一项重要内容.作者于2011年通过实证调研的方式,采用定量分析的方法研究了少数民族地区-石林县林农林权流转行为.结果发现,家庭劳动力是否充足、是否受到自然灾害的影响、是否缺乏资金或技术等因素对林农林权流转行为具有显著影响.提出完善林权流特服务体系,探索新的发展模式,完善林区金融服务体系等建议.

  19. The Effect of Mercury Mining Activities on Oak Forest in the Almaden Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This scientific-technical report is the result of the research work carried out by Maite Villadoniga Garcia, to obtain the Master's Final Project, this has been developed at the Unit of Soil Degradation in the Department of Environment at CIEMAT. Two main reasons are important for the study of the vegetation in Almaden, firstly to ascertain the state in which they find the different landscapes surrounding the mine and secondly, it would be interesting to know the potential applications for recovery areas, degraded by this type of mining. This report presents the initial analysis of a natural area where there has not been activity related to mining of mercury, but their lithologic conditions and proximity to the mine of Almaden (within 3 km) make it a space in which they are both elevated mercury concentrations in soil (1.25 to 35.55 mg kg-1) and plant species (Quercus ilex: 0.10-2.29 mg kg-1; Pseudovernia sp. 1.10-21.06 mg kg-1). We can conclude after this study that the natural vegetation of the area if they had been affected by years of mining, although not find any obvious signs of damage to these ecosystems and that different factors affect the uptake of mercury by of different species. (Author) 37 refs.

  20. Factorial analysis on forest canopy density restoration in the burned area of northern Great Xing'an Mountains, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIEFu-ju; XIAODu-ning; LIXiu-zhen; WANGXu-gao; SHIBao-dong

    2005-01-01

    The restoration of forest landscape has drawn much attention since the catastrophic fire took place on the northern slope of Great Xing'an Mountains in 1987. Forest canopy density, which has close relation to forest productivity, was selected as a key factor to find how much the forest quality was changed 13 years after fire, and how fire severity, regeneration way and terrain factors influenced the restoration of forest canopy density, based on forest inventory data in China, and using Kendall Bivariate Correlation Analysis, and Distances Correlation Analysis. The results showed that fire severity which was inversely correlated with forest canopy density grade was an initial factor among all that selected. Regeneration way which did not remarkably affect forest canopy density restoration in short period, may shorten the cycle of forest succession and promote the forest productivity of conophorium in the future, Among the three terrain factors, the effect of slope was the strongest, the position on slope was the second and the aspect was the last.

  1. Mutagenic potency in Salmonella typhimurium of organic extracts of soil samples originating from urban, suburban, agricultural, forest and natural areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courty, Benoit; Le Curieux, Frank; Belkessam, Laurence; Laboudigue, Agnès; Marzin, Daniel

    2008-05-31

    The purpose of the present work was to assess the mutagenic potency of soil samples presumably not contaminated by industrial wastes and discharges. A set of 51 soil samples was collected from areas considered as not contaminated by a known industrial activity: 11 urban samples (collected in cities), 15 suburban samples (collected in villages), 7 agricultural samples, and 18 forest or natural samples. Each soil sample was collected at the surface (0-5cm deep), dried, sieved (2mm), homogenized before organic extraction (dichloromethane/acetone 1/1 (v/v), 37 degrees C, 4h, soil/solvent ratio 1/2, m/v), solvent exchange to DMSO and sterilizing filtration. The micro-method adaptation of the standard bacterial mutagenicity test on Salmonella typhimurium strain TA98 was performed with and without a metabolic activation system (rat-liver homogenate S9), and thus detected the effect of pro-mutagens and direct mutagens, respectively. The use of a pre-incubation method increased the sensitivity of the assay. The results obtained showed a wide range of effect levels, from no effect to clear mutagenicity. In particular, the extract of all 11 urban soil samples demonstrated mutagenic activity, while the extracts of 10 of the 15 suburban samples showed mutagenicity. On the other hand, the extract of only one of the 7 agricultural samples studied induced mutations, and none of the 18 natural or forest-soil samples investigated produced mutagenic extracts. These findings seem to indicate the crucial influence of the diffuse pollution originating from different human activities on the mutagenic potency of urban soil samples. These findings make it possible to classify the soils according to their mutagenic potency. No clear correlation was found between the mutagenicity detected in soil extracts and the measured polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) content of the soils investigated. PMID:18440855

  2. [Soil humus differentiation and correlation with other soil biochemical properties in pure forests in semi-arid low-hilly area of Inner Mongolia, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Xi; Liu, Zeng-Wen; Bing, Yuan-Hao; Zhu, Bo-Chao; Huang, Liang-Jia

    2014-10-01

    Whether the content and composition of soil humus in pure forest change due to its simple component of litter and specificity of single-species dominant community is a key problem for forest sustainable management. In this study, soils from 6 kind of pure forests in semi-arid low-hilly area of Inner Mongolia were collected and their humus and other biochemical properties were measured to investigate the differentiation of soil humus and the impact factors. The results showed that the soil of Picea asperata and Betula platyphylla pure forests had the highest contents of humus and better condensation degrees and stabilities, followed by that of Populus simonii, Larix principis-rupprechtii and Ulmus pumila pure forests, while the soil of Pinus tabuliformis pure forest had the lowest content of humus, condensation degree and stability. There were significant positive correlations between soil microorganism biomass, activity of phosphatase and the content and stability of soil humus. In contrast, the soil peroxidate, dehydrogenase activity and soil humus content showed significant negative correlations with each other. Furthermore, the enhancement of dehydrogenase activity might decrease the stability of humus. There were significant positive correlations between available N and the content and stability of soil humus, but total Cu, Zn and Fe had negative correlations with them, and total Cu and Fe might reduce the stability of humus as well. The particularity of pure forest environment and litter properties might be the key inducement to soil humus differentiation, thus reforming the pure forest through mixing with other tree species or planting understory vegetation would be the fundamental way to improve the soil humus composition and stability. PMID:25796887

  3. [Soil humus differentiation and correlation with other soil biochemical properties in pure forests in semi-arid low-hilly area of Inner Mongolia, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Xi; Liu, Zeng-Wen; Bing, Yuan-Hao; Zhu, Bo-Chao; Huang, Liang-Jia

    2014-10-01

    Whether the content and composition of soil humus in pure forest change due to its simple component of litter and specificity of single-species dominant community is a key problem for forest sustainable management. In this study, soils from 6 kind of pure forests in semi-arid low-hilly area of Inner Mongolia were collected and their humus and other biochemical properties were measured to investigate the differentiation of soil humus and the impact factors. The results showed that the soil of Picea asperata and Betula platyphylla pure forests had the highest contents of humus and better condensation degrees and stabilities, followed by that of Populus simonii, Larix principis-rupprechtii and Ulmus pumila pure forests, while the soil of Pinus tabuliformis pure forest had the lowest content of humus, condensation degree and stability. There were significant positive correlations between soil microorganism biomass, activity of phosphatase and the content and stability of soil humus. In contrast, the soil peroxidate, dehydrogenase activity and soil humus content showed significant negative correlations with each other. Furthermore, the enhancement of dehydrogenase activity might decrease the stability of humus. There were significant positive correlations between available N and the content and stability of soil humus, but total Cu, Zn and Fe had negative correlations with them, and total Cu and Fe might reduce the stability of humus as well. The particularity of pure forest environment and litter properties might be the key inducement to soil humus differentiation, thus reforming the pure forest through mixing with other tree species or planting understory vegetation would be the fundamental way to improve the soil humus composition and stability.

  4. Comparing Methods for Prioritising Protected Areas for Investment: A Case Study Using Madagascar’s Dry Forest Reptiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Charlie J.; Raxworthy, Christopher J.; Metcalfe, Kristian; Raselimanana, Achille P.; Smith, Robert J.; Davies, Zoe G.

    2015-01-01

    There are insufficient resources available to manage the world’s existing protected area portfolio effectively, so the most important sites should be prioritised in investment decision-making. Sophisticated conservation planning and assessment tools developed to identify locations for new protected areas can provide an evidence base for such prioritisations, yet decision-makers in many countries lack the institutional support and necessary capacity to use the associated software. As such, simple heuristic approaches such as species richness or number of threatened species are generally adopted to inform prioritisation decisions. However, their performance has never been tested. Using the reptile fauna of Madagascar’s dry forests as a case study, we evaluate the performance of four site prioritisation protocols used to rank the conservation value of 22 established and candidate protected areas. We compare the results to a benchmark produced by the widely-used systematic conservation planning software Zonation. The four indices scored sites on the basis of: i) species richness; ii) an index based on species’ Red List status; iii) irreplaceability (a key metric in systematic conservation planning); and, iv) a novel Conservation Value Index (CVI), which incorporates species-level information on endemism, representation in the protected area system, tolerance of habitat degradation and hunting/collection pressure. Rankings produced by the four protocols were positively correlated to the results of Zonation, particularly amongst high-scoring sites, but CVI and Irreplaceability performed better than Species Richness and the Red List Index. Given the technological capacity constraints experienced by decision-makers in the developing world, our findings suggest that heuristic metrics can represent a useful alternative to more sophisticated analyses, especially when they integrate species-specific information related to extinction risk. However, this can require access

  5. How Much Water Trees Access and How It Determines Forest Response to Drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdanier, A. B.; Clark, J. S.

    2015-12-01

    Forests are transformed by drought as water availability drops below levels where trees of different sizes and species can maintain productivity and survive. Physiological studies have provided detailed understanding of how species differences affect drought vulnerability but they offer almost no insights about the amount of water different trees can access beyond general statements about rooting depth. While canopy architecture provides strong evidence for light availability aboveground, belowground moisture availability remains essentially unknown. For example, do larger trees always have greater access to soil moisture? In temperate mixed forests, the ability to access a large soil moisture pool could minimize damage during drought events and facilitate post-drought recovery, potentially at the expense of neighboring trees. We show that the pool of accessible soil moisture can be estimated for trees with data on whole-plant transpiration and that this data can be used to predict water availability for forest stands. We estimate soil water availability with a Bayesian state-space model based on a simple water balance, where cumulative depressions in water use below potential transpiration indicate soil resource depletion. We compare trees of different sizes and species, extend these findings to the entire stand, and connect them to our recent research showing that tree survival after drought depends on post-drought growth recovery and local moisture availability. These results can be used to predict competitive abilities for soil water, understand ecohydrological variation within stands, and identify trees that are at risk of damage from future drought events.

  6. Mapping forest stand age in China using remotely sensed forest height and observation data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chunhua; Ju, Weimin; Chen, Jing M.; Li, Dengqiu; Wang, Xiqun; Fan, Wenyi; Li, Mingshi; Zan, Mei

    2014-06-01

    Forest stand age plays a crucial role in determining the terrestrial carbon source or sink strength and reflects major disturbance information. Forests in China have changed drastically in recent decades, but quantification of spatially explicit forest age at national level has been lacking to date. This study generated a national map of forest age at 1 km spatial resolution using the remotely sensed forest height and forest type data in 2005, as well as relationships between age and height retrieved from field observations. These relationships include biomass as an intermediate parameter for major forest types in different regions of China. Biomass-height and age-biomass relationships were well fitted using field observations, with respective R2 values greater than 0.60 and 0.71 (P old in southwestern, northwestern, and northeastern areas, and young in southern and eastern regions.

  7. Environmental Impacts of Forest Road Construction on Mountainous Terrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erhan Caliskan

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Forest roads are the base infrastructure foundation of forestry operations. These roads entail a complex engineering effort because they can cause substantial environmental damage to forests and include a high-cost construction. This study was carried out in four sample sites of Giresun, Trabzon(2 and Artvin Forest Directorate, which is in the Black Sea region of Turkey. The areas have both steep terrain (30-50% gradient and very steep terrain (51-80% gradient. Bulldozers and hydraulic excavators were determined to be the main machines for forest road construction, causing environmental damage and cross sections in mountainous areas.As a result of this study, the percent damage to forests was determined as follows: on steep terrain, 21% of trees were damaged by excavators and 33% of trees were damaged by bulldozers during forest road construction, and on very steep terrain, 27% of trees were damaged by excavators and 44% of trees were damaged by bulldozers during forest road construction. It was also determined that on steep terrain, when excavators were used, 12.23% less forest area was destroyed compared with when bulldozers were used and 16.13% less area was destroyed by excavators on very steep terrain. In order to reduce the environmental damage on the forest ecosystem, especially in steep terrains, hydraulic excavators should replace bulldozers in forest road construction activities.

  8. 77 FR 22282 - Milk in the Northeast and Other Marketing Areas; Determination of Equivalent Price Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-13

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service Milk in the Northeast and Other Marketing Areas; Determination of Equivalent Price Series AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Determination of equivalent price... products price series in the Dairy Products Sales report released by the Agricultural Marketing...

  9. Pesticides in shallow ground water in the forested wetland riparian area of the Beasley Lake Watershed, Mississippi, USA, 2001-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    We evaluated the movement of pesticides into shallow ground water in a Mississippi Delta forested natural wetland riparian area in the Beasley Lake watershed (Sunflower County, Mississippi, USA). Four well sites were established, each with depths of 0.6, 1.5, 3.0, and 4.6 m (2’, 5’, 10’, and 15’, re...

  10. Bringing soil science to society after catastrophic events such as big forest fires. Some examples of field approaches in Spanish Mediterranean areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mataix-Solera, Jorge; Arcenegui, Vicky; Cerdà, Artemi; García-Orenes, Fuensanta; Moltó, Jorge; Chrenkovà, Katerina; Torres, Pilar; Lozano, Elena; Jimenez-Pinilla, Patricia; Jara-Navarro, Ana B.

    2015-04-01

    Forest fires must be considered a natural factor in Mediterranean ecosystems, but the changes in land use in the last six decades have altered its natural regime making them an ongoing environmental problem. Some big forest fires (> 500 has) also have a great socio-economical impact on human population. Our research team has experience of 20 years studying the effects of forest fires on soil properties, their recovery after fire and the impact of some post-fire management treatments. In this work we want to show our experience of how to transfer part of our knowledge to society after two catastrophic events of forest fires in the Alicante Province (E Spain). Two big forest fires: one in "Sierra de Mariola (Alcoi)" and other in "Montgó Natural Park (Javea-Denia)" occurred in in July 2012 and September 2014 respectivelly, and as consequence a great impact was produced on the populations of nearby affected villages. Immediatelly, some groups were formed through social networks with the aim of trying to help recover the affected areas as soon as possible. Usually, society calls for early reforestation and this preassure on forest managers and politicians can produce a response with a greater impact on fire-affected area than the actual fire. The soil is a fragile ecosystem after forest fire, and the situation after fire can vary greatly depending on many factors such as fire severity, previous history of fire in the area, soil type, topography, etc. An evaluation of the site to make the best decision for recovery of the area, protecting the soil and avoiding degradation of the ecosystem is necessary. In these 2 cases we organized some field activities and conferences to give society knowledge of how soil is affected by forest fires, and what would be the best post-fire management depending on how healthy the soil is and the vegetation resilience after fire and our expectations for a natural recovery. The application of different types of mulch in vulnerable areas, the

  11. Application of Ancillary Data In Post-Classification To Improve Forest Area Estimates In A Landsat TM Scene

    OpenAIRE

    Holoviak, Brent Matthew

    2002-01-01

    In order to produce a more current inventory of forest estimates along with change estimates, the Forest Inventory Analysis (FIA) program has moved to an annual system in which 20% of the permanent plots in a state are surveyed. The previous system sampled permanent plots in 10-year intervals by sampling states sequentially in a cycle (Wayman 2001, USDA FIA). The move to an annual assessment has introduced the use satellite technology to produce forest estimates. Wayman et al (2001) resea...

  12. Remote Sensing of Canopy Leaf Area Index in Non-Forested Wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dronova, I.; Byrd, K. B.; Gong, P.

    2014-12-01

    Canopy leaf area index (LAI; one-sided leaf area per unit ground area) is a key instrumental variable used in models of plant-atmosphere carbon and