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Sample records for area central nepal

  1. Determination of naturally occurring radionuclides in selected rocks from Hetaunda area, Central Nepal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallova, G.

    2010-01-01

    The specific activities of the naturally occurring radionuclides 238 U, 232 Th, and 40 K were measured in rock samples from the Hetaunda area, central Nepal, by using gamma spectrometry. The specific activities were found to be in the range of 17 - 95 Bq.kg -1 for 238 U, 24 - 260 Bq.kg -1 for 232 Th and 32 - 541 Bq.kg -1 for 40 K. From these data absorbed dose rates in air and annual effective doses were calculated and compared with respective data from the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) compilation. The results from our study open the door to the safe applicability of most of the investigated materials as a cheep building material. (author)

  2. Human resources for refraction services in Central Nepal.

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    Kandel, Himal; Murthy, G V S; Bascaran, Covadonga

    2015-07-01

    Uncorrected refractive error is a public health problem globally and in Nepal. Planning of refraction services is hampered by a paucity of data. This study was conducted to determine availability and distribution of human resources for refraction, their efficiency, the type and extent of their training; the current service provision of refraction services and the unmet need in human resources for refraction in Central Nepal. This was a descriptive cross-sectional study. All refraction facilities in the Central Region were identified through an Internet search and interviews of key informants from the professional bodies and parent organisations of primary eye centres. A stratified simple random sampling technique was used to select 50 per cent of refraction facilities. The selected facilities were visited for primary data collection. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with the managers and the refractionists available in the facilities using a semi-structured questionnaire. Data was collected in 29 centres. All the managers (n=29; response rate 100 per cent) and 50 refractionists (Response rate 65.8 per cent) were interviewed. Optometrists and ophthalmic assistants were the main providers of refraction services (n=70, 92.11 per cent). They were unevenly distributed across the region, highly concentrated around urban areas. The median number of refractions per refractionist per year was 3,600 (IQR: 2,400 - 6,000). Interviewed refractionists stated that clients' knowledge, attitude and practice related factors such as lack of awareness of the need for refraction services and/or availability of existing services were the major barriers to the output of refraction services. The total number of refractions carried out in the Central Region per year was 653,176. An additional 170 refractionists would be needed to meet the unmet need of 1,323,234 refractions. The study findings demand a major effort to develop appropriately trained personnel when planning

  3. Radiocarbon ages of upper quaternary deposit in central Nepal and their geomorphological significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamanaka, Hidetsugu

    1982-01-01

    The author visited Nepal from October, 1980, to February, 1981, investigated the geomorphology and upper Quaternary geology in Central Nepal, and collected a number of samples for radiocarbon dating. After returning to his university, he dated ten samples by himself. In Nepal, radiocarbon age has been scarcely reported as yet, besides in Kathmandu valley. Therefore, the author's ten data of the age are very important for the late Quaternary chronological study of Nepal Himalayas. In this paper, the author describes sampling localities and horizons, dating results and their geomorphological significance. These ten samples included Pokhara valley, Marsyandi Kohla, Modi Khola, Madi Khola and Muktinath samples. Some conclusion was derived as for the geomorphological development in central Nepal: The last Himalayan glacial age had already ended before 9,000 yr BP (years before A.D. 1950); In the Midland region, from 4,300 to 600 yr BP, some large-scale mudflows broke out nearly contemporaneously in the upper valleys, and they flowed down torrentially and catastrophically to deposit in the middle course of rivers. But the cause of vast quantity of material suddenly brought down from the Great Himalayas has been still left unexplained. The conclusion like this also was able to be applied to the middle Marsyandi Khola and the Pokhara valley. The wide-spread schema that the river was aggraded in the glacial age and degraded in the interglacial age may not be applicable to the rivers in the Midland region of Nepal Himalayas. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  4. Fault- and Area-Based PSHA in Nepal using OpenQuake: New Insights from the 2015 M7.8 Gorkha-Nepal Earthquake

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    Stevens, Victoria

    2017-04-01

    The 2015 Gorkha-Nepal M7.8 earthquake (hereafter known simply as the Gorkha earthquake) highlights the seismic risk in Nepal, allows better characterization of the geometry of the Main Himalayan Thrust (MHT), and enables comparison of recorded ground-motions with predicted ground-motions. These new data, together with recent paleoseismic studies and geodetic-based coupling models, allow for good parameterization of the fault characteristics. Other faults in Nepal remain less well studied. Unlike previous PSHA studies in Nepal that are exclusively area-based, we use a mix of faults and areas to describe six seismic sources in Nepal. For each source, the Gutenberg-Richter a and b values are found, and the maximum magnitude earthquake estimated, using a combination of earthquake catalogs, moment conservation principals and similarities to other tectonic regions. The MHT and Karakoram fault are described as fault sources, whereas four other sources - normal faulting in N-S trending grabens of northern Nepal, strike-slip faulting in both eastern and western Nepal, and background seismicity - are described as area sources. We use OpenQuake (http://openquake.org/) to carry out the analysis, and peak ground acceleration (PGA) at 2 and 10% chance in 50 years is found for Nepal, along with hazard curves at various locations. We compare this PSHA model with previous area-based models of Nepal. The Main Himalayan Thrust is the principal seismic hazard in Nepal so we study the effects of changing several parameters associated with this fault. We compare ground shaking predicted from various fault geometries suggested from the Gorkha earthquake with each other, and with a simple model of a flat fault. We also show the results from incorporating a coupling model based on geodetic data and microseismicity, which limits the down-dip extent of rupture. There have been no ground-motion prediction equations (GMPEs) developed specifically for Nepal, so we compare the results of

  5. Developing conservation governance strategies: holistic management of protected areas in Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Budhathoki, Prabhu

    2012-01-01

    The Buffer Zone (BZ) concept has been introduced in Nepal as a key component of the national biodiversity conservation strategy to mitigate the impacts of protected areas on local communities, and thereby reduce adverse impacts of local people on protected areas. Unlike traditional Buffer Zone programmes which are mostly limited to creating a protective layer and/or distributing economic benefits to local people, the Buffer Zone management approach in Nepal integrates livelihoods and conserva...

  6. Revisiting the 1993 historical extreme precipitation and damaging flood event in Central Nepal

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    Marahatta, S.; Adhikari, L.; Pokharel, B.

    2017-12-01

    Nepal is ranked the fourth most climate-vulnerable country in the world and it is prone to different weather-related hazards including droughts, floods, and landslides [Wang et al., 2013; Gillies et al., 2013]. Although extremely vulnerable to extreme weather events, there are no extreme weather warning system established to inform public in Nepal. Nepal has witnessed frequent drought and flood events, however, the extreme precipitation that occurred on 19-20 July 1993 created a devastating flood and landslide making it the worst weather disaster in the history of Nepal. During the second week of July, Nepal and northern India experienced abnormal dry condition due to the shifting of the monsoon trough to central India. The dry weather changed to wet when monsoon trough moved northward towards foothills of the Himalayas. Around the same period, a low pressure center was located over the south-central Nepal. The surface low was supported by the mid-, upper-level shortwave and cyclonic vorticity. A meso-scale convective system created record breaking one day rainfall (540 mm) in the region. The torrential rain impacted the major hydropower reservoir, Bagmati barrage in Karmaiya and triggered many landslides and flash floods. The region had the largest hydropower (Kulekhani hydropower, 92 MW) of the country at that time and the storm event deposited extremely large amount of sediments that reduced one-fourth (4.8 million m3) of reservoir dead storage (12 million m3). The 1-in-1000 years flood damaged the newly constructed barrage and took more than 700 lives. Major highways were damaged cutting off supply of daily needed goods, including food and gas, in the capital city, Kathmandu, for more than a month. In this presentation, the meteorological conditions of the extreme event will be diagnosed and the impact of the sedimentation due to the flood on Kulekhani reservoir and hydropower generation will be discussed.

  7. Effective radium concentration across the Main Central Thrust in the Nepal Himalayas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girault, Frederic; Perrier, Frederic; Gajurel, Ananta Prasad; Bhattarai, Mukunda; Koirala, Bharat Prasad; Bollinger, Laurent; Fort, Monique; France-Lanord, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Effective radium concentration (EC(Ra)) of 622 rock samples from 6 different sites in the Nepal Himalayas was measured in the laboratory using radon accumulation experiments. These sites, located from Lower Dolpo in Western Nepal to Eastern Nepal, are divided into 9 transects which cut across the Main Central Thrust zone (MCT zone) separating low-grade metamorphic Lesser Himalayan Sequence (LHS) units to the south and higher-grade metamorphic Greater Himalayan Sequence (GHS) units to the north. This boundary remains difficult to define and is the subject of numerous debates. EC(Ra) values range from 0.03 ± 0.03 to 251.6 ± 4.0 Bq kg -1 , and appear to be representative of the formation and clearly related to the local lithology. For example, for the Upper Trisuli and Langtang Valleys site in Central Nepal, the most studied place with 350 available EC(Ra) values, LHS rocks are characterized by a mean value of 5.3 ± 1.3 Bq kg -1 while GHS rocks of Formations I and II show significantly lower values with a mean value of 0.69 ± 0.11 Bq kg -1 , thus leading to a LHS/GHS EC(Ra) ratio of 7.8 ± 2.2. This behavior was systematically confirmed by other transects (ratio of 7.9 ± 2.2 in all other sites), with a threshold ECRa value, separating LHS from GHS, of 0.8 Bq kg -1 , thus bringing forward a novel method to characterize, within the MCT shear zone, which rocks belong to the GHS and LHS units. In addition, Ulleri augen gneiss, belonging to LHS rocks, occurred in several transects and were characterized by high EC(Ra) values (17.9 ± 4.3 Bq kg -1 ), easy to distinguish from the GHS gneisses, characterized by low EC(Ra) values at the bottom of the GHS, thus providing a further argument to locate the MCT. The measurement of EC(Ra) data, thus, provides a cost-effective method which can be compared with neodymium isotopic anomalies or estimates of the peak metamorphic temperature. This study, therefore, shows that the measurements of EC(Ra) provides additional information

  8. Treeline dynamics with climate change at Central Nepal Himalaya

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    Gaire, N. P.; Koirala, M.; Bhuju, D. R.; Borgaonkar, H. P.

    2013-10-01

    Global climate change has multidimensional impacts with several biological fingerprints, and treeline shifting in tandem with climate change is a widely observed phenomenon in various parts of the world. In Nepal several impacts of climate change on physical environments have been observed. However, studies on the biological impacts are lacking. This dendrochronological study was carried out at the treeline ecotone (3750-4003 m a.s.l.) in the Kalchuman Lake (Kal Tal) area of the Manaslu Conservation Area in central Nepal Himalaya with the aim to study the dynamic impact of climate change at the treeline. The study provides an insight into regeneration and treeline dynamics over the past 200 yr. Two belt transect plots (size: 20 m wide, >250 m long) were laid covering forest line, treeline as well as tree species Abies spectabilis and Betula utilis was done and their tree-cores were collected. Stand character and age distribution revealed an occurrence of more matured B. utilis (max. age 198 yr old) compared to A. spectabilis (max. age 160 yr). A. spectabilis contained an overwhelmingly high population (89%) of younger plants (plant density as well as upward shifting in the studied treeline ecotones was observed. Thus, two species presented species-specific responses to climate change and much wider differences anticipated in their population status as climate continues to cha spectabilis correlated negatively with the mean monthly temperature of May-August of the current year and with September of the previous year. The regeneration of A. spectabilis, on the other hand, was positively related with May-August precipitation and January-April temperature of the current year. The reconstructed average summer temperature (May-August) using tree ring data revealed alternate period of cool and warm period with warming in the 2nd half of the 20th century. Further palynological and geochronological studies of sediments of the Kalchuman Lake would advance our understanding

  9. Man-animal relationships in Central Nepal

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    Lohani Usha

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nepal is small in size but rich in bio-cultural diversity. The rugged terrain of the country is home to a number of unique assemblages of fauna, some of which are endemic. Not only faunal resources the country also harbors some very ancient populations whose interrelationship with these diverse faunal resources is very intimate and thus demands scientific study. Animals play important role in both material and spiritual spheres of their life. There are more than hundred groups of such populations in the country and the group Tamang is one of these. The present paper studies Tamang-animal relationships in central Nepal. There is a growing trend of scientific ethnozoological studies all across the globe, but this field is yet in its infancy in Nepal. The country is losing important fauna as well as ancient human cultures at the advent of development processes. As a result, ethnozoological knowledge is also teetering on the brink of extinction. Methods Ethnozoological data were collected by applying different participatory approaches techniques such as semi-structured interviews, participatory rural appraisal, key informant interviews and focus group discussions. Quantitative data were obtained by employing a household level questionnaire survey. Data were collected from the period of September 2004 to August 2005. Most of the animals were identified up to the species level with the help of standard taxonomic keys. Results The Tamang community treasures knowledge on various uses of 41 genera belonging to 28 families. Out of total number of animals, 14.6% belong to the Invertebrate group and the rest to the Vertebrate group. Of the total uses 58% fall in the food and medicinal use category, 16% in the magico-religious use category, 18% in the category of omen indication, and 2% each in the categories such as weather forecasting, trophy, ethnomusical and taboos. Conclusions The Tamang maintain strong ties with animals both at a

  10. Monsoon Rainfall and Landslides in Nepal

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    Dahal, R. K.; Hasegawa, S.; Bhandary, N. P.; Yatabe, R.

    2009-12-01

    A large number of human settlements on the Nepal Himalayas are situated either on old landslide mass or on landslide-prone areas. As a result, a great number of people are affected by large- and small-scale landslides all over the Himalayas especially during monsoon periods. In Nepal, only in the half monsoon period (June 10 to August 15), 70, 50 and 68 people were killed from landslides in 2007, 2008 and 2009, respectively. In this context, this paper highlights monsoon rainfall and their implications in the Nepal Himalaya. In Nepal, monsoon is major source of rainfall in summer and approximately 80% of the annual total rainfall occurs from June to September. The measured values of mean annual precipitation in Nepal range from a low of approximately 250 mm at area north of the Himalaya to many areas exceeding 6,000 mm. The mean annual rainfall varying between 1500 mm and 2500 mm predominate over most of the country. In Nepal, the daily distribution of precipitation during rainy season is also uneven. Sometime 10% of the total annual precipitation can occur in a single day. Similarly, 50% total annual rainfall also can occur within 10 days of monsoon. This type of uneven distribution plays an important role in triggering many landslides in Nepal. When spatial distribution of landslides was evaluated from record of more than 650 landslides, it is found that more landslides events were concentrated at central Nepal in the area of high mean annual rainfall. When monsoon rainfall and landslide relationship was taken into consideration, it was noticed that a considerable number of landslides were triggered in the Himalaya by continuous rainfall of 3 to 90 days. It has been noticed that continuous rainfall of few days (5 days or 7 days or 10 days) are usually responsible for landsliding in the Nepal Himalaya. Monsoon rains usually fall with interruptions of 2-3 days and are generally characterized by low intensity and long duration. Thus, there is a strong role of

  11. Water soluble ions in aerosols (TSP) : Characteristics, sources and seasonal variation over the central Himalayas, Nepal

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    Tripathee, Lekhendra; Kang, Shichang; Zhang, Qianggong; Rupakheti, Dipesh

    2016-04-01

    Atmspheric pollutants transported from South Asia could have adverse impact on the Himalayan ecosystems. Investigation of aerosol chemistry in the Himalayan region in Nepal has been limited on a temporal and spatial scale to date. Therefore, the water-soluble ionic composition of aerosol using TSP sampler was investigated for a year period from April 2013 to March 2014 at four sites Bode, Dhunche, Lumbini and Jomsom characterized as an urban, rural, semi-urban and remote sites in Nepal. During the study period, the highest concentration of major cation was Ca2+ with an average concentration of 8.91, 2.17, 7.85 and 6.42 μg m-3 and the highest concentration of major anion was SO42- with an average of 10.96, 4.06, 6.85 and 3.30 μg m-3 at Bode, Dhunche, Lumbini and Jomsom respectively. The soluble ions showed the decrease in concentrations from urban to the rural site. Correlations and PCA analysis suggested that that SO42-, NO3- and NH4+ were derived from the anthropogenic sources where as the Ca2+ and Mg2+ were from crustal sources. Our results also suggest that the largest acid neutralizing agent at our sampling sites in the central Himalayas are Ca2+ followed by NH4+. Seasonal variations of soluble ions in aerosols showed higher concentrations during pre-monsoon and winter (dry-periods) due to limited precipitation amount and lower concentrations during the monsoon which can be explained by the dilution effect, higher the precipitation lower the concentration. K+ which is regarded as the tracer of biomss burning had a significant peaks during pre-monsoon season when the forest fires are active around the regions. In general, the results of this study suggests that the atmospheric chemistry is influenced by natural and anthropogenic sources. Thus, soluble ionic concentrations in aerosols from central Himalayas, Nepal can provide a useful database to assess atmospheric environment and its impacts on human health and ecosystem in the southern side of central

  12. THE CONSERVATION AND POTENTIAL HABITAT OF THE HIMALAYAN MUSK DEER, MOSCHUS CHRYSOGASTER, IN THE PROTECTED AREAS OF NEPAL

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    Achyut ARYAL

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The Himalayan musk deer (Moschus chrysogaster is a cervid distributed from the eastern to the western Himalayas of Nepal. The species is listed as endangered in appendix I of IUCN Red data, and protected in Nepal under the National Parks and Wildlife Conservation Act of 1973. Musk deer occupy the middle to the higher mountain regions, which cover 12 protected areas of Nepal (6 national parks, 5 conservation areas, 1 hunting reserve. However, of the 30177.19 km2 potential habitat, only 19.26% (5815.08 km2 is inside the protected areas and the remaining 80.73% falls outside the protected areas. Consequently, poaching, habitat destruction, livestock grazing and forest fire in the musk deer habitat are important challenges for the conservation of musk deer in the country. A thorough status survey in and outside the protected areas should be carried out and a species-focused conservation action plan should be prepared and implemented properly. A program for increasing awareness and enhancing livelihood of the local populations be launched in the poor and poaching risk zones of Nepal.

  13. Knowledge, attitude and practice regarding dengue fever among the healthy population of highland and lowland communities in central Nepal.

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    Meghnath Dhimal

    Full Text Available Dengue fever (DF is the most rapidly spreading mosquito-borne viral disease in the world. In this decade it has expanded to new countries and from urban to rural areas. Nepal was regarded DF free until 2004. Since then dengue virus (DENV has rapidly expanded its range even in mountain regions of Nepal, and major outbreaks occurred in 2006 and 2010. However, no data on the local knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP of DF in Nepal exist although such information is required for prevention and control measures.We conducted a community based cross-sectional survey in five districts of central Nepal between September 2011 and February 2012. We collected information on the socio-demographic characteristics of the participants and their knowledge, attitude and practice regarding DF using a structured questionnaire. We then statistically compared highland and lowland communities to identify possible causes of observed differences.Out of 589 individuals interviewed, 77% had heard of DF. Only 12% of the sample had good knowledge of DF. Those living in the lowlands were five times more likely to possess good knowledge than highlanders (P<0.001. Despite low knowledge levels, 83% of the people had good attitude and 37% reported good practice. We found a significantly positive correlation among knowledge, attitude and practice (P<0.001. Among the socio-demographic variables, the education level of the participants was an independent predictor of practice level (P<0.05, and education level and interaction between the sex and age group of the participants were independent predictors of attitude level (P<0.05.Despite the rapid expansion of DENV in Nepal, the knowledge of people about DF was very low. Therefore, massive awareness programmes are urgently required to protect the health of people from DF and to limit its further spread in this country.

  14. Socio-economic and Demographic Determinants of Antenatal Care Services Utilization in Central Nepal

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    Srijana Pandey, PhD

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background/Objective: The importance of maternal health services in lessening maternal mortality and morbidity as well as neonatal deaths has received substantial recognition in the past decade. The lack of antenatal care has been identified as a risk factor for maternal mortality and other adverse pregnancy outcomes. The purpose of this study was to determine the factors affecting attendance of antenatal care services in Nepal. Methods: This is a cross-sectional descriptive study carried out in Central Nepal. Using semi-structured questionnaire, interviews were conducted with married women aged between 15-49 years, who had delivered their babies within one year. Systematic random sampling method was used to select the sample. Results were obtained by frequency distribution and cross-tabulation of the variables. Results: More than half of the women were not aware of the consequences of lack of antenatal care. Age, education, income, type of family were strongly associated with the attendance at antenatal care service. Conclusions and Public Health Implications: In Nepal and in other developing countries, maternal mortality and morbidity continue to pose challenges to the health care delivery system. Variety of factors including socio-demographic, socio-economic, cultural and service availability as well as accessibility influences the use of maternal health services.

  15. Minor soil erosion contribution to denudation in Central Nepal Himalaya.

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    Morin, Guillaume; France-Lanord, Christian; Gallo, Florian; Lupker, Maarten; Lavé, Jérôme; Gajurel, Ananta

    2013-04-01

    In order to decipher river sediments provenance in terms of erosion processes, we characterized geochemical compositions of hillslope material coming from soils, glaciers and landslide, and compared them to rivers sediments. We focused our study on two South flank Himalayan catchments: (1) Khudi khola, as an example of small High Himalayan catchment (150 km2), undergoing severe precipitation, and rapid erosion ≈ 3.5 mm/yr [A] and (2) the Narayani-Gandak Transhimalayan basin (52000 km2) that drains the whole central Nepal. To assess the question, systematic samplings were conducted on hillslope material from different erosion processes in the basins. River sediment include daily sampling during the 2010 monsoon at two stations, and banks samples in different parts of the basins. Source rocks, soil and landslide samples, are compared to river sediment mobile to immobile element ratios, completed by hydration degree H2O+ analysis[2]. Data show that soils are clearly depleted in mobile elements Na, K, Ca, and highly hydrated compared to source rocks and other erosion products. In the Khudi basin, the contrast between soil and river sediment signatures allow to estimate that soil erosion represents less than 5% of the total sediment exported by the river. Most of the river sediment therefore derives from landslides inputs and to a lesser extent by barren high elevation sub-basins. This is further consistent with direct observation that, during monsoon, significant tributaries of the Khudi river do not export sediments. Considering that active landslide zones represent less than 0.5% of the total watershed area, it implies that erosion distribution is highly heterogeneous. Landslide erosion rate could reach more than 50 cm/yr in the landslide area. Sediments of the Narayani river are not significantly different from those of the Khudi in spite of more diverse geomorphology and larger area of the basin. Only H2O+ and Total Organic Carbon concentrations normalised to Al

  16. Augmenting Blue Land Uses: An adaptation approach for Climate Change in Urban Areas. A case study of Janakpur Municipalities, Nepal

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    Ajay Chandra Lal

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Climate change has emerged as a major challenge to human kind in the 21st century and Nepal is no exception. The challenges are even more severe in the context of urban areas where most wealth and population is concentrated. Greening an area is a major strategy for adapting to climate change; however, with blue land use a major source of evaporation can act as another activity to aid the adaption to climate change, where ponds are traditionally present within a city but are often abandoned. The present research has been carried out in the city of Janakpur situated in the central southern flatland of Nepal along its Southern border with India. The research outlines the relation of blue land use and its cooling capacity in an urban area. The research adopts both qualitative and quantitative research methods, showing that blue land use does have positive a correlation with the cooling of the surrounding area. The research in Janakpur, a pond city with more than 200 ponds within the urban fabric reveals that during summer the houses along the ponds will experience temperatures 2 °C lower than houses situated more than 100 m away from the ponds.

  17. Pattern of Maxillofacial fracture in Western and Central Nepal: An experience in 3 tertiary level health institutions

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    S Subedi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There are only few studies regarding the pattern and causes of maxillofacial fractures till date in Nepal and no such study in western and central Nepalese population has been conducted. The purpose of this study, therefore, was to describe the causes and the pattern of maxillofacial fractures in western and central part of Nepal over the period of 5 years. MATERIAL AND METHODS A retrospective analysis of maxillofacial fractures was conducted on 328 patients who were treated in the department of maxillofacial surgery. Data was extracted and analyzed based on age, sex, cause of injury and anatomic location. RESULT Young males of 3rd decade of life most commonly sustained the maxillofacial trauma. The commonest site involved was the zygomatic complex (42% when only mid face fractures was considered and parasymphysis (32% when only mandible was considered.The most common cause of injuries was road traffic accidents (289 patients; 88.1% followed by interpersonal violence (25 patients; 7.6 % and falls accounting for 4.2% of the all injuries. CONCLUSION The findings of this study suggest the need for expansion of the motorway network, ensuring compliance of strict traffic rules and regulations, replacing old vehicles without safety measures and implement school education in alcohol abuse.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jcmsn.v10i3.12771 Journal of College of Medical Sciences-Nepal, 2014, Vol-10, No-3, 8-13

  18. An ethnobotanical analysis of parasitic plants (Parijibi) in the Nepal Himalaya.

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    O'Neill, Alexander Robert; Rana, Santosh Kumar

    2016-02-24

    Indigenous biocultural knowledge is a vital part of Nepalese environmental management strategies; however, much of it may soon be lost given Nepal's rapidly changing socio-ecological climate. This is particularly true for knowledge surrounding parasitic and mycoheterotrophic plant species, which are well represented throughout the Central-Eastern Himalayas but lack a collated record. Our study addresses this disparity by analyzing parasitic and mycoheterotrophic plant species diversity in Nepal as well as the ethnobotanical knowledge that surrounds them. Botanical texts, online databases, and herbarium records were reviewed to create an authoritative compendium of parasitic and mycoheterotrophic plant species native or naturalized to the Nepal Central-Eastern Himalaya. Semi-structured interviews were then conducted with 141 informants to better understand the biocultural context of these species, emphasizing ethnobotanical uses, in 12 districts of Central-Eastern Nepal. Nepal is a hotspot of botanical diversity, housing 15 families and 29 genera of plants that exhibit parasitic or mycoheterotrophic habit. Over 150 of the known 4500 parasitic plant species (~3 %) and 28 of the 160 mycoheterotrophic species (~18 %) are native or naturalized to Nepal; 13 of our surveyed parasitic species are endemic. Of all species documented, approximately 17 % of parasitic and 7 % of mycoheterotrophic plants have ethnobotanical uses as medicine (41 %), fodder (23 %), food (17 %), ritual objects (11 %), or material (8 %). Parasitic and mycoheterotrophic plant species exhibit high diversity in the Nepal Central-Eastern Himalaya and are the fodder for biocultural relationships that may help inform future environmental management projects in the region.

  19. Decentralizing conservation and diversifying livelihoods within Kanchenjunga Conservation Area, Nepal.

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    Parker, Pete; Thapa, Brijesh; Jacob, Aerin

    2015-12-01

    To alleviate poverty and enhance conservation in resource dependent communities, managers must identify existing livelihood strategies and the associated factors that impede household access to livelihood assets. Researchers increasingly advocate reallocating management power from exclusionary central institutions to a decentralized system of management based on local and inclusive participation. However, it is yet to be shown if decentralizing conservation leads to diversified livelihoods within a protected area. The purpose of this study was to identify and assess factors affecting household livelihood diversification within Nepal's Kanchenjunga Conservation Area Project, the first protected area in Asia to decentralize conservation. We randomly surveyed 25% of Kanchenjunga households to assess household socioeconomic and demographic characteristics and access to livelihood assets. We used a cluster analysis with the ten most common income generating activities (both on- and off-farm) to group the strategies households use to diversify livelihoods, and a multinomial logistic regression to identify predictors of livelihood diversification. We found four distinct groups of household livelihood strategies with a range of diversification that directly corresponded to household income. The predictors of livelihood diversification were more related to pre-existing socioeconomic and demographic factors (e.g., more landholdings and livestock, fewer dependents, receiving remittances) than activities sponsored by decentralizing conservation (e.g., microcredit, training, education, interaction with project staff). Taken together, our findings indicate that without direct policies to target marginalized groups, decentralized conservation in Kanchenjunga will continue to exclude marginalized groups, limiting a household's ability to diversify their livelihood and perpetuating their dependence on natural resources. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Noninvasive genetic population survey of snow leopards (Panthera uncia in Kangchenjunga conservation area, Shey Phoksundo National Park and surrounding buffer zones of Nepal

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    Karmacharya Dibesh B

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The endangered snow leopard is found throughout major mountain ranges of Central Asia, including the remote Himalayas. However, because of their elusive behavior, sparse distribution, and poor access to their habitat, there is a lack of reliable information on their population status and demography, particularly in Nepal. Therefore, we utilized noninvasive genetic techniques to conduct a preliminary snow leopard survey in two protected areas of Nepal. Results A total of 71 putative snow leopard scats were collected and analyzed from two different areas; Shey Phoksundo National Park (SPNP in the west and Kangchanjunga Conservation Area (KCA in the east. Nineteen (27% scats were genetically identified as snow leopards, and 10 (53% of these were successfully genotyped at 6 microsatellite loci. Two samples showed identical genotype profiles indicating a total of 9 individual snow leopards. Four individual snow leopards were identified in SPNP (1 male and 3 females and five (2 males and 3 females in KCA. Conclusions We were able to confirm the occurrence of snow leopards in both study areas and determine the minimum number present. This information can be used to design more in-depth population surveys that will enable estimation of snow leopard population abundance at these sites.

  1. Spatial analysis and statistical modelling of snow cover dynamics in the Central Himalayas, Nepal

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    Weidinger, Johannes; Gerlitz, Lars; Böhner, Jürgen

    2017-04-01

    General circulation models are able to predict large scale climate variations in global dimensions, however small scale dynamic characteristics, such as snow cover and its temporal variations in high mountain regions, are not represented sufficiently. Detailed knowledge about shifts in seasonal ablation times and spatial distribution of snow cover are crucial for various research interests. Since high mountain areas, for instance the Central Himalayas in Nepal, are generally remote, it is difficult to obtain data in high spatio-temporal resolutions. Regional climate models and downscaling techniques are implemented to compensate coarse resolution. Furthermore earth observation systems, such as MODIS, also permit bridging this gap to a certain extent. They offer snow (cover) data in daily temporal and medium spatial resolution of around 500 m, which can be applied as evaluation and training data for dynamical hydrological and statistical analyses. Within this approach two snow distribution models (binary snow cover and fractional snow cover) as well as one snow recession model were implemented for a research domain in the Rolwaling Himal in Nepal, employing the random forest technique, which represents a state of the art machine learning algorithm. Both bottom-up strategies provide inductive reasoning to derive rules for snow related processes out of climate (temperature, precipitation and irradiance) and climate-related topographic data sets (elevation, aspect and convergence index) obtained by meteorological network stations, remote sensing products (snow cover - MOD10-A1 and land surface temperatures - MOD11-A1) along with GIS. Snow distribution is predicted reliably on a daily basis in the research area, whereas further effort is necessary for predicting daily snow cover recession processes adequately. Swift changes induced by clear sky conditions with high insolation rates are well represented, whereas steady snow loss still needs continuing effort. All

  2. Possible emissions of POPs in plain and hilly areas of Nepal: Implications for source apportionment and health risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Ishwar Chandra; Devi, Ningombam Linthoingambi; Li, Jun; Zhang, Gan; Breivik, Knut

    2017-01-01

    Ambient air is a core media chosen for monitoring under the Stockholm Convention on POPs. While extensive monitoring of POPs in ambient air has been carried out in some parts of the globe, there are still regions with very limited information available, such as some developing countries as Nepal. This study therefore aims to target the occurrence of selected POPs in Nepal in suspected source areas/more densely populated regions. Four potential source regions in Nepal were furthermore targeted as it was hypothesized that urban areas at lower altitudes (Birgunj and Biratnagar located at approximately 86 and 80 m.a.s.l.) would be potentially more affected by OCPs because of more intensive agricultural activities in comparison to urban areas at higher altitudes (Kathmandu, Pokhara located 1400 and 1135 m.a.s.l). As some of these areas could also be impacted by LRAT, air mass back trajectories during the sampling period were additionally evaluated using HYSPLIT. The concentrations of overall POPs were twice as high in plain areas in comparison to hilly areas. DDTs and HCHs were most frequently detected in the air samples. The high p,p'-DDT/(pp'-DDE + pp'-DDD) ratio as well as the low o,p'-DDT/p,p'-DDT ratio observed in this study was inferred as continuing use of technical DDT. High levels of ∑ 26 PCBs were linked to proximity to highly urbanized and industrial areas, indicating the potential source of PCBs. The measured concentrations of legacy POPs in air from this study is assumed to represent a negligible health risk through inhalation of ambient air, however, other modes of human exposure could still be relevant in Nepal. The air mass backward trajectory analysis revealed that most of the air masses sampled originated from India and the Bay of Bengal. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Risk Factors for the Presence of Chikungunya and Dengue Vectors (Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus), Their Altitudinal Distribution and Climatic Determinants of Their Abundance in Central Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhimal, Meghnath; Gautam, Ishan; Joshi, Hari Datt; O’Hara, Robert B.; Ahrens, Bodo; Kuch, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    Background The presence of the recently introduced primary dengue virus vector mosquito Aedes aegypti in Nepal, in association with the likely indigenous secondary vector Aedes albopictus, raises public health concerns. Chikungunya fever cases have also been reported in Nepal, and the virus causing this disease is also transmitted by these mosquito species. Here we report the results of a study on the risk factors for the presence of chikungunya and dengue virus vectors, their elevational ceiling of distribution, and climatic determinants of their abundance in central Nepal. Methodology/Principal Findings We collected immature stages of mosquitoes during six monthly cross-sectional surveys covering six administrative districts along an altitudinal transect in central Nepal that extended from Birgunj (80 m above sea level [asl]) to Dhunche (highest altitude sampled: 2,100 m asl). The dengue vectors Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus were commonly found up to 1,350 m asl in Kathmandu valley and were present but rarely found from 1,750 to 2,100 m asl in Dhunche. The lymphatic filariasis vector Culex quinquefasciatus was commonly found throughout the study transect. Physiographic region, month of collection, collection station and container type were significant predictors of the occurrence and co-occurrence of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus. The climatic variables rainfall, temperature, and relative humidity were significant predictors of chikungunya and dengue virus vectors abundance. Conclusions/Significance We conclude that chikungunya and dengue virus vectors have already established their populations up to the High Mountain region of Nepal and that this may be attributed to the environmental and climate change that has been observed over the decades in Nepal. The rapid expansion of the distribution of these important disease vectors in the High Mountain region, previously considered to be non-endemic for dengue and chikungunya fever, calls for urgent actions to

  4. Use of health services in Hill villages in central Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niraula, B B

    1994-10-01

    This paper reports the use and non-use of health care facilities in the Hill villages in central Nepal. The health behaviour model (HBM) is applied to test the significance of socioeconomic variables on the use of the modern health care system. The study finds that all three characteristics of the HBM model, predisposing, enabling and need, are significantly related to use and non-use of the modern health care system. The analysis shows that number of living children, respondent's education, nearness to the road and service centre, value of land, knowledge about health workers and experience of child loss are some of the variables that are positively and significantly related to the use of modern health care. Age of the respondents and household size were found to be negatively associated with health-care use. Contrary to expectation, caste is unimportant. Making use of the qualitative data, this paper argues that the health care system is unnecessarily bureaucratic and patriarchal, which favours the socio-economically well-off.

  5. Climate Change and its Impacts on Tourism and Livelihood in Manaslu Conservation Area, Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    K C, A.

    2017-12-01

    The Hindukush Himalayan region including Nepal, a country reliant on tourism, is particularly sensitive to climate change. It had impact on different sectors of the environment including tourism and livelihood. There are very few researches focused on tourism, livelihood and climate change in Nepal. The present research assesses the impact of climate change on tourism and livelihood in the Manaslu Conservation Area (MCA) of Nepal. In this study, the empirical data collected at the field was complemented by secondary data on climate and tourism. For primary data collection, seventy-six households were interviewed followed by three focus group discussions and five key informant interviews. Correlation, regression and graphical analysis was carried out for the presentation of data. Local people perceived that temperature and rainfall have been increasing in the study site as a result of climate change. Change in usual pattern of temperature and rainfall had affected tourism sector. Socioeconomic variables such as marital status, size of household, education and landholding status had positive effect on tourism participation while livestock-holding status and occupation of the household had negative effect on tourism participation. Number of visitors is increasing in MCA in recent years, and tourism participation is helping local people to earn more money and improve their living standard. In response to gradually warming temperature and decreasing snowfall, there seems an urgent need for tourism promotional activities in the study area. Also awareness and education related to tourism, gender empowerment of women, advertisement and publicity on tourism promotion, adequate subsidy and training on ecotourism and skill development trainings on handicraft are recommended.

  6. Climate Change and its Impacts on Tourism and Livelihood in Manaslu Conservation Area, Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    K C, A.

    2016-12-01

    The Hindukush Himalayan region including Nepal, a country reliant on tourism, is particularly sensitive to climate change. However, there are considerable gaps in research regarding tourism, livelihood and climate change in Nepal. The present research assesses the impact of climate change on tourism and livelihood in the Manaslu Conservation Area (MCA) of Nepal. Seventy-six households were interviewed followed by three focus group discussions and five key informant interviews. The empirical data collected at the site are complemented by secondary scientific data on climate and tourism. Correlation, regression, descriptive and graphical analysis was carried out for the presentation and analysis of data. Local people perceived that temperature and rainfall have been increasing in the study site as a result of climate change. It was also verified by the observed scientific data of temperature and precipitation. Socioeconomic variables such as marital status, size of household, education and landholding status had positive effect on tourism participation while livestock-holding status and occupation of the household had negative effect on tourism participation. Number of visitors is increasing in MCA in recent years, and tourism participation is helping local people to earn more money and improve their living standard. Till the date, there is positive impact of climate change on tourism sector in the study area. But, unfavorable weather change phenomena, intense rainfall and snowfall, melting of snow, occurrence of hydrological and climatic hazards and increase in temperature may have adverse impact on the tourism and livelihood in the mountainous area. Such type of adverse impact of climate change and tourism is already experienced in the case of Annapurna region and Mt. Everest region as tourist were trapped and affected by unfavorable weather change phenomena. In response to gradually warming temperature and decreasing snowfall, there seems an urgent need for

  7. Rumblings and Rainfall, Rebels, Remittances and Roads- The complex landscape of slope failure in Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAdoo, Brian G.; Sudmeier, Karen; Devkota, Sanjaya

    2017-04-01

    During the first monsoon season following the deadly 2015 Gorkha earthquake, 27 people were killed during two events in Nepal's Western Region due to debris flows triggered by a 24-hour, 315 mm cloudburst (Devkota et al. 2015). Both events were linked with roads: the first was caused by an accumulation of water on a newly constructed road above a steep, deforested slope, the second wiped out a major road and destroyed 10 houses. These deadly landslides were not triggered solely by extreme rainfall, but rather a complex combination of earthquakes, intensified rainfall associated with climate change and an explosion of unplanned rural road construction fueled by an increase in foreign investment, remittances and decentralisation of budgets and power from the central government to local villages. This complexity is explored through a trend data analysis on the number of landslides, landslide fatalities, rainfall intensity, and the road network in Nepal between 1980-2014 (McAdoo et al, submitted). Of most concern are the poorly constructed roads in Nepal's Middle Hill districts ( 1000-3000 m above sea level, humid, subtropical) as they are proliferating at an unprecedented pace without proper alignment, drainage, grading or maintenance. They are occurring in areas which frequently receive up to 4,000-5,000 mm of precipitation per year, causing considerable loss in lives, livelihoods and investment. Landslide fatalities increased from 88 on average for the period 1982-1995 to 130 deaths per year for the period 2007-2014 (Desinventar, 2016). Contrary to numerous studies which show a strong link between rainfall and landslides, our trend analysis demonstrates a decoupling of climate and the geomorphic drivers, pointing to other factors, namely the exponential road construction trend to explain the increase in landslide fatalities. Nepal has some of the oldest manuals and well-trained cadres in low-cost green engineering practices, yet these are rarely applied. To reverse

  8. Local Residents Perception of Benefits and Losses From Protected Areas in India and Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karanth, Krithi K.; Nepal, Sanjay K.

    2012-02-01

    High densities of people living around protected areas (PAs) in South Asia require management strategies to balance conservation goals and livelihood needs. Based on a survey of 777 households around five PAs in India and Nepal, this paper provides a comparative perspective of Indian and Nepali households' views of protected area benefits and costs, their attitude toward conservation in general, and attitude toward protected area staff. Results indicate mixed responses towards tourism, varying from very favorable in Nepal to less favorable in India. The majority (81%) held positive attitudes towards the existence and importance of PAs but had negative perceptions of PA staff (69%). Most residents perceived benefits from access to fuel wood, fodder and other PA resources including benefits from tourism, while crop and livestock losses from wildlife were the main costs. Households overall positive attitudes towards the PAs and conservation despite high losses from living around PAs suggests that local residents may support conservation if their livelihood needs are met. Comparisons of household attitudes and perceptions suggest that locally based strategies rather than top-down approaches are likely to be more effective. Extending PA benefits to smaller landholders, households that are highly resource-dependent or experiencing higher income losses from human-wildlife conflicts, and less educated residents are particularly important to balance costs and losses from living around protected areas.

  9. Using exhumation histories to constrain Main Himalayan Thrust geometry and seismic hazard in the western Nepal Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, J. E.; Burbank, D.

    2016-12-01

    The Himalaya of western Nepal present a challenge to conventional understanding of the geometry and behavior of the Main Himalayan Thrust (MHT), a major seismogenic structure which accommodates 2 cm/yr of Indo-Asian convergence. Slip along a steeper ramp in the MHT drives long-term uplift of the Greater Himalaya along >1000 km of the central range front, resulting in a conspicuous physiographic transition known as PT2. This physiographic break is seemingly absent in western Nepal, which suggests a structural geometry and/or kinematic history distinct from areas along strike. This anomaly must be investigated to clarify how seismic hazard may differ from better-understood areas along strike. The importance of this work is heightened by the recent and catastrophic Gorkha earthquake in 2015. We present a suite of 7 relief transects comprising a mix of apatite and zircon U-Th/He and muscovite Ar-Ar cooling ages. These transects were collected across the more gradual mountain front in western Nepal in an effort to clarify where uplift and exhumation have been focused over the past 10 Ma. We invert these cooling ages using the thermo-kinematic model Pecube in order to constrain exhumation histories that best fit the measured cooling ages. Results confirm that MHT geometry and kinematic history in western Nepal are far more complex than in better-studied areas along strike. Exhumation rates in the along-strike projection of PT2 are slow ( 0.1-0.2 km/Myr) compared with rates 50 km toward the hinterland ( 1.0-1.5 km/Myr), suggesting that exhumation has been more rapid in this more northerly position for the past several Ma. Although a range of kinematic scenarios could explain the anomalous cooling histories, it is likely that a recently active midcrustal ramp in the MHT sits beneath this more northerly position. If the 2015 Gorkha earthquake initiated near the up-dip end of the MHT ramp in central Nepal, it is conceivable that similarly hazardous earthquakes could trigger

  10. First record of Scotophilus kuhlii Leach, 1821 (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae from Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dibya Dahal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Occurrence of Scotophilus kuhlii was speculated throughout the southern plain (Tarai of Nepal.  However, there was no record of voucher specimen of the species from Nepal. We collected a specimen from the Tikulia tole, Pakali Village Development Committee, Sunsari District of southeastern Nepal and deposited at Central Department of Zoology (CDZ Museum, Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu.  The specimen was identified as S. kuhlii based on measurement of external body, cranial, dental parts and detail description of the species.  This is the first specific locality record of the species from Nepal that confirms its presence in the country. 

  11. Factors Related to Intention to Undergo Female Sterilization Among Married Women in Rural Kathmandu, Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Dhungana, Adhish; Nanthamongkolchai, Sutham; Pitikultang, Supachai

    2016-01-01

    Background: Sterilization is most widely used fertility regulation method in Nepal. However, prevalence of uptake of female sterilization in central hilly region is less than the national average. The objective of the study was to explore the number and factors related to intention of married women to undergo female sterilization in rural Kathmandu which lies within central hilly region. Materials and Methods: This is a community based cross-sectional survey research conducted in rural area o...

  12. Genotypic Characterization of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Derived from Antiretroviral Drug-Treated Individuals Residing in Earthquake-Affected Areas in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negi, Bharat Singh; Kotaki, Tomohiro; Joshi, Sunil Kumar; Bastola, Anup; Nakazawa, Minato; Kameoka, Masanori

    2017-09-01

    Molecular epidemiological data on human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) are limited in Nepal and have not been available in areas affected by the April 2015 earthquake. Therefore, we conducted a genotypic study on HIV-1 genes derived from individuals on antiretroviral therapy residing in 14 districts in Nepal highly affected by the earthquake. HIV-1 genomic fragments were amplified from 40 blood samples of HIV treatment-failure individuals, and a sequencing analysis was performed on these genes. In the 40 samples, 29 protease, 32 reverse transcriptase, 25 gag, and 21 env genes were sequenced. HIV-1 subtyping revealed that subtype C (84.2%, 32/38) was the major subtype prevalent in the region, while CRF01_AE (7.9%, 3/38) and other recombinant forms (7.9%, 3/38) were also detected. In addition, major drug resistance mutations were identified in 21.9% (7/32) of samples, indicating the possible emergence of HIV-1 drug resistance in earthquake-affected areas in Nepal.

  13. Attracting and retaining doctors in rural Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankar, P R

    2010-01-01

    In Nepal, a number of private sector medical schools have opened recently; although sufficient numbers of doctors are graduating there continues to be a doctor shortage in rural areas. This article analysed the rural doctor shortage in Nepal and reviewed the international literature for strategies that may be suitable for use in Nepal. Original research articles, reviews, magazine articles and project reports dealing with Nepal and other developing countries during the period 1995 to 2010 were sourced via Google, Google Scholar and Pubmed. Full text access was obtained via WHO's HINARI database. The health workforce in Nepal is unevenly distributed resulting in doctor shortages in rural areas. The recent introduction of mandatory rural service for scholarship students was aimed to reduce the loss of medical graduates to developed nations. High tuition fees in private medical schools and low Government wages prevent recent graduates from taking up rural positions, and those who do face many challenges. Potential corrective strategies include community-based medical education, selecting rural-background medical students, and providing a partial or complete tuition fee waiver for medical students who commit to rural service. Traditional healers and paramedical staff can also be trained for and authorized to provide rural health care. A range of strategies developed elsewhere could be used in Nepal, especially community-oriented medical education that involves rural doctors in training medical students. The reimbursement of tuition fees, assistance with relocation, and provision of opportunities for academic and professional advancement for rural doctors should also be considered. Government investment in improving working conditions in rural Nepal would assist rural communities to attract and retain doctors.

  14. Climate change and livestock system in mountain: Understanding from Gandaki River basin of Nepal Himalaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahal, P.; Shrestha, N. S.; Krakauer, N.; Lakhankar, T.; Panthi, J., Sr.; Pradhanang, S.; Jha, A. K.; Shrestha, M.; Sharma, M.

    2015-12-01

    In recent years climate change has emerged as a source of vulnerability for agro-livestock smallholders in Nepal where people are mostly dependent on rain-fed agriculture and livestock farming for their livelihoods. There is a need to understand and predict the potential impacts of climate change on agro-livestock farmer to develop effective mitigation and adaptation strategies. To understand dynamics of this vulnerability, we assess the farmers' perceptions of climate change, analysis of historical and future projections of climatic parameters and try to understand impact of climate change on livestock system in Gandaki River Basin of Central Nepal. During the period of 1981-2012, as reported by the mountain communities, the most serious hazards for livestock system and agriculture are the increasing trend of temperature, erratic rainfall patterns and increase in drought. Poor households without irrigated land are facing greater risks and stresses than well-off people. Analysis of historical climate data also supports the farmer perception. Result shows that there is increasing trend of temperature but no consistent trend in precipitation but a notable finding is that wet areas are getting wetter and dry areas getting drier. Besides that, there is increase in percentage of warm days and nights with decrease in the cool nights and days. The magnitude of the trend is found to be higher in high altitude. Trend of wet days has found to be increasing with decreasing in rainy days. Most areas are characterized by increases in both severity and frequency of drought and are more evident in recent years. The summers of 2004/05/06/09 and winters of 2006/08/09 were the worst widespread droughts and have a serious impact on livestock since 1981. Future projected change in temperature and precipitation obtained from downscaling the data global model by regional climate model shows that precipitation in central Nepal will change by -8% to 12% and temperature will change by 1

  15. Ethnomedicinal plants used by the people of Manang district, central Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaudhary Ram P

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The district of Manang (2000 – 6000 m is located in the Central Himalayas, Nepal. The majority of local inhabitants of the area are Gurungs, of Tibetan origin. The remoteness of the region has resulted in continued use of plants as medicine in an area where the ethnobotany has sparsely been documented. Methods Interviews were conducted with amchi (Tibetan medicinal practitioners, local healers (including priests locally known as 'lamas', plant traders, and knowledgeable villagers (including herders regarding local plant names and their medicinal uses during several field visits (2002–2005. When convenient to the locals, a jungle or forest walk was done with the healers, allowing for both plant collection and detailed information gathering. Results This present research documented 91 ethnomedicinal plant species, belonging to 40 families under 73 genera, and 45 new ethnomedicinal plant species are added. These 91 locally used medicinal plants are found to treat 93 ailments. This study provides information on 45 plant species previously unknown for their medicinal uses in Manang. The indication for use, mode of preparation, dose and administration of medicine are described in detail for each species. Conclusion This wealth of ethnobotanical knowledge persists, and is being transferred to the next generation in some areas in upper Manang, in a country where this is often not the case. The senior amchi of the area (Karma Sonam Lama, who has been practicing Tibetan medicine for three generations, feels that it is of utmost importance to conserve the traditional healing system and to pass his knowledge on to the local community about the importance of medicinal plants. He hopes that this will lead to the conservation and sustainable management of medicinal plants in the villages. Over the duration of this research, the prices of several rare medicinal plants of Manang increased dramatically, highlighting both the scarcity and

  16. Multidisciplinary study on anthropogenic landslides in Nepal

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    Puglia, Christopher; Derron, Marc-Henri; Nicolet, Pierrick; Sudmeier-Rieux, Karen; Jaboyedoff, Michel; Devkota, Sanjay

    2013-04-01

    Nepal is a country in which shallow landslide is a frequent phenomenon. Monsoon is the main triggering factor but anthropogenic influence is often significant too. Indeed, many infrastructures, such as roads or water pipes, are not built in a rigorous way because of a lack of funds and knowledge. In the present study we examine the technical, social and economic issues of landslide management for two sites in Nepal. The first site is located in Sanusiruwari VDC (Sindhupalchock district, central Nepal) and the second one in Namadi VDC (Ramecchap district, central Nepal). Both sites are affected by landslides induced by the construction of hydropower plants. These landslides may threaten the viability of the hydropower plants. At both sites the problems are quite similar, but the first site project is a private one and the second one is a public one implemented by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). For both sites, bioengineering methods using Vetiver (Vetyveria zizanioides) plantations is the main stabilization measure. To follow the progression of both landslides, fieldwork observations were conducted before and after the 2012 rainy season, including photogrammetric and distancemeter acquisitions. Main issues were discussed with communities and stakeholders of the hydropower projects through interviews and participatory risk mapping. Main issues include: lack of communication between the project managers and communities leading to conflict and the lack of maintenance of the bio-engineering sites, leading to less effective Vetiver growth and slope stabilization. Comparing the landslide management (technical, social and economic) of the two projects allows to point out some specific issues within an integrated risk perspective.

  17. Processes of Internal and International Migration from Chitwan, Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohra, Pratikshya; Massey, Douglas S

    2009-01-01

    In this study we examine which factors predict internal and international migration from Chitwan, a flat valley located in the South-Central region of Nepal, seeking to measure the effect of theoretically specified variables such as human capital, social capital, physical capital, and neighborhood socioeconomic conditions while controlling for demographic variables. We use data from the Chitwan Valley Family Study (CVFS) to estimate a series of discrete time event history models of first and repeat migration to three competing destinations: other locations within Chitwan, other districts within Nepal, and places outside of Nepal. Results support hypotheses derived from neoclassical economics, the theory of new economics of migration, social capital theory, and cumulative causation theory. Our results underscore the need for a synthetic theoretical model that incorporates factors operating at the individual, household, and community levels. The use of multiple explanatory models yields a clearer picture of the forces driving internal and international migration from rural districts in developing nations such as Nepal.

  18. The Katmandu and Gosainkund nappes, central Nepal Himalaya (cartography, structure, metamorphism, geochemistry and radio-chronology)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rai, S.M.

    1998-10-01

    In central Nepal, a multidisciplinary study has been carried out to characterize and distinguish the crystalline nappes of Katmandu and Gosainkund from the Midland formations. Two principal deformations are recorded: one ductile, syn-metamorphic, marked by microstructures (stretching lineation, S-C structures, etc. ), another, post-metamorphic, recorded by an anticline, roughly EW -directed, and by NNE-SSW -directed folds. The syn-metamorphic P-T conditions show differences between Katmandu Crystalline Nappe (900-720 MPa; 700-480 deg C) and Gosainkund Crystalline Nappe (890-580 MPa; 750-590 deg C). They exhibit well preserved inverted metamorphism between the Upper Midland Formations (750 Mpa; 560 deg C) and the Gosainkund Nappe. In central Nepal, the augen gneisses and the 'Lesser Himalayan' Cambro-Ordovician granites bear similar petrographic and geochemical characteristics which suggest a common origin. However, the geological setting and age of the Proterozoic Ulleri augen gneiss rule out correlation with these formations. 40 Ar/ 39 Ar analyses of muscovite, indicate cooling ages younger from south to north: 22 to 13 Ma in the Katmandu Nappe, 16 to 5 Ma in the Gosainkund Nappe, and 12 to 6 Ma in the Midland Formation. The principal points summarized by this study are the following: clear distinction between two nappes marked by their litho-stratigraphy and metamorphism; the ductile movement of MCT in the north of Katmandu is blocked since approximately 25 Ma; the late emplacement and late or common post metamorphic history of the two nappes; but earlier cooling history of the Katmandu nappe; the present uplift of the Katmandu region, underlined by the intense micro-seismicity, concerns indifferently the two nappes that form a single tectonic block at present; the combined uplift of the two nappes is due to the displacement on a ramp of major decollement surface. (author)

  19. A review on important maize diseases and their management in Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Subash Subedi

    2015-01-01

    In Nepal, maize ranks second after rice both in area and production. In recent years, maize area and production has shown a steady increase, but productivity has been low (2.46 t/ha). The major maize producing regions in Nepal are mid hill (72.85%), terai (17.36%) and high hill (9.79%) respectively. A literature review was carried out to explore major maize diseases and their management in Nepal. The omnipresent incidence of diseases at the pre harvest stage has been an important bottleneck ...

  20. The spatial heterogeneity between Japanese encephalitis incidence distribution and environmental variables in Nepal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel E Impoinvil

    Full Text Available To identify potential environmental drivers of Japanese Encephalitis virus (JE transmission in Nepal, we conducted an ecological study to determine the spatial association between 2005 Nepal JE incidence, and climate, agricultural, and land-cover variables at district level.District-level data on JE cases were examined using Local Indicators of Spatial Association (LISA analysis to identify spatial clusters from 2004 to 2008 and 2005 data was used to fit a spatial lag regression model with climate, agriculture and land-cover variables.Prior to 2006, there was a single large cluster of JE cases located in the Far-West and Mid-West terai regions of Nepal. After 2005, the distribution of JE cases in Nepal shifted with clusters found in the central hill areas. JE incidence during the 2005 epidemic had a stronger association with May mean monthly temperature and April mean monthly total precipitation compared to mean annual temperature and precipitation. A parsimonious spatial lag regression model revealed, 1 a significant negative relationship between JE incidence and April precipitation, 2 a significant positive relationship between JE incidence and percentage of irrigated land 3 a non-significant negative relationship between JE incidence and percentage of grassland cover, and 4 a unimodal non-significant relationship between JE Incidence and pig-to-human ratio.JE cases clustered in the terai prior to 2006 where it seemed to shift to the Kathmandu region in subsequent years. The spatial pattern of JE cases during the 2005 epidemic in Nepal was significantly associated with low precipitation and the percentage of irrigated land. Despite the availability of an effective vaccine, it is still important to understand environmental drivers of JEV transmission since the enzootic cycle of JEV transmission is not likely to be totally interrupted. Understanding the spatial dynamics of JE risk factors may be useful in providing important information to the

  1. Evaluating local benefits from conservation in Nepal's Annapurna Conservation Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiteri, Arian; Nepal, Sanjay K

    2008-09-01

    Protected areas are integral to the global effort to conserve biodiversity, and, over the past two decades, protected area managers have begun to recognize that conservation objectives are next to impossible to achieve without considering the needs and concerns of local communities. Incentive-based programs (IBPs) have become a favored approach to protected area management, geared at fostering local stewardship by delivering benefits tied to conservation to local people. Effective IBPs require benefits to accrue to and be recognized by those experiencing the greatest consequences as a result of the protected area, and those likely to continue extractive activities if their livelihood needs are compromised. This research examines dispersal of IBP benefits, as perceived by local residents in Nepal's Annapurna Conservation Area. Results reported here are based on questionnaire interviews with 188 households conducted between September and December 2004. Results indicate that local residents primarily identify benefits from social development activities, provisions for resource extraction, and economic opportunities. Overall, benefits have been dispersed equally to households in villages on and off the main tourist route, and regardless of a household's participation in tourism. However, benefits are not effectively targeted to poorer residents, those highly dependent on natural resources, and those experiencing the most crop damage and livestock loss from protected wildlife. This article provides several suggestions for improving the delivery of conservation incentives.

  2. Modeling the intraurban variation in nitrogen dioxide in urban areas in Kathmandu Valley, Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurung, Anobha; Levy, Jonathan I; Bell, Michelle L

    2017-05-01

    With growing urbanization, traffic has become one of the main sources of air pollution in Nepal. Understanding the impact of air pollution on health requires estimation of exposure. Land use regression (LUR) modeling is widely used to investigate intraurban variation in air pollution for Western cities, but LUR models are relatively scarce in developing countries. In this study, we developed LUR models to characterize intraurban variation of nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) in urban areas of Kathmandu Valley, Nepal, one of the fastest urbanizing areas in South Asia. Over the study area, 135 monitoring sites were selected using stratified random sampling based on building density and road density along with purposeful sampling. In 2014, four sampling campaigns were performed, one per season, for two weeks each. NO 2 was measured using duplicate Palmes tubes at 135 sites, with additional information on nitric oxide (NO), NO 2 , and nitrogen oxide (NOx) concentrations derived from Ogawa badges at 28 sites. Geographical variables (e.g., road network, land use, built area) were used as predictor variables in LUR modeling, considering buffers 25-400m around each monitoring site. Annual average NO 2 by site ranged from 5.7 to 120ppb for the study area, with higher concentrations in the Village Development Committees (VDCs) of Kathmandu and Lalitpur than in Kirtipur, Thimi, and Bhaktapur, and with variability present within each VDC. In the final LUR model, length of major road, built area, and industrial area were positively associated with NO 2 concentration while normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) was negatively associated with NO 2 concentration (R 2 =0.51). Cross-validation of the results confirmed the reliability of the model. The combination of passive NO 2 sampling and LUR modeling techniques allowed for characterization of nitrogen dioxide patterns in a developing country setting, demonstrating spatial variability and high pollution levels. Copyright © 2017

  3. Japanese encephalitis in a French traveler to Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagarde, S; Lagier, J-C; Charrel, R; Quérat, G; Vanhomwegen, J; Desprès, P; Pelletier, J; Kaphan, E

    2014-02-01

    Japanese encephalitis is frequent in Asia, with a severe prognosis, but rare in travelers. Culex mosquitoes transmit Japanese encephalitis virus. Risk factors are destination, duration of stay, summer and fall seasons, outdoor activities, and type of accommodation. We report the case of a French traveler to Nepal with neutralization-based serological confirmed Japanese encephalitis. He presented classical clinical (viral syndrome before an encephalitis status with behavioral disorder, global hypotonia, mutism, movement disorders, seizure, and coma), radiological (lesions of thalami, cortico-spinal tracts, and brainstem) and biological features (lymphocytic meningitis). Nowadays, the presence of Japanese encephalitis virus in Nepal, including mountain areas, is established but Japanese encephalitis remains rare in travelers returning from this area and neurologist physicians need to become familiar with this. We recommend vaccination for travelers spending a long period of time in Nepal and having at-risk outdoor activities.

  4. All projects related to nepal | Page 3 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Researchers are examining the tax policies (exemptions, value-added, property) ... Region: Nepal, Central Asia, Far East Asia, South Asia ... or "think tanks," in developing countries, thereby enabling them to produce sound research that both ...

  5. Negotiating geophysical hazards in Nepal: An interdisciplinary approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oven, Katie; Petley, Dave; Rosser, Nick; Dunn, Chris; Rigg, Jonathan

    2010-05-01

    It is widely accepted that the impact of natural hazards reflects not only the nature of geophysical processes but also the social conditions that prevail. The need for collaborative research to address these complex interactions between the natural and human systems is well recognised, however moving from theory to practice presents a number of significant challenges. How researchers frame problems; develop their research questions; select the methodologies to explore these questions; and privilege certain knowledges over others, can be seen to vary between physical and social science. Drawing on a case study examining the vulnerability of rural communities to landslides in the Upper Bhote Koshi Valley, Central Nepal, this paper explores how these barriers can be overcome and the benefits of undertaking interdisciplinary research within the natural hazards field. This research investigates the different framings of landslide risk and vulnerability from different stakeholder and disciplinary perspectives. Specifically, we ask: 1. Who is vulnerable to landslide hazard? 2. Why do people occupy landslide prone areas? 3. How do ‘at risk' rural communities perceive and respond to landslide hazard and risk? The findings, based on a series of participatory methodologies, challenge a number of assumptions made regarding landslide vulnerability in mountain communities. Within the Upper Bhote Koshi Valley clear transitions in settlement patterns, rural livelihoods and thus the occupation of landslide prone areas have been seen over time. For the majority of households, their decision to occupy these areas is driven by the economic and social benefits associated with the Arniko Highway which runs through the valley, linking Nepal with Tibet. Landslide vulnerability therefore emerges not just from societal marginalisation but also from situations of relative prosperity. The findings suggest that occupants of landslide prone areas have a good understanding of landslide hazard

  6. Medical education and training in Nepal: SWOT analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, H; Marahatta, S B

    2008-01-01

    To analyse the impact of the medical colleges that have been set up within the last two decades by production of the doctors and the effect on the health of the people. SWOT (strength, weakness, opportunities and threats) analysis of medical education in Nepal has been done by reviewing medical manpower produced by the different institutions in the undergraduate and postgraduate (PG) categories, their registration with the Nepal Medical Council in terms of the existing health scenario of the country. Shows severe shortage of basic sciences teachers. In the clinical areas ophthalmic manpower and services provided are exemplary. There are shortages and shortcomings in all areas if standard health care is to be provided to the Nepalese. There is a long way to go to provide the expected educational and medical services to foreigners prepared to pay more to avail of this in Nepal.

  7. All projects related to nepal | Page 5 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... the Internet has been dominated by the English language and North American culture. ... Topic: Internet, LANGUAGE BARRIER, ASIAN LANGUAGES, COMPUTER ... IMMIGRATION LAW, WOMEN'S RIGHTS, GENDER EQUALITY, Gender. Region: Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Central Asia, Far East Asia, South Asia.

  8. First report of Lyme disease in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pun, Sher Bahadur; Agrawal, Sumit; Jha, Santoshananda; Bhandari, Lila Nath; Chalise, Bimal Sharma; Mishra, Abadhesh; Shah, Rajesh

    2018-03-01

    Lyme disease is a tick-borne illness caused by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi and is widely reported in the USA, Central Europe, South East Asia and Latin America. Until recently, no scientific report regarding Lyme disease in Nepal had been published. A 32-year-old, previously healthy female visited the hospital with a history of joint pains, fatigue, neck stiffness, tingling sensation and headache. She was initially treated for typhoid fever, brucellosis and malaria, but did not show significant improvement. Doxycycline was prescribed empirically for 3 weeks for the treatment of suspected tick-borne illness. A two-tiered immunoglobulin laboratory testing confirmed Borrelia burgdorferi . She developed post-treatment Lyme disease syndrome after completion of antibiotic therapy. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of Lyme disease in Nepal and probably the first documented case of post-treatment Lyme disease syndrome in Asia. Lyme disease might have been overlooked in Nepal and, therefore, patients having clinical signs and symptoms similar to Lyme disease should not be disregarded in differential diagnosis.

  9. Soil Bioengineering Application and Practices in Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhital, Yam Prasad; Kayastha, Rijan Bhakta; Shi, Jiancheng

    2013-02-01

    The small mountainous country Nepal is situated in the central part of the Himalayas. Its climate varies from tropical in the south to arctic in the north; and natural vegetation follows the pattern of climate and altitude. Water-induced disaster problems including soil erosion, debris flow, landslides and flooding are common due to the unstable landscape. Soil erosion is the most important driving force for the degradation of upland and mountain ecosystems. Soil bioengineering has been used in Nepal for nearly 30 years to deal with erosion problems on slopes, in high way construction and riverbank stabilization. The main soil bioengineering techniques used in Nepal are brush layering, palisades, live check dams, fascines and vegetative stone pitching. This study is based on the geology, climate and vegetation of Nepal and briefly summarizes the application of soil bioengineering on slopes and stream banks, with especial attention to the role of vegetation on slope and stream bank stabilization. Furthermore, this paper addresses the role of community participation and responsibility for successful application of vegetation-based techniques in management, maintenance and utility aspects for the future. In recent years, soil bioengineering techniques are extensively used due to their cost-effectiveness, using locally available materials and low-cost labour in comparison to more elaborate civil engineering works. However, scientific implementation and record-keeping and evaluation of the work are indeed essential.

  10. Soil bioengineering application and practices in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhital, Yam Prasad; Kayastha, Rijan Bhakta; Shi, Jiancheng

    2013-02-01

    The small mountainous country Nepal is situated in the central part of the Himalayas. Its climate varies from tropical in the south to arctic in the north; and natural vegetation follows the pattern of climate and altitude. Water-induced disaster problems including soil erosion, debris flow, landslides and flooding are common due to the unstable landscape. Soil erosion is the most important driving force for the degradation of upland and mountain ecosystems. Soil bioengineering has been used in Nepal for nearly 30 years to deal with erosion problems on slopes, in high way construction and riverbank stabilization. The main soil bioengineering techniques used in Nepal are brush layering, palisades, live check dams, fascines and vegetative stone pitching. This study is based on the geology, climate and vegetation of Nepal and briefly summarizes the application of soil bioengineering on slopes and stream banks, with especial attention to the role of vegetation on slope and stream bank stabilization. Furthermore, this paper addresses the role of community participation and responsibility for successful application of vegetation-based techniques in management, maintenance and utility aspects for the future. In recent years, soil bioengineering techniques are extensively used due to their cost-effectiveness, using locally available materials and low-cost labour in comparison to more elaborate civil engineering works. However, scientific implementation and record-keeping and evaluation of the work are indeed essential.

  11. Renal Manifestation in Scrub Typhus during a Major Outbreak in Central Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedhain, A; Bhattarai, G R

    2017-01-01

    Renal involvement and acute kidney injury (AKI) are common clinical manifestations seen in scrub typhus, a vector-borne tropical disease. There are no data on renal manifestation in scrub typhus in Nepal. We conducted a prospective study to analyze the incidence, urinary abnormalities, course, severity, outcome, and the predictors of AKI in patients with scrub typhus during a major outbreak in Central Nepal. Total 1398 patients admitted with acute febrile illness were subjected for Scrub Typhus Detect™ Immunoglobulin M (IgM) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test, of which 502 (35.90%) patients tested positive and were included in the study. Mean age of the patients was 30.37 ± 18.81 years (range, 1-79 years) with 26.29% in the pediatric age group. Female-to-male ratio was 1.26:1. Mean duration of fever was 6.8 ± 3.1 days. Mean IgM ELISA value for scrub typhus was 2.17 ± 1.70 without difference in AKI and non-AKI groups (2.17 ± 1.76 vs. 2.16 ± 1.62; P = 0.94). Urinary abnormalities were seen in 42.3% of patients. Mean serum creatinine was 1.37 ± 0.69 mg/dl with significant difference in two groups (1.85 ± 0.87 vs. 1.03 ± 0.17; P = 0.003). AKI was seen in 35.8% of patients with majority having Stage 1 AKI (68.3%) followed by Stage 2 (34.1%) and Stage 3 (1.2%). Hemodialysis was required for 3.94% of patients. In 54% of patients, AKI occurred in fifth and sixth day of fever. ICU admission was required for 18.73% of patients and 8.57% required ventilator support. Mortality rate was 1.79%, which was higher among patients with AKI (2.96% vs. 1.0%; P = 0.106). Multivariate analysis revealed that the presence of pneumonia, shock, and acute respiratory distress syndrome predicted the development of AKI.

  12. Renal manifestation in scrub typhus during a major outbreak in central Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Sedhain

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal involvement and acute kidney injury (AKI are common clinical manifestations seen in scrub typhus, a vector-borne tropical disease. There are no data on renal manifestation in scrub typhus in Nepal. We conducted a prospective study to analyze the incidence, urinary abnormalities, course, severity, outcome, and the predictors of AKI in patients with scrub typhus during a major outbreak in Central Nepal. Total 1398 patients admitted with acute febrile illness were subjected for Scrub Typhus Detect™ Immunoglobulin M (IgM enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA test, of which 502 (35.90% patients tested positive and were included in the study. Mean age of the patients was 30.37 ± 18.81 years (range, 1–79 years with 26.29% in the pediatric age group. Female-to-male ratio was 1.26:1. Mean duration of fever was 6.8 ± 3.1 days. Mean IgM ELISA value for scrub typhus was 2.17 ± 1.70 without difference in AKI and non-AKI groups (2.17 ± 1.76 vs. 2.16 ± 1.62; P = 0.94. Urinary abnormalities were seen in 42.3% of patients. Mean serum creatinine was 1.37 ± 0.69 mg/dl with significant difference in two groups (1.85 ± 0.87 vs. 1.03 ± 0.17; P = 0.003. AKI was seen in 35.8% of patients with majority having Stage 1 AKI (68.3% followed by Stage 2 (34.1% and Stage 3 (1.2%. Hemodialysis was required for 3.94% of patients. In 54% of patients, AKI occurred in fifth and sixth day of fever. ICU admission was required for 18.73% of patients and 8.57% required ventilator support. Mortality rate was 1.79%, which was higher among patients with AKI (2.96% vs. 1.0%; P = 0.106. Multivariate analysis revealed that the presence of pneumonia, shock, and acute respiratory distress syndrome predicted the development of AKI.

  13. Geographical Dynamics of Poverty in Nepal between 2005 and 2011: Where and How?

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    Jifei Zhang

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Poverty eradication is currently a central issue within the national economic development strategy in developing countries. Understanding the spatial changes and possible drivers of poverty from different geographical perspectives has the potential to provide a policy-relevant understanding of the trends in poverty. By district-level data, poverty incidence (PI, and a statistical analysis of the period from 2005 to 2011 in Nepal, we used the location quotient (LQ, as well as the Lorenz curve, to inspect the poverty concentration and the spatial-temporal variation of poverty in Nepal. As such, this study analyzed the change in identified typologies of poverty using an approach, which accounts for inter-regional and three identified terrain components. The PI methodological approach was applied in order to (i compare the spatial change in poverty for Nepal during the study period from a geographical-administrative perspective and (ii to develop Lorenze curves which show the change of poverty concentration over the study period. Within the Foster-Greer-Thorbecke (FGT approach, PI was further used, in combination with the indices of poverty gap (PG and squared poverty gap (SPG, in order to highlight the unidimensional poverty (UP, that is the incidence, depth, and severity of poverty between 2005 and 2011. Simultaneously, the spatial relationship between UP and economic development was assessed, leading to five specific economic modes or typologies of poverty. Our findings identified that proportional poverty appears to have grown in mountainous areas as well as more urbanized and developed regions, while the mid hill regions have steadily reduced proportions of poverty. We propose a hypothesis, for further examination, which suggests that the increase in proportional poverty in the mountain regions is as a result of the migration to the urban areas of Nepal of the relatively less poor, leaving behind a trapped poorer population. This migration to

  14. [Prolonged diarrhea and weight loss after a biking trip from Tibet to Nepal: infection with Cyclospora].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekker, E; Kager, P A

    2002-08-10

    A 39-year-old man, who had made a cycling tour from Tibet to Nepal, visited the outpatients' clinic one month later because of prolonged diarrhoea, abdominal complaints and serious weight loss. Parasitological examination of the stool revealed oocysts of Cyclospora cayetanensis and the patient was treated with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (co-trimoxazole) with good result. C. cayetanensis has only recently been discovered as a protozoal cause of diarrhoea. Infections are primarily reported from areas with a low hygienic standard e.g. Central and South America, the Indian subcontinent (Nepal), Indonesia and South-East Asia. Clinical symptoms of infection are diarrhoea (usually watery), abdominal cramps and discomfort. The infection can have a prolonged course. Diagnosis is made by parasitological examination of the stool (one should be cautious not to confuse with cryptosporidia) and treatment with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole is effective.

  15. Global projects and Astronomy awareness activities in Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, Suman

    2015-08-01

    Modern astronomy is a crowning achievement of human civilization which inspires teenagers to choose career in science and technology and is a stable of adult education. It is a unique and cost effective tool for furthering sustainable global development because of its technological, scientific and cultural dimensions which allow us to reach with the large portion of the community interact with children and inspire with our wonderful cosmos.Using astronomy to stimulate quality and inspiring education for disadvantaged children is an important goal of Nepal Astronomical Society (NASO) since its inception. NASO is carrying out various awareness activities on its own and in collaboration with national and international organizations like Central Department of Physics Tribhuvan University (TU), International astronomical Union (IAU), Department of Physics Prithvi Narayan Campus Pokhara, Nepal academy of science and technology (NAST), Global Hands on Universe (GHOU), EU- UNAWE and Pokhara Astronomical Society (PAS) to disseminate those activities for the school children and teachers in Nepal. Our experiences working with kids, students, teachers and public in the field of universe Awareness Activities for the school children to minimize the abstruse concept of astronomy through some practical approach and the project like Astronomy for the visually impaired students, Galileo Teacher Training program and International School for young astronomers (ISYA) outskirts will be explained which is believed to play vital role in promoting astronomy and space science activities in Nepal.

  16. Evaluation of community pharmacies regarding dispensing practices of antibiotics in two districts of central Nepal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukhtar Ansari

    Full Text Available To evaluate the status of community pharmacies, their staff, and practices toward dispensing antibiotics.Cross-sectional, prospective.Community pharmacies in two districts of central Nepal, from March 2016 to May 2016.A systematic random sampling approach was adopted to sample 161 community pharmacies. Data on the registration status of pharmacies, qualification or training of dispensing staff, and the practice of dispensing antibiotics were collected using a pre-tested questionnaire. Face to face interviews were carried out by a previously trained interviewer. Data were analyzed for descriptive and inferential statistics using IBM SPSS Statistics 21.Among 161 community pharmacies, 25% were not registered and most of them were located in rural areas. It was typical (66.5% to dispense antibiotics without prescription and most (91.4% of the staffs involved in dispensing were non-pharmacists. Furthermore, the study revealed common practices of replacing one brand of antibiotic with other brands (66%, dispensing incomplete courses of antibiotics (73%, and not giving any advice regarding antibiotic use (39% or completion of a full course of therapy (80%. There were significant (p < 0.001 relationships between the location of pharmacies (rural vs urban and the qualifications of the pharmacy staff.Dispensing antibiotics without prescription and by non-pharmacists are common in this region. The study also found several issues regarding the irrational use of antibiotics. Thus, there is an urgent need to address these issues and promote the informed use of antibiotics.

  17. First isolation of dengue virus from the 2010 epidemic in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Basu D; Nabeshima, Takeshi; Pandey, Kishor; Rajendra, Saroj P; Shah, Yogendra; Adhikari, Bal R; Gupta, Govinda; Gautam, Ishan; Tun, Mya M N; Uchida, Reo; Shrestha, Mahendra; Kurane, Ichiro; Morita, Kouichi

    2013-09-01

    Dengue is an emerging disease in Nepal and was first observed as an outbreak in nine lowland districts in 2006. In 2010, however, a large epidemic of dengue occurred with 4,529 suspected and 917 serologically-confirmed cases and five deaths reported in government hospitals in Nepal. The collection of demographic information was performed along with an entomological survey and clinical evaluation of the patients. A total of 280 serum samples were collected from suspected dengue patients. These samples were subjected to routine laboratory investigations and IgM-capture ELISA for dengue serological identification, and 160 acute serum samples were used for virus isolation, RT-PCR, sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. The results showed that affected patients were predominately adults, and that 10% of the cases were classified as dengue haemorrhagic fever/ dengue shock syndrome. The genetic characterization of dengue viruses isolated from patients in four major outbreak areas of Nepal suggests that the DENV-1 strain was responsible for the 2010 epidemic. Entomological studies identified Aedes aegypti in all epidemic areas. All viruses belonged to a monophyletic single clade which is phylogenetically close to Indian viruses. The dengue epidemic started in the lowlands and expanded to the highland areas. To our knowledge, this is the first dengue isolation and genetic characterization reported from Nepal.

  18. Halfway up the highway: Can Nepal meet its Health Millennium Development Goals?

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    Abhinav Vaidya

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs are international objectives on poverty reduction adopted by the world community and provide the broad context for this revolution in thinking and practice. The MDGs place a central focus on public health, in recognition of the fact that improvements in public health are vital not only in their own right but also to break the poverty trap of the world's poorest economies. Nepal has been committed to achieving the MDGs since it endorsed the Millennium Declaration. As we have at present just passed the midway through the 15 years to MDGs deadline of 2015, this article reviews the status of Nepal in achieving the MDGs, the challenges it faces and whether it can achieve the MDGs by 2015. Key words: development, goals, health, millennium, Nepal

  19. Use of Fault Displacement Vector to Identify Future Zones of Seismicity: An Example from the Earthquakes of Nepal Himalayas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naim, F.; Mukherjee, M. K.

    2017-12-01

    Earthquakes occur due to fault slip in the subsurface. They can occur either as interplate or intraplate earthquakes. The region of study is the Nepal Himalayas that defines the boundary of Indian-Eurasian plate and houses the focus of the most devastating earthquakes. The aim of the study was to analyze all the earthquakes that occurred in the Nepal Himalayas upto May 12, 2015 earthquake in order to mark the regions still under stress and vulnerable for future earthquakes. Three different fault systems in the Nepal Himalayas define the tectonic set up of the area. They are: (1) Main Frontal Thrust(MFT), (2) Main Central Thrust(MCT) and (3) Main Boundary Thrust(MBT) that extend from NW to SE. Most of the earthquakes were observed to occur between the MBT and MCT. Since the thrust faults are dipping towards NE, the focus of most of the earthquakes lies on the MBT. The methodology includes estimating the dip of the fault by considering the depths of different earthquake events and their corresponding distance from the MBT. In order to carry out stress analysis on the fault, the beach ball diagrams associated with the different earthquakes were plotted on a map. Earthquakes in the NW and central region of the fault zone were associated with reverse fault slip while that on the South-Eastern part were associated with a strike slip component. The direction of net slip on the fault associated with the different earthquakes was known and from this a 3D slip diagram of the fault was constructed. The regions vulnerable for future earthquakes in the Nepal Himalaya were demarcated on the 3D slip diagram of the fault. Such zones were marked owing to the fact that the slips due to earthquakes cause the adjoining areas to come under immense stress and this stress is directly proportional to the amount of slip occuring on the fault. These vulnerable zones were in turn projected on the map to show their position and are predicted to contain the epicenter of the future earthquakes.

  20. Nepal : tous les projets | Page 4 | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Région: Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Central Asia, Far East Asia, South Asia, Bhutan ... NUTRITION, WATER QUALITY, WATER BORNE DISEASES, PESTICIDES ... de préservation de la biodiversité, d'amélioration des cultures et de gestion des ...

  1. Ethnobotany in the Nepal Himalaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunwar, Ripu M; Bussmann, Rainer W

    2008-12-02

    Indigenous knowledge has become recognized worldwide not only because of its intrinsic value but also because it has a potential instrumental value to science and conservation. In Nepal, the indigenous knowledge of useful and medicinal plants has roots in the remote past. The present study reviews the indigenous knowledge and use of plant resources of the Nepal Himalayas along the altitudinal and longitudinal gradient. A total of 264 studies focusing on ethnobotany, ethnomedicine and diversity of medicinal and aromatic plants, carried out between 1979 and 2006 were consulted for the present analysis. In order to cross check and verify the data, seven districts of west Nepal were visited in four field campaigns. In contrast to an average of 21-28% ethnobotanically/ethnomedicinally important plants reported for Nepal, the present study found that up to about 55% of the flora of the study region had medicinal value. This indicates a vast amount of undocumented knowledge about important plant species that needs to be explored and documented. The richness of medicinal plants decreased with increasing altitude but the percentage of plants used as medicine steadily increased with increasing altitude. This was due to preferences given to herbal remedies in high altitude areas and a combination of having no alternative choices, poverty and trust in the effectiveness of folklore herbal remedies. Indigenous knowledge systems are culturally valued and scientifically important. Strengthening the wise use and conservation of indigenous knowledge of useful plants may benefit and improve the living standard of poor people.

  2. Dynamics of Major Cereals Productivity in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samaya Gairhe

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Cereal crops have played major roles in addressing food security issues in Nepal. In recent years there have been fluctuations in crop production and demands situations due to various reasons. Thus, the present study aims to analyze the dynamics of major cereals productivity in Nepal from 1995 to 2014. Focus group discussions were done in mid-hills and tarai of Nepal in 2015. Percentage change, compound growth rate, annual rate of change, coefficient of variation, instability index were calculated to analyze results. The result shows that the area, production and productivity of major cereals had an increasing trend over the study period. The major factors contributing on productivity increase in cereal crops were irrigation facilities, use of improved and hybrid seeds, chemical fertilizer and better technical knowhow among the farmers. For effective adoption of research outputs to improve the productivity emphasis should also be given on promotion of public private partnership (PPP in research and development.

  3. A review on important maize diseases and their management in Nepal

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    Subash Subedi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In Nepal, maize ranks second after rice both in area and production. In recent years, maize area and production has shown a steady increase, but productivity has been low (2.46 t/ha. The major maize producing regions in Nepal are mid hill (72.85%, terai (17.36% and high hill (9.79% respectively. A literature review was carried out to explore major maize diseases and their management in Nepal. The omnipresent incidence of diseases at the pre harvest stage has been an important bottleneck in increasing production. Till now, a total of 78 (75 fungal and 3 bacterial species are pathogenic to maize crop in Nepal. The major and economically important maize diseases reported are Gray leaf spot, Northern leaf blight, Southern leaf Blight, Banded leaf and sheath blight, Ear rot, Stalk rot, Head smut, Common rust, Downy mildew and Brown spot. Information on bacterial and virus diseases, nematodes and yield loss assessment is also given. Description of the major maize diseases, their causal organisms, distribution, time and intensity of disease incidence, symptoms, survival, spreads, environmental factors for disease development, yield losses and various disease management strategies corresponded to important maize diseases of Nepal are gathered and compiled thoroughly from the available publications. Concerted efforts of NARC commodity programs, divisions, ARS and RARS involving research on maize pathology and their important outcomes are mentioned. The use of disease management methods focused on host resistance has also been highlighted.

  4. Abortion: Still Unfinished Agenda in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Dirgha Raj; Regmi, Shibesh Chandra; Dangal, Ganesh

    2018-03-13

    Unsafe abortion is affecting a lot, in health, socio-economic and health care cost of many countries. Despite invention of simple technology and scientifically approved safe abortion methods, women and girls are still using unsafe abortion practices. Since 2002, Nepal has achieved remarkable progress in developing policies, guidelines, task shifting, training human resources and increasing access to services. However, more than half of abortion in Nepal are performed clandestinely by untrained or unapproved providers or induced by pregnant woman herself. Knowledge on legalization and availability of safe abortion service among women is still very poor. Stigma on abortion still persists among community people, service providers, managers, and policy makers. Access to safe abortion, especially in remote and rural areas, is still far behind as compared to their peers from urban areas. The existing law is not revised in the spirit of current Constitution of Nepal and rights-based approach. The existence of abortion stigma and the shifting of the government structure from unitary system to federalism in absence of a complete clarity on how the safe abortion service gets integrated into the local government structure might create challenge to sustain existing developments. There is, therefore, a need for all stakeholders to make a lot of efforts and allocate adequate resources to sustain current achievements and ensure improvements in creating a supportive social environment for women and girls so that they will be able to make informed decisions and access to safe abortion service in any circumstances.

  5. Career intentions of medical students in the setting of Nepal's rapidly expanding private medical education system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntington, Ian; Shrestha, Suvash; Reich, Nicholas G; Hagopian, Amy

    2012-08-01

    The number of medical students trained in Nepal each year has increased nearly fifty-fold in the last 15 years, primarily through the creation of private medical schools. It is unknown where this expanding cohort of new physicians will ultimately practice. We distributed an anonymous survey to students in their last 2 years of medical school at four medical schools in Nepal to examine two dimensions of career intention: the intention to practice in Nepal and the intention to practice in rural areas. Eighty-five per cent of the eligible study population participated, for a total of 469 medical students. Of these, 88% thought it was likely they would practice in Nepal and 88% thought it likely they would practice in urban areas. Those students who indicated a greater likelihood of practicing abroad came from families with higher incomes, were more likely to think earning a good salary was very important to their decision to become a physician, and were less likely to think they could earn a good salary in Nepal. Students whose tuition was paid by the government were no more likely to indicate an intention to practice in Nepal than students paying their own tuition at private medical schools. Students who indicated a greater likelihood of practicing in rural areas were more likely to be male, to have gone to a government secondary school, to have been born in a village, or to have received a scholarship from the Ministry of Education that requires rural service. Based on our findings, we suggest the following policy changes: (1) medical schools consider selecting for students from rural backgrounds or government secondary schools who are more likely to intend to practice in rural areas, and (2) increase the number of post-graduate positions--weighted toward rural health needs--to retain students in Nepal.

  6. Involving diaspora and expatriates as human resources in the health sector in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devkota, A; Devkota, B; Ghimire, J; Mahato, R K; Gupta, R P; Hada, A

    2013-05-01

    Health professional mobility has increased in the recent years and is one of the public health concerns in the developing countries including Nepal. On the other hand, we can't ignore a positive shift of Nepali diaspora coming back to Nepal for some work related projects. The objective of this study was thus to estimate the number of Nepalese Diaspora and foreign expatriate those are coming to Nepal and explore the ways and process of their engagement in the health sector of Nepal. Mixed method was used. In total, 13 Key Informant Interviews were conducted at the central level along with record review from professional councils. Nepalese Diasporas mainly come through Diaspora Volunteering Organizations, Non Resident Nepali Association and personal connections to the place of their origin. Nepalese Diasporas have supported as health specialists, health camps and project organizers, trainer and hospital promoters, supplier of equipment including ambulances etc. The Nepalese Diasporas are unrecorded with professional organizations such as NMC and NHPC. As such the real status and results of support from Nepalese Diaspora are not known. Overall, 5,120 foreign medical professionals have served to Nepal through NMC followed by 739 nursing professionals through NNC and 189 paramedical staff through NHPC as of 2012. Systematic information on number and characteristics of the Nepalese Diaspora and their role in the health sector of Nepal is limited. The health professional bodies have some record systems but they lack uniformity and systematic process.

  7. Conservation Strategy for Brown Bear and Its Habitat in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achyut Aryal

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The Himalaya region of Nepal encompasses significant habitats for several endangered species, among them the brown bear (Ursus arctos pruinosus. However, owing to the remoteness of the region and a dearth of research, knowledge on the conservation status, habitat and population size of this species is lacking. Our aim in this paper is to report a habitat survey designed to assess the distribution and habitat characteristics of the brown bear in the Nepalese Himalaya, and to summarize a conservation action plan for the species devised at a pair of recent workshops held in Nepal. Results of our survey showed that brown bear were potentially distributed between 3800 m and 5500 m in the high mountainous region of Nepal, across an area of 4037 km2 between the eastern border of Shey Phoksundo National Park (SPNP and the Manasalu Conservation Area (MCA. Of that area, 2066 km2 lie inside the protected area (350 km2 in the MCA; 1716 km2 in the Annapurna Conservation Area and 48% (1917 km2 lies outside the protected area in the Dolpa district. Furthermore, 37% of brown bear habitat also forms a potential habitat for blue sheep (or bharal, Pseudois nayaur, and 17% of these habitats is used by livestock, suggesting a significant potential for resource competition. Several plant species continue to be uprooted by local people for fuel wood. Based on the results of our field survey combined with consultations with local communities and scientists, we propose that government and non-government organizations should implement a three-stage program of conservation activities for the brown bear. This program should: (a Detail research activities in and outside the protected area of Nepal; (b support livelihood and conservation awareness at local and national levels; and (c strengthen local capacity and reduce human-wildlife conflict in the region.

  8. Haulage Methods in Different Areas of Nepal and the Health Condition of the Porters in Kathmandu

    OpenAIRE

    Kaneda, Eiko; Yamauchi, Masaki; Ohwatari, Nobu; Lee, Jeong-Beom; Kosaka, Mitsuo

    1999-01-01

    The complicated geographical features of Nepal make transport of goods difficult. People have to depend on human power even today, especially porters who use a number of different transport styles. The objectives of this study were to document (1) the characteristics of haulage methods in relation to the geographical conditions, and (2) the diurnal activities and health of porters in Kathmandu. The observed methods used by the porters in Nepal to carry loads were divided into four main classe...

  9. Impacts of the 2016 outburst flood on the Bhote Koshi River valley, central Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Kristen; Andermann, Christoff; Gimbert, Florent; Hovius, Niels; Adhikari, Basanta

    2017-04-01

    The central Nepal Himalaya is a region of rapid erosion where fluvial processes are largely driven by the annual Indian Summer Monsoon, which delivers up to several meters of precipitation each year. However, the rivers in this region are also subject to rare catastrophic floods caused by the sudden failure of landslide or moraine dams. Because these floods happen rarely, it has been difficult to isolate their impact on the rivers and adjacent hillslopes, and their importance for the long-term evolution of Himalayan rivers is poorly constrained. On the 5th of July, 2016, the Bhote Koshi River in central Nepal was hit by a glacial lake outburst flood (GLOF). The flood passed through a seismic and hydrological observatory installed along the river in June 2015, and we have used the resulting data to constrain the timing, duration, and bedload transport properties of the outburst flood. The impact of the flood on the river can be further observed with hourly time-lapse photographs, daily measurements of suspended sediment load, repeat lidar surveys, and satellite imagery. Overall, our observatory data span two monsoon seasons, allowing us to evaluate the impacts of the outburst flood relative to the annual monsoon flood. The outburst flood affected the river on several timescales. In the short term, it transported large amounts of coarse sediment and restructured the river bed during the hours of the flood pulse itself. Over intermediate timescales it resulted in elevated bedload and suspended load transport for several weeks following the flood. Over longer timescales the flood undercut and destabilized the river banks and hillslopes in a number of locations, leading to bank collapses, slumps, and landslides. We map changes in the channel and associated mass wasting using rapidEye imagery from Oct. 2015 and Oct. 2016. We also use repeat terrestrial lidar scans to quantify the magnitude of change in multiple locations along the river channel and to measure bank

  10. Critical Review of the Millennium Project in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashma Vaidya

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available “Our Common Future” harmonized development policies around a new sustainable development (SD paradigm, and experts also emphasize the importance of a democratic and equitable approach to define and achieve sustainable development. However, SD targets and indicators are often defined by a suite of experts or a few stakeholder groups, far removed from on-the-ground conditions. The most common expert-led development framework, the United Nations’ Millennium Development Goals (MDGs, promoted one set of targets and indicators for all developing countries. While progress towards these targets was routinely reported at the national scale, these targets may not reflect context-specific sustainable development. We evaluated the relevance and comprehensiveness of MDG 7 (environmental sustainability for Nepal. Although Nepal has met most of the MDG 7 (e.g., forest cover, protected areas coverage, water and sanitation, on closer inspection these indicators do not provide adequate context for ensuring that these targets provide the intended levels of development. Simple forest cover and protected area indicators belie the dearth of ecological conservation on the ground, and water and sanitation indicators do not reflect the inequality of access based on poverty and regions. While the Millennium Development Goals align with broad sustainability concerns in Nepal, these indicators do not reveal its true development conditions.

  11. Heterogeneous Landscapes on Steep Slopes at Low Altitudes as Hotspots of Bird Diversity in a Hilly Region of Nepal in the Central Himalayas

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Basnet, T. B.; Rokaya, Maan Bahadur; Bhattarai, B. P.; Münzbergová, Z.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 3 (2016), č. článku e0150498. E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36098G Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : species richness * elevational gradient * habitat heterogeneity * insectivorous birds * forest birds * vegetation structure * protected areas * lowland Nepal * communities * patterns Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.806, year: 2016

  12. Ge/Si Ratios as a Tracer of Hydrothermal Activity in the Nepal Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, M. J.; Derry, L. A.

    2001-12-01

    Advection of deep-seated crustal rocks, high internal heat production, and rapid erosion of the thrust wedge result in steep thermal gradients in the crystalline rocks of the Himalayan front. Meteoric water circulation within these rocks produces geothermal activity in the deeply-incised river valleys near the Main Central Thrust shear zone. The springs have measured temperatures up to 70° C and TDS up to 8000 mg/L and drive significant anomalies in river chemistry. We have carried out a detailed study of the role of hot springs in the Narayani River basin of central Nepal (area 35,000 km2), the major drainage of the central Nepal Himalaya and a major tributary to the Ganges. In order to quantify the fluxes of heat and solutes from geothermal systems in the Narayani basin, the hydrothermal fluid flux must be estimated. As part of an ongoing effort to investigate the use of germanium-silicon systematics, we measured Ge/Si ratios in main stem, tributary and hot spring waters of the Narayani basin. While Ge/Si ratios in tributaries are similar to non-polluted world rivers (Iceland (9 to 150 μ mol/mol). The high Ge/Si ratios in the hot springs may reflect Rayleigh fractionation as low Ge/Si quartz is precipitated. The wide disparity in stream vs. hydrothermal values makes Ge/Si a valuable tool for quantifying hydrothermal fluid flux by mass balance. We can use a hydrothermal fluid flux estimate derived from the chemical mass balance to estimate convective heat loss in the Narayani basin. Preliminary estimates in the Marsyandi River yield a thermal power output rate of 200 MW, comparable with geothermal fields in the Taupo Volcanic Zone and when distributed over the spring affected area, yield a hydrothermal heat flow (160 mW/m2) comparable to continental heat flow and hydrothermal heat loss in the geothermal belt across Tibet. Fluxes of solutes and heat carried by Himalayan hot springs appear to be significant for Himalayan river chemistry and for thermal models of

  13. Future Scope of Community Based Tourism in Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Gurung, Sunita

    2015-01-01

    This Bachelor’s thesis is based on the tourism and community based tourism in Nepal. The purpose of selecting tourism as a main topic is to find out the future scope of CBT in Nepal. Despite having small size, Nepal holds many attractive and adventurous tourist destinations. Nepal is famous from its cultural and traditional diversity, natural beauty, trekking trails, moun-taineering and warm and welcoming hospitality. Tourism in Nepal is undoubtedly the most important source for the econo...

  14. Abortion Incidence and Unintended Pregnancy in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puri, Mahesh; Singh, Susheela; Sundaram, Aparna; Hussain, Rubina; Tamang, Anand; Crowell, Marjorie

    2016-12-01

    Although abortion has been legal under broad criteria in Nepal since 2002, a significant proportion of women continue to obtain illegal, unsafe abortions, and no national estimates exist of the incidence of safe and unsafe abortions. Data were collected in 2014 from a nationally representative sample of 386 facilities that provide legal abortions or postabortion care and a survey of 134 health professionals knowledgeable about abortion service provision. Facility caseloads and indirect estimation techniques were used to calculate the national and regional incidence of legal and illegal abortion. National and regional levels of abortion complications and unintended pregnancy were also estimated. In 2014, women in Nepal had 323,100 abortions, of which 137,000 were legal, and 63,200 women were treated for abortion complications. The abortion rate was 42 per 1,000 women aged 15-49, and the abortion ratio was 56 per 100 live births. The abortion rate in the Central region (59 per 1,000) was substantially higher than the national average. Overall, 50% of pregnancies were unintended, and the unintended pregnancy rate was 68 per 1,000 women of reproductive age. Despite legalization of abortion and expansion of services in Nepal, unsafe abortion is still common and exacts a heavy toll on women. Programs and policies to reduce rates of unintended pregnancy and unsafe abortion, increase access to high-quality contraceptive care and expand safe abortion services are warranted.

  15. Impact and determinants of sex preference in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone, Tiziana; Matthews, Zoë; Dalla Zuanna, Gianpiero

    2003-06-01

    Gender discrimination and son preference are key demographic features of South Asia and are well documented for India. However, gender bias and sex preference in Nepal have received little attention. 1996 Nepal Demographic and Health Survey data on ever-married women aged 15-49 who did not desire any more children were used to investigate levels of gender bias and sex preference. The level of contraceptive use and the total fertility rate in the absence of sex preference were estimated, and logistic regression was performed to analyze the association between socioeconomic and demographic variables and stopping childbearing after the birth of a son. Commonly used indicators of gender bias, such as sex ratio at birth and sex-specific immunization rates, do not suggest a high level of gender discrimination in Nepal. However, sex preference decreases contraceptive use by 24% and increases the total fertility rate by more than 6%. Women's contraceptive use, exposure to the media, parity, last birth interval, educational level and religion are linked to stopping childbearing after the birth of a boy, as is the ethnic makeup of the local area. The level of sex preference in Nepal is substantial. Sex preference is an important barrier to the increase of contraceptive use and decline of fertility in the country; its impact will be greater as desired family size declines.

  16. Scientific publications in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magar, A

    2012-09-01

    Scientific publications have become a mainstay of communication among readers, academicians, researchers and scientists worldwide. Although, its existence dates back to 17 th century in the West, Nepal is still struggling to take few steps towards improving its local science for last 50 years. Since the start of the first medical journal in 1963, the challenges remains as it were decades back regarding role of authors, peer reviewers, editors and even publishers in Nepal. Although, there has been some development in terms of the number of articles being published and appearances of the journals, yet there is a long way to go. This article analyzes the past and present scenario, and future perspective for scientific publications in Nepal.

  17. Assessing the Groundwater Concentrations and Geographical Distribution of Arsenic in Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, J.; Liu, F.

    2015-12-01

    Arsenic 33As, one of the major groundwater contaminants, occurs in both natural and anthropogenic forms. Arsenic inhibits cellular respiration and the production of ATP in human body. Prolonged intake of non-lethal quantities of arsenic can cause cancer and diseases in vital organs such as the heart, liver, skin, and kidney. Each year, millions of people in the rural areas of Bangladesh, India, and other developing countries in South Asia are exposed to arsenic-poisoned groundwater. According to the World Health Organization, arsenic levels in drinking water should not exceed 10 parts per billion; however, the levels of arsenic found in groundwater in the heavily contaminated regions are often more than ten times of the recommended limit. Nepal is one of these regions. In most of the rural areas in Nepal, there is no infrastructure to produce clean filtered water, and wells thus became the major source. However, most of these wells were dug without testing for groundwater safety, because the test commands resources that the rural communities do not have access to. This is also limited data published on Nepal's groundwater contaminant levels. The scarcity of information prohibits the international community from recognizing the severity of arsenic poisoning in Nepal and coming up with the most efficient measures to help. With this project, we will present a method to determine groundwater safety by analyzing geologic data and using remote sensing. The original source of arsenic is the arsenic-bearing minerals in the sediments. Some geological formations have higher arsenic levels than others due to their depositional environments. Therefore, by using existing geologic data from Nepal and countries with similar types of arsenic contamination, we hope to determine correlations between areas where there are reports of high concentrations of arsenic in groundwater to the environmental factors that may cause a particular concentration of arsenic. Furthermore, with deeper

  18. Creation of Nepal's First Skin Bank: Challenges and Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Lawrence; Long, Chao; Karki, Bishal; Nakarmi, Kiran; Iqbal, Adnan; Casertano, Michele; Anderson, Sara; Patell, James; Chang, James; Rai, Shankar Man

    2017-11-01

    In Nepal, burn trauma causes more than 55,000 injuries each year. Burn-related mortality is high in Nepal, in part due to lack of allograft, leading to high infection rates. To address this challenge, our collaboration between Kirtipur Hospital, America Nepal Medical Foundation, Stanford University, and ReSurge International established Nepal's first skin bank. We identified 3 major tasks to create a sustainable skin banking program: 1) identify and acquire the equipment and personnel needed to collect, process, store, and graft cadaveric skin for burn injuries; 2) develop safe donation protocols and documentation tools that remain feasible for low-resource settings; and 3) develop a long-term awareness program to educate the Nepali people on skin donation, a previously foreign concept. Kirtipur Hospital acquired the necessary equipment and materials for the skin bank through a combination of local and international fundraising efforts. Existing U.S. skin banking protocols were adapted for the Nepali setting and piloted on potential patients, donors, and physicians. For the first time in the hospital's history, patients with > 40% total body surface area burns were successfully treated with extensive allografts. It is feasible to create a skin bank in a country with no tradition of allograft skin use. Long-term sustainability now depends on spreading awareness and education in the Kathmandu Valley to overcome religious and cultural barriers that have hindered donor recruitment. Our low-cost and high-impact skin bank provides a model to expand this system to other hospitals both within Nepal and beyond.

  19. Detection of Cryptosporidium parvum and Cyclospora cayetanensis infections among people living in a slum area in Kathmandu valley, Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattachan, Balkrishna; Sherchand, Jeevan Bahadhur; Tandukar, Sarmila; Dhoubhadel, Bhim Gopal; Gauchan, Leesa; Rai, Ganesh

    2017-09-07

    The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of Cyclospora cayetanensis and Cryptosporidium parvum infections among people living a slum in Kathmandu valley, Nepal. Ten different parasites were detected in the stool samples; the prevalence of any parasite was in 27.1% (71/262). The prevalence of C. cayetanensis and C. parvum were 14.1% (10/71) and 5.6% (4/71), respectively. This study showed high prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections along with the coccidian parasites in the slum area of Kathmandu Valley.

  20. Tracking health-related Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghnath Dhimal

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs comprise of 17 goals and 169 targets. All SDGs are interlinked to produce synergetic eff ects and emphasize health in all policies. Among the 17 Goals, Goal 3 has a central focus on health, which is underpinned by 13 targets. The other 16 goals are also directly or indirectly related to health and will contribute to achieving the associated targets for Goal 3. The ambitious SDG agenda and their progress can be tracked by measuring numerous goals, targets, and indicators. The main objective of this paper is to provide an overview about how health- related SDGs and their targets and indicators are being tracked in the national context of Nepal. Adequate investment in research for knowledge generation, capacity building and innovation, and continous research communication among policy makers, researchers and external development partners will contribute to tracking the progress of SDGs in Nepal.

  1. Environmental Feedbacks of the Subalpine Ecotone Species in the Langtang National Park, Central Nepal Himalaya

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bhatta, K. P.; Rokaya, Maan Bahadur; Münzbergová, Z.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 6 (2015), s. 2115-2125 ISSN 0556-3321 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : Ecological amplitude/niche * Ecotone vegetation * Indicator species * Species response curve * Multivariate analysis * Nepal Himalaya Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.658, year: 2015

  2. A review of conservation legislation in Nepal: Past progress and future needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinen, Joel T.; Kattel, Bijaya

    1992-11-01

    Nepal is considered a leader among developing nations with regard to conservation legislation and programs; it was among the first Asian nations to develop national conservation legislation, sign CITES, and develop a national conservation strategy. We review the history of modern conservation law in Nepal from the Rana period (early 1950s) to the present. The early legislation focused mainly on strict preservation of areas and species; this phase culminated in the National Parks and Wildlife Conservation Act of 1973. Subsequent legislation has evolved more in the direction of an integrated, holistic approach to conservation and is beginning to incorporate the participation of local people; subsequent amendments to the 1973 act allowed greater rights to rural villagers, and the designation of conservation areas in addition to the more strictly defined protected areas (national parks, wildlife reserves, etc.). Our review of conservation legislation suggests that Nepal has had many successes to date; the country has a protected area system covering over 10% of its land area, and many target species are recovering in parks and reserves. There are also some causes of concern, including staff shortages, financial constraints within the Department of National Parks and Wildlife Conservation, and the fact that there is little legal infrastructure outside of protected areas to enforce conservation laws; further, some aspects of hunting regulations are in need of revision. Primary needs include a comprehensive review of these policies and a nationalized strategy to ameliorate the shortcomings.

  3. Analysis of Health Sector Budget of Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulal, R K; Magar, A; Karki, S D; Khatiwada, D; Hamal, P K

    2014-01-01

    Primarily, health sector connects two segments - medicine and public health, where medicine deals with individual patients and public health with the population health. Budget enables both the disciplines to function effectively. The Interim Constitution of Nepal, 2007 has adapted the inspiration of federalism and declared the provision of basic health care services free of cost as a fundamental right, which needs strengthening under foreseen federalism. An observational retrospective cohort study, aiming at examining the health sector budget allocation and outcome, was done. Authors gathered health budget figures (2001 to 2013) and facts published from authentic sources. Googling was done for further information. The keywords for search used were: fiscal federalism, health care, public health, health budget, health financing, external development partner, bilateral and multilateral partners and healthcare accessibility. The search was limited to English and Nepali-language report, articles and news published. Budget required to meet the population's need is still limited in Nepal. The health sector budget could not achieve even gainful results due to mismatch in policy and policy implementation despite of political commitment. Since Nepal is transforming towards federalism, an increased complexity under federated system is foreseeable, particularly in the face of changed political scenario and its players. It should have clear goals, financing policy and strict implementation plans for budget execution, task performance and achieving results as per planning. Additionally, collection of revenue, risk pooling and purchasing of services should be better integrated between central government and federated states to horn effectiveness and efficiency.

  4. The prospects of renewable energy technologies for rural electrification: A review from Nepal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurung, Anup; Kumar Ghimeray, Amal; Hassan, Sedky H.A.

    2012-01-01

    Utilization of renewable energy technologies remains one of the major energy policies throughout the world. These technologies are proven to be successful for electrifying rural communities, especially in developing countries. Realizing the benefits of renewable energy sources, the Government of Nepal has initiated the production and distribution of renewable energy technologies in recent years, mainly to electrify rural communities. Although these technologies are suitable for providing electricity in isolated and remote rural areas, their implementation programs have not been successful as expected. This review provides broad-spectrum view about the energy situation in Nepal and highlights the current policies and subsidies for the optimal utilization of renewable energy resources in isolated and poor rural communities. In addition, major promotional barriers for their implementation in Nepal have been discussed. - Highlights: ► Nepal has enormous potential of renewable energy sources. ► Till date only small fraction of renewable energy sources has been exploited. ► However, renewable energy technologies seem to be promising options for rural electrification.

  5. Atmospheric organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in urban areas of Nepal: spatial variation, sources, temporal trends, and long-range transport potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokhrel, Balram; Gong, Ping; Wang, Xiaoping; Nath Khanal, Sanjay; Ren, Jiao; Wang, Chuanfei; Gao, Shaopeng; Yao, Tandong

    2018-02-01

    The study of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in low-latitude tropical and subtropical urban cities is necessary to assess their local and global impacts on ecosystems and human health. Despite studies on levels of POPs in water, soils, and sediments, analysis of the distribution patterns, seasonality, and sources of POPs in urban regions of Nepal remain limited. Polyurethane foam (PUF)-based passive air samplers were deployed in three major cities in Nepal: Kathmandu (the capital city), Pokhara, and Hetauda (agricultural cities). Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) were the dominant organochlorine pesticides in the atmosphere at all sites. The average concentrations of POPs were ∑ DDTs, 8.7-1.0 × 103 pg m-3; ∑ HCHs, 5.3-3.3 × 103 pg m-3; HCB, 5.8-3.4 × 102 pg m-3; ∑ endosulfan, BDL-51 pg m-3; and ∑ 6PCBs, 1.4-47 pg m-3. Isomer and metabolite ratio analyses suggested that the concentrations present were from both new and historical applications of the POPs. Vegetable production sites and their market places appeared to be the major DDT and HCH source areas. Higher atmospheric concentrations of DDT and HCH occurred during the pre-monsoon and monsoon seasons, and winter, respectively, closely associated with their local application for soil preparation and vegetable spraying. The estimated travel distances of the POPs (HCB, α-HCH, γ-HCH, and p, p'-DDT) under the Nepalese tropical climate were all above 1000 km, suggesting that high precipitation levels in the tropical climate were not enough to scavenge the POPs and that Nepal could be an important source region for POPs. Due to their close proximity and cold trapping (driven by low temperatures), the high Himalayas and the Tibetan Plateau are likely the key receptors of POPs emitted in Nepal. These results add to the information available on POPs from tropical developing countries.

  6. Debris flows associated with the 2015 Gorkha Earthquake in Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlquist, M. P.; West, A. J.; Martinez, J.

    2017-12-01

    Debris flows are a primary driver of erosion and a major geologic hazard in many steep landscapes, particularly near the headwaters of rivers, and are generated in large numbers by extreme events. The 2015 Mw 7.8 Gorkha Earthquake triggered 25,000 coseismic landslides in central Nepal. During the ensuing monsoon, sediment delivered to channels by landslides was mobilized in the heavy rains, and new postseismic landslides were triggered in rock weakened by the shaking. These coseismic and postseismic landslide-generated debris flows form a useful dataset for studying the impact and behavior of debris flows on one of the most active landscapes on Earth. Debris flow-dominated channel reaches are generally understood to have a topographic signature recognizable in slope-area plots and distinct from fluvial channels, but in examining debris flows associated with the Gorkha earthquake we find they frequently extend into reaches with geometry typically associated with fluvial systems. We examine a dataset of these debris flows, considering whether they are generated by coseismic or postseismic landslides, whether they are likely to be driving active incision into bedrock, and whether their channels correspond with those typically associated with debris flows. Preliminary analysis of debris flow channels in Nepal suggests there may be systematic differences in the geometry of channels containing debris flows triggered by coseismic versus postseismic landslides, which potentially holds implications for hazard analyses and the mechanics behind the different debris flow types.

  7. Distribution and habitat use of red panda in the Chitwan-Annapurna Landscape of Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bista, Damber; Shrestha, Saroj; Sherpa, Peema; Thapa, Gokarna Jung; Kokh, Manish; Lama, Sonam Tashi; Khanal, Kapil; Thapa, Arjun; Jnawali, Shant Raj

    2017-01-01

    In Nepal, the red panda (Ailurus fulgens) has been sparsely studied, although its range covers a wide area. The present study was carried out in the previously untapped Chitwan-Annapurna Landscape (CHAL) situated in central Nepal with an aim to explore current distributional status and identify key habitat use. Extensive field surveys conducted in 10 red panda range districts were used to estimate species distribution by presence-absence occupancy modeling and to predict distribution by presence-only modeling. The presence of red pandas was recorded in five districts: Rasuwa, Nuwakot, Myagdi, Baglung and Dhading. The predictive distribution model indicated that 1,904.44 km2 of potential red panda habitat is available in CHAL with the protected area covering nearly 41% of the total habitat. The habitat suitability analysis based on the probability of occurrence showed only 16.58% (A = 315.81 km2) of the total potential habitat is highly suitable. Red Panda occupancy was estimated to be around 0.0667, indicating nearly 7% (218 km2) of the total habitat is occupied with an average detection probability of 0.4482±0.377. Based on the habitat use analysis, altogether eight variables including elevation, slope, aspect, proximity to water sources, bamboo abundance, height, cover, and seasonal precipitation were observed to have significant roles in the distribution of red pandas. In addition, 25 tree species were documented from red panda sign plots out of 165 species recorded in the survey area. Most common was Betula utilis followed by Rhododendron spp. and Abies spectabilis. The extirpation of red pandas in previously reported areas indicates a need for immediate action for the long-term conservation of this species in CHAL.

  8. Solar home systems in Nepal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henryson, Jessica; Haakansson, Teresa

    1999-04-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) technology is a clean and environmentally friendly technology that does not require any fuels. The high reliability of operation and little need for maintenance makes it ideally suited for rural areas. Today PV systems are used in Nepal to power telecommunications centres, navigational aids, in pumping systems for irrigation and drinking water, and for household electrification. A solar home system consists of a PV module, a battery, a charge controller and 3-4 fluorescent light bulbs with fixture. The system provides power for lighting and operation of household appliances for several hours. The success of donor supported programs have shown that solar home systems can be a practical solution for many rural households. In 1996 the Government of Nepal launched a subsidy program for solar home systems, which dramatically has increased the demand for solar home systems among rural customers. This report includes a survey of 52 households with solar home systems in two villages. The field-study shows that the villagers are very happy with their systems and the technical performance of the systems in both villages is satisfactory. The study also shows the positive impact electricity has on education, health, income generation and quality of life. The beneficiaries of introducing electricity in remote areas are the children and the women 39 refs, 18 tabs. Examination paper

  9. Medical problems of porters and trekkers in the Nepal Himalaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basnyat, B; Litch, J A

    1997-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the incidence of medical illness among members of trekking groups in the Nepal Himalaya. The design was a cohort study using interview and clinical examination by a single physician. The setting was the Manaslu area in the central Nepal Himalaya along a 22-day trekking route with elevations ranging from 487 m to 5100 m. Subjects were 155 members of commercial trekking groups: 102 Nepali porters, 31 Nepali trek staff, and 22 Western trekkers. We found that medical problems occurred in 45% of party members. The porter cohort contained the highest diversity and severity of illness. The relatively larger porter cohort experienced 77% of the medical problems recorded compared with 17% among Western trekkers and 6% among trek staff. The incidence of medical problems was not significantly different in the porter staff (52%) and Western trekkers (55%) and was significantly lower for the trek staff (13%). High-altitude pharyngitis/bronchitis was the most common illness in the party (12%) followed by acute mountain sickness (8%) and gastroenteritis (6%). Other conditions included anxiety (3%), cellulitis (3%), scabies (3%), snow blindness (3%), acute alcohol intoxication (2%), conjunctivitis (2%), fever (2%), lacerations (2%), and hemorrhoids (1%). Illness with infectious etiologies comprised 33% of the medical problems. The incidence of altitude illness was not significantly less in the Nepali porter staff than in the Western trekkers. Evacuation was required in 5% of party members, all from the porter group. This study should alert expedition medical providers and trip leaders of the need to be observant for and prepared to treat the frequent and diverse medical problems among the porter staff in their party, in addition to the Western members. Medical problems are common in remote mountainous areas, indicating that trip physicians should be experienced in primary care.

  10. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soils from the Central-Himalaya region: Distribution, sources, and risks to humans and wildlife

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bi, X.; Luo, J.; Gao, J.; Xu, L.; Guo, Q.; Zhang, K.Y.; Romesh, J.P.; Giesy, S.; Kang, J.; de Boer, J.

    2016-01-01

    The Central Himalayas are not only a natural boundary between China and Nepal but also a natural barrier for transport of air masses from South Asia. In this study, 99 samples of surface soil were collected from five regions of Nepal on the southern side of the Central Himalayas, and 65 samples of

  11. Mobile Learning Practice in Higher Education in Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parajuli, Krishna Prasad

    2016-01-01

    During the 15 years of this current century, mobile technology has become a leading technology in the support of educational outcomes. This study investigated the mobile learning practices among undergraduates in higher education in the semi-urban and rural areas of the Gorkha district of Nepal. The objectives were to explore the availability of…

  12. Youth Labor Migration in Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Bossavie, Laurent; Denisova, Anastasiya

    2018-01-01

    This descriptive study investigates internal and external labor migration by Nepalese youth. External labor migration is separated into the flow to India, which is unregulated, and the flow to other countries, which typically takes the form of temporary contract migration to countries with bilateral labor agreements with Nepal (referred to in Nepal as foreign employment). The study finds t...

  13. Adoption of Improved Potato Varieties in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samaya Gairhe

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Nepal is one of the top twenty countries where potato contributes substantially for the human diet. Enhancing adoption of improved potato varieties could impact on farmer’s income, household food and nutritional security. As such, using a multistage sampling procedure, a study was conducted to assess the determinants of improved potato varieties adoption in Nepal covering 180 samples in four districts, two in hills and two in Tarai region. The study revealed that; Kavre and Bardiya districts in the hills and Tarai, respectively, were dominated by improved potato varieties adoption. On the other hand, Dhankuta and Jhapa in the hills and Tarai, respectively, were dominated by local potato varieties adoption. The informal seed sources followed by agro-vet and market were the major sources for improved varietal adoption. Farmers’ accesses to training and formal seed sources were important factor determining improved potato varietal adoption. However, households with larger farm size were less likely to allocate more area for improved potato varieties as many of farmers were reluctant to take potato cultivation as agri-business and still follow subsistence farming. Potato R&D programs, therefore, need to strengthen formal seed system to enhance access to quality potato seeds and build producer’s capacity through regular training and exposer visits in order to improve adoption of improved potato varieties in Nepal.

  14. Geomorphic changes induced by the April-May 2015 earthquake sequence in the Pharak-Khumbu area (Nepal): preliminary assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fort, Monique

    2016-04-01

    Landsliding is a common process shaping mountain slopes. There are various potential landslide triggers (rainfall, bank erosion, earthquakes) and their effectiveness depends on their distribution, frequency and magnitude. In a Himalayan context, the effects of monsoon rainfall can be assessed every year whereas the unpredictability and low frequency of large earthquakes make their role in triggering slope instability more obscure. A 7.8 magnitude earthquake struck central Nepal (Gorkha District) on 25 April 2015 and was followed by many aftershocks exceeding magnitude 5, including another strong 7.3 magnitude earthquake on May 12, 2015 (Dolakha District). This seismic crisis provides an exceptional opportunity to assess the disruptions that earthquakes may cause in "regular" geomorphic systems controlled by rainfall. Here we present field observations carried out in the Pharak-Khumbu area (East Nepal, Dudh Kosi catchment) before and after the April-May 2015 earthquakes. The Pharak, a "middle mountains" (2000-4500 m) area, is affected by monsoon rains (3000 m/yr at 2500 m) and characterised by steep hillslopes, shaped by different geomorphic processes according to slope height and aspect, rock type and strength, inherited landforms, stream connectivity and current land use changes. This study focuses on the south of Lukla (Phakding District), and more specifically on the Khari Khola catchment and its surroundings. The area lies at the transition between the Higher Himalayan crystallines and the Lesser Himalayan meta-sediments. On the basis of our diachronic observations (March and November 2015), we surveyed and mapped new earthquake-induced slope instabilities such as rock falls, rockslides, landslides and debris flows and a combination of several of them. Interviews with local people also helped to assess the exact timing of some events. While the first M 7.8 earthquake produced significant impacts in the northern Khumbu area, the M 7.3 aftershock seems to have

  15. Kyoto protocol and Nepal's energy sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pokharel, Shaligram

    2007-01-01

    Nepal has recently ratified Kyoto Protocol, which considers justifiable use of resources to limit or reduce the emission of gases that contribute to green house gas inventory in the atmosphere. Nepal's per capita green gas (GHG) emission from energy use is insignificant. However, it is important for Nepal to adopt environmentally friendly energy options based on local resources like hydropower and biomass. Nepal can benefit from the provisions of clean development mechanism (CDM) under the Kyoto Protocol of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCC) or carbon funds being promoted by various organizations in order to obtain funding for new projects that reduce GHG emissions (ER). Funding can be generated through Carbon trading in international market as well. In this paper, the country's current contribution to GHG due to energy consumption is evaluated. Options for promoting more sustainable and environmentally friendly projects have also been discussed

  16. Politicians in apron: case study of rebel health services in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devkota, Bhimsen; van Teijlingen, Edwin R

    2009-10-01

    This article presents the findings of a systematic review on the health consequences of Nepal's armed conflict waged by the Maoists and the development and trajectory of their health workers. Nepal's decade-long violent conflict resulted in more than 13,000 deaths, the destruction of more than 1000 health posts and poor health services delivery. At present, most of the former rebel health workers live in remote/rural areas and some are running health centers. The review found that the Maoists had trained more than 2000 health workers, who can be categorized into 4 levels. However, there is little evidence on their competencies and career motivation. The Maoists demand restructuring of the Nepalese health sector and the integration of their health workforce into the national health system. However, there has been no national discussion in Nepal of what kind of health reform and integration model is appropriate for a sustainable peace and improved service delivery.

  17. Post-Conflict Realities and the Future of Stability in Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    British Army states that they have selected 310 recruits from Nepal, among which 230 will go to the British Army and the remaining 80 will join the...Workers’ Union 12. All Nepal Hotel and Restaurant Workers’ Union 13. All Nepal Carpet Workers’ Union 14. All Nepal Meter Tempo Workers’ Union 15

  18. Conflict management in natural resources : a study of land, water and forest conflicts in Nepal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Upreti, B.R.

    2001-01-01

    This book is based on the research into natural resource (NR)-conflict carried out between 1997 and 2000 in the Dolakha district of central Nepal, and in several reference sites around the country. The study focussed especially on land, water and forest/pasture conflicts and their

  19. The Genesis of August 2017 Nepal Floods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uprety, M.; Dugar, S.; Gautam, D.; Budimir, M.; Parajuli, B.; Kharbuja, R. G.

    2017-12-01

    The 2017 monsoon in Nepal was normal until mid-August 2017 when a low pressure system that formed parallel to the foothills of the Churia range brought significant amount of rain in the southern Terai belt. Rivers from East to West swelled as many of them crossed the pre-defined warning thresholds, and rainfall depths in excess of 200 mm to 600 mm were recorded in over a dozen meteorological stations across the country between 11th and 13th of August. The West Rapti River recorded water level of approximately 9 meters while the adjacent Babai River crossed 10 meters and smaller rivers such as Riu Khola and Kankai rose up to 4.8 meters and 5.5 meters respectively, well above danger levels for consecutive days. Early warning systems established in the aforementioned rivers were critical to saving lives and livelihoods. However the severity of flash floods from intermittent streams that originate from the Churia range caught people unaware and led to massive water logging and devastation across Eastern and Central Nepal that claimed 96 lives and displaced more than 14.060 families. The Department of Hydrology and Meteorology with help from telecom operators sent more than 6 million SMS messages to communities residing along the floodplains. These messages provided them with critical information on when to evacuate their homes and move to safer grounds, yet the shear spatial scale and extend of floods meant that communities struggled to find refuge on higher ground. Whilst the Global Flood Awareness System (GLoFAS) indicated with medium probability that major rivers across Nepal might swell in mid-August and the 3 day rainfall forecasts from the Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) consistently indicated heavy precipitation in the southern Terai belt, yet no significant early actions were taken in response to this information. Despite the availability of forecast information on streamflow prediction and rainfall, there was limited pre-emptive actions and now it is

  20. Promoting small towns for rural development: a view from Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajracharya, B N

    1995-06-01

    Two small villages in Nepal are the subjects of case studies that illustrate the role of small towns in provision of services, employment, and market operations. Some general findings are that small towns act as service centers for distribution of basic essential goods such as food grains, salt, kerosene, and fabric for hill and mountain areas. The role of small towns as market centers and in the provision of employment is limited. In resource-poor areas small towns are less diversified. Towns with agricultural surpluses are more developed. Small hill towns satisfy consumption rather than production needs. The growth of rural areas and towns in rural areas in Nepal is dependent on arable land and levels of production in hill areas. Limited land and low levels of production have an adverse impact. Movement of people, goods, and services is limited by difficult terrain and lack of access to good roads. Variability in access to off-farm jobs and services available in small towns varies with ethnicity and place of residence. The best development strategy for small towns in Nepal is market-oriented territorial development, which retains surpluses in the local area and integrates markets in the larger economy. The strategy would decentralize planning into small territorial units that include both small towns and groups of villages, provide institutional support for the rural poor, expand off-farm employment, and include investment in region-serving functions. Subsistence agriculture needs to include diversification of high value cash crops based on local comparative advantage suitable for hill climate and terrain. Small farmers must produce both cash and subsistence crops. Government should provide market space and paved areas, weighing facilities, and overnight storage facilities. Products would be processed at the village level. Subdistricts must be established according to spatial and social linkages between villages and the service center and coordinated at the

  1. Atmospheric organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in urban areas of Nepal: spatial variation, sources, temporal trends, and long-range transport potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Pokhrel

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The study of persistent organic pollutants (POPs in low-latitude tropical and subtropical urban cities is necessary to assess their local and global impacts on ecosystems and human health. Despite studies on levels of POPs in water, soils, and sediments, analysis of the distribution patterns, seasonality, and sources of POPs in urban regions of Nepal remain limited. Polyurethane foam (PUF-based passive air samplers were deployed in three major cities in Nepal: Kathmandu (the capital city, Pokhara, and Hetauda (agricultural cities. Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT and hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH were the dominant organochlorine pesticides in the atmosphere at all sites. The average concentrations of POPs were  ∑ DDTs, 8.7–1.0  ×  103 pg m−3;  ∑ HCHs, 5.3–3.3  ×  103 pg m−3; HCB, 5.8–3.4  ×  102 pg m−3;  ∑ endosulfan, BDL–51 pg m−3; and  ∑ 6PCBs, 1.4–47 pg m−3. Isomer and metabolite ratio analyses suggested that the concentrations present were from both new and historical applications of the POPs. Vegetable production sites and their market places appeared to be the major DDT and HCH source areas. Higher atmospheric concentrations of DDT and HCH occurred during the pre-monsoon and monsoon seasons, and winter, respectively, closely associated with their local application for soil preparation and vegetable spraying. The estimated travel distances of the POPs (HCB, α-HCH, γ-HCH, and p, p′-DDT under the Nepalese tropical climate were all above 1000 km, suggesting that high precipitation levels in the tropical climate were not enough to scavenge the POPs and that Nepal could be an important source region for POPs. Due to their close proximity and cold trapping (driven by low temperatures, the high Himalayas and the Tibetan Plateau are likely the key receptors of POPs emitted in Nepal. These results add to the information available on POPs from

  2. Assessment of environmental policy implementation in solid waste management in Kathmandu, Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dangi, Mohan B; Schoenberger, Erica; Boland, John J

    2017-06-01

    In Nepal, full-fledged environmental legislation was rare before the democratic constitution of 1990. The first law covering the environment and sustainability was the Environment Protection Act 1997. While the Solid Waste Act was introduced in 1987, the problem of solid waste management still surfaces in Kathmandu. In order to understand the bedrock of this unrelenting failure in solid waste management, the manuscript digs deeper into policy implementation by dissecting solid waste rules, environmental legislations, relevant local laws, and solid waste management practices in Kathmandu, Nepal. A very rich field study that included surveys, interviews, site visits, and literature review provided the basis for the article. The study shows that volumes of new Nepalese rules are crafted without effective enforcement of their predecessors and there is a frequent power struggle between local government bodies and central authority in implementing the codes and allocating resources in solid waste management. The study concludes that Kathmandu does not require any new instrument to address solid waste problems; instead, it needs creation of local resources, execution of local codes, and commitment from central government to allow free exercise of these policies.

  3. Sustainable implementation of solar tunnel dryers, water heaters and cookers in Nepal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovacs, Peter [Danish Energy Management, DEM for Renewable Energy Project, REP, Dhobighat, Lalitpur (Nepal); Shrestha, Niraj; Shakya, Prajwal Raj [Renewable Energy Project, REP, Dhobighat, Lalitpur (Nepal); Pokharel, Govind [Alternative Energy Promotion Centre (AEPC), Lalitpur (Nepal)

    2008-07-01

    The Renewable Energy Project (REP) is a joint effort of the European Union and the Government of Nepal. Main objectives of the project are to create renewable energy infrastructure and services for the benefit of rural people in remote districts of Nepal. The REP will provide solar energy systems for public services in remote districts, as well as for income generating activities e.g. agro business and tourism. The REP focuses on the installation of institutional PV systems with a total capacity of 0.850 MWp. Concurrently, a number of solar thermal systems are being provided to community organizations (COs) in rural areas of Nepal. The priority applications for the solar thermal part are solar tunnel dryers for small industries drying vegetables. fruits and herbs, solar water heaters for community centers in trekking areas and large scale solar cookers in schools. The paper describes the Renewable Energy Project's implementation program for solar thermal technology and in particular the implications on design and usefulness of the solar tunnel dryer from on-site feasibility studies carried out by the project team. REP provides a framework for a sustainable implementation of these systems by carrying out the whole process from dissemination of information to demand collection, feasibility studies, design, procurement, commissioning and user training. Hand over of ownership will take place once the equipment is installed and successfully commissioned. Monitoring during the first year of operation should conclude the project. REP is co-funded by the European Union and the Government of Nepal. (orig.)

  4. Understanding Institutional Adaptation to Climate Change: Social Resilience and Adaptive Governance Capacities of the Nature Based Tourism Institutions in the Annapurna Conservation Area, Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Lama, Anu Kumari

    2016-01-01

    The global-local sustainable development and climate change adaptation policy, and the emerging political discourse on the value of local Adaptation, have positioned the local institutions and their governance space within the strategic enclaves of multilevel governance system. Such shifts have transformed the context for sustainable Nature Based Tourism (NBT) development and adaptation in Nepal in general, and its protected areas, in particular. The emerging institutional adaptation discours...

  5. 7 CFR 1032.2 - Central marketing area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Central marketing area. 1032.2 Section 1032.2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE CENTRAL MARKETING AREA Order Regulating...

  6. Human Trafficking in Nepal: Post-Earthquake Risk and Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyawali, Bishal; Keeling, June; Kallestrup, Per

    2017-04-01

    As Nepal mourns the 1-year commemoration of the April 2015 earthquake and its aftershocks that killed more than 8500 people and left thousands injured and displaced, other more hidden repercussions of the resultant chaotic environment need attention: the increased risk of human trafficking. Considering that natural disasters provide a milieu for this illicit trade, there is a need for a robust response from stakeholders such as donors, civil society organizations, and government organizations against human trafficking following disasters such as the Nepal earthquake. Responsibility to prevent and fight trafficking should be explicitly included in the mandate of relief and rehabilitation mechanisms set up at the national level to coordinate the disaster relief response, serving to support populations in both rural and urban areas. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;11:153-154).

  7. Epidemiology, Impact and Control of Rabies in Nepal: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Aryal, Arjun; Sharma, Barun Kumar; Ale, Anita; Declercq, Anne; Depraz, Stephanie; Gaire, Tara Nath; Gongal, Gyanendra; Karki, Surendra; Pandey, Basu Dev; Pun, Sher Bahadur; Duchateau, Luc; Dorny, Pierre; Speybroeck, Niko

    2016-01-01

    Background Rabies is a vaccine-preventable viral zoonosis belonging to the group of neglected tropical diseases. Exposure to a rabid animal may result in a fatal acute encephalitis if effective post-exposure prophylaxis is not provided. Rabies occurs worldwide, but its burden is disproportionately high in developing countries, including Nepal. We aimed to summarize current knowledge on the epidemiology, impact and control of rabies in Nepal. Methods We performed a systematic review of international and national scientific literature and searched grey literature through the World Health Organization Digital Library and the library of the National Zoonoses and Food Hygiene Research Centre, Nepal, and through searching Google and Google Scholar. Further data on animal and human rabies were obtained from the relevant Nepalese government agencies. Finally, we surveyed the archives of a Nepalese daily to obtain qualitative information on rabies in Nepal. Findings So far, only little original research has been conducted on the epidemiology and impact of rabies in Nepal. Per year, rabies is reported to kill about 100 livestock and 10–100 humans, while about 1,000 livestock and 35,000 humans are reported to receive rabies post-exposure prophylaxis. However, these estimates are very likely to be serious underestimations of the true rabies burden. Significant progress has been made in the production of cell culture-based anti-rabies vaccine and rabies immunoglobulin, but availability and supply remain a matter of concern, especially in remote areas. Different state and non-state actors have initiated rabies control activities over the years, but efforts typically remained focalized, of short duration and not harmonized. Communication and coordination between veterinary and human health authorities is limited at present, further complicating rabies control in Nepal. Important research gaps include the reporting biases for both human and animal rabies, the ecology of stray

  8. Epidemiology, Impact and Control of Rabies in Nepal: A Systematic Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brecht Devleesschauwer

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Rabies is a vaccine-preventable viral zoonosis belonging to the group of neglected tropical diseases. Exposure to a rabid animal may result in a fatal acute encephalitis if effective post-exposure prophylaxis is not provided. Rabies occurs worldwide, but its burden is disproportionately high in developing countries, including Nepal. We aimed to summarize current knowledge on the epidemiology, impact and control of rabies in Nepal.We performed a systematic review of international and national scientific literature and searched grey literature through the World Health Organization Digital Library and the library of the National Zoonoses and Food Hygiene Research Centre, Nepal, and through searching Google and Google Scholar. Further data on animal and human rabies were obtained from the relevant Nepalese government agencies. Finally, we surveyed the archives of a Nepalese daily to obtain qualitative information on rabies in Nepal.So far, only little original research has been conducted on the epidemiology and impact of rabies in Nepal. Per year, rabies is reported to kill about 100 livestock and 10-100 humans, while about 1,000 livestock and 35,000 humans are reported to receive rabies post-exposure prophylaxis. However, these estimates are very likely to be serious underestimations of the true rabies burden. Significant progress has been made in the production of cell culture-based anti-rabies vaccine and rabies immunoglobulin, but availability and supply remain a matter of concern, especially in remote areas. Different state and non-state actors have initiated rabies control activities over the years, but efforts typically remained focalized, of short duration and not harmonized. Communication and coordination between veterinary and human health authorities is limited at present, further complicating rabies control in Nepal. Important research gaps include the reporting biases for both human and animal rabies, the ecology of stray dog

  9. Estimating Indoor PM2.5 and CO Concentrations in Households in Southern Nepal: The Nepal Cookstove Intervention Trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Chen

    Full Text Available High concentrations of household air pollution (HAP due to biomass fuel usage with unvented, insufficient combustion devices are thought to be an important health risk factor in South Asia population. To better characterize the indoor concentrations of particulate matter (PM2.5 and carbon monoxide (CO, and to understand their impact on health in rural southern Nepal, this study analyzed daily monitoring data collected with DataRAM pDR-1000 and LASCAR CO data logger in 2980 households using traditional biomass cookstove indoor through the Nepal Cookstove Intervention Trial-Phase I between March 2010 and October 2011. Daily average PM2.5 and CO concentrations collected in area near stove were 1,376 (95% CI, 1,331-1,423 μg/m3 and 10.9 (10.5-11.3 parts per million (ppm among households with traditional cookstoves. The 95th percentile, hours above 100μg/m3 for PM2.5 or 6ppm for CO, and hours above 1000μg/m3 for PM2.5 or 9ppm for CO were also reported. An algorithm was developed to differentiate stove-influenced (SI periods from non-stove-influenced (non-SI periods in monitoring data. Average stove-influenced concentrations were 3,469 (3,350-3,588 μg/m3 for PM2.5 and 21.8 (21.1-22.6 ppm for CO. Dry season significantly increased PM2.5 concentration in all metrics; wood was the cleanest fuel for PM2.5 and CO, while adding dung into the fuel increased concentrations of both pollutants. For studies in rural southern Nepal, CO concentration is not a viable surrogate for PM2.5 concentrations based on the low correlation between these measures. In sum, this study filled a gap in knowledge on HAP in rural Nepal using traditional cookstoves and revealed very high concentrations in these households.

  10. A hyperendemic focus of Taenia solium transmission in the Banke District of Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sah, Keshav; Poudel, Ishab; Subedi, Suyog; Singh, Dinesh Kumar; Cocker, Jo; Kushwaha, Peetambar; Colston, Angela; Donadeu, Meritxell; Lightowlers, Marshall W

    2017-12-01

    Neurocysticercosis is a major cause of epilepsy in countries where Taenia solium is endemic and the parasite is a major cause of food-borne disease globally. Pigs are the natural intermediate host involved in transmission of the parasite. T. solium is known to be endemic in Nepal, however there is limited reliable data about the prevalence of the disease in Nepal. The aim of this study was to determine accurately the prevalence of porcine cysticercosis in slaughter age pigs in an area of Nepal where pigs are known to be free-roaming. Pigs were obtained from the Udaypur Village Development Committee (VDC) and Hirminiya & Betahani VDC of the Banke district in Nepal. One hundred and ten animals of slaughter age (approximately 8-16 months old) were purchased, slaughtered and the heart, liver, brain and half the body skeletal musculature were sliced using hand knives and the number and viability of T. solium cysts determined. Thirty two of the 110 animals were found to harbour T. solium cysticerci (29%), of which 30 (27%) were found to have viable cysticerci (93% of the infected animals). This is one of the highest prevalences of porcine cysticercosis that has been reported to date from the results of necropsy on randomly selected animals. This study highlights a high rate of transmission of T. solium in the Banke District of Nepal. It encourages further investigation of human and porcine cysticercosis in Nepal, as well as implementation of efforts to reduce transmission of the parasite and the associated human disease. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Local Responses to Participatory Conservation in Annapurna Conservation Area, Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadka, Damodar; Nepal, Sanjay K.

    2010-02-01

    Biodiversity conservation has undergone a profound change in philosophy, policies and management approaches over the last forty years. The traditional top-down approach to nature protection has been widely criticized for failing to include critical social elements in management practices, and is being gradually replaced by a slew of participatory strategies under the rubric of bottom-up conservation. The new approach recognizes local communities as key partners in wildlife management and seeks their participation in social development and biodiversity conservation. However, every social context is different in its structure and functions, and in the way social groups respond to calls for participation. In order to gain a better understanding of the approach and the barriers encountered in its implementation, a questionnaire survey of 188 households was employed in the communities of the Upper Mustang extension of Annapurna Conservation Area (ACA) in Nepal. The study provides a comparative analysis of community participation and its barriers between Non-Tourist (NT) and Tourist (TV) villages. The results revealed important differences between the two groups in terms of their participation in community programs, barriers to participation, and perception of benefits from participation. Owing to their distinct spatial, demographic and attitudinal differences, the two village groups have their own sets of needs, values and motivation factors which cannot be generalized and treated as such. The research clearly identifies the need for the conservation agency to be creative in devising strategies and initiatives appropriate to specific social groups so as to optimize their input in participatory conservation.

  12. Migration and the Problem of Old Age People in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tika Ram Gautam

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Current trends of migration in Nepal imply that the extensive out-migration of young people from rural areas, to foreign and internal urban centres, coincides with a rise in the problem of older couples in rural areas. This article examines the impact of migration on living condition and internal feelings of old age couples by drawing on the results of sociological and demographic field studies in Kandebash Village Development Committee (VDC comprising multiethnic communities of western Nepal. The methodology for identifying older people is, social survey followed by direct interview with semi-structured questionnaire, examining variations by socio-economic strata and family structures. Comparative analysis indicates considerable heterogeneity in past and present migration patterns, both within and between countries. Economically higher status families are commonly able to reinforce their position by making better use of emigration opportunities. These families are migrating permanently to urban centers within country. Migrants from economically middle and lower status families are continuing temporary migration to foreign countries. Temporary migration, both within and between countries, is making old age couples alone in rural villages. The migrants' financial and material contributions are a nominal support. The old age lonely couples are facing many problems such as feeling loneliness, helplessness, frustration, increased household and social burdening.Key words: Migration, emigration, immigration, old age couple, rural migration, NepalDOI = 10.3126/dsaj.v2i0.1361Dhaulagiri Journal of Sociology and Anthropology Vol.2 pp.145-160

  13. Pediatric Central Nervous System Tumors in Nepal: Retrospective Analysis and Literature Review of Low- and Middle-Income Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azad, Tej D; Shrestha, Ram Kumar; Vaca, Silvia; Niyaf, Ali; Pradhananga, Amit; Sedain, Gopal; Sharma, Mohan R; Shilpakar, Sushil K; Grant, Gerald A

    2015-12-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) tumors are the most common cause of cancer-related death in children. Little is known about the demographics and treatment of pediatric brain tumors in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). We performed a retrospective chart review of all pediatric patients who presented to the neurosurgical service at Tribhuvan University Teaching Hospital in Kathmandu, Nepal from 2009-2014 and collected information on patients tumor. We analyzed age, gender, clinical presentation, extent of surgical resection, histopathology, and length of hospital stay. We also conducted a literature review using specific terminology to capture studies of pediatric neuro-oncologic epidemiology conducted in LMICs. Study location, length of study, sample size, study type, and occurrence of 4 common pediatric brain tumors were extracted. We identified 39 cases of pediatric CNS tumors, with 62.5% observed in male children. We found that male children (median = 13 years) presented later than female children (median = 8 years). The most frequently observed pediatric brain tumor type was ependymoma (17.5%), followed by astrocytoma (15%) and medulloblastoma (15%). Surgical resection was performed for 80% of cases, and gross total resection reported in 62.9% of all surgeries. More than half (54.1%) of patients had symptoms for more than 28 days before seeking treatment. Symptomatic hydrocephalus was noted in 57.1% of children who presented with CNS tumors. The literature review yielded studies from 18 countries. Study length ranged from 2-20 years, and sample sizes varied from 35-1948. Overall, we found more pronounced variation in the relative frequencies of the most common pediatric brain tumors, compared with high-income countries. We present the first operative series of childhood CNS tumors in Nepal. Children often had delayed diagnosis and treatment of a tumor, despite symptoms. More comprehensive data are required to develop improved treatment and management

  14. Determinants of facility delivery after implementation of safer mother programme in Nepal: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karkee, Rajendra; Binns, Colin W; Lee, Andy H

    2013-10-20

    There are several barriers for pregnant women to deliver in a health care facility. This prospective cohort study investigated factors affecting facility delivery and reasons for unplanned place of delivery after implementation of the safer mother programme in Nepal. Baseline interviews using a validated questionnaire were conducted on a sample of 700 pregnant women representative of the Kaski district in central Nepal. Follow-up interviews of the cohort were then conducted within 45 days postpartum. Stepwise logistic regression analysis was performed to determine factors associated with the facility delivery outcome. Of the 644 pregnant women whose delivery location had been identified, 547 (85%) gave birth in a health care facility. Women were more likely to deliver in a health facility if they were educated especially with higher secondary or above qualification (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 12.39, 95% confidence interval (CI) 5.09 to 30.17), attended 4 or more antenatal care visits (OR 2.15, 95% CI 1.25 to 3.69), and lived within 30 minutes to the facility (OR 11.61, 95% CI 5.77 to 24.04). For the 97 women who delivered at home, 72 (74.2%) were unplanned, mainly due to quick precipitation of labour making it impossible to reach a health facility. It appeared that facility delivery occurs more frequent among educated women and those who live nearby, even though maternity services are now freely available in Nepal. Because of the difficult terrain and transportation problem in rural areas, interventions that make maternity service physically accessible during antenatal period are needed to increase the utilisation of health facility for child birth.

  15. Contextualizing Social Science in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dev Raj Dahal

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Social science informs about the ideals and trains experts to deal with the complex social realities. It has a public purpose rooted in what we call dharma (professional and institutional responsibility as opposed to the arrogance of reason, self-will and self-rationalization intrinsic to contemporary rational choice and modernity. Learning has a synergy - establishing connection between the world of social science theories and the drama of social life. A lack of mutual learning between Nepal's traditional faith intellectuals and modern reason-based social scientists has created a big hiatus and contradiction. The academic life of social scientists in Nepal is completely outside of spiritual, moral and ethical influence experienced by ordinary public. The spiritual blindness of modern social scientists has thus opened multiple gaps between their worldview and those of the citizens on various frontiers--theoretical knowledge and practical experience, technical understanding and composite knowledge and secularity of social science and the vitality of the Hindu-Buddhist scriptures in the popular mind, culture, behavior and practices. This has reinforced a division between the system of knowledge of social scientists and the life-world of people. The proponents of new social movements in Nepal, such as women, Dalits, Janajatis, Madhesis, youths and marginalized population are seeking a structural shift in reason-based knowledge to both reason and feeling in social science knowledge discovery. This movement can open the "captive mind" to social learning of contextual knowledge, conduct research with the citizens, provide inputs to the policy makers and reverse their linear, structure-bound, rationalist and disciplinary thinking into the one that represents what the Nepal mandala, the Nepali space, is really like and how to improve it for the better. The renewal and indigenization of qualitative social science research is important to overcome the

  16. Spatial and Temporal Variability of Rainfall in the Gandaki River Basin of Nepal Himalaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeeban Panthi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Landslides, floods, and droughts are recurring natural disasters in Nepal related to too much or too little water. The summer monsoon contributes more than 80% of annual rainfall, and rainfall spatial and inter-annual variation is very high. The Gandaki River, one of the three major rivers of Nepal and one of the major tributaries of the Ganges River, covers all agro-ecological zones in the central part of Nepal. Time series tests were applied for different agro-ecological zones of the Gandaki River Basin (GRB for rainfall trends of four seasons (pre-monsoon, monsoon, post-monsoon and winter from 1981 to 2012. The non-parametric Mann-Kendall and Sen’s methods were used to determine the trends. Decadal anomalies relative to the long-term average were analyzed using the APHRODITE precipitation product. Trends in number of rainy days and timing of the monsoon were also analyzed. We found that the post-monsoon, pre-monsoon and winter rainfalls are decreasing significantly in most of the zones but monsoon rainfall is increasing throughout the basin. In the hill region, the annual rainfall is increasing but the rainy days do not show any trend. There is a tendency toward later departure of monsoon from Nepal, indicating an increase in its duration. These seasonally and topographically variable trends may have significant impacts for the agriculture and livestock smallholders that form the majority of the population in the GRB.

  17. An Assessment of Monsoon Triggered Landslides in Western Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudan Acharya, Madhu

    2010-05-01

    Due to heavy monsoon rain, rugged topography and very young mountains, frequent slope failures and soil erosion are very common in Nepal but in most of cases the natural slopes are disturbed by men to construct a road through it and the situation further aggravated by the Monsoon rain. Summer usually tests the disaster response capacity of Nepal, when the monsoons trigger water induced disasters. This year Nepal's Western regions were most severely affected by floods and landslides. Every year, sadly, it is the same story of mostly poor people living in remote villages succumbing to landslides and flooding and those who survive facing hardships brought on by the disaster. The tail end of the monsoon in October has triggered flood and landslides in Nepal which affected a total of 14 districts in the mid and far-west regions, of which Kailali, Bardiya, Banke, Dadeldhura, Accham and Kanchapur district are most affected. The affected areas are geographically scattered and remote, and are therefore difficult to access. In this year (2009), flood and landslides have claimed 62 lives, affecting more than 152,000 individuals from 27,000 families. More than 4,000 families are displaced and are taking shelter in schools, open space and forest areas with no protection from the external elements. In the above context the prevention and mitigation measures for landslides is a great challenge for Nepal. Nepal has been investing its huge amount of resources to stabilize landslides and roadside slope failures, still then it has become unmanageable during Monsoon time. Considering the above facts, an assessment of landslides which were occurred during the Monsoon (July-October 2009), along Khodpe - Jhota - Chainpur road in far western region of Nepal has been carried out based on the field observation of various landslides. The paper presents the causes and mechanisms of failures of different landslides which are mostly triggered by Monsoon rain. It also suggests some low cost

  18. Flood Induced Disasters and Stakeholder Involvement to Implement Integrated Food Management in Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, N. P.

    2016-12-01

    Nepal, a landlocked country in South Asia covers an area of 147, 181 square kilometers. Its elevation ranges from 61m as the lowest to 8848m, the highest peak Everest in the world. More than 80% of the annual rainfall occurs in the monsoon season from June to September. Thus, due to the intense rainfall that occurs within a short period, monsoon acts as the biggest cause for the occurrence of different disastrous events including flood. Beyond it, Nepal lies at the center and southern edge of Hindu-Kush Himalayan (HKH) region, which is the youngest geological formation in the world. Hence, floods and landslides are common in this region. In Nepal, from the records of 1971-2010, floods and landslides are the second biggest cause for casualties after epidemics. Hawaii based Center of Excellence in disaster management and humanitarian assistance in 2015 has declared Nepal as 30th vulnerable country from the aspect of floods. According to WMO definition, integrated flood management (IFM) is a process of promoting an integrated rather than a fragmented approach to flood management, integrating land and water resource development in a river basin within the context of integrated water resources management (IWRM), with the aim of maximizing the net benefits from flood plains while minimizing loss of life from flooding. That is the reason why the IFM is one of the important countermeasures to be implemented in Nepal to reduce the adverse effects of floods. This study emphasizes on the existing conditions along with the challenges of IFM with respect to stakeholder involvement in the context of Nepal. It can be assured that all the highlighted issues coming out from this study will be highly valuable to policy makers, implementing agencies along with scientific and local communities to enhance IFM works in the nation for the benefits of societies.

  19. Villages in Nepal prepare for weather extremes | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2012-03-22

    Mar 22, 2012 ... Research focus To assess the vulnerability of rural communities in Nepal's diverse ... In 2010, the Institute for Social and Environmental Transition-Nepal ... Through continuous interaction with each community, the team ...

  20. Market mechanisms for newborn health in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunze, Karsten; Dawkins, Rosie; Tapia, Abeezer; Anand, Sidharth; Chu, Michael; Bloom, David E

    2017-12-19

    In Nepal, hypothermia is a major risk factor for newborn survival, but the country's public health care sector has insufficient capacity to improve newborn survival given the burden imposed by distance to health facilities and cost. Low-cost technology to provide newborn thermal care in resource-limited environments exists, but lacks effective distribution channels. This study aims to develop a private sector distribution model for dedicated newborn thermal care technology to ensure equitable access to thermal protection and ultimately improve newborn health in Nepal. We conducted a document analysis of newborn health policy in Nepal and a scoping literature review of approaches to newborn hypothermia in the region, followed by qualitative interviews with key stakeholders of newborn health in Nepal. Current solutions addressing newborn hypothermia range from high-technology, high-cost incubators to low-cost behavioral interventions such as skin-to-skin care. However, none of these interventions  are currently implemented at scale. A distribution model that provides incentives for community health volunteers and existing public health services in Nepal can deliver existing low-cost infant warmers to disadvantaged mothers where and when needed. Newborn technology can serve as an adjunct to skin-to-skin care and potentially create demand for newborn care practices. Harnessing market forces could promote public health by raising awareness of newborn challenges, such as newborn hypothermia, and triggering demand for appropriate health technology and related health promotion behaviors. Market approaches to promoting public health have been somewhat neglected, especially in economically disadvantaged and vulnerable populations, and deserve greater attention in Nepal and other settings with limited public health service delivery capacity.

  1. Responses of Montane Forest to Climate Variability in the Central Himalayas of Nepal

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    Janardan Mainali

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Climate changes are having dramatic ecological impacts in mid- to high-latitude mountain ranges where growth conditions are limited by climatic variables such as duration of growing season, moisture, and ambient temperature. We document patterns of forest vegetative response for 5 major alpine forest communities to current climate variability in the central Himalayas of Nepal to provide a baseline for assessment of future changes, as well as offer some insight into the trajectory of these changes over time. We used mean monthly surface air temperature and rainfall and the monthly averaged normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI to compare relative vegetation productivity among forest types and in relation to both climatic variables. Because changes in temperature and precipitation are directly manifested as changes in phenology, we examined current vegetative responses to climate variability in an effort to determine which climate variable is most critical for different alpine forest types. Our results show that correlations differ according to vegetation type and confirm that both precipitation and temperature affect monthly NDVI values, though more significant correlations were found with temperature data. The temperature response was more consistent because at the maximum increased temperatures, there was still an ongoing increase in vegetative vigor. This indicates that temperature is still the major limiting factor for plant growth at higher-elevation sites. This part of the Himalayas has abundant moisture, and some forest types are already saturated in terms of growth in relation to precipitation. Clear increases in productivity are documented on the upper treeline ecotones, and these systems are likely to continue to have increasing growth rates.

  2. An Overview: Distribution, Production, and Diversity of Local Landraces of Buckwheat in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dol Raj Luitel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Buckwheat is a sixth staple food crop after rice, wheat, maize, finger millet, and barley in Nepal. It is considered as an alternate cereal and poor man’s crop, representing an important food supply in remote places of Himalayas. It is the best crop in higher altitude in terms of adaptation to different climatic variables and easily fitted to different cropping patterns due to short duration. It is cultivated on marginal land in 61 out of 75 districts of Nepal from some 60 m to 4500 m asl, especially hilly and mountain districts like Rukum, Rolpa, Jajarkot, Dolpa, Humla, Jumla, Kalikot, Kavre, Dolakha, and Okhaldhunga. Sweet buckwheat varieties are generally grown in midhill and Terai but Tartary buckwheat varieties are grown in higher altitude. There are altogether 19 local landraces of sweat buckwheat and 37 for Tartary buckwheat listed from Nepal. The largest producers are China, USA, and Russia and Japan is principal user of global buckwheat grown in the world. In Nepal, it is cultivated in 10510 ha area with production of 10355 t/yr and yield of 0.983 t/ha. It has also medicinal value used in different forms including all its parts so the demand of buckwheat is increasing.

  3. Does community-based conservation shape favorable attitudes among locals? an empirical study from nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, J N; Heinen, J T

    2001-08-01

    Like many developing countries, Nepal has adopted a community-based conservation (CBC) approach in recent years to manage its protected areas mainly in response to poor park-people relations. Among other things, under this approach the government has created new "people-oriented" conservation areas, formed and devolved legal authority to grassroots-level institutions to manage local resources, fostered infrastructure development, promoted tourism, and provided income-generating trainings to local people. Of interest to policy-makers and resource managers in Nepal and worldwide is whether this approach to conservation leads to improved attitudes on the part of local people. It is also important to know if personal costs and benefits associated with various intervention programs, and socioeconomic and demographic characteristics influence these attitudes. We explore these questions by looking at the experiences in Annapurna and Makalu-Barun Conservation Areas, Nepal, which have largely adopted a CBC approach in policy formulation, planning, and management. The research was conducted during 1996 and 1997; the data collection methods included random household questionnaire surveys, informal interviews, and review of official records and published literature. The results indicated that the majority of local people held favorable attitudes toward these conservation areas. Logistic regression results revealed that participation in training, benefit from tourism, wildlife depredation issue, ethnicity, gender, and education level were the significant predictors of local attitudes in one or the other conservation area. We conclude that the CBC approach has potential to shape favorable local attitudes and that these attitudes will be mediated by some personal attributes.

  4. Slope Stability Analysis of Mountainous/Hilly regions of Nepal: A case study of Bhotekoshi Hydropower site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, A.; Gautam, S.; Kafle, K. R.

    2017-12-01

    Nepal is a mountainous, developing country that straddles the boundary between the Indian and Himalayan tectonic plates. In Nepal, landslides represent a major constraint on development, causing high levels of economic loss and substantial number of fatalities each year. There is a general consensus that the impacts of landslides in mountainous countries such as Nepal are increasing with time due to unstable slopes. The present study deals with the field investigation of slope stability in mountainous/hilly region of Nepal. Among the natural hazards that occur in regularly in Nepal, flood and landslides due to unstable slopes are by far the serious ones. They claim many human lives every year and cause other damages such as destruction and blockage of highway, destruction of hydropower, losses of livestock, crops and agricultural land. Slope Mass Rating system and stereographic projection has been carried out for analysis of slope stability using standard formats and parameters. It has been found that there are few major discontinuities that play the role for the rock/soil slides around the area. The major discontinuities are 235°/67°. These joint sets play the main role to the plane as well as wedge failures around the area. The rock mass rating of the slope has been found to be 27 and the slope mass rating has been found to be 37.8. The obtained slope mass rating value lies on IV class (Bad) that represents unstable slope having planner or big wedge failure and needs to be corrective measures in the slope. From stereographic projection, wedge failure of the slope has been seen according to the conditions of slope failure.

  5. Malnutrition Status Among Under-5 Children in a Hill Community of Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaurav, K; Poudel, I S; Bhattarai, S; Pradhan, P M S; Pokharel, P K

    2014-01-01

    Malnutrition, especially under nutrition puts children at increased risk of morbidity and mortality and remains a serious barrier in child growth, development and survival. This is a major public health problem among under- 5 children in Nepal particularly in rural areas. To assess the burden and contributing factors for malnutrition in hill community of Ilam district in eastern Nepal. A cross sectional study was conducted in rural hill communities of Ilam district, Nepal with a sample of 240 under- 5 children. Anthropometric measurements were used as per WHO guidelines to asses three nutritional status: Underweight, Stunting, and Wasting using descriptive statistics and chi square test was applied using SPSS 12.0 to assess social and predisposing factors. Seventeen percent of under- 5 children were moderately and 10.4 % were severely underweight. Similarly, 22.9%, and 17.5% were found to be moderately and severely stunted respectively. Less than 10% were found to be moderately and severely wasted. Older age group of children, education level of mother, not exclusive breast feeding practice had significant (p children were affected with stunting, underweight and wasting at the same time. Significant proportion of under - 5 children were malnourished in the communities of the hilly areas. The study unveiled the importance of literacy and exclusive breast feeding for the prevention of malnutrition in under- 5 children.

  6. Three-dimensional body-wave model of Nepal using finite difference tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, T. M.; Priestley, K.; Roecker, S. W.

    2017-12-01

    The processes occurring during continent-continent collision are still poorly understood. Ascertaining the seismic properties of the crust and uppermost mantle in such settings provides insight into continental rheology and geodynamics. The most active present-day continent-continent collision is that of India with Eurasia which has created the Himalayas and the Tibetan Plateau. Nepal provides an ideal laboratory for imaging the crustal processes resulting from the Indo-Eurasia collision. We build body wave models using local body wave arrivals picked at stations in Nepal deployed by the Department of Mining and Geology of Nepal. We use the tomographic inversion method of Roecker et al. [2006], the key feature of which is that the travel times are generated using a finite difference solution to the eikonal equation. The advantage of this technique is increased accuracy in the highly heterogeneous medium expected for the Himalayas. Travel times are calculated on a 3D Cartesian grid with a grid spacing of 6 km and intragrid times are estimated by trilinear interpolation. The gridded area spans a region of 80-90o longitude and 25-30o latitude. For a starting velocity model, we use IASP91. Inversion is performed using the LSQR algorithm. Since the damping parameter can have a significant effect on the final solution, we tested a range of damping parameters to fully explore its effect. Much of the seismicity is clustered to the West of Kathmandu at depths Small areas of strong fast wavespeeds exist in the centre of the region in the upper 30 km of the crust. At depths of 40-50 km, large areas of slow wavespeeds are present which track along the plate boundary.

  7. The Himalayas of Nepal, a natural laboratory for the search and measurement of CO2 discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girault, Frédéric; Koirala, Bharat P.; Bhattarai, Mukunda; Rajaure, Sudhir; Richon, Patrick; Perrier, Frédéric

    2010-05-01

    Large CO2 flux has been found in the Trisuli Valley, North of Kathmandu, Central Nepal, in 2005. This leakage zone is located in the vicinity of the Syabru-Bensi hot springs, and is characterized by an average flux of CO2 of 6500±1100 g m-2 day-1 over an area of 15 m × 15 m (Perrier et al., Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 2009). The site is also located close to the Main Central Thrust Zone (MCT Zone), one of the large Himalayan thrust, connected at depth to the Main Himalayan Thrust, the main thrust currently accommodating the India-Tibet collision (Bollinger et al., Journal of Geophysical Research, 2004). Isotopic carbon ratios (δ13C) indicate that this CO2 may come from metamorphic reactions at about 15 km of depth (Becker et al., Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 2008; Evans et al., Geochemistry Geophysics Geosystems, 2008). Actually, this zone was originally found because of the large δ13C found in the water of the hot springs suggesting degassing (Evans et al., Geochemistry Geophysics Geosystems, 2008). In 2007, another zone of CO2 discharge was discovered 250 m away from the main Syabru-Bensi hot springs. This new zone, located next to the road and easy to access all over the year, was intensely studied, from the end of 2007 to the beginning of 2009. In this zone, an average value of CO2 flux of 1700±300 g m-2 d-1 was obtained over an area of about 40 m × 10 m. Using CO2 flux data from repeated measurements, similar flux values were observed during the dry winter season and the wet summer period (monsoon) (Girault et al., Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 2009). Thus, in addition to fundamental issues related to global CO2 balance in orogenic belts and tectonically active zones, these small scale (100-meter) CO2 discharge sites emerge as a potentially useful laboratory for detailed methodological studies of diffusive and advective gas transport. Recently, the search for further gas discharge zones has been carried out using various clues

  8. An Overture for eCAM: Science, Technology and Innovation Initiation for Prosperous, Healthy Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaphle, Krishna; Bhuju, Dinesh Raj; Jha, Pramod Kr; Bhattarai, Hom Nath

    2011-01-01

    Nepal the "Shangri-La" in the lap of the Himalayas is gearing up for modern times as it starts rebuilding after a decade of senseless violence and destruction. The nation one of the poorest in the global development index is rich in natural resources and biodiversity. Reports of medicinal plants far exceeding those recorded and reported so far are encouraging and at the same time concerns for medicinal plants under threat as a result of overexploitation are emerging from Nepal. The harsh mountain terrains, lack of industrialization and harnessing potentiality of its areas of strength; water; natural resources and tourism make it poor in per capita income which averages ~ 300 US$, with half the population living under >1$ a day. Nepal is beginning to realize that the way ahead is only possible through the path of Science and Technology (ST). Nepal Academy of Science and Technology formerly known as Royal Academy of Science and Technology organized the fifth national conference held every 4 years that took place in the capital Kathmandu during November 10-12, 2008. The ST initiation event saw the participation of ~ 1400 people representing over 150 organizations from the country and experts from abroad. The theme for the fifth national meet was "Science, Technology and Innovation for Prosperous Nepal". Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) was an important theme in the event as the realization for the need of ST research focused in CAM for harnessing the chemo diversity potential was univocally approved.

  9. Boundary element analysis of active mountain building and stress heterogeneity proximal to the 2015 Nepal earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, T. B.; Meade, B. J.

    2015-12-01

    The Himalayas are the tallest mountains on Earth with ten peaks exceeding 8000 meters, including Mt. Everest. The geometrically complex fault system at the Himalayan Range Front produces both great relief and great earthquakes, like the recent Mw=7.8 Nepal rupture. Here, we develop geometrically accurate elastic boundary element models of the fault system at the Himalayan Range Front including the Main Central Thrust, South Tibetan Detachment, Main Frontal Thrust, Main Boundary Thrust, the basal detachment, and surface topography. Using these models, we constrain the tectonic driving forces and frictional fault strength required to explain Quaternary fault slip rate estimates. These models provide a characterization of the heterogeneity of internal stress in the region surrounding the 2015 Nepal earthquake.

  10. Dropout of Children from schools in Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Wagle, Dhirendra

    2012-01-01

    Nepal, a developing country of the south-asian region has bigger problem of children not completing the full cycle of basic education. In other words, large number of children dropout of schools, especially in the primary and secondary level of schooling. Especially, the situation is worse for those of the backward and socially disadvantaged populations and of the rural and the remote areas. Being in this frame, this study focused on the reasons of dropout of children from schools and the pos...

  11. National health insurance policy in Nepal: challenges for implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiva Raj Mishra

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The health system in Nepal is characterized by a wide network of health facilities and community workers and volunteers. Nepal's Interim Constitution of 2007 addresses health as a fundamental right, stating that every citizen has the right to basic health services free of cost. But the reality is a far cry. Only 61.8% of the Nepalese households have access to health facilities within 30 min, with significant urban (85.9% and rural (59% discrepancy. Addressing barriers to health services needs urgent interventions at the population level. Recently (February 2015, the Government of Nepal formed a Social Health Security Development Committee as a legal framework to start implementing a social health security scheme (SHS after the National Health Insurance Policy came out in 2013. The program has aimed to increase the access of health services to the poor and the marginalized, and people in hard to reach areas of the country, though challenges remain with financing. Several aspects should be considered in design, learning from earlier community-based health insurance schemes that suffered from low enrollment and retention of members as well as from a pro-rich bias. Mechanisms should be built for monitoring unfair pricing and unaffordable copayments, and an overall benefit package be crafted to include coverage of major health services including non-communicable diseases. Regulations should include such issues as accreditation mechanisms for private providers. Health system strengthening should move along with the roll-out of SHS. Improving the efficiency of hospital, motivating the health workers, and using appropriate technology can improve the quality of health services. Also, as currently a constitution drafting is being finalized, careful planning and deliberation is necessary about what insurance structure may suit the proposed future federal structure in Nepal.

  12. Early and Forced Child Marriages in Rural Western Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Pitambar Acharya; Benjamin Welsh

    2017-01-01

    After reviewing the state of early and forced child marriage (ECM) globally and nationally within Nepal, this research assessed the determinants, consequences and preventive measures of ECM in rural municipalities in Nepal today. This mixed method surveyed 167 households taking 15 % sample from the clusters of three wards of Badhaiyatal Rural Municipality in Bardiya and Dullu Municipality in Dailekh of Western Nepal. Besides household survey, six Focus Group Discussions (FGDs), 16 Key Informa...

  13. Strong sustainability in Nepal: A structural economics approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devkota, Surendra R.

    This dissertation analyzes the sustainability of the economy of Nepal. The main empirical question addressed is whether the Tenth Plan of Nepal (2002--2007) will meet its projected economic output goal and achieve its primary goal of reducing poverty. To this end, economic growth scenarios are examined in terms of availability of energy demand and supply, and income disparity among different households. The structure of the Nepali economy is examined using a Leontief input-output table, a Ghosian supply-side input-output table, and a social accounting matrix for the year 1999. Based on the input-output analysis of energy demand and supply for the 10th Plan, it is unlikely that energy requirements of the projected output will be met, unless some extra sources of energy are developed. Households need to switch their energy use from fuel wood/biomass to other alternatives. In order to meet the target of the Plan vis-a-vis energy demand or supply, a few policy measures are urgently needed, though some of these options require many years to develop. Household income inequality and distribution is examined through the SAM multipliers; namely aggregate, transfer, open-loop, and closed-loop multipliers. The investment-income multiplier scenarios for the 10th Plan indicate that the nominal income of households may increase due to the increased investment, which will not necessarily improve the bottom deciles households, particularly socio-economically deprived households. Economic growth in Nepal during the past fifty years demonstrates that the modernization model is unsuccessful. Economic growth occurred at some centers at the cost of periphery. A huge regional disparity has developed between hills and plains, east and west, city and rural areas. Nepal's persistent poverty indicates a failure of modernization theory. The Tenth Plan would be another continuation of a failed legacy, unless social and natural endowments are considered for sustainability. Nepal could be an

  14. Determinants of farmers' choice for veterinary service providers in Nepal Mountains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamichhane, Dirga Kumar; Shrestha, Sabina

    2012-08-01

    This study was aimed to analyze factors that affect farmers' choice for major actors of veterinary service providers in village areas of Kaski district of Nepal, with the objective of identifying choice-specific attributes which could be addressed for improving the penetration of professional veterinary services in village areas. The information was obtained from 125 farmers using a structured questionnaire. A proportional hazard model was used for data analysis because of its ability to accommodate the attributes of both the chooser and the choice simultaneously. The results showed that village animal health workers (VAHWs) were the most preferred service providers followed by veterinarians and mid-level technicians. The farmers' age and education level had a significant but inverse relationship with the probability of choosing any of the three service providers. From our study, we found that the main choice-specific attributes with a significant impact on the choice probability was the distance to the preferred service provider. Since there was a high preference for VAHW, this suggests the possibility of poorly trained service providers dominating veterinary service market in village areas of Kaski district. Hence, the efforts put forward in the legalization of VAHW system in Nepal should first address the constraints that obstruct the accessibility of professional veterinary service providers in village areas.

  15. Development of 2010 national land cover database for the Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddin, Kabir; Shrestha, Him Lal; Murthy, M S R; Bajracharya, Birendra; Shrestha, Basanta; Gilani, Hammad; Pradhan, Sudip; Dangol, Bikash

    2015-01-15

    Land cover and its change analysis across the Hindu Kush Himalayan (HKH) region is realized as an urgent need to support diverse issues of environmental conservation. This study presents the first and most complete national land cover database of Nepal prepared using public domain Landsat TM data of 2010 and replicable methodology. The study estimated that 39.1% of Nepal is covered by forests and 29.83% by agriculture. Patch and edge forests constituting 23.4% of national forest cover revealed proximate biotic interferences over the forests. Core forests constituted 79.3% of forests of Protected areas where as 63% of area was under core forests in the outside protected area. Physiographic regions wise forest fragmentation analysis revealed specific conservation requirements for productive hill and mid mountain regions. Comparative analysis with Landsat TM based global land cover product showed difference of the order of 30-60% among different land cover classes stressing the need for significant improvements for national level adoption. The online web based land cover validation tool is developed for continual improvement of land cover product. The potential use of the data set for national and regional level sustainable land use planning strategies and meeting several global commitments also highlighted. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Impact of mass media on the utilization of antenatal care services among women of rural community in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, Dilaram; Khanal, Vishnu; Singh, Jitendra Kumar; Adhikari, Mandira; Gautam, Salila

    2015-08-12

    Antenatal care has several benefits for expecting mothers and birth outcomes; yet many mothers do not utilise this service in Nepal. Mass media may play an important role in increasing the use of antenatal care and other maternal health services. However, the effect of mass media on increasing health service utilisation has remained an under studied area in Nepal. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of mass media on the utilisation of antenatal care services in rural Nepal. A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in Sinurjoda Village Development Committee of Dhanusha District, Nepal. A total of 205 mothers of children aged under 1 year were selected using systematic random sampling. Logistic regression was employed to examine the association between selected antenatal care services and mass media exposure after adjusting for other independent variables. A majority of mothers were exposed to mass media. Radio was accessible to most (60.0%) of the participants followed by television (43.41%). Mothers exposed to mass media were more likely to attending antenatal visits [Odds ratio (OR) 6.28; 95% CI (1.01-38.99)], taking rest and sleep during pregnancy [OR 2.65; 95% CI (1.13-6.26)], and receiving TT immunization [OR 5.12; 95% CI (1.23-21.24)] than their non-exposed counterparts. The study reported a positive influence of mass media on the utilisation of antenatal care services in Nepal. Therefore, further emphasis should be given to increase awareness of women of rural Nepal through mass media to improve utilisation of antenatal care services in Nepal.

  17. Linking Attitudes, Policy, and Forest Cover Change in Buffer Zone Communities of Chitwan National Park, Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapp, Jared R.; Lilieholm, Robert J.; Leahy, Jessica; Upadhaya, Suraj

    2016-06-01

    Deforestation in Nepal threatens the functioning of complex social-ecological systems, including rural populations that depend on forests for subsistence, as well as Nepal's biodiversity and other ecosystem services. Nepal's forests are particularly important to the nation's poorest inhabitants, as many depend upon them for daily survival. Two-thirds of Nepal's population relies on forests for sustenance, and these pressures are likely to increase in the future. This, coupled with high population densities and growth rates, highlights the importance of studying the relationship between human communities, forest cover trends through time, and forest management institutions. Here, we used surveys to explore how household attitudes associated with conservation-related behaviors in two rural communities—one that has experienced significant forest loss, and the other forest gain—compare with forest cover trends as indicated by satellite-derived forest-loss and -regeneration estimates between 2005 and 2013. Results found a significant difference in attitudes in the two areas, perhaps contributing to and reacting from current forest conditions. In both study sites, participation in community forestry strengthened support for conservation, forest conservation-related attitudes aligned with forest cover trends, and a negative relationship was found between economic status and having supportive forest conservation-related attitudes. In addition, on average, respondents were not satisfied with their district forest officers and did not feel that the current political climate in Nepal supported sustainable forestry. These findings are important as Nepal's Master Plan for the Forestry Sector has expired and the country is in the process of structuring a new Forestry Sector Strategy.

  18. Linking Attitudes, Policy, and Forest Cover Change in Buffer Zone Communities of Chitwan National Park, Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapp, Jared R; Lilieholm, Robert J; Leahy, Jessica; Upadhaya, Suraj

    2016-06-01

    Deforestation in Nepal threatens the functioning of complex social-ecological systems, including rural populations that depend on forests for subsistence, as well as Nepal's biodiversity and other ecosystem services. Nepal's forests are particularly important to the nation's poorest inhabitants, as many depend upon them for daily survival. Two-thirds of Nepal's population relies on forests for sustenance, and these pressures are likely to increase in the future. This, coupled with high population densities and growth rates, highlights the importance of studying the relationship between human communities, forest cover trends through time, and forest management institutions. Here, we used surveys to explore how household attitudes associated with conservation-related behaviors in two rural communities-one that has experienced significant forest loss, and the other forest gain-compare with forest cover trends as indicated by satellite-derived forest-loss and -regeneration estimates between 2005 and 2013. Results found a significant difference in attitudes in the two areas, perhaps contributing to and reacting from current forest conditions. In both study sites, participation in community forestry strengthened support for conservation, forest conservation-related attitudes aligned with forest cover trends, and a negative relationship was found between economic status and having supportive forest conservation-related attitudes. In addition, on average, respondents were not satisfied with their district forest officers and did not feel that the current political climate in Nepal supported sustainable forestry. These findings are important as Nepal's Master Plan for the Forestry Sector has expired and the country is in the process of structuring a new Forestry Sector Strategy.

  19. Communicating awareness of light pollution with the schools in Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, Jayanta

    2015-08-01

    Nepal is also highly polluted by the lights and other dusts partials, but lacks the formal education of light pollutions and effect of light for astronomy observations. When we get Sky Quality Meter (SQM) last year (2014) we have installed it in Kathmandu.This paper will highlight about installation SQM in Nepal, measurement of brightness of the night sky in magnitudes per square arc second. Research work of light pollution of Kathmandu will be more in focus. Highlight of the Astronomy programs by different Schools in Nepal along with the background of coverage of Astronomy education in the syllables of different education level. The various procedure , technique and idea used in providing the space education through different activities and program to school studentsThe paper will also deal with the Importance of light and use of artificial light. Beside it will also highlight the possibility of development of various observatories in Nepal because of its tremendous topography increasing the Astro tourism in Nepal.Hence the paper would focus on the light pollution of the city like Kathmandu and light system in Nepal and Astronomy education to its implementation along with its outreach to Nepalese society.

  20. Tree ring variability and climate response of Abies spectabilis along an elevation gradient in Mustang, Nepal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kharal, D.K.; Meilby, Henrik; Rayamajhi, S.

    2014-01-01

    In mountainous areas including the Himalayas, tree lines are expected to advance to higher altitudes due to global climate change affecting the distribution and growth of plant species. This study aimed at identifying the tree ring variability of Abies spectabilis (D. Don) and its response...... to the climate along an elevation gradient in the high Himalayas of central Nepal. Tree core samples were collected from four sites in Mustang district. All sites were located in the same valley and exposed to similar weather conditions. Out of 232 samples collected from the sites, Titi lower (2700 m), Titi......-elevation sites the correlation between pre-monsoon precipitation and tree growth was positive, and for the month of May this was statistically significant (ptree growth at all sites, and at the upper elevation...

  1. Innovation in a Hybrid System: The Example of Nepal | Urscheler ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Nepali legal tradition is a legal hybrid in many regards. Nepal was not colonised by a Western state, and the Hindu legal tradition therefore dominated all areas of law until the middle of the 20th century. Since the 1950s there has been a strong influence of Indian common law. It is probably for this reason that ...

  2. Sedimentology and uranium prospecting of the Siwaliks in Western Nepal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, Terumasa

    1982-01-01

    The Siwaliks (Miocene to Pleistocene) distributed along the southern side of the Main Boundary Thrust in Nepal are composed of conglomerates, sandstones, mudstones and lignites. The lower and Middle Siwaliks show various kinds of cyclic repetition in their lithofacies and sedimentary structures. A generalized unit of the cycles consists of sandstones, mudstones and lignites from bottom to top. The sandstones are well-stratified and frequently cross-bedded while the mudstones exhibit massive aspect occasionally with lenticular bedding. In the unit, each lithofacies gradually change into overlying one whereas the boundaries between units are mostly discontinuous and erosional. These cyclic sedimentation, sedimentary structures and fossil evidence suggest the Siwaliks to have been deposited in coastal environments of a fresh water basin. The conglomerates of the Middle and Upper Siwaliks of the investigated area do not contain any High Himalayan rocks such as gneisses and granites. The composition of the conglomerates combined with the palaeocurrent data reveals the sediments to be derived mainly from the Lesser Himalayas just north of the Main Boundary Thrust. As in Pakistan, uranium deposits are expected to occur in the Siwalik sandstones in Nepal. In most places, however, the Siwaliks would have less possibility of uranium occurrence because the Lesser Himalayas do not contain big granite bodies from which uranium minerals are supposed to be originated. In the High Himalayas, granitic rocks are widely distributed, and three big rivers of Nepal have percolated through them and transported the sediments into the Siwalik basin from the ancient time. It seems to be more effective to concentrate our uranium prospecting to the area where these rivers have descended into the Siwalik basin. (author)

  3. Overview of Nepal's energy sources and environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, C. K.

    In the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal faces environmental problems of most industrialized countries whereas it has problems similar to the least developed countries, in the hills. Types and quantity of energy use have a close link with the environmental degradation in Nepal Himalaya. Over dependence on the forest to meet the energy demand in the hills has aggravated the environmental problems. Lack of forest cover on the hills, the intense monsoon rain, the fragile geology and steep terrain are contributing to the acceleration of landslides, soil erosion and temperature rise. The rise of average minimum temperature is causing glaciers to retreat and thereby the development of large bodies of glacial lake. Glacial lake outbursts of 1981 in Kodari and of 1985 in Namche bazar area caused extensive damage on infrastructures down stream. Heavy use of commercial fuel (hydrocarbons) in the bowl shaped Kathmandu valley is causing air and water pollution and an increase in the average minimum temperature. Extensive development of hydropower, biogas plants and massive reforestation on naked hills and efficient use of imported hydrocarbons are the solution to existing energy and environmental problems.

  4. PREVALENCE OF LYMPHATIC FILARIASIS, MALARIA AND SOIL TRANSMITTED HELMINTHIASIS IN A COMMUNITY OF BARDIYA DISTRICT, WESTERN NEPAL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjitkar, Samir; Alifrangis, Michael; Adhikari, Madhav; Olsen, Annette; Simonsen, Paul E; Meyrowitsch, Dan Wolf

    2014-11-01

    Lymphatic filariasis (LF), malaria and soil transmitted helminthiasis (STH) cause major health problems in Nepal, but in spite of this very few stud- ies have been carried out on these parasitic infections in Nepal. A cross sectional survey of all three categories of parasitic infections was carried out in Deuda- kala Village of Bardiya District, western Nepal. A total of 510 individuals aged 5 years and above were examined from finger prick blood for circulating filarial antigen (CFA), malaria antigen using a rapid diagnostic test (RDT), and malaria DNA using a PCR-based assay. In addition, 317 individuals were examined for soil-transmitted helminth (STH) eggs by the Kato-Katz technique. Prevalence of LF, malaria (antigen) and STH infection was 25.1%, 0.6% and 18.3%, respectively. PCR analysis did not detect any additional malaria cases. The prevalence of LF and STH infections differ significantly among different age groups and ethnic communities. The high prevalence of LF in the community studied indicates an immediate need for implementing a mass drug administration program for its control in this particular geographical area of Nepal.

  5. Performance evaluation of commercial maize hybrids across diverse Terai environments during the winter season in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahendra Prasad Tripathi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The hybrid maize cultivars of multinational seed companies are gradually being popular among the farmers in Nepal. This paper reports on research finding of 117 maize hybrids of 20 seed companies assessed for grain yield and other traits at three sites in winter season of 2011 and 2012. The objective of the study was to identify superior maize hybrids suitable for winter time planting in eastern, central and inner Terai of Nepal. Across site analysis of variance revealed that highly significant effect of genotype and genotype × environment interaction (GEI on grain yield of commercial hybrids. Overall, 47 genotypes of 16 seed companies identified as high yielding and stable based on superiority measures. The statistical analysis ranked topmost three genotypes among tested hybrids as P3856 (10515 kg ha-1, Bisco prince (8763 kg ha-1 as well as Shaktiman (8654 kg ha-1 in the first year; and 3022 (8378 kg ha-1, Kirtiman manik (8323 kg ha-1 as well as Top class (7996 kg ha-1 in the second year. It can be concluded that stable and good performing hybrids identified as potential commercial hybrids for general cultivation on similar environments in Nepal.

  6. Dating and Sex among Emerging Adults in Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regmi, Pramod R.; van Teijlingen, Edwin R.; Simkhada, Padam; Acharya, Dev R.

    2011-01-01

    Social and cultural changes in Nepal, including better communication facilities and transport, more urbanization and a rising age at which people marry, have created more opportunities for young people for "dating." Our qualitative study explores whether the existence of dating cultures influences young people's sexual behavior in Nepal.…

  7. Implementing Nepal's national building code—A case study in patience and persistence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arendt, Lucy; Hortacsu, Ayse; Jaiswal, Kishor; Bevington, John; Shrestha, Surya; Lanning, Forrest; Mentor-William, Garmalia; Naeem, Ghazala; Thibert, Kate

    2017-01-01

    The April 2015 Gorkha Nepal earthquake revealed the relative effectiveness of the Nepal Standard, or national building code (NBC), and irregular compliance with it in different parts of Nepal. Much of the damage to more than half a million Nepal's residential structures may be attributed to the prevalence of owner-built or owner-supervised construction and the lack of owner and builder responsiveness to seismic risk and training in the appropriate means of complying with the NBC. To explain these circumstances, we review the protracted implementation of the NBC and the role played by one organization, the National Society for Earthquake Technology-Nepal (NSET), in the NBC's implementation. We also share observations on building code compliance made by individuals in Nepal participating in workshops led by the Earthquake Engineering Research Institute's 2014 class of Housner Fellows.

  8. Maize production in mid hills of Nepal: from food to feed security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Prasad Timsina

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken in 2016 to analyze the production and utilization of maize in Nepal. Sixty maize growers from Kavre and Lamjung districts were selected using purposive, cluster and simple random sampling techniques. Similarly, six feed industries and five maize experts from Chitwan district were also interviewed. Study shows 56% of the total areas were used for maize production and 50% of the maize areas were covered by hybrid maize. There was no practice of contract maize production. The results revealed that 60%, 25% and 3% of the grain were used for animal feed, food and seed respectively in hill districts. Whereas the remaining amount of the maize (12% was sold to the different buyers. The proportion of maize feed supply to different animals in the study area was varying. Result shows that at least 1.5 million tons of maize is required only to the feed industries affiliated with national feed industry association in Nepal. Similarly, out of total maize used in feed production, 87% of the maize was imported from India each year by feed industries. Analysis shows negative correlation between scale of feed production and use of domestic maize due to unavailability of required quantity of maize in time. The major pre-condition of feed industries for maize buying was moisture content which must be equal or less than 14%. Very little or no inert materials and physical injury, free from fungal attack and bigger size were also the criteria for maize buying. However, some of the feed industries were also thinking about protein and amino acid contents. Result shows 13% and 8.5% increasing demand of poultry feed and animal feed, respectively over the last five year in Nepal. Most likely, maize is known as a means of food security in Nepal, however, in the context of changing utilization patterns at the farm level and also tremendous increasing demand of maize at the industry level suggest to give more focus on development and dissemination of

  9. Tortricoidea from Nepal, 2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diakonoff, A.

    1976-01-01

    Introduction ... 3 Cochylidae ... 5 Tortricidae, Olethreutinae, Laspeyresiini ... 10 Tortricinae, Tortricini ... 48 Polyorthini ... 67 Sparganothidini ... 69 Ceracini ... 70 Archipini ... 71 Cnephasiini ... 128 Chlidanotinae ... 132 Appendix 1. Matsumuraeses species from Nepal, treated elsewhere ...

  10. Factors Affecting Adoption of Improved Rice Varieties among Rural Farm Households in Central Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raju Ghimire

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of improved high yielding crop varieties is an important avenue for reducing hunger and food insecurity in developing countries. Using cross-sectional data obtained from a survey conducted during 2013 crop season, we performed a probit model (plot-level analysis to determine the probability of adopting new improved rice varieties (NIRVs by smallholder farmers particularly from two main agro-ecological regions (hills and tropical plain terai regions of Central Nepal. The results revealed that education, extension services and seed access play significant roles in adoption decisions. Additionally, farm and field characteristic variables such as farm size, endowment of favorable land type (e.g. lowlands, and animal power (e.g. oxen are the key factors influencing the probability of adopting NIRVs. The results showed that technology specific variables (e.g. yield potential and acceptability are significant for explaining adoption behavior, implying that it is important to take farmers’ preferences to varietal characteristics into consideration in the design of a research and development program. Given the significant role played by extension and access related variables, increased emphasis on information dissemination, field demonstration, and farmers’ participatory research and training programs to popularize new rice varieties and enhance their adoption rate are required. This also suggests that policy intervention should be made on improving the educational status of farming households, and developing programs on varietal package of rice seed which offer farmers a variety of choices among the appropriate pools of germplasm. Such programs ultimately help farmers develop more profit-oriented behavior which are necessary to enhance adoption rate, production and food security in the long run.

  11. Support to the Safe Motherhood Programme in Nepal: an integrated approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Carol E; Bird, Cherry E; Pradhan, Ajit; Shakya, Ganga

    2007-11-01

    Evidence gathered from 1997 to 2006 indicates progress in reducing maternal mortality in Nepal, but public health services are still constrained by resource and staff shortages, especially in rural areas. The five-year Support to the Safe Motherhood Programme builds on the experience of the Nepal Safer Motherhood Project (1997-2004). It is working with the Government of Nepal to build capacity to institute a minimum package of essential maternity services, linking evidence-based policy development with health system strengthening. It has supported long-term planning, working towards skilled attendance at every birth, safe blood supplies, staff training, building management capacity, improving monitoring systems and use of process indicators, promoting dialogue between women and providers on quality of care, and increasing equity and access at district level. An incentives scheme finances transport costs to a health facility for all pregnant women and incentives to health workers attending deliveries, with free services and subsidies to facilities in the poorest 25 districts. Despite bureaucracy, frequent transfer of key government staff and political instability, there has been progress in policy development, and public health sector expenditure has increased. For the future, a human resources strategy with career paths that encourage skilled staff to stay in the government service is key.

  12. Traditional uses of medicinal plants in gastrointestinal disorders in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rokaya, Maan B; Uprety, Yadav; Poudel, Ram C; Timsina, Binu; Münzbergová, Zuzana; Asselin, Hugo; Tiwari, Achyut; Shrestha, Shyam S; Sigdel, Shalik R

    2014-12-02

    importance of medicinal plants used to treat gastrointestinal disorders in the traditional health care system of Nepal. As such disorders are still causing several deaths each year, it is of the utmost importance to conduct phytochemical and pharmacological studies on the most promising species. It is also crucial to increase access to traditional medicine, especially in rural areas. Threatened species need special attention for traditional herbal medicine to be exploited sustainably. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. 41 CFR 102-83.85 - What is a central business area?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is a central business area? 102-83.85 Section 102-83.85 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property... Location of Space Urban Areas § 102-83.85 What is a central business area? Central business area (CBA...

  14. Evaluation of Etiology and Treatment Methods for Epistaxis: A Review at a Tertiary Care Hospital in Central Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Epistaxis is one of the most common emergencies in Otorhinolaryngology. It is usually managed with simple conservative measures but occasionally it is a life threatening condition. Identification of the cause is important, as it reflects the management plan being followed. Aims and Objectives. To analyze the etiology and treatment methods for patients with epistaxis. Methods. A retrospective study was done in a tertiary care hospital in central Nepal. The study period was from May 2014 to April 2015. Results. A total of 84 patients had epistaxis; 52 were males and 32 were females. The most common cause of epistaxis was idiopathic (38.09%) followed by hypertension (27.38%), trauma (15.47%), and coagulopathy (8.33%). Regarding treatment methods, most (52.38%) of our patients required anterior nasal packing. Chemical cautery was sufficient to stop bleeding in 14.28% of patients while electrocautery and posterior nasal packing were performed in 2.38% and 16.66% patients, respectively. Two (2.38%) patients required endoscopic sphenopalatine arterial ligation. Conclusion. Hypertension, trauma and coagulopathy were the most common etiological factors among the patients in whom etiology was found although in most of the patients etiology could not be found. Anterior nasal packing was the most common treatment method applied to these patients. PMID:26346242

  15. Evaluation of Etiology and Treatment Methods for Epistaxis: A Review at a Tertiary Care Hospital in Central Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parajuli, Ramesh

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Epistaxis is one of the most common emergencies in Otorhinolaryngology. It is usually managed with simple conservative measures but occasionally it is a life threatening condition. Identification of the cause is important, as it reflects the management plan being followed. Aims and Objectives. To analyze the etiology and treatment methods for patients with epistaxis. Methods. A retrospective study was done in a tertiary care hospital in central Nepal. The study period was from May 2014 to April 2015. Results. A total of 84 patients had epistaxis; 52 were males and 32 were females. The most common cause of epistaxis was idiopathic (38.09%) followed by hypertension (27.38%), trauma (15.47%), and coagulopathy (8.33%). Regarding treatment methods, most (52.38%) of our patients required anterior nasal packing. Chemical cautery was sufficient to stop bleeding in 14.28% of patients while electrocautery and posterior nasal packing were performed in 2.38% and 16.66% patients, respectively. Two (2.38%) patients required endoscopic sphenopalatine arterial ligation. Conclusion. Hypertension, trauma and coagulopathy were the most common etiological factors among the patients in whom etiology was found although in most of the patients etiology could not be found. Anterior nasal packing was the most common treatment method applied to these patients.

  16. Evaluation of Etiology and Treatment Methods for Epistaxis: A Review at a Tertiary Care Hospital in Central Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh Parajuli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Epistaxis is one of the most common emergencies in Otorhinolaryngology. It is usually managed with simple conservative measures but occasionally it is a life threatening condition. Identification of the cause is important, as it reflects the management plan being followed. Aims and Objectives. To analyze the etiology and treatment methods for patients with epistaxis. Methods. A retrospective study was done in a tertiary care hospital in central Nepal. The study period was from May 2014 to April 2015. Results. A total of 84 patients had epistaxis; 52 were males and 32 were females. The most common cause of epistaxis was idiopathic (38.09% followed by hypertension (27.38%, trauma (15.47%, and coagulopathy (8.33%. Regarding treatment methods, most (52.38% of our patients required anterior nasal packing. Chemical cautery was sufficient to stop bleeding in 14.28% of patients while electrocautery and posterior nasal packing were performed in 2.38% and 16.66% patients, respectively. Two (2.38% patients required endoscopic sphenopalatine arterial ligation. Conclusion. Hypertension, trauma and coagulopathy were the most common etiological factors among the patients in whom etiology was found although in most of the patients etiology could not be found. Anterior nasal packing was the most common treatment method applied to these patients.

  17. Urban air quality of kathmandu valley "Kingdom of Nepal"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, C. K.

    The oval shaped tectonic basin of Kathmandu valley, occupying about 656 sq.km is situated in the middle sector of Himalayan range. There are three districts in the valley, i.e. Kathmandu, Lalitpur and Bhaktapur. Out of the three, the most populated is Kathmandu city (the capital of Kingdom of Nepal) which has a population of 668,00 in an area of approximately 50 km 2. The energy consumption of the city population is about 1/3 of the total import to Nepal of gasoline, diesel, kerosene, furnace oil and cooking gas. This has resulted heavy pollution of air in the city leading to bronchitis, and throat and chest diseases. Vehicles have increased several fold in recent months and there are 100,000 in number on the road and they have 900 km of road, out of which only 25% is metalled. Most of the two and three wheelers are polluting the air by emission of gases as well as dust particulate. SO 2 has been found to go as high as 202 μg cm -3 and NO 2 to 126 μg cm -3 particularly in winter months when a thick layer of fog covers the valley up to 10 am in the morning. All the gases are mixed within the limited air below the fog and the ground. This creates the problem. Furthermore, municipal waste of 500 m 3 a day and also liquid waste dumped directly into the Bagmati river at the rate of 500,000 ℓ d -1 makes the city ugly and filthy. Unless pollution of air, water and lard are controlled in time, Nepal will lose much of its foreign exchange earnings from the tourist industry. It is found that tourist arrivals have considerably reduced in recent years and most of hotels occupancy is 50-60% in peak time. Nepal is trying to introduce a legal framework for pollution control but it will take time to become effective.

  18. Use of solar parabolic cookers (SK-14) in Nepal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shrestha, S. [Asia Network for Small Scale Bioresources, Kathmandu (Nepal)

    2000-07-01

    Solar Cooker is a device that uses only sunlight to cook food and pasteurise water. Solar cooker can be used along with other cooking devices to save cost, fuel and the time spent in gathering fuelwood. Solar cooking enables individual families to do without commercially sold fuel and help save money. In Nepal, supply of energy is one of the major problems for both urban and rural households. Increase in population, high migration, expensive fuel bills, environmental degradation, and unsafe drinking water have resulted in the keen interest from people of Nepal in the use of solar energy. The increasing number of tourists and trekkers are now one of the major sources of income and many people are engaged in running hotels, lodges, and restaurants. This has also increased the fuel demand. This paper highlights the current energy situation of Nepal, the technical details of solar parabolic cooker (SK-14), its uses throughout Nepal, strategies adopted by various organisations for its promotion. A lot of effort have been made by various organisations, educational, governmental and health related institutions in order to introduce solar cooking programs in villages of Nepal. The parameters, which have influenced the adoption of this technology in Nepal are also mentioned. Various awareness programs and the government subsidy program are playing considerable role in dissemination of such technologies. The promotion activities with the objective of mass awareness have long term effect and sustainable rather than instant business. Continued efforts to create awareness, development of models as well as proper promotion and dissemination are required. (au)

  19. AN ANALYSIS OF IMPORTANT POLICIES FOR ACCELERATING DEVELOPMENT IN NEPAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudarshan Neupane

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Nepal belongs to one of the least developed countries around the world with HDI 157 out of 187 countries (UNDP 2013. Even though poverty in Nepal has reduced to 24.8% in the latest census, the livelihoods of the poorest people living in the remote communities are still vulnerable. Two third of the population still depends on the subsistence agriculture. Similarly, due to lack of job opportunities, youth migration is escalating and Nepal is facing one of the most critical phases of development in its history (Snellinger 2009. Inadequate infrastructure and poor road connectivity are other constraints for the development (World Bank 2011. It follows that, poor access to electricity is another challenge despite the country’s enormous potential for hydroelectricity. Similarly, Nepal  has huge prospective for tourism due to its unique natural resources (Bhandari 2004. Nonetheless, Nepal has not benefited optimally from the tourism sector for its self-sustained development. Recently Government of Nepal (2011 has announced diverse policies for accelerating development through proper utilization of local resources. This paper critically evaluates the crucial policies such as Agriculture Development Strategy, National Cooperatives Policy, National Youth Policy, and Micro-hydro for Rural Development, and Tourism for Development. The paper discusses each of these policies’ background; critically analyse the likelihood as well as challenges for fast-tracking development; and finally offers some recommendations based discussion and analysis.

  20. Spatiotemporal variations of hydrogeochemistry and its controlling factors in the Gandaki River Basin, Central Himalaya Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pant, Ramesh Raj; Zhang, Fan; Rehman, Faizan Ur; Wang, Guanxing; Ye, Ming; Zeng, Chen; Tang, Handuo

    2018-05-01

    The characterization and assessment of water quality in the head water region of Himalaya is necessary, given the immense importance of this region in sustaining livelihoods of people and maintaining ecological balance. A total of 165 water samples were collected from 55 sites during pre-monsoon, monsoon and post-monsoon seasons in 2016 from the Gandaki River Basin of the Central Himalaya, Nepal. The pH, EC values and TDS concentrations were measured in-situ and the concentrations of major ions (Ca 2+ , Mg 2+ , K + , Na + , Cl - , SO 4 2- , NO 3 - ) and Si were analyzed in laboratory. Correlation matrices, paired t-test, cluster analysis, principal component analysis (PCA), the Piper, Gibbs, and Mixing plots, and saturation index were applied to the measurements for evaluating spatiotemporal variation of the major ions. The results reveal mildly alkaline pH values and the following pattern of average ionic dominance: Ca 2+ >Mg 2+ >Na + >K + for cations and HCO 3 - >SO 4 2 - >Cl - >NO 3 - for anions. The results of PCA, Gibbs plot and the ionic relationships displayed the predominance of geogenic weathering processes in areas with carbonate dominant lithology. This conclusion is supported by geochemically different water facies identified in the Piper plot as Ca-HCO 3 (83.03%), mixed Ca-Mg-Cl (12.73.0%) and Ca-Cl (4.24%). Pronounced spatiotemporal heterogeneity demonstrates the influence of climatic, geogenic and anthropogenic conditions. For instance, the Ca 2+ -SO 4 2- , Mg 2+ -SO 4 2- and Na + -Cl - pairs exhibit strong positive correlation with each other in the upstream region, whereas relatively weak correlation in the downstream region, likely indicating the influence of evapo-crystallization processes in the upstream region. Analyses of the suitability of the water supply for drinking and irrigation reveal that the river has mostly retained its natural water quality but poses safety concern at a few locations. Knowledge obtained through this study can

  1. Is Inflation in India an Attractor of Inflation in Nepal?

    OpenAIRE

    Edimon Ginting

    2007-01-01

    The paper attempts to answer some important questions around the inflationary process in Nepal, particularly the transmission of inflation from India. Because the Nepali currency is pegged to the Indian rupee and the two countries share an open border, price developments in Nepal would be expected to mirror to those in India. The results show that inflation in India and inflation in Nepal tend to converge in the long run. Our estimates indicate that the passthrough of inflation from India to ...

  2. Attempts to bring the trained teachers in the schools of Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamsal, Jeevan

    2016-07-01

    To develop space activities and to industrialize astronomy, base of space education in the high schools must be very effective. This paper highlights the present scenario of space education and discusses the syllabus of astronomy in the different education level of Nepal. Astronomy is included in the curriculum of science book of middle school and high school which contains very few contents of solar system, constellations, galaxy, black holes and formation of stars. There is no any degree for higher studies in astronomy as a separate department in any university of Nepal. This paper also highlights the space activities and national level programs conducting in Nepal to support astronomy education. With the rise of many astronomical clubs and societies in the different regions of Nepal, astronomy education has been more effective in the recent time. Series of Galileo Teacher's Training Program in the different parts of Nepal being organized by Global Hands on Universe in cooperation with local astronomy clubs will be discuss in brief. The attempts to bring more trained and skilled teachers in the classroom by the government and non-government agencies are now gradually increasing. The competition of private schools and their capacity building workshops to their teachers to attract more students is also playing active role to shape the school education effective. The challenges, prospects and the practice of effective astronomy education prevailing in Nepal will be discuss. Key Words: Nepal, Astronomy Education, GTTP, Trained Teachers

  3. Systematic adaptive cluster sampling for the assessment of rare tree species in Nepal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Acharya, B.; Bhattarai, G.; Gier, de A.; Stein, A.

    2000-01-01

    Sampling to assess rare tree species poses methodic problems, because they may cluster and many plots with no such trees are to be expected. We used systematic adaptive cluster sampling (SACS) to sample three rare tree species in a forest area of about 40 ha in Nepal. We checked its applicability

  4. Health-sector responses to address the impacts of climate change in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhimal, Meghnath; Dhimal, Mandira Lamichhane; Pote-Shrestha, Raja Ram; Groneberg, David A; Kuch, Ulrich

    2017-09-01

    Nepal is highly vulnerable to global climate change, despite its negligible emission of global greenhouse gases. The vulnerable climate-sensitive sectors identified in Nepal's National Adaptation Programme of Action (NAPA) to Climate Change 2010 include agriculture, forestry, water, energy, public health, urbanization and infrastructure, and climate-induced disasters. In addition, analyses carried out as part of the NAPA process have indicated that the impacts of climate change in Nepal are not gender neutral. Vector-borne diseases, diarrhoeal diseases including cholera, malnutrition, cardiorespiratory diseases, psychological stress, and health effects and injuries related to extreme weather are major climate-sensitive health risks in the country. In recent years, research has been done in Nepal in order to understand the changing epidemiology of diseases and generate evidence for decision-making. Based on this evidence, the experience of programme managers, and regular surveillance data, the Government of Nepal has mainstreamed issues related to climate change in development plans, policies and programmes. In particular, the Government of Nepal has addressed climate-sensitive health risks. In addition to the NAPA report, several policy documents have been launched, including the Climate Change Policy 2011; the Nepal Health Sector Programme - Implementation Plan II (NHSP-IP 2) 2010-2015; the National Health Policy 2014; the National Health Sector Strategy 2015-2020 and its implementation plan (2016-2021); and the Health National Adaptation Plan (H-NAP): climate change and health strategy and action plan (2016-2020). However, the translation of these policies and plans of action into tangible action on the ground is still in its infancy in Nepal. Despite this, the health sector's response to addressing the impact of climate change in Nepal may be taken as a good example for other low- and middle-income countries.

  5. Determining bioclimatic space of Himalayan alder for agroforestry systems in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Kumar Rana

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Himalayan alder species are proven to be very useful in traditional as well as contemporary agroforestry practice. These nitrogen-fixing trees are also useful in the land restoration. Therefore, understanding the distribution of Himalayan alder and the potential zone for plantation is meaningful in the agroforestry sector. Suitable climatic zones of Alnus spp. were modelled in MaxEnt software using a subset of least correlated bioclimatic variables for current conditions (1950–2000, topographic variables (DEM derived and Landuse Landcover (LULC data. We generated several models and selected the best model against random models using ANOVA and t-test. The environmental variables that best explained the current distribution of the species were identified and used to project into the future. For future projections, ensemble scenarios of climate change projection derived from the results of 19 Earth System Models (ESM were used. Our model revealed that the most favorable conditions for Alnus nepalensis are in central Nepal in the moist north-west facing slope, whereas for Alnus nitida they are in western Nepal. The major climatic factor that contributes to Alnus species distribution in Nepal appears to be precipitation during the warmest quarter for A. nepalensis and precipitation during the driest quarter for A. nitida. Future projections revealed changes in the probability distribution of these species, as well as where they need conservation and where they can be planted. Also, our model predicts that the distribution of Alnus spp. in hilly regions will remain unchanged, and therefore may represent sites that can be used to revitalize traditional agroforestry systems and extract source material for land restoration.

  6. Maize production in mid hills of Nepal: from food to feed security

    OpenAIRE

    Krishna Prasad Timsina; Yuga Nath Ghimire; Jeevan Lamichhane

    2016-01-01

    This study was undertaken in 2016 to analyze the production and utilization of maize in Nepal. Sixty maize growers from Kavre and Lamjung districts were selected using purposive, cluster and simple random sampling techniques. Similarly, six feed industries and five maize experts from Chitwan district were also interviewed. Study shows 56% of the total areas were used for maize production and 50% of the maize areas were covered by hybrid maize. There was no practice of contract maize productio...

  7. Teaching English as a Foreign/Second Language in Nepal: Past and Present

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bista, Krishna

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the author reviews the history of English language teaching English as a second or foreign language in schools and colleges in Nepal. Teaching English language and literature in Nepal is of about a half a decade, starting from the mid of twentieth century. English learners in Nepal do not have enough exposure to various techniques…

  8. Dengue virus infection in a French traveller to the hilly region of Nepal in 2015: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Birendra Prasad; Adhikari, Anurag; Rauniyar, Ramanuj; Kurmi, Roshan; Upadhya, Bishnu Prasad; Jha, Bimlesh Kumar; Pandey, Basudev; Das Manandhar, Krishna

    2016-03-21

    Dengue viral infections are known to pose a significant risk during travel to tropical regions, but it is surprising to find dengue transmission in the hilly region of Nepal, which is over 1800mtr above sea level. A 43-year-old Caucasian female traveler from France presented with fever and abdominal pain following a diarrheal illness while visiting the central hilly region of Nepal. Over the course of 9 days, she developed fever, body aches, and joint pain, with hemorrhagic manifestation. She was hospitalized in India and treated with supportive care, with daily monitoring of her platelets. An assessment by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay showed that she was positive for dengue non-structural protein 1. Upon her return to France, dengue virus was confirmed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. The district where this dengue case was reported is in the hilly region of Nepal, neighboring the capital city Kathmandu. To the best of our knowledge, there has previously been no dengue cases reported from the district. This study is important because it aims to establish a potential region of dengue virus circulation not only in the tropics, but also in the subtropics as well, which in Nepal may exceed elevations of 1800mtr. This recent case report has raised alarm among concerned health personnel, researchers, and organizations that this infectious disease is now on the way to becoming established in a temperate climate.

  9. Balancing Energy, Food, Natural Resources and Environment in Nepal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Dilli Bahadur

    2010-09-15

    Nepal could harness less than 1% of its 83000 MW hydropower potential. Pancheshwar Multipurpose Project (6720 MW) is a bi-national project on Mahakali River bordering between Nepal and India. The earnings from: electricity (NRs. 34.55 billion/year); irrigation (NRs. 5.55 billion/year), fish farming (NRs. 8.65 billion/year), carbon trading (NRs. 4.42 billion/year) and many billions from other sources e.g. eco-tourism, industry, horticulture, herbiculture, floriculture, sericulture, rafting and water sports, educational and vocational training and other industrial/commercial activities can catapult the socioeconomic horizon of Nepal. Hence, PMP should be jointly developed in the earliest and build confidence for the further hydropower development.

  10. Conflict management in natural resources : a study of land, water and forest conflicts in Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Upreti, B.R.

    2001-01-01

    This book is based on the research into natural resource (NR)-conflict carried out between 1997 and 2000 in the Dolakha district of central Nepal, and in several reference sites around the country. The study focussed especially on land, water and forest/pasture conflicts and their resolution/management practices. Five inter-connected conflict cases related to irrigation, Guthi -land, spring water source and forest-pasture land were examined and compared with elev...

  11. Scrub Typhus: An Emerging Neglected Tropical Disease in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyaya, B P; Shakya, G; Adhikari, S; Rijal, N; Acharya, J; Maharjan, L; Marasini, B R

    2016-05-01

    Scrub typhus is a neglected tropical disease and is under reported from Nepal. The objective of this study was to investigate the sero-epidemiology of scrub typhus in patients suffering from acute febrile illness. A total of 434 specimens collected from July to November 2015 at National Public Health Laboratory (NPHL) were investigated for detection of immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibody to Orientiatsutsugamushi.The Scrub Typhus Detect TM kit (InBios, USA) was used to detect the antibodies to O.tsutsugamushi in human serum. Randomly selected 10% positive specimens were used for confirmation by dot- enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and indirect immunofluorescence assay. Of the total, 175 (40.3%) were positive for IgM antibodies to O. tsutsugamushi. Positive results of scrub typhus were highest among female in 11-20 year followed by males in 41-50 years age group. The IgM antibodies to O. tsutusugamushi were positive in specimens of various geographical regions including 30 districts of Nepal. Positive cases were found in various ecological regions of Nepal. Scrub typhus is one of the neglected tropical diseases in Nepal. Patients with acute febrile illness should be investigated for scrub typhus with high priority. There is an urgent need of reliable and affordable diagnostic tests at all level of health facilities of Nepal. Surveillance and public health awareness about the disease transmission and preventive measures needs to be initiated.

  12. IDRC in Nepal

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    the spread of disease in Kathmandu. In 1988, when the building of a dam flooded homes and farmland in ... diseases that spread from animals to humans. The research led to the coun- try's first Animal Slaughtering and ... online teaching for mental-health nursing. □ Privacy and new technologies in Asia. Funding for Nepal: ...

  13. Psychosocial rehabilitation and democratic development in Nepal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Triantafillou, Peter; Sassene, Michel

    2011-01-01

    Today, centres and programmes for the rehabilitation of torture victims are found all over the world. In Nepal, one of the world's poorest countries, the Centre for Victims of Torture (CVICT) has since 1990 provided advanced psychosocial rehabilitation programmes. These and similar psychosocial i....... On both a discursive and a technical-practical level, the psychosocial therapy offered by the CVICT is trying to make torture victims align their personal desires and freedom with the political objectives of turning Nepal into a liberal democracy....

  14. Geoid of Nepal from airborne gravity survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forsberg, René; Olesen, Arne Vestergaard; Einarsson, Indriði

    2011-01-01

    An airborne gravity survey of Nepal was carried out December 2010 in a cooperation between DTU-Space, Nepal Survey Department, and NGA, USA. The entire country was flown with survey lines spaced 6 nm with a King Air aircraft, with a varying flight altitude from 4 to 10 km. The survey operations...... as well as recent GPS-heights of Mt. Everest. The new airborne data also provide an independent validation of GOCE gravity field results at the local ~100 km resolution scale....

  15. A direct evidence for high carbon dioxide and radon-222 discharge in Central Nepal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perrier, F.; Byrdina, S.; Richon, P.; Bollinger, L.; Bureau, S.; Richon, P.; France-Lanord, Ch.; Rajaure, S.; Koirala, Bharat Prasad; Shrestha, Prithvi Lal; Gautam, Umesh Prasad; Tiwari, Dilli Ram; Sapkota, Soma Nath; Revil, A.; Revil, A.; Contraires, S.

    2009-01-01

    Gas discharges have been identified at the Syabru-Bensi hot springs, located at the front of the High Himalaya in Central Nepal, in the Main Central Thrust zone. The hot spring waters are characterized by a temperature reaching 61 C, high salinity, high alkalinity and δ 13 C varying from +0. 7 parts per thousand to +4. 8 parts per thousand. The gas is mainly dry carbon dioxide, with a δ 13 C of -0. 8 parts per thousand. The diffuse carbon dioxide flux, mapped by the accumulation chamber method, reached a value of 19000 g m -2 day -1 , which is comparable with values measured on active volcanoes. Similar values have been observed over a two-year time interval and the integral around the main gas discharge amounts to 0. 25 ± 0. 07 mol s -1 , or 350 ± 100 ton a -1 . The mean radon-222 concentration in spring water did not exceed 2. 5 Bq L -1 , exponentially decreasing with water temperature. In contrast, in gas bubbles collected in the water or in the dry gas discharges, the radon concentration varied from 16 000 to 41000 Bq m -3 . In the soil, radon concentration varied from 25000 to more than 50000 Bq m -3 . Radon flux, measured at more than fifty points, reached extreme values, larger than 2 Bq m -2 s -1 , correlated to the larger values of the carbon dioxide flux. Our direct observation confirms previous studies which indicated large degassing in the Himalaya. The proposed understanding is that carbon dioxide is released at mid-crustal depth by metamorphic reactions within the Indian basement, transported along pre-existing faults by meteoric hot water circulation, and degassed before reaching surface. This work, first, confirms that further studies should be undertaken to better constrain the carbon budget of the Himalaya, and, more generally, the contribution of mountain building to the global carbon balance. Furthermore, the evidenced gas discharges provide a unique natural laboratory for methodological studies, and appear particularly important to study as

  16. Internal Migration and Land Use and Land Cover Changes in the Middle Mountains of Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhawana KC

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The movement of rural households from remote uplands to valley floors and to semiurban and urban areas (internal migration is a common phenomenon in the middle mountain districts of Nepal. Understanding the causes and effects of internal migration is critical to the development and implementation of policies that promote land use planning and sustainable resource management. Using geospatial information technologies and social research methods, we investigated the causes and effects of internal migration on land use and land cover patterns in a western mountain district of Nepal between 1998 and 2013. The results show a decreasing number of households at high elevations (above 1400 m, where an increase in forest cover has been observed with a consequent decrease in agricultural land and shrub- or grassland. At lower elevations (below 1400 m, forest cover has remained constant over the last 25 years, and the agricultural land area has increased but has become geometrically complex to meet the diverse needs and living requirements of the growing population. Our findings indicate that internal migration plays an important role in shaping land use and land cover change in the middle mountains of Nepal and largely determines the resource management, utilization, and distribution patterns within a small geographic unit. Therefore, land use planning must take an integrated and interdisciplinary approach rather than considering social, environmental, and demographic information in isolation.

  17. Problem of franchising in Nepal and possible solutions

    OpenAIRE

    K. C., C., Biswas

    2017-01-01

    The study focuses on exploring problems of franchising in Nepal. Its main objective is to discover obstacles franchisees encounter when bringing a franchise to Nepal and recommendations that are beneficial to their success. The thesis considers the topic both from the franchiser’s and the franchisee’s perspectives. In the literature review, the main concepts presented are franchising, franchiser, franchisee, international franchise, types of franchise systems and franchise agreements, pr...

  18. Seasonal Changes in Bird Species and Feeding Guilds along Elevational Gradients of the Central Himalayas, Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katuwal, Hem Bahadur; Basnet, Khadga; Khanal, Bhaiya; Devkota, Shiva; Rai, Sanjeev Kumar; Gajurel, Jyoti Prasad; Scheidegger, Christoph; Nobis, Michael P.

    2016-01-01

    The Himalayas are a global hotspot for bird diversity with a large number of threatened species, but little is known about seasonal changes in bird communities along elevational gradients in this region. We studied the seasonality of bird diversity in six valleys of the Central Himalayas, Nepal. Using 318 plots with a 50 m radius, located from 2200 to 3800 m a.s.l., and repeated sampling during different seasons (mainly pre-monsoon, monsoon, and post-monsoon), we analyzed 3642 occurrences of 178 species. Birds classified in the literature as resident were more species-rich than migratory birds (140 vs. 38 species). In all six valleys and within the studied elevation range, species richness of all birds showed a peak at mid-elevation levels of 2600 or 3000 m a.s.l. Similar patterns were found for the most species-rich feeding guilds of insectivores (96 species) and omnivores (24 species), whereas the species richness of herbivores (37 species including frugivores) increased towards higher elevations. Among these feeding guilds, only species richness of insectivores showed pronounced seasonal changes with higher species numbers during post-monsoon season. Similarly, individual bird species showed distinct spatio-temporal distribution patterns, with transitions from species dominated by elevational differences to those characterized by strong seasonal changes. In an era of climate change, the results demonstrate that individual bird species as well as feeding guilds might greatly differ in their responses to climate warming and changes in the seasonality of the precipitation regime, two aspects of climate change which should not be analyzed independently. PMID:27367903

  19. Student perception about working in rural Nepal after graduation: a study among first- and second-year medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shankar P

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal is a developing country in South Asia with a population of 29.8 million. In September 2011, there were 18 medical schools with 14 being in the private sector. KIST Medical College is a private school in Lalitpur district. The present study was conducted to obtain information on student perceptions about working in rural Nepal after graduation. Methods The study was conducted among first- and second-year undergraduate medical students using a semi-structured questionnaire developed by the authors using inputs from the literature and their experiences of teaching medical students. Year of study, gender, method of financing of medical education, place of family residence and occupation of parents were noted. Participant responses were analysed, grouped together and the number of respondents stating a particular response was noted. Results Of the 200 students, 185 (92.5% participated with 95 being from the first year and 90 from the second. Most students were self-financing and from urban areas. Regarding the question of working in rural Nepal after graduation, 134 (72.4% said they will work after their undergraduate course. Students preferred to work in the government or nongovernmental sector. Student felt doctors are reluctant to serve in rural Nepal due to inadequate facilities, low salary, less security, problems with their professional development, less equipment in health centres, decreased contact with family and difficulties in communicating with an illiterate, rural population. About 43% of respondents felt medical education does not adequately prepare them for rural service. Repeated rural exposure, postings in rural hospitals and health centres, and training students to diagnose and treat illness with less technology were suggested. The median monthly salary expected was 60 000 Nepalese rupees (US$ 820 and was significantly higher among first-year students. Conclusions The

  20. Marginalization of the Tharu Ethnic Group in Tourism Development in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suman Pandit

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study is to analyze how the tourism development has marginalized the Tharu, an indigenous and ethnic group in the Terai region of Nepal. The research for this study was carried out in Chitwan National Park in Nepal, where the Tharu has been residing for a long time. The research work was based on the key informant interviews, participant observation and an analysis of secondary data taken from a variety of sources. The study reveals that the expansion of tourism has led to social differentiation developing between the Tharu and the hill migrants, as most of the business activities in the area are controlled by the hill migrants, while the Tharu have been marginalized. The study also shows that tourism has empowered the hill migrant women more than the Tharu women; as both the group women previously used to depend on their husband’s finances but now the hill migrant women are more financially independent.

  1. Molecular phylogenetic identification of Fasciola flukes in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoriki, Takuya; Ichikawa-Seki, Madoka; Devkota, Bhuminand; Rana, Hari B; Devkota, Shiva P; Humagain, Sudeep K; Itagaki, Tadashi

    2014-12-01

    Eighty-one Fasciola flukes collected from 8 districts in Nepal were analyzed for their species identification on the basis of their spermatogenic status and nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) and for their phylogenetic relation with Fasciola flukes from other Asian countries on the basis of the mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (nad1) gene. Sixty-one flukes (75.3%) were aspermic Fasciola sp., and 20 flukes (24.7%) were identified as Fasciola gigantica. All of the aspermic flukes displayed the Fh/Fg type in ITS1, which was predominant in aspermic Fasciola sp. from China, and most (60 flukes) displayed the Fsp-ND1-N1 haplotype in the nad1, which had an identical nucleotide sequence to the major haplotype (Fg-C2) of the aspermic flukes from China. These results suggest that aspermic Fasciola sp. was introduced into Nepal from China. Furthermore, the results of the diversity indices, neutrality indices, and median-joining network analysis with reference haplotypes from Asian countries suggest that aspermic Fasciola sp. rapidly expanded its distribution. In contrasts, F. gigantica displayed 10 nad1 haplotypes, which showed higher population diversity indices than the haplotypes of aspermic flukes, indicating that the F. gigantica population was clearly distributed in Nepal earlier than the aspermic Fasciola population. Although the F. gigantica haplotypes from Nepal formed a star-like phylogeny consisting of a main founder haplotype (Fg-ND1-N1), together with some F. gigantica haplotypes from Myanmar and Thailand, the Nepal population differed genetically from F. gigantica populations of neighboring countries as each country had distinct founder haplotype(s). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Assessing the land cover situation in Surkhang, Upper Mustang, Nepal, using an ASTER image

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sharma, B.D.; Clevers, J.G.P.W.; Graaf, de N.R.; Chapagain, N.R.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the remote sensing technique used to prepare a land cover map of Surkhang, Upper Mustang Nepal. The latest ASTER image (October 2002) and an ASTER DEM were used for the land cover classification. The study was carried out in Surkhang Village Development Committee (area 799 km2)

  3. Level of awareness about legalization of abortion in Nepal: a study at Nepal Medical College Teaching Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuladhar, H; Risal, A

    2010-06-01

    World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that about 25.0% of all pregnancies worldwide end in induced abortion, approximately 50 million each year. More than half of these abortions are performed under unsafe conditions resulting in high maternal mortality ratio specially in developing countries like Nepal. Abortion was legalized under specified conditions in March 2002 in Nepal. But still a large proportion of population are unaware of the legalization and the conditions under which it is permitted. Legal reform alone cannot reduce abortion related deaths in our country. This study was undertaken with the main objective to study the level of awareness about legalization of abortion in women attending gyne out patients department of Nepal Medical College Teaching Hospital (NMCTH), which will give a baseline knowledge for further dissemination and advocacy about abortion law. Total 200 women participated in the study. Overall 133 (66.5%) women said they were aware of legalization of abortion in Nepal. Women of age group 20-34 years, urban residents, service holders, Brahmin/Chhetri caste and with higher education were more aware about it. Majority (92.0%) of the women received information from the media. Detail knowledge about legal conditions under which abortion can be performed specially in second trimester was found to be poor. Large proportion (71.0%) of the women were still unaware of the availability of comprehensive abortion care services at our hospital, which is being provided since last seven years. Public education and advocacy campaigns are crucial to create awareness about the new legislation and availability of services. Unless the advocacy and awareness campaign reaches women, they are not likely to benefit from the legal reform and services.

  4. Problems of breast cancer survivors living in an urban area of Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abja Sapkota

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The main objective of this study was to identify the problems of Nepalese breast cancer survivors living in an urban area who had completed their treatment for at least 6 months. Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted to assess the problems of breast cancer survivors who were registered at the Nepal Cancer Support Group. Fifty-one women who were diagnosed with breast cancer (Stage 0 to III and were currently disease-free were enrolled in the study. They were interviewed using structured interview schedule using the Breast Cancer Prevention Trial Symptom Scale. Statistical analysis was carried out with SPSS (version 16. Results: The mean age of the women at the time of enrollment was 47.3 years. The most common modality of treatment they received was the combination of surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy (84%. Top five symptoms experienced by the survivors on the basis of frequency and severity were tiredness (61%, lack of energy (57%, forgetfulness (57%, lack of interest in sex (52%, general body aches (49%, and feeling of worrisome and anxiousness about future (49%. Women with age <45 years at diagnosis had higher mean rank score in psychological (24.7 and social problems (23.9 in comparison to women aged ≥45 years. There was a significant relationship between severe psychological (34.9 vs. 19.6; P = 0.001 and social problems (29.1 vs. 21.2; P = 0.03, with the time since primary treatment completion of <1 year. Conclusions: Nepalese breast cancer survivors were found to have multiple physical, psychological, and social problems and might require special attention during follow-up visits.

  5. ADULT EDUCATION IN NEPAL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    HELY, ARNOLD S.M.

    IN THIS REPORT ON ADULT EDUCATION IN NEPAL, THE GEOGRAPHIC, ETHNIC, ECONOMIC, EDUCATIONAL, AND POLITICAL FACTORS AFFECTING SOCIAL, EDUCATIONAL, AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT ARE DISCUSSED. THE EXTENT OF PROGRESS IN NATIONAL EDUCATION (INCLUDING LITERACY CAMPAIGNS) SINCE 1951 PROVIDES BACKGROUND FOR A DESCRIPTION OF THE ADMINISTRATIVE ORGANIZATION AND…

  6. Ruokakulttuuriprojektin suunnittelu ja toteutus – Esimerkkinä Nepal-ruokakulttuuriprojekti

    OpenAIRE

    Laitinen, Kai

    2012-01-01

    Opinnäytetyön tavoitteena oli selvittää, kuinka suunnitellaan ja toteutetaan Nepal-ruokakulttuuriprojekti. Projektin toimeksiantajana oli Vantaan ammattiopisto Varia. Projektin johtamisen kirjallisuus oli teoriaosassa pohjana Nepal-ruokakulttuuriprojektin suun-nitelmassa sekä projektin vaiheissa. Projektin johtamisen kirjallisuuden avulla kuvattiin pro-jektinsuunnitelma ja projektin eri vaiheet. Empiirisenä aineiston hankintamenetelmänä käytettiin teemahaastattelua ja kyselyä. Suomi-v...

  7. Determinants of institutional delivery among young married women in Nepal: Evidence from the Nepal Demographic and Health Survey, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahabuddin, ASM; De Brouwere, Vincent; Adhikari, Ramesh; Delamou, Alexandre; Bardaj, Azucena; Delvaux, Therese

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To identify the determinants of institutional delivery among young married women in Nepal. Design Nepal Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS) data sets 2011 were analysed. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed using a subset of 1662 ever-married young women (aged 15–24 years). Outcome measure Place of delivery. Results The rate of institutional delivery among young married women was 46%, which is higher than the national average (35%) among all women of reproductive age. Young women who had more than four antenatal care (ANC) visits were three times more likely to deliver in a health institution compared with women who had no antenatal care visit (OR: 3.05; 95% CI: 2.40 to 3.87). The probability of delivering in an institution was 69% higher among young urban women than among young women who lived in rural areas. Young women who had secondary or above secondary level education were 1.63 times more likely to choose institutional delivery than young women who had no formal education (OR: 1.626; 95% CI: 1.171 to 2.258). Lower use of a health institution for delivery was also observed among poor young women. Results showed that wealthy young women were 2.12 times more likely to deliver their child in an institution compared with poor young women (OR: 2.107; 95% CI: 1.53 to 2.898). Other factors such as the age of the young woman, religion, ethnicity, and ecological zone were also associated with institutional delivery. Conclusions Maternal health programs should be designed to encourage young women to receive adequate ANC (at least four visits). Moreover, health programs should target poor, less educated, rural, young women who live in mountain regions, are of Janajati ethnicity and have at least one child as such women are less likely to choose institutional delivery in Nepal. PMID:28408543

  8. Catastrophic household expenditure on health in Nepal: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Eiko; Gilmour, Stuart; Rahman, Md Mizanur; Gautam, Ghan Shyam; Shrestha, Pradeep Krishna; Shibuya, Kenji

    2014-10-01

    To determine the incidence of - and illnesses commonly associated with - catastrophic household expenditure on health in Nepal. We did a cross-sectional population-based survey in five municipalities of Kathmandu Valley between November 2011 and January 2012. For each household surveyed, out-of-pocket spending on health in the previous 30 days that exceeded 10% of the household's total expenditure over the same period was considered to be catastrophic. We estimated the incidence and intensity of catastrophic health expenditure. We identified the illnesses most commonly associated with such expenditure using a Poisson regression model and assessed the distribution of expenditure by economic quintile of households using the concentration index. Overall, 284 of the 1997 households studied in Kathmandu, i.e. 13.8% after adjustment by sampling weight, reported catastrophic health expenditure in the 30 days before the survey. After adjusting for confounders, this expenditure was found to be associated with injuries, particularly those resulting from road traffic accidents. Catastrophic expenditure by households in the poorest quintile were associated with at least one episode of diabetes, asthma or heart disease. In an urban area of Nepal, catastrophic household expenditure on health was mostly associated with injuries and noncommunicable diseases such as diabetes and asthma. Throughout Nepal, interventions for the control and management of noncommunicable diseases and the prevention of road traffic accidents should be promoted. A phased introduction of health insurance should also reduce the incidence of catastrophic household expenditure.

  9. The incidence of color blindness among some school children of Pokhara, Western Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niroula, D R; Saha, C G

    2010-03-01

    The incidence of color blindness varies from race to race and different in different geographical area. Since, there is no such report about the prevalence of color blindness in the western part of Nepal, the present study had been conducted to find out the incidence of color blindness among school children of Pokhara city, western Nepal. Participant's (n=964, 474 boys, 490 girls, age group 10 to 19 years) color vision was tested by using Ishihara chart (38 plates). Among 474 boys, 18 boys were color blind with the prevalence of 3.8%. None of girls were found to be color blind. Out of 18 color blind boys, nine, six and three boys were the victims of deuteranopia, deuteranomaly and protanomaly respectively. The incidence of color blindness were more amongst the Darji (14.3%) and Newar (9.1%) ethnic groups.

  10. INNOVATION IN A HYBRID SYSTEM: THE EXAMPLE OF NEPAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukas Heckendorn Urscheler

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The Nepali legal tradition is a legal hybrid in many regards. Nepal was not colonised by a Western state, and the Hindu legal tradition therefore dominated all areas of law until the middle of the 20th century. Since the 1950s there has been a strong influence of Indian common law. It is probably for this reason that comparative classifications that include Nepal see the legal system as a mixture of common law and customary law. However, other mixtures mark the Nepali legal tradition. French law inspired the ruler in the 19th century, and that influence can still be found in the formal law. In addition, the plurality of Nepalese society made it necessary to provide space for different customary regimes to coexist with the formal Hindu law. When it comes to innovations within the legal system, including international law, the different ingredients interact.In family-related matters, the case-law of the Nepali Supreme Court illustrates the confrontation between international legal standards and the traditional rules. The Supreme Court has referred to the culturally conditioned discrimination against women and called for a thorough (political analysis in order to eliminate discrimination without a radical change of culture. In the area of discrimination against homo- and transsexuals the Supreme Court took a more innovative approach. It remains to be seen, however, if such a change is effective beyond the courtroom. In the area of private financial compensation for wrongs, the formal (written Nepali law does not have a general concept of tort. Compensation is generally integrated within the ambit of criminal law. Field research indicates that it would be possible to resort to existing customary principles of compensation rather than to the relatively complex common law of torts favoured by some Nepali scholars. However, this approach might not be without difficulty, as it might imply admitting the “superiority” of the customary practices of

  11. An Overture for eCAM: Science, Technology and Innovation Initiation for Prosperous, Healthy Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Kaphle

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Nepal the “Shangri-La” in the lap of the Himalayas is gearing up for modern times as it starts rebuilding after a decade of senseless violence and destruction. The nation one of the poorest in the global development index is rich in natural resources and biodiversity. Reports of medicinal plants far exceeding those recorded and reported so far are encouraging and at the same time concerns for medicinal plants under threat as a result of overexploitation are emerging from Nepal. The harsh mountain terrains, lack of industrialization and harnessing potentiality of its areas of strength; water; natural resources and tourism make it poor in per capita income which averages ~ 300 US$, with half the population living under >1$ a day. Nepal is beginning to realize that the way ahead is only possible through the path of Science and Technology (ST. Nepal Academy of Science and Technology formerly known as Royal Academy of Science and Technology organized the fifth national conference held every 4 years that took place in the capital Kathmandu during November 10-12, 2008. The ST initiation event saw the participation of ~ 1400 people representing over 150 organizations from the country and experts from abroad. The theme for the fifth national meet was “Science, Technology and Innovation for Prosperous Nepal”. Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM was an important theme in the event as the realization for the need of ST research focused in CAM for harnessing the chemo diversity potential was univocally approved.

  12. Traditional herbal medicine in Far-west Nepal: a pharmacological appraisal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shrestha Keshab P

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plant species have long been used as principal ingredients of traditional medicine in far-west Nepal. The medicinal plants with ethnomedicinal values are currently being screened for their therapeutic potential but their data and information are inadequately compared and analyzed with the Ayurveda and the phytochemical findings. Methods The present study evaluated ethnomedicinal plants and their uses following literature review, comparison, field observations, and analysis. Comparison was made against earlier standard literature of medicinal plants and ethnomedicine of the same area, the common uses of the Ayurveda and the latest common phytochemical findings. The field study for primary data collection was carried out from 2006-2008. Results The herbal medicine in far-west Nepal is the basis of treatment of most illness through traditional knowledge. The medicine is made available via ancient, natural health care practices such as tribal lore, home herbal remedy, and the Baidhya, Ayurveda and Amchi systems. The traditional herbal medicine has not only survived but also thrived in the trans-cultural environment with its intermixture of ethnic traditions and beliefs. The present assessment showed that traditional herbal medicine has flourished in rural areas where modern medicine is parsimoniously accessed because of the high cost and long travel time to health center. Of the 48 Nepalese medicinal plants assessed in the present communication, about half of the species showed affinity with the common uses of the Ayurveda, earlier studies and the latest phytochemical findings. The folk uses of Acacia catechu for cold and cough, Aconitum spicatum as an analgesic, Aesculus indica for joint pain, Andrographis paniculata for fever, Anisomeles indica for urinary affections, Azadirachta indica for fever, Euphorbia hirta for asthma, Taxus wallichiana for tumor control, and Tinospora sinensis for diabetes are consistent with the latest

  13. Nepal Development Update, September 2017 : Fiscal Architecture for Federal Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2017-01-01

    Global growth is picking up and the growth in the South Asia region continues to remain strong. A recovery in industrial activity has coincided with a pickup in global trade, after two years of marked weakness. Growth in South Asia remains strong, with regional output projected to grow by 6.8 percent in 2017 and an average of 7.2 percent in 2018–19. Economic activity in Nepal, which reboun...

  14. Legal-sounding bureaucratic re-centralisation of community forestry in Nepal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basnyat, Bijendra; Treue, Thorsten; Pokharel, Ridish Kumar

    2018-01-01

    , forest officials, and donor project employees in Nepal, we document the mechanisms of legal-sounding re-centralisation. The central tenet is that bureaucratically established procedures, which are not required by law but treated as if they were, are used to impose regular revisions of community forest...... management plans. Meagre government or more generous donor budgets financed the revisions. Forest bureaucrats and/or consultants did the work and benefitted financially. None of the approaches, however, lived up to technical, scientific standards or followed stipulated participatory processes. The revised...... of plan revisions appears to be strengthening or re-establishing the forest bureaucracy's control over community forest resources which allows forest bureaucrats to tap into donor project and forest product value chains....

  15. Spine surgery in Nepal: the 2015 earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutterlin, Chester E

    2015-12-01

    At noon on Saturday, 25 April 2015, a 7.8 magnitude earthquake struck Nepal. It was centered in the Himalaya northwest of Kathmandu, the capital of over 1 million people. The violent tremors were felt as far away as New Delhi, India 1,000 km from the epicenter, but the worst of its destructive force was experienced in the heavily populated Kathmandu valley and in the remote mountainous villages of the Himalaya. Ancient temples crumbled; poorly constructed buildings collapsed; men, women, and children were trapped and injured, sometimes fatally. Avalanches killed mountain climbers, Sherpa guides, and porters at Everest base camp (EBC). The death toll to date exceeds 8,600 with as many as 20,000 injured. Spinal Health International (SHI), a nonprofit volunteer organization, has been active in Nepal in past years and responded to requests by Nepali spine surgeons for assistance with traumatic spine injury victims following the earthquake. SHI volunteers were present during the 2(nd) major earthquake of magnitude 7.3 on 12 May 2015. Past and current experiences in Nepal will be presented.

  16. Security of highly radioactive sources in Nepal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrestha, Kamal K.

    2010-01-01

    Subsequent to 9/11, concerned countries and UN agencies have taken especial interest in the security of highly radioactive sources throughout the world. The IAEA Nuclear Security Plan (2006-2009) consequently made as a result of UN Security Council Resolution 1540 is binding to all States. The Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) of the US and the Global Threat Reduction Programme (GTRP) of UK have assisted the four hospitals in Nepal having more than 1,000 Curies of radioactivity in their Cobalt-60 sources used for teletherapy. The physical upgrade of the security of the nuclear materials has also been launched in Nepal for prevention of theft with malicious intention or threats. In this presentation, the radioisotopes in Nepal that comes under different categories according to TECDOC-1355 of IAEA will be described. Problems and issues regarding the security and protection of radioactive sources at hospitals, academic and research institutions that could be prevalent in many developing counties too will be discussed by taking a case study of one of the cancer hospitals in Kathmandu valley. (author)

  17. Perception of security by health workforce at workplace in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prajapati, R; Baral, B; Karki, K B; Neupane, M

    2013-05-01

    In Nepal, the relationship of health worker and patient or community people is now deteriorating and the security and safety of health worker is becoming emerging issues. The poor relationship between community people and health worker is hampering the health service especially in rural setting. This study was aimed at finding the security perception and situation of health workforce in Nepal. A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted using both quantitative and qualitative methods. Out of 404 sample health institutions, 747 health workforce from 375 health institutions were interviewed (workplace. Mostly, doctors felt insecure at their workplace 24 (30%) and argued with service users , 26 (32.50%). Feeling of security was highest in central region 160 (83.30%). Nationwide, 121 (16%) of health workers faced some level of arguments with service users, which was highest in Tarai 64 (18.08%). Of the total harassment, both gender based and sexual harassment was higher among female health workers [20 (62.5%) and 13 (56.5%) respectively]. Only, 230 (30.7%) of health workers who suffered from workplace accidents got compensation and treatment. Higher proportions of health workers feel insecurity at workplace whereas provision of compensation was minimal. There is a need of strict implementation of Security of the Health Workers and Health Organizations Act, 2066 (2009) for effective health service delivery.

  18. Assessment of vulnerability of forest ecosystems to climate change and adaptation planning in Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matin, M. A.; Chitale, V. S.

    2016-12-01

    patches in midhills and terai (plains) in Central Nepal depict moderate to high vulnerability of forests, while the forests from most of the other areas experience low vulnerability. Based on the matrix of vulnerability and dependence we suggest adaptation footprints for prioritization of adaptation measures on the ground.

  19. Glacier area and volume changes of Hidden Valley, Mustang, Nepal from ~1980s to 2010 based on remote sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Lama

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Glaciers are one of the important natural resources of freshwater and sources of water for hydropower, agriculture and drinking whenever the water is scarce. This mapping and change analysis helps to understand the status and decadal changes of glaciers in Hidden Valley, Mustang district, Nepal. The investigation is carried out using Landsat images of the years 1977 (~1980s, 1990, 2000 and 2010. We mapped 10 glaciers of the Hidden Valley covering an area of 19.79 km2 based on the object-based image classification method using an automatic method and manual delineation by a Geographic Information System (GIS, separately. The glacier outlines for 2010, 2000, 1990 and 1980s in both methods are delineated from the multispectral Landsat images of the respective years. The total area losses of the glaciers from the automatic method are 1.713 and 0.625 km2 between 1990−2000 and 2000−2010 and from manual delineation are 2.021, 1.264, 1.041 km2 between ~1980s−1990, 1990−2000 and 2000−2010. The amount of average estimated glacier ice reserves lost is 0.326 km3 (26.26 % and the total glacier area loss is 4.33 km2 (21.87 % from the 1980s to 2010 based on manual delineation. The glaciers of Hidden Valley are shrinking and fragmented due to decrease in glacier area and ice reserves.

  20. Disaster risk profile and existing legal framework of Nepal: floods and landslides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaire S

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Surya Gaire, Rafael Castro Delgado, Pedro Arcos González Unit for Research in Emergency and Disaster, Department of Medicine, University of Oviedo, Campus del Cristo, Oviedo, Asturias, SpainAbstract: Nepal has a complicated geophysical structure that is prone to various kinds of disasters. Nepal ranks the most disaster-prone country in the world and has experienced several natural calamities, causing high property and life losses. Disasters are caused by natural processes, but may be increased by human activities. The overall objective of this paper is to analyze the disaster risk profile and existing legal framework of Nepal. The paper is based on secondary data sources. Major causative factors for floods and landslides are heavy and continuous rainfall, outburst floods, infrastructure failure, and deforestation. Historical data of natural disasters in Nepal show that water-induced disasters have killed hundreds of people and affected thousands every year. Likewise, properties worth millions of US dollars have been damaged. There is an increasing trend toward landslides and floods, which will likely continue to rise if proper intervention is not taken. A positive correlation between water-induced disasters and deaths has been observed. Nepal has a poor Index for Risk Management (INFORM. There are fluctuations in the recording of death data caused by flood and landslides. The Government of Nepal focuses more on the response phase than on the preparedness phase of disasters. The existing disaster management act seems to be weak and outdated. There is a gap in current legal procedure, so the country is in dire need of a comprehensive legal framework. The new proposed act seems to take a much broader approach to disaster management. With a long-term vision of managing disaster risk in the country, the Government of Nepal has begun the Nepal Risk Reduction Consortium (NRRC in collaboration with development and humanitarian partners. In order to

  1. Assessment of genetic diversity, population structure, and gene flow of tigers (Panthera tigris tigris) across Nepal's Terai Arc Landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapa, Kanchan; Manandhar, Sulochana; Bista, Manisha; Shakya, Jivan; Sah, Govind; Dhakal, Maheshwar; Sharma, Netra; Llewellyn, Bronwyn; Wultsch, Claudia; Waits, Lisette P; Kelly, Marcella J; Hero, Jean-Marc; Hughes, Jane; Karmacharya, Dibesh

    2018-01-01

    With fewer than 200 tigers (Panthera tigris tigris) left in Nepal, that are generally confined to five protected areas across the Terai Arc Landscape, genetic studies are needed to provide crucial information on diversity and connectivity for devising an effective country-wide tiger conservation strategy. As part of the Nepal Tiger Genome Project, we studied landscape change, genetic variation, population structure, and gene flow of tigers across the Terai Arc Landscape by conducting Nepal's first comprehensive and systematic scat-based, non-invasive genetic survey. Of the 770 scat samples collected opportunistically from five protected areas and six presumed corridors, 412 were tiger (57%). Out of ten microsatellite loci, we retain eight markers that were used in identifying 78 individual tigers. We used this dataset to examine population structure, genetic variation, contemporary gene flow, and potential population bottlenecks of tigers in Nepal. We detected three genetic clusters consistent with three demographic sub-populations and found moderate levels of genetic variation (He = 0.61, AR = 3.51) and genetic differentiation (FST = 0.14) across the landscape. We detected 3-7 migrants, confirming the potential for dispersal-mediated gene flow across the landscape. We found evidence of a bottleneck signature likely caused by large-scale land-use change documented in the last two centuries in the Terai forest. Securing tiger habitat including functional forest corridors is essential to enhance gene flow across the landscape and ensure long-term tiger survival. This requires cooperation among multiple stakeholders and careful conservation planning to prevent detrimental effects of anthropogenic activities on tigers.

  2. Status and prospects of maize research in Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Govind KC; Tika B. Karki; Jiban Shrestha; Buddhi B. Achhami

    2015-01-01

    Food and nutritional securities are the major threats coupled with declining factor productivity and climate change effects in Nepal. Maize being the principal food crops of the majority of the hill people and source of animal feed for ever growing livestock industries in Terai of Nepal. Despite the many efforts made to increase the maize productivity in the country, the results are not much encouraging. Many of the maize based technologies developed and recommended for the farmers to date ar...

  3. Effects of Dividends on Stock Prices in Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Rabindra Joshi

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of dividends on stock price in the context of Nepal. A majority of earlier studies conducted in developed countries show that dividend has a strong effect than retained earnings. The study examines whether this is consistent in the context of Nepal (or not) and the implication particularly to the banking and non-banking sector. To achieve the objective of the study, a descriptive and analytical research design has been administered. The secondary data are used t...

  4. Factors affecting collective action for forest fire management: a comparative study of community forest user groups in central Siwalik, Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapkota, Lok Mani; Shrestha, Rajendra Prasad; Jourdain, Damien; Shivakoti, Ganesh P

    2015-01-01

    The attributes of social ecological systems affect the management of commons. Strengthening and enhancing social capital and the enforcement of rules and sanctions aid in the collective action of communities in forest fire management. Using a set of variables drawn from previous studies on the management of commons, we conducted a study across 20 community forest user groups in Central Siwalik, Nepal, by dividing the groups into two categories based on the type and level of their forest fire management response. Our study shows that the collective action in forest fire management is consistent with the collective actions in other community development activities. However, the effectiveness of collective action is primarily dependent on the complex interaction of various variables. We found that strong social capital, strong enforcement of rules and sanctions, and users' participation in crafting the rules were the major variables that strengthen collective action in forest fire management. Conversely, users' dependency on a daily wage and a lack of transparency were the variables that weaken collective action. In fire-prone forests such as the Siwalik, our results indicate that strengthening social capital and forming and enforcing forest fire management rules are important variables that encourage people to engage in collective action in fire management.

  5. Dendroecological studies of rhododendron campanulatum d. don along the elevational gradient of manaslu conservation area, nepal himalaya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prabinarana, A.; Koirala, M.; Boonchird, C.

    2017-01-01

    The increase in temperature due to global warming is affecting forest ecosystems worldwide. At the treeline ecotone growth is usually restricted by low temperatures. Recently, the impacts of climate change have been visible with the upward shift of the Himalaya fir (Abies spectabilis) in Nepal. Rhododendron campanulatum D. Don grows at the treeline ecotone and subalpine forest. Hardly any studies have been carried on this species in Nepal. The local people have reported that this species has been seen colonizing upper altitude in recent years, however, these needs to be verified with dendroecological studies. The study aims to assess the response of R. campanulatum to climatic variability and to evaluate the relationship of its basal diameter (Groundline) and age using dendroecological methods. Results reveal that the basal diameter was found to be significantly correlated with age (r2= 0.824, p<0.00001). Using the basal diameter age equations, attempts were made to study the age distribution along the altitudinal gradient. The species limit was observed at 4090 m asl. The age structure differed along the altitudinal gradient with multi age cohorts below the treeline and younger cohorts above the treeline. Results show that this species is migrating up at a rate of 24.7m per decade. (author)

  6. Prevalence, distribution and correlates of tobacco smoking and chewing in Nepal: a secondary data analysis of Nepal Demographic and Health Survey-2006

    OpenAIRE

    Sreeramareddy Chandrashekhar T; Ramakrishnareddy N; Harsha Kumar HN; Sathian Brijesh; Arokiasamy John T

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Nearly four-fifths of estimated 1.1 million smokers live in low or middle-income countries. We aimed to provide national estimates for Nepal on tobacco use prevalence, its distribution across demographic, socio-economic and spatial variables and correlates of tobacco use. Methods A secondary data analysis of 2006 Nepal Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) was done. A representative sample of 9,036 households was selected by two-stage stratified, probability proportional to ...

  7. Burden of road traffic accidents in Nepal by calculating disability-adjusted life years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Huang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To calculate the burden of road traffic accidents in Kathmandu Valley and then extrapolate this to the national level. Methods: A prospective study was performed to compute the burden of road traffic accidents by quantification of disability-adjusted life years (DALYs using the Global Burden of Disease Study method on the basis of 1-year data from nine hospitals in Nepal and the Department of Forensic Medicine and cross-checked with the Nepal Traffic Directorate. Multiple methods were applied to the extrapolated population metrics of the burden of road traffic accidents in Nepal. Results: The total number of years of life lived in disability, years of life lost, and DALYs in Nepal were 38,848±194, 119,935±1464, and 158,783±1658 (95% confidence interval respectively. The number of years lost because of morbidity and death was similar in Kathmandu Valley. Most (75% of the DALYs resulted from years of life lost in Nepal. Males accounted for 73% of DALYs. Almost half (44% of the DALYs were contributed by the group aged 15–29 years. Conclusion: This study is the first to calculate the burden of road traffic accidents in Nepal using Nepal’s own data. Nepal needs to develop and enhance its own system to identify significant public health issues so as to set national priorities for prevention of road traffic accidents.

  8. Competing Perspectives on the Gurkhas and Identity Politics in Nepal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seeberg, Jens

    2015-01-01

    Associated with the unification of Nepal under the ‘Gorkha’ kingdom, and popularly projected in both national myth and globalized tourist imagery, the ‘Gurkhas’ in the British army have been an important national symbol. The history of the ‘Gurkhas’ is multifaceted and also includes chapters abou...... of the ‘Gurkhas’ are discussed in relation to post-conflict identity politics in Nepal......., the ‘symbolic value’ of the ‘Gurkha’ tradition being loaded with notions of bravery and pride has been challenged by competing notions of (post)colonialism and mercenary practice. Hence, the discussion about the ‘Gurkha’ tradition is also a debate about national identities in the changing Nepal. This debate...

  9. Issues and Challenges of HIV/AIDS Prevention and Treatment Programme in Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Wasti, Sharada Prasad; Simkhada, Padam; Randall, Julian; Van Teijlingen, Edwin

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores some of the key issues and challenges of government HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment programme in Nepal. Providing HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment services in Nepal is associated with a number of issues and challenges which are shaped mostly on cultural and managerial issues from grass root to policy level.\\ud Numerous efforts have been done and going on by Nepal government and non-government organization but still HIV\\ud prevention and treatment service is not able to ...

  10. Mapping Geohazards in the Churia Region of Nepal: An Application of Remote Sensing and Geographic Information Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannister, Terri

    The Churia region of Nepal is experiencing serious environmental degradation due to landslides, monsoon flooding, land use changes, and gravel excavation. The objectives of this study were to quantify the temporal change of landslides as related to changes in land use/deforestation/urbanization, to quantify the temporal change and extent of river inundation in the Terai, to quantify the extent to which stone quarrying exacerbates the degradation process, and to generate a landslide hazard risk map. Gravel extraction and precipitation data, along with field work and geospatial methods, were used to map degradation by focusing on the centrally located districts of Bara, Rautahat, and Makwanpur. Landsat land use classifications were conducted on imagery from 1976, 1988, 1999, and 2015. A modified Normalized Difference Mid-Infrared (NDMIDIR) algorithm was created by incorporating slope, elevation, and land use types to identify landslide scars. A GIS model using weighted landslide variables derived from remote sensing and GIS methods to predict landslide susceptibility was created. These variables include hydrology, settlement, lithology, geology, precipitation, infrastructure, elevation, slope, aspect, land use, and previous landslides. Gravel excavation in 2007/2008 was nearly 700% higher than in 2001/2002. The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) results showed that the study area is losing 1.03% forest cover annually; in 1977, there was 70% forest cover, but only 32% forest cover remained in 2016. The accuracy assessment of the 2015 Landsat 8 land use classification was 79%. NDMIDIR results showed that from 1988 to 2016, the total area representing landslide scars increased from 7.26km2 to 8.73 km2. The weighted variable GIS model output map indicated that 70% of the Siwalik zone and southern Lesser Himalayan zone in the three study districts have significant risk of landslides. Landslides and flooding from heavy monsoon rain, deforestation to develop

  11. Preferred Source and Perceived Need of More Information about Dental Implants by the Undergraduate Dental Students of Nepal: All Nepal Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Arati; Shrestha, Bidhan; Chaudhari, Bijay Kumar; Suwal, Pramita; Singh, Raj Kumar; Niraula, Surya Raj; Parajuli, Prakash Kumar

    2018-01-01

    Objectives. This study was conducted to know the preferred source and perceived need of more information about dental implants by the undergraduate students of Nepal and their association with academic levels and gender. Materials and Methods. It was conducted in all the dental colleges of Nepal from June 2016 to June 2017 after taking ethical clearance and approval from the research committee of BPKIHS. It included all those who were present at the time of survey. Data collection was done th...

  12. The Household Costs of Visceral Leishmaniasis Care in South-eastern Nepal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uranw, S.; Meheus, F.; Baltussen, R.M.; Rijal, S.; Boelaert, M.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is an important public health problem in south-eastern Nepal affecting very poor rural communities. Since 2005, Nepal is involved in a regional initiative to eliminate VL. This study assessed the economic impact of VL on households and examined

  13. Past, present and future of breast cancer in Nepal: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biwesh Ojha

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this review is to provide a comprehensive outlook on existing evidence related to breast cancer in Nepal and provide a way forward. Different key words were used to search the articles in MEDLINE, Google Scholar and Google. In addition, grey literatures were searched and experts on related fields were contacted. We also looked into the references of each searched articles. BC cases are on the rise since 1990. It is more common among urban women aged 41‐50. Majority of women presented self‐detected mass at an advanced stage. Most common type of cancer was Invasive ductal carcinoma. Quality of life among BC patients was above average. History of BC treatment goes back to 1992 where first radiation therapy was started. Treatment services are being provided in seven major hospitals along and some private hospitals. BP Koirala memorial hospital is the first specialized cancer hospital in Nepal catering all kind of cancer treatment in Nepal. Different NGOs, government and cancer hospitals are working on prevention of BC in Nepal. Nepal has invested much in detection, diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer. It is high time when the resources should be diverted to primary prevention and early detection along with awareness creation.

  14. Climate Change and Spatiotemporal Distributions of Vector-Borne Diseases in Nepal--A Systematic Synthesis of Literature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghnath Dhimal

    Full Text Available Despite its largely mountainous terrain for which this Himalayan country is a popular tourist destination, Nepal is now endemic for five major vector-borne diseases (VBDs, namely malaria, lymphatic filariasis, Japanese encephalitis, visceral leishmaniasis and dengue fever. There is increasing evidence about the impacts of climate change on VBDs especially in tropical highlands and temperate regions. Our aim is to explore whether the observed spatiotemporal distributions of VBDs in Nepal can be related to climate change.A systematic literature search was performed and summarized information on climate change and the spatiotemporal distribution of VBDs in Nepal from the published literature until December 2014 following providing items for systematic review and meta-analysis (PRISMA guidelines.We found 12 studies that analysed the trend of climatic data and are relevant for the study of VBDs, 38 studies that dealt with the spatial and temporal distribution of disease vectors and disease transmission. Among 38 studies, only eight studies assessed the association of VBDs with climatic variables. Our review highlights a pronounced warming in the mountains and an expansion of autochthonous cases of VBDs to non-endemic areas including mountain regions (i.e., at least 2,000 m above sea level. Furthermore, significant relationships between climatic variables and VBDs and their vectors are found in short-term studies.Taking into account the weak health care systems and difficult geographic terrain of Nepal, increasing trade and movements of people, a lack of vector control interventions, observed relationships between climatic variables and VBDs and their vectors and the establishment of relevant disease vectors already at least 2,000 m above sea level, we conclude that climate change can intensify the risk of VBD epidemics in the mountain regions of Nepal if other non-climatic drivers of VBDs remain constant.

  15. Factors determining English test score of high school students in rural Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    NEUPANE, Pramila; THAPA, Rajesh Bahadur; SAPKOTA, Jeet Bahadur

    2017-01-01

    Due to globalization and internationalization of education, the importance of English language has been growing consistently. Like many other countries around the globe, English is taught as a compulsory subject from the primary level in Nepal. Despite continuous public and private efforts, achievement in English education is not satisfactory, especially in rural areas, due to numerous socio-cultural and other factors. Thus, this article explores some important determinants of English achieve...

  16. Human rights violations among sexual and gender minorities in Kathmandu, Nepal: a qualitative investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sonal; Pant, Sunil Babu; Dhakal, Suben; Pokhrel, Subash; Mullany, Luke C

    2012-05-16

    Nepal has experienced sporadic reports of human rights violations among sexual and gender minorities. Our objective was to identify a range of human rights that are enshrined in international law and/or are commonly reported by sexual and gender minority participants in Kathmandu, to be nonprotected or violated. In September 2009 three focus group discussions were conducted by trained interviewers among a convenience sample of sexual and gender minority participants in Kathmandu Nepal. The modified Delphi technique was utilized to elicit and rank participant-generated definitions of human rights and their subsequent violations. Data was analyzed independently and cross checked by another investigator. Participants (n = 29) reported experiencing a range of human rights violations at home, work, educational, health care settings and in public places. Lack of adequate legal protection, physical and mental abuse and torture were commonly reported. Access to adequate legal protection and improvements in the family and healthcare environment were ranked as the most important priority areas. Sexual and gender minorities in Nepal experienced a range of human rights violations. Future efforts should enroll a larger and more systematic sample of participants to determine frequency, timing, and/or intensity of exposure to rights violations, and estimate the population-based impact of these rights violations on specific health outcomes.

  17. Education reform in Nepal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carney, Stephen; Rappleye, Jeremy

    2011-01-01

    The article discusses various reports published within the issue, including papers on various aspects of Nepal's education policy dynamic, a study on young people's experiences of education, especially the faith in schooling as a means to social and economic betterment, and a more radical critique...... of modernity and its relation to education in the South....

  18. Challenges in diabetes mellitus type 2 management in Nepal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyawali, Bishal; Ferrario, Alessandra; van Teijlingen, Edwin

    2016-01-01

    on the prevalence, cost and treatment of diabetes mellitus type 2 and its complications in Nepal and to critically assess the challenges to be addressed to contain the epidemic and its negative economic impact. DESIGN: A comprehensive review of available evidence and data sources on prevalence, risk factors, cost......, complications, treatment, and management of diabetes mellitus type 2 in Nepal was conducted through an online database search for articles published in English between January 2000 and November 2015. Additionally, we performed a manual search of articles and reference lists of published articles for additional...... references. RESULTS: Diabetes mellitus type 2 is emerging as a major health care problem in Nepal, with rising prevalence and its complications especially in urban populations. Several challenges in diabetes management were identified, including high cost of treatment, limited health care facilities...

  19. HIV-AIDS in Nepal: the coming crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seddon, D

    1998-01-01

    The number of officially reported cases of HIV infection and of AIDS in Nepal remains low in comparison with numbers in many other Asian countries. But Nepal's open border with India (where HIV infection rates are rapidly rising) and the high level of physical mobility within Nepal and abroad, associated with widespread labor migration and encouraged by the recent development of road transport, means that there is a real danger of a rapid spread of HIV within Nepal. The major means of infection is through heterosexual encounters involving male clients and female sex workers, but other sections of the population are also at risk from infection. Media attention has focused on female sex workers, particularly those who have worked in India, but the issue is far broader than this. Social and economic factors forcing or encouraging young men and women to seek employment away from home underlie the widespread growth of ¿the sex industry¿ and the ¿trafficking¿ of girls and young women. The state's capacity to respond effectively is limited, in part through lack of resources; international agencies are supporting local nongovernmental organizations in a variety of activities designed to ¿educate¿ and to ¿support¿ those at risk; but in the last analysis, it is the local communities from which young men and women migrate and to which they return that are obliged to find ways of coping. Sometimes these communities are supportive of the victims, sometimes not. The spread of HIV-AIDS is not just a ¿health¿ issue, but an issue of economic and social development, of gender relations and of human rights.

  20. Barriers to using skilled birth attendants' services in mid- and far-western Nepal: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choulagai, Bishnu; Onta, Sharad; Subedi, Narayan; Mehata, Suresh; Bhandari, Gajananda P; Poudyal, Amod; Shrestha, Binjwala; Mathai, Matthews; Petzold, Max; Krettek, Alexandra

    2013-12-23

    Skilled birth attendants (SBAs) provide important interventions that improve maternal and neonatal health and reduce maternal and neonatal mortality. However, utilization and coverage of services by SBAs remain poor, especially in rural and remote areas of Nepal. This study examined the characteristics associated with utilization of SBA services in mid- and far-western Nepal. This cross-sectional study examined three rural and remote districts of mid- and far-western Nepal (i.e., Kanchanpur, Dailekh and Bajhang), representing three ecological zones (southern plains [Tarai], hill and mountain, respectively) with low utilization of services by SBAs. Enumerators assisted a total of 2,481 women. All respondents had delivered a baby within the past 12 months. We used bivariate and multivariate analyses to assess the association between antenatal and delivery care visits and the women's background characteristics. Fifty-seven percent of study participants had completed at least four antenatal care visits and 48% delivered their babies with the assistance of SBAs. Knowing the danger signs of pregnancy and delivery (e.g., premature labor, prolonged labor, breech delivery, postpartum hemorrhage, severe headache) associated positively with four or more antenatal care visits (OR = 1.71; 95% CI: 1.41-2.07). Living less than 30 min from a health facility associated positively with increased use of both antenatal care (OR = 1.44; 95% CI: 1.18-1.77) and delivery services (OR = 1.25; CI: 1.03-1.52). Four or more antenatal care visits was a determining factor for the utilization of SBAs. Less than half of the women in our study delivered babies with the aid of SBAs, indicating a need to increase utilization of such services in rural and remote areas of Nepal. Distance from health facilities and inadequate transportation pose major barriers to the utilization of SBAs. Providing women with transportation funds before they go to a facility for delivery and managing transportation

  1. Micronutrients Deficiency, a Hidden Hunger in Nepal: Prevalence, Causes, Consequences, and Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandari, Shiva; Banjara, Megha Raj

    2015-01-01

    Micronutrient deficiency is a global challenge to health as in Nepal. In Nepal, the targeted beneficiaries are less aware about importance of micronutrients (MNs), which has resulted in low intake of foods rich in MNs. Micronutrient deficiencies (MNDs) have huge impact on health of vulnerable population like women and children and have jeopardized the national economy and prosperity of developing countries including Nepal. However, less attention has been paid towards MNDs, which can be prevented. Therefore, this study aims to draw attention of the concerned authorities and researchers to combat against MNDs in Nepal. This study showed that different types of MNDs with higher prevalence exist in Nepal. The major causes of MNDs were poor diet, diseases and infestations, and poor health caring practices. The results of MNDs were unwanted child and maternal mortality, impairments of lives, and reduction in productivity and intellectual capacity. School health and nutrition education and supplementation and fortification of essential MNs proved to be effective while dietary diversification and economic growth and poverty eradication seemed promising. Control and prevention of MNDs can help to achieve Millennium Development Goals as well, so studies in this sector should be emphasized.

  2. Poor thermal care practices among home births in Nepal: further analysis of Nepal Demographic and Health Survey 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanal, Vishnu; Gavidia, Tania; Adhikari, Mandira; Mishra, Shiva Raj; Karkee, Rajendra

    2014-01-01

    Hypothermia is a major factor associated with neonatal mortality in low and middle income countries. Thermal care protection of newborn through a series of measures taken at birth and during the initial days of life is recommended to reduce the hypothermia and associated neonatal mortality. This study aimed to identify the prevalence of and the factors associated with receiving 'optimum thermal care' among home born newborns of Nepal. Data from the Nepal Demographic and Health Surveys (NDHS) 2011 were used for this study. Women who reported a home birth for their most recent childbirth was included in the study. Factors associated with optimum thermal care were examined using Chi-square test followed by logistic regression. A total of 2464 newborns were included in the study. A total of 57.6 % were dried before the placenta was delivered; 60.3% were wrapped; 24.5% had not bathing during the first 24 hours, and 63.9% were breastfed within one hour of birth. Overall, only 248 (10.7%; 95% CI (8.8 %, 12.9%)) newborns received optimum thermal care. Newborns whose mothers had achieved higher education (OR 2.810; 95% CI (1.132, 6.976)), attended four or more antenatal care visits (OR 2.563; 95% CI (1.309, 5.017)), and those whose birth were attended by skilled attendants (OR 2.178; 95% CI (1.428, 3.323)) were likely to receive optimum thermal care. The current study showed that only one in ten newborns in Nepal received optimum thermal care. Future newborn survival programs should focus on those mothers who are uneducated; who do not attend the recommended four or more attend antenatal care visits; and those who deliver without the assistance of skilled birth attendants to reduce the risk of neonatal hypothermia in Nepal.

  3. Poor thermal care practices among home births in Nepal: further analysis of Nepal Demographic and Health Survey 2011.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishnu Khanal

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Hypothermia is a major factor associated with neonatal mortality in low and middle income countries. Thermal care protection of newborn through a series of measures taken at birth and during the initial days of life is recommended to reduce the hypothermia and associated neonatal mortality. This study aimed to identify the prevalence of and the factors associated with receiving 'optimum thermal care' among home born newborns of Nepal. METHODS: Data from the Nepal Demographic and Health Surveys (NDHS 2011 were used for this study. Women who reported a home birth for their most recent childbirth was included in the study. Factors associated with optimum thermal care were examined using Chi-square test followed by logistic regression. RESULTS: A total of 2464 newborns were included in the study. A total of 57.6 % were dried before the placenta was delivered; 60.3% were wrapped; 24.5% had not bathing during the first 24 hours, and 63.9% were breastfed within one hour of birth. Overall, only 248 (10.7%; 95% CI (8.8 %, 12.9% newborns received optimum thermal care. Newborns whose mothers had achieved higher education (OR 2.810; 95% CI (1.132, 6.976, attended four or more antenatal care visits (OR 2.563; 95% CI (1.309, 5.017, and those whose birth were attended by skilled attendants (OR 2.178; 95% CI (1.428, 3.323 were likely to receive optimum thermal care. CONCLUSION: The current study showed that only one in ten newborns in Nepal received optimum thermal care. Future newborn survival programs should focus on those mothers who are uneducated; who do not attend the recommended four or more attend antenatal care visits; and those who deliver without the assistance of skilled birth attendants to reduce the risk of neonatal hypothermia in Nepal.

  4. Rapid Offline-Online Post-Disaster Landslide Mapping Tool: A case study from Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olyazadeh, Roya; Jaboyedoff, Michel; Sudmeier-Rieux, Karen; Derron, Marc-Henri; Devkota, Sanjaya

    2016-04-01

    One of the crucial components of post disaster management is the efficient mapping of impacted areas. Here we present a tool designed to map landslides and affected objects after the earthquakes of 2015 in Nepal as well as for intense rainfall impact. Because internet is not available in many rural areas of Nepal, we developed an offline-online prototype based on Open-Source WebGIS technologies to make data on hazard impacts, including damaged infrastructure, landslides or flooding events available to authorities and the general public. This mobile application was designed as a low-cost, rapid and participatory method for recording impacts from hazard events. It is possible to record such events offline and upload them through a server, where internet connection is available. This application allows user authentication, image capturing, and information collation such as geolocation, event description, interactive mapping and finally storing all the data in the server for further analysis and visualisation. This application can be accessed by a mobile phone (Android) or a tablet as a hybrid version for both offline and online versions. The offline version has an interactive-offline map function which allows users to upload satellites image in order to improve ground truthing interpretation. After geolocation, the user can start mapping and then save recorded data into Geojson-TXT files that can be easily uploaded to the server whenever internet is available. This prototype was tested specifically for a rapid assessment of landslides and relevant land use characteristics such as roads, forest area, rivers in the Phewa Lake watershed near Pokhara, Nepal where a large number landslides were activated or reactivated after the 2015 monsoon season. More than 60 landslides were recorded during two days of field trip. Besides, it is possible to use this application for any other kind of hazard event like flood, avalanche, etc. Keywords: Offline, Online, Open source, Web

  5. Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabina Shah

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Spinal cord injury is a major trauma, with its short and long term effects and consequences to the patient, his friends and family. Spinal cord injury is addressed in the developed countries with standard trauma care system commencing immediately after injury and continuing to the specialized rehabilitation units. Rehabilitation is important to those with spinal injury for both functional and psychosocial reintegration. It has been an emerging concept in Nepal, which has been evident with the establishment of the various hospitals with rehabilitation units, rehabilitation centres and physical therapy units in different institutions. However, the spinal cord injury rehabilitation setting and scenario is different in Nepal from those in the developed countries since spinal cord injury rehabilitation care has not been adequately incorporated into the health care delivery system nor its importance has been realized within the medical community of Nepal. To name few, lack of human resource for the rehabilitation care, awareness among the medical personnel and general population, adequate scientific research evidence regarding situation of spinal injury and exorbitant health care policy are the important hurdles that has led to the current situation. Hence, it is our responsibility to address these apparent barriers to successful implementation and functioning of rehabilitation so that those with spinal injury would benefit from enhanced quality of life. Keywords: rehabilitation; spinal injury.

  6. Central Facilities Area Sewage Lagoon Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giesbrecht, Alan [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-03-01

    The Central Facilities Area (CFA) located in Butte County, Idaho at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has an existing wastewater system to collect and treat sanitary wastewater and non contact cooling water from the facility. The existing treatment facility consists of three cells: Cell 1 has a surface area of 1.7 acres, Cell 2 has a surface area of 10.3 acres, and Cell 3 has a surface area of 0.5 acres. If flows exceed the evaporative capacity of the cells, wastewater is discharged to a 73.5 acre land application site that utilizes a center pivot irrigation sprinkler system. The purpose of this current study is to update the analysis and conclusions of the December 2013 study. In this current study, the new seepage rate and influent flow rate data have been used to update the calculations, model, and analysis.

  7. Child maltreatment in Nepal: prevalence and associated factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandel, P; Kunwar, R; Karki, S; Kandel, D; Lamichhane, P

    2017-10-01

    Child maltreatment is a global public health problem. There is limited information about this problem in low-income countries. We aimed to document the prevalence and factors associated with physical punishment of children less than 14 years of age in Nepal. Population-based cross-sectional study. We conducted an in-depth analysis using data from the Nepal Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey, a nationally representative multi-stage-stratified cluster sampling survey. Data were collected from 13,000 households in 520 sample enumeration areas. We assessed prevalence of physical punishment and different child violence related acts on 5081 children aged 3-14 years for whom complete information on all acts and attitude towards violence was available. Logistic regression was used to investigate the association between physical punishment of child and factors such as household and maternal demographics. Our results suggested violence is common across Nepal, with data showing one in every second child is physically punished. One in every third (33%) of children were spanked, hit or slapped on the bottom, 25% were hit or slapped on the face and approximately 3% were beaten up hard. Odds of facing physical punishment were higher among children aged 3-5 years (odds ratio [OR] 2.9, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.0-4.3), aged 6-8 years (OR 2.8, 95% CI: 2.2-3.7), engaged in child labour activities (OR 1.4, 95% CI: 1.1-1.7), with mother that accepted wife beating by husband is justified (OR 1.2, 95% CI: 1.1-1.4), whose father is currently abroad (OR 1.5, 95% CI: 1.2-1.9) and whose father is away from home but in the same country (OR 1.60, 95% CI: 1.1-2.3). The risk was also higher among children living in households that believe physical punishment of children is necessary (OR 3.5, 95% CI: 2.9-4.3) and from lower caste/indigenous (dalit/janajati) ethnicity (OR 1.3, 95% CI: 1.1-1.7). Those less likely to experience physical punishment included female children (OR 0.7, 95% CI: 0

  8. Determinants of child maltreatment in Nepal: Results from the 2014 Nepal multiple indicator cluster survey (the 2014 NMICS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atteraya, Madhu Sudhan; Ebrahim, Nasser B; Gnawali, Shreejana

    2018-02-01

    We examined the prevalence of child maltreatment as measured by the level of physical (moderate to severe) and emotional abuse and child labor, and the associated household level determinants of child maltreatment in Nepal. We used a nationally representative data set from the fifth round of the Nepal Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (the 2014 NMICS). The main independent variables were household level characteristics. Dependent variables included child experience of moderate to severe physical abuse, emotional abuse, and child labor (domestic work and economic activities). Bivariate analyses and logistic regressions were used to examine the associations between independent and dependent variables. The results showed that nearly half of the children (49.8%) had experienced moderate physical abuse, 21.5% experienced severe physical abuse, and 77.3% experienced emotional abuse. About 27% of the children had engaged in domestic work and 46.7% in various economic activities. At bivariate level, educational level of household's head and household wealth status had shown significant statistical association with child maltreatment (pchild labor. In general, child maltreatment is a neglected social issue in Nepal and the high rates of child maltreatment calls for mass awareness programs focusing on parents, and involving all stakeholders including governments, local, and international organizations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Determinants of skilled birth attendants for delivery in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baral, Y R; Lyons, K; Skinner, J; van Teijlingen, E R

    2010-01-01

    This review is to explore the factors affecting the uptake of skilled birth attendants for delivery and the issues associated with women's role and choices of maternal health care service for delivery in Nepal. Literature was reviewed across the globe and discussed in a Nepalese context. Delivery by Skilled Birth Attendance serves as an indicator of progress towards reducing maternal mortality worldwide, the fifth Millennium Development Goal. Nepal has committed to reducing its maternal mortality by 75% by 2015 through ensuring accessibility to the availability and utilisation of skilled care at every birth. The literature suggests that several socio-economic, cultural and religious factors play a significant role in the use of Skilled Birth Attendance for delivery in Nepal. Availability of transportation and distance to the health facility; poor infrastructure and lack of services; availability and accessibility of the services; cost and convenience; staff shortages and attitudes; gender inequality; status of women in society; women's involvement in decision making; and women's autonomy and place of residence are significant contributing factors for uptake of Skilled Birth Attendance for delivery in Nepal. The review found more quantitative research studies exploring the determinants of utilisation of the maternal health services during pregnancy in Nepal than qualitative studies. Findings of quantitative research show that different social demographic, economic, socio-cultural and religious factors are responsible for the utilisation of maternal health services but very few studies discussed how and why these factors are responsible for utilisation of skilled birth attendants in pregnancy. It is suggested that there is need for more qualitative research to explore the women's role and choice regarding use of skilled birth attendants services and to find out how and why these factors are responsible for utilisation of skilled birth attendants for delivery

  10. Is there new public health management (NPM) in Nepal? Arguments for and against NPM in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paudel, Mohan

    2013-01-01

    This article is a reflection about whether new public management (NPM) styles of reforms seen in other developing countries are also seen in Nepal, and to substantiate these facts with the available evidence and findings. The author saw the emergence of NPM ideas in Western industrialized countries like the United Kingdom and New Zealand. Now it exists in several developing countries of Africa and Asia; but it is very hard to generalize the degree and scope of NPM elements' existence. In Southeast Asia, there is still a mix of the old bureaucratic system with new NPM-oriented reform initiatives. Series of administrative reforms, donor conditionality, and the reestablishment of democracy in the country after 1991 have influenced an orientation toward an efficient, people-oriented, mixed-economy model with increasing partnership of private agencies and nongovernmental organizations in Nepal. The political movement of the last 15 years in the country has strongly called for a new, efficient, and performance-oriented administration and management culture in the country. There are several initiatives already introduced (public-private partnership, decentralization, good governance, accountability/public auditing, performance-based outcome/results-oriented financing and reporting systems). However, to take this momentum up, it still requires strong willingness of political leaders and senior administrators. At the moment, peace and stability of turmoil, political stability, state-of-the-art management skills, and supportive organizational culture are the fundamental requirements for increasing the realization of, and sustaining the NPM-oriented reforms in Nepal.

  11. Farmer Field Schools: Unexpected outcomes of gendered empowerment in wartime Nepal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westendorp, A.M.B.; Visser, L.E.

    2015-01-01

    This article is the outcome of an empirical study of technical training of women and men through Farmer Field Schools in rural Nepal during the last decade. When the Farmer Field Schools started in Nepal as part of the FAO Integrated Pest Management project in 1997, this was also the year that the

  12. Widespread ground motion distribution caused by rupture directivity during the 2015 Gorkha, Nepal earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koketsu, Kazuki; Miyake, Hiroe; Guo, Yujia; Kobayashi, Hiroaki; Masuda, Tetsu; Davuluri, Srinagesh; Bhattarai, Mukunda; Adhikari, Lok Bijaya; Sapkota, Soma Nath

    2016-06-01

    The ground motion and damage caused by the 2015 Gorkha, Nepal earthquake can be characterized by their widespread distributions to the east. Evidence from strong ground motions, regional acceleration duration, and teleseismic waveforms indicate that rupture directivity contributed significantly to these distributions. This phenomenon has been thought to occur only if a strike-slip or dip-slip rupture propagates to a site in the along-strike or updip direction, respectively. However, even though the earthquake was a dip-slip faulting event and its source fault strike was nearly eastward, evidence for rupture directivity is found in the eastward direction. Here, we explore the reasons for this apparent inconsistency by performing a joint source inversion of seismic and geodetic datasets, and conducting ground motion simulations. The results indicate that the earthquake occurred on the underthrusting Indian lithosphere, with a low dip angle, and that the fault rupture propagated in the along-strike direction at a velocity just slightly below the S-wave velocity. This low dip angle and fast rupture velocity produced rupture directivity in the along-strike direction, which caused widespread ground motion distribution and significant damage extending far eastwards, from central Nepal to Mount Everest.

  13. El derecho a voto de los desplazados internos en Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Ghimire, Anita

    2007-01-01

    Nepal está saliendo de un conflicto y debatiendo el calendario electoral. Los rebeldes maoístas han depuesto las armas y se han unido a la coalición gubernamental. Pero, ¿tendrán las elecciones algún tipo de credibilidad si un gran número de desplazados no puede votar? ¿Qué puede aprender Nepal de las experiencias en otros lugares?.

  14. Impact of Irrigation Method on Water Use Efficiency and Productivity of Fodder Crops in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay K Jha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Improved irrigation use efficiency is an important tool for intensifying and diversifying agriculture in Nepal, resulting in higher economic yield from irrigated farmlands with a minimum input of water. Research was conducted to evaluate the effect of irrigation method (furrow vs. drip on the productivity of nutritious fodder species during off-monsoon dry periods in different elevation zones of central Nepal. A split-block factorial design was used. The factors considered were treatment location, fodder crop, and irrigation method. Commonly used local agronomical practices were followed in all respects except irrigation method. Results revealed that location effect was significant (p < 0.01 with highest fodder productivity seen for the middle elevation site, Syangja. Species effects were also significant, with teosinte (Euchlaena mexicana having higher yield than cowpea (Vigna unguiculata. Irrigation method impacted green biomass yield (higher with furrow irrigation but both methods yielded similar dry biomass, while water use was 73% less under drip irrigation. Our findings indicated that the controlled application of water through drip irrigation is able to produce acceptable yields of nutritionally dense fodder species during dry seasons, leading to more effective utilization and resource conservation of available land, fertilizer and water. Higher productivity of these nutritional fodders resulted in higher milk productivity for livestock smallholders. The ability to grow fodder crops year-round in lowland and hill regions of Nepal with limited water storages using low-cost, water-efficient drip irrigation may greatly increase livestock productivity and, hence, the economic security of smallholder farmers.

  15. What Caused the Winter Drought in Western Nepal during Recent Years?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, S-Y (Simon); Yoon, Jin-Ho; Gillies, R.; Cho, Changrae

    2013-11-01

    Western Nepal has experienced consecutive and worsened winter drought conditions since 2000 culminating in a severe drought episode during 2008-2009. In this study, the meteorological conditons and a historical pespective of the winter droughts in western Nepal were analyzed using respectively instumental records and a paleoclimatic drought index. Althought decadal-scale drought conditions were found to be recurrent in the paleoclimate record, the severity of the recent decadal drought (since 2000) clearly stands out in the 700 years of record and, this is suggestive of potential anthropogenic influences in the recent decades. Meteorological diagnosis using atmospheric reanalysis in the recent decades revealed that (1) winter drought in western Nepal is linked to the Arctic Oscillation and its decadal variability, which initiates a tropospheric short-wave train across the Europe, Eurasia and South Asia, and that (2) the persistent warming of the Indian Ocean likely contributes to the suppression of rainfall through enhanced local Hadley circultion. It is therefore conceivable that the recent spells of decadal drought in Nepal drought are symptomatic of both natural variability and anthropogenic influences.

  16. Agricultural intensification in Nepal, with particular reference to systems of rice intensification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uprety, Rajendra

    2016-01-01

    This thesis deals with agricultural intensification in Nepal. The initial focus of the study was the System of Rice Intensification (SRI), as introduced in Nepal from 2001. The multiple factors affecting SRI adoption, modification and dissemination together with the option to apply SRI in

  17. Agro-ecology and irrigation technology : comparative research on farmer-managed irrigation systems in the Mid-hills of Nepal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parajuli, U.N.

    1999-01-01

    Design and management of irrigation infrastructure in farmer managed irrigation systems (FMISs) are strongly influenced by social and agro-ecological conditions of an area. This thesis analyzes the elements of social and agro-ecological conditions in FMISs in the mid-hills of Nepal and

  18. Disaster response under One Health in the aftermath of Nepal earthquake, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asokan, G V; Vanitha, A

    2017-03-01

    Until now, an estimate quotes that 1100 healthcare facilities were damaged and over 100,000 livestock lost in the two earthquakes that occurred in April and May of 2015 in Nepal. Threats of infectious diseases, mostly zoonoses, could affect Nepal's economy, trade, and tourism, and reaching the targets of the United Nations Millennium Development Goals. Historically, outbreaks of infectious diseases, including zoonoses, were largely associated with the aftereffects of the earthquakes. It has been documented that zoonoses constitute 61% of all known infectious diseases. Therefore, the purpose of this communication was to examine the infectious disease outbreaks after earthquakes around the world and explore the risk assessment of the zoonoses threats reported in Nepal and highlight adopting One Health. Our summaries on reported zoonoses in Nepal have shown that parasitic zoonoses were predominant, but other infectious disease outbreaks can occur. The fragile public health infrastructure and inadequately trained public health personnel can accelerate the transmission of infections, mostly zoonoses, in the post impact phase of the earthquake in Nepal. Therefore, we believe that with the support of aid agencies, veterinarians and health professionals can team up to resolve the crisis under One Health. Copyright © 2016 Ministry of Health, Saudi Arabia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Do mobile family planning clinics facilitate vasectomy use in Nepal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padmadas, Sabu S; Amoako Johnson, Fiifi; Leone, Tiziana; Dahal, Govinda P

    2014-06-01

    Nepal has a distinct topography that makes reproductive health and family planning services difficult to access, particularly in remote mountain and hill regions where over a quarter of modern contraceptive users rely exclusively on vasectomy. A three-level random intercept logistic regression analysis was applied on data from the 2011 Nepal Demographic and Health Survey to investigate the extent of influence of mobile family planning clinics on the odds of a male or a female sterilization, adjusting for relevant characteristics including ecological differences and random effects. The analyses included a sample of 2014 sterilization users, considering responses from currently married women of reproductive ages. The odds of a male sterilization were significantly higher in a mobile clinic than those in a government hospital (odds ratio, 1.65; 95% confidence interval, 1.21-2.25). The effects remained unaltered and statistically significant after adjusting for sociodemographic and clustering effects. Random effects were highly significant, which suggest the extent of heterogeneity in vasectomy use at the community and district levels. The odds of vasectomy use in mobile clinics were significantly higher among couples residing in hill and mountain regions and among those with three or more sons or those with only daughters. Mobile clinics significantly increase the uptake of vasectomy in hard-to-reach areas of Nepal. Reproductive health interventions should consider mobile clinics as an effective strategy to improve access to male-based modern methods and enhance gender equity in family planning. Family planning interventions in hard-to-reach communities could consider mobile clinic as an effective strategy to promote male-based modern methods. Improving access to vasectomy could substantially reduce unmet need for family planning in countries experiencing rapid fertility transition. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The 2015 Nepal earthquake disaster: lessons learned one year on.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, M L; Lee, A C K; Cartwright, C; Marahatta, S; Karki, J; Simkhada, P

    2017-04-01

    The 2015 earthquake in Nepal killed over 8000 people, injured more than 21,000 and displaced a further 2 million. One year later, a national workshop was organized with various Nepali stakeholders involved in the response to the earthquake. The workshop provided participants an opportunity to reflect on their experiences and sought to learn lessons from the disaster. One hundred and thirty-five participants took part and most had been directly involved in the earthquake response. They included representatives from the Ministry of Health, local and national government, the armed forces, non-governmental organizations, health practitioners, academics, and community representatives. Participants were divided into seven focus groups based around the following topics: water, sanitation and hygiene, hospital services, health and nutrition, education, shelter, policy and community. Facilitated group discussions were conducted in Nepalese and the key emerging themes are presented. Participants described a range of issues encountered, some specific to their area of expertize but also more general issues. These included logistics and supply chain challenges, leadership and coordination difficulties, impacts of the media as well as cultural beliefs on population behaviour post-disaster. Lessons identified included the need for community involvement at all stages of disaster response and preparedness, as well as the development of local leadership capabilities and community resilience. A 'disconnect' between disaster management policy and responses was observed, which may result in ineffective, poorly planned disaster response. Finding time and opportunity to reflect on and identify lessons from disaster response can be difficult but are fundamental to improving future disaster preparedness. The Nepal Earthquake National Workshop offered participants the space to do this. It garnered an overwhelming sense of wanting to do things better, of the need for a Nepal-centric approach

  1. Local Irrigation Management Institutions Mediate Changes Driven by External Policy and Market Pressures in Nepal and Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastakoti, Ram C.; Shivakoti, Ganesh P.; Lebel, Louis

    2010-09-01

    This article assesses the role of local institutions in managing irrigation water use. Fifty irrigation systems in each country were studied in Nepal and Thailand to compare the influence of local institutions on performance of irrigation systems amid changes in external policy and market pressures. Nepal’s new irrigation policy after the re-instatement of multiparty democracy in 1990 emphasized participatory irrigation management transferring the management responsibility from state authorities to water users. The water user associations of traditional farmer-managed irrigation systems were formally recognized by requiring registration with related state authorities. In Thailand also government policies encouraged people’s participation in irrigation management. Today water users are directly involved in management of even some large irrigation systems at the level of tertiary canals. Traditional communal irrigation systems in northern Thailand received support for system infrastructure improvement but have faced increased interference from government. In Thailand market development supported diversification in farming practices resulting in increased areas under high water-demanding commercial crops in the dry season. In contrast, the command areas of most irrigation systems in Nepal include cereal-based subsistence farming with only one-third having commercial farming. Cropping intensities are higher in Nepal than in Thailand reflecting, in part, differences in availability of land and management. In both countries local institutions play an important role in maintaining the performance of irrigation systems as external drivers and local contexts change. Local institutions have provided alternative options for irrigation water use by mediating external pressures.

  2. Human rights violations among sexual and gender minorities in Kathmandu, Nepal: a qualitative investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Nepal has experienced sporadic reports of human rights violations among sexual and gender minorities. Our objective was to identify a range of human rights that are enshrined in international law and/or are commonly reported by sexual and gender minority participants in Kathmandu, to be nonprotected or violated. Methods In September 2009 three focus group discussions were conducted by trained interviewers among a convenience sample of sexual and gender minority participants in Kathmandu Nepal. The modified Delphi technique was utilized to elicit and rank participant-generated definitions of human rights and their subsequent violations. Data was analyzed independently and cross checked by another investigator. Results Participants (n = 29) reported experiencing a range of human rights violations at home, work, educational, health care settings and in public places. Lack of adequate legal protection, physical and mental abuse and torture were commonly reported. Access to adequate legal protection and improvements in the family and healthcare environment were ranked as the most important priority areas. Conclusions Sexual and gender minorities in Nepal experienced a range of human rights violations. Future efforts should enroll a larger and more systematic sample of participants to determine frequency, timing, and/or intensity of exposure to rights violations, and estimate the population-based impact of these rights violations on specific health outcomes PMID:22591775

  3. Rb-Sr ages of the biotite and muscovite of the Himalayas, eastern Nepal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kai, Kunio

    1981-01-01

    Rb-Sr ages of biotite from the southern flank of Mt. Everest, eastern Nepal, range from 14.1 to 1.3 m.y., the youngest biotite coexists with muscovite of 7.3 m.y. These different ages for different samples reflect the difference in cooling history related to the uplift of the Himalayas. The biotite ages decrease with increasing distance from the high mountain range, suggesting that the high range, i.e., the northern area, was uplifted earlier than the southern area. The relationship between the ages and altitutes of sampling sites indicates that the uplift rate of the northern area was 0.60 mm/yr. (author)

  4. Vegetation Response to Changing Climate - A Case Study from Gandaki River Basin in Nepal Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panthi, J., Sr.; Kirat, N. H.; Dahal, P.

    2015-12-01

    The climate of the Himalayan region is changing rapidly - temperature is increasingly high and rainfall has become unpredictable. IPCC predicts that average annual mean temperature over the Asian land mass, including the Himalayas, will increase by about 3°C by the 2050s and about 5°C by the 2080s and the average annual precipitation in this region will increase by 10-30% by 2080s. Climate and the human activities can influence the land cover status and the eco-environmental quality. There are enough evidences that there is strong interaction between climate variability and ecosystems. A project was carried out in Gandaki river basin in central Nepal to analyze the relationship of NDVI vegetation index with the temperature, rainfall and snowcover information. The relationships were analyzed for different landuses classes-grassland, forest and agriculture. Results show that the snowcover area is decreasing at the rate of 0.15% per year in the basin. The NDVI shows seasonal fluctuations and lightly correlated with the rainfall and temperature.

  5. Review of Brucellosis in Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, Krishna Prasad; Niroula, Nirajan; Kaphle, Krishna

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES The aim of this paper is to evaluate the current status of the disease, the mechanism of infection, and pathogenesis, its zoonotic potential, diagnostic advances, treatment regimens, and the preventive measures that can be adopted in managing human brucellosis in under-developed countries such as Nepal. METHODS We performed a systematic review of all the available literture through Google Scholar, PubMed, Gideon Informatics, World Health Organization and other legitimate sources. Other secondary informations were collected from the government agencies such as department of livestock services and Ministry of Health. The obtained information was then re-analysed and summarized. RESULTS Few publications have addressed brucellosis in Nepal and most of those publications have focused on bovine brucellosis with sparse information available on brucellosis in humans and small ruminants. Brucella abortus is the most predominant causative agent followed by B. suis. B. abortus is predominant in cattle accounting for a substantial portion of bovine abortion in the country. Lack of awareness, unhealthy food habit, traditional husbandry practices, and a lack of surveillance and immunization have been the major factors in maintaining a vicious cycle of propagation of the disease in human and animals. Unfortunately, nothing has been done to identify the species of Brucella at the biovar level. CONCLUSIONS Although brucellosis has been reported to be endemic in Nepal, neither the distribution nor the economic and public health impact of this disease is well characterized. Robust and well-designed nationwide survey is warranted to assess the prevalence and distribution of disease in livestock and humans. Such data would facilitate the design of appropriate control programmes. PMID:27703129

  6. Economic Burden of HIV/AIDS Upon Households in Nepal: A Critical Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newlands, David; Simkhada, Padam

    2015-01-01

    Thousands of people are infected with HIV/AIDS in Nepal and most of them are adults of working age. Therefore, HIV/AIDS is a big burden in Nepal. This review was conducted to find the existing knowledge gap about the economic burden of HIV/AIDS at the household level in Nepal, the extent of economic burden exerted by the disease, and to provide policy recommendations. It is concluded that there was a considerable knowledge gap about the issue, and the economic burden exerted by HIV/AIDS was big enough to push the affected households into poverty. It is suggested that more studies need to be conducted to fill the knowledge gap. Similarly, Government of Nepal and other organisations working in the field of HIV/AIDS need to provide economic supports (e.g.- support for travel costs) to the HIV positive people and need to increase the awareness level among general population for reducing stigma and discrimination, and reducing economic burden on them. PMID:26913211

  7. Ethnomedicinal practices in the highlands of central Nepal: a case study of Syaphru and Langtang village in Rasuwa district.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Nawal; Prasai, Deepshikha; Shrestha, Krishna Kumar; Shrestha, Saugat; Zhang, Xian-Chun

    2014-09-11

    The present paper documents the utilization of medicinal plants for the treatment of various human ailments in two village development committees in the Rasuwa district of central Nepal. It also evaluates the ethnopharmacological significance of the documented reports and identifies species of high indigenous priority in local therapeutics. The ethnobotanical information was collected by interviews and group discussions using standard ethnobotanical procedures. The homogeneity of informant׳s knowledge was validated by Informant consensus factor (F(IC)) and the relative importance of a plant species used as medicine in the study area was calculated with the help of use value (UV). The present study identified a total of 46 medicinal plants belonging to 26 families used for the treatment of 38 human ailments. Besides medicinal uses, the study has also documented the culinary and cultural use of 13 species of medicinal plants. The most commonly used part was root constituting about 42% of the total utilized plants. The most commonly used form of preparation was paste (31.91%). We found new usage reports for 9 medicinal plants. The F(IC) value in the present study ranged from 0.66 to 1 with 84.6% values greater than 0.8 indicating high consensus among the informants. The most preferred species was Neopicrorhiza scrophulariflora (UV=0.96) and the lowest used value was found for Lyonia ovalifolia (UV=0.32). People of Rasuwa possess rich traditional knowledge in medicinal plants utilization with strong consensus among local people on the utilization of species evident by higher F(IC) values in different ailment categories. Strong pharmacological evidence for a majority of species being currently used as medicines shows that the plants used in local therapeutics are likely to be more effective in treating different medical ailments. The bioactive compounds extracted from these medicinal plants could subsequently be used in the creation of novel drugs to treat life

  8. AN APPLICATION OF DOCTRINE OF NECESSITY: PREVIOUS CONSTITUENT ASSEMBLY OF NEPAL AND ITS TIME EXTENSION TO AVOID CONSTITUTIONAL UNCERTAINTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Pd. Jayshwal

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to investigate issues in relation of constitutional doctrine which had potential debate among the jurists of Nepal for the issues of time extension. The paper will also argue some weaknesses in the constituent assembly and their role expected by the people of Nepal. This paper will discuss about the evolution of constitution in Nepal, its features, the principle of Constitutionalism embodied in Nepalese constitution. This paper will further argue about the legitimacy of Doctrine of Necessity and its application in Nepal. In last, this paper will show the possibility of constitutional uncertainty by newly elected constituent assembly.   Penulisan ini dalam rangka mengkaji doktrin konstitusional yang tengah ramai diperdebatkan oleh para ahli hukum di Nepal, khususnya berkaitan dengan isu mengenai perpanjangan waktu. Melalui tulisan ini, terdapat temuan yang menunjukkan beberapa kelemahan yang ada dalam majelis konstituate Nepal di samping peran-perannya sebagaimana yang diharapkan oleh rakyat Nepal. Tulisan ini membahas pula mengenai evolusi konstitusi Nepal sebagaimana diwujudkan dalam prinsip-prinsip konstitusionalism yang dianut oleh Konstitusi Nepal. Lebih lanjut, berkaitan dengan legitimasi dari Doctrin of Necessity dan penerapannya di Nepal. Pada akhirnya, tulisan ini akan memberikan gambaran mengenai kemungkinan ketidakpastian secara konstitusional berkaitan dengan kondisi majelis konstituante yang baru saja terpilih.

  9. Severe Hailstorm in Nepal: A case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryal, D.

    2017-12-01

    During the pre-monsoon months (March-May) in Nepal, severe thunder and hailstorms cause significant property and agricultural damage in addition to loss of life from lightening. Forecasting thunderstorm severity remains a challenge even in wealthy, developed countries that have modern meteorological data gathering infrastructure, such as Doppler Radar. This study attempts to isolate the specific and unique characteristics of a hailstorm that not only might explain its severity, but also suggest forecasting techniquees for future forecasting in Nepal. The primary data sources for this investigation included Infrared Satellite images, which illustrated the sequences of convective activity, and original archived ESRL India and China upper air data, which was used for synoptic and mesoscale analyses. On May 3, 2001 between the hours of 1100pm and midnight, a severe thunderstorm accompanied by hail stones estimated at 1kg, devastated the village of Thori (Southern border to India). 800 thatched houses were destroyed, over 500 farm animals were killed and more than 200 hectares of crops lost. Many inhabitants were injured, but luckily only one death. Thori hailstorm had its origins in a topographically induced lee-side convergence area in the deserts of Pakistan on May 2, 2001, from where it propagated eastwards into India and evolved into an eastward travelling Mesoscale Convective System reaching Thori near midnight on May 3. Atmospheric instability over the Gangetic Plains, fuelled by a very active surface heat low, cold temperatures and dynamic lifting mechanisms aloft, created a synoptic and mesoscale environment capable of generating a dangerous thunderstorm.

  10. Where is Nepal in the nutrition transition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subedi, Yagya Prasad; Marais, Debbi; Newlands, David

    2017-03-01

    Nutrition transition is rapid in developing countries, but Nepalese transition is relatively unknown. This study aimed to describe nutrition transition in Nepal over the past 40 years by identifying the shifts in the Nepalese diets and nutritional status and the underlying shifts associated with this. Popkin's framework was used to identify shifts in Nepalese diet and the inter-relationship of diet with epidemiological, demographic and economic shifts. The current study used quantitative methodology including secondary data analysis based on food balance sheets, economic surveys and the government databases. The Nepalese diet is shifting away from agricultural staple based foods to modern processed foods with higher total energy, total fat, and sugar. The prevalence of overweight/obesity and diet related non-communicable diseases are increasing. Urbanisation is rapid and nutrition transition already advanced in urban area. The Nepalese economic structure has also changed shifting away from agricultural food supply system towards modern processing based food supply system. These changes in the Nepalese diet are triggered by income and urbanisation. The trade liberalisation has made processed foods, edible oil and sugar easily available at supermarkets and fast food outlets. It is clear that Nepal has now entered into the fourth stage of nutrition transition according to Popkin's framework. As a result, overweight, obesity and the prevalence of many noncommunicable diseases are all rapidly growing. A further study is recommended to identify whether urban versus rural, rich versus poor and educated versus uneducated families are experiencing the transition in similar way.

  11. Snow Leopard and Himalayan Wolf: Food Habits and Prey Selection in the Central Himalayas, Nepal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhu Chetri

    Full Text Available Top carnivores play an important role in maintaining energy flow and functioning of the ecosystem, and a clear understanding of their diets and foraging strategies is essential for developing effective conservation strategies. In this paper, we compared diets and prey selection of snow leopards and wolves based on analyses of genotyped scats (snow leopards n = 182, wolves n = 57, collected within 26 sampling grid cells (5×5 km that were distributed across a vast landscape of ca 5000 km2 in the Central Himalayas, Nepal. Within the grid cells, we sampled prey abundances using the double observer method. We found that interspecific differences in diet composition and prey selection reflected their respective habitat preferences, i.e. snow leopards significantly preferred cliff-dwelling wild ungulates (mainly bharal, 57% of identified material in scat samples, whereas wolves preferred typically plain-dwellers (Tibetan gazelle, kiang and argali, 31%. Livestock was consumed less frequently than their proportional availability by both predators (snow leopard = 27%; wolf = 24%, but significant avoidance was only detected among snow leopards. Among livestock species, snow leopards significantly preferred horses and goats, avoided yaks, and used sheep as available. We identified factors influencing diet composition using Generalized Linear Mixed Models. Wolves showed seasonal differences in the occurrence of small mammals/birds, probably due to the winter hibernation of an important prey, marmots. For snow leopard, occurrence of both wild ungulates and livestock in scats depended on sex and latitude. Wild ungulates occurrence increased while livestock decreased from south to north, probably due to a latitudinal gradient in prey availability. Livestock occurred more frequently in scats from male snow leopards (males: 47%, females: 21%, and wild ungulates more frequently in scats from females (males: 48%, females: 70%. The sexual difference agrees with

  12. Snow Leopard and Himalayan Wolf: Food Habits and Prey Selection in the Central Himalayas, Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odden, Morten; Wegge, Per

    2017-01-01

    Top carnivores play an important role in maintaining energy flow and functioning of the ecosystem, and a clear understanding of their diets and foraging strategies is essential for developing effective conservation strategies. In this paper, we compared diets and prey selection of snow leopards and wolves based on analyses of genotyped scats (snow leopards n = 182, wolves n = 57), collected within 26 sampling grid cells (5×5 km) that were distributed across a vast landscape of ca 5000 km2 in the Central Himalayas, Nepal. Within the grid cells, we sampled prey abundances using the double observer method. We found that interspecific differences in diet composition and prey selection reflected their respective habitat preferences, i.e. snow leopards significantly preferred cliff-dwelling wild ungulates (mainly bharal, 57% of identified material in scat samples), whereas wolves preferred typically plain-dwellers (Tibetan gazelle, kiang and argali, 31%). Livestock was consumed less frequently than their proportional availability by both predators (snow leopard = 27%; wolf = 24%), but significant avoidance was only detected among snow leopards. Among livestock species, snow leopards significantly preferred horses and goats, avoided yaks, and used sheep as available. We identified factors influencing diet composition using Generalized Linear Mixed Models. Wolves showed seasonal differences in the occurrence of small mammals/birds, probably due to the winter hibernation of an important prey, marmots. For snow leopard, occurrence of both wild ungulates and livestock in scats depended on sex and latitude. Wild ungulates occurrence increased while livestock decreased from south to north, probably due to a latitudinal gradient in prey availability. Livestock occurred more frequently in scats from male snow leopards (males: 47%, females: 21%), and wild ungulates more frequently in scats from females (males: 48%, females: 70%). The sexual difference agrees with previous

  13. Snow Leopard and Himalayan Wolf: Food Habits and Prey Selection in the Central Himalayas, Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chetri, Madhu; Odden, Morten; Wegge, Per

    2017-01-01

    Top carnivores play an important role in maintaining energy flow and functioning of the ecosystem, and a clear understanding of their diets and foraging strategies is essential for developing effective conservation strategies. In this paper, we compared diets and prey selection of snow leopards and wolves based on analyses of genotyped scats (snow leopards n = 182, wolves n = 57), collected within 26 sampling grid cells (5×5 km) that were distributed across a vast landscape of ca 5000 km2 in the Central Himalayas, Nepal. Within the grid cells, we sampled prey abundances using the double observer method. We found that interspecific differences in diet composition and prey selection reflected their respective habitat preferences, i.e. snow leopards significantly preferred cliff-dwelling wild ungulates (mainly bharal, 57% of identified material in scat samples), whereas wolves preferred typically plain-dwellers (Tibetan gazelle, kiang and argali, 31%). Livestock was consumed less frequently than their proportional availability by both predators (snow leopard = 27%; wolf = 24%), but significant avoidance was only detected among snow leopards. Among livestock species, snow leopards significantly preferred horses and goats, avoided yaks, and used sheep as available. We identified factors influencing diet composition using Generalized Linear Mixed Models. Wolves showed seasonal differences in the occurrence of small mammals/birds, probably due to the winter hibernation of an important prey, marmots. For snow leopard, occurrence of both wild ungulates and livestock in scats depended on sex and latitude. Wild ungulates occurrence increased while livestock decreased from south to north, probably due to a latitudinal gradient in prey availability. Livestock occurred more frequently in scats from male snow leopards (males: 47%, females: 21%), and wild ungulates more frequently in scats from females (males: 48%, females: 70%). The sexual difference agrees with previous

  14. Central Nevada Test Area Monitoring Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brad Lyles; Jenny Chapman; John Healey; David Gillespie

    2006-01-01

    Water level measurements were performed and water samples collected from the Central Nevada Test Area model validation wells in September 2006. Hydraulic head measurements were compared to previous observations; the MV wells showed slight recovery from the drilling and testing operation in 2005. No radioisotopes exceeded limits set in the Corrective Action Decision Document/Corrective Action Plan, and no significant trends were observed when compared to previous analyses

  15. Alternative energy in Nepal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiwari, H.B.; Bhandari, K.P.

    2011-05-15

    Renewable energy Technology (RET) becomes the mainstream option for rural Nepal to access modern source of energy. It focuses on the trend of RET applications consisting of biogas technology, solar thermal, micro and Pico hydropower, biomass technology bio fuel technology, wind power technology etc. The RET's which provide both electricity based as well as non electricity based services, have been shown to most immediately meet the needs of a cleaner indoor environment, better quality lightning for education and income generating, activities, alternative cooking fuels and agro processing as well as rural industries. Improved cooking stoves and much more beneficial than other technologies. Wind energy utilization is still not popular. Solar thermal to generate thermal energy to cook, warm and dry, biogas for lighting and cooking services. Micro hydropower for electric as well as mechanical use and solar PV mainly for domestic lighting may become choice. The most important Renewable Energy Technology (RET's) in Nepal are related to Pico hydropower and micro-hydropower, biomass energy (biogas, briquettes, gasifies, improved cooking stoves, bio-fuels etc.) solar photovoltaic energy, solar PV water pumping, solar thermal energy (solar heater, solar dryers, solar cookers etc.) and wind energy (such as wind generators, wind mills etc.). One renowned Non-governmental organization has been established in the Jhapa and Mornag Bhutanese refugee camp. Two families from all the seven camps in Nepal received one solar cooker, one hay box and two cooking posts to each family. Under this programme, a total of 6,850 solar cookers, 12600 hay boxes and 25,200 cooking pots have been distributed 2009. The number of beneficiaries from this program has reached 85,000. Before the distribution of the cookers and the utensils, the instruction and orientation training for the maintenance and repair and operation method was improved. The refugees were divided in 315 groups of 40

  16. Suitability Analysis and Projected Climate Change Impact on Banana and Coffee Production Zones in Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sujakhu, Nani M.; Merz, Juerg; Kindt, Roeland; Xu, Jianchu; Matin, Mir A.; Ali, Mostafa; Zomer, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    The Government of Nepal has identified opportunities in agricultural commercialization, responding to a growing internal demand and expansion of export markets to reduce the immense trade deficit. Several cash crops, including coffee and bananas, have been identified in the recently approved Agriculture Development Strategy. Both of these crops have encouraged smallholder farmers to convert their subsistence farming practices to more commercial cultivation. Identification of suitable agro-ecological zones and understanding climate-related issues are important for improved production and livelihoods of smallholder farmers. Here, the suitability of coffee and banana crops is analyzed for different agro-ecological zones represented by Global Environmental Stratification (GEnS). Future shifts in these suitability zones are also predicted. Plantation sites in Nepal were geo-referenced and used as input in species distribution modelling. The multi-model ensemble model suggests that climate change will reduce the suitable growing area for coffee by about 72% across the selected emission scenarios from now to 2050. Impacts are low for banana growing, with a reduction in suitability by about 16% by 2050. Bananas show a lot of potential for playing an important role in Nepal as a sustainable crop in the context of climate change, as this study indicates that the amount of area suited to banana growing will grow by 40% by 2050. Based on our analysis we recommend possible new locations for coffee plantations and one method for mitigating climate change-related problems on existing plantations. These findings are expected to support planning and policy dialogue for mitigation and support better informed and scientifically based decision-making relating to these two crops. PMID:27689354

  17. Genetic diversity of plasmodium vivax merozoite surface protein-3alpha (Pvmsp-3alpha) gene in Jhapa District of Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, Madhav; Ranjitkar, Samir; Schousboe, Mette Leth; Alifrangis, Michael; Imwong, Mallika; Bhatta, Dwij Raj; Banjara, Megha Raj

    2012-03-01

    In Nepal, Plasmodium vivax accounts for approximately 80-90% of the malaria cases, but limited studies have been conducted on the genetic diversity of this parasite population. This study was carried out to determine the genetic diversity of P. vivax population sampled from subjects living in an endemic area of Jhapa District by analyzing the polymorphic merozoite surface protein-3alpha (Pvmsp-3alpha) gene by using PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Three distinct genotypes were obtained from 96 samples; type A: 40 (71%), type B: 7 (13%), and type C: 9 (16%) which could be categorized into 13 allelic patterns: A1-A9, B1, B2, C1 and C2. These results indicated a high genetic diversity within the studied P. vivax population. As the transmission rate of malaria is low in Nepal, the diversity is most likely due to migration of people between the malaria endemic regions, either within the country or between Nepal and India. Similar prevalence of the three genotypes of Pvmsp-3alpha between the two countries likely supports the latter explanation.

  18. Providing palliative care in rural Nepal: Perceptions of mid-level health workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh N Gongal

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nepal is beginning to develop palliative care services across the country. Most people live in rural areas, where the Mid-Level Health Workers (MHWs are the major service providers. Their views on providing palliative care are most important in determining how the service is organized and developed.Aim: This study aims to ascertain the perceptions of MHWs about palliative care in their local community, to inform service development.Methods: A> qualitative descriptive design, using focus group discussions, was used to collect data from a rural district of Makwanpur, 1 of the 75 districts of Nepal. Twenty-eight MHWs participated in four focus group discussions. The data were analyzed using content analysis.Result: Four themes emerged from the discussion: (i suffering of patients and families inflicted by life-threatening illness, (ii helplessness and frustration felt when caring for such patients, (iii sociocultural issues at the end of life, and (iv improving care for patients with palliative care needs.Conclusion: MHWs practicing in rural areas reported the suffering of patients inflicted with life-limiting illness and their family due to poverty, poor access, lack of resources, social discrimination, and lack of knowledge and skills of the health workers. While there are clear frustrations with the limited resources, there is a willingness to learn among the health workers and provide care in the community.

  19. Modelled and observed mass balance of Rikha Samba Glacier, Nepal, Central Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurung, T. R.; Kayastha, R. B.; Fujita, K.; Sinisalo, A. K.; Stumm, D.; Joshi, S.; Litt, M.

    2016-12-01

    Glacier mass balance variability has an implication for the regional water resources and it helps to understand the response of glacier to climate change in the Himalayan region. Several mass balance studies have been started in the Himalayan region since 1970s, but they are characterized by frequent temporal gaps and a poor spatial representatively. This study aims at bridging the temporal gaps in a long term mass balance series of the Rikha Samba glacier (5383 - 6475 m a.s.l.), a benchmark glacier located in the Hidden Valley, Mustang, Nepal. The ERA Interim reanalysis data for the period 2011-2015 is calibrated with the observed meteorological variables from an AWS installed near the glacier terminus. We apply an energy mass balance model, validated with the available in-situ measurements for the years 1998 and 2011-2015. The results show that the glacier is shrinking at a moderate negative mass balance rate for the period 1995 to 2015 and the high altitude location of Rikha Samba also prevents a bigger mass loss compared to other small Himalayan glaciers. Precipitation from July to January and the mean air temperature from June to October are the most influential climatic parameters of the annual mass balance variability of Rikha Samba glacier.

  20. Study on Nutritional Problems in Preschool Aged Children of Kaski District of Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Acharya, J.; Van Teijlingen, Edwin; Murphy, Jane; Hind, Martin

    2015-01-01

    bstract Undernutrition remains a key public health burden in Nepal. This study aimed to measure knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about nutritious food amongst mothers of 3 – 5 year olds from rural and urban areas. A cross-sectional mixed-methods approach comprised a quantitative survey and qualitative focus groups. The community-based survey included 524 mothers of children who are no longer breastfed. Open-ended and structured questions investigated knowledge, beliefs and attitudes about nu...

  1. Bear-inflicted injuries - a report from Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atreya, Alok; Kanchan, Tanuj; Nepal, Samata; Acharya, Jenash

    2016-06-01

    Upper Mustang in the Northern Himalayan range of Nepal is the home of brown bears (Ursusarctos). Low-plant biomass as a result of scanty rainfall in Upper Mustang is a reason for habitat overlap of humans and wild animals. Humans who enter into the wild to collect firewood and graze cattle are liable to wild animal attacks. Such attacks, especially by brown bears, are readily identified by the type of injuries. These are more commonly confined to head and neck regions. Cutting, gnawing and tearing by sharp teeth and claws produces specific pattern of injuries, which are devastating but seldom fatal. This article reports a rare case of brown bear injury inflicted upon a man from the Upper Mustang region in Nepal. © The Author(s) 2016.

  2. Mobile Learning Practice In Higher Education in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Prasad Parajuli

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available During the 15 years of this current century, mobile technology has become a leading technology in the support of educational outcomes. This study investigated the mobile learning practices among undergraduates in higher education in the semi-urban and rural areas of the Gorkha district of Nepal. The objectives were to explore the availability of mobile technology for learning; its costs; learning trends, institutional policies, and attitudes towards mobile learning. These factors were explored to identify implications for pedagogical practice. The study adopted a mixed methods design, in which the quantitative data were collected by using a questionnaire with a sample of 161 undergraduates from six campuses. The qualitative data were collected from 19 purposively selected respondents by the way of semi-structured interviews. The result indicated that virtually all undergraduates possessed their mobile phones and used them informally for learning both inside and outside of their classes. The majority of the students had positive attitudes towards mobile learning. However, many were not satisfied with the effectiveness of their practices or with the level of institutional support for using mobile devices to support their learning. Although comprehensive mobile learning is not widespread in Nepal, enriching conventional learning by the incremental use of mobile devices is possible in Nepalese institutes of higher education. I conclude that teachers and institutions should provide guidance to students about the effective uses of mobile technology because successful use of technology in learning largely depends on appropriate pedagogy and teacher support.

  3. Challenges in diabetes mellitus type 2 management in Nepal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyawali, Bishal; Ferrario, Alessandra; van Teijlingen, Edwin

    2016-01-01

    references. Results Diabetes mellitus type 2 is emerging as a major health care problem in Nepal, with rising prevalence and its complications especially in urban populations. Several challenges in diabetes management were identified, including high cost of treatment, limited health care facilities, and lack...... on the prevalence, cost and treatment of diabetes mellitus type 2 and its complications in Nepal and to critically assess the challenges to be addressed to contain the epidemic and its negative economic impact. Design A comprehensive review of available evidence and data sources on prevalence, risk factors, cost...

  4. Pitfalls of CITES Implementation in Nepal: A Policy Gap Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dongol, Yogesh; Heinen, Joel T.

    2012-08-01

    Implementation of policy involves multiple agencies operating at multiple levels in facilitating processes and actions to accomplish desired results. The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) was developed and implemented to regulate and control international wildlife trade, but violations of the agreement are widespread and growing worldwide, including in Nepal. This study attempts to understand how domestic CITES policies are translated into action and what effect actions and processes have on compliance. In doing so, this study provides insights into the implementation and enforcement pitfalls of national legislation that explain CITES violations in Nepal. Primarily, we used 26 key informants interviews to learn opinions of experts, and the grounded theory approach for further qualitative data analysis. In addition, we used Najman's (1995) policy implementation analysis framework to explain gaps. Many interrelated variables in the content of the policy, commitment and capacity of the agencies, the roles of clients and coalitions and contextual issues were observed. Variables that emerged suggest pitfalls in the regulatory policy represented by low probability of detection, arrest and punishment. Moreover, redistributive policies in buffer zones of protected areas are needed into perpetuity to benefit locals. Also, conservation organizations' support for building public and political salience is imperative.

  5. Population structure, behavior, and current threats to the sarus crane (Grus antigone antigone in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal Raj Gosai

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The sarus crane (Grus antigone antigone is listed as “vulnerable” in the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Sarus cranes are distributed in the lowlands, but most live outside protected areas, especially in agricultural areas and wetlands of Nepal. The continuous expansion of agricultural land and the reduction of wetland habitats pose the greatest threats to the conservation of the species. We studied the sarus crane in the Rupandehi District of Nepal to understand their population structure, behavior, and current threats. We used the line (i.e., road transect method from August 2013 to February 2014. The study area contained 147 sarus cranes. Agricultural land and wetland areas contained the highest number of sarus cranes. Our analysis showed that the population of sarus crane in the area has declined since 2007. Most sarus cranes lived in pairs. A single flock contained 13 cranes at maximum. Sarus crane behavior was not significantly different before and after the breeding seasons. Human–sarus crane conflict began when cranes started utilizing agricultural areas. The main threats to the hatching success and survival of sarus cranes in the Rupendehi District are egg theft and the hunting of cranes for meat. The findings of this study establish baseline information on the overall conservation status, habitat availability, and ecological behavior of sarus cranes in the district. We propose regular surveys to monitor sarus crane population levels in the face of multiple anthropogenic threats to their survival.

  6. Societal impacts and vulnerability to floods in Bangladesh and Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Tanvir H. Dewan

    2015-01-01

    Bangladesh and Nepal lie between the Himalayas and low-lying coasts of the Bay of Bengal and are traversed by hundreds of rivers and tributaries. Historical data shows that, since 1970, the scale, intensity and duration of floods have increased in Bangladesh and Nepal, causing grave human suffering; disruptions in normal life and activity, damages of infrastructure, crops and agricultural land with severe impacts on the economy. Bangladesh is affected by torrential rain, glacier melt, upstrea...

  7. FAMILY RUN SMEs IN NEPAL AND THEIR APPROACH TO MARKETING

    OpenAIRE

    Sanghai, Megha Sanghai

    2007-01-01

    This exploratory research aims to study the role of marketing and its relevance in small and medium sized family businesses in Nepal by comparing it to the combined review of authors and academicians in the field of SME/ entrepreneurial marketing. Although marketing is a key factor in the survival and development of business ventures, SMEs in Nepal cannot do conventional marketing because of the limitations of resources which are inherent to Nepalese SMEs and also because business owner/ mana...

  8. Chinese Policy Toward South Asia: Implications and Prospects for Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Silk Road not only served as a major trade route between India and China, but was also credited for the expansion of Buddhism in this region. India...endowed with legendary fighters of world fame.36 Nepal is the melting pot where two important religions, Hinduism and Buddhism are being practiced...It is believed that Hinduism exists since 1200 BC37 and Buddhism since 520 BC.38 Buddha was born in Nepal, enlightened in India, and Buddhism spread

  9. Factors affecting IUCD discontinuation in Nepal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thapa, Subash; Paudel, Ishwari Sharma; Bhattarai, Sailesh

    2015-01-01

    Information related to contraception discontinuation, especially in the context of Nepal is very limited. A nested case-control study was carried out to determine the factors affecting discontinuation of intrauterine contraceptive devices (IUCDs). A total of 115 cases (IUCD discontinuers) and 115...

  10. Collection for Nepal

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2015-01-01

    You are wonderful, thank you! On 25 April 2015, Nepal and neighboring countries suffered a violent earthquake, which killed thousands. On 28 April CERN Staff Association and CERN Management appealed to your generosity to help those affected, and opened an account to be able to receive your donations. We are now pleased to announce that the amount raised is CHF 34'800, and was donated to the NGO Live to Love of His Holiness the Gyalwang Drukpa. We thank everyone who contributed to this important cause.

  11. Application of Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) for the assessment of Ground Water Potential at Madi Phant, Palpa District, Western Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatiwada, B.; Ghimire, H.; Bhusal, U. C.; Shrestha, S. R.; Upadhyay, K.; Khanal, A.; Pandey, D.

    2017-12-01

    Ground Water Resources Development Board (GWRDB), Government of Nepal, is the sole authority for systematize investigation, and management of ground water in the country. This study was conducted by GWRDB to create a data base of the groundwater potential in the hilly area. The main purpose of the study was to assess the groundwater potential at the Madi Phant Valley, Lesser Himalaya Region, Plapa District, Nepal. Data were acquired from WDJD-4 and analyzed using computer aided software called IPI2win, which yield an automatic interpretation of the apparent resistivity and data were correlated with lithologs of the vertical section. The simulated results of the ten VES points conducted using Schlumberger Configuration with AB/2 varying from 2 to 400 m and MN/2 varying from 0.5 to 50m reveal the presence of 4 to 8 geo-electric layers. Results obtained from software were rechecked by plotting the apparent resistivity value on Log-Log transparent graph sheet and manually interpreted using master curves and auxiliary curves. The resistivity values of the different layers' ranges from 3 Ωm to 3700 Ωm and were statistically analyzed from Golden Software Grapher. Representative resistivity sounding curves with modeled layer obtained after inversion was used to delineate the aquifer and 1D geoelectric sections. The geoelectrical sections for the study area consists of: the topsoil, sandy silt, sand and gravel, fractured rock and the fresh basement rock. The groundwater bearing layer of fractured rock varies between depth of 8-65 meters across foothill site (Eastern Corner) of the study area and groundwater bearing layer of sand and gravel/fractured rock varies between depth of 20-100 m in the central part of the Madi Phant valley. Contour map and 3D map of bedrock and water bearing layers for the conceptual model were prepared with the help of surfer shows that the gradient of the contour is high in the surrounding parts and flat in the center of Valley.

  12. Characterization of extensively drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poudel, Ajay; Maharjan, Bhagwan; Nakajima, Chie; Fukushima, Yukari; Pandey, Basu D; Beneke, Antje; Suzuki, Yasuhiko

    2013-01-01

    The emergence of extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) has raised public health concern for global control of TB. Although molecular characterization of drug resistance-associated mutations in multidrug-resistant isolates in Nepal has been made, mutations in XDR isolates and their genotypes have not been reported previously. In this study, we identified and characterized 13 XDR Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from clinical isolates in Nepal. The most prevalent mutations involved in rifampicin, isoniazid, ofloxacin, and kanamycin/capreomycin resistance were Ser531Leu in rpoB gene (92.3%), Ser315Thr in katG gene (92.3%), Asp94Gly in gyrA gene (53.9%) and A1400G in rrs gene (61.5%), respectively. Spoligotyping and multilocus sequence typing revealed that 69% belonged to Beijing family, especially modern types. Further typing with 26-loci variable number of tandem repeats suggested the current spread of XDR M. tuberculosis. Our result highlights the need to reinforce the TB policy in Nepal with regard to control and detection strategies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Maternal Mortality in Nepal: Unraveling the Complexity

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    Suwal, Juhee V.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available EnglishMaternal mortality has been recognised as a public health problem in the developing countries. The situation concerning maternal mortality in Nepal remained unexplored and vague until the early 1990s. By using 1996 Nepal Family Health Survey, this study discusses the maternal mortality situation in Nepal and analyses the differentials in maternal mortality by place of residence,region, ethnic and religious groups, age at death, and parity. Almost 28 percent of deaths of women in reproductive age was accountable to maternal causes.Logistic regression analysis shows ‘ethnicity,’ ‘age of women,’ and ‘number of births’ as strong predictors of maternal mortality. A number of policy recommendations are suggested to help lower maternal mortality.FrenchLa mortalité liée à la maternité est un des phénomènes de santé qui a étéidentifié dans les pays en voie de développement. La situation de la mortalitéliée à la maternité au Népal est restée inexplorée et assez vague jusqu’au débutdes années 1990. En utilisant les données du Nepal Family Health Survey de1996, cet article examine la situation de la mortalité liée à la maternité au Népalet analyse les différentiels des taux de mortalité par lieu de résidence, région,groupe ethnique et religieux, âge au décès, et parité. Presque 28 pourcent desdécès de femmes en âge de procréer sont liés à la maternité. L’analyse derégression logique démontre que « l’ethnicité », « l’âge des femmes », et le« nombre de naissances » sont de forts prédicteurs du taux des mortalités liées àla maternité.

  14. Engineering geological aspect of Gorkha Earthquake 2015, Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, Basanta Raj; Andermann, Christoff; Cook, Kristen

    2016-04-01

    Strong shaking by earthquake causes massif landsliding with severe effects on infrastructure and human lives. The distribution of landslides and other hazards are depending on the combination of earthquake and local characteristics which influence the dynamic response of hillslopes. The Himalayas are one of the most active mountain belts with several kilometers of relief and is very prone to catastrophic mass failure. Strong and shallow earthquakes are very common and cause wide spread collapse of hillslopes, increasing the background landslide rate by several magnitude. The Himalaya is facing many small and large earthquakes in the past i.e. earthquakes i.e. Bihar-Nepal earthquake 1934 (Ms 8.2); Large Kangra earthquake of 1905 (Ms 7.8); Gorkha earthquake 2015 (Mw 7.8). The Mw 7.9 Gorkha earthquake has occurred on and around the main Himalayan Thrust with a hypocentral depth of 15 km (GEER 2015) followed by Mw 7.3 aftershock in Kodari causing 8700+ deaths and leaving hundreds of thousands of homeless. Most of the 3000 aftershocks located by National Seismological Center (NSC) within the first 45 days following the Gorkha Earthquake are concentrated in a narrow 40 km-wide band at midcrustal to shallow depth along the strike of the southern slope of the high Himalaya (Adhikari et al. 2015) and the ground shaking was substantially lower in the short-period range than would be expected for and earthquake of this magnitude (Moss et al. 2015). The effect of this earthquake is very unique in affected areas by showing topographic effect, liquefaction and land subsidence. More than 5000 landslides were triggered by this earthquake (Earthquake without Frontiers, 2015). Most of the landslides are shallow and occurred in weathered bedrock and appear to have mobilized primarily as raveling failures, rock slides and rock falls. Majority of landslides are limited to a zone which runs east-west, approximately parallel the lesser and higher Himalaya. There are numerous cracks in

  15. Assessment of high-risk human papillomavirus infections using clinician- and self-collected cervical sampling methods in rural women from far western Nepal.

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    Derek C Johnson

    Full Text Available Nepal has one of the highest cervical cancer rates in South Asia. Only a few studies in populations from urban areas have investigated type specific distribution of human papillomavirus (HPV in Nepali women. Data on high-risk HPV (HR-HPV types are not currently available for rural populations in Nepal. We aimed to assess the distribution of HR- HPV among rural Nepali women while assessing self-collected and clinician-collected cervico-vaginal specimens as sample collection methods for HPV screening.Study participants were recruited during a health camp conducted by Nepal Fertility Care Center in Achham District of rural far western Nepal. Women of reproductive age completed a socio-demographic and clinical questionnaire, and provided two specimens; one cervical-vaginal specimen using a self-collection method and another cervical specimen collected by health camp auxiliary nurse midwives during a pelvic examination. All samples were tested for 14 different HR-HPV mRNA and also specific for HPV16/18/45 mRNA.Of 261 women with both clinician- and self-collected cervical samples, 25 tested positive for HR-HPV, resulting in an overall HR-HPV prevalence of 9.6% (95% confidence Interval [CI]: 6.3-13.8. The overall Kappa value assessing agreement between clinician- and self-collected tests was 0.62 (95% CI: 0.43-0.81, indicating a "good" level of agreement. Abnormal cytology was reported for 8 women. One woman identified with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC, and 7 women with high grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL. Seven of the 8 women tested positive for HR-HPV (87.5% in clinician-collected samples and 6 in self-collected samples (75.0%.This is the first study to assess HR-HPV among rural Nepali women. Self-collected sampling methods should be the subject of additional research in Nepal for screening HR-HPV, associated with pre-cancer lesions and cancer, in women in rural areas with limited access to health services.

  16. Does Private School Competition Improve Public School Performance? The Case of Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapa, Amrit

    2013-01-01

    Using data from the survey of the Ministry of Education, Nepal-2005 for school leaving certificate (SLC) exam, this paper attempts to estimate the impact of private school competition on public school performance for the case of Nepal. The study uses the number of private schools in the neighborhood as a measure of competition. The identification…

  17. Transforming the Lives of Mountain Women Through the Himalayan Nettle Value Chain: A Case Study From Darchula, Far West Nepal

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    Lipy Adhikari

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Naugad is a remote rural municipality in the mountains of far west Nepal with poor accessibility and limited economic opportunities, especially for women and marginalized communities. Promotion of the natural resource-based value chain for allo (the Himalayan nettle, Girardinia diversifolia was identified as an innovative livelihood strategy by the local community. Value chain development started in 2014. The project was designed to focus on women and include participation by the private sector. This paper analyzes the impact of the project, especially on women's lives, using primary and secondary data. A community-owned enterprise was established with private-sector support from the South Asian Association of Regional Cooperation's Business Association of Home Based Workers (SABAH Nepal. The enterprise now has 82 members (69 of them women, with 150 households benefiting directly and indirectly. SABAH Nepal provided training in sustainable harvesting and processing techniques and promotes the products in high-end international markets. A buyback guarantee scheme provides security to local artisans. The quality and range of allo products have increased markedly, as has the share in benefits for local people. Skills training and visits to trade fairs have helped women build their capacity and take a leading role in the value chain process. The community-owned enterprise members have earned up to NPR 4000 per month from sewing, more than the local rate for day labor and sufficient to cover general household expenses. More than 25 women entrepreneurs have started microbusinesses related to allo. Allo has become an important economic asset, transforming the lives of mountain women in this village area. The approach has potential for scaling up across the subtropical to temperate areas of the Himalayan region in Bhutan, China, India, Myanmar, and Nepal.

  18. Association between socioeconomic status of mothers, food security, food safety practices and the double burden of malnutrition in the Lalitpur district, Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarki, Mahesh; Robertson, Aileen; Parlesak, Alexandr

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity is increasing in low-and middle income countries such as Nepal. At the same time, high prevalence of chronic undernutrition persists leading to a double burden of malnutrition. To identify associations between the socioeconomic status of mothers, food security, the food safety environment within the household, and prevalence of stunting and overweight of the children. Statistical analysis of socioeconomic, food safety-related and anthropometric data from 289 mother-child dyads in an urban area of the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal. According to WHO standards, 26 % of the children, aged 0-59 months, were stunted, 10 % were underweight, and 6.6 % were either overweight or obese. Significantly more boys than girls were underweight (p = 0.004) and stunted (p malnutrition at least in some regions of Nepal. This should be taken into consideration when designing programmes to prevent both chronic undernutrition and non-communicable diseases.

  19. Effects of abortion legalization in Nepal, 2001-2010.

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    Jillian T Henderson

    Full Text Available Abortion was legalized in Nepal in 2002, following advocacy efforts highlighting high maternal mortality from unsafe abortion. We sought to assess whether legalization led to reductions in the most serious maternal health consequences of unsafe abortion.We conducted retrospective medical chart review of all gynecological cases presenting at four large public referral hospitals in Nepal. For the years 2001-2010, all cases of spontaneous and induced abortion complications were identified, abstracted, and coded to classify cases of serious infection, injury, and systemic complications. We used segmented Poisson and ordinary logistic regression to test for trend and risks of serious complications for three time periods: before implementation (2001-2003, early implementation (2004-2006, and later implementation (2007-2010.23,493 cases of abortion complications were identified. A significant downward trend in the proportion of serious infection, injury, and systemic complications was observed for the later implementation period, along with a decline in the risk of serious complications (OR 0.7, 95% CI 0.64, 0.85. Reductions in sepsis occurred sooner, during early implementation (OR 0.6, 95% CI 0.47, 0.75.Over the study period, health care use and the population of reproductive aged women increased. Total fertility also declined by nearly half, despite relatively low contraceptive prevalence. Greater numbers of women likely obtained abortions and sought hospital care for complications following legalization, yet we observed a significant decline in the rate of serious abortion morbidity. The liberalization of abortion policy in Nepal has benefited women's health, and likely contributes to falling maternal mortality in the country. The steepest decline was observed after expansion of the safe abortion program to include midlevel providers, second trimester training, and medication abortion, highlighting the importance of concerted efforts to improve

  20. Effects of abortion legalization in Nepal, 2001-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Jillian T; Puri, Mahesh; Blum, Maya; Harper, Cynthia C; Rana, Ashma; Gurung, Geeta; Pradhan, Neelam; Regmi, Kiran; Malla, Kasturi; Sharma, Sudha; Grossman, Daniel; Bajracharya, Lata; Satyal, Indira; Acharya, Shridhar; Lamichhane, Prabhat; Darney, Philip D

    2013-01-01

    Abortion was legalized in Nepal in 2002, following advocacy efforts highlighting high maternal mortality from unsafe abortion. We sought to assess whether legalization led to reductions in the most serious maternal health consequences of unsafe abortion. We conducted retrospective medical chart review of all gynecological cases presenting at four large public referral hospitals in Nepal. For the years 2001-2010, all cases of spontaneous and induced abortion complications were identified, abstracted, and coded to classify cases of serious infection, injury, and systemic complications. We used segmented Poisson and ordinary logistic regression to test for trend and risks of serious complications for three time periods: before implementation (2001-2003), early implementation (2004-2006), and later implementation (2007-2010). 23,493 cases of abortion complications were identified. A significant downward trend in the proportion of serious infection, injury, and systemic complications was observed for the later implementation period, along with a decline in the risk of serious complications (OR 0.7, 95% CI 0.64, 0.85). Reductions in sepsis occurred sooner, during early implementation (OR 0.6, 95% CI 0.47, 0.75). Over the study period, health care use and the population of reproductive aged women increased. Total fertility also declined by nearly half, despite relatively low contraceptive prevalence. Greater numbers of women likely obtained abortions and sought hospital care for complications following legalization, yet we observed a significant decline in the rate of serious abortion morbidity. The liberalization of abortion policy in Nepal has benefited women's health, and likely contributes to falling maternal mortality in the country. The steepest decline was observed after expansion of the safe abortion program to include midlevel providers, second trimester training, and medication abortion, highlighting the importance of concerted efforts to improve access. Other

  1. Climate Change, Millet and Ritual Relationship with the Magars of Argal, Baglung, Nepal

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    Man Bahadur Khattri

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on cultural analysis and how people are coping with new situation created by climate change in production of millet. Changes relating to climate change are observed; perceived and understood on a local level. This is an important area of study for anthropologists and it is interest of climate scientists as well. This paper is based on anthropological analysis on climate change effects on finger millet production in Argal VDC of Baglung district, West of Nepal. Millet is a staple food of people of Argal and most of Hill people of Nepal. Millet is not only staple food and associated with nutrition of people. It's also associated with rituals during production and as well as during consumption. Increasing temperature, changing rainfall patterns, extreme weather events are linked with climate change which has direct effect on life of all people but also millet production and ritual activities. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/dsaj.v6i0.8481 Dhaulagiri Journal of Sociology and Anthropology Vol. 6, 2012 107-124

  2. Variation in soil organic carbon within highland grasslands of Langtang National Park, Nepal

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    Keshab Shrestha

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Grassland also plays important role in food security. The estimated grassland area in Nepal is about 1.75 million ha. Most of the grassland in Nepal is located in higher elevation above, 2000 meter. The aim of this research is to observe difference in SOC of grassland in different altitude. Soil samples were collected from grasslands of altitude: 1500- 2000m, 2001- 2500m, 2501-3000m, 3001- 3500m and 3501- 4000m. The soil samples were collected at successive depths in each grassland i.e. 0 – 10 cm, 10 – 20 cm and 20 – 30 cm. The maximum SOC was found in grassland at altitude 3001 m- 3500m. The lowest was SOC was found in grassland at altitude 3051m – 4000m. Correlation analysis between altitude and SOC shows that SOC is positively correlated with altitude with correlation coefficient 0.850 (significant at P<0.05 level. But SOC decreases sharply in treeline with negative correlation (Significant at P<0.05.International Journal of Environment Vol.5(3 2016, pp.57-65

  3. Knowledge of diabetes mellitus among pregnant women in three districts of Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, S; Thapa, P; Saleh, F; Thapa, N; Stray, B Pedersen; Khanom, K

    2013-09-01

    Diabetes mellitus is an emerging health problem in developing world with the consumption of energy dense diet and inactive lifestyle. The problem of diabetes is further expanded due to ignorance and lack of knowledge. The aim of the study was to assess the knowledge of diabetes among pregnant women in three districts of Nepal. A community based cross-sectional study was conducted in three districts in mountain, hilly and plain areas of Nepal. A total of 590 pregnant women were interviewed during the period of July 2009 to June 2010. A knowledge score system was applied. Poor score was 60%) of the total score. Statistical software SPSS 11.5 was used for data entry, data management and analysis. Out of 590 pregnant women, only 41% had heard about diabetes mellitus. Majority of the participants (75%) from age group >30 years had not heard about diabetes. Among the 241 with some knowledge, the knowledge score median percent(range) on the meaning, symptoms, risk factors, treatment, prevention, complications and overall knowledge were 50%(0-100), 25% (0-75), 20% (0-60), 20% (0-100), 25% (0-100), 20% (0-60) and 26% (0- 58) respectively. According to defined category, majority of those who ever heard about diabetes had poor knowledge (95%). Knowledge among literate women (p=.001), women residing in Kailali district (plain region) (p=.003) and those with positive family history of diabetes (p=.003) was found to be significant. As large proportions of Nepalese pregnant women do not have any knowledge or have poor knowledge regarding diabetes, extensive health education and health promotion programs are urgently recommended to prevent diabetes in Nepal.

  4. Collection for Nepal

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2015-01-01

    Following the violent earthquake in Nepal and neighbouring countries, a collection of money to help the victims was organized at CERN. A sum of 34 800 CHF was collected, and transferred to the NGO Live to Love. On July 22, the NGO sent a letter to CERN thanking for the support (see below). You can also find more information concerning this NGO and how they use their funds on our website: http://staff-association.web.cern.ch/sites/staff-association.web.cern.ch/files/Docs/Live_to_Love.pdf

  5. Refining the structural framework of the Khimti Khola region, east-central Nepal Himalaya, using quartz textures and c-axis fabrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Kyle P.

    2018-02-01

    New quartz texture and c-axis fabric data from across the Paleoproterozoic Ulleri-Phaplu-Melung orthogneiss in the Khimti Khola region of east central Nepal provide new constraints on the internal structural framework of the Himalaya that help shed light on the convergence accommodation processes active in the upper portion of the crust during orogenesis. These data outline a strain history that varies across the unit. Deformation near the base of the unit occurred at ∼605 (±50) °C with evidence of significant static recrystallization and recovery preserved in quartz, whereas deformation near the top of the unit occurred at ∼540 (±50) ˚C with quartz characterized by dynamic recrystallization mechanisms. The strength of the quartz c-axis fabrics follows a similar spatial pattern, with those from near the top of the unit recording stronger fabrics than those measured from lower in the unit. Together, these data are interpreted to indicate strain localization, possibly at progressively lower temperature, near the top of the Ulleri-Phaplu-Melung orthogneiss. This interpretation is consistent with cooling ages that indicate the upper boundary of the unit coincides with an out-of-sequence shear zone. This study not only provides a structural characterization of the shear zone, helping to refine the kinematic framework of this portion of the Himalaya, but also confirms the utility of fabric strength analysis in deciphering strain localization within pervasively deformed rocks.

  6. Generic Pest Risk Analysis for Potato in Nepal

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    Baidya Nath Mahto

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Pest Risk Analysis (PRA is the process of evaluation for biological and economic evidences in order to determine whether a pest should be regulated under phyto-sanitary measures. The present mini review highlights the potential potato pathogen list recorded in Nepal harmful for potato production and productivity. At global scale altogether 135 potential quarantine pests (PQP for potato has been recorded, while in Nepal only 92 PQP were recorded. Out of those 52, 13 and 27 were fungi, bacteria and viruses respectively. Among the 92 PQP, 34, 30 and 13 were considered at high, medium and lower risk type pathogens for potato. There was no information available on other 15 PQP.

  7. Skilled care at birth among rural women in Nepal: practice and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhakal, Sulochana; van Teijlingen, Edwin; Raja, Edwin Amalraj; Dhakal, Keshar Bahadur

    2011-08-01

    In Nepal, most births take place at home, and many, particularly in rural areas, are not attended by a skilled birth attendant. The main objectives of the study were to assess the use of skilled delivery care and barriers to access such care in a rural community and to assess health problems during delivery and seeking care. This cross-sectional study was carried out in two Village Development Committees in Nepal in 2006. In total, 150 women who had a live birth in the 24 months preceding the survey were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. The sample population included married women aged 15-49 years. Forty-six (31%) women delivered their babies at hospital, and 104 (69%) delivered at home. The cost of delivery at hospital was significantly (p home. Results of univariate analysis showed that women from Brahmin-Chhetri ethnicity, women with higher education or who were more skilled, whose husbands had higher education and more skilled jobs, had first or second childbirth, and having adverse previous obstetric history were associated with institutional delivery while women with higher education and having an adverse history of pregnancy outcome predicted the uptake of skilled delivery care in Nepal. The main perceived problems to access skilled delivery care were: distance to hospital, lack of transportation, lack of awareness on delivery care, and cost. The main reasons for seeking intrapartum care were long labour, retained placenta, and excessive bleeding. Only a quarter of women sought care immediately after problems occurred. The main reasons seeking care late were: the woman or her family not perceiving that there was a serious problem, distance to health facility, and lack of transport. The use of skilled birth attendants at delivery among rural women in Nepal is very poor. Home delivery by unskilled birth attendants is still a common practice among them. Many associated factors relating to the use of skilled delivery care that were identified

  8. An ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used in Terai forest of western Nepal

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    Singh Anant

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nepal Himalayas have been known as a rich source for valuable medicinal plants since Vedic periods. Present work is the documentation of indigenous knowledge on plant utilization as natural remedy by the inhabitants of terai forest in Western Nepal. Methods Study was conducted during 2010–2011 following standard ethnobotanical methods. Data about medicinal uses of plants were collected by questionnaire, personal interview and group discussion with pre identified informants. Voucher specimens were collected with the help of informants, processed into herbarium following standard methods, identified with the help of pertinent floras and taxonomic experts, and submitted in Department of Botany, Butwal Multiple Campus, Tribhuvan University, Nepal for future references. Results During the present study 66 medicinal plant species belonging to 37 families and 60 genera has been documented. These plants were used to treat various diseases and ailments grouped under 11 disease categories, with the highest number of species (41 being used for gastro-intestinal disorders, followed by dermatological disorders (34. In the study area the informants’ consensus about usages of medicinal plants ranges from 0.93 to 0.97 with an average value of 0.94. Herbs (53% were the primary source of medicine, followed by trees (23%. Curcuma longa (84% and Azadirachta indica (76% are the most frequently and popularly used medicinal plant species in the study area. Acacia catechu, Bacopa monnieri, Bombax ceiba, Drymaria diandra, Rauvolfia serpentina, and Tribulus terrestris are threatened species which needs to be conserved for future use. Conclusions The high degree of consensus among the informants suggests that current use and knowledge are still strong, and thus the preservation of today's knowledge shows good foresight in acting before much has been lost. The connections between plant use and conservation are also important ones, especially as the

  9. Challenging gender roles through STEM education in Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallenius, Todd J.

    Science, Technology, Engineering, Mathematics (STEM) education programs are currently being introduced and expanded across "developing" nations. STEM programs often conflict with hegemonic gender norms, for example by targeting girls and women in male dominated societies. However, given the cultural complexity of STEM for girls, implementing educators are rarely asked their point of view on programs from abroad. This study explored the perceptions of educators in Nepal who participated in the Girls Get STEM Skills (GGSS) program, a program funded through the U.S. Department of State for 2015/2016. The 8-month program reached 254 girls across three government schools and included the donation of 30 laptops. In August, 2016, the researcher conducted one-on-one interviews and focus groups with 18 participants at GGSS school sites in Pokhara, Nepal. Qualitative data was gathered on educators' perceptions of teacher roles, Nepal as a developing nation, gender imbalance in STEM, and the GGSS curriculum. The study argues that educators viewed educational topics through the lens of bikas, the Nepali word for development. This suggests that the principal impact of STEM programs--as part of larger development initiatives--may be the creation and reinforcement of new social meanings rather than the tangible impacts of the projects themselves.

  10. Status and prospects of maize research in Nepal

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    Govind KC

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Food and nutritional securities are the major threats coupled with declining factor productivity and climate change effects in Nepal. Maize being the principal food crops of the majority of the hill people and source of animal feed for ever growing livestock industries in Terai of Nepal. Despite the many efforts made to increase the maize productivity in the country, the results are not much encouraging. Many of the maize based technologies developed and recommended for the farmers to date are not fully adopted. Therefore, problem is either on technology development or on dissemination or on both. Considering the above facts, some of the innovative and modern approaches of plant breeding and crop management technologies to increase the maize yield need to be developed and disseminated. There is a need for location-specific maize production technologies, especially for lowland winter maize, marginal upland maize production system, and resource poor farmers. Research efforts can be targeted to address both yield potential and on-farm yields by reducing the impacts of abiotic and biotic constraints. Therefore, in order to streamline the future direction of maize research in Nepal, an attempt has been made in this article to highlight the present status and future prospects with few key pathways.

  11. Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in free-ranging Red Panda Ailurus fulgens Cuvier, 1825 (Mammalia: Carnivora: Ailuridae in Nepal

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    Sonam Tashi Lama

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Red Panda Ailurus fulgens is a small carnivore that is adapted to a mainly herbivorous diet.  The present study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of parasitic infections in a free-ranging population of Red Pandas in a community forest in Nepal.  A total of 23 faecal samples were collected and examined.  Protozoa infections were the most common and cestode infections occurred the least.  Our findings suggest that parasites might be a significant problem for the health of the Red Pandas in the study area.  Molecular methods should be used to further investigate the taxonomic position of the parasites and their role in threatening the resilience of Red Panda populations in Nepal.  

  12. Crossing the roof of the world: Trade in medicinal plants from Nepal to China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jun; Yang, Bin; Dong, Min; Wang, Yunshang

    2018-04-26

    Trade in medicinal and aromatic plants (MAPs) between Nepal and China has taken place for centuries along the Tibetan border. While there is anecdotal evidence that economic development in China over the past decades, coupled with regional infrastructure development and increasing market integration, has substantially changed this trade, there are no current published studies investigating this, e.g. in terms of species and market structure. This knowledge gap impedes the development of public interventions, e.g. in support of sustainable trade. The primary objective of this study is to provide the first informative insights into the Nepal-China trade in MAPs, with particular emphasis on the value chain in Tibet. Data was collected from December 2015 to August 2016 in Nepal and Tibet. The data collection included standardized questionnaires to understand and map the value chain of MAPs, including the actors involved and key governance issues. Data was collected from Katmandu-based MAPs wholesalers exporting from Nepal to China, (n = 6) and with regional wholesalers (n = 40) based in Tibet. The questionnaires contained quantitative and qualitative components focusing on key elements of the MAPs value chain, e.g. the traded species and their values. This was augmented with qualitative interviews with Lhasa-based processors (n = 4) and government officials (n = 12) working in border controls, customs, and/or drug administration. We also collected official statistics on the Nepal-China MAPs trade and conducted a workshop in Lhasa with traders and government officials to discuss the nature of the Nepal-China MAPs trade. The Nepal-China MAPs trade boomed after 2011 when the value of traded plants increased more than nine-fold. This rapid increase reflected both a broader species composition and higher unit prices in response to increasing demand from China. The trade expansion was also driven by increasing demand in China and facilitated by improved

  13. Preferred Source and Perceived Need of More Information about Dental Implants by the Undergraduate Dental Students of Nepal: All Nepal Survey

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    Arati Sharma

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. This study was conducted to know the preferred source and perceived need of more information about dental implants by the undergraduate students of Nepal and their association with academic levels and gender. Materials and Methods. It was conducted in all the dental colleges of Nepal from June 2016 to June 2017 after taking ethical clearance and approval from the research committee of BPKIHS. It included all those who were present at the time of survey. Data collection was done through a cross-sectional questionnaire survey during the academic schedule of the colleges, supervised and monitored by the investigators themselves. The collected data were coded and entered in Microsoft excel 2013, and statistical analysis was done by SPSS 20 version. Result. A majority of the respondents agreed that they were not provided with sufficient information about implant treatment procedures during their BDS program (65.3%, would like more to be provided in the curriculum (95.1%, and would like to get additional reliable information from dental consultants and specialists (40.7% and training on it from fellowship programs conducted by universities (39.2%. Significant association was seen between the responses and academic levels. Conclusion. Undergraduate dental students of Nepal want more information about dental implants through various means.

  14. Preferred Source and Perceived Need of More Information about Dental Implants by the Undergraduate Dental Students of Nepal: All Nepal Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Arati; Shrestha, Bidhan; Chaudhari, Bijay Kumar; Suwal, Pramita; Singh, Raj Kumar; Niraula, Surya Raj; Parajuli, Prakash Kumar

    2018-01-01

    This study was conducted to know the preferred source and perceived need of more information about dental implants by the undergraduate students of Nepal and their association with academic levels and gender. It was conducted in all the dental colleges of Nepal from June 2016 to June 2017 after taking ethical clearance and approval from the research committee of BPKIHS. It included all those who were present at the time of survey. Data collection was done through a cross-sectional questionnaire survey during the academic schedule of the colleges, supervised and monitored by the investigators themselves. The collected data were coded and entered in Microsoft excel 2013, and statistical analysis was done by SPSS 20 version. A majority of the respondents agreed that they were not provided with sufficient information about implant treatment procedures during their BDS program (65.3%), would like more to be provided in the curriculum (95.1%), and would like to get additional reliable information from dental consultants and specialists (40.7%) and training on it from fellowship programs conducted by universities (39.2%). Significant association was seen between the responses and academic levels. Undergraduate dental students of Nepal want more information about dental implants through various means.

  15. Temporal signatures of advective versus diffusive radon transport at a geothermal zone in Central Nepal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richon, Patrick; Perrier, Frederic; Koirala, Bharat Prasad; Girault, Frederic; Bhattarai, Mukunda; Sapkota, Soma Nath

    2011-01-01

    Temporal variation of radon-222 concentration was studied at the Syabru-Bensi hot springs, located on the Main Central Thrust zone in Central Nepal. This site is characterized by several carbon dioxide discharges having maximum fluxes larger than 10 kg m -2 d -1 . Radon concentration was monitored with autonomous Barasol TM probes between January 2008 and November 2009 in two small natural cavities with high CO 2 concentration and at six locations in the soil: four points having a high flux, and two background reference points. At the reference points, dominated by radon diffusion, radon concentration was stable from January to May, with mean values of 22 ± 6.9 and 37 ± 5.5 kBq m -3 , but was affected by a large increase, of about a factor of 2 and 1.6, respectively, during the monsoon season from June to September. At the points dominated by CO 2 advection, by contrast, radon concentration showed higher mean values 39.0 ± 2.6 to 78 ± 1.4 kBq m -3 , remarkably stable throughout the year with small long-term variation, including a possible modulation of period around 6 months. A significant difference between the diffusion dominated reference points and the advection-dominated points also emerged when studying the diurnal S 1 and semi-diurnal S 2 periodic components. At the advection-dominated points, radon concentration did not exhibit S 1 or S 2 components. At the reference points, however, the S 2 component, associated with barometric tide, could be identified during the dry season, but only when the probe was installed at shallow depth. The S 1 component, associated with thermal and possibly barometric diurnal forcing, was systematically observed, especially during monsoon season. The remarkable short-term and long-term temporal stability of the radon concentration at the advection-dominated points, which suggests a strong pressure source at depth, may be an important asset to detect possible temporal variations associated with the seismic cycle. - Graphical

  16. Public and Private School Performance in Nepal: An Analysis Using the SLC Examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapa, Amrit

    2015-01-01

    Using data from the survey of the Ministry of Education, Nepal-2005 for School Leaving Certificate Exam, this paper analyzes public and private school performance in Nepal. The ordinary least square estimates suggest that private school students perform better than public school students. However, the problem of self-selection bias arises, as…

  17. IAU Project and Research Activity in Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, Suman

    2015-08-01

    The second half of the twentieth century has witnessed a tremendous development in the field of astronomy and space exploration. The large telescope both on the land and in the orbit, using the whole range of the electromagnetic spectra from radio waves to gamma rays are extending their range of exploration, right to the edge of the observable universe, and making astounding discoveries in the process. Many large international telescope facilities and global plans are accessible to all astronomers throughout the world, providing an inexpensive entry to cutting- edge international research for developing countries.Nepal is a mountainous country it has a wide range of climatic and altitude variations which varies from an elevation of 200 meter to ≥ 4000 meter. The average temperature varies from ≥ 25 o C to ≤ 0 to 5oC. Because of these diverse weather and climatic variation there is the potential for the establishment of sophisticated observatory/ data centre and link with each other. So, the future possible opportunity of astronomy in Nepal will be discussed. Besides Education and Research activities conducted in Tribhuvan University, Nepal under the support of International Astronomical Union (IAU) will also be highlighted. The importance brought by those two workshops conducted on data simulation supported by IAU under TF1 will also be discussed which is believed to play a vital role for the promotion and development of astronomy and astrophysics in developing countries.

  18. Emigration from Nepal: some major issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, M L

    1997-07-01

    This study examined emigration from Nepal during 1952-91. Data were obtained from census records decennially. Records indicate that the volume of emigration amounted to about 2.39% of total population in 1952-53, and 3.58% in 1991. The level of emigration rose from 198,120 persons to 658,290. Emigrants are persons who were absent from their home for more than 6 months due to tourism, pilgrimage, business trips, studies, employment, or permanent migration. Most emigrants return home after several months or years. A recent survey finds that 14.1% returned after more than 5 years. The Nepal model of migration is different from conventional or Marxist models. For example, landlessness or near landlessness are not the primary reasons for migration. The recent emigration to Arab countries is driven by the desire for better income. Emigrants pay handsomely to go abroad for work (Rs. 85,000). Nepalese emigrate to Australia and the US for a better income and a better life. The proportion of female emigrants was 6.23% of total emigrants to Arab countries, and 16.2% to India. 31% of emigrants were females who emigrated to North America, and 29% emigrated to European countries. Emigrants to Arab countries were likely to return home. Emigrants to North America and Europe were likely to be permanent migrants. The author prefers Mellassoux's (1981) model that says that Nepal is losing manpower during their most productive years. Remittances do not offset the loss. Government costs are incurred for supporting education abroad, benefits in old age and for youth, and the spread of sexually transmitted diseases.

  19. Assessment of maize stem borer damage on hybrid maize varieties in Chitwan, Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Buddhi Bahadur Achhami; Santa Bahadur BK; Ghana Shyam Bhandari

    2015-01-01

    Maize is the second most important cereal crop in Nepal. However, national figure of grain production still remains below than the world's average grain production per unit area. Thus, this experiment was designed to determine the suitable time of maize planting, and to assess the peak period of one of the major insects, maize stem borer, in Chitwan condition. The results showed that plant damage percentage as per the maize planting month varies significantly, and the average plant damage per...

  20. The prevalence and determinants of sexual violence against young married women by husbands in rural Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puri Mahesh

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sexual violence within marriage is a public health and human rights issue; yet it remains a much neglected research area, especially in Nepal. This paper represents one of the first attempts to quantify the extent of sexual violence and its determinants among young married women in Nepal. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 1,296 married women aged 15–24 years in four major ethnic groups in rural Nepal. The survey data were used to estimate the prevalence and identify determinants of sexual violence. The relative importance of different correlates of sexual violence in the past 12 months at the individual, household and community levels were examined by using a multi-level multivariate statistical approach. Results Of the young women surveyed 46% had experienced sexual violence at some point and 31% had experienced sexual violence in the past 12 months. Women’s autonomy was found to be particularly protective against sexual violence both at the individual and community level. Women’s educational level was not found to be protective, while the educational level of the husband was found to be highly protective. Conclusions The high prevalence of sexual violence against young women by husbands found in this study is a matter for serious concern and underscores the need for a comprehensive response by policymakers.

  1. Astragalus kongrensis Benth. Ex Baker (Fabaceae, a New Record for Central and North-West Himalayas

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    Lal Babu Chaudhary

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Astragalus kongrensis Benth. Ex Baker is reported for the first time from Central (Nepal and North-West Himalayas (India. Earlier the species was known from East Himalaya (Sikkim-India, Bhutan and China. The description and illustrations of the species are provided.

  2. Molecular Epidemiology and Antigenic Characterization of Seasonal Influenza Viruses Circulating in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, B P; Ghimire, P; Tashiro, M; Banjara, M R

    2017-01-01

    Influenza is one of the public health burdens in Nepal and its epidemiology is not clearly understood. The objective of this study was to explore the molecular epidemiology and the antigenic characteristics of the circulating influenza viruses in Nepal. A total of 1495 throat swab specimens were collected from January to December, 2014. Real time PCR assay was used for identification of influenza virus types and subtypes. Ten percent of the positive specimens were randomly selected and inoculated onto Madin-Darby Canine Kidney Epithelial cells (MDCK) for influenza virus isolation. All viruses were characterized by the hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay. Influenza viruses were detected in 421/1495 (28.2%) specimens. Among positive cases, influenza A virus was detected in 301/421 (71.5%); of which 120 (39.9%) were influenza A/H1N1 pdm09 and 181 (60.1%) were influenza A/H3 subtype. Influenza B viruses were detected in 119/421 (28.3%) specimens. Influenza A/H1N1 pdm09, A/H3 and B viruses isolated in Nepal were antigenically similar to the vaccine strain influenza A/California/07/2009(H1N1pdm09), A/Texas/50/2012(H3N2), A/New York/39/2012(H3N2) and B/Massachusetts/2/2012, respectively. Influenza viruses were reported year-round in different geographical regions of Nepal which was similar to other tropical countries. The circulating influenza virus type and subtypes of Nepal were similar to vaccine candidate virus which could be prevented by currently used influenza vaccine.

  3. Occupational radiation exposure monitoring among radiation workers in Nepal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatt, Chhavi Raj; Shrestha, Shanta Lall; Khanal, Tara; Ween, Borgny

    2008-01-01

    Nepal was accepted as a member of the IAEA in 2007. Nepal is one of the world's least developed countries and is defined in Health Level IV. The population counted 26.4 millions in 2007. The health care sector increases with new hospitals and clinics, however, Nepal has no radiation protection authority or radiation protection regulation in the country until now. The radiation producing equipment in the health sector includes conventional X-ray and dental X-ray equipment, fluoroscopes, mammography, CT, catheterization laboratory equipment, nuclear medicine facilities, a few linear accelerators, Co 60 teletherapy and High Dose Rate brachytherapy sources. The situation regarding dosimetry service for radiation workers is unclear. A survey has been carried out to give an overview of the situation. The data collection of the survey was performed by phone call interviews with responsible staff at the different hospitals and clinics. Data about different occupationally exposed staff, use of personal radiation monitoring and type of dosimetry system were collected. In addition, it was asked if dosimetry reports were compiled in files or databases for further follow-up of staff, if needed. The survey shows that less of 25% of the procedures performed on the surveyed hospitals and clinics are performed by staff with personnel radiation monitoring. Radiation monitoring service for exposed staff is not compulsory or standardized, since there is no radiation protection authority. Nepal has taken a step forward regarding radiation protection, with the IAEA membership, although there are still major problems that have to be solved. An evaluation of the existing practice of staff dosimetry can be the first helpful step for further work in building a national radiation protection authority. (author)

  4. First Isolation of Dengue Virus from the 2010 Epidemic in Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Pandey, Basu D.; Nabeshima, Takeshi; Pandey, Kishor; Rajendra, Saroj P.; Shah, Yogendra; Adhikari, Bal R.; Gupta, Govinda; Gautam, Ishan; Tun, Mya M. N.; Uchida, Reo; Shrestha, Mahendra; Kurane, Ichiro; Morita, Kouichi

    2013-01-01

    Denguei is an emerging disease in Nepal and was first observed as an outbreak in nine lowland districts in 2006. In 2010, however, a large epidemic of dengue occurred with 4,529 suspected and 917 serologicallyconfirmed cases and five deaths reported in government hospitals in Nepal. The collection of demographic information was performed along with an entomological survey and clinical evaluation of the patients. A total of 280 serum samples were collected from suspected dengue patients. These...

  5. Economic Relationship between Access to Land and Rural Poverty in Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Chandra Bahadur Adhikar; Trond Bjorndal

    2014-01-01

    In the present socio-economic structure of Nepal, land is the main source of income and consumption for the majority of Nepalese. This study analyses the economic relationship between access to land and poverty in Nepal by establishing the link between land and consumption as well as land and income. A generalised additive model (GAM) and ordinary least squares (OLS) demonstrate that greater access to land increases income and consumption of the household and thereby reduces poverty. The sign...

  6. Trade in Health Service: Unfair Competition of Pharmaceutical Products in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhusudan Subedi

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available About 35 percent of the total demand for medicines in Nepal is covered by Nepali Pharmaceutical companies, and such companies are moving ahead for producing different kinds of medicines. The Government of Nepal, Department of Drug Administration (DDA has formulated different regulations and guidelines to ensure ethical practices in the medical sector of Nepal. Ethical Promotion of Medicine-2007 was developed and released to encourage the improvement of health care through the rational use of medicine and discourage unethical practices. It is distressing that the guidelines have not been implemented properly due to the conflict of interests among concerned stakeholders. The cost of medicine has been very expensive and poor people have always suffered. Key Words: Bonus; Ethical Guideline; Unethical Practices; Pharmaceutical Regulation; Conflict of Interest DOI: 10.3126/dsaj.v3i0.2783 Dhaulagiri Journal of Sociology and Anthropology Vol.3 2009 123-142

  7. Societal impacts and vulnerability to floods in Bangladesh and Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanvir H. Dewan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Bangladesh and Nepal lie between the Himalayas and low-lying coasts of the Bay of Bengal and are traversed by hundreds of rivers and tributaries. Historical data shows that, since 1970, the scale, intensity and duration of floods have increased in Bangladesh and Nepal, causing grave human suffering; disruptions in normal life and activity, damages of infrastructure, crops and agricultural land with severe impacts on the economy. Bangladesh is affected by torrential rain, glacier melt, upstream water flow and tidal surges. In 1988, Bangladesh experienced one of the most severe floods of the twentieth century which aroused significant concern internationally and triggered the Bangladesh Action Plan for Flood Control. The Government of Bangladesh (GOB has so far constructed a number of flood shelters and carried out 482 water and flood control projects involving flood protection embankments, drainage channels, sluice gates and regulators on different rivers and canals. These also provided safety measures against inundation by tidal waves, storm-surges and flooding. The Terai region of Nepal is highly prone to hydrological risks including torrential rain, floods, glaciers resulting in erosion and landslides. The Government of Nepal (GON has implemented different mitigation measures mainly early warning awareness, rescue measure, relief, and post-flood rehabilitation programs etc. Disaster Management Bureaus of both the countries have already conducted many trainings, workshops and seminars to disseminate scientific knowledge and coping up practices to disaster managers and to create public awareness. Besides the contemporary approaches to mitigating flood effects, people of these countries have coped with floods through generations relying on traditional/indigenous knowledge and other local adaptation practices. It is crucial that along with scientific process, indigenous, traditional and conventional practices are to be integrated for a national

  8. Utilization of maternal health care services in post-conflict Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhandari TR

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Tulsi Ram Bhandari, Prabhakaran Sankara Sarma, Vellappillil Raman Kutty Achutha Menon Centre for Health Science Studies, Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Trivandrum, Kerala, India Background: Despite a decade-long armed conflict in Nepal, the country made progress in reducing maternal mortality and is on its way to achieve the Millennium Development Goal Five. This study aimed to assess the degree of the utilization of maternal health care services during and after the armed conflict in Nepal.Methods: This study is based on Nepal Demographic and Health Survey data 2006 and 2011. The units of analysis were women who had given birth to at least one child in the past 5 years preceding the survey. First, we compared the utilization of maternal health care services of 2006 with that of 2011. Second, we merged the two data sets and applied logistic regression to distinguish whether the utilization of maternal health care services had improved after the peace process 2006 was underway.Results: In 2011, 85% of the women sought antenatal care at least once. Skilled health workers for delivery care assisted 36.1% of the women, and 46% of the women attended postnatal care visit at least once. These figures were 70%, 18.7%, and 16%, respectively, in 2006. Similarly, women were more likely to utilize antenatal care at least once (odds ratio [OR] =2.18, confidence interval [CI] =1.95–2.43, skilled care at birth (OR =2.58, CI =2.36–2.81, and postnatal care at least once (OR =4.13, CI =3.75–4.50 in 2011.Conclusion: The utilization of maternal health care services tended to increase continuously during both the armed conflict and the post-conflict period in Nepal. However, the increasing proportion of the utilization was higher after the Comprehensive Peace Process Agreement 2006. Keywords: antenatal care, armed conflict, Nepal, post-conflict, postnatal care, skilled care at birth

  9. Knowledge and practices on maternal health care among mothers: A Cross sectional study from rural areas of mid-western development region Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapil Gyawali

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Safe motherhood is a priority program in Nepal, aiming to restrain maternal deaths. Meanwhile, knowledge, practices, accessibility, and service quality are considered keys to improve service utilization. This study was conducted to identify knowledge and practices of maternal health care among mothers having < 1-year-old child in the Mid-western Development Region, Nepal. Materials and Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted during January-April 2011 in rural, Mid-western Development Region, Nepal. Three Village Development Committees (VDC from Bardiya (plain and two VDCs from each of the Salyan and Pyuthan (hill and Jumla (mountain districts were selected randomly. Hence, there were 81 clusters (1VDC = 9 clusters and 7-8 participants were selected randomly from each cluster. Data were collected by interview using structured questionnaire and Focus Group Discussion Guideline (18 FGDs, analyzed by SPSS (16.0. CD recorded qualitative data were transcribed and narrated. Percent mean and standard deviation were calculated. Results: Three quarters of the participants had correct knowledge regarding minimum numbers of antenatal visits to be done by a pregnant woman (WHO guideline. Nearly two-fifth participants knew schedule of antenatal care (ANC visits. Almost 60% had done ≥ 4 ANC visits during last pregnancy. Majority visited Sub Health Post/Health Post/Primary Health Care Centre for ANC Checkup. About 90% had taken Iron and folic acid tablets. About 57% were home deliveries (last childbirth, 40% deliveries were assisted by relatives/husband, and only 32% did postnatal health checkup. Conclusions: There were gaps in the knowledge and practices for health care during pregnancy, childbirth and in the postpartum period. A high rate of home deliveries with the low postnatal service utilization was prevalent. Intensive awareness progam and behavioral change interventions, regular pregnancy monitoring may promote the

  10. Coffee Production in Kavre and Lalitpur Districts, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yogendra Kumar Karki

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Coffee (Coffea spp is an important and emerging cash crop having potential to provide farmers employment and income generation opportunities. This crop is well adapted to the climatic conditions of mid-hills of Nepal. Thus, majority of the farmers are attracted towards cultivation of coffee because of demands in national and international market. Coffee is now becoming integral part of farming system in rural areas. However, information on performance of coffee and farmers response has not been well documented. Therefore, we undertook the present work to analyze demography, ethnicity, household occupation, literacy status, average land holding, coffee cultivation area, livelihood and sources of income of coffee growers, production and productivity, pricing, cropping pattern of the coffee and problesm faced by them in mid hill district of Kavrepalanchowk (hereafter ‘Kavre’ and Lalitpur Districts. All the samples were taken randomly and selected from coffee producing cooperative of Kavre and Lalitpur. Our analysis showed that the male farmer dominant over female on adopting coffee cultivation in both districts with higher value in Kavre. Brahmin and Chetri ethnic communities were in majority over others in adopting the coffee cultivation. Literate farmers were more dominant over illiterates on adopting the coffee cultivation, The mean land holding was less, ranging from 0.15 to 2.30 ha for coffee cultivation, the history of coffee cultivation in Kavre showed that highest number of farmers were engaged in coffee farming from last 16 years. The mean yield of fresh cherry was 1027.20 kg/ha in Kavre, while it was 1849.36 kg/ha in Lalitpur. The study revealed that majority of the coffee plantations were between 6-10 years old. The major problems facing by coffee farmers were diseases spread, lack of irrigation facility and drying of plants. Despite of that the coffee farming was one of the rapidly emerging occupations among the farmers in both

  11. The Role of Civil Society in Shaping Democratic Civil-Military Relations During Political Transition in Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Participation,” in Nepal: Quest for Participatory Democracy , ed. L. R. Baral (New Delhi: Adroit, 2006), 1. 68 Ibid, 3. 69 Ibid, 10. 70 Yanyong Innanchai...Political Participation.” In Nepal: Quest for Participatory Democracy , edited by L. R. Baral, 1–15. New Delhi: Adroit, 2006. . “The Nepali...with an emphasis on the current period. Since its first experience with democracy in 1950, the king intenupted Nepal ’s pw-suit of consolidation until

  12. Radon emanation of heterogeneous basin deposits in Kathmandu Valley, Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girault, Frédéric; Gajurel, Ananta Prasad; Perrier, Frédéric; Upreti, Bishal Nath; Richon, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Effective radium-226 concentration ( EC Ra) has been measured in soil samples from seven horizontal and vertical profiles of terrace scarps in the northern part of Kathmandu Valley, Nepal. The samples belong to the Thimi, Gokarna, and Tokha Formations, dated from 50 to 14 ky BP, and represent a diverse fluvio-deltaic sedimentary facies mainly consisting of gravelly to coarse sands, black, orange and brown clays. EC Ra was measured in the laboratory by radon-222 emanation. The samples ( n = 177) are placed in air-tight glass containers, from which, after an accumulation time varying from 3 to 18 days, the concentration of radon-222, radioactive decay product of radium-226 and radioactive gas with a half-life of 3.8 days, is measured using scintillation flasks. The EC Ra values from the seven different profiles of the terrace deposits vary from 0.4 to 43 Bq kg -1, with profile averages ranging from 12 ± 1 to 27 ± 2 Bq kg -1. The values have a remarkable consistency along a particular horizon of sediment layers, clearly demonstrating that these values can be used for long distance correlations of the sediment horizons. Widely separated sediment profiles, representing similar stratigraphic positions, exhibit consistent EC Ra values in corresponding stratigraphic sediment layers. EC Ra measurements therefore appear particularly useful for lithologic and stratigraphic discriminations. For comparison, EC Ra values of soils from different localities having various sources of origin were also obtained: 9.2 ± 0.4 Bq kg -1 in soils of Syabru-Bensi (Central Nepal), 23 ± 1 Bq kg -1 in red residual soils of the Bhattar-Trisuli Bazar terrace (North of Kathmandu), 17.1 ± 0.3 Bq kg -1 in red residual soils of terrace of Kalikasthan (North of Trisuli Bazar) and 10 ± 1 Bq kg -1 in red residual soils of a site near Nagarkot (East of Kathmandu). The knowledge of EC Ra values for these various soils is important for modelling radon exhalation at the ground surface, in particular

  13. Radon emanation of heterogeneous basin deposits in Kathmandu Valley, Nepal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girault, F.; Perrier, F.; Ananta Prasad Gajurel; Bishal Nath Upreti; Richon, P.

    2011-01-01

    Effective radium-226 concentration (EC Ra ) has been measured in soil samples from seven horizontal and vertical profiles of terrace scarps in the northern part of Kathmandu Valley, Nepal. The samples belong to the Thimi, Gokarna, and Tokha Formations, dated from 50 to 14 ky BP, and represent a diverse fluvio-deltaic sedimentary facies mainly consisting of gravelly to coarse sands, black, orange and brown clays. EC Ra was measured in the laboratory by radon-222 emanation. The samples (n = 177) are placed in airtight glass containers, from which, after an accumulation time varying from 3 to 18 days, the concentration of radon-222, radioactive decay product of radium-226 and radioactive gas with a half-life of 3.8 days, is measured using scintillation flasks. The EC Ra values from the seven different profiles of the terrace deposits vary from 0.4 to 43 Bq kg -1 , with profile averages ranging from 12 ± 1 to 27 ± 2 Bq kg -1 . The values have a remarkable consistency along a particular horizon of sediment layers, clearly demonstrating that these values can be used for long distance correlations of the sediment horizons. Widely separated sediment profiles, representing similar stratigraphic positions, exhibit consistent EC Ra values in corresponding stratigraphic sediment layers. EC Ra measurements therefore appear particularly useful for lithologic and stratigraphic discriminations. For comparison, EC Ra values of soils from different localities having various sources of origin were also obtained: 9.2 ± 0.4 Bq kg -1 in soils of Syabru-Bensi (Central Nepal), 23 ± 1 Bq kg -1 in red residual soils of the Bhattar-Trisuli Bazar terrace (North of Kathmandu), 17.1 ± 0.3 Bq kg -1 in red residual soils of terrace of Kalikasthan (North of Trisuli Bazar) and 10 ± 1 Bq kg -1 in red residual soils of a site near Nagarkot (East of Kathmandu). The knowledge of EC Ra values for these various soils is important for modelling radon exhalation at the ground surface, in particular

  14. Farmers' laws and irrigation : water rights and dispute management in the hills of Nepal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poudel, R.

    2000-01-01

    The title of my Thesis is "Farmers' Laws and Irrigation: Water Rights and Dispute Management in the Hills of Nepal". This is based on a research I conducted in the Thulotar Kulo irrigation system in Nepal, during 1997 and 1998. Thulotar Kulo is a farmer-managed irrigation

  15. Ethnic Disparities in Contraceptive Use and Its Impact on Family Planning Program in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukesh Mishra

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Regardless of three decades of implementation of family planning program in Nepal, need offamily planning services is largely unmet. Systematic studies, evaluating the impact of family program onseveral ethnic groups of Nepal has not been carried out in large scale. This study sheds light on theinvestigation of, whether the use of contraceptives varies among different ethnic groups in Nepal andwhat are the predictors of contraceptive variance in ethnic groups in Nepal.Materials and methods: The study is based on data collected from Nepal Demographic Health Survey(NDHS 2006. Multilevel logistic regression analyses of 10793 married women of reproductive agenested within 264 clusters from the surveys were considered as the sample size. Individual, household,and program variables were set and a multilevel logistic regression model was fitted to analyze thevariables, using GLLAMM command in STATA-9.Results: Multilevel logistic regression analysis indicated that Muslims, Dalits and Terai madheshi womenwere significantly less likely to use modern contraceptives compared to the Brahmins and Chhetries(Higher Castes. Women who were exposed to family planning information in radio were more likely touse modern contraceptives than women not exposed to radio information (OR=1.22, P> 0.01. An odd ofusing contraceptives by Newar was (OR 1.09, P>0.05, the highest among all ethnic groups. Exposure ofwomen to family planning messages through health facilities, family planning workers, and means ofcommunication, increased the odds of using modern contraceptives. However, impact of the familyplanning information on contraceptive use varied among ethnicity.Conclusion: Special attention need to be paid, in particular to the ethnicity, while formulating familyplanning policies in Nepal, for better success rate of family planning intervention programs.

  16. Molecular characterization of multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolated in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poudel, Ajay; Nakajima, Chie; Fukushima, Yukari; Suzuki, Haruka; Pandey, Basu Dev; Maharjan, Bhagwan; Suzuki, Yasuhiko

    2012-06-01

    Despite the fact that Nepal is one of the first countries globally to introduce multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) case management, the number of MDR-TB cases is continuing to rise in Nepal. Rapid molecular tests applicable in this setting to identify resistant organisms would be an effective tool in reversing this trend. To develop such tools, information about the frequency and distribution of mutations that are associated with phenotypic drug resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis is required. In the present study, we investigated the prevalence of mutations in rpoB and katG genes and the inhA promoter region in 158 M. tuberculosis isolates (109 phenotypically MDR and 49 non-MDR isolates collected in Nepal) by DNA sequencing. Mutations affecting the 81-bp rifampin (RIF) resistance-determining region (RRDR) of rpoB were identified in 106 of 109 (97.3%) RIF-resistant isolates. Codons 531, 526, and 516 were the most commonly affected, at percentages of 58.7, 15.6, and 15.6%, respectively. Of 113 isoniazid (INH)-resistant isolates, 99 (87.6%) had mutations in the katG gene, with Ser315Thr being the most prevalent (81.4%) substitution. Mutations in the inhA promoter region were detected in 14 (12.4%) INH-resistant isolates. The results from this study provide an overview of the current situation of RIF and INH resistance in M. tuberculosis in Nepal and can serve as a basis for developing or improving rapid molecular tests to monitor drug-resistant strains in this country.

  17. Outbreak of pandemic influenza A/H1N1 2009 in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, Bal Ram; Shakya, Geeta; Upadhyay, Bishnu Prasad; Prakash Kc, Khagendra; Shrestha, Sirjana Devi; Dhungana, Guna Raj

    2011-03-23

    The 2009 flu pandemic is a global outbreak of a new strain of H1N1 influenza virus. Pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 has posed a serious public health challenge world-wide. Nepal has started Laboratory diagnosis of Pandemic influenza A/H1N1 from mid June 2009 though active screening of febrile travellers with respiratory symptoms was started from April 27, 2009. Out of 609 collected samples, 302 (49.6%) were Universal Influenza A positive. Among the influenza A positive samples, 172(28.3%) were positive for Pandemic influenza A/H1N1 and 130 (21.3%) were Seasonal influenza A. Most of the pandemic cases (53%) were found among young people with ≤ 20 years. Case Fatality Ratio for Pandemic influenza A/H1N1 in Nepal was 1.74%. Upon Molecular characterization, all the isolated pandemic influenza A/H1N1 2009 virus found in Nepal were antigenically and genetically related to the novel influenza A/CALIFORNIA/07/2009-LIKE (H1N1)v type. The Pandemic 2009 influenza virus found in Nepal were antigenically and genetically related to the novel A/CALIFORNIA/07/2009-LIKE (H1N1)v type.

  18. Outbreak of pandemic influenza A/H1N1 2009 in Nepal

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    Shrestha Sirjana

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The 2009 flu pandemic is a global outbreak of a new strain of H1N1 influenza virus. Pandemic influenza A (H1N1 2009 has posed a serious public health challenge world-wide. Nepal has started Laboratory diagnosis of Pandemic influenza A/H1N1 from mid June 2009 though active screening of febrile travellers with respiratory symptoms was started from April 27, 2009. Results Out of 609 collected samples, 302 (49.6% were Universal Influenza A positive. Among the influenza A positive samples, 172(28.3% were positive for Pandemic influenza A/H1N1 and 130 (21.3% were Seasonal influenza A. Most of the pandemic cases (53% were found among young people with ≤ 20 years. Case Fatality Ratio for Pandemic influenza A/H1N1 in Nepal was 1.74%. Upon Molecular characterization, all the isolated pandemic influenza A/H1N1 2009 virus found in Nepal were antigenically and genetically related to the novel influenza A/CALIFORNIA/07/2009-LIKE (H1N1v type. Conclusion The Pandemic 2009 influenza virus found in Nepal were antigenically and genetically related to the novel A/CALIFORNIA/07/2009-LIKE (H1N1v type.

  19. Neurocysticercosis in Nepal: a retrospective clinical analysis

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    Rajeev Ojha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The prevalence of epilepsy is higher in Nepal. This study was conducted to analyze the clinical manifestations of neurocysticercosis (NCC among seizure patients admitted to our center. Methods: We retrospectively studied all the NCC patients admitted to Neurology Department, Bir Hospital, Kathmandu, Nepal from April 2012 to February 2014. Computer tomography/magnetic resonance imaging (CT/MRI head, clinical profile, lab investigations and exclusion of other causes were the basis of the NCC diagnosis. Chi-square and Student′s t-test were used for comparison of variables. Results: Out of 131 seizure patients admitted, 21 patients were diagnosed with NCC (mean age: 33.95 ± 16.41; male: 15 (71.4%, female: 6 (28.6%. Generalized tonic clonic seizure was the most common seizure type in NCC patients (18 patients; 85.7%, two of them had status epilepticus during presentation in Emergency Department. Three patients had focal seizure, one with epilepsia partialis continua. Neuroimaging showed multiple NCC lesions in 8 (38.1% and a single NCC lesion in 13 (61.9% patients. Seven of them (33.3% sought traditional healers before being presented to our center. Eight patients (38.1% were treated with antiepileptics in local health-post without neuroimaging studies done. Calcified stage of NCC was the most frequent CT/MRI findings (12 patients; 57.1%. Phenytoin was preferred both by physicians and patients due to its low cost. Conclusion: NCC is a common finding among seizure patients in Nepal. Poor economic status, illiteracy and underdeveloped rural society are the major challenges in prevention and treatment of NCC.

  20. Primary Education and Dropout in Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devkota, Shree Prasad; Bagale, Shiba

    2015-01-01

    This article tries to highlight the dropout rate of primary education of Nepal. The main essence of the article is to explore the situation of dropout of primary education. There are several programs and policies to reduce the dropout, out of the school children and so on but still there are several issues that are left behind. Educational budget…

  1. Effects of Abortion Legalization in Nepal, 2001-2010

    OpenAIRE

    Harper, Cynthia; Darney, Philip; Henderson, JT; Puri, M; Blum, M; Harper, CC; Rana, A; Gurung, G; Pradhan, N; Regmi, K; Malla, K; Sharma, S

    2013-01-01

    Background: Abortion was legalized in Nepal in 2002, following advocacy efforts highlighting high maternal mortality from unsafe abortion. We sought to assess whether legalization led to reductions in the most serious maternal health consequences of unsafe

  2. Psychosocial adjustment among patients with ostomy: a survey in stoma clinics, Nepal

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    Gautam S

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Sital Gautam,1 Surya Koirala,2 Anju Poudel,1 Dipak Paudel,3 1Department of Nursing, Nepal Medical College, 2Department of Nursing, Institute of Medicine, Tribhuvan University, Nursing Campus Maharajgunj, 3Department of Medicine, People’s Medical College, Kathmandu, Nepal Background: Ostomy changes the overall lifestyle of a person, and ostomates have been identified as a chronic illness population frequently experiencing adjustment problems. Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine the psychosocial adjustment and its predictors among patients with ostomy in Nepal. Patients and methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in two stoma clinics of Nepal. Patients who had a colostomy, ileostomy, or urostomy, visited the selected stoma clinics during the data collection period, and who had ostomy for at least 6 months before data collection were included in the study. A total of 130 patients were included in this study. Data on sociodemographic and clinical variables were collected. Psychosocial adjustment score was measured using Ostomy Adjustment Inventory-23. Results: A total of 130 patients (80 males and 50 females were included in the study. The mean age of the patients was 51 years, ranging from 23 to 78 years. The study findings revealed that mean ±SD adjustment score was 41.49±13.57, indicating moderate impairment in the psychosocial adjustment among ostomates, and the mean ±SD scores of acceptance, anxious preoccupation, social engagement, and anger were 22.01±6.99, 8.75±3.89, 5.38±3.41, 5.35±1.62, respectively. Four variables contributed significantly to the final model, explaining 46.8% of variance in the psychosocial adjustment score (R2 =0.468, F(4, 125 =27.53, P<0.001. Perceived lack of family support (β=−0.367, P<0.001, total dependence on others to care for ostomy (ß=−0.357, P<0.001, and unemployment (ß=−0.144, P=0.032 significantly predicted lower psychosocial adjustment scores. However

  3. Hydrological system dynamics of glaciated Karnali River Basin Nepal Himalaya using J2000 Hydrological model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatiwada, K. R.; Nepal, S.; Panthi, J., Sr.; Shrestha, M.

    2015-12-01

    Hydrological modelling plays an important role in understanding hydrological processes of a catchment. In the context of climate change, the understanding of hydrological characteristic of the catchment is very vital to understand how the climate change will affect the hydrological regime. This research facilitates in better understanding of the hydrological system dynamics of a himalayan mountainous catchment in western Nepal. The Karnali River, longest river flowing inside Nepal, is one of the three major basins of Nepal, having the area of 45269 sq. km. is unique. The basin has steep topography and high mountains to the northern side. The 40% of the basin is dominated by forest land while other land cover are: grass land, bare rocky land etc. About 2% of the areas in basin is covered by permanent glacier apart from that about 12% of basin has the snow and ice cover. There are 34 meteorological stations distributed across the basin. A process oriented distributed J2000 hydrologial model has been applied to understand the hydrological system dynamics. The model application provides distributed output of various hydrological components. The J2000 model applies Hydrological Response Unit (HRU) as a modelling entity. With 6861 HRU and 1010 reaches, the model was calibrated (1981-1999) and validated (2000-2004) at a daily scale using split-sample test. The model is able to capture the overall hydrological dynamics well. The rising limbs and recession limbs are simulated equally and with satisfactory ground water conditions. Based on the graphical and statistical evaluation of the model performance the model is able to simulate hydrological processes fairly well. Calibration shows that Nash Sutcliffe efficiency is 0.91, coefficient of determination is 0.92 Initial observation shows that during the pre-monsoon season(March to May) the glacial runoff is 25% of the total discharge while in the monsoon(June to September) season it is only 13%. The surface runoff

  4. Uterine prolapse prevention in Eastern Nepal: the perspectives of women and health care professionals

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    Radl CM

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Christina M Rad,l Ranjita Rajwar, Arja R AroUniversity of Southern Denmark, Esbjerg, DenmarkAbstract: Uterine prolapse is a major reproductive health issue in Nepal. There is a wide range of literature available on the causes and risk factors of uterine prolapse and on the ways to prevent and treat it. There is still a lack of published evidence on what prevention and treatment services are working well or the attitudes toward them. This paper presents the findings of a qualitative study on primary and secondary prevention of uterine prolapse in Eastern Nepal.Method: The study involved eight focus group discussions with 71 women in six villages of the eastern districts of Siraha and Saptari and 14 qualitative interviews with health professionals from the local to central level. The group discussions and interviews covered the awareness levels of uterine prolapse and its prevention and treatment, as well as participants' opinions on and experiences with the services offered.Results: It was found that patriarchy, gender discrimination, and cultural traditions such as early marriage and pregnancy make it difficult for people to discontinue uterine prolapse risk behaviors. Women are aware of risk factors, prevention, and treatment, but are powerless to change their situations. Health professionals and women are fond of surgery as treatment, but opinions on the use of ring pessaries and pelvic floor muscle training are split.Conclusion: The main recommendation that can be drawn from this study is that research on the effectiveness of early treatments, such as ring pessaries and exercise, should be conducted. Furthermore, the involvement of other target groups (husbands, adolescents, and mothers-in-law needs to be increased in order to make it easier for women to adapt low-risk behaviors. Finally, uterine prolapse prevention should be better integrated in national reproductive health services. Enforcing transparency, monitoring systems, and

  5. Climate change issues of Nepal: challenges and perspectives for future generations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regmi, M.R.; Khanal, H.S.

    2009-01-01

    In Nepal Climate change has implications on reduction of snow pack on the mountains, water supply shortages, increase forest fires, increase in extreme weather, increase demand for irrigation, decreases power generation; wells dry up due to lower water table. Climate change seeks the two actions on the mitigation of greenhouse gases and adaptation to the climate change. This paper also describes the climate change issues of Nepal. In addition it deals with the potential threats of climate change to water Supply, agriculture and food security, temperature increase, run-off patterns, glacial melt and floods. (author)

  6. All projects related to nepal | Page 2 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This research project will help the Sri Lanka-based Social Scientists' Association (SSA) ... Social Policy, POLICY MAKING, RESEARCH NETWORKS, SOCIAL INEQUALITY, Gender ... Region: Indonesia, Myanmar, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Malaysia.

  7. Himalayan Vultures in Khodpe, far-west Nepal: is there any threat?

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    Manoj Kumar Joshi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available There is evidence that Himalayan Vulture Gyps himalayensis is susceptible to the veterinary drug diclofenac, which is responsible for the decline of other Gyps species across South Asia.  Unlike other Gyps species, there is little quantitative data to assess Himalayan Vultures population.  Based on observation, we analyzed the flock size and breeding success of the Himalayan Vultures on two cliffs of Khodpe in Baitadi District, far-west Nepal.  The mean flock size of Himalayan Vulture was 25.83±6.33.  Overall breeding success was 90.9% based on active nests.  We also conducted a questionnaire survey to assess the perceived threats in the view of local people to vultures and these threats include loss of food, veterinary drug, lack of proper nest sites, and lack of public awareness.  Additionally, 76% of the respondents felt that vultures were decreasing in the area, 94.7% were not aware of the toxicity of diclofenac to vultures, and very few (2% knew about the availability of meloxicam as a safe alternative drug.  The colony we studied is one of the few remaining known breeding populations, which provide baseline information from far-west Nepal, thus we recommend for conservation and continuous monitoring of this species to understand their population change and breeding biology. 

  8. Between Yesterday and Today: Contemporary Art in Nepal

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    Kathryn Hagy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines works from the last decade by six Nepalese artists and delves into questions such as how today’s artists align themselves between their ancient arts and their contemporary context. What is the conversation about globalism and its impact on artists? How do artists deal with social pressures and is the content of their work directly affected by these pressures? Through in-country research and subsequent study and interviews with artists, what is revealed is an energetic art scene that draws much of its inspiration from a local context, whether that be affirmation of or protest against that context to some degree. When visiting Kathmandu Nepal, one is bound to discover that like the ancient sculptures, paintings and temple architecture that exist on every corner, the art of contemporary Nepal is everywhere as well.

  9. Socio-economic assessment on maize production and adoption of open pollinated improved varieties in Dang, Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Sanjiv Subedi; Yuga Nath Ghimire; Deepa Devkota

    2017-01-01

    Research was conducted from February to May, 2017 for socioeconomic assessment on maize production and adoption of open pollinated improved maize varieties in Dang district of Nepal. Altogether, 100 samples were taken by simple random sampling from the major maize growing areas and relevant publications were reviewed. Focal Group Discussion and Key Informant Survey were also done. Descriptive statistics, unpaired t-test, probit regression and indexing were used for data analysis using statist...

  10. Characterization of rabies virus from a human case in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pant, G R; Horton, D L; Dahal, M; Rai, J N; Ide, S; Leech, S; Marston, D A; McElhinney, L M; Fooks, A R

    2011-04-01

    Rabies is endemic throughout most of Asia, with the majority of human cases transmitted by domestic dogs (Canis familiaris). Here, we report a case of rabies in a 12-year-old girl in the Lalitpur district of Nepal that might have been prevented by better public awareness and timely post-exposure prophylaxis. Molecular characterization of the virus showed 100% identity over a partial nucleoprotein gene sequence to previous isolates from Nepal belonging to the 'arctic-like' lineage of rabies virus. Sequence analysis of both partial nucleoprotein and glycoprotein genes showed differences in consensus sequence after passage in vitro but not after passage in vivo.

  11. Development and Climate Change in Nepal. Focus on Water Resources and Hydropower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agrawala, S.; Raksakulthai, V.; Van Aalst, M.; Larsen, P.; Smith, J.; Reynolds, J.

    2003-01-01

    This document is an output from the OECD Development and Climate Change project, an activity jointly overseen by the EPOC Working Party on Global and Structural Policies (WPGSP), and the DAC Network on Environment and Development Co-operation (ENVIRONET). The overall objective of the project is to provide guidance on how to mainstream responses to climate change within economic development planning and assistance policies, with natural resource management as an overarching theme. This report presents the integrated case study for Nepal carried out under an OECD project on Development and Climate Change. The report is structured around a three-tier framework. First, recent climate trends and climate change scenarios for Nepal are assessed, and key sectoral impacts are identified and ranked along multiple indicators to establish priorities for adaptation. Second, donor portfolios in Nepal are analyzed to examine the proportion of donor activities affected by climate risks. A desk analysis of donor strategies and project documents as well as national plans is conducted to assess the degree of attention to climate change concerns in development planning and assistance. Third, an in-depth analysis is conducted for Nepal's water resources sector which was identified as most vulnerable to climate change. This part of the analysis also involved stakeholder consultation through an in-country workshop to identify key synergies and conflicts between climate change concerns and sectoral projects and plans

  12. Intervention processes and irrigation institutions : sustainability of farmer managed irrigation systems in Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Pant, D.R.

    2000-01-01

    With the support from various donors, His Majesty's Government of Nepal has implemented support programmes with a view to transform water availability, improve production, and increase the institutional capabilities of farmers to develop and sustain efficient, fair and reliable irrigation management practices in irrigation systems in Nepal. In this respect, this study aimed to understand the social, administrative and political processes involved in the social and institutional chang...

  13. Regional variation in pig farmer awareness and actions regarding Japanese encephalitis in Nepal: implications for public health education.

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    Santosh Dhakal

    Full Text Available Japanese encephalitis (JE is a mosquito-borne zoonotic disease that has pigs as the major amplifying hosts. It is the most important cause of viral encephalitis in people in Nepal and is spreading in its geographic distribution in that country. Pig farming is increasing in Nepal due to reducing cultural biases against pigs and government programs to support pig farming for poverty alleviation. Major strategies for JE prevention and control include education, vector control, and immunization of people and pigs. This study used a survey of 400 pig farmers in 4 areas of Nepal with different JE and pig farming histories to explore regional variations in farmer awareness and actions towards JE, the association of awareness and actions with farm and farmer variables, and the implications of these associations for public health education. Exposure to JE risk factors was common across pig farms and pig farming districts but there were significant district level differences in knowledge and practices related to on-farm JE risk reduction. Social factors such as literacy, gender, and cultural practices were associated with farmer attitudes, knowledge and practices for JE control. JE vaccine uptake was almost non-existent and mosquito control steps were inconsistently applied across all 4 districts. Income was not a determining factor of the differences, but all farmers were very poor. The low uptake of vaccine and lack of infrastructure or financial capacity to house pigs indoors or away from people suggest that farmer personal protection should be a priority target for education in Nepal. This study re-enforces the need to attack root causes of people's personal disease prevention behaviours and take into account local variation in needs and capacities when designing health or agriculture education programs.

  14. A contrast study of the traumatic condition between the wounded in 5.12 Wenchuan earthquake and 4.25 Nepal earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Sheng; Hu, Yonghe; Zhang, Zhongkui; Wang, Ting

    2015-01-01

    5.12 Wenchuan earthquake and 4.25 Nepal earthquake are of the similar magnitude, but the climate and geographic environment are totally different. Our team carried out medical rescue in both disasters, so we would like to compare the different traumatic conditions of the wounded in two earthquakes. The clinical data of the wounded respectively in 5.12 Wenchuan earthquake and 4.25 Nepal earthquake rescued by Chengdu Military General Hospital were retrospectively analyzed. Then a contrast study between the wounded was conducted in terms of age, sex, injury mechanisms, traumatic conditions, complications and prognosis. Three days after 5.12 Wenchuan earthquake, 465 cases of the wounded were hospitalized in Chengdu Military General Hospital, including 245 males (52.7%) and 220 females (47.3%) with the average age of (47.6±22.7) years. Our team carried out humanitarian relief in Katmandu after 4.25 Nepal earthquake. Three days after this disaster, 71 cases were treated in our field hospital, including 37 males (52.1%) and 34 females (47.9%) with the mean age of (44.8±22.9) years. There was no obvious difference in sex and mean age between two groups, but the age distribution was a little different: there were more wounded people at the age over 60 years in 4.25 Nepal earthquake (pearthquake (pearthquake had a higher rate of bruise injury and crush injury (pearthquake had a higher rate of falling injury (pearthquake, 4.25 Nepal earthquake has a much higher incidence of limb fractures (pearthquakes of the similar magnitude can cause different injury mechanisms, traumatic conditions and complications in the wounded under different climate and geographic environment.When an earthquake occurs in a poor traffic area of high altitude and large temperature difference, early medical rescue, injury control and wounded evacuation as well as sufficient warmth retention and food supply are of vital significance.

  15. Associations of women's position in the household and food insecurity with family planning use in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond-Smith, Nadia; Raj, Anita; Prata, Ndola; Weiser, Sheri D

    2017-01-01

    Women in Nepal have low status, especially younger women in co-resident households. Nepal also faces high levels of household food insecurity and malnutrition, and stagnation in uptake of modern family planning methods. This study aims to understand if household structure and food insecurity interact to influence family planning use in Nepal. Using data on married, non-pregnant women aged 15-49 with at least one child from the Nepal 2011 Demographic and Health Survey (N = 7,460), we explore the relationship between women's position in the household, food insecurity as a moderator, and family planning use, using multi-variable logistic regressions. We adjust for household and individual factors, including other status-related variables. In adjusted models, living in a food insecure household and co-residing with in-laws either with no other daughter-in-laws or as the eldest or youngest daughter-in-law (compared to not-co-residing with in-laws) are all associated with lower odds of family planning use. In the interaction model, younger-sisters-in-law and women co-residing with no sisters-in-law in food insecure households have the lowest odds of family planning use. This study shows that household position is associated with family planning use in Nepal, and that food insecurity modifies these associations-highlighting the importance of considering both factors in understanding reproductive health care use in Nepal. Policies and programs should focus on the multiple pathways through which food insecurity impacts women's reproductive health, including focusing on women with the lowest status in households.

  16. Building a Higher Education Area in Central Asia: challenges and prospects

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    Ann Katherine Isaacs

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, for a variety of reasons, higher education has begun to be considered much more frequently than previously in terms of ‘regions’, or ‘macro-regions’. Although for decades countries sharing some characteristics, or perceived as geographically or culturally closely related to each other, have promoted forms of cooperation between their higher education institutions (with varying degrees of success, it is now widely accepted that to ‘count’ on the world stage, it is useful for single countries, and especially for smaller countries, to work together with a view to making their systems better able to interact and hopefully to promote, increase and make visible their merits. Of course, in higher education as in many other fields, the regions or macro-regions are not defined once and for all, but are the result of stronger or weaker ad hoc groupings which take into account different factors in different contexts. Central Asia is one such potential region: it does not have unquestioned boundaries, but like other macro-regions, and more so than most, it can be understood and constructed in different ways. A current shared understanding of ‘Central Asia’ is that it is formed by the 4 ex-Soviet Republics of Central Asia (Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan, plus Kazakhstan. Over the last decade the possibility of building a Higher Education Area in those five republics has been explored, and a large-scale project which uses Tuning methodology to this end is under way. This project, called TuCAHEA (“Towards a Central Asian Higher Education Area: Tuning Structures and Building Quality Culture”, has already elaborated a Central Asian list of Generic Competences and eight Subject Area Groups have formulated their Reference Points and Guidelines. The five Ministries of the five countries have signed a Communiqué indicating their intention to collaborate more closely; a pilot student mobility scheme is soon

  17. Gaddi Buffalo: An Indigenous Breed of Far-Western Nepal

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    T.M. Raj

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available A study on indigenous Gaddi buffalo of far-western region of Nepal was conducted to understand the production parameters and husbandry practices intending to make future strategy for improvement. The breed is well known in the far-western districts of Nepal and adapted in hills and mountains of the region with diverse climatic conditions. Among 3 identified buffalo breeds (Gaddi, Lime and Parkote and one under study (Terai, Gaddi was found morphologically larger (p<0.01 and docile in temperament. Major population of Gaddi was found to be black in color and some brown and light brown. Morphologically, it looks like Indian Murrah, however white round patch on the middle of forehead and tuft of the tail, and semi-curved horn shape are the distinguished characters. The average ages at puberty, first calving and calving interval was 3.8, 5.7 and 2.0 years respectively. Lactation length varied from 14 to 22 months and milk yield from 2.5 to 5.5 liters/day. Major problems recorded were lack of pure breeding bulls, negative selection, feed scarcity, poor technical know-how and health management. The paper discusses on the overall buffalo management system in the far-western region of Nepal and suggests improvement plan with maximum utilization of locally available farm resources.

  18. All projects related to Nepal | Page 3 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Reducing Vulnerability to the Threat of Japanese Encephalitis in Nepal ... South Asian Network for Development and Environmental Economics (SANDEE) - Phase III ... In South Asia, people's social, political and cultural aspirations often get ...

  19. All projects related to Nepal | Page 4 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... of data storage capability coupled with the rise of social media and Internet business ... Asia, South Asia, Laos, Malaysia, Mongolia, Nepal, Pakistan, Philippines, Japan ... South Asian Network for Development and Environmental Economics ...

  20. Mixed-methods approaches in health research in Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Simkhada, Padam; Van Teijlingen, Edwin; Wasti, Sharada Prasad; Sathian, B.

    2014-01-01

    Combining and integrating a mixture of qualitative and quantitative methods in one single study is widely used in health and social care research in high-income countries. This editorial adds a few words of advice to the novice mixed-methods researcher in Nepal.

  1. Son preference, number of children, education and occupational choice in rural Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Hatlebakk, Magnus

    2012-01-01

    A unique family survey was conducted in Nepal to investigate the economic consequences of having a first-born girl. Women get more children, but we find no causal effect of number of children on economic outcomes. But independently of the number of children there is a positive effect on boys' education of having a first born sister, who presumably takes care of household work so the boys can focus on school. This indicates a stronger son-preference in Nepal than what is found in studies from ...

  2. Medicinal plant diversity and traditional healing practices in eastern Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Nawal; Shrestha, Saugat; Koju, Laxmi; Shrestha, Krishna Kumar; Wang, Zhiheng

    2016-11-04

    The rich floral and ethnic composition of eastern Nepal and the widespread utilization of locally available medicinal plants offer remarkable opportunity for ethnomedicinal research. The present paper aims to explore medicinal plant diversity and use in the remote villages of eastern Nepal. It also aims to evaluate ethnopharmacological significance of the documented use reports and identify species of high indigenous priority. The study was undertaken in four villages located in the Sankhuwasabha district in eastern Nepal. Ethnomedicinal information was collected through structured interviews. The homogeneity of informant's knowledge and the relative importance of documented medicinal plants were validated by informant consensus factor and use value, respectively. Species preference for treatment of particular diseases was evaluated through fidelity level. We reported medicinal properties of 48 species belonging to 33 families and 40 genera, for the treatment of 37 human ailments. The uses of 10 medicinal plants were previously undocumented. The informant consensus factor (F IC ) ranged between 0.38 and 1 with about 50% of values greater than 0.80 and over 75% of values greater than 0.70, indicating moderate to high consensus among the informants on the use of medicinal plants in the region. Swertia chirayita was the most preferred species with significantly high use values, followed by Paris polyphylla and Neopicrorhiza scrophulariiflora. The remote villages in eastern Nepal possess rich floral and cultural diversity with strong consensus among informants on utilization of plants for local healthcare. The direct pharmacological evidence for medicinal properties of most species indicates high reliability of documented information. Careful and systematic screening of compounds isolated from these plants could possibly provide good opportunity for the discovery of novel medicines to treat life-threatening human diseases. We recommend prioritization of medicinal

  3. Medicine procurement in hospital pharmacies of Nepal: A qualitative study based on the Basel Statements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjit, Eurek

    2018-01-01

    Background Accessibility and affordability of evidence-based medicines are issues of global concern. For low-income countries like Nepal, it is crucial to have easy and reliable access to affordable, good-quality, evidence-based medicines, especially in the aftermath of natural or manmade disasters. Availability of affordable and evidence-based high quality medicines depends on the medicine procurement procedure, which makes it an important aspect of healthcare delivery. In this study, we aimed to investigate medicine procurement practices in hospital pharmacies of Nepal within the framework of International Pharmaceutical Federation [FIP] hospital pharmacy guidelines “the Basel Statements”. Method We conducted semi-structured interviews with hospital pharmacists or procurement officers in hospital pharmacies of four major regions in Nepal to explore procurement practices. Data were collected until saturation of themes, analysed using the framework approach, and organised around the statements within the procurement theme of the Basel Statements. Results Interviews conducted with 53 participants revealed that the procurement guidelines of the Basel Statements were adopted to a certain extent in hospital pharmacies of Nepal. It was found that the majority of hospital pharmacies in Nepal reported using an expensive direct-procurement model for purchasing medicines. Most had no formulary and procured medicines solely based on doctors’ prescriptions, which were heavily influenced by pharmaceutical companies’ marketing strategies. Whilst most procured only registered medicines, a minority reported purchasing unregistered medicines through unauthorised supply-chains. And although the majority of hospital pharmacies had some contingency plans for managing medicine shortages, a few had none. Conclusions Procurement guidelines of the Basel Statements were thus found to be partially adopted; however, there is room for improvement in current procurement practices in

  4. Medicine procurement in hospital pharmacies of Nepal: A qualitative study based on the Basel Statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Mina; Moles, Rebekah; Ranjit, Eurek; Chaar, Betty

    2018-01-01

    Accessibility and affordability of evidence-based medicines are issues of global concern. For low-income countries like Nepal, it is crucial to have easy and reliable access to affordable, good-quality, evidence-based medicines, especially in the aftermath of natural or manmade disasters. Availability of affordable and evidence-based high quality medicines depends on the medicine procurement procedure, which makes it an important aspect of healthcare delivery. In this study, we aimed to investigate medicine procurement practices in hospital pharmacies of Nepal within the framework of International Pharmaceutical Federation [FIP] hospital pharmacy guidelines "the Basel Statements". We conducted semi-structured interviews with hospital pharmacists or procurement officers in hospital pharmacies of four major regions in Nepal to explore procurement practices. Data were collected until saturation of themes, analysed using the framework approach, and organised around the statements within the procurement theme of the Basel Statements. Interviews conducted with 53 participants revealed that the procurement guidelines of the Basel Statements were adopted to a certain extent in hospital pharmacies of Nepal. It was found that the majority of hospital pharmacies in Nepal reported using an expensive direct-procurement model for purchasing medicines. Most had no formulary and procured medicines solely based on doctors' prescriptions, which were heavily influenced by pharmaceutical companies' marketing strategies. Whilst most procured only registered medicines, a minority reported purchasing unregistered medicines through unauthorised supply-chains. And although the majority of hospital pharmacies had some contingency plans for managing medicine shortages, a few had none. Procurement guidelines of the Basel Statements were thus found to be partially adopted; however, there is room for improvement in current procurement practices in hospital pharmacies of Nepal. Adoption and

  5. Medicine procurement in hospital pharmacies of Nepal: A qualitative study based on the Basel Statements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Shrestha

    Full Text Available Accessibility and affordability of evidence-based medicines are issues of global concern. For low-income countries like Nepal, it is crucial to have easy and reliable access to affordable, good-quality, evidence-based medicines, especially in the aftermath of natural or manmade disasters. Availability of affordable and evidence-based high quality medicines depends on the medicine procurement procedure, which makes it an important aspect of healthcare delivery. In this study, we aimed to investigate medicine procurement practices in hospital pharmacies of Nepal within the framework of International Pharmaceutical Federation [FIP] hospital pharmacy guidelines "the Basel Statements".We conducted semi-structured interviews with hospital pharmacists or procurement officers in hospital pharmacies of four major regions in Nepal to explore procurement practices. Data were collected until saturation of themes, analysed using the framework approach, and organised around the statements within the procurement theme of the Basel Statements.Interviews conducted with 53 participants revealed that the procurement guidelines of the Basel Statements were adopted to a certain extent in hospital pharmacies of Nepal. It was found that the majority of hospital pharmacies in Nepal reported using an expensive direct-procurement model for purchasing medicines. Most had no formulary and procured medicines solely based on doctors' prescriptions, which were heavily influenced by pharmaceutical companies' marketing strategies. Whilst most procured only registered medicines, a minority reported purchasing unregistered medicines through unauthorised supply-chains. And although the majority of hospital pharmacies had some contingency plans for managing medicine shortages, a few had none.Procurement guidelines of the Basel Statements were thus found to be partially adopted; however, there is room for improvement in current procurement practices in hospital pharmacies of Nepal

  6. Nepal Networking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Annette Skovsted

    , as a Danida fellow. Today, the older sister works in Nepal and the younger in Seattle, where they still make use of their personal networks including connections to their fellow alumni of technical assistance courses. Inspired by work on social remittances in combination with network theory , I argue......Technical Assistance courses have many functions apart from disseminating knowledge and information, one such function is to engender networks. During the course period, participants meet and establish contact and some of these contacts remain connections between alumni for many years after...... the courses are finished. The alumni networks depend on the uses they are put to by the individual alumni and the support they get from alumni and host countries. The United Nations initiated technical assistance courses in the late 1940s in order to train nationals from developing countries as a means...

  7. The Art of Survival: Policy Choices for Nepal

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    Dev Raj Dahal

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The tendency to change foreign policy tilt with every change in government has posed difficulty for Nepal to maintain internal cohesion and external adaptation. Now the nation is suffering from ceaseless spasms of political instability because many of its state-bearing institutions are broken and new are not yet invented to glue the nation’s diverse society and get viable traction to balance neighborhood geopolitics and become relevant to international community. In this context, Nepal now needs a regime that fosters centripetal tendencies of domestic forces for a cohesive and coherent foreign and security policy strategy to survive and prosper in a world dominated by protagonist giants and devise material, institutional and symbolic bases of the nation to scramble safe future.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/dsaj.v5i0.6355 Dhaulagiri Journal of Sociology and Anthropology Vol. 5, 2011: 31-48 

  8. Effects of Abortion Legalization in Nepal, 2001–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Jillian T.; Puri, Mahesh; Blum, Maya; Harper, Cynthia C.; Rana, Ashma; Gurung, Geeta; Pradhan, Neelam; Regmi, Kiran; Malla, Kasturi; Sharma, Sudha; Grossman, Daniel; Bajracharya, Lata; Satyal, Indira; Acharya, Shridhar; Lamichhane, Prabhat; Darney, Philip D.

    2013-01-01

    Background Abortion was legalized in Nepal in 2002, following advocacy efforts highlighting high maternal mortality from unsafe abortion. We sought to assess whether legalization led to reductions in the most serious maternal health consequences of unsafe abortion. Methods We conducted retrospective medical chart review of all gynecological cases presenting at four large public referral hospitals in Nepal. For the years 2001–2010, all cases of spontaneous and induced abortion complications were identified, abstracted, and coded to classify cases of serious infection, injury, and systemic complications. We used segmented Poisson and ordinary logistic regression to test for trend and risks of serious complications for three time periods: before implementation (2001–2003), early implementation (2004–2006), and later implementation (2007–2010). Results 23,493 cases of abortion complications were identified. A significant downward trend in the proportion of serious infection, injury, and systemic complications was observed for the later implementation period, along with a decline in the risk of serious complications (OR 0.7, 95% CI 0.64, 0.85). Reductions in sepsis occurred sooner, during early implementation (OR 0.6, 95% CI 0.47, 0.75). Conclusion Over the study period, health care use and the population of reproductive aged women increased. Total fertility also declined by nearly half, despite relatively low contraceptive prevalence. Greater numbers of women likely obtained abortions and sought hospital care for complications following legalization, yet we observed a significant decline in the rate of serious abortion morbidity. The liberalization of abortion policy in Nepal has benefited women’s health, and likely contributes to falling maternal mortality in the country. The steepest decline was observed after expansion of the safe abortion program to include midlevel providers, second trimester training, and medication abortion, highlighting the importance

  9. Foods, macronutrients and fibre in the diet of blue sheep (Psuedois nayaur) in the Annapurna Conservation Area of Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryal, Achyut; Coogan, Sean C P; Ji, Weihong; Rothman, Jessica M; Raubenheimer, David

    2015-09-01

    Food resources are often critical regulating factors affecting individual fitness and population densities. In the Himalayan Mountains, Bharal "blue sheep" (Pseudois nayaur) are the main food resource for the endangered snow leopard (Panthera uncia), as well as being preyed upon by other predators. Blue sheep, however, may face a number of challenges including food resource competition with other wild and domestic ungulates, and hunting pressure. Here, we characterized the diet of blue sheep in the Annapurna Conservation Area (ACA) of Nepal and conducted proximate nutritional analysis on a limited number of plants identified as foods. Furthermore, we investigated the macronutrient and fiber balance of these plants using nutritional geometry which is a state-space approach to modeling multidimensional and interactive nutritional aspects of foraging. A total of 19 plant species/genera were identified in blue sheep pellets using microhistological analysis. On average, across seasons and regions of the study area, the two most frequently occurring plants in pellets were graminoids: Kobressia sp. and Carex spp. The macronutrient balance of Kobresia sp. was relatively high in carbohydrate and low in protein, while other plants in the diet were generally higher in protein and lipid content. Analysis of fiber balance showed that the two most consumed plants of blue sheep (i.e., Kobresia spp. and Carex spp.) contained the highest concentration of hemicellulose, which is likely digestible by blue sheep. The hemicellulose and lignin balance of plants ranged relatively widely, yet their cellulose contents showed less variation. Foraging by blue sheep may therefore be a balance between consuming highly digestible high-carbohydrate plants and plants less-digestible but higher in protein and/or lipid.

  10. Women's autonomy in household decision-making: a demographic study in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, Dev R; Bell, Jacqueline S; Simkhada, Padam; van Teijlingen, Edwin R; Regmi, Pramod R

    2010-07-15

    How socio-demographic factors influence women's autonomy in decision making on health care including purchasing goods and visiting family and relatives are very poorly studied in Nepal. This study aims to explore the links between women's household position and their autonomy in decision making. We used Nepal Demographic Health Survey (NDHS) 2006, which provided data on ever married women aged 15-49 years (n = 8257). The data consists of women's four types of household decision making; own health care, making major household purchases, making purchase for daily household needs and visits to her family or relatives. A number of socio-demographic variables were used in multivariable logistic regression to examine the relationship of these variables to all four types of decision making. Women's autonomy in decision making is positively associated with their age, employment and number of living children. Women from rural area and Terai region have less autonomy in decision making in all four types of outcome measure. There is a mixed variation in women's autonomy in the development region across all outcome measures. Western women are more likely to make decision in own health care (1.2-1.6), while they are less likely to purchase daily household needs (0.6-0.9). Women's increased education is positively associated with autonomy in own health care decision making (p make decision in own healthcare. Women from rural area and Terai region needs specific empowerment programme to enable them to be more autonomous in the household decision making. Women's autonomy by education, wealth quintile and development region needs a further social science investigation to observe the variations within each stratum. A more comprehensive strategy can enable women to access community resources, to challenge traditional norms and to access economic resources. This will lead the women to be more autonomous in decision making in the due course.

  11. Molecular and phylogenetic analyses of the liver amphistome Explanatum explanatum (Creplin, 1847) Fukui, 1929 in ruminants from Bangladesh and Nepal based on nuclear ribosomal ITS2 and mitochondrial nad1 sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanta, U K; Rana, H B; Devkota, B; Itagaki, T

    2017-07-01

    Explanatum explanatum flukes, liver amphistomes of ruminants, cause significant economic loss in the livestock industry by inducing severe liver damage. A total of 66 flukes from 26 buffaloes and 7 cattle in four different geographic areas of Bangladesh and 20 flukes from 10 buffaloes in the Chitwan district of Nepal were subjected for analysis. The sequences (442 bp) of the second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) of ribosomal DNA and the variable fragments (657 bp) of mitochondrial nicotinamide dehydrogenase subunit 1 (nad1) of E. explanatum flukes from Bangladesh and Nepal were analysed. The aim of this study was molecular characterization of the flukes and to elucidate their origin and biogeography. In the ITS2 region, two genotypes were detected among the flukes from Bangladesh, while flukes from Nepal were of only one genotype. Phylogenetic analyses inferred from the nad1 gene revealed that at least four divergent populations (groups I-IV) are distributed in Bangladesh, whereas two divergent populations were found to be distributed in Nepal. Fst values (pairwise fixation index) suggest that Bangladeshi and Nepalese populations of group I to IV are significantly different from each other; but within groups III and IV, the populations from Bangladesh and Nepal were genetically close. This divergence in the nad1 gene indicates that each lineage of E. explanatum from diverse geography was co-adapted during the multiple domestication events of ruminants. This study, for the first time, provides molecular characterization of E. explanatum in Bangladesh and Nepal, and may provide useful information for elucidating its origin and dispersal route in Asia.

  12. Women and citizenship post-trafficking: the case of Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Diane; Laurie, Nina; Poudel, Meena; Townsend, Janet

    2016-05-01

    This article analyses the relationship between gender, sexuality and citizenship embedded in models of citizenship in the Global South, specifically in South Asia, and the meanings associated with having - or not having - citizenship. It does this through an examination of women's access to citizenship in Nepal in the context of the construction of the emergent nation state in the 'new' Nepal 'post-conflict'. Our analysis explores gendered and sexualized constructions of citizenship in this context through a specific focus on women who have experienced trafficking, and are beginning to organize around rights to sustainable livelihoods and actively lobby for changes in citizenship rules which discriminate against women. Building from this, in the final section we consider important implications of this analysis of post-trafficking experiences for debates about gender, sexuality and citizenship more broadly.

  13. Factors affecting home delivery in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolam, A; Manandhar, D S; Shrestha, P; Ellis, M; Malla, K; Costello, A M

    1998-06-01

    This nested case-control study compares the characteristics of mothers having home or institutional deliveries in Kathmandu, Nepal, and explores the reasons given by mothers for a home delivery. The delivery patterns of mothers were identified in a cross-sectional survey of two communities: an urban area of central Kathmandu (Kalimati) and a peri-urban area (Kirtipur and Panga) five kilometres from the city centre. 357 pregnant women were identified from a survey of 6130 households: 183 from 3663 households in Kirtipur and Panga, 174 from 2467 households in Kalimati. Methods involved a structured baseline household questionnaire and detailed follow-up of identified pregnant women with structured and semi-structured interviews in hospital and the community. The main outcome measures were social and economic household details of pregnant women; pregnancy and obstetric details; place of delivery; delivery attendant; and reasons given for home delivery. The delivery place of 334/357 (94%) of the pregnant women identified at the survey was determined. 272 (81%) had an institutional delivery and 62 (19%) delivered at home. In univariate analysis comparing home and institutional deliverers, maternal education, parity, and poverty indicators (income, size of house, ownership of house) were associated with place of delivery. After multivariate analysis, low maternal educational level (no education, OR 5.04 [95% CI 1.61-15.8], class 1-10, OR 3.36 [1.04-10.8] compared to those with higher education) and multiparity (OR 3.1 [1.63-5.74] compared to primiparity) were significant risk factors for a home delivery. Of home deliverers, only 24% used a traditional birth attendant, and over half were unplanned due to precipitate labour or lack of transport. We conclude that poor education and multiparity rather than poverty per se increase the risk of a home delivery in Kathmandu. Training TBAs in this setting would probably not be cost-effective. Community-based midwife-run delivery

  14. Wild Mushrooms in Nepal: Some Potential Candidates as Antioxidant and ACE-Inhibition Sources

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    Tran Hai Bang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-nine mushrooms collected in the mountainous areas of Nepal were analyzed for antioxidant activity by different methods, including Folin-Ciocalteu, ORAC, ABTS, and DPPH assays. Intracellular H2O2-scavenging activity was also performed on HaCaT cells. The results showed that phenolic compounds are the main antioxidant of the mushrooms. Among studied samples, Inonotus andersonii, and Phellinus gilvus exhibited very high antioxidant activity with the phenolic contents up to 310.8 and 258.7 mg GAE/g extracts, respectively. The H2O2-scavenging assay on cells also revealed the potential of these mushrooms in the prevention of oxidative stress. In term of ACE-inhibition, results showed that Phlebia tremellosa would be a novel and promising candidate for antihypertensive studies. This mushroom exhibited even higher in vitro ACE-inhibition activity than Ganoderma lingzhi, with the IC50 values of the two mushrooms being 32 μg/mL and 2 μg/mL, respectively. This is the first time biological activities of mushrooms collected in Nepal were reported. Information from this study should be a valuable reference for future studies on antioxidant and ACE-inhibitory activities of mushrooms.

  15. Performance analysis of spring wheat genotypes under rain-fed conditions in warm humid environment of Nepal

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    Ramesh Raj Puri

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Around 25% of total wheat area in Terai of Nepal falls under rain-fed and partially irrigated condition. A Coordinated varietal trial (CVT was conducted during two consecutive crop cycles (2011-12 and 2012-13 under timely sown rain-fed conditions of Terai. The trial was conducted in Alpha Lattice design with two replications at Nepal Agricultural Research Council, National Wheat Research Program, Bhairahawa and Nepal Agricultural Research Council, Regional Agriculture Research Station, Nepalgunj. Observations were recorded for yield and yield traits and analyzed using statistical software Cropstat 7.2.The combined analysis of coordinated varietal trial showed that BL 3978 possessed the highest yield (2469.2 Kg ha-1 followed by NL 1097 (2373.2 Kg ha-1 and NL 1094 (2334.06 Kg ha-1. Genotype x Environment interaction for grain yield was significant (p<0.05 over locations and years. BL 3978 with early maturity (111 days escaped the heat stress environment. Among the top three genotypes, BL 3978 was consistently higher in both favorable and unfavorable conditions. Earliness was one of the major traits for heat tolerant genotypes. The three identified genotypes will be further evaluated in participatory varietal selection or coordinated farmers field trial followed by small plot seed multiplication (seed increase and release in the future for timely sown rain-fed conditions. These lines also appear suitable for inclusion in crossing program targeted for water stress tolerance variety development. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v4i2.12649 International Journal of Environment Vol.4(2 2015: 289-295

  16. Prevalence of Hypertension, Obesity, Diabetes, and Metabolic Syndrome in Nepal

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    Sanjib Kumar Sharma

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. This study was carried out to establish the prevalence of cardiovascular risks such as hypertension, obesity, and diabetes in Eastern Nepal. This study also establishes the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS and its relationships to these cardiovascular risk factors and lifestyle. Methods. 14,425 subjects aged 20–100 (mean 41.4 ± 15.1 were screened with a physical examination and blood tests. Both the International Diabetic Federation (IDF and National Cholesterol Education Programme’s (NCEP definitions for MS were used and compared. Results. 34% of the participants had hypertension, and 6.3% were diabetic. 28% were overweight, and 32% were obese. 22.5% of the participants had metabolic syndrome based on IDF criteria and 20.7% according to the NCEP definition. Prevalence was higher in the less educated, people working at home, and females. There was no significant correlation between the participants’ lifestyle factors and the prevalence of MS. Conclusion. The high incidence of dyslipidemia and abdominal obesity could be the major contributors to MS in Nepal. Education also appears to be related to the prevalence of MS. This study confirms the need to initiate appropriate treatment options for a condition which is highly prevalent in Eastern Nepal.

  17. Factors Associated with Pregnancy among Married Adolescents in Nepal: Secondary Analysis of the National Demographic and Health Surveys from 2001 to 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rina Pradhan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Pregnancy-related morbidity and mortality are much more prevalent among adolescents than adults, particularly in low-income settings. Little is known about risk factors for pregnancy among adolescents in Nepal, but setting-specific evidence is needed to inform interventions. This study aimed to describe the prevalence, and identify factors associated with pregnancy among adolescents in Nepal between 2001 and 2011. Secondary analyses of Nepal Demographic Health Surveys (NDHS data from 2001, 2006, and 2011 were completed. The outcome was any pregnancy or birth among married adolescents; prevalence was calculated for each survey year. Although the rate of marriage among adolescent women in Nepal decreased significantly from 2001 to 2011, prevalence of pregnancy and birth among married adolescent women in Nepal remains high (average 56% in Nepal, and increased significantly between 2001 and 2011. Regression analyses of this outcome indicate higher risk was associated with living in the least resourced region, early sexual debut, and older husband. Despite national efforts to reduce pregnancies among married adolescent women in Nepal, prevalence remains high. Integrated, cross-sectoral prevention efforts are required. Poverty reduction and infrastructure improvements may lead to lower rates of adolescent pregnancy.

  18. The Byanshi: an ethnographic note on a trading group in far western Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzardo, A E; Dahal, D R; Rai, N K

    1976-09-01

    The Byanshi who live in the district of Darchula are among the lesser known trading groups of Nepal. The Byanshi, close to the borders of Nepal, India, and Tibet, make their living trading wool, yak tails, salt, grain, and other commodities across the Himalayas and over the border into Pithoragarh district and even down into the Terai. The Byanshi live their lives in 2 separate areas. In the summer they live in their traditional homeland in Byana panchayat in the northern section of Darchula, close to Nepal's border with China. The major settlements in the area are Tinkar and Chhangru. The entire panchayat has a population of about 2000. In the winter, when snow makes life difficult in the high mountains, the Byanshi migrate down to Khalanga panchayat. Of greater importance than agriculture is animal husbandry, which is the backbone of trade in the Himalayas. Most important is that husbandry supports trade. The Byanshi social organization is somewhat confusing. An attempt is made to explain the clan structure as simply as possible. Upon the birth of a child the women from the village bring local beer, meat, and other food to the mother. Up to the 11th day after childbirth, the new mother and child are considered to be polluted. On the 8th day after delivery a ceremony known as "malengkho kormo" is performed, where the mother and child are ritually bathed. From this point, both the mother and child may enter the hearth area of their house, but the house itself is considered polluted. On the 11th day, all villagers are invited to attend the ceremony known as "chhyosimo" which purifies the house and the people. The Byanshi practice 3 forms of marriage: marriage by capture; love marriage, a form of elopmement; and the arranged marriage. The latter is becoming most common. Death rituals have always been the most exaggerated and costly ceremonies for the Bayanshi. The religion of the Byanshi combines features of Tibetan Buddhism, hill animism, and Hinduism in a very

  19. The Prevalence of Diabetic Retinopathy Among Known Diabetic Population in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, S K; Pant, B P; Subedi, P

    2016-01-01

    Background The worldwide prevalence of diabetic retinopathy (DR) was found to be 34.6%. WHO estimates that DR is responsible for 4.8% of the 37 million cases of blindness throughout the world. In a study undertaken in urban population in Nepal, M.D. Bhattarai found the prevalence of diabetes among people aged 20 years and above to be 14.6% and the prevalence among people aged 40 years and above to be 19%. Studies on DR, to our knowledge, have mostly been hospital based in Nepal. Little information is available about prevalence of DR at the community level in Nepal. Objective To investigate the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy and associated risk factors among known diabetic population of Nepal. Method A descriptive cross sectional study was conducted among individuals aged 30 and more using cluster sampling method. The study sites were Kathmandu metropolitan city and Birgunj sub-metropolitan city. A sample size of 5400 was calculated assuming 5% prevalence rate with 95% confidence level, 5% worst acceptable level and 1.5 cluster sampling design effect. Study participants were interviewed, anthropometric measurements and fundus photograph was taken from participants with diabetes. Fundus photographs were used to grade retinopathy. Result Around 12% of the respondents were diabetic, mean age 55.43±11.86 years, of which slightly more than half were females (50.2%). Among these diabetic respondents 9.9% had some forms of diabetic retinopathy, mean age 54.08±10.34 years, 56.7% were male. When severe grade of retinopathy in any eye was considered as overall grade of retinopathy for the individual, prevalence of Non-proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy, Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy and complete vision loss was found to be 9.1%, 0.5% and 0.3%. Prevalence of Diabetic Macular Edema was 5.5%. Duration of diabetes, family history of diabetes and blood pressure at the day of survey was found to be associated with having any retinopathy. Conclusion Diabetic retinopathy

  20. Human-Wildlife Conflicts in Nepal: Patterns of Human Fatalities and Injuries Caused by Large Mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, Krishna Prasad; Paudel, Prakash Kumar; Neupane, Prem Raj; Köhl, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Injury and death from wildlife attacks often result in people feeling violent resentment and hostility against the wildlife involved and, therefore, may undermine public support for conservation. Although Nepal, with rich biodiversity, is doing well in its conservation efforts, human-wildlife conflicts have been a major challenge in recent years. The lack of detailed information on the spatial and temporal patterns of human-wildlife conflicts at the national level impedes the development of effective conflict mitigation plans. We examined patterns of human injury and death caused by large mammals using data from attack events and their spatiotemporal dimensions collected from a national survey of data available in Nepal over five years (2010-2014). Data were analyzed using logistic regression and chi-square or Fisher's exact tests. The results show that Asiatic elephants and common leopards are most commonly involved in attacks on people in terms of attack frequency and fatalities. Although one-horned rhinoceros and bears had a higher frequency of attacks than Bengal tigers, tigers caused more fatalities than each of these two species. Attacks by elephants peaked in winter and most frequently occurred outside protected areas in human settlements. Leopard attacks occurred almost entirely outside protected areas, and a significantly greater number of attacks occurred in human settlements. Attacks by one-horned rhinoceros and tigers were higher in the winter, mainly in forests inside protected areas; similarly, attacks by bears occurred mostly within protected areas. We found that human settlements are increasingly becoming conflict hotspots, with burgeoning incidents involving elephants and leopards. We conclude that species-specific conservation strategies are urgently needed, particularly for leopards and elephants. The implications of our findings for minimizing conflicts and conserving these imperiled species are discussed.

  1. Human-Wildlife Conflicts in Nepal: Patterns of Human Fatalities and Injuries Caused by Large Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, Krishna Prasad; Paudel, Prakash Kumar; Neupane, Prem Raj; Köhl, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Injury and death from wildlife attacks often result in people feeling violent resentment and hostility against the wildlife involved and, therefore, may undermine public support for conservation. Although Nepal, with rich biodiversity, is doing well in its conservation efforts, human-wildlife conflicts have been a major challenge in recent years. The lack of detailed information on the spatial and temporal patterns of human-wildlife conflicts at the national level impedes the development of effective conflict mitigation plans. We examined patterns of human injury and death caused by large mammals using data from attack events and their spatiotemporal dimensions collected from a national survey of data available in Nepal over five years (2010–2014). Data were analyzed using logistic regression and chi-square or Fisher's exact tests. The results show that Asiatic elephants and common leopards are most commonly involved in attacks on people in terms of attack frequency and fatalities. Although one-horned rhinoceros and bears had a higher frequency of attacks than Bengal tigers, tigers caused more fatalities than each of these two species. Attacks by elephants peaked in winter and most frequently occurred outside protected areas in human settlements. Leopard attacks occurred almost entirely outside protected areas, and a significantly greater number of attacks occurred in human settlements. Attacks by one-horned rhinoceros and tigers were higher in the winter, mainly in forests inside protected areas; similarly, attacks by bears occurred mostly within protected areas. We found that human settlements are increasingly becoming conflict hotspots, with burgeoning incidents involving elephants and leopards. We conclude that species-specific conservation strategies are urgently needed, particularly for leopards and elephants. The implications of our findings for minimizing conflicts and conserving these imperiled species are discussed. PMID:27612174

  2. Quantifying seasonal velocity at Khumbu Glacier, Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, E.; Quincey, D. J.; Miles, K.; Hubbard, B. P.; Rowan, A. V.

    2017-12-01

    While the low-gradient debris-covered tongues of many Himalayan glaciers exhibit low surface velocities, quantifying ice flow and its variation through time remains a key challenge for studies aimed at determining the long-term evolution of these glaciers. Recent work has suggested that glaciers in the Everest region of Nepal may show seasonal variability in surface velocity, with ice flow peaking during the summer as monsoon precipitation provides hydrological inputs and thus drives changes in subglacial drainage efficiency. However, satellite and aerial observations of glacier velocity during the monsoon are greatly limited due to cloud cover. Those that do exist do not span the period over which the most dynamic changes occur, and consequently short-term (i.e. daily) changes in flow, as well as the evolution of ice dynamics through the monsoon period, remain poorly understood. In this study, we combine field and remote (satellite image) observations to create a multi-temporal, 3D synthesis of ice deformation rates at Khumbu Glacier, Nepal, focused on the 2017 monsoon period. We first determine net annual and seasonal surface displacements for the whole glacier based on Landsat-8 (OLI) panchromatic data (15m) processed with ImGRAFT. We integrate inclinometer observations from three boreholes drilled by the EverDrill project to determine cumulative deformation at depth, providing a 3D perspective and enabling us to assess the role of basal sliding at each site. We additionally analyze high-frequency on-glacier L1 GNSS data from three sites to characterize variability within surface deformation at sub-seasonal timescales. Finally, each dataset is validated against repeat-dGPS observations at gridded points in the vicinity of the boreholes and GNSS dataloggers. These datasets complement one another to infer thermal regime across the debris-covered ablation area of the glacier, and emphasize the seasonal and spatial variability of ice deformation for glaciers in High

  3. Feasibility Study of Low-Cost Image-Based Heritage Documentation in Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhonju, H. K.; Xiao, W.; Sarhosis, V.; Mills, J. P.; Wilkinson, S.; Wang, Z.; Thapa, L.; Panday, U. S.

    2017-02-01

    Cultural heritage structural documentation is of great importance in terms of historical preservation, tourism, educational and spiritual values. Cultural heritage across the world, and in Nepal in particular, is at risk from various natural hazards (e.g. earthquakes, flooding, rainfall etc), poor maintenance and preservation, and even human destruction. This paper evaluates the feasibility of low-cost photogrammetric modelling cultural heritage sites, and explores the practicality of using photogrammetry in Nepal. The full pipeline of 3D modelling for heritage documentation and conservation, including visualisation, reconstruction, and structure analysis, is proposed. In addition, crowdsourcing is discussed as a method of data collection of growing prominence.

  4. Selection and Characterization of Potential Baker’s Yeast from Indigenous Resources of Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Tika B. Karki; Parash Mani Timilsina; Archana Yadav; Gyanu Raj Pandey; Yogesh Joshi; Sahansila Bhujel; Rojina Adhikari; Katyayanee Neupane

    2017-01-01

    The study aims to isolate the yeast strains that could be used effectively as baker’s yeast and compare them with the commercial baker’s yeast available in the market of Nepal. A total of 10 samples including locally available sources like fruits, Murcha, and a local tree “Dar” were collected from different localities of Bhaktapur, Kavre, and Syangja districts of Nepal, respectively. Following enrichment and fermentation of the samples, 26 yeast strains were isolated using selective medium Wa...

  5. Segmentation and rejuvenation of the Greater Himalayan sequence in western Nepal revealed by in situ U-Th/Pb monazite petrochronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braden, Zoe; Godin, Laurent; Cottle, John M.

    2017-07-01

    In the western Nepal Himalaya, a major mountain building shear zone, the Main Central thrust, is exposed in multiple locations along its southward transport direction. The hanging wall of the Main Central thrust was sampled in both hinterland and foreland exposures, in the upper Karnali valley and around Jumla, respectively. In situ U-Th/Pb monazite petrochronology coupled with microstructural and petrographic observations reveals distinctly different timing of deformation, despite the geographic proximity and apparent structural continuity between the two regions. The Y content, the Gd to Yb ratio and the Eu anomaly in monazite constrain the timing of metamorphic reactions. Rocks in the upper Karnali valley record deformation associated with metamorphism at 18 Ma, melt crystallization starting at ca. 14 Ma and lasting until at least 11-10 Ma. In contrast, the Jumla region records a more protracted series of events with metamorphism initiating as early as 47 Ma and lasting until 18 Ma, punctuated by at least two periods of melt crystallization. In both areas, the age of melt crystallization decreases down section through the hanging wall towards the Main Central thrust. Ductile deformation in the Jumla region ceased around ca. 18 Ma, while rocks at similar structural positions in the hinterland in upper Karnali valley were still being actively deformed and melting at ca. 11 Ma. The southern, foreland-most, hanging-wall rocks (Jumla region) were consequently exhumed above the ductile-brittle transition while the northern hinterland-most hanging-wall rocks (upper Karnali valley) were still undergoing ductile deformation and partial melting.

  6. Socio-economic assessment on maize production and adoption of open pollinated improved varieties in Dang, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjiv Subedi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Research was conducted from February to May, 2017 for socioeconomic assessment on maize production and adoption of open pollinated improved maize varieties in Dang district of Nepal. Altogether, 100 samples were taken by simple random sampling from the major maize growing areas and relevant publications were reviewed. Focal Group Discussion and Key Informant Survey were also done. Descriptive statistics, unpaired t-test, probit regression and indexing were used for data analysis using statistical tools- SPSS, STATA and MS-Excel. Probit econometric model revealed that ethnicity (1% level, gender (5% level, area under open pollinated improved maize (1% level, seed source dummy (1 % level and number of visits by farmers to agrovet (5% level significantly determined the adoption of open pollinated improved maize varieties. In addition, unpaired t-test revealed that the productivity of open pollinated improved maize varieties was significantly higher (at 1% level than local; also, the multinational companies' hybrids showed significantly higher productivity (at 1% level when compared to open pollinated improved varieties. Furthermore, indexing identified- lack of availability of quality seeds and fertilizers (I= 0.86 as the major problem associated with the maize production. Giving aggressive subsidy on open pollinated improved seeds and dealership to registered agrovets for selling the subsidy seeds could enhance the adoption. Moreover, government organizations working in the areas of agricultural extension and research must focus on adoption of open pollinated improved maize varieties among the farmers, substituting the local and developing the high yielding hybrid varieties in Nepal to increase the maize productivity.

  7. Rural-urban disparities in child nutrition in Bangladesh and Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Chittur S; Zanello, Giacomo; Shankar, Bhavani

    2013-06-14

    The persistence of rural-urban disparities in child nutrition outcomes in developing countries alongside rapid urbanisation and increasing incidence of child malnutrition in urban areas raises an important health policy question - whether fundamentally different nutrition policies and interventions are required in rural and urban areas. Addressing this question requires an enhanced understanding of the main drivers of rural-urban disparities in child nutrition outcomes especially for the vulnerable segments of the population. This study applies recently developed statistical methods to quantify the contribution of different socio-economic determinants to rural-urban differences in child nutrition outcomes in two South Asian countries - Bangladesh and Nepal. Using DHS data sets for Bangladesh and Nepal, we apply quantile regression-based counterfactual decomposition methods to quantify the contribution of (1) the differences in levels of socio-economic determinants (covariate effects) and (2) the differences in the strength of association between socio-economic determinants and child nutrition outcomes (co-efficient effects) to the observed rural-urban disparities in child HAZ scores. The methodology employed in the study allows the covariate and coefficient effects to vary across entire distribution of child nutrition outcomes. This is particularly useful in providing specific insights into factors influencing rural-urban disparities at the lower tails of child HAZ score distributions. It also helps assess the importance of individual determinants and how they vary across the distribution of HAZ scores. There are no fundamental differences in the characteristics that determine child nutrition outcomes in urban and rural areas. Differences in the levels of a limited number of socio-economic characteristics - maternal education, spouse's education and the wealth index (incorporating household asset ownership and access to drinking water and sanitation) contribute a

  8. Women and citizenship post‐trafficking: the case of Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Diane; Laurie, Nina; Poudel, Meena; Townsend, Janet

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This article analyses the relationship between gender, sexuality and citizenship embedded in models of citizenship in the Global South, specifically in South Asia, and the meanings associated with having – or not having – citizenship. It does this through an examination of women's access to citizenship in Nepal in the context of the construction of the emergent nation state in the ‘new’ Nepal ‘post‐conflict’. Our analysis explores gendered and sexualized constructions of citizenship in this context through a specific focus on women who have experienced trafficking, and are beginning to organize around rights to sustainable livelihoods and actively lobby for changes in citizenship rules which discriminate against women. Building from this, in the final section we consider important implications of this analysis of post‐trafficking experiences for debates about gender, sexuality and citizenship more broadly. PMID:27642193

  9. Threat of multidrug resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Western Nepal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhatta, Dharm R.; Cavaco, Lina; Nath, Gopal

    2015-01-01

    antibiotic susceptibility testing in developing countries like Nepal. Hospital acquired infections including prevalence of MRSA can be minimized by appropriate hygienic measures in patient care and management and by antibiotic stewardship. Screening of erythromycin resistant isolates would minimize clinical...

  10. A Himalayan Border Trilogy: The Political Economies of Transport Infrastructure and Disaster Relief between China and Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galen Murton

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This photo essay illustrates and contrasts the infrastructure and operations of three international border posts between China and Nepal. Located at Zhangmu-Kodari, Kyirong-Rasuwa, and Likse-Neychung borders, these posts function as the only motorable China-Nepal border crossings and represent half of the six official, open borders recognized by Kathmandu and Beijing. In addition to China’s new position as Nepal’s number-one source of foreign direct investment, bilateral trade, humanitarian aid, and tourism traffic between the two countries continue to expand annually. As infrastructure development facilitates new political-economic dynamics between China and Nepal, these three border posts are becoming increasingly potent symbols of ongoing evolutions in Sino-Nepal relations. Because each crossing is also located at Nepal’s border with the Tibet Autonomous Region, each site exhibits a complex politics of identity, citizenship, and mobility with respect to the movement and control of local traders, Tibetan exiles, the Nepali Army, and the Chinese State Police, among other actors.

  11. Socioeconomic analysis and problems of maize seed production in mid hill area of Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahesh Sapkota

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Maize is considered as staple food and is a way of life for the hilly region of Nepal. The production and yield of maize crop is very low which is unable to meet the current demand and is mostly affected by various insect/pests and diseases. For such a backdrop, 182 cross sectional data were collected using simple random techniques in Palpa in June, 2016. Forced scaling technique was used to rank problems based on index value. The total average landholding was 0.91 hectare with 0.32 ha under maize seed cultivation. About 90.7 and 69.8% farmers were access to extension service and had received training respectively. Infestation of insect/pests ranked at first as a major problem in maize seed production with 0.79 index value followed by infrastructure/credit, storage, unavailability of inputs and marketing problems. Similarly poor bargaining power ranked as a 1st major marketing problem. Better access to extension service as well as frequent training service to farmers should be provided to increase production and yield of maize seed. Government and other stakeholder organizations should focus to develop irrigation infrastructure for the overall development of maize sector.

  12. Genetic diversity of plasmodium vivax merozoite surface protein-3alpha (Pvmsp-3alpha) gene in Jhapa District of Nepal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adhikari, Madhav; Ranjitkar, Samir; Schousboe, Mette Leth

    2012-01-01

    In Nepal, Plasmodium vivax accounts for approximately 80-90% of the malaria cases, but limited studies have been conducted on the genetic diversity of this parasite population. This study was carried out to determine the genetic diversity of P. vivax population sampled from subjects living...... in an endemic area of Jhapa District by analyzing the polymorphic merozoite surface protein-3alpha (Pvmsp-3alpha) gene by using PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Three distinct genotypes were obtained from 96 samples; type A: 40 (71%), type B: 7 (13%), and type C: 9 (16%) which could be categorized...... into 13 allelic patterns: A1-A9, B1, B2, C1 and C2. These results indicated a high genetic diversity within the studied P. vivax population. As the transmission rate of malaria is low in Nepal, the diversity is most likely due to migration of people between the malaria endemic regions, either within...

  13. Disjunctured reciprocity: Paradoxes of community-school relationship in Nepal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pradhan, Uma; Shrestha, Shivana; Valentin, Karen

    2018-01-01

    and community. This article questions the simplistic assumption through an ethnographic study of community-school relationship in Nepal. While these relationships may conflict with the kind of reciprocity assumed in school governance policies, we argue that this disjunctured reciprocity, firstly, reflects...

  14. Using interviews and biological sign surveys to infer seasonal use of forested and agricultural portions of a human-dominated landscape by Asian elephants in Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamichhane, Babu Ram; Subedi, Naresh; Pokheral, Chiranjibi Prasad; Dhakal, Maheshwar; Acharya, Krishna Prasad; Pradhan, Narendra Man Babu; Smith, James L. David; Malla, Sabita; Thakuri, Bishnu Singh; Yackulic, Charles B.

    2018-01-01

    Understanding how wide-ranging animals use landscapes in which human use is highly heterogeneous is important for determining patterns of human–wildlife conflict and designing mitigation strategies. Here, we show how biological sign surveys in forested components of a human-dominated landscape can be combined with human interviews in agricultural portions of a landscape to provide a full picture of seasonal use of different landscape components by wide-ranging animals and resulting human–wildlife conflict. We selected Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) in Nepal to illustrate this approach. Asian elephants are threatened throughout their geographic range, and there are large gaps in our understanding of their landscape-scale habitat use. We identified all potential elephant habitat in Nepal and divided the potential habitat into sampling units based on a 10 km by 10 km grid. Forested areas within grids were surveyed for signs of elephant use, and local villagers were interviewed regarding elephant use of agricultural areas and instances of conflict. Data were analyzed using single-season and multi-season (dynamic) occupancy models. A single-season occupancy model applied to data from 139 partially or wholly forested grid cells estimated that 0.57 of grid cells were used by elephants. Dynamic occupancy models fit to data from interviews across 158 grid cells estimated that monthly use of non-forested, human-dominated areas over the preceding year varied between 0.43 and 0.82 with a minimum in February and maximum in October. Seasonal patterns of crop raiding by elephants coincided with monthly elephant use of human-dominated areas, and serious instances of human–wildlife conflict were common. Efforts to mitigate human–elephant conflict in Nepal are likely to be most effective if they are concentrated during August through December when elephant use of human-dominated landscapes and human–elephant conflict are most common.

  15. Prevalence, distribution and correlates of tobacco smoking and chewing in Nepal: a secondary data analysis of Nepal Demographic and Health Survey-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreeramareddy, Chandrashekhar T; Ramakrishnareddy, N; Harsha Kumar, Hn; Sathian, Brijesh; Arokiasamy, John T

    2011-12-20

    Nearly four-fifths of estimated 1.1 million smokers live in low or middle-income countries. We aimed to provide national estimates for Nepal on tobacco use prevalence, its distribution across demographic, socio-economic and spatial variables and correlates of tobacco use. A secondary data analysis of 2006 Nepal Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) was done. A representative sample of 9,036 households was selected by two-stage stratified, probability proportional to size (PPS) technique. We constructed three outcome variables 'tobacco smoke', 'tobacco chewer' and 'any tobacco use' based on four questions about tobacco use that were asked in DHS questionnaires. Socio-economic, demographic and spatial predictor variables were used. We computed overall prevalence for 'tobacco smoking', 'tobacco chewing' and 'any tobacco use' i.e. point estimates of prevalence rates, 95% confidence intervals (CIs) after adjustment for strata and clustering at primary sampling unit (PSU) level. For correlates of tobacco use, we used multivariate analysis to calculate adjusted odds ratios (AORs) and their 95% CIs. A p-value smoking' and 'tobacco chewing' were 30.3% (95% CI 28.9, 31.7), 20.7% (95% CI 19.5, 22.0) and 14.6% (95% CI 13.5, 15.7) respectively. Prevalence among men was significantly higher than women for 'any tobacco use' (56.5% versus 19.6%), 'tobacco smoking' (32.8% versus 15.8%) and 'tobacco chewing' (38.0% versus 5.0%). By multivariate analysis, older adults, men, lesser educated and those with lower wealth quintiles were more likely to be using all forms of tobacco. Divorced, separated, and widowed were more likely to smoke (OR 1.49, 95% CI 1.14, 1.94) and chew tobacco (OR 1.36, 95% CI 0.97, 1.93) as compared to those who were currently married. Prevalence of 'tobacco chewing' was higher in eastern region (19.7%) and terai/plains (16.2%). 'Tobacco smoking' and 'any tobacco use' were higher in rural areas, mid-western and far western and mountainous areas. Prevalence of

  16. Resource reliability, accessibility and governance: pillars for managing water resources to achieve water security in Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggs, E. M.; Duncan, J.; Atkinson, P.; Dash, J.

    2013-12-01

    As one of the world's most water-abundant countries, Nepal has plenty of water yet resources are both spatially and temporally unevenly distributed. With a population heavily engaged in subsistence farming, whereby livelihoods are entirely dependent on rain-fed agriculture, changes in freshwater resources can substantially impact upon survival. The two main sources of water in Nepal come from monsoon precipitation and glacial runoff. The former is essential for sustaining livelihoods where communities have little or no access to perennial water resources. Much of Nepal's population live in the southern Mid-Hills and Terai regions where dependency on the monsoon system is high and climate-environment interactions are intricate. Any fluctuations in precipitation can severely affect essential potable resources and food security. As the population continues to expand in Nepal, and pressures build on access to adequate and clean water resources, there is a need for institutions to cooperate and increase the effectiveness of water management policies. This research presents a framework detailing three fundamental pillars for managing water resources to achieve sustainable water security in Nepal. These are (i) resource reliability; (ii) adequate accessibility; and (iii) effective governance. Evidence is presented which indicates that water resources are adequate in Nepal to sustain the population. In addition, aspects of climate change are having less impact than previously perceived e.g. results from trend analysis of precipitation time-series indicate a decrease in monsoon extremes and interannual variation over the last half-century. However, accessibility to clean water resources and the potential for water storage is limiting the use of these resources. This issue is particularly prevalent given the heterogeneity in spatial and temporal distributions of water. Water governance is also ineffective due to government instability and a lack of continuity in policy

  17. Learning from Primary Health Care Centers in Nepal: reflective writings on experiential learning of third year Nepalese medical students

    OpenAIRE

    Dhital, Rolina; Subedi, Madhusudan; Prasai, Neeti; Shrestha, Karun; Malla, Milan; Upadhyay, Shambhu

    2015-01-01

    Background Medical education can play important role in cultivating the willingness among the medical students to work in underprivileged areas after their graduation. Experiential learning through early exposure to primary health care centers could help students better understand the opportunities and challenges of such settings. However, the information on the real experiences and reflections of medical students on the rural primary health care settings from low-income countries like Nepal ...

  18. Common occurrence of a unique Cryptosporidium ryanae variant in zebu cattle and water buffaloes in the buffer zone of the Chitwan National Park, Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yaoyu; Karna, Sandeep Raj; Dearen, Theresa K; Singh, Dinesh Kumar; Adhikari, Lekh Nath; Shrestha, Aruna; Xiao, Lihua

    2012-04-30

    There are very few studies on the diversity and public health significance of Cryptosporidium species in zebu cattle and water buffaloes in developing countries. In this study, PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism and DNA sequence analyses of the small-subunit (SSU) rRNA gene were used to genotype Cryptosporidium specimens from 12 zebu cattle calves, 16 water buffalo calves, and four swamp deer (Cervus duvaucelii) collected from the buffer zone of the Chitwan National Park, Nepal. All Cryptosporidium specimens from cattle and buffaloes belonged to Cryptosporidium ryanae, whereas those from deer belonged to Cryptosporidium ubiquitum. Comparison of the SSU rRNA gene sequences obtained with those from earlier studies has identified a nucleotide substitution unique to all C. ryanae isolates from Nepal, in addition to some sequence heterogeneity among different copies of the gene. The finding of the dominance of a unique C. ryanae variant in both zebu cattle and water buffaloes in Nepal indicates that there is unique cryptosporidiosis transmission in bovine animals in the study area, and cross-species transmission of some Cryptosporidium spp. can occur between related animal species sharing the same habitats. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Existing landraces of Jatropha Curcas L. (physic nut) in Nepal and analysis of their bio-diesel content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Ram Prasad

    2010-09-15

    The aim of this work was to find the existing landraces of Jatropha curcas in different agro ecological regions of Nepal and their Bio-Diesel content. More specifically, research efforts focused on (1) existing landraces (varieties) in all three topographic regions of Nepal (2) Bio-diesel content in those varieties (3) Bio-Diesel content in varieties from Laos (4) Constraints faced by the Nepalese Jatropha grower (5) Compare the quality of Bio-diesel between the Nepalese varieties and Laos varieties. To collect all the information, Seeds were collected from Nepal (Terai: Chitwan; Hill: Palpa and Syanja; Mountain: Tanahu and Gorkha) and Vientiane province from Laos.

  20. Longlasting insecticidal nets for prevention of Leishmania donovani infection in India and Nepal: paired cluster randomised trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Picado, Albert; Singh, Shri Prakash; Rijal, Suman

    2010-01-01

    To test the effectiveness of large scale distribution of longlasting nets treated with insecticide in reducing the incidence of visceral leishmaniasis in India and Nepal.......To test the effectiveness of large scale distribution of longlasting nets treated with insecticide in reducing the incidence of visceral leishmaniasis in India and Nepal....

  1. Differentiated Typology of Sex Work and Implication for HIV Prevention Programs among Female Sex Workers in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Shiva Raj; Neupane, Sanjeev Raj

    2015-01-01

    Sex work in exchange for kind and cash has long been practiced in Nepal. The HIV prevention program in Nepal is focused mainly on these two typologies of sex work. There might be more typologies of sex work beyond streets and establishments seeking research and programmatic attention. The objective of the study is to explore the differentiated typologies of sex work. This is a cross-sectional study conducted using a qualitative technique. Researchers carried out eight Focus Group Discussions with female sex workers (FSWs) (n = 50) in different places of Tanahu district. Data were analyzed using a deductive thematic analysis approach. We identified a more differentiated typology of sex work. Private contact-based sex work and the covert sex work on the cruising areas along the major highways were common. Sex work has become easier to operate with the advent of new technologies such as cell phone. With limited role of facilitation by brokers and pimps, now FSWs are better off and have longer duration of relationship with clients. Soft prostitution was common, as FSWs complemented their income through sex work. The conventional mode of peer and outreach educational approach needs to be further strengthened and modified according to the changing typology of sex work. HIV testing sites need to be further expanded to cruising areas along the highways.

  2. Differentiated Typology of Sex Work and Implication for HIV Prevention Programs among Female Sex Workers in Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Shiva Raj; Neupane, Sanjeev Raj

    2015-01-01

    Background: Sex work in exchange for kind and cash has long been practiced in Nepal. The HIV prevention program in Nepal is focused mainly on these two typologies of sex work. There might be more typologies of sex work beyond streets and establishments seeking research and programmatic attention. The objective of the study is to explore the differentiated typologies of sex work. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study conducted using a qualitative technique. Researchers carried out eight Focus Group Discussions with female sex workers (FSWs) (n = 50) in different places of Tanahu district. Data were analyzed using a deductive thematic analysis approach. Results: We identified a more differentiated typology of sex work. Private contact-based sex work and the covert sex work on the cruising areas along the major highways were common. Sex work has become easier to operate with the advent of new technologies such as cell phone. With limited role of facilitation by brokers and pimps, now FSWs are better off and have longer duration of relationship with clients. Soft prostitution was common, as FSWs complemented their income through sex work. Conclusion: The conventional mode of peer and outreach educational approach needs to be further strengthened and modified according to the changing typology of sex work. HIV testing sites need to be further expanded to cruising areas along the highways. PMID:25785259

  3. Differentiated typology of sex work and implication for HIV prevention programs among female sex workers in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiva Raj Mishra

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundSex work in exchange for kind and cash has long been practiced in Nepal. The HIV prevention program in Nepal is focused mainly on these two typologies of sex work. There might be more typologies of sex work beyond streets and establishments seeking research and programmatic attention. The objective of the study is to explore the differentiated typologies of sex work.MethodsThis is a cross sectional study conducted using a qualitative technique. Researchers carried out eight Focus Group Discussions with Female Sex Workers (FSWs (n=50 in different places of Tanahu district. Data was analyzed using a deductive thematic analysis approach.ResultsWe identified a more differentiated typology of sex work. Private contact-based sex work and the covert sex work on the cruising areas along the major highways were common. Sex work has become easier to operate with the advent of new technologies such as cellphone. With limited role of facilitation by brokers and pimps, now FSWs are better off and have longer duration of relationship with clients. Soft prostitution was common, as FSWs complemented their income through sex work.ConclusionsThe conventional mode of peer and outreach educational approach needs to be further strengthened and modified according to the changing typology of sex work. HIV testing sites need to be further expanded to cruising areas along the highways.

  4. Hydrological Modeling of Highly Glacierized Basins (Andes, Alps, and Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Omani

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT was used to simulate five glacierized river basins that are global in coverage and vary in climate. The river basins included the Narayani (Nepal, Vakhsh (Central Asia, Rhone (Switzerland, Mendoza (Central Andes, Argentina, and Central Dry Andes (Chile, with a total area of 85,000 km2. A modified SWAT snow algorithm was applied in order to consider spatial variation of associated snowmelt/accumulation by elevation band across each subbasin. In previous studies, melt rates varied as a function of elevation because of an air temperature gradient while the snow parameters were constant throughout the entire basin. A major improvement of the new snow algorithm is the separation of the glaciers from seasonal snow based on their characteristics. Two SWAT snow algorithms were evaluated in simulation of monthly runoff from the glaciered watersheds: (1 the snow parameters are lumped (constant throughout the entire basin and (2 the snow parameters are spatially variable based on elevation bands of a subbasin (modified snow algorithm. Applying the distributed SWAT snow algorithm improved the model performance in simulation of monthly runoff with snow-glacial regime, so that mean RSR decreased to 0.49 from 0.55 and NSE increased to 0.75 from 0.69. Improvement of model performance was negligible in simulations of monthly runoff from the basins with a monsoon runoff regime.

  5. Building trust to improve healthcare in Nepal | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    I left Ottawa aspiring to identify the needs of mothers in Nepal and to find ways of delivering better healthcare,” says 2015 Research Award recipient Sunisha Neupane. “Two months after being there I realized how much I don't know.”

  6. All projects related to Nepal | Page 2 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Region: South Asia, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Pakistan, Nepal ... and embarked on a process of development have often started with strong political settlements, or elite pacts. ... RESEARCH NETWORKS, POLICY MAKING, PEACE, Capacity building ... As countries in South Asia move toward greater economic integration, ...

  7. Alkaline thermostable pectinase enzyme from Aspergillus niger strain MCAS2 isolated from Manaslu Conservation Area, Gorkha, Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatri, Bhim Prakash; Bhattarai, Tribikram; Shrestha, Sangita; Maharjan, Jyoti

    2015-01-01

    Pectinase enzymes are one of the commercially important enzymes having great potential in various industries especially in food industry. Pectinases accounts for 25 % of global food enzymes produced and their market is increasing day by day. Therefore, the exploration of microorganism with novel characteristics has always been the focus of the research. Microorganism dwelling in unique habitat may possess unique characteristics. As such, a pectinase producing fungus Aspergillus niger strain MCAS2 was isolated from soil of Manaslu Conservation Area (MCA), Gorkha, Nepal. The optimum production of pectinase enzyme was observed at 48 h of fermentation. The pectinase enzyme was partially purified by cold acetone treatment followed by Sephadex G-75 gel filtration chromatography. The partially purified enzyme exhibited maximum activity 60 U/mg which was almost 8.5-fold higher than the crude pectinase. The approximate molecular weight of the enzyme was found to be 66 kDa as observed from SDS-PAGE. The pectinase enzyme was active at broad range of temperature (30-70 °C) and pH (6.2-9.2). Optimum temperature and pH of the pectinase enzyme were 50 °C and 8.2 respectively. The enzyme was stable up to 70 °C and about 82 % of pectinase activity was still observed at 100 °C. The thermostable and alkaline nature of this pectinase can meet the demand of various industrial processes like paper and pulp industry, in textile industry, fruit juice industry, plant tissue maceration and wastewater treatment. In addition, the effect of different metal ions on pectinase activity was also studied.

  8. An Assessment of Physicochemical Parameters of Selected Industrial Effluents in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhinay Man Shrestha

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available It is a well-known fact that the effluents released from the industries and environmental degradation go hand in hand. With the ongoing global industrialization this problem has been further aggravated. As such, Nepal is no exception. Hundreds of industries are being registered in the country annually which inevitably brings the issues regarding environmental pollution. This study has been conducted with samples of wastewater from 5 different industrial sites in 4 districts of Nepal, namely, Makwanpur, Sunsari, Morang, and Kathmandu, among which two were Waste Water Treatment Plants which treated the combined effluents collected from various sources. The other three sites were from wires and cables industry, paint manufacturing industry, and plastic cutting industry. The physicochemical parameters analysed were pH, temperature, conductivity, turbidity, and Cu, Cr, SO42-, and PO43- levels. Possible onsite measurements were recorded using portable, handheld devices whereas other parameters were assessed in the laboratory. The observed parameter levels in the collected samples were compared against the available Nepal national standards for industrial effluents and in the absence of standards for industrial effluents, with other relevant standard levels. Most of the parameters analysed were within the permissible limits with the exception of pH and Cr levels in some sites.

  9. Factors Determining Availability, Utilization and Retention of Child Health Card in Western Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paudel, K P; Bajracharya, D C; Karki, K; K C, A

    2016-05-01

    The immunization card is revised with addition of general information about child health and is later called as child health card. This card is a tool used by Health Management Information System in Nepal. It is important for tracking the records of immunization. Aim is to identify the factors determining the availability, utilization and retention of the child health card in Western Nepal. A cross sectional study was conducted among mothers having children education. Retention of the card was found to be 82.2%. 90.3% retention was seen among 0-12 months children age group whereas it was 74 % among12 to 24 months age group. The reasons for less retention were torn by the child/played by child (54.6%) followed by lack of proper place,unaware about importance and poor quality of card.The new child health cards were insufficient, compelling use of both new and old cards which created problem in consistency. Regarding utilization of child health card, it was found to be used for birth registration and for further studies in abroad. The areas of utilization of child health card should be broadened so that the retention of card can be increased. The main reasons for less retention of the card are torn by children and lack of the proper place.

  10. Genetic characterization of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyes, Randall C; Jones-Engel, Lisa; Chalise, Mukesh K; Engel, Gregory; Heidrich, John; Grant, Richard; Bajimaya, Shyam S; McDonough, John; Smith, David Glenn; Ferguson, Betsy

    2006-05-01

    Indian-origin rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) have long served as an animal model for the study of human disease and behavior. Given the current shortage of Indian-origin rhesus, many researchers have turned to rhesus macaques from China as a substitute. However, a number of studies have identified marked genetic differences between the Chinese and Indian animals. We investigated the genetic characteristics of a third rhesus population, the rhesus macaques of Nepal. Twenty-one rhesus macaques at the Swoyambhu Temple in Kathmandu, Nepal, were compared with more than 300 Indian- and Chinese-origin rhesus macaques. The sequence analyses of two mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) loci, from the HVS I and 12 S rRNA regions, showed that the Nepali animals were more similar to Indian-origin than to Chinese-origin animals. The distribution of alleles at 24 short tandem repeat (STR) loci distributed across 17 chromosomes also showed greater similarity between the Nepali and Indian-origin animals. Finally, an analysis of seven major histocompatibility complex (MHC) alleles showed that the Nepali animals expressed Class I alleles that are common to Indian-origin animals, including Mamu-A*01. All of these analyses also revealed a low level of genetic diversity within this Nepali rhesus sample. We conclude that the rhesus macaques of Nepal more closely resemble rhesus macaques of Indian origin than those of Chinese origin. As such, the Nepali rhesus may offer an additional resource option for researchers who wish to maintain research protocols with animals that possess key genetic features characteristic of Indian-origin rhesus macaques. 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. All projects related to | Page 308 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC's Democratic Governance, Women's Rights and Gender Equality ... area of poverty, economic development and environmental change in seven ... Region: South Asia, Central Asia, Far East Asia, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan.

  12. Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation in Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Nabina Shah; Binav Shrestha; Kamana Subba

    2013-01-01

    Spinal cord injury is a major trauma, with its short and long term effects and consequences to the patient, his friends and family. Spinal cord injury is addressed in the developed countries with standard trauma care system commencing immediately after injury and continuing to the specialized rehabilitation units. Rehabilitation is important to those with spinal injury for both functional and psychosocial reintegration. It has been an emerging concept in Nepal, which has been evident with the...

  13. A study of anemia among adolescent girls in eastern part of Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piush Kanodia

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives: Anemia is a global health problem. About 40% of the world's population suffers from anemia and adolescence is one of the most vulnerable age group. Hence the objective of the study was to determine prevalence and distribution of anemia among adolescent girls in eastern part of Nepal.Materials & Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted in a Government School of Dharan over a period of one year. There were total 433 participants, whose clinical and demographic profile were recorded and analyzed. Hemoglobin estimation was done by using cyanmethaemoglobin method and anemia was defined as per WHO cut-off.Results: The overall prevalence of anemia was found to be 51.3%. Prevalence was significantly more in pre-menarche age and undernourished girls (p<0.05. However factors like diet (vegetarian/non-vegetarian, worm infestation and parental education did not have a significant impact on occurrence of anemia.Conclusion: Anemia is the major health problem among adolescent girls in eastern part Nepal with high prevalence rate and nutrition is one of the leading causative factors for anemia.JCMS Nepal. 2016;12(1:19-22.

  14. June 2012 Groundwater Sampling at the Central Nevada Test Area (Data Validation Package)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management conducted annual sampling at the Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA) on June 26-27, 2012, in accordance with the 2004 Correction Action Decision Document/Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 443: Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA)-Subsurface and the addendum to the 'Corrective Action Decision Document/Corrective Action Plan' completed in 2008. Sampling and analysis were conducted as specified in the Sampling and Analysis Plan for U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PLN/S04351), continually updated).

  15. May 2011 Groundwater Sampling at the Central Nevada Test Area (Data Validation Package)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management conducted annual sampling at the Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA) on May 10-11, 2011, in accordance with the 2004 Correction Action Decision Document/Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 443: Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA)-Subsurface and the addendum to the 'Corrective Action Decision Document/Corrective Action Plan' completed in 2008. Sampling and analysis were conducted as specified in the Sampling and Analysis Plan for U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PLN/S04351), continually updated)

  16. Assessing the sustainability of bioethanol production in Nepal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khatiwada, Dilip

    2010-10-15

    Access to modern energy services derived from renewable sources is a prerequisite, not only for economic growth, rural development and sustainable development, but also for energy security and climate change mitigation. The least developed countries (LDCs) primarily use traditional biomass and have little access to commercial energy sources. They are more vulnerable to problems relating to energy security, air pollution, and the need for hard-cash currency to import fossil fuels. This thesis evaluates sugarcane-molasses bioethanol, a renewable energy source with the potential to be used as a transport fuel in Nepal. Sustainability aspects of molasses-based ethanol have been analyzed. Two important indicators for sustainability, viz. net energy and greenhouse gas (GHG) balances have been used to assess the appropriateness of bioethanol in the life cycle assessment (LCA) framework. This thesis has found that the production of bioethanol is energy-efficient in terms of the fossil fuel inputs required to produce it. Life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from production and combustion are also lower than those of gasoline. The impacts of important physical and market parameters, such as sugar cane productivity, the use of fertilizers, energy consumption in different processes, and price have been observed in evaluating the sustainability aspects of bioethanol production. The production potential of bioethanol has been assessed. Concerns relating to the fuel vs. food debate, energy security, and air pollution have also been discussed. The thesis concludes that the major sustainability indicators for molasses ethanol in Nepal are in line with the goals of sustainable development. Thus, Nepal could be a good example for other LDCs when favorable governmental policy, institutional set-ups, and developmental cooperation from donor partners are in place to strengthen the development of renewable energy technologies

  17. Abortion law in Nepal: the road to reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapa, Shyam

    2004-11-01

    In 2002 Nepal's parliament passed a liberal abortion law, after nearly three decades of reform efforts. This paper reviews the history of the movement for reform and the combination of factors that contributed to its success. These include sustained advocacy for reform; the dissemination of knowledge, information and evidence; adoption of the reform agenda by the public sector and its leadership in involving other stakeholders; the existence of work for safe motherhood as the context in which the initiative could gain support; an active women's rights movement and support from international and multilateral organisations; sustained involvement of local NGOs, civil society and professional organisations; the involvement of journalists and the media; the absence of significant opposition; courageous government officials and an enabling democratic political system. The overriding rationale for reforming the abortion law in Nepal has been to ensure safe motherhood and women's rights. The first government abortion services officially began in March 2004 at the Maternity Hospital in Kathmandu; services will be expanded gradually to other public and private hospitals and private clinics in the coming years.

  18. National Livestock Policy of Nepal: Needs and Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Upendra B. Pradhanang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes Nepal’s national livestock policies and considers how they can be improved to help meet the pressing national challenges of economic development, equity, poverty alleviation, gender mainstreaming, inclusion of marginalized and underprivileged communities, and climate vulnerability. Nepal is in the process of transforming its government from a unitary system to a federal democratic structure through the new constitution expected by 2015, offering the opportunity to bring a new set of priorities and stakeholders to policymaking. Nepal’s livestock subsector comes most directly within the purview of the National Agricultural Policy 2004, Agro-Business Policy, 2006 and Agricultural Sectoral Operating Policies of the Approach Paper to 13th Plan, 2012/13–2015/16 policy instruments. We systematically review these and other livestock-related national policies through analysis of their Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats (SWOT. We conclude with the need to formulate a separate, integrated national livestock policy so that Nepal can sustainably increase livestock productivity and achieve diversification, commercialization and competitiveness of the livestock subsector within the changing national and international contexts.

  19. Prospective observational research on the clinical profile and outcome analysis among a cohort of patients sustaining traumatic cervical spine and cord injury in a peripheral tertiary spine care centre in Nepal [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Munakomi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: In developing nations like Nepal, spinal cord injury has multispectral consequences for both the patient and their family members. It has the tendency to cripple and handicap the patients, and burn out their caretakers, both physically and mentally. Furthermore, the centralization of health care with only a handful of dedicated rehabilitation centers throughout Nepal further places patients into disarray. This study was carried out as a pilot study to determine the modes of injury, age groups affected, clinical profiles and patterns of injury sustained, as well as the efficacy of managing a subset of patients, who have sustained cervical spine and cord injuries. Methods: This was a prospective cohort study comprising of 163 patients enrolled over a period of three years that were managed in the spine unit of College of Medical Sciences, Bharatpur, Nepal. Results: Road traffic accidents were implicated in 51% of these patients. 65% of them were in the age group of 30-39 years. Traumatic subluxation occurred in 73 patients with maximum involvement of the C4/5 region (28.76%. Good outcome was seen in patients with ASIA ‘C’ and ‘D’ with 55% of patients showed improvement from ‘C’ to ‘D’ and 95% of patients showed improvement from ‘D’ to ‘E’ at 1 year follow up. The overall mortality in the patients undergoing operative interventions was only 1.98%. Conclusions: The prevalence of cervical spine injuries in the outreach area is still significant. The outcome of managing these patients, even in the context of a resource limited setup in a spine unit outside the capital city of a developing nation, can be as equally as effective and efficient compared to the outcome from a well-equipped and dedicated spine unit elsewhere.

  20. Managing the injury burden in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmacharya, P C; Singh, G K; Singh, M P; Gautam, V G; Par, Andrew; Banskota, A K; Bajracharya, A; Shreshtha, A B; Mahara, Deepak

    2008-10-01

    Nepal loses about 530,000 disability adjusted life years (DALYs) per year to injury, predominantly due to falls. It takes 30,000 Nepali rupees (NR), or approximately US$430 at 70 rupees per $US saved per DALY to achieve primary prevention and 6000 NR per DALY if we invest in hospitals, versus 1000 NR invested in prehospital care, because simpler less expensive actions performed early have a greater impact on outcome than more complex measures later. A system for prehospital services was planned for medical emergencies at a national level meeting at the Medical University of Nepal to promote healthcare to victims in inaccessible regions by empowered or enlightened citizens. Feasible actions for common emergencies were defined and a tutorial required to help the majority of such victims was created and packaged. The knowledge and attitude component of the tutorial will be delivered through a web site to citizens motivated to learn and help with emergencies. The knowledge will be tested through a net-based Multiple Choice Questions (MCQ) test. Practical training in medical triage skills will be provided to those who qualify for the test at the University or its designated affiliates. A mobile phone-based information system will be created and used to make these enlightened citizens available to the victim at the site/time of the emergency.

  1. [Infestation status Aedes albopictus and related mosquito-borne infectious disease risk in central urban area in Shanghai].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Q; Xiong, C L; Zhou, Y B; Cao, H; Jiang, Q W

    2016-05-01

    To evaluate Aedes albopictus infestation status in the central urban area of Shanghai, and analyze the related epidemic risk of mosquito-borne infectious disease. Consecutive mosquito surveillance was conducted in the green lands and residential areas in the central urban area of Shanghai during 2012-2014, the Aedes albopictus density and its seasonal fluctuation were observed; the sequence of Aedes albopictus in Shanghai was aligned with that in other epidemic area abroad, and the susceptibility of Aedes albopictus to mosquito-borne virus and endemic risk were analyzed. No Aedes aegypti was found in the central urban area of Shanghai. As predominant species in both the residential area and the green lands, the proportion of Aedes albopictus in the residential area was significantly higher than that in the green lands(78.53% vs. 19.99%, χ(2) =15 525.168, PAedes albopictus in Shanghai and Aedes albopictus in Africa was quite far. No Aedes aegypti was found in Shanghai and its surrounding areas, while Aedes albopictus infestation in the central urban area of Shanghai was serious. Strict measures should be taken to reduce the Aedes albopictus density for the effective control Zika virus spread.

  2. Masculinities among irrigation engineers and water professionals in Nepal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liebrand, J.

    2014-01-01

    Summary

    This thesis documents my attempt to study masculinities among irrigation engineers and water professionals in Nepal. It is based on the recognition that more than two decades of mainstreaming gender in development research and policy have failed to come to grips

  3. Nepal : Electronic Government Procurement Readiness Assessment and Roadmap

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2007-01-01

    The assessment focused on the degree of readiness of Government of Nepal's (GoN's) current public procurement environment for making a transition from a traditional paper-based, manual procurement transaction processing and communication to electronic government procurement (e-GP). Some 20 public and private sector organizations, involved in a wide range of functions that relate to public...

  4. An annotated checklist of the orchids of Nepal

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rokaya, Maan Bahadur; Raskoti, B. B.; Timsina, Binu; Münzbergová, Zuzana

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 5 (2013), s. 511-550 ISSN 0107-055X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA526/09/0549 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6005908 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 ; RVO:67179843 Keywords : orchids * checklist * Nepal Subject RIV: EF - Botanics; EH - Ecology, Behaviour (UEK-B) Impact factor: 0.844, year: 2013

  5. Birth Spacing of Pregnant Women in Nepal: A Community-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karkee, Rajendra; Lee, Andy H

    2016-01-01

    Optimal birth spacing has health advantages for both mother and child. In developing countries, shorter birth intervals are common and associated with social, cultural, and economic factors, as well as a lack of family planning. This study investigated the first birth interval after marriage and preceding interbirth interval in Nepal. A community-based prospective cohort study was conducted in the Kaski district of Nepal. Information on birth spacing, demographic, and obstetric characteristics was obtained from 701 pregnant women using a structured questionnaire. Logistic regression analyses were performed to ascertain factors associated with short birth spacing. About 39% of primiparous women gave their first child birth within 1 year of marriage and 23% of multiparous women had short preceding interbirth intervals (gender equality in society.

  6. Gender Perspective to Vedic Education: Current Practices in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendra Raj Timilsina

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Vedic civilization has seen changes in its history- from Satya Yug to current Kali Yug. There were equal rights and duties of both men and women at the beginning. Interpretations of Veda, brought out of the Puranas and externalities made the status unequal. Sanatan Dharma, which is still mainstream of Hinduism, has been challenged by reformist Arya Samaj. As a result, there are interpretive differences as well as practices. Such differences can be seen in contemporary Nepal for the last 130 years. Continuing the differences, classicism has been reviving in the education. This revival also commenced with the same dualism. In this qualitative approach of exploration, two different gurukuls of girls have been observed and analyzed from the field for the purpose of exploring the recent practices. The observation was based on respective scriptures as well as experts' interviews. These data have analyzed the confronting practices on gender in Veda and rooted ideas in contemporary Nepal.

  7. Medical Humanities in Nepal: Present Scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhakal, Ajaya Kumar; Shankar, P Ravi; Dhakal, Sanjaya; Shrestha, Devendra; Piryani, Rano Mal

    2014-01-01

    Humanities have an essential role in medical education. The current gap between the humanities and medicine has to be bridged and there should be continuous and vigorous debate about the theory and practice of medical humanities. Medical humanities is a relatively new concept even in developed countries, and is at infancy stage in developing countries. In Nepal, modules on medical humanities have been initiated in certain medical schools by enthusiastic faculties and it requires further debates for inclusion in curriculum.

  8. Managing the Injury Burden in Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Karmacharya, P. C.; Singh, G. K.; Singh, M. P.; Gautam, V. G.; Par, Andrew; Banskota, A. K.; Bajracharya, A.; Shreshtha, A. B.; Mahara, Deepak

    2008-01-01

    Nepal loses about 530,000 disability adjusted life years (DALYs) per year to injury, predominantly due to falls. It takes 30,000 Nepali rupees (NR), or approximately US$430 at 70 rupees per $US saved per DALY to achieve primary prevention and 6000 NR per DALY if we invest in hospitals, versus 1000 NR invested in prehospital care, because simpler less expensive actions performed early have a greater impact on outcome than more complex measures later. A system for prehospital services was plann...

  9. Strategic Brand Creation for Yeti Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Gautam, Sushil

    2011-01-01

    The thesis aims to create a strategic brand for a recently established restaurant called Yeti Nepal that serves Nepalese food and is located at Helsinki. The new venture does not have a clear brand positioning, brand promise and satisfactory awareness level at the moment. The literature has been reviewed to highlight the process that begins from a new brand creation to the strategic positioning of the brand in the market. The techniques to increase the awareness to the level of...

  10. Community-Based Management of Diabetes in Nepal: Exploring the Potential Role of Female Community Health Volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyawali, Bishal

    2016-01-01

    , and this is particularly apparent in the South Asian countries, including Nepal. Despite the growing burden and chronic nature of type 2 diabetes, prevention and control of this disease is far from adequate in these settings. One possibility could be through the involvement of community health workers to prevent, diagnose...... and treat type 2 diabetes. We suggest that involving Female Community Health Volunteers (FCHVs) of Nepal offering culturally appropriate health promotion may be the blue print for community-based management programmes tackling type 2 diabetes. We aim to explore the potential role of FCHVs of Nepal...... for diabetes management at community level. It is anticipated that the study can give valuable information regarding effectiveness, acceptability, and feasibility of an innovative way to improve diabetes management in low resource settings....

  11. Nepal : tous les projets | Page 2 | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    End Date: 5 janvier 2018 ... ACCESS TO INFORMATION, DEVELOPING COUNTRIES, Economic and social development, CASE STUDIES, ... Région: Argentina, South America, Brazil, India, Kenya, Nigeria, Nepal, Far East Asia, Philippines, ...

  12. First molecular identification and characterization of classical swine fever virus isolates from Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postel, Alexander; Jha, Vijay C; Schmeiser, Stefanie; Becher, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Classical swine fever (CSF) is a major constraint to pig production worldwide, and in many developing countries, the epidemiological status is unknown. Here, for the first time, molecular identification and characterization of CSFV isolates from two recent outbreaks in Nepal are presented. Analysis of full-length E2-encoding sequences revealed that these isolates belonged to CSFV subgenotype 2.2 and had highest genetic similarity to isolates from India. Hence, for CSFV, Nepal and India should be regarded as one epidemiological unit. Both Nepalese isolates exhibited significant sequence differences, excluding a direct epidemiological connection and suggesting that CSFV is endemic in that country.

  13. Importance of Health and Social Care Research into Gender and Sexual Minority Populations in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regmi, Pramod R; van Teijlingen, Edwin

    2015-11-01

    Despite progressive legislative developments and increased visibility of sexual and gender minority populations in the general population, mass media often report that this population face a wide range of discrimination and inequalities. LGBT (lesbian, gay, and bisexual, and transgender) populations have not been considered as priority research populations in Nepal. Research in other geographical settings has shown an increased risk of poor mental health, violence, and suicide and higher rates of smoking, as well as alcohol and drugs use among LGBT populations. They are also risk for lifestyle-related illness such as cancer, diabetes, and heart diseases. Currently, in Nepal, there is a lack of understanding of health and well-being, social exclusion, stigma, and discrimination as experienced by these populations. Good-quality public health research can help design and implement targeted interventions to the sexual and gender minority populations of Nepal. © 2015 APJPH.

  14. Molecular and Clinical Epidemiology of Salmonella Paratyphi A Isolated from Patients with Bacteremia in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherchan, Jatan Bahadur; Morita, Masatomo; Matono, Takashi; Izumiya, Hidemasa; Ohnishi, Makoto; Sherchand, Jeevan B; Tandukar, Sarmila; Laghu, Ujjwal; Nagamatsu, Maki; Kato, Yasuyuki; Ohmagari, Norio; Hayakawa, Kayoko

    2017-12-01

    Little is known about the epidemiology of typhoid and paratyphoid fever in Nepal. We aimed to elucidate the molecular and clinical epidemiology of Salmonella Paratyphi A in Nepal. Isolates were collected from 23 cases of bacteremia due to S. Paratyphi A between December 2014 and October 2015. Thirteen patients (57%) were male, and the median age was 21 years. None of the patients had an underlying chronic disease. All S. Paratyphi A isolates were sensitive to ampicillin, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, ceftriaxone, and chloramphenicol. All isolates were resistant to nalidixic acid and were categorized as intermediately susceptible to levofloxacin. Phylogenetic analysis revealed close relatedness among the isolates, including several clonal groups, suggesting local spread. Patients with bacteremia due to S. Paratyphi A in Kathmandu, Nepal, were relatively young and nondebilitated. Improving control of S . Paratyphi infections should focus on effective infection control measures and selection of empirical therapy based on current resistance patterns.

  15. Diversity, distribution and host-species associations of epiphytic orchids in Nepal

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Timsina, B.; Rokaya, Maan Bahadur; Münzbergová, Zuzana; Kindlmann, P.; Shrestha, B.; Bhattarai, B.; Raskoti, B. B.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 13 (2016), s. 2803-2819 ISSN 0960-3115 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : species richness * host * Nepal Himalaya Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.265, year: 2016

  16. Birth spacing of pregnant women in Nepal: A community-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendra Karkee

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundOptimal birth spacing has health advantages for both mother and child. In developing countries, shorter birth intervals are common and associated with social, cultural and economic factors, as well as a lack of family planning. This study investigated the first birth interval after marriage and preceding interbirth interval in Nepal.MethodsA community-based prospective cohort study was conducted in the Kaski district of Nepal. Information on birth spacing, demographic and obstetric characteristics was obtained from 701 pregnant women using a structured questionnaire. Logistic regression analyses were performed to ascertain factors associated with short birth spacing.ResultsAbout 39% of primiparous women gave their first child birth within one year of marriage and 23% of multiparous women had short preceding interbirth intervals (<24 months. The average birth spacing among the multiparous group was 44.9 (SD 21.8 months. Overall, short birth spacing appeared to be inversely associated with advancing maternal age.For the multiparous group, Janajati and lower caste women, and those whose newborn was female, were more likely to have short birth spacing.ConclusionsThe preceding interbirth interval was relatively long in the Kaski district of Nepal and tended to be associated with maternal age, caste, and sex of newborn infant. Optimal birth spacing programs should target Janajati and lower caste women, along with promotion of gender equality in society.

  17. Community-based stillbirth rates and risk factors in rural Sarlahi, Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Anne C; Mullany, Luke C; Tielsch, James M; Katz, Joanne; Khatry, Subarna K; Leclerq, Steven C; Adhikari, Ramesh K; Darmstadt, Gary L

    2011-06-01

    To assess stillbirth rates and antepartum risk factors in rural Nepal. Data were collected prospectively during a cluster-randomized, community-based trial in Sarlahi, Nepal, from 2002 to 2006. Multivariate regression modeling was performed to calculate adjusted relative risk estimates. Among 24531 births, the stillbirth rate was 35.4 per 1000 births (term stillbirth rate 21.2 per 1000 births). Most births occurred at home without a skilled birth attendant. The majority (69%) of intrapartum maternal deaths resulted in stillbirth. The adjusted RR (aRR) of stillbirth was 2.74 among nulliparas and 1.47 among mothers with history of a child death. Mothers above the age of 30 years carried a 1.59-fold higher risk for stillbirth than mothers who were 20-24 years old. The stillbirth risk was lower among households where the father had any formal education (aRR 0.70). Land ownership (aRR 0.85) and Pahadi ethnicity (aRR 0.67; reference: Madhesi ethnicity) were associated with significantly lower risks of stillbirth. Stillbirth rates were high in rural Nepal, with the majority of stillbirths occurring at full-term gestation. Nulliparity, history of prior child loss, maternal age above 30 years, Madhesi ethnicity, and socioeconomic disadvantage were significant risk factors for stillbirth. Clinicaltrials.govNCT00 109616. Copyright © 2011 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Establishing a health demographic surveillance site in Bhaktapur district, Nepal: initial experiences and findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aryal Umesh

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A health demographic surveillance system (HDSS provides longitudinal data regarding health and demography in countries with coverage error and poor quality data on vital registration systems due to lack of public awareness, inadequate legal basis and limited use of data in health planning. The health system in Nepal, a low-income country, does not focus primarily on health registration, and does not conduct regular health data collection. This study aimed to initiate and establish the first HDSS in Nepal. Results We conducted a baseline survey in Jhaukhel and Duwakot, two villages in Bhaktapur district. The study surveyed 2,712 households comprising a total population of 13,669. The sex ratio in the study area was 101 males per 100 females and the average household size was 5. The crude birth and death rates were 9.7 and 3.9/1,000 population/year, respectively. About 11% of births occurred at home, and we found no mortality in infants and children less than 5 years of age. Various health problems were found commonly and some of them include respiratory problems (41.9%; headache, vertigo and dizziness (16.7%; bone and joint pain (14.4%; gastrointestinal problems (13.9%; heart disease, including hypertension (8.8%; accidents and injuries (2.9%; and diabetes mellitus (2.6%. The prevalence of non-communicable disease (NCD was 4.3% (95% CI: 3.83; 4.86 among individuals older than 30 years. Age-adjusted odds ratios showed that risk factors, such as sex, ethnic group, occupation and education, associated with NCD. Conclusion Our baseline survey demonstrated that it is possible to collect accurate and reliable data in a village setting in Nepal, and this study successfully established an HDSS site. We determined that both maternal and child health are better in the surveillance site compared to the entire country. Risk factors associated with NCDs dominated morbidity and mortality patterns.

  19. Improving newborn care practices through home visits: lessons from Malawi, Nepal, Bangladesh, and Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Sitrin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nearly all newborn deaths occur in low- or middle-income countries. Many of these deaths could be prevented through promotion and provision of newborn care practices such as thermal care, early and exclusive breastfeeding, and hygienic cord care. Home visit programmes promoting these practices were piloted in Malawi, Nepal, Bangladesh, and Uganda. Objective: This study assessed changes in selected newborn care practices over time in pilot programme areas in four countries and evaluated whether women who received home visits during pregnancy were more likely to report use of three key practices. Design: Using data from cross-sectional surveys of women with live births at baseline and endline, the Pearson chi-squared test was used to assess changes over time. Generalised linear models were used to assess the relationship between the main independent variable – home visit from a community health worker (CHW during pregnancy (0, 1–2, 3+ – and use of selected practices while controlling for antenatal care, place of delivery, and maternal age and education. Results: There were statistically significant improvements in practices, except applying nothing to the cord in Malawi and early initiation of breastfeeding in Bangladesh. In Malawi, Nepal, and Bangladesh, women who were visited by a CHW three or more times during pregnancy were more likely to report use of selected practices. Women who delivered in a facility were also more likely to report use of selected practices in Malawi, Nepal, and Uganda; association with place of birth was not examined in Bangladesh because only women who delivered outside a facility were asked about these practices. Conclusion: Home visits can play a role in improving practices in different settings. Multiple interactions are needed, so programmes need to investigate the most appropriate and efficient ways to reach families and promote newborn care practices. Meanwhile, programmes must take advantage of

  20. Potential Impacts of Modifiable Behavioral and Environmental Exposures on Reducing Burden of Under-five Mortality Associated with Household Air Pollution in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naz, Sabrina; Page, Andrew; Agho, Kingsley Emwinyore

    2018-01-01

    Objectives Household air pollution (HAP) is one of the leading causes of respiratory illness and deaths among young children in low and lower-middle income countries. This study examines for the first time trends in the association between HAP from cooking fuel and under-five mortality and measures the potential impact of interventions to reduce HAP using Nepal Demographic and Health Survey datasets (2001-2011). Methods A total of 17,780 living children across four age-groups (neonatal 0-28 days, post-neonatal 1-11 months, child 12-59 months and under-five 0-59 months) were included and multi-level logistic regression models were used for analyses. Population attributable fractions of key risk factors and potential impact fractions assessing the impact of previous interventions to reduce exposure prevalence were also calculated. Results Use of cooking fuel was associated with total under-five mortality (OR 2.19, 95% CI 1.37-3.51, P = 0.001) in Nepal, with stronger associations evident for sub-group analyses of neonatal mortality (OR 2.67, 95% CI 1.47-4.82, P = 0.001). Higher association was found in rural areas and for households without a separate kitchen using polluting fuel for cooking, and in women who had never breastfed for all age-groups of children. PIF estimates, assuming a 63% of reduction of HAP based on previously published interventions in Nepal, suggested that a burden of 40% of neonatal and 33% of under-five mortality cases associated with an indoor kitchen using polluting fuel could be avoidable. Conclusion Improved infrastructure and behavioral interventions could help reduce the pollution from cooking fuel in the household resulting in further reduction in under-five mortality in Nepal.

  1. Cholera outbreak caused by drug resistant Vibrio cholerae serogroup O1 biotype ElTor serotype Ogawa in Nepal; a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pappu Kumar Gupta

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cholera is a major cause of mortality and morbidity in underdeveloped countries including Nepal. Recently drug resistance in Vibrio cholerae has become a serious problem mainly in developing countries. The main objectives of our study were to investigate the occurrence of Vibrio cholerae in stool samples from patients with watery diarrhea and to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of V. cholerae isolates. Methods A total of 116 stool samples from patients suffering from watery diarrhea during July to December 2012 were obtained from outbreak areas from all over Nepal. Alkaline peptone water and thiosulphate citrate bile salt sucrose agar (TCBS were used to isolate the Vibrio cholerae. The isolates were identified with the help of colony morphology, Gram’s staining, conventional biochemical testing, serotyping and biotyping. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by determining the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC by agar dilution method. Results Vibrio cholerae was isolated from 26.72 % of total samples. All isolated Vibrio cholerae were confirmed to be Vibrio cholerae serogoup O1 biotype El Tor and serotype Ogawa. All isolates were resistant to ampicillin and cotrimoxazole. Twenty nine isolates were resistant toward two different classes of antibiotics, one strain was resistant to three different classes of antibiotics and one strain was resistant to four different classes of antibiotics. According to the definition of the multidrug resistant bacteria; 6.45 % of the strains of Vibrio cholerae were found to be multidrug resistant. Conclusions Cholera due to multidrug resistant Vibrio cholerae is also possible in Nepal. According to the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Vibrio cholerae in our study we recommend to use any antibiotics among tetracycline, doxycycline, levofloxacin, azithromycin, chloramphenicol and ciprofloxacin for preliminary treatment of cholera in Nepal.

  2. The promotion of geosites along a major trail of the Nepal Himalayas: the middle Kali Gandaki Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, Narayan; Fort, Monique; Sapkota, Somanath

    2017-04-01

    The Himalayas mountains, the highest in the world, offer exceptional landscapes, characterized by a large bio- and geo-diversity that should be preserved. Besides World Heritage Sites, recognized by UNESCO and inscribed for their outstanding universal value, a series of National Parks (Khumbu, Langtang, etc.) and Conservation areas (e.g. ACAP…) have been created by the Nepal Government, with the aim of integrating protection, education and sustainable development, in order to protect environmental heritages (flora, fauna, geosites), together with local culture and history, hence encouraging better knowledge and perception of the landscape elements by the visitors in connection with local people. The Himalayas, the result of the India-Asia plates collision, may also be considered both as real outdoor laboratory and museum, where geodynamic activity can be directly tackled and interpreted at different spatial and time scales by scientists. Their findings should be « translated » in simple words and sketches, in such a way that travelers, both local visitors and foreign trekkers, may learn along their itinerary. The conception of posters to be set in specific sites (outcrops and rock types, geological and geomorphological processes, such as major faults, landslides, relicts of glaciation etc.) is certainly the best way to promote geosciences and bring an additional value to travels across the Nepal Himalayas. The Department of Mines and Geology has taken the initiative of such a project. We present here a few examples of such geosites that would worth being illustrated along the famous trail, recently transformed as a motorable road, across the Kali Gandaki valley (Myadi and Mustang districts). On the basis of their geomorphic activity and their significance for local population, we have selected a few scenic places of significant scientific and educational interest (not exhaustive list). (1) Tatopani, famous for its hot-springs, was recently flooded by a

  3. The success of biogas plants in Nepal: a note on gender

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Opdam, J.H.M.

    1997-01-01

    This article describes a successful programme to disseminate biogas plants in Nepal, and summarises the findings of various studies on the impact of the biogas technology on the quality of life of women.

  4. Conservation implications for the Himalayan wolf Canis (lupus) himalayensis based on observations of packs and home sites in Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Werhahn, G; Kusi, N; Sillero-Zubiri, C; Macdonald, DW

    2017-01-01

    We provide insights into pack composition and den site parameters of the Himalayan wolf Canis (lupus) himalayensis based on observations of free-ranging wolves in three study areas in Nepal. We combine this with a social survey of the local Buddhist communities regarding human–carnivore conflict, to draw inferences for conservation practice in the Nepalese Himalayas. We recorded eight wolf packs (with an average composition of two adults and three pups), and found five home sites in high-alti...

  5. Newborn survival in Nepal: a decade of change and future implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Y V; Upreti, Shyam Raj; Pratap K C, Naresh; K C, Ashish; Khadka, Neena; Syed, Uzma; Kinney, Mary V; Adhikari, Ramesh Kant; Shrestha, Parashu Ram; Thapa, Kusum; Bhandari, Amit; Grear, Kristina; Guenther, Tanya; Wall, Stephen N

    2012-07-01

    Nepal is on target to meet the Millennium Development Goals for maternal and child health despite high levels of poverty, poor infrastructure, difficult terrain and recent conflict. Each year, nearly 35,000 Nepali children die before their fifth birthday, with almost two-thirds of these deaths occurring in the first month of life, the neonatal period. As part of a multi-country analysis, we examined changes for newborn survival between 2000 and 2010 in terms of mortality, coverage and health system indicators as well as national and donor funding. Over the decade, Nepal's neonatal mortality rate reduced by 3.6% per year, which is faster than the regional average (2.0%) but slower than national annual progress for mortality of children aged 1-59 months (7.7%) and maternal mortality (7.5%). A dramatic reduction in the total fertility rate, improvements in female education and increasing change in skilled birth attendance, as well as increased coverage of community-based child health interventions, are likely to have contributed to these mortality declines. Political commitment and support for newborn survival has been generated through strategic use of global and national data and effective partnerships using primarily a selective newborn-focused approach for advocacy and planning. Nepal was the first low-income country to have a national newborn strategy, influencing similar strategies in other countries. The Community-Based Newborn Care Package is delivered through the nationally available Female Community Health Volunteers and was piloted in 10 of 75 districts, with plans to increase to 35 districts in mid-2013. Innovation and scale up, especially of community-based packages, and public health interventions and commodities appear to move relatively rapidly in Nepal compared with some other countries. Much remains to be done to achieve high rates of effective coverage of community care, and especially to improve the quality of facility-based care given the rapid

  6. Cultural Anarchism: The Consequences of Privileging Languages in Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giri, Ram Ashish

    2010-01-01

    Nepali, the official language of administration of Nepal, has been privileged through systematic political manoeuvres throughout its history. English also enjoys special status and privileges, and despite the fact that it is officially only a "foreign" language, in practice it is one of the most dominant languages in educational and…

  7. Hidden voices: prevalence and risk factors for violence against women with disabilities in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puri, Mahesh; Misra, Geetanjali; Hawkes, Sarah

    2015-03-18

    There is an increasing body of evidence on the extent and predictors of violence against women in Nepal. However, much of the published research does not yet take into account additional features of marginalization and vulnerability suffered by some women - for example, women socially excluded on account of their disability. Critical gaps exist in empirical data on the extent, risk factors, access to care, socio-economic and health consequences of violence among women with disabilities in Nepal. This paper addresses some these gaps and aims to promote evidence-informed policy and programme responses in Nepal. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 475 women with disability aged 16 years and above in three districts in Nepal. In-depth interviews with 12 women who reported violence in the survey were also carried out. Using multivariate statistical methods we estimated the prevalence and risk factors for violence experienced both over the past 12 months and lifetime. Over the lifetime, 57.7% of women reported they had ever experienced violence, including emotional violence (55.2%); physical violence (34%); and sexual violence (21.5%). Over the preceding 12 months, 42% of women reported that they had experienced violence. Multivariate analysis showed that women with disabilities who were young, working in paid employment, and those who required permission from husbands/family to go to health centres or participate in community organizations were at increased risk of violence. Women experienced a range of negative outcomes from violence - including physical and emotional trauma. However, a majority of women did not seek care or redress from the health, justice or other sectors. Women in Nepal are at high risk of violence, often from members of their immediate family or local community. Rates of violence are higher in women with disability than among women in the general population. Tackling violence requires a comprehensive approach that addresses the root causes of

  8. Symptom Recognition to Diagnosis of Autism in Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Merina; Shrestha, Rena

    2014-01-01

    Awareness and knowledge about autism is almost non-existent in Nepal. Children who eventually get the diagnosis often miss their opportunity for early intervention. The current study shows that medical help was seeked at mean age of 27.9 + 14.5 months and most of them were for delayed language and the first preference for parents were…

  9. Pattern of Occurrence of Leukemia at a Teaching Hospital in Eastern Region of Nepal - A Six Year Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritu Kulshrestha

    2009-01-01

    The data published in this study reflects the leukemia pattern in the eastern region of Nepal. The pattern and distribution of AML, CML, ALL was similar to that in the developed western countries while the lesser frequency of CLL was similar to that in Southeast Asian region Key Words:leukemia, pattern, eastern Nepal, seasonality.

  10. Performance evaluation of locally developed black light trap for maize insects monitoring in Chitwan, Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Ghanashyam Bhandari; Shiva Kumar Jha; Yagya Prasad Giri; Hira Kaji Manandhar; Pramod Kumar Jha; Nabaraj Devkota; Praseed Thapa; Resham Bahadur Thapa

    2017-01-01

    Till today, the light traps in Nepal are found using with traditional type, which have not being recognized internationally. These light traps were of low efficiency for trapping insects as compared to black light trap (BLT). The black light tube (F10T8/BL) was used in newly constructed trap at National Maize Research Program (NMRP), Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal. Both traps were installed at the maize experimental field at NMRP during February to October, 2017. Data on insect numbers were recorded ...

  11. Marketing of adventure tourism destination in Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Baral, Nirajan

    2016-01-01

    Adventure tourism is one of the key factors of the Nepalese tourism industry. The main aim of this bachelor’s thesis was to clarify the current situation and challenges for developing adventure tourism in Nepal and to evaluate the importance of appropriate marketing strategies. The thesis also focuses on promoting adventure tourism activities and rural tourism destinations. The objective of the thesis was to explore Dhorpatan Hunting Reserve as an adventure tourism destination at internationa...

  12. Physicochemical analysis of apis dorsata honey from terai forests, Nepal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qamer, S.; Ahmad, F.; Latif, F.; Ali, S.S

    2008-01-01

    The multi floral honey produced by Apis dorsata from Shahabgunj, Dhakeri, Narayanpur and Perari forest, Nepal, were provided by International Center for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD), Nepal. These ninety nine Apis dorsata honey samples were characterized physicochemical and were found to have values of various quality determining parameters well with in the permissible International standards. The honey samples had pH in the range of 3.8-4.68, free acidity 41-48 meq/kg, lactones 13-16 meq/kg, total acidity 55-65 meq/kg, moisture content 20.5-26%, electrical conductivity 0.22-0.63 mS/cm, proline content 76-160 mg/kg, HMF content 30-56 mg/kg, diastase number 5.1-29 DN, invertase number 390-499, apparent reducing sugars 73.78-77.78%, fructose 36.93-44.61%, glucose 19.61-27.51% and sucrose 12.07-20.38%. (author)

  13. Development of leadership self-efficacy and collective efficacy: adolescent girls across castes as peer educators in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posner, J; Kayastha, P; Davis, D; Limoges, J; O'Donnell, C; Yue, K

    2009-01-01

    Adolescent girls in Nepal face enormous social barriers to accessing education and health services due to exclusionary socio-religious traditions and years of conflict. The programme and study reported here address two issues that a national assembly of in-school and out-of-school adolescent girls, who had completed a basic life skills class, and, in the case of unschooled girls, an intensive literacy course, identified as important to their well-being - menstrual restrictions and HIV awareness and prevention. Local non-governmental organizations developed a peer education programme in three districts of Nepal that paired girls from different castes and different educational levels. The programme sought to increase peer educators' (PE) leadership and collective efficacy for informing peers and adults in their communities about the effects that these issues have on women and girls. In total, 504 girls were selected and trained as PEs. They conducted targeted discussion sessions with other girls and organised mass awareness events, reaching 20,000 people. Examination of the effects of participating in the programme on key outcome measures showed that leadership self-efficacy, which was a central theoretical construct for the programme, provided a strong predictor of both increased HIV knowledge and of practicing fewer menstrual restrictions at endline. The project demonstrated that girls from different caste and educational backgrounds are able to work together to change individual behaviour and to address socio-cultural norms that affect their lives and well-being within their communities.

  14. Gridded multibeam bathymetry of Howland Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded bathymetry at 40m resolution surrounding Howland Island, within the Pacific Remote Island Areas - Central Pacific Ocean. Bottom coverage was achieved in...

  15. Impacts of urban sprawl on the area of downtown lakes in a highly developing city on central China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, W.; Zhang, Y.

    2016-12-01

    Wuhan city in central China is full of water resources and numerous lakes are located. Downtown lakes have significant ecological value and ornamental value for urban inhabitants in Wuhan. Under the rapid process of urban sprawl, downtown lakes are occupied by impervious areas. This research uses Landsat images to extract land uses from 1991 to 2013 in Wuhan city , and attempts to find out how urban sprawl affects the water body area decline in space. Two largest downtown lakes in Wuhan city, Donghu Lake located in central city and Tangxunhu Lake located in suburbs, are taken as case study area. A direction change index (DCI) is proposed to evaluate the changes of a specific land use in different directions. The results reveal that two downtown lakes are undergoing rapid water body area decline from 1991 to 2013, with decline rate are -0.022 in Donghu watershed and -0.011 in Tangxunhu watershed. 68.26% and 62.50% of the reduced water body is occupied by built-up land in Donghu watershed and Tangxunhu watershed, respectively. According to DCI, the water body reduce is highly correlated with built-up land increase in all direction. Moreover, it is found that in the Donghu watershed the north-west part suffered significant water body area decline, which is close to central city. While in Tangxunhu watershed, the area of water body declined in north-west, south-west and north-east part, and the area obstructed from central city by the lake was suffering less water body area decline. It is concluded that the water body area of downtown lakes are highly affected by the process of urban sprawl, and the lakes in central districts trends to suffer higher descend than that of the downtown lake located in suburbs. Meanwhile, even for the same downtown lake, the area orientating and close to the central city may suffer more rapid decline than the area that does not orientate to the central city.

  16. Urban Ecosystem Health in Kathmandu (Nepal) - Phase III | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The two earlier phases of this project (003320 and 101277) led to the creation or strengthening of 18 local stakeholder groups and resulted in a new Animal Slaughtering and Meat Inspection Act, modification of the Nepal Food Act, modification of the Garbage Disposal Act, revisions to the Kathmandu Valley Housing Plan ...

  17. Social care and support for elderly men and women in an urban and a rural area of Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kshetri, Dan Bahadur Baidwar; Smith, Cairns S; Khadka, Mira

    2012-09-01

    This study has aimed to describe the care and support for urban and rural elderly people of Bhaktapur district, Nepal. Efforts were made to identify the feeling of some features of general well-beings associated to mental health, person responsible for care and support, capability to perform daily routine activities, sources of finance and ownership to the property. More than half of the respondents were found having single or multiple features of loneliness, anxiety, depression and insomnia. The rate of point prevalence loneliness was found higher in the above 80 years of age, urban respondents. Almost 9 in 10 respondents were capable themselves to dress, walk and maintain personal hygiene and majority of them were assisted by spouse, son/daughter-in-laws. Family support was common sources of income and ownership to the property was absolutely high.

  18. Water rights of the head reach farmers in view of a water supply scenario at the extension area of the Babai Irrigation Project, Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, B.; Verhoeven, R.; Troch, P.

    The farmer managed irrigation systems (FMIS) represent those systems which are constructed and operated solely by the farmers applying their indigenous technology. The FMIS generally outperform the modern irrigation systems constructed and operated by the government agencies with regard to the water delivery effectiveness, agricultural productivity etc., and the presence of a sound organization responsible to run the FMIS, often referred to as the ‘social capital’, is the key to this success. This paper studies another important aspect residing in the FMIS: potentials to expand the irrigation area by means of their proper rehabilitation and modernization. Taking the case study of the Babai Irrigation Project in Nepal, it is demonstrated that the flow, which in the past was used to irrigate the 5400 ha area covered by three FMIS, can provide irrigation to an additional 8100 ha in the summer, 4180 ha vegetables in the winter and 1100 ha maize in the spring season after the FMIS rehabilitation. The “priority water rights” of the FMIS part have been evaluated based on relevant crop water requirement calculations and is found to be equal to 85.4 million m 3 per year. Consequently, the dry season irrigation strategy at the extension area could be worked out based on the remaining flow. By storing the surplus discharge of the monsoon and autumn in local ponds, and by consuming them in dry period combined with nominal partial irrigation practice, wheat and mustard can be cultivated over about 4000 ha of the extension area. Furthermore, storage and surface irrigation both contribute to the groundwater recharge. The conjunctive use of ground, surface and harvested water might be the mainstream in the future for a sustainable irrigation water management in the region.

  19. Gridded multibeam bathymetry of Baker Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded bathymetry at 40m resolution surrounding Baker Island, within the Pacific Remote Island Areas - Central Pacific Ocean. Bottom coverage was achieved in depths...

  20. Mitochondrial DNA analyses and ecological niche modeling reveal post-LGM expansion of the Assam macaque (Macaca assamensis) in the foothills of Nepal Himalaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanal, Laxman; Chalise, Mukesh K; He, Kai; Acharya, Bipin K; Kawamoto, Yoshi; Jiang, Xuelong

    2018-03-01

    Genetic diversity of a species is influenced by multiple factors, including the Quaternary glacial-interglacial cycles and geophysical barriers. Such factors are not yet well documented for fauna from the southern border of the Himalayan region. This study used mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences and ecological niche modeling (ENM) to explore how the late Pleistocene climatic fluctuations and complex geography of the Himalayan region have shaped genetic diversity, population genetic structure, and demographic history of the Nepalese population of Assam macaques (Macaca assamensis) in the Himalayan foothills. A total of 277 fecal samples were collected from 39 wild troops over almost the entire distribution of the species in Nepal. The mtDNA fragment encompassing the complete control region (1121 bp) was recovered from 208 samples, thus defining 54 haplotypes. Results showed low nucleotide diversity (0.0075 ± SD 0.0001) but high haplotype diversity (0.965 ± SD 0.004). The mtDNA sequences revealed a shallow population genetic structure with a moderate but statistically significant effect of isolation by distance. Demographic history analyses using mtDNA sequences suggested a post-pleistocene population expansion. Paleodistribution reconstruction projected that the potential habitat of the Assam macaque was confined to the lower elevations of central Nepal during the Last Glacial Maximum. With the onset of the Holocene climatic optimum, the glacial refugia population experienced eastward range expansion to higher elevations. We conclude that the low genetic diversity and shallow population genetic structure of the Assam macaque population in the Nepal Himalaya region are the consequence of recent demographic and spatial expansion. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Sex-selective abortion in Nepal: a qualitative study of health workers' perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamichhane, Prabhat; Harken, Tabetha; Puri, Mahesh; Darney, Philip D; Blum, Maya; Harper, Cynthia C; Henderson, Jillian T

    2011-01-01

    Sex-selective abortion is expressly prohibited in Nepal, but limited evidence suggests that it occurs nevertheless. Providers' perspectives on sex-selective abortion were examined as part of a larger study on legal abortion in the public sector in Nepal. In-depth interviews were conducted with health care providers and administrators providing abortion services at four major hospitals (n = 35), two in the Kathmandu Valley and two in outlying rural areas. A grounded theory approach was used to code interview transcripts and to identify themes in the data. Most providers were aware of the ban on sex-selective abortion and, despite overall positive views of abortion legalization, saw sex selection as an increasing problem. Greater availability of abortion and ultrasonography, along with the high value placed on sons, were seen as contributing factors. Providers wanted to perform abortions for legal indications, but described challenges identifying sex-selection cases. Providers also believed that illegal sex-selective procedures contribute to serious abortion complications. Sex-selective abortion complicates the provision of legal abortion services. In addition to the difficulty of determining which patients are seeking abortion for sex selection, health workers are aware of the pressures women face to bear sons and know they may seek unsafe services elsewhere when unable to obtain abortions in public hospitals. Legislative, advocacy, and social efforts aimed at promoting gender equality and women's human rights are needed to reduce the cultural and economic pressures for sex-selective abortion, because providers alone cannot prevent the practice. Copyright © 2011 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Perceptions of users and providers on barriers to utilizing skilled birth care in mid- and far-western Nepal: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharad Onta

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although skilled birth care contributes significantly to the prevention of maternal and newborn morbidity and mortality, utilization of such care is poor in mid- and far-western Nepal. This study explored the perceptions of service users and providers regarding barriers to skilled birth care. Design: We conducted 24 focus group discussions, 12 each with service users and service providers from different health institutions in mid- and far-western Nepal. All discussions examined the perceptions and experiences of service users and providers regarding barriers to skilled birth care and explored possible solutions to overcoming such barriers. Results: Our results determined that major barriers to skilled birth care include inadequate knowledge of the importance of services offered by skilled birth attendants (SBAs, distance to health facilities, unavailability of transport services, and poor availability of SBAs. Other barriers included poor infrastructure, meager services, inadequate information about services/facilities, cultural practices and beliefs, and low prioritization of birth care. Moreover, the tradition of isolating women during and after childbirth decreased the likelihood that women would utilize delivery care services at health facilities. Conclusions: Service users and providers perceived inadequate availability and accessibility of skilled birth care in remote areas of Nepal, and overall utilization of these services was poor. Therefore, training and recruiting locally available health workers, helping community groups establish transport mechanisms, upgrading physical facilities and services at health institutions, and increasing community awareness of the importance of skilled birth care will help bridge these gaps.

  3. Perceptions of users and providers on barriers to utilizing skilled birth care in mid- and far-western Nepal: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onta, Sharad; Choulagai, Bishnu; Shrestha, Binjwala; Subedi, Narayan; Bhandari, Gajananda P; Krettek, Alexandra

    2014-01-01

    Although skilled birth care contributes significantly to the prevention of maternal and newborn morbidity and mortality, utilization of such care is poor in mid- and far-western Nepal. This study explored the perceptions of service users and providers regarding barriers to skilled birth care. We conducted 24 focus group discussions, 12 each with service users and service providers from different health institutions in mid- and far-western Nepal. All discussions examined the perceptions and experiences of service users and providers regarding barriers to skilled birth care and explored possible solutions to overcoming such barriers. Our results determined that major barriers to skilled birth care include inadequate knowledge of the importance of services offered by skilled birth attendants (SBAs), distance to health facilities, unavailability of transport services, and poor availability of SBAs. Other barriers included poor infrastructure, meager services, inadequate information about services/facilities, cultural practices and beliefs, and low prioritization of birth care. Moreover, the tradition of isolating women during and after childbirth decreased the likelihood that women would utilize delivery care services at health facilities. Service users and providers perceived inadequate availability and accessibility of skilled birth care in remote areas of Nepal, and overall utilization of these services was poor. Therefore, training and recruiting locally available health workers, helping community groups establish transport mechanisms, upgrading physical facilities and services at health institutions, and increasing community awareness of the importance of skilled birth care will help bridge these gaps.

  4. Complementary school garden, nutrition, water, sanitation and hygiene interventions to improve children’s nutrition and health status in Burkina Faso and Nepal: a study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Séverine Erismann

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malnutrition and intestinal parasitic infections are common among children in Burkina Faso and Nepal. However, specific health-related data in school-aged children in these two countries are scarce. In the frame of a larger multi-stakeholder project entitled “Vegetables go to School: Improving Nutrition through Agricultural Diversification” (VgtS, a study has been designed with the objectives to: (i describe schoolchildren’s health status in Burkina Faso and Nepal; and to (ii provide an evidence-base for programme decisions on the relevance of complementary school garden, nutrition, water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH interventions. Methods/Design The studies will be conducted in the Centre Ouest and the Plateau Central regions of Burkina Faso and the Dolakha and Ramechhap districts of Nepal. Data will be collected and combined at the level of schools, children and their households. A range of indicators will be used to examine nutritional status, intestinal parasitic infections and WASH conditions in 24 schools among 1144 children aged 8–14 years at baseline and a 1-year follow-up. The studies are designed as cluster randomised trials and the schools will be assigned to two core study arms: (i the ‘complementary school garden, nutrition and WASH intervention’ arm; and the (ii ‘control’ arm with no interventions. Children will be subjected to parasitological examinations using stool and urine samples and to quality-controlled anthropometric and haemoglobin measurements. Drinking water will be assessed for contamination with coliform bacteria and faecal streptococci. A questionnaire survey on nutritional and health knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP will be administered to children and their caregivers, also assessing socioeconomic, food-security and WASH conditions at household level. Focus group and key-informant interviews on children’s nutrition and hygiene perceptions and behaviours will be

  5. Uterine prolapse prevention in Eastern Nepal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Radl, Christina Mathilde; Rajwar, Ranjita; Aro, Arja R.

    2012-01-01

    are working well or the attitudes toward them. This paper presents the findings of a qualitative study on primary and secondary prevention of uterine prolapse in Eastern Nepal. Method: The study involved eight focus group discussions with 71 women in six villages of the eastern districts of Siraha and Saptari......: It was found that patriarchy, gender discrimination, and cultural traditions such as early marriage and pregnancy make it difficult for people to discontinue uterine prolapse risk behaviors. Women are aware of risk factors, prevention, and treatment, but are powerless to change their situations. Health...

  6. Is the contribution of community forest users financially efficient? A household level benefit-cost analysis of community forest management in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Kumar Rai

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Community forestry in Nepal is considered an exemplary forest management regime. However, the economics behind managing a community forest is not fully studied. This study examines whether the benefits generated from community forest management justify the contributions of forest users. The study is based on a survey of community forest users in Chitwan, Nepal. A household level benefit-cost analysis was performed to quantify and compare the costs and benefits from community forest management. Only direct benefits were included in the analysis. The study shows that older forest user groups derive more benefits to households compared to more recently established ones. The extent of timber harvesting also substantially influences the size of the household benefits. In addition, redistribution of benefits at the household level, in terms of income generating activities and payment for involvement in forest management activities, also enhances household benefits. Sensitivity analysis suggests that the current practice of community forest management enhances the welfare of rural households in this subsistence community. However, this finding is sensitive to assumptions regarding the opportunity cost of time. The study also found that the household costs of community forest management depend upon two factors – the area of community forest and the size of the forest area relative to the number of households.

  7. Barriers and facilitators to institutional delivery in rural areas of Chitwan district, Nepal: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Rajani; Rehfuess, Eva A; Paudel, Deepak; Maskey, Mahesh K; Delius, Maria

    2018-06-20

    Giving birth assisted by skilled care in a health facility plays a vital role in preventing maternal deaths. In Nepal, delivery services are free and a cash incentive is provided to women giving birth at a health facility. Nevertheless, about half of women still deliver at home. This study explores socio-cultural and health service-related barriers to and facilitators of institutional delivery. Six village development committees in hill and plain areas were selected in Chitwan district. We conducted a total of 10 focus group discussions and 12 in-depth-interviews with relevant stakeholder groups, including mothers, husbands, mothers-in-law, traditional birth attendants, female community health volunteers, health service providers and district health managers. Data were analyzed inductively using thematic analysis. Three main themes played a role in deciding the place of delivery, i.e. socio-cultural norms and values; access to birthing facilities; and perceptions regarding the quality of health services. Factors encouraging an institutional delivery included complications during labour, supportive husbands and mothers-in-law, the availability of an ambulance, having birthing centres nearby, locally sufficient financial incentives and/or material incentives, the 24-h availability of midwives and friendly health service providers. Socio-cultural barriers to institutional deliveries were deeply held beliefs about childbirth being a normal life event, the wish to be cared for by family members, greater freedom of movement at home, a warm environment, the possibility to obtain appropriate "hot" foods, and shyness of young women and their position in the family hierarchy. Accessibility and quality of health services also presented barriers, including lack of road and transportation, insufficient financial incentives, poor infrastructure and equipment at birthing centres and the young age and perceived incompetence of midwives. Despite much progress in recent years, this

  8. Identification of sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons based on concentrations in soils from two sides of the Himalayas between China and Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Wei; Gao, Jiajia; Bi, Xiang; Xu, Lan; Guo, Junming; Zhang, Qianggong; Romesh, Kumar Y; Giesy, John P; Kang, Shichang

    2016-05-01

    To understand distribution and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the Himalayas, 77 soil samples were collected from the northern side of the Himalayas, China (NSHC), and the southern side of the Himalayas, Nepal (SSHN), based on altitude, land use and possible trans-boundary transport of PAHs driven by wind from Nepal to the Tibetan Plateau, China. Soils from the SSHN had mean PAH concentration greater than those from the NSHC. Greater concentrations of PAHs in soils were mainly distributed near main roads and agricultural and urban areas. PAHs with 2-3 rings were the most abundant PAHs in the soils from the Himalayas. Concentrations of volatile PAHs were significantly and positively correlated with altitude. Simulations of trajectories of air masses indicated that distributions of soil PAH concentrations were associated with the cyclic patterns of the monsoon. PAH emissions from traffic and combustion of biomass or coal greatly contributed to concentrations of PAHs in soils from the Himalayas. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Fish cage culture catches on in Nepal | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-10-25

    Oct 25, 2010 ... With new-found financial security, more families are able to provide education for their children, unlike many rural communities in Nepal. And the role of women in decision-making has been strengthened. ... In the early 1990s, the global news media became entranced by a ... Careers · Contact Us · Site map.

  10. Action Learning in ActionAid Nepal: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lustig, Patricia; Rai, Deep Ranjani

    2009-01-01

    This article describes an example of how action learning was used as a framework for an organisational intervention to fundamentally change the organisational culture over a period of time. It also identifies our learning over that period of time and what worked well (and not so well) in an International Non-Governmental Organisation in Nepal.

  11. DOT for patients with limited access to health care facilities in a hill district of eastern Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wares, D F; Akhtar, M; Singh, S

    2001-08-01

    The hill district in Nepal, where access to health care facilities is difficult. To compare results before and after a decentralised directly observed treatment (DOT) intervention. Prospective study of patients registered in Dhankuta district, Nepal, 1996-1999. Patients received their intensive phase treatment under health worker supervision via one of three DOT options: 1) ambulatory from the peripheral government health facilities; 2) ambulatory from an international non-governmental organisation (INGO) TB clinic in district centre; or 3) resident in INGO TB hostel in district centre. Historical data from 1995-1996, with unsupervised short-course chemotherapy, were used for comparison. Of 307 new cases, respectively 126 (41%), 86 (28%) and 95 (31%) took their intensive phase treatment via options 1, 2 and 3. Smear conversion (at 2 months) and cure rates in new smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis cases were respectively 81.6% (vs. 58.8% historical, P = 0.001) and 84.9% (vs. 76.7% historical, P = 0.03). Overall costs to the INGO provider fell by 7%, mainly as a result of staffing reductions in the INGO services made possible by rationalisation with government services during the intervention. By offering varied DOT delivery routes, including an in-patient option, satisfactory results are possible with DOT even in areas where access to health care facilities is difficult. Provision of in-patient care via an INGO TB hostel allowed a significant proportion of new cases (31%) to receive their intensive phase treatment who otherwise may have had difficulty accessing treatment, due either to the distance to the nearest health facility or to disease severity. Substitution of government hospital beds or local hotel beds for the INGO hostel beds may allow the model to be reproduced elsewhere in similar geographical conditions in Nepal, but further studies should be performed in a non-INGO supported district beforehand.

  12. Integrated Laser Ablation U/Pb and (U-Th)/He Dating of Detrital Accessory Minerals from the Naryani River, Central Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horne, A.; Hodges, K. V.; Van Soest, M. C.

    2015-12-01

    The newly developed 'laser ablation double dating' (LADD) technique, an integrated laser microprobe U/Pb and (U-Th)/He dating method, could be an exceptionally valuable tool in detrital thermochronology for identifying sedimentary provenance and evaluating the exhumation history of a source region. A recent proof-of-concept study has used LADD to successfully date both zircon and titanite crystals from the well-characterized Fish Canyon tuff, but we also believe that another accessory mineral, rutile, could be amenable to dating via the LADD technique. To continue the development of the method, we present an application of LADD to detrital zircon, titanite, and rutile from a sample collected on the lower Naryani River of central Nepal. Preliminary analyses of the sample have yielded zircon U/Pb dates ranging from 31.4 to 2405 Ma; zircon (U-Th)/He from 1.8 to 15.4 Ma; titanite U/Pb between 18 and 110 Ma; titanite (U-Th)/He between 1 and 16 Ma; rutile U/Pb from 6 to 45 Ma; and rutile (U-Th)/He from 2 to 25 Ma. In addition to the initial data, we can use Ti-in-zircon, Zr-in-titanite, and Zr-in-rutile thermometers to determine the range of possible long-term cooling rates from grains with U/Pb ages younger than collision. Thus far our results from zircon analyses imply a cooling rate of approximately 15°C/Myr; titanite analyses imply between 10 and 67°C/Myr; and rutile between 9 and 267°C/Myr. This spread in potential cooling rates, especially in the order of magnitude differences of cooling rates calculated from the rutile grains, suggests that the hinterland source regions of the Naryani river experienced dramatically different exhumation histories during Himalayan orogenisis. Ongoing analyses will expand the dataset such that we can more adequately characterize the range of possibilities represented in the sample.

  13. Women's empowerment in agriculture and child nutritional status in rural Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Kenda; Ploubidis, George B; Menon, Purnima; Ruel, Marie; Kadiyala, Suneetha; Uauy, Ricardo; Ferguson, Elaine

    2015-12-01

    To examine the association between women's empowerment in agriculture and nutritional status among children under 2 years of age in rural Nepal. Cross-sectional survey of 4080 households conducted in 2012. Data collected included: child and maternal anthropometric measurements; child age and sex; maternal age, education, occupation and empowerment in agriculture; and household size, number of children, religion, caste and agro-ecological zone. Associations between the Women's Empowerment in Agriculture Index (WEAI)'s Five Domains of Empowerment (5DE) sub-index and its ten component indicators and child length-for-age Z-scores (LAZ) and weight-for-length Z-scores (WLZ) were estimated, using ordinary least-squares regression models, with and without adjustments for key child, maternal and household level covariates. Two hundred and forty rural communities across sixteen districts of Nepal. Children under 24 months of age and their mothers (n 1787). The overall WEAI 5DE was positively associated with LAZ (β=0·20, P=0·04). Three component indicators were also positively associated with LAZ: satisfaction with leisure time (β=0·27, Pempowerment in agriculture was associated with WLZ. Women's empowerment in agriculture, as measured by the WEAI 5DE and three of its ten component indicators, was significantly associated with LAZ, highlighting the potential role of women's empowerment in improving child nutrition in Nepal. Additional studies are needed to determine whether interventions to improve women's empowerment will improve child nutrition.

  14. Molecular characterization of Mycobacterium orygis isolates from wild animals of Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapa, Jeewan; Nakajima, Chie; Maharjan, Bhagwan; Poudell, Ajay; Suzuki, Yasuhiko

    2015-08-01

    Mycobacterium orygis, a new member of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, was isolated from a captive spotted deer (Axis axis) and a blue bull (Boselaphus tragocamelus) in Nepal. Analyses by spoligotyping, mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units-variable number of tandem repeats (MIRU-VNTR) typing, region of difference and single nucleotide polymorphism of genes gyrB, mmpL6, TbD1, PPE55 and Rv2042c confirmed the isolates as M. orygis. Moreover, analyses by spoligotyping (SIT587) as well as MIRU-VNTR showed that the isolates shared a similar pattern with many reported isolates. From previous and the present studies, it can be inferred that South Asia is one of the endemic regions for M. orygis. Further investigation including a larger sample size and different host interaction will help to understand the ecology and epidemiology of M. orygis in Nepal.

  15. Repeated catastrophic valley infill following medieval earthquakes in the Nepal Himalaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwanghart, Wolfgang; Bernhardt, Anne; Stolle, Amelie; Hoelzmann, Philipp; Adhikari, Basanta R; Andermann, Christoff; Tofelde, Stefanie; Merchel, Silke; Rugel, Georg; Fort, Monique; Korup, Oliver

    2016-01-08

    Geomorphic footprints of past large Himalayan earthquakes are elusive, although they are urgently needed for gauging and predicting recovery times of seismically perturbed mountain landscapes. We present evidence of catastrophic valley infill following at least three medieval earthquakes in the Nepal Himalaya. Radiocarbon dates from peat beds, plant macrofossils, and humic silts in fine-grained tributary sediments near Pokhara, Nepal's second-largest city, match the timing of nearby M > 8 earthquakes in ~1100, 1255, and 1344 C.E. The upstream dip of tributary valley fills and x-ray fluorescence spectrometry of their provenance rule out local sources. Instead, geomorphic and sedimentary evidence is consistent with catastrophic fluvial aggradation and debris flows that had plugged several tributaries with tens of meters of calcareous sediment from a Higher Himalayan source >60 kilometers away. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  16. Qualitative research and its place in health research in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Teijlingen, E; Simkhada, B; Porter, M; Simkhada, P; Pitchforth, E; Bhatta, P

    2011-01-01

    There has been a steady growth in recent decades in Nepal in health and health services research, much of it based on quantitative research methods. Over the same period international medical journals such as The Lancet, the British Medical Journal (BMJ), The Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) and the Journal of Family Planning and Reproductive Health Care and many more have published methods papers outlining and promoting qualitative methods. This paper argues in favour of more high-quality qualitative research in Nepal, either on its own or as part of a mixed-methods approach, to help strengthen the country's research capacity. After outlining the reasons for using qualitative methods, we discuss the strengths and weaknesses of the three main approaches: (a) observation; (b) in-depth interviews; and (c) focus groups. We also discuss issues around sampling, analysis, presentation of findings, reflexivity of the qualitative researcher and theory building, and highlight some misconceptions about qualitative research and mistakes commonly made.

  17. A community practitioner abroad: listening to women in Dailekh, Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, Catherine

    2015-07-01

    Nepal is one of the poorest countries in the world, and has a strongly patriarchal culture. This study reports on methods used to explore women's opportunities in decision-making roles in Dailekh, Nepal. Action-based research was used to support women to identify barriers and to enable them to find solutions which could increase meaningful, practical and genuine representation. Participants were women in nominal positions of leadership in the community and subsequently also men in leadership roles. Focus groups and interviews enabled data to be collected and analysed using participatory and 'rich picture' tools. A five-stage framework approach was used to analyse data. A major theme of 'power' emerged comprised of supporting themes; 'place in society 'formal power,' informal power and 'voice'. These outcomes formed the basis for identifying viable action plans generated by the participants of both genders to promote meaningful involvement of women in community decision making. Women were clear that involving men and women in the actions was key to increasing success.

  18. The effect of geographical centralization of education for outmigration from fringe areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Hans Skifter

    During the last 25 years population in fringe areas in Denmark has declined. The main reason has been that young people leave these areas and seldom come back. In this study is examined the connection between young people’s outmigration, their choice of education and the location of educational...... institutions. It is shown that geographical centralization of education since 1990 and the tendency for more young people to choose higher education has resulted in an increase in the outmigration of young people from fringe areas...

  19. An appraisal of ground water for irrigation in the Wadena area, central Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindholm, F.G.

    1970-01-01

    The Wadena area is part of a large sandy plain in central Minnesota whose soils have low water-holding capacity. Drought conditions which adversely affect plant growth frequently occur in the summer when moisture is most needed. To reduce the risk of crop failure in the area supplemental irrigation is on the increase.

  20. Demand and access to mental health services: a qualitative formative study in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenman, Natassia F; Luitel, Nagendra P; Mall, Sumaya; Jordans, Mark J D

    2014-08-02

    Nepal is experiencing a significant 'treatment gap' in mental health care. People with mental disorders do not always receive appropriate treatment due to a range of structural and individual issues, including stigma and poverty. The PRIME (Programme for Improving Mental Health Care) programme has developed a mental health care plan to address this issue in Nepal and four other low and middle income countries. This study aims to inform the development of this comprehensive care plan by investigating the perceptions of stakeholders at different levels of the care system in the district of Chitwan in southern Nepal: health professionals, lay workers and community members. It focuses specifically on issues of demand and access to care, and aims to identify barriers and potential solutions for reaching people with priority mental disorders. This qualitative study consisted of key informant interviews (33) and focus group discussions (83 participants in 9 groups) at community and health facility levels. Data were analysed using a framework analysis approach. As well as pragmatic barriers at the health facility level, mental health stigma and certain cultural norms were found to reduce access and demand for services. Respondents perceived the lack of awareness about mental health problems to be a major problem underlying this, even among those with high levels of education or status. They proposed strategies to improve awareness, such as channelling education through trusted and respected community figures, and responding to the need for openness or privacy in educational programmes, depending on the issue at hand. Adapting to local perceptions of stigmatised treatments emerged as another key strategy to improve demand. This study identifies barriers to accessing care in Nepal that reach beyond the health facility and into the social fabric of the community. Stakeholders in PRIME's integrated care plan advocate strategic awareness raising initiatives to improve the reach

  1. Technical efficiency of certified maize seed in Palpa district, Nepal: A stochastic frontier production approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahima Bajracharya

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The cereal crop, maize is regarded as staple food mainly in hill areas of Nepal. Seed is one of the vital input which determines the production and yield of any crop. Farmers are found using the required inputs in haphazard way which had increased the cost of production and inefficiency of resources used. The study on seed sector is limited. For such a backdrop, this study was aimed to assess the level of technical efficiency (TE of certified maize seed production. The total of 164 certified seed producer were interviewed in June, 2016 using simple random sampling technique in Palpa district of Nepal. The result revealed that increase in amount of seed and labor by one percent would increase the yield of certified maize seed by 0.29 and 0.34 percent respectively. The TE was estimated using stochastic production frontier model in Stata software. The average TE was found 70 percent which revealed the scope of increasing TE by 30 percent using the existing available resources. There were about 29 percent farmers who had TE of ≥0.7-0.8 followed by 27.44 percent at ≥0.8-0.9. Government and other stakeholders should prioritize to provide technical knowledge via training and increase the visit of extension worker to increase TE of certified maize seed producer in the district.

  2. Ethnomedicine in Himalaya: a case study from Dolpa, Humla, Jumla and Mustang districts of Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kshhetri Hari B

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Traditional plant use in Nepal has been documented for millennia. The importance of plants as medicine has not diminished in any way in recent times, and traditional medicines are still the most important health care source for the vast majority of the population. This paper examines the ethnobotany and traditional use of plants extracted from the vulnerable alpine zone in the Dolpa, Humla, Jumla and Mustang districts of Nepal. The results of this ethnobotanical study indicate that a very large number of plant species is used as traditional medicines. There were 107, 59, 44 and 166 species of ethnomedicinal importance in surveyed areas of Dolpa, Humla, Jumla and Mustang district respectively. Of these, 84 common species, used at least in two districts, were selected to enumerate their ethnomedicinal properties. The 84 species belonged to 75 genera and 39 families. The commonest species in this pharmacopoeia were: Allium wallichii, Cordyceps sinensis, Dactylorhiza hatagirea, and Rheum australe. A total of 21 species were most common in three districts and 59 in two districts. The genera Aconitum, Allium, Arisaema, Berberis, Corydalis, Gentiana, Hippophae, Juniperus and Rhododendron each possessed two species with ethnomedicinal use. Labiatae was the most medicinally important family with five species used, followed by Araceae, Compositae, Liliaceae, Polygonaceae, Ranunculaceae, Scrophulariaceae and Umbelliferae, each contributing four species.

  3. Wildfire Dynamics and Occasional Precipitation during Active Fire Season in Tropical Lowland of Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Bahadur Bhujel

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Occasional precipitation plays a vital role in reducing the effect of wildfire. This precipitation is especially important for countries like Nepal, where wildfires are a common seasonal event. Approximately 0.1 million hectare of forest area is affected annually due to wildfires in active fire season. The study on the relation of these forms of occasional precipitation with wildfire incidence is still lacking. This research was objectively carried out to examine the correlation of occasional precipitation with wildfire incidence and burnt area. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spector-Radiometer (MODIS satellite images and precipitation records for 15 years gathered from Department of Hydrology and Metrology were used as input data for this study. The images were analyzed by using ArcGIS function while the precipitation records were analyzed by using Statistical Package for the Social Science (SPSS program. The linear regression model was applied to find correlation of occasional precipitation with wildfire incidence and burnt area. Analysis revealed decreasing trend of precipitation in study area. We found significant correlation (p<0.05 of precipitation with wildfire incidence and burnt area. Findings will be useful for policy makers, implementers and researchers to manage wildfire in sustainable basis.

  4. Glacial Lake Outburst Flood Risk in Nepal and Their Mitigation Practices in Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurung, S.

    2017-12-01

    Glacial lakes in Nepal face a huge risk of Glacial Lake Outburst Flood (GLOF) due to the ongoing effects of climate change leading to considerable amount of snow and glacier melt thus weakening the natural barriers holding these high altitude glacial lakes. Nepal is at an ever growing risk every year and always waiting for an inevitable natural disaster. Since GLOF can cause extreme huge loss of human lives and physical properties, it has now become very important to design a proper mechanism which helps in reducing hazards from such events. There is little we can do to stop natural disasters, but we can implement pro-active control measures to minimize the loss. Early Warning System is the provision of timely and effective information, which allows individuals exposed to hazards to take action, avoid or reduce risk to life and property and prepare for effective response. The basic idea behind Early Warning System is that, the earlier and more accurately we are able to predict potential risks associated with natural hazards especially flood, the more likely we will be able to manage and mitigate the disasters' impact on society, economies and environment. We are currently focused on the development of early warning system for Imja Glacial Lake. The objective of developing early warning system for Imja GLOF is to help reduce economic losses and mitigate the number of injuries or deaths by providing information that allows individuals and communities downstream of Imja Lake to protect their lives and properties by using the latest and most advanced technology available. We have installed one Automatic Weather Station near the left lateral moraine of Imja Lake to study the effects of different meteorological parameters so as to predict occurrence of any GLOF event. The sensor includes pluviometer, pyranometer, temperature and humidity sensor, wind sensor, Snowdepth sensor. Two radar level sensors are installed at the outlet of Imja Lake and downstream of Imja river

  5. Are Central Africa′s Protected Areas Displacing Hundreds of Thousands of Rural Poor?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Curran Bryan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available An ongoing debate over the impacts of protected areas on rural communities in central Africa has become increasingly polarized in recent years, even as definitions of displacement have shifted from outright expulsion to economic dislocation precipitated by lost access to natural resources. Although forcible removal of communities to make way for the creation of National Parks has certainly occurred in the past in some parts of the world, we contend that not a single individual has been physically removed from any of the protected areas created in central Africa over the past decade, despite claims to the contrary of hundreds of thousands of "conservation refugees." Furthermore, we recognize that a scarcity of data precludes impartial evaluation of the potential impacts of economic displacement of local communities living adjacent to protected areas, and we call for a concerted effort by conservationists and the social scientists who criticize conservation efforts, in order to measure the effects of protected areas on livelihoods, and to work towards a more socially responsible conservation paradigm.

  6. How Liberal is Nepal's Liberal Grade Promotion Policy?

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Dhiraj

    2016-01-01

    This paper estimates the magnitude of liberal grade promotion in public schools in Nepal by comparing the pass rate in internally administered exams with the pass rate in the district-exam whose scores determine grade transition. The pass rate in the year-end exam is three and a half times as high as the pass rate in the internal exams. The difference is not explained by an increase in stu...

  7. Current strain accumulation in the hinterland of the northwest Himalaya constrained by landscape analyses, basin-wide denudation rates, and low temperature thermochronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morell, Kristin D.; Sandiford, Mike; Kohn, Barry; Codilean, Alexandru; Fülöp, Réka-H.; Ahmad, Talat

    2017-11-01

    Rupture associated with the 25 April 2015 Mw 7.8 Gorkha (Nepal) earthquake highlighted our incomplete understanding of the structural architecture and seismic cycle processes that lead to Himalayan mountain building in Central Nepal. In this paper we investigate the style and kinematics of active mountain building in the Himalayan hinterland of Northwest India, approximately 400 km to the west of the hypocenter of the Nepal earthquake, via a combination of landscape metrics and long- (Ma) and short-term (ka) erosion rate estimates (from low temperature thermochronometry and basin-wide denudation rate estimates from 10Be concentrations). We focus our analysis on the area straddling the PT2, the physiographic transition between the Lesser and High Himalaya that has yielded important insights into the nature of hinterland deformation across much of the Himalaya. Our results from Northwest India reveal a distinctive PT2 that separates a Lesser Himalaya region with moderate relief (∼1000 m) and relatively slow erosion (400 km distance between them, similar spatiotemporal patterns of erosion and deformation observed in Northwest India and Central Nepal suggest both regions experience similar styles of active strain accumulation and both are susceptible to large seismic events.

  8. Innovative Product Development Partnership Reduced Neonatal Mortality In Nepal Through Improved Umbilical Cord Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyloe, Peter; Khanal, Leela; Hodgins, Stephen; Pradhan, Sabita T; Dawson, Penny

    2017-11-01

    Approximately 40 percent of all newborn deaths in Nepal are attributable to neonatal infections. A randomized controlled trial conducted in Nepal in the period 2002-05 on the application of a solution of the disinfectant chlorhexidine to umbilical cord stumps of newborns showed a reduced risk of infections and death. In response to these results, the Government of Nepal and various partners mobilized to deliver this simple, low-cost intervention on a national scale. We describe the design, development, and maturation of a partnership among the government, technical assistance agencies, and a local pharmaceutical company to create a suitable, commercially available gel product to reduce newborn infections. Essential contributors to the partnership's effectiveness included having a for-profit pharmaceutical company as a fully engaged partner; having responsive, flexible relationships among the partners that evolved over time; and paying attention to competition within the private sector. A less formalized arrangement among partners allowed them to build trust in each other over time. Government stewardship of the program throughout the scale-up process ensured that policy and systems integration were aligned as the program matured.

  9. Demographic, socio-economic, and cultural factors affecting fertility differentials in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adhikari Ramesh

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Traditionally Nepalese society favors high fertility. Children are a symbol of well-being both socially and economically. Although fertility has been decreasing in Nepal since 1981, it is still high compared to many other developing countries. This paper is an attempt to examine the demographic, socio-economic, and cultural factors for fertility differentials in Nepal. Methods This paper has used data from the Nepal Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS 2006. The analysis is confined to ever married women of reproductive age (8,644. Both bivariate and multivariate analyses have been performed to describe the fertility differentials. The bivariate analysis (one-way ANOVA was applied to examine the association between children ever born and women's demographic, socio-economic, and cultural characteristics. Besides bivariate analysis, the net effect of each independent variable on the dependent variable after controlling for the effect of other predictors has also been measured through multivariate analysis (multiple linear regressions. Results The mean numbers of children ever born (CEB among married Nepali women of reproductive age and among women aged 40-49 were three and five children, respectively. There are considerable differentials in the average number of children ever born according to women's demographic, socio-economic, and cultural settings. Regression analysis revealed that age at first marriage, perceived ideal number of children, place of residence, literacy status, religion, mass media exposure, use of family planning methods, household headship, and experience of child death were the most important variables that explained the variance in fertility. Women who considered a higher number of children as ideal (β = 0.03; p Conclusion The average number of children ever born is high among women in Nepal. There are many contributing factors for the high fertility, among which are age at first marriage, perceived ideal

  10. Demographic, socio-economic, and cultural factors affecting fertility differentials in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, Ramesh

    2010-04-28

    Traditionally Nepalese society favors high fertility. Children are a symbol of well-being both socially and economically. Although fertility has been decreasing in Nepal since 1981, it is still high compared to many other developing countries. This paper is an attempt to examine the demographic, socio-economic, and cultural factors for fertility differentials in Nepal. This paper has used data from the Nepal Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS 2006). The analysis is confined to ever married women of reproductive age (8,644). Both bivariate and multivariate analyses have been performed to describe the fertility differentials. The bivariate analysis (one-way ANOVA) was applied to examine the association between children ever born and women's demographic, socio-economic, and cultural characteristics. Besides bivariate analysis, the net effect of each independent variable on the dependent variable after controlling for the effect of other predictors has also been measured through multivariate analysis (multiple linear regressions). The mean numbers of children ever born (CEB) among married Nepali women of reproductive age and among women aged 40-49 were three and five children, respectively. There are considerable differentials in the average number of children ever born according to women's demographic, socio-economic, and cultural settings. Regression analysis revealed that age at first marriage, perceived ideal number of children, place of residence, literacy status, religion, mass media exposure, use of family planning methods, household headship, and experience of child death were the most important variables that explained the variance in fertility. Women who considered a higher number of children as ideal (beta = 0.03; p Muslim women (beta = 0.07; p media (beta = -0.05; p women in Nepal. There are many contributing factors for the high fertility, among which are age at first marriage, perceived ideal number of children, literacy status, mass media exposure

  11. Design and implementation of an affordable, public sector electronic medical record in rural Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raut, Anant; Yarbrough, Chase; Singh, Vivek; Gauchan, Bikash; Citrin, David; Verma, Varun; Hawley, Jessica; Schwarz, Dan; Harsha Bangura, Alex; Shrestha, Biplav; Schwarz, Ryan; Adhikari, Mukesh; Maru, Duncan

    2017-06-23

    Globally, electronic medical records are central to the infrastructure of modern healthcare systems. Yet the vast majority of electronic medical records have been designed for resource-rich environments and are not feasible in settings of poverty. Here we describe the design and implementation of an electronic medical record at a public sector district hospital in rural Nepal, and its subsequent expansion to an additional public sector facility.DevelopmentThe electronic medical record was designed to solve for the following elements of public sector healthcare delivery: 1) integration of the systems across inpatient, surgical, outpatient, emergency, laboratory, radiology, and pharmacy sites of care; 2) effective data extraction for impact evaluation and government regulation; 3) optimization for longitudinal care provision and patient tracking; and 4) effectiveness for quality improvement initiatives. For these purposes, we adapted Bahmni, a product built with open-source components for patient tracking, clinical protocols, pharmacy, laboratory, imaging, financial management, and supply logistics. In close partnership with government officials, we deployed the system in February of 2015, added on additional functionality, and iteratively improved the system over the following year. This experience enabled us then to deploy the system at an additional district-level hospital in a different part of the country in under four weeks. We discuss the implementation challenges and the strategies we pursued to build an electronic medical record for the public sector in rural Nepal.DiscussionOver the course of 18 months, we were able to develop, deploy and iterate upon the electronic medical record, and then deploy the refined product at an additional facility within only four weeks. Our experience suggests the feasibility of an integrated electronic medical record for public sector care delivery even in settings of rural poverty.

  12. Uterine prolapse prevention in Eastern Nepal: the perspectives of women and health care professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radl, Christina M; Rajwar, Ranjita; Aro, Arja R

    2012-01-01

    Uterine prolapse is a major reproductive health issue in Nepal. There is a wide range of literature available on the causes and risk factors of uterine prolapse and on the ways to prevent and treat it. There is still a lack of published evidence on what prevention and treatment services are working well or the attitudes toward them. This paper presents the findings of a qualitative study on primary and secondary prevention of uterine prolapse in Eastern Nepal. The study involved eight focus group discussions with 71 women in six villages of the eastern districts of Siraha and Saptari and 14 qualitative interviews with health professionals from the local to central level. The group discussions and interviews covered the awareness levels of uterine prolapse and its prevention and treatment, as well as participants' opinions on and experiences with the services offered. It was found that patriarchy, gender discrimination, and cultural traditions such as early marriage and pregnancy make it difficult for people to discontinue uterine prolapse risk behaviors. Women are aware of risk factors, prevention, and treatment, but are powerless to change their situations. Health professionals and women are fond of surgery as treatment, but opinions on the use of ring pessaries and pelvic floor muscle training are split. The main recommendation that can be drawn from this study is that research on the effectiveness of early treatments, such as ring pessaries and exercise, should be conducted. Furthermore, the involvement of other target groups (husbands, adolescents, and mothers-in-law) needs to be increased in order to make it easier for women to adapt low-risk behaviors. Finally, uterine prolapse prevention should be better integrated in national reproductive health services. Enforcing transparency, monitoring systems, and collaborations are important factors that should be considered as well.

  13. Co-seismic deformation and gravity changes of the 2011 India-Nepal and Myanmar earthquakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Chengli

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Co-seismic deformation and gravity field changes caused by the 2011 Mw6. 8 Myanmar and Mw6. 9 India-Nepal earthquakes are calculated with a finite-element model and an average-slip model, respectively, based on the multi-layered elastic half-space dislocation theory. The calculated maximum horizontal displacement of the Myanmar earthquake is 36 cm, which is larger than the value of 9. 5 cm for the India-Nepal earthquake. This difference is attributed to their different focal depths and our use of different models. Except certain differences in the near field, both models give similar deformation and gravity results for the Myanmar event.

  14. Trends and Inequalities in Use of Maternal Health Care Services in Nepal: Strategy in the Search for Improvements

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    Suresh Mehata

    2017-01-01

    education was the most powerful. Conclusion. To increase equitable use of maternal health services in Nepal there is a need to strengthen the health system to increase access to and utilization of services among poorer women, those with less education, and those living in remote areas. Beyond the health sector stronger efforts are needed to tackle the root causes of health inequality, reduce poverty, increase female education, eradicate caste/ethnicity based social discrimination, and invest in the development of remote areas.

  15. Cumulative incidence, distribution, and determinants of catastrophic health expenditure in Nepal: results from the living standards survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghimire, Mamata; Ayer, Rakesh; Kondo, Masahide

    2018-02-14

    Nepal has committed to the global community to achieve universal health coverage by 2030. Nevertheless, Nepal still has a high proportion of out-of-pocket health payment and a limited risk-pooling mechanism. Out-of-pocket payment for the healthcare services could result in catastrophic health expenditure (CHE). Evidence is required to effectively channel the efforts to lower those expenses in order to achieve universal health coverage. However, little is known about CHE and its determinants in a broad national context in Nepal. Therefore, this study was conducted to explore the cumulative incidence, distribution, and determinants of CHE in Nepal. Data were obtained from the nationally representative survey, the Nepal Living Standards Survey-third undertaken in 2010/11. Information from 5988 households was used for the analyses. Households were classified as having CHE when their out-of-pocket health payment was greater than or equal to 40% of their capacity to pay. Remaining households were classified as not having CHE. Logistic regression analyses were used to identify determinants of CHE. Based on household-weighted sample, the cumulative incidence of CHE was 10.3% per month in Nepal. This incidence was concentrated in the far-western region and households in the poorer expenditure quartiles. Multivariable logistic regression revealed that households were more likely to face CHE if they; consisted of chronically ill member(s), have a higher burden of acute illness and injuries, have elderly (≥60 years) member(s), belonged to the poor expenditure quartile, and were located in the far-western region. In contrast, households were less likely to incur CHE when their household head was educated. Having children (≤5 years) in households did not significantly affect catastrophic health expenditure. This study identified a high cumulative incidence of CHE. CHE was disproportionately concentrated in the poor households and households located in the far

  16. A Comparative Analysis of Micro Finances: An Economic Impact of Micro Finance upon Income Level of People in Kavrepalanchok District, Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Regmi, Sachin; Gautam, Usha Kiran

    2016-01-01

    Master thesis Business Administration - University of Agder 2016 Micro Finance, one of the essential banking services providing institution has a major contribution upon the economic development of people and nation. It targets mostly to low income generating people and assist them to enhance their life style in a better way. It provides financial services to such people and tries to eradicate the poverty from the nation. Kavrepalanchok district in Nepal, with an area of 1,396 ...

  17. Geo-Hazards and Mountain Road Development in Nepal: Understanding the Science-Policy-Governance Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugar, Sumit; Dahal, Vaskar

    2015-04-01

    The foothills of Nepalese Himalayas located in the neotectonic mountain environment are among some of the most unstable and geomorphologically dynamic landscapes in the world. Young fold mountains in this region are characterized by complex tectonics that influence the occurrence of earthquakes, while climatic processes such as intense orographic rainfall often dictate the occurrence of floods and landslides. Development of linear infrastructures, such as roads, in mountainous terrain characterized by high relief and orogeny is considerably challenging where the complexity of landscape in steep and irregular topography, difficult ground conditions and weak geology, presents engineers and planners with numerous difficulties to construct and maintain mountain roads. Whilst application of engineering geology, geomorphic interpretation of terrain in terms of physiography and hydrology, and identification of geo-hazards along the road corridor is critical for long term operation of mountain roads, low-cost arterial roads in the Himalayan foothills generally fail to incorporate standard road slope engineering structures. This research provides unique insights on policy and governance issues in developing mountainous countries such as Nepal, where achieving a sound balance between sustainability and affordability is a major challenge for road construction. Road development in Nepal is a complex issue where socio-economic and political factors influence the budget allocation for road construction in rural hilly areas. Moreover, most mountain roads are constructed without any geological or geo-technical site investigations due to rampant corruption and lack of adequate engineering supervision. Despite having good examples of rural road construction practices such as the Dharan-Dhankuta Road in Eastern Nepal where comprehensive terrain-evaluation methods and geo-technical surveys led to an improved understanding of road construction, learnings from this project have not

  18. Prospect of bio-gas as one of the sources of energy in Nepal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karki, A B; Coburn, B A

    1977-01-01

    Nepal is a small Himalayan country plagued by a severe indigenous energy shortage, with wood for cooking constituting the vast bulk of the domestic energy consumption. Forest cutting for fuelwood exceeds growth by a factor of seven to one. Petrofuels and hydro-electricity, currently limited to small areas, will require importation or expensive foreign technology if they are to be developed on a large scale. The recovery of methane gas (CH/sub 4/) and an enriched fertilizer by-product from animal and human wastes is a technology which has proven itself in India (over 35,000 operating plants) and has been successful for the more than 250 plants now operating in Nepal. These bio-gas digestor plants are largely adaptable from local materials, and the socio-economic barriers to their development are minor. Over 10,000 homesteads have sites where a bio-gas digestor system would yield a benefit-to-cost ratio of greater than 2:1. To reach the poorer farmer who cannot afford or who does not have the organic matter necessary to operate a 'gobar (dung) gas' plant, current research has shown that large-scale community gas-cum-fertilizer digestor plants can operate effectively. A single-unit community latrine gas plant in the Kathmandu Valley, which digests and stores the sewage from 800 to 1000 persons daily, is producing gas for cooking, valuable fertilizer and is the city's only successful sanitation scheme. The technologies of cost reduction and temperature control, heretofore limiting factors in bio-gas application, are being continually improved.

  19. Seasonal and Altitudinal Prevalence of Fascioliasis in Buffalo in Eastern Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh Prasad Sah

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Buffalo is the most important livestock commodities for milk, meat production and several other multipurpose uses distributed densely from southern tarai to northern mid-hills in Nepal. Among several internal parasitic diseases fascioliasis is highly economic one caused by Fasciola in buffaloes. However, there are only few studies carried on prevalence of fascioliasis emphasizing buffaloes in relation to seasonal (summer and rainy, and winter and altitudinal variations. Therefore, we examined prevalence of fascioliasis seasonally and vertically. For the purpose, we selected two districts of eastern Nepal and sampled from low altitude area known as Madhesha ranging from 175-200, Dhankuta from 800-1200 m, and Murtidhunga from 1800-2200 m elevation from the sea level, representing tarai, mid hills and high hills, respectively. Altogether from February 2013 to January 2014 at every two months interval we collected 798 fecal samples from buffaloes; 282 from Murtidhunga, 239 from Dhankuta and 277 from Madhesha. The samples were examined microscopically for the presence of Fasciola eggs using sedimentation technique. Results showed that overall prevalence of fascioliasis in buffaloes was 39.9% (319/798, ranging highest 42.6%in Madhesha followed by 39.7% in Murtidhunga and 37.2% in Dhankuta, respectively. The prevalence of fascioliasis was found to be significantly (p <0.05 high in winter (44.9% comparing to rainy season (34.4%. The prevalence of fascioliasis in buffaloes was relatively higher in low altitude than high altitude, although it was not statistically significant (p <0.05. In our findings the female buffaloes showed higher prevalence for fascioliasis than in male. Since the fascioliasis in buffaloes is highly endemic, thus strategic deworming in high risk period is recommended along with measure to prevent pasture contamination with buffalo feces.

  20. Macrobenthic standing stock in the nodule areas of Central Indian Ocean Basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pavithran, S.; Ingole, B.S.

    Diversity, distribution and standing stock of macrofauna in the nodule areas of Central Indian Ocean Basin (CIOB) were studied during April 2003. The density ranged between 22 to 132 no.m super(-2) (mean: 55 + or - 37 SD, n=25) and biomass ranged...

  1. The 2015 Nepal Earthquake(s): Lessons Learned From the Disability and Rehabilitation Sector's Preparation for, and Response to, Natural Disasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, Michel D; Sheppard, Phillip S; Leung, Kit; Retis, Chiara; Salvador, Edwin C; Raman, Sudha R

    2016-11-01

    The frequency of natural disasters appears to be mounting at an alarming rate, and the degree to which people are surviving such traumatic events also is increasing. Postdisaster survival often triggers increases in population and individual disability-related outcomes in the form of impairments, activity limitations, and participation restrictions, all of which have an important impact on the individual, his or her family, and their community. The increase in postdisaster disability-related outcomes has provided a rationale for the increased role of the disability and rehabilitation sector's involvement in emergency response, including physical therapists. A recent major earthquake that has drawn the world's attention occurred in the spring of 2015 in Nepal. The response of the local and international communities was large and significant, and although the collection of complex health and disability issues have yet to be fully resolved, there has been a series of important lessons learned from the 2015 Nepal earthquake(s). This perspective article outlines lessons learned from Nepal that can be applied to future disasters to reduce overall disability-related outcomes and more fully integrate rehabilitation in preparation and planning. First, information is presented on disasters in general, and then information is presented that focuses on the earthquake(s) in Nepal. Next, field experience in Nepal before, during, and after the earthquake is described, and actions that can and should be adopted prior to disasters as part of disability preparedness planning are examined. Then, the emerging roles of rehabilitation providers such as physical therapists during the immediate and postdisaster recovery phases are discussed. Finally, approaches are suggested that can be adopted to "build back better" for, and with, people with disabilities in postdisaster settings such as Nepal. © 2016 American Physical Therapy Association.

  2. Family planning knowledge and practice among people living with HIV in Nepal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiva Raj Mishra

    Full Text Available Unsafe sexual behavior is common among the HIV infected. This exposes them to the risks of unintended pregnancy, HIV transmission to uninfected partners and super-infection. Studies on the use of family planning measures among People Living with HIV (PLHIV are scarce in Nepal. The aim of this study was to explore the knowledge and practice of family planning (FP in PLHIV. A cross sectional survey was conducted during July-December 2012 in Kaski district of Nepal. A total of 120 PLHIVs were recruited using snowball sampling from three HIV clinics within the Pokhara sub-metropolitan city area. This study found that nine in ten PLHIV had heard about family planning. Two thirds of respondents were using at least one FP method. The majority (65.8% used condoms and had received FP counseling (67.5%. Less than one percent used condoms in addition to another contraceptive. Being single, being female and having received the counselling sessions were associated with the use of FP. The individuals who received FP counseling were more likely [OR 4.522; 95% CI (1.410-14.504] to use FP. Females were more likely [OR 4.808; 95% CI (1.396-16.556] to use FP than males. The individuals who were single/de-facto widowed were more likely [OR 7.330; 95% CI (2.064-26.028] to use FP than the married individuals. Our findings suggest that there is a need to focus on FP counseling if the HIV prevention program is to increase FP use among the PLHIV population. Use of dual contraceptives need to be promoted through counseling sessions and other health promotion programs focusing in HIV prevention.

  3. Menstruation and Education in Nepal. NBER Working Paper No. 14853

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oster, Emily; Thornton, Rebecca

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the results from a randomized evaluation that distributed menstrual cups (menstrual sanitary products) to adolescent girls in rural Nepal. Girls in the study were randomly allocated a menstrual cup for use during their monthly period and were followed for fifteen months to measure the effects of having modern sanitary products…

  4. Remittance Received by Households of Western Chitwan Valley, Nepal: Does Migrant’s Destination Make a Difference?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prem Bhandari

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Studies on migration in Nepal primarily focused on the causes of migration, in general. While a few studies examined the remittances received or sent by migrants, there is little information about the variation in remittances received by households by migrant’s destination. Thus, this exploratory study attempts to answer: Does the extent to which households receive remittances vary by migrant’s destination? Using the data collected in 2013 from the western Chitwan Valley of Nepal, the findings from multivariate analysis reveal that net of controls, both the receipt (whether a household received any remittance or not as well as the amount of remittances received by a household varied by migrant’s destination. Evidence suggests that households are less likely to receive remittances from migrants working in India (a country of low earning potential as compared to those working in Nepal. On the other hand, households received significantly more amount of remittances from migrants working in countri