WorldWideScience

Sample records for area conditions pengendalian

  1. SISTEM PENGENDALIAN MANAJEMEN DAN TUJUAN PERUSAHAAN (SEBUAH TINJAUAN TEORI KONTINJENSI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ifah Lathifah

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Tulisan ini bertujuan untuk menjelaskan hubungan antara teori kontinjensi dengan sistem pengendalian manajemen. Berdasarkan pengembangan dan isi teori ini memiliki argumen bahwa teori kontingensi mengandalkan materi dicey dan dengan sedikit model menafsirkan. Sistem akuntansi manajemen tergantung pada faktor situasional yang ada di masing-masing situasi. Dalam penelitian akuntansi manajemen, pendekatan kontingensi diperlukan untuk mengevaluasi faktor-faktor kondisional yang menyebabkan sistem pengendalian manajemen lebih efektif. Hubungan yang lebih baik antara sistem pengendalian dengan antisipasi variabel kontinjensi akan meningkatkan kinerja organisasi. Pendekatan kontinjensi menjadi tema utama dalam penelitian tentang sistem pengendalian manajemen dimasa mendatang. Para peneliti telah memberikan kontribusi positif terhadap popularitas dan penerapan sistem pengendalian manajemen. The paper aims to explain relationship between theory of contingency with management control system. Based on the theories, it is argued that theory of contingency relied on dicey matter and offered interpretation model. Management accounting system depends on existing situational factors. In the researche of accounting management, approach of contingency is needed to evaluate conditional factors causing management control system more effective. Better relationship between control system with variable of anticipated contingency will improve organizational performance. Approaches of contingency become prior theme in researches related to system of control management. The researches have provided positive contribution to the application of management control system and its popularity.

  2. PENGENDALIAN DALAM PENERBITAN IZIN GANGGUAN (HO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pebriana Marlinda

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak :            Penelitian tentang pengendalian dalam penerbitan izin gangguan (HO di Kecamatan Margahayu Kabupaten Bandung menjelaskan tentang tahap-tahap pengendalian yang dilakukan oleh aparat Kecamatan Margahayu. Pengendalian dilakukan untuk memastikan agar penerbitan izin gangguan (HO berjalan dengan efektif. Namun, masih ada pelaku usaha yang belum memiliki surat izin gangguan (HO ataupun pelaku usaha yang sudah memiliki surat izin gangguan (HO akan tetapi kegiatan usahanya merugkan orang lain seperti sampah yang berserakan, polusi udara, polusi suara, dan lain-lain.                            Metode penelitian yang digunakan adalah metode penelitian deduktif kualitatif dengan teknik pengumpulan data melalui studi kepustakaan dan studi lapangan yang meliputi observasi dan wawancara mendalam. Adapun penentuan informan dalam penelitian ini dipilih berdasarkan pertimbangan-pertimbangan dengan pihak-pihak yang terkait dalam pengendalian. Kemudian data yang diperoleh dari hasil wawancara dipaparkan dengan langkah-langkah yang meliputi: reduksi data, penyajian data, menarik kesimpulan/verifikasi. Teori yang digunakan penulis dalam penelitian ini adalah teori dari Stephen P. Robbins tentang tahap-tahap pengendalian yaitu: mengukur kinerja aktual, membandingkan kinerja aktual dengan standar, dan mengambil tindakan manajerial.                            Kesimpulan dari hasil penelitian ini adalah pengendalian yang dilakukan olehaparat Kecamatan Margahayu telah melalui tahap-tahap pengendalian yaitu: mengukur kinerja aktual, membandingkan kinerja aktual dengan standar, dan mengambil tindakan manajerial. Namun perlu dilakukan penguatan di setiap tahap pengendalian terutama pada tahap mengukur kinerja aktual dan pada tahap mengambil tindakan manajerial                            Penelitian tentang pengendalian dalam penerbitan izin gangguan (HO di Kecamatan

  3. Perilaku Pengendalian Tikus di Daerah Berisiko Penularan Leptospirosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Isnani

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Tikus merupakan binatang yang mempunyai daya adaptasi dan daya kembang biak yang tinggi sehingga bisa hidup di semua tempat.  Dampak tikus bagi manusia antara lain tikus sebagai hama pertanian dan menularkan penyakit seperti pes dan leptospirosis.  Berbagai pengendalian tikus telah dilakukan baik secara tradisional yang telah ada sejak nenek moyang maupun cara-cara modern.  Tulisan ini mengeksplorasi perilaku masyarakat dalam usaha pengendalian serta faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi dilakukannya cara-cara tersebut.  Penelitian dilakukan dengan metode kualitatif desain deskriptif.  Pengumpulan data dengan wawancara mendalam dan diskusi kelompok terarah pada 5 informan dan 2 kelompok Diskusi Kelompok Terarah (DKT.  Lokasi penelitian di sebuah desa di Nanggulan, Kulon Progo, Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta.  Hasil penelitian menunjukkan terdapat beberapa cara dalam pengendalian tikus yaitu gropyokan, burung hantu, lem, racun tikus, pengemposan, menggunakan pewangi pakaian, dengan makanan umpan, kucing, dan dengan slametan.  Ada pengendalian tikus dengan mengusirnya saja atau tidak membunuhnya, dan ada pengendalian dengan membunuhnya.  Terdapat mitos dan kepercayaan terhadap tikus.  Kesimpulan penelitian bahwa perilaku dalam pengendalian tikus dipengaruhi oleh latar belakang pengetahuan dan kepercayaan.   kata kunci :  perilaku; pengendalian tikus; mitos dan kepercayaan

  4. SISTEM PENGENDALIAN TEMPERATUR PADA DINDING BIOREAKTOR ANAEROB SECARA REAL TIME

    OpenAIRE

    Ika Nurina Rachmawati; Rony Dwi Noriyati; Totok Soehartanto

    2013-01-01

    Temperatur merupakan salah satu faktor yang mempengaruhi proses anaerob pada bioreaktor. Dimana pertumbuhan mikroorganisme dipengaruhi oleh perubahan suhu. Maka dari itu akan dilakukan pengendalian temperatur secara real-time pada dinding tabung bioreaktor anaerob. Pengendalian temperatur berguna untuk menjaga suhu permukaan bioreaktor saat terjadi perubahan cuaca dari luar. Sebab jika temperatur dinding dijaga pada suhu 35 0C maka temperatur dalam tabung bioreaktor akan berada pada range ope...

  5. SISTEM PENGENDALIAN TEMPERATUR PADA DINDING BIOREAKTOR ANAEROB SECARA REAL TIME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ika Nurina Rachmawati

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Temperatur merupakan salah satu faktor yang mempengaruhi proses anaerob pada bioreaktor. Dimana pertumbuhan mikroorganisme dipengaruhi oleh perubahan suhu. Maka dari itu akan dilakukan pengendalian temperatur secara real-time pada dinding tabung bioreaktor anaerob. Pengendalian temperatur berguna untuk menjaga suhu permukaan bioreaktor saat terjadi perubahan cuaca dari luar. Sebab jika temperatur dinding dijaga pada suhu 35 0C maka temperatur dalam tabung bioreaktor akan berada pada range operasionalnya. Sistem pengendalian temperatur pada dinding bioreaktor berupa elemen pemanas atau heater yang diletakkan pada dinding bioreaktor. Pengukuran temperatur dilakukan pada 3 posisi yaitu temperatur luar, temperature dinding dan temperatur dalam tabung bioreaktor. Pengujian sistem pengendalian dilakukan dengan memberi gangguan pada dinding bioreaktor berupa aliran air dingin pada dinding bioreaktor ketika kondisi telah stabil dengan mengamati pHnya. Pemberian gangguan dilakukan selama beberapa saat hingga terjadi penurunan temperatur di dalam tabung bioreaktor. Dengan turunnya temperatur maka kontroler akan bekerja untuk mencapai temperatur yang diinginkan sesuai dengan setpoint yang diberikan. Hasil pengujian menunjukkan bahwa sistem pengendalian temperatur berhasil menjaga suhu dinding bioreaktor anaerob pada suhu 35 0C dari temperatur 25 0C dalam waktu 1900 detik.

  6. Autocidal Ovitrap Atraktan Rendaman Jerami sebagai Alternatif Pengendalian Vektor DBD

    OpenAIRE

    Dwinata, Indra; Baskoro, Tri; Indriani, Citra

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRAK Kabupaten Gunungkidul adalah daerah endemis DBD di Provinsi Yogyakarta. Salah satu alternatif dalam pengendalian vektor DBD adalah dengan memasang autocidal ovitrap dengan menambahkan zat atraktan berupa air rendaman jerami. Penelitian ini bertujuan mengetahui pengaruh pemasangan autocidal ovitrap dengan atraktan air rendaman jerami terhadap jumlah nyamuk Aedes yang terperangkap dan index kepadatan larva. Design penelitian ini adalah quasi eksperimental dengan rancangan crossover d...

  7. TINJAUAN EFEKTIVITAS PENERAPAN SISTEM PENGENDALIAN INTERNAL PEMBERIAN KREDIT PADA PT BANK MEGA CABANG MAKASSAR

    OpenAIRE

    AHMAD, AMIRAH

    2013-01-01

    2013 Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui efektifitas penerapan sistem pengendalian intern pemberian kredit yang dilaksanakan oleh PT Bank Mega Cabang Makassar. Data penelitian ini diperoleh dari kuesioner dan beberapa observasi serta wawancara langsung dengan pihak yang terkait, dan menggunakan metode kuantitatif dan kualitatif (analisis deskriptif). Prosedur pemberian kredit serta sistem pengendalian internal pemberian kredit yan...

  8. PENGARUH LINGKUNGAN PENGENDALIAN TERHADAP KINERJA AUDITOR PADA PERWAKILAN BADAN PENGAWASAN KEUANGAN DAN PEMBANGUNAN PROVINSI SULAWESI SELATAN

    OpenAIRE

    AMANDITA, TYARA GALUH

    2015-01-01

    2015 Pengaruh Lingkungan Pengendalian terhadap Kinerja Auditor pada Perwakilan Badan Pengawasan Keuangan dan Pembangunan Provinsi Sulawesi Selatan Effect of Control Environment on Auditor???s Performance at Badan Pengawasan Keuangan dan Pembangunan Representative of South Sulawesi Province TYARA GALUH AMANDITA KASTUMUNI HARTO RATNA AYU DAMAYANTI Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk menganalisis pengaruh lingkungan pengendalian yang terdiri dari...

  9. TEKNIK PENGENDALIAN PENYAKIT BENIH PILANG (Acacia leucophloea Wild.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tati Suharti

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Salah satu faktor yang mempengaruhi daya berkecambah benih adalah serangan penyakit benih. Penyakit yang umumnya berupa cendawan terbawa benih dapat menimbulkan kerusakan pada benih diantaranya mutu dan daya simpan benih menjadi menurun. Teknik pengendalian secara fisik dapat dilakukan dengan penggunaan kemasan plastik yang hampa udara (vacum, sedangkan secara kimia dengan penggunaan fungisida benomil. Teknik pengendalian penyakit benih pilang selama penyimpanan yaitu dengan perlakuan pengepresan vacum. Perlakuan ini dapat menjaga viabilitas benih dan menekan infeksi cendawan Aspergillus sp. Pada umur simpan 1 tahun, perlakuan ini menghasilkan daya berkecambah sebesar 47 % dan persentase infeksi Aspergillus sp. sebesar 18% sedangkan perlakuan plastik menghasilkan daya berkecambah sebesar 34,67 % dan persentase infeksi Aspergillus sp. sebesar 50 %.

  10. Efektivitas Bacillus thuringiensis dalam Pengendalian Larva Nyamuk Anopheles sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Citra Inneke Wibowo

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Nyamuk Anopheles sp adalah vektor penyakit malaria. Pengendalian vektor penyakit malaria dapat dilakukan secara biologis yaitu dengan menggunakan Bacillus thuringiensis. Tujuan penelitian adalah untuk mengetahui efektivitas konsentrasi Bacillus thuringiensis dalam pengendalian larva nyamuk Anopheles sp.Penelitian ini dilakukan secara eksperimental menggunakan Rancangan Acak Lengkap Faktorial (RAL Faktorial yang terdiri atas dua faktor yaitu konsentrasi Bacillus thuringiensis dan stadia larva Anopheles dengan pengulangan tiga kali.Perlakuan yang dicobakan adalahkonsentrasi Bacillus thuringiensis (A yang terdiri atas 5 taraf:A0: konsentrasi B.thuringiensis 0 CFU.mL-1, A1: konsentrasi B.thuringiensis 102 CFU.mL-1, A2: konsentrasi B.thuringiensis 104 CFU.mL-1, A3: konsentrasi B.thuringiensis 106CFU.mL-1, A4: konsentrasi B.thuringiensis 108CFU.mL-1. Perlakuan tahapan instar larva Anopheles sp. (B adalah sebagai berikut:B1: stadia larva instar I, B2: stadia larva instar II, B3: stadia larva instar III, B4: stadia larva instar IVsehingga terdapat 60 satuan percobaan. Hasil penelitian  menunjukkan konsentrasi B. thuringiensis isolat CK dan IPB CC yang paling berpengaruh dalam pengendalian larva Anopheles sp adalah 108 CFU.mL-1 . Instar larva yang paling peka terhadap B. thuringiensis isolat IPB CC adalah instar I dan II sedangkan instar yang peka terhadap isolat CK adalah instar II, Perlakuan konsentrasi isolat B. thuringiensis dan tingkat instar larva yang paling baik dalam pengendalian larva Anopheles sp. adalah 108 CFU.mL-1, dan instar I dan II.

  11. PELATIHAN PENGENDALIAN VEKTOR DEMAM BERDARAH DENGUE DI KABUPATEN SUKOHARJO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiwik Trapsilowati

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakPartisipasi masyarakat melalui peran kader PSN membutuhkan pengetahuan dan keterampilan yang cukup. Penelitian ini dilakukan dengan memberikan pelatihan bagi kader PSN dengan tujuan untuk menilai peningkatan pengetahuan dan keterampilan kader PSN tentang DBD. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian operasional dengan responden seluruh kader PSN yang ditunjuk oleh RT/RW setempat. Analisis data dilakukan dengan uji beda antara sebelum dan sesudah intervensi.Hasil penelitian menunjukkan rata-rata nilai pengetahuan kader PSN tentang DBD mengalami peningkatan yang signifikan dibandingkan sebelum intervensi dengan nilai t sebesar -13,543 dengan nilai signifikansi pada dua sisi (2-tailed sebesar 0,000 (p<0,05. Penilaian keterampilan dalam pemantauan jentik di daerah perlakuan pada evaluasi ke-3 menunjukkan perbedaan yang signifikan dengan nilai t hitung: -10,597 dan t tabel = 2,262 dan Sig (2-tailed = 0,000 (p<0,05 dan di daerah kontrol menunjukkan tidak ada beda dengan t hitung = 1,639 dan t tabel = 2,262, dan Sig (2-tailed sebesar 0,182 (p>0,05. Terjadinya penurunan nilai keterampilan kader PSN dalam pemantauan jentik perlu dilakukan penyegaran kembali secara berkala untuk pengendalian DBD khususnya yang dapat dilakukan oleh masyarakat.Kata Kunci : Pelatihan, Kader PSN, DBDAbstractCommunity participation through role PSN cadres needs sufficient knowledge and skills. This study conducted training for PSN cadres with the goal to assess the improvement of knowledge and skills of PSN cadres about dengue. This was operational research with total sampling of PSN cadres designated by the RT/RW. Data analysis was performed by premises difference test between before and after intervention. The results showed an average value of knowledge about dengue PSN cadre has increased significantly compared to before the intervention with t values: -13.543 with significance values  on the two sides (2-tailed: 0.000 (p<0.05. Assessment skills in monitoring larvae in

  12. IDENTIFIKASI DAN TEKNIK PENGENDALIAN HAMA DAN PENYAKIT BIBIT KRANJI (Pongamia pinnata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tati Suharti

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Salah satu faktor pembatas dalam keberhasilan tanaman untuk tumbuh optimal yaitu adanya serangan hama dan penyakit. Identifikasi hama dan penyakit penting dilakukan karena berkaitan dengan teknik pengendalian. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui jenis hama dan penyakit yang menyerang bibit kranji (Pongamia pinnata dan teknik pengendaliannya. Metode penelitian meliputi identifikasi jenis hama dan penyakit serta teknik pengendalian dengan menggunakan pestisida biologi dan kimia. Hasil penelitian menunjukan, hama yang menyerang bibit kranji antara lain belalang (Valanga nigricornis, ulat grayak (Spodoptera sp., ulat jengkal (Hyposidra talaca dan ulat penggulung (Syllepta sp. sedangkan patogen yang menyebabkan penyakir hawar daun yaitu Phytophthora sp. Teknik pengendalian hama bibit kranji dengan menggunakan larutan ekstrak biji mahoni atau insektisida Bacillus thuringiensis sedangkan teknik pengendalian penyakit menggunakan larutan ekstrak biji mahoni, larutan ekstrak daun cengkeh atau benomil

  13. Air conditioning for data processing system areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernando Camacho García

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The appropiate selection of air conditioners for data processing system areas requires the knowledge of the environmental desing conditions, the air conditioning systems succssfully used computer and the cooling loads to handle. This work contains information about a wide variety of systems designed for computer room applications. a complete example of calculation to determine the amount of heat to be removed for satisfactory operation, is also included.

  14. IDENTIFIKASI DAN TEKNIK PENGENDALIAN HAMA BENIH LAMTORO (Leucaena leucocephala Lam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dida Syamsuwida

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Serangan hama serangga pada benih lamtoro (Leucaena leucocepahala merupakan salah satu kendala yang perlu diperhatikan dan ditanggulangi. Penelitian bertujuan melakukan identifikasi hama yang menyerang benih lamtoro dan teknik pengendaliannya selama penyimpanan dengan menggunakan pestisida nabati. Pestisida nabati yang digunakan diantaranya ekstrak jahe, sirsak, suren dan lada. Penyimpanan dilakukan pada ruang kamar, DCS dan kulkas selama 2, 4 dan 6 minggu. Hasil menunjukkan bahwa serangga hama yang menyerang benih lamtoro adalah Acanthocelides sp. (Coleoptera:Bruchidae. Acanthocelides sp. menyebabkan kehilangan viabilitas benih lamtoro hingga 100%. Teknik pengendalian yang efektif menekan pertumbuhan Acanthocelides sp. yaitu pemberian ekstrak jahe atau daun suren yang disimpan di ruang kamar. Tehnik ini dapat mempertahankan daya berkecambah lamtoro hingga 75% .

  15. Simulasi Pengendalian Multiproses Industri dengan Programmable Logic Controller sebagai Sarana dan Bahan Ajar Praktik Instalasi Listrik

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukir Sukir

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan mendapatkan unjuk kerja yang baik tentang simulasi pengendalian multiproses industri menggunakan Programmable Logic Controller (PLC sebagai sarana dan bahan ajar Praktik Instalasi Listrik. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode penelitian dan pengembangan yang terdiri atas analisis kebutuhan, perancangan, pembuatan atau implementasi, pengujian unjuk kerja dan perbaikan serta finishing. Pengumpulan data dengan cara observasi. Instrumen yang digunakan antara lain multimeter Sanwa, ceklist deskripsi kerja sarana praktik, angket validasi ahli media, ahli materi dan mahasiswa terhadap kelayakan sarana praktik serta labsheet. Data yang terkumpul dianalisis secara deskriptif. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa diperoleh simulasi pengendalian multiproses industri menggunakan PLC sebagai sarana praktik dan bahan ajar (labsheet pada Praktik Instalasi Listrik yang mempunyai unjuk yang baik diantaranya: (1 simulasi pengendalian multiproses industri menggunakan PLC sebagai sebagai sarana praktik mempunyai deskripsi kerja yang sesuai dengan perencanaan; (2 Hasil pengamatan kelayakan simulasi pengendalian multiproses industri menggunakan PLC sebagai sarana praktik oleh ahli materi, ahli media dan mahasiswa diperoleh hasil rata-rata total sebesar 2,89 atau 72,25% dalam kategori baik serta (3 Hasil pengamatan kelayakan simulasi pengendalian multiproses industri menggunakan PLC sebagai bahan ajar (labsheet oleh ahli materi, ahli media dan mahasiswa diperoleh skor rata-rata total sebesar 2,85 atau 71,25% yang masuk dalam kategori baik.

  16. EVALUASI DAN PENGENDALIAN FAKTOR RISIKO KARIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narlan Sumawinata

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Dental caries is a multifactorial disease that it is a preventable one. The assessment and control of the risk factors, therefore, plays a significant role in evading the development of caries. Risk factors include medical and dental history, clinical, radiographic, and laboratory factors. Medical and dental history factors consist of social-economic status of the patients, age, gender, oral hygiene, fluoride exposure, the dietary carbohydrate, civilizaiton, general health, and medicaiton. Clinical factors to be assessed are dental plaque, the susceptible site of the tooth, the existing restoration, and orthodontic appliances. The laboratory factors evaluate the conditions of the saliva i.e. the buffer capacity, flow rate, and the presence of caries-related microorganisms such as mutans streptococci, lactobacilli, or yeast. As caries is caused by three main factors (host, cariogenic substrate, and microflora the control of the above mentioned factors consist of increasing the resistance of the host, evading the cariogenic substrate and microflora, and suppressing the modulator that increasing caries activity.

  17. PENGENDALIAN HAMA PADA TANAMAN KUBIS DENGAN SISTEM TANAM TUMPANGSARI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seto Pandu Kristanto

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available [ENGLISH]The research of pest control at cabbage plant by inter cropping system was done at Semboro village, Semboro town, Jember Regency. The aim of this research is to find out the most effective inter cropping system to overcome the cabbage plant’s pest problem. This research uses randomized block design (RBD with six treatments and each treatment is repeated five times. The treatments are planting monoculture cabbage, inter cropping cabbage with chili, inter cropping cabbage with marigold, inter cropping cabbage with sweet basil, inter cropping cabbage with eggplant, and inter cropping cabbage with tomato. The results shows that none of the treatments are sufficienly effective to reduce the population of both caterpillar pest, Crociodolomia binotalis or Plutella xylostella. The average population of Crociodolomia binotalis at cabbage with sweet basil’s inter cropping is lower than monoculture cabbage that is 0,89 tail/plant. The average population of Plutella xylostella for each treatment did not give a substantial different. The inter cropping of cabbage with sweet basil produces the highest weight per crop, that is 1,11 Kg/krop with grade II crop quality. Keywords: Cabbage; Crocidolomia binotalis; Plutella xylostella; inter cropping  [INDONESIAN] Penelitian pengendalian hama pada kubis dengan sistem tanam tumpangsari dilakukan di desa Semboro Kecamatan Semboro, Kabupaten Jember. Tujuan dari penelitian ini untuk mengetahui jenis tumpangsari yang efektif dalam mengendalikan hama tanaman kubis. Rancangan yang dipergunakan dalam penelitian yaitu Rancangan Acak Kelompok (RAK dengan enam perlakuan dan diulang sebanyak lima kali. Perlakuan yang digunakan yaitu penanaman kubis monokultur, kubis tumpangsari dengan cabai rawit, kubis tumpangsari dengan kenikir, kubis tumpangsari dengan selasih, kubis tumpangsari dengan terung, dan kubis tumpangsari dengan tomat. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa masing-masing perlakuan tidak efektif dalam

  18. Pengendalian Hayati Afid pada Tanaman Cabai Merah dengan Menochilus sexmaculatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dahlia Simanjuntak

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A field trial on biological control of aphids (Homoptera: Aphididae with Menochilus sexmaculatus (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae was conducted at red chilli field in Sleman, Yogyakarta, in the planting season of 2010. Second instar was released at rate of 1 larva/250 aphids. The number of predator per plant varied depending on aphid-population density. The effectiveness of the predator was compared with application of sihalotrin 25 g/l at concentration rate of 2 cc/l as much as 500 l/ha. The results showed that effectiveness of the predator application was equal with the insecticide application.   Percobaan lapangan pengendalian hayati Aphis spp. (Homoptera: Aphididae dengan Menochilus sexmaculatus (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae dilakukan di lahan cabai merah di daerah Sleman, Yogyakarta, pada musim tanam tahun 2010. Satu ekor larva instar II dilepas pada populasi 250 ekor afid. Banyaknya predator per tanaman bervariasi tergantung kepadatan populasi afid. Keefektifan aplikasi predator dibandingkan dengan perlakuan sihalotrin 25 g/l, konsentrasi 2 cc/l sebanyak 500 l/ha. Hasil kajian menunjukkan bahwa keefektifan aplikasi predator setara dengan aplikasi insektisida

  19. MODEL PENGENDALIAN TERPADU VEKTOR DEMAM BERDARAH DENGUE DI KOTA SALATIGA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhid Darwin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakSalatiga  merupakan  salah  satu  kota  di  Jawa  Tengah  yang  termasuk  sebagiai  wilayah  endemisitas  tinggi demam  berdarah  dengue. Angka  Kematian  Kasus  (CFR  DBD  cenderung  berfluktuasi  yaitu  Tahun  2008 sebesar  1,39%  pada  72  kasus,  Tahun  2009  dengan  109  kasus,  CFR  0,92%  dan  Tahun  2010  terdapat  155 kasus,  CFR  0%. Pemberantasan  Sarang  Nyamuk  (PSN  sebagai  kegiatan  yang  strategis  sampai  saat  ini belum  optimal dilaksanakan.  Alternatif  pengendalian  vektor  DBD  pada  penelitian  ini mengkombinasikan pengendalian kimiawi (pemakaian gorden berisektisida sipermethrin plus etil selulosa dengan pengendalian hayati menggunakan predator larva Mesocyclops aspericornis. Pemilihan metode pengendalian berdasarkan kebiasaan nyamuk menggigit orang (antropofilik di dalam rumah dan beristirahat di tempat-tempat gelap (fototropi  negatif,  lembab  dan  status  kerentanan  terhadap  insektisida  serta  daya  predasi  M.aspericornis terhadap  jentik  nyamuk  Ae.  aegypti. Tujuan  penelitian  adalah  untuk  mengendalikan  Ae.  aegypti  secara terpadu melaluipengendalian hayati (M. aspericornis dan aplikasi gorden berinsektisida sipermethrin10EC plus etil sellulosa 0,1%. Rancangan penelitian adalah eksperimen semu dengan pre-posttest group design pada  penurunan  indikator  entomologi  dan  posttest  control  group  design  untuk  pengujian  efikasi  gorden berinsektisida sipermethrin plus etil sellulosa terhadap vektor DBD. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan adanya penurunan  signifikan  angka  bebas  jentik  (ABJ  sebesar  96,27%  dari  semula  85,05%,  ovitrap  indeks  dari 14,49% turun menjadi 8,88% dan daya bunuh gorden berinsektisida sipermethrin plus etil sellulosa terhadap nyamuk Ae. aegypti 82,93% pada minggu ke-15 (3 bulan.Kata Kunci:DBD, angka bebas jentik, M. aspericornis dan gorden berinsektisida

  20. KARAKTERISTIK INTERAKSI MEMBRAN-FOULANT DAN FOULANT-FOULANT SEBAGAI DASAR PENGENDALIAN FOULING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heru Susanto

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available THE CHARACTERISTICS OF MEMBRANE-FOULANT AND FOULANT-FOULANT INTERACTIONS AS THE BASIS FOR CONTROL OF FOULING. Industrial membrane applications for solid liquid and liquid-liquid filtration are limited by fouling and concentration polarization. Because fouling significantly reduces the membrane performance and often changes the membrane selectivity, efforts to overcome the fouling problem are very important from practical applications point of view. This paper presents the basic knowledge required to control fouling and recent development in fouling control including the method developed by the author. Control of fouling can be done by (i commercial membrane modification (post modification by photo-graft polymerization, (ii modification by polymer blending during membrane manufacturing and (iii integration of a pretreatment into membrane processes. The results showed that all the developed methods can significantly reduce the resulting fouling; however, none of the method could totally remove the occurring fouling. The understanding of the membrane-foulant and foulant-foulant interactions is the key to success in control of fouling.Aplikasi teknologi membran untuk pemisahan padat cair di  berbagai industri dibatasi oleh peristiwa fouling yang menyebabkan penurunan laju produk dan perubahan selektifitas membran. Oleh karena itu, pengendalian fouling merupakan upaya yang mutlak harus dilakukan. Makalah ini mempresentasikan pengetahuan dasar yang diperlukan untuk pengendalian fouling dan perkembangan terkini dalam pengendalian fouling termasuk hasil-hasil yang telah dikembangkan oleh penulis. Pengendalian fouling dilakukan dengan (i modifikasi membran komersial (post modification menggunakan metode photo-grafting, (ii modifikasi dengan pencampuran polimer selama proses pembuatan (polymer blend dan (iii integrasi unit perlakuan awal (pre-treatment dengan proses membran. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kesemua metode yang dikembangkan dapat

  1. ANALISIS PENGENDALIAN DAYA REAKTOR PCMSR DENGAN LAJU ALIR PENDINGIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iqbal Syafin Noha

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Passive Compact Molten Salt Reactor (PCMSR merupakan pengembangan dari Molten Salt Reactor (MSR yang memiliki karakter berbeda dengan lima reaktor generasi IV lainnya, yaitu menggunakan bahan bakar leburan garam. Pada reaktor MSR, garam lebur tidak digunakan sebagai pendingin tetapi digunakan sebagai medium pembawa bahan bakar. Dengan fase bahan bakar yang berupa garam lebur LiF-BeF2-ThF4-UF4, maka dapat dilakukan pengendalian daya dengan mengatur laju aliran bahan bakar dan pendingin. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui pengaruh perubahan laju alir pendingin terhadap daya reaktor PCMSR. Analisis dilakukan dengan empat jenis masukan untuk perubahan laju alir pendingin, yaitu masukan step, ramp, eksponensial, dan sinusoidal. Untuk masukan step, laju alir pendingin dibuat berubah secara mendadak. Selanjutnya untuk masukan ramp dan eksponensal, perubahan laju alir masing-masing dibuat perlahan secara linear dan mengikuti fungsi eksponensial. Kemudian untuk masukan sinusoidal, laju alir berubah naik turun secara periodik dengan memvariasikan frekuensi dari perubahan laju alir tersebut. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa penurunan laju alir pendingin sebesar 50% dari laju pendingin sebelumnya, menyebabkan daya pada reaktor PCMSR turun sebesar 63% dari daya sebelumnya. Jika terjadi fluktuasi laju aliran pendingin, maka semakin cepat perubahan tersebut, maka respon daya yang diberikan semakin kecil. Pada frekuensi yang sangat cepat, daya reaktor menjadi konstan dan cenderung tidak memiliki respon terhadap laju aliran. Hal ini merupakan salah satu aspek keselamatan reaktor, karena reaktor tidak merespon perubahan yang terlalu cepat. Kemampuan reaktor mengatur daya menyesuaikan laju aliran pendingin merupakan aspek keselamatan lainnya. Kata kunci : PCMSR, pengendalian daya, laju alir pendingin, uji respon   Passive Compact Molten Salt Reactor (PCMSR is the development of Molten Salt Reactor (MSR which has different character from other five

  2. [Precancerous conditions in the ENT area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gál, B; Mrzena, L; Hort, P

    2013-01-01

    An important part of tumor prevention is early detection, dia-gnosis, treatment and screening of precancerous conditions. Correct detection and screening of premalignant lesions leads to early dia-gnosis of a malignant process which provides a better chance to completely cure the patient and also predicts better quality of life. Precancerous conditions look like whitish, red or mixed mucose lesions (leukoplakia, erytroplakia, erytroleukoplakia) which are visible during clinical examination. Nevertheless, these mucose changes are not absolutely conclusive. Therefore, histological testing is necessary for dia-gnosis and determination of bio-logical potencial of precancerous lesions. Precancerous lesions as a term of histological terminology means dysplasia. The risk of progression of dysplasia into a carcinoma depends on a grade of dysplasia. The conservative or surgical treatment is chosen according to localisation and grade of dysplasia.

  3. DENGUE VECTOR CONTROL BEHAVIOR IN PRIMARY SCHOOL COMMUNITY IN TEMBALANG DISTRICT, SEMARANG CITY=PENGENDALIAN VEKTOR DEMAM BERDARAH DENGUE PADA KOMUNITAS SEKOLAH DASAR DI KECAMATAN TEMBALANG, KOTA SEMARANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aryani Pujiyanti

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available ENGLISHAbstractTembalang district was a Dengue endemic area in Semarang City that had a highest incidence rate of Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever (DHF in 2010. Aedes vector control behavior was still low. School community’s vector control behavior played a role in dengue prevention programs in schools. The purpose of the study was to identify knowledge, attitude and behavior of dengue vector control in primary school community. This study used across sectional design. Samples were 107 primary school teachers and janitors in Tembalang District, Semarang City in 2011. Sampel was choosed with proportional random sampling method. Data were collected through interviews using a structured questionnaire. Data were analyzed descriptively (univariat analysis. Results showed that school community awareness in dengue transmission was low because respondents did not know about secondary infection of DHF and the existence of Aedes mosquito that perceived unserious in community. Respondents did not feel as risk population because dengue was understood as a disease that attacked school children rather than adults. The effectiveness of mosquito nest eradication (PSN for vector control activity in Tembalang District did not have positive response from school community. Vector control and biting prevention in school environment were need improvement. This study recommended health promotion to DHF infection, mosquito nest eradication activities, and DHF vector behavior for teacher and janitorsINDONESIANAbstrakKecamatan Tembalang merupakan wilayah endemis DBD dengan angka kesakitan DBD tertinggi di Kota Semarang pada Tahun 2010.Perilaku pengendalian jentik nyamuk Aedes di lingkungan sekolah di Kecamatan Tembalang masih rendah. Pemahaman komunitas sekolah terhadap upaya pengendalian vektor ikut berperan dalam program pencegahan DBD di sekolah.Tujuan penelitian adalah mengidentifikasi pengetahuan, sikap dan perilaku pengendalian vektor DBD pada komunitas sekolah dasar

  4. PARTISIPASI MASYARAKAT DALAM PENGENDALIAN VEKTOR DEMAM BERDARAH DENGUE DI KOTA SEMARANG PROVINSI JAWA TENGAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiwik Trapsilowati

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Community empowerment in dengue vector control was an attempt to encourage community to participate in the prevention and control of dengue. The one of global strategy was selective and integrated vector control which involved community participation. The obejctive of this study was to measure community participation in dengue vector control, and indicators of entomology. The study was conducted in Sendang Mulyo, Tembalang district, Semarang city. The design study was participatory action research. This study developed methods of empowerment through participatory rural appraisal, participatory learning and action and communication for behavioural impact, modification was called empowerment in dengue vector control (EDVC. Data collected by quesionare with Likert scale and larvae survey. Participation dengue cadres showed that capacity, involving, volunteering and scope of activities was the excellent category (score : > 80%. Larvae indicators showed the free larvae number increased from 66,84% to 90,75%, house index from 33,16 to 9,25, container index 16Partisipasi Masyarakat dalam Pengendalian ...  (Wiwik Trapsilowati, et. alfrom 11,69 to 1,44 and breteau index  from 41,09 to 11,08. The analysis larvae indicators showed significantly different at second observation with fourth observation (p < 0.05. As well as the facilitator needs to be done periodic refreshing and larvae survey = Pemberdayaan masyarakat dalam pengendalian vektor DBD merupakan upaya untuk mendorong masyarakat berpartisipasi aktif dalam pencegahan dan penanggulangan DBD. Salah satu strategi global pemberantasan DBD adalah pengendalian nyamuk secara selektif dan terpadu dengan partisipasi masyarakat. Tujuan penelitian mengukur partisipasi masyarakat dalam pengendalian vektor DBD. Penelitian dilakukan di Kelurahan Sendang Mulyo, Kecamatan Tembalang, Kota Semarang. Rancangan penelitian adalah participatory action research serta pengembangan metode pemberdayaan modifikasi metode

  5. DISTRIBUSI SPASIAL KASUS DEMAM BERDARAH DENGUE (DBD, ANALISIS INDEKS JARAK DAN ALTERNATIF PENGENDALIAN VEKTOR DI KOTA SAMARINDA, PROVINSI KALIMANTAN TIMUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damar Tri Boewono

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF happens to be a public health problem in Samarinda city, East Kalimantan Province. Dengue was reported endemic in the entire six subdistricts of the city. Various vector control programs have been conducted by the Health Office, yet the dengue cases were still occurred on the previous years. Comprehensive research was conducted to determine the spatial distribution of DHF cases using geographical information system (GIS mapping, in relation to positive larvae of the breeding habitat distributions. The study was carried out in five endemic areas namely Pelita village Samarinda Utara Subdistrict, Sambutan village Samarinda Ilir Subdistrict, Sidodadi village Samarinda Ulu Subdistrict, Harapan Baru village Samarinda Seberang Subdistrict and Karang Asam Ilir village Sungai Kunjang Subdistrict. The aim of the study was to determine the specific vector control strategies based on spatial DHF cases and breeding habitat distributions and distance index analyses, larvae free index and insecticide susceptible status of dengue vector of Ae. aegypti against the insecticides which were used for vector control programs. The study revealed that average ABJ in the study areas was 35.85-64.16% and lower the national standar of 95%. Dengue vector of Ae. aegypti was found to be resistant to Malathion, Permethrin, Lambdasihalothrin and Bendiocarb insecticides. Thus an alternative insecticide should be considered. Dengue cases distribution in Samarinda city were found in  clusters/gregorious. Distance index analyses indicated that the transmissions were due to mosquito behaviour. Community empowement is needed to encourage the potential groups (PKK, Dasa Wisma, public health caders, posyandu, to participate on the vector control program.   Keywords: DHF, Spatial distribution, Cases Distance Index, Samarinda City.     Abstrak Demam Berdarah Dengue (DBD masih menjadi masalah kesehatan masyarakat Kota Samarinda, Provinsi

  6. ANALISIS PENGENDALIAN MUTU PROSES MACHINING ALLOY WHEEL MENGGUNAKAN METODE SIX SIGMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ong Andre Wahyu Rijanto

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available PT. Meshindo Alloy Wheel adalah perusahaan yang bergerak di bidang manufaktur alloy wheel atau dikenal dengan sebutan velg racing untuk didistribusikan ke industri mobil atau dikenal sebagai OEM (Original Equipment Manufacturer baik untuk industri otomotif di Indonesia maupun di Jepang. Mutu merupakan syarat penting dalam sukses bisnis. Kehandalan kinerja proses dan keakuratan pencapaian persyaratan mutu harus dapat dipenuhi. Proses dikatakan capable jika dapat memenuhi spesifikasi pelanggan, variasi yang terjadi pada proses relatif kecil, dan defect atau DPMO yang terjadi kecil. Artikel ini menganalisis pengendalian mutu proses pembuatan valve hole location pada alloy wheel type MS 511 YA. Pengendalian variasi proses produksi dan pengukuran dengan menggunakan metode six sigma DMAIC (Define Measure Analysis Improve Control untuk dapat mencapai target penurunan cacat sampai mencapai 3,4 DPMO (defect per million opportunities, Cp 1,54 dan Cpk 1,54. Setelah proses six sigma selesai, diharapkan implementasi six sigma dapat memberikan saran-saran perbaikan pada proses-proses yang lain.

  7. IDENTIFIKASI DAN TEKNIK PENGENDALIAN HAMA DAN PENYAKIT BENIH PULAI (Alstonia scholaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evayusvita Rustam

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah mengidentifikasi dan mengendalikan hama dan penyakit benih pulai yang terbawa dari lapangan. Identifikasi cendawan dilakukan dengan menginkubasi benih selama 7 hari, sedangkan untuk pengendalian terhadap hama dan penyakit benih diberi insektisida nabati dan kimia. Dari hasil identifikasi jenis cendawan pada benih pulai yaitu Aspergillus sp, Curvularia sp., Fusarium sp., Penicillium sp. dan Rhizopus sp. Persentase infeksi cendawan tertinggi pada benih pulai asal Nagrak (Aspergillus sp. sebesar 92%, Curvularia sp. 29% dan Fusarium sp. 21%, sedangkan persentase infeksi cendawan terendah pada benih pulai asal Jambi (Aspergillus sp. 2% dan Fusarium sp. 1%. Perlakuan terbaik yang dapat mengendalikan hama pada benih pulai adalah perlakuan yang diberi ekstrak daun suren dalam wadah plastik tertutup dan disimpan di ruang suhu kamar 270C selama 2 bulan. Pengendalian penyakit, terbaik pada benih adalah memberi bubuk kunyit ke dalam wadah plastik tertutup dan disimpan di lemari es 160C. Perlakuan tersebut menghasilkan daya kecambah masing-masing 70%.

  8. PENGENDALIAN LENGAN ROBOT PNEUMATIK PEMINDAH PLAT MELALUI BLUETOOTH DENGAN HANDPHONE BERTEKNOLOGI JAVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumardi Sumardi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Bluetooth merupakan teknologi yang berkembang sebagai jawaban atas kebutuhan komunikasi antar perlengkapan elektronik agar dapat saling mempertukarkan data dalam jarak yang terbatas menggunakan gelombang radio dengan frekuensi tertentu. Salah satu implementasi bluetooth yang populer adalah pada peralatan ponsel. Bluetooth adalah teknologi radio jarak pendek yang memberikan kemudahan konektivitas bagi peralatan-peralatan nirkabel. Teleoperasi atau telekontrol merupakan kemampuan untuk melakukan pengendalian dan pengoperasian suatu peralatan dari jarak jauh tanpa operator manusia. Sistem seperti ini sangat diperlukan untuk keperluan sistem pengendalian yang mengandung resiko besar bagi operator manusia, seperti operasi dalam reaktor nuklir. Sistem teleoperasi dibangun sebagai solusi yang dapat digunakan untuk menjamin keselamatan bagioperator manusia tanpa mengurangi keberhasilan dari proses yang berlangsung. Dengan memanfaatkan handphone yang mempunyai fasilitas Bluetooth dimungkinkan membuat suatu jaringan lokal untuk membangun suatu sistem teleoperasi dengan biaya murah dan efisien.Java yang merupakan bahasa pemrograman yang berorientasi objek mempunyai 3 lingkungan kerja baikuntuk aplikasi Desktop (Java 2 Standard Edition, aplikasi Enterprise (Java 2 Enterprise Edition maupun aplikasi untuk device dengan memori minimal (Java 2 Micro Edition. Serta API java yaitu JSR-82 yang mendukungpemrograman dengan Bluetooth dapat dikembangkan untuk membangun suatu sistem teleoperasi dengan media perantara bluetooth. Aplikasi dapat dibuat dengan midlet Java yang diinistal pada handphone yang mendukung teknologi Java serta adanya perangkat bluetooth.Sistem teleoperasi yang dibuat dapat berfungsi dengan baik untuk melakukan pengendalian robot pneumatik menggunakan PLC dengan keberhasilan mengirimkan perintah – perintah ke server dan meneruskannya ke PLC dan dapat mengolah data umpan balik dari PLC menjadi tampilan visualisasi animasi gerakan robot

  9. PROBIOTIK Bacillus firmus UNTUK PENGENDALIAN PENYAKIT Aeromonas hydrophila PADA BUDIDAYA IKAN LELE DUMBO, Clarias gariepinus

    OpenAIRE

    Angela Mariana Lusiastuti; Tuti Sumiati; Wartono Hadie

    2013-01-01

    Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui efektivitas pemberian bakteri probiotik Bacillus firmus terhadap ketahanan benih ikan lele dumbo (Clarias gariepinus) yang diinfeksi Aeromonas hydrophila. Probiotik diberikan melalui media budidaya dengan Rancangan Acak Lengkap (RAL) menggunakan lima perlakuan dan tiga ulangan yang diaplikasikan untuk pengendalian penyakit motile aromonas septicemia (MAS). Perlakuan tersebut adalah A (tanpa penambahan bakteri probiotik B. firmus (sebagai control), B (...

  10. PENGEMBANGAN PENGENDALIAN KELEMBABAN, TEMPERATUR PADA RUMAH KACA DENGAN PENCATATAN DATA OTOMATIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faisal Faisal

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian pengembangan pengendalian kelembaban pada rumah kaca telah selesai dilakukan. Pengembangan alat ini terdiri atas pengukuran kelembaban, temperatur dan intensitas cahaya dan pengendalian kelembaban udara. Sistem alat ukur terdiri dari power supply DC, sensor SHT11, sensor LDR, relay, mikrokontroler ATMega8535, pengkodisi sinyal, LCD karakter 20x2 dan humidifier. Sensor SHT11 terkalibrasi secara digital melalui port B. Sensor LDR dikarakterisasi menggunakan lampu pijar di dalam chamber tidak tembus cahaya, sehingga menghasilkan persamaan karakteristik sensor v = 0,7595ln(I – 2,2484 volt. Persamaan karakterisasi tersebut diproses melalui program BASCOM AVR untuk mengisi perintah pada mikrokontroler ATMega8535 dalam proses pengukuran secara terus menerus dan menampilkannya pada LCD karakter 20x2 dalam satuan lux dan data disimpan dalam file dengan format *xlsx. Humidifier dihidupkan oleh relay yang dikendalikan oleh mikrokontroler ATMega8535 dengan set poin pengukuran kelembaban udara kurang dari 60%. Rumah kaca yang digunakan berukuran panjang 240 cm, lebar 150 cm, tinggi dinding 200 cm dan tinggi atap 50 cm. Uji pengendalian kelembaban udara berhasil dipertahankan pada kelembaban udara kisaran 60% dengan error rata-rata sebesar 1,9% dari pukul 11.00 WITA sampai dengan 16.00 WITA.

  11. PENGENDALIAN PROSES PURIFIKASI DME DAN METANOL PADA PABRIK DME DARI GAS SINTESIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Wahid

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Pengembangan produksi DME (dimetil eter sebagai energi alternatif yang ramah lingkungan sudah banyak dilakukan di negara-negara lain seperti Jerman, Belanda, Australia, Jepang, China dan Taiwan. Indonesia masih mengimpor DME untuk memenuhi seluruh kebutuhan industri dalam negeri, karena itu perlu didirikan pabrik pembuatan DME. Proses pembuatan DME secara indirect melibatkan sintesis metanol, dehidrasi metanol, purifikasi DME hingga purifikasi metanol untuk di recylce. Optimasi proses purifikasi DME dilakukan dengan mendapatkan kinerja pengendalian yang optimum pada proses purifikasi DME hingga purifikasi metanol. Unit-unit yang ada pada proses purifikasi DME ialah unit distilasi DME, unit cooler dan unit storage tank, sedangkan pada proses purifikasi metanol terdapat unit distilasi metanol, unit cooler dan unit pompa. Proses purifikasi DME dan Metanol ini mengandalkan unit distilasi yang memiliki suhu operasi hingga 190oC dan tekanan hingga 1950 kPa. Sistem pengendalian yang dipilih untuk proses ini ialah jenis pengendali Proportional Integral (PI karena dapat menangani hampir setiap situasi pengendalian proses di dalam skala industri. Penelitian ini menggunakan pemodelan penyetelan pengendali Ziegler Nichols dan Lopez, lalu dibandingkan nilai parameter kinerja pengendalinya yaitu Offset, Rise Time, Time of First Peak, Settling Time, Periode osilasi, Decay Ratio, Overshoot, Deviasi maksimum, Integral Absolute Error (IAE dan Integral Square Error (ISE dari kedua jenis penyetelan tersebut. Hasil penelitian ini dapat digunakan untuk penentuan variabel input dan output yang optimum pada proses purifikasi DME dan Metanol yang dapat diterapkan pada pabrik DME.

  12. Model Pengendalian Faktor Risiko Stunting pada Anak Bawah Tiga Tahun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erna Kusumawati

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Stunting merupakan masalah gizi, terbukti data pemantauan status gizi Kabupaten Banyumas 2012 prevalensi stunting sebesar 28,37% dan prevalensi tertinggi (41,6% di Puskesmas Kedungbanteng. Tujuan penelitian untuk menganalisis faktor risiko terkait faktor anak, ibu, lingkungan terhadap stunting bawah tiga tahun (batita agar dapat dikembangkan model pengendaliannya. Penelitian menggunakan desain kasus kontrol, populasi adalah seluruh anak usia 6 sampai 36 bulan di Puskesmas Kedungbanteng Kabupaten Banyumas selama enam bulan tahun 2013. Sampel kasus adalah 50 batita stunting, sampel kontrol adalah 50 batita status normal. Teknik pengambilan sampel kasus diambil dari tujuh desa yang terbanyak stuntingnya, sedangkan kontrol adalah batita normal tetangga terdekat kasus dengan usia yang disamakan. Pengumpulan data dengan wawancara dan pengukuran. Analisis data univariat, bivariat (uji kai kuadrat, dan multivariat (uji regresi logistik ganda. Hasil penelitian menemukan karakteristik batita stunting terkena penyakit infeksi (82%, riwayat panjang badan lahir < 48 centimeter (66%, riwayat pemberian ASI dan makanan pendamping ASI kurang baik (66%, riwayat berat badan lahir rendah (8%. Pada penelitian ini, faktor risiko stunting adalah penyakit infeksi, pelayanan kesehatan, immunisasi, pengetahuan ibu, pendapatan keluarga, ketersediaan pangan keluarga, dan sanitasi lingkungan. Faktor yang paling dominan adalah penyakit infeksi. Model pengendalian stunting melalui peningkatan pemberdayaan keluarga terkait pencegahan penyakit infeksi, memanfaatkan pekarangan sebagai sumber gizi keluarga dan perbaikan sanitasi lingkungan. Model of Stunting Risk Factor Control among Children under Three Years Old Stunting is a nutritional problem, proved by the evidence of nutritional status monitoring at Banyumas District in 2012, the prevalence of stunting was 28.37% and the highest prevalence 41.6% at Kedungbanteng Primary Health Care. This study aimed to analyze risk factors

  13. IMPLEMENTASI PROTOKOL TCP/IP UNTUK PENGENDALIAN KOMPUTER JARAK JAUH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudy Adipranata

    2002-01-01

    dari dua bagian yaitu server yang diaktifkan pada komputer yang akan dikendalikan, dan client yang diaktifkan pada komputer pengendali. Pada aplikasi ini data yang dikirimkan berbentuk teks dan biner, dan menggunakan dua pasang komponen utama dWinsock yaitu TTextServer dan TTextClient serta TBinaryServer dan TBinaryClient. Fungsi yang diaplikasikan ialah penguncian komputer, reboot, shutdown, eksekusi program, pengiriman pesan, melihat tampilan layar dan melihat program yang sedang dijalankan pada komputer server. Pengujian dilakukan pada jaringan komputer internal dan juga pada jaringan internet. Hasil dari pengujian yang dilakukan pada jaringan internal didapat bahwa semua fungsi yang diaplikasikan dapat dijalankan dengan sempurna tanpa mengalami penundaan yang berarti karena delay yang terjadi di bawah 1 detik, sedangkan untuk jaringan internet terdapat delay yang besarnya bervariasi tergantung dari tingkat kepadatan traffic data pada saat tersebut. Kata kunci: TCP/IP, jaringan komputer, pengendalian jarak jauh.

  14. Pengendalian Perubahan Pemanfaatan Lahan Pertanian Tanaman Pangan di Kabupaten Banyuasin, Provinsi Sumatera Selatan (Untuk Mendukung Program Lumbung Pangan Nasional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizky Rangga Wijaksono

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Potensi besar yang dimiliki Kabupaten Banyuasin sebagai sentra pertanian tanaman pangan tidak sejalan dengan program Sumatera Selatan sebagai Lumbung Pangan Nasional, hal ini dikarenakan kegiatan perubahan pemanfaatan lahan yang semakin marak terjadi di Kabupaten Banyuasin. Oleh karena itu perlunya arahan pengendalian pemanfaatan lahan pertanian tanaman pangan di Kabupaten Banyuasin. Tujuan penelitian adalah mendapatkan arahan pengendalian konversi lahan pertanian tanaman pangan yang dilakukan dengan lima tahapan analisis yaitu pengidentifikasian karakteristik perubahan dengan analisis deskriptif, menganalisis dampak perubahannya terhadap kapasitas produksi padi dengan analisis deskriptif dan penentuan tipologi perubahan pemanfaatan lahan digunakan analisis data kuartil. Penentuan faktor yang berpengaruh dengan menggunakan analisis delphi, menganalisis kriteria pengendalian dengan analisis deskriptif dan merumuskan  arahan pengendalian perubahan pemanfaatan lahan pertanian tanaman pangan dengan analisis triangulasi. Jenis perubahan lahan pertanian terbesar mengarah ke penggunaan perkebunan  sebesar 50 % dan permukiman sebesar 30 % dengan laju perubahan pemanfaatan lahan pertanian tanaman pangan di Kabupaten Banyuasin adalah 19.206 Ha/Tahun. Hal ini berbanding lurus dengan semakin meningkatnya kapasitas produksi tanaman pangan yang hilang sebesar 563.999 Ton dari Tahun 2007-2010. Berdasarkan laju dan dampak konversi lahan tersebut, diketahui tipologi konversi lahan pertanian tanaman pangan, yakni Tipologi I (Kecenderungan dampak dan laju tinggi, Tipologi II (Kecenderungan dampak dan laju sedang, Tipologi III (Kecenderungan dampak dan laju rendah. Ketiga tipologi ini memberikan gambaran karakteristik konversi lahan pertanian tanaman pangan yang terjadi di Kabupaten Banyuasin. Melalui tipologi tersebut dijelaskan bahwa konversi lahan pertanian yang terjadi dipengaruhi oleh faktor-faktor berikut: perkembangan investasi, perkembangan demografi

  15. Pengaruh Jenis Mangsa dan Suhu pada Perkembangan Menochilus sexmaculatus Fabricius (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae dan Peranannya dalam Pengendalian Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tris Haris Ramadhan

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae is the vector of citrus greening (Huanglongbing bacterium and the most serious impediment to citrus culture. Classical biological control of this psyllid vector should contribute to suppress their population. This research was conducted to determine the performance of Menochilus sexmaculatus Fabricius (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae when they were fed with D. citri. The larval performance index of M. sexmaculatus on D. citri compared with Aphis craccivora Koch (Hemiptera: Aphididae diet was 1.3.M. sexmaculatus fed with D. citri had lower fitness than those fed with A. craccivora as shown by longer larval stadium, lower adult dry weight, less number of egg produced and lower percentage of egg hatched. M. sexmaculatus grew best at the temperature of 27oC. Employing the exclusion procedure under field condition,M. sexmaculatus could reduce the population of D. citri up to 90%. These findings showed that theM. sexmaculatus could be a potential predator in reducing D. citri, particularly when the more preferred prey A. craccivora was not present.   Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae merupakan kelompok Psyllid yang menularkan penyebab penyakit Huanglongbing yang sangat berbahaya pada tanaman jeruk. Pengendalian hayati klasik telah banyak memberikan kontribusi dalam pengendalian di lapangan. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk melihat penampilan Menochilus sexmaculatus Fabricius (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae dengan pakan D. citri. Indeks penampilan larva M. sexmaculatus dengan pakan D. citri dibandingkan dengan Aphis craccivora Koch (Hemiptera: Aphididae adalah 1,3. M. sexmaculatus yang diberi pakan D. citri menunjukkan penurunan kebugaran dibandingkan jika diberi pakan A. craccivora seperti yang ditunjukkan dengan stadium larva lebih lama, penurunan berat kering serangga dewasa, telur yang dihasilkan lebih sedikit, dan penurunan jumlah telur yang menetas. Menggunakan metode eksklusi pada kondisi

  16. Penapisan PGPF untuk Pengendalian Penyakit Busuk Lunak Lidah Buaya (Aloe vera di Tanah Gambut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supriyanto Supriyanto

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Aloe (Aloe vera planted in West Borneo peat soil is well known as having the best product quality in Indonesia. Soft rot disease is one of the constraints of Aloe cultivation on peat soil. Many methods have no significant result for controlling this disease. This research objectives are to obtain Plant Growth Promoting Fungi (PGPF for controlling Aloe bacterial soft rot in peat soil. The research was conducted in Clinical Laboratory of Plant Pathology and glass house of Faculty of Agriculture, Gadjah Mada University, Yogyakarta from October 2008 to September 2009. The methods included fungal isolation from peat land, hypovirulent and PGPF ability test, and biological control test in the glass house. Among 42 peat soil fungi tested, 28 isolates were hypovirulent and only 2 isolates i.e. SNTH001 (Penicillium sp. and SNTH003 (Aspergillus sp. showed the PGPF ability. Glass house trial showed that single application of SNTH001 and SNTH003 isolates were able to increase the growth of Aloe. In the biological control of Aloe soft rot disease test showed that the lowest intensity (25% might be obtained by using SNTH001 isolate.   Lidah buaya (Aloe vera asal tanah gambut Kalimantan Barat dikenal mempunyai kualitas terbaik di Indonesia. Penyakit busuk lunak yang disebabkan oleh bakterimerupakan salah satu kendala dalam pengembangan tanaman lidah buaya dilahan gambut dan beberapa cara pengendalian yang telah dilakukan belum memberikan hasil nyata. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mencari jamur asal tanah gambut yang mampu berperan sebagai Pemacu Pertumbuhan Tanaman untuk pengendalian penyakit busuk lunak di tanah gambut. Penelitian telah dilakukan di Laboratorium Ilmu Penyakit Tumbuhan Klinik dan Rumah Kaca Fakultas Pertanian UGM Yogyakarta dari bulan Oktober 2008 sampai September 2009, meliputi isolasi jamur dari tanah gambut, uji hipovirulensi dan uji kemampuan sebagai PGPF serta uji pengendalian hayati penyakit busuk lunak lidah buaya di rumah kaca. Dari

  17. SISTEM PENGENDALIAN KUALITAS DENGAN BANTUAN EXPERT SYSTEM UNTUK MENURUNKAN TINGKAT KECACATAN PRODUK (Studi Kasus di Perusahaan Pembuat Filaman Lampu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelly Yuliana

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The research discusses the quality control system in producing lamp filament. Meantime, the quality control system produces ahigh level of failure, 10-17%. The result of the identification revealed that the primary coil and double coil processes have the highest failure, ± 17%, and the main cause of rejection is the unflat coil. The research covers the development of attribute control chart (p chart, before and after implementations, development of control plans and documents needed, expert system program to investigate the root cause of the failure, proportional test and final result failure. The result of the implementation of suggestion, gives a significant decrease of failure and the average of failure level of the final product is average 5.74%. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Penelitian ini membahas sistem pengendalian kualitas pada pembuatan lampu filamen. Sistem pengendalian kualitas yang berjalan sekarang menghasilkan kecacatan yang tinggi, 10-17%. Identifikasi yang telah dilakukan menunjukkan bahwa proses primary coil dan double coil memiliki tingkat kecacatan terbesar ± 17% dengan penyebab utama reject adalah coil tidak rata. Penelitian yang dilakukan meliputi pembuatan dan monitoring peta kendali atribut (p chart baik awal dan akhir hasil implementasi usulan, pembuatan control plan, dokumen-dokumen terhadap pengendalian penyebab kecacatan utama, program expert system yang digunakan untuk penelusuran penyebab kecacatan, uji proporsi dan tingkat kecacatan akhir. Hasil implementasi usulan memberikan penurunan tingkat kecacatan yang signifikan terhadap penyebab kecacatan utama dan rata-rata tingkat kecacatan produk akhir sebesar 5,74%. Kata kunci: sistem pengendalian kualitas, expert system.

  18. Natural conditions and cropping regionalization of rice area in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WUXianzhang

    1994-01-01

    The formation of rice distribution is based on certain natural ecological conditions and social economic environments. In China, rice cropping is distributed in a vast area extending across 5 temperature belts, the northernmost of rice growing area in the world being in China. Distribution of rice cropping is characterized by a gradual decrease from south to north, from large and concentrated regions in Southeast to small and separated areasin Northwest.

  19. Analisa pengendalian internal terhadap pembiayaan mudharabah studi kasus pembiayaan mudharabah bank syariah mandiri cabang kebon jeruk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evi Alfiya

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui prosedur pembiayaan mudharabah pada PT. Bank Syariah Mandiri Cabang Kebon Jeruk apakah sudah berjalan sesuai dengan prosedur dan tujuan perusahaan yang ditetapkan, serta untuk mengetahui kesesuaian perhitungan akuntansi mudharabah serta pencatatan jurnal berdasarkan PSAK 105 tentang mudharabah, serta untuk mengetahui prosedur pengendalian internal bagian pembiayaan mudharabah berdasarkan standar COSO. Metode penulisan yang digunakan adalah studi literatur untuk memperoleh landasan teori yang diterapkan pada evaluasi masalah dan juga studi lapangan dengan melakukan observasi, wawancara, dan pengumpulan dokumen-dokumen staff administrasi pembiayaan, account Officer, Back Office Officer selaku staff SDI. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa prosedur pembiayaan yang dilaksanakan pada PT. Bank Syariah Mandiri telah sesuai dengan praktiknya dan penerapan pencatatan dan penjurnalan pembiayaan mudharabah yang diterapkan oleh PT. Bank Syariah Mandiri Cabang Kebon Jeruk belum sesuai dengan PSAK 105, karena masih terjadi beberapa hal yang belum tepat dalam penerapannya. Dari hasil penelitian dapat dilihat bahwa pemisahan tugas yang memadai, penulis menyarankan agar perusahaan mencari karyawan baru untuk menduduki posisi legal Officer, Staff SDI dan IT Coordinator. Secara keseluruhan, penulis menyimpulkan bahwa perusahaan telah menyusun dan melaksanakan 5 komponen pengendalian internal atas pembiayaan mudharabah dengan baik. (EA

  20. ANALISIS PENGENDALIAN MUTU PROSES MACHINING ALLOY WHEEL MENGGUNAKAN METODE SIX SIGMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ong Andre Wahyu Rijanto

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available PT. Meshindo Alloy Wheel adalah perusahaan yang bergerak di bidang manufaktur alloy wheel atau dikenal dengan sebutan velg racing untuk didistribusikan ke industri mobil atau dikenal sebagai OEM (Original Equipment Manufacturer baik untuk industri otomotif di Indonesia maupun di Jepang. Mutu merupakan syarat penting dalam sukses bisnis. Kehandalan kinerja proses dan keakuratan pencapaian persyaratan mutu harus dapat dipenuhi. Proses dikatakan capable jika dapat memenuhi spesifikasi pelanggan, variasi yang terjadi pada proses relatif kecil, dan defect atau DPMO yang terjadi kecil.  Artikel ini menganalisis pengendalian mutu proses pembuatan valve hole location pada alloy wheel type MS 511 YA. Pengendalian variasi proses produksi dan pengukuran dengan menggunakan metode six sigma DMAIC (Define Measure Analysis Improve Control untuk dapat mencapai target penurunan cacat sampai mencapai 3,4 DPMO (defect per million opportunities, Cp 1,54 dan Cpk 1,54. Setelah proses six sigma selesai, diharapkan implementasi six sigma dapat memberikan saran-saran perbaikan pada proses-proses yang lain.

  1. APLIKASI METODE NEURO-DYNAMIC PADA PROSES PENGENDALIAN PERSEDIAAN DI SEBUAH PERUSAHAAN RETAIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngarap Im Manik

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Improper inventory system in terms of cost and customer satisfaction is always the most common problem in every part of industries, and of course, also for retailers. The inappropriateness in setting of orders makes the warehouse overloaded for some kind of goods and lack for the others. To overcome this problem, we proposed to apply the Neuro-Dynamic method for optimizing the composition of goods. This method can be easily implemented using computer program and the result indicates that the overdemand and oversupply problems in that company are solved. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia: Masalah yang sering dihadapi perusahaan retail saat ini antara lain adalah sistem pengendalian persediaan yang kurang tepat, terutama ditinjau dari segi biaya dan kepuasan pelanggan. Hal ini disebabkan karena kuantitas pemesanan yang ditetapkan perusahaan terlalu besar maupun terlalu kecil, sehingga mengakibatkan barang yang disimpan tidak optimal. Untuk menyelesaikan masalah di atas diusulkan dengan menggunakan metode Neuro-Dynamic, yang dapat mengoptimalkan stok barang yang tersedia pada toko, agar biaya yang dikeluarkan minimal dengan menghasilkan keuntungan yang sebesar-besarnya. Untuk memudahkan proses perhitungannya dilakukan dengan program komputer. Hasil pembahasan menunjukkan bahwa perusahaan retail tersebut telah terbantu dalam menjalankan aktivitas perdagangannya, karena tersedianya informasi yang dibutuhkan secara cepat dan cukup akurat dan dapat mengoptimalkan jumlah stok barang yang ada, sehingga mengoptimalkan overdemand dan oversupply. Kata kunci: pengendalian persediaan, Neuro-Dynamic, optimasi.

  2. MODEL INTERVENSI PENGENDALIAN DEMAM BERDARAH DENGUE DI KABUPATEN INDRAMAYU, JAWA BARAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amrul Munif

    2016-09-01

    dengue fever so that the number of infection will be reduced.Keywords: Intervention Model , Dengue Fever Control ABSTRAKDi Indonesia kegiatan pokok program pengendalian Demam Berdarah Dengue (DBD saat sekarangmeliputi surveilans epidemiologi, penemuan dan tatalaksana kasus, pengendalian vektor, peningkatan peranserta masyarakat, sistim kewaspadaan dini (SKD, penanggulangan Kejadian Luar Biasa (KLB,penyuluhan, kemitraan, capacity building, penelitian,survei, monitoring dan evaluasi. Namun berbagaikegiatan tersebut belum memberikan hasil yang diharapkan, hal ini mengindikasikan masih perlunya upayalain dalam rangka perbaikan program dalam penanggulangan DBD. Proses penularan DBD merupakanproses dinamik, dengan demikian kajian tentang penularan penyakit tersebut perlu melibatkan aspekdinamik tersebut ketergantungan terhadap waktu, yang selama ini diabaikan dalam berbagai penelitian yangtelah, dilakukan berkaitan dengan DBD. Dengan melibatkan aspek dinamik dari proses penularan tersebutakan diperoleh suatu kesimpulan lebih tepat dalam menentukan kebijakan penanggulangan penyakittersebut. Dengan alasan tersebut telah dilakukan penelitian tentang pengembangan model pengendalianDBD yang lebih spesifik dan dinamis di Kabupaten Indramayu Propinsi Jawa Barat. Tujuan penelitianuntuk mendapatkan model pengendalian DBD yang dapat menurunkan Infection Rate (IR menjadi nolpersen. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan angka bebas jentik (ABJ yang mencerminkan kebersihanlingkungan di Kabupaten Indramayu tertinggi 83,2%. Hal ini menggambarkan bahwa programPemberantasan Sarang Nyamuk (PSN di kabupaten tersebut berjalan dengan baik. Pelaksanaan foging dilokasi penelitian tersebut ternyata dapat menurunkan insidensi DBD baik itu infeksi primer (terdeteksiIgM maupun infeksi sekunder (terdeteksi IgG dan IgM. Insect repellent dapat dijadikan alternativepencegahan menularnya DBD karena dapat menurunkan peningkatan jumlah infeksi DBD. Pada dasarnya penggunaan Insect repellent dapat menurunkan IR

  3. Validation of velocity map imaging conditions over larger areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Mike; Koehler, Sven P. K.

    2013-04-01

    We have established through simulations and experiments the area over which Velocity Map Imaging (VMI) conditions prevail. We designed a VMI setup in which we can vary the ionization position perpendicular to the center axis of the time-of-flight spectrometer. We show that weak extraction conditions are far superior over standard three-plate setups if the aim is to increase the ionization volume without distorting VMI conditions. This is important for a number of crossed molecular beam experiments that already utilize weak extraction conditions, but to a greater extent for surface studies where fragments are desorbed or scattered off a surface in all directions. Our results on the dissociation of NO2 at 226 nm show that ionization of the fragments can occur up to ±5.5 mm away from the center axis of the time-of-flight spectrometer without affecting resolution or arrival position.

  4. Validation of velocity map imaging conditions over larger areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reid, Mike; Koehler, Sven P. K. [School of Chemistry, University of Manchester, M13 9PL Manchester (United Kingdom); Photon Science Institute, University of Manchester, M13 9PL Manchester (United Kingdom); Dalton Cumbrian Facility, University of Manchester, Moor Row, CA24 3HA Whitehaven (United Kingdom)

    2013-04-15

    We have established through simulations and experiments the area over which Velocity Map Imaging (VMI) conditions prevail. We designed a VMI setup in which we can vary the ionization position perpendicular to the center axis of the time-of-flight spectrometer. We show that weak extraction conditions are far superior over standard three-plate setups if the aim is to increase the ionization volume without distorting VMI conditions. This is important for a number of crossed molecular beam experiments that already utilize weak extraction conditions, but to a greater extent for surface studies where fragments are desorbed or scattered off a surface in all directions. Our results on the dissociation of NO{sub 2} at 226 nm show that ionization of the fragments can occur up to {+-}5.5 mm away from the center axis of the time-of-flight spectrometer without affecting resolution or arrival position.

  5. Ventilation and air-conditioning concept for CNGS underground areas

    CERN Document Server

    Lindroos, J

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the CNGS project is to prove the existence of neutrino oscillation by generating an intense neutrino beam from CERN in the direction of the Gran Sasso laboratory in Italy, where two large neutrino detectors are built to detect the neutrinos. All the components for producing the neutrino beam will be situated in the underground tunnels, service galleries and chambers. The ventilation and air-conditioning systems installed in these underground areas have multiple tasks. Depending on the operating mode and structure to be air-conditioned, the systems are required to provide fresh air, cool the machine, dehumidify areas housing sensible equipment or assure the smoke removal in a case of a fire. This paper presents the technical solutions foreseen to meet these requirements.

  6. Pengendalian Motor Servo Yang Terintegrasi Dengan Webcam Berbasis Internet Dan Arduino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rinaldy Rinaldy

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Seperti halnya internet, yang merupakan suatu jaringan global yang dapat mengkomunikasikan satu komputer dengan komputer yang lain, di manapun lokasi komputer tersebut berada, maka dapat diaplikasikan suatu proses pengendalian jarak jauh, dengan menggunakan mikrokontroler, sedemikian hingga objek yang bergerak mencurigakan dapat dimonitor oleh webcam, yang dapat digerakkan secara dinamis oleh pengguna. Hal ini diaplikasikan dalam sistem keamanan di dalam rumah pada saat rumah ditinggal jauh oleh pemiliknya. Untuk menunjang sistem keamanan, perlu adanya pemantauan yang dilakukan demi menghindari kasus pencurian. Pengguna dapat melihat tampilan camera dari software yang terintegrasi dengan webcam, selain itu pengguna dapat mengendalikan pergerakan kamera dengan tombol-tombol yang tersedia pada tampilan website yang berbasis HTML.  Dalam penelitian ini alat kendali motor servo dapat bekerja dengan baik, dengan simpangan sudut mendekati 1800

  7. Analysis and mapping of present and future drought conditions over Greek areas with different climate conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paparrizos, Spyridon; Maris, Fotios; Weiler, Markus; Matzarakis, Andreas

    2016-10-01

    Estimation of drought in a certain temporal and spatial scale is crucial in climate change studies. The current study targets on three agricultural areas widespread in Greece, Ardas River Basin in Northeastern Greece, Sperchios River Basin in Central Greece, and Geropotamos River Basin in Crete Island in South Greece that are characterized by diverse climates as they are located in various regions. The objective is to assess the spatiotemporal variation of drought conditions prevailing in these areas. The Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) was used to identify and assess the present and future drought conditions. Future simulated data were derived from a number of Regional Climatic Models (RCMs) from the ENSEMBLES European Project. The analysis was performed for the future periods of 2021-2050 and 2071-2100, implementing A1B and B1 scenarios. The spatial analysis of the drought conditions was performed using a combined downscaling technique and the Ordinary Kriging. The Mann-Kendall test was implemented for trend investigation. During both periods and scenarios, drought conditions will tend to be more severe in the upcoming years. The decrease of the SPI values in the Sperchios River Basin is expected to be the strongest, as it is the only study area that will show a negative balance (in SPI values), regarding the drought conditions. For the Ardas and the Geropotamos River Basins, a great increase of the drought conditions will occur during the 2021-2050 period, while for 2071-2100 period, the decrease will continue but it will be tempered. Nevertheless, the situation in all study areas according to the SPI classification is characterized as "Near-normal", in terms of drought conditions.

  8. Sistem Pengendalian Intern Pemerintah (SPIP Dalam Perencanaan dan Pelaksanaan Anggaran di Daerah (Studi Pada Dinas Kesehatan Kabupaten Madiun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuning Hindriani

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan penelitian ini menganalisis dan menginterpretasikan pelaksanaan SPIP dalam perencanaan dan pelaksanaan anggaran di Dinas Kesehatan Kabupaten Madiun. Metode penelitian menggunakan jenis deskriptif dengan pendekatan kualitatif, yaitu metode pemecahan masalah yang diselidiki dengan menggambarkan keadaan lembaga yang menjalankan sistem pada saat sekarang berdasarkan fakta-fakta yang tampak atau sebagaimana adanya dengan tehnik wawancara dan studi dokumen. Hasil penelitian ini adalah pelaksanaan SPIP di Dinas Kesehatan terbatas pada internalisasi SPIP ke dalam seluruh proses kerja di organisasi, melalui unsur lingkungan pengendalian, penilaian risiko, kegiatan pengendalian, informasi dan komunikasi, serta pemantauan. Pada Lingkungan Pengendalian, belum didukung komitmen pimpinan untuk menerapkan SPIP sesuai dengan ketentuan yang berlaku; Penilaian Risiko, belum dilakukan pemetaan yang terdokumentasi; Kegiatan Pengendalian, pelaksanaan review masih terbatas pada formalitas pemenuhan terhadap permintaan data dari DPKD; informasi sebagai alat komunikasi yang efektif dengan tingkat akurasi tinggi melalui laporan-laporan program/kegiatan menjadi bahan evaluasi untuk perbaikan perencanaan selanjutnya, namun masih diperlukan adanya pembaharuan-pembaharuan dalam sistem informasi yang digunakan; dan Pemantauan dilakukan sebagai upaya meminimalisir penyimpangan dan efektifitas pencapaian tujuan organisasi, namun tindaklanjut rekomendasi monitoring oleh APIP masih belum mendapatkan prioritas dalam penanganannya. Proses internalisasi SPIP perlu di dukung dengan penerapan hard control berupa Standard Operating Procedure (SOP dan Satuan Tugas (SATGAS implementasi SPIP. Sehingga dapat menjamin pengelolaan keuangan yang handal, melalui: 1 Penguatan komitmen pimpinan dan semua pihak; 3 Pelaksanaan review sebagai bahan acuan perbaikan tahun yang akan datang; 4 Melakukan inovasi-inovasi baru dalam penerapan teknologi informasi, dan 5 memperhatikan rekomendasi

  9. PENGENDALIAN JENTIK Aedes Aegypti MENGGUNAKAN Mesocyclops Aspericomis MELALUI PARTISIPASI MASYARAKAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umi Widyastuti

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Mesocyclops aspericornis was investigated for its effectiveness in controlling Aedes aegypti larvae in a variety of containers e.g metal drum, cistern, clay jars, and other container made of plastic. A study was carried out in Kenteng hamlet, Tegalrejo village, Salatiga Municipality. It was conducted by health-workers (staff of Vector and Reservoir Control Research Unit and Health Center of Tegalrejo and the community, especially the woman's organization namely "family empowering and welfareness ". which participate in releasing M. aspericornis for controlling Ae. aegypti larvae. The community has responsibility to release M. aspericornis in Kenteng RT01 and 02 as the treated area I. Meanwhile, Health-workers have responsibility to release it in Kenteng RT 04, 05, and 07 as the treated area II and Kenteng RT 03 and 06 as the untreated control area (no M. aspericornis released. The aim of the study were: a, to determine the effectiveness of M. aspericornis in decreasing larval populations of Ae. aegypti in the containers, and b. to determine the Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice (KAP of the community, referring to disease, vector and control of Dengue Haemorhagic Fever (DHF. M. aspericornis was effective to decrease larval populations of Ae. aegypti in Kenteng area. The increasing number of Ae. aegypti larvae free containers of 24.29-84,02% and 35.75-92.01% were shown in respectively treated area I and II. The KAP of the community referring to disease, vector and control of DHF increased after the health education conducted. It's concluded that the community of Kenteng hamlet is active in participation to control Ae. aegypti. As a recommend, control of Ae. aegypti larvae using M. aspericornis through community partisipation should be considered due to a good prospect and effectiveness of this agent to control of Ae. aegypti larvae in the laboratory as well as in the field   Key words : Vector control, M. aspericornis, Ae. aegypti, Dengue

  10. Assessment of bioclimatic conditions within the area of Szczecin agglomeration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jadwiga Nidzgorska-Lencewicz

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to characterise the bioclimatic conditions in the city of Szczecin, particularly the recognition of the frequency of occurrence of the conditions unfavourable to humans. The analysis is based on the hourly values of particular meteorological elements and pollutant concentrations in the period 2005?2010 taken at the three measuring stations located in various settlement structures in Szczecin metropolitan area. The Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI was used to assess heat stress of human organism and the assessment of thermal sensation was based on the Effective Temperature index (ET. It was established that on a yearly basis the most favourable biothermal conditions are observed in the centre of the city and in its southern districts ? categories no thermal stress (UTCI and thermal comfort (ET are most frequently recorded there. However, in the northern parts of the city the most common class of thermal stress (UTCI is moderate cold stress and thermal sensation category (ET cool and cold. Among the situations which thermal stress, the conditions connected with discomfort related to cold rather than heat are more frequent. Throughout the year, the strong cold stress (UTCI < 13 ° C and sensations (ET related to cold stress occurred in 12.5% and 25% of time respectively, whereas thermal discomfort related to strong heat stress with UTCI values over 32 ° C and ET thermal sensations hot and very hot were observed incomparably less frequently ? 0.3% and 3.7% respectively. However, heat-related discomfort is more frequently observed in the city centre, and cold-related discomfort is most frequently experienced by residents of the outskirts of the city, particularly its northern parts. The statistically strongest relationships were observed between biothermal sensation and ozone (O3 and particulate matter PM2.5 immissions. During the analysed period, the most unfavourable bioclimatic conditions occurred predominantly in

  11. Evaluasi Reliability dan Safety pada Sistem Pengendalian Level Syn Gas 2ND Interstage Separator Di PT. Petrokimia Gresik

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi Nur Rahmawati

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Telah dilakukan evaluasi reliability dan safety pada sistem pengendalian level separator. Tujuan dilakukan tugas akhir ini yaitu untuk mengetahui evaluasi perhitungan reliability dan nilai SIL yang terpakai pada sistem pengendalian level separator. Metode yang digunakan yaitu metode kuantitatif. Synthesis gas compressor adalah plant untuk menaikkan pressure dari 30 kg/cm2 menjadi 180 kg/cm2. Plant ini terdiri dari 4 tingkat yang didalamnya terdapat cooler dan separator. Separator merupakan tabung bertekanan yang digunakan untuk memisahkan gas dengan air. Didalam separator diharapkan tidak terdapat air karena air dapat menyebabkan vibrasi dikompressor. Dari hasil evaluasi didapatkan nilai reliability terendah dimiliki oleh komponen LV 1159 sebesar 0,58574 selama 8760 jam. Untuk tingkat safety komponen sistem pengendalian level separator berada pada SIL 1, namun pada komponen LV 1159 dilakukan penurunan nilai PFD dengan metode redundant yang semula nilai PFD-nya 0,05220 menjadi 0,00892 sehingga nilai SIL-nya menjadi SIL 2. Berdasarkan batas acuan nilai reliability untuk dilakukan preventive maintenance sebesar 0,8 maka untuk komponen LV 1159 memiliki waktu preventive maintenance 1900 jam atau 2,5 bulan, LT 1159 t = 13900 jam atau 19 bulan, dan LIC 1159 t = 17300 jam atau 2 tahun. Dengan biaya preventive maintenance keseluruhan komponen sebesar Rp. 516.120,00 pertahunnya.

  12. [Conditions of dental extractions in areas health centers of Senegal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faye, D; Tine, S D; Cisse, D; Lo, C M; Mbodj, El B; Diouf, M; Diallo, P D

    2009-12-01

    Dental extraction is a surgical act frequently carried out in the African dental structures. It requires the rigorous respect of the conditions of asepsis and antisepsis. Equipments and anaesthetic and avulsional products must be also sufficient. Our study undertaken among 46 dental services in areas health centers of Senegal aimed to determine the conditions under which dental extractions are carried out. The principle results of our study showed that 93% of dental practitioners wore sterilized gloves. 49% of the dentist's care activity consisted in dental extractions. 50% of the practitioners re-use anaesthetic needles, 2% re-use anaesthetic carpules. We noticed that the dental structures were facing a deficit of materials and products of extraction. Face to the outbreak of serious illnesses as infections of HIV and Hepatitis B, the practitioner and his team must be sensitized and trained to struggle against the transmissible infections and to carry out the dental extraction only if the conditions of asepsis and antisepsis are joined together. A pleading towards the medical authorities must be done to support the services in equipments and periodic renewals of the materials and products of extractions.

  13. PENGENDALIAN PEMBANGUNAN PERUMAHAN DI KAWASAN PERBUKITAN KOTA SEMARANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Sunarti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Around the beginning of 2000, there was the phenomenon of increased residential development  in the hills of Semarang. Development undertaken by the developer, had less attention to rules and policies regarding the determination of residential location. This study aims to formulate an alternative form of residential development control in the hills of Semarang. The results of this study is pre-shaped housing development control action and action to control post. Pre control action in the form of licensing should be accordance with the spatial supported by the zoning regulations, developers have incorporated a business, an area of at least 1 hectare plot of land, reinforced by AMDAL. The post-action control of its control of the first warning letter, the second warning and if not heeded the warnings given immediate cessation of all four of the action execution of work or demolition. The recommendations in this study each party in carrying out his duties in accordance with rules established and approved by the region.

  14. Pengendalian Respirasi untuk Mempertahankan Mutu Pasca Panen Produk Segar Hortikultura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutrisno

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The Public demand on fresh horticultural products is fairly high, and the data showed for the past few years, the domestic and overseas demands for fresh (topical fruits have a tandency to incrase. Fresh horticultural are perishable ptoduces with limited of shelf life. Consequently, the continuity of fruit supply could be distrubed in terms of time, quantity, and quality. On the order hand, the moden market need the perpect delivery and want the fruits in the consumer hands in fresh, uniformly ripened, and ready to consume conditions. Biological products still carry out metabolic activity like respiration even after harvest, Most of the postharvest physico-chemical canges of frutis are related to respiration, such as maturity process, developmentof aroma and sweetness, softening of fruit meat, quality degradiation, etc. Thus, controlling the respiration process could be done for maintaining the qualityof fruits during post-hervest handling. Over the past years, the mathematical model for predicting and thus controlling respiration characteristics were already developed by many researchers. An application of the results of those research were also commercially used such as for Cold Storage, Modified Atmosphere Packaging (MAP, Artifical Ripening (AR and Controlled Atmosphere Storage (CAS. This paper will reviewed the importance of controlling the respiration in relation to perserved the quality of fresh horticultural products during post-harvest handling.

  15. PENGENDALIAN PERSEDIAAN BAHAN BAKU BASE MATERIAL PADA INDUSTRI KERAMIK DI PT. XYZ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidya Susanti

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Inventory of raw materials in the company is very important, so it has to be controlled. A good inventory control of raw materials should be supported with cost efficiency. This study was to analyze factors that cause the base material inventories excess at PT. XYZ and analyze the purpose of the base material inventories to be controlled. The reseacrh was using a fish bone method and continue with using pairwise comparison method assisted with the expert choice 2000 software. The classification result based on ABC analysis, the selected item that was going to be analyzed was the A category items.The items that are included in the A category are clay ex belitung jw, clay ja 1/ja b and sodium feldspar. The EOQ equations model was used to answer the purpose of the base material inventories control. Based from the EOQ model, the needed quantity, order quantity, order frequency, reorder point (ROP, total order cost (TOC, total carrying cost (TCC, and total inventory cost (TIC could be obtained. The comparison of the total cost of inventory among the EOQ model and company policies showed that the EOQ model in seven months can save up to Rp311.612.769. PT. XYZ could minimize the base material inventory costs by calculating the costs incurred. The EOQ model could be implemented if all of the departments involved are well cooperated. PT. XYZ should also be able to make inventory control standards which are quantity order, order frequency, and reorder point. Keywords: Cost, EOQ, frequency, inventory, ROPABSTRAKPersediaan bahan baku pada perusahaan sangatlah penting, sehingga harus dapat dikendalikan. Pengendalian persediaan bahan baku yang baik harus didukung dengan efisiensi biaya. Penelitian ini untuk menganalisis faktor-faktor yang menyebabkan kondisi persediaan bahan baku base material berlebih di PT. XYZ dan menganalisis persediaan bahan baku base material agar dapat dikendalikan. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode fish bone dilanjutkan dengan metode

  16. Evaluasi Manfaat Sekolah Lapang Pengendalian Hama Terpadu (SLPHT Perkebunan Kopi Rakyat dalam Meningkatkan Pendapatan Petani

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendiarto Hendiarto

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Integrated pest management (IPM Farmers Field School (FFS on coffee crop had been conducted in East Java since 1998 until 2003. The IPM-FFS program aimed to increase productivity and quality of the coffee bean through the improvement of the crop and the environment. The aim of this paper was to 1 describe the benefit of the implementation of IPM practicing farmers. The tabulation descriptive method, the profit function and logit function analysis were used. Results showed that the application of IPM technology could increase the profit and the quality of the coffee bean and the price of coffee at farmer level obviously affected the farmer to adopt IPM and increase the income of the farming.   Sekolah Lapangan Pengendalian Hama Terpadu (SLPHT tanaman kopi telah dilaksanakan di provinsi Jawa Timur sejak tahun 1998 sampai 2003. Program SLPHT bertujuan untuk meningkatkan produktivitas dan kualitas biji kopi melalui perbaikan teknik budidaya tanaman dan perbaikan lingkungan. Tujuan tulisan ini adalah 1menjelaskan manfaat pelaksanaan teknologi PHT, dan 2 mengetahui faktor-faktor penentu yang mempengaruhi petani melaksanakan PHT. Untuk dapat menjawab tujuan dalam tulisan ini, digunakan metode deskriptif dan fungsi produksi dengan pendekatan fungsi keuntungan dan logit. Hasil analisis menunjukkan bahwa: 1 penerapan teknologi PHT dapat meningkatkan keuntungan dan kualtas biji kopi; 2 harga kopi di tingkat petani secara nyata mempengaruhi petani untuk menerapkan PHT dan meningkatkan pendapatan usaha tani.

  17. Analisis Pengendalian Persediaan Produk Dengan Metode EOQ Menggunakan Algoritma Genetika untuk Mengefisiensikan Biaya Persediaan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indroprasto Indroprasto

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Mengendalikan persediaan dengan tepat bukanlah hal yang mudah. Jumlah persediaan yang terlalu besar akan mengakibatkan timbulnya dana yang dikeluarkan menjadi terlalu besar, selain itu resiko kerusakan barang juga menjadi lebih besar. Namun bila persediaan terlalu sedikit akan mengakibatkan terjadinya kekurangan persediaan yang dapat menyebabkan hilangnya keuntungan. Selama ini PT. XYZ melakukan pemesanan barang A kepada pihak ketiga dilakukan PT. XYZ hanya dengan mengira-ngira ketika jumlah barang di gudang hampir habis. Ketika permintaan barang A terhadap PT. XYZ melonjak tinggi, seringkali PT. XYZ tidak dapat memenuhi permintaan tersebut. Di waktu yang lain PT. XYZ juga mengalami kelebihan jumlah pemesanan barang, hal ini mengakibatkan banyaknya jumlah persediaan barang yangharus disimpan di gudang, sehingga berdampak pada membengkaknya biaya persediaan. Dalam penelitian tugas akhir ini  digunakan metode Economic Order Quantity (EOQ dengan algoritma genetika untuk mengatasi masalah persediaan barang pada PT. XYZ. Penelitian ini diharapkan mampu membantu PT. XYZ untuk mempertimbangkan dan menentukan kebijakan dalam kegiatan pengendalian persediaan barang agar dapat berjalan dengan lebih efektif dan efisien.EOQ adalah jumlah kuantitas barang
yang dapat diperoleh dengan biaya yang minimal, atau sering dikatakan sebagai jumlah pembelian yang optimal.

  18. SELEKSI KANDIDAT PROBIOTIK ANTI AEROMONAS HYDROPHILA UNTUK PENGENDALIAN PENYAKIT IKAN AIR TAWAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Mariana Lusiastuti

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Secara dasar ada tiga model kerja probiotik yaitu menekan populasi mikroba melalui kompetisi dengan memproduksi senyawa anti-mikroba atau melalui kompetisi nutrisi dan tempat pelekatan di dinding usus, mengubah keseimbangan metabolisme mikroba dengan meningkatkan atau menurunkan aktivitas enzim dan menstimulasi imunitas dengan meningkatkan antibodi dan aktivitas makrofag. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah memperoleh mikroba yang berpotensi sebagai kandidat probiotik untuk dapat diaplikasikan di dalam menekan atau menghambat bakteri patogen sebagai langkah pengendalian penyakit pada ikan air tawar. Penelitian ini terdiri atas dua tahap, tahap pertama adalah tahap seleksi yang dimulai dari koleksi dan isolasi bakteri kandidat probiotik dan tahap kedua adalah tahap pengujian bakteri kandidat probiotik secara in vitro menggunakan metode daya hambat dan menguji daya patogenisitas bakteri. Total isolat bakteri yang diperoleh adalah 72 isolat, dan hanya enam isolat terpilih sebagai kandidat probiotik anti Aeromonas hydrophila. Probiotik anti A. hydrophila adalah sebagai berikut: Chromobacterium lividum, Alcaligenes faecalis, Aeromonas caviae, Bacteriodes serpens, Bacillus firmus, Aeromonas caviae = A. hydrophila Sub sp. Anaerogenes.

  19. PROBIOTIK Bacillus firmus UNTUK PENGENDALIAN PENYAKIT Aeromonas hydrophila PADA BUDIDAYA IKAN LELE DUMBO, Clarias gariepinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Mariana Lusiastuti

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui efektivitas pemberian bakteri probiotik Bacillus firmus terhadap ketahanan benih ikan lele dumbo (Clarias gariepinus yang diinfeksi Aeromonas hydrophila. Probiotik diberikan melalui media budidaya dengan Rancangan Acak Lengkap (RAL menggunakan lima perlakuan dan tiga ulangan yang diaplikasikan untuk pengendalian penyakit motile aromonas septicemia (MAS. Perlakuan tersebut adalah A (tanpa penambahan bakteri probiotik B. firmus (sebagai control, B (penambahan bakteri probiotik B. firmus 105 cfu/mL, C (penambahan bakteri probiotik B. firmus 107 cfu/mL, D (penambahan bakteri probiotik B. firmus 109 cfu/mL, dan E (penambahan bakteri probiotik B. firmus 1011 cfu/mL. Pengamatan meliputi tingkat sintasan ikan uji setelah diuji tantang dengan A. hydrophila, indeks fagositik, diferensial leukosit dan kualitas air. Analisis data tingkat sintasan dilakukan dengan menggunakan uji F dengan taraf signifikansi 5%. Indeks fagositik, differensial leukosit dan kualitas air dianalisis secara deskriptif. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa sintasan tertinggi setelah diinfeksi A. hydrophila terdapat pada perlakuan D (109 cfu/mL yaitu 53,33% dan adanya peningkatan kadar limfosit sebesar 81% serta aktivitas fagosit sebesar 60% setelah penambahan bakteri probiotik B. firmus. Sementara hasil terendah terdapat pada perlakuan A (kontrol (tanpa penambahan bakteri probiotik sebesar 8,33%, aktivitas fagosit sebesar 60% setelah pemeliharaan ikan uji selama 14 hari.

  20. PENGAWASAN DAN PENGENDALIAN PEMANFAATAN SUMBER DAYA AIR UNTUK IRIGASI DI KABUPATEN SLEMAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hery Listyawati

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Supervision and control of utilization of water resources for irrigation in Sleman regency is vital in realizing fair use of water resources. This descriptive-qualitative study finds that preventive-internal supervision has been consistent with those set forth in the working procedures and that repressiveinternal supervision is present in the form of sanctions. The locals enjoy preventive and repressive eksternal supervisionary role, which is manifested in local gatherings and public reporting system. We also find that the government exerts control by licensing, reprimands, advocacy, direction, and conflict resolution mechanisms. Practical problems include the absence of provincial irrigation commission and specific agencies that supervise the enforcement of mediation. Pengawasan dan pengendalian pemanfaatan sumber daya air untuk irigasi di Kabupaten Sleman sangat penting dalam mewujudkan penggunaan sumber daya air yang adil. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pengawasan internal-preventif telah sesuai dengan yang dimandatkan oleh tugas pokok dan fungsi dan bahwa pengawasan internal-represif telah dilaksanakan dalam bentuk sanksi. Masyarakat melakukan pengawasan preventif dan represif dalam bentuk sarasehan/musyawarah dan sistem pelaporan. Penelitian ini juga menunjukkan bahwa pemerintah mengendalikan penggunaan sumber daya air dengan menyelenggarakan sistem perizinan, teguran, pembinaan, dan penyelesaian sengketa. Beberapa masalah yang ditemukan di lapangan antara lain adalah tidak adanya komisi irigasi provinsi dan lembaga pengawas khusus yang mengawasi pelaksanaan putusan mediasi.  

  1. MODEL PENGENDALIAN ASET NIRWUJUD DALAM MANAJEMEN SISTEM IRIGASI (Model of Controlling Intangible Assets in Irrigation System Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nugroho Tri Waskitho

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The research aimed at developing model of controlling intangible assets in irrigation system management. The research method consisted of two stages. The first stage was building the model of controlling intangible assets in irrigation system management using neuro-fuzzy. The model had three submodels: (i knowledge management, (ii intangible assets, and (iii performance of irrigation system. The second stage was evaluating the model in Sapon irrigation system in Kulon Progo, Yogyakarta. Data collecting was done by questionnaire and interview on nine Water Use Associations. Data analysis was done by Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Inference System. The model had been evaluated by correlation coefficient, Mean Absolute Percentage Error and Root Mean Square Error. The research result indicated that the model of controlling intangible assets in irrigation system management could predict intangible assets and performance of irrigation system well. The model linked knowledge management, intangible assets and performance of irrigation system.  Knowledge management felt into four main components: (i learning organization, (ii principle of organization, (iii policy and strategy of organization, and (iv information and communication technology which controlling intangible assets in irrigation system. Intangible assets consisted of moral intelligence, emotional intelligence, creativity attitude, institutional culture, and farmer participation which  controlling effectiveness of irrigation system. Keywords: model, intangible assets, controlling, irrigation system, knowledge management   Tujuan penelitian adalah mengembangkan model pengendalian aset nirwujud dalam manajemen sistem irigasi. Metode penelitian terdiri dari dua tahap. Tahap pertama adalah pembangunan model pengendalian aset nirwujud dalam manajemen sistem irigasi dengan prinsip neuro-fuzzy. Model mempunyai tiga sub model yaitu manajemen pengetahuan, aset nirwujud dan kinerja sistem irigasi. Tahap kedua

  2. GAMBARAN PENGENDALIAN KADAR GULA DARAH DAN HbA1C PADA PASIEN DIABETES MELLITUS TIPE 2 YANG DIRAWAT DI RSUP SANGLAH PERIODE JANUARI-MEI 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Putu Ugi Sugandha

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes Mellitus (DM adalah penyakit kronis yang memerlukan penanganan yang berkelanjutan untuk mengontrol gula darah dan berbagai faktor risiko lainnya. Dari epidemiologi, terdapat kecenderungan peningkatan insiden dan prevalensi DM tipe 2 di Indonesia. Dari beberapa penelitian lain pengendalian DM cenderung buruk yang disebabkan oleh multifaktor. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian deskriptif dengan menggunakan pendekatan cross sectional yang bertujuan mengetahui gambaran pengendalian kadar gula darah dan HbA1C berdasarkan jenis kelamin pada pasien DM tipe 2 di RSUP Sanglah. Data yang digunakan pada penelitian ini adalah data hasil pemeriksaan gula darah 2 jam post prandial dan HbA1C pada pasien DM tipe 2 yang dirawat di RSUP Sanglah Denpasar yang didapatkan sebanyak 25 pasien dengan teknik accidental sampling. Dari hasil penelitian ditemukan sebagian besar sampel laki-laki maupun perempuan memiliki status pengendalian gula darah dan HbA1C yang buruk. Kesimpulan dalam penelitian ini adalah pengendalian DM tipe 2 cenderung buruk pada pasien yang dirawat inap di RSUP Sanglah periode Januari–Mei 2014.    

  3. ENTREPRENEURIAL ACTIVITY IN THE CONDITIONS OF PRIORITY DEVELOPMENT AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Gruzdeva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an analysis of the most important issues in priority development areas, including the commitment of the Kamchatka region in which such territory is focused primarily on the development of tourism. The relevance of the article due to the increase in the activity of creation of territories of operahouse development in Russia.Goal/objectives. The purpose of this article is to identify both advantages and disadvantages of priority development areas as a mechanism of economic development. To achieve this goal, the author formulated and solved two tasks – analysis of theoretical questions of development of territories of priority development and evaluation of a practical example of creating such a site.Methodology. The theoretical basis of the research was normative legal acts devoted to the question of priority development areas and strategic documents of the Kamchatka region. As a methodological basis of applied methods: analysis, synthesis, analogy, comparison, induction and deduction.Results. Found that despite the existing shortcomings and limitations, the creation of territories of priority development is an eff ective tool for the development of entrepreneurship.Conclusions/significance. Creation within the country's territory, favorable for attracting long-term investment, is a widespread global practice to attract large companies. In Russia, this tool is relatively new, but is already actively used for the development of entrepreneurial activities in troubled regions.This tool provides its residents with sufficient opportunities to gain competitive advantage, accordingly, is a critical study of all questions of implementation and follow-up work of priority development areas, given companies' business activities both within and outside the area.

  4. PENGAWASAN, EVALUASI, DAN PENILAIAN SISTEM PENGENDALIAN INTERNAL TERKAIT BILLING SYSTEM PADA RSUD UNGARAN BERDASARKAN KERANGKA KERJA COBIT 5 (MEA02

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marthania Firmadita

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available RSUD Ungaran Kabupaten Semarang ini memiliki sejumlah layanan kesehatan yang melayani masyarakat umum, layanan kesehatan dinamakan dengan Billing System yang dibuat dengan tujuan mempercepat pelayanan kesehatan terhadap pelanggan. Melihat banyaknya kebutuhan setiap bagian yang terkait sehingga semakin besar pengelolaan data yang ada menyebabkan keterlambatan sistem dan kesalahan dalam pengelolaan data. Berbagai upaya dilakukan untuk memberikan layanan operasional terbaik dan meminimalisasi kesalahan. Salah satunya dilakukan penilaian kinerja pengelolaan layanan yang diberikan, penilaian kinerja ini merupakan pengendalian kontrol internal secara sistematik, untuk melihat tingkat kesesuaian dan keefektifan implementasi layanan. Dari hasil observasi, wawancara, dan kuesioner berdasarkan COBIT 5 dihasilkan level kapabilitas tata kelola proses pengawasan, evaluasi, dan penilaian pengendalian internal terkait billing system (MEA02 pada RSUD Ungaran saat ini adalah Level 2 dengan status Largely Achieved sebesar 71,56% setara 2,71 dimana Level 1 dan Level 0 tercapai Fully Achieved.Hal ini menunjukan sudah dilakukan komunikasi perencanaan kedepan dari hasil penilaian kinerja tetapi belum diimplementasikan. Dan untuk mencapai level kapabilitas, RSUD Ungaran dapat melakukan strategi perbaikan yang dilakukan secara bertahap dari proses atribut level 1 sampai 3. Kata Kunci: Analisis Tata Kelola TI, Sistem Informasi Kesehatan, COBIT 5, Analisis Tingkat Kapabilitas, Analisis Kesenjangan

  5. Surface and subsurface conditions in permafrost areas - a literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vidstrand, Patrik [Bergab, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2003-02-01

    This report contains a summary of some of the information within existing technical and scientific literature on permafrost. Permafrost is viewed as one of the future climate driven process domains that may exist in Scandinavia, and that may give rise to significantly different surface and subsurface conditions than the present. Except for changes in the biosphere, permafrost may impact hydraulic, mechanical, and chemical subsurface processes and conditions. Permafrost and its influences on the subsurface conditions are thus of interest for the performance and safety assessments of deep geological waste repositories. The definition of permafrost is 'ground that stays at or below 0 deg C for at least two consecutive years'. Permafrost will effect the geological subsurface to some depth. How deep the permafrost may grow is a function of the heat balance, thermal conditions at the surface and within the ground, and the geothermal heat flux from the Earth's inner parts. The main chapters of the report summaries the knowledge on permafrost evolution, occurrence and distribution, and extracts information concerning hydrology and mechanical and chemical impacts due to permafrost related conditions. The results of a literature review are always dependent on the available literature. Concerning permafrost there is some literature available from investigations in the field of long-term repositories and some from mining industries. However, reports of these investigations are few and the bulk of permafrost literature comes from the science departments concerned with surficial processes (e.g. geomorphology, hydrology, agriculture, etc) and from engineering concerns, such as foundation of constructions and pipeline design. This focus within the permafrost research inevitably yields a biased but also an abundant amount of information on localised surficial processes and a limited amount on regional and deep permafrost characteristics. Possible conclusions are that

  6. AKTIVITAS PENGENDALIAN MUTU JASA AUDIT LAPORAN KEUANGAN HISTORIS (Studi Kasus pada Beberapa Kantor Akuntan Publik di Surabaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulius Jogi Christiawan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to get the descriptive in depth and holistic the quality control activities in several CPAs%2C in Surabaya in order to answer the audit quality questioned by the audit report user. This study was a qualitative research with multiple case studies and multiple unit analysis approach. The study was focused on the competence and independence standards as well as the control procedures and its activities by partners and managers in CPA firms. There were%3A 1%29 the CPA firms face difficult in establishing independence in fact standards and objectives%2C 2%29 the CPA firms applied the professional standard to establish independence in appearance standards and objectives%2C 3%29 the CPA firms applied human resources management function to secure personnel educational competence%2C 4%29 the CPA firms applied planning%2C supervising and performance evaluating in order to obtain experience personnel%2C and 5%29 the CPA firms give strict punishment for violation of independence and competence. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Penelitian ini bertujuan mengetahui secara mendalam %28in depth%29 dan menyeluruh tentang aktivitas pengendalian mutu audit yang terjadi di beberapa Kantor Akuntan Publik di Surabaya%2C sehingga diharapkan bisa menjawab keraguan pengguna jasa audit terhadap mutu audit yang ada di kantor akuntan publik. Penelitian ini adalah penelitian kualitatif dengan menggunakan pendekatan multiple case study dengan multiple unit analysis. Penelitian diarahkan pada standar independensi dan kompetensi di Kantor Akuntan Publik serta aktivitas dan prosedur pengendalian oleh partner dan manajer Kantor Akuntan Publik. Penelitian dilakukan terhadap empat dari lima puluh satu Kantor Akuntan Publik di Surabaya. Hasil penelitian ini sedikitnya menunjukkan lima fenomena terkait dengan aktivitas pengendalian mutu Kantor Akuntan Publik. Lima fenomena tersebut adalah%3A 1%29 Kantor Akuntan Publik sulit menetapkan suatu standar%2

  7. PERUBAHAN CARA PENGAMBILAN KEPUTUSAN OLEH PETANI PENGENDALIAN HAMA TERPADU (PHT DALAM MENGGUNAKAN PESTISIDA KIMIA PADA PADI (The Change of Chemical Pesticides Use Decision Making in Rice by Intergrated Farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irham Irham

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Pestisida kimia merupakan salah satu masukan dalam produksi padi yang berfungsi untuk menekan kehilangan hasil oleh serangan hama dan penyakit. Penggunaan pestisida kimia harus bijaksana karena selain memberi manfaat juga menimbulkan bahaya terhadap kesehatan dan lingkungan. Banyak petani yang menggunakan pestisida kimia dengan dasar pencegahan, yaitu tanpa mempertimbangkan keadaan serangan hama dan penyakit sehingga penggunaannya cenderung berlebih. Pengendalian Hama Terpadu (PHT diperkenalkan kepada petani melalui Sekolah Lapangan (SL PHT, dengan tujuan untuk nrengurangi pestisida kimia,  dan hanya digunakan jika memang diperlukan. Hasil studi ini menunjukkan bahwa SLPHT telah mengubah cara pengambilan keputusan dalam menggunakan pestisida kimia. Keadaan ini menyebabkan penggunaan pestisida kimia menjadi berkurang.   ABSTRACT Chemical pesticide is one of the inputs in rice production used to protect yield loss caused by pest attack. Chemical pesticides should be used wisely as they pose threat to human health and pollute environment. Many farmers use chemical pesticide based on prophylactic concept, that is using chemical pesticides without taking into consideration the level of pest attack, which leads to an excessive use. Integrated Pest Management (IPM concept is introduced to farmers through Farmer’s Field School (FFS in order to reduce chemical pesticides use. According to the IPM principle, farmers can use chemical pesticides when necessary. Results of this study show that farmers have changed their decision-making in chemical pesticides use after adopting IPM concept through participation at FFS in IPM. This condition causes decline in chemical pesticide use.

  8. Changes of ecological conditions induced by rock tunneling in Laoshan Mountain area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaozhao LI; Xiaobao ZHAO; Zhongsheng WANG

    2008-01-01

    Through field investigation, this paper exam-ined the changes of ecological conditions induced by tun-nel construction in Laoshan Mountain area, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province, P. R. China. The effects of habitat frag-mentation and edge effect are examined and discussed. It is found that the environmental factors and vegetation situation have been influenced by the tunneling activity, and the disturbed area is approaching the sampling patch centre. The changed ecological conditions are beneficial for the settlement and growth of some herb and shrub species, and are unfavorable for the existence and growth of saplings, especially for the predominant species (e.g., robur) in this area. If the time of habitat fragmentation is long enough and there is no supplement from external areas, some vegetation species in the engineering influ-encing area will deteriorate, or even diminish in the future. The results can be used as a reference for the long-term ecological study in this area.

  9. 50 CFR 665.249 - Lobster size and condition restrictions in Permit Area 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lobster size and condition restrictions in... WESTERN PACIFIC Hawaii Fisheries § 665.249 Lobster size and condition restrictions in Permit Area 2. (a) Only spiny lobsters with a carapace length of 8.26 cm or greater may be retained (see Figure 1 to...

  10. Identification of traffic accident risk-prone areas under low lighting conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Ivan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Besides other non-behavioural factors, the low lighting conditions significantly influence the frequency of the traffic accidents in the urban environment. This paper intends to identify the impact of low lighting conditions on the traffic accidents in the city of Cluj-Napoca. The dependence degree between lighting and the number of traffic accidents was analyzed by the Pearson's correlation and the relation between the spatial distribution of traffic accidents and the lighting conditions was determined by the frequency ratio model. The vulnerable areas within the city were identified based on the calculation of the injured persons rate for the 0.5 km2 equally-sized areas uniformly distributed within the study area. The results have shown a strong linear dependence between the low lighting conditions and the number of traffic accidents in terms of three seasonal variations and a high probability of traffic accidents occurrence under the above-mentioned conditions, at the city entrances-exits, which represent also vulnerable areas within the study area. Knowing the linear dependence and the spatial relation between the low lighting and the number of traffic accidents, as well as the consequences induced by their occurrence enabled us to identify the high traffic accident risk areas in the city of Cluj-Napoca.

  11. Identification of traffic accident risk-prone areas under low-light conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivan, K.; Haidu, I.; Benedek, J.; Ciobanu, S. M.

    2015-09-01

    Besides other non-behavioural factors, low-light conditions significantly influence the frequency of traffic accidents in an urban environment. This paper intends to identify the impact of low-light conditions on traffic accidents in the city of Cluj-Napoca, Romania. The dependence degree between light and the number of traffic accidents was analysed using the Pearson correlation, and the relation between the spatial distribution of traffic accidents and the light conditions was determined by the frequency ratio model. The vulnerable areas within the city were identified based on the calculation of the injury rate for the 0.5 km2 areas uniformly distributed within the study area. The results show a strong linear correlation between the low-light conditions and the number of traffic accidents in terms of three seasonal variations and a high probability of traffic accident occurrence under the above-mentioned conditions at the city entrances/exits, which represent vulnerable areas within the study area. Knowing the linear dependence and the spatial relation between the low light and the number of traffic accidents, as well as the consequences induced by their occurrence, enabled us to identify the areas of high traffic accident risk in Cluj-Napoca.

  12. Examples of landscape indicators for assessing environmental conditions and problems in urban and suburban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Duque, J. F.; Godfrey, A.; Diez, A.; Cleaves, E.; Pedraza, J.; Sanz, M.A.; Carrasco, R.M.; Bodoque, J.; Brebbia, C.A.; Martin-Duque, J.F.; Wadhwa, L.C.

    2002-01-01

    Geo-indicators can help to assess environmental conditions in city urban and suburban areas. Those indicators should be meaningful for understanding environmental changes. From examples of Spanish and American cities, geo-indicators for assessing environmental conditions and changes in urban and suburban areas are proposed. The paper explore two types of geo-indicators. The first type presents general information that can be used to indicate the presence of a broad array of geologic conditions, either favouring or limiting various kinds of uses of the land. The second type of geo-indicator is the one most commonly used, and as a group most easily understood; these are site and problem specific and they are generally used after a problem is identified. Among them, watershed processes, seismicity and physiographic diversity are explained in more detail. A second dimension that is considered when discussing geo-indicators is the issue of scale. Broad scale investigations, covering extensive areas are only efficient at cataloguing general conditions common to much of the area or some outstanding feature within the area. This type of information is best used for policy type decisions. Detailed scale investigations can provide information about local conditions, but are not efficient at cataloguing vast areas. Information gathered at the detailed level is necessary for project design and construction.

  13. LIVING CONDITIONS AND MIGRATION IN SUBURBAN AREA OF WROCŁAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Kazak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Around large cities it is easy to come across villages taking the character of the town sleeping area. One of the factors of this process is a desire to improve their quality of life by living in better conditions – regardless of the interpretation of the term by different social groups. The area of research will be suburban communes, located close to Wroclaw, which are in the process of suburbanisation. A relevant question of the research will be to determine the relationship of migration of the population to the suburban areas with regard to changes in living conditions. Level of living conditions will be determined on the basis of available statistical data using a synthetic indicator Hellwig. The study proved that communes with the highest index in a base year (over 0.4 recorded the highest growth of population – more than 20%.

  14. Numerical simulation of soil–foundation — structure interaction in conditions of underworked area

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Problem definition. Under worked areas is the most common type of difficult conditions of construction in Ukraine. Construction on under worked areas is allowed if special structural measure sare applied to ensure the normal exploitation of buildings. Ignoring constructive protect ive measures cause damages that are estimated in the millions.Purpose. The problem of influence of artificial cavities on the stress–strain state of building and its soil base is considered in this work. The purpose...

  15. Numerical simulation of soil–foundation — structure interaction in conditions of underworked area

    OpenAIRE

    Zhuk, V.; Kornienko, M.

    2015-01-01

    Problem definition. Under worked areas is the most common type of difficult conditions of construction in Ukraine. Construction on under worked areas is allowed if special structural measure sare applied to ensure the normal exploitation of buildings. Ignoring constructive protect ive measures cause damages that are estimated in the millions.Purpose. The problem of influence of artificial cavities on the stress–strain state of building and its soil base is considered in this work. The purpose...

  16. The specific surface area of methane hydrate formed in different conditions and manners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The specific surface area of methane hydrates, formed both in the presence and absence of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and processed in different manners (stirring, compacting, holding the hydrates at the formation conditions for different periods of time, cooling the hydrates for different periods of time before depressurizing them), was measured under atmospheric pressure and temperatures below ice point. It was found that the specific surface area of hydrate increased with the decreasing temperature. The methane hydrate in the presence of SDS was shown to be of bigger specific surface areas than pure methane hydrates. The experimental results further demonstrated that the manners of forming and processing hydrates affected the specific surface area of hydrate samples. Stirring or compacting made the hydrate become finer and led to a bigger specific surface area.

  17. Water supply patterns in two agricultural areas of Central Germany under climate change conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tölle, M. H.; Moseley, C.; Panferov, O.; Busch, G.; Knohl, A.

    2012-04-01

    Increasing emissions of greenhouse gases and increasing prices for fossil fuels have highlighted the demand for CO2 "neutral" renewable energy sources, e.g. short rotation forestry systems used for bioenergy. These systems might be vulnerable to changes in temperature, precipitation and occurrence of extreme weather events. To estimate success or failure of such short rotation coppices in a certain area we need regional climate projections and risk assessment. Changes of water supply patterns in two agriculturally extensively used regions in Central Germany (around Göttingen and Großfahner) with different climate conditions but both in the temperate climate zone are explored. The study is carried out under present conditions as well as under projected climate change conditions (1971-2100) using A1B and B1 climate scenarios downscaled for Europe. Analysis of precipitation bias shows regional differences: a strong bias in Göttingen area and a weaker bias in the Großfahner area. A bias correction approach, Quantile mapping, is applied to the ensemble results for both areas for winter and summer seasons. By using quantile regression on the seasonal Standardized Precipitation Indices (SPIs) as indicator for water supply conditions we found that precipitation is expected to increase in winter in all quantiles of the distribution for Göttingen area during the 21th century. Heavy precipitation is also expected to increase for Großfahner area suggesting a trend to wetter extremes in winter for the future. This winter precipitation increase could trigger runoff and soil erosion risk enhancing the severity of floods. Increasing winter availability of water could enhance local water supply in spring. For both areas no significant change in summer was found over the whole time period. Although the climate change signal of the SPI indicate mild dryer conditions in summer at the end of the 21st century which may trigger water shortage and summer drying associated with above

  18. Water supply patterns in two agricultural areas of Central Germany under climate change conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. Tölle

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Increasing emissions of greenhouse gases and increasing prices for fossil fuels have highlighted the demand for CO2 "neutral" renewable energy sources, e.g. short rotation forestry systems used for bioenergy. These systems might be vulnerable to changes in temperature, precipitation and occurrence of extreme weather events. To estimate success or failure of such short rotation coppices in a certain area we need regional climate projections and risk assessment. Changes of water supply patterns in two agriculturally extensively used regions in Central Germany (around Göttingen and Großfahner with different climate conditions but both in the temperate climate zone are explored. The study is carried out under present conditions as well as under projected climate change conditions (1971–2100 using A1B and B1 climate scenarios downscaled for Europe. Analysis of precipitation bias shows regional differences: a strong bias in Göttingen area and a weaker bias in the Großfahner area. A bias correction approach, Quantile mapping, is applied to the ensemble results for both areas for winter and summer seasons. By using quantile regression on the seasonal Standardized Precipitation Indices (SPIs as indicator for water supply conditions we found that precipitation is expected to increase in winter in all quantiles of the distribution for Göttingen area during the 21th century. Heavy precipitation is also expected to increase for Großfahner area suggesting a trend to wetter extremes in winter for the future. This winter precipitation increase could trigger runoff and soil erosion risk enhancing the severity of floods. Increasing winter availability of water could enhance local water supply in spring. For both areas no significant change in summer was found over the whole time period. Although the climate change signal of the SPI indicate mild dryer conditions in summer at the end of the 21st century which may trigger water shortage and

  19. Evaluating Vegetation Health Condition Using MODIS Data in the Three Gorges Area, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩贵锋; 谢雨丝; 蔡智

    2015-01-01

    The satellite-based vegetation condition index (VCI) and temperature condition index (TCI) have been used extensively for drought detection and tracking, the assessment of weather impacts on vegetation and evaluation of the health and productivity of vegetation. In this study, in order to detect and monitor the growth condition of vegetation, we have collected data on vegetation indices and land surface temperature derived from MODIS (2001-2012) and deifned a vegetation health index (VHI) based on VCI and TCI for assessing vegetation health condition in the Three Gorges Area, China (TGA). The results of the study show that temporal and spatial characteristics of vegetation health condition can be detected, tracked and mapped by the VHI index. In most parts of the TGA, the vegetation health condition showed an overall increasing trend during the study period, especially in Wulong, Fengdu, Shizhu and other regions located in the midstream sections of the Three Gorges Reservoir. In addition, the four studied vegetation types all showed clear increasing trends during the study period. The increasing trend in the vegetation health condition shows a strong positive correlation with topographical slope and altitude (below 500 m). Over the seasons, this trend is strongest in autumn, followed by spring. However, the correlations between vegetation health condition and climatic factors are more frequently significant in summer and winter than in autumn and spring. The vegetation health condition has been low in 2006 and 2011. This finding is consistent with the extreme weather conditions in those two years. However, only in the summer is vegetation health condition signiifcantly correlated with three climatic factors in most of the study area. This result implies that vegetation growth may show a lagged response to climatic factors and may also be affected by human activities, including agricultural activities, industrial activities and other economic activities.

  20. Determination of the indicators for working with area flooding under nonisothermic filtering conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ushakov, V.V.; Borisov, Yu.P.; Rozenberg, M.D.; Teslyuk, Ye.V.

    1983-01-01

    Engineering methods were developed for computing the nonisothermic displacement of oil by water under conditions of area systems of flooding for layered-heterogeneous beds. It is indicated that the mathematical model realized on a computer which takes into consideration the most important physical phenomena provides the possibility of fully performing the studies and analyzing the technological indicators.

  1. Using Dynamic Geometry Software for Teaching Conditional Probability with Area-Proportional Venn Diagrams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radakovic, Nenad; McDougall, Douglas

    2012-01-01

    This classroom note illustrates how dynamic visualization can be used to teach conditional probability and Bayes' theorem. There are two features of the visualization that make it an ideal pedagogical tool in probability instruction. The first feature is the use of area-proportional Venn diagrams that, along with showing qualitative relationships,…

  2. Are Conditional Cash Transfers Effective in Urban Areas? Evidence from Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrman, Jere R.; Gallardo-Garcia, Jorge; Parker, Susan W.; Todd, Petra E.; Velez-Grajales, Viviana

    2012-01-01

    Conditional cash transfer (CCT) programs have spread worldwide as a new form of social assistance for the poor. Previous evaluations of CCT programs focus mainly on rural settings, and little is known about their effects in urban areas. This paper studies the short-term (1- and 2-year) effects of the Mexican "Oportunidades" CCT program…

  3. The natural conditions as a limiting factor for the development of Serbian-Macedonian border area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragićević Slavoljub

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural conditions of certain area imply to the complex influence of various elements of the environment (surface, relief, climate, water, vegetation type and man, and knowledge of their recent state represents basis of an integrated approach in the land use planning. Analysis of natural conditions and processes in the Serbian-Macedonian border area is usually done through the valorization of natural potentials, but aspect of their limiting influence on the development of this territory - natural hazards assessment has remained unresolved. Degree of natural hazards vulnerability of a certain territory is an important factor in land use planning, because it represents a threat to the undisturbed development of a certain teritory. The basic idea of this paper is to provide multi-hazard assessment and the integral map of areas vulnerable to various types of natural hazards in Serbian-Macedonian border area. In this way seclusion of areas where natural conditions can represent the limiting factor for the development of the analyzed territory shall be performed.

  4. Dynamic measurement of physical conditions in daily life by body area network sensing system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takayama, S; Tanaka, T; Takahashi, N; Matsuda, Y; Kariya, K, E-mail: s-tkym@se.ritsumi.ac.j [Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Ritsumeikan University Noji, Kusatsu, Shiga 55-8577 (Japan)

    2010-07-01

    This paper shows the measurement system to monitor physical conditions dynamically in dairy life. The measurement system for physical conditions in motion must be wearable and wireless connected. Body area network sensing system (BANSS) is a kind of the system to realize the conditions. BANSS is the system constructed with host system and plural sensing nodes. Sensing node is constructed with sensors, analogue/digital convertor(ADC), peripheral interface component(PIC), memory and near field communication device(NFCD). The NFCD in this system is Zigbee. Zigbee is the most suitable to construct wireless network system easily. BANSS is not only the system to measure physical parameters. BANSS informs current physical conditions and advises to keep suitable physical strength. As an application of BANSS, the system managing heart rate in walking is shown. By using this system, users can exercise in condition of a constant physical strength.

  5. Conditions of Psychological Readiness of Pupils to Corrections in Cognitive Areas (Based on Reading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirakosyan A. Kh.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We present a comparative study of the conditions of formation of readiness for classes in students with high and low levels of a given cognitive skill (based on the reading actions. We compared conditions associated, on the one hand, with the child's understanding that his actions are not optimal, and with the work in the zone of proximal development, on the other, with the work in the area of actual skill development and child's satisfaction of the actions result. We assumed optimality of the second type conditions for the group that needs correction. The subjects were 164 III grade student of Moscow secondary schools. The study included two types of classes and psychological readiness evaluation. The results showed that the conditions associated with the work in the area of actual development of skill and providing a positive emotional response to the child's relation to the product of their own actions, are significantly more optimal for correctional groups at a significance level of p <0,05. For a group of students with a high level of skill significant differences were not found. Thus, we showed the specificity of the conditions of readiness in the correction and describe the tasks, where the work in the area of actual development is the most optimal.

  6. Local area water removal analysis of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell under gas purge conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chi-Yuan; Lee, Yu-Ming; Lee, Shuo-Jen

    2012-01-01

    In this study, local area water content distribution under various gas purging conditions are experimentally analyzed for the first time. The local high frequency resistance (HFR) is measured using novel micro sensors. The results reveal that the liquid water removal rate in a membrane electrode assembly (MEA) is non-uniform. In the under-the-channel area, the removal of liquid water is governed by both convective and diffusive flux of the through-plane drying. Thus, almost all of the liquid water is removed within 30 s of purging with gas. However, liquid water that is stored in the under-the-rib area is not easy to remove during 1 min of gas purging. Therefore, the re-hydration of the membrane by internal diffusive flux is faster than that in the under-the-channel area. Consequently, local fuel starvation and membrane degradation can degrade the performance of a fuel cell that is started from cold.

  7. Present and future assessment of growing degree days over selected Greek areas with different climate conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattanaik, D. R.; Mohapatra, M.; Srivastava, A. K.; Kumar, Arun

    2016-08-01

    The determination of heat requirements in the first developing phases of plants has been expressed as Growing Degree Days (GDD). The current study focuses on three selected study areas in Greece that are characterised by different climatic conditions due to their location and aims to assess the future variation and spatial distribution of Growing Degree Days (GDD) and how these can affect the main cultivations in the study areas. Future temperature data were obtained and analysed by the ENSEMBLES project. The analysis was performed for the future periods 2021-2050 and 2071-2100 with the A1B and B1 scenarios. Spatial distribution was performed using a combination of dynamical and statistical downscaling technique through ArcGIS 10.2.1. The results indicated that for all the future periods and scenarios, the GDD are expected to increase. Furthermore, the increase in the Sperchios River basin will be the highest, followed by the Ardas and the Geropotamos River basins. Moreover, the cultivation period will be shifted from April-October to April-September which will have social, economical and environmental benefits. Additionally, the spatial distribution indicated that in the upcoming years the existing cultivations can find favourable conditions and can be expanded in mountainous areas as well. On the other hand, due to the rough topography that exists in the study areas, the wide expansion of the existing cultivations into higher altitudes is unaffordable. Nevertheless, new more profitable cultivations can be introduced which can find propitious conditions in terms of GDD.

  8. Conditions associated with protected area success in conservation and poverty reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraro, Paul J; Hanauer, Merlin M; Sims, Katharine R E

    2011-08-23

    Protected areas are the dominant approach to protecting biodiversity and the supply of ecosystem services. Because these protected areas are often placed in regions with widespread poverty and because they can limit agricultural development and exploitation of natural resources, concerns have been raised about their potential to create or reinforce poverty traps. Previous studies suggest that the protected area systems in Costa Rica and Thailand, on average, reduced deforestation and alleviated poverty. We examine these results in more detail by characterizing the heterogeneity of responses to protection conditional on observable characteristics. We find no evidence that protected areas trap historically poorer areas in poverty. In fact, we find that poorer areas at baseline seem to have the greatest levels of poverty reduction as a result of protection. However, we do find that the spatial characteristics associated with the most poverty alleviation are not necessarily the characteristics associated with the most avoided deforestation. We show how an understanding of these spatially heterogeneous responses to protection can be used to generate suitability maps that identify locations in which both environmental and poverty alleviation goals are most likely to be achieved.

  9. Which meteorological conditions produce worst-case odors from area sources?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sattler, Melanie; Devanathan, Sapna

    2007-11-01

    Two competing meteorological factors influence atmospheric concentrations of pollutants from open liquid area sources such as wastewater treatment plant units: temperature and stability. High temperatures in summer produce greater emissions from liquid area sources because of increased compound volatility; however, these emissions tend to disperse more readily because of frequent occurrence of unstable conditions. An opposite scenario occurs in winter, with lesser emissions due to lower temperatures, but also frequently less dispersion, due to stable atmospheric conditions. The primary objective of this modeling study was thus to determine whether higher atmospheric concentrations from open liquid area sources occur more frequently in summer, when emissions are greater but so is dispersion, or in winter, when emissions are lesser but so is dispersion. The study utilized a rectangular clarifier emitting hydrogen sulfide as a sample open liquid area source. Dispersion modeling runs were conducted using ISCST3 and AERMOD, encompassing 5 yr of hourly meteorological data divided by season. Emission rates were varied hourly on the basis of a curve-fit developed from previously collected field data. Model output for each season was used to determine (1) maximum 2-min average concentrations, (2) the number of odor events (2-min average concentrations greater than odor detection thresholds), and (3) areas of impact. On the basis of these 3 types of output, it was found that the worst-case odors were associated with summer, considering impacts of meteorology upon both emissions and dispersion. Not accounting for the impact of meteorology on emissions (using a constant worst-case emission rate) caused concentrations to be overpredicted compared with a variable emission rate case. The highest concentrations occurred during stability classes D, E, and F, as anticipated. A comparison of ISCST3 and AERMOD found that for the area source modeled, ISCST3 predicted higher

  10. Tourism-climate conditions and their future development in the Polish-Saxon border area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartłomiej Miszuk

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Current climate conditions and future changes, including impacts on the thermal bioclimate and tourism in the German-Polish border region, was one of the tasks investigated within the EU KLAPS project (Climate Change, Air Pollution and Critical Load of Eco Systems in the Polish-Saxon Border Region. The aim of this paper is to present the thermal bioclimate conditions and the influence of weather and climate on tourist issues in the KLAPS project domain, considering various types of recreation for both current and future periods. The base for the analysis was climatic data from the 1971–2010 period from German (DWD and Polish (IMGW-PIB meteorological stations, concerning both daily and 12 UTC data. The climate projections were carried out under various emission scenarios (SRES A1B, RCP2.6 and RCP8.5 within MPI-ESM-LR and ECHAM5 GCMs. Future conditions were analyzed for two periods: 2021–2050 (near future and 2071–2100 (far future and compared with the reference period 1971–2000. The thermal bioclimate was assessed with the use of the Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI. The Weather Suitability Index (WSI and Climate-Tourism/Transfer-Information-Scheme (CTIS were used for tourism-climate approaches. In the lowlands of the study area, the most convenient weather conditions for tourism and recreation are observed during the spring and autumn seasons (except intensive recreational activities. In the highest mountains, they are noticed in summer and from March to April due to the useful conditions for skiing. On the basis of CTIS, weather limitations for tourism are related mostly to sunshine and snow conditions for skiing in the mountain forelands. In the highest parts of the mountains, the most significant limitations are related to cold stress, precipitation, wind and sunshine conditions. Under A1B and RCP8.5 scenarios, an increase in the usefulness of weather conditions for most tourist activities in the cold season (November-April are

  11. What are the socio-economic conditions of local areas affected by wildfires in Portugal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Sandra; Luís Zêzere, José; Pereira, José Miguel

    2017-04-01

    The socio-economic context of wildfire distribution is paramount to understand the conditions that influence the vulnerability and resilience levels of different communities exposed to wildfire risk. This research had the main purpose to assess the social and economic dimensions of fire occurrence in Portugal, the country most affected by wildfires in Europe. Differences in fire incidence levels, obtained from number of fire events and burned areas recorded between 2007 and 2014, were examined in relation to socio-economic data from the latest Census at local level, describing conditions regarding exposure levels, sociodemographic patterns, infrastructures, agricultural activities and labour conditions for the civil parishes of mainland Portugal. To identify differences between parishes, two groups were retrieved for fire events and burned areas separately, based on quantiles and keeping only the highest and lowest 20% of wildfire incidence data. The relationships between the wildfire incidence groups and the socio-economic variables were assessed with a stepwise approach based on classification trees. First, irrelevant variables for identifying differences between the groups were removed by an interactive process based on misclassification rates. The second step used random Forest analysis with the selected variables to compute the strength of association and rank variables by importance. The third step applied cluster analysis to determine if the clusters created only with the selected independent variables were equivalent to the initial groups. Results showed that the social and economic conditions of civil parishes vary with wildfire incidence levels. Population density, proportion of foreigners, overcrowded housing conditions, proportion of houses occupied seasonally, and agricultural variables, such as pastures and livestock density, appeared as relevant to distinguish the two fire incidence groups, although with differences in their level of importance and

  12. Modified and double-clad large mode-area leakage channel fibers for extreme temperature conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thavasi Raja, G.; Varshney, Shailendra K.

    2015-03-01

    Recently large-mode-area hybrid leakage channel fibers (HLCFs) were reported to overcome the limitation on mode area with single-mode (SM) operation for the practical bending radius of 7.5 cm at the preferred wavelength of 1064 nm. In this paper, we present the effects of a thermally induced refractive index change on the mode area of bend-compensated extremely LMA modified HLCFs (M-HLCFs) and double-clad M-HLCFs. A full-vectorial finite-element method-based modal solver is used to obtain the modal characteristics of M-HLCFs in various heat load conditions. Numerical simulations reveal that the effective mode area of M-HLCFs is ˜1433 μm2 at room temperature, which marginally decreases to ˜1387 μm2 while SM operation is maintained when the temperature distribution rises to ˜125 °C over the fiber geometry during high-power operations. We have also investigated a double-clad M-HLCF design exhibiting a mode area > ˜ 1000 μm2 for all heat load density variations up to a maximum of 12 × 109 W m-3, corresponding to a 250 °C temperature in the center of the fiber core region.

  13. Shellfish Fishery Severely Reduces Condition and Survival of Oystercatchers Despite Creation of Large Marine Protected Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne L. Rutten

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Fisheries and other human activities pose a global threat to the marine environment. Marine protected areas (MPAs are an emerging tool to cope with such threats. In the Dutch Wadden Sea, large MPAs (covering 31% of all intertidal flats have been created to protect shellfish-eating birds and allow recovery of important habitats. Even though shellfish fishing is prohibited in these areas, populations of shellfish-eating birds in the Wadden Sea have declined sharply. The role of shellfish fisheries in these declines is hotly debated, therefore, we investigated the effectiveness of MPAs for protecting oystercatcher (Haematopus ostralegus populations. Shellfish stocks (cockles, Cerastoderma edule were substantially higher in the MPAs, but surprisingly this has not resulted in a redistribution of wintering oystercatchers. Oystercatchers in unprotected areas had less shellfish in their diet and lower condition (a combined measure of mass and haematological parameters, and their estimated mortality was 43% higher. It is likely, therefore, that shellfish fishing explains at least part of the 40% decline in oystercatcher numbers in recent years. Condition and mortality effects were strongest in males, and the population sex ratio was female biased, in agreement with the fact that males rely more on shellfish. The unprotected areas apparently function as an “ecological trap,” because oystercatchers did not respond as anticipated to the artificial spatial heterogeneity in food supply. Consequently, the MPAs are effective on a local scale, but not on a global scale. Similar problems are likely to exist in terrestrial ecosystems, and distribution strategies of target species need to be considered when designing terrestrial and marine protected areas if they are to be effective.

  14. THE QUANTITATIVE COMPONENT’S DIAGNOSIS OF THE ATMOSPHERIC PRECIPITATION CONDITION IN BAIA MARE URBAN AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. ZAHARIA

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The atmospheric precipitation, an essential meteorological element for defining the climatic potential of a region, presents through its general and local particularities a defining influence for the evolution of the other climatic parameters, conditioning the structure of the overall geographic landscape. Their quantitative parameters sets up the regional natural setting and differentiation of water resources, soil, vegetation and fauna, in the same time influencing the majority of human activities’ aspects, through the generated impact over the agriculture, transportation, construction, for tourism etc. Especially, through the evolution of the related climatic parameters (production type, quantity, duration, frequency, intensity and their spatial and temporal fluctuations, the pluviometric extremes set out the maxim manifestation of the energy gap of the hydroclimatic hazards/risks which induce unfavourable or even damaging conditions for the human activities’ progress. Hence, the production of atmospheric precipitation surpluses conditions the triggering, or reactivation of some intense erosion processes, landslides, and last but not least, floods. Just as dangerous are the adverse amounts of precipitation or their absence on longer periods, determining the appearance of droughts, aridity phenomena, which if associated with the sharp anthropic pressure over the environment, favours the expansion of desertification, with the whole process of the arising negative effects. In this context, this paper aims to perform the diagnosis of atmospheric precipitation condition in Baia Mare urban area, through its quantitative component, in multiannual condition (1971-2007, underlining through the results of the analyzed climatic data and their interpretation, the main characteristics that define it. The data bank from Baia Mare station from the National Meteorological Administration network, representative for the chosen study area, was used. Baia

  15. Conditions of life and climacteric in middle aged women in a health area of Sancti Spiritus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Esther de la Torre Cárdenas

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A climacteric is one of the difficult steps in women life in which a particular attention is needed by the doctor and a big comprehension from the social point of view. A retrospective descriptive study was made in the South Area Polyclinic of Sancti Spiritus Municipality, period january – april 2007, with a female population having between 45 -59 years of age from 8 family medical clinics, 4 belonging to the urban area and 4 to the rural one (191 in total, including all which referred to present any disorder with the menstrual cycle due to excess or defect in the 6 months previous to interview (165 in total with the objective to evaluate the relation between conditions of life and the frequency; criticality and morbidity associated with menopause syndrome. Life conditions, kind of work, kind of activity carried out and associated pathologies are the factors that according to the study influence in frequency, criticality and morbidity associated with menopause syndrome in middle aged women and the overhead given by the conditioning of gender, favored the appearance of symptoms such as hot, depression, anxiety, tachycardia and vaginal dryness.

  16. PENGENDALIAN ASET NIRWUJUD DALAM MANAJEMEN SISTEM IRIGASI: KONSEP DAN PENGEMBANGAN MODEL (Controlling Intangible Assets in Irrigation System Management:Concept and Model Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nugroho Tri Waskitho

    2013-06-01

    management, intangible assets and performance of irrigation system.  Knowledge management felt into four main components: learning organization, principle of organization, policy and strategy of organization and information and communication technology which controlling intangible assets in irrigation system. Intangible assets consisted of moral intelligence, emotional intelligence, creative attitude, institutional culture, and farmer participation which  controlling effectiveness of irrigation system. Learning organization was the most sensitive parameter in influencing moral intelligence and creative attitute.  Policy and strategy were the most sensitive parameter in influencing emotional intelligence, institutional cultura and farmer participation. Farmer participation was the most sensitive parameter in influencing effectiveness of irrigation system. Keywords: Concept, model, intangible assets, controlling, irrigation system, knowledge management   ABSTRAK Irigasi merupakan komponen penting dalam pembangunan sektor pertanian di Indonesia namun masih mempunyai banyak permasalahan. Manajemen irigasi belum efisien, partisipasi petani yang menurun, jaringan irigasi yang rusak sehingga menurunkan kinerja sistem irigasi. Permasalahan tersebut disebabkan rendahnya kualitas aset nirwujud sistem irigasi. Tujuan penelitian adalah mengembangkan konsep dan model pengendalian aset nirwujud dalam manajemen sistem irigasi. Metode penelitian terdiri dari dua tahap. Tahap pertama adalah pengembangan konsep. Konsep pengendalian aset nirwujud dalam manajemen sistem irigasi dikembangkan dari prinsip manajemen pengetahuan. Tahap kedua adalah pengembangkan model yang terdiri dari pembangunan model dan analisis sensitivitas. Pembangunan model pengendalian aset nirwujud dalam manajemen sistem irigasi berbasis manajemen pengetahuan dengan prinsip neuro-fuzzy. Model mempunyai tiga submodel yaitu manajemen pengetahuan, aset nirwujud dan kinerja sistem irigasi. Pengujian model dilakukan di

  17. TEACHERS’ TRAINING FOR SOCIAL AND EDUCATIONAL ACTIVITY IN CONDITIONS OF MOUNTAIN AREA PRIMARY SCHOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonida Pesotskaya

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The article reveals the question of using of the method of coaching in preparation of the students to the managerial activity in the sphere of preschool education in mountain areas. The necessity of preparation under the modern conditions of social-economic development of mountain areas has been proved. The content of the article generalizes basic contradictions between the necessity and reality. The definition of the main points of the research has been given. The attention is accentuated on the basic principles of management and on the notion “coaching” in the process of management of preschool education in mountain area. Coaching includes partnership, potential revealing, effectiveness. Methodology of coaching is based on the principle that the person naturally is sufficiently talented and owns great potential, which isn’t realized fully. An important condition of this approach is valuable, respectful attitude of the participants of polylogue to one another. Basic theoretical regulations of the coaching approach have been determined. In the context of selection of teching technologies on the basis of coaching approach, the method “reflexive team” has been briefly revealed. It is determined that coaching is a style of management, transformed culture: if the authoritarian style is substituted into coaching, then the hierarchy changes from the support of blaming and ridiculing to the objective evaluation, all-hands activity changes to strategic planning. Coaching approach will allow optimizing the structure of economic activity of a separate preschool educational establishment. The attention is accentuated at the fact, that using coaching with the students at the lessons as a style of management of preschool education, will let future managers of preschool educational establishments to form the skills of behavior in critical situations of mountain area, to enrich their activity with the new means of performing, to develop professional

  18. The generation and its sealing condition of natural gas in the Tadong area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Focusing on the two natural gas exploration geological problems with abundant source of oil cracking gas in the late stage and the sealing condition of the oil cracking gas reservoir,the kinetics of oil cracking gas and the evaluation parameters of gas cap rock are adopted to the study on the natural gas accumulation conditions in the Tadong area. Both the study on the kinetics of oil cracking gas and the statistical results of reservoir bitumen reveal that the geological formation of oil cracking gas in the Tadong area is located in the top of Cambrian. Two kinds of oil cracking gas geological models at least,namely well Mandong-1’s early rapid generation model(Middle Ordovician-end Silurian) and peak cracking model(with the natural gas conversion rate >90%) ,namely well Yingnan-2’s two-stage generation model of oil cracking gas,have been set up. The oil cracking gas of Yingnan-2 in the late stage is very significant in the evaluation of natural gas exploration in the Tadong area. The evaluation results of the cap rock show that the microscopic parameters of cap rock from the lower assemblage of Cambrian-Ordovician are better than those from the upper assemblage. The former has strong capillary sealing ability and higher cap rock breakthrough pressure than the upper assemblage,with strong sealing ability,so that natural gas dissipates mainly by diffusion. According to the above investigations,the lower assemblage Cambrian-Ordovician natural gas of Kongquehe slope,Tadong low uplift and Yingjisu depression in the Tadong area prospects well.

  19. Numerical Simulation of HIWC Conditions with the Terminal Area Simulation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, Fred H.; Switzer, George F.

    2016-01-01

    Three-dimensional, numerical simulation of a mesoconvective system is conducted in order to better understand conditions associated with High Ice Water Content (HIWC) and its threat to aviation safety. Although peak local values of ice water content may occur early in the storm lifetime, large areas of high concentrations expand with time and persist even when the storm tops begin to warm. The storm canopy which contains HIWC, has low radar reflectivity factor and is fed by an ensemble of regenerating thermal pulses.

  20. Cold-water coral growth under extreme environmental conditions, the Cape Lookout area, NW Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mienis, F.; Duineveld, G. C. A.; Davies, A. J.; Lavaleye, M. M. S.; Ross, S. W.; Seim, H.; Bane, J.; van Haren, H.; Bergman, M. J. N.; de Haas, H.; Brooke, S.; van Weering, T. C. E.

    2014-05-01

    The Cape Lookout cold-water coral area off the coast of North Carolina forms the shallowest and northernmost cold-water coral mound area on the Blake Plateau in the NW Atlantic. Cold-water coral habitats near Cape Lookout are occasionally bathed in the Gulf Stream, which is characterised by oligotrophic warm water and strong surface currents. Here, we present the first insights into the mound distribution and morphology, sedimentary environment and coral cover and near-bed environmental conditions as recorded by bottom landers from this coral area. The mounds occur between 320 and 550 m water depth and are characterised by high acoustic backscatter indicating the presence of hard structure. Three distinct mound morphologies were observed: (1) a mound with a flattened top at 320 m, (2) multi-summited mounds with a teardrop shape in the middle part of the area and (3) a single mound at 540 m water depth. Echosounder profiles show the presence of a strong reflector underneath all mound structures that forms the base of the mounds. This reflector cropped out at the downstream side of the single mound and consists of carbonate slabs. Video analysis revealed that all mounds are covered by Lophelia pertusa and that living colonies only occur close to the summits of the SSW side of the mounds, which is the side that faces the strongest currents. Off-mound areas were characterised by low backscatter and sediment ripples, indicating the presence of relatively strong bottom currents. Two bottom landers were deployed amidst the coral mounds between December 2009 and May 2010. Both landers recorded prominent events, characterised by large fluctuations in environmental conditions near the seabed as well as in the overlying water column. The period between December and April was characterised by several events of increasing temperature and salinity, coinciding with increased flow and near-bed acoustic backscatter. During these events temperature fluctuated by up to 9 °C within a

  1. Radio-Ecological Conditions of Groundwater in the Area of Uranium Mining and Milling Facility - 13525

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Titov, A.V.; Semenova, M.P.; Seregin, V.A.; Isaev, D.V.; Metlyaev, E.G. [FSBU SRC A.I.Burnasyan Federal Medical Biophysical Center of FMBA of Russia, Zhivopisnaya Street, 46, Moscow (Russian Federation); Glagolev, A.V.; Klimova, T.I.; Sevtinova, E.B. [FSESP ' Hydrospecgeologiya' (Russian Federation); Zolotukhina, S.B.; Zhuravleva, L.A. [FSHE ' Centre of Hygiene and Epidemiology no. 107' under FMBA of Russia (Russian Federation)

    2013-07-01

    Manmade chemical and radioactive contamination of groundwater is one of damaging effects of the uranium mining and milling facilities. Groundwater contamination is of special importance for the area of Priargun Production Mining and Chemical Association, JSC 'PPMCA', because groundwater is the only source of drinking water. The paper describes natural conditions of the site, provides information on changes of near-surface area since the beginning of the company, illustrates the main trends of contaminators migration and assesses manmade impact on the quality and mode of near-surface and ground waters. The paper also provides the results of chemical and radioactive measurements in groundwater at various distances from the sources of manmade contamination to the drinking water supply areas. We show that development of deposits, mine water discharge, leakages from tailing dams and cinder storage facility changed general hydro-chemical balance of the area, contributed to new (overlaid) aureoles and flows of scattering paragenetic uranium elements, which are much smaller in comparison with natural ones. However, increasing flow of groundwater stream at the mouth of Sukhoi Urulyungui due to technological water infiltration, mixing of natural water with filtration streams from industrial reservoirs and sites, containing elevated (relative to natural background) levels of sulfate-, hydro-carbonate and carbonate- ions, led to the development and moving of the uranium contamination aureole from the undeveloped field 'Polevoye' to the water inlet area. The aureole front crossed the southern border of water inlet of drinking purpose. The qualitative composition of groundwater, especially in the southern part of water inlet, steadily changes for the worse. The current Russian intervention levels of gross alpha activity and of some natural radionuclides including {sup 222}Rn are in excess in drinking water; regulations for fluorine and manganese

  2. Balneary Area of South Maritime Dobrudja – Considerations about Climatic Conditions and Cutaneous Climatic Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena GRIGORE

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available South Maritime Dobrudja, known in the literature as the Southern coast of the Black Sea balneary seaside benefits of particular climatic conditions, due to the interaction of the sea and land, which create excellent conditions for tourism activities. The association between marine and plateau environment has offered and will continue to offer natural reserves for an adequate capitalization of the area, in terms of balneary climatic. By analyzing the combination of climatic factors and weather events we can state the values and regimes of meteorological elements underlying the genesis of a climatic system. Romanian seaside is regarded as a unique landscape, as a spatial interference area of forms and characters specific of two environments, well defined, marine and lacustrine environment, plateau and dry land environment. Romanian coastline provides an ideal environment for the practice of sunbathing (heliotherapy and air baths (aero therapy. For further development of tourism it is necessary to be known the manifestations of indexes indicating the state of comfort or discomfort the human body is subjected to. Analysis of cutaneous climatic stress allows the identification of the periods of the year when the sensations of heat and cold affect the human body and the thermo-regulation. Sensations felt on the skin are due to direct contact with air, but depend on the air temperature and air flow rate.

  3. POTENSI TUMBUHAN BANGKAL (Nauclea Orientalis UNTUK PENGENDALIAN BAKTERI Aeromonas Hydrophila (POTENTIAL PLANT BANGKAL (Nauclea orientalis FOR CONTROL Aeromonas Hydrophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Aisiah

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan penelitian ini adalah didapatkan metode pengendalian penyakit yang disebabkan oleh bakteri Aeromonas hydrophila pada budi daya ikan yang ramah lingkungan. Dalam penelitian ini dilakukan uji sensitivitas terhadap bakteri A. hydrophila, uji minimal konsentrasi menghambat  bakteri A. hydrophila (uji MIC dan uji toksisitas terhadap ikan nila. Rancangan  yang digunakan untuk  uji toksisitas  adalah rancangan acak lengkap (RAL, dengan 4 perlakuan yaitu A  = Ikan disuntik dengan ekstrak bangkal konsentrasi 20%, B  = Ikan disuntik dengan ekstrak bangkal konsentrasi 40%,  C  = Ikan disuntik dengan ekstrak bangkal konsentrasi 80%, dan D  = Kontrol (ikan tidak disuntik, diulang sebanyak 3 kali. Perlakuan ini didapat dari hasil uji sensitivitas antibakteri bangkal yang mempunyai daya hambat dan daya bunuh paling besar terhadap bakteri A. hydrophila yaitu ekstrak daun bangkal dengan pelarut akuades. Pengujian MIC menunjukkan bahwa ekstrak bangkal-akuades memiliki daya hambat minimal  20 % terhadap aktivitas bakteri A. hydrophila. Hasil uji toksisitas yang dilakukan terhadap ikan nila dengan konsentrasi 20%, 40% dan 80%  mortalitas ikan nila dibawah 50 %. Pengamatan hematologis yaitu eretrosit, leokosit, plasma darah, hematokrit dan leokokrit pada masing-masing perlakuan sebagian besar masih berada dalam kisaran yang normal. Parameter kualitas air yaitu, kadar oksigen terlarut,  pH, amoniak, CO2 dan suhu masih dapat mendukung kehidupan normal ikan nila. The purpose of this study was obtained method of controlling diseases caused by Aeromonas hydrophila in fish farming is environmentally friendly. In this study the sensitivity of the test  A. hydrophila, a minimum test konsentari inhibiting A. hydrophila (MIC test and toxicity test on  tilapia. The design used for toxicity tests is completely randomized design with 4 treatments it A = Fish injected with extracts bangkal concentration of 20 %,  B = Fish injected with extracts bangkal

  4. PENGENDALIAN PENYAKIT PATIK (Cercospora nicotianae PADA TEMBAKAU NA OOGST SECARA IN-VIVO DENGAN EKSTRAK DAUN GULMA KIPAHIT (Tithonia diversifolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditya Reza Apriyadi

    2013-11-01

    daun kipahit; Cercospora nicotianae; Tembakau How to citate: Apriyadi AR, WS Wahyuni, V Supartini. 2013. Pengendalian penyakit patik (Cercospora nicotianae pada tembakau na oogst secara in-vivo dengan ekstrak daun gulma kipahit (Tithonia diversifolia. Berkala Ilmiah Pertanian 1(2: 30-32.

  5. Areas where geologic conditions are more favorable for current underground mining technology in the Kaiparowits Plateau study area, southern Utah (kaisumg )

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This is a coverage that shows areas in the Kaiparowits Plateau where geologic conditions in the Calico and A-sequences are more favorable for current underground...

  6. Geology and ground-water conditions in the Wilmington-Reading area, Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, John Augustus; Healy, H.G.; Hackett, O.M.

    1964-01-01

    The Wilmington-Reading area, as defined for this report, contains the headwaters of the Ipswich River in northeastern Massachusetts. Since World War II the growth of communities in this area and the change in character of some of them from rural to suburban have created new water problems and intensified old ones. The purpose of this report on ground-water conditions is to provide information that will aid in understanding and resolving some of these problems. The regional climate, which is humid and temperate, assures the area an ample natural supply of water. At the current stage of water-resources development a large surplus of water drains from the area by way of the Ipswich River during late autumn, winter, and spring each year and is unavailable for use during summer and early autumn, when during some years there is a general water deficiency. Ground water occurs both in bedrock and in the overlying deposits of glacial drift. The bedrock is a source of small but generally reliable supplies of water throughout the area. Glacial till also is a source of small supplies of water, but wells in till often fail to meet modern demands. Stratified glacial drift, including ice-contact deposits and outwash, yields small to large supplies of water. Stratified glacial drift forms the principal ground-water reservoir. It partly fills a system of preglacial valleys corresponding roughly to the valleys of the present Ipswich River system and is more than 100 feet thick at places. The ice-contact deposits generally are more permeable than the outwash deposits. Ground water occurs basically under water-table conditions. Recharge in the Wilmington-Reading area is derived principally from precipitation on outcrop areas of ice-contact deposits and outwash during late autumn, winter. and spring. It is estimated that the net annual recharge averages about 10 inches and generally ranges from 5 inches during unusually dry years to 15 inches during unusually wet years. Ground water

  7. PENGETAHUAN DAN PENERIMAAN MASYARAKAT TERHADAP METODE TEKNIK SERANGGA MANDUL (TSM DALAM PENGENDALIAN VEKTOR DEMAM BERDARAH DENGUE AEdEs AEgypTI KOTA SALATIGA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Agustini

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakPenyakit Demam Berdarah Dengue (DBD di Indonesia setiap tahun semakin meningkat dan penyebarannya semakin meluas. Salah satu upaya penanggulangan DBD yang telah dilakukan adalah dengan pengendalian vektor DBD Aedes aegypti. Pengendalian vektor dapat dilakukan baik secara fisik, biologi, kimiawi maupun genetik. Teknik Serangga Mandul (TSM merupakan salah satu teknik pengendalian vektor secara genetik dengan menggunakan serangga itu sendiri yang telah disterilkan. Aplikasi TSM dalam pengendalian vektor belum  banyak  dilakukan  di  Indonesia.  Survei  ini  bertujuan  mendapatkan  seberapa  besar  pengetahuan dan  penerimaan  masyarakat  Salatiga  terhadap  aplikasi  TSM  di  lingkungan  masyarakat.  Hasil  penelitian menunjukkan  bahwa  58,5%  responden  sudah  pernah  mendengar  tentang  TSM,  54,9%  belum  mengetahui tentang kelebihan TSM, 31,7% menjawab bahwa kelebihan TSM bisa menyebabkan nyamuk tidak berkembang biak,  lebih  tepat  sasaran  (4,9%,  lebih  efisien  (4,9%  dan  praktis  (3,7%;  30,5%  mendapatkan  informasi dari ibu Ketua PKK/RT; 82,9% responden setuju bila dilakukan aplikasi TSM di lingkungannya dan 80,5% responden setuju bila aplikasi TSM terus dilakukan untuk mengendalikan vektor DBD, 79,3% bersedia untuk berperan aktif dalam aplikasi TSM . Penerimaan masyarakat baru sebatas pada pengetahuan dan sikap dan belum pada tahap perilaku terbuka.Keywords: DBD, TSM, pengetahuan dan penerimaan masyarakatAbstractDengue Haemorrhagic Fever in Indonesia increased every year and wider dissemination. One of effort that has been done is control Aedes aegypti’s dengue vector. Efforts to prevent dengue vector control can be done with physical, biological, chemical or genetic. Sterile Insect Technique (SIT is one of genetic vector control technique using sterilized. Aplication of SIT not much use in Indonesia. The aim of the research is to find out the knowledge and communities acceptance

  8. Monitoring and modeling conditions for regional shallow landslide initiation in the San Francisco Bay area, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, B. D.; Stock, J. D.; Godt, J. W.

    2012-12-01

    Intense winter storms in the San Francisco Bay area (SFBA) of California often trigger widespread landsliding, including debris flows that originate as shallow (initiation thresholds are available for the SFBA, antecedent soil moisture conditions also play a major role in determining the likelihood for landslide generation from a given storm. Previous research has demonstrated that antecedent triggering conditions can be obtained using pre-storm precipitation thresholds (e.g., 250-400 mm of seasonal pre-storm rainfall). However, these types of thresholds do not account for the often cyclic pattern of wetting and drying that can occur early in the winter storm season (i.e. October - December), and which may skew the applicability of precipitation-only based thresholds. To account for these cyclic and constantly evolving soil moisture conditions, we have pursued methods to measure soil moisture directly and integrate these measurements into predictive analyses. During the past three years, the USGS installed a series of four subsurface hydrology monitoring stations in shallow landslide-prone locations of the SFBA to establish a soil-moisture-based antecedent threshold. In addition to soil moisture sensors, the monitoring stations are each equipped with piezometers to record positive pore water pressure that is likely required for shallow landslide initiation and a rain gauge to compare storm intensities with existing precipitation-based thresholds. Each monitoring station is located on a natural, grassy hillslope typically composed of silty sands, underlain by sandstone, sloping at approximately 30°, and with a depth to bedrock of approximately 1 meter - conditions typical of debris flow generation in the SFBA. Our observations reveal that various locations respond differently to seasonal precipitation, with some areas (e.g., Marin County) remaining at higher levels of saturation for longer periods of time during the winter compared to other areas (e.g., the East

  9. CFD SIMULATION OF AIR ION REGIME IN WORK AREAS AT CONDITION OF ARTIFICIAL AIR IONIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Biliaiev

    2016-02-01

    sources and ions of different polarity; physical processes affecting the formation of ions concentration field. Practical value. The obtained 2D CFD model for calculating the air ions regime in working areas allow to calculate the concentration of ions at the location of the respiratory organs, taking into account the basic physical factors determining the formation of ions concentration fields. It will allow rationally arranged the ionizers in the working premises to create the comfortable working conditions for staff.

  10. Impact of regional afforestation on climatic conditions in metropolitan areas: case study of Copenhagen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stysiak, Aleksander Andrzej; Bergen Jensen, Marina; Mahura, Alexander

    2016-04-01

    Like most other places, European metropolitan areas will face a range of climate-related challenges over the next decades that may influence the nature of urban life across the continent. Under future urbanization and climate change scenarios the well-being and comfort of the urban population might become progressively compromised. In urban areas, the effects of the warming climate will be accelerated by combination of Urban Heat Island effect (UHI) and extreme heat waves. The land cover composition directly influences atmospheric variability, and can either escalate or downscale the projected changes. Vegetation, forest ecosystems in particular, are anticipated to play an important role in modulating local and regional climatic conditions, and to be vital factor in the process of adapting cities to warming climate. This study investigates the impact of forest and land-cover change on formation and development of temperature regimes in the Copenhagen Metropolitan Area (CPH-MA). Potential to modify the UHI effect in CPH-MA is estimated. Using 2009 meteorological data, and up-to-date 2012 high resolution land-cover data we employed the online integrated meteorology-chemistry/aerosols Enviro-HIRLAM (Environment - High Resolution Limited Area Model) modeling system to simulate air temperature (at 2 meter height) fields for a selected period in July 2009. Employing research tools (such as METGRAF meteorological software and Geographical Information Systems) we then estimated the influence of different afforestation and urbanization scenarios with new forests being located after the Danish national afforestation plan, after proximity to the city center, after dominating wind characteristics, and urbanization taking place as densification of the existing conurbation. This study showed the difference in temperature up to 3.25°C, and the decrease in the spatial extent of temperature fields up to 68%, depending on the selected scenario. Performed simulations demonstrated

  11. Three Gorges Reservoir Area: soil erosion under natural condition vs. soil erosion under current land use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönbrodt, Sarah; Behrens, Thorsten; Scholten, Thomas

    2010-05-01

    Apparently, the current most prominent human-induced example for large scale environmental impact is the Three Gorges Dam in China. The flooding alongside the Yangtze River, and its tributaries results in a vast loss of settlement and farmland area with productive, fertile valley soils. Due to the associated high land use dynamic on uphill-sites, the soil resources are underlying high land use pressure. Within our study, the soil erosion under natural conditions is compared to the soil erosion under current land use after the impoundment. Both were modeled using the empirical Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) which is able to predict long-term annual soil loss with limited data. The database consists of digital terrain data (45 m resolution DEM, erosive slope length based on Monte-Carlo-Aggregation according to Behrens et al. (2008)), field investigations of recent erosion forms, and literature studies. The natural disposition to soil erosion was calculated considering the USLE factors R, S, and K. The soil erosion under current land use was calculated taking into account all USLE factors. The study area is the catchment of the Xiangxi River in the Three Gorges Reservoir area. Within the Xiangxi Catchment (3,200 km²) the highly dynamic backwater area (580 km²), and two micro-scale study sites (Xiangjiaba with 2.8 km², and Quyuan with 88 km²) are considered more detailed as they are directly affected by the river impoundment. Central features of the Xiangxi Catchment are the subtropical monsoon climate, an extremely steep sloping relief (mean slope angle 39°, SD 22.8°) artificially fractured by farmland terraces, and a high soil erodibility (mean K factor 0.37, SD 0.13). On the catchment scale the natural disposition to soil erosion makes up to mean 518.0 t ha-1 a-1. The maximum potential soil loss of 1,730.1 t ha-1 a-1 under natural conditions is reached in the Quyuan site (mean 635.8 t ha-1 a-1) within the backwater area (mean 582.9 t ha-1 a-1). In the

  12. MODEL PENGENDALIAN PENCEMARAN LAUT UNTUK MENINGKATKAN DAYA DUKUNG LINGKUNGAN TELUK JAKARTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irman Firmansyah

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Jakarta Bay is important in coastal management for ecological and economical approach. Another case, it’s also as a river estuary area. Many rivers pass Jakarta Capital City, Bogor, Tangerang and Bekasi areas. The objective of this research were conducted to identify kind of source contamination, assimilation capacities of Jakarta Bay, important elements for contamination effect, and then to construct Sea Contamination Control model, for management policy instruction to prevent Jakarta Bay contamination. This research was operated from Agustus 2005 until April 2006. The analysis of this research used the system approach (dynamic system model. The contamination sources of this area were domestic waste, industrial disposal and waste of market. This contamination levels have an exceeded assimilation capacities: TDS is equal to 2 313 609.07 ton/month, PO4 is equal to 518.85 ton/month, SO4 is equal to 141 610.11 ton/month, MBAS is equal to 441.87 ton/month, KMnO4 is equal to 23 785.43 ton/month, BOD is equal to 16 369.05 ton/month, dan COD is equal to 52 983.15 ton/month. The interpretative structural modelling (ISM indicated that there are five primary factors, namely law enforcement, good cooperation of stakeholders, good relation of area management, good compromise of need assessment, vision, target and mission to managing the environment. Keywords: assimilation capacities, contamination, dynamic system model, jakarta bay

  13. Are Conditional Cash Transfers Effective in Urban Areas? Evidence from Mexico1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrman, Jere R.; Gallardo-García, Jorge; Parker, Susan W.; Todd, Petra E.; Vélez-Grajales, Viviana

    2014-01-01

    Conditional cash transfer (CCT) programs have spread worldwide as a new form of social assistance for the poor. Previous evaluations of CCT programs focus mainly on rural settings, and little is known about their effects in urban areas. This paper studies the short-term (one- and two-year) effects of the Mexican Oportunidades CCT program on urban children/youth. The program provides financial incentives for children/youth to attend school and for family members to visit health clinics. To participate, families had to sign up for the program and be deemed eligible. Difference-in-difference propensity score matching estimates indicate that the program is successful in increasing school enrollment, schooling attainment and time devoted to homework for girls and boys and in decreasing working rates of boys. PMID:25705094

  14. CONDITIONS OF INVESTMENT DECISION-MAKING IN AREA OF RFID TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzena Jankowska-Mihułowicz

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The application of the electronic product code (EPC in an enterprise may turn out to be one of the choices in the future. The subject of this article is an analysis preceding decisive conditions in an investment process of its implementation. These reflections are preceded by the research in Polish enterprises, aiming at an estimation of the possibility of the RFID (Radio Frequency IDentification transponder commercialisation (market potential being consistent with the EPC requirements. Conducting such research in the future will lead to a decrease in the decision gap among managers within the scope of the possibility of implementing the innovative solution described, as well as the anticipated business results.  Methods of analysis and synthesis have been applied, within the theory of decision-making and telecommunications. An interdisciplinary approach to the issue in question constitutes the added value of this article.  The conclusion comprises a synthesis of the article contents—crucial decisive areas that require monitoring and simultaneous estimation (now and in the future regarding implementation of the electronic product code in an organization. In general, these areas are macro environment, competitive environment, strategic potential of an organization, and managers’ decisiveness.

  15. Entomological Condition and Control Efforts in Dengue Endemic Area of Baros Sub-District Sukabumi City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heni Prasetyowati

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Baros sub-district contribute high incidence rate of dengue fever in Sukabumi city. To determine the level of transmission risk of dengue fever from entomological condition aspect, it’s required to do the entomological survey and interview about control efforts with the aim of identifying entomological factors at Baros sub-district and dengue control efforts in that area. Population for the survey and interview on entomological control efforts are all community group or Rukun Warga (RW in endemic area in Baros sub-district. Samples for survey are house/building at sub-district Baros RW 11. Interviewed respondent was a person whose stays in the building. Interviews were conducted using a questionnaire by visiting the respondent. Entomology data were collected through pre adult mosquitoes surveys. The results show that vector control made by RW 11 Baros sub-district are grouped into cultural, physical, biological, chemical, role and control in an integrated manner, with the highest type of control measures is an integrated control (37.6%. Indicators of entomology is HI = 33.98%, CI = 11.1%, BI = 45.63% . Based on the CI indicator, RW 11 sub-district Baros has a density figure 4, while the indicator based on HI and BI, has a density figure 6. This suggests that this region has a moderate risk of transmission to the spread of dengue disease.

  16. Airborne Quercus pollen in SW Spain: Identifying favourable conditions for atmospheric transport and potential source areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maya-Manzano, José María; Fernández-Rodríguez, Santiago; Smith, Matt; Tormo-Molina, Rafael; Reynolds, Andrew M; Silva-Palacios, Inmaculada; Gonzalo-Garijo, Ángela; Sadyś, Magdalena

    2016-11-15

    The pollen grains of Quercus spp. (oak trees) are allergenic. This study investigates airborne Quercus pollen in SW Spain with the aim identifying favourable conditions for atmospheric transport and potential sources areas. Two types of Quercus distribution maps were produced. Airborne Quercus pollen concentrations were measured at three sites located in the Extremadura region (SW Spain) for 3 consecutive years. The seasonal occurrence of Quercus pollen in the air was investigated, as well as days with pollen concentrations ≥80Pm(-3). The distance that Quercus pollen can be transported in appreciable numbers was calculated using clusters of back trajectories representing the air mass movement above the source areas (oak woodlands), and by using a state-of-the-art dispersion model. The two main potential sources of Quercus airborne pollen captured in SW Spain are Q. ilex subsp. ballota and Q. suber. The minimum distances between aerobiological stations and Quercus woodlands have been estimated as: 40km (Plasencia), 66km (Don Benito), 62km (Zafra) from the context of this study. Daily mean Quercus pollen concentration can exceed 1,700Pm(-3), levels reached not less than 24 days in a single year. High Quercus pollen concentration were mostly associated with moderate wind speed events (6-10ms(-1)), whereas that a high wind speed (16-20ms(-1)) seems to be associated with low concentrations.

  17. Comparative study of urban development and groundwater condition in coastal areas of Buenos Aires, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues Capítulo, Leandro; Carretero, Silvina C.; Kruse, Eduardo E.

    2017-08-01

    The geomorphological evolution of a sand-dune barrier in Buenos Aires, Argentina, is analyzed as a factor regulating the fresh groundwater reserves available. The impact of geomorphological evolution and the consequences for the social and economic development of two coastal areas are assessed. This is one of the most important tourist destinations in the country; for study purposes, it was divided into a northern sector and a southern sector. In the southern sector, the exploitable groundwater is associated with the Holocene and upper Pleistocene geomorphological evolution, which generated three interrelated aquifer units, constituting a system whose useful thickness reaches at least 45 m. In contrast, the northern sector is restricted to two Holocene aquifer units, whose total thickness is on the order of 12 m. The morphological characteristics and the occurrence of the largest fresh groundwater reserves in the southern sector are indicators of better conditions for economic growth, which is mainly reflected on the expansion of real estate ventures. The relationships of transmissivity vs area of real estate ventures (Arev), and total water consumption vs Arev, are indicators for the sustainable management of the water resources. The approach chosen may be used by decision makers in other regions to assess the feasibility of future tourism projects on the basis of the availability of water resources associated with geomorphological features.

  18. Comparative study of urban development and groundwater condition in coastal areas of Buenos Aires, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues Capítulo, Leandro; Carretero, Silvina C.; Kruse, Eduardo E.

    2017-02-01

    The geomorphological evolution of a sand-dune barrier in Buenos Aires, Argentina, is analyzed as a factor regulating the fresh groundwater reserves available. The impact of geomorphological evolution and the consequences for the social and economic development of two coastal areas are assessed. This is one of the most important tourist destinations in the country; for study purposes, it was divided into a northern sector and a southern sector. In the southern sector, the exploitable groundwater is associated with the Holocene and upper Pleistocene geomorphological evolution, which generated three interrelated aquifer units, constituting a system whose useful thickness reaches at least 45 m. In contrast, the northern sector is restricted to two Holocene aquifer units, whose total thickness is on the order of 12 m. The morphological characteristics and the occurrence of the largest fresh groundwater reserves in the southern sector are indicators of better conditions for economic growth, which is mainly reflected on the expansion of real estate ventures. The relationships of transmissivity vs area of real estate ventures (Arev), and total water consumption vs Arev, are indicators for the sustainable management of the water resources. The approach chosen may be used by decision makers in other regions to assess the feasibility of future tourism projects on the basis of the availability of water resources associated with geomorphological features.

  19. MOTIVASI DAN PERAN SERTA MASYARAKAT DALAM PENGENDALIAN POPULASI AEDES SPP DI KOTA SUKABUMI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heni Prasetyowati

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available DHF is a public health problem in Sukabumi city. The incidence rate of dengue infection in Sukabumi is 350 / 100,000 population and it’s relatively high. Many efforts have been done by Sukabumi government through the district health office, cross-sector, and by the community but so far the results have not been satisfactory yet. The purpose of this study is to observe the differences in the presence of Aedes spp. at the time before and after a treatment carried out. The treatments were given in the form of triggering the community meetings to raise awareness and continued search for a solution for dengue vector control by the community themselves. Increased public participation begins by motivating communities through triggers in the treatment area (RW 11 Baros village and RW 3 Sriwedari village. Larvae survey conducted one month before treatment and two months after treatment. The success of the intervention, decreased the presence of larvae in the intervention area. During post-triggering assistance period, the commitments implementation in RW 03 Sriwedari run relatively well. While in RW 11 Village Baros was less, because not all people carry their mutual commitment. There is a significant difference (p-value <0.05 between the larvae survey before and after the intervention. This shown a success in triggers to motivate the community in controlling Aedes spp. in the study area.

  20. Modelling geothermal conditions in part of the Szczecin Trough – the Chociwel area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miecznik Maciej

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The Chociwel region is part of the Szczecin Trough and constitutes the northeastern segment of the extended Szczecin-Gorzów Synclinorium. Lower Jurassic reservoirs of high permeability of up to 1145 mD can discharge geothermal waters with a rate exceeding 250 m3/h and temperatures reach over 90°C in the lowermost part of the reservoirs. These conditions provide an opportunity to generate electricity from heat accumulated in geothermal waters using binary ORC (Organic Rankine Cycle systems. A numerical model of the natural state and exploitation conditions was created for the Chociwel area with the use of TOUGH2 geothermal simulator (i.e., integral finite-difference method. An analysis of geological and hydrogeothermal data indicates that the best conditions are found to the southeast of the town of Chociwel, where the bottom part of the reservoir reaches 3 km below ground. This would require drilling two new wells, namely one production and one injection. Simulated production with a flow rate of 275 m3/h, a temperature of 89°C at the wellhead, 30°C injection temperature and wells being 1.2 km separated from each other leads to a small temperature drop and moderate requirements for pumping power over a 50 years’ time span. The ORC binary system can produce at maximum 592.5 kW gross power with the R227ea found as the most suitable working fluid. Geothermal brine leaving the ORC system with a temperature c. 53°C can be used for other purposes, namely mushroom growing, balneology, swimming pools, soil warming, de-icing, fish farming and for heat pumps.

  1. EVALUASI RENCANA KINERJA KOLAM RETENSI (RETARDING BASIN DALAM UPAYA PENGENDALIAN BANJIR TUKAD MATI DI KOTA DENPASAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I G. Suryadinata P

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Tukad Mati is one of the rivers in the province of Bali that unfolds and flows in Badung regency and Denpasar. Inundation due to flooding is a problem that often occurs in this region during the rainy season. In an effort to overcome problems of flooding have been many studies carried out so as to produce flood control alternatives such as normalization, diversion channels and retarding basins. Retarding basin is one of flood control alternative that has not been much studied. In this study conducted a simulation of flood prevention alternative with retarding basin at Tukad Mati, by the hydrology approach method and hydraulics using HEC-RAS 4.0 program applications. Simulations performed on the current river flow conditions (existing condition and to the existing conditions with the retarding basin, according to the detail design of retarding basin in the city of Denpasar and evaluate the effectiveness of the retarding basin in the river basin flood control of Tukad Mati. Flood control by retarding basin based on simulations with the 2 (two years flood return period, resulting in a reduction of water level by an average of 0.42 meters or an average of 12% of the maximum water level in the conditions without retarding basin, which occurred in along the grooves on the lower reaches of the retarding basin and inundation waters still occur in some places, particularly in the downstream of Umadui Dam. Economic analysis of both the analysis of Benefits/Cost produces a parameter of BCR, NPV and IRR are not meet the feasibility requirements. The effective retention of retarding basin based on simulation results are 282,630.00 m3 with the ability to flood accommodate for 3-4 hours. In terms of economic development retarding basin is not feasible in terms of comparative costs and benefits

  2. EVALUASI RENCANA KINERJA KOLAM RETENSI (RETARDING BASIN DALAM UPAYA PENGENDALIAN BANJIR TUKAD MATI DI KOTA DENPASAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I G. Suryadinata P

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tukad Mati is one of the rivers in the province of Bali that unfolds and flows in Badung regency and Denpasar. Inundation due to flooding is a problem that often occurs in this region during the rainy season. In an effort to overcome problems of flooding have been many studies carried out so as to produce flood control alternatives such as normalization, diversion channels and retarding basins. Retarding basin is one of flood control alternative that has not been much studied. In this study conducted a simulation of flood prevention alternative with retarding basin at Tukad Mati, by the hydrology approach method and hydraulics using HEC-RAS 4.0 program applications. Simulations performed on the current river flow conditions (existing condition and to the existing conditions with the retarding basin, according to the detail design of retarding basin in the city of Denpasar and evaluate the effectiveness of the retarding basin in the river basin flood control of Tukad Mati. Flood control by retarding basin based on simulations with the 2 (two years flood return period, resulting in a reduction of water level by an average of 0.42 meters or an average of 12% of the maximum water level in the conditions without retarding basin, which occurred in along the grooves on the lower reaches of the retarding basin and inundation waters still occur in some places, particularly in the downstream of Umadui Dam. Economic analysis of both the analysis of Benefits/Cost produces a parameter of BCR, NPV and IRR are not meet the feasibility requirements. The effective retention of retarding basin based on simulation results are 282,630.00 m3 with the ability to flood accommodate for 3-4 hours. In terms of economic development retarding basin is not feasible in terms of comparative costs and benefits

  3. Quantification of gully erosion in a cultivated area in Southern Spain under high rainfall conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, C.; Pérez, R.; Mora, J.; Gómez, J. A.

    2012-04-01

    Gully erosion is a major process contributing to soil degradation on cultivated areas, specially when is triggered by extreme rainfall conditions (e.g. Øygarden, 2003). This study evaluates the gully erosion rates in a Mediterran agricultural area over a five years, 2010-2011, period. This period includes the maximum annual record of the last 50 years. A qualitative field survey (June 2006, to register present gullies and those refilled by tillage) and two field measurement surveys (June 2010 and 2011) were conducted in a set of cultivated catchments located in Cordoba (Spain) within the area named as "Campiña Media del Guadalquivir". The area of these landscapes ranged from 10 to 100 ha, and they were covered by field crops (mostly bean, sunflower and wheat) on vertic soils. The main gully defining properties (widths and depths) were measured after the rainy season, and before tillage operations covered them again, using global position system (GPS), pole and measurement tape. Soil erosion was estimated calculating the gully volume difference between two periods, by assuming simple geometric forms such as a triangle, triangle or trapezium for gully cross sections. Comparing 2006 and 2010 survey results, a mean erosion rate of 10 t ha-1 yr-1 was calculated, under the hyphotesis of only one removing (gully filling) operation. For the 2010-2011 period, a great enlargement of the gully network was observed, including headward migration, cross sectional widening and sidewall sloughing. In most cross sections the widths increase ratio (width in 2011 compared to that in 2010) exceeded 2, reaching in some cases to 3 o 4 times the original dimensions. Gully erosion estimates at the different catchments ranges from 37 to 250 t ha-1 yr-1, exceeding by far the tolerable soil erosion rates. The lack of vegetation, removed during years of continued tillage at valley bottoms, the elimination of natural features such as reach sinuosity by management practices, in combination

  4. PERBANDINGAN EFEKTIVITAS PENGABUTAN DAN PENABURAN MALATHION 5% DALAM UPAYA PENGENDALIAN VEKTOR PENYAKIT TULAR RODENSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ristiyanto Ristiyanto

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A trial of thermal fogging using malathion 5% EC against fleas was conducted two cycles with an interval of two weeks application, in the rodent borne disease enzootic areas, in Boyolali, Central Java. The objective of the trial is to determine the efficacy of malathion 5% EC applied by thermal fogging compared to dusting method by Fanara, et al (1979. Result of the trial showed that the crude index flea was reduced 67.4% - 83.6% for 14 days, compared to 65% - 94% reduction for 120 days by dusting application.

  5. MODEL PENGENDALIAN MUTU LAHAN KERING BERBASIS PEMBERDAYAAN MASYARAKAT DI KABUPATEN PONOROGO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rimun Wibowo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available To control quality of rainfed areas as well as improvement of farmers’ welfare is efforts already has been done by local government (Ponogoro however it’sstill not success yet because it used to partial approach. Therefore, it is very important to research and develop model how to control quality of rainfed based on community empowerment with integrated (system ap­proach.The location of research is in Ponorogo Districtwith 326 respondens, consist of 6experts, 20 linkage agencies staff and 300 farmers. Beside useAnalytical Hierarchy Process (AHP, Interpretative Structural Modelling (ISM, and System, this re­search also use univariat and bevariate analyze (Chi- Square and Structure Equation Model- SEM.Based on data and informa­tion that collected and analyzed, this research develop model that reflected the the real situation (fact, that can be simulated and validated. The model is established with system approach of population, local government services and ecology. The model vali­dated by absolute mean error (AME and absolute variation error (AVE that reflected variance between actual and value from model less than 10%, it show the model is a valid.This mean model able to simulate any changing of rainfed areas quality con­trol both in short or long term period.Other significant factors that related with rainfed areas quality control is farmers know­ledge (p-value= 0,030 and farmers behavior (p-value=0,040.The empowerment of farmers indicated by food and nutrition security (γ = 1, settlement and sanitation security (γ = 0.23, healthy security (γ = 0.01and education security (γ = 0.24. The empowerment of farmers influenced by coping strategy (β=0.41, that reflected by how farmer survive in production, consump­tion and marketing of agriculture with respective of γ is0.59, 0.27, 037 and 0.42. In line with these statistic analysis AHP, ISM results and validation model, this research formulated empowerment policy focus on life skill

  6. MEKANISME ANTIBIOSIS BACILLUS SUBTILIS B315 UNTUK PENGENDALIAN PENYAKIT LAYU BAKTERI KENTANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Prihatiningsih

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Antibiosis mechanism of Bacillus subtilis B315 for controlling potato bacterial wilt disease. Bacillus subtilis B315 isolated from rhizospheric potato has antibiosis mechanism against Ralstonia solanacearum in vitro and become potentially used as controlling method of bacterial wilt in the field. The objectives of this research were to study the mechanism of B.subtilis B315 in controlling bacterial wilt disease, to study of B. subtilis B315 potency as both biocontrol and plant growth promoter, and to evaluate the mechanism as biocontrol agent. This green house experiment used CRD (Completely Randomized Design with 5 treatments and 6 replicates. The treatments were control (without B. subtilis B315, B. subtilis B315 wild type, antibiosis mutant M16, antibiosis mutant M4, and antibiosis mutant M14. Variables observed were incubation period, disease index, infection rate, effectiveness of control, and growth components (i.e number of bud, plant height, leaf area, plant fresh and dry weight. The result of this research showed that B. subtilis B315 could delay incubation period, suppressed the disease index up to 64,9% and could promote the plant growth (leaf area. B. subtilis B315 had the antibiosis and other mechanisms that induced sistemic resistance. The implication of this research was that B. subtilis B315 could be used for biocontrol the bacterial wilt and promoted the potato growth.

  7. STRATEGI GERAKAN KELOMPOK KEPENTINGAN DALAM PENGAWASAN PENGENDALIAN PEMANFAATAN RUANG KAWASAN BANDUNG UTARA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novie Indrawati Sagita

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available North Bandung area (KBU is designated as a conservation area to protect the natural environment for the activities of life and urban development in the surrounding region. KBU become a magnet of the owners of capital to invest in the region to build a residential and tourism facilities. Development in KBU has acquired resistance from interest groups as deemed to have caused environmental damage and socio-economic impact to the surrounding community. Development in KBU clearly violate local regulations No. 1 of 2008, where every building permit (IMB issued by the district/city must have a recommendation from the governor, but the deviations of licensing as a collusion of the government of officials and the owners of capital continue. This research method using descriptive qualitative approach, which describes and analyzes the licensing irregularities in the construction of KBU. The results showed that the strategy of interest groups have not been effective in pressuring the government to stop granting licenses and prevent development in KBU. Movement of the interest groups need to be winning support through the formation of opinion in a way to build public awareness about the impact of environmental degradation as a result of development at KBU. Opinion formation is considered to be more effective when these efforts were supported by the help of the mass media in disseminating the opinion.

  8. ANALISIS PENGGUNAAN LAHAN DAN ARAHAN PENGENDALIAN PEMANFAATAN RUANG DI KABUPATEN BOGOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ely Triwulan Dani

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Bogor Regency has three strategic functions, as a buffer zone of Jakarta, water system conservation area, and agricultural development area. Rapid population growth led to the need for land better place to live and businesses, it triggers a change in land use that resulted in the violation of spatial pattern plan. Therefore, the spatial usage must be controlled, in order to be in line with the spatial pattern plan and support functions of Bogor Regency. The main purpose of this study was to formulate the control direction of spatial usage in Bogor Regency. The spatial analysis used to obtain information on land use, land ownership, location permits, and evaluation of land use on spatial pattern plan. Schallogram method used to determine the level of the hierarchy of the region, and factors affecting the inconsistency of land use on spatial pattern plan obtained by the analysis of field data. Formulation of the directives controlling spatial utilization is obtained by descriptive analysis. The results showed that 51.33% of exsisting land use in Bogor Regency has not been done and still can be directed in order to conform with the spatial pattern plan, the remaining 38.06% was suitable and unsuitable 10.62%. The factors that cause such inconsistency were the lack socialization policy less, the absence of licensing, housing needs, public facilities availability and accessibility, lands of usage before defined spatial pattern plan, the transfer of land ownership, and sortage of agricultural support facilities. The implications of these results were necessary to apply four control instruments, those are licensing, zoning regulations, provision of incentives and disincentives, and sanctions. Besides, the need for policy dissemination and surveillance, monitoring and evaluation periodically.

  9. PEMODELAN SPASIAL PENENTUAN INSTRUMEN SRATEGIS PENATAAN RUANG UNTUK PENGENDALIAN RISIKO BANJIR DI WILAYAH JABODETABEK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.R. Sunsun Saefulhakim

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Spatial planning must perform protection on socioeconomic and ecological functions of space, and prevent negative impacts of space utilization on the environment. Constraints on such spatial planning increase continuously. In the Jadebotabek Region 2003 to 2006, flood-risky households increased with annual rate more than four times economic growth. This research aimed to determine strategic spatial planning instruments to control flood risks, by using Spatial Durbin Modeling approach. The model specifies explanatory variables into local and external. Local variables give effects as in a conventional regression model, while external variables give effects in a given pattern represented by a spatial contiguity matrix. Principal Components Analysis was employed to reduce multicollinearities among variables. Test and parameter estimation of the model were employed by using Forward Stepwise General Regression Model with ANOVA-like design and Sigma-Restricted Parametrization. Research area was Jadebotabek Region year 2003 excluding Kepulauan Seribu, constituted 12 districts and sevent watersheds. Measurement units were administrative regions at village level (1.488 units. The model fit to the data very significantly (R2=0.84; p<<0.01. The research concluded that improving effectiveness of inter-locality cooperation, especially between localities of the upper and those of the down streams in a watershed system, is a strategic spatial planning instrument to control flood risks in the area. The cooperation comprises of ordering and control of: built-up-to-green ratio, building density, riverside occupation, land ownership disparity, farmland holding not to farm, poverty level, encroachment to perenial cropland, forest and protected zones, and industrial locations. Land suitability is important principle to be considered

  10. Airport Choice in Sao Paulo Metropolitan Area: An Application of the Conditional Logit Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Marcelo Baena; Muller, Carlos

    2003-01-01

    Using the conditional LOGIT model, this paper addresses the airport choice in the Sao Paulo Metropolitan Area. In this region, Guarulhos International Airport (GRU) and Congonhas Airport (CGH) compete for passengers flying to several domestic destinations. The airport choice is believed to be a result of the tradeoff passengers perform considering airport access characteristics, airline level of service characteristics and passenger experience with the analyzed airports. It was found that access time to the airports better explain the airport choice than access distance, whereas direct flight frequencies gives better explanation to the airport choice than the indirect (connections and stops) and total (direct plus indirect) flight frequencies. Out of 15 tested variables, passenger experience with the analyzed airports was the variable that best explained the airport choice in the region. Model specifications considering 1, 2 or 3 variables were tested. The model specification most adjusted to the observed data considered access time, direct flight frequencies in the travel period (morning or afternoon peak) and passenger experience with the analyzed airports. The influence of these variables was therefore analyzed across market segments according to departure airport and flight duration criteria. The choice of GRU (located neighboring Sao Paulo city) is not well explained by the rationality of access time economy and the increase of the supply of direct flight frequencies, while the choice of CGH (located inside Sao Paulo city) is. Access time was found to be more important to passengers flying shorter distances while direct flight frequencies in the travel period were more significant to those flying longer distances. Keywords: Airport choice, Multiple airport region, Conditional LOGIT model, Access time, Flight frequencies, Passenger experience with the analyzed airports, Transportation planning

  11. PENGENDALIAN MESIN HOIST HANGER DALAM PROSES PTC/ED MENGGUNAKAN PLC OMRON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahyudi Wahyudi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The development of technology demands efficient and work speed, so it needs a system which can handleseveral things.This problem can be covered with PLC (Programmable Logic Control that can integrateseveral self standing component to be an integrated control system and can be changed the configurationwithout change all instrument. Modify the ladder program can alter system of PLC. This paper showsHoist Hanger system in PTC/ED (Pre Treatment Chemical/Electrocoat Dispotition process that controlledby PLC. Above input from limit switch, sensor, or the other input, PLC system drives the motorrelay Hoist Hanger machine. That cause the motor relay Hoist Hanger change its condition, so the movingof Hoist Hanger machine will be suitable with PLC program.

  12. ANALISIS KONDISI DAN PENGENDALIAN BAHAYA DI BENGKEL/ LABORATORIUM SEKOLAH MENENGAH KEJURUAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Putut Hargiyanto

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This research aims at revealing (1 types of hazard that potentially arise, (2 the level of existing hazard, (3 the urgency of hazard management that should be done, and (4 the formula of recommended action to control the hazard in workstations or labs. This study belongs to survey research. Data collection techniques were using observation, interview, and visit. The number of workstations or labs were 23 from 11 state schools and 4 private schools. Data validation techniques were obtained through in-depth observation and examniation towards the documentation of visit photos as well as in-depth interview. Data analysis techniques were using quantitative data analysis by calculating the frequency of occurence on each type of hazard and then formulating the average and the percentage. The findings showed that (1 the hazard covered 9 items related to: material handling, the use of hands tool, machine protection, workplace design, lightning, weather, managemnent of noise hazard, vibration and electricity, workers’ facility, and working organization; (2 the average of hazard ratio consisted of (a 68 cases of non-hazard catagory (58%; (b 43 cases that required treatment (34%; 10 cases that catagorized as high-priority treatment; and 6 cases that had no data (4%; (3 the hazard control of high urgency on risky condition through repairment action; (4 recommendation for repairment condition was conducted through several stages, i.e. setting the target, selecting the approach, setting the procedure, and conducting continual evaluation. Keywords: hazard control/ management, types and hazard, workstation or labs in Vocational High Schools

  13. Effects of Water Pollution on the Condition Factor, Mortality, Exploitation Ratio and Catch per Unit Effort of Lagocephalus laevigatus in Koluama Area, Niger Delta Area, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.N. Ogamba

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Effects of water pollution on the condition factor, mortality, exploitation ratio and catch per unit effort of Lagocephalus laevigatus in Koluama Area, Niger Delta Area, Nigeria was investigated from April 2012 to May 2012; following an oil blow out in the area. To show the impact of the spill on the environment, catch rates are seasonally dependent and vary between 15-120 kg/day. About 120 wooden canoes were sighted in the communities studied. The canoes are basically in two categories namely, small sized boats of less than 5 m length and medium-sized ones ranging between 5 and 7 m long. There was no temporal variation in the condition of the fish with condition index value ranging from 0.86-1.00 and condition factor value of 0.98. The K value of 0.98 estimated from this study shows that Lagocephalus laevigatus from the study area was in extremely poor condition. Total mortality (Z value was 1.5 yrG1. Natural Mortality (M value was 0.97; Fishing mortality (F value was 0.52. Value for the rate of exploitation was 0.35 with corresponding percentage value of 35%. The result shows that Lagocephalus laevigatus with an exploitation rate of 0.35 is below the optimal value for sustainable yield, for the exploitation of the fishery. These populations therefore stand the risk of under exploitation if urgent measures are not taken to develop the fishery.

  14. Air Traffic Controllers' Control Strategies in the Terminal Area Under Off-Nominal Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Lynne; Mercer, Joey; Callantine, Todd; Kupfer, Michael; Cabrall, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    A human-in-the-loop simulation investigated the robustness of a schedule-based terminal-area air traffic management concept, and its supporting controller tools, to off-nominal events - events that led to situations in which runway arrival schedules required adjustments and controllers could no longer use speed control alone to impose the necessary delays. The main research question was exploratory: to assess whether controllers could safely resolve and control the traffic during off-nominal events. A focus was the role of the supervisor - how he managed the schedules, how he assisted the controllers, what strategies he used, and which combinations of tools he used. Observations and questionnaire responses revealed supervisor strategies for resolving events followed a similar pattern: a standard approach specific to each type of event often resolved to a smooth conclusion. However, due to the range of factors influencing the event (e.g., environmental conditions, aircraft density on the schedule, etc.), sometimes the plan required revision and actions had a wide-ranging effect.

  15. Experimental Study on Interfacial Area Transport of Two-Phase Flow under Vibration Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiu Xiao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An experimental study on air-water two-phase flow under vibration condition has been conducted using double-sensor conductivity probe. The test section is an annular geometry with hydraulic diameter of 19.1 mm. The vibration frequency ranges from 0.47 Hz to 2.47 Hz. Local measurements of void fraction, interfacial area concentration (IAC, and Sauter mean diameter have been performed along one radius in the vibration direction. The result shows that local parameters fluctuate continuously around the base values in the vibration cycle. Additional bubble force due to inertia is used to explain lateral bubble motions. The fluctuation amplitudes of local void fraction and IAC increase significantly with vibration frequency. The radial distribution of local parameters at the maximum vibration displacement is specifically analyzed. In the void fraction and IAC profiles, the peak near the inner wall is weakened or even disappearing and a strong peak skewed to outer wall is gradually observed with the increase of vibration frequency. The nondimensional peak void fraction can reach a maximum of 49% and the mean relative variation of local void fraction can increase to more than 29% as the vibration frequency increases to 2.47 Hz. But the increase of vibration frequency does not bring significant change to bubble diameter.

  16. Penggunaan Lethal Ovitrap Dengan Berbagai Jenis Attractant Untuk Pengendalian Nyamuk Aedes Sp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aries Prasetyo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Dengue fever, up to now been a problem for public health, as well as causing social impact, in terms of the number of people year after year tend to increase and expand the endemic area. One of the Aedes sp control methods is the use of lethal ovitrap This study to analyze the effectiveness (larvae of Aedes sp caught the use of lethal ovitrap with various types of attractant to control Aedes sp. This study involves the quasi experiment and post test only control group design. Subject of the study is Aedes sp in nature. Data are analyzed descriptively and analytically by using One Way Anova statistical methods. The number of trapped- larvae of Aedes sp by lethal ovitrap without attractant between 13-15. the number of trapped larvae Aedes sp by lethal ovitrap with various attractant average ranges between 30-95 in door and the average range 9 – 44 out door. There are significant differences amount Aedes sp larvae were caught between treatment both indoor and outdoor ( p = 0.008 and p = 0.007 . There are significant differences amount Aedes larvae were caught between treatment both indoor and outdoor, and lethal ovitrap with shrimp shells attractant water immersion is the most effective way to control Aedes sp mosquitoes Keywords: Lethal Ovitrap, Aedes sp, attractant

  17. EVALUASI DESAIN SISTEM PERENCANAAN DAN PENGENDALIAN MANAJEMEN UNTUK MENGHADAPI MASYARAKAT EKONOMI ASEAN TAHUN 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunardi Sunardi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The ASEAN Economic Community by 2015, there will be five free flow are: flow of goods, services ,investment flows, flows of capital and labor flows, the condition creates opportunities and challenges for companies in Indonesia, so the company needs to prepare a strategic move . Competitiveness of the Indonesian nation needs to be improve , in order to be able to compete with the ASEAN countries Assess the design of management planning and control system (SPPM should be done . SPPM structure comprisin : ( a the organizational structure is designed using the system ownership approach ( cellular manufacturing system, just-in -time purchasing and production, customer-driven innovation, and customer service focus. (b networking organization , is done by the development of information technology ( information technology and transaction processing technologies of information processing , and (c reward system , giving awards to personnel based on performance , with the implementation of the balanced scorecard on the other hand SPPM process comprising: (a the design must be done through the formulation of strategies trendwatching, SWOT analysis , envisioning and choosing strategies , (b the design of structured strategic planning by determining the vision , mission , goals , strategies , basic beliefs and basic values , (c the design of programming , with outlines strategic initiatives into the program (d design approach to budgeting is done with activity-based budgeting (e implementation of management focus on the management of the activity and ( f the monitoring is done by

  18. The occupational, family and health conditions of Polish workers living in urban areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Merecz-Kot

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: This article presents the diagnosis of the socio-economic status and health condition of Polish workers living in urban areas. Material and Methods: The study was conducted in the nationwide group of occupationally active people aged 19–65 years. The interview questionnaire comprised an extensive socio-demographic part and a psychometric part, containing questionnaires measuring the status of mental health, work ability, work satisfaction and family functioning. Results: Slightly more than half of the respondents (54% worked in occupations related to their profession. The majority (88% worked full-time, 8 h a day (65% being employed by 1 employer (92%. Most respondents were satisfied with their job (apart from the financial aspect and family life; 59% of employees were stressed by their job, including 15% of those who experienced strong stress. The family situation was emphasized by 31% of the respondents. At least one health disorder was diagnosed in 42% of the respondents. Musculoskeletal disorders (19%, cardiovascular diseases (13% and respiratory disorders (11% were most frequently reported. At the same time 76% of respondents assessed their health as rather good and good. The mental health index fell within the average values, but 12% of patients reached the score indicating the risk of serious mental health problems. Most of employees assessed their work ability as rather good and good. Conclusions: The data presented show the direction of the activities that need to be undertaken in the workplace, namely prevention of occupational stress, musculo-skeletal, cardiovascular and respiratory disorders, which significantly limit work ability. It is also necessary to implement educational programs in the workplace. Such activities, if organized on a regular basis, bring the best results. Med Pr 2014;65(6:785–797

  19. Reminder of the conditions of use for CERN’s picnic areas

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    With summer on the way, we would like to remind you of some basic rules for the use of CERN’s picnic areas. Two picnic areas are available for the organisation of CERN events: • the Meyrin barbecue area in the clubs area (9405-R-000); • the Prévessin barbecue area located near to Building 972 (9401-R-000). These areas can be reserved through Indico: • 9405-R-000; • 9401-R-000. For all events taking place at weekends or on public holidays, a list of participants must be sent to the Fire Brigade (Fire.Brigade@cern.ch) and the Access Control Service (Access.Surveillance@cern.ch) for safety reasons. A request form has been created for this purpose (available here). The same services must be informed of events organised on weekdays, but a list of participants is not required in this case. For more information, click here.

  20. Directions of development for areas with unfavourable conditions for agricultural production, an example of the podlaskie voivodeship (Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazimierz Niewiadomski

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is dedicated to the directions of development of rural areas, primarily agricultural areas of the Podlaskie voivodeship, which in light of current criteria has been qualified almost entirely as problem area (ONW. Results presented are culmination of research related to issues of problem areas primarily in the area of the Podlaskie voivodeship by the author of the herewith paper during last few years. In conclusion to the results of the research it can be said that the primary direction of the development of rural areas in the Podlaskie voivodeship will be modern, large-scale farms able to adjust to current conditions, in particular environmental and soil conditions. In problem areas these will be mostly farms focusing on production of cattle and milk, developing production based on very high share of grassland areas. Complementary role in relation to conventional agriculture will be fulfilled by farms developing organic farming and agro-touristic farms. More intensive development of conventional tourism in rural areas can be expected once new tourism products and services have been developed. Assessment of the current economic development parameters of the Podlaskie voivodeship does not point at the convergence with other regions and possibility of decreasing the distance between the Podlaskie voivodeship and average results for Poland in the near future. However, some positive trends in terms of convergence with other regions in Poland can be observed in agriculture, primarily due to relatively good results in production of cattle and milk.

  1. Microhabitat Conditions in Wyoming's Sage-Grouse Core Areas: Effects on Nest Site Selection and Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinkins, Jonathan B; Smith, Kurt T; Beck, Jeffrey L; Kirol, Christopher P; Pratt, Aaron C; Conover, Michael R

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to identify microhabitat characteristics of greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) nest site selection and survival to determine the quality of sage-grouse habitat in 5 regions of central and southwest Wyoming associated with Wyoming's Core Area Policy. Wyoming's Core Area Policy was enacted in 2008 to reduce human disturbance near the greatest densities of sage-grouse. Our analyses aimed to assess sage-grouse nest selection and success at multiple micro-spatial scales. We obtained microhabitat data from 928 sage-grouse nest locations and 819 random microhabitat locations from 2008-2014. Nest success was estimated from 924 nests with survival data. Sage-grouse selected nests with greater sagebrush cover and height, visual obstruction, and number of small gaps between shrubs (gap size ≥0.5 m and sage-grouse were selecting different nest sites in Core Areas relative to areas outside of Core. The Kaplan-Meier nest success estimate for a 27-day incubation period was 42.0% (95% CI: 38.4-45.9%). Risk of nest failure was negatively associated with greater rock and more medium-sized gaps between shrubs (gap size ≥2.0 m and <3.0 m). Within our study areas, Wyoming's Core Areas did not have differing microhabitat quality compared to outside of Core Areas. The close proximity of our locations within and outside of Core Areas likely explained our lack of finding differences in microhabitat quality among locations within these landscapes. However, the Core Area Policy is most likely to conserve high quality habitat at larger spatial scales, which over decades may have cascading effects on microhabitat quality available between areas within and outside of Core Areas.

  2. Cold-water coral growth under extreme environmental conditions, the Cape Lookout area, NW Atlantic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mienis, F.; Duineveld, G.C.A.; Davis, A.J.; Lavaleye, M.M.S.; Rosso, S.W.; Seim, H.; Bane, J.; van Haren, H.; Bergman, M.J.N.; de Haas, H.; Brooke, S.; van Weering, T.C.E.

    2014-01-01

    The Cape Lookout cold-water coral area off thecoast of North Carolina forms the shallowest and northernmostcold-water coral mound area on the Blake Plateau inthe NW Atlantic. Cold-water coral habitats near Cape Lookoutare occasionally bathed in the Gulf Stream, which is characterisedby oligotrophic

  3. Leaf area expansion and assimilate production in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) growing under low phosphorus conditions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodriguez, D.; Zubillaga, M.M.; Ploschuk, E.L.; Keltjens, W.G.; Goudriaan, J.; Lavado, R.S.

    1998-01-01

    Reductions in leaf area and plant growth as a consequence of phosphorus (P) limitations have been attributed both to direct effects of P shortage on leaf expansion rate and to a reduced production of assimilates required for growth. Canopy assimilation and leaf area expansion are closely interrelate

  4. Short-Term Relationship between Hip Fracture and Weather Conditions in Two Spanish Health Areas with Different Climates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José María Tenías

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate differences in the short-term relationship between weather conditions and the incidence of hip fracture in people aged 65 and over among two regions of Spain. Methods. Hip fracture incidence was calculated for the years 2000–2008 for residents of Health Area 14 in Valencian Community (Mediterranean climate and the “Mancha Centro” Health Area in Castilla-La Mancha (inland climate, Spain. The relationship between hip fracture incidence and weather was analyzed with a case-crossover design and explored in subgroups defined by sex, age, and fracture type. Results. In the inland area, a positive and significant tendency for hip fracture incidence was observed (annual increase: 1.5% whereas in the Mediterranean area a seasonal increase of 9% was noted in autumn and winter with respect to spring. Weather conditions, especially wind, were significantly associated with hip fracture incidence: days with more frequent windy periods and/or a greater wind velocity were associated with an increase in hip fracture incidence of 51% in the Mediterranean area and 44% in the inland area. Conclusions. Hip fracture incidence exhibits seasonal changes that differ between the Mediterranean and inland areas. The short-term relationship with climate, although similar in both areas, may partly explain these seasonal changes.

  5. 24 CFR 599.105 - Economic condition requirements for a nominated area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... incidence of AIDS, abandoned housing, deteriorated infrastructure, school dropouts, teen pregnancy... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Economic condition requirements for... Requirements for Nomination of Renewal Communities § 599.105 Economic condition requirements for a nominated...

  6. Microhabitat Conditions in Wyoming's Sage-Grouse Core Areas: Effects on Nest Site Selection and Success.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan B Dinkins

    Full Text Available The purpose of our study was to identify microhabitat characteristics of greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus nest site selection and survival to determine the quality of sage-grouse habitat in 5 regions of central and southwest Wyoming associated with Wyoming's Core Area Policy. Wyoming's Core Area Policy was enacted in 2008 to reduce human disturbance near the greatest densities of sage-grouse. Our analyses aimed to assess sage-grouse nest selection and success at multiple micro-spatial scales. We obtained microhabitat data from 928 sage-grouse nest locations and 819 random microhabitat locations from 2008-2014. Nest success was estimated from 924 nests with survival data. Sage-grouse selected nests with greater sagebrush cover and height, visual obstruction, and number of small gaps between shrubs (gap size ≥0.5 m and <1.0 m, while selecting for less bare ground and rock. With the exception of more small gaps between shrubs, we did not find any differences in availability of these microhabitat characteristics between locations within and outside of Core Areas. In addition, we found little supporting evidence that sage-grouse were selecting different nest sites in Core Areas relative to areas outside of Core. The Kaplan-Meier nest success estimate for a 27-day incubation period was 42.0% (95% CI: 38.4-45.9%. Risk of nest failure was negatively associated with greater rock and more medium-sized gaps between shrubs (gap size ≥2.0 m and <3.0 m. Within our study areas, Wyoming's Core Areas did not have differing microhabitat quality compared to outside of Core Areas. The close proximity of our locations within and outside of Core Areas likely explained our lack of finding differences in microhabitat quality among locations within these landscapes. However, the Core Area Policy is most likely to conserve high quality habitat at larger spatial scales, which over decades may have cascading effects on microhabitat quality available

  7. Spatio-temporal patterns and environmental controls of small pelagic fish body condition from contrasted Mediterranean areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosset, Pablo; Fromentin, Jean-Marc; Van Beveren, Elisabeth; Lloret, Josep; Marques, Virginie; Basilone, Gualtiero; Bonanno, Angelo; Carpi, Piera; Donato, Fortunata; Čikeš Keč, Vanja; De Felice, Andrea; Ferreri, Rosalia; Gašparević, Denis; Giráldez, Ana; Gücü, Ali; Iglesias, Magdalena; Leonori, Iole; Palomera, Isabel; Somarakis, Stylianos; Tičina, Vjekoslav; Torres, Pedro; Ventero, Ana; Zorica, Barbara; Ménard, Frédéric; Saraux, Claire

    2017-02-01

    Small pelagic fish are among the most ecologically and economically important marine fish species and are characterized by large fluctuations all over the world. In the Mediterranean Sea, low catches and biomass of anchovies and sardines have been described in some areas during the last decade, resulting in important fisheries crises. Therefore, we studied anchovy and sardine body condition variability, a key index of population health and its response to environmental and anthropogenic changes. Wide temporal and spatial patterns were investigated by analyzing separately data from scientific surveys and fisheries in eight Mediterranean areas between 1975 and 2015. Results showed that anchovy and sardine body condition as well as maximum size in some areas sharply decreased in most Mediterranean areas along years (except in the Northern Alboran Sea). Despite this general pattern, well-marked environmental differences between sub-regions were highlighted by several analyses and variations in body condition were not found to be homogeneous over all the Mediterranean Sea. Further, other analyses revealed that except for the Adriatic where major changes towards a lower body condition were concomitant with a decrease in river runoffs and chl-a concentration, no concomitant environmental regime shift was detected in other areas. Together, these analyses highlighted the current poor body condition of almost all small pelagic fish populations in the Mediterranean. Yet, global environmental indices could not explain the observed changes and the general decrease in condition might more likely come from regional environmental and/or anthropogenic (fishing) effects. A prolonged state of poor fish body condition, together with an observed reduced size and early age-at-maturity may have strong ecological, economic and social consequences all around the Mediterranean Sea.

  8. Effect of focusing condition on molten area characteristics in micro-welding of borosilicate glass by picosecond pulsed laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordin, I.H.W.; Okamoto, Y.; Okada, A.; Takekuni, T. [Okayama University, Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Okayama (Japan); Sakagawa, T. [Kataoka Corporation, Yokohama (Japan)

    2016-05-15

    The characteristics of the molten area are attributed not only by laser energy condition but also the focusing condition. In this study, a picosecond pulsed laser of 1064 nm in wavelength and 12.5 ps in pulse duration was used as a laser source for joining glass material. Influence of focusing condition on micro-welding of glasses was experimentally investigated by using an objective lens with and without spherical aberration correction, and its molten area was characterized. The usage of objective lens with spherical aberration correction led to a larger molten area inside the bulk material of glass even under the same pulse energy, which related to the efficient micro-welding of glass materials. In addition, an optical system with the spherical aberration correction led to a stable absorption of laser energy inside the bulk glass material, stabilizing the shape of molten area, which resulted in the reliable weld joint. On the other hand, breaking strength of the specimens with spherical aberration correction was higher than that without spherical aberration correction. Therefore, it is concluded that the focusing condition with spherical aberration correction led to the larger and stable molten area, which resulted in higher joining strength in micro-welding of glass materials. (orig.)

  9. Physical countermeasures to sustain acceptable living and working conditions in radioactively contaminated residential areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Kasper Grann; Roed, Jørn; Eged, K.;

    2003-01-01

    The Chernobyl accident highlighted the need in nuclear preparedness for robust, effective and sustainable countermeasure strategies for restoration of radioactively contaminated residential areas. Under the EC-supported STRATEGY project a series ofinvestigations were made of countermeasures...... of wastes generated by countermeasures had to be described separately to provide room for the required level of detail. The information is mainly intended as atool for decision makers and planners and constitutes a basis for the STRATEGY decision framework for remediation of contaminated urban areas....

  10. Do simple models give a correct description of the wind condition in a coastal area ?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaellstrand, B. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Meteorology

    1996-12-01

    When the surface conditions changes at a coastline, an internal boundary layer evolves, with a wind speed and turbulence intensity influenced by these new conditions. Aircraft measurements across the coastline, performed during near neutral conditions, are compared with a model and thirteen more simple expressions for the growth of an internal boundary layer (IBL). The majority of the expressions overestimate the IBL height, while other underestimate it. Some of the expressions give reasonable result close to the coast. The model gives good agreement, even for larger distances. The vertical potential temperature gradient turned out to be an important parameter for the growth of the IBL, even with this near neutral conditions. 21 refs, 5 figs, 1 tab

  11. Surface meteorological conditions at benthic disturbance experiment site - INDEX area during austral winter 1997

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Suryanarayana, A.; Murty, V.S.N.; RameshBabu, V.; Beena, B.S.

    Benthic Disturbance Experiment surveys in the Central Indian Ocean Basin yielded baseline data on surface meteorological conditions during June and August, 1997 together with sea surface temperature (SST) and could data to estimate the air-sea heat...

  12. Hypoxic areas, density-dependence and food limitation drive the body condition of a heavily exploited marine fish predator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casini, Michele; Käll, Filip; Hansson, Martin;

    2016-01-01

    . Hypoxic areas can act on cod condition through different mechanisms related directly to species physiology, or indirectly to behaviour and trophic interactions. Our analyses found statistical evidence for an effect of the hypoxia-induced habitat compression on cod condition possibly operating via crowding...... on this resource. Here, we statistically investigated the potential drivers of the Baltic cod condition during the past 40 years using newly compiled fishery-independent biological data and hydrological observations. We evidenced a combination of different factors operating before and after the ecological regime...

  13. Ore-forming Conditions and Prospecting in the West Kunlun Area, Xinjiang, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Yongguan; GUO Kunyi; XIAO Huiliang; ZHANG Chuanlin; ZHAO Yu

    2004-01-01

    The West Kunlun ore-forming belt is located between the northwestern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and southwestern Tarim Basin. It situated between the Paleo-Asian Tectonic Domain and Tethyan Tectonic Domain. It is an important component of the giant tectonic belt in central China (the Kunlun-Qilian-Qinling Tectonic Belt or the Central Orogenic Belt). Many known ore-forming belts such as the Kunlun-Qilian Qinling ore-forming zone, Sanjiang (or Threeriver) ore-forming zone, Central Asian ore-forming zone, etc. pass through the West Kunlun area. Three ore-forming zones and seven ore-forming subzones were classified, and eighteen mineralization areas were marked. It is indicated that the West Kunlun area is one of the most favorable region for finding out large and superlarge ore deposits.

  14. Groundwater conditions in the Brunswick-Glynn County area, Georgia, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherry, Gregory S.; Peck, Michael F.; Painter, Jaime A.; Stayton, Welby L.

    2011-01-01

    The Upper Floridan aquifer is contaminated with saltwater in a 2-square-mile area of downtown Brunswick, Georgia. The presence of this saltwater has limited the development of the groundwater supply in the Glynn County area. Hydrologic, geologic, and water-quality data are needed to effectively manage water resources. Since 1959, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has conducted a cooperative water program with the City of Brunswick and Glynn County to monitor and assess the effect of groundwater development on saltwater intrusion within the Floridan aquifer system. The potential development of alternative sources of water in the Brunswick and surficial aquifer systems also is an important consideration in coastal areas.

  15. The adjoint sensitivity of heavy rainfall to initial conditions in debris flow areas in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Feifan

    2017-04-01

    By studying three heavy rainfall events that were accompanied by debris flows in southwestern China, we find that 24-h accumulated rainfall is most sensitive to the initial temperature. The sensitivities to wind, surface pressure, and specific humidity are generally smaller. Moreover, the upper levels of the atmosphere are identified as the sensitive levels, and the sensitive areas are the areas with heavy rainfall. These results suggest that local temperature perturbations in the upper levels are a signal of short-term heavy rainfall in southwestern China. A validation experiment is carried out to justify the sensitivity results. The possible reasons are discussed and analyzed.

  16. Facies conditions of the 2. Lusatian seam horizon in the area East of Peitz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boenisch, R.; Liskow, C.

    1988-07-01

    Characterizes the Miocene brown coal deposit in the area Peitz, Jaenschwalde and Guben (GDR) by methods of paleobotany and paleogeography. Results of macropetrographic facies analysis and geophysical borehole measurements were employed in the study. Geologic profiles of the region as well as maps of seam distribution were drawn up. The analysis proves that prehistoric river meanders divide the brown coal moor into a northern and a southern section. A description of the paleoenvironment and the sedimentation process is given. A correlation between coal facies and technological coal quality is pointed out. The study is being used to develop a geologic seam model for this brown coal mining area. 9 refs.

  17. Two-wave behavior under various conditions of transition area from cancellous bone to cortical bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagatani, Yoshiki; Mizuno, Katsunori; Matsukawa, Mami

    2014-07-01

    The two-wave phenomenon, the wave separation of a single ultrasonic pulse in cancellous bone, is expected to be a useful tool for the diagnosis of osteoporosis. However, because actual bone has a complicated structure, precise studies on the effect of transition conditions between cortical and cancellous parts are required. This study investigated how the transition condition influenced the two-wave generation using three-dimensional X-ray CT images of an equine radius and a three-dimensional simulation technique. As a result, any changes in the boundary between cortical part and trabecular part, which gives the actual complex structure of bone, did not eliminate the generation of either the primary wave or the secondary wave at least in the condition of clear trabecular alignment. The results led us to the possibility of using the two-wave phenomenon in a diagnostic system for osteoporosis in cases of a complex boundary.

  18. Sediment Dynamics Within Buffer Zone and Sinkhole Splay Areas Under Extreme Soil Disturbance Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoonover, Jon E; Crim, Jackie F; Williard, Karl W J; Groninger, John W; Zaczek, James J; Pattumma, Klairoong

    2015-09-01

    Sedimentation dynamics were assessed in sinkholes within training areas at Ft. Knox Military Installation, a karst landscape subjected to decades of tracked vehicle use and extreme soil disturbance. Sinkholes sampled were sediment-laden and behaved as intermittent ponds. Dendrogeomorphic analyses were conducted using willow trees (Salix spp.) located around the edge of 18 sinkholes to estimate historical sedimentation rates, and buried bottles were installed in 20 sinkholes at the center, outer edge, and at the midpoint between the center and edge to estimate annual sedimentation rates. Sedimentation data were coupled with vegetation characteristics of sinkhole buffers to determine relationships among these variables. The dendrogeomorphic method estimated an average accumulation rate of 1.27 cm year(-1) translating to a sediment loss rate of 46.1 metric ton year(-1) from the training areas. However, sediment export to sinkholes was estimated to be much greater (118.6 metric ton year(-1)) via the bottle method. These data suggest that the latter method provided a more accurate estimate since accumulation was greater in the center of sinkholes compared to the periphery where dendrogeomorphic data were collected. Vegetation data were not tightly correlated with sedimentation rates, suggesting that further research is needed to identify a viable proxy for direct measures of sediment accumulation in this extreme deposition environment. Mitigation activities for the sinkholes at Ft. Knox's tank training area, and other heavily disturbed karst environments where extreme sedimentation exists, should consider focusing on flow path and splay area management.

  19. Physical countermeasures to sustain acceptable living and working conditions in radioactively contaminated residential areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, K.G.; Roed, J.; Eged, K. [and others

    2003-02-01

    The Chernobyl accident highlighted the need in nuclear preparedness for robust, effective and sustainable countermeasure strategies for restoration of radioactively contaminated residential areas. Under the EC-supporter STRATEGY project a series of investigations were made of countermeasures that were deemed potentially applicable for implementation in such events in European Member States. The findings are presented in this report, in a standardised data sheet format to clarify the features of the individual methods and facilitate intercomparison. The aspects of averted doses and management of wastes generated by countermeasures had to be described separately to provide room for the required level of detail. The information is mainly intended as a tool for decision makers and planners and constitutes of basis for the STRATEGY decision framework for remediation of contaminated urban areas. (au)

  20. Present Conditions and Strategies of Intangible Cultural Heritage Protection in Sichuan Ethnic Autonomous Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Yunxia

    2013-01-01

    The intangible cultural heritage of ethnic minorities is the most typical cultural re-source with ethnic characteristics . Its scientific protection and effective usage can not only help to transmit and develop the intangible cultural herit-age of ethnic minorities , but also can transform the ethnic minorities ’ cultural resources into advanta-geous resources , thus, promoting economic devel-opment in ethnic minority autonomous areas .For a long time, the ethnic minority autonomous areas have paid considerable attention to the protection of ethnic intangible cultural heritage ; explored vari-ous effective protective measures; and built up an effective model for protecting ethnic intangible cul-tural heritage guaranteed by the ethnic autonomous law.

  1. Physical countermeasures to sustain acceptable living and working conditions in radioactively contaminated residential areas

    CERN Document Server

    Andersson, K G; Roed, J

    2003-01-01

    The Chernobyl accident highlighted the need in nuclear preparedness for robust, effective and sustainable countermeasure strategies for restoration of radioactively contaminated residential areas. Under the EC-supporter STRATEGY project a series of investigations were made of countermeasures that were deemed potentially applicable for implementation in such events in European Member States. The findings are presented in this report, in a standardised data sheet format to clarify the features of the individual methods and facilitate intercomparison. The aspects of averted doses and management of wastes generated by countermeasures had to be described separately to provide room for the required level of detail. The information is mainly intended as a tool for decision makers and planners and constitutes of basis for the STRATEGY decision framework for remediation of contaminated urban areas. (au)

  2. conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Venkatesulu

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Solutions of initial value problems associated with a pair of ordinary differential systems (L1,L2 defined on two adjacent intervals I1 and I2 and satisfying certain interface-spatial conditions at the common end (interface point are studied.

  3. Ground-Water Conditions and Studies in the Brunswick-Glynn County Area, Georgia, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherry, Gregory S.; Clarke, John S.

    2008-01-01

    The Upper Floridan aquifer is contaminated with saltwater in a 2-square-mile area of downtown Brunswick, Georgia. This contamination has limited the development of the ground-water supply in the Glynn County area. Hydrologic, geologic, and water-quality data are needed to effectively manage water resources. Since 1959, the U.S. Geological Survey has conducted a cooperative water-resources program with the City of Brunswick to monitor and assess the effect of ground-water development on saltwater contamination of the Floridan aquifer system. The potential development of alternative sources of water in the Brunswick and surficial aquifer systems also is an important consideration in coastal areas. During calendar year 2007, the cooperative water-resources monitoring program included continuous water-level recording of 13 wells completed in the Floridan, Brunswick, and surficial aquifer systems; collecting water levels from 22 wells to map the potentiometric surface of the Upper Floridan aquifer during July and August 2007; and collecting and analyzing water samples from 76 wells to map chloride concentrations in the Upper Floridan aquifer during July and August 2007. In addition, work was initiated to refine an existing ground-water flow model for evaluation of water-management scenarios.

  4. CONCIDERATION OF FOUNDATION AND SEISMIC CONDITIONS OF AREA IN ANALYSIS OF SEISMIC RESISTANCE OF REACTOR COMPARTMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SEDIN V. L.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement. Providing of safe exploitation of nuclear power plants, as well as a safety of staff and environment is a very important problem. A distinct feature of this problem is a necessity to provide not only a strength of structures, but also a safe functioning of all systems that control nuclear process. In particular, the influence of earthquake should be considered on constructions of buildings and structures of nuclear and thermal power plant, taking into account soil-structure interaction. According to IAEA’s SSD-9 recommendations, a risk of vibration of soil should be analyzed for each NPP connected with earthquakes soil that means researches, including general, detailed and microseismic zoning of the area works. One of the distinctive features of the considered problem is an evaluation of the seismicity of area and getting the response spectrum on the free surface. Purpose. Determination of seismic resistance of buildings of high category of safety with the example of the reactor compartment of Zaporoghskaya NPP including the soil structure interaction. Conclusion The seismicity assessment of the area and obtaining of response specters on free surface was made during research and analysis of seismic resistance of buildings of high category of safety including the effects of foundation and structures. The method of modeling of the equivalent dynamic characteristics of the base was considered during the research in seismic impacts.

  5. Subsurface Conditions Description of the B and BX and BY Waste Management Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WOOD, M.I.

    2000-03-13

    This document provides a discussion of the subsurface conditions relevant to the occurrence and migration of contaminants in the vadose zone and groundwater underlying the 241-B, -BX, and -BY tank farms. This document provides a concise summary of existing information in support of characterization planning. This document includes a description of the available environmental contamination data and a limited, qualitative interpretation of these data.

  6. Ground-water conditions in the Milwaukee-Waukesha area, Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Frank Clingan; Walton, W.C.; Drescher, W.J.

    1953-01-01

    Three major aquifers underlie the Milwaukee-Waukesha area: sandstones of Cambrian and Ordovician age, Niagara dolomite of Silurian age, and sand and gravel deposits of Pleistocene age. The Maquoketa shale of Ordovician age acts as a more or less effective seal between the Pleistocene deposits and Niagara dolomite above and the sandstone aquifer below. Crystalline rocks of pre-Cambrian age form an impermeable basement complex below the Paleozoic sedimentary rocks. The Paleozoic strata dip east at 25 to 30 feet to the mile. There is no evidence that any of the faults and folds known or surmised to be present acts as a barrier to the movement of ground water.

  7. Hydrocarbon accumulation conditions and exploration direction of Baiyun–Liwan deep water areas in the Pearl River Mouth Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heming Lin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available An integrated geologic study was performed in the Baiyun–Liwan deep water areas, Pearl River Mouth Basin, based on the achievements obtained during the past five exploration stages. The following understandings were obtained. (1 The Baiyun Sag has superior source rock conditions and has experienced three tectonic evaluation stages like rifting, rifting-depression and depression. The Wenchang–Enping Fms deposited during the rifting stage have large hydrocarbon generation potentials. During the rifting-depression and depression stages, the deposition in the study area was controlled by the Oligocene and Miocene shelf slope break zones. The Oligocene Zhuhai Fm shallow marine delta-longshore depositional system and the Miocene Zhujiang–Hanjiang Fms deep fan depositional system were formed, and they are the most favorable reservoir-caprock assemblages in the study area. (2 The Hydrocarbon accumulation pattern in the deep waters is different from that in the northern shallow waters. Shelf slope break zone, composite conduction system consisting of structural ridge, fault, sandbody, unconformity and fluid diapir as well as late tectonic movement are the three major factors controlling hydrocarbon migration and accumulation in the study area. (3 The Liwan 3-1 gas field is a typical example. The superior trapping conditions, high-quality reservoirs of delta distributary channel controlled by shelf slope break zone, vertical conduction system consisting of fault and diapir, as well as the overlying massive marine mudstone caprock provide favorable geologic conditions for the formation of large gas fields. Four areas were identified as the targets of gas exploration in the near future: the deep water fan system in the central sag, the structural-stratigraphic traps in the uplifted areas on both sides of the main sag of Baiyun, a series of large structural traps on the fault terrace to the southwest of the main sag, and the ultra-deep frontiers in

  8. Assessing the hydrodynamic boundary conditions for risk analyses in coastal areas: a stochastic storm surge model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Wahl

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a methodology to stochastically simulate a large number of storm surge scenarios (here: 10 million. The applied model is very cheap in computation time and will contribute to improve the overall results from integrated risk analyses in coastal areas. Initially, the observed storm surge events from the tide gauges of Cuxhaven (located in the Elbe estuary and Hörnum (located in the southeast of Sylt Island are parameterised by taking into account 25 parameters (19 sea level parameters and 6 time parameters. Throughout the paper, the total water levels are considered. The astronomical tides are semidiurnal in the investigation area with a tidal range >2 m. The second step of the stochastic simulation consists in fitting parametric distribution functions to the data sets resulting from the parameterisation. The distribution functions are then used to run Monte-Carlo-Simulations. Based on the simulation results, a large number of storm surge scenarios are reconstructed. Parameter interdependencies are considered and different filter functions are applied to avoid inconsistencies. Storm surge scenarios, which are of interest for risk analyses, can easily be extracted from the results.

  9. GIS applications for the investigation of hydrometeorological and biochemical conditions of coastal areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.P. KARAGEORGIS

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the use of Geographical Information Systems (GIS in the aspects of marine environmental research, as approached by Russian and Greek groups. The scientific teams apply the same GIS platform in both cases, but with a different orientation, according to the particular driving forces of the projects involved.In general, the Russian team manipulates GIS as a subsystem of problem-oriented applications in order to enlarge the possibilities to run non-standard user programs. The subsystem of problem-oriented applications (POA is designed for the following: (1 analysis of data and information to implement applied tasks; (2 preparation of output information products of the system in the form of hard and electronic copies in accordance with the required formats; and (3 dissemination of information products according to the users requirements. The Greek group focuses on the GIS use as a tool for joining different layers of spatial information in the marine area under investigation. Also, incorporated in the GIS is the drainage basin that supplies the marine area with water, sediment load and also human derived substances. Layers of hypsometry, bathymetry, hydrography, river network, roads, cities, satellite images etc., have been introduced into the system, obtaining significant feedback information. Also, there are developed the relations of the former layers with the marine sampling stations network and the database that describes the station's properties.The two groups benefit particularly by the exchange of ideas and methods, as different consideration is undertaken to resolve marine research issues.

  10. Development of human comfort criteria for environmental conditions in urban areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Nina Gall; Koss, Holger

    2011-01-01

    , selected tests on human perception of climatic conditions have been performed in the newly developed Climatic Wind Tunnel facility (CWT), jointly operated by DTU and FORCE Technology in Lyngby, Denmark. The conducted work is related to a Ph.D. project on the integration of numerical simulation methods...... approach shall address issues that derive from the functional demands in a modern city, its geometry and architectural appearance and from the effect of urban climate on city life. Before entering a phase of model simulation the relation between the aforementioned aspects and their relevance to city life...

  11. The community of phytoplankton of the Dagestan area of Caspian Sea in the new ecological conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sh. Gasanova

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The materials about the phytoplankton composition and distribution in the Daghestan region of the Caspian Sea in connection with changing hydrologicaly-hydrochemical regime in conditions of anthropological and biological environment are presented. It was shown, that the change of water regime brought to alterations in floristic composition of sea weeds and succession of phytoplankton change group. Water biocoenosises of different seacoast zone distinguished specific characterdynamics. Introduction of Mnemiopsis leidyi (A. Agassiz influences on phytoplankton association structure

  12. Development of human comfort criteria for environmental conditions in urban areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Nina Gall; Koss, Holger

    2011-01-01

    will be studied, based on full-scale registration of urban environment parameters. The collected data and observations will be used to review existing criteria allowing assessing urban space quality for city life. The overall aim of our research is to create a holistic method to determines and describe the value....... The work presented in this paper is the first step in identifying and understanding the different factors affecting the human perception of urban space quality. For this purpose the registration of urban space conditions has been conducted on different locations in the city of Copenhagen. Furthermore...

  13. Atmospheric Dispersion Modeling of 137Cs generated from Nuclear Spent Fuel under Hypothetic Accidental Condition in the BNPP Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jongkuk; Lee, Kwan-Hee; Yook, Daesik; Kim, Sung Il; Lee, Byung Soo

    2016-04-01

    This study presents the results of atmosphere dispersion modeling using CALPUFF code that are based on computational simulation to evaluate the environmental characteristics of the Barakah nuclear power plant (BNPP) in west area of UAE. According to meteorological data analysis (2012~2013), the winds from the north(7.68%) and west(9.05%) including NNW(41.63%), NW(28.55%), and WNW(6.31%) winds accounted for more than 90% of the wind directions. East(0.2%) and south(0.6%) direction wind, including ESE(0.31%), SE(0.38%), and SSE(0.38%) were rarely distributed during the simulation period. Seasonal effects were not showed. However, a discrepancy in the tendency between daytime and night-time was observed. Approximately 87% of the wind speed was distributed below 5.4m/s (17%, 47% and 23% between the speeds of 0.5-1.8m/s 1.8-3.3m/s and 3.3-5.4m/s, respectively) during the annual period. Seasonal wind speed distribution results presented very similar pattern of annual distribution. Wind speed distribution of day and night, on the other hand, had a discrepancy with annual modeling results than seasonal distribution in some sections. The results for high wind speed (more than 10.8m/s) showed that this wind blew from the west. This high wind speed is known locally as the 'Shamal', which occurs rarely, lasting one or two days with the strongest winds experienced in association with gust fronts and thunderstorms. Six variations of cesium-137 (137Cs) dispersion test were simulated under hypothetic severe accidental condition. The 137Cs dispersion was strongly influenced by the direction and speed of the main wind. From the test cases, east-south area of the BNPP site was mainly influenced by 137Cs dispersion. A virtual receptor was set and calculated for observation of the 137Cs movement and accumulation. Surface roughness tests were performed for the analysis of topographic conditions. According to the surface condition, there are various surface roughness length. Four types

  14. Boundary layer height determination under summertime anticyclonic weather conditions over the coastal area of Rijeka, Croatia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nitis, T.; Moussiopoulos, N. [Aristotle Univ. Thessaloniki (Greece). Lab. of Heat Transfer and Environmental Engineering; Klaic, Z.B. [Univ. of Zagreb (Croatia). Andrija Mohorovicic Geophysical Inst., Faculty of Science; Kitsiou, D. [Univ. of the Aegean, Mytilene (Greece). Dept. of Marine Sciences

    2004-07-01

    The atmospheric boundary layer height is a fundamental parameter characterising the structure of the lower troposphere. The determination of this parameter is important in applications that range from meteorological modelling and forecasting to dispersion problems of atmospheric pollutants. Since substances emitted into the atmospheric boundary layer are dispersed horizontally and vertically through the action of turbulence, they are well-mixed over this layer that is widely known as ''mixing layer''. There are two basic approaches for the practical estimation of this height; the first approach suggests profile measurements, either in-situ or by remote sounding (sodar, clear-air radar, lidar) and the second one, the use of models with only a few measured parameters as input. As far as the second approach is concerned, the majority of the models use relatively crude estimates of the roughness length that is often based on constant values for land cover. Consequently, the model results are not quite accurate. The present work aims firstly to evaluate the effect of alternative calculations of the roughness length on the non-hydrostatic mesoscale model (MEMO) performance, based on the use of satellite data, and secondly, to estimate the mixing layer height and analyze its variability in relation to underlying topography and land use. Rijeka, a region with complex topography and several islands in its surroundings, offers the opportunity to examine the above mentioned relationships. The non-hydrostatic mesoscale model MEMO was applied under summertime anticyclonic weather conditions during two multi-day periods characterised by stagnant meteorological conditions. The results proved MEMO capable of simulating mesoscale wind flow reasonably well, however, the use of AVHRR satellite data for calculating the roughness length based on the calculation of the NDVI parameter, optimised the model performance and resulted to a more accurate determination of

  15. Branch age and light conditions determine leaf-area-specific conductivity in current shoots of Scots pine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grönlund, Leila; Hölttä, Teemu; Mäkelä, Annikki

    2016-08-01

    Shoot size and other shoot properties more or less follow the availability of light, but there is also evidence that the topological position in a tree crown has an influence on shoot development. Whether the hydraulic properties of new shoots are more regulated by the light or the position affects the shoot acclimation to changing light conditions and thereby to changing evaporative demand. We investigated the leaf-area-specific conductivity (and its components sapwood-specific conductivity and Huber value) of the current-year shoots of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in relation to light environment and topological position in three different tree classes. The light environment was quantified in terms of simulated transpiration and the topological position was quantified by parent branch age. Sample shoot measurements included length, basal and tip diameter, hydraulic conductivity of the shoot, tracheid area and density, and specific leaf area. In our results, the leaf-area-specific conductivity of new shoots declined with parent branch age and increased with simulated transpiration rate of the shoot. The relation to transpiration demand seemed more decisive, since it gave higher R(2) values than branch age and explained the differences between the tree classes. The trend of leaf-area-specific conductivity with simulated transpiration was closely related to Huber value, whereas the trend of leaf-area-specific conductivity with parent branch age was related to a similar trend in sapwood-specific conductivity.

  16. Environmental Conditions of Barchan Dune and Barchan Chain-A Case Study from the Hexi Desert Area of Gansu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chang Zhaofeng; Wang Qiangqiang; Zhang Jianhui; Xi Junqiang; Wang Qi; Zhang Dekui; Tang Jinnian; Zhang Huiwen

    2015-01-01

    [Objective] The paper was to discuss why the top of tall barchan dunes and barchan chains widespread in single prevailing wind area had not been leveled by wind erosion. [Method] Based on the preliminary survey of distribution status,the morphological characteristics and environmental conditions of barchan dunes and barchan chains in Hexi desert area of Gansu were investigated in details. The significance of difference between samples and significance of correlation between indicators were examined via variance test. [Result] Barchan dunes and barchan chains in Hexi desert area of Gansu distributed at the leeward direction of desert fringe,generally in patch distribution. The distribution area was gravelly beach or cohesive gravel beach,with broader dune slack; winds in distribution area of barchan dunes and barchan chains blew obviously from one direction,while winds at other directions were light or occasionally strong but with low frequency;the barchan dune in the desert fringe of Hexi desert area of Gansu was relatively tall,while barchan chain was even more taller and larger. Coincidence or separation of the dune peak and the sand ridge might be related to distribution frequency of dominant prevailing wind or wind at opposite direction and the observation seasons.[Conclusion]Studying top stability of barchan dune has an important academic value in revealing blowing sand movement rule at desert fringe,invasion of sand flow,and expansion of desert.

  17. Delimitation of Areas of Environmental Conflicts on the Background of Geological Conditions, Exemplified by Stary Sącz Commune

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gałaś Slávka

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Delimitation and characterization of areas of conflict are essential to assess suitability of land for different activities carried out in the field of rational land use. In the paper, delimitation of the conflict areas and conflicts categorization in terms of possibility of their overcoming, the scale of the range and the period of their occurrence exemplified by urban - rural commune Stary Sącz have been presented. The software ArcGIS 10.1, the method of maps superimposing and analysis of interactions between different geoenvironmental factors have been applied to obtain the goal of the investigation. Specific geological structure together with morphological and climatic conditions in Stary Sącz commune create ideal conditions for occurrence of con-flict areas on the background of the geological conditions. Accurate and early recognition of these conflicts - existing and potential ones, is a prerequisite for the environmental risk prevention and elimination of its effects through the proper preparation of planning documents and development plans and programs.

  18. Delimitation of Areas of Environmental Conflicts on the Background of Geological Conditions, Exemplified by Stary Sącz Commune

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gałaś, Slávka

    2014-12-01

    Delimitation and characterization of areas of conflict are essential to assess suitability of land for different activities carried out in the field of rational land use. In the paper, delimitation of the conflict areas and conflicts categorization in terms of possibility of their overcoming, the scale of the range and the period of their occurrence exemplified by urban - rural commune Stary Sącz have been presented. The software ArcGIS 10.1, the method of maps superimposing and analysis of interactions between different geoenvironmental factors have been applied to obtain the goal of the investigation. Specific geological structure together with morphological and climatic conditions in Stary Sącz commune create ideal conditions for occurrence of con-flict areas on the background of the geological conditions. Accurate and early recognition of these conflicts - existing and potential ones, is a prerequisite for the environmental risk prevention and elimination of its effects through the proper preparation of planning documents and development plans and programs.

  19. [Distribution iodine deficiency diseases in coastal areas depending on geochemical conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiku, P F; Andryukov, B G

    2014-01-01

    In the Primorsky Krai there was performed a population ecological and hygienic analysis of the relationship between the content of chemical elements in the soil and thyroid morbidity in the population of the region. The assessment of the prevalence of iodine deficiency and iodine deficiency diseases was carried out on the basis of the impact of the priority environmental toxic (strontium, nickel, cadmium, lead, arsenic, tin) and essential (nickel, iron, germanium, molybdenum, zinc, selenium) trace elements on the level of iodine deficiency diseases. The level of thyroid pathology in the territory of Primorye was established to be the highest one in areas characterized by the severe iodine deficiency (Northwest geochemical zones), where the structure of thyroid diseases is presented mainly by diffuse nontoxic goiter. Thyroid diseases associated with iodine deficiency in the population of different age groups are the result of multiple and combined imbalance of trace elements, which causes a relative (secondary) iodine deficiency. Thyroid disease in Primorye are environmentally caused diseases of technogenic origin, they are a consequence of the relative iodine deficiency, when on the background of normal iodine supply an imbalance of zinc, iron, cobalt, manganese with excess of such toxic trace elements as lead, strontium, nickel and chromium takes place. Thyroid pathology associated with iodine deficiency, along with other environmentally dependent diseases can be considered as a marker of ecological environment trouble.

  20. Study of Social Problems and Working Conditions of Child Labourers in Rural Area of Wardha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nimbarte Sanjay

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Children under fourteen constitute around 3.6% of the total labour force in India. The objective of the present study was to study the socio-economic determinants and to assess the working conditionsof child labourer in the small town Seloo area in Wardha district. The child labourers were interviewed in their work places using a predesigned and pre-tested questionnaire. Data was collected andanalyzed using epi_info 6.04d. A total of 150 child labourers participated in the study. The male/ female ratio was 1:1.77. Child labour was most prevalent (80% among 11-13 year age group.Child labour increases with decreasing parental socio-economic status. A little less than half (46.7% of the child labourers had to work for more than 6 hours a day. Average duration of work as 6.1days per week. There is need to protect children from child labour specially girl children. It is advocated that reduction in family size is condusive to promote economic empowerment/education.

  1. USAHA MENURUNKAN PENGGUNAAN PESTISIDA KIMIA DENGAN PROGRAM PENGENDALIAN HAMA TERPADU (Efforts to Reduce Chemical Pesticides Use through Integrated Pest Management Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joko Mariyono

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Pestisida kimia merupakan bahan beracun yang menyebabkan pencemaran lingkungan dan berbahaya bagi kesehatan manusia. Penggunaannya yang berlebihan telah menimbulkan biaya eksternal yang sangat tinggi. Sejak tahun 1989 Pemerintah Indonesia telah berusaha mengurangi penggunaan pestisida kimia melalui program Pengendalian Hama Terpadu (PHT Untuk mengetahui dampak program PHT, digunakan fungsi permintaan pestisida kimia. Analisis ini menggunakan data sekunder selama sembilan tahun yang diambil dari empat kabupaten wilayah Yogyakarta. Hasil analisis menunjukkan bahwa  dampak program PHT telah berhasil mengurangi penggunaan pestisida kimia pada padi dan kedelai. Penurunan penggunaan pestisida kimia disebabkan oleh kenaikan harga dan penyebaran teknologi PHT. Turunnya penggunaan pestisida kimia ini akan meningkatkan kualitas lingkungan dan kesehatan manusia karena tersedia bahan pangan yang residu pestisida kimianya rendah.   ABSTRACT Chemical pesticide is a poisonous agent that causes deterioration on environment quality and thereatens to human health. It causes considerable high externat cost. Sice 1989 the Government of Indonesia had removed chemical pesticide subsidy and introduced a new program called Integrated {est

  2. Drainage feature about coalbed methane wells in different hydrogeological conditions in Fanzhuaug area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NI Xiao-ming; LIN Ran; WANG Yan-bin

    2012-01-01

    It is aa important guarantee to enhance the production of coalbed methane (CBM) and reduce the project investment by finding out the drainage feature about CBM wells in different hydrogeological conditions.Based on the CBM exploration and development data on the Fanzhuang block in southeast Qinshui Basin and combined with the seepage principle and lithology on the roof and the bottom coalbed,the mathematical model of integrated permeability was established.By permeability experiments of the different lithologies on the roof and the floor within the 20 m range combined with the log curves,the integrated permeability of different lithological combinations were obtained.The starting pressure gradient and permeability of the roof and the floor for different lithologies was tested by "differential pressure-flow method".The relationships between the starting pressure gradient and the integrated permeability were obtained.The critical distance of limestone water penetrating into coal reservoirs was calculated.According to the drainage feature of CBM wells combined with the drainage data of some CBM wells,the results show that,when limestone water can penetrate into coal reservoirs,the daily water production is high and the daily gas production is low although there is no gas at the beginning of the drainage process,the CBM wells stop discharging water within 6 months after the gas began to come out,and the gas production is steadily improved.When limestone water can not penetrate into coal reservoirs,the daily water production is low and the daily gas production is high at the beginning of the drainage process,and it almost stops discharging water after some time when the gas come out,the daily gas production increases,and the cumulative water production is much lower.

  3. Suspended Particulates Concentration (PM10 under Unstable Atmospheric Conditions over Subtropical Urban Area (Qena, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. El-Nouby Adam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study is to evaluate the suspended particulates (PM10 in the atmosphere under unstable atmospheric conditions. The variation of PM10 was investigated and primary statistics were employed. The results show that, the PM10 concentrations values ranged from 6.00 to 646.74 μg m−3. The average value of PM10 is equal to 114.32 μg m−3. The high values were recorded in April and May (155.17 μg m−3 and 171.82 μg m−3, respectively and the low values were noted in February and December (73.86 μg m−3 and 74.05 μg m−3, respectively. The average value of PM10 of the hot season (125.35 × 10−6 g m−3 was higher than its value for the cold season (89.27 μg m−3. In addition, the effect of weather elements (air temperature, humidity and wind on the concentration of PM10 was determined. The multiple R between PM10 and these elements ranged from 0.05 to 0.47 and its value increased to reach 0.73 for the monthly average of the database used. Finally, the PM10 concentrations were grouped depending on their associated atmospheric stability class. These average values were equal to 122.80 ± 9 μg m−3 (highly unstable or convective, 109.37 ± 12 μg m−3 (moderately unstable and 104.42 ± 15 μg m−3 (slightly unstable.

  4. [Ecological and hygienic condition urbanized area in the geographical center of New Moscow].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanov, N A

    2015-01-01

    The evaluation of ecological and hygienic condition of the environment was performed by ourselves in the geographical center of New Moscow--in the city of Troitsk. There was made an analysis as the published results of similar assessments in the times of the 1990s, data of Federal Service for Supervision of Consumer Rights Protection and Human Welfare concerning the control for soils quality (at a single point of the city) and drinking water for 2010-2011, and the author's materials on the chemical contamination of soils and grounds in July 2013. Local foci of moderately dangerous pollution of soil were found at lots close to the motorway and in the Worsted factory: Zc (SrBaCrVNiCoCuAgZnPbBeMoWB) = 17-20, benzo (a) pyrene to 218 mcg/kg and Zn up to 233.4 mg/kg. At the point of monitoring soils complied with the requirements according to toxicological, microbiological and parasitological characteristics.. In the drinking tap water there was observed, along with the increased total hardness, the presence up to 1.6 MAC of such natural pollutants as F and Li. In the undergrounds potable water the situation is worsening according to the content of Si, As, B, Br, U. There was no monitoring of surface water and air. However, pockets of soil contamination trace the possible occurrence in the air near the ground of hygienically dangerous anomalies of heavy metals and hydrocarbons. Modern ecological and sanitary situation in Troitsk, in general, can be considered to be quite safe if compared to the quality of the environment in industrialized cities. The thing that does cause concern is the quality of drinking water.

  5. HYDROCHEMICAL CONDITIONS OF THE ŁOSOSINA RIVER WATER MANAGEMENT IN THE AREA OF TYMBARK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Policht-Latawiec

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable use of waters requires not only determining the amount, but primarily the quality of the available water resources and developing a long-term programme of their protection. The analysis of the Łososina river water in the area of Tymbark city was presented in the paper. The water was tested in a view of the requirements as the natural fish habitat and its potential use for people supply in potable water. The river water samples were taken in 2014 at randomly selected dates, once a month in 5 measurement points. 21 physicochemical indices were assessed in the samples. The assessment of the Łososina river water quality was made on the basis of the results of both: on site and laboratory testing, which were compared with the Regulation of the Minister of Environment of 23 October 2014. The utility values were assessed on the basis of the Regulations of the Minister of Environment of 27 November and 04 October 2014. The analysis of the results demonstrated that the Łososina river water met the requirements of quality class I water in points 1, 2 and 3. Below Tymbark the Łososina river water was polluted, so due to high BOD5 in points 4 and 5, and phosphate concentrations in point 4, it was classified as class II, i.e. good state. Pollution coefficients computed according to Burchard and Dubaniewicz classify the Łososina river water as clean along the whole investigated stretch. Below Tymbark city (points 4 and 5 the Łososina river water cannot be used for drinking water supply because of high BOD5 and iron concentrations. In the other points it could be used for water supply following appropriate physical and chemical treatment. The water does not meet the requirements for salmonid or cyprinid fish along the whole stretch because of high nitrite concentrations, except point 3, where the Łososina river water provided a proper natural habitat for carp.

  6. Undergraduate Research at a Minority University: Studying the Atmospheric Conditions in Urban vs. Rural Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, P. A.; Green Garcia, A.; Hromis, A.; Vaquiz, E.; Wright, J. M.; Austin, S. A.; Johnson, L. P.; Musselwhite, D.; Walter, D.

    2009-12-01

    A grant from the National Science Foundation (NFS) funded a three year atmospheric science program known as the Minority University Consortium for Earth and Space Science (MUCESS) that supports undergraduate research programs devoted to studying ozone (O3) profiles. MUCESS institutions are represented by the University of Houston-Downtown (UHD), Medgar Evers College of the City University of New York (MEC), and South Carolina State University (SCSU). The primary strength of the program lies in the fact that it provides a venue for students from the participating minority institutions to build bridges of dialogue and strengthen research capabilities. A secondary strength of MUCESS is that the collaborative institutions are widely separated geographically but they have excellent communications and the ability to coordinate launches and support annual workshops. MUCESS supported a series of ozonesonde launches from multiple sites between April and July 2009. Both urban and rural sites were chosen based on their proximity to the three participating minority universities. Balloon and ozone monitoring technology facilitated data acquisition from cost-effective, environmentally friendly, and reproducible experiments. Payloads consisting of an ozonesonde, Vaisala® radiosonde, and GPS receiver provided information on dynamic atmospheric conditions that exist from ground level through altitudes up to one hundred thousand feet. Preparations for the collaborative launch included an initial calibration phase where identical calibration procedures prepared all three payloads. This calibration phase was performed five to seven days in advance of the launch. An additional calibration was performed the day of launch to verify communications between in-flight and ground radio transmitter and receiver, as well as to validate partial pressure and O3 concentration output from the ozonesonde. Each payload was tethered to a 600 gram weather balloon which was then carried up to the

  7. Reproductive performances of Black Bengal goat under semi-intensive and extensive conditions at rural areas in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Jahid Hasan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The current study was aimed to investigate the influence of housing system on female reproductive traits of Black Bengal goats at rural areas in Bangladesh during the period of July to December 2012. A total of 200 Black Bengal goats reared under semi-intensive (n=100 and extensive conditions (n=100 were selected considering their age, body weight, body shape, and conformation. In semi-intensive condition, average age at puberty was 197.82±12.58 days, and age at first conception was 292.96±0.50 days; whereas, these lengths were 208.82±12.60 days and 287.65±0.52 days in extensive condition, respectively. Age at first kidding was 448.26±25.48 days under semi-intensive condition, whereas under extensive condition it was 450.07±22.43 days. Under semi-intensive condition, average litter size at the first, second and third parity were 1.06±0.13, 1.76±0.12 and 1.96±0.12, respectively. In contrast, under extensive condition, these values were 1.01±0.10, 1.62±0.12 and 1.75±0.11, respectively. The average kidding interval under semi-intensive system was 190.2±20 days, and the length reduced to 178.23±0.50 days (p<0.01 in the case of extensive housing system. It is concluded that rearing under extensive condition provoked better reproductive performance in Black Bengal goats as compared to semi-intensive housing system at rural level in Bangladesh.

  8. Assessing trail conditions in protected areas: Application of a problem-assessment method in Great Smoky Mountains National Park, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Y.-F.; Marion, J.

    1999-01-01

    The degradation of trail resources associated with expanding recreation and tourism visitation is a growing management problem in protected areas worldwide. In order to make judicious trail and visitor management decisions, protected area managers need objective and timely information on trail resource conditions. This paper introduces a trail survey method that efficiently characterizes the lineal extent of common trail problems. The method was applied to a large sample of trails within Great Smoky Mountains National Park, a highuse protected area in the USA. The Trail ProblemAssessment Method (TPAM) employs a continuous search for multiple indicators of predefined tread problems, yielding census data documenting the location, occurrence and extent of each problem. The present application employed 23 different indicators in three categories to gather inventory, resource condition, and design and maintenance data of each surveyed trail. Seventy-two backcountry hiking trails (528 km), or 35% of the Park's total trail length, were surveyed. Soil erosion and wet soil were found to be the two most common impacts on a lineal extent basis. Trails with serious tread problems were well distributed throughout the Park, although wet muddy treads tended to be concentrated in areas where horse use was high. The effectiveness of maintenance features installed to divert water from trail treads was also evaluated. Water bars were found to be more effective than drainage dips. The TPAM was able to provide Park managers with objective and quantitative information for use in trail planning, management and maintenance decisions, and is applicable to other protected areas elsewhere with different environmental and impact characteristics.

  9. LITHOLOGIC CONDITIONS OF THE WATER TABLE LOGGING IN THE AREA OF HAĆKI VILLAGE IN THE BIELSKA PLAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Micun

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to examine lithological conditions of the water table in the area of Haćki village located in the Bielska Plain. The study involved the measurements of water level in dug wells, hand drill probing to a depth of 5 m, acquiring the samples of water-bearing deposits and analysing their granulation. The results of analyses allowed to calculate the permeability coefficient. The geological structure of the area is dominated by dusty deposits of various origins. Such deposits’ formation directly affects the conditions of filtration and depth of the water table. Groundwater logging near Haćki village in the Bielska Plain appears at a depth of several tens of centimeters to 2 meters in the depressions field and up a little over 5 meters in the case of higher ground surfaces. The presence of perched water was revealed on the hills, periodic leachates at the foot of the hills and scarps and one periodic spring. Water-bearing deposits are medium sands, fine sands and loamy fine sands or fine sands with silt. Consequently, the permeability coefficient is low or even very low. Its values range from 0,001 m·d-1 to 3,8 m·d-1 (d – 24 hours. The widespread presence of dusty deposits in the area affects the limited efficiency of the water table.

  10. Assessing condition of macroinvertebrate communities and bed sediment toxicity in the Rochester Embayment Area of Concern, New York, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Brian; George, Scott D.; Baldigo, Barry P.; Smith, Alexander J.

    2017-01-01

    The United States and Canada agreed to restore the chemical, physical, and biological integrity of the Great Lakes ecosystem under the first Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement in 1972. The lowest reach of the Genesee River and the Rochester Embayment on Lake Ontario between Bogus Point and Nine Mile Point, including Braddock Bay, were designated as an Area of Concern (AOC) due to effects of contaminated sediments and physical disturbance on several beneficial uses. Following sediment remedial efforts and with conditions improving in the AOC, the present study was conducted to reevaluate the status of the benthic macroinvertebrate (benthos) beneficial use impairment (BUI). Benthic macroinvertebrate community assessments and 10-day Chironomus dilutus bioassays were used to test the hypotheses that sediments within the AOC were no more toxic than sediments from surrounding reference areas. The study was separated into three discrete systems (Genesee River, Lake Ontario, and Braddock Bay) and non-parametric analyses determined that a multimetric index of benthic macroinvertebrate community integrity was significantly higher at AOC sites compared to reference sites on the Genesee River and in Braddock Bay while AOC and reference sites on Lake Ontario did not differ significantly. Survival and growth of C. dilutus were also similar between AOC and reference sites for each system with the exception of significantly higher growth at reference sites on Lake Ontario. Results generally indicated that the condition of benthos and toxicity of sediment of the Rochester Embayment AOC are similar to or better than that in the surrounding area.

  11. CONDITIONS OF FISH FARMING IN NATURA 2000 AREAS, BASED ON THE EXAMPLE OF THE CATCHMENT OF BARYCZ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Tokarczyk-Dorociak

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the factors that contributed to the construction of approx.77 km2 offish ponds in the catchment of Barycz starting from the 13th century, which in turn transformed the woods into a mosaic of waters, forests and arable land, were the advantageous physiographic conditions. Fish farming operations conducted in this area led to the creation of a cultural landscape characterised by unique natural values, similar to the natural landscape.Approx.240 species of birds are observed here, of which 170 are nesting species. Due to its natural values, this area has been subject to natural reserve protection as part of the Landscape Park "Dolina Baryczy" (the Barycz Valley. It was entered in the "Living Lakes" list and it is protected under the Ramsar Convention as well as under the European nature protection network Natura 2000.The established forms of nature protection mean the introduction of a certain binding regime, pursuant to which the economic activity conducted in protected areas must take into account the prohibitions and orders introduced by documents that establish the said forms of protection. Additionally, there is a legal requirement to create a protection plan or conservation plan that constitutes a basis for the realisation of conservation-related objectives. A commercial company Stawy Milickie S.A. (public limited company operates in the area of this largest fish pond complex in Poland. The scope of its operations includes more than just the breeding and sale of freshwater fish (6500 ha of ponds but also environmental protection, environmental education and the development of tourism as well as stimulating the development and professional activation of local communities basing on the natural resources that exist in the catchment of Barycz. This study presents the conditions related to fish farming operations conducted in this area. Conducting an extensive management (i.e. often uneconomical from the economic point of view is a

  12. RESEARCH: Influence of Social, Biophysical, and Managerial Conditions on Tourism Experiences Within the Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafer; Inglis

    2000-07-01

    / Managing protected areas involves balancing the enjoyment of visitors with the protection of a variety of cultural and biophysical resources. Tourism pressures in the Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area (GBRWHA) are creating concerns about how to strike this balance in a marine environment. Terrestrial-based research has led to conceptual planning and management frameworks that address issues of human use and resource protection. The limits of acceptable change (LAC) framework was used as a conceptual basis for a study of snorkeling at reef sites in the GBRWHA. The intent was to determine if different settings existed among tourism operators traveling to the reef and, if so, to identify specific conditions relating to those settings. Snorkelers (N = 1475) traveling with tourism operations of different sizes who traveled to different sites completed surveys. Results indicated that snorkelers who traveled with larger operations (more people and infrastructure) differed from those traveling with smaller operations (few people and little on-site infrastructure) on benefits received and in the way that specific conditions influenced their enjoyment. Benefits related to nature, escape, and family helped to define reef experiences. Conditions related to coral, fish, and operator staff had a positive influence on the enjoyment of most visitors but, number of people on the trip and site infrastructure may have the greatest potential as setting indicators. Data support the potential usefulness of visitor input in applying the LAC concept to a marine environment where tourism and recreational uses are rapidly changing.

  13. Effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on leaf solutes and root absorption areas of trifoliate orange seedlings under water stress conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Qiangsheng; XIA Renxue

    2006-01-01

    The effects of the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM)fungus Glomus mosseae on plant growth,leaf solutes and root absorption area of trifoliate orange (Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf.) seedlings were studied in potted culture under water stress conditions.Inoculation with G.mosseae increased plant height,stem diameter,leaf area,shoot dry weight,root dry weight and plant dry weight,when the soil water content was 20%,16% and 12%.AM inoculation also promoted the active and total absorption area of root system and absorption of phosphorus from the rhizosphere,enhanced the content of soluble sugar in leaves and roots,and reduced proline content in leaves.AM seedlings had higher plant water use efficiency and higher drought tolerance than non-AM seedlings.Effects of G.mosseae inoculation on trifoliate orange seedlings under 20% and 16% soil water content were more significant than under 12% soil water content.AM infection was severely restrained by 12% soil water content.Thus,effects of AM fungi on plants were probably positively related to the extent of root colonization by AM fungi.The mechanism of AM fungi in enhancing drought resistance of host plants ascribed to greater osmotic adjustment and greater absorption area of root system by AM colonization.

  14. Landslides susceptibility change over time according to terrain conditions in a mountain area of the tropic region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineda, M C; Viloria, J; Martínez-Casasnovas, J A

    2016-04-01

    Susceptibility to landslides in mountain areas results from the interaction of various factors related to relief formation and soil development. The assessment of landslide susceptibility has generally taken into account individual events, or it has been aimed at establishing relationships between landslide-inventory maps and maps of environmental factors, without considering that such relationships can change in space and time. In this work, temporal and space changes in landslides were analysed in six different combinations of date and geomorphological conditions, including two different geological units, in a mountainous area in the north-centre of Venezuela, in northern South America. Landslide inventories from different years were compared with a number of environmental factors by means of logistic regression analysis. The resulting equations predicted landslide susceptibility from a range of geomorphometric parameters and a vegetation index, with diverse accuracy, in the study area. The variation of the obtained models and their prediction accuracy between geological units and dates suggests that the complexity of the landslide processes and their explanatory factors changed over space and time in the studied area. This calls into question the use of a single model to evaluate landslide susceptibility over large regions.

  15. Crossing physical simulations of snow conditions and a geographic model of ski area to assess ski resorts vulnerability

    Science.gov (United States)

    François, Hugues; Spandre, Pierre; Morin, Samuel; George-Marcelpoil, Emmanuelle; Lafaysse, Matthieu; Lejeune, Yves

    2016-04-01

    In order to face climate change, meteorological variability and the recurrent lack of natural snow on the ground, ski resorts adaptation often rely on technical responses. Indeed, since the occurrence of episodes with insufficient snowfalls in the early 1990's, snowmaking has become an ordinary practice of snow management, comparable to grooming, and contributes to optimise the operation of ski resorts. It also participates to the growth of investments and is associated with significant operating costs, and thus represents a new source of vulnerability. The assessment of the actual effects of snowmaking and of snow management practices in general is a real concern for the future of the ski industry. The principal model use to simulate snow conditions in resorts, Ski Sim, has also been moving this way. Its developers introduced an artificial input of snow on ski area to complete natural snowfalls and considered different organisations of ski lifts (lower and upper zones). However the use of a degree-day model prevents them to consider the specific properties of artificial snow and the impact of grooming on the snowpack. A first proof of concept in the French Alps has shown the feasibility and the interest to cross the geographic model of ski areas and the output of the physically-based reanalysis of snow conditions SAFRAN - Crocus (François et al., CRST 2014). Since these initial developments, several ways have been explored to refine our model. A new model of ski areas has been developed. Our representation is now based on gravity derived from a DEM and ski lift localisation. A survey about snow management practices also allowed us to define criteria in order to model snowmaking areas given ski areas properties and tourism infrastructures localisation. We also suggest to revisit the assessment of ski resort viability based on the "one hundred days rule" based on natural snow depth only. Indeed, the impact of snow management must be considered so as to propose

  16. The evaluation of the state of the Sopot Municipality environment as a condition for sustainable development of the municipality area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipović Dejan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The Sopot Municipality can be conditionally characterized as 'an ecological municipality' considering it is known for its preserved and quality environment, which is the result of the absence of greater sources of degradation and environmental pollution. The structure and usage of the Sopot municipality space was influenced by its specific position and historic development, the resources, the fact it is in the vicinity of Belgrade, as well as the processes taking places in the last few decades. Besides natural, anthropogenic factors substantially influenced the way of spatial development, often violating natural conditions and possibilities. In that sense, the current environmental condition analysis represents the important integral planning base for further spatial development of the Municipality. In this paper the environmental condition is shown according to single elements (air, water, soil, the attention is drawn to the problem of waste on the Sopot Municipality area, and in the end the valorization of the environment was performed from the aspect of pollution level.

  17. Preliminary Results Of Hydrodynamic Responses To Ship Movements And Weather Conditions Along The Coastal Walls Of Shallow Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acar, Dursun; Alpar, Bedri; Cagatay, Namık; Ozeren, Sinan; Sarı, Erol; Eris, Kadir; Vardar, Denizhan; Arslan, Tugce; Basegmez, Koray

    2016-04-01

    Water-level variations in coastal areas and shallow channels take place under the influence of more complex factors, compared to those in deeper areas. Atmospheric pressure, wind, and wave interactions with bottom morphological characteristics are some important natural features while human-induced factors are usually maritime traffic and manoeuvres the ships. While weather conditions cause long-term changes in water level, water level interactions in near shore areas, can occur very quickly depending on the ship manoeuvres and squat characteristics, and these rapid changes can lead to unpredictable water level lowering. Such rapid changes may cause various dangerous incidents and ship accidents, particularly in areas where rapid water oscillations occur. Improper calculations of propulsion power or orientation of the ship body, especially in the areas where geological and morphological characteristics permit fast water movements, are the most important additional causes of accidents due to sudden water level decreases. For an example, even though a 200-m-long vessel can complete its 35° rotation in a circular area with radius of 250 m, if it is calm and sufficiently deep, this diameter increases 5 times at the shallow waters also depending on the hydrodynamic flow conditions. In 2005, "Gerardus Mercator" has bumped into the inside bottom wall of the channel with a low speed (4 knots) turn of when she had just made a 200° turn. Seven years later the cruise ship "Costa Concordia" struck a rock, before she drifted and grounded, in the calm seas of the coast of Isola del Giglio in Italy, due to a combined effects of waves generated by side waves of ship manoeuvres, atmospheric pressure and squat specifications as well. The waves reflected from the seawalls complicate the navigation problems which should be examined in detail. Thus, three prototype models with various angular seawall features were prepared, simple in shape with perpendicular and sloped seawalls with

  18. Evaluating the condition of a mangrove forest of the Mexican Pacific based on an estimated leaf area index mapping approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacs, J M; King, J M L; Flores de Santiago, F; Flores-Verdugo, F

    2009-10-01

    Given the alarming global rates of mangrove forest loss it is important that resource managers have access to updated information regarding both the extent and condition of their mangrove forests. Mexican mangroves in particular have been identified as experiencing an exceptional high annual rate of loss. However, conflicting studies, using remote sensing techniques, of the current state of many of these forests may be hindering all efforts to conserve and manage what remains. Focusing on one such system, the Teacapán-Agua Brava-Las Haciendas estuarine-mangrove complex of the Mexican Pacific, an attempt was made to develop a rapid method of mapping the current condition of the mangroves based on estimated LAI. Specifically, using an AccuPAR LP-80 Ceptometer, 300 indirect in situ LAI measurements were taken at various sites within the black mangrove (Avicennia germinans) dominated forests of the northern section of this system. From this sample, 225 measurements were then used to develop linear regression models based on their relationship with corresponding values derived from QuickBird very high resolution optical satellite data. Specifically, regression analyses of the in situ LAI with both the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and the simple ration (SR) vegetation index revealed significant positive relationships [LAI versus NDVI (R (2) = 0.63); LAI versus SR (R (2) = 0.68)]. Moreover, using the remaining sample, further examination of standard errors and of an F test of the residual variances indicated little difference between the two models. Based on the NDVI model, a map of estimated mangrove LAI was then created. Excluding the dead mangrove areas (i.e. LAI = 0), which represented 40% of the total 30.4 km(2) of mangrove area identified in the scene, a mean estimated LAI value of 2.71 was recorded. By grouping the healthy fringe mangrove with the healthy riverine mangrove and by grouping the dwarf mangrove together with the poor condition

  19. Sensitivity analysis and comparison of various potential evapotranspiration formulae for selected Greek areas with different climate conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paparrizos, Spyridon; Maris, Fotios; Matzarakis, Andreas

    2017-05-01

    Potential evapotranspiration (PET) is one of the most critical parameters in the research on agro-ecological systems. The computational methods for the estimation of PET vary in data demands from very simple (empirically based), requiring only information based on air temperatures, to complex ones (more physically based) that require data on radiation, relative humidity, wind speed, etc. The current research is focused on three study areas in Greece that face different climatic conditions due to their location. Twelve PET formulae were used, analyzed and inter-compared in terms of their sensitivity regarding their input coefficients for the Ardas River basin in north-eastern Greece, Sperchios River basin in Central Greece and Geropotamos River basin in South Greece. The aim was to compare all the methods and conclude to which empirical PET method(s) better represent the PET results in each area and thus should be adopted and used each time and which factors influence the results in each case. The results indicated that for the areas that face Mediterranean climatic conditions, the most appropriate method for the estimation of PET was the temperature-based, Hamon's second version (PETHam2). Furthermore, the PETHam2 was able to estimate PET almost similarly to the average results of the 12 equations. For the Ardas River basin, the results indicated that both PETHam2 and PETHam1 can be used to estimate PET satisfactorily. Moreover, the temperature-based equations have proven to produce better results, followed by the radiation-based equations. Finally, PETASCE, which is the most commonly used PET equation, can also be applied occasionally in order to provide satisfactory results.

  20. Reconstructing pre-impact baseline conditions using benthic foraminifera in an area of increasing petroleum exploration activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkstra, Noortje; Junttila, Juho; Aagaard-Sørensen, Steffen

    2016-04-01

    While macrofauna is traditionally used to bio-monitor to state of the ecosystem, benthic foraminifera have large potential for bio-monitoring as well. As their tests stay preserved in the sedimentary archive it is possible to reconstruct pre-impacted conditions, by studying foraminiferal assemblages in sediment cores. The use of foraminiferal faunas as bio-monitoring tools is complicated by the natural variability. Therefore, detailed site specific studies are needed, to understand the range of natural variability of the area of interest. This study characterizes the natural variability in the Bjørnøyrenna-Ingøydjupet area in the Southern Barents Sea. The Southern Barents Sea is a relatively un-impacted and uncontaminated area, however petroleum industry related activities are expected to increase in the near future. This makes the area a valuable natural laboratory to establish pre-impacted baselines for future seabed monitoring programs. Benthic foraminiferal assemblages were examined at high resolution in sediment cores and compared to sediment properties and metal concentrations. Species associated to temperate water masses dominate in the southern part of the study area, while species associated to cooler water masses increase in abundance towards the north into Bjørnøyrenna. Additionally, the foraminiferal assemblages might reflect climatic oscillations on both millennial and decadal time scales. Patterns in the calcareous foraminiferal assemblages suggest an enhanced food supply as a result of increased Atlantic Water inflow through the region during the last 150 years. Sediment TOC content has been linked with variable inflow of Atlantic Water. A strong positive correlation was observed between TOC content with metal content in the cores. It is therefore essential to consider the role of natural variability of oceanographic conditions when using benthic foraminiferal assemblages to monitor for potential anthropogenic impacts on the environment. This

  1. Technical snow production in skiing areas: conditions, practice, monitoring and modelling. A case study in Mayrhofen/Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strasser, Ulrich; Hanzer, Florian; Marke, Thomas; Rothleitner, Michael

    2017-04-01

    The production of technical snow today is a self-evident feature of modern alpine skiing resort management. Millions of Euros are invested every year for the technical infrastructure and its operation to produce a homogeneous and continuing snow cover on the skiing slopes for the winter season in almost every larger destination in the Alps. In Austria, skiing tourism is a significant factor of the national economic structure. We present the framing conditions of technical snow production in the mid-size skiing resort of Mayrhofen (Zillertal Alps/Austria, 136 km slopes, elevation range 630 - 2.500 m a.s.l.). Production conditions are defined by the availability of water, the planned date for the season opening, and the climatic conditions in the weeks before. By means of an adapted snow production strategy an attempt is made to ecologically and economically optimize the use of water and energy resources. Monitoring of the snow cover is supported by a network of low-cost sensors and mobile snow depth recordings. Finally, technical snow production is simulated with the spatially distributed, physically based hydroclimatological model AMUNDSEN. The model explicitly considers individual snow guns and distributes the produced snow along the slopes. The amount of simulated snow produced by each device is a function of its type, of actual wet-bulb temperature at the location, of ski area infrastructure (in terms of water supply and pumping capacity), and of snow demand.

  2. Sedimentary and geochemical conditions in the "Helgoland Mud Area" (SE North Sea) during the past 1000 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hass, H. Christian; Kuhn, Gerhard

    2017-04-01

    Helgoland is a small rocky island in the German Bight with an exposed rocky shore. The working area, SE of Helgoland, is a halotectonic depression filled with muddy sediment. Earlier studies suggest that this depression became rapidly filled with muddy sediments likely originating from the Elbe river that changed its bed eastwards in the course of the rising sealevel during the Late Holocene. Today, the water depth is between 20 and 30 m. A RoxAnn acoustic ground discrimination unit and shallow seismics together with seafloor sampling were applied to analyze the recent sedimentary conditions. Five sediment cores spanning the past millennium were investigated to reconstruct the sedimentary conditions through time. In addition one core was geochemically investigated using an XRF scanning device. Today, the area is about 500 km2 large characterized mostly by muddy, fine-skewed sediment. Its soft and smooth surface forms a clear contrast to the surrounding sandy areas that reveal typically rippled surfaces. The grain-size records show medium silt during the later part of the Medieval Warm Period (MWP, until the 14th century AD), followed by coarse silt during the Little Ice Age (LIA, until c. 1900 AD) and again finer sediments during the 20th century AD. The changes in grain size likely mirror calmer weather conditions during the MWP and the increased frequency and strength of severe storms during the LIA. This includes a calmer period during the Maunder Sun-Spot Minimum (around AD 1700) that was most likely supported by an increased number of negative NAO situations. Among the elements investigated in Core HE215/4-2 the contents of the heavy metals Pb and Zn show two- and threefold increases starting already between 1600 and 1700 AD. Mining and extended metal production in the Oberharz Mountains in northern Germany became a blooming industry during the 17th century AD. It can be speculated that signals of this early industrialization were also transported into the

  3. Extracting Leaf Area Index by Sunlit Foliage Component from Downward-Looking Digital Photography under Clear-Sky Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yelu Zeng

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The development of near-surface remote sensing requires the accurate extraction of leaf area index (LAI from networked digital cameras under all illumination conditions. The widely used directional gap fraction model is more suitable for overcast conditions due to the difficulty to discriminate the shaded foliage from the shadowed parts of images acquired on sunny days. In this study, a new LAI extraction method by the sunlit foliage component from downward-looking digital photography under clear-sky conditions is proposed. In this method, the sunlit foliage component was extracted by an automated image classification algorithm named LAB2, the clumping index was estimated by a path length distribution-based method, the LAD and G function were quantified by leveled digital images and, eventually, the LAI was obtained by introducing a geometric-optical (GO model which can quantify the sunlit foliage proportion. The proposed method was evaluated at the YJP site, Canada, by the 3D realistic structural scene constructed based on the field measurements. Results suggest that the LAB2 algorithm makes it possible for the automated image processing and the accurate sunlit foliage extraction with the minimum overall accuracy of 91.4%. The widely-used finite-length method tends to underestimate the clumping index, while the path length distribution-based method can reduce the relative error (RE from 7.8% to 6.6%. Using the directional gap fraction model under sunny conditions can lead to an underestimation of LAI by (1.61; 55.9%, which was significantly outside the accuracy requirement (0.5; 20% by the Global Climate Observation System (GCOS. The proposed LAI extraction method has an RMSE of 0.35 and an RE of 11.4% under sunny conditions, which can meet the accuracy requirement of the GCOS. This method relaxes the required diffuse illumination conditions for the digital photography, and can be applied to extract LAI from downward-looking webcam images

  4. Existing Facilities And Deficiencies In A Busy Intersection At Dhaka Based On The Condition Survey Of The Study Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmudul Hasan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Roundabouts have become increasingly popular in recent years as an innovative operational and safety solution at both low volume and high volume intersections. This paper contains capacity analysis of existing roads at a busy intersection in Dhaka named Polashi intersection, compare capacity and volume, AADT, velocity study, road user behavior, pedestrian flow analysis for proposed roundabout. Evaluations are made on a rational basis using qualitative analysis wherever possible and accepting that some matters determine by the exercise of judgments. Roundabouts have a number of advantages over traffic signals depending on the conditions. They reduce the severity of crashes since head-on and right-angle conflicts are nearly eliminated. They may consume less land area since turn pocket lanes are not needed. They have lower energy and maintenance costs

  5. Storm rainfall conditions for floods and debris flows from recently burned areas in southwestern Colorado and southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, S.H.; Gartner, J.E.; Wilson, R.C.; Bowers, J.C.; Laber, J.L.

    2008-01-01

    Debris flows generated during rain storms on recently burned areas have destroyed lives and property throughout the Western U.S. Field evidence indicate that unlike landslide-triggered debris flows, these events have no identifiable initiation source and can occur with little or no antecedent moisture. Using rain gage and response data from five fires in Colorado and southern California, we document the rainfall conditions that have triggered post-fire debris flows and develop empirical rainfall intensity-duration thresholds for the occurrence of debris flows and floods following wildfires in these settings. This information can provide guidance for warning systems and planning for emergency response in similar settings. Debris flows were produced from 25 recently burned basins in Colorado in response to 13 short-duration, high-intensity convective storms. Debris flows were triggered after as little as six to 10??min of storm rainfall. About 80% of the storms that generated debris flows lasted less than 3??h, with most of the rain falling in less than 1??h. The storms triggering debris flows ranged in average intensity between 1.0 and 32.0??mm/h, and had recurrence intervals of two years or less. Threshold rainfall conditions for floods and debris flows sufficiently large to pose threats to life and property from recently burned areas in south-central, and southwestern, Colorado are defined by: I = 6.5D-??0.7 and I = 9.5D-??0.7, respectively, where I = rainfall intensity (in mm/h) and D = duration (in hours). Debris flows were generated from 68 recently burned areas in southern California in response to long-duration frontal storms. The flows occurred after as little as two hours, and up to 16??h, of low-intensity (2-10??mm/h) rainfall. The storms lasted between 5.5 and 33??h, with average intensities between 1.3 and 20.4??mm/h, and had recurrence intervals of two years or less. Threshold rainfall conditions for life- and property-threatening floods and debris

  6. Conditions of gully development within piedmont areas with examples from the western part of the Getic Piedmont, Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boengiu, Sandu; Vladut, Alina; Marinescu, Emil

    2012-04-01

    Features of gully morphometry and associated relief characteristics emphasize that gully develop under a wide variety of rock conditions, rainfall regimes, geomorphic predisposition, and human influence. Consequently, many slopes within piedmont areas, in this case, the Getic Piedmont, are characterized by dense gully systems, as there occur excessive clearing, inappropriate land use, compaction of the soil caused by grazing, on the general background of a favourable climate. Both rainfall and runoff factors must be considered in assessing a water erosion problem. The erosional slope development within the Getic Piedmont was evaluated based on maps and field studies in the last 15 years, which emphasized that about 20% of the total surface of the piedmont is affected by gully erosion. The results show that the factors leading to the strong gully erosion in this area include - the widely distributed friable rocks, the unique geomorphologic configuration, the strong and time-concentrated rainfall, the alternance of drought-humid periods that prepares the ground for the development of fissures in soils, the drought that influence the growth and recovery of vegetation, and the intense human activities. Gully erosion is one of the most visible forms of soil erosion, which affects its productivity, provides considerable material transport- torrential transports, debris flow, restricts land use, and threatens local communities.

  7. In-Containment Signal Conditioning and Transmission via Power Lines within High Dose Rate Areas of Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Steffen; Weigel, Robert; Koelpin, Alexander [Institute for Electronics Engineering, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Cauerstr. 9, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Dennerlein, Juergen; Janke, Iryna; Weber, Johannes [AREVA GmbH, Paul-Gossen-Str. 100, 91052 Erlangen (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    Signal conditioning and transmission for sensor systems and networks within the containment of nuclear power plants (NPPs) still poses a challenge to engineers, particularly in the case of equipment upgrades for existing plants, temporary measurements, decommissioning of plants, but also for new builds. This paper presents an innovative method for efficient and cost-effective instrumentation within high dose rate areas inside the containment. A transmitter-receiver topology is proposed that allows simultaneous, unidirectional point-to-point transmission of multiple sensor signals by superimposing them on existing AC or DC power supply cables using power line communication (PLC) technology. Thereby the need for costly installation of additional cables and containment penetrations is eliminated. Based on commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) electronic parts, a radiation hard transmitter is designed to operate in harsh environment within the containment during full plant operation. Hardware modularity of the transmitter allows application specific tradeoffs between redundancy and channel bandwidth. At receiver side in non-radiated areas, signals are extracted from the power line, demodulated, and provided either in analog or digital output format. Laboratory qualification tests and field test results within a boiling water reactor (BWR) are validating the proof of concept of the proposed system. (authors)

  8. Respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis, weather conditions and air pollution in an Italian urban area: An observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nenna, Raffaella; Evangelisti, Melania; Frassanito, Antonella; Scagnolari, Carolina; Pierangeli, Alessandra; Antonelli, Guido; Nicolai, Ambra; Arima, Serena; Moretti, Corrado; Papoff, Paola; Villa, Maria Pia; Midulla, Fabio

    2017-10-01

    In this study we sought to evaluate the association between viral bronchiolitis, weather conditions, and air pollution in an urban area in Italy. We included infants hospitalized for acute bronchiolitis from 2004 to 2014. All infants underwent a nasal washing for virus detection. A regional agency network collected meteorological data (mean temperature, relative humidity and wind velocity) and the following air pollutants: sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxide, carbon monoxide, ozone, benzene and suspended particulate matter measuring less than 10µm (PM10) and less than 2.5µm (PM2.5) in aerodynamic diameter. We obtained mean weekly concentration data for the day of admission, from the urban background monitoring sites nearest to each child's home address. Overdispersed Poisson regression model was fitted and adjusted for seasonality of the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection, to evaluate the impact of individual characteristics and environmental factors on the probability of a being positive RSV. Of the 723 nasal washings from the infants enrolled, 266 (68%) contained RSV, 63 (16.1%) rhinovirus, 26 (6.6%) human bocavirus, 20 (5.1%) human metapneumovirus, and 16 (2.2%) other viruses. The number of RSV-positive infants correlated negatively with temperature (p bronchiolitis epidemics in an Italian urban area. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Mapping potential freshwater services, and their representation within Protected Areas (PAs, under conditions of sparse data. Pilot implementation for Cambodia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Sáenz

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Freshwater is arguably one of Earth’s most threatened natural resources, on which more than 7 billion people depend. Pressures on freshwater resources from infrastructure, resource development, agricultural pollution and deforestation are mounting, particularly in developing countries. To date, conservation responses such as Protected Areas (PAs have not typically targeted freshwater ecosystems and their services, and thus little is known about the effectiveness of these efforts in protecting them. This paper proposes and pilots an innovative freshwater services metrics framework to quantify the representation of potential freshwater services in PAs under conditions of scarce data, with a pilot application for Cambodia. Our results indicate that conservation actions have more effectively represented potential freshwater regulation services than potential freshwater provisioning services, with major rivers remaining generally unprotected. Results from the framework are then used to propose a series of context and region specific management options to improve the conservation of freshwater services in Cambodia. There is an acute need for such management options, as the country’s food security depends largely on important freshwater ecosystems such as the Tonle Sap Lake and the deep water pools systems of the Mekong River. The framework proposed can be applied in other countries or large river basins to explore the degree of representation of freshwater services within PAs systems, under conditions of sparse data.

  10. mHealth and the management of chronic conditions in rural areas: a note of caution from southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahar, Papreen; Kannuri, Nanda Kishore; Mikkilineni, Sitamma; Murthy, G V S; Phillimore, Peter

    2017-04-01

    This article examines challenges facing implementation of likely mHealth programmes in rural India. Based on fieldwork in Andhra Pradesh in 2014, and taking as exemplars two chronic medical 'conditions' - type 2 diabetes and depression - we look at ways in which people in one rural area currently access medical treatment; we also explore how adults there currently use mobile phones in daily life, to gauge the realistic likelihood of uptake for possible mHealth initiatives. We identify the very different pathways to care for these two medical conditions, and we highlight the importance to the rural population of healthcare outside the formal health system provided by those known as registered medical practitioners (RMP), who despite their title are neither registered nor trained. We also show how limited is the use currently made of very basic mobile phones by the majority of the older adult population in this rural context. Not only may this inhibit mHealth potential in the near future; just as importantly, our data suggest how difficult it may be to identify a clinical partner for patients or their carers for any mHealth application designed to assist the management of chronic ill-health in rural India. Finally, we examine how the promotion of patient 'self-management' may not be as readily translated to a country like India as proponents of mHealth might assume.

  11. Investigations of Internal Flow Fields of Constant-Area Mixing-Tubes under Starting-Limit Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, Eijiro; Tomioka, Sadatake; Sakuranaka, Noboru; Watanabe, Syuichi; Masuya, Goro

    Flow fields in the constant-area mixing tubes of ejector jets were investigated under the starting-limit conditions of an aerodynamic choking mode by performing numerical simulations and cold flow experiments. Pressure recovery was almost completed in the shock-train region. The length of the shock-train region (Lst) was measured under various conditions. Lst was proportional to the mass flow rate ratio of the secondary flow to the primary flow when this ratio was less than 0.15. On the other hand, Lst became almost constant when the mass flow rate ratio exceeded 0.15. Numerical studies showed that this change was caused by the difference in the mechanism of the flow fields. In the cases with low air mass flow rates, the primary and secondary flows almost mixed in a region between the inlets of the mixing tubes and the choking points. The pressure was recovered by a pseudo-shock-wave generated downstream of the choking point. On the other hand, when the mass flow rate ratio was higher than 0.15, the primary and secondary flows were clearly separated at the choking point. The pressure recovery was achieved by the mixing between the primary and secondary flows downstream of the choking point.

  12. Improving Performance of Free Space Optics Link Using Array of Receivers in Terrible Weather Conditions of Plain and Hilly Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Gupta

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Free-space optical (FSO communication is a cost effective and high data rate access technique, which has been proving itself a best alternative to radio frequency technology. FSO link provides high bandwidth solution to the last mile access bottleneck. However, for terrestrial communication systems, the performance of these links is severely degraded from atmospheric loss mainly due to fog, rain and snow. So, a continuous availability of the link is always a concern. This paper investigates the dreadful weather effects such as rain, fog, snow, and other losses on the transmission performance of FSO systems. The technique of using an array of receivers for improving the performance of FSO links is explored in this paper. It involves the deployment of multiple photo detectors at the receiver end to mitigate effects of various weather conditions. The performance of the proposed system is evaluated in terms of bit error rate, received signal power, Q- factor and height of eye diagram. The influence of various weather conditions of plain and hilly areas are taken into consideration and results are compared with conventional FSO links.

  13. Conditions of Service of Teachers as Correlates of Motivation in Secondary Schools in Ado and Efon Local Government Areas, Ekiti State

    OpenAIRE

    Afolabi Comfort Yemisi

    2013-01-01

    This paper examined the relationship between conditions of service of teachers and their motivation in secondary schools in Ado and Efon Local Government Areas in Ekiti State, Nigeria. The sample for the study consisted of 500 teachers who were selected from the 18 secondary schools in the two Local Government Areas used for the study. Due to the fact that secondary schools in Ado Local Government Area were more than the secondary schools in Efon Local Government Area, stratified proportional...

  14. Nature conditionings of the cultural landscape in the area between the Ropa and Wisłok rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soszyński, Dawid

    2011-01-01

    The principal aim of the dissertation was to analyze the influence of natural environment components on main elements of the cultural landscape. The characteristics of each component were presented separately for the three main types of physiographic regions: mountains, foothills and depressions. Additionally, in selected cases, the analyses of cultural landscape evolution during the last centuries were presented. The research area is located between the Ropa and the Wisłok rivers in Beskid Niski and Doły Jasielsko-Sanockie - two regions in SE part of Poland. Besides, three small drainage basins were chosen for detailed investigation. The main method applied in dissertation, especially in spatial landscape structure research, was a cartographic analysis in GIS system. The elements of the cultural landscape described in this paper were: main communication routes, settlement patterns and dwellings (including spatial settlement distribution, country buildings, sacral landscape, industrial buildings) as well as land use. According to the research carried out in this work, the component of the natural environment which has had the most significant influence on the cultural landscape is land relief, especially land slopes. The impact of this factor is leading on all elements of the cultural landscape. The other factors (surface and ground waters, climate, soils, natural resources) have had a significant influence only on some of the analyzed elements. The elements of the cultural landscape which are most dependent on natural factors are spatial settlement distribution and the pattern of land use. In case of other cultural landscape elements, natural factors play less important but still significant role. The research proved that natural conditionings of the cultural landscape are less clear in the depression area and most clear within foothills and mountain areas, depending on analyzed cultural elements. A decrease of correlation intensity between natural and cultural

  15. Socio-Economic Conditions and Quality of Life in the Tribal Areas of Orissa with Special Reference to Mayurbhanj District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr N.C. Jana

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Odisha (previously known as Orissa, being socio-economically backward but culturally sound, is one of the important states in Eastern India. Out of 30 districts 9 are considered as tribal districts (according to Location Quotient value and of the total population (41,947,358 in 2011 a significant share (22.1% goes to tribal people (8,145,081in 2011. This tribal group of Odisha has special significance because they are one of the most backward and geographically isolated communities. That’s why their life style and economy is confined to the direct utilization of natural resources, pre-agricultural level of technology and specific indigenous type of work. But now with the emergence of industry and market economy, the age-old relationship between tribes and nature has disturbed. Keeping this in backdrop, the present study tried to explore the changing scenario of socio-economic condition in the tribal areas of Odisha. In this regard, various socio-economic indicators have been analyzed and compared for representing district-level patterns of quality of life and finding out the variation among the Primitive tribal households in the study area. In addition, Mayurbhanj has also been taken as a case study to represent the socio-economic condition and quality of life at the block level. It may be pointed out in this context that out of 30 districts in Odisha, according to Location Quotient value Mayurbhanj is the highest tribal concentrated district. The overall objective of this study is to obtain a better understanding of disparities and variations in socio-economic status in Odisha as well as in Mayurbhanj and also find out some remedial measures to overcome the problems to bring the Primitive tribal community in the main stream of the society. Maps have been prepared on the above-mentioned indicators based on secondary data using Arc-GIS 9.3. From the analysis of the health-related indicators it is clear from the analysis that the quality of life

  16. Hydrologic conditions, groundwater quality, and analysis of sink hole formation in the Albany area of Dougherty County, Georgia, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Debbie W.; Painter, Jaime A.; McCranie, John M.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Albany Water, Gas, and Light Commission has conducted water resources investigations and monitored groundwater conditions and availability in the Albany, Georgia, area since 1977. This report presents an overview of hydrologic conditions, water quality, and groundwater studies in the Albany area of Dougherty County, Georgia, during 2009. Historical data also are presented for comparison with 2009 data. During 2009, groundwater-level data were collected in 29 wells in the Albany area to monitor water-level trends in the surficial, Upper Floridan, Claiborne, Clayton, and Providence aquifers. Groundwater-level data from 21 of the 29 wells indicated an increasing trend during 2008–09. Five wells show no trend due to lack of data and three wells have decreasing trends. Period-of-record water levels (period of record ranged between 1957–2009 and 2003–2009) declined slightly in 10 wells and increased slightly in 4 wells tapping the Upper Floridan aquifer; declined in 1 well and increased in 2 wells tapping the Claiborne aquifer; declined in 4 wells and increased in 2 wells tapping the Clayton aquifer; and increased in 1 well tapping the Providence aquifer. Analyses of groundwater samples collected during 2009 from 12 wells in the Upper Floridan aquifer in the vicinity of a well field located southwest of Albany indicate that overall concentrations of nitrate plus nitrite as nitrogen increased slightly from 2008 in 8 wells. A maximum concentration of 12.9 milligrams per liter was found in a groundwater sample from a well located upgradient from the well field. The distinct difference in chemical constituents of water samples collected from the Flint River and samples collected from wells located in the well-field area southwest of Albany indicates that little water exchange occurs between the Upper Floridan aquifer and Flint River where the river flows adjacent to, but downgradient of, the well field. Water

  17. Environmental conditions, political economy, and rates of injection drug use in large US metropolitan areas 1992-2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Eric T; Friedman, Samuel R; Brady, Joanne E; Pouget, Enrique R; Tempalski, Barbara; Galea, Sandro

    2010-01-15

    City-specific studies have suggested the quality of the local environment and economic circumstances are associated with greater risk of injection drug use (IDU). No studies have assessed the relation among the quality of the local environment, economic circumstances, and IDU over time across US metropolitan areas. Annual numbers of IDUs in the 88 largest US metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs) were estimated by extrapolating, adjusting, and allocating existing estimates using various data sources. Generalized estimating equations were used to assess the relation among the quality of the local environment, metropolitan political economy, and IDU prevalence using lagged models taking into account potential confounders. MSAs with a worse local environment (measured as a one standard deviation difference) had a greater risk of IDU (relative risk [RR]=1.03, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.01, 1.06); similarly, a one-percentage point worsening of the political economy for an MSA was associated with greater risk of IDU (RR=1.04-1.10). Final models stratified by region indicated heterogeneity of effect by region whereby the quality of the local environment was associated with IDU strongest in the South (RR=1.12, CI: 1.05, 1.12) followed by the West (RR=1.04, CI: 1.01, 1.07) and Midwest (RR=1.03, CI: 1.00, 1.06), and the metropolitan political economy was associated with IDU in the West (RR=1.03-1.09) and Northeast (RR=1.04-1.12). Our results underscore the importance of sociopolitical factors as determinants of IDU in MSAs. Structural solutions targeted at improving environmental conditions and economic circumstances should be considered as drug use interventions. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. MODELLING AND MEASUREMENT OF NOx CONCENTRATION IN PLUME FROM AIRCRAFT ENGINE UNDER OPERATION CONDITIONS AT THE AERODROME AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksandr Zaporozhets

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Airport air pollution is growing concern because of the air traffic expansion over the years (at annual rate of 5 %, rising tension of airports and growing cities expansion close each other (for such Ukrainian airports, as Zhulyany, Boryspol, Lviv, Odesa and Zaporizhzhia and accordingly growing public concern with air quality around the airport. Analysis of inventory emission results at major European and Ukrainian airports highlighted, that an aircraft is the dominant source of air pollution in most cases under consideration. For accurate assessment of aircraft emission contribution to total airport pollution and development of successful mitigation strategies, it is necessary to combine the modeling and measurement methods. Methods: Measurement of NOx concentration in the jet/plume from aircraft engine was implemented by chemiluminescence method under real operating conditions (taxi, landing, accelerating on the runway and take-off at International Boryspol airport (IBA. Modeling of NOx concentration was done by complex model PolEmiCa, which takes into account the transport and dilution of air contaminates by exhaust gases jet and the wing trailing vortexes.Results: The results of the measured NOx concentration in plume from aircraft engine for take-off conditions at IBA were used for improvement and validation of the complex model PolEmiCa. The comparison of measured and modeled instantaneous concentration of NOx was sufficiently improved by taking into account the impact of wing trailing vortices on the parameters of the jet (buoyancy height, horizontal and vertical deviation and on concentration distribution in plume. Discussion: Combined approach of modeling and measurement methods provides more accurate representation of aircraft emission contribution to total air pollution in airport area. Modeling side provides scientific grounding for organization of instrumental monitoring of aircraft engine emissions, particularly, scheme

  19. Methods for automatized detection of rapid changes in lateral boundary condition fields for NWP limited area models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tudor, M.

    2015-08-01

    Three-hourly temporal resolution of lateral boundary data for limited area models (LAMs) can be too infrequent to resolve rapidly moving storms. This problem is expected to be worse with increasing horizontal resolution. In order to detect intensive disturbances in surface pressure moving rapidly through the model domain, a filtered surface pressure field (MCUF) is computed operationally in the ARPEGE global model of Météo France. The field is distributed in the coupling files along with conventional meteorological fields used for lateral boundary conditions (LBCs) for the operational forecast using limited area model ALADIN (Aire Limitée Adaptation dynamique Développement InterNational) in the Meteorological and Hydrological Service of Croatia (DHMZ). Here an analysis is performed of the MCUF field for the LACE coupling domain for the period from 23 January 2006, when it became available, until 15 November 2014. The MCUF field is a good indicator of rapidly moving pressure disturbances (RMPDs). Its spatial and temporal distribution can be associated with the usual cyclone tracks and areas known to be supporting cyclogenesis. An alternative set of coupling files from the IFS operational run in the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) is also available operationally in DHMZ with 3-hourly temporal resolution, but the MCUF field is not available. Here, several methods are tested that detect RMPDs in surface pressure a posteriori from the IFS model fields provided in the coupling files. MCUF is computed by running ALADIN on the coupling files from IFS. The error function is computed using one-time-step integration of ALADIN on the coupling files without initialization, initialized with digital filter initialization (DFI) or scale-selective DFI (SSDFI). Finally, the amplitude of changes in the mean sea level pressure is computed from the fields in the coupling files. The results are compared to the MCUF field of ARPEGE and the results of same

  20. Functional ratios among leaf, xylem and phloem areas in branches change with shade tolerance, but not with local light conditions, across temperate tree species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lan; Copini, Paul; Weemstra, Monique; Sterck, Frank

    2016-03-01

    Leaf, xylem and phloem areas drive the water and carbon fluxes within branches and trees, but their mutual coordination is poorly understood. We test the hypothesis that xylem and phloem areas increase relative to leaf area when species are selected for, or branches are exposed to, higher levels of light intensity. Trees of 10 temperate, broadleaved and deciduous, tree species were selected. Fifty-centimetre-long branches were collected from shaded and exposed conditions at a height of 3-4 m. We measured the total leaf area, xylem area, phloem area and leaf traits, as well as the area of the constituent cell types, for a stem section at the branch base. Xylem area : leaf area and phloem area : leaf area ratios did not differ consistently between sun and shade branches, but, as expected, they decreased with species' shade tolerance. Similar trends were observed for conductive cell areas in xylem and phloem. Trees of light-demanding species maintain higher water loss and carbon gain rates per leaf area by producing more xylem area and phloem area than shade-tolerant species. We call for more comparative branch studies as they provide an integrated biological perspective on functional traits and their role in the ecology of tree species. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  1. EFEKTIVITAS MALATHION DALAM PENGENDALIAN VEKTOR DBD DAN UJI KERENTANAN LARVA Aedes aegypti TERHADAP TEMEPHOS DI KOTA PALEMBANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milana Salim

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available . Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever (DHF is still a public health problem at tropical areas. There are 16 provinces in Indonesia which reported outbreaks of DHF. Palembang is one of DHF endemic areas in South Sumatera. DHF vector control which has been done is fogging with malathion (adult mosquitoes and temephose (larvae. The design was cross-sectional and was carried out in May to November 2009, located in Lorok Pakjo and Bukit Baru sub-districts. This research was aimed to know Ae. aegypti resistence to malathion and temephose. 252 samples in Lorok Pakjo and 73 samples in Bukit Baru were chosen by using Lameshow 's formula. The activities are ovitrap method to collect eggs sample, containers surveyed and interviewed about DHF, malathion and temephos resistence test. HI, CI, BI and ABJwere 38; 21.1; 44.4 and 68.1 (LorokPakjo and 31.9; 19.5; 52 and 62 (Bukit Baru. There was no resistance of Ae. Aegypti to malathion and temephose

  2. Assessing condition of macroinvertebrate communities and sediment toxicity in the St. Lawrence River at Massena Area-of-Concern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Brian T.; Baldigo, Barry P.; Smith, Alexander J; George, Scott D.; David, Anthony M.

    2016-01-01

    In 1972, the USA and Canada agreed to restore the chemical, physical, and biological integrity of the Great Lakes ecosystem under the first Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement. In subsequent amendments, part of the St. Lawrence River at Massena, New York and segments of three tributaries, were designated as an Area of Concern (AOC) due to the effects of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), lead and copper contamination, and habitat degradation and resulting impairment to several beneficial uses. Because sediments have been largely remediated, the present study was initiated to evaluate the current status of the benthic macroinvertebrate (benthos) beneficial use impairment (BUI). Benthic macroinvertebrate communities and sediment toxicity tests using Chironomus dilutus were used to test the hypotheses that community condition and sediment toxicity at AOC sites were not significantly different from those of adjacent reference sites. Grain size was found to be the main driver of community composition and macroinvertebrate assemblages, and bioassessment metrics did not differ significantly between AOC and reference sites of the same sediment class. Median growth of C. dilutus and its survival in three of the four river systems did not differ significantly in sediments from AOC and reference sites. Comparable macroinvertebrate assemblages and general lack of toxicity across most AOC and reference sites suggest that the quality of sediments should not significantly impair benthic macroinvertebrate communities in most sites in the St. Lawrence River AOC.

  3. CONSIDERATIONS REGARDING THE BAIA MARE AREA METEOROLOGICAL CONDITIONS IN THE LAST 5 YEARS WITH HELP OF ENVIRONMENTAL INFORMATICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Cioruţa

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Ever since “the environment” gained its place in the public international agenda (environmental legislation, sustainable development or disaster and hazard management it has been bundled with data, information, knowledge and information systems. Environmental Monitoring Systems (EMSs, Environmental Monitoring and Analyzing Systems (EMASs and especially Environmental Information Systems (EISs are integrated part of what we call Environmental Informatics (EI platform.In this context, as we speak, the are of EI is becoming more complex due to the current context and trend of making the EISs available to the public and end-users access; this phenomena is based on the assumption that public and environmental information end-users awareness, participation and acting is improved by the rate of access to the environmental information to solve the complex problematic covered by the research, engineering and environmental protection fields. The aim of the present paper is to introduce and describe an innovative possibilities of forecasting and monitoring the environment meteorological specific conditions in Baia Mare urban area using a specialized EISs software.

  4. Heat transfer and material temperature conditions in the leading edge area of impingement-cooled turbine vanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, H. P.; Pfaff, K.; Hennecke, D. K.

    The resultant effects on the cooling effectiveness at the leading edge area of an impingement-cooled turbine vane by varying certain geometrical parameters is described with reference to local internal heat transfer coefficients determined from experiment and temperature calculations. The local heat transfer on the cooling-air side is determined experimentally with the aid of the analogy between heat- and mass transfer. The impingement cooling is provided from an inserted sheet-metal containing a single row of holes. The Reynolds Number and several of the cooling geometry parameters were varied. The results demonstrate the high local resolution of the method of measurement, which allows improved analytical treatment of the leading-edge cooling configuration. These experiments also point to the necessity of not always performing model tests under idealized conditions. This becomes very clear in the case of the tests performed on an application-oriented impingement-cooling configuration like that often encountered in engine manufacture. In conclusion, as an example, temperature calculations are employed to demonstrate the effect on the cooling effectiveness of varying the distances between insert and inner surface of the leading edge. It shows how the effectiveness of the leading edge cooling can be increased by simple geometrical measures, which results in a considerable improvement in service life.

  5. Airline Choice for Domestic Flights in Sao Paulo Metropolitan Area: An Application of the Conditional Logit Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Marcelo Baena

    2006-01-01

    Using the conditional (multinomial) LOGIT model, this paper addresses airline choice in the S o Paulo Metropolitan Area. There are two airports in this region, where two, three or even four airlines compete for passengers flying to an array of domestic destinations. The airline choice is believed to be a result of the tradeoff passengers face among flight cost, flight frequency and airline performance. It was found that the lowest fare better explains airline choice than the highest fare, whereas direct flight frequencies give better explanation to airline choice than indirect (connections and stops) and total (direct plus indirect) ones. Out of 15 variables tested, the lowest fare was the variable that best explained airline choice. However, its signal was counterintuitive (positive) possibly because the cheapest airline was offering few flights, so passengers overwhelmingly failed to choose the cheapest airline. The model specification most adjusted to the data considered the lowest fare, direct flight frequency in the travel day and period (morning or afternoon peak) and airline age. Passengers departing from S o Paulo-Guarulhos International Airport (GRU) airport make their airline choice in terms of cost whereas those from Sao Paulo-Congonhas Airport (CGH) airport do not. Finally, senior passengers place more importance on airline age than junior passengers.

  6. Mineral chemical compositions of late Cretaceous volcanic rocks in the Giresun area, NE Turkey: Implications for the crystallization conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oǧuz, Simge; Aydin, Faruk; Uysal, İbrahim; Şen, Cüneyt

    2016-04-01

    This contribution contains phenocryst assemblages and mineral chemical data of late Cretaceous volcanic (LCV) rocks from the south of Görele and Tirebolu areas (Giresun, NE Turkey) in order to investigate their crystallization conditions. The LCV rocks in the study area occur in two different periods (Coniasiyen-Early Santonian and Early-Middle Campanian), which generally consist of alternation of mafic-intermediate (basaltic to andesitic) and felsic rock series (dacitic and rhyolitic) within each period. The basaltic and andesitic rocks in both periods generally exhibit porphyritic to hyalo-microlitic porphyritic texture, and contain phenocrysts of plagioclase and pyroxene, whereas the dacitic and rhyolitic rocks of the volcanic sequence usually show a vitrophyric texture with predominant plagioclase, K-feldspar, quartz and lesser amphibole-biotite phenocrysts. Zoned plagioclase crystals of the mafic and felsic rocks in different volcanic periods are basically different in composition. The compositions of plagioclase in the first-stage mafic rocks range from An52 to An78 whereas those of plagioclase from the first-stage felsic rocks have lower An content varying from An38 to An50. Rim to core profile for the zoned plagioclase of the first-stage mafic rocks show quite abrupt and notable compositional variations whereas that of the first-stage felsic rocks show slight compositional variation, although some of the grains may display reverse zoning. On the other hand, although no zoned plagioclase phenocryst observed in the second-stage mafic rocks, the compositions of microlitic plagioclase show wide range of compositional variation (An45-80). The compositions of zoned plagioclase in the second-stage felsic rocks are more calcic (An65-81) than those of the first-stage felsic rocks, and their rim to core profile display considerable oscillatory zoning. The compositions of pyroxenes in the first- and second-stage mafic-intermediate rocks vary over a wide range from

  7. Measuring, understanding and implementing (or at least trying) soil and water conservation in agricultural areas in Mediterranean conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Jose Alfonso; Burguet, María; Castillo, Carlos; de Luna, Elena; Guzmán, Gema; Lora, Ángel; Lorite, Ignacio; Mora, José; Pérez, Rafael; Soriano, María A.; Taguas, Encarnación V.

    2015-04-01

    Understanding soil erosion processes is the first step for designing and implementing effective soil conservation strategies. In agricultural areas, spatially in arid and semiarid conditions, water conservation is interlinked with soil conservation, and usually need to be addressed simultaneously to achieve success in their use by farmers. This is so for different reasons, but usually because some reduction in runoff is required to prevent soil erosion or to the need to design soil conservation systems that do maintain a favourable water balance for the crop to prevent yield reductions. The team presenting this communication works around both issues in Southern Spain, interconnecting several lines of research with the final objective of contribute to reverse some severe issues relating soil conservation in agricultural areas, mostly on tree crops (olives and vineyards). One of these lines is long-term experiments measuring, runoff and sediment losses at plot and small catchment scale. In these experiments we test the effect of different soil management alternatives on soil and water conservation. We also measured the evolution of soil properties and, in some cases, the evolution of soil moisture as well as nutrient and carbon losses with runoff and sediment. We also tests in these experiments new cover crops, from species better adapted to the rainfall regime of the region to mixes with several species to increase biodiversity. We complement these studies with surveys of soil properties in commercial farms. I some of these farms we follow the introduction by farmers of the cover crop strategies previously developed in our experimental fields. These data are invaluable to elaborate, calibrate and validate different runoff generation, water balance, and water erosion models and hillslope and small catchment scale. This allows us to elaborate regional analysis of the effect of different strategies to soil and water conservation in olive growing areas, and to refine

  8. GAMBARAN PERILAKU MASYARAKAT KAITANNYA DENGAN PENULARAN DAN UPAYA PENGENDALIAN PENYAKIT BERBASIS LINGKUNGAN DI KABUPATEN SUKABUMI, PROVINSI JAWA BARAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasnodihardjo Kasnodihardjo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Various diseases like ARI, Diarrhea, TB, Malaria, Dengue Fever and even Toxoplasmosis remains a public health problem. Diarrhea and ARI are the major causes of infant and child mortality. All the disease problems are caused by the lack of community behavior and environment quality. Therefore, this study emphasizes to the behavior analysis and the reasons behind those behavior. This study was conducted in Sukabumi District, West Java Province as one of the areas of the highest infant mortality rate in Indonesia. This is a qualitative approach study by using ethnographic and survey method. The study was conducted in 47 sub-districts in the district. Data was collected by performing interview using structured questionnaire. Study respondents were the head of households with 3008 samples. Qualitative data was gathered from two sub-districts which were Pelabuhan Ratu and Cikidang Sub-districts. The study results showed that community behavior on environmental-based disease prevention such as diarrhea, ARI, TB,Malaria, Dengue Fever, Toxoplasmosis were quite good, even though their level of knowledge about the diseases were still poor. Community wrong perception about the disease causes, its transmission and prevention could be a problem. Keywords: Behavior, environmentally-based diseases, transmission

  9. Arahan Penggunaan Lahan untuk Pengendalian Erosi Tanah di Sub-DAS Wuryantoro DTA Waduk Gajah Mungkur Wonogiri Jawa Tengah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senawi -

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Recommendation of Land Use Allocation to Control Soil Erosion in Wuryantoro Sub-Watershed DTA Gajah Mungkur Reservoir, Wonogiri, Central Java The research aims to recommend optimum land use allocation that can control soil surface erosion in Wuryantoro sub-watershed. The research was done using land evaluation aproach to land unit and analyzed based on area function allocation, land capability classification, and erosion hazard rate. Optimization analysis on land use allocation was done statistically through linear program symplex method using QSB software. The results showed that actual land use caused actual soil surface erosion (A of Wuryantoro subwatershed was higher that tolerable erosion (T treshold. Optimization analysis recommends that to control actual soil surface erosion (A to be lower that tolerable erosion (T treshold, its is needed to convert all actual land uses of groves and croplands to forest. Actual land uses of production forests, community forests, irrigated farmlands, rainfeed farmlands, and residential could still be kept remain as they were.

  10. 7 CFR 301.86-4 - Conditions governing the interstate movement of regulated articles from quarantined areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... or unloaded in the quarantined area; and (D) The article has not been combined or commingled with... regulated articles from quarantined areas. 301.86-4 Section 301.86-4 Agriculture Regulations of the... regulated articles from quarantined areas. (a) Any regulated article may be moved interstate from...

  11. 7 CFR 301.32-4 - Conditions governing the interstate movement of regulated articles from quarantined areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... area quarantined for Mexican or sapote fruit fly and that are moving interstate from such an area are... in an orchard within the quarantined area, the identity of the avocados must be maintained from field... marked with the identity of the grower and the packinghouse. (iv) Any boxes of Hass avocados packed...

  12. Occurrence and dynamics of Impatiens parviflora depending on various environmental conditions in the protected areas in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bobuľská Lenka

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Biological invasion as one of the main threats to natural ecosystems has big economic impact on conservation of nature. Studies of the population biology of invasive species may allow more precise focus on specific plant and soil characteristics involved in invasiveness. The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between selected biological population characteristics of Impatiens parviflora and a few chosen chemical and physical soil features. Sites were selected because of the poor mapping of invasive plants in the protected natural areas and their interactions with specific soil characteristics. Research on I. parviflora was realised during a vegetation season in three forest nature reserves in Prešov district, Slovakia. Some population biological characteristics of I. parviflora as one of the most invasive plant species in Slovakia and Central Europe were surveyed. The correlation between the numbers of plants was analysed, as well as select population biological characteristics of I. parviflora (plant height, width of the largest leaf and the number of flowers/fruits on some select chemical and physical soil attributes (soil pH, bulk density, porosity and soil moisture were analysed. The results suggest that biological characteristics of I. parviflora in three different microhabitats – a meadow (a habitat without tree vegetation, a habitat close to the stumps and a habitat under dense tree vegetation seemed to influence the selected soil parameters. Our results showed that I. parviflora prefers acidic and non-compacted soil conditions. Sunlight and soil moisture do not show statistically significant differences on any biological characteristic of the population. The results also suggest that the autecology of I. parviflora in Western and Central Europe is not very well known and deserves further study.

  13. Landscape Measures of Rangeland Condition in the BLM Owyhee Pilot Project: Shrub Canopy Mapping, Vegetation Classification, and Detection of Anomalous Land Areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tagestad, Jerry D.; Downs, Janelle L.

    2007-12-28

    In 2006, the BLM tasked PNNL to collaborate in research being conducted under the Owyhee Uplands Pilot Project to assess rangeland condition. The objective of this effort was to provide Owyhee Uplands Pilot Project with a sophisticated suite of data and tools to assist in evaluating the health and condition of the Owyhee Uplands study area. We focused on three technical areas. The first involved enhancing existing algorithms to estimate shrub canopy cover in the Lower Reynolds Creek Watershed. The second task involved developing and applying a strategy to assess and compare three vegetation map products for the Idaho portion of the Owyhee study area. The third task developed techniques and data that can be used to identify areas exhibiting anomalous rangeland conditions (for example exotic plants or excessive bare soil exposure). This report documents the methods used, results obtained, and conclusions drawn.

  14. EFEKTIFITAS PENCEGAHAN KARIES DENGAN A TRAUMATIC RESTORATIVE TREATMENT DAN TUMPATAN GLASS IONOMER CEMENT DALAM PENGENDALIAN KARIES DI BEBERAPA NEGARA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdarina Destri Agtini

    2012-12-01

    that implementation of ART-GIC is needed in outreach areas with limited facilities; in all primary schools,all health services, under-5 years children, geriatric groups (Panti Wreda. As an alternative way to conduct ART-GIC development through dental nurses. More over suggested, although it is a simple method, a careful implementation of ART-GIC are need to be concern. Thus sustainability of continuing ART-GIC education and training is needed. Key words: Atraumatic Restorative Treatment (ART, Glass lonomer Cement (GiC, Efektifitas ART dan GIC

  15. Pedestrian Traffic Conditions of Rural Roads and Built-Up Areas: The Analysis of the Existing Situation and Possibilities of Improving Traffic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nemunas Abukauskas

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The results of lengthy thorough investigations into traffic safety situation show that the percentage of pedestrians getting involved in road traffic accidents on Lithuanian roads is significantly higher (more than 33 % of the total number of injury and fatal accidents than that compared to the other European Union member-states. The article studies traffic safety problems and their factors causing the largest influence on the occurrence of these accidents. Considering valuable experience gained by foreign countries, investigation was carried out to establish general and main factors causing insufficient road safety conditions and significance of these factors to road safety. The article also shows the main activity improving road safety in Lithuania and discusses the effectiveness of strategic and local (temporary and long term measures to improve conditions for pedestrian road safety. Article in Lithuanian

  16. A Study of the Methods for the Division of the Boundary between Urban and Rural Areas Based on Multiple Conditions: A Case Study of Xi'an

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, L.

    2015-12-01

    Based on summarizing the research on the division of urban and rural areas, this paper defines the attributes of "cities" and "villages", and establishes a set of methods for the division of urban and rural areas based on multi-layer conditions and related indicator system. By using the method based on multi-layer condition, in combination with cumulative percentage and other mathematical methods, adopting the spatial comparison method by using Google Earth satellite images, the optimal threshold is decided through multi-condition screening and then the definitional standards are confirmed. This paper divides the urban and rural areas by selecting Xi'an city as the research area. The divided results compare to the results concluded by the National Bureau of Statistics of the People's Republic of China. It is found that the urbanization rate is reduced by 3.24%. Through overlapping comparison of satellite remote sensing images, it is proven that the feasibility and sophistication of the methods for the division of urban and rural areas through screening multiple conditions. Table Comparing the statistical methods and the research results. Discrepancy indicators Division results (cities and towns) by the Plan Division rresults by the National Bureau of Statistics (cities and towns) Number of census blocks 1257 1370 Total area of cities and towns 957.34km2 1579.21km2 Population 5429354 5698970 Urbanization Rate 65.36% 68.6%

  17. 7 CFR 301.51-4 - Conditions governing the interstate movement of regulated articles from quarantined areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... beetle; and (C) The article has not been combined or commingled with other articles so as to lose its... regulated articles from quarantined areas. 301.51-4 Section 301.51-4 Agriculture Regulations of the... of regulated articles from quarantined areas. (a) Any regulated article may be moved interstate...

  18. Measurement of ethylene emission from Japanese red pine (Pinus densiflora) under field conditions in NOx-polluted areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kume, A; Tsuboi, N; Nakatani, N; Nakane, K; Sakurai, N; Nakagawa, N; Sakugawa, H

    2001-01-01

    Emission of ethylene from the needles of Japanese red pine, Pinus densiflora, was measured in air-polluted areas in Hiroshima, Japan. We applied a suitable protocol to determine the rate of ethylene emission from the excised needles. The influence of excision of needles on ethylene emission was not detected during the first 4 h of incubation at 20 degrees C. Ethylene emissions were low in the unpolluted (clean) areas regardless of the altitude or season. The emission of stress ethylene increased with the atmospheric NO2 concentration, suggesting that atmospheric NOx or related substances induced the higher ethylene emission in the polluted areas (near urban and industrial areas). In all cases, 1-year-old needles emitted significantly larger amounts of ethylene than the current needles. Ethylene emission did not increase evenly in the polluted areas, but the frequency of trees emitting high ethylene increased. Therefore, threshold rates for the baseline ethylene emission were proposed.

  19. Hydrologic conditions and water quality in an agricultural area in Kleberg and Nueces Counties, Texas, 1996-98

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ockerman, Darwin J.; Petri, Brian L.

    2001-01-01

    During 1996?98, rainfall and runoff were monitored on a 49,680-acre agricultural watershed in Kleberg and Nueces Counties in South Texas. Nineteen rainfall samples were analyzed for selected nutrients, and runoff samples from 29 storms were analyzed for major ions, nutrients, and pesticides. Loads of nutrients in rainfall and loads of nutrients and pesticides in runoff were computed. For a 40,540-acre part of the watershed (lower study area), constituent loads entering the watershed in rainfall, in runoff from the upper study area, and from agricultural chemical applications to the lower study area were compared with runoff loads exiting the lower study area. Total rainfall for 1996?98 averaged 25.86 inches per year, which is less than the long-term annual average rainfall of 29.80 inches for the area. Rainfall and runoff during 1996?98 were typical of historical patterns, with periods of below average rainfall and runoff interspersed with extreme events. Five individual storms accounted for about 38 percent of the total rainfall and 94 percent of the total runoff. During the 3-year study, the total nitrogen runoff yield from the lower study area was 1.3 pounds per acre per year, compared with 49 pounds per acre per year applied as fertilizer and 3.1 pounds per acre per year from rainfall. While almost all of the fertilizer and rainfall nitrogen was ammonia and nitrate, most of the nitrogen in runoff was particulate organic nitrogen, associated with crop residue. Total nitrogen exiting the lower study area in surface-water runoff was about 2.5 percent of the nitrogen inputs (fertilizer and rainfall nitrogen). Annual deposition of total nitrogen entering the lower study area in rainfall exceeded net yields of total nitrogen exiting the watershed in runoff because most of the rainfall does not contribute to runoff. During the study, the total phosphorus runoff yield from the lower study area was 0.48 pound per acre per year compared with 4.2 pounds per acre per year

  20. Evaluation of an extreme-condition-inverse calibration remote sensing model for mapping energy balance fluxes in arid riparian areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, S.-H.; Hendrickx, J. M. H.; Kleissl, J.; Allen, R. G.; Bastiaanssen, W. G. M.; Scott, R. L.; Steinwand, A. L.

    2014-12-01

    Accurate information on the distribution of the surface energy balance components in arid riparian areas is needed for sustainable management of water resources as well as for a better understanding of water and heat exchange processes between the land surface and the atmosphere. Since the spatial and temporal distributions of these fluxes over large areas are difficult to determine from ground measurements alone, their prediction from remote sensing data is very attractive as it enables large area coverage and a high repetition rate. In this study the Surface Energy Balance Algorithm for Land (SEBAL) was used to estimate all the energy balance components in the arid riparian areas of the Middle Rio Grande Basin (New Mexico), San Pedro Basin (Arizona), and Owens Valley (California). We compare instantaneous and daily SEBAL fluxes derived from Landsat TM images to surface-based measurements with eddy covariance flux towers. This study presents evidence that SEBAL yields reliable estimates for actual evapotranspiration rates in riparian areas of the southwestern United States. The great strength of the SEBAL method is its internal calibration procedure that eliminates most of the bias in latent heat flux at the expense of increased bias in sensible heat flux.

  1. Evaluation of an extreme-condition-inverse calibration remote sensing model for mapping energy balance fluxes in arid riparian areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.-H. Hong

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Accurate information on the distribution of the surface energy balance components in arid riparian areas is needed for sustainable management of water resources as well as for a better understanding of water and heat exchange processes between the land surface and the atmosphere. Since the spatial and temporal distributions of these fluxes over large areas are difficult to determine from ground measurements alone, their prediction from remote sensing data is very attractive as it enables large area coverage and a high repetition rate. In this study the Surface Energy Balance Algorithm for Land (SEBAL was used to estimate all the energy balance components in the arid riparian areas of the Middle Rio Grande Basin (New Mexico, San Pedro Basin (Arizona, and Owens Valley (California. We compare instantaneous and daily SEBAL fluxes derived from Landsat TM images to surface-based measurements with eddy covariance flux towers. This study presents evidence that SEBAL yields reliable estimates for actual evapotranspiration rates in riparian areas of the southwestern United States. The great strength of the SEBAL method is its internal calibration procedure that eliminates most of the bias in latent heat flux at the expense of increased bias in sensible heat flux.

  2. The influence of near-bed hydrodynamic conditions on cold-water corals in the Viosca Knoll area, Gulf of Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mienis, F.; Duineveld, G.C.A.; Davies, A.J.; Ross, S.W.; Seim, H.; Bane, J.; van Weering, T.C.E.

    2012-01-01

    Near-bed hydrodynamic conditions were recorded for almost one year in the Viosca Knoll area (lease block 826), one of the most well-developed cold-water coral habitats in the Gulf of Mexico. Here, a reef-like cold-water coral ecosystem, dominated by the coral Lophelia pertusa, resembles coral habita

  3. Soils and irrigation of three areas in the lower Tana Region, Kenya. A comparative study of soil conditions and irrigation suitability.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muchena, F.N.

    1987-01-01

    The soils and soil conditions of three areas situated in different physiographic positions in the Lower Tana Region of Kenya were investigated in respect of their suitability for irrigated agriculture. The soils vary widely in both physical and chemical properties. Most of the soils have an alkaline

  4. THE TEMPERATURE FIELD OF HEAT-GENERATING FLUID IN A SQUARE AREA WITH A NON-UNIFORM FIRST KIND BOUNDARY CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Ryazhskikh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the of the integral Fourier transforms the problem of stationary temperature fields distribution of heat-generating fluid in a square area is analytically solved under non-uniform first kind boundary conditions for the conductive heat transfer mode.

  5. Hydrodynamic conditions in a cold-water coral mound area on the Renard Ridge, southern Gulf of Cadiz

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mienis, F.; De Stigter, H.C.; de Haas, H.; van der Land, C.; van Weering, T.C.E.

    2012-01-01

    Near-bed hydrodynamic conditions obtained by bottom landers on the Renard Ridge are presented complemented with a data set from repeated CTD casts. On the Renard Ridge cold-water coral mounds were discovered in the last 10 years. Unlike cold-water coral habitats known from the Norwegian and Irish ma

  6. Hydrodynamic conditions in a cold-water coral mound area on the Renard Ridge, southern Gulf of Cadiz

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mienis, F.; De Stigter, H.C.; de Haas, H.; van der Land, C.; van Weering, T.C.E.

    2012-01-01

    Near-bed hydrodynamic conditions obtained by bottom landers on the Renard Ridge are presented complemented with a data set from repeated CTD casts. On the Renard Ridge cold-water coral mounds were discovered in the last 10 years. Unlike cold-water coral habitats known from the Norwegian and Irish

  7. Hydrodynamic conditions in a cold-water coral mound area on the Renard Ridge, southern Gulf of Cadiz

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mienis, F.; De Stigter, H.C.; de Haas, H.; van der Land, C.; van Weering, T.C.E.

    2012-01-01

    Near-bed hydrodynamic conditions obtained by bottom landers on the Renard Ridge are presented complemented with a data set from repeated CTD casts. On the Renard Ridge cold-water coral mounds were discovered in the last 10 years. Unlike cold-water coral habitats known from the Norwegian and Irish ma

  8. Modeling of methane bubbles released from large sea-floor area: Condition required for methane emission to the atmosphere

    OpenAIRE

    Yamamoto, A.; Yamanaka, Y.; Tajika, E.

    2009-01-01

    Massive methane release from sea-floor sediments due to decomposition of methane hydrate, and thermal decomposition of organic matter by volcanic outgassing, is a potential contributor to global warming. However, the degree of global warming has not been estimated due to uncertainty over the proportion of methane flux from the sea-floor to reach the atmosphere. Massive methane release from a large sea-floor area would result in methane-saturated seawater, thus some methane would reach the atm...

  9. Grapevine Yield and Leaf Area Estimation Using Supervised Classification Methodology on RGB Images Taken under Field Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diago, Maria-Paz; Correa, Christian; Millán, Borja; Barreiro, Pilar; Valero, Constantino; Tardaguila, Javier

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this research was to implement a methodology through the generation of a supervised classifier based on the Mahalanobis distance to characterize the grapevine canopy and assess leaf area and yield using RGB images. The method automatically processes sets of images, and calculates the areas (number of pixels) corresponding to seven different classes (Grapes, Wood, Background, and four classes of Leaf, of increasing leaf age). Each one is initialized by the user, who selects a set of representative pixels for every class in order to induce the clustering around them. The proposed methodology was evaluated with 70 grapevine (V. vinifera L. cv. Tempranillo) images, acquired in a commercial vineyard located in La Rioja (Spain), after several defoliation and de-fruiting events on 10 vines, with a conventional RGB camera and no artificial illumination. The segmentation results showed a performance of 92% for leaves and 98% for clusters, and allowed to assess the grapevine’s leaf area and yield with R2 values of 0.81 (p < 0.001) and 0.73 (p = 0.002), respectively. This methodology, which operates with a simple image acquisition setup and guarantees the right number and kind of pixel classes, has shown to be suitable and robust enough to provide valuable information for vineyard management. PMID:23235443

  10. WATER DEFICIT EFFECT ON YIELD AND FORAGE QUALITY OF MEDICAGO SATIVA POPULATIONS UNDER FIELD CONDITIONS IN MARRAKESH AREA (MOROCCO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed FARISSI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study focused the effect of water deficit on agronomic potential and some traits related to forage quality in plants of Moroccan Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. populations (Taf 1, Taf 2, Dem and Tata originated from Oasis and High Atlas of Morocco and an introduced variety from Australia (Siriver. The experiment was conducted under field conditions in experimental station of INRA-Marrakech and under two irrigation treatments. The first treatment was normal irrigation, providing an amount of water corresponding to the potential evapo-transpiration of the crop, and the second treatment was water deficit stress (one irrigation per cut. For each treatment, the experiment was conducted as a split plot based on a randomized complete block design with four replications. The plants were measured and analyzed over three cuts. Some agronomic traits as, plant height, fresh and dry forage yields were measured. The forage quality was evaluated by leaf:stem ratio and the contents of plants in proteins and nitrogen. The results indicated that the water deficit has negatively affected the plant height and forage yield. The decrease in leaf:stem ratio was observed under water deficit conditions. However, the proteins and nitrogen contents were unaffected. The behavior of tested alfalfa genotypes was significantly different. The Moroccan alfalfa populations were more adapted to water deficit conditions comparatively to Siriver variety and the Tata population was the most adapted one.

  11. MONITORING A CONDITION OF RECOVERY OF RESIDUAL STAND AND LOGGED OVER AREA AFTER 5 YEARS RIL IMPLEMENTATION: A CASE STUDY AT A FOREST COMPANY IN CENTRAL KALIMANTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukanda Sukanda

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study were to identify and evaluate a condition in logged over area (LOA after 5 years of reduced impact logging (RIL implementation, and to asses how far recovery of former skidding road, damages in felled and yarded over area, and environmental condition had taken place. Results of this study was expected to provide inputs and to improve the RIL implementation guidance for sending   sustainable forest management. The results revealed that: (1The covers of skidding road reached consecutively 2,641 m2  area (in block I, and 3,147 m2  area (in block II, as both marked by the growing of  bushes with coverage portions i.e. 84% and 80%, respectively; (2 The bush that grew on the former skidding road was regarded as pioneer vegetation; (3 The effect of cross drain on skidding road after logging was able to decrease erosion, and increase the recovery of the road condition; and (4 The healthy residual stand after 5 years logging by RIL showed that small diameter felled trees have resulted bigger residual stand damaged then big diameter or the percentage of healthy trees would be small.

  12. The role of vegetated areas on fish assemblage of the Paraná River floodplain: effects of different hydrological conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan José Neiff

    Full Text Available In this paper, we analyze the changes in composition and abundance of fish assemblages in seven vegetated floodplain wetlands with different connectivity across different hydrologic conditions: after a prolonged connection of the floodplain with the main channel, during receding water, and after a prolonged isolation. We also investigated the size and abundance of large-sized migratory species found in these wetlands and the food resources exploited by the dominant fish. Fishes were captured by diurnal seining (8.0 m x 1.50 m, 5 mm mesh along macrophyte banks. Despite the high total number of species registered (100, sample species richness varied between 7 and 31, depending on the sampling site and the sampling date. Cluster analysis indicated low similarity between sites during both the isolation and the prolonged connection. Species turnover decreased from high water (β = 40.33 to low water (β = 33.83, with the minimum value of beta diversity index obtained during the isolation of the floodplain wetlands (β = 26.83. Our results indicated that different dominant populations of fish occur in different hydrological conditions, even though high water and isolation phases occur in the same season of different years. The ordination (NMDS indicated the importance of hydrologic conditions in structuring fish assemblages in the studied floodplain. Small-sized characids, typically associated with macrophytes, dominated the fish assemblages, whereas the younger stages of large sized migratory species were found in low abundance. The maximum standard length of the fish captured was 28 cm and for large migratory fish, standard length varied between 1.6 and 25.0 cm. The dominant fish used several food resources, but littoral macrophytes-associated organisms had a high frequency of occurrence in the three hydrologic conditions. The high species richness of fish in the small, vegetated lakes was related to the high spatial heterogeneity during different

  13. The involvement of ventral tegmental area cholinergic muscarinic receptors in classically conditioned fear expression as measured with fear-potentiated startle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greba, Q; Munro, L J; Kokkinidis, L

    2000-07-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that dopamine (DA) neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) contribute to the complex amygdala-based neurocircuitry that mediates fear-motivated behaviors. Because of acetylcholine's (ACh) role in DA neuronal activation, the involvement of VTA cholinergic muscarinic receptors in Pavlovian conditioned fear responding was evaluated in the present study. Fear-potentiated startle was used to assess the effects of intraVTA infused methylscopolamine on conditioned fear performance in laboratory rats. Application of this nonspecific muscarinic receptor antagonist to VTA neurons was observed to inhibit the ability of a conditioned stimulus (CS) previously paired with footshock to enhance the amplitude of the acoustic startle reflex. Doses of methylscopolamine that blocked conditioned fear expression did not alter baseline sensorimotor responding. These results identify ACh neurotransmission in the VTA as a potential excitatory mechanism underlying the fear-arousing properties of threatening environmental stimuli.

  14. 郭沟煤矿勘探区水文地质条件研究%Analysis on Hydrogeological Conditions in Guogou Mine Exploration Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申明剑; 马玲; 底楷潮

    2013-01-01

    The exploration areas of Guogou mine was 15.32 km2.The water inflow was 34.07m3/h and less than 10-30 times as opposed to near mining area. On the basis of regional hydrogeological condition, hydrogeological condition and water filling factors of Guogou exploration areas, investigation was made to composition, source, and reasons of smallscale for near mining area of water inflow. Normal water inflow and hydrological exploration type of Guogou exploration areas were definite. The analysis on hydrogeological conditions has the guiding and reference significance to design and development of mine, mine safety production and the near mining area hydrogeological work.%  郭沟煤矿勘探区面积15.32km2,涌水量34.07m3/h,与周边面积接近的矿区相比,涌水量小了10-30倍,文章研究了郭沟勘探区区域水文地质条件、勘探区水文地质条件以及勘探区充水因素,分析了勘探区涌水量的组成、来源以及比周边煤田小的原因,确定了勘探区正常涌水量和水文地质勘查类型。勘探区水文地质条件的研究对未来矿山设计、开发、煤矿安全生产以及相邻矿区水文地质工作具有指导和借鉴意义。

  15. Phosphoric acid activation of Morrocan oil shale of Timahdit: influence of the experimental conditions on yied and surface area of adsorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ichcho, S.; Khouya, E.; Abourriche, A.; Ezzine, M.; Hannache, H. [Faculte des Sciences Ben M' sik, Lab. des Materiaux Thermostructuraux, Dept. de Chimie, Casablanca (Morocco); Naslain, R.; Pailler, R. [Bordeaux-1 Univ., Lab. des Composites Thermostructuraux, 33 (France)

    2005-03-01

    The use of Moroccan oil shale for the preparation of adsorbents by chemical activation with phosphoric acid is analysed. The results indicate that this material is promising for this application. The activation process produces adsorbents having a surface area higher than 300 m{sup 2}/g. The effect of different conditions of preparation on the yield and surface area is discussed. These parameters are H{sub 3}PO{sub 4}/shale weight ratio, carbonization temperature, carbonization time and concentration of H{sub 3}PO{sub 4}. (authors)

  16. Examining life quality in Hajdúszoboszló Tourist Area, with a special focus on health conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margit Csipkés

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study discusses the partial results of a more comprehensive research and its front line goal is to identify the factors which affect the quality of life. It also attempts to explore the interrelationship of health tourism and the quality of life. Our study merely focuses on the analysis and the introduction of factors that determine health condition.Good health in itself is not enough, qualitative life requires physical-psychological well-being as well. Years lost from lives due to poor health and early death result not only in human but economic losses as well; so it is highly recommended to dedicate time, money and energy to its investigation.

  17. Reconstruction of Paleoceanographic Conditions in the Rio Grande Rise Area, western South Atlantic: Evidence from Benthic Foraminiferal Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuleshova, Liubov; Ovsepyan, Ekaterina

    2017-04-01

    Sediment core AI-3321 (30°56.85' S, 38°02.45' W, 2969 m water depth, 293 m length) collected from the western slope of the Rio Grande Rise was studied to count and identify benthic foraminifers in the >100 μm size fraction. Available information of the ecological preferences of benthic foraminiferal assemblages was used to reconstruct sea-surface bioproductivity and oxygenation conditions near the bottom during warm periods: Holocene, MIS 5e and MIS 7. A total of more than 100 species have been identified. They were classified according to their microhabitat preferences. All studied samples are characterized by a high abundance of calcareous epifaunal - shallow infaunal species together with low percentages of agglutinated taxa. Species diversity was described using several diversity indices that demonstrate similar variability during MIS 5 and 7 and an opposite changes during MIS 1. Cluster and Q-mode factor analysis were applied to establish dominant assemblages and major trends of foraminiferal variability. The assemblages (Factors I, II and III) are characterized by maximal scores of Epistominella exigua, Alabaminella weddellensis and Globocassidulina subglobosa, respectively. These opportunistic species are associated with seasonal supply of fresh, labile organic matter to the sea floor, and also prefer high oxygen concentrations in the bottom waters. In contrast to diversity indices, factor I, II and III do not demonstrate similar distribution throughout the studied intervals. This might be related to different combinations of amount and quality of organic matter supplied to the sea floor and corresponding oxygen content near the seafloor on the Rio Grande Rise during Holocene, MIS 5e and MIS 7. Accessory foraminiferal taxa thriving in well-oxygenated conditions and being capable to adapt to pulsed food supply (Oridorsalis umbonatus, Pullenia bulloides, Ioanella tumidula, Cibicidoides wuellerstorfi, Quinquelocilina spp., Pyrgo spp.) also occur throughout

  18. Phosphoric acid activation of Morrocan oil shale of Timahdit: Influence of the experimental conditions on yield and surface area of adsorbents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichcho, S.; Khouya, E.; Abourriche, A.; Ezzine, M.; Hannache, H.; Naslain, R.; Pailler, R.

    2005-03-01

    The use of Moroccan oil shale for the preparation of adsorbents by chemical activation with phosphoric acid is analysed. The results indicate that this material is promising for this application. The effect of different conditions of preparation on the yield and surface area is discussed. These parameters are H{3}PO{4}/shale weight ratio, carbonisation temperature, carbonisation time and concentration of H{3}PO{4}.

  19. Demographic profile and health conditions of the elderly in a community in an urban area of Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Telarolli Junior Rodolpho

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Some specific characteristics of the aging of the Brazilian population in different areas, states and communities all over the country, have shown significant variations. Historical series of demographic and health indicators for the population in their sixties and over in Brazil, state of S. Paulo and in the municipal district of Araraquara are listed as follows: level of education and urban population growth rate, income distribution, mortality rates and main causes of death. In 1991 the aged constituled were 7,8% of the Brazilian population and 9,7% in Araraquara community. The elderly population (of 70 years of aged and above as a proportion of the whole, has increased and already stands for 40%. The same trend holds good for both the proportion of aged within the urban population and their level of education wich increased to 90% in 1991. The main causes of death are chronic degenerative diseases which have replaced the infectious illness: firts, the diseases of the circulatory sistem (which account for more than 40% of all deaths and the neoplasms (which let to 15% of the deaths. On the basis of these health and demographic data relating to people of 60 years of age and over, this study suggests some procedures for the improvement of the quality of the assistance given to the target population: a the assistance give to the aged should be improved by providing gerontological training for general physicians and nurses, both of public and private clinics; b the already exixting educational activities for the aged, for health workers and for teachers of secundary education should be further developed; c the number of day-hospitals should be increased for the purpose of avoiding unnecessary confinement so as maintain the low rate of institutionalization in homes for the elderly (0,7% in Araraquara. It is reported that at least 35% of the aged population in this area is entitled to private health assistance, wich brings out the importance of

  20. Microplankton biomass and diversity in the Vietnamese upwelling area during SW monsoon under normal conditions and after an ENSO event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loick-Wilde, Natalie; Bombar, Deniz; Doan, Hai Nhu; Nguyen, Lam Ngoc; Nguyen-Thi, Anh Mai; Voss, Maren; Dippner, Joachim W.

    2017-04-01

    Investigating microplankton biomass and diversity under different climatological conditions is key to the understanding of cascading effects of climate change on nutrient cycles and biological productivity. Here we have used data collected during two contrasting summers along the coast of Viet Nam to show how climatological-driven changes can have a significant influence on the distribution of microplankton communities and their biomass via its impact on nutrient concentrations in the water column. The first summer in July 2003 followed a weak El-Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) event and was characterized by weak coastal upwelling, in the second summer during July 2004, upwelling was normal. Very low silicate (SiO4) concentrations and SiO4:DIN ratios characterized the source water mass for upwelling in July 2004, and dynamic SiO4 to dissolved inorganic nitrogen ratios (SiO4:DIN) mainly below the Redfield-Brzezinski ratio and DIN to phosphate ratios (DIN:PO43-) below the Redfield ratio were a common feature off Viet Nam. Much higher particle concentrations and PSi/PC ratios during normal upwelling revealed major changes in the microplankton community structure among summers. Small dinoflagellates (10-20 μm) prevailed ubiquitously during reduced upwelling. During normal upwelling, the diatom Rhizosolenia sp. dominated the cell-carbon biomass in the silicate poor upwelling waters. Trichodesmium erythraeum dominated in the Mekong-influenced and nutrient depleted offshore waters, where it co-occurred with Rhizosolenia sp. Both species were directly associated with the much higher primary production (PP) and N2 fixation rates that were quantified in earlier studies, as well as with much higher diversities at these offshore sites. Along the coast, the correlation between Rhizosolenia sp. and PP rates was less clear and the factors regulating the biomass of Rhizosolenia sp. in the upwelling waters are discussed. The very low silicate concentrations in the source water

  1. Conditions of Service of Teachers as Correlates of Motivation in Secondary Schools in Ado and Efon Local Government Areas, Ekiti State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afolabi Comfort Yemisi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper examined the relationship between conditions of service of teachers and their motivation in secondary schools in Ado and Efon Local Government Areas in Ekiti State, Nigeria. The sample for the study consisted of 500 teachers who were selected from the 18 secondary schools in the two Local Government Areas used for the study. Due to the fact that secondary schools in Ado Local Government Area were more than the secondary schools in Efon Local Government Area, stratified proportional random sampling was used to select the sample for the study. A self-designed questionnaire was used to collect data for the study. The data collected were analysed using Pearson product moment correlation. The hypotheses raised were tested at 0.05 level of significance. The study revealed significant relationship between teachers’ posting, training, workload and their motivation while there was no significant relationship between discipline of teachers and their motivation. Based on the findings, it was recommended that conditions of service in secondary schools should be improved and made attractive to teachers to enhance their motivation on the job.

  2. High-Resolution Remote Sensing Data Classification over Urban Areas Using Random Forest Ensemble and Fully Connected Conditional Random Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofeng Sun

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available As an intermediate step between raw remote sensing data and digital maps, remote sensing data classification has been a challenging and long-standing problem in the remote sensing research community. In this work, an automated and effective supervised classification framework is presented for classifying high-resolution remote sensing data. Specifically, the presented method proceeds in three main stages: feature extraction, classification, and classified result refinement. In the feature extraction stage, both multispectral images and 3D geometry data are used, which utilizes the complementary information from multisource data. In the classification stage, to tackle the problems associated with too many training samples and take full advantage of the information in the large-scale dataset, a random forest (RF ensemble learning strategy is proposed by combining several RF classifiers together. Finally, an improved fully connected conditional random field (FCCRF graph model is employed to derive the contextual information to refine the classification results. Experiments on the ISPRS Semantic Labeling Contest dataset show that the presented 3-stage method achieves 86.9% overall accuracy, which is a new state-of-the-art non-CNN (convolutional neural networks-based classification method.

  3. Development of a Beam Condition Monitor System for the Experimental Areas of the LHC Using CVD Diamond

    CERN Document Server

    Fernández-Hernando, L

    2004-01-01

    The CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) will store 2808 bunches per colliding beam, each bunch consisting of 10^11 protons at an energy of 7 TeV. If there is a failure in an element of the accelerator, the resulting beam losses could cause damages not only to the machine but also to the experiments. A Beam Condition Monitor (BCM) is foreseen to monitor fast increments of particle fluxes near the interaction point and, if necessary, to generate an abort signal to the LHC accelerator control to dump the beams. The system is being developed initially for the CMS experiment but is sufficiently general to find potential applications elsewhere. Due to its high radiation hardness, CVD diamond has been studied for use as the BCM sensor. Various samples of CVD diamond have been characterized extensively with a Sr-90 source and high intensity test beams in order to assess the capabilities of such sensors and to study whether this detector technology is suitable for a BCM system. The results from these investigations are p...

  4. Evaluation of the physicochemical and chlorophyll-a conditions of a subtropical aquaculture in Lake Nasser area, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Mohamed El-Otify

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Water quality, nutritional characteristics and phytoplankton biomass in aquaculture of Oreochromis niloticus (L. simultaneously with its water source supply (Lake Nasser, were monthly investigated over a one-year period (July 2009–2010. Analysis of the results showed that application of fertilizers and environmental conditions appeared to be the principal factors influencing the spatio-temporal variations of water quality and productivity. The data obtained revealed differences between the fish pond and its water supply. Monthly fluctuations in the availability of the major nutrients reflected the occasional supply of the fish pond with different nutrients. Phytoplankton biomass in terms of chlorophyll-a concentrations were always of relatively higher values in the fish pond than those in Lake Nasser's water. Elevation of pH values and dissolved oxygen saturation levels appeared concomitantly with the increase of chlorophyll-a concentrations due to the phytoplankton photosynthetic assimilation activities. The observations of the present study highlighted the chlorophyll-a concentrations as an indicator of phytoplankton biomass reflecting water quality in the Nile tilapia aquaculture ecosystem.

  5. Conduccion de lombricultivos en condiciones de temperie extremas (zonas frias - Vermiculture management in extreme weather conditions (cold areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel SCHULDT

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Para optimizar la conducción de vermicultivos en climas fríos y condiciones de temperie se recomienda implementar durante la primavera – verano, alimentación periódica (semanal que se inicia con una siembra de 10.000 lombrices / Lecho (2 m2. Tras una subdivisión del cultivo en el verano y el despoblamiento de los sectores en el otoño, las lombrices obtenidas se utilizan para poblar sectores de materia orgánica (MO de 1,5 m de altura a razón de 4.000 lombrices / Lecho, donde permanecerán hasta la primavera siguiente. Esta modalidad de manejo, al cabo de un año, permite potencialmente multiplicar elc área de cultivo en aproximadamente 150 veces el inicial y paralelamente aumentar el tamaño de la población de lombrices 1.470 veces. Esta producción de lombrices corresponde al 31% de la potencialmente alcanzable en climas moderados (4.800X. In order to optimize vermiculture management in cold climates, it is recommended to implement periodic (weekly feeding during spring - summer, beginning with the inoculation of 10,000 worms/Bed (2 m2. After subdivision of the culture in summer and extraction of earthworms from the sectors in autumn, the obtained worms are used to populate new sectors with 1.5 m high organic matter (OM piles at a rate of 4,000 worms/Bed, where they are kept until the following spring. After one year, this management method allows a potential 150-fold increase of the original culture area and a simultaneous growth of the earthworm population to 1,470 times its initial size. This earthworm production represents 31% of the potential production for moderate climates (4.800X

  6. Antimicrobial Effect of 15 Medicinal Plant Species and their Dependency on Climatic Conditions of Growth in Different Geographical and Ecological Areas of Fars Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Abdollahi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The effects of medicinal plants are variable in different conditions. Here, the antimicrobial effect of 15 medicinal plant species and their dependency on the climatic condition of growth in different geographical and ecological areas of Fars Province were studied. Materials and Methods: In This empirical study, the antimicrobial effect of hydro-alcoholic extract of 15 medicinal plant species was examined against standard bacterial strains comparing to conventional therapeutic antibiotics using disk diffusion assay and serial broth dilution. Results: All Extracts were effective against S.aureus ATCC 25923 growth; also Peganum harmala, Myrtus communis, Mentha pulegium, Mentha spp, and Zataria multiflora extracts were observed to have antimicrobial activity against E.coli ATCC 25922. This antimicrobial activity had partially similar results, comparing to conventional antibioticsConclusion: Medicinal plants produce various amounts of antimicrobial substances under the climatic and ecological conditions of each zone, which must be considered in manufacturing herbal medicines.

  7. Strain localization in brittle-ductile shear zones: fluid abundant vs fluid limited conditions (an example from Wyangala area, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Spruzeniece

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on physiochemical processes occurring in a brittle-ductile shear zone at both fluid-present and fluid-limited conditions. In the studied shear zone (Wyangala, SE Australia, a coarse-grained two feldspar-quartz-biotite granite is transformed into a medium grained orthogneiss at the shear zone margins and a fine-grained quartz-muscovite phyllonite in the central parts. The orthogneiss displays cataclasis of feldspar and crystal-plastic deformation of quartz. Quartz accommodates most of the deformation and is extensively recrystallized showing distinct crystallographic preferred orientation (CPO. Feldspar-to-muscovite, biotite-to-muscovite and albitization reactions occur locally at porphyroclasts' fracture surfaces and margins. However, the bulk rock composition shows very little change in respect to the wall rock composition. In contrast, in the shear zone centre quartz occurs as large, weakly deformed porphyroclasts, in sizes similar to that in the wall rock, suggesting that it has undergone little deformation. Feldspars and biotite are almost completely reacted to muscovite, which is arranged in a fine-grained interconnected matrix. Muscovite-rich layers contain significant amounts of fine-grained intermixed quartz with random CPO. These domains are interpreted to have accommodated most of the strain. Bulk rock chemistry data shows a significant increase in SiO2 and depletion in NaO content compared to the wall rock composition. We suggest that the high and low strain fabrics represent markedly different scenarios and cannot be interpreted as a simple sequential development with respect to strain. We suggest that the fabrics and mineralogical changes in the shear zone centre have formed due to fluid influx probably along an initially brittle fracture. Here, hydration reactions dramatically changed the rheological properties of the rock. In the newly produced muscovite-quartz layers creep cavitation associated with grain

  8. Glycogen synthase kinase-3β in the ventral tegmental area mediates diurnal variations in cocaine-induced conditioned place preference in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Su-Xia; Wei, Yi-Ming; Shi, Hai-Shui; Luo, Yi-Xiao; Ding, Zeng-Bo; Xue, Yan-Xue; Lu, Lin; Yu, Chang-Xi

    2014-11-01

    Cocaine sensitization and reward are reported to be under the influence of diurnal rhythm. However, no previous studies have reported brain areas that play a role as modulators and underlie the mechanism of diurnal variations in cocaine reward. We examined (1) the diurnal rhythm of glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) activity in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) and reward-related brain areas in naive rats; (2) the effect of day and night on the acquisition of cocaine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP); (3) the influence of cocaine-induced CPP on GSK-3β activity in the SCN and reward-related brain areas; and (4) the effect of the GSK-3β inhibitor SB216763 microinjected bilaterally into the ventral tegmental area (VTA) on cocaine-induced CPP. A significant diurnal rhythm of GSK-3β activity was found in the SCN and reward-related brain areas, with diurnal variations in cocaine-induced CPP. GSK-3β activity in the SCN and reward-related brain areas exhibited marked diurnal variations in rats treated with saline. GSK-3β activity in rats treated with cocaine exhibited distinct diurnal variations only in the prefrontal cortex and VTA. Cocaine decreased the expression of phosphorylated GSK-3β (i.e. increased GSK-3β activity) only in the VTA in rats trained and tested at ZT4 and ZT16. SB216763 microinjected into the VTA bilaterally eliminated the diurnal variations in cocaine-induced CPP, but did not affect the acquisition of cocaine-induced CPP. These findings suggest that the VTA may be a critical area involved in the diurnal variations in cocaine-induced CPP, and GSK-3β may be a regulator of diurnal variations in cocaine-induced CPP.

  9. Monitoring drought conditions and their uncertainties in areas with sparse precipitation data. Evaluation of different precipitation datasets in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumann, G.; Barbosa, P.; Carrao, H.; Singleton, A.; Vogt, J.

    2012-04-01

    Assessment of drought conditions requires understanding regional historical droughts as well as the impacts on human activities during their occurrences. Traditional methods for drought assessment are mainly based on water supply indices derived from precipitation time-series alone. Thus, the main limitation for developing effective real-time drought monitoring and early warning systems in Africa is the lack of reliable and up-to-date precipitation data in many regions of the continent. A sparse distribution of rain gauges and short or incomplete rainfall historical records pose further problems. This lack of information may lead to significant errors in the estimation of statistical parameters for deriving water supply indices from the precipitation time-series. Procedures for drought detection and assessment have a particular level of uncertainty associated to the data and models used. In order to better understand the extent, severity and impact of a drought in a region, it is first necessary to improve the quality of these procedures by using the best available data, theoretical assumptions and model formulations. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the uncertainties due to sample size associated with the estimation of the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) and their impact on the possible level of confidence in drought monitoring in Africa. In order to do this, four different rainfall datasets, each available on a monthly basis, were analysed over four river basins in Africa (Oum-er-Rbia, Limpopo, Niger, and Eastern Nile) as well as at continental level. The four precipitation datasets used were the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite monthly rainfall product 3B43 (0.25°x0.25°), the Global Precipitation Climatology Centre (GPCC) gridded precipitation dataset V.5 (0.5°x0.5°), the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) Global Monthly Merged Precipitation Analyses (2.5°x2.5°), and the Climate Prediction Center

  10. Delineation of areas contributing groundwater to selected receiving surface water bodies for long-term average hydrologic conditions from 1968 to 1983 for Long Island, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misut, Paul E.; Monti,, Jack

    2016-10-05

    To assist resource managers and planners in developing informed strategies to address nitrogen loading to coastal water bodies of Long Island, New York, the U.S. Geological Survey and the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation initiated a program to delineate a comprehensive dataset of groundwater recharge areas (or areas contributing groundwater), travel times, and outflows to streams and saline embayments on Long Island. A four-layer regional three-dimensional finite-difference groundwater-flow model of hydrologic conditions from 1968 to 1983 was used to provide delineations of 48 groundwater watersheds on Long Island. Sixteen particle starting points were evenly spaced within each of the 4,000- by 4,000-foot model cells that receive water-table recharge and tracked using forward particle-tracking analysis modeling software to outflow zones. For each particle, simulated travel times were grouped by age as follows: less than or equal to 10 years, greater than 10 years and less than or equal to 100 years, greater than 100 years and less than or equal to 1,000 years, and greater than 1,000 years; and simulated ending zones were grouped into 48 receiving water bodies, based on the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation Waterbody Inventory/Priority Waterbodies List. Areal delineation of travel time zones and groundwater contributing areas were generated and a table was prepared presenting the sum of groundwater outflow for each area.

  11. Impact of oil and gas field in sugar cane condition using landsat 8 in Indramayu area and its surrounding, West Java province, Republic of Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muji Susantoro, Tri; Wikantika, Ketut; Saskia Puspitasari, Alia; Saepuloh, Asep

    2017-01-01

    This study tried to monitor sugar cane condition surrounding of oil and gas field area. The spectral approaches were conducted for mapping sugar cane stress. As an initial stage Landsat-8 was corrected radiometrically and geometrically. Radiometric correction is an important stages for spectral approaching. Then all pixel values were transformed to the surface reflectance. Several vegetation indices were calculated to monitor vegetation stress surrounding of oil and gas field. NDVI, EVI, DVI, GVI, GRVI, GDVI and GNDVI were applied for generating tentative sugar cane stress images. The results indicated that sugar cane surrounding of oil and gas field has been influenced by oil and gas field.

  12. Prevalence of Frailty and Aging-Related Health Conditions in Older Koreans in Rural Communities: a Cross-Sectional Analysis of the Aging Study of Pyeongchang Rural Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Hee-Won; Jang, Il-Young; Lee, Young Soo; Lee, Chang Ki; Cho, Eun-Il; Kang, Woo Young; Chae, Jeoung Hee; Lee, Eun Ju; Kim, Dae Hyun

    2016-03-01

    Frailty has been previously studied in Western countries and the urban Korean population; however, the burden of frailty and geriatric conditions in the aging populations of rural Korean communities had not yet been determined. Thus, we established a population-based prospective study of adults aged ≥ 65 years residing in rural communities of Korea between October 2014 and December 2014. All participants underwent comprehensive geriatric assessment that encompassed the assessment of cognitive and physical function, depression, nutrition, and body composition using bioimpedance analysis. We determined the prevalence of frailty based on the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS) and Korean version of FRAIL (K-FRAIL) criteria, as well as geriatric conditions. We recruited 382 adults (98% of eligible adults; mean age: 74 years; 56% women). Generally, sociodemographic characteristics were similar to those of the general rural Korean population. Common geriatric conditions included instrumental activity of daily living disability (39%), malnutrition risk (38%), cognitive dysfunction (33%), multimorbidity (32%), and sarcopenia (28%), while dismobility (8%), incontinence (8%), and polypharmacy (3%) were less common conditions. While more individuals were classified as frail according to the K-FRAIL criteria (27%) than the CHS criteria (17%), the CHS criteria were more strongly associated with prevalent geriatric conditions. Older Koreans living in rural communities have a significant burden of frailty and geriatric conditions that increase the risk of functional decline, poor quality of life, and mortality. The current study provides a basis to guide public health professionals and policy-makers in prioritizing certain areas of care and designing effective public health interventions to promote healthy aging of this vulnerable population.

  13. Impact of housing condition on indoor-biting and indoor-resting Anopheles arabiensis density in a highland area, central Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Animut, Abebe; Balkew, Meshesha; Lindtjørn, Bernt

    2013-11-05

    Exposure of individuals to malaria infection may depend on their housing conditions as houses serve as biting and resting places of vectors. This study describes the association of housing conditions with densities of indoor-biting and indoor-resting Anopheles arabiensis in Hobe, Dirama and Wurib villages of a highland area in central Ethiopia. Data on housing conditions, including presence of house apertures, number of occupants and number and the type of domestic animal tethered inside, were collected. Indoor-biting mosquitoes were sampled using Centers for Disease Control (CDC) light traps and indoor-resting mosquitoes sampled with pyrethrum spray catches (PSCs) monthly for two years (July 2008 to June 2010). Female anophelines were identified to species and processed. Univariate and general linear estimating equation allowing for repeated measures were used to assess the contribution of housing conditions for indoor-biting and indoor-resting An. arabiensis. About 96% (4,597/4,788) of anophelines were caught inside residential houses. Nine anopheline species were identified, among which An. arabiensis was most prevalent (2,489; 52%). Vectors entering houses were higher in those situated at low (β = 4.475; 95% CI = 3.475-5.476; p windows (β = -0.570; 95% CI = -1.047-0.094; p =0.019) compared with those that have. Numbers of indoor-resting vectors were higher in those situated at low (β = 6.100; 95% CI = 4.571-7.629; p window, location at low and mid altitudes, were strong predictors of indoor exposure to An. arabiensis bite in a highland area of south-central Ethiopia.

  14. Intrahippocampal administration of D2 but not D1 dopamine receptor antagonist suppresses the expression of conditioned place preference induced by morphine in the ventral tegmental area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghparast, Abbas; Esmaeili, Mohammad-Hossein; Taslimi, Zahra; Kermani, Mojtaba; Yazdi-Ravandi, Saeid; Alizadeh, Amir-Mohammad

    2013-04-29

    The ventral tegmental area (VTA) as a major source of dopamine neurons projecting to cortical and limbic regions has a crucial role in reward and addiction. The current study assessed the role of D1 and D2 receptors within the dorsal hippocampus (CA1) in the expression of conditioned place preference (CPP) by intra-VTA morphine in the rats. In the present study, 160 adult male albino Wistar rats weighing 220-290g were bilaterally implanted by two cannulae into the CA1 and VTA. The CPP paradigm was done and animal displacement, conditioning score and locomotor activity were recorded. For blocking the dopamine D1/D2 receptors in the dorsal hippocampus, SCH23390 (0.02, 0.05, 0.2 and 0.5μg per side) or sulpiride (0.25, 0.75, 1.5 and 3μg per side) were microinjected into the CA1, just 5min before the CPP test on the post-conditioning day. All animals received intra-VTA morphine (1μg per side) during 3-days conditioning phase. Our results showed that sulpiride (1.5 and 3μg) but not SCH23390 in the dorsal hippocampus significantly decreased the expression of CPP induced by intra-VTA morphine (phippocampus have a key role in the expression of CPP induced by morphine at the level of the VTA and there is a relationship between dopaminergic D2 receptors and opioidergic systems in these areas in reward circuit.

  15. Effects of various meteorological conditions and spatial emissionresolutions on the ozone concentration and ROG/NOx limitationin the Milan area (I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Baertsch-Ritter

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The three-dimensional photochemical model UAM-V is used to investigate the effects of various meteorological conditions and of the coarseness of emission inventories on the ozone concentration and ROG/NOx limitation of the ozone production in the Po Basin in the northern part of Italy. As a base case, the high ozone episode with up to 200ppb on 13 May 1998 was modelled and previously thoroughly evaluated with measurements gained during a large field experiment. Systematic variations in meteorology are applied to mixing height, air temperature, specific humidity and wind speed. Three coarser emission inventories are obtained by resampling from 3x3km2 up to 54x54km2 emission grids. The model results show that changes in meteorological input files strongly influence ozone in this area. For instance, temperature changes peak ozone by 10.1ppb/°C and the ozone concentrations in Milan by 2.8ppb/°C. The net ozone formation in northern Italy is more strongly temperature than humidity dependent, while the humidity is very important for the ROG/NOx limitation of the ozone production. For all meteorological changes (e.g. doubling the mixing height, the modelled peak ozone remains ROG limited. A strong change towards NOx sensitivity in the ROG limited areas is only found if much coarser emission inventories were applied. Increasing ROG limited areas with increasing wind speed are found, because the ROG limited ozone chemistry induced by point sources is spread over a larger area. Simulations without point sources tend to increase the NOx limited areas.

  16. GABA(A) receptor activation in the CA1 area of the dorsal hippocampus impairs consolidation of conditioned contextual fear in C57BL/6J mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misane, Ilga; Kruis, Ayla; Pieneman, Anton W; Ögren, Sven Ove; Stiedl, Oliver

    2013-02-01

    Local infusion of the GABA(A) receptor agonist muscimol is used for reversible inactivation of septohippocampal brain structures associated with cognitive functions. However, information on the effective duration, affected processes and site(s) of action of muscimol in the hippocampus is lacking. Therefore, the dose- and time-dependent effects of bilateral dorsohippocampal infusion of muscimol (0.01-2.0 μg/mouse) below the CA1 area were examined on processing of fear memory in male C57BL/6J mice. Infusion of muscimol 15 min-6 h but not 9 h or 24 h before training impaired conditioned context-dependent fear tested 24 h or 48 h after training. Post-training infusion of muscimol also impaired context-dependent fear when applied either 4 h or 6 h after training, although with lower efficacy. Muscimol was ineffective when administered immediately, 1 h or 24 h after training. Infusion of muscimol 15 min before training impaired context-dependent fear 4-6 h after training indicating preserved short-term but impaired long-term memory. Regardless of infusion time and dose, muscimol had no effect on tone-dependent (cued) fear memory. The impairment by the fluorescently-labeled muscimol-bodipy (5.3 μg/mouse) were similar to those of an equimolar dose of muscimol (1 μg/mouse). The distribution profile after local infusion indicated that muscimol-bodipy (5.3 μg/mouse) was confined to the CA1 area of the dorsal hippocampus. These results demonstrated that GABA(A) receptor activation in the CA1 area of the dorsal hippocampus causes a long-term memory impairment of conditioned context-dependent fear mediated by a long-lasting (≥6 h) muscimol action most likely affecting consolidation processes.

  17. Research on the mineral formation condition of Nangetan area%南戈滩地区成矿条件研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张亚彬

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to predict the general characteristics of major minerals ore from Nangetan area by using Metallogenic prediction theory through the analysis of structure,stratum,magmatic rocks,metamorphism and other geologic factors,combined with the specific characteristics of mineralization belt,and the relationship between structure,stratigraphy,lithology and ore forming conditions.The polymetallic ore characteristics and ore control factors of Nangetan area have been presented.It shows that this area has bright prospects for metallization which gives references to ore prospecting in the future.%通过对青海省都兰县南戈滩地区构造、地层、岩浆岩及变质作用等地质因素的分析,并结合区内多金属矿化点带特征,讨论了地层、构造、岩浆岩、变质作用等与矿化关系密切的因素,运用成矿预测理论,预测南戈滩地区主要矿种的矿化特征,总结出南戈滩地区多金属矿化的特点以及控矿的主要因素,说明了南戈滩地区具有较好的多金属成矿前景.

  18. [Social conditions in which medical students from the faculty of medicine of the National University of Mexico (UNAM) perform their Social Service in rural areas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamui-Sutton, Alicia

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work is to describe the conditions in which medical students perform their Social Service, highlighting their experiences in areas such as: information before they move and the motivation to leave home; the perception of personal and environmental lack of safety; the institutional support that they receive during their work in the community and the financial support provided. The methodological design of the study included an exploratory phase, in which collective interviews were performed, using the focal group technique, with students who had been in rural areas. Three hundred sixty cases were considered, 72.8% corresponded to rural areas, and 27.7% to Mexico City. According to the findings, the following actions are proposed: give better information and improve the process of vacancy selection; increase the scholarship received by students in Social Service; establish legal, police, and community support mechanisms to guarantee the student's personal safety; pay attention to aspects such as the student's emotional and social situation, and design programs with gender perspective to enhance certainty and safety.

  19. DETECTION OF LOCAL SITE CONDITIONS INFLUENCING EARTHQUAKE SHOCK AND SECONDARY EFFECTS IN THE VALPARAISO AREA IN CENTRAL-CHILE USING REMOTE SENSING AND GIS METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Theilen-Willige

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The potential contribution of remote sensing and GIS techniques to earthquake hazard analysis was investigated in Valparaiso in Chile in order to improve the systematic, standardized inventory of those areas that are more susceptible to earthquake ground motions or to earthquake related secondary effects such as landslides, liquefaction, soil amplifications, compaction or even tsunami-waves. Geophysical, topographical, geological data and satellite images were collected, processed, and integrated into a spatial database using Geoinformation Systems (GIS and image processing techniques. The GIS integrated evaluation of satellite imageries, of digital topographic data and of various open-source geodata can contribute to the acquisition of those specific tectonic, geomorphologic/ topographic settings influencing local site conditions in Valparaiso, Chile. Using the weighted overlay techniques in GIS, susceptibility maps were produced indicating areas, where causal factors influencing near- surface earthquake shock occur aggregated. Causal factors (such as unconsolidated sedimentary layers within a basin’s topography, higher groundwater tables, etc. summarizing and interfering each other, rise the susceptibility of soil amplification and of earthquake related secondary effects. This approach was used as well to create a tsunami flooding susceptibility map. LANDSAT Thermal Band 6-imageries were analysed to get information of surface water currents in this area.

  20. Mercury flux measurements in a naturally enriched area: Correlation with environmental conditions during the Nevada Study and Tests of the Release of Mercury From Soils (STORMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poissant, Laurier; Pilote, Martin; Casimir, Alain

    1999-09-01

    An international intercomparison of micrometerological techniques and dynamic flux chamber methods applied to measure mercury fluxes was conducted from September 1 to 4, 1997, during the Nevada Study and Tests of the Release of Mercury From Soils (STORMS) in Reno, Nevada. Nine research groups from four countries met in the Steamboat Springs, Nevada Geothermal Area, to participate in the first international flux intercomparison ever attempted for mercury. The highly heterogeneous soil Hg concentrations and complex landscape within the study area (4 ha) were unfavorable for spatial intercomparison of Hg fluxes between the research groups. However, reliable and correlated Hg fluxes were measured between our micrometerological technique and a dynamic flux chamber method (r2 = 0.29), run side by side (5 m). Hg fluxes and their relationships with environmental factors were complex. After ˜90 days of dry condition, a series of storm events impacted the site and increased the soil moisture from <0.5 to 6.6%. This appeared to promote strong Hg evasion during the transition period from dry to wet soil conditions. However, the subsequent relationship between soil moisture and Hg flux was significantly negatively correlated. Multivariate analysis was applied to extract the principal components (principal component analysis). Three principal components were extracted (explained up to 79% of the total variance) and discussed with respect to their environmental signification. Environmental conditions under southern wind sectors were optimal to promote Hg fluxes. Turbulence rather than Hg air concentrations seemed to be the main factor promoting the determined Hg fluxes during this study.

  1. Weather conditions and visits to the medical wing of emergency rooms in a metropolitan area during the warm season in Israel: a predictive model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novikov, Ilya; Kalter-Leibovici, Ofra; Chetrit, Angela; Stav, Nir; Epstein, Yoram

    2012-01-01

    Global climate changes affect health and present new challenges to healthcare systems. The aim of the present study was to analyze the pattern of visits to the medical wing of emergency rooms (ERs) in public hospitals during warm seasons, and to develop a predictive model that will forecast the number of visits to ERs 2 days ahead. Data on daily visits to the ERs of the four largest medical centers in the Tel-Aviv metropolitan area during the warm months of the year (April-October, 2001-2004), the corresponding daily meteorological data, daily electrical power consumption (a surrogate marker for air-conditioning), air-pollution parameters, and calendar information were obtained and used in the analyses. The predictive model employed a time series analysis with transitional Poisson regression. The concise multivariable model was highly accurate ( r 2 = 0.819). The contribution of mean daily temperature was small but significant: an increase of 1°C in ambient temperature was associated with a 1.47% increase in the number of ER visits ( P electrical power consumption significantly attenuated the effect of weather conditions on ER visits by 4% per 1,000 MWh ( P forecasting the number of visits to ERs 2 days ahead. The marginal effect of temperature on the number of ER visits can be attributed to behavioral adaptations, including the use of air-conditioning.

  2. The Development and Application of a Method to Quantify the Quality of Cryoprotectant Conditions Using Standard Area Detector X-Ray Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFerrin, Michael; Snell, Edward; Curreri, Peter A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    An X-ray based method for determining cryoprotectant concentrations necessary to protect solutions from crystalline ice formation was developed. X-ray images from a CCD area detector were integrated as powder patterns and quantified by determining the standard deviation of the slope of the normalized intensity curve in the resolution range where ice rings are known to occur. The method was tested determining the concentrations of glycerol, PEG400, ethylene glycol and 1,2-propanediol necessary to form an amorphous glass at 1OOK with each of the 98 crystallization solutions of Crystal Screens I and II (Hampton Research, Laguna Hills, California, USA). For conditions that required glycerol concentrations of 35% or above cryoprotectant conditions using 2,3-butanediol were determined. The method proved to be remarkably accurate. The results build on the work of [Garman and Mitchell] and extend the number, of suitable starting conditions to alternative cryoprotectants. In particular, 1,2-propanediol has emerged as a particularly good additive for glass formation upon flash cooling.

  3. The impact of the uncertainty in the initial soil moisture condition of irrigated areas on the spatiotemporal characteristics of convective activity in Central Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotsopoulos, Stylianos; Ioannis, Tegoulias; Ioannis, Pytharoulis; Stergios, Kartsios; Dimitrios, Bampzelis; Theodore, Karacostas

    2015-04-01

    The region of Thessaly is the second largest plain in Greece and has a vital role in the financial life of the country, because of its significant agricultural production. The intensive and extensive cultivation of irrigated crops, in combination with the population increase and the alteration of precipitation patterns due to climate change, often leading the region to experience severe drought conditions, especially during the warm period of the year. The aim of the DAPHNE project is to tackle the problem of drought in this area by means of Weather Modification.In the framework of the project DAPHNE, the numerical weather prediction model WRF-ARW 3.5.1 is used to provide operational forecasts and hindcasts for the region of Thessaly. The goal of this study is to investigate the impact of the uncertainty in the initial soil moisture condition of irrigated areas, on the spatiotemporal characteristics of convective activity in the region of interest. To this end, six cases under the six most frequent synoptic conditions, which are associated with convective activity in the region of interest, are utilized, considering six different soil moisture initialization scenarios. In the first scenario (Control Run), the model is initialized with the surface soil moisture of the ECMWF analysis data, that usually does not take into account the modification of soil moisture due to agricultural activity in the area of interest. In the other five scenarios (Experiment 1,2,3,4,5) the soil moisture in the upper soil layers of the study area are modified from -50% to 50% of field capacity (-50%FC, -25%FC, FC, 25%FC, 50%FC),for the irrigated cropland.Three model domains, covering Europe, the Mediterranean Sea and northern Africa (d01), the wider area of Greece (d02) and central Greece - Thessaly region (d03) are used at horizontal grid-spacings of 15km, 5km and 1km respectively. ECMWF operational analyses at 6-hourly intervals (0.25ox0.25o lat.-long.) are imported as initial and

  4. The impact of informal irrigation practices on soil drainage condition, soil pollution and land suitability for agriculture in El Saf area of El Giza Governorate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanan E.M. El Azab

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The study area was selected in El Saf District of El Giza Governorate in Egypt, covering 21461.4 ha of Nile sediments and their outskirts of alluvial higher and lower terraces. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of informal irrigation practices on drainage deterioration, soil pollution and land suitability for agricultural use using the satellite LDCM data 2013. From the lower alluvial terraces (partly cultivated using wastewater, the drainage flows westward via descending slopes resulting in land deterioration in both the alluvial lower terraces and alluvial plain of River Nile. The drainage conditions are excessively drained soils in the alluvial upper terraces within soils of Typic Haplocalcids, sandy skeletal, but in the lower terraces it partly occurred within soils of Typic Torriorthents, sandy skeletal. Moderately well drained soils occurred in soils of Typic Torriorthents, sandy in the alluvial lower terraces, while in the alluvial plain of Nile sediments are Sodic Haplotorrerts, fine. Poorly drained soils in the lower alluvial terraces have soils of Typic Epiaquents, sandy associated with Sodic Psammaquents and Aquic Haplocalcids, coarse loamy, while in the alluvial plain of River Nile the soils are Halic Epiaquerts, fine. Very poorly drained soils (submerged areas are scattered spots in both the lower alluvial terraces and the alluvial plain. In the alluvial plain of River Nile, 1967.1 ha become not suitable for the traditional cultivated crops, while in the alluvial terraces 3251.0 ha are not suitable for the proposed cultivation of Jojoba plants. Heavy metals of Cadmium (Cd, Cobalt (Co, Lead (Pb and Nickel (Ni were added to the soil surface and sub-surface in the irrigated areas by wastewater in the lower alluvial terraces (moderately well drained soils, but Cd and Co exceeded the standards of permissible total concentrations in these soils. The same metals were added to soil sub-surface layers in the alluvial plain

  5. Effects of trains of high-frequency stimulation of the premotor/supplementary motor area on conditioned corticomotor responses in hemicerebellectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oulad Ben Taib, Nordeyn; Manto, Mario

    2008-07-01

    We studied the effects of low- and high-frequency premotor electrical stimulations on conditioned corticomotor responses, intra-cortical facilitation (ICF) and spinal excitability in hemicerebellectomized rats (left side). Trains of stimulation were applied in prefrontal region rFr2 (the equivalent of the premotor/supplementary motor area in primates) at a rate of 1 Hz (low-frequency stimulation LFS) or 20 Hz (high-frequency stimulation HFS). Test stimuli on the motor cortex were preceded by a conditioning stimulus in contralateral sciatic nerve (two inter-stimulus intervals ISIs were studied: 5 ms or 45 ms). (A) At ISI-5, conditioning increased amplitudes of MEPs (motor evoked potentials) in the left motor cortex. This afferent facilitation was enhanced if preceded by trains of stimuli administered over the ipsilateral rFr2 area, and HFS had higher effects than LFS. The facilitation was lower for the right motor cortex, for both LFS and HFS. (B) At ISI-45, conditioned motor evoked responses were depressed as compared to unconditioned responses in the left motor cortex (afferent inhibition). Following LFS, the degree of inhibition was unchanged while it increased with HFS. At baseline, inhibition was enhanced in the right motor cortex. Interestingly, the afferent inhibition decreased significantly following HFS. (C) ICF was depressed in the right motor cortex, but increased similarly on both sides following LFS/HFS. These results (1) confirm the increased inhibition in the motor cortex contralaterally to the hemicerebellar ablation, (2) demonstrate for the first time that the cerebellum is necessary for tuning amplitudes of corticomotor responses following a peripheral nerve stimulation, (3) show that the application of LFS or HFS does not cancel the defect of excitability in the motor cortex for short ISIs, and (4) suggest that for longer ISIs, HFS could have interesting properties for the modulation of afferent inhibition in case of extensive cerebellar lesion

  6. Dense water formation in the north-western Mediterranean area during HyMeX-SOP2 in 1/36° ocean simulations: Sensitivity to initial conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Léger, Fabien; Lebeaupin Brossier, Cindy; Giordani, Hervé; Arsouze, Thomas; Beuvier, Jonathan; Bouin, Marie-Noëlle; Bresson, Émilie; Ducrocq, Véronique; Fourrié, Nadia; Nuret, Mathieu

    2016-08-01

    The north-western Mediterranean Sea is a key location where intense air-sea exchanges occur in autumn and winter. The succession of strong mistral and tramontane situations, leading to significant evaporation and ocean heat loss, is well known as the controlling factor in the dense water formation (DWF) with deep convection episodes. During HyMeX-SOP2 (1 February to 15 March 2013), several platforms sampled the area in order to document DWF and air-sea exchanges. This study investigates the ability of the NEMO-WMED36 ocean model (1/36°-resolution), driven in surface by the hourly air-sea fluxes from the AROME-WMED forecasts (2.5 km resolution), to represent DWF during HyMeX-SOP2 and focuses on the sensitivity to initial conditions. After a short evaluation of the atmospheric forcing, the high-resolution oceanic simulations using three different data sets as initial and boundary conditions are compared to observations collected during the field campaign. It evidences that using regional model outputs may lead to unrealistic thermohaline characteristics for the intermediate and deep waters, which degrade the simulated new dense water formed. Using ocean analyses built from observations, permits to obtain more realistic characteristics of the Western Mediterranean dense water. However, a low stratification favors an overestimation of the convective area and of the DWF rate. The DWF chronology is also impacted. Nevertheless, in every run, SOP2 is characterized by the production of water denser than 29.11 kg m-3 with a peak during the strong mistral event of 23-25 February followed by a period of restratification, before a last event of bottom convection on 13-15 March.

  7. The influence of near-bed hydrodynamic conditions on cold-water corals in the Viosca Knoll area, Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mienis, F.; Duineveld, G. C. A.; Davies, A. J.; Ross, S. W.; Seim, H.; Bane, J.; van Weering, T. C. E.

    2012-01-01

    Near-bed hydrodynamic conditions were recorded for almost one year in the Viosca Knoll area (lease block 826), one of the most well-developed cold-water coral habitats in the Gulf of Mexico. Here, a reef-like cold-water coral ecosystem, dominated by the coral Lophelia pertusa, resembles coral habitats found off the southeastern US coast and the North East Atlantic. Two landers were deployed in the vicinity and outside of the coral habitat and measured multiple near-bed parameters, including temperature, salinity, current speed and direction and optical and acoustic backscatter. Additionally, the lander deployed closest to the coral area was equipped with a sediment trap that collected settling particles over the period of deployment at 27 day intervals. Long-term monitoring showed, that in general, environmental parameters, such as temperature (6.5-11.6 °C), salinity (34.95-35.4) and current speed (average 8 cm s -1, peak current speed up to 38 cm s -1) largely resembled conditions previously recorded within North East Atlantic coral habitats. Major differences between site VK 826 and coral areas in the NE Atlantic were the much higher particle load, and the origin of the particulate matter. Several significant events occurred during the deployment period beginning with an increase in current speed followed by a gradual increase in temperature and salinity, followed by a rapid decrease in temperature and salinity. Simultaneously with the decrease in temperature and salinity, the direction of the current changed from west to east and cold and less turbid water was transported upslope. The most prominent event occurred in July, when a westward flow lasted over 21 days. These events are consistent with bottom boundary layer dynamics influenced by friction (bottom Ekman layer). The Mississippi River discharges large quantities of sediment and dominates sedimentation regimes in the area. Furthermore, the Mississippi River disperses large amounts of terrestrial organic

  8. Preventive role of social interaction for cocaine conditioned place preference: correlation with FosB/DeltaFosB and pCREB expression in rat mesocorticolimbic areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rana eEl Rawas

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The worsening of drug abuse by drug-associated social interaction is a well-studied phenomenon. In contrast, the molecular mechanisms of the beneficial effect of social interaction, if offered as a mutually exclusive choice to drugs of abuse, are under-investigated. In a rat place preference conditioning (CPP paradigm, four 15 min episodes of social interaction with a gender- and weight matched male early-adult conspecific inhibited cocaine-induced reinstatement of cocaine CPP, a model of relapse. These protective effects of social interaction were paralleled by a reduced activation, as assessed by Zif268 expression in brain areas known to play pivotal roles in drug-seeking behavior. Here we show that social interaction during extinction of cocaine CPP also reduced cocaine-CPP-stimulated FosB expression in the nucleus accumbens shell and core. In addition, social interaction during cocaine CPP extinction increased pCREB (cAMP response element binding protein expression in the nucleus accumbens shell and the cingulate cortex area 1 (Cg1. Our results show that FosB and pCREB may be implicated in the protective effect of social interaction against cocaine-induced reinstatement of CPP. Thus, social interaction, if offered in a context that is clearly distinct from the previously drug-associated one, may profoundly inhibit relapse to cocaine addiction.

  9. 泡沫镍的制备工艺条件和比表面积%Preparation Technological Conditions and Specific Surface Area of Nickel Foams

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段翠云; 崔光; 刘培生

    2011-01-01

    Based on the technique of electrodeposition on the organic foam, relationship between several deferent specific producing conditions and the corresponding specific surface area of nickel foam products has been investigated.The result showed that the same surface morphology and specific surface area of the nickel foam could be acquired by direct sintering in NH3 decomposition atmosphere at 850 ℃ or 980 ℃ for 40 min after electrodepositing and by burning in air at 600 ℃ for 4 min before and then reductive sintering, after electrodepositing.%本文以有机泡沫电沉积法为基础,探讨了几种具体工艺条件与所得泡沫镍产品比表面积的关系.结果发现,电镀后直接在850~980℃的氨分解气氛中烧结40 min所得产品,与电镀后先在600℃的空气中烧结4 min再进行还原烧结所得产品,具有相同的表面形态和比表面积.

  10. Footprint area analysis of binary imaged Cupriavidus necator cells to study PHB production at balanced, transient, and limited growth conditions in a cascade process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadlja, Denis; Koller, Martin; Novak, Mario; Braunegg, Gerhart; Horvat, Predrag

    2016-12-01

    Statistical distribution of cell and poly[3-(R)-hydroxybutyrate] (PHB) granule size and number of granules per cell are investigated for PHB production in a five-stage cascade (5CSTR). Electron microscopic pictures of cells from individual cascade stages (R1-R5) were converted to binary pictures to visualize footprint areas for polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) and non-PHA biomass. Results for each stage were correlated to the corresponding experimentally determined kinetics (specific growth rate μ and specific productivity π). Log-normal distribution describes PHA granule size dissimilarity, whereas for R1 and R4, gamma distribution best reflects the situation. R1, devoted to balanced biomass synthesis, predominately contains cells with rather small granules, whereas with increasing residence time τ, maximum and average granule sizes by trend increase, approaching an upper limit determined by the cell's geometry. Generally, an increase of intracellular PHA content and ratio of granule to cell area slow down along the cascade. Further, the number of granules per cell decreases with increasing τ. Data for μ and π obtained by binary picture analysis correlate well with the experimental results. The work describes long-term continuous PHA production under balanced, transient, and nutrient-deficient conditions, as well as their reflection on the granules size, granule number, and cell structure on the microscopic level.

  11. Is the impact of future climate change on hydro-climatic conditions significant? - A climate change study for an Eastern European catchment area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlik, Dirk; Söhl, Dennis; Bernhofer, Christian

    2014-05-01

    The future change of climatic conditions is, among others, closely linked to future hydrological changes. One important aspect of these issues is the question of future availability of water resources. A changed climatic water balance, as indicator for potential water availability, has far-reaching consequences for the water cycle, hydrological conditions, ecology, water management, the energy business, agriculture and forestry, and for anthropogenic use of the river. We generated regional climate projections via dynamic downscaling for the catchment area of the Western Bug river in the border area of Poland, Belarus, and Ukraine. The hydro-climatic conditions of the past and their projected future changes in the catchment were analyzed based on 2m-temperature, precipitation, potential evaporation and climatic water balance. Up to the end of the century, the used IPCC scenarios B1 and A2 lead to warming for each month in the long-term mean, with highest warming rates in winter. Instead, precipitation does not change in the long-term yearly mean. However, the intra-annual distribution of monthly precipitation sums shifts with an increase in winter and a strong decrease in summer. Combined, this leads to a changed climatic water balance with a stronger deficit in summer and a higher gain in winter. Particular in the south-eastern part of the catchment, the summer deficit cannot be compensated within the annual cycle. It raised the question: are these changes statistically significant and thus robust for use in further impact studies? Using a significance analysis, we found, that climatic changes in temperature, precipitation and potential evaporation and thus the climatic water balance change is most significant for scenario A2 from 2071 to 2100. The temperature changes are significant throughout the year. For the other variables changes are most significant in the late summer months (July, August, and September) and the winter months (December, January, and February

  12. Hydrogeology, hydraulic characteristics, and water-quality conditions in the surficial, Castle Hayne and Peedee aquifers of the greater New Hanover County area, North Carolina, 2012-13

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSwain, Kristen Bukowski; Gurley, Laura N.; Antolino, Dominick J.

    2014-01-01

    A major issue facing the greater New Hanover County, North Carolina, area is the increased demand for drinking water resources as a result of rapid growth. The principal sources of freshwater supply in the greater New Hanover County area are withdrawals of surface water from the Cape Fear River and groundwater from the underlying Castle Hayne and Peedee aquifers. Industrial, mining, irrigation, and aquaculture groundwater withdrawals increasingly compete with public-supply utilities for freshwater resources. Future population growth and economic expansion will require increased dependence on high-quality sources of fresh groundwater. An evaluation of the hydrogeology and water-quality conditions in the surficial, Castle Hayne, and Peedee aquifers was conducted in New Hanover, eastern Brunswick, and southern Pender Counties, North Carolina. A hydrogeologic framework was delineated by using a description of the geologic and hydrogeologic units that compose aquifers and their confining units. Current and historic water-level, water-quality, and water-isotope data were used to approximate the present boundary between freshwater and brackish water in the study area. Water-level data collected during August–September 2012 and March 2013 in the Castle Hayne aquifer show that recharge areas with the highest groundwater altitudes are located in central New Hanover County, and the lowest are located in a discharge area along the Atlantic Ocean. Between 1964 and 2012, groundwater levels in the Castle Hayne aquifer in central New Hanover County have rebounded by about 10 feet, but in the Pages Creek area groundwater levels declined in excess of 20 feet. In the Peedee aquifer, the August–September 2012 groundwater levels were affected by industrial withdrawals in north-central New Hanover County. Groundwater levels in the Peedee aquifer declined more than 20 feet between 1964 and 2012 in northeastern New Hanover County because of increased withdrawals. Vertical gradients

  13. Water-quality conditions, and constituent loads and yields in the Cambridge drinking-water source area, Massachusetts, water years 2005–07

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kirk P.

    2013-01-01

    The source water area for the drinking-water supply of the city of Cambridge, Massachusetts, encompasses major transportation corridors, as well as large areas of light industrial, commercial, and residential land use. Because of ongoing development in the drinking-water source area, the Cambridge water supply has the potential to be affected by a wide variety of contaminants. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has monitored surface-water quality in the Hobbs Brook and Stony Brook Basins, which compose the drinking-water source area, since 1997 (water year 1997) through continuous monitoring and discrete sample collection and, since 2004, through systematic collection of streamwater samples during base-flow and stormflow conditions at five primary sampling stations in the drinking-water source area. Four primary sampling stations are on small tributaries in the Hobbs Brook and Stony Brook Basins; the fifth primary sampling station is on the main stem of Stony Brook and drains about 93 percent of the Cambridge drinking-water source area. Water samples also were collected at six secondary sampling stations, including Fresh Pond Reservoir, the final storage reservoir for the raw water supply. Storm runoff and base-flow concentrations of calcium (Ca), chloride (Cl), sodium (Na), and sulfate (SO4) were estimated from continuous records of streamflow and specific conductance for six monitoring stations, which include the five primary sampling stations. These data were used to characterize current water-quality conditions, estimate loads and yields, and describe trends in Cl and Na in the tributaries and main-stem streams in the Hobbs Brook and Stony Brook Basins. These data also were used to describe how streamwater quality is affected by various watershed characteristics and provide information to guide future watershed management. Water samples were analyzed for physical properties and concentrations of Ca, Cl, Na, and SO4, total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP

  14. Open boundary conditions for tidally and subtidally forced circulation in a limited-area coastal model using the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhiqiang; Gan, Jianping

    2016-08-01

    In limited-area ocean models, open boundary conditions (OBCs) often create dynamic inconsistencies and perform poorly in resolving tidal or subtidal flow when both forces exist. Orlanski-type radiation OBCs are reasonably efficient at treating the subtidally forced flow, and Flather-type OBCs are commonly adapted for the tidally forced flow. However, neither of them performs well when tidal and subtidal forces simultaneously drive the flows. We have developed a novel OBC that integrates the active OBC in Gan and Allen (2005) and a Flather-type OBC. This new OBC accommodates the concurrent Tidal and Subtidal (TST) forcing, and the respective tidal or subtidal forcing, at the open boundary of a limited-area model. This new TST-OBC treats the tidal component with a Flather-type OBC, and it separates subtidal barotropic and baroclinic components into local (forced) and global (unforced) components. Then an unforced Orlanski-type OBC can be applied to the global part. We applied the TST-OBC to all model variables to reduce dynamic inconsistence. Using the Regional Ocean Modeling System, we applied the TST-OBC to the shallow East China Sea shelf where strong tidal and subtidal forces over complex topography govern the circulation. Our numerical experiments and analyses suggest that the TST-OBC was robust for both concurrent tidal-subtidal forcing and solely tidal or subtidal forcing at the open boundary. It reduced spurious energy reflection, and, overall, it performed better than an Orlanski-type or Flather-type OBC in reproducing realistic tidal and subtidal shelf circulation.

  15. Investigation on deposition condition, sedimentary environment and genesis of Mandan and Deh-Now bauxite deposits, Dehdasht area, Kohgiloye and Boyer-Ahmad province: using mineralogical studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Zarasvandi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The Mandan and Deh-Now bauxite deposits are located 40 km northeast of Dehdasht in Kohgiloye and Boyer-Ahmad province in the Zagros simply folded belt. The deposits were formed in the oldest rocks of the area of late Cretaceous age. The bauxite horizon is situated between Sarvak and Ilam formations. The aim of this study is to determine the mineralogy and texture relations of the deposits in order to determine the environment and status of bauxite mineralization. In this way, samples were selected from these bauxite deposits for mineralogical studies based on microscopic and XRD techniques. The bauxite horizon in the Mandan deposit consists of white, gray, black, pisolitic, red and yellow bauxites. The sequence was repeated in the Deh-Now without black and gray bauxites. Mineralogy is similar in all bauxitic layers and the main textures are pisolitic-ooide, ooide-spheroid, pisolitic, pelitomorphic and pseoudomorphic. Bohmite, diaspore, kaolinite and calcite are the most important minerals in both bauxitic layers of the Mandan and Deh-Now deposits. Due to bohmite mineralization in the study area, erosional and intense weathering environment in the Touronian-Cenomanian could be suggested for the deposition of bauxite in these deposits. Existence of interclasts in the pisolites and ooides indicate that these bauxites were transformed from the primary in situ environment to karstic sedimentary basin as authigenic origin. These studies indicate that there are two mineralized facies with different environmental status: (1 oxidation facies with bohmite, diaspore, kaolinite and hematite minerals and (2 reduced facies with pyrite, diaspore and chlorite mineralization. The lack of reduced condition at the Deh-Now deposit shows that the deposit formed only in oxidation status.

  16. Full-Waveform, Wide-Swath Lidar Imaging of Forested and Urban Areas in Leaf-On Conditions: Development, Results and Future Direction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, James B.; Hofton, M.; Rabine, David; Welch, Wayne; Ramos, Luis; Padden, Phillip

    2003-01-01

    Full-Waveform lidar measurements provide unprecedented views of the vertical and horizontal structure of vegetation and the topography of the Earth s surface. Utilizing a high signal-to-noise ratio lidar system, larger than typical laser footprints (10-20 m), and the recorded time history of interaction between a short-duration (approx. 10 ns) pulse of laser light and the surface of the Earth, full-waveform lidar is able to simultaneously image sub-canopy topography as well as the vertical structure of any overlying vegetation. These data reveal the true 3-D vegetation structure in leaf-on conditions enabling important biophysical parameters such as above-ground biomass to be estimated with unprecedented accuracy. An airborne lidar mission was conducted July-August 2003 in support of the North America Carbon Program. NASA s Laser Vegetation Imaging Sensor (LVIS) was used to image approximately 2,000 km$^2$ in Maine, New Hampshire, Massachusetts and Maryland. Areas with available ground and other data were included (e.g., experimental forests, FLUXNET sites) in order to facilitate as many bio- and geophysical investigations as possible. Data collected included ground elevation and canopy height measurements for each laser footprint, as well as the vertical distribution of intercepted surfaces. Data will be publicly distributed within 6- 12 months of collection. Further details of the mission, including the lidar system technology, the locations of the mapped areas, and examples of the numerous data products that can be derived from the return waveform data products will be presented. Future applications including detection of ground and vegetation canopy changes and a spaceborne implementation of wide-swath, full-waveform imaging lidar will also be discussed.

  17. Image processing techniques revealing the relationship between the field-measured ambient gamma dose equivalent rate and geological conditions at a granitic area, Velence Mountains, Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltran Torres, Silvana; Petrik, Attila; Zsuzsanna Szabó, Katalin; Jordan, Gyozo; Szabó, Csaba

    2017-04-01

    In order to estimate the annual dose that the public receive from natural radioactivity, the identification of the potential risk areas is required which, in turn, necessitates understanding the relationship between the spatial distribution of natural radioactivity and the geogenic risk factors (e.g., rock types, dykes, faults, soil conditions, etc.). A detailed spatial analysis of ambient gamma dose equivalent rate was performed in the western side of Velence Mountains, the largest outcropped granitic area in Hungary. In order to assess the role of local geology in the spatial distribution of ambient gamma dose rates, field measurements were carried out at ground level at 300 sites along a 250 m x 250 m regular grid in a total surface of 14.7 km2. Digital image processing methods were applied to identify anomalies, heterogeneities and spatial patterns in the measured gamma dose rates, including local maxima and minima determination, digital cross sections, gradient magnitude and gradient direction, second derivative profile curvature, local variability, lineament density, 2D autocorrelation and directional variogram analyses. Statistical inference showed that different gamma dose rate levels are associated with the rock types (i.e., Carboniferous granite, Pleistocene colluvial, proluvial, deluvial sediments and talus, and Pannonian sand and pebble), with the highest level on the Carboniferous granite including outlying values. Moreover, digital image processing revealed that linear gamma dose rate spatial features are parallel to the SW-NE dyke system and possibly to the NW-SE main fractures. The results of this study underline the importance of understanding the role of geogenic risk factors influencing the ambient gamma dose rate received by public. The study also demonstrates the power of the image processing techniques for the identification of spatial pattern in field-measured geogenic radiation.

  18. Subglacial conditions and Scandinavian Ice Sheet dynamics at the coarse-grained substratum of the fore-mountain area of southern Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamon, Tomasz

    2016-11-01

    The fore-mountain areas of southern Poland are locally composed of the coarse-grained sediments of alluvial fans, which created unusual conditions under the advancing Scandinavian Ice Sheet during the Elsterian glaciation. This highly permeable substratum potentially enabled rapid outflow of meltwater from the ice sheet base, thereby reducing the water pressure and strongly influencing the ice sheet dynamics. The subglacial conditions and the relationship between the ice sheet behaviour and its coarse-grained substratum were studied at the foreland of the western Carpathian Mountains. The sedimentological and structural analysis of the till and related sediments that were deposited above the alluvial gravel of the fore-mountain fans are presented. The study indicates that despite the high permeability of the coarse-grained substratum, it did not slow the ice sheet movement. Conversely, the ice sheet moved mainly due to basal slip and locally shallow deformations. This was a consequence of very high basal water pressure, which resulted largely from the presence of permafrost that restricted subglacial groundwater outflow. In addition, the ice sheet substratum was inclined opposite to the direction of its movement, increasing the pressure of the subglacial water. Numerous subhorizontal sandy laminae within the till indicate that the meltwater from the ice sheet base was drained by a water film along the ice/bed interface. The water escape structures within the till and subtill sediments indicate the occasional instability of the ice sheet hydrological system and suggest that the meltwater was periodically stored in the ice sheet base. Temporal changes occurring in the ice sheet hydrological system might indicate variations in the ice sheet behaviour; i.e. phases of relatively fast ice flow and phases of ice stagnation. The latter were probably correlated with the freezing of the ice margin to its base. The study shows how the coarse-grained substratum could

  19. Involvement of CB1 receptors in the ventral tegmental area in the potentiation of morphine rewarding properties in acquisition but not expression in the conditioned place preference model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashidy-Pour, Ali; Pahlevani, Pouyan; Vaziri, Anoumid; Shaigani, Pariya; Zarepour, Leila; Vafaei, Abbas Ali; Haghparast, Abbas

    2013-06-15

    The ventral tegmental area (VTA) is a critical part of the brain reward system and has been engaged in mediating rewarding actions. CB1 receptors are one of the receptors that mediate the actions of cannabinoids and endocannabinoids in the central nervous system. Our aim was to determine the potentiating effects of CB1 receptors within the VTA in the acquisition and expression of morphine conditioned place preference (CPP). Stereotaxic surgery was performed bilaterally on each rat to administrate WIN55,212-2 (1, 2 and 4 mmol/0.3 μl DMSO) as CB1 receptor agonist and AM251 (15, 45 and 90 mmol/0.3 μl DMSO) as CB1 receptor antagonist. A three-compartment apparatus was used for the CPP test. The results showed that two doses of WIN55,212-2 (2 and 4 mmol) potentiates the rewarding effects of ineffective dose of morphine (2 mg/kg). We did not see any significant difference between any other doses of WIN55,212-2 and vehicle in the group which received the effective dose of morphine (5mg/kg). Additionally, conditioning scores decreased significantly with the highest administrated dose of AM251 (90 mmol) compared to the vehicle group. We did not observe any significant differences in the experiments for CPP expression by WIN55,212-2 or AM251. It seems that the cannabinoid and opioid systems are in interaction with each other and affect dopaminergic and/or non-dopaminergic neurons in the VTA. Blockade of CB1 receptors may increase GABA release, resulting in the reduction of dopamine output followed by a decrease in the acquisition of morphine-induced CPP in rats.

  20. Grapes from the geographical areas of the Black Sea: Agroclimatic growing conditions and evaluation of stable isotopes compositions in scientific study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolesnov Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The report considers the agroclimatic conditions in the Black Sea districts of cultivation and processing of grapes - the Black Sea Lowland, the Crimean Peninsula and the South-west coastal areas of the Greater Caucasus. The IRMS/SIRA techniques - Flash combustion (FC-IRMS/SIRA & Isotopic equilibration (EQ-IRMS/SIRA - were first applied for the evaluation of carbon and oxygen isotopes ratios in the components of grapes from the Crimean Peninsula. The 13C/12C ratios were studied by the FC-IRMS/SIRA in carbohydrates and organic acids in authentic samples of 8 grape varieties from the 2015 harvest. The EQ-IRMS/SIRA was applied to measure the 18O/16O ratios in intracellular water of grapes. The measured δ13CVPDB value ranges from − 25.01 to − 21.01‰ (for carbohydrates, and from − 25.09 to − 21.30‰ (for organic acids. To evaluate the extent of biological isotope fractionation the 18O/16O ratios were measured in ground water and water of atmospheric precipitates from the Crimean Peninsula. Compared to ground (δ18OVSMOW from − 10.85 to − 8.14‰ and atmospheric (average δ18OVSMOW− 2.85‰ waters, the intracellular water of Crimean grape varieties is found to be enriched with 18O isotope. The δ18OVSMOW value of the grape intracellular water varies from 2.34 to 5.29‰ according to agroclimatic conditions of the season in 2015.

  1. Application of Clinopyroxene Chemistry to Interpret the Physical Conditions of Ascending Magma, a Case Study of Eocene Volcanic Rocks in the Ghohrud Area (North of Isfahan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Sayari

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Volcanic rocks with a porphyritic texture have experienced two crystallization stages. The first is slow, resulting in phenocrysts, and the second, which took place at, or near the surface, or during intrusion into a cooler body of rock, result in a groundmass of glass, or fine crystals. The pressure and temperature history of a magma during crystallization is recorded in the chemical composition of the phenocrysts during both stages. These phenocrysts provide valuable data about the physicochemical conditions of the parent magma during the process of crystallization. The composition of clinopyroxene (cpx reflects not only the chemical condition and therefore the magmatic series, but also the physical conditions, i.e., temperature and pressure of a magma at the time when clinopyroxene crystallized. The Ghohrud area lies in the middle part of the Urumieh-Dokhtar Magmatic Arc , which is part of a much larger magmatic province extending in a vast region of convergence between Arabia and Eurasia north of the Zagros-Bitlis suture zone (Dilek et al., 2010. In the Ghohrud area, north of Isfahan, exposed Eocene volcanic rocks belong to the first pulse of Cenozoic volcanism of Iran (Sayari, 2015, ranging in composition from andesitic basalt to basalt. The basaltic rocks of the Ghohrud area are composed mainly of plagioclase phenocrysts surrounded by smaller crystals of clinopyroxene in a groundmass of microlites, glass and opaques. In this study, the clinopyroxene and plagioclase of these rocks were analyzed in order to estimate the physicochemical conditions of the parent magmas. Results Clinopyroxene and plagioclase phenocrysts of nineteen samples were analyzed with the electron microprobe. The chemical compositions of the clinopyroxenes were used to estimate both the chemical evolution and temperature and pressure conditions of the magmas during crystallization, using SCG, a specialized software for clinopyroxene thermobarometry (Sayari

  2. Surveillance for Certain Health Behaviors and Conditions Among States and Selected Local Areas - Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, United States, 2013 and 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, Sonya; Mawokomatanda, Tebitha; Xu, Fang; Chowdhury, Pranesh P; Pierannunzi, Carol; Flegel, David; Garvin, William; Town, Machell

    2017-09-15

    Chronic diseases and conditions (e.g., heart diseases, stroke, arthritis, and diabetes) are the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in the United States. These conditions are costly to the U.S. economy, yet they are often preventable or controllable. Behavioral risk factors (e.g., excessive alcohol consumption, tobacco use, poor diet, frequent mental distress, and insufficient sleep) are linked to the leading causes of morbidity and mortality. Adopting positive health behaviors (e.g., staying physically active, quitting tobacco use, obtaining routine physical checkups, and checking blood pressure and cholesterol levels) can reduce morbidity and mortality from chronic diseases and conditions. Monitoring the health risk behaviors, chronic diseases and conditions, access to health care, and use of preventive health services at multilevel public health points (states, territories, and metropolitan and micropolitan statistical areas [MMSA]) can provide important information for development and evaluation of health intervention programs. 2013 and 2014. The Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) is an ongoing, state-based, random-digit-dialed telephone survey of noninstitutionalized adults aged ≥18 years residing in the United States. BRFSS collects data on health risk behaviors, chronic diseases and conditions, access to health care, and use of preventive health services and practices related to the leading causes of death and disability in the United States and participating territories. This is the first BRFSS report to include age-adjusted prevalence estimates. For 2013 and 2014, these age-adjusted prevalence estimates are presented for all 50 states, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, Guam, and selected MMSA. Age-adjusted prevalence estimates of health status indicators, health care access and preventive practices, health risk behaviors, chronic diseases and conditions, and cardiovascular conditions vary by state, territory

  3. Seasonal variations of all-cause and cause-specific mortality by age, gender, and socioeconomic condition in urban and rural areas of Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkart, Katrin; Khan, Mobarak H; Krämer, Alexander; Breitner, Susanne; Schneider, Alexandra; Endlicher, Wilfried R

    2011-08-04

    Mortality exhibits seasonal variations, which to a certain extent can be considered as mid-to long-term influences of meteorological conditions. In addition to atmospheric effects, the seasonal pattern of mortality is shaped by non-atmospheric determinants such as environmental conditions or socioeconomic status. Understanding the influence of season and other factors is essential when seeking to implement effective public health measures. The pressures of climate change make an understanding of the interdependencies between season, climate and health especially important. This study investigated daily death counts collected within the Sample Vital Registration System (VSRS) established by the Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics (BBS). The sample was stratified by location (urban vs. rural), gender and socioeconomic status. Furthermore, seasonality was analyzed for all-cause mortality, and several cause-specific mortalities. Daily deviation from average mortality was calculated and seasonal fluctuations were elaborated using non parametric spline smoothing. A seasonality index for each year of life was calculated in order to assess the age-dependency of seasonal effects. We found distinctive seasonal variations of mortality with generally higher levels during the cold season. To some extent, a rudimentary secondary summer maximum could be observed. The degree and shape of seasonality changed with the cause of death as well as with location, gender, and SES and was strongly age-dependent. Urban areas were seen to be facing an increased summer mortality peak, particularly in terms of cardiovascular mortality. Generally, children and the elderly faced stronger seasonal effects than youths and young adults. This study clearly demonstrated the complex and dynamic nature of seasonal impacts on mortality. The modifying effect of spatial and population characteristics were highlighted. While tropical regions have been, and still are, associated with a marked excess of

  4. Seasonal variations of all-cause and cause-specific mortality by age, gender, and socioeconomic condition in urban and rural areas of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burkart Katrin

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mortality exhibits seasonal variations, which to a certain extent can be considered as mid-to long-term influences of meteorological conditions. In addition to atmospheric effects, the seasonal pattern of mortality is shaped by non-atmospheric determinants such as environmental conditions or socioeconomic status. Understanding the influence of season and other factors is essential when seeking to implement effective public health measures. The pressures of climate change make an understanding of the interdependencies between season, climate and health especially important. Methods This study investigated daily death counts collected within the Sample Vital Registration System (VSRS established by the Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics (BBS. The sample was stratified by location (urban vs. rural, gender and socioeconomic status. Furthermore, seasonality was analyzed for all-cause mortality, and several cause-specific mortalities. Daily deviation from average mortality was calculated and seasonal fluctuations were elaborated using non parametric spline smoothing. A seasonality index for each year of life was calculated in order to assess the age-dependency of seasonal effects. Results We found distinctive seasonal variations of mortality with generally higher levels during the cold season. To some extent, a rudimentary secondary summer maximum could be observed. The degree and shape of seasonality changed with the cause of death as well as with location, gender, and SES and was strongly age-dependent. Urban areas were seen to be facing an increased summer mortality peak, particularly in terms of cardiovascular mortality. Generally, children and the elderly faced stronger seasonal effects than youths and young adults. Conclusion This study clearly demonstrated the complex and dynamic nature of seasonal impacts on mortality. The modifying effect of spatial and population characteristics were highlighted. While tropical regions have

  5. Multiple assessment of the soil cover in the area of natural monuments Tra-Tau and Yurak-Tau monadnocks under conditions of technogenic loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbasova, I. M.; Suleymanov, R. R.; Khabirov, I. K.; Komissarov, M. A.; Garipov, T. T.; Sidorova, L. V.; Nazyrova, F. I.

    2014-02-01

    The soil cover of Tra-Tau and Yurak-Tau shikhans (monadnocks) has been examined. Leached and typical medium-deep chernozems are developed on colluvial fans on the footslopes and on the lower parts of slopes, whereas typical calcareous thin slightly and moderately gravelly chernozems are developed on the upper and medium parts of slopes. The leached and typical chernozems of the footslopes correspond to zonal soils of the adjacent plain areas, though they have some specific features related to the local topographic conditions. These soils are somewhat thinner than plain chernozems and are characterized by the perfect granular water-stable structure, the high content of humus of the humate type, the high content of exchangeable cations, strong acid-base buffering, and high enzymatic activity. These features predetermine their high tolerance towards technogenic impacts. The concentrations of highly hazardous substances of the first toxicity class (mercury, arsenic, lead, and cadmium) and of moderately hazardous substances of the second toxicity class (copper, zinc, and nickel), as well as the concentrations of low-hazardous elements (manganese and iron) in these soils do not exceed provisional maximum permissible concentrations of these substances in soils irrespectively of the slope aspect. No changes in the physicochemical and biological properties of the soils under the impact of technogenic loads from Sterlitamak industrial center have been identified.

  6. The Study of Living Conditions and Perceived Needs for Social Security among Clergy in China: A Case Study of Guanzhong Qinling Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Shaoguo; Zhuang, Qi; Wang, Pei; Wang, Zhaoxi; Coyte, Peter C

    2017-02-17

    This study used quantitative and qualitative data collected in the Guanzhong Qinling area of China to examine living conditions and perceived needs for social security among men and women of the clergy. The survey finds that most respondent clergy are Buddhists. When the clergy have economic difficulties, their main types of support include self-support (28.8%), help from other believers (25.6%), and assistance from other community residents (18.4%). When the clergy are old, they tend to live alone (25%), receive institutional care from religious organizations (19%), and receive support from other believers (18%). When the clergy are ill, they will often select self-treatment (primarily the use of traditional Chinese medicine [25%], and spiritual healing [25%], including meditation, prayers, and psychotherapy) and receive treatment at hospitals (20%). The study found that the clergy perceived their needs for social security as either great (19.7%) or modest (36.5%). Very few clergy (10%) indicate the absence of social security needs. Most clergy believe that the key social security priorities should be medical care (34%), elderly care (29%), and charitable assistance (21%).

  7. Precarity: causes, effects and consequences of insecure working and living conditions in a multicultural, rural area of northern Italy (South Tyrol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Tschöll

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The research project deals with the current issue of precarity, its mechanisms, risks, effects, coping strategies as well as coping competences and addresses the impact of work-based insecurities, rising social inequalities within and across nations, with a specific regional focus on South Tyrol - a multicultural, rural area in northern Italy, bordering with Austria. Finally, it is important to identify possible innovative solutions for the labour market, Human Resources strategies and social policies. The concept of work will be related to all securitized fundamental rights, their socialization context, the global change of values and the social change in the welfare state. The recent transformation from discourses on inequality and poverty towards social exclusion and inclusion indicates a conceptual shift in the societal management of social inequalities. The global financial crisis has highlighted the connectedness between corporate and household risk behaviour and management, and their socially inequitable effects. The interdisciplinary view enables a focus on multiple insecurities and how they interact to produce precarious work relations, in reference to working conditions and the experience of social exclusion, the links between de-regulation, liberalization and the individualization of employment risks, but also the development of interest representation and social organizations for supporting labour market outsiders. The paper describes the current process of defining the research design, preliminary reflections for the case study and shows first outcomes of the project.

  8. Actual Condition of Paddy Field Levee Maintenance by Various Farm Households including Large-scale Farming in the Developed Land Renting Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakata, Yasuyo

    The survey of interview, resource acquisition, photographic operation, and questionnaire were carried out in the “n” Community in the “y” District in Hakusan City in Ishikawa Prefecture to investigate the actual condition of paddy field levee maintenance in the area where land-renting market was proceeding, large-scale farming was dominant, and the problems of geographically scattered farm-land existed. In the study zone, 1) an agricultural production legal person rent-cultivated some of the paddy fields and maintained the levees, 2) another agricultural production legal person rent-cultivated some of the soy bean fields for crop changeover and land owners maintained the levees. The results indicated that sufficient maintenance was executed on the levees of the paddy fields cultivated by the agricultural production legal person, the soy bean fields for crop changeover, and the paddy fields cultivated by the land owners. Each reason is considered to be the managerial strategy, the economic incentive, the mutual monitoring and cross-regulatory mechanism, etc.

  9. Evaluation of Final Radiological Conditions at Areas of the Niagara Falls Storage Site Remediated under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program - 12184

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clayton, Christopher [U.S Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management, Washington, DC (United States); Kothari, Vijendra [U.S Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management, Morgantown, West Virginia (United States); Starr, Ken [U.S Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management, Westminster, Colorado (United States); Widdop, Michael; Gillespie, Joey [SM Stoller Corporation, Grand Junction, Colorado (United States)

    2012-07-01

    the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and state and federal regulators. After review of historical site documentation, DOE reports, and USACE radiological data, DOE concluded the following: - DOE had access to adequate documentation to evaluate site conditions at the former LOOW. This is important to confirm now, while institutional knowledge of early FUSRAP work remains available. - DOE remediated the completed VPs to conditions that are protective for unrestricted residential use. Sample and walkover gamma scan results indicate that no wastes remain that exceed cleanup criteria. - Process knowledge and field observations establish that Cs-137 is the predominant radionuclide in the KAPL waste stream. Cs-137, a strong gamma emitter, was used as an indicator for remediation of KAPL waste. Other radionuclides were present in much lower relative concentrations and were likely also removed during remediation of the VPs. - KAPL contaminants were removed during remedial activities at the former LOOW as either co-located or co-mingled with other radionuclides. - For the active VPs (VP-E, VP-E', and VP-G), results of DOE's cleanup of the accessible portions of these properties indicate that KAPL waste does not remain at concentrations greater than the DOE cleanup limit: - Inaccessible areas were not associated with historic KAPL waste handling. Therefore, it is unlikely that KAPL waste remains on the active VPs. - Because gamma activity was used by DOE during remediation/verification activities for excavation control, additional USACE cleanup of FUSRAP wastes on these properties will likely result in the remediation of any co-located residual KAPL wastes to acceptable levels or identification of KAPL waste that is not co-located. - Although USACE has not established a cleanup level for Cs-137 on the active NFSS VPs, DOE assessment and remediation data indicate that assessed Cs-137 was remediated and significant Cs-137 is unlikely to remain. Because of the low likelihood

  10. Perancangan dan Pembuatan Sistem Informasi Gudang (Studi Kasus : PT. PLN (Persero Area Surabaya Barat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budi Prasetyo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Sistem informasi berbasis komputerisasi merupakan salah satu faktor penting bagi perusahaan - perusahaan dalam mengelola segala aktifitas perusahaan. Bahkan penggunaan teknologi komputer tersebut akan menjadi syarat utama untuk menunjukkan kualitas suatu bidang dan menjadi modal terpenting dalam memenangkan persaingan. Sistem Informasi Gudang di PT. PLN (Persero Area Surabaya Utara dibangun karena masih menggunakan cara manual untuk melakukan penerimaan barang datang, permintaan barang, dan pemberian barang, sehingga mempengaruhi dalam pelaksanaan operasional kerja, baik dalam segi kecepatan, pelayanan, dari segi informasi yang dihasilkan. Untuk itu diperlukan suatu sistem yang dapat memudahkan manajemen dalam mengelola seluruh aktifitas yang ada di gudang. Sistem Informasi Gudang PT.PLN (Persero Area Surabaya Utara adalah suatu sistem yang mengelola data barang, data rayon, dan transaksi yang ada di gudang. Sistem ini menggambarkan rangkaian kegiatan dari mulai mengelola barang datang, permintaan barang, barang keluar hingga pelaporannya. Setelah melalui tahapan analisis dan implementasi, kemudian dilakukan tahapan selanjutnya yaitu tahap pengujian sistem dimana pengujian ini menggunakan metode pengujian white box yang berfokus pada pengujian perangkat lunak. Dari hasil pengujian, dapat ditarik kesimpulan bahwa Sistem Informasi Gudang di PT.PLN (Pesero Area Surabaya dibangun untuk mempermudah manajemen dalam melakukan pengawasan dan pengendalian di gudang.

  11. Determination of Critical Conditions of Spontaneous Combustion of Coal in Longwall Gob Areas / Wyznaczanie Warunków Krytycznych Samozapalania Węgla W Zrobach Ścian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cygankiewicz, Janusz

    2015-09-01

    Decades of experience in the fight against endogenous fire hazard in coal mines indicate a major influence of certain conditions in a given area of the mine on the possibility of fire occurrence, such as: susceptibility of coals to spontaneous combustion, oxygen content in the air incoming to the self-heating coal, conditions of heat exchange between the self-heating coal mass and the environment This paper presents a numerical method for determining the critical conditions of spontaneous combustion of coal in longwall gob areas, i.e. conditions under which spontaneous combustion may occur. It has been assumed that crushed coal in the gob has a shape of a flat layer adjacent from the roof and floor side to the rocks. Our considerations have been limited to coals containing small amount of moisture. A simple model of oxidation kinetics on the coal surface expressed by the Arrhenius equation has been adopted. This model assumes that oxidation rate is independent of the amount of oxygen absorbed by coal. The rate of reaction depends only on temperature, with the parameters of the equation changing after the coal has reached the critical temperature. The article presents also a mathematical model of spontaneous heating of the coal layer in the gob area. It describes the heat balance in the coal as well as the oxygen and heat balance in the flowing gases. The model consists of a system of differential equations which are solved using numerical techniques. The developed computer program enables to perform the relevant calculations. In this paper, on the example of coal from a seam 405, we present the method for determining the following critical parameters of the layer of crushed coal: thickness of the layer, oxygen content in a stream of gases flowing through the layer and thermal conductivity of surrounding rocks. Wieloletnie doświadczenie w zakresie zwalczania zagrożenia pożarem endogenicznym w kopalniach wskazują na zasadniczy wpływ na możliwość zaistnienia

  12. Well-being perceived and working conditions at ENEA research center; La valutazione soggettiva del benessere lavorativo in un campione di dipendenti ENEA dell'area bolognese

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cenni, P.; Fagarazzi, G. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Ezio Clementel, Bologna (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente; Sarchielli, M.; Zanobini, F. [Bologna Univ., Bologna (Italy). Dipt. di Psicologia

    1999-07-01

    The aim of this research on 143 workers of the ENEA area in Bologna, has been to survey the degree of well-being perceived and expressed by these workers with respect to different factors of the work environment. This study follows some training/information seminars on environment, health and safety organized in ENEA by Occupational Medicine Group to comply with Leg. Decr. 626/94. In a multidisciplinary approach the health idea has been interpreted not as lack of illness but as pursuit and preservation of the well-being in the work environment. For this purpose, also the involvement and participation of the workers seem to be very useful for subjective reports about individual task, equipment, interfaces, workplace and work organization. In this research, we have adopted an ergonomic checklist based on guiding principles to be applied to the design of optimal working conditions with regard to human well-being, safety and health (see UNI ENV 26385, 1991). Data processing and analysis have requested occupational medicine, ergonomics and statistics competencies. [Italian] La ricerca condotta su un campione ENEA di 143 dipendenti dell'area bolognese ha inteso verificare il grado di benessere percepito ed espresso dai lavoratori in rapporto alle diverse variabili presenti nel contesto lavorativo. Tale indagine e' stata preceduta da specifici seminari di formazione/informazione su ambiente, salute e sicurezza, organizzati a cura della Medicina del Lavoro di Bologna presso le sedi ENEA, a seguito delle disposizioni contenute nel D.Lvo. 626/94. In un'ottica multidisciplinare, il concetto di salute e' stato interpretato non tanto come assenza di malattia quanto come ricerca e mantenimento del benessere lavorativo e, per raggiungere questo scopo, sembra essere molto utile anche il diretto coinvolgimento e la partecipazione dei lavoratori per valutazioni soggettive sulle mansioni assegnate, le attrezzature, le interfacce, la postazione di lavoro e l

  13. Influence of sub-surface irrigation on soil conditions and water irrigation efficiency in a cherry orchard in a hilly semi-arid area of northern China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Peng

    Full Text Available Sub-surface irrigation (SUI is a new water-saving irrigation technology. To explore the influence of SUI on soil conditions in a cherry orchard and its water-saving efficiency, experiments were conducted from 2009 to 2010 using both SUI and flood irrigation (FLI and different SUI quotas in hilly semi-arid area of northern China. The results demonstrated the following: 1 The bulk density of the soil under SUI was 6.8% lower than that of soil under FLI (P<0.01. The total soil porosity, capillary porosity and non-capillary porosity of soils using SUI were 11.7% (P<0.01, 8.7% (P<0.01 and 43.8% (P<0.01 higher than for soils using FLI. 2 The average soil temperatures at 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 cm of soil depth using SUI were 1.7, 1.1, 0.7, 0.4 and 0.3°C higher than those for FLI, specifically, the differences between the surface soil layers were more significant. 3 Compared with FLI, the average water-saving efficiency of SUI was 55.6%, and SUI increased the irrigation productivity by 7.9-12.3 kg m(-3 ha(-1. 4 The soil moisture of different soil layers using SUI increased with increases in the irrigation quotas, and the soil moisture contents under SUI were significantly higher in the 0-20 cm layer and in the 21-50 cm layer than those under FLI (P<0.01. 5 The average yields of cherries under SUI with irrigation quotas of 80-320 m(3 ha(-1 were 8.7%-34.9% higher than those in soil with no irrigation (CK2. The average yields of cherries from soils using SUI were 4.5%-12.2% higher than using FLI. It is appropriate to irrigate 2-3 times with 230 m(3 ha(-1 per application using SUI in a year with normal rainfall. Our findings indicated that SUI could maintain the physical properties, greatly improve irrigation water use efficiency, and significantly increase fruit yields in hilly semi-arid areas of northern China.

  14. Functional ratios among leaf, xylem and phloem areas in branches change with shade tolerance, but not with local light conditions, across temperate tree species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Lan; Copini, Paul; Weemstra, Monique; Sterck, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Leaf, xylem and phloem areas drive the water and carbon fluxes within branches and trees, but their mutual coordination is poorly understood. We test the hypothesis that xylem and phloem areas increase relative to leaf area when species are selected for, or branches are exposed to, higher levels

  15. Basic sanitation, socioeconomic conditions, and degree of risk for the presence and maintenance of malaria in a low-transmission area in the Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais Hetierre Abreu Monteiro

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTINTRODUCTION:This study aimed to evaluate basic sanitation and socioeconomic indicators, reported cases of malaria, and risk of contracting malaria in the Ananindeua municipality, State of Pará.METHODS:Data on basic sanitation and socioeconomic dimensions were taken from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics [ Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (IBGE] 2010 census. Epidemiological malaria information was taken from the Epidemiological Malaria Surveillance Information System [ Sistema de Informação de Vigilância Epidemiológica de Malária (SIVEP/Malaria], between 2003 and 2013 of the Ministry of Health and from the SIVEP/Malaria forms of the municipality's Endemic Diseases Unit for 2,013 cases.RESULTS:Our data do not confirm the correlation among indicators of basic sanitation, socioeconomic conditions, and water supply with malaria cases. Of the 1,557 cases evaluated, most were caused by Plasmodium vivax , with rare cases of Plasmodium falciparum and mixed infections. There were 756 notifications in 2003. The number of reported cases was sharply reduced between 2006 and 2012, but a 142-case outbreak occurred in 2013. Ananindeua municipality's Annual Parasite Index indicated low risk in 2003 and no risk in other years, and the 2,013 cases were predominantly male individuals aged ≥40 years.CONCLUSIONS:Our data confirm the non-endemicity of malaria in the Ananindeua municipality, as the Annual Parasite Indices described for the years 2004-2013 classify it as a risk-free area. However, the 2013 outbreak indicates the need to strengthen prevention, surveillance, and control activities to reduce the risk of new outbreaks and consequent economic and social impacts on the population.

  16. Basic sanitation, socioeconomic conditions, and degree of risk for the presence and maintenance of malaria in a low-transmission area in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Thais Hetierre Abreu; Chaves, Tânia do Socorro Souza; Matos, Haroldo José de; Sofffiatti, Nelson Fernando de Lisboa; Guimarães, Ricardo José de Paula Souza e; Guimarães, Luis Henrique Rocha; Ventura, Ana Maria Revoredo; Machado, Ricardo Luiz Dantas

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate basic sanitation and socioeconomic indicators, reported cases of malaria, and risk of contracting malaria in the Ananindeua municipality, State of Pará. Data on basic sanitation and socioeconomic dimensions were taken from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics [ Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (IBGE)] 2010 census. Epidemiological malaria information was taken from the Epidemiological Malaria Surveillance Information System [ Sistema de Informação de Vigilância Epidemiológica de Malária (SIVEP/Malaria)], between 2003 and 2013 of the Ministry of Health and from the SIVEP/Malaria forms of the municipality's Endemic Diseases Unit for 2,013 cases. Our data do not confirm the correlation among indicators of basic sanitation, socioeconomic conditions, and water supply with malaria cases. Of the 1,557 cases evaluated, most were caused by Plasmodium vivax , with rare cases of Plasmodium falciparum and mixed infections. There were 756 notifications in 2003. The number of reported cases was sharply reduced between 2006 and 2012, but a 142-case outbreak occurred in 2013. Ananindeua municipality's Annual Parasite Index indicated low risk in 2003 and no risk in other years, and the 2,013 cases were predominantly male individuals aged ≥40 years. Our data confirm the non-endemicity of malaria in the Ananindeua municipality, as the Annual Parasite Indices described for the years 2004-2013 classify it as a risk-free area. However, the 2013 outbreak indicates the need to strengthen prevention, surveillance, and control activities to reduce the risk of new outbreaks and consequent economic and social impacts on the population.

  17. The prevalence and functional impact of musculoskeletal conditions amongst clients of a primary health care facility in an under-resourced area of Cape Town.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Romy; Jelsma, Jennifer

    2010-01-04

    The extent of disease burden of musculoskeletal conditions (MSC) not due to injury has not been well determined in sub-Saharan Africa. The 1999 Global Burden of Disease study estimated the prevalence of osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis to be 150/100,000 compared to 1,500/100,000 in Europe. The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence of MSC and the functional implications in a sample of people attending community health centres in Cape Town, South Africa. A cross-sectional, descriptive study was conducted in clinics in two resource poor communities. Phase I consisted of screening and those who screened positive for peripheral or spinal joint pain went on to complete Phase II, which included the Stanford Health Assessment Questionnaire. 1005 people were screened in Phase I. Of these, 362 (36%) reported MSC not due to injury in the past three months. Those with MSC had higher rates of co-morbidities in every category than those without. The mean Disability Index for those with MSC was mild to moderate and moderate to severe in those over 55 years. Although the sample may not be representative of the general community, the prevalence is considerably greater than those reported elsewhere even when the population of the catchment area is used as a denominator, (367/100 000). The common presentation of MSC with co-morbid diabetes and hypertension requires holistic management by appropriately trained health care practitioners. Any new determination of burden of disease due to MSC should recognise that these disorders may be more prevalent in developing countries than previously estimated.

  18. The prevalence and functional impact of musculoskeletal conditions amongst clients of a primary health care facility in an under-resourced area of Cape Town

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelsma Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The extent of disease burden of musculoskeletal conditions (MSC not due to injury has not been well determined in sub-Saharan Africa. The 1999 Global Burden of Disease study estimated the prevalence of osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis to be 150/100,000 compared to 1,500/100,000 in Europe. The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence of MSC and the functional implications in a sample of people attending community health centres in Cape Town, South Africa. Methods A cross-sectional, descriptive study was conducted in clinics in two resource poor communities. Phase I consisted of screening and those who screened positive for peripheral or spinal joint pain went on to complete Phase II, which included the Stanford Health Assessment Questionnaire. Results 1005 people were screened in Phase I. Of these, 362 (36% reported MSC not due to injury in the past three months. Those with MSC had higher rates of co-morbidities in every category than those without. The mean Disability Index for those with MSC was mild to moderate and moderate to severe in those over 55 years. Conclusions Although the sample may not be representative of the general community, the prevalence is considerably greater than those reported elsewhere even when the population of the catchment area is used as a denominator, (367/100 000. The common presentation of MSC with co-morbid diabetes and hypertension requires holistic management by appropriately trained health care practitioners. Any new determination of burden of disease due to MSC should recognise that these disorders may be more prevalent in developing countries than previously estimated.

  19. Inhibitory effect of selenium supplementation on the reproductive performance in synchronized Merino sheep at range conditions in a selenium-deficient area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, J; Jiménez, A; Regodón, S; Andrés, S

    2008-06-01

    The effect of selenium (Se) supplementation on the reproductive performance of Merino ewes mated out of the normal breeding season was studied in a 2 (no Se supplementation vs Se supplementation) x 2 (ewes mated at natural oestrus vs synchronized oestrus) factorial design with 50 ewes per treatment combination. Synchronization of oestrus was achieved by intravaginal insertion of 40 mg cronolone sponges for 14 days and administration of 440 IU PMSG at sponge withdrawal. Se supplementation was by the addition to the concentrate with 0.5 mg/kg of Se in the form of selenomethionin, for the 3 months prior to the mating and during gestation. Ewes were kept under range conditions in south-west Spain, and exposed to Merino rams at a female: male ratio of 4 : 1 from 2 days following sponge withdrawal, or the equivalent time, for 21 days. Se supplementation alone did not improve significantly ewe fertility or lamb birth weight, but there was a positive effect of synchronizing ewes mated out of the breeding season as more of these ewes lambed and produced more lambs than those not synchronized. However, a strong interaction was found between synchronization and Se supplementation, causing a deleterious effect on the reproductive performance of ewes. This negative effect, presumably related to high embrionary mortality caused by Se toxicity, should be taken into account for oestrus synchronizing in Se-deficient areas. The supplementation with Se, for the prevention of nutritional myodystrophy degeneration in lambs, should be conducted in a fashion which does not generate high levels of Se in the ewes around the mating period.

  20. Hydrologic conditions and quality of rainfall and storm runoff for two agricultural areas of the Oso Creek Watershed, Nueces County, Texas, 2005-07

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ockerman, Darwin J.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Texas State Soil and Water Conservation Board, Coastal Bend Bays and Estuaries Program, and Texas AgriLife Research and Extension Center at Corpus Christi, studied hydrologic conditions and quality of rainfall and storm runoff of two (primarily) agricultural areas (subwatersheds) of the Oso Creek watershed in Nueces County, Texas. One area, the upper West Oso Creek subwatershed, is 5,145 acres. The other area, a subwatershed drained by an unnamed Oso Creek tributary (hereinafter, Oso Creek tributary), is 5,287 acres. Rainfall and runoff (streamflow) were continuously monitored at the outlets of the two subwatersheds during October 2005-September 2007. Fourteen rainfall samples were collected and analyzed for nutrients and major inorganic ions. Nineteen composite runoff samples (10 West Oso Creek, nine Oso Creek tributary) were collected and analyzed for nutrients, major inorganic ions, and pesticides. Twenty-two discrete suspended-sediment samples (10 West Oso Creek, 12 Oso Creek tributary) and 13 bacteria samples (eight West Oso Creek, five Oso Creek tributary) were collected and analyzed. These data were used to estimate, for selected constituents, rainfall deposition to and runoff loads and yields from the study subwatersheds. Quantities of fertilizers and pesticides applied in the subwatersheds were compared with quantities of nutrients and pesticides in rainfall and runoff. For the study period, total rainfall was greater than average. Most of the runoff at both subwatershed outlet sites occurred in response to a few specific storm periods. The West Oso Creek subwatershed produced more runoff during the study period than the Oso Creek tributary subwatershed, 10.83 inches compared with 7.28 inches. Runoff response was quicker and peak flows were higher in the West Oso Creek subwatershed than in the Oso Creek tributary subwatershed. Total nitrogen runoff yield for the 2-year study period averaged 2.61 pounds

  1. Surveillance of certain health behaviors and conditions among states and selected local areas --- Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, United States, 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chaoyang; Balluz, Lina S; Okoro, Catherine A; Strine, Tara W; Lin, Jin-Mann S; Town, Machell; Garvin, William; Murphy, Wilmon; Bartoli, William; Valluru, Balarami

    2011-08-19

    Chronic diseases and conditions (e.g., heart disease, cancer, stroke, and diabetes) are the leading causes of death in the United States. Controlling health risk behaviors and conditions (e.g., smoking, physical inactivity, poor diet, excessive drinking, and obesity) and using preventive health-care services (e.g., physical examination, vaccination, screening for high blood pressure and high cholesterol, consumption of fruits and vegetables, and participation in regular leisure-time physical activity) can reduce morbidity and mortality from chronic diseases. January 2009--December 2009. The Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) is an ongoing state-based random-digit--dialed telephone survey of noninstitutionalized adults aged ≥18 years residing in the United States. BRFSS collects data on health risk behaviors and conditions, chronic diseases and conditions, access to health care, and use of preventative health services and practices related to the leading causes of death and disabilities in the United States. This report presents results for 2009 for all 50 states, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, Guam, the U.S. Virgin Islands, 180 metropolitan and micropolitan statistical areas (MMSAs), and 283 selected counties. In 2009, the estimated prevalence of general health status, use of preventive health-care services, health risk behaviors and conditions, chronic diseases, and health impairments and disabilities varied substantially by state and territory, MMSA, and county. The following is a summary of results listed by BRFSS question topics. Each set of proportions refers to the range of estimated prevalence for the disease, condition, or behavior, as reported by the survey respondent. Adults who reported having fair or poor health: 10.1%--30.9% for states and territories, 7.9%--25.8% for MMSAs, and 4.5%--26.1% for counties. Adults with health-care coverage: 71.4%--94.7% for states and territories, 52.7%--96.3% for MMSAs, and

  2. Efektivitas Peran Auditor Internal di UIN Syarif Hidayatullah Jakarta yang Ditunjukkan Oleh PP No. 60 Tahun 2008: “Sistem Pengendalian Intern Pemerintah (SPIP”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusar Sagara

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of the Internal Auditor's role in UIN Syarif Hidayatullah Jakarta Shown By Regulation No. 60 of 2008: "Government Internal Control System (SPIP". This study aims to determine the factors that can create conditions for a good university governance focus more factors that analyzed the role of internal auditors in UIN Syarif Hidayatullah Jakarta. This research was conducted with descriptive method, using research data sources such as government regulation, Regulation, Regulation of the Inspector General, the Statute of UIN Syarif Hidayatullah Jakarta and Regulations Rector. Data collected later dideskriptifkan, analyzed logically, systematic, and consistent with the research paper more detailed and in-depth. Therefore in view of the explanatory data, this research study is referred to as the analytical descriptive. The main finding of this study is that the regulations governing the Internal Control Unit (SPI, especially concerning the role, functions, duties, powers and responsibilities and organizational support is adequate. The findings of the examiner's next is the terminology used by SPI at UIN Syarif Hidayatullah Jakarta is right. Competence of personnel seen backdrop of education is appropriate. Limitations of this study is factor analyzed only on the role of auditors. The author suggests the existence of such advanced research is to expand the knowledge management factors.DOI: 10.15408/ess.v5i1.2336

  3. PENGENDALIAN PERKAWINAN DINI (CHILD MARRIAGE MELALUI PENGEMBANGAN MODUL PENDIDIKAN PENYADARAN HUKUM : STUDI KASUS PADA MASYARAKAT SUBKULTUR MADURA DI DAERAH TAPAL KUDA, JAWA TIMUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Hanafi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini mencoba untuk mengembangkan modul pendidikan berorientasi pengakuan hukum untuk menghindari praktik pernikahan anak di bawah umur, terutama di Madura Sub-Budaya Masyarakat di daerah tapal kuda. Hasilnya adalah modul pendidikan yang terdiri atas tiga paket. Paket I berisi istilah perkawinan dan anak-anak di bawah usia sahnya dalam perspektif hukum Islam, hukum nasional dan hak asasi manusia internasional. Paket II resiko dan bahaya pernikahan anak di bawah umur, baik fisik, psikologis, medis dan seksual. Paket III berisi rencana kebijakan dan rencana aksi untuk pencegahan praktik pernikahan anak di bawah umur yang dirancang secara sinergis di segala bidang, baik hukum, politik, pendidikan, agama dan sosial-ekonomi. Bahan Modul dikembangkan berdasarkan pendekatan kompetensi. Seperti biasa bahan berbasis kompetensi, maka modul adalah hasil dari perkembangan ini akan terdiri dari: standar kompetensi, kompetensi dasar, indikator, tema, strategi, media, penilaian, dan alokasi waktu ABSTRACT This research tried to develop educational module orientated in law recognition to avoid the practice of child marriage under age, especially in Madura Sub-Culture Community in Horseshoe Area. The result is an educational module which consist three packages. Package I contains the terms marriage and children under the age of legality in the perspective of Islamic jurisprudence, national laws and international human rights. Package II risks and dangers of the marriage of child marriage under age, whether physical, psychological, medical and sexual. Package III contains policy plan and action plan for the prevention of child marriage practices designed underage synergistically in all fields, whether legal, political, educational, religious and socio-economic. The materials module was developed based on the competency approach. As usual competency-based material, then the module is the result of this development will consist of: competency standards

  4. Hydrologic conditions and water quality of rainfall and storm runoff for two agricultural areas of the Oso Creek watershed, Nueces County, Texas, 2005-08

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ockerman, Darwin J.; Fernandez, Carlos J.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Texas State Soil and Water Conservation Board, Coastal Bend Bays and Estuaries Program, and Texas AgriLife Research and Extension Center at Corpus Christi, studied hydrologic conditions and water quality of rainfall and storm runoff of two primarily agricultural subwatersheds of the Oso Creek watershed in Nueces County, Texas. One area, the upper West Oso Creek subwatershed, is about 5,145 acres. The other area, a subwatershed drained by an unnamed tributary to Oso Creek (hereinafter, Oso Creek tributary), is about 5,287 acres. Rainfall and runoff (streamflow) were continuously monitored at the outlets of the two subwatersheds during the study period October 2005-September 2008. Seventeen rainfall samples were collected and analyzed for nutrients and major inorganic ions. Twenty-four composite runoff water-quality samples (12 at West Oso Creek, 12 at Oso Creek tributary) were collected and analyzed for nutrients, major inorganic ions, and pesticides. Twenty-six discrete suspended-sediment samples (12 West Oso Creek, 14 Oso Creek tributary) and 17 bacteria samples (10 West Oso Creek, 7 Oso Creek tributary) were collected and analyzed. These data were used to estimate, for selected constituents, rainfall deposition to and runoff loads and yields from the two subwatersheds. Quantities of fertilizers and pesticides applied in the two subwatersheds were compared with quantities of nutrients and pesticides in rainfall and runoff. For the study period, total rainfall was greater than average. Most of the runoff from the two subwatersheds occurred in response to a few specific storm periods. The West Oso Creek subwatershed produced more runoff during the study period than the Oso Creek tributary subwatershed, 13.95 inches compared with 9.45 inches. Runoff response was quicker and peak flows were higher in the West Oso Creek subwatershed than in the Oso Creek tributary subwatershed. Total nitrogen runoff yield for the 3

  5. Measurement of ethylene emission from Japanese red pine (Pinus densiflora) under field conditions in NO{sub x}-polluted areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kume, A.; Nakatani, N. [Hiroshima Univ., Center for Forest Decline Studies, Higashi-Hiroshima (Japan); Tsuboi, N.; Nakane, K. [Hiroshima Univ., Dept. of Environmental Dynamics and Management, Hiroshima (Japan); Sakurai, N.; Nakagawa, N.; Sakugawa, H. [Hiroshima Univ., Dept. of Environmental Studies, Hiroshima (Japan)

    2001-07-01

    Emission of ethylene from the needles of Japanese red pine, Pinus densiflora, was measured in air-polluted areas in Hiroshima, Japan. We applied a suitable protocol to determine the rate of ethylene emission from the excised needles. The influence of excision of needles on ethylene emission was not detected during the first 4 h of incubation at 20degC. Ethylene emissions were low in the unpolluted (Clean) areas regardless of the altitude or season. The emission of stress ethylene increased with the atmospheric NO{sub 2} concentration, suggesting that atmospheric NO{sub x} or related substances induced the higher ethylene emission in the polluted areas (near urban and industrial areas). In all cases, 1-year-old needles emitted significantly larger amounts of ethylene than the current needles. Ethylene emission did not increase evenly in the polluted areas, but the frequency of trees emitting high ethylene increased. Therefore, threshold rates for the baseline ethylene emission were proposed. (Author)

  6. Mineralogy, occurrence of mineralization and temperature-pressure conditions of the Agh-Daragh polymetallic deposit in the Ahar-Arasbaran metallogenic area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heydar Asgharzadeh Asl

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The Ahar-Arasbaran metallogenic area (Qara Dagh zone is located in the northwest of Iran and the western part of the Mazandaran Sea. At the base of the structural classification from Nabavi (1976, this area is situated in the Alborz-Azerbijan magmatic belt. Sheviar Dagh (Ahar batholite intrusive suite, subvolcanic and volcanic accompanied rocks with east-west trending and 30 km long serves as the main Eocene-Oligocene magmatic event in the north of the Ahar province. Considering geochemistry, this assemblage includes two shoshonitic and calc-alkaline to high-K calc-alkaline series which are the shoshonitic series in the central part and the calc-alkaline series outcrop in the western and eastern part (Aghazadeh, 2009. Textural characteristic, mineral chemistry and fluid inclusion studies were carried out at the tree part of the Agh-Daragh prospecting area. Material and methods A total of 50 samples were collected from the host rocks (including 4 trench and 250 m, ore deposit and altered rocks. Ten altered samples were analyzed for their mineral recognition by X-ray diffraction in the Iran Mineral Process and Research Center (IMPRC. Electron microprobe analyses (EMPA and backscattered electron (BSE images of minerals were obtained using a Cameca SX100 electron microprobe in the Iran Mineral Process and Research Center (IMPRC. An accelerating voltage of 15 to 25 kV and beam current of 20 mA was used for all analyses. Typical spot sizes ranged from 2 to 5 μm. A total of 5 double-polish thin sections representative of quartz samples were selected from mineralized veins after petrographic and field studies. Fluid inclusion microthermometry was conducted using a Linkam THMS600 heating–freezing stage (-190°C to +600°C mounted on a ZEISS Axioplan2 microscope in the fluid inclusion laboratory of the school of Earth Sciences of the Kharazmi University. The heating rate was 5–10 °C/min at higher temperatures (>100°C, with a

  7. Ground-water conditions in the Dutch Flats area, Scotts Bluff and Sioux Counties, Nebraska, with a section on chemical quality of the ground water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babcock, H.M.; Visher, F.N.; Durum, W.H.

    1951-01-01

    The U.S. Department of the Interior (DOI) studied contamination induced by irrigation drainage in 26 areas of the Western United States during 1986-95. Comprehensive compilation, synthesis, and evaluation of the data resulting from these studies were initiated by DOI in 1992. Soils and ground water in irrigated areas of the West can contain high concentrations of selenium because of (1) residual selenium from the soil's parent rock beneath irrigated land; (2) selenium derived from rocks in mountains upland from irrigated land by erosion and transport along local drainages, and (3) selenium brought into the area in surface water imported for irrigation. Application of irrigation water to seleniferous soils can dissolve and mobilize selenium and create hydraulic gradients that cause the discharge of seleniferous ground water into irrigation drains. Given a source of selenium, the magnitude of selenium contamination in drainage-affected aquatic ecosystems is strongly related to the aridity of the area and the presence of terminal lakes and ponds. Marine sedimentary rocks and deposits of Late Cretaceous or Tertiary age are generally seleniferous in the Western United States. Depending on their origin and history, some Tertiary continental sedimentary deposits also are seleniferous. Irrigation of areas associated with these rocks and deposits can result in concentrations of selenium in water that exceed criteria for the protection of freshwater aquatic life. Geologic and climatic data for the Western United States were evaluated and incorporated into a geographic information system (GIS) to produce a map identifying areas susceptible to irrigation-induced selenium contamination. Land is considered susceptible where a geologic source of selenium is in or near the area and where the evaporation rate is more than 2.5 times the precipitation rate. In the Western United States, about 160,000 square miles of land, which includes about 4,100 square miles (2.6 million acres) of

  8. Psychosocial Working Conditions, School Sense of Coherence and Subjective Health Complaints. A Multilevel Analysis of Ninth Grade Pupils in the Stockholm Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modin, Bitte; Ostberg, Viveca; Toivanen, Susanna; Sundell, Knut

    2011-01-01

    This study explores the psychosocial working conditions of 7930 Swedish 9th grade students, distributed over 475 classes and 130 schools, in relation to their subjective health using multilevel modeling. At the individual level, students with "strained" working conditions in school (i.e. those experiencing a high level of demands in…

  9. Surveillance of certain health behaviors and conditions among states and selected local areas - Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, United States, 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Pranesh; Balluz, Lina; Town, Machell; Chowdhury, Farah M; Bartolis, William; Garvin, William; Akcin, Haci; Greenlund, Kurt J; Giles, Wayne

    2010-02-05

    Chronic diseases (e.g., heart disease, cancer, stroke, and diabetes) are the leading causes of death in the United States. Controlling health risk behaviors (e.g., smoking, physical inactivity, poor diet, and excessive drinking) and using preventive health-care services (e.g., cancer, hypertension, and cholesterol screenings) can reduce morbidity and mortality from chronic diseases. Monitoring health-risk behaviors, chronic health conditions, and preventive care practices is essential to develop health promotion activities, intervention programs, and health policies at the state, city, and county levels. January 2007-December 2007. The Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) is a state-based, on-going, random--digit-dialed household telephone survey of noninstitutionalized adults aged >or=18 years residing in the United States. BRFSS collects data on health-risk behaviors and use of preventative health services related to the leading causes of death and disability in the United States. This report presents results for 2007 for all 50 states, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, Guam, the Virgin Islands, 184 metropolitan and micropolitan statistical areas (MMSAs), and 298 counties. In 2007, prevalence estimates of risk behaviors, chronic conditions, and the use of preventive services varied substantially by state and territory, MMSA, and county. The following is a summary of results listed by BRFSS question topic. Each set of proportions refers to the range of estimated prevalence for the disease, condition, or behavior, as reported by the survey subject. Adults who reported fair or poor health: 11% to 32% for states and territories and 6% to 31% for MMSAs and counties. Adults with health-care coverage: 71% to 94% for states and territories and 51% to 97% for MMSAs and counties. Annual influenza vaccination among adults aged >or=65 years: 32% to 80% for states and territories, 48% to 83% for MMSAs, and 44% to 88% for counties

  10. Deducing the subsurface geological conditions and structural framework of the NE Gulf of Suez area, using 2-D and 3-D seismic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahra, Hesham Shaker; Nakhla, Adel Mokhles

    2015-06-01

    An interpretation of the seismic data of Ras Budran and Abu Zenima oil fields, northern central Gulf of Suez, is carried out to evaluate its subsurface tectonic setting. The structural configuration, as well as the tectonic features of the concerned area is criticized through the study of 2D and 3D seismic data interpretation with the available geological data, in which the geo-seismic depth maps for the main interesting levels (Kareem, Nukhul, Matulla, Raha and Nubia Formations) are depicted. Such maps reflect that, the Miocene structure of Ras Budran area is a nearly NE-SW trending anticlinal feature, which broken into several panels by a set of NWSE and NE-SW trending faults. The Pre-Miocene structure of the studied area is very complex, where Ras Budran area consists of step faults down stepping to the south and southwest, which have been subjected to cross faults of NE-SW trend with lateral and vertical displacements.

  11. Measurement of the cross-sectional area of the dural tube in the lumbar spine on magnetic resonance imaging. Comparison between normal, pre- and post-discectomy conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsubayashi, Yasutomo [Juntendo Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine

    1997-07-01

    This study evaluated the usefulness of pre- and postoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of lumbar disc hernia with special attention to measurement of the cross-sectional area of the dural tube. Twenty-five patients (20 men and 5 women; 25 discs) who underwent posterior lumbar discectomy and 73 normal individuals (44 men and 29 women; 219 discs) of a similar age distribution were studied. Axial MRI was mainly used for the measurement of the dural tube. In the patient group, MRI examination was performed 1, 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively. Assessment of the clinical symptoms was also included and used for comparison with the MRI evaluation. The cross-sectional area was significantly reduced to about 50% of the normal preoperatively. One month postoperatively, there was no significant increase in the size of the area, but after three months, the area increased significantly and progressed to the normal size within a year. One-month postoperatively, MRI examination was not considered useful because of postoperative hematoma and/or edema at the surgical site. The increase in the size of the cross-sectional area of the dural tube correlated well with the improvement in clinical symptoms. Three-months postoperatively, MRI evaluation of the lumbar disc seemed useful and measurement of the cross-sectional area of the dural tube appeared to serve as an indicator of the effectiveness of the surgery. (author)

  12. Adaptation of the dynamic model for radiological assessment of nuclear accident in rural area under conditions of tropical climate; Adaptacao do modelo dinamico para avaliacao radiologica de acidente nuclear em area rural nas condicoes de clima tropical

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinhas, Denise Martins

    2004-07-01

    Following an accidental release of radionuclides to the atmosphere that leads to the contamination of large areas, a detailed and fast methodology to assess the prognosis of public exposure is needed, in order to estimate radiological consequences and propose and optimize decisions related to the protection of the public. The model ECOSYS has been chosen to integrate the SIEM, the Integrated Emergency System developed by IRD/CNEN, to assess the doses at the short, medium and long term to the public after an accidental contamination of rural areas. The objective of this work is to perform the adaptation of the model ECOSYS to be used in Brazil to assess public exposure and support decision processes regarding the implementation of protective measures but also to guide the need for studies and research aiming to improve the adequacy of estimates to the actual Brazilian situation. The area select for reference to this work consists on the 50 km radius area surrounding the Brazilian nuclear power plants, located at Angra dos Reis County, in the state of Rio de Janeiro. The methodology included the definition of criteria to select agricultural cultures and animals to be simulated, taking into account both the availability of the production at the selected area and the relevance of the food to the population regional diet. Radionuclides included in this study were {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90} Sr and {sup 131} I. A large survey has been performed to gather data related to both agricultural practices and behavior of radionuclides in the selected agricultural-systems. The results of simulation indicated the relevance of the knowledge of local aspects on the estimated doses. Important factors included the kind of products produced, seasonality, agricultural practices, animals feed practices, kind of soil, and ingestion habits of the population. (author)

  13. Neonatal lesions of orbital frontal areas 11/13 in monkeys alter goal-directed behavior but spare fear conditioning and safety signal learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy M Kazama

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies in monkeys have demonstrated that damage to the lateral subfields of orbital frontal cortex (OFC areas 11/13 yields profound changes in flexible modulation of goal-directed behaviors and a lack in fear regulation. Yet, little consideration has been placed on its role in emotional and social development throughout life. The current study investigated the effects of neonatal lesions of the OFC on the flexible modulation of goal-directed behaviors and fear responses in monkeys. Infant monkeys received neonatal lesions of OFC areas 11/13 or sham-lesions during the first post-natal week. Modulation of goal-directed behaviors was measured with a devaluation task at 3-4 years and 6-7 years. Modulation of fear reactivity by safety signals was assessed with the AX+/BX- potentiated-startle paradigm at 6-7 years. Similar to adult-onset OFC lesions, selective neonatal lesions of OFC areas 11/13 yielded a failure to modulate behavioral responses guided by changes in reward value, but spared the ability to modulate fear responses in the presence of safety signals. These results suggest that these areas play a critical role in the development of behavioral adaptation during goal-directed behaviors, but not, or less so, in the development of the ability to process emotionally salient stimuli and to modulate emotional reactivity using environmental contexts, which could be supported by other OFC subfields, such as the most ventromedial subfields (i.e. areas 14/25. Given similar impaired decision-making abilities and spared modulation of fear followed both neonatal lesions of either OFC areas 11 and 13 or amygdala (Kazama et al., 2012; Kazama & Bachevalier, 2013, the present results suggest that interactions between these two neural structures play a critical role in the development of behavioral adaptation; an ability essential for the self-regulation of emotion and behavior that assures the maintenance of successful social relationships.

  14. Evaluasi Pengendalian Sistem Informasi Pengiriman pada TL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelly Nelly

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to evaluate the control systems on the TL shipping information, in order to discern weaknesses or problems in delivery of enterprise information systems control using CobIT approach. The research method used is the data collecting by observation, checklists, interviews, and literature study. The results achieved are findings and issue recommendations that provide an illustration about a control of the running information delivery systems. From the illustration it is known that on the company’s control of information delivery system, there are still many things that have not been up to standard. The conclusion obtained is that the control of information delivery systems that have been implemented meets only partially the standards set small, so it still needs much improvement. 

  15. DAMPAK DAN PENGENDALIAN HUJAN ASAM DI INDONESIA

    OpenAIRE

    Erni M Yatim

    2007-01-01

    Hujan asam ialah turunnya asam dalam bentuk hujan. Hal ini terjadi apabila asam di udara larut dalam butirbutir air di awan. Jika hujan turun dari awan itu, air hujan bersifat asam. Asam itu terhujankan atau rainout. Hujan asam dapat pula terjadi karena hujan turun melalui udara yang mengandung asam sehingga asam itu terlarut kedalam air hujan dan turun kebumi.

  16. ETIKA SEBAGAI DASAR PENGENDALIAN DIRI MANUSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Nyoman Subagia

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Men are full of desires that need to be satisfied through functioning the senses, which are part of the mind used for reasoning, feeling, and acting. From the senses happiness or sadness may come. When the senses are connected to the out world the selves within may see problems even calamities if the desires are uncontrolled. In Hindu there are several teachings that can be refered to as the ethics for controlling the self. Trikaya Parisudha teaches that life should be directed to reach happiness by thinking, speaking, and doing good. The Sad Ripu teaches the six enemies within self that are to fight, namely desires, greediness, anger, disorientation, drunkness, and envy. Sapta Timira teaches seven things that can blind the mind, namely beauty, rich, intellectuality, family line, youth, alchoholic beverage, braveness. Beisdes all of them, the inclination of being good or bad that are latent within the self should be also realized as Hindus.

  17. Kebijakan Pengendalian HIV/AIDS di Denpasar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Rini Puji Lestari

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Secara nasional, Indonesia telah mengantisipasi epidemi HIV/AIDS, tetapi jumlah kasus HIV/AIDS di Provinsi Bali dari tahun ke tahun memperlihatkan peningkatan yang semakin mengkhawatirkan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui perkembangan jumlah kasus dan kebijakan penanggulangan HIV/AIDS di Denpasar. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode kualitatif yang dilakukan di Denpasar pada tanggal 11-17 September 2011. Sampel penelitian ini menggunakan informan terpilih yaitu kepala bappeda, pejabat Dinas Kesehatan Kabupaten Denpasar, direktur rumah sakit, puskesmas, ketua komisi penanggulangan AIDS di kabupaten/kota dan pemerhati HIV/AIDS termasuk ODHA. Penelitian menemukan jumlah kasus HIV/AIDS di Kota Denpasar yang tertinggi dan penularan terbesarnya melalui hubungan seks. Namun, dukungan pemerintah daerah dalam upaya pencegahan dan penanggulangan HIV/AIDS terlihat belum maksimal. Padahal kebijakan penanggulangan HIV/AIDS sangat ditentukan oleh cara pandang pemerintah terhadap penyakit HIV/AIDS. Untuk itu, perlu peningkatan pemahaman tentang HIV/AIDS serta pencegahan dan penanganan semua pihak terkait sehingga penanggulangan HIV/AIDS dapat lebih efektif, efisien, dan tepat sasaran. Nationally, Indonesia anticipated HIV/AIDS epidemic, but the number of cases of HIV/AIDS in Bali province from year to year showed an increase in the increasingly alarming. This study aimed to determine the number of cases and the development of policies on HIV / AIDS in Denpasar. This research was conducted using qualitative methods in Denpasar on 11-17 September 2011. The study sample was selected using the informant is head of planning, Denpasar District health officers, the director of the hospital, health center, chairman of the commission on AIDS in the district/city and observer of HIV / AIDS, including people living with HIV. The study found the number of cases of HIV / AIDS in the city of Denpasar is the highest and greatest transmission through sexual intercourse. However, the support of local governments in efforts to prevent and control HIV/AIDS looks not maximized. In fact the policy of HIV/AIDS is largely determined by the government perspective on HIV / AIDS. To that end, should be an increased understanding of HIV/AIDS as well as prevention and treatment of all parties concerned. So that HIV/ AIDS can be more effective, efficient, and targeted.

  18. Pengendalian Persediaan Primary Items dalam Logistik Konstruksi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lady Lisya

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Construction logistics are activities that consist of ordering, storage and transportation of materials of construction projects. Storage material is logistics activity that ensure the availability of materials in project site. Generally, material storage activities have been conducted at the project site. Logistics construction is aimed to support the project activities that the completion schedule has been set. Construction logistics issues is determining the schedule of ordering materials so that the project can be implemented on schedule. The purpose of research is to determine the optimum ordering period for the primary items on the main building structure construction and designing inventory control cards as a mechanism for monitoring procurement of materials. This research has been obtained optimal ordering period for the primary items of main building structure with elements of the work using Fixed Period Requirement method. Inventories were already meet the material requirement of each period. Material management has been conducted based grouping approach as many as 31 groups. In addition, this research has proposed the inventory control cards as an instrument for material procurement monitoring. The implications of inventory control cards are coordinate contracting parties with vendors to plan the replenishment  of materials to meet the work schedule. Further research can be developed with other aspects such as integrated material order system between contractors and vendors to consider the safety stock. In addition, the information system for planning material is an important consideration for construction projects with large scale so that the companies can plan primary items inventory and other materials in the projects completion more easily, quickly and accurately.

  19. A Dynamic Model for Simulating Atmospheric, Surface and Soil Water Interactions in Hillslope of Loess Area Under Natural Conditions and Its Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The mechanism of atmospheric, surface and soil water interactions (water transformation) in hillslope under natural conditions was analyzed, and a dynamic model was developed to simulate infiltration, overland flow and soil water movement during natural rainfall in hillslope, by bringing forward concepts such as rainfall intensity on slope and a correction coefficient of saturated soil water content for soil surface seal. Some factors, including slope angle, slope orientation and raindrop inclination, which affect the rainfall amount on slope, were taken into account while developing the dynamic model. The effect of surface seal on infiltration and water balance under a boundary condition of the second kind was also considered. Application of the model in a field experiment showed that the model simulated precisely the infiltration, overland flow and soil water movement in hillslope under natural rainfall conditions.

  20. A Dynamic Model for Simulating Atmospheric,Surface and Soil Water Interactions in Hillslope of Loess Area Under Natural Conditions and Its Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANGSHUHAN; NIEGUANGYONG; 等

    2001-01-01

    The mechanism of atmospheric,surface and soil water interactions( water transformation) in hillslope under natural conditions was analyzed,and a dynamic model was developed to simulate infiltration,overland flow and soil water movement during natural rainfall in hillslope,by bringing froward concepts such as rainfall intensity on slope and a correction coefficient of saturated soil water content for soil surface seal.Some factors,including slope angle,slope orientation and raindrop inclination,which affect the rainfall amount on slope, were taken into account while developing the dynamic model.The effect of surface seal on infiltration and water balance under a boundary condition of the second kind was aslo considered. Application of the model in a field experiment showed that the model simulated precisely the infiltration,overland flow and sol water monvement in hillsope under natural rainfall conditions.

  1. PERSONAL AND SOCIAL-PSYCHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF MIDDLE-LEVEL MANAGERS IN VARIOUS LIVING CONDITIONS (ON THE EXAMPLE OF THE REGIONAL CENTER AND RURAL AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr Vladimirovich Soldatov

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The article discovers the influence of middle-level manager’s place of living namely, the regional center and rural areas on the organization of the personal and social-psychological characteristics involved in interaction process. The problem of social labor motives, reflexive processes, life aspirations, time perspective, relation to the management and satisfaction with work in the context of living features in the regional center and rural areas is analyzed. Empirical research with the use of a set of the psychodiagnostic techniques directed on studying of social-psychological and personal features of middle-level managers includes sample of large company staff which has branches in the regional center and rural areas. The obtained results have demonstrated the influence of living place on the organization of personal and social-psychological characteristics of middle-level managers. Less expressed motives of power and success, direction on successful result in activity, the reduced independence and unsociability, higher reflexivity, negative attitude to the past, and low orientation to the future are typical for middle managers in the regional centers. In contrast, middle-level managers in rural areas have more expressed motives of power and success, orientation on successful result and more expressed independence and unsociability.

  2. Deducing the subsurface geological conditions and structural framework of the NE Gulf of Suez area, using 2-D and 3-D seismic data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesham Shaker Zahra

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available An interpretation of the seismic data of Ras Budran and Abu Zenima oil fields, northern central Gulf of Suez, is carried out to evaluate its subsurface tectonic setting. The structural configuration, as well as the tectonic features of the concerned area is criticized through the study of 2D and 3D seismic data interpretation with the available geological data, in which the geo-seismic depth maps for the main interesting levels (Kareem, Nukhul, Matulla, Raha and Nubia Formations are depicted. Such maps reflect that, the Miocene structure of Ras Budran area is a nearly NE–SW trending anticlinal feature, which broken into several panels by a set of NWSE and NE–SW trending faults. The Pre-Miocene structure of the studied area is very complex, where Ras Budran area consists of step faults down stepping to the south and southwest, which have been subjected to cross faults of NE–SW trend with lateral and vertical displacements.

  3. Collision-Induced Dissociation Study of the Adduct Ions Produced in NO3 (-)-Free Area of Atmospheric Pressure Negative Corona Discharges under Ambient Air Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekimoto, Kanako; Matsuda, Natsuki; Takayama, Mitsuo

    2013-01-01

    Collision-induced dissociation (CID) experiments of adducts [M+R](-) with negative atmospheric ions R(-) (O2 (-), HCO3 (-) and COO(-)(COOH)) produced in NO3 (-)-free discharge area in atmospheric pressure corona discharge ionization (APCDI) method were performed using aliphatic and aromatic compounds M. The [M+R](-) adducts for individual R(-) fragmented to form deprotonated analytes [M-H](-) as well as the specific product ions which also occurred in the CID of [M-H](-), independent of analytes with several different functional groups. The results obtained suggested that the specific product ions formed in the CID of [M+R](-), as well as CID of [M-H](-), are generated due to further fragmentation of the product ions [M-H](-). It was concluded, therefore, that CID of [M+R](-) formed in NO3 (-)-free discharge area can indirectly lead to the formation of the product ions originating from [M-H](-).

  4. 柳州发展木薯种植的气候条件分析%The Analysis of Climate Condition for Planting Cassava in Liuzhou Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦冬萍; 吴炫柯; 韦剑锋; 熊建文; 黄敏堂

    2013-01-01

    Through introduction of the key climate factors of temperature ,rainfall ,sunshine and wind ,the growth characteristics of main cassava varieties in Liuzhou area of Guangxi province was summarized ,the sug-gestions for planting in Liuzhou area were put forward :sowing and harvesting duly ,selecting favorable terrain and good varieties .%通过概述木薯生长的气候条件,包括气温、降雨、日照及风等关键气候因素,总结了广西壮族自治区主要种植木薯品种的基本生长特性,并提出了柳州种植木薯的建议,即适时播种与收获,选择有利地形,选择优良品种。

  5. Diagnosis of chronic conditions with modifiable lifestyle risk factors in selected urban and rural areas of Bangladesh and sociodemographic variability therein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parr John D

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bangladesh suffers from a lack of healthcare providers. The growing chronic disease epidemic's demand for healthcare resources will further strain Bangladesh's limited healthcare workforce. Little is known about how Bangladeshis with chronic disease seek care. This study describes chronic disease patients' care seeking behavior by analyzing which providers diagnose these diseases. Methods During 2 month periods in 2009, a cross-sectional survey collected descriptive data on chronic disease diagnoses among 3 surveillance populations within the International Center for Diarrheal Disease Research, Bangladesh (ICDDR, B network. The maximum number of respondents (over age 25 who reported having ever been diagnosed with a chronic disease determined the sample size. Using SAS software (version 8.0 multivariate regression analyses were preformed on related sociodemographic factors. Results Of the 32,665 survey respondents, 8,591 self reported having a chronic disease. Chronically ill respondents were 63.4% rural residents. Hypertension was the most prevalent disease in rural (12.4% and urban (16.1% areas. In rural areas chronic disease diagnoses were made by MBBS doctors (59.7% and Informal Allopathic Providers (IAPs (34.9%. In urban areas chronic disease diagnoses were made by MBBS doctors (88.0% and IAP (7.9%. Our analysis identified several groups that depended heavily on IAP for coverage, particularly rural, poor and women. Conclusion IAPs play important roles in chronic disease care, particularly in rural areas. Input and cooperation from IAPs are needed to minimize rural health disparities. More research on IAP knowledge and practices regarding chronic disease is needed to properly utilize this potential healthcare resource.

  6. Deducing the subsurface geological conditions and structural framework of the NE Gulf of Suez area, using 2-D and 3-D seismic data

    OpenAIRE

    Hesham Shaker Zahra; Adel Mokhles Nakhla

    2015-01-01

    An interpretation of the seismic data of Ras Budran and Abu Zenima oil fields, northern central Gulf of Suez, is carried out to evaluate its subsurface tectonic setting. The structural configuration, as well as the tectonic features of the concerned area is criticized through the study of 2D and 3D seismic data interpretation with the available geological data, in which the geo-seismic depth maps for the main interesting levels (Kareem, Nukhul, Matulla, Raha and Nubia Formations) are depicted...

  7. Using geologic conditions and multiattribute decision analysis to determine the relative favorability of selected areas for siting a high-level radioactive waste repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, W.; Edgar, D.E.; Baker, C.H.; Buehring, W.A.; Whitfield, R.G.; Van Luik, A.E.J.; Sood, M.K.; Flower, M.F.J.; Warren, M.F.; Jusko, M.J.; Peerenboom, J.P.; Bogner, J.E.

    1988-05-01

    A method is presented for determining the relative favorability of geologically complex areas for isolating high-level radioactive wastes. In applying the method to the northeastern region of the United States, seismicity and tectonic activity were the screening criteria used to divide the region into three areas of increasing seismotectonic risk. Criteria were then used to subdivide the area of lowest seismotectonic risk into six geologically distinct subareas including characteristics, surface-water and groundwater hydrology, potential human intrusion, site geometry, surface characteristics, and tectonic environment. Decision analysis was then used to identify the subareas most favorable from a geologic standpoint for further investigation, with a view to selecting a site for a repository. Three subareas (parts of northeastern Vermont, northern New Hampshire, and western Maine) were found to be the most favorable, using this method and existing data. However, because this study assessed relative geologic favorability, no conclusions should be drawn concerning the absolute suitability of individual subareas for high-level radioactive waste isolation. 34 refs., 7 figs., 20 tabs.

  8. Environmental conditions in the Namskaket Marsh Area, Orleans, Massachusetts: A summary of studies by the U.S. Geological Survey, 1989–2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiskel, Peter K.; Barbaro, Jeffrey R.; DeSimone, Leslie A.

    2016-09-23

    Namskaket Marsh and its tidal creek system are potential receptors for a treated wastewater plume originating from a septage treatment facility in the northwest part of Orleans, Massachusetts, on Cape Cod. From 1989 to 2011, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with State and local partners, conducted a series of studies in the Namskaket Marsh area to characterize the potential effects of the plume on the marsh and its tidal creek system. Studies included characterizing the baseline vegetation and salinity distribution in the marsh, monitoring the movement of the wastewater plume downgradient of the septage treatment facility, and sampling nutrient concentrations in the tidal creek system during a baseline period prior to the arrival of the plume at the marsh boundary. The Inner Namskaket Marsh baseline vegetation survey in 1995 found it to be dominated by Phragmites australis (common reed, 44 percent of vegetative cover), Spartina patens (salt marsh hay, 17 percent), and Spartina alterniflora (cordgrass, 9 percent). Phragmites occurrence was correlated with shallow pore-water salinity in the marsh peat and was largely confined to areas with salinities less than 4 parts per thousand. Baseline, ebb-tide nutrient concentrations at the tidal creek sampling stations during 1994–96 showed strong seasonal variations for ammonium, likely associated with the seasonal cycle of growth and senescence for the dominant salt marsh grasses (S. alterniflora and S. patens). The seasonal cycle for nitrate was generally less pronounced.

  9. Atrazine in Surface Water and Relation to Hydrologic Conditions Within the Delaware River Basin Pesticide Management Area, Northeast Kansas, July 1992 Through December 1994

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Larry M.

    1995-01-01

    Since about 1960, atrazine has been used as an effective pre- and postemergent herbicide in the production of corn and grain sorghum. Atrazine is a triazine-class herbicide and was the most frequently detected herbicide in surface water of the lower Kansas River Basin of southeast Nebraska and northeast Kansas (Stamer and Zelt, 1994). Approximately 95 percent of the atrazine applied in the United States is used in corn and grain-sorghum production, predominately in the Mississippi River Basin where about 82 percent of the Nation's corn acreage is planted (CIBA-GEIGY Corp., 1992). Until recent changes in product labeling, atrazine commonly was applied at relatively high rates to control weeds around commercial and industrial areas and along railroad right-of-ways. Crop yields have increased during the last 40 years due in part to the use of herbicides in reducing weed growth and competition for moisture and nutrients. However, concern on the part of water suppliers, health officials, and the public also has increased regarding the safe and responsible use of herbicides. One issue is whether the widespread use of atrazine may pose a potential threat to public-water supplies in areas where the herbicide is used because of its ability to easily dissolve in water and its possible effects on the health of humans and aquatic life.

  10. Role of size and surface area for pro-inflammatory responses to silica nanoparticles in epithelial lung cells: importance of exposure conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skuland, T; Ovrevik, J; Låg, M; Refsnes, M

    2014-03-01

    The present study compared non-crystalline silica particles of nano (50nm)- and submicro (500nm)-size (Si50 and Si500) for the potential to induce cytokine responses in bronchial epithelial lung cells (BEAS-2B). The cell cultures were exposed to equal mass and surface area concentrations of the two particles in different exposure media; LHC-9 and DMEM:F12. The state of agglomeration was different in the two media; with marked agglomeration in LHC-9 and nearly no agglomeration in DMEM:F12. On a mass basis, Si50 was more potent than Si500 in inducing cytokine responses in both exposure media. In contrast, upon exposure to similar surface area concentrations, Si500 was more potent than Si50 in DMEM:F12. This might be due to different agglomeration/sedimentation properties of Si50 versus Si500 in the two media. However, influence of differences in particle reactivity or particle uptake cannot be excluded. The data indicated no qualitative changes in the cytokine gene-expression patterns induced by the two particles, suggesting effects through similar mechanisms. These aspects might be of importance for interpretation of in vitro studies of nanomaterials. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Who can afford health care? Evaluating the socio-economic conditions and the ability to contribute to health care in a post-conflict area in DR Congo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibylle Gerstl

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The Democratic Republic of the Congo is today one of the poorest countries in the world; the health status of the population ranks among the worst in Sub-Saharan Africa. Public health services charge user fees and drug prices. Since 2008, north-eastern Congo is facing a guerrilla war. Malteser International is assisting with free health care for internally displaced persons as well as the general population. Before the incursion the health system was based on user fees. The aim of this study was to determine the socio-economic conditions of the population and to assess their ability to contribute to health care. METHODOLOGY: Heads of 552 randomly selected households in 23 clusters in two health zones were interviewed using a standardised questionnaire. FINDINGS: The demographic description and socio-economic conditions of the study population were homogenous. Major source of income was agriculture (57%; 47% of the households earned less than US$ 5.5/week. Ninety-two percent of the interviewed households estimated that they would be able to contribute to consultation fees (maximum amount of US$ 0.27 and 79% to the drug prices (maximum amount of US$ 1.10. Six percent opted for free consultations and 19% for free drugs. CONCLUSIONS: Living conditions were very basic; the estimated income of the study population was low. Almost half of the population perceived their current living situation as fairly good/good. More than 90% of the study population estimated to be able to contribute to consultation fees and 80% to drug prices. As a result Malteser International suggested introducing flat-rates for health care services. Once the project ends, the population will have to pay again for their health service. One solution would be the introduction of a health care financing system with the goal to reach universal coverage to health care.

  12. Evaluation of Final Radiological Conditions at Areas of the Niagara Falls Storage Site Remediated under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program -12184

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clayton, Christopher [U.S Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management, Washington, DC; Kothari, Vijendra [U.S Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management, Morgantown, West Virginia; Starr, Ken [U.S Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management, Westminster, Colorado; Widdop, Michael; Gillespie, Joey [SM Stoller Corporation, Grand Junction, Colorado

    2012-02-26

    The U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) methods and protocols allow evaluation of remediation and final site conditions to determine if remediated sites remain protective. Two case studies are presented that involve the Niagara Falls Storage Site (NFSS) and associated vicinity properties (VPs), which are being remediated under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). These properties are a part of the former Lake Ontario Ordnance Works (LOOW). In response to stakeholders concerns about whether certain remediated NFSS VPs were putting them at risk, DOE met with stakeholders and agreed to evaluate protectiveness. Documentation in the DOE records collection adequately described assessed and final radiological conditions at the completed VPs. All FUSRAP wastes at the completed sites were cleaned up to meet DOE guidelines for unrestricted use. DOE compiled the results of the investigation in a report that was released for public comment. In conducting the review of site conditions, DOE found that stakeholders were also concerned about waste from the Separations Process Research Unit (SPRU) at the Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory (KAPL) that was handled at LOOW. DOE agreed to determine if SPRU waste remained at that needed to be remediated. DOE reviewed records of waste characterization, historical handling locations and methods, and assessment and remediation data. DOE concluded that the SPRU waste was remediated on the LOOW to levels that pose no unacceptable risk and allow unrestricted use and unlimited exposure. This work confirms the following points as tenets of an effective long-term surveillance and maintenance (LTS&M) program: Stakeholder interaction must be open and transparent, and DOE must respond promptly to stakeholder concerns. DOE, as the long-term custodian, must collect and preserve site records in order to demonstrate that remediated sites pose no unacceptable risk. DOE must continue to maintain constructive relationships with the U

  13. Household conditions, eczema symptoms and rhinitis symptoms: relationship with wheeze and severe wheeze in children living in the Polokwane area, South Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wichmann, Janine; Wolvaardt, Jacqueline E; Maritz, Chantelle

    2009-01-01

    and that also investigated the association between potential risk factors and asthma symptoms. Objective To assess the 12-month prevalence of wheeze and severe wheeze along with their potential risk factors. Setting Within a 60-km radius from the Polokwane city centre, Limpopo Province. METHODS: The survey...... and severe wheeze were 11.2% and 5.7%, respectively. The 12-month prevalence rates of eczema symptoms and rhinoconjunctivitis symptoms were 8.0% and 7.3%, respectively. Living in a rural area significantly decreased the likelihood of wheeze by 31%. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke at home...... and the presence of eczema symptoms and rhinoconjunctivitis symptoms increased the likelihood of wheeze by 77%, 104% and 226%, respectively. Only the presence of rhinoconjunctivitis symptoms increased the likelihood of severe wheeze by 107%. CONCLUSION: Wheeze appears to be an emerging public health problem...

  14. Hydrology and water quality in two mountain basins of the northeastern US: Assessing baseline conditions and effects of ski area development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wemple, B.; Shanley, J.; Denner, J.; Ross, D.; Mills, K.

    2007-01-01

    Mountain regions throughout the world face intense development pressures associated with recreational and tourism uses. Despite these pressures, much of the research on bio-geophysical impacts of humans in mountain regions has focused on the effects of natural resource extraction. This paper describes findings from the first 3 years of a study examining high elevation watershed processes in a region undergoing alpine resort development. Our study is designed as a paired-watershed experiment. The Ranch Brook watershed (9.6 km2) is a relatively pristine, forested watershed and serves as the undeveloped 'control' basin. West Branch (11.7 km2) encompasses an existing alpine ski resort, with approximately 17% of the basin occupied by ski trails and impervious surfaces, and an additional 7% slated for clearing and development. Here, we report results for water years 2001-2003 of streamflow and water quality dynamics for these watersheds. Precipitation increases significantly with elevation in the watersheds, and winter precipitation represents 36-46% of annual precipitation. Artificial snowmaking from water within West Branch watershed currently augments annual precipitation by only 3-4%. Water yield in the developed basin exceeded that in the control by 18-36%. Suspended sediment yield was more than two and a half times greater and fluxes of all major solutes were higher in the developed basin. Our study is the first to document the effects of existing ski area development on hydrology and water quality in the northeastern US and will serve as an important baseline for evaluating the effects of planned resort expansion activities in this area.

  15. Optimization on culture conditions of Rhizobia in different areas%不同地区大豆根瘤菌培养条件的优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李郑军; 许修宏

    2009-01-01

    土壤环境是影响根瘤菌结瘤固氮的首要因素,其类型、pH以及其他理化性质都能影响根瘤茵的接种效果.因此有必要对不同地区大豆根瘤茵的培养条件进行优化,使大豆接种根瘤茵,能够在植物根部产生大量有效根瘤.达到增产目的.研究通过单因素试验分析得到海伦、绥棱、北安、呼兰和绥化的大豆根瘤茵的最佳培养条件.培养时间分别为48、48、48、96和48 h;pH分别为6.0、7.5、6.5、8.0、6.5;转速分别为180、180、160、180、180 r·min~(-1);培养温度均为28℃.%Environment of soil is the primary factor affected nodulation of Rhizobia, and its type, pH as well as other physical and chemical properties can influence the effect of Rhizobia inoculation. Therefore, it is necessary for Rhizobia from different regions to optimize culture conditions in order to ensure that the inoculation of Rhizobia can produce a large number of effective nodules, reach high production purposes. Rhizobia from Hailun, Suiling, Beian, Hulan and Suihua were investigated for obtaining the optimal culture conditions by single factor. The results showed that the optimal culture conditions were as below: culture time was, 48, 48, 48, 96 and 48 h, respectively; initial pH was 6.0, 7.5, 6.5,8.0,6.5, respectively; rotate speed was 180,180,160,180,180 r·min~(-1) respectively; culture temperature of all the Rhizobia was 28°C.

  16. A Comparative Study on the Microbiological Characteristics of Soils Under Different Land—Use Conditions from Karst Areas of Southwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈刚才; 甘露; 等

    2001-01-01

    Microbiological and physical-chemical characteristics of subtropical forest,grassland and cropfield soils from the karst areas of Southwest China were investigated.The study revealed that the conversion of natural forest to other forms of land would lead to a reduction in soil organic C(26.2%-35.3%),total N(37.2%-55.8%),totalP(32.9%-43.6%),microbial biomass C(35.4%-49.1%),N(37.2%-55.8),and P(25.8%-41.9%).Comparative analysis of microbial activity in terms of basal soil respiration showed maximum activity in forest soil and minimum in cropfield soil.Analysis of microbial metabolic respiratory activity indicated a relatively greater respiratory loss of CO2-C per unit microbial biomass in cropfield and grassland than in forest soil.Considering the importance of microbial components in soil,it is concluded that land use in different ways will lead to the reduction of biological stabilty of soil.

  17. A Comparative Study on the Microbiological Characteristics of Soils Under Different Land--Use Conditions from Karst Areas of Southwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈刚才; 甘露; 王仕禄; 吴沿友; 万国江

    2001-01-01

    Microbiological and physical-chemical characteristics of subtropical forest, grassland and cropfield soils from the karst areas of Southwest China were investigated. The study revealed that the conversion of natural forest to other forms of land would lead to a reduction in soil organic C(26.2 % - 35.3 % ), total N (37.2 % - 55.8 % ), total P (32.9 % - 43.6 % ),microbial biomass C(35.4% - 49.1%), N(37.2% - 55.8%), and P(25.8% - 41.9%).Comparative analysis of microbial activity in terms of basal soil respiration showed maximum activity in forest soil and minimum in cropfield soil. Analysis of microbial metabolic respiratory activity indicated a relatively greater respiratory loss of CO2-C per unit microbial biomass in cropfield and grassland than in forest soil. Considering the importance of microbial components in soil, it is concluded that land use in different ways will lead to the reduction of biological stability of soil.

  18. Genetic control and combining ability of flag leaf area and relative water content traits of bread wheat cultivars under drought stress condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golparvar Ahmad Reza

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to compare mode of inheritance, combining ability, heterosis and gene action in genetic control of traits flag leaf area, relative water content and grain filling rate of bread wheat under drought stress, a study was conducted on 8 cultivars using of Griffing’s method2 in fixed model. Mean square of general combining ability was significant also for all traits and mean square of specific combining ability was significant also for all traits except relative water content of leaf which show importance of both additive and dominant effects of genes in heredity of these traits under stress. GCA to SCA mean square ratio was significant for none of traits. Results of this study showed that non additive effects of genes were more important than additive effect for all traits. According to results we can understand that genetic improvement of mentioned traits will have low genetic efficiency by selection from the best crosses of early generations. Then it is better to delay selection until advanced generations and increase in heritability of these traits.

  19. The Influence of Structural Conditions and Cultural Inertia on Water Usage and Landscape Decision-Making in a California Metropolitan Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhusudan Katti

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Urban development and planning are increasingly centered on matters of sustainability, balancing economic development with ecosystem services and biological diversity within urban environments. In addition to these institutional and structural factors, the decision-making process within individual households must be understood to address rising concerns about water use. Therefore, individual characteristics and preferences that influence the use of water also warrant examination. In response to a survey of occupants of single-family residences in the Fresno Clovis Metropolitan Area of California, contextual interviews and focus group interviews with a homeowner sub-sample, we find evidence of an interplay of social—structural, institutional, and cultural factors involved in influencing individual water use behaviors and landscape decision-making. The complexity of residential behaviors and decision-making poses some potential issues with regards to the interactions between individual households and institutional actors in matters of water usage and landscaping, as residents surveyed indicate relatively little confidence in institutions and groups to make wise water policy decisions. We conclude that the promotion and implementation of sustainable water use practices will require not only environmental education for the citizenry, but also a tailoring of information for environmental educational initiatives that address the particularities of individual neighborhoods and communities.

  20. Gastrointestinal nematode burden in working equids from humid tropical areas of central Veracruz, Mexico, and its relationship with body condition and haematological values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdéz-Cruz, Maura Pilar; Hernández-Gil, Mariano; Galindo-Rodríguez, Leticia; Alonso-Díaz, Miguel Angel

    2013-02-01

    The east coast of Veracruz, Mexico, has an important equine population used for working in rural production systems. The objectives of this study were (1) to calculate the prevalence of tropical working equids (donkeys, mules and horses) infected with gastrointestinal nematodes (GINs) and the GINs involved, and (2) to measure the body condition score (BCS) and haematological values for each working equid and its relationship with faecal worm egg count (EPG). One hundred and forty working equids were randomly selected from five different villages along the central coast of the state of Veracruz and faecal and blood samples were obtained from each animal. Gastrointestinal parasite burdens were determined using the McMaster technique. Packed cell volume, total plasma proteins, red blood cell count and white blood cell count were measured from each blood sample. Prevalence of infected equids was higher than 90 %. Mules had the highest median faecal worm egg counts (875 EPG), followed by horses and donkeys with 400 EPG. There was no correlation between EPG and BCS or haematological values (p > 0.05). Results suggest that despite the high prevalence and parasite burdens, equids involved in this trial are not being seriously affected. This study provides information which might help in designing future strategies to control nematode infections in working equids in the Mexican tropics; more emphasis should be placed on other inputs (nutrition perhaps), with individual anthelminthic treatment to those animals with the highest EPG or when signs present themselves.

  1. INTEGRATION OF MECHANICAL AND CULTURAL CONTROL TREATMENTS TO MANAGE INVASIVE SHRUB Chromolaena odorata AND OTHER WEEDS UNDER DROUGHT CONDITIONS IN PASTURE AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rusdy

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted on Chromolaena odorata dominated pasture with the objectives of evaluating efficacy of integrated of mechanical and cultural control on weed suppression and determining botanical composition of plant species after treatment started. The treatments were, T1 slashing of Chromolaena every month, T2 digging up of Chromolanea, and exposed to dry (mulching, T3 digging up of Chromolaena followed by burning, T4 digging up of Chromolaena followed by burning and sowing with Centrosema pubescens and T5 digging up of Chromolaena followed by burning and planting with Brachiaria decumbens. Results of experiment showed that under drought conditions, digging up Chromolaena was very effective in suppressing regrowth of Chromolaena but it was not effective to other weeds. Among treatments, digging out of Chromolaena followed by burning and planting with Brachiaria decumbens was the most effective and slashing of Chromolaena every month was the least effective in suppressing weeds. Botanical composition was shifted with treatments. Stachytarpheta jamaicensis and Chromolaena were the dominant species in monthly slashed Chromolaena plots, Stachytarpheta and Calopogonium muconoides were the dominant species in mulched plots while Mimosa pudica, Brachiaria and Centrosema were the dominant species in burnt plots.

  2. Biochemical Changes of the Organism of Apodemus flavicollis (Rodentia: Muridae Under Conditions of Environmental Anthropogenic Pollution by Heavy Metals in Northern Areas of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svitlana V. Zadyra

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The present research dedicates the integral assessment of biochemistry indexes of nature populations of rodents under conditions of environment pollution by heavy metals. The raised content in soils of mobile forms Pb, Cd, Cr, Ni and Co was revealed оn distance of 500 m to the South-West from Tripillya Thermal Power Plant (Kyiv region, Ukraine. That’s considerably (3–5 times exceeds levels for territory of Kaniv Nature Reserve (Cherkassy region, Ukraine. Territory of National Nature Park “Holosiivsky” (Kyiv, Ukraine characterized by rather increased content of active form of researched heavy metals especially Pb. Increase of the concentration of diene conjugates (3–7 times and malonic dialdehyde (2–4 times in yellow-necked mouse liver (Apodemus flavicollis of under pollution by heavy metals has been discovered. Insignificant increasing of content of Schiff basis in liver cells of rodents in region of impact of Tripillya TPP (in 2 times in spring and in summer, in autumn – in 2.5 times was detected. Seasonal dynamics of the maintenance of lipid peroxidation has been revealed. The registered changes of biochemical indicators testify about presence ecological-biochemical stress in an organism of the yellow-necked mouse in the district of influence of Tripillya TPP.

  3. Skeletal muscle mass to visceral fat area ratio is an important determinant affecting hepatic conditions of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shida, Takashi; Akiyama, Kentaro; Oh, Sechang; Sawai, Akemi; Isobe, Tomonori; Okamoto, Yoshikazu; Ishige, Kazunori; Mizokami, Yuji; Yamagata, Kenji; Onizawa, Kojiro; Tanaka, Hironori; Iijima, Hiroko; Shoda, Junichi

    2017-08-08

    Not only obesity but also sarcopenia is associated with NAFLD. The influence of altered body composition on the pathophysiology of NAFLD has not been fully elucidated. The aim of this study is to determine whether skeletal muscle mass to visceral fat area ratio (SV ratio) affects NAFLD pathophysiology. A total of 472 subjects were enrolled. The association between SV ratio and NAFLD pathophysiological factors was assessed in a cross-sectional nature by stratification analysis. When the SV ratio was stratified by quartiles (Q 1-Q 4), the SV ratio showed a negative relationship with the degree of body mass index, HOMA-IR, and liver stiffness (Q 1, 8.9 ± 7.5 kPa, mean ± standard deviation; Q 2, 7.5 ± 6.2; Q 3, 5.8 ± 3.7; Q 4, 5.0 ± 1.9) and steatosis (Q 1, 282 ± 57 dB/m; Q 2, 278 ± 58; Q 3, 253 ± 57; Q 4, 200 ± 42) measured by transient elastography. Levels of leptin and biochemical markers of liver cell damage, liver fibrosis, inflammation and oxidative stress, and hepatocyte apoptosis were significantly higher in subjects in Q 1 than in those in Q 2, Q 3, or Q 4. Moreover, fat contents in femoral muscles were significantly higher in subjects in Q 1 and the change was associated with weakened muscle strength. In logistic regression analysis, NAFLD subjects with the decreased SV ratio were likely to have an increased risk of moderate-to-severe steatosis and that of advanced fibrosis. Decreased muscle mass coupled with increased visceral fat mass is closely associated with an increased risk for exacerbating NAFLD pathophysiology.

  4. Mesozooplankton size structure in response to environmental conditions in the East China Sea: How much does size spectra theory fit empirical data of a dynamic coastal area?

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Comas, Carmen; Chang, Chun-Yi; Ye, Lin; Sastri, Akash R.; Lee, Yu-Ching; Gong, Gwo-Ching; Hsieh, Chih-hao

    2014-02-01

    A fundamental ecological trait of marine organisms is body size. Various theoretical models have used the size distribution of plankton communities to explain their trophic structure and functioning. Recent studies indicate that changes associated with global warming, eutrophication, and fisheries might have dramatically shifted the size structure of marine organisms and thus changed ecosystem functioning. Accordingly, size structure has been suggested as a useful indicator for monitoring ecosystem status. Here, we used three size metrics to represent mesozooplankton size structure: the slope of normalized biomass spectra (NB-SS), NB-SS linear fit, and size diversity. We analyzed the relationship between zooplankton size structure and environmental conditions in the very dynamic East China Sea (ECS). We tested four hypotheses predicted by theoretical studies: (1) a coastal-offshore gradient for NB-SS, (2) a negative relationship between temperature and NB-SS steepness, (3) a positive relationship between trophic status (i.e., chlorophyll a and inorganic-nutrient concentrations as a proxy) and NB-SS steepness, and (4) a positive relationship between oligotrophy and NB-SS linearity. Hypotheses 1-3 did not stand up to our analyses of the empirical data, while hypothesis 4 was supported. In the ECS, we found no clear spatial gradient for each of the three size metrics, where (i) size diversity was not correlated to temperature and significantly decreased with chl a and phosphate concentrations, (ii) the NB-SS slope showed no relationship with the environment, and (iii) NB-SS linearity tended to be higher in more oligotrophic offshore waters. Trophic status exerted a stronger effect than temperature on size distribution, but its effect was opposite to model prediction. Our results suggest that population dynamics (i.e., pulses of reproduction due to increased food availability) override metabolic scaling effects on mesozooplankton NB-SS at the mesoscale. In addition

  5. Relationship between urban structures for using areas and climatic conditions, using the example of the city of Leipzig region. Final report; Beziehungen zwischen urbanen Flaechennutzungsstrukturen und klimatischen Verhaeltnissen am Beispiel der Stadtregion Leipzig. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, U.

    1997-08-01

    Based on the continuous stationary measurements of climate carried out since the summer of 1992 at various sites in the Leipzig area and for mobile air temperature and humidity measurements carried out for in situ weather in the city area at selected test areas, relationships were carried out between urban structures for using areas and climatic conditions of the air layer near the ground in the city of Leipzig region. The data on the sealing of the functional types of structures obtained in the context of a further part project were used as an important indicator for the use of areas. A basic precondition for these city climate investigations is the preparation of the extensive data obtained in the form of tables and graphs. (orig./KW) [Deutsch] Auf der Basis der seit Sommer 1992 an verschiedenen Standorten im Raum Leipzig kontinuierlich vorgenommenen stationaeren Klimamessungen und bei autochthonen Wetterlagen im Stadtgebiet und in ausgewaehlten Testgebieten durchgefuehrten mobilen Lufttemperatur- und -feuchtemessungen wurden Beziehungen zwischen urbanen Flaechennutzungsstrukturen und klimatischen Verhaeltnissen der bodennahen Luftschicht in der Stadtregion Leipzig erarbeitet. Als wesentlicher Indikator fuer die Flaechennutzung fanden die im Rahmen eines weiteren Teilvorhabens gewonnenen Angaben zur Versiegelung der funktionalen Strukturtypen Verwendung. Eine Grundvoraussetzung fuer diese stadtklimatischen Untersuchungen stellt die Aufarbeitung des gewonnenen umfangreichen Datenmaterials in Form von Tabellen und Grafiken dar. (orig./KW)

  6. LOCAL SITE CONDITIONS INFLUENCING EARTHQUAKE INTENSITIES AND SECONDARY COLLATERAL IMPACTS IN THE SEA OF MARMARA REGION - Application of Standardized Remote Sensing and GIS-Methods in Detecting Potentially Vulnerable Areas to Earthquakes, Tsunamis and Other Hazards.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Pararas-Carayannis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The destructive earthquake that struck near the Gulf of Izmit along the North Anatolian fault in Northwest Turkey on August 17, 1999, not only generated a local tsunami that was destructive at Golcuk and other coastal cities in the eastern portion of the enclosed Sea of Marmara, but was also responsible for extensive damage from collateral hazards such as subsidence, landslides, ground liquefaction, soil amplifications, compaction and underwater slumping of unconsolidated sediments. This disaster brought attention in the need to identify in this highly populated region, local conditions that enhance earthquake intensities, tsunami run-up and other collateral disaster impacts. The focus of the present study is to illustrate briefly how standardized remote sensing techniques and GIS-methods can help detect areas that are potentially vulnerable, so that disaster mitigation strategies can be implemented more effectively. Apparently, local site conditions exacerbate earthquake intensities and collateral disaster destruction in the Marmara Sea region. However, using remote sensing data, the causal factors can be determined systematically. With proper evaluation of satellite imageries and digital topographic data, specific geomorphologic/topographic settings that enhance disaster impacts can be identified. With a systematic GIS approach - based on Digital Elevation Model (DEM data - geomorphometric parameters that influence the local site conditions can be determined. Digital elevation data, such as SRTM (Shuttle Radar Topography Mission, with 90m spatial resolution and ASTER-data with 30m resolution, interpolated up to 15 m is readily available. Areas with the steepest slopes can be identified from slope gradient maps. Areas with highest curvatures susceptible to landslides can be identified from curvature maps. Coastal areas below the 10 m elevation susceptible to tsunami inundation can be clearly delineated. Height level maps can also help locate

  7. 韦州矿区古河流冲刷区水文地质条件研究%Discussion on the Hydrogeological Conditions of the Ancient River Erosion Area in the District of Weizhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李学军; 孟杰

    2016-01-01

    The top of coal measures strata in Weizhou mining area has a large area of Neogene fluvial erosion area. Due to the permeability of conglomerate and aquifer system is stronger, especially the location of the erosion area is relatively low, it's easy to have the underground water inrush accidents and bring great threat to mine construction. In this paper, the scope of the erosion area has been delineated, the hydrogeological conditions of the mining area and erosion is discussed, and the recommendations for mine water prevention and control are proposed. It has an important guiding significance for the con-struction and exploitation of the coal mine.%韦州矿区煤系地层顶部分布有大面积的新近系古河流冲刷区,由于新近系底部砾岩层与下伏基岩强风化面含水岩组的富水性透水性较强,尤其在冲刷区地段所处的位置较低,有利于地下水汇集、储存,致使该区域地下水静储量大、水头压力高,故易发生井下突水事故,对矿井建设及煤矿开采威胁较大。本文对冲刷区的范围进行了圈定,对矿区及冲刷区水文地质条件进行了分析论述,提出了有针对性的矿井防治水建议,对煤矿建设及开采有重要的指导意义和参考价值。

  8. Characterization of pollutants cycles evolution in a coastal mediterranean area under summer conditions; Caracterizacion de ciclos de evolucion de contaminantes en una zona costera mediterranea en situaciones de verano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plaza, J.; Artinano, B.

    1994-07-01

    This work performs a jointly interpretation of meteorological and pollutant concentration measurements during three experimental campaigns in the coastal and inland zones of Castellon, in summer time and prevailing local conditions. Thermal origin circulations, sea and land breezes, slope and valley winds, and local topography, give rise to daily cycle recirculation of pollutants, both at surface and higher levels. Related to the associated ozone levels, the observed natural background varies from 40-50 ppb, whom can be added 20-50 ppb as contribution by photochemical generation. This has been observed to be transported up to 100 Km inland and re-circulated again through the coastal Area. (Author) 7 refs.

  9. 卷烟厂手工烟作业区空调系统CFD模拟研究%Simulation Study on Air Conditioning System CFD of Hand-made Area in Cigarette Factory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓敬华; 高宏宇; 王定银

    2014-01-01

    A Hand-Made Area in a Cigaret e Factory establ-ished a physical model and mathematical model of air conditi-oning and ventilation system, and analyzed and studied the velocity field, the age of air, the comfort- ability(PPD-PMV) of indoor thermal environment of using Airpark software, h-oping to provide a reference for the technical renovation of air conditioning system in a factory.%某卷烟厂手工烟作业区建立了空调通风系统的物理模型和数学模型,并利用Airpak软件对室内速度场、空气龄、室内热环境的舒适性(PPD-PMV)进行了分析研究,希望能对工厂空调系统技改提供参考。

  10. REACH. Air Conditioning Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison, Joe; And Others

    As a part of the REACH (Refrigeration, Electro-Mechanical, Air-Conditioning, Heating) electromechanical cluster, this student manual contains individualized instructional units in the area of air conditioning. The instructional units focus on air conditioning fundamentals, window air conditioning, system and installation, troubleshooting and…

  11. REACH. Air Conditioning Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison, Joe; And Others

    As a part of the REACH (Refrigeration, Electro-Mechanical, Air-Conditioning, Heating) electromechanical cluster, this student manual contains individualized instructional units in the area of air conditioning. The instructional units focus on air conditioning fundamentals, window air conditioning, system and installation, troubleshooting and…

  12. Autochthonous arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and Bacillus thuringiensis from a degraded Mediterranean area can be used to improve physiological traits and performance of a plant of agronomic interest under drought conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armada, Elisabeth; Azcón, Rosario; López-Castillo, Olga M; Calvo-Polanco, Mónica; Ruiz-Lozano, Juan Manuel

    2015-05-01

    Studies have shown that some microorganisms autochthonous from stressful environments are beneficial when used with autochthonous plants, but these microorganisms rarely have been tested with allochthonous plants of agronomic interest. This study investigates the effectiveness of drought-adapted autochthonous microorganisms [Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) and a consortium of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi] from a degraded Mediterranean area to improve plant growth and physiology in Zea mays under drought stress. Maize plants were inoculated or not with B. thuringiensis, a consortium of AM fungi or a combination of both microorganisms. Plants were cultivated under well-watered conditions or subjected to drought stress. Several physiological parameters were measured, including among others, plant growth, photosynthetic efficiency, nutrients content, oxidative damage to lipids, accumulation of proline and antioxidant compounds, root hydraulic conductivity and the expression of plant aquaporin genes. Under drought conditions, the inoculation of Bt increased significantly the accumulation of nutrients. The combined inoculation of both microorganisms decreased the oxidative damage to lipids and accumulation of proline induced by drought. Several maize aquaporins able to transport water, CO2 and other compounds were regulated by the microbial inoculants. The impact of these microorganisms on plant drought tolerance was complementary, since Bt increased mainly plant nutrition and AM fungi were more active improving stress tolerance/homeostatic mechanisms, including regulation of plant aquaporins with several putative physiological functions. Thus, the use of autochthonous beneficial microorganisms from a degraded Mediterranean area is useful to protect not only native plants against drought, but also an agronomically important plant such as maize.

  13. 松辽盆地南部宝龙山地区铀成矿水文地质条件分析%Hydrogeological Condition Analysis of Uranium Metalization in Baolongshan Area of South Songliao Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    佟术敏; 蔡建芳; 杨文达; 宁君; 丁翠玲

    2015-01-01

    宝龙山铀矿床水文地质条件比较复杂,文章概括了该区含水层及隔水层的基本情况,着重分析了含矿含水层及其隔水顶板的特征,简述了其与铀成矿的关系。依据该区的水文地球化学特征,尤其是矿化度、水化学类型及铀含量分布规律,说明了区内地下水整体流向由西南向东北方向;西辽河及架玛吐、兴隆协代花岗岩古隆起为地下水局部补给区, F3断裂、宝龙山剥蚀天窗及新开河为局部排泄区。%Hydrogeological condition of Baolongshan uranium deposit is quite complex , by sumarrizing the condition of aquifer and inpermiable layer with the focus on their roof feature ,this article describes its relationship with uranium mineralization.Based on the study result of hydrogeochemical characteristics of this area such as of salinity , hydochemical type and the distribution of uranium content , the ground water was found flows from southwest to north east , and the uplift granite in Westliaohe and Jiamatu , Xinglong xiedai are regarded as local recharge area , while F3 fracture ,Baolongshan fenster and Xin‐kaiuhe are regarded as local discharge area.

  14. Control Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This feature class represents electric power Control Areas. Control Areas, also known as Balancing Authority Areas, are controlled by Balancing Authorities, who are...

  15. On the ecology of Calanus finmarchicus in the Subarctic North Atlantic: A comparison of population dynamics and environmental conditions in areas of the Labrador Sea-Labrador/Newfoundland Shelf and Norwegian Sea Atlantic and Coastal Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, Erica J. H.; Melle, Webjørn; Pepin, Pierre; Bagøien, Espen; Broms, Cecilie

    2013-07-01

    The Norwegian Sea is generally warmer than the Labrador Sea because it is influenced more by Atlantic Water inflows from the south, whereas the latter receives relatively larger inputs of Arctic Water from the north. Despite its more northerly location, the spring bloom generally starts earlier in the Norwegian Sea. Within each of the two seas, however, there are regional and interannual differences in temperature and the timing of the spring bloom. The responses of Calanus finmarchicus populations to these differences in environmental conditions include differences in physical characteristics (e.g. female size), physiological rates (egg production rates) and seasonal cycles of abundance. Females are generally larger in the Labrador Sea and have higher egg production rates for a given chlorophyll concentration than do those in the Norwegian Sea. Within and among areas in both seas, as temperatures increase and spring blooms tend to occur earlier, C. finmarchicus start to reproduce earlier, the new generation develops faster, and in some areas a second generation ensues. In areas where near surface temperatures are relatively high in summer and/or where phytoplankton growth rates are relatively low in summer or autumn, reproduction and development cease, and C. finmarchicus desert the surface layers for their overwintering depths. This occurs in the Norwegian Sea in summer and in the central Labrador Sea in autumn. By contrast, in areas where near surface temperatures remain cool in summer and where phytoplankton growth persists through the autumn, reproduction and development can continue through summer and autumn, probably until winter vertical mixing prevents phytoplankton growth. This occurs on the southern Newfoundland Shelf. Even in areas where the growth season is prolonged, however, a proportion of the first generation, and probably subsequent generations, descends to overwinter. If the size of the overwintering population is used as an index of net

  16. EFFECTIVE DESIGN AND TECHNOLOGICAL SOLUTIONS FOR MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION OF CHANNEL TYPE WATER INTAKE BUILDINGS IN THE SPECIAL CONDITIONS OF THE NORTH IN THE GULF OF OBSKAYA BAY AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sozaev A. A.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on current issue of improving the reliability of water intake buildings in the Far North. We have given special operating conditions of these structures, particularly ice drift, shore ice piles, windrowing ice fields and erosion of the bottom of the moving ice field with keel protrusion. We have described physiographic, structural and morphological conditions of the construction site, generalized information on the parameters ice drift during an ice moving in the waters of the Gulf of Ob in Salmanovskaye deposit area. For these conditions, we have accepted to make water intake structure with recessed filtering part and given idea about their ice protection and proposed an effective design of protective constructions for all possible effects of ice hummocks. We have also given a description of bases of technology of construction works the rationale for the design parameters of facilities. In view of the possible load, two rows of closed pile foundations are provided for the protection of water receivers consisting of bored piles and channel filtering grillage. In the first row, near to the water receivers we have provided metallic, lattice constructions from metal profile pipes laid on the top of water receivers on the grillage. The second row of protective structures around water receivers was designed as a halfly indepth monolithic reinforced concrete grillage of rectangular cross-section form with an ice pick from a metal corner rental rendered monolithic on the outside perimeter of the grillage. Concrete grating are designed also to protect the gravity pipelines along the borders. Rectangular grillages interconnected with cross bar bonds witch are also made of reinforced concrete. The proposed technical solutions provide reliable protection against possible water intake facilities including dynamic effects from windrowing ice fields in the Far North. Options include new constructions of underground horizontal and channel

  17. 焦作矿区煤层气开发的水文地质条件分析%Analysis on hydrogeological condition for coal bed methane exploitation in Jiaozuo coal-mine area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付江伟; 傅雪海; 胡晓; 刘爱华

    2011-01-01

    水文地质条件对煤层气的富集高产起着重要的控制作用.在系统研究焦作矿区水文地质特征的基础上,分析了水文地质条件对煤层气赋存、渗流、运移及煤层气生产的影响.焦作矿区水文地质条件,整体上有利于煤层气的赋存,但局部地下水强径流带,煤层气以水流为载体被逸散;岩溶裂隙发育区,煤系埋藏较浅而且又接近地表水体的区域,断裂发育且有可能成为导水通道的区域,地表水可能进入煤层,不利于煤层气的开采.煤层气勘探开发选择井位时,在其他条件相同情况下,煤层气井应选择存离断层较远的稍深部位.煤层气生产应合理处理可能造成的环境地质问题.%Hydrogeological conditions play an important role in high concentration of coal-bed methane.Based on the systematic study of hydro-geological characteristics in Jiaozuo Mining Area, the influence made by hydrogeological conditions on the occurrence, seepage, migration, recoverability and production of coal bed methane was analyzed.Hydrogeological conditions in Jiaozuo are over ally beneficial to the occurrence of coal bed methane, but in the strong runoff zone with local groundwater, coal bed methane migrate taking water flow as a carrier.Karsts-cranny developing area, coal region of measures exposed or buried in shallow and also closed to the surface water, which can flow into the seam through fissures will adversely affected coal bed methane mining.More developing fractures may become the water-channels, so when we select wells for coal-bed methane exploration and development, at the same conditions of other cases, the coal bed methane wells should be selected in deeper and more distant from the site of the fault.Coal bed methane production should be reasonable to deal with potential environmental geological problems.

  18. Design and Construction of Foundation Excavation Supporting with Complex Geological Condition in Shanghai Center Area%上海中心城区复杂地质条件下基坑围护设计与施工

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王英锐; 董红霞; 黄新林

    2011-01-01

    The environment around center area of Shanghai become more complex. By researching classical foundation excavation project, the design and construction of foundation excavation supporting is analyued. In soft soil area the excavated foundation always faced to several conditions nearby, such as surrounding buildings piplines and underground structures. So it is important to take useful protect methods. FEA method is used to solve the condition of foundation excavation. And the effect of retaining structure is studied. In the project several technical methods are used to meet the stability control about boundary displacement. The construction control of foundation excavation engineering is a complicated system engineering, so monitoring data are analyzed to control the construction process. It proves that specific design can improve feasibility of design and flexibility of construction.%对上海中心城区复杂地况的基坑围护设计与施工进行分析,研究在软土地区,尤其具有多个复杂边界条件,不同邻近建筑、管线和地下构筑物,采取对应的避让和保护措施.运用有限元方法模拟开挖过程中无撑断面的土体围护效果.结合实例分析喷锚及有限支撑措施,重力式挡土墙技术.结合坑内多种加固技术进行组合运用,达到边界位移的稳定性控制.同时为了评价基坑围护的稳定性效果,分析了原位土体位移监测数据.结果表明采用针对性设计,可提高设计的可行性及施工的灵活性.

  19. Research on Relationship of Traffic Condition and Traffic Safety of Two-Lane Highway in Plane Areas%平原区双车道公路交通条件与交通安全的关系研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李强; 王蓉蓉; 路维; 胡江碧

    2012-01-01

    On the bais of traffic accident data of the two-lane highway in plane areas, the influence of vertical-section, cross-section and intersection with the traffic accidents, and contrasting the analysis with conclusion abroad are discussed , then a conclusion on the relationship of the traffic condition and the traffic safety of two-lane highway in plane areas is got, a traffic safety prediction model is established,so it has important significance on the upgrading the highway safety.%以平原区双车道公路交通事故资料为基础,分析了道路平曲线和纵断面线形及交叉口等因素与交通事故的关系,将分析结论和国外研究结果相对比,得出我国平原区双车道公路交通条件与交通安全的关系,并建立交通安全性预测模型,对提升我国双车道公路安全性具有重要的意义.

  20. The analysis of physical and psychological health conditions of pupils in Qiqihar area%齐齐哈尔地区小学生身心健康状况调查分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴双艳; 卞乐凤; 翟义乐; 伊欢; 杨晓杰

    2013-01-01

    对齐齐哈尔地区四所小学的550名学生身心健康状况进行了问卷调查。对其心理(焦虑、烦躁等)、身体(营养、饮食)及参加课余活动等几方面的现状与存在的问题进行了详细剖析,并就解决小学生现存的问题提出了意见和建议,为教师和家长正确了解和指导学生以及开展相关研究提供依据。%A questionnaire about physical and psychological health conditions of 550 students in four primary schools of Qiqihar area has been achieved.Analyzed the existing state and problem of their psychological(anxiety and trouble,et.),physical(nutrition and diet)conditions and extracurricular activities,and so on.And proposed some views and suggestions to solve existing problems of pupils.All of above provides a basis for teachers and parents to know and conduct students,and for related studies.

  1. 高海拔直流工程主设备状态评估的修正方法%Modification of Condition Assessment for HVDC Equipment Used in High Altitude Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王健一; 李金忠; 李军; 吴超; 祝令瑜

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT:In order to make a more accurate and effective assessment of the status of the main equipment of the±400kV Qingzang HVDC project, which is the world’s highest altitude transmission project, the impact of high altitude on the operation of HVDC equipment was studied, and the correction model of condition assessment of HVDC equipment was proposed. External insulation strength, heat-sinking capability, ultraviolet radiation, and temperature difference day and night in high altitude area were analyzed theoretically. The state parameters which need to be revised at high altitude were selected based on the correlation analysis. Referring to the Condition Evaluation Guide established by State Grid, the weight of the condition variables related to altitude was revised, and the evaluation method for HVDC equipment in high altitude area was proposed. The remote condition monitoring and operation condition evaluation system for primary equipment of±400kV Qingzang HVDC project was established in the mode of concentrated construction. It is demonstrated that the altitude correction factors can effectively improve the accuracy of condition assessment of HVDC equipment operation in high altitude.%为了对世界上海拔最高的高原输电工程——青藏直流联网工程的主设备状态进行更为准确有效的评估,该文对高海拔环境对高压直流输电主设备运行的影响展开研究,提出高海拔直流输电设备状态评估参数的修正方法。从理论上分析了高海拔下外绝缘强度、散热能力、紫外辐射、昼夜温差等方面对设备的影响,并基于相关性分析筛选出了高海拔下所需要修正的状态量。根据国网的状态评价导则以及低海拔地区的大量运行经验,建立了考虑高海拔条件的主设备运行  状态评价方法,对与海拔相关的状态量及其权系数进行了海拔修正。基于已建立的状态评价方法,建立了±400 kV青藏直流工程

  2. Implement Conditions for District Organization of Bus Routes in Urban and Rural Areas%城乡公交线路片区组织的实施条件研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜晓红; 过秀成; 过利超; 龚小林

    2014-01-01

    District organization of bus routes in urban and rural areas is an effective strategy to integrate the resources allocation and promote the sustainable development of public transport in rural areas. First,the connotation of district organization was defined. Afterwards, the district organization of single route and multi-routes, and the space orientation of area integration and traffic organization mode were described respectively. The implement conditions for single route organization of trunk and branch organization, trunk-branch organization were developed. Then, according to the trunk route layout, passenger flow in direction and in peak time , the possibility for multi-routes operation was discussed. Combined with the objective of promoting company’s profits, the district traffic organization condition was presented based on meeting the passenger travel demand.%城乡公交线路片区组织的有效整合资源配置,能促进城乡公交服务均等化与可持续发展。论文界定了片区组织内涵,分别阐述单线片区、多线片区以及区域整合组织形式的空间定位与行车组织形式。分别讨论单线片区干线组织、支线联运、干支线联运三种形式的实施条件;针对多线片区,提出通过分析相邻城镇公交干线走向、高峰期客流、上下行客流分布的差异特征,判别实施多线片区组织的可能性。从城乡公交干支线客流差异性、客流时空特征角度,提出了以提高企业经营效益为目标的片区组织实施条件。

  3. 焦作地区水文地质条件对浅层地下水污染的控制作用研究%Research on the Control of Hydrogeological Conditions under Shallow Groundwater Pollution in Jiaozuo Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯玉松; 马振民; 雒芸芸; 焦芳芳; 李玲玲

    2013-01-01

    Through on-the-spot surveys, water quality analysis and simulation of pollutants' diffusion and migration law, it is found that by the control of hydrogeological conditions, different areas of Jiaozuo has different groundwater pollution. Hydrogeological conditions also affect the distribution and migration of contaminants in groundwater systems. In the Piedmont inclined diluvial plain areas, the main mode of contamination is infiltration-runoff diffusion. Although the thickness in the vadose zone is greater than that in other regions, due to the permeability of the vadose zone is better, precipitation is relatively abundant, contaminants easily into the aquifer with the meteoric infiltration of surface water and precipitation, causing this area to be more sensitive to pollutioa After entering groundwater, contaminants diffuse from northwest to southeast under the control of groundwater runoff, in which the diffusion along the Dasha River line is the fastest. In the Piedmont handover depression, the height of capillary rise big, speed, and located in the groundwater flow's potential exchange place, so the dominant pollution effect is runoff-evaporation and concentration effect. The long-term evaporation concentration effect makes the total hardness overweight commonly. In the alluvial plain areas of the Huangqin River, underground runoff is weak ,the vertical alternation role is strong, so the rainfall infiltration and evaporation concentration is the main way of pollution. Under the influence of special hydrogeological conditions, although total fluoride content in the soil is at normal levels, but the fluorine pollution in the shallow groundwater is still serious.%通过现场调查、水质分析以及模拟污染物扩散迁移发现,受水文地质条件的控制,在焦作不同区域浅层地下水的主要污染方式不同.水文地质条件还影响着污染物在地下水系统中的分布、迁移.在山前倾斜冲洪积平原地区,主要污染方式

  4. A Study on Hydrogeological Condition and Water Inflow Calculation in Deep Part Baoding Mine Area%宝鼎矿区深部水文地质条件研究及涌水量计算

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏克敏; 赵茂森; 王友长

    2011-01-01

    宝鼎矿区浅部资源行将枯竭,深部开采已迫在眉睫,而预测深部涌水量成为其首要解决的问题.通过对矿区深部水文地质条件研究与矿井充水因素的分析,认为矿区各含水间水力联系差,同一含水层组的不同地段间的含水裂隙的连通性亦差;断层多为高角度压性逆断层,导水性差,富水性弱;矿区上部水平及下部水平的浅埋区的充水水源主要为大气降水和老窑水,而下部水平主要的充水水源为上覆水平的采空区积水和地下水.运用比拟法和地下水动力学对延深的第一接替水平四个区段的较大涌水量和一般涌水量进行了计算,经过比较,采用了比拟法的计算结果:矿井的一般涌水量为2 860.88m3/d,据此提出了切实可行防治水措施,从而为矿井深部建设提供了水文地质依据.%The coal resources in the shallow part Baoding mine area about to exhausted, thus the deep part mining is extremely urgent, while the prediction of deep part water inflow is the first issue to be solved. Through mine area hydrogeological condition study and mine water filling factor analysis, considered that the hydraulic connection between aquifers are rather poor, connectivity of water-bearing fractures in different sectors of a same aquifer (group) is also poor. Faults in the area are mostly high angle compressive reverse faults with poor transmissibility and water yield property. Water filling sources of mine area upper levels and shallow part of lower levels are mainly atmospheric precipitation and gob area water, while main water filling sources of lower levels are gob area water from overlying levels and groundwater. Using analogue method and groundwater dynamics carry out computation for greater and general mine inflows in four sectors of deepening first relayed level. After comparison, results from analogue method are adopted:general mine inflow is 2860.88m3/d. For reason given above, practical water control

  5. 保定市山区县中小学学生健康状况调查%Investigation on health condition of primary and middle school students in mountain area counties of Baoding City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李俊爱; 赵宝军

    2013-01-01

    [Objective] To understand the health condition of primary and middle school students in mountain area counties of Baoding City,provide scientific basis for making health education materials.[Methods] Two counties were selected from 8 mountain area counties of Baoding City by stratified sampling,and all primary and middle school students in both two counties received the health examination according to unified standard.The data were analyzed,and results between two counties were compared.[Results]The top five influencing factor for health condition of primary and middle school students was poor eyesight,dental caries,antiadoncus,obesity and eye diseases.The detection rate of poor eyesight in middle school students of Yixian County was significantly higher than that of Shunping County (P < 0.05),and there was no significant difference in other results between two counties (P > 0.05).The detection rate of poor eyesight was the highest,and the detection rate in primary schools and middle schools of Shunping County was 33.70% and 56.13% respectively,while that in primary schools and middle schools of Yixian County was 58.31% and 65% respectively.The dental caries presented the second highest detection rate,the detection rate in primary schools of Shunping County was 26.08%,while that in junior middle school and senior middle school was 15.72% and 13.84% respectively.[Conclusion] The health conditions of primary and middle school students in mountain area counties of Baoding City are similar.%目的 全面了解和掌握保定市山区县中小学学生健康状况,为有针对性地制定健康教育教材的科学依据.方法 对保定市辖区内的8个山区县按照分层随抽样方法进行抽样,选择2个县对县城内的所有中小学学生按照统一检查标准进行健康检查,2县检查结果进行对比分析,数据进行统计处理.结果 视力不良、龋齿、扁桃体肿大、肥胖、眼疾是排在前5位的影响中小学

  6. The impact of a large boreal wildfire on boundary-layer conditions and carbon cycling in adjacent unburned areas: case study of the 2011 Utikuma Complex fire, Alberta, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrone, R. M.; Thompson, D. K.; Chasmer, L.; Kljun, N.; Flannigan, M.; Devito, K. J.; Waddington, J. M.

    2016-12-01

    Boreal wildfire conflagrations have increased in frequency in the western boreal forest of Canada, with notable events in 2011, 2015, and 2016. Significant advances have been made in recent years in understanding fire-atmosphere interactions, with similar gains in the knowledge of carbon emissions and post-fire carbon cycling in forests. However, the focus of such studies is routinely on the burned stands themselves, with little attention to the adjacent forest whose boundary layer meteorology and carbon cycling may be impacted by smoke plume. We capitalize here on opportunistic eddy covariance observations of boundary-layer conditions and carbon cycling taken over a long-term monitoring site adjacent to an active wildfire in Alberta, Canada in 2011. Over a one-week period while the wildfire was burning near the footprint of the tower the turbulent structure of the boundary layer near the tower was altered with significant changes in friction velocity, air temperature, and vapour pressure deficit. Moreover, growing season net ecosystem productivity (NEP) decreased to almost zero largely due to reduced photosynthesis likely due to smoke-related reductions in photosynthetically active radiation (PAR). While the `smoke event' caused a reduction in forest CO2 sequestration by 7 g CO2 m-2 given that the smoked affected area was 120 times greater than the area burned this carbon reduction was equivalent to 30% of gross fire emissions from the fire. Consequently, we argue that smoke related inhibition of photosynthesis via reduced light should be considered when investigating the net radiative forcing of boreal forest wildfires.

  7. 基于特征通流面积的汽轮机变工况性能分析%Performance Analysis of Steam Turbine on Off-design Conditions Based on Characteristic Flow Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔海朋; 卢绪祥; 邴汉昆; 王运民

    2011-01-01

    阐述了基于留格尔公式提出的特征通流面积概念的定义及计算方法,在IAPWS - IF97公式基础上,利用Visual Basic 6.0平台初步开发了汽轮机组通流部分特征通流面积计算软件,并以国产600MW超临界机组为研究对象,对机组变工况下级组的特征通流面积进行了计算和分析.研究结果表明:汽轮机级组的特征通流面积在通流部分尺寸不发生变化时,其值保持不变,并且变工况下其计算精度能满足工程要求,可以作为机组通流能力及通流部分故障诊断的准则参数,为机组通流部分的状态监测与故障的精确诊断提供依据.%The definition and calculation method of characteristic flow area (CFA) which based on FlUgel Formula are presented in this paper. On the basis of the IAPWS - IF97 formula, calculation software of CFA for steam turbine flow passage was developed on Visual Basic 6. 0 software platform, and the CFAs of the domestic 600MW supercritical units under off-design conditions were calculated and analyzed. The results show that the calculation accuracy of CFA under off-design conditions is high and fits the project requirements. It is feasible to apply in calculation of variable CFA, monitoring and diagnosis of steam turbine, and to apply in the field of improved design of the flow passage, variable characteristic flow area calculation,monitoring and diagnosis of steam turbine flow passage.

  8. Characterization of the volcanic and hypabissal rocks of the Paleoproterozoic Iricoumé Group in the Pitinga region and Balbina Lake area, Amazonian Craton, Brazil: Petrographic distinguishing features and emplacement conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simões, Matheus Silva; Almeida, Marcelo Esteves; de Souza, Antonio Gilmar Honorato; da Silva, Desaix Paulo Balieiro; Rocha, Paloma Gabriela

    2014-10-01

    The Iricoumé Group (1.897 to 1.875 Ma) is a widespread volcanic sequence in the Amazonian Craton, South American Platform. In the Pitinga region, it consists of acidic to intermediate ignimbrites with cogenetic surge and ash-fall deposits associated to hypabissal and effusive acidic rocks. In the Balbina Lake area it consists of acidic to intermediate effusive rocks, crystal-rich ignimbrites and pumice-rich ignimbrites. Detailed petrographic studies of phenocrysts and crystal fragments provided characterization and distinctive features of pyroclastic, effusive and hypabissal rocks. The phenocrysts of hypabissal rocks were affected by high temperature resorption and flow-related physical fragmentation, the effusive rocks can have a considerable content of crystal fragments due to intense dissolution and fragmentation of the phenocrysts and the pyroclastic rocks crystal fragments are generated mainly by decompression mechanic fragmentation. Dissolution and resorption of quartz and feldspar crystals may have acted at pressure conditions between 500 MPa and 100 MPa, in response to rapid decompression in the magma ascent. The viscosity values of 7,5-10 log η (Pa s) for anhydrous conditions decrease exponentially with estimated water addition. The amount of phenocrysts and their intratelluric character in the volcanic units of Iricoumé Group can be related to a magma chamber with high content of crystals. We suggest that even with the addition of water in the magma, the viscosities had a drastic increase with progressive crystal growth due to the viscosity dependence on the solid fraction and the deposits were generated by the extrusion of viscous lava and pyroclastic flows.

  9. 北京建成区道路绿化空间结构和行道树健康状况%Spatial Structure and Health Condition of Street Trees in Beijing Built-up Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郄光发; 王成

    2011-01-01

    采用实地普查测量方法,定量研究了北京建成区188条道路行道树的树种结构、径级分布、立木层次和健康状况。结果表明,国槐(Sophora japonica)、毛白杨(Populus alba)、银杏(Ginkgo biloba)是建成区主要行道树种,使用量分别占研究区树木总株数的54.7%、13.7%和7.4%。建成区树木平均密度201株/hm。,平均胸径18.5cm,其中胸径在30cm以上的大径级树木数量较少,仅占11.9%,而中、小径级树木比例过大,10cm≤DBH〈20cm是行道树最集中的径级分布区间。%The structure and health condition of street trees were investigated by using aerial photograph method in Beijing built-up areas. The species composition, tree DBH (diameter at breast height) , tree stratum and health condi- tion were analyzed. The result

  10. Review on agrometeorological conditions of spring maize during whole growth period in Lihe area in 2014%2014年临河区春玉米全生育期农业气象条件评述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李雪冰; 刘海云

    2015-01-01

    The agrometeorological conditions of spring maize during whole growth period in Lihe area in 2014 had significant characteristic. The temperature difference was big during filling and ripening stage, and sunshine was abundant. The temperature was low during seedling stage and the maize growth delayed, but the temperature during middle-later stage made up to the early temperature. the little lower temperature during middle-later stage and the well-distributed precipitation inhibited the development of starscream ,which reduced the harm to increase maize yield.%2014年临河区玉米全生育期气象条件是:灌浆成熟期温差大、日照足;苗期温度低,发育延迟,但中后期温度条件对前期有所弥补;玉米中后期气温稍低,降水分布均匀,抑制了红蜘蛛的发生发展,降低了危害,有利于玉米产量增加。

  11. Leaf area index estimation in a pine plantation with LAI-2000 under direct sunlight conditions: relationship with inventory and hydrologic variables; Estimacion del indice de area foliar en pinares de repolacion con LAI-2000 bajo radiacion solar directa: relacion con variables de inventario e hidrologicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molina, A.; Campo, A. D. del

    2011-07-01

    LAI is a key factor in light and rainfall interception processes in forest stands and, for this reason, is called to play an important role in global change adaptive silviculture. Therefore, it is necessary to develop practical and operative methodologies to measure this parameter as well as simple relationships with other silviculture variables. This work has studied 1) the feasibility of LAI-2000 sensor in estimating LAI-stand when readings are taken under direct sunlight conditions; and 2) the ability of LAI in studying rainfall partitioned into throughfall (T) in an Aleppo pine stand after different thinning intensities, as well as its relationships to basal area, (G), cover (FCC), and tree density (D). Results showed that the angular correction scheme applied to LAI-2000 direct-sunlight readings stabilized them for different solar angles, allowing a better operational use of LAI-2000 in Mediterranean areas, where uniform overcast conditions are difficult to meet and predict. Forest cover showed the highest predictive ability of LAI (R{sup 2} = 0.98; S = 0.28), then G (R{sup 2} = 0.96; S = 0.43) and D (R{sup 2} = 0.50; S = 0.28). In the hydrological plane, T increased with thinning intensity, being G the most explanatory variable (R{sup 2} = 0.81; S = 3.07) and LAI the one that showed the poorest relation with it (R{sup 2} = 0.69; S = 3.95). These results open a way for forest hydrologic modeling taking LAI as an input variable either estimated form LAI-2000 or deducted from inventory data. (Author) 36 refs.

  12. 中国农村水贫困测度及空间格局机理%Measure of water poverty conditions and its spatial pattern mechanism in China's rural areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙才志; 汤玮佳; 邹玮

    2012-01-01

    The assessment indicator system for water poverty conditions measure in rural areas of China was constructed firstly. Each index of the system was given a weight by the subjective and objective comprehensive weighting method. Then the water poverty index model (WPI model) was applied to measure the rural water poverty conditions of 31 pro- vincial administrative units in China from 2004 to 2009, and the results can basically reflect the spatial distribution pattern of rural water poverty in recent years. The provinces with high rural water poverty are Ningxia, Hainan, Tianjin, Gansu, Shanxi, Jilin, Chongqing, Xinjiang, Guizhou, and Inner Mongolia; the provinces with moderate rural water poverty are Shaanxi, Qinghai, Shanghai, Liaoning, Fujian, Heilongjiang, Anhui, Beijing, Jian- gxi, Hubei, and Hebei; the provinces with low rural water poverty are Guangxi, Yunnan, Henan, Zhejiang, Hunan, Shandong, Jiangsu, Guangdong, Sichuan and Tibet. Finally, this paper studied the forming mechanism of spatial distribution pattern of rural water pov- erty , and some relevant countermeasures and suggestions were put forward for solving the water poverty problems in rural areas of China, which is helpful for providing strategic ba- sis for decision making and policy enlightenment for achieving the coordinated growth of issues related to agriculture, farmers and rural areas.%通过构建我国农村水贫困测度评价指标体系,并运用水贫困指数模型(WPI)及主客观综合赋权法,对我国2004~2009年31个省级行政单位农村地区水贫困状况进行测算,结果基本显示了近年来我国农村地区水贫困程度的分布格局。其中高水贫困地区为宁夏、海南、天津、甘肃、山西、吉林、重庆、新疆、贵州、内蒙古;中水贫困地区为陕西、青海、上海、辽宁、福建、黑龙江、安徽、北京、江西、湖北、河北;低水贫困地区为广西、云南、河南、浙江、湖南、山东、江苏

  13. [Common vulvar dermatologic conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiltunen-Back, Eija; Jeskanen, Leila

    2012-01-01

    A wide range of cutaneous diseases can affect genital area. Some of these dermatoses are predominantly present in vulvar area while others primarily occur in extra-genital skin areas. Genital area is susceptible to maceration and the combination of moisture and warmth together with the increased penetration of topical agents make the region vulnerable for mechanical and chemical irritation. Lichen simplex chronicus (LSC) is a secondary condition precipitated by chronic itching and scratching. Scratching may be caused by some dermatoses or candida infection. Chronic systemic dermatoses most commonly affecting vulval area are various eczemas, psoriasis, lichen sclerorus and lichen planus.

  14. Anchorage Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — An anchorage area is a place where boats and ships can safely drop anchor. These areas are created in navigable waterways when ships and vessels require them for...

  15. Condiciones de vida en zonas palúdicas de Antioquia (Colombia, 2005 Condições de vida em zonas palúdicas de Antioquia (Colômbia, 2005 Living conditions in Antioquia's (Colombia paludic areas, 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Carmona Fonseca

    2010-07-01

    ílias de meninos palúdicos em duas zonas de Antioquia. Metodologia. Desenho descritivo de corte transversal. Descrevese e analisa um conjunto de variáveis socioeconômicas que expressam as condições de vida dessas famílias, em 2004-2005. Resultados. 88 famílias dos municípios de Turvo e O Bagre, o 58% viviam em zona. Em general, as variáveis analisadas apresentam diferença estatisticamente significativa por município e zona (piores condições: Turvo-rural; menos más: O Bagre-urbano. Os rasgos familiares mais frequentes foram: famílias nucleares típicas (66%, com uma média de 7,1 membros. Habitam ranchos/tugúrios o 29%, contam com serviço sanitário intradomicilio o 42%, atiravam o lixo em campo aberto o 31%. O 69% das moradias têm Peri - domicilio com vegetação e outro 66% tem água estancada/corrente. O pai trabalhava em 64%, o trabalho era instável em 59% dos casos; as ocupações mais comuns foram de agricultor (53%, mineiro (13% e jornaleiro (12%. O rendimento monetário mensal médio era de só $244 000. Teve 58% das famílias com fontes estáveis de alimentos. O consumo de carnes/vísceras animais foi menor de uma 1 vez/semana, leite e ovos de 2-3 vezes/ semana, frutas ricas em carotenos provitamina A não se consumiam. Os alimentos consumidos tinham alta probabilidade de satisfazer os requerimentos familiares de VITAMINA A em grau alto (45%. Conclusão. As condições de vida das famílias que residem em Turbo e El Bagre são muito deficientes e é elevada a quantidade de famílias com necessidades básicas não satisfeitas. Há importantes diferenças entre os municípios de estudo e entre a zona urbana e rural. A situação de má qualidade de vida nestas regiões maláricas supera amplamente o referido pelas médias para o departamento de Antioquia e para a Colômbia.Objective. To explore the paludic children families living conditions in two different areas of Antioquia. Methodology. Transversal cut, descriptive design. A group of

  16. 安徽亳州地区腹膜透析患者规范洗手状况调查分析%Investigation and Analysis of Peritoneal Dialysis Patients Specification Wash Conditions of Anhui Bozhou Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李娜; 王飞龙

    2014-01-01

    Objective Investigation and analysis of peritoneal dialysis patients specification wash conditions of Anhui Bozhou area. Methods used Bozhou Municipal Center for Disease Control to develop standardized questionnaire as hand washing score. Investigate the situation 100 cases of peritoneal dialysis patients wash their hands before the operation. The pass rate of wash hands was 27 per. The pass rate of hands bacterial culture was 18 per. Age , gender were not correlated with hand score (P>0.05),but dialysis age , residence , education level was positively correlated with the hand score (P<0.05), Number of bacteria after washing hands was negatively correlated with hand score (P<0.01). Results The average time of wash hands of the group of patients iwas 9 seconds. Conclusion Peritoneal dialysis patients wash lower pass rate of Anhui Bozhou area. Dialysis age , residence , education level, number of bacteria closely related with the hand score .%目的:调查分析安徽亳州地区腹膜透析(PD)患者规范洗手的现状。方法采用亳州市疾病控制中心制定的规范化洗手调查问卷作为评分标准,对亳州市人民医PD中心的100例PD患者操作前洗手状况进行调查。结果入组患者平均洗手时间为9S。洗手合格率为27%。双手细菌培养合格率为18%。年龄、性别与洗手得分均无相关性(P>0.05),而透析龄、户籍、文化程度与洗手得分呈正相关(P<0.05),洗手后细菌数与洗手得分呈负相关(P<0.01)。结论安徽亳州地区PD患者洗手合格率较低。透析龄、户籍、文化程度洗手后细菌数与洗手得分密切相关。

  17. 珠海市吉大区2~7岁儿童健康状况分析%The analysis of zhuhai jida area collective child growlth condition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴芷兴; 曾永红; 邓杰腾

    2009-01-01

    Objective Understood the Zhuhai Jida area collective child health condition the change tendency,provides the scientific basis for the collective child care management,improves the collective health of children as a whole.Methods Uses the method of the time series comparison to the Jida area of 15 nurseries,kindergartens,n 2006~2008 year in May in August s the physical examination result report form material carries on the analysis comparison.Results Malnutrition,low birth weight,growth retardation prevalence rate decreased year by year;iron deficiency anemia prevalence rate of change was not obvious:caries prevalence rate decreased year by year;child obesity prevalence increased year by year.Conclusions Zhuhai Jida regional nurseries and kindergartens for children in good nutrition,child obesity and dental caries,but more needs to be done to solve the problem The reasonable arrangement meals nutrition,the suitable effective physical training,the guardian and teacher coordinates positively,the building good family and the nurseries and kindergartens environment,guarantees each child body and mind the healthy development.%目的 了解珠海市吉大区集体儿童健康状况的变化趋势,为集体儿童保健管理提供科学依据,以提高集体儿童的整体健康水平.方法 采用时间序列比较的方法对吉大区15间托幼园所2006~2008年期间5~8月份的体检结果报表资料进行分析比较.结果 营养不良、低体重、发育迟缓患病率逐年下降;缺铁性贫血患病率变化不明显;龋齿患病率逐年下降;肥胖儿患病率逐年上升.结论 珠海市吉大区托幼园所儿童营养状况良好,但肥胖儿及龋齿问题仍需努力解决.合理安排膳食营养,适当有效的体育锻炼,家长及老师积极配合,营造良好家庭及托幼园所环境,以确保每个儿童身心的健康发展.

  18. Optimizing of the fermentation condition of yogurt culture which from Hezuo pastoral areas' Lactic Acid Bacteria%源自合作藏区优良乳酸菌的酸奶发酵剂发酵条件优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦虹; 梁琪; 张卫兵; 张炎; 米兰

    2013-01-01

    Streptococcus thermophilus Q4 and Lactobacillus bulgaricus G5 which isolated and screened from Hezuo pastoral areas were mixed to ferment yogurt. Choosing factors and level by single factor experiment, optimized the fermentation condition of yogurt culture in accordance with the Box-Behnken experiment design. The results showed that: the best quality of the yogurt would be obtained when the fermentation temperature of 41.2℃,the addition of suger of 5.2%,inoculation rate of 3% and mixing ratio of 1:1. In this case,the predict sensory evaluation score was 88.52 and the result of verification test of it was 89.67±1.53.%用从合作藏区分离筛选的嗜热链球菌Q4、保加利亚乳杆菌G4混菌发酵酸奶.通过单因素实验选取因素、外平,根据Box-Behnken实验设计对混菌酸奶发酵剂发酵条件进行优化.结果表明,在发酵温度为41.2℃、蔗糖添加量为5.2%、接种量3%、复配比例1:1条件下发酵酸奶,所得的产品品质最好.在此条件下酸奶感官评价评分预测值为88.52,验证实验的感官评价评分为89.67±1.53.

  19. 西北边远艰苦连队官兵健康状况及其影响因素%Survey on physical condition among officers and soldiers in northwest remote areas and its influencing factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱晓全; 李英秋; 庄开颜; 张高明; 郝建华; 程鹏; 杨玲

    2013-01-01

    [Objective] To understand the physical condition among officers and soldiers in northwest remote areas and its influencing factors,provide a basis for improving the medical level in grassroots units.[Methods] By using physical examination and unified questionnaire survey,the status of food security,lifestyle,dietary habit and physical condition among officers and soldiers in northwest remote areas were investigated.[Results] The total prevalence rate among servicemen in northwest remote areas was 29.65%.The prevalence rate and awareness rate of chronic diseases were as follow:overweight and obesity was 37.71% and 7.16%,hypertension was 9.28% and 4.08%,fatty liver was 15.2% and 11.44%,as well as hyperuricemia was 13.96% and 0.Other common diseases included sleep disorder,angioneurotic headache,chronic gastritis,calculus,trachoma,chronic conjunctivitis,piles and skin illness.The main problems on dietary habits and unhealthy lifestyle? in sequence were:inadequate intake of fruit (79.1%),inadequate intake of fish (73.23%),smoking (72.64%),inadequate intake of milk (71.74%),high intake of salt (59.01%),drinking (58.71%),inadequate intake of bean products (49.25%),low fluid intake (48.36%),frequently midnight snack (46.76%),high intake of sugared beverages (45.97%),excess intake of staple food(30.50%),and heavy greasy food (22.99%).[Conclusion] It is necessary to strengthen life and medical guarantee among officers and soldiers in northwest remote areas,and improve the health education and management,to enhance the combat effectiveness.%目的 了解边远地区基层官兵身体健康状况及其影响因素,为提高基层部队医疗保障水平提供依据.方法 采取健康体检及问卷调查的方法,了解西北边远艰苦地区基层连队食品保障、官兵生活饮食习惯和健康状况.结果 西北边远艰苦地区官兵总患病率为29.65%,慢性病患病率和知晓率分别为:超重与肥胖37.71%和7

  20. 子长—蟠龙地区长1半深—深湖相沉积及其生油意义%Chang 1 lacustrine sediments and oil-source-rock conditions in Zichang- Panlong Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张惠; 孟祥振; 蒲仁海; 孟鹄

    2012-01-01

    disconformity between Triassic and Jurassic. The isopach map of dark shales indicates that the lacustrine facies in Zichang-Panlong region lengthen north-south 120 km and widen east-west 60 km. Moreover, the study area is only the middle part of the eastern original lake which should extend westward, northward and southward much more distances and cover double area of the present defined lacustrine portion. Chang 1 dark shales possess rich organic matter and the organic carbon is more than 4% . Most of them belong to Ⅱ1 type of kerogen which has evolved to the maturated period. Therefore the lacustrine rocks conform to the conditions of high quality of oil source rocks. Conclusion The widespread Chang 1 lacustrine rocks may have great significance to the information of Chang 2 and Jurassic reservoir in Ordos Basin.

  1. 滕州市城区人群2型糖尿病危险因素非条件logistic回归分析%Non-conditional logistic regression analysis on risk factors of type 2 diabetes in Tengzhou urban area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董洪峰

    2013-01-01

    [Objective]To explore the risk factors of type 2 diabetes among residents in Tengzhou urban area, provide the basis for developing the intervention strategies and measures. [Methods] 1:1 frequency matched case-control study was conducted in 96 cases with type 2 diabetes in Tengzhou Center Peoples Hospital from May to October 2011. [Results] With the multivariate non-conditional logistic regression analysis, five factors were finally involved into the model, including family history of diabetes, waist-to-hip ratio > 0.9, hyperlipidemia, hypertension and physical exercise, which OR value was 4.31, 3.77, 3. 54, 1.65 and 0.51 respectively. [Conclusion]People with family history of diabetes, waist-to-hip ratio >0.9, hyperlipidemia and hypertension are prone to suffer from type 2 diabetes, and regular physical exercise is the protective factor.%目的 探讨滕州市城区人群2型糖尿病危险因素,为制定干预对策与措施提供依据.方法 2011年5-10月,对滕州市中心人民医院确诊的96例2型糖尿病患者进行1∶1频数匹配的病例对照研究.结果 经多因素非条件logistic回归分析,最终进入模型的5个因素有糖尿病家族史、腰臀比>0.9、高血脂症、高血压和体育锻炼,其OR值分别为4.31,3.77,3.54,1.65和0.51.结论 具有糖尿病家族史、腰臀比>0.9、高血脂、高血压的特征人群易患2型糖尿病,经常体育锻炼是降低发病的保护因素.

  2. Relations of benthic macroinvertebrates to concentrations of trace elements in water, streambed sediments, and transplanted bryophytes and stream habitat conditions in nonmining and mining areas of the upper Colorado River basin, Colorado, 1995-98

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mize, Scott V.; Deacon, Jeffrey R.

    2002-01-01

    ), except at two mining sites where concentrations of copper and zinc were below the PEL. Concentrations of arsenic, copper, iron, and lead in transplanted bryophytes were significantly different between nonmining and mining sites. Bioconcentration factors calculated for 15-day exposure using one-half of the minimum reporting level were significantly different between nonmining and mining sites. In general, concentrations of trace elements in streambed sediment and transplanted bryophytes were more closely correlated than were the concentrations of trace elements in the water column with streambed sediments or concentrations in the water column with transplanted bryophytes. Stream habitat was rated as optimal to suboptimal using the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Rapid Bioassessment Protocols for all sites in the study area. Generally, stream habitat conditions were similar at nonmining compared to mining sites and were suitable for diverse macroinvertebrate communities. All study sites had optimal instream habitat except two mining sites with suboptimal instream habitat because of disturbances in stream habitat. The benthic macroinvertebrate community composition at nonmining sites and mining sites differed. Mining sites had significantly lower total abundance of macroinvertebrates, fewer numbers of taxa, and lower dominance of Ephemeroptera (mayflies), Plecoptera (stoneflies), and Trichoptera (caddisflies), and a larger percentage of tolerant species than did nonmining sites. The predominance of Baetis sp. (mayflies), Hydropsychidae (caddisflies), and large percentage of Orthocladiinae chironomids (midges) at mining sites indicated that these species may be tolerant to elevated trace-element concentrations. The absence of Heptageniidae (mayflies), Chloroperlidae (stoneflies), and Rhyacophila sp. (caddisflies) at mining sites indicated that these species may be sensitive to elevated trace-element concentrations. Comparison of field parameters and

  3. 偏远山区视力不良小学生矫正现状及相关影响因素%Condition and Influencing Factors of Vision Correction among Pupils with Poor Vision in Remote Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘立煌; 许敏; 何一宁; 罗沛宜; 田亭; 成佩霞; 杨宝霞; 周亮

    2015-01-01

    目的:了解偏远地区视力不良小学生矫正状况及其相关影响因素,并提出相关建议.方法采用分层整群抽样方法,共调查4~6年级40个班(1967名)学生,调查内容包括视力检查和问卷调查两方面.结果视力不良患病率为27.96%;未矫正率为67.86%;在对未矫正率影响因素的单因素分析结果中,年级、父母是否长期在外打工、有无远处看不清楚的情况及有没有跟照顾的人说、家里经济状况、是否定期进行检查方面,在未矫正率上差异有统计学意义(P <0.05).多因素 Logistic 回归分析结果中,父亲长期在外打工、未定期检查方面,视力是矫正的危险因素,有过看远处不清楚的情况是矫正的保护因素.结论偏远地区小学生视力不良未矫正现状不容乐观,其影响因素可能涉及学生家庭一般情况、家长是否在外打工、学生对于近视的认知程度等,需要及时干预.%Objectives To investigate the condition and influencing factors of vision correction among pupils with poor vision in remote areas,and to provide related suggestions.Methods Using the stratified random cluster sam-pling method,we investigated 40 classes (1 967)students from 4th grade to 6th grade.The investigation content in-cluded visual test and questionnaire survey.Results The prevalence of visual impairment among primary school students was 27.96%,and the uncorrected rate was 67.86%.Different grade levels,whether parents worked outside for a long time,whether they had the symptoms,their family economics and whether they examined their vision regularly showed varied uncorrected rates (P <0.05 ).Father working outside and irregularly vision examinations were risk factors of the visual impairment correction;the presence of the symptom was the protective factors of the correction.Conclusions The uncorrected rate of the visual impairment in the investigated groups was high,and its influencing

  4. Household Sanitation Conditions in Rural Areas of Sichuan in 2011%2011年四川省农村家庭环境卫生现况调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘睿聪; 金立坚; 张成云; 秦岭

    2013-01-01

    25.97% ; 80.05% families drank boiled water and 3.43% drank un-boiled water.Over 90% families had constant garbage discarding places,while 9.26% casually discard the garbage.The most way of sewage discharging was open trench (43.39%) and the most sewage discharging site was farmland (40.74%) ; 68.97% families had different types of sanitary latrines.The main fecal treatment way was directly fertilizing (57.98%); 30% rural families' kitchen were seriously propagated with cockroaches;49.67% families had mice traces.For 71.42% of the families,flies were found in their kitchens.Conclusion The penetration of central water supply still stays at a low level in rural families in the province.A few rural families have poor drinking habits.The domestic garbage and sewage in rural families are lack of management.The penetration of sanitary latrines still stays low.The sanitary condition of the family kitchens in rural area is worrisome.In all,the environmental sanitation in rural areas of the province needs further improvement.

  5. Wooded areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the management of wooded areas on Neal Smith National Wildlife Refuge (formerly Walnut Creek National Wildlife Refuge) between 1992 and 2009.

  6. Revitalization Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Revitalization areas are HUD-designated neighborhoods in need of economic and community development and where there is already a strong commitment by the local...

  7. 700 Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The 700 Area of the Hanford Site is located in downtown Richland.Called the Federal Office Building, the Richland Operations Site Manager and the Richland Operations...

  8. MODFLOW-2005 and MODPATH6 models used to delineate areas contributing groundwater to selected surface receiving waters for long-term average hydrologic stress conditions from 1968 to 1983, Long Island, New York

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A regional groundwater-flow model and particle-tracking program were used to delineate areas contributing groundwater to coastal and freshwater bodies and to...

  9. Should Broca's area include Brodmann area 47?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardila, Alfredo; Bernal, Byron; Rosselli, Monica

    2017-02-01

    Understanding brain organization of speech production has been a principal goal of neuroscience. Historically, brain speech production has been associated with so-called Broca’s area (Brodmann area –BA- 44 and 45), however, modern neuroimaging developments suggest speech production is associated with networks rather than with areas. The purpose of this paper was to analyze the connectivity of BA47 ( pars orbitalis) in relation to language . A meta-analysis was conducted to assess the language network in which BA47 is involved. The Brainmap database was used. Twenty papers corresponding to 29 experimental conditions with a total of 373 subjects were included. Our results suggest that BA47 participates in a “frontal language production system” (or extended Broca’s system). The BA47  connectivity found is also concordant with a minor role in language semantics. BA47 plays a central role in the language production system.

  10. 变应性鼻炎与昆明气传花粉及气象条件的关系%Relationship among allergic rhinitis, regional pollens and meteorological conditions in Kunming area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程晟; 阮标; 余咏梅; 浦吉存

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the species,quantity and diffusionof allergenic pollens as well as the relationship among allergic rhinitis (AR),pollen species and meteorological conditions in Kunming area.Methods The exposure film was used to investigate the species of airborne pollen,the total number of these pollens during December 2009 to November 2010 by means of gravitational sedimentation,at the same time,AR patients were registered.The species of allergic pollen in Kunming area during the same period,and the statistic analysis was made with the meteorological elements,using the correlation analysis methods of Excel for data analysis.Results From December 2009 to November 2010,a total of 60 exposure films of pollen species was found,including 26 147 pollens.The annual airborne pollen showed two scattering peak,respectively:February to April and September to October;the number of advantage pollen was 17 species.The number of year-round drifting pollen was 13 species while 2 species showed two peaks on spring and autumn.There was another 26 new species added to the results of 2009-2010,compared with1987-1989,while the original 12 species were not seen.The drifting peak was the same.The number of allergen intradermal tests (AIT) positive AR patients was positively correlated with 16 pollen species,respectively,oleaceae,alnus nepalensis,walnut,palm,pigweed,fennel,Amaranthaceae,artemisia,rosa,Albizia julibrissin Durazz,gramineae,castor,Fraxinus L,populus,Morus alba L,hemp humulus,(r value were 0.689 7,0.550 1,0.742 1,0.755 2,0.771 2,0.663 3,0.556 1,0.568 3,0.659 8,0.607 4,0.834 7,0.664 3,0.745 9,0.634 7,0.718 3,0.777 2,all P < 0.05).The population of AIT positive AR patients was positively correlated with average temperature,average wind speed and other meteorological factors (r values were 0.552 0,0.883 5,both P < 0.05),and was negatively correlated with average relative humidity (r =-0.714 7,P <0.05).Conclusions Kunming had a large number of airborne pollen species

  11. BODY CONDITION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Andrew Taylor

    seasonal variation that could be used in management decisions. ... To assess muscle and fat content, the leg was completely separated into meat, bone, ..... The seasonal variation in body condition of mountain reedbuck can be explained by ...

  12. Conditional Punishment

    OpenAIRE

    Kamei, Kenju

    2014-01-01

    We elicit human conditional punishment types by conducting experiments. We find that their punishment decisions to an individual are on average significantly positively proportional to other members’ punishment decisions to that individual.

  13. Effective Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehud Keinan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article defines a new term, Effective Area, K, of a given territory as a function of four independent parameters: its nominal acreage, A, the intellectual competence of its inhabitants, B, their social competence, C, and their global influence, D, using a simple formalism: K = A x B x C x D. This analysis demonstrates that in our current world any consideration of the physical area of a given territory is meaningless if the quality of its population is ignored. K is a much more useful parameter than A, certainly for political and economical considerations, explaining why claims for territorial expansion are placed low on the national ladder of priorities in the developed countries. In many respects, large geographical areas may become a burden rather than an advantage. Thus, the importance of armed conflicts over geographical territories, which have taken a dominant part of the entire human history, is fading away. Furthermore, although the global acreage is constant, the total effective area of planet Earth keeps growing, providing sufficient room for the growing human population.

  14. Proposal for the award of a contract for the design, supply, installation and commissioning of a ventilation and air conditioning system for the ECN3 experimental area and the TCC8 and GHN300 service tunnels and for the dismantling of the existing system

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    Proposal for the award of a contract for the design, supply, installation and commissioning of a ventilation and air conditioning system for the ECN3 experimental area and the TCC8 and GHN300 service tunnels and for the dismantling of the existing system

  15. Investigation of hygienic conditions of drinking water in rural areas of Hainan Province%海南省农村饮水危害因素监测与干预效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨斌; 王帅; 符致效; 陈彩云; 陈莲玉

    2011-01-01

    目的 了解海南省农村生活饮用水的卫生现状、主要危害因素及其干预效果.方法 在海南省18个市县随机抽取10个监测县,在每个监测县选择10户住家作为监测点.采用统一的调查表对监测点的水源类型、供水方式、覆盖人口等进行调查.于2009年丰水期(7~9月)、枯水期(1~3月)进行水样的采集、检验和评价,2010年采取干预措施并进行效果评价.结果 共调查海南省100个监测点,占全省总人口的6.38%( 50.4万人/790.3万人).海南省农村生活饮用水水源主要以地下水为主,占78.5%(193/246),供水方式以集中式供水为主,占74.0% (182/246).在采集水样246件中,合格44件,合格率为17.9%.水样中硫酸盐、溶解性总固体、耗氧量、砷的检测结果均合格.其他各指标合格率由低至高依次为总大肠菌群(35.4%)<菌落总数(80.1%)<pH值(82.9%)<铁(94.3%)<锰(94.7%)<浑浊度(90.7%)<色度(95.5%)<硝酸盐(95.9%)<氯化物(97.6%)<氨氮(98.4%)、氟化物(98.4%)<总硬度(99.6%).以地面水为水源水水样的合格率为22.6%( 12/53),略高于以地下水为水源水的16.6%(32/193).集中式供水水样的合格率为22.5%(41/182),高于分散式供水水样的4.7%(3/64),差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).丰水期水样的合格率为19.2%( 24/125),略高于枯水期合格率为16.5%(20/121).安装二氧化氯发生器后,总体合格水平提高.结论 微生物污染是海南省农村生活饮用水水质合格率偏低的主要原因,干预措施效果显著.%Objective To understand the hygienic conditions of drinking water in Hainan Province. Methods Ten counties out of the 18 counties in rural areas of Hainan were chosen as the monitoring counties and 10 households in each of the ten counties were selected as monitoring sites. And then the types of water source and water supply, beneficiary population were surveyed with uniform tables in the

  16. Shellfish Harvest Prohibition Areas for 2011; shellfish11

    Data.gov (United States)

    University of Rhode Island Geospatial Extension Program — Geospatial vector polygon data defining shellfishing prohibition areas, seasonal, and conditional shellfish closure areas, and areas open to legal shellfish...

  17. Quiet areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Rikke Munck

    2016-01-01

    This paper argues that drone filming can substantiate our understanding of multisensorial experiences of quiet areas and urban landscapes. Contrary to the distanced gaze often associated with the drone, this paper discusses drone filming as an intimate performativity apparatus that can affect per...... and transcendence can facilitate a deeper understanding of intimate sensations, substantiating their role in the future design and planning of urban landscapes. Hence, it addresses the ethics of an intimacy perspective (of drone filming) in the qualification of quiet areas.......This paper argues that drone filming can substantiate our understanding of multisensorial experiences of quiet areas and urban landscapes. Contrary to the distanced gaze often associated with the drone, this paper discusses drone filming as an intimate performativity apparatus that can affect...... perception as a result of its interrelationships between motion, gaze, and sound. This paper uses four films, one of which is a drone flyover, to launch a discussion concerning a smooth and alluring gaze, a sliding gaze that penetrates landscapes, and site appearance. Films hold the capacity to project both...

  18. CONDITIONED SUPERPROCESSES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LICUNHANG; WURONG

    1997-01-01

    A class of superprocesses which dies out is investigated. Under the condition of norextinction, a new superprocess is COnstructed, its life time is infinite, and its distribution isdetermined by the moment function. Several limit theorems about this superprocess and its occulpation time process are obtained.

  19. Pengendalian Penyakit Layu Pisang dengan Fusarium Nonpatogenik dan Fluorescent pseudomonads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christanti Sumardiyono

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was aimed to know the ability of fluorescent pseudomonads and nonpathogenic Fusarium for controlling fusarium wilt of banan. The research was conducted both in the laboratory and glass ouse in the Faculty of Agriculture Gadjah Mada University. Laboratorial trial incuded the examining of antagonistic capacity in vitro and the population of these two antagonistic microorganism in compost medium. The examination of the effect of these two microorganisms in compost medium against fusarium wilt of banana Ambon Kuning cultivar was conducted in a glass house. The result showed that there was no antagonistic mechanism occured between fluorescent pseudomonads and nonpathogenic Fusarium. The treatment of compost with fluorescent pseudomonads or/and nonpathogenic Fusarium showed that there were differences on the optimum population of these two antagonistic microorganisms. Fluorescent pseudomonads attained its optimum population one week after inoculation while nonpathogenic Fusarium attained its optimum population two weeks after inoculation. The glass house trial showed taht compost enriched with two microorganisms with one week inocubation time reduced percentage of wilted leaves, although it was nonsignificant with control treatment. Field experiment should be conducted with higher population density of antagonist microorganisms.

  20. ARAHAN KEBIJAKAN PENGENDALIAN KONVERSI LAHAN SAWAH DI KOTA SOLOK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siska Nofita

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Paddy field conversion occurs along with population growth followed by increased need for non-agricultural land. This research aims to formulate the direction control of paddy field conversion in Solok. Therefore it is necessary to analyze, they are scalogram analysis, and stepwise regression analysis. Paddy fields conversion in period of 2004-2014 in the Solok city 32,28 ha, mostly in the Lubuk Sikarah District. The threat of paddy fields conversion based of RTRW Solok city 2012-2031 is 403,60 ha (41,55%. Most of the villages in Solok belong to Hierarchy 1 except IX Korong with hierarchy 2 and Laing with hierarchy 3. The factors affecting of paddy field conversion in Solok city is land and building tax, land tittling, and the allocation of land for industrial, low density residential, high density residential, worship, and paddy fields allocation in the RTRW. Control direction of paddy field conversion in Solok city is to raise taxes on non-agriculture land, increasing the role of traditional institutions, community leaders and agricultural extension, zoning by setting RDTR of  Solok city, determination of food sustainable agricultural land (LP2B and repair damaged irrigation networks.

  1. Pengendalian Atas Penjualan Pada PT Perkebunan Nusantara (PTPN III) Medan

    OpenAIRE

    Parhusip, Friska

    2013-01-01

    The main issues raised in this thesis is the application of accounting information systems on the sales cycle in PTPN III Medan has been effective and efficient. To obtain materials and data with respect to this research study, researchers conducted a study using descriptive analysis method, using an interview technique with the finance and accounting. Researchers interviewed the application of accounting information systems at the company's sales cycle is started from the auction until the d...

  2. Evaluasi Pengendalian Internal Siklus Pendapatan Pada PT X

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aries Wicaksono

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to evaluate the implementation of internal control in revenue cycle, to identify weaknesses and limitations of internal control, and to suggest improvements as needed. Research was carried out by using several methods. First, the method of data collection was conducted with internal control questionnaires of revenue cycle, interview, and observation. Second, the method of analysis was performed by using COSO internal control framework. Results obtained are internal control in the revenue cycle applied to the company in general is quite good; and there are ineffective implementation of internal control which can lead to the emergence of risks that could harm the company.

  3. Pengendalian Hayati Penyakit Akar Merah pada Akasia dengan Trichoderma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Widyastuti

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was aimed to measure the distribution and intensity of root rot disease of Acacia spp. in the urban forest at the campus of Gadjah Mada University, to isolate and identify the causal organism and to select Trichoderma sp. as biological agent for controlling the disease. The pathogenicity of the causal organism was tested using Crotalaria juncea L. and trunk of A. mangium Willd. (10 cm diameter, 8 cm length as indicator plant. The ability of Trichoderma sp. as antagonist was tested in vitro. It was concluded that the pathogen of the root rot disease was Ganoderma philippii. The pathogen attacked for species of Acacia spp. in the location namely A. auriculiformis, A. mangium, A. oraria, and A. crassicarpa. Of the total individual trees of those species in the campus, as much as 38.6%, 22.2%, and 66.7% were attacked by the root rot pathogen respectively. Of the 20 Trichoderma spp. isolate capable to inhibit the pathogen in vitro, three isolates were found as promising agents for biological control of the pathogen. The promising isolates were T. resei/T23, T. koningii/T1, and T. koningii/T16 with inhibition effectivity of 94.58%; 93.66%; and 91.76% respectively. Key words: biological control, red root-rot disease, Trichoderma, acacia

  4. Pengendalian Penyakit Karat Daun Kopi dengan Ekstrak Teh Hitam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christanti Sumardiyono

    1996-09-01

    Full Text Available The research was done to know the efficacy of black tea extract to control coffee leaf rust, the most important disease of Arabica coffee caused by the fungus Hemileia vastatrix B et Br. Black tea was extracted by boiling 50 g of tea in 500 ml of water until 50 ml of solution was left and used as spraying material after 10 time dilution. Influence of black tea extract to urediospores germination was done by spore germination technique. Field experiment was done at Pagilaran Tea Plantation with a susceptible Arabica coffee Kate 26 variety. Coffee plants was sprayed with diluted tea extract eight times with 10 days interval and 0,3% of triadimefon was used as standart fungicide. The result showed that black tea extract inhibited germination of urediospora and reduced germtube length up to 10-4 dilution. The extract of black tea could reduce disease intensity of coffee leaf rust in the field better than triadimefon. Ten days after first spraying, disease intensity was reduced but it increased after 5 times spraying. After 8 times spraying disease intensity on coffee tree sprayed with the black tea extract was lower than that sprayed with tradimefon. Key words: black tea, Hemileia vastatrix, triadimefon

  5. Integrasi Metode Balanced Scorecard dan Sistem Manajemen Pengendalian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teguh Sriwidadi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses sales force performance measurement at PT Merapi Utama Pharma and integrates performance measurement and management control system. The balanced scorecard (BSC is a strategic planning and management system that is used extensively in business and industry, government, and nonprofit organizations worldwide to align business activities to the vision and strategy of the organization, improve internal and external communications, and monitor organization performance against strategic goals. The balanced scorecard suggests that we view the organization from four perspectives : the learning and growth perspective, the internal business processes perspective, the customer perspective, and the financial perspective.The management control system used is levers of control framework, included beliefs control system, boundary control system, diagnostic control system, and interactive control systems

  6. INTEGRASI METODE BALANCED SCORECARD DAN SISTEM MANAJEMEN PENGENDALIAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teguh Sriwidadi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses sales force performance measurement at PT Merapi Utama Pharma and integrates performance measurement and management control system. The balanced scorecard (BSC is a strategic planning and management system that is used extensively in business and industry, government, and nonprofit organizations worldwide to align business activities to the vision and strategy of the organization, improve internal and external communications, and monitor organization performance against strategic goals. The balanced scorecard suggests that we view the organization from four perspectives : the learning and growth perspective, the internal business processes perspective, the customer perspective, and the financial perspective.The management control system used is levers of control framework, included beliefs control system, boundary control system, diagnostic control system, and interactive control systems. 

  7. PENGENDALIAN KUALITAS UNTUK MEMINIMALKAN JUMLAH CACAT PADA PRODUK KALENG AEOROSOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rida Zuraida

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available 2.64% is the largest defect percentage of aerosol can product of PT Multi Makmur Indah Industri. To improve the product quality, the study focused on the goal of reducing the percentage of defects using the Statistical Quality Control. After gaining control of the company, we can calculate the process capability in the aerosol can manufacture. The next step is identification of the defects causes that arise using the failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA method to measure the defect causes risks and as an input in determining control recommendations. From the observations and data processing, it is recognized that the overall phase of the process has a process capability value above 99%. 80% of defects in the aerosol cans product occur during the process of can making, component making and printing. While the most risking defect cause is the destruction of machine B coating on the printing process (RPN = 245 and the quality of the welding wire on can manufacturing process (RPN = 160. Therefore, the solution to reduce the defect percentage is replacing the damaged coating machine B as well as upgrading the quality of the welding wire. Thus, it can reduce the loss sale as much as 1.06% (Rp110,716,000 per month.

  8. Komparasi Sistem Pengendalian Internal Pengelolaan Lembaga Amil Zakat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikmatuniayah

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to evaluate the internal control system of management practices of zakat institution (LAZ in Semarang in term of their accountability. The research method used is multiple case study through descriptive qualitative approach. The result indicates that most zakat institutions have weak and simple procedures in accepting and distributing zakat. Moreover, there are also other weaknesses in internal control, in term of separation of accounting function, position rotation, and also the availability of specific accounting division and internal auditor.

  9. Fenomenologi Konvensional dalam Implementasi Sistem Pengendalian Internal pada Pembiayaan Musyarakah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silviana Putriandini

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to reveal the values ​​contained in the internal control system implementation of musharakah financing in syariah banking. The research took place in BRI Syariah, Malang. This research is a qualitative research that uses a phenomenological approach. The result shows that the conventional values are still inherent in the Musharakah financing which is syariah banking product. There are three conventional values found: unbelief (su'udzon, vigilance, and dishonesty (lies. These values are (still present because of the desire of banks to achieve maximum profit (profit oriented.

  10. Pengendalian Malaria dalam Upaya Percepatan Pencapaian Target Millennium Development Goals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Rini Puji Lestari

    2012-08-01

    health official Malaria Center, and community leaders who observe malaria. Retrieval of data time is 10 – 16 April 2011 by in-depth interviews. It was found that malaria control programs have been implemented by the Departement of Health North Maluku Province, but have not been able to effectively reduce malaria morbidity. This is because malaria control is performed is not comprehensive. Handling is more directed to break the chain transmission to human, their habitats have not been touched up. Key words: Control of malaria, millennium development goals, malaria morbidity

  11. Verification of food supply for red deer under conditions of the air- polluted area of mountain forest ecosystems in the Ore Mountains (Forest District Klášterec nad Ohří

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdeněk Vala

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of typological classification, representative sample plots 1×1 m were established in forest stands, on meadows and pastures in hunting districts Jelení hora and Černý potok in the area of the Ore Mountains (Forest District Klášterec nad Ohří in the growing season. The aim of the plots was to determine the existing average area production (kg.m−2 of biomass utilizable by game. The biomass was differentiated to herb, grass and woody components. Analyses proved that the total daily need of food, energy and mineral substances of red deer in both hunting grounds was fully covered by the natural food offer of herb, grass and woody biomass in the growing season even in case of increased requirements, e.g. in the period of growth, lactation or the development of antlers.

  12. CALCULATION AND ANALYSIS OF THE EXPECTED IMPACT OF THE HYDROTECHNICAL CONSTRUCTION ON THE ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITION IN THE WATER AREA AND BOTTOM TOPOGRAPHY IN CASE OF THE CONSTRUCTION OF THE APPROACH CHANNEL TO THE SABETTA PORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vvedensky Alexei Rostislavovich

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The estimation of changes in the ecological situation and bottom topography in the Ob Bay, which may be caused by the construction of the approach channel to the port of Sabetta, was carried out with the help of the developed complex of numerical models. Particular attention was paid to the study of the displacement of the boundaries of the saline water expansion and the sediment accumulation in the channel area. It is established that the possible influence of the approach channel on the hydrologic-hydrochemical characteristics is less than their natural interannual and seasonal variability in the investigated water area. The change in the bottom topography after the construction of the approach channel does not entail a significant change in the regime of hydrologic-hydrochemical parameters of the Ob Bay and, consequently, should not affect the biocenosis. The calculated changes in the bottom topography in the approach channel area will not exceed 2 % of the depth per year and will not become a significant obstacle to the reliable and uninterrupted operation of the Sabetta port.

  13. Research on the effect of low-income family on the health condition in poverty-stricken areas%贫困地区低收入家庭生活环境对健康影响的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冉莉; 罗勇; 杨胜萍; 周琼

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the living environment, lifestyle, population and health condition of low-income families in rural Tongren district, and explore the influencing factors of health condition in these low-income families. METHODS 200 families was investigated, including 100 households low-income families (annual per capita income below 1 500 Yuan, including 1 500 Yuan, ) and 100 households medium-and-high-income families (annual per capita income above 20 000 yuan, and served as controls). RESULTS Statistically significant differences were found in the two kinds of families in terms of cultural degree, occupation, living environment conditions and life style, etc. CONCLUSION Income, education level, lifestyle and living environment conditions are the influencing factors of health condition in low-income families. Lack of education , poor living conditions, unhealthy life style, enlarged psychological pressure, lack of self health care, and vulnerable to common disease were common in low-income families.%目的 调查铜仁地区城乡低收入家庭生活环境、生活方式、人口学及健康状况等,探讨此类家庭人群的健康影响因素,为政府和医疗机构分配卫生资源、解决社会弱势群体健康问题提供科学依据.方法 抽样调查200户家庭,100户低收入家庭(年人均收入低于1 500.00元含1 500.00元),另100户中、高收入家庭(年人均收入20 000.00元以上)为对照,以家庭为单位进行入户调查.结果 两类不同家庭人群在文化程度、职业、生活环境条件、生活方式等方面均不相同,差异有统计学意义.结论 经济收入、文化程度、生活方式、生活环境条件是低收入家庭人群健康的共同影响因素;低收入家庭人群文化程度低,居住条件差,缺乏健康的生活方式,自我保健能力差,人群疾病发生频率明显高于对照家庭.

  14. Vulvovaginitis and other common childhood gynaecological conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garden, Anne S

    2011-04-01

    Paediatric gynaecological problems, especially those involving the vulvar area, are common in childhood. The conditions frequently seen include recurrent bacterial vulvovaginitis, vulvar irritation, labial adhesions and dermatological conditions. The presentation and management of these conditions will be reviewed.

  15. 消退训练对大鼠条件性恐惧行为及海马CA1区突触超微结构的影响%Effects of extinction training on conditioned fear behaviour and synaptic structure in hippocampal CA1 area in fear conditioned rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丽丽; 李培培; 李敏; 韦美; 彭李

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine the effect of fear extinction training on the behaviours and the ultrastructure of hippocampal CA1 area in fear conditioned rats. Methods Forty male adult SD rats were randomly divided into native group (re =8), extinction control group (re = 16) and extinction group (re = 16). In 24 h after fear condition was established by reference instruction in the later 2 groups, extinction training was carried out in the extinction group and extinction retention test was performed in 7 and 21 d after fear extinction. The test was performed in 8 and 22 d in extinction control group. The changes of synaptic structure in CA1 of hippocampus were observed at 7 and 21 d after fear extinction. Results Compared with the extinction control group, the scores of extinction retention was significantly increased (P<0.01) at 7 and 21 d after extinction in the extinction group. There was no significant difference between extinction group and native group at 7 and 21 d. At 7 d after extinction training, the synaptic density was significantly higher in extinction group than that in the extinction control group (P <0.05 ) , and there was no difference among groups at 21 d. Compared with native group, the width of synaptic gap was significantly lower at 7 and 21 d after extinction training in extinction group ( P <0.01, 0. 05 ). At 21 d, the width of synaptic gap was significantly lower in the extinction group than that in the control group (P <0. 05). But there was no significant difference between the extinction control group and native group at 7 and 21 d after extinction. Compared with native group, at 7 and 21 d after extinction training, postsynaptic density (PSD) was significantly thicker in extinction group (P<0.01). And at 21 d, the density was significantly thicker in extinction group than that in the extinction control group (P < 0.05 ). There was no significant difference among the groups in active zone length. Conclusion Fear extinction training changes

  16. Textural and structural features, composition and formation conditions of arenaceous rocks in PK1 horizon, Pokursk suite in south-eastern Pur-Tazovsk area (Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Territory)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedolivko, N.; Perevertailo, T.; Barkalova, A.; Dolgaya, T.

    2015-02-01

    Terrigenous deposits of the productive PK1 horizon in Pokursk suite of Pur-Tazovsk area (Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Territory) were studied to specify the structure and identify the formation features. Complex horizon structure of sequential silt, mudrock interbedding and alternation has been identified. Littoral-marine type of sedimentation (occurring during the total marine transgression increase) by the help of genetic rock features identified during the core sampling and by the granulometry and X-ray-phase results analysis has been determined.

  17. 文登地区浅部干热岩地热资源的赋存条件分析%Analysis on Occurrence Conditions of Geothermal Resources in Shallow Hot Dry Rock in Wendeng Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田立强; 范士彦

    2016-01-01

    Five natural hot springs in Wendeng area distributed on the edge of the Hetao with enough water, high water quality and high water temperature. It is considered that there are multiple abnormal geothermal gradient in the region. The geothermal gradient anomaly has close relation with the subduction of the Pacific plate edge belt, Sulu UHP metamorphic belt heat of radioactive elements of abnormal and deep fracture zone thermal interaction. According to the analysis on thermal conductivity of various lithology, it is regarded that quartzite granite, granitic gneiss and gneiss are favorable optimal objective layers for development and utilization of hot dry rock resources. It is suggesed that in five natural hot springs in the area, by using geophysical prospecting, drilling and other explora⁃tion means, the deep fracture zone has been found out, geothermal gradient anomaly area has been surveyed, and shallow geothermal resources of hot dry rock storage area has been looked for.%文登地区的5处天然温泉,多分布于河套边沿,水源足,水质优,水温高,证明该地区存在多处地温梯度异常。分析认为该地温梯度异常与太平洋板块边沿俯冲带、苏鲁超高压变质带放射性元素生热异常、深大断裂带的导热作用有关。根据各种岩性的导热性分析,认为含石英岩脉的花岗岩、花岗片麻岩或片麻岩为有利于干热岩资源开发利用的最优目的层。建议在5处天然温泉区域内,利用物探、钻探等勘查手段相结合,查明深大断裂带,调查地温梯度异常区,寻找浅部干热岩地热资源赋存区。

  18. SELKIRK ROADLESS AREA, IDAHO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Fred K.; Benham, John R.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of mineral-resource surveys the Selkirk Roadless Area, Idaho has little promise for the occurrence of mineral or energy resources. Molybdenum, lead, uranium, thorium, chromium, tungsten, zirconium, and several rare-earth elements have been detected in panned concentrates from samples of stream sediment, but no minerals containing the first five elements were found in place, nor were any conditions conducive to their concentration found. Zirconium, thorium, and the rare earths occur in sparsely disseminated accessory minerals in granitic rocks and no resource potential is identified. There is no history of mining in the roadless area and there are no oil, gas, mineral, or geothermal leases or current claims.

  19. [A comparative study of the health conditions of elderly people living alone, elderly couples and the bedridden elderly at home in a rural area of Shiga Prefecture: special reference to morbidity rate and blood pressure, electrocardiograph and blood examination data].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozaki, A; Hirao, K; Sugimoto, C; Kita, Y; Ueshima, H; Okayama, A; Yamakawa, M

    1993-09-01

    For the purpose of obtaining basic data and for establishing a support system for elderly people with various health and social problems, a population survey was performed in 1990 to investigate the health and living conditions of elderly people living alone, elderly couples and the bedridden elderly in the town of Shigaraki, Shiga Prefecture. A total of 275 subjects (103 male, 172 female) 65 years of age and over were surveyed. The participation rate in this survey was 88.1%. Analysis of health conditions (morbidity rate, blood pressure, electrocardiograph and blood examination data) of elderly people living alone, elderly couples and the bedridden elderly produced the following: 1) Stroke was the main cause of being bedridden in men, while in women, bone and joint disease, especially fracture, was the main cause. 2) The combined prevalence of hypertension and borderline hypertension in elderly people living alone, elderly couples and the bedridden elderly was over 50%. The bedridden elderly had a lower prevalence than elderly people living alone and elderly couples. 3) Men in all of the above mentioned life styles, had a higher tendency of showing ECG abnormalities than women. The tendency for major ECG abnormalities was high for bedridden elderly, both male and female, with the tendency for men being higher. 4) In bedridden elderly, a tendency of higher prevalence of anemia, in both male and females, lower total serum cholesterol and triglyceride in males compared to elderly people living alone and in elderly couples, was observed.

  20. Índice de área foliar e produtividade do tomate sob condições de ambiente protegido Leaf area index and productivity of tomatoes under greenhouse conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligia S. Reis

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available O cultivo de tomate tem-se expandido nos últimos anos em ambiente protegido, especialmente nas regiões Sul e Sudeste do Brasil, com o propósito de melhorar a produtividade e a qualidade dos produtos agrícolas, em razão de oferecer regularidade na produção. Objetivou-se, com o presente trabalho, determinar, ao longo do ciclo da cultura, a relação entre o índice de área foliar e a produtividade e, ao final do ciclo, os componentes de produção do tomateiro, em ambiente protegido. Os modelos foram gerados por meio de equações polinomiais de 1ª e 2ª ordem tendo-se, como variável independente, o número de dias após o transplantio. Constatou-se ser possível determinar, em ambiente protegido e por meio de modelo matemático, o índice de área foliar dessa olerícola considerando-se os dias após o transplantio. A partir de valores de índice de área foliar pode-se determinar a produtividade da cultura e o período da máxima produtividade auxiliando os agricultores a estimar a melhor época de semeadura e o transplante do tomateiro.The tomato cultivation in the greenhouse has been expanded in the last years, mainly, in the South and Southeast regions of Brazil, whose purpose is to improve the productivity and the quality of the agricultural products, offering regularity in the production. The present study aimed to determine, along the crop cycle, the relationship between the leaf area index and the productivity, and at the end of the cycle, the components of production of the tomato in the greenhouse. The models were generated through polynomial equations of 1st and 2nd order, having as independent variable the number of days after the transplanting. It was verified that it is possible to determine, in the greenhouse, through mathematical models, the leaf area index of the tomato crop considering the days after the transplanting. Basing on values of leaf area index, the productivity of the crop and the period of the maximum

  1. Probabilistic conditional independence structures

    CERN Document Server

    Studeny, Milan

    2005-01-01

    Probabilistic Conditional Independence Structures provides the mathematical description of probabilistic conditional independence structures; the author uses non-graphical methods of their description, and takes an algebraic approach.The monograph presents the methods of structural imsets and supermodular functions, and deals with independence implication and equivalence of structural imsets.Motivation, mathematical foundations and areas of application are included, and a rough overview of graphical methods is also given.In particular, the author has been careful to use suitable terminology, and presents the work so that it will be understood by both statisticians, and by researchers in artificial intelligence.The necessary elementary mathematical notions are recalled in an appendix.

  2. Geochemistry of the Miocene oil shale (Hançili Formation) in the Çankırı-Çorum Basin, Central Turkey: Implications for Paleoclimate conditions, source-area weathering, provenance and tectonic setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vosoughi Moradi, A.; Sarı, A.; Akkaya, P.

    2016-07-01

    The geochemistry of oil shale units of Hançili Formation in the Çankırı-Çorum Basin (Central Turkey) was studied using various chemical analyses. The mineralogical composition of the samples were preliminarily investigated using Pearson's correlation coefficients of selected elements, indicating that the samples contain abundant clay minerals as well as K-feldspar and carbonate. The K2O/Al2O3 and SiO2/Al2O3 ratios indicate that the major proportion of clay minerals is composed of smectite. Si, Al, Ti, K, Na, and Fe reside in clay minerals, while Ca, Mg, and Mn are mostly associated with carbonates (e.g., calcite and dolomite) and phosphorous (P) is present as apatite. The total REE content of the oil shale range from 19 to 113 ppm. The chondrite-normalized patterns of the oil shale show LREE enrichments, HREE deficits, negative Eu anomalies and negligible Ce anomalies. In general, major, trace and rare earth element abundances suggest that the studied oil shale in the Çankırı-Çorum Basin are mainly from the intermediate rocks, mixed with small amounts of basic rocks, and that their source rocks are mostly deposited in the continental collision setting. The REE geochemistry of the oil shale suggests that these samples were derived from a consistent terrigenous source and the Eu anomaly was inherited from the source rocks. The paleoclimate index (C-value), varies between 0.07 and 1.22 reflecting a generally semi-arid to humid conditions. In addition, Rb/Sr (~ 0.22) and Sr/Cu (~ 9.09) ratios support the idea that warm and humid conditions prevailed during deposition of the Hançili Formation. Sr/Ba ratios (0.54-3.7) of the studied samples suggest a paleoenvironment with variable salinity. The co-variation among this factor and paleoclimate indicators suggest that variations in climatic conditions exerted a primary control on salinity. The substantially low C-value and Rb/Sr ratio and significantly high ratios of Sr/Cu and Sr/Ba and also elevated carbonate

  3. Methods Of Testing And Assessing The Technical Condition Of Chosen Building Structures Located In The Area Of The Auschwitz-Birkenau National Museum In Oświęcim

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kańka Stanisław

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The results presented in this article consider the means of assessing the technical condition of two selected buildings, i.e. prisoner barracks number 123 and 124, located at the Auschwitz-Birkenau State Museum in Oświęcim. The work was carried out within the framework of a research project involving the development of methods for preserving, securing and strengthening the structure of buildings, along with their substrate and finishes. The aim of the project was to gain a knowledge base reflecting the actual state of the existing facilities and, on that basis, develop preservation methods and ways to protect the existing facilities against further damage, while maintaining the current character.

  4. Physical conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Birte Lindstrøm; Appleby, M.C.; Waran, N.K.

    2011-01-01

    The physical environment of an animal is sometimes altered if it is found to cause problems for animal welfare. These changes are commonly quite specific (making changes to space, food, water, aspects of housing design such as flooring, or to other environmental factors such as air quality) and may...... be effective in preventing injuries or disease. However, such measures may not be implemented in practice (usually for economic reasons), and where implemented may cause other problems, as when concern for hygiene leads to animals being kept in barren conditions. Numerous ways have also been tried to diversify...... feeding methods in order to improve animal welfare, but specific changes to the environment such as these often have widespread effects, some of which may be detrimental. For example, inclusion of novel pen structures meant to enrich the environment may lead to increased aggression. A more general...

  5. 新疆准东煤炭产业带消防安全问题思考%Study on fire safety condition in Xinjiang Zhundong coal industry area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴博

    2012-01-01

    As the 14th strategic energy store base of China, Cangji Zhundong coal industry in Xinjiang is very broad, and the task of construction is very pressure. Aiming at current problems which included the difficulty of unified leadership and the safety program ming , complicated rescue type, large quantities shanty and the difficulty of fire administration of large coal industry area forepart, the basic principle and idea were put forward which included distinguishing the layer and standard to drew up a fire fight programming according to different function area construction progress, analyzing the fire development situation, strengthening fire fight publicity education and administration management, providing the fire technique service, integrating social resource sufficient, and paying attention to district comprehensive emergency rescue strength come into being ensurely.%新疆准东煤炭产业带作为国家第十四个战略能源储备基地,地域辽阔,建设任务紧迫.针对该大型煤炭产业带在建设初期出现的难于统一领导、安全规划编制困难、救援类型复杂、棚户区大量存在和消防行政管理难度大的现状和问题,提出了按矿区产业带功能区的不同及建设进度实际状况区分层次和标准进行消防规划编制、分析火灾发展形势、加强消防宣传教育、加强消防行政管理,积极提供消防技术服务、充分整合社会资源,注重区域综合应急救援力量生成和保障的基本原则和思路.

  6. Causes of late diagnosis of the reproductive organs’ cancer in the opinion of suffering women from urban and rural areas of Lublin as an indicator of the condition of the early cancer detection system: a preliminary report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charzyńska-Gula, Marianna; Szadowska-Szlachetka, Zdzisława; Bartoszek, Agnieszka; Stanisławek, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Tumours as well as the cardiovascular diseases are the leading causes of deaths in Poland. This article contains excerpts from research on complex causes of late diagnosis of cancer among the region's residents. Aim of the study One of the specific aims of the research undertaken was to learn about subjective assessment of women suffering from cancer taking into account its late diagnosis. Material and methods The research was conducted on 130 women with diagnosed cancer of reproductive organs in the late stage of the disease, who were in oncological care. The method of diagnostic survey in the form of a questionnaire was developed for the study. Results The research reveals that the place of living has an impact on the opinions of suffering women as for the causes of late diagnosis of cancer and, secondly, that their oncological awareness is low. Conclusions In the examined group, cancer awareness of women already having cancers – irrespective of the environment of settling, was low and did not constitute the grounds for taking pro-health decisions in the area of the early diagnostic testing of cancer. This fully confirms the need for the research on effective tools to increase the awareness, particularly in the population of healthy persons, including menopausal and postmenopausal women.The opinions indirectly indicate a weaker organization and effectiveness of the activities of the cancer prevention programs in the country than those organized in the city. PMID:26327851

  7. Causes of late diagnosis of the reproductive organs’ cancer in the opinion of suffering women from urban and rural areas of Lublin as an indicator of the condition of the early cancer detection system: a preliminary report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Domżał-Drzewicka

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Tumours as well as the cardiovascular diseases are the leading causes of deaths in Poland. This article contains excerpts from research on complex causes of late diagnosis of cancer among the region’s residents. Aim of the study: One of the specific aims of the research undertaken was to learn about subjective assessment of women suffering from cancer taking into account its late diagnosis. Material and methods: The research was conducted on 130 women with diagnosed cancer of reproductive organs in the late stage of the disease, who were in oncological care. The method of diagnostic survey in the form of a questionnaire was developed for the study. Results: The research reveals that the place of living has an impact on the opinions of suffering women as for the causes of late diagnosis of cancer and, secondly, that their oncological awareness is low. Conclusions: 1. In the examined group, cancer awareness of women already having cancers – irrespective of the environment of settling, was low and did not constitute the grounds for taking pro-health decisions in the area of the early diagnostic testing of cancer. This fully confirms the need for the research on effective tools to increase the awareness, particularly in the population of healthy persons, including menopausal and postmenopausal women. 2. The opinions indirectly indicate a weaker organization and effectiveness of the activities of the cancer prevention programs in the country than those organized in the city.

  8. YIELD PREDICTION OF TECHNICAL GRADES OF GRAPES WITH THE WHITE COLOR OF BERRIES ON THE BASIS OF A STUDY OF THE EMBRYONIC FRUITFULNESS OF BUD IN THE CONDITIONS OF ANAPA - TAMAN AREA OF THE KRASNODAR REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matuzok N. V.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the data on the formation of the embryonic fruitfulness of central ovaries of wintering buds of the group of technical grape varieties with white berries - White Muscat; Pinot White, Chardonnay, Citron Magaracha, Pervenets Magaracha; Riesling, Viorica, Riton, Crystal in the conditions of Anapa-Taman zone. There were revealed the rates of embryonic fruitfulness of central ovaries of buds of studied cultivars and fruiting indices of vegetative shoots developed from them. In all studied grape varieties there was revealed a high percentage of fruitful buds from 84,1 in the variety of Riton at 97.2 at Viorica; and the percentage of fertile vegetative shoots from 81,8 at the variety Citron Magaracha to 97.2 in the variety White Muscat. At the leveled load of bushes, vegetative shoots and the same scheme of planting of bushes (3 x 2 m, the highest yield in terms per hectare showed the varieties Pervenets Magaracha, Viorica, Riton, Crystal, Riesling and Citron Magarach. When assessing the economic efficiency the highest net income and level of profitability were identified in the varieties of Citron Magaracha, Pervenets Magaracha, Viorica and Riton. In order to determine which buds will give us shoots with large, well-developed (well-differentiated buds, and which will not give (weakly differentiated, it is necessary "to look inside a bud". But even already formed germs of inflorescences in the bud are able in a few days in spring or dedifferentiate or degrade depending on the influence of external conditions. Scientists have learned to use this ability to increase the maximum possible yield in years of severe damage of grape by frosts. Firstly, in frosty winters the central buds wither out. The replacing buds usually have poor fruiting and bad productivity during years. In such cases, it is more profitable to conduct a small cutting of angle buds arranged in a circle at the base of a shoot. At the beginning of the second vegetation

  9. 密闭化填埋作业条件下的场内恶臭污染分布情况与分析%Dispersion and Analysis of Odor Pollution in Landfill Area Under the Enclosed Operation Condition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    路鹏; 吴世新; 戴志锋; 张晓辉; 苏昭辉; 周小飞; 代占国; 卢旭飞; 郑斌

    2013-01-01

    Odor pollution of landfill site is a serious problem accompanied with the urbanization process that influences city life. Generally, odor emission points in landfill boundary are detected by experience, but the pollution intensity, distribution and variation in the scope of landfill boundary are difficulty to describe. In this research, odor emission points were disclosed with equal odor concentration curves that were delineated using electric nose and GPS instrument. The leakage of landfill gas and exhaust emission from biogas incineration torch was the main cause of the odor pollution in landfill area. Gas production evaluation suggested that the improvement of landfill gas consumption is the key point to control the odor pollution at the landfill site.%随着城市化进程的加剧,填埋场恶臭逐渐成为影响城市生活的重要污染.对于场界范围内的恶臭发生源通常要依靠经验确定,难以对填埋场界范围内的恶臭污染强度分布及变化规律进行科学的描述.利用电子鼻与GPS定位仪对生活垃圾填埋场内的恶臭污染情况进行检测,通过GIS软件作图绘制恶臭污染等强度曲线,对场内强污染源释放点进行确定,发现覆盖膜破损及焚烧火炬尾气排放是造成场内恶臭污染的主要原因.对填埋气产量估算分析表明提高填埋气处理能力是控制恶臭污染的关键.

  10. 中国东部岩盐矿区建造盐穴储气库地质条件分析%GEOLOGICAL CONDITION ANALYSIS ON GAS STORAGE FOR BUILDING SALT CAVERN OF ROCK SALT AREA IN EASTERN CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王少华; 杨树杰

    2015-01-01

    The halite bed of eastern China is frequentlyinterbedded with the other rocks. According to the different rock salt bed interlayer of salt bearing zone, the section structure is separated into three types including the first interlayer which is easy to build salt cavern and dominated by dissolubility salinastone-glauberite and mudstone, the second interlayer which is common to build it and dominated by clastic rock(mudstone, siltstone) with a little readily soluble salt as well as the third interlayer which is hard to build it and dominated by gypsum and anhydrite with mud and sandstone. It is easy to build salt cavern at Jintan area of Jiangsu province but hard to build it at some basins such as Wuyang city of Henan province. Some sections with thick salt bed., thin interlayer and fewwater insoluble substance are also good for build salt cavern.%中国东部岩盐层与其它岩石频繁互层.从建造储气盐穴是否有利出发,根据含盐段岩盐层夹层的不同将剖面结构类型分为三类:第1类夹层以可溶性盐类——钙芒硝及泥岩为主,该类较易建造盐穴;第2类型夹层以碎屑岩(泥岩、粉砂岩)为主,含少量易溶盐类,该类建造盐穴条件一般;第3类型夹层以石膏、硬石膏为主,含泥、砂岩,该类难以建造盐穴.在中国东部诸多盐矿区中,江苏金坛建造盐穴条件较好,易于建造盐穴.而江苏淮安、湖南衡阳、湖北潜江、河南舞阳等盆地条件较差,但在这些矿区中,选择盐层厚度相对较大,夹层较薄、水不溶物质含量较低的地段,亦可建造储气盐穴.

  11. An Analysis of Tooth Loss Condition about Middle-aged and Elderly People in Luzhou Rural Area%泸州农村地区中老年人牙列缺损缺失情况调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任凯歌; 甘升远; 王忠朝; 范丽苑

    2015-01-01

    目的:了解泸州农村地区中老年人口腔情况与义齿修复情况,作为泸州农村地区行政部门开展中老年人口腔预防保健的依据。方法:抽样采取多阶段随机抽样,按WHO口腔健康调查方法和全国第3次口腔健康流行病学调查方法,调查泸州3个农村地区的505例45岁以上中老年人口腔情况。结果:在505例中老年人中,牙列缺损241例(47.72%),牙列缺失19例(3.76%),牙列完整245例(48.51%)。总失牙1280颗,总失牙均数为4.01颗,其中上、下颌缺牙数分别为698颗和582颗。结论:泸州农村地区中老年人牙列缺损缺失情况严重,健康状况堪忧。%Objective:To understand the caries,periodontal disease of elderly in Luzhou,providing baseline information for county health and educational administrative departments to carry out geriatric oral prevention and healthcare.Methods:Using stratified random sampling method,in accordance with the WHO oral health survey method and the third national oral health survey to check 505 elderly cases those were above 45 years old from rural areas of Luzhou City.Result: Of all the elderly, there were 19 adults(3.76%) who happened tooth-missing,241 adults(47.72%) who happened defection of dention,245 adults’(48.52%) teeth were well.The sum of tooth loss were 1280,and the mean of tooth loss were 4.01.The number of tooth loss of maxillary and mandible were 698 and 582 respectively.Conclusion:The caries,periodontal disease prevalences of elderly in Luzhou are high,they have poorer oral health status.

  12. Thermal conditions of rock slopes below unstable infrastructure in Alpine permafrost area: the cases of the Cosmiques hut and the Grands Montets cable-car station (Mont Blanc massif)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duvillard, Pierre-Allain; Magnin, Florence; Mörtl, Christian; Ravanel, Ludovic; Deline, Philip

    2017-04-01

    Thermal state of steep permafrost-affected rock faces is crucial to assess the safety and reliability of mountain infrastructure as current permafrost degradation affects the rock slope stability. In the Mont-Blanc massif, 23 infrastructures are built on such a rock face with 13 of them that are characterized by a high risk of destabilization (Duvillard et al., 2015), including the upper station of the Grands Montets cable car (3325 m a.s.l.) as well as the Cosmiques hut (3613 m a.s.l.) on which we will focus. These two buildings have already been affected by different geomorphological processes. A rockfall event (600 m3) occurred for example on the SE face on the Arête inférieure des Cosmiques on the 21st of August 1998 (Ravanel et al., 2013) and the Grands Montets case shows a slow subsidence of the stairway over the last decade. In order to better assess the role of the permafrost in these processes and to gain insight on possible future geomorphic activity, we characterized the current permafrost conditions and simulated its changes up to the end of the 21st century using two complementary approaches: (i) the result of ERT (Electrical Resistivity Tomography) surveys carried out in October 2016 on the northern and southern faces right below the Cosmiques hut (at the level of the foundations) and at the Aiguilles des Grands Montets; (ii) the modeling of mean annual rock surface temperature for 2016 and at the end of the 21st century (Magnin et al., in rev.). Duvillard P.-A., Ravanel L., Deline P. (2015). Risk assessment of infrastructure destabilisation due to global warming in the high French Alps. Journal of Alpine Research, 103 (2). Magnin F., Josnin J.-Y., Ravanel L., Pergaud J., Pohl B., Deline P. (in rev.). Modelling rock wall permafrost degradation in the Mont Blanc massif from the LIA to the end of the 21st century. The Cryosphere Discuss., doi:10.5194/tc-2016-132. Ravanel L., Deline P., Lambiel C. and Vincent C. (2013). Instability of a high alpine

  13. 山区2级公路路面早期大面积疲劳破坏状况研究%Research on Large-area Fatigue Damage Conditions of Second Class Highway Pavements at Early Stage in Mountainous Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐颖

    2011-01-01

    通过对某山区2级公路沥青路面交通量、气象资料、弯沉测定、钻芯试验、路面结构以及排水设施等方面的调查分析,得出该路面出现早期大面积疲劳开裂破坏产生的原因为:超载严重导致基层层底实际拉应力大于设计拉应力而出现疲劳破坏;边沟未设泄水孔、土路肩,致使路基形成封闭水域而导致结构层积水;面层过薄、路面开裂导致雨水下渗并汇聚在面层基层之间产生冲刷破坏;气温骤降导致面层温缩开裂.研究结果将为南方多雨重交通地区的2级公路设计、施工及维护提供一定的参考依据.%Based on investigation and analysis for volume of traffic, meteorological data, deflection measurement, core test, pavement structure and drainage facilities, etc. Of asphalt pavement of some second class highway in mountainous area, this paper obtains causes for large-area fatigue cracking damage on this pavement at early stage, including fatigue damage due to actual tensile stress on the bottom of base course which is bigger than designed tensile stress caused by serious overload; water logging in structural layer due to enclosed water area on roadbed caused by no drainage openings and earth shoulders equipped for side ditches; scouring damage produced due to infiltration of rainwater and convergence between surface course and base course caused by too thin surface course and cracking of pavement; and temperature shrinkage crack of surface course due to abrupt decrease of air temperature. The research result of this paper will provide certain reference basis for design, construction and maintenance of second class highways in southern areas with more rain and heavy traffic.

  14. Frostbites in circumpolar areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiina Maria Ikäheimo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Circumpolar areas are associated with prolonged cold exposure where wind, precipitation, and darkness further aggravate the environmental conditions and the associated risks. Despite the climate warming, cold climatic conditions will prevail in circumpolar areas and contribute to adverse health effects. Frostbite is a freezing injury where localized damage affects the skin and other tissues. It occurs during occupational or leisure-time activities and is common in the general population among men and women of various ages. Industries of the circumpolar areas where frostbite occurs frequently include transportation, mining, oil, and gas industry, construction, agriculture, and military operations. Cold injuries may also occur during leisure-time activities involving substantial cold exposure, such as mountaineering, skiing, and snowmobiling. Accidental situations (occupational, leisure time often contribute to adverse cooling and cold injuries. Several environmental (temperature, wind, wetness, cold objects, and altitude and individual (behavior, health, and physiology predisposing factors are connected with frostbite injuries. Vulnerable populations include those having a chronic disease (cardiovascular, diabetes, and depression, children and the elderly, or homeless people. Frostbite results in sequelae causing different types of discomfort and functional limitations that may persist for years. A frostbite injury is preventable, and hence, unacceptable from a public health perspective. Appropriate cold risk management includes awareness of the adverse effects of cold, individual adjustment of cold exposure and clothing, or in occupational context different organizational and technical measures. In addition, vulnerable population groups need customized information and care for proper prevention of frostbites.

  15. Vehicular road influence areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huertas, María E.; Huertas, José I.; Valencia, Alexander

    2017-02-01

    Vehicle operation over paved and unpaved roads is an emission source that significantly contributes to air pollution. Emissions are derived from vehicle exhaust pipes and re-suspension of particulate matter generated by wind erosion and tire to road surface interactions. Environmental authorities require a methodology to evaluate road impact areas, which enable managers to initiate counter-measures, particularly under circumstances where historic meteorological and/or air quality data is unavailable. The present study describes an analytical and experimental work developed to establish a simplified methodology to estimate the area influenced by vehicular roads. AERMOD was chosen to model pollutant dispersion generated by two roads of common attributes (straight road over flat terrain) under the effects of several arbitrary chosen weather conditions. The resulting pollutant concentration vs. Distance curves collapsed into a single curve when concentration and distance were expressed as dimensionless numbers and this curve can be described by a beta distribution function. This result implied that average concentration at a given distance was proportional to emission intensity and that it showed minor sensitivity to meteorological conditions. Therefore, road influence was defined by the area adjacent to the road limited by distance at which the beta distribution function equaled the limiting value specified by the national air quality standard for the pollutant under consideration.

  16. SUBURBAN AREAS. ZONAS SUBURBANAS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Valencia Londoño

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: The suburban areas represent a category of use and appropriation of the soil that is particularly problematic in the Latin American context. The conflicts that tend to occur in this type of areas are given by the uncontrolled expansion of cities in a competition with the rural areas which deprives these from various environmental conditions and positive housing conditions. This article is the product of the research project “Methodology for the Intervention of Suburban Soils, Northern Aburra: A Case Study” in Medellin, Colombia, in order to disseminate core concepts that guide the study and generate academic exchange in this regard. Resumen: Las zonas suburbanas representan una categoría de uso y apropiación del suelo que es particularmente problemática en el contexto latinoamericano. Los conflictos que suelen verificarse en este tipo de zonas se dan por la expansión incontrolada de las ciudades en una competencia con las áreas rurales que priva a éstas de varias de sus condiciones ambientales y de habitabilidad positivas. El artículo es producto del proyecto de investigación “Metodología para la intervención de suelos suburbanos, caso de estudio Aburrá Norte” en Medellín, Colombia, con el fin de divulgar los conceptos de base que orientan el estudio y generar intercambio académico al respecto.

  17. Livestock Farming Under Climate Change Conditions

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Koelle, B

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available for livestock farming under changing environmental conditions. Farming with livestock can be challenging, especially when farming in arid areas. This handbook is primarily informed by the experience of farmers in the South African winter rainfall area....

  18. Geological Conditions of Geothermal and Suitability Evaluation on Development and Utilization of Shallow Geothermal Energy in Luxi Area%鲁西地区浅层地温能地热地质条件与开发利用适宜性评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周亚醒

    2015-01-01

    On the basis of identifing geological conditions of regional geothermal energy,by using analytic hierarchy process (AHP)method,suitability evaluation of two modes of development and utilization of ground heat in Luxi area has been carried out,such as buried pipe pump and ground source heat pump.Ac-cording to different categories,development of shallow geothermal energy in Luxi area can be divided into suitable area,relative suitable area and not suitable area.This proj ect will formulate a long term energy planning,guide the development and utilization of shallow geothermal resources,and promote replacing energy development and utilization in Luxi area.%在查明区域地热地质条件的基础上,采用层次分析法,对鲁西地区地埋管地源热泵和地下水地源热泵两种方式的开发利用进行了适宜性评价,并按不同类别,将鲁西地区浅层地温能开发划分为适宜区、较适宜区和不适宜区等3个区。该项目对制定长远能源区划,指导浅层地热资源开发利用工作,促进鲁西地区新兴接替能源开发利用具有非常重要的意义。

  19. Switchgear condition monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budyn, M. [ABB Corporate Research, Krakow (Poland); Karandikar, H.M.; Urmson, M.G. [ABB Inc., Lake Mary, FL (United States)

    2010-07-01

    Electric utilities strive to keep switchgear in proper condition over their long life. Medium voltage switchgear are one of the key components in electrical power systems used to distribute electrical power, selectively isolate electrical loads and protect loads from cascading failure. They generally include a combination of electrical elements such as disconnectors, fuses, circuit breakers and distribution bus bars arranged in a lineup of frames. Since switchgear distributes electrical current, heat buildup becomes an important characteristic to monitor. The most significant amount of heat dissipation is on distribution elements like bus bars. Unexpected temperature rise at a particular location may indicate corrosion or a defect. If left uncorrected, this defect could result in catastrophic failure resulting in deactivated loads and potentially hazardous conditions to personnel. Currently, switchgear bus temperature monitoring is done periodically by manual inspections using IR cameras or by fibre-optic systems. Both methods have limitations, such as inaccurate and infrequent readouts, high implementation cost and limited monitoring area. This paper presented a modern approach for condition monitoring b