WorldWideScience

Sample records for area bonsal north

  1. Cerrejon North Area, Environmental Administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The carboniferous complex of The Cerrejon North Area, it is located to the north of Colombia in the Atlantic coast, in the Guajira Department. The complex carboniferous has with three units: the mine, the railway and the shipment port. The associate companies, they have developed a series of plans to achieve that the ecosystem of the region like the life of the residents of the near towns to the carboniferous complex, don't be affected by the operation activities. From the beginning of the operations and according to the environmental impact study, was designed and it implanted a program of ecological protection with control actions and of monitory for the soil resources, water and air, of equal form, programs of social action were designed that allow that the realization of a work like this contributes benefits and non sacrifices to the human population, vegetable and animal of the region. The associates commit to make permanent efforts to improve the environmental acting in all the activities of their business, it will stimulate the respect and the concern for the environment, natural and social, and it will emphasize each employee's individual responsibility in the environmental acting

  2. Retail Trade Area Analysis Garrison North Dakota

    OpenAIRE

    Bangsund, Dean A.; Leistritz, F. Larry; Wanzek, Janet K.; Zetocha, Dale F.; Bastow-Shoop, Holly E.

    1991-01-01

    This report is intended to provide an indepth trade area analysis of Garrison, North Dakota. Specific analyses included determining Garrison's main and greater trade areas, identifying the demographic profile of Garrison shoppers, examining important and less important services for patron shoppers of Garrison, identifying neighboring cities that area shoppers patronize, determining distances area shoppers traveled to Garrison, and listing popular newspapers and radio stations among area resid...

  3. 200 North Aggregate Area source AAMS report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-06-01

    This report presents the results of an aggregate area management study (AAMS) for the 200 North Aggregate Area in the 200 Areas of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site in Washington State. This scoping level study provides the basis for initiating Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) activities under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) or Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Facility Investigations (RFI) and Corrective Measures Studies (CMS) under RCRA. This report also integrates select RCRA treatment, storage, or disposal (TSD) closure activities with CERCLA and RCRA past practice investigations.

  4. 200 North Aggregate Area source AAMS report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the results of an aggregate area management study (AAMS) for the 200 North Aggregate Area in the 200 Areas of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site in Washington State. This scoping level study provides the basis for initiating Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) activities under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) or Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Facility Investigations (RFI) and Corrective Measures Studies (CMS) under RCRA. This report also integrates select RCRA treatment, storage, or disposal (TSD) closure activities with CERCLA and RCRA past practice investigations

  5. Education challenges in the North Sea area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducrotoy, Jean Paul

    2003-01-01

    This paper introduces the North Sea as a fast evolving coastal ecosystem. The variability of natural conditions relates to the global climatic change and to human disturbances, which originate regionally. Education is an integral part of the strategy to improve environmental awareness. Considering contemporary challenges for educating the wider public about the main issues of environmental concern, attention is paid to various plans, which are being developed in North-Western Europe from primary schools to universities. "Learning for life" relies on an opening of the vocation of traditional universities and on the creation of a European university. Sharing resources in a competitive environment is one response given by British universities in the framework of a Discipline Network in Coastal Sciences and Management in 1996-2000. Networking is truly the key to a fast evolving teaching and learning context, notably in relation to ever developing information and communication technologies. The dissemination of scientific information is primordial in this context; a case study relating to the European project "Marine biodiversity in Europe" (BIOMARE) demonstrates the need for an elaborated strategy leading to socio-economic considerations. Empowering communities and governance are the main possible outcomes of such an enlarged approach to education, involving teachers, students, researchers, professionals, and volunteers. Proposals are made for amplifying the involvement of non-scientists into scientific research and its applications to management. Finally, a case is made for facilitating the mobility of all concerned, with a view to annihilate language and cultural barriers.

  6. Education challenges in the North Sea area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducrotoy, Jean Paul

    2003-01-01

    This paper introduces the North Sea as a fast evolving coastal ecosystem. The variability of natural conditions relates to the global climatic change and to human disturbances, which originate regionally. Education is an integral part of the strategy to improve environmental awareness. Considering contemporary challenges for educating the wider public about the main issues of environmental concern, attention is paid to various plans, which are being developed in North-Western Europe from primary schools to universities. "Learning for life" relies on an opening of the vocation of traditional universities and on the creation of a European university. Sharing resources in a competitive environment is one response given by British universities in the framework of a Discipline Network in Coastal Sciences and Management in 1996-2000. Networking is truly the key to a fast evolving teaching and learning context, notably in relation to ever developing information and communication technologies. The dissemination of scientific information is primordial in this context; a case study relating to the European project "Marine biodiversity in Europe" (BIOMARE) demonstrates the need for an elaborated strategy leading to socio-economic considerations. Empowering communities and governance are the main possible outcomes of such an enlarged approach to education, involving teachers, students, researchers, professionals, and volunteers. Proposals are made for amplifying the involvement of non-scientists into scientific research and its applications to management. Finally, a case is made for facilitating the mobility of all concerned, with a view to annihilate language and cultural barriers. PMID:12787627

  7. Closure plan for the Test Area North-726 chromate water storage and Test Area North-726A chromate treatment units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document describes the proposed plan for closure of the Test Area North-726 chromate water storage and Test Area North-726A chromate treatment units at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory in accordance with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act interim status closure requirements. The location, size, capacity, and history of the units are described, and their current status is discussed. The units will be closed by treating remaining waste in storage, followed by thorough decontamination of the systems. Sufficient sampling and analysis, and documentation of all activities will be performed to demonstrate clean closure

  8. Traffic simulation of Beijing west railway station north area

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaochun Lu; Zhanping Liu

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: In recent years the problem of traffic congestion and its management has become increasingly prominent. It is a hot research about how to make full use of computer simulation technology to make transportation more rational and more organized. In this paper, we focus on traffic of Beijing West Railway Station north area, and try to find a way to reduce traffic congestion in this area. Approach: In this paper, we studied the traffic flow by survey. We also built a traffic simulation mo...

  9. 14 CFR 135.98 - Operations in the North Polar Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Operations in the North Polar Area. 135.98... Operations § 135.98 Operations in the North Polar Area. After August 13, 2008, no certificate holder may operate an aircraft in the region north of 78° N latitude (“North Polar Area”), other than...

  10. Draft environmental assessment -- Test Area North pool stabilization project update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    The purpose of this Environmental Assessment (EA) is to update the ``Test Area North Pool Stabilization Project`` EA (DOE/EA-1050) and finding of no significant impact (FONSI) issued May 6, 1996. This update analyzes the environmental and health impacts of a drying process for the Three Mile Island (TMI) nuclear reactor core debris canisters now stored underwater in a facility on the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). A drying process was analyzed in the predecision versions of the EA released in 1995 but that particular process was determined to be ineffective and dropped form the Ea/FONSI issued May 6, 1996. The origin and nature of the TMI core debris and the proposed drying process are described and analyzed in detail in this EA. As did the 1996 EA, this update analyzes the environmental and health impacts of removing various radioactive materials from underwater storage, dewatering these materials, constructing a new interim dry storage facility, and transporting and placing the materials into the new facility. Also, as did the 1996 EA, this EA analyzes the removal, treatment and disposal of water from the pool, and placement of the facility into a safe, standby condition. The entire action would take place within the boundaries of the INEEL. The materials are currently stored underwater in the Test Area North (TAN) building 607 pool, the new interim dry storage facility would be constructed at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) which is about 25 miles south of TAN.

  11. Environmental Assessment -- Test Area North pool stabilization project update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-08-01

    The purpose of this Environmental Assessment (EA) is to update the ``Test Area North Pool Stabilization Project`` EA (DOE/EA-1050) and finding of no significant impact (FONSI) issued May 6, 1996. This update analyzes the environmental and health impacts of a drying process for the Three Mile Island (TMI) nuclear reactor core debris canisters now stored underwater in a facility on the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). A drying process was analyzed in the predecision versions of the EA released in 1995 but that particular process was determined to be ineffective and dropped from the EA/FONSI issued May 6, 1996. A new drying process was subsequently developed and is analyzed in Section 2.1.2 of this document. As did the 1996 EA, this update analyzes the environmental and health impacts of removing various radioactive materials from underwater storage, dewatering these materials, constructing a new interim dry storage facility, and transporting and placing the materials into the new facility. Also, as did the 1996 EA, this EA analyzes the removal, treatment and disposal of water from the pool, and placement of the facility into a safe, standby condition. The entire action would take place within the boundaries of the INEEL. The materials are currently stored underwater in the Test Area North (TAN) building 607 pool, the new interim dry storage facility would be constructed at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) which is about 25 miles south of TAN.

  12. Geology of the Plumtree area, Spruce Pine district, North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brobst, Donald Albert

    1953-01-01

    This report describes the results of study and geologic mapping (1:12,000) in the 70-square-mile Plumtree area in the northeastern part of the Spruce Pine pegmatite district, on the Blue Ridge upland in western North Carolina. The district has been the chief domestic source of feldspar and sheet mica. The mining belt just west of the Blue Ridge Front trends northeast and is 25 miles long and 10 miles wide. The center of the Plumtree area lies 10 miles northeast of Spruce Pine pegmatite district, on the Blue Ridge upland in western North Carolina. The district has been the chief domestic source of feldspar and sheet mica. The mining belt just west of the Blue Ridge Front trends northeast and is 25 miles long and 10 miles wide. The center of the Plumtree area lies 10 miles northeast of Spruce Pine and includes parts of Mitchell and Avery Counties shown on the portions of the 7.5-minute Spruce Pine, Linville Falls, Newland, North Carolina, and Carvers Gap, North Carolina and Tennessee quadrangle. The topography varies from rugged mountains to rounded or flat topped hills near the entrenched, meandering master streams. Old erosion surfaces are approximately 600,1,100, 1,500, and 2,500 feet above the present master stream level. The area is in late youth or early maturity after rejuvenation.. The regionally metamorphosed rocks of the amophibolite facies form three mappable units: mica gneiss, mica schist, and hornblende rock. These rocks, perhaps of Precambrian age, are intimately interlayered with thicknesses of the individual layers ranging from less than one inch to several tons of feet. Field relationships and chemical data suggest that the mica (Carolina-type) rocks were derived from sandstones, graywackes, and shales and that the hornblende-rich (Roan-type) layers were derived from impure carbonate rocks. The igneous rocks include alaskite and associated pegmatite of early Paleozoic age (?), dunite and associated soapstone of a prepegmatite age, and a few diabasic

  13. Distribution and area of mangrove forest in Pising Bay coastal area North Kabaena Island Southeast Sulawesi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Salam Tarigan

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available esearched of mangrove forest in Pising Bay, North Kabaena Island Southeast Sulawesi was carried out on April 2006. Data digital Landsat 7ETM+ parth/raw 113/064 was used for mangrove mapping. Classification method was done is multispectral supervised with artificial neural networks algortms. Analysis and data validation from field survey, it is estimated that distribution and areas of mangrove forest in Pising Bay, North Kabaena Island Southeast Sulawesi is 152.128 Ha. Mangrove in Pising Bay dominated by rhizophora apiculata, rhizophora mucronata; and the forest is relatively in good condition.

  14. Assessing Environmental Sensitivity Areas to Desertification in North of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ameneh Sobhani

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The sensitivity map to desertification of Chehel-chai basin (North of Iran has been elaborated by the crossing of fives criteria including climate, water erosion, soil, vegetation, and management, which have the main impact on the evolutionary process of desertification. The methodology is resulted from the desertification model of MEDALUS, which use qualitative index to define the land sensitive area to desertification. According to the factorial scaling technique, score-ranging from 1(good condition to 2(deteriorated condition is assigned to each indicator. Each index was assessed based on selected indicators, which resulted in qualitative mapping of each index based on geometric average of the indicators. Thematic databases, with a 1:50000 scale resolution, were integrated and elaborated in GIS software based on arc view3.2, Ilwis3.1 and ArcGIS9.3. The obtained results indicate that 39.39% of Chehel-chai basin is highly sensitive to desertification, 2.13 % has moderate sensitivity, only 2.43% has low sensitivity and 56.05% is non-sensitive. Studying the mean weight of numerical value, it is distinguished that the intensity of desertification for the total area is 1.32 which is classified as fragile (2.

  15. Test Area North Pool Stabilization Project: Environmental assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    The Test Area North (TAN) Pool is located within the fenced TAN facility boundaries on the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The TAN pool stores 344 canisters of core debris from the March, 1979, Three Mile Island (TMI) Unit 2 reactor accident; fuel assemblies from Loss-of-Fluid Tests (LOFT); and Government-owned commercial fuel rods and assemblies. The LOFT and government owned commercial fuel rods and assemblies are hereafter referred to collectively as {open_quotes}commercial fuels{close_quotes} except where distinction between the two is important to the analysis. DOE proposes to remove the canisters of TMI core debris and commercial fuels from the TAN Pool and transfer them to the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) for interim dry storage until an alternate storage location other than at the INEL, or a permanent federal spent nuclear fuel (SNF) repository is available. The TAN Pool would be drained and placed in an industrially and radiologically safe condition for refurbishment or eventual decommissioning. This environmental assessment (EA) identifies and evaluates environmental impacts associated with (1) constructing an Interim Storage System (ISS) at ICPP; (2) removing the TMI and commercial fuels from the pool and transporting them to ICPP for placement in an ISS, and (3) draining and stabilizing the TAN Pool. Miscellaneous hardware would be removed and decontaminated or disposed of in the INEL Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC). This EA also describes the environmental consequences of the no action alternative.

  16. Salmon racial sampling in the areas north of Bristol Bay, 1956

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report covers salmon racial sampling in the areas north of Bristol Bay during 1956. Study areas include Kuskokwim river, Yukon river, Unalakleet River, Nome,...

  17. Seasonal Management Areas for North Atlantic Right Whales GIS data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data represent Seasonal Mangagement Area locations where regulations implement speed restrictions in shipping areas at certain times of the year along the...

  18. Genetic similarity between Taenia solium cysticerci collected from the two distant endemic areas in North and North East India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Monika; Devi, Kangjam Rekha; Sehgal, Rakesh; Narain, Kanwar; Mahanta, Jagadish; Malla, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    Taenia solium taeniasis/cysticercosis is a major public health problem in developing countries. This study reports genotypic analysis of T. solium cysticerci collected from two different endemic areas of North (Chandigarh) and North East India (Dibrugarh) by the sequencing of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene. The variation in cox1 sequences of samples collected from these two different geographical regions located at a distance of 2585 km was minimal. Alignment of the nucleotide sequences with different species of Taenia showed the similarity with Asian genotype of T. solium. Among 50 isolates, 6 variant nucleotide positions (0.37% of total length) were detected. These results suggest that population in these geographical areas are homogenous.

  19. Deglaciation of the Wijdefjorden-Austfjorden area, north Spitsbergen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forwick, Matthias; Vorren, Tore O.; Hass, H. Christian; Vogt, Christoph

    2013-04-01

    Swath-bathymetry, high-resolution seismics and lithological data from the Wijdefjorden-Austfjorden fjord system, the largest fjord system on northern Spitsbergen, have been analysed. The data indicate that multiple halts and/or readvances during the deglaciation of the study area at the end of the last glacial occurred. However, even though the study area and several west Spitsbergen fjords are fed by the same glacier source (the ice field Lomonosovfonna), the final deglaciation of Wijdefjorden-Austfjorden took place after 9300 cal. years BP, i.e. at least approx. 2000 years later than in the west. It is suggested that the retarded deglaciation of the study area is mainly related to the fjord bathymetry, i.e. a more than 35 km wide and up to 60 m high plateau in the central parts of the study area (approx. 45 km beyond the present fjord head). Multiple, relatively large and partly stacked moraine ridges and sediment wedges are suggested to reflect that the ice front retreated slowly across this shallow area and that repeated readvances occurred. The absence of larger sediment wedges in the deeper parts between the shallow area and the fjord head may indicate that the final retreat occurred rapidly.

  20. TL studies of calcareous rocks of Danta area, North Gujarat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The lithounits exposed around Danta in Banaskantha district of North Gujarat belong to Ajabgarh Group, the upper division of the Delhi super group. These rocks are intruded by syn to late kinematic basic rocks and by Erinpura granites of post Delhi age. The Ajabgarh group consists of pelitic and calcareous components. Mineralogically the pelitic rocks comprise cordierite, almandine garnet, k-feldspar, sillimanite, quartz and mica in variable proportions. The calcareous rocks are seen to contain dominantly calcite, scapolite, forsterite, sphene, k-feldspar. These mineral assemblages correspond to upper Amphibolite to lower Granulite facies of regional metamorphism. The chemistry of the calcareous rocks show predominance of CaO over MgO. The glow curves obtained from virgin samples (NTL) as well as artificial beta irradiated indicate glow peaks at 140oC, 290oC, 310oC and 390oC. The TL glow peak temperatures are in general agreement with those reported by Borsi and Rinaldi and Medlin. The pronounced peak at 390oC and 290oC are suggestive of their high irradiation sensitivity and also probably reflect variation in the Mn content of the rocks. (author). 9 refs., 16 tabs., 2 figs

  1. 75 FR 48986 - Northwest Area Water Supply Project, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-12

    ... the surface water supplies within the service area are insufficient from both a quality and quantity... Scoping Meetings MSU-Bottineau, Nelson Science Center Room 125, 105 Simrall Boulevard, Bottineau, ND Sleep... of the proposed action is to provide a reliable source of high quality treated water to...

  2. 75 FR 49518 - Northwest Area Water Supply Project, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-13

    ... the surface water supplies within the service area are insufficient from both a quality and quantity... MSU-Bottineau, Nelson Science Center Room 125, 105 Simrall Boulevard, Bottineau, ND. Sleep Inn--Inn... of the proposed action is to provide a reliable source of high quality treated water to...

  3. Discussion on the dynamic mechanism of Great North China area based on the observed stress data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯向东; 魏东平; 陈棋福

    2005-01-01

    Based on the constrained data from the observed stress orientation and the observed stress regime, the tectonic stress fields of the Great North China area has been simulated by using the pseudo-3D finite element method. The results indicate that the stress fields in this area are basically controlled by the push forces coming from the Pacific Plate and from the Tibet Plateau, and the WNW-ward action from the Pacific Plate play a more important role in North China plain block. In addition to that, the stress field in this area is also partly formed by the extension action from the mantle upwelling in perpendicular at the basin margins.

  4. How the Location of Roads and Protected Areas Affects Deforestation in North Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Cropper, Maureen; Puri, Jyotsna; Griffiths, Charles

    2001-01-01

    Using plot-level data, the authors estimate a bi-variate probit model to explain land clearing, and the siting of protected areas in North Thailand in 1986. Their model suggests that protected areas (national parks, together with wildlife sanctuaries) did not reduce the likelihood of forest clearing, but wildlife sanctuaries may have reduced the probability of deforestation. Road building,...

  5. Urban nature conservation: vegetation of natural areas in the Potchefstroom municipal area, North West Province, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Cilliers, S.S.; Van Wyk, E; G.J. Bredenkamp

    1999-01-01

    This study on the natural and degraded natural vegetation of natural areas in the Potchefstroom Municipal Area, forms part of a research programme on spontaneous vegetation in urban open spaces in the North West Province, South Africa. Using a numerical classification technique (TWINSPAN) as a first approximation, the classification was refined by applying Braun-Blanquet procedures. The result is a phytosociological table from which 6 plant communities were recognised, which are subdivided in...

  6. TCC2, the target hall of the SPS North Area

    CERN Multimedia

    1978-01-01

    In the foreground can be seen the three proton beam branches leading to the targets enclosed in an assembly of iron blocks with the positioning mechanism on top. In the background, the six secondary beams lead off towards the experimental areas, H2/P2, H4/E4/P4 (from T2 via TT81) and H6, H8 (from T4 via TT82) towards the hall EHN1, M2 from T6 via TT83 towards the hall EHN2. The development proton beam line P0 leads off from T4 via TT83 towards TCC8 and hall ECN3 (NAHIF).

  7. Assessing malaria transmission in a low endemicity area of north-western Peru

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosas-Aguirre, Angel; Llanos-Cuentas, Alejandro; Speybroeck, Niko;

    2013-01-01

    Where malaria endemicity is low, control programmes need increasingly sensitive tools for monitoring malaria transmission intensity (MTI) and to better define health priorities. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in a low endemicity area of the Peruvian north-western coast to assess the MTI...

  8. Climatic patterns in the establishment of wintering areas by North American migratory birds

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez‐Moreno, Heidi; Martínez‐Meyer, Enrique; Soberón Mainero, Jorge; Rojas‐Soto, Octavio

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Long‐distance migration in birds is relatively well studied in nature; however, one aspect of this phenomenon that remains poorly understood is the pattern of distribution presented by species during arrival to and establishment of wintering areas. Some studies suggest that the selection of areas in winter is somehow determined by climate, given its influence on both the distribution of bird species and their resources. We analyzed whether different migrant passerine species of North...

  9. Carbon isotope ratios of C4 plants in loess areas of North China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Carbon isotope ratios (δ13C) of 89 C4 plant samples were determined from the loess area in North China. δ13C values vary between -10.5‰ and -14.6‰ with a mean of -12.6‰. Along a precipitation gradient from the semi-moist area to the semiarid area, then to the arid area, the δ13C values of C4 plants show a slight decreasing trend. The δ13C values of C4 plants in the dry season are found lower than those in the wet season. These trends are opposite to those observed for C3 species.

  10. Degraded Ecosystem and its Rehabilitating Measures in Sandy Areas of North China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANGFengchun; LUQi

    2004-01-01

    Ecosystem degradation occurs in parallel with desertification process in sandy areas of North China. The vast sandy areas in North China are characterized with flexible environments and fragile ecosystems as well as intensive human activities. Due to the annual precipitation gradient decreases from east to west in North China, the whole sandy region falls into 3 main climatic zones: add, semi-add and dry sub-humid zones.The ecosystems in each type of climatic zones are different in climatic conditions, human activities,cultural dimensions, vegetation covers, landscapes, and causes and processes of ecosystem degradation.Therefore, the most effective rehabilitation measures of degraded ecosystems in different types of the climatic zones are also different. For the arid sandy areas, vegetation rehabilitation of degraded ecosystems needs to be completely closed, assisting with artificial measures, such as plantation, irrigation or others. For semi-add sandy areas, the effective measures of vegetation rehabilitation of degraded ecosystems include increasing of proportion of forests and rangelands and limitation of reclamation; reducing the carrying capacity of livestock on unit area of rangelands and growth of fodder plants; and plantation on the lowlands betweens and dunes. For the dry sub-humid areas, the most effective measure is enclosure of degraded ecosystems combined with plantation, and in some cases, just stop uses by grazing or reclamation.

  11. A Monte Carlo-tuned model of the flow in the NorthGRIP area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grinsted, Aslak; Dahl-Jensen, Dorthe

    2002-01-01

    The North Greenland Icecore Project (NorthGRIP) drill site was chosen in order to obtain a good Eemian record. At the present depth, 3001m, the Eemian interstadial has yet to be seen. Clearly the flow in this area is poorly understood and needs further investigation. After a review of specific...... Eemian is observed is a high basal melt rate (2.7mm/a). The melting is a consequence of a higher geothermal heat flux than the expected 51mW/m^2 of the Precambrian shield. From our analyses it is concluded that the geothermal heat flux at NorthGRIP is 98mW/m^2.The high basalmelt rate also gives rise to...

  12. Diversity and distribution of Chironomidae (Insecta: Diptera of protected areas in North Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boulaaba S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In North Africa seasonal streams called wadi are an unique habitats with serve hydrological and thermal regime. Non-biting midges take an important part of freshwater biodiversity in North Africa. We present new data on the distribution and diversity of Chironomidae in North Tunisia. Larvae, pupal exuviae and adult males of chironomids were collected from a various freshwater ecosystems from May 2005 till April 2006. The aim of this study was to recognize the pattern of midge diversity in North Tunisia to estimate ecological value of running waters in the region. In total, 79 taxa were identified. Nearly all of the taxa were typical representatives of the Palaearctic and Mediterranean complexes. The majority of the investigated sites belonged to the protected areas in North Tunisia, such as the Ichkeul National Park, the Kroumerie Mountains and the El Feija National Park, part of the Intercontinental Reserve of the Mediterranean Biosphere. Altitudinal zonation of the communities composition was found in the lowland (250 m a.s.l. with maximum of 760 m. Whereas among the data 39 species are recorded from Tunisia for the first time, the species richness of Chironomidae is higher than previously estimated.

  13. Environmental pollutant isotope measurements and natural radioactivity assessment for North Tushki area, south western desert, Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sroor, A. E-mail: amanysroor@hotmail.com; Afifi, S.Y.; Abdel-Haleem, A.S.; Salman, A.B.; Abdel-Sammad, M

    2002-09-01

    Natural radioactive materials under certain conditions can reach hazardous radiological levels. The natural radionuclide ({sup 238}U, {sup 232}Th, {sup 40}K) contents of rock samples at various locations in the North Tushki area were investigated using gamma-spectrometric analysis. Estimates of the measured radionuclide content have been made for the absorbed dose rate of gamma radiation. The equivalent radium (R{sub eq}) and the external hazard index (H{sub ex}) which resulted from the natural radionuclides in soil are also calculated and tabulated. The studied samples have been collected from various rock exposures in the North Tushki area. The distribution of major oxides, U and Th were studied. It is found that the enrichment and depletion of the major oxides are mainly due to the effect of hydrothermal alteration, which caused mobility of some major oxides, which increases some elements and decreases others. It is important to mention that the study area is far from the development region of the Tushki project and is only a local hazard. Therefore, additional regional studies of the Tushki Project area should be under taken to explore any unexpected environmental hazard due to the high concentration of the radioactive elements, which have been observed at its north boundary.

  14. Environmental pollutant isotope measurements and natural radioactivity assessment for north Tushki area, south western desert, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sroor, A; Afifi, S Y; Abdel-Haleem, A S; Salman, A B; Abdel-Sammad, M

    2002-09-01

    Natural radioactive materials under certain conditions can reach hazardous radiological levels. The natural radionuclide (238U, 232Th, 40K) contents of rock samples at various locations in the North Tushki area were investigated using gamma-spectrometric analysis. Estimates of the measured radionuclide content have been made for the absorbed dose rate of gamma radiation. The equivalent radium (Req) and the external hazard index (Hex) which resulted from the natural radionuclides in soil are also calculated and tabulated. The studied samples have been collected from various rock exposures in the North Tushki area. The distribution of major oxides, U and Th were studied. It is found that the enrichment and depletion of the major oxides are mainly due to the effect of hydrothermal alteration, which caused mobility of some major oxides, which increases some elements and decreases others. It is important to mention that the study area is far from the development region of the Tushki project and is only a local hazard. Therefore, additional regional studies of the Tushki Project area should be under taken to explore any unexpected environmental hazard due to the high concentration of the radioactive elements, which have been observed at its north boundary. PMID:12201151

  15. North Putrajaya Catchment Area Putrajaya, Malaysia-Challenges in Water Quality Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Putrajaya Administrative area covers 70 % of the Putrajaya Lake catchment area. Development work carried out within the Putrajaya area abides by the rules and regulations set by the Putrajaya Corporation to ensure that the quality of the lake water and wetland within the Putrajaya area meets the stipulated benchmark standards. However, 30 % of the Putrajaya lake and wetland catchment area is located outside of administration and prerogative of the Putrajaya Corporation. The North Putrajaya catchment area which originates from the Sg. Chuau River contributes the bulk of the water that flows into the lake and wetlands of Putrajaya. Water quality data collected by the Putrajaya Corporation for the period of 2002 to 2005 has been analysed to identify major issues in the Putrajaya Wetland North Catchment area. Data from 2002 shows average percentage parameter of non-compliance Putrajaya Standard for ammoniacal nitrogen (NH3-N) at 43.7 %, E. coli at 31.3 % and TSS at 12.5 % while the DO and COD are both 6.2 %. For 2003, the average percentage parameter of non compliance for NH3-N was at 23.7 %, E. coli at 18.4 %, total coliform at 18.4 %, TSS at 2.6 %, DO at 13.2 %, COD at 13.2 % and BOD at 10.5 %. For 2004, the average percentage parameter of non complying for NH3-N was at 35.5 %, E. coli at 22.6 %, total coliform at 12.9 %, TSS at 9.7 %, COD at 3.2 % and BOD at 16.1 %. For 2005, the average percentage parameter of non compliance were at is 36.4 % for E. coli, 22.7 % for NH3-N, 18.2 % for total coliform, 13.6 % for BOD and 4.5 % for both DO and COD. In conclusion the analysed data within the four year period showed that the NH3-N and E. coli discharge from the north catchment area did not comply with the Putrajaya Standard. The main factors of water quality issues in the Putrajaya Wetland North Catchment area include the failure of integrating the management of the catchment areas and the stake holders attitude of total disregard of the management and control of

  16. The Outlier Sectors: Areas of Non-Free Trade in the North American Free Trade Agreement

    OpenAIRE

    Eric T. Miller

    2002-01-01

    Since its entry into force, the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) has been enormously influential as a model for trade liberalization. While trade in goods among Canada, the United States and Mexico has been liberalized to a significant degree, this most famous of agreements nonetheless contains areas of recalcitrant protectionism. The first part of this paper identifies these "outlier sectors" and classifies them by primary source advocating protectionism, i.e., producer interests ...

  17. North African petroleum geology: regional structure and stratigraphic overview of a hydrocarbon-rich cratonic area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Connor, T.E.; Kanes, W.H.

    1985-02-01

    North Africa, including Sinai, contains some of the most important hydrocarbon-producing basins in the world. The North African Symposium is devoted to examining the exploration potential of the North African margin in light of the most recent and promising exploration discoveries. The geologic variety of the region is extraordinary and can challenge any exploration philosophy. Of primary interest are the Sirte basin of Libya, which has produced several billion barrels of oil, and the Gulf of Suez, a narrow, evaporite-capped trough with five fields that will produce more than 5 billion bbl. Both are extensional basins with minimal lateral movement and with good source rocks in direct proximity to reservoirs. Structural models of these basins give firm leads for future exploration. More difficult to evaluate are the Tethyan realm basins of the northern Sinai, and the Western Desert of Egypt, the Cyrenaican Platform of Libya, and the Tunisia-Sicily shelf area, where there are only limited subsurface data. These basins are extensional in origin also, but have been influenced by lateral tectonics. Favorable reservoirs exist, but source rocks have been a problem locally. Structural models with strong stratigraphic response offer several favorable play concepts. The Paleozoic Ghadames basin in Libya, Tunisia, and Algeria has the least complex structural history, and production appears to be limited to small structures. A series of stratigraphic models indicates additional areas with exploration potential. The Paleozoic megabasin of Morocco, with its downfaulted Triassic grabens, remains an untested but attractive area.

  18. Urban nature conservation: vegetation of natural areas in the Potchefstroom municipal area, North West Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.S. Cilliers

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available This study on the natural and degraded natural vegetation of natural areas in the Potchefstroom Municipal Area, forms part of a research programme on spontaneous vegetation in urban open spaces in the North West Province, South Africa. Using a numerical classification technique (TWINSPAN as a first approximation, the classification was refined by applying Braun-Blanquet procedures. The result is a phytosociological table from which 6 plant communities were recognised, which are subdivided in sub-communities and variants, resulting in 18 vegetation units. Some of these vegetation units are similar to communities described previously in natural areas. The presence of degraded natural communities suggests huge anthropogenic influences in certain areas. An ordination (DECORANA scatter diagram shows the distribution of the plant communities along gradients which could be related to vegetation structure, altitude, soil depth, rockiness of soil surface, wetness or dryness of the habitat and number of introduced species. This study contributes to the compilation of a guideline for a conservation orientated management plan for the area, but also created a wealth of new knowledge of the reaction of indigenous plant species under disturbed conditions.

  19. Air quality management on the areas of North-East Estonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liblik, V.; Kundel, H.; Raetsep, A. [Estonian Academy of Sciences, Tallinn (Estonia). North-East Estonian Dept.

    1995-12-31

    Most biggest polluters of atmospheric air among Estonian enterprises are located in the north-eastern part of republic. Volatile gases, vapours and fly ash from thermal power plants, chemical and other industries form a considerable aerotechnogenic load upon landscapes and dwelling regions, reaching also the areas of Gulf of Finland, and even the neighbouring states. Complicated pollution situation needs serious attention and systematic air quality control, assessing, forecasting and management, which is now organized on local, regional and state levels. It is well-known that for studies of various pollution situations the atmospheric dispersion models will be used. This present article deals with the special imitation system for maintenance of information about polluters and air contamination state in North-East (NE) Estonia, also for estimation of pollutants spreading and overground concentration fields by computer-based modelling. The system consists of regional Data Banks, imitation model for calculation of pollutants dispersion, common and application programs. (author)

  20. Analysis on Variations of the Temperature and Precipitation in North Slope Area of the Western Tianshan in Recent 50 Years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    [Objective]The research aimed to analyze variation characteristics of the temperature and precipitation in north slope area of the Western Tianshan in recent 50 years.[Method] According to temperature and rainfall data from 1961 to 2010 at three meteorological stations in north slope area of the Western Tianshan,climate change in the zone in recent 50 years was analyzed by using linear trend analysis method and 5-year sliding average method.[Result] The temperature in north slope area of the Western Tiansha...

  1. An oilspill risk analysis for the North Atlantic outer continental shelf lease area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Richard Allmon; Slack, James Richard; Davis, Robert K.

    1976-01-01

    The Federal Government has proposed to lease 1,172,795 acres of Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) lands on Georges Bank off the New England Coast for oil and gas development. Estimated recoverable petroleum resources for the proposed 206 tract sale area range from 180 to 650 million barrels. Contingent upon actual discovery of this quantity of oil, production is expected to span a period of about 20 years. An oilspill risk analysis was conducted to determine relative environmental hazards of developing oil in the North Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf lease area. The study analyzed probability of spill occurrence, likely path of pollutants from spills, and locations in space and time of recreational and biological resources likely to be vulnerable. These results are combined to yield estimates of the overall oilspill risk associated with development of the lease area. (Woodard-USGS)

  2. Oil geologic anomaly in the north edge of the Middle and Lower Yangtze areas based on the evidence weight method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianwu HU; Jianping CHEN; Pengfei ZHU

    2008-01-01

    The study of oil geologic anomalies is a new area of petroleum geology.Using the evidence weight method,we selected tectonic,hydrocarbon abundance of source rock,thickness of source rock,level of reservoir,complexity of reservoir,degree of mineralization of formation water as the evidence layer to evaluate the favorable zones of pool forming in the Lower Paleozoic in the north edge of the Middle and Lower Yangtze areas.Finally,we integrated our results with the petroleum geology of this area and concluded that the North Sichuan basin,the western area of Hubei and the eastern area of Chongqing and parts of the Lower Yangtze are the most profitable areas for exploration in the north edge of the Lower and Middle Yangtze areas.

  3. Base of Principal Aquifer for the Elkhorn-Loup Model Area, North-Central Nebraska

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, V.L.; Peterson, Sean M.

    2008-01-01

    In Nebraska, the water managers in the Natural Resources Districts and the Nebraska Department of Natural Resources are concerned with the effect of ground-water withdrawal on the availability of surface water and the long-term effects of ground-water withdrawal on ground- and surface-water resources. In north-central Nebraska, in the Elkhorn and Loup River Basins, ground water is used for irrigation, domestic supply, and public supply; surface water is used in this area for irrigation, recreation, and hydropower production. In recognition of these sometimes competing ground- and surface-water uses in the Elkhorn and Loup River Basins, the U.S. Geological Survey, the Lewis and Clark Natural Resources District, the Lower Elkhorn Natural Resources District, the Lower Loup Natural Resources District, the Lower Niobrara Natural Resources District, the Lower Platte North Natural Resources District, the Middle Niobrara Natural Resources District, the Upper Elkhorn Natural Resources District, and the Upper Loup Natural Resources District agreed to cooperatively study water resources in the Elkhorn and Loup River Basins. The goals of the overall study were to construct and calibrate a regional ground-water flow model of the area and to use that flow model as a tool to assess current and future effects of ground-water irrigation on stream base flow and to help develop long-term water-resource management strategies for this area, hereafter referred to as the Elkhorn-Loup model area. The Elkhorn-Loup model area covers approximately 30,800 square miles, and extends from the Niobrara River in the north to the Platte River in the south. The western boundary of the Elkhorn-Loup model area coincides with the western boundary of the Middle Niobrara, Twin Platte, and Upper Loup Natural Resources Districts; the eastern boundary coincides with the approximate location of the western extent of glacial till in eastern Nebraska. The principal aquifer in most of the Elkhorn-Loup model

  4. Waterspout outbreaks over areas of Europe and North America: Environment and predictability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sioutas, Michalis; Szilagyi, Wade; Keul, Alexander

    2013-04-01

    Waterspout outbreak occurrences are examined for the areas of the Aegean and Ionian Seas, Eastern Mediterranean, the Baltic Sea in Northern Europe and the Great Lakes of North America. Notable outbreaks included a series of 13 waterspouts on September 5, 2002, and 25 plus waterspouts on September 21, 2006 off the Cretan north coast in the Aegean Sea. Two outbreak days with 10 waterspouts each, occurred on August 11 and 13, 2006 over the Baltic Sea. During the fall of 2003 an outbreak produced about 66 waterspouts during a week over the Great Lakes of North America. A preliminary climatology of waterspout outbreak occurrences showed August as the most active month for the Baltic Sea and the Great Lakes and September for the Aegean and Ionian Seas; a feature primary related to the warmest sea surface temperatures during these months. Synoptic data indicated that a closed low (CLOSED) type pattern prevailed during waterspout outbreaks over the Baltic and the Aegean and Ionian Seas and a longwave (LW) type over the Great Lakes. Thermodynamic, wind and moisture data indicated a marginally unstable environment for most waterspout outbreaks. A steep thermal gradient between the water surface and lowest layers proved to be a primary factor for Great Lakes waterspout outbreak occurrences. For the Baltic Sea, the primary factors were balanced between the thermal contrast in the lowest layers and the total positive buoyancy. For the Aegean and Ionian Seas, positive buoyancy was the dominant factor. Selected waterspout outbreak case studies are investigated in order to present specific synoptic, thermodynamic features and predictability for the three areas. The Szilagyi waterspout nomogram, which is used as a forecasting tool, was applied together with the Szilagyi waterspout index (SWI) and found to be strongly correlated with outbreak occurrences for the three geographical areas.

  5. Climatic patterns in the establishment of wintering areas by North American migratory birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Moreno, Heidi; Martínez-Meyer, Enrique; Soberón Mainero, Jorge; Rojas-Soto, Octavio

    2016-04-01

    Long-distance migration in birds is relatively well studied in nature; however, one aspect of this phenomenon that remains poorly understood is the pattern of distribution presented by species during arrival to and establishment of wintering areas. Some studies suggest that the selection of areas in winter is somehow determined by climate, given its influence on both the distribution of bird species and their resources. We analyzed whether different migrant passerine species of North America present climatic preferences during arrival to and departure from their wintering areas. We used ecological niche modeling to generate monthly potential climatic distributions for 13 migratory bird species during the winter season by combining the locations recorded per month with four environmental layers. We calculated monthly coefficients of climate variation and then compared two GLM (generalized linear models), evaluated with the AIC (Akaike information criterion), to describe how these coefficients varied over the course of the season, as a measure of the patterns of establishment in the wintering areas. For 11 species, the sites show nonlinear patterns of variation in climatic preferences, with low coefficients of variation at the beginning and end of the season and higher values found in the intermediate months. The remaining two species analyzed showed a different climatic pattern of selective establishment of wintering areas, probably due to taxonomic discrepancy, which would affect their modeled winter distribution. Patterns of establishment of wintering areas in the species showed a climatic preference at the macroscale, suggesting that individuals of several species actively select wintering areas that meet specific climatic conditions. This probably gives them an advantage over the winter and during the return to breeding areas. As these areas become full of migrants, alternative suboptimal sites are occupied. Nonrandom winter area selection may also have

  6. Southern (DisComfort?: Latino Population Growth, Economic Integration and Spatial Assimilation in North Carolina Micropolitan Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana-María González Wahl

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines more closely the growth and assimilation of the Latino population in non-metropolitan areas across North Carolina. More specifically, the analysis focuses on micropolitan areas. Based on the last decennial census, micropolitan areas were newly defined by the Census Bureau to reflect the growing importance of "urban clusters" located in non-metropolitan counties.

  7. Impact of industrial wastewater disposal on surface water bodies in Mostord area north Greater Cairo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The studied area (Shoubra El-Khima, Bahteem and Mostorod) lies in the industrial area north of Greater Cairo. The area suffers from several environmental problems such as sewage and disposal of pollutants from the surrounding factories into the surface water pathways in the area. Water samples were collected seasonally from different waterways found in the area, domestic and or industrial liquid wastes from 12 discharge tubes of different factories (as a point source of pollution). Chemical characteristics of different water samples and its heavy metals content were determined using ion coupled plasma technique (ICP). Results indicate that industrial and domestic wastewater samples contain several toxic levels of tested heavy metals (Cd, Co, Pb and Ni) which have a serious impact on surface waterways in the area.Shebin El-Qanater collector drain samples exhibited the highest levels of Cd, Co, Pb and Ni compared to other tested water bodies Mostorod collector drain samples showed the highest levels of Zn and Cu. Industrial effluent samples collected from Cairo Company for Fabric industry had the highest amounts of total Zn Cu, Cd, Co and Pb, while Delta steel company discharges the highest amounts of total Fe and Mn. Al-Ahleya Plastic Company discharges the highest amounts of total-Ni. Generally, it is necessary to impose the environmental laws and its regulation regarding the industrial wastewater treatments and disposals to minimize the risk of the adverse effects of these pollutants.

  8. Mycorrhizal population on various cropping systems on sandy soil in dryland area of North Lombok, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WAHYU ASTIKO

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Astiko W, Fauzi MT, Sukartono. 2016. Mycorrhizal population on various cropping systems on sandy soil in dryland area of North Lombok, Indonesia. Nusantara Bioscience 8: 66-70. Inoculation of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF on maize in sandy soil is expected to have positive implications for the improvement of AMF population and nutrient uptake. However, how many increases in the AMF population and nutrient uptake in the second cycle of a certain cropping system commonly cultivated by the farmers after growing their corn crop have not been examined. Since different cropping systems would indicate different increases in the populations of AMF and nutrient uptake. This study aimed to determine the population AMF and nutrient uptake on the second cropping cycle of corn-based cropping systems which utilized indigenous mycorrhizal fungi on sandy soil in dryland area of North Lombok, West Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia. For that purpose, an experiment was conducted at the Akar-Akar Village in Bayan Sub-district of North Lombok, designed according to the Randomized Complete Block Design, with four replications and six treatments of cropping cycles (P0 = corn-soybean as a control, in which the corn plants were not inoculated with AMF; P1 = corn-soybean, P2 = corn-peanut, P3 = corn-upland rice, P4 = corn-sorghum, and P5 = corn-corn, in which the first cycle corn plants were inoculated with AMF. The results indicated that the mycorrhizal populations (spore number and infection percentage were highest in the second cycle sorghum, achieving 335% and 226% respectively, which were significantly higher than those in the control. Increased uptake of N, P, K and Ca the sorghum plants at 60 DAS of the second cropping cycle reached 200%; 550%; 120% and 490% higher than in the control. The soil used in this experiment is rough-textured (sandy loam, so it is relatively low in water holding capacity and high porosity.

  9. Monitorization of the waste incinerator effects in an industrial area in the north of Lisbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study is a sequence of a heavy metal monitoring contract made with IDAD/ValorSul, who is responsible for an urban waste incinerator placed in an industrial area in the north of Lisbon. The area for monitorization involves a 10 km circle around the incinerator. Two collecting procedures were followed: Gent collectors and biomonitorization. Gent collectors have been used since 25th January 1999, in order to sample air particulate matter in three stations situated in the North of Lisbon - Bobadela, S. Joao da Talha and Quinta da Piedade. These collectors allow the separation between fine and coarse particles. The sampling is made twice a week: one weekend day and one midweek day. For biomonitorization two sampling sites were chosen: one at 2 km northwest (upstream) from the incinerator and the other close to the incinerator (a few meters down river). The biomonitors (two different species) were chosen from the local vegetation (in situ). This procedure was started in April 1999. The filters and the plants are analysed by the multielemental nuclear technique Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). A comparison between results obtained by both collecting procedures is presented. (author)

  10. Occurrence and abundance of fruit bats in selected conservation areas of North Cotabato, Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion John Michael M. Achondo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A study on the occurrence and abundance of fruit bats (Pteropodidae was done in two conservation areas in North Cotabato, Philippines: Portion of the Mt. Apo National Park ; Balabag, Kidapawan City and Cotabato Provincial Forest and Ecotourism Park (CPFEP, Amas, Kidapawan City. Seven species were recorded in CPFEP and six were noted in Balabag area identified from 449 individuals captured. Two species (Eonycteris spelaea and Rousettus amplexicaudatus were unique to CPFEP while one (Ptenochirus minor was found only in Balabag area. A total of eight species were recorded when accounting the species found in two areas in which, three are endemic to the country namely Haplonycteris fischeri, Ptenochirus jagori, and P. minor. Of these endemics, the first two were noted in CPFEP while all were found in Balabag area. More than half of the bats captured were Cynopterus brachyotis hence, considered as the most common species. Remarkable finding was the presence of Megaerops wetmorei, a threatened species, to have found in a new altitudinal record. Considering the importance of fruit bats in regenerating forest, urgent conservation measures are highly recommended.

  11. Urban floods: a case study in the Savigliano area (North-Western Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Audisio

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Flood processes and effects are examined, concerning two rivers in an urbanized area in North-Western Italy (Piedmont – Cuneo Plain. In May 2008, some areas in Northern Italy were struck by intense and persistent rainfall. In the Cuneo province (Southern Piedmont, floodplain with some urban areas was inundated over ca. ten square kilometres, and the city of Savigliano (about 21 000 inhabitants was particularly hit by flood. A purposely-made historical research has evidenced approximately fifty flood events as having occurred since 1350 in the Savigliano area. Based upon historical data, both documents and maps, GIS (Geographical Information System technique and field surveys were used to quantitatively assess the growing urbanization of the city and to describe flood processes and effects over years. This work aims to describe the dynamic behaviour of the 2008 flood, also comparing it to past events, in particular those that occurred in 1896. It is emphasized how the knowledge of past events can be helpful in reducing urban flooding.

  12. Inventory of coastal protected areas and historical heritage sites (North Bulgarian coast)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazov, Atanas; Stancheva, Margarita; Stanchev, Hristo; Krastev, Anton; Peev, Preslav

    2015-04-01

    Coastal protected areas and historical heritage sites in Bulgaria are established by national policy instruments/laws and EU Directives to protect a wide range of natural and cultural resources along the coast. Within the framework of HERAS Project (Submarine Archaeological Heritage of the Western Black Sea Shelf), financed by European Union under the CBC Program Romania-Bulgaria, we made an inventory and identification of protected areas, nature reserves, monuments, parks and onshore historical sites along the North Bulgarian coast (NUTS III level). The adjacent coastline is 96 km long between cape Sivriburun to the border of Romania on the north and cape Ekrene on the south. Coastal zone here is mostly undeveloped and low urbanized compared to other coastal regions in Bulgaria. It comprises of large sand beaches, vast sand dunes, up to 70 m spectacular high limestone cliffs, coastal fresh-water lakes, wetlands etc. This coastal section includes also one of the most important wetlands and it is migration corridor for many protected birds in Bulgaria, that host one of the rarest ecosystem types with national and international conservational value. Added to ecosystem values, the region is also an archeologically important area, where numerous underwater and coastal archaeological sites from different periods have been discovered - Prehistory, Antiquity (ancient Greek, Hellenistic, Roman), Mediaeval (Early Byzantium, Bulgarian). Research was made within 2100 m zone from the coastline (in accordance with zones defined by the Black Sea Coastal Development Act) for territories with protected status in the framework of many national laws and EU Directives. The total area of this strip zone is 182, 6 km2 and around 67% is under protection. There are 11 unique NATURA 2000 protected areas (6 Special Protection Areas (SPAs) and 5 Sites of Communities Importance (SCI), 2 nature reserves and 1 Nature Park. Some of them are also onshore historical sites. In Bulgaria such sites

  13. Hydrogeology of the unsaturated zone, North Ramp area of the Exploratory Studies Facility, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rousseau, J.P.; Kwicklis, E.M.; Gillies, D.C. [eds.

    1999-03-01

    Yucca Mountain, in southern Nevada, is being investigated by the US Department of Energy as a potential site for a repository for high-level radioactive waste. This report documents the results of surface-based geologic, pneumatic, hydrologic, and geochemical studies conducted during 1992 to 1996 by the US Geological Survey in the vicinity of the North Ramp of the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) that are pertinent to understanding multiphase fluid flow within the deep unsaturated zone. Detailed stratigraphic and structural characteristics of the study area provided the hydrogeologic framework for these investigations. Shallow infiltration is not discussed in detail in this report because the focus in on three major aspects of the deep unsaturated-zone system: geologic framework, the gaseous-phase system, and the aqueous-phase system. However, because the relation between shallow infiltration and deep percolation is important to an overall understanding of the unsaturated-zone flow system, a summary of infiltration studies conducted to date at Yucca Mountain is provided in the section titled Shallow Infiltration. This report describes results of several Site Characterization Plan studies that were ongoing at the time excavation of the ESF North Ramp began and that continued as excavation proceeded.

  14. GIS Representation of Coal-Bearing Areas in North, Central, and South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewalt, Susan J.; Kinney, Scott A.; Merrill, Matthew D.

    2008-01-01

    Worldwide coal consumption and international coal trade are projected to increase in the next several decades (Energy Information Administration, 2007). A search of existing literature indicates that in the Western Hemisphere, coal resources are known to occur in about 30 countries. The need exists to be able to depict these areas in a digital format for use in Geographic Information System (GIS) applications at small scales (large areas) and in visual presentations. Existing surficial geology GIS layers of the appropriate geologic age have been used as an approximation to depict the extent of coal-bearing areas in North, Central, and South America, as well as Greenland (fig. 1). Global surficial geology GIS data were created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) for use in world petroleum assessments (Hearn and others, 2003). These USGS publications served as the major sources for the selection and creation of polygons to represent coal-bearing areas. Additional publications and maps by various countries and agencies were also used as sources of coal locations. GIS geologic polygons were truncated where literature or hardcopy maps did not indicate the presence of coal. The depicted areas are not adequate for use in coal resource calculations, as they were not adjusted for geologic structure and do not include coal at depth. Additionally, some coal areas in Central America could not be represented by the mapped surficial geology and are shown only as points based on descriptions or depictions from scientific publications or available maps. The provided GIS files are intended to serve as a backdrop for display of coal information. Three attributes of the coal that are represented by the polygons or points include geologic age (or range of ages), published rank (or range of ranks), and information source (published sources for age, rank, or physical location, or GIS geology base).

  15. A new spark detection system for the electrostatic septa of the SPS North (experimental) Area

    CERN Multimedia

    Barlow, R A; Borburgh, J; Carlier, E; Chanavat, C; Pinget, B

    2013-01-01

    Electrostatic septa (ZS) are used in the extraction of the particle beams from the CERN SPS to the North Area experimental zone. These septa employ high electric fields, generated from a 300 kV power supply, and are particularly prone to internal sparking around the cathode structure. This sparking degrades the electric field quality, consequently affecting the extracted beam, vacuum and equipment performance. To mitigate these effects, a Spark Detection System (SDS) has been realised, which is based on an industrial SIEMENS S7-400 programmable logic controller and deported Boolean processors modules interfaced through a PROFINET fieldbus. The SDS interlock logic uses a moving average spark rate count to determine if the ZS performance is acceptable. Below a certain spark rate it is probable that the ZS septa tank vacuum can recover, thus avoiding transition into a\

  16. Mapping Spatial and Temporal Variations of Leaf Area Index for Winter Wheat in North China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Peng; WU Wen-bin; TANG Hua-jun; ZHOU Qing-bo; ZOU Jin-qiu; ZHANG Li

    2007-01-01

    Leaf area index(LAI)is an important parameter in a number of models related to ecosystem functioning,carbon budgets,climate,hydrology,and crop growth simulation.Mapping and monitoring the spatial and temporal variations of LAI are necessary for understanding crop growth and development at regional level.In this study.the relationships between LAI of winter wheat and Landsat TM spectral vegetation indices(SVIs)were analyzed by using the curve estimation procedure in North China Plain.The series of LAI maps retrieved by the best regression model were used to assess the spatial and temporal Variations of winter wheat LAI.The results indicated that the general relationships between LAI and SVIs were curvilinear,and that the exponential model gave a better fit than the linear model or other nonlinear models for most SVIs.The best regression model was constructed using an exponential model between surface-reflectance-derived difference vegetation index(DVI)and LAI,with the adjusted R2(0.82)and the RMSE(0.77).The TM LAI maps retrieved from DVILAI model showed the significant spatial and temporal variations.The mean TMLAI value(30m)for winter wheat of the study area increased from 1.29(March 7,2004)to 3.43(April 8,2004),with standard deviations of 0.22 and 1.17,respectively.In conclusion,spectral vegetation indices from multi-temporal Landsat TM images can be used to produce fine-resolution LAI maps for winter wheat in North China Plain.

  17. Diversity and conservation status of the herpetofauna for an area from north of Hidalgo, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis M. Badillo-Saldaña

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Conservation measures currently lack adequate information to assign some species of amphibians and reptiles in the categories of protection. In this study we analyzed and compared the herpetofauna of mountain cloud forest (MCF and tropical evergreen forest (TEF in an area north of Hidalgo. For this study, we conducted fieldwork (24 sites and a literature review. In addition, the conservation status of species was analyzed. The herpetofauna of the municipality of Tepehuacan de Guerrero, Hidalgo, Mexico consists of 70 species (20 amphibians and 50 reptiles, nine of which are historical records that were not found in the present study. Cloud forest was more diverse (39 species than TEF (37 species. There are discrepancies between national and international agencies of conservation regarding the threatened status of these species. The high biodiversity recorded in MCF and TEF in the study area indicates the importance of this area for conservation. In this study, we propose to reassess the conservation category of Hidalgo state herpetofauna.

  18. Carbon storages in plantation ecosystems in sand source areas of north Beijing, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuping Liu

    Full Text Available Afforestation is a mitigation option to reduce the increased atmospheric carbon dioxide levels as well as the predicted high possibility of climate change. In this paper, vegetation survey data, statistical database, National Forest Resource Inventory database, and allometric equations were used to estimate carbon density (carbon mass per hectare and carbon storage, and identify the size and spatial distribution of forest carbon sinks in plantation ecosystems in sand source areas of north Beijing, China. From 2001 to the end of 2010, the forest areas increased more than 2.3 million ha, and total carbon storage in forest ecosystems was 173.02 Tg C, of which 82.80 percent was contained in soil in the top 0-100 cm layer. Younger forests have a large potential for enhancing carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems than older ones. Regarding future afforestation efforts, it will be more effective to increase forest area and vegetation carbon density through selection of appropriate tree species and stand structure according to local climate and soil conditions, and application of proper forest management including land-shaping, artificial tending and fencing plantations. It would be also important to protect the organic carbon in surface soils during forest management.

  19. TESTING GROUND BASED GEOPHYSICAL TECHNIQUES TO REFINE ELECTROMAGNETIC SURVEYS NORTH OF THE 300 AREA HANFORD WASHINGTON

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PETERSEN SW

    2010-12-02

    Airborne electromagnetic (AEM) surveys were flown during fiscal year (FY) 2008 within the 600 Area in an attempt to characterize the underlying subsurface and to aid in the closure and remediation design study goals for the 200-PO-1 Groundwater Operable Unit (OU). The rationale for using the AEM surveys was that airborne surveys can cover large areas rapidly at relatively low costs with minimal cultural impact, and observed geo-electrical anomalies could be correlated with important subsurface geologic and hydrogeologic features. Initial interpretation of the AEM surveys indicated a tenuous correlation with the underlying geology, from which several anomalous zones likely associated with channels/erosional features incised into the Ringold units were identified near the River Corridor. Preliminary modeling resulted in a slightly improved correlation but revealed that more information was required to constrain the modeling (SGW-39674, Airborne Electromagnetic Survey Report, 200-PO-1 Groundwater Operable Unit, 600 Area, Hanford Site). Both time-and frequency domain AEM surveys were collected with the densest coverage occurring adjacent to the Columbia River Corridor. Time domain surveys targeted deeper subsurface features (e.g., top-of-basalt) and were acquired using the HeliGEOTEM{reg_sign} system along north-south flight lines with a nominal 400 m (1,312 ft) spacing. The frequency domain RESOLVE system acquired electromagnetic (EM) data along tighter spaced (100 m [328 ft] and 200 m [656 ft]) north-south profiles in the eastern fifth of the 200-PO-1 Groundwater OU (immediately adjacent to the River Corridor). The overall goal of this study is to provide further quantification of the AEM survey results, using ground based geophysical methods, and to link results to the underlying geology and/or hydrogeology. Specific goals of this project are as follows: (1) Test ground based geophysical techniques for the efficacy in delineating underlying geology; (2) Use ground

  20. TESTING GROUND BASED GEOPHYSICAL TECHNIQUES TO REFINE ELECTROMAGNETIC SURVEYS NORTH OF THE 300 AREA, HANFORD, WASHINGTON

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Airborne electromagnetic (AEM) surveys were flown during fiscal year (FY) 2008 within the 600 Area in an attempt to characterize the underlying subsurface and to aid in the closure and remediation design study goals for the 200-PO-1 Groundwater Operable Unit (OU). The rationale for using the AEM surveys was that airborne surveys can cover large areas rapidly at relatively low costs with minimal cultural impact, and observed geo-electrical anomalies could be correlated with important subsurface geologic and hydrogeologic features. Initial interpretation of the AEM surveys indicated a tenuous correlation with the underlying geology, from which several anomalous zones likely associated with channels/erosional features incised into the Ringold units were identified near the River Corridor. Preliminary modeling resulted in a slightly improved correlation but revealed that more information was required to constrain the modeling (SGW-39674, Airborne Electromagnetic Survey Report, 200-PO-1 Groundwater Operable Unit, 600 Area, Hanford Site). Both time-and frequency domain AEM surveys were collected with the densest coverage occurring adjacent to the Columbia River Corridor. Time domain surveys targeted deeper subsurface features (e.g., top-of-basalt) and were acquired using the HeliGEOTEM(regsign) system along north-south flight lines with a nominal 400 m (1,312 ft) spacing. The frequency domain RESOLVE system acquired electromagnetic (EM) data along tighter spaced (100 m (328 ft) and 200 m (656 ft)) north-south profiles in the eastern fifth of the 200-PO-1 Groundwater OU (immediately adjacent to the River Corridor). The overall goal of this study is to provide further quantification of the AEM survey results, using ground based geophysical methods, and to link results to the underlying geology and/or hydrogeology. Specific goals of this project are as follows: (1) Test ground based geophysical techniques for the efficacy in delineating underlying geology; (2) Use ground

  1. Concentrations, sources and spatial distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soils from Beijing, Tianjin and surrounding areas, North China

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Wentao; Massey Simonich, Staci L.; Xue, Miao; Zhao, Jingyu; Zhang, Na; Wang, Rong; Cao, Jun; Tao, Shu

    2010-01-01

    The concentrations, profiles, sources and spatial distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined in 40 surface soil samples collected from Beijing, Tianjin and surrounding areas, North China in 2007, and all sampling sites were far from industrial areas, roadsides and other pollution sources, and across a range of soil types in remote, rural villages and urban areas. The total concentrations of 16 PAHs ranged from 31.6 to 1475.0 ng/g, with an arithmetic average of 336...

  2. Polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) in riverine and marine sediments of the Laizhou Bay area, North China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan Xiaohui [Key Laboratory of Coastal Zone Environmental Processes, Yantai Institute of Coastal Zone Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Yantai 264003 (China); Tang Jianhui, E-mail: jhtang@yic.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Coastal Zone Environmental Processes, Yantai Institute of Coastal Zone Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Yantai 264003 (China); Chen Yingjun [Key Laboratory of Coastal Zone Environmental Processes, Yantai Institute of Coastal Zone Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Yantai 264003 (China); Li Jun; Zhang Gan [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2011-12-15

    PCN congeners were analyzed in marine and riverine sediments of the Laizhou Bay area, North China. Concentrations of PCNs ranged from 0.12 to 5.1 ng g{sup -1} dry weight (dw) with a mean value of 1.1 ng g{sup -1} dw. The levels of PCNs varied largely, with industrial group approximately ten folds higher than those of the rural in riverine sediment. A strong impact by direct discharge from local factories was suggested. Similar compositional profiles were found within groups. High resemblance of compositional profiles between industrial samples and Halowax 1014 was observed. It was indicated that PCNs in riverine sediments were mainly from release of industrial usage, with additional contributions from industrial thermal process at certain sites. In marine sediments, it was suggested that PCNs along the coast of Laizhou Bay were mainly controlled by riverine input. While in the central bay, PCN distributions were possibly impacted by combined multiple factors. - Highlights: > We investigated the PCN levels both in the riverine and marine surface sediments of Laizhou Bay. > PCN concentrations in the river sediments of industrial group were ten times higher than in the rural group. > Leakage from industrial materials and thermal processes were the major sources. > PCNs in the coastal sites were more influenced by the river discharge. > In the centre bay, PCN distributions were possibly impacted by combined multiple factors. - A systematic sampling of riverine and marine sediments was conducted in Laizhou Bay area to investigate the distribution and possible sources of PCNs.

  3. Survey of feline visceral leishmaniasis in Azarshahr area, north west of Iran, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatollahzadeh, Mohammad; Khanmohammadi, Majid; Bazmani, Ahad; Mirsamadi, Nasrin; Jafari, Rasool; Mohebali, Mehdi; Nemati, Taher; Fallah, Esmail

    2016-09-01

    Leishmania infantum is a causative agent of visceral leishmaniasis or kala-azar, which is endemic in some part of Iran. Azarshahr city located in East Azerbaijan province, North West of Iran, which is endemic for visceral leishmaniasis. This study aimed to investigate the possible reservoir role of cats for visceral leishmaniasis in the Azarshahr area. Totally 65 cats have been trapped alive from villages of Azarshahr county and their serum samples subjected to direct agglutination test (DAT) for L. infantum antibodies. Giemsa stained impression smears have been prepared for parasitological examination of spleen and liver tissue. Also liver and spleen samples of the cats have been cultured in Novy-MacNeal-Nicolle (NNN) medium and also used for PCR. None from 65 samples was positive in NNN culture, PCR and microscopic examination. Fifteen (23.07 %) out of 65 serum samples showed Leishmania specific antibody agglutination at 1:320 dilution or above, but all considered as negative because none of them confirmed by Giemsa stained smears, PCR and NNN culture. According to the findings of the present study, cats are not a reservoir for visceral leishmaniasis in the Azarshahr area. PMID:27605767

  4. Analysis of characteristics and radiation safety situation of uranium mining and metallurgy facilities in north area of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to the radiation safety management of uranium mining and metallurgy facilities in north area of China, features and radiation safety conditions of uranium mining and metallurgy facilities in north area of China were analyzed based on summarizing the inspection data for 2011-2013. So the main problems of radiation environment security on uranium mine were studied. The relevant management measures and recommendations were put forward, and the basis for environmental radiation safety management decision making of uranium mining and metallurgy facilities in future was provided. (authors)

  5. Explanation of Significant Differences for the Record of Decision for the Test Area North Operable Unit 1-10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. L. Eaton

    2007-01-18

    This Explanation of Significant Differences (ESD) applies to the remedial actions performed under the Final Record of Decision for Test Area North, Operable Unit 1-1 0, Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (DOE-ID 1999) as amended by the Explanation of Significant Differences for the Record of Decision for the Test Area North Operable Unit 1-10 (DOE-ID 2003), the Record of Decision Amendment for the V-Tanks (TSF-09 and TSF-18) and Explanation of Significant Differences for the PM-2A Tanks (TSF-26) and TSF-06, Area IO, at Test Area North, Operable Unit 1-1 0 (DOE-ID 2004a), and the Explanation of Significant Differences for the Record of Decision for the Test Area North Operable Unit 1-10 (DOE-ID 2005). The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Idaho Operations Office; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Region 10; and the Idaho Department of Health and Welfare-now identified as the Idaho Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ)-signed the Record of Decision (ROD) in December 1999, the 2003 ESD in April 2003, the ROD Amendment/ESD in February 2004, and the 2005 ESD in January 2005. The EPA and DEQ support the need for this ESD.

  6. Modeling four occurred debris flow events in the Dolomites area (North-Eastern Italian Alps)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boreggio, Mauro; Gregoretti, Carlo; Degetto, Massimo; Bernard, Martino

    2016-04-01

    Four occurred debris flows in the Dolomites area (North-Eastern Italian Alps) are modeled by back-analysis. The four debris flows events are those occurred at Rio Lazer (Trento) on the 4th of November 1966, at Fiames (Belluno) on the 5th of July 2006, at Rovina di Cancia (Belluno) on the 18th of July 2009 and at Rio Val Molinara (Trento) on the 15th of August 2010. In all the events, runoff entrained sediments present on natural channels and formed a solid-liquid wave that routed downstream. The first event concerns the routing of debris flow on an inhabited fan. The second event the deviation of debris flow from the usual path due to an obstruction with the excavation of a channel in the scree and the downstream spreading in a wood. The third event concerns the routing of debris flow in a channel with an ending the reservoir, its overtopping and final spreading in the inhabited area. The fourth event concerns the routing of debris flow along the main channel downstream the initiation area until spreading just upstream a village. All the four occurred debris flows are simulated by modeling runoff that entrained debris flow for determining the solid-liquid hydrograph. The routing of the solid-liquid hydrograph is simulated by a bi-phase cell model based on the kinematic approach. The comparison between simulated and measured erosion and deposition depths is satisfactory. Nearly the same parameters for computing erosion and deposition were used for all the four occurred events. The maps of erosion and deposition depths are obtained by comparing the results of post-event surveys with the pre-event DEM. The post-event surveys were conducted by using different instruments (LiDAR and GPS) or the combination photos-single points depth measurements (in this last case it is possible obtaining the deposition/erosion depths by means of stereoscopy techniques).

  7. Structural and Metamorphic Evolution of the Archaean High-pressure Granulite in Datong-Huaian Area, North China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, J.

    2001-01-01

    The Archaean granulite terrain in the Datong-Huaian area, north China, comprises a basement complex of fe lsic and mafic granulite (TTG gneiss), overlain by a sedimentary sequence dominated by metapelite and metapsammite (khondalite series). Both lithological associations are separated by a tectonic

  8. Pleistocene pollen stratigraphy from borehole 81/34, devil's hole area, central north sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekman, Sten R.

    1998-09-01

    Twelve pollen assemblage zones are identified in a 229 m deep borehole (BH 81/34) from the Devil's Hole area in the central North Sea (British sector). The sediment from this borehole is Early to Late Pleistocene in age and the observation of massulae from Azolla filiculoides in sediment with reversed polarity indicates an age younger than the Olduvai geomagnetic event for the entire sequence. The Early Pleistocene sediments were at least partly deposited in the vicinity of a river outlet and can be correlated either with the Eburonian or the Menapian cold stage and with the Bavel interglacial and the Linge glacial within the Bavelian stage in the Dutch stratigraphy. The Middle Pleistocene sequence contains an interval rich in Abies, Picea and Pinus, probably deposited during the end of either Cromerian Complex interglacial IV (Noordbergum) or possibly the Holsteinian. The uppermost 80 m of the core contains high frequencies of pre-Quaternary and deteriorated palynomorphs indicating extensive glacial or glaciofluvially reworked sediment.

  9. Metabolic Syndrome. Diagnosis in women of five doctor's office. North Area. November 2007-2008.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaneisy Triana Toledo

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The morbility for Metabolic-Syndrome in five doctor's office of the north health area in the municipality Accomplished a descriptive transverse cut investigation in 151 adult women's probabilistic sign to characterize itself Sancti - Spíritus, among 1ro of Noviembre of the 2007 and the November 30 the 2008. Morbility, the antecedent factors personnels of risk and of chronic illnesses were variables gone into no transmissible, they gathered data in a fill-out form, statistical analysis included percentages calculation, parameters esteem and tests them of proportions difference (x2. The main things aftermaths were Metabolic Syndrome prevalence of 33,3 % In the patients with metabolic syndrome the risk factor of chronic illnesses no transmissible that predominate was in order not to accomplish physical activity (96,1 %, her hiperlipidemia (27,3 %, as well as the obesity (24,4 % in this entity's bearers. The antecedent pathological personals for chronic illnesses no transmissible registered hypertension went with 64,7 %.

  10. Profile of Skin Disorders in Unreached Hilly Areas of North India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Dimri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The pattern of skin morbidity in an area depends on climate, geography, socioeconomic status, nutrition, genetics, and habits of the community. Objective. The objective of the present study was to describe the morbidity profile of patients attending dermatology outpatient department in a tertiary care centre of Garhwal hills, North India. Methodology. This is a record based study carried out using the morbidity registers. Patient details, diagnosis, and treatment provided by physicians were documented in the morbidity register. ICD coding was done to categorize the patients. Results. The total number of new episodes of illnesses treated in the skin outpatient department during 2009–2014 was 47465. Adults (>18 years constituted about 80.9%. Among adults, about 59.9% were males. Overall the infections of the skin and subcutaneous tissue were the most common (32.6% followed by the disorders of skin appendages (19.8%, and dermatitis and eczema (18.8%. Of the total patients 16.9% were affected by dermatitis and 16.7% by acne. Psoriasis, urticaria, melasma, and vitiligo were present in 3.4%, 3.4%, 3.6%, and 3.3% patients, respectively. Conclusion. This knowledge will help in planning appropriate range services to meet the patients’ needs and help in training of health staff to meet these needs.

  11. Survey of otomycosis in north- western area of Iran(1447- 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kazemi

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose : Otomycosis(Otitis externa is an acute, subacte or chronic fungal infection that has exogenous or endogenous origin. The present study was carried out to investigate the etiologic agents and determine risk factore and epidemiological aspects of otomycosis in north- West area of Iran.Materials and methods : Clinical samples of suspected patients were studied in direct microscopy and cultured in specific medium for determining the causative fungi.Results : 89 patients; 64 male and 25 female were recruited and studies. The disease were more prevalent in 20- 40 years in both sexes.Identified etiologic agents with direct examination and culture of samples in numerous series were: Aspergillus niger(51 cases, A. terreus(9 cases, A. flavus(7 cases, A Fuminagatus(6 cases, Eurotium( prefect stage of A. glaucus(2 cases, penicillium Sp.(2 cases, Candida albicans(8 cases, Epicoccum Sp.(1 case, Mucor Sp. (1 case, Rhizopus Sp.(1 case and Microsporum canis(1 case.Conclusion : Saprophytic moulds were the main etiologic agent of Otomycosis and Aspergillus niger was the prime causaltive agent. Infection in 20 –40 year age group was the most prevalent and Otomycosis among females was determined more than male. This report has provided useful information on the prevalence, causative agents and health implications of Otomycosis, as an infection grossly neglected in enviroment.

  12. A new spark detection system for the electrostatic septa of the SPS North (experimental) Area

    CERN Document Server

    Barlow, R A; Borburgh, J; Carlier, E; Chanavat, C; Fowler, T; Pinget, B

    2014-01-01

    Electrostatic septa (ZS) are used in the extraction of the particle beams from the CERN SPS to the North Area experimental zone. These septa employ high electric fields, generated from a 300 kV power supply, and are particularly prone to internal sparking around the cathode structure. This sparking degrades the electric field quality, consequently affecting the extracted beam, vacuum and equipment performance. To mitigate these effects, a Spark Detection System (SDS) has been realised, which is based on an industrial SIEMENS S7-400 programmable logic controller and deported Boolean processor modules interfaced through a PROFINET fieldbus. The SDS interlock logic uses a moving average spark rate count to determine if the ZS performance is acceptable. Below a certain spark rate it is probable that the ZS septa tank vacuum can recover, thus avoiding transition into a state where rapid degradation would occur. Above this level an interlock is raised and the high voltage is switched off. Additionally, all spark si...

  13. Cation export by overland flow in a recently burnt forest area in north-central Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, A I; Serpa, D; Ferreira, R V; Rodríguez-Blanco, M L; Pinto, R; Nunes, M I; Cerqueira, M A; Keizer, J J

    2015-08-15

    The current fire regime in the Mediterranean Basin constitutes a serious threat to natural ecosystems because it drastically enhances surface runoff and soil erosion in the affected areas. Besides soil particles themselves, soil cations can be lost by fire-enhanced overland flow, increasing the risk of fertility loss of the typically shallow and nutrient poor Mediterranean soils. Although the importance of cations for land-use sustainability is widely recognized, cation losses by post-fire runoff have received little research attention. The present study aimed to address this research gap by assessing total exports of Na(+), K(+), Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) in a recently burnt forest area in north-central Portugal. These exports were compared for two types of planted forest (eucalypt vs. maritime pine plantations), two types of parent materials (schist vs. granite) and for two spatial scales (micro-plot vs. hill slope). The study sites were a eucalypt plantation on granite (BEG), a eucalypt plantation on schist (BES) and a maritime pine plantation on schist (BPS). Overland flow samples were collected during the first six months after the wildfire. Cation losses differed strikingly between the two forest types on schist, being higher at the eucalypt than pine site. This difference was evident at both spatial scales, and probably due to the extensive cover of a needle cast from the scorched pine crowns. The role of parent material in cation export was less straightforward as it varied with spatial scale. Cation losses were higher for the eucalypt plantation on schist than for that on granite at the micro-plot scale, whereas the reverse was observed at the hill slope scale. Finally, cation yields were higher at the micro-plot than slope scale, in agreement with the general notion of scaling-effect in runoff generation. PMID:25897728

  14. Estimating surface fluxes over the north Tibetan Plateau area with ASTER imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiqiang Ma

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Surface fluxes are important boundary conditions for climatological modeling and Asian monsoon system. The recent availability of high-resolution, multi-band imagery from the ASTER (Advanced Space-borne Thermal Emission and Reflection radiometer sensor has enabled us to estimate surface fluxes to bridge the gap between local scale flux measurements using micrometeorological instruments and regional scale land-atmosphere exchanges of water and heat fluxes that are fundamental for the understanding of the water cycle in the Asian monsoon system. A parameterization method based on ASTER data and field observations has been proposed and tested for deriving surface albedo, surface temperature, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI, Modified Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (MSAVI, vegetation coverage, Leaf Area Index (LAI, net radiation flux, soil heat flux, sensible heat flux and latent heat flux over heterogeneous land surface in this paper. As a case study, the methodology was applied to the experimental area of the Coordinated Enhanced Observing Period (CEOP Asia-Australia Monsoon Project (CAMP on the Tibetan Plateau (CAMP/Tibet, located at the north Tibetan Plateau. The ASTER data of 24 July 2001, 29 November 2001 and 12 March 2002 was used in this paper for the case of summer, winter and spring. To validate the proposed methodology, the ground-measured surface variables (surface albedo and surface temperature and land surface heat fluxes (net radiation flux, soil heat flux, sensible heat flux and latent heat flux were compared to the ASTER derived values. The results show that the derived surface variables and land surface heat fluxes in three different months over the study area are in good accordance with the land surface status. Also, the estimated land surface variables and land surface heat fluxes are in good accordance with ground measurements, and all their absolute percentage difference (APD is less than 10% in the validation sites

  15. Methane emission and consumption at a North Sea gas seep (Tommeliten area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Niemann

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The North Sea hosts large coal, oil and gas reservoirs of commercial value. Natural leakage pathways of subsurface gas to the hydrosphere have been recognized during geological surveys (Hovland and Judd, 1988. The Tommeliten seepage area is part of the Greater Ekofisk area, which is situated above the Tommeliten Delta salt diapir in the central North Sea. In this study, we report of an active seep site (56°29.90'N, 2°59.80'E located in the Tommeliten area, Norwegian Block 1/9, at 75 m water depth. Here, cracks in a buried marl horizon allow methane to migrate into overlying clay-silt and sandy sediments. Hydroacoustic sediment echosounding showed several venting spots coinciding with the apex of marl domes where methane is released into the water column and potentially to the atmosphere during deep mixing situations. In the vicinity of the gas seeps, sea floor observations showed small mats of giant sulphide-oxidizing bacteria above patches of black sediments and carbonate crusts, which are exposed 10 to 50 cm above seafloor forming small reefs. These Methane-Derived Authigenic Carbonates (MDACs contain 13C-depleted, archaeal lipids indicating previous gas seepage and AOM activity. High amounts of sn2-hydroxyarchaeol relative to archaeol and low abundances of biphytanes in the crusts give evidence that ANaerobic MEthane-oxidising archaea (ANME of the phylogenetic cluster ANME-2 were the potential mediators of Anaerobic Oxidation of Methane (AOM at the time of carbonate formation. Small pieces of MDACs were also found subsurface at about 1.7 m sediment depth, associated with the Sulphate-Methane Transition Zone (SMTZ. The SMTZ of Tommeliten is characterized by elevated AOM and Sulphate Reduction (SR rates, increased concentrations of 13C-depleted tetraether derived biphytanes, and specific bacterial Fatty Acids (FA. Further biomarker and 16S rDNA based analyses give evidence that AOM at the Tommeliten SMTZ

  16. Faults in parts of north-central and western Houston metropolitan area, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbeek, Earl R.; Ratzlaff, Karl W.; Clanton, Uel S.

    1979-01-01

    Hundreds of residential, commercial, and industrial structures in the Houston metropolitan area have sustained moderate to severe damage owing to their locations on or near active faults. Paved roads have been offset by faults at hundreds of locations, butted pipelines have been distorted by fault movements, and fault-induced gradient changes in drainage lines have raised concern among flood control engineers. Over 150 faults, many of them moving at rates of 0.5 to 2 cm/yr, have been mapped in the Houston area; the number of faults probably far exceeds this figure. This report includes a map of eight faults, in north-central and western Houston, at a scale useful for land-use planning. Seven of the faults, are known, to be active and have caused considerable damage to structures built on or near them. If the eighth fault is active, it may be of concern to new developments on the west side of Houston. A ninth feature shown on the map is regarded only as a possible fault, as an origin by faulting has not been firmly established. Seismic and drill-hold data for some 40 faults, studied in detail by various investigators have verified connections between scarps at the land surface and growth faults in the shallow subsurface. Some scarps, then, are known to be the surface manifestations of faults that have geologically long histories of movement. The degree to which natural geologic processes contribute to current fault movement, however, is unclear, for some of man?s activities may play a role in faulting as well. Evidence that current rates of fault movement far exceed average prehistoric rates and that most offset of the land surface in the Houston area has occurred only within the last 50 years indirectly suggest that fluid withdrawal may be accelerating or reinitiating movement on pre-existing faults. This conclusion, however, is based only on a coincidence in time between increased fault activity and increased rates of withdrawal of water, oil, and gas from

  17. The Finding and Phylogenetic Evolution Analysis of Bovine Piroplasms in the Rasŏn Area of North Korea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIA Li-jun; ZHANG Shou-fa; CAO Shi-nuo; QIAN Nian-chao; YU Long-zheng; XUAN Xue-nan

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the epidemiology of bovine Piroplasms infections in the Rasŏn area of North Korea. The survey was carried out by light microscopic examination of Giemsa-stained blood smears, PCR, and phylogenetic evolution analysis of 128 blood samples collected from the Rasŏn area. The results showed that the infection rates of the small and large parasites were about 2.5 and 1.5% on average, respectively, in all Theileria sergenti and Babesia ovata-positive blood smears by microscopic examination of blood smears. The detection rate of T. sergenti Giemsa-stained smears was 43.75%, while that with PCR was 67.97%. The detection rate of B. ovata Giemsa-stained smears was 49.21%, while that with PCR was 71.88%. The sequence and phylogenetic analysis of DNA showed 98.84%homology between the 18S rRNA gene sequences of T. sergenti isolates from North Korean and that of Yanbian state from China, indicating the closest genetic relationship between both of them. Moreover, 100%homology was shown between the 18S rRNA gene sequence of B. ovata isolates from North Korea and the published sequence AY081192 of GenBank, indicating the closest genetic relationship between both of them. This survey confirmed that Rasŏn is the endemic area of T. sergenti and B. ovata in North Korea.

  18. Coleoptera species inhabiting prairie wetlands of the Cottonwood Lake Area, Stutsman County, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, B.A.; Swanson, G.A.

    1989-01-01

    The aquatic Coleoptera of a prairie wetland complex in Stutsman County, North Dakota, were collected from April 1979 to November 1980. Identification of 2594 individuals confirmed 57 species, including seven new records for North Dakota. Two seasonally flooded and two semipermanent wetlands, totaling 7.43 ha, contained 53% of the Dytiscidae, 43% of the Haliplidae, 38% of the Hydrophilidae, and 22% of the Gyrinidae species previously identified from North Dakota. Although 49.1% of the Coleoptera species occurred in both types of wetlands, the occurrence of 29 species varied by wetland class.

  19. Color Shaded-relief TIFF Image of High-resolution Bathymetry, North Carolina, Pamlico Sound Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Neuse River Estuary in North Carolina is a broad, V-shaped water body located on the southwestern end of Pamlico Sound. This estuary suffers from severe...

  20. Evaluation and Intercomparison of MODIS and GEOV1 Global Leaf Area Index Products over Four Sites in North China

    OpenAIRE

    Zhenwang Li; Huan Tang; Baohui Zhang; Guixia Yang; Xiaoping Xin

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the performances of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and GEOLAND2 Version 1 (GEOV1) Leaf Area Index (LAI) products using ground measurements and LAI reference maps over four sites in North China for 2011–2013. The Terra + Aqua MODIS and Terra MODIS LAI retrieved by the main algorithm and GEOV1 LAI within the valid range were evaluated and intercompared using LAI reference maps to assess their uncertainty and seasonal variability The results sho...

  1. "Isolation of Clostridum botiulinum (Types A, B, E in Sediments from Coastal Areas in the North of Iran"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HR Tavakoli

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Iranian J Publ Health, Vol. 32, No. 3, pp.37-40, 2003 Isolation of Clostridum botiulinum (Types A, B, E in Sediments from Coastal Areas in the North of Iran *HR Tavakoli 1,V Razavilar 2 1Dept. of Nutrition and Food Hygiene,School of public health, Baghyatollah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran 2Dept. of Food Hygiene, School of Veterinary Medicine, Tehran University , Iran Clostridium botulinum has long been recognized as an etiological agent of food borne botulism and has been reported as an important food safety hazard. The aim of this study was to obtain information about C. botulinum distribution in north areas sediments of Iran in order to ascertain the risks associated with consumption and processing of fish from these waters. Two hundred and seventy samples of sediments from coastal areas of "Gilan" and "Mazandaran" provinas of Iran were collected and analyzed. The supernatants were inoculated into cooked meat media and then , grown specimens were stained and cheked microscopically. After centrifuge ,the supernatants were divided into three (untreated ,heated , and tripsinised and toxicity of them were tested by mouse bioassay. All mice controlled for 4 days for symptoms of botulism. Monovalent standard antitoxins were used for detection of toxin type. The present study revealed that the prevalence of C. botulinum (types A, B and E in sediments from different areas of Gillan and Mazandaran was 3.6% and 4.6% respectively, Mean prevalence of C. botulinum in sediments from north regions of Iran was 4.1%. It is also demonstrated that C. botulinum type E is predominant type seen in aquatic environments of the coastal areas of Iran. This is the first report of C. botulinum distribution in the sediments coastal areas of Iran. Introduction *Corresponding author: +98 21 4811483

  2. Hydrogeology of the unsaturated zone, North Ramp area of the Exploratory Studies Facility, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseau, Joseph P.; Kwicklis, Edward M.; Gillies, Daniel C.; Rousseau, Joseph P.; Kwicklis, Edward M.; Gillies, Daniel C.

    1999-01-01

    Yucca Mountain, in southern Nevada, is being investigated by the U.S. Department of Energy as a potential site for a repository for high-level radioactive waste. This report documents the results of surface-based geologic, pneumatic, hydrologic, and geochemical studies conducted during 1992 to 1996 by the U.S. Geological Survey in the vicinity of the North Ramp of the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) that are pertinent to understanding multiphase fluid flow within the deep unsaturated zone. Detailed stratigraphic and structural characteristics of the study area provided the hydrogeologic framework for these investigations. Multiple lines of evidence indicate that gas flow and liquid flow within the welded tuffs of the unsaturated zone occur primarily through fractures. Fracture densities are highest in the Tiva Canyon welded (TCw) and Topopah Spring welded (TSw) hydrogeologic units. Although fracture density is much lower in the intervening nonwelded and bedded tuffs of the Paintbrush nonwelded hydrogeologic unit (PTn), pneumatic and aqueous-phase isotopic evidence indicates that substantial secondary permeability is present locally in the PTn, especially in the vicinity of faults. Borehole air-injection tests indicate that bulk air-permeability ranges from 3.5x10-14 to 5.4x10-11 square meters for the welded tuffs and from 1.2x10-13 to 3.0x10-12 square meters for the non welded and bedded tuffs of the PTn. Analyses of in-situ pneumatic-pressure data from monitored boreholes produced estimates of bulk permeability that were comparable to those determined from the air-injection tests. In many cases, both sets of estimates are two to three orders of magnitude larger than estimates based on laboratory analyses of unfractured core samples. The in-situ pneumatic-pressure records also indicate that the unsaturated-zone pneumatic system consists of four subsystems that coincide with the four major hydrogeologic units of the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain. In

  3. Open-Country Poverty in a Relatively Affluent Area - The East North Central States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzwilliams, Jeanette

    Poverty among open-country households in the East North Central States (11%) was slightly above the incidence found among U.S. whites in general. Incidence of poverty was greatest among the aged, disabled, and small farmers of all ages who made farming their major source of earnings. Of the respondent households in this 1967 survey, 87% had…

  4. 76 FR 60587 - Environmental Impact Statement; North Corridor Transit Project, Seattle (WA) Metropolitan Area...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-29

    ... Puget Sound to the west and Lake Washington to the east, which limits transportation options. This dense... Lynnwood in Snohomish County, Washington. The EIS will also be prepared in accordance with Washington's... major north-south route through Washington State and serves a large commuter market traveling...

  5. Energy and mass exchange between ocean and atmosphere in the area of winter polynya to the north of Svalbard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Boris; Wesman, Anna; Sviashchennikov, Pavel; Pavlov, Alexey

    2015-04-01

    The warm inflow of the West Spitsbergen Current keeps waters ice-free in winter to the north of Svalbard, an area also called the Whalers Bay. Here we present results of the winter expedition in the Arctic Ocean to the north of Svalbard on board a research vessel «Helmer Hanssen» in January 2012. The characteristics of the turbulent energy and mass exchange are calculated using an algorithm, which is based on semi-empirical theory of "Monin-Obukhov", adapted to the conditions of marine meteorological observations. The results are compared with the data obtained in this area in February 1986 on board Russian research icebreaker "Otto Schmidt". The features of energy-mass exchange are explained by synoptic and ice conditions in the study area. Intense heat and mass exchange in the area leads to enhanced convective mixing and, thus, upwelling of nutrients to surface waters that can contribute to higher biological activity in the area throughout the food web.

  6. Cultural Resource Assessment of the Test Area North Demolition Landfill at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brenda R. Pace

    2003-07-01

    The proposed new demolition landfill at Test Area North on the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) will support ongoing demolition and decontamination within the facilities on the north end of the INEEL. In June of 2003, the INEEL Cultural Resource Management Office conducted archival searches, field surveys, and coordination with the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes to identify all cultural resources that might be adversely affected by the project and to provide recommendations to protect those listed or eligible for listing on the National Register of Historic Places. These investigations showed that landfill construction and operation would affect two significant cultural resources. This report outlines protective measures to ensure that these effects are not adverse.

  7. Middle Holocene warm period and sea level high in coastal areas,North China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG Guanglan; HAN Yousong; WANG Shaoqing

    2005-01-01

    Relevant geological, geographical, archaeological data were collected to study the characteristics of middle Holocene warm period and sea level high on North China coast. Middle Holocene climate and sea level change on North China coast were correlated to warm marine environment events in about 8-3 ka B.P. The sea level in about 8 ka B.P. was higher than present mean sea level, then fluctuated for 5 000 years and after that it became even in 3 ka B.P. The highest sea level occurred in about 6-5 ka B.P.; the maximum was about 2-3 m and minimum was about 1-2 m.

  8. The source apportionment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the topsoil in Xiaodian sewage irrigation area, North of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jia-Le; Wang, Yan-Xin; Zhang, Cai-Xiang; Dong, Yi-Hui; Du, Bin; Liao, Xiao-Ping

    2014-12-01

    31 topsoil samples were collected by grid method in Xiaodian sewage irrigation area, Taiyuan City, North of China. The concentrations of 16 kinds of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined by gas chromatograph coupled with mass spectrum. Generally speaking, the distribution order of PAHs in the area is: those with five and six rings > those with four rings > those with two and three rings. Source apportionment shows a significant zonation of the source of PAHs: the civil coal pollution occurred in the north part, the local and far factory pollution happened in the middle area and the mixed pollution sources from coal and wood combustion, automotive emission, presented in the south area. The distribution of PAHs has a definite relationship with the sewage water flow and soil adsorption. The related coefficient between PAHs and physicochemical property showed there was a negative correlation between pH, silt, clay and PAHs while there was a positive correlation between total organic carbon, sand and PAHs. PMID:25139034

  9. Leisure and tourism behaviour in rural areas in the North West Province / Victor S. Mogajane

    OpenAIRE

    Mogajane, Victor Solomon

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine ways in which the accessibility of leisure and tourism behaviour patterns can be improved to ultimately improve the quality of life of people in rural communities in the North West Province. In order to achieve this it was necessary to indicate the holistic perspective of the tourism industry, with special reference to rural tourism and also the holistic perspective on leisure provision in South Africa. This study is important to addre...

  10. EEG CHARACTERISTICS AND THYROID PROFILE RATIO IN ADOLESCENTS OF SUBPOLAR AND POLAR EUROPEAN NORTH AREAS

    OpenAIRE

    D. B. Demin; L. V. Poskotinova; Ye. V. Krivonogova

    2013-01-01

    Features of brain bioelectric activity and thyroid system in adolescents living in Subpolar andPolar regionsof the North are considered. Hyperactivity of subcortical diencephalic brain structures in adolescents of the Polar region is revealed. Adolescents of Subpolar region have more intensive age optimization of neurodynamic processes. There are noted latitude distinctions of thyroid hormones role for age formation of brain bioelectric activity in adolescents.

  11. EEG CHARACTERISTICS AND THYROID PROFILE RATIO IN ADOLESCENTS OF SUBPOLAR AND POLAR EUROPEAN NORTH AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. B. Demin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Features of brain bioelectric activity and thyroid system in adolescents living in Subpolar andPolar regionsof the North are considered. Hyperactivity of subcortical diencephalic brain structures in adolescents of the Polar region is revealed. Adolescents of Subpolar region have more intensive age optimization of neurodynamic processes. There are noted latitude distinctions of thyroid hormones role for age formation of brain bioelectric activity in adolescents.

  12. Knowledge and psychomotor skills of nursing students in North Cyprus in the area of cardiopulmonary resuscitation

    OpenAIRE

    Dal, Umran; Sarpkaya, Dilek

    2013-01-01

    Objective : The aim of the study was to determine the cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) knowledge and skill levels of nursing students in North Cyprus. Methods : The study design was quasi-experimental and longitudinal. A questionnaire was applied to the students before the CPR lecture. Then the students were informed about adult CPR by the researchers and all of the students practiced CPR on a Resusci-Anne manikin. One and six months after this training the same questionnaire and skills ch...

  13. Tracing back nutrients from Southern North Sea eutrophicated areas up to the watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulière, Valérie; Gypens, Nathalie; Lancelot, Christiane; Thieu, Vincent; Luyten, Patrick; Lacroix, Geneviève

    2015-04-01

    The Southern North Sea faces eutrophication problems. They result from growing anthropogenic pressure in the river watersheds, and subsequent increase in nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) loading to the sea. Establishing the link between human activities and eutrophication problems requires the identification of the major nutrient sources and the ecological response of the coastal ecosystem to these nutrient alterations. This information is crucial to mitigate eutrophication in coastal zones by applying appropriate dual-nutrient reduction strategies, therefore achieving the Good Environmental Status of EU marine waters by 2020. The marine biogeochemical model (MIRO&CO) has been coupled to a newly developed generic watershed model (PyNuts) based on Riverstrahler model. A nutrient tracking approach has been adapted and implemented in MIRO&CO. The transboundary nutrient transport method has been used to track the nutrients in the sea, and trace back their sources (river, ocean, and atmosphere). Here, the relative contributions of the different nutrient sources will be presented. Results show that the nitrogen contribution from atmospheric deposition is not negligible and that the nutrients released by French rivers reach the Southern North Sea in significant proportions. This work has done in the framework of the EMoSEM EU project (http://www.odnature.be/emosem/) that aims at providing support to eutrophication management in the North Atlantic Ocean, using state-of-the-art modelling tools.

  14. What drives seasonal change in oligotrophic area in the subtropical North Atlantic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dave, Apurva C.; Barton, Andrew D.; Lozier, M. Susan; McKinley, Galen A.

    2015-06-01

    The oligotrophic regions of the subtropical gyres cover a significant portion of the global ocean, and exhibit considerable but poorly understood intraseasonal, interannual, and longer-term variations in spatial extent. Here using historical observations of surface ocean nitrate, wind, and currents, we have investigated how horizontal and vertical supplies of nitrate control seasonal changes in the size and shape of oligotrophic regions of the subtropical North Atlantic. In general, the oligotrophic region of the subtropical North Atlantic is associated with the region of weak vertical supply of nitrate. Though the total vertical supply of nitrate here is generally greater than the total horizontal supply, we find that seasonal expansion and contraction of the oligotrophic region is consistent with changes in horizontal supply of nitrate. In this dynamic periphery of the subtropical gyre, the seasonal variations in chlorophyll are linked to variations in horizontal nitrate supply that facilitate changes in intracellular pigment concentrations, and to a lesser extent, phytoplankton biomass. Our results suggest that horizontal transports of nutrient are crucial in setting seasonal cycles of chlorophyll in large expanses of the subtropical North Atlantic, and may play a key and underappreciated role in regulating interannual variations in these globally important marine ecosystems.

  15. New Information on the Malacofauna of the Catchment Area of Rusenski Lom River (North Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iltcho Kolev

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available After this short note adding 8 species to the faunal list of the area, a total of 130 mollusk species are known from the catchment area of Rusenski Lom River both aquatic and terrestrial.

  16. Timing of the granulite facies metamorphism in the Sanggan area, North China craton: zircon U-Pb geochronology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO; Jinghui

    2001-01-01

    -pressure granulites and amphibolite from Sanggan area, North China craton, Chinese Science Bulletin, 2001, 46(2): 106-110.[10]Guo. J. H, Zhai M. G., Li, Y. G. et al., Isotopic ages and their tectonic significance of metamorphic rocks from middle part of the early Precambrian granulite belt, North China craton, in Geological Evolution of the Granulite Terrane in North Part of the North China Craton (eds. Qian, X., Wang, R.), Beijing: Seismolgical Press, 1994, 130-144.[11]Wang, J., Lu, S. N., Li, H. M., Isotope ages of metamorphic rocks from middle part of the Inner Mongolia, Bulletin of Tianjin Institute of Geology and Mineral Resources (in Chinese with English abstract), 1995, 29: 1-76.[12]Wu, C. H., Li, H. M., Zhong, C. T. et al,, The ages of zircon and rutile (cooling) from Khondalite in Huangtuyao, Inner Mongolia, Geological Review (in Chinese with English abstract), 1998, 44(6): 618-626.[13]Zhao, Z. P et al., Precambrian Crustal Evolution of Sino-Korean Paraplateform (in Chinese), Beijing: Science Press, 1994,444.[14]Dirks, P. H. G. M., Zhang, J. S., Passchier, C. W., Exhumation of high-pressure granulites and the role of lower crustal advection in the North China craton near Datong, J. Struct. Geol., 1997, 19: 1343-1358.[15]Zhang, J. Sh., Dirks, P. H, G., Passchier, C. W., Extensional collapse and uplift in a polymetamorphic granulite terrain in the Archaean and Palaeoproterozoic of north China, Precambrian Res., 1994, 67: 37-57.[16]Li. J. H.. Zhai, M. G., Qian, X. L. et al., The geological occurrence, regional tectonic setting and exhumation of late Archaean high-pressure granulite with the high-grade metamorphic terranes, north to central portion of North China craton.Acta Petrologica Sinica (in Chinese with English abstract), 1998, 14: 176-189.[17]Lu, L. Z., Xu, X. C., Liu, F. L., Early Precambrian Khondalite Series in North China (in Chinese with English abstract),Changchun: Changchun Press, 1996, 276.[18]Yan, Y. H.. Liu, W. J., Discussion

  17. Quality of surface-water supplies in the Triangle area of North Carolina, water years 2010-11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeifle, C.A.; Cain, J.L.; Rasmussen, R.B.

    2016-02-02

    Surface-water supplies are important sources of drinking water for residents in the Triangle area of North Carolina, which is located within the upper Cape Fear and Neuse River Basins. Since 1988, the U.S. Geological Survey and a consortium of local governments have tracked water-quality conditions and trends in several of the area’s water-supply lakes and streams. This report summarizes data collected through this cooperative effort, known as the Triangle Area Water Supply Monitoring Project, during October 2009 through September 2010 (water year 2010) and October 2010 through September 2011 (water year 2011). Major findings for this data-collection effort include Annual precipitation was approximately 4 percent above the long-term mean (average) annual precipitation in 2010 and approximately 6 percent below the long-term mean in 2011.

  18. Microplastic contamination in brown shrimp (Crangon crangon, Linnaeus 1758) from coastal waters of the Southern North Sea and Channel area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devriese, Lisa I; van der Meulen, Myra D; Maes, Thomas; Bekaert, Karen; Paul-Pont, Ika; Frère, Laura; Robbens, Johan; Vethaak, A Dick

    2015-09-15

    This study assessed the capability of Crangon crangon (L.), an ecologically and commercially important crustacean, of consuming plastics as an opportunistic feeder. We therefore determined the microplastic content of shrimp in shallow water habitats of the Channel area and Southern part of the North Sea. Synthetic fibers ranging from 200μm up to 1000μm size were detected in 63% of the assessed shrimp and an average value of 0.68±0.55microplastics/g w. w. (1.23±0.99microplastics/shrimp) was obtained for shrimp in the sampled area. The assessment revealed no spatial patterns in plastic ingestion, but temporal differences were reported. The microplastic uptake was significantly higher in October compared to March. The results suggest that microplastics >20μm are not able to translocate into the tissues. PMID:26456303

  19. Timing of the granulite facies metamorphism in the Sanggan area, North China craton: zircon U-Pb geochronology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Zircon U-Pb ages are reported for three samples of intrusive rocks in Khondalite series in the Sanggan area, North China craton. The age of meta-granite is dated as 2005±9 Ma, implying that the sedimentary sequences in Khondalites series formed before 2.0Ga. The age of 1921 ±1Ma for the meta-diorite constrain the age of granulite facies metamorphism younger than this date. The age of 1892±10 Ma for garnet granite is obtained, but the granite crystallization age seems a little younger than the date considering the morphology of zircons. On the basis of these dates and of a concise review of previous age data, it is inferred that the Khondalite series was subjected to granulite facies metamorphism at about 1.87Ga together with tonalitic granulites and HP basic granulites in the Sanggan area.

  20. HISTORICAL AMERICAN ENGINEERING RECORD - IDAHO NATIONAL ENGINEERING AND ENVIRONMENTAL LABORATORY, TEST AREA NORTH, HAER NO. ID-33-E

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Susan Stacy; Hollie K. Gilbert

    2005-02-01

    Test Area North (TAN) was a site of the Aircraft Nuclear Propulsion (ANP) Project of the U.S. Air Force and the Atomic Energy Commission. Its Cold War mission was to develop a turbojet bomber propelled by nuclear power. The project was part of an arms race. Test activities took place in five areas at TAN. The Assembly & Maintenance area was a shop and hot cell complex. Nuclear tests ran at the Initial Engine Test area. Low-power test reactors operated at a third cluster. The fourth area was for Administration. A Flight Engine Test facility (hangar) was built to house the anticipated nuclear-powered aircraft. Experiments between 1955-1961 proved that a nuclear reactor could power a jet engine, but President John F. Kennedy canceled the project in March 1961. ANP facilities were adapted for new reactor projects, the most important of which were Loss of Fluid Tests (LOFT), part of an international safety program for commercial power reactors. Other projects included NASA's Systems for Nuclear Auxiliary Power and storage of Three Mile Island meltdown debris. National missions for TAN in reactor research and safety research have expired; demolition of historic TAN buildings is underway.

  1. Dengue fever Potential Area at Pademangan Barat Sub District, North Jakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri E. B. Soesilo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Dengue hemorrhagic fever is an infectious disease that contagious by Aedes aegypti mosquito’s bites. Anybody could infectious by this illness, without differentiate their sex, age, social status, and economic status as well. Nevertheless, at slum area, where mosquito’s larva is easy to find, the number of infectious people is presuming high. By using primary data and analyze with geography information system (GIS, the study found that the number of infectious people of dengue fever do not have any positive correlation with larva amount, that was monitored through clean water in the surrounding neighborhood area. The number of infectious people have correlation with the dirty areas that caused by the piling of used articles and inundate area. Gender and age do not have any influence with the number of infectious people.

  2. Possible volcanic structures near Olympia Undae, North circumpolar area of Mars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Bayton, M.; Tréguier, E.; Herraiz, M.; Martin, P.; Schmidt, F.; Witasse, O.

    2011-10-01

    The work presented here is a study of structures encountered in the area bordering the Olympia Undae dune sea (Fig. 1). Various structures have been observed in this area, such as cones and domes [6] (whose origin may be volcanic), impact craters, etc. These structures are particularly difficult to characterize because of their relatively small size and the occasional occurrence of a sediment cover. This study is mainly based on data from Mars Express (HRSC imagery) and Mars Global Surveyor (MOLA altimetry data).

  3. Water-quality trends for streams and reservoirs in the Research Triangle area of North Carolina, 1983-95

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childress, C.J.; Bathala, Neeti

    1997-01-01

    Water-quality and streamflow monitoring data, collected from 1983 to 1995, were analyzed for 34 stream and reservoir sites in a seven- county region within the upper Neuse and upper Cape Fear River Basins. Early data (1983-88) were compiled from U.S. Geological Survey water- quality studies and from the ambient water-quality monitoring network of the North Carolina Department of Environment, Health, and Natural Resources. Analyses of major ions, nutrients, metals, trace elements, and synthetic organic compounds were compiled from samples collected by the U.S. Geological Survey from 1988 to 1995 as part of a continuing project to monitor the water quality of surface-water supplies in the Research Triangle area of North Carolina, and from the North Carolina Department of Environment, Health, and Natural Resources ambient water-quality monitoring network. This report presents the results of analysis of consistently increasing or decreasing trends in concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus species, suspended sediment, suspended solids, sodium, chloride, iron, manganese, zinc, and chlorophyll a from seasonal Kendall trend analysis on flow-adjusted concentrations for streams and concentrations in lakes. Total phosphorus concentrations also were tested for a step decrease in concentration (step trend) associated with the North Carolina phosphate-detergent ban of 1988. For some other constituents, insufficient data or values below laboratory detection limits precluded trend analysis. A regionwide decrease in total phosphorus, ranging from 25 to 81 percent was observed that coincided with increased phosphorus removal efforts at municipal wastewater-treatment facilities in the region and the statewide phosphate-detergent ban. Most sites had stable or decreasing trends in nitrogen concentrations; however, increasing trends occurred in the Neuse River near Clayton and at Smithfield, both of which are downstream from the developing Raleigh-Durham area. Chlorophyll a

  4. Electrifying reviews of the central North Sea area; Elektrisifiseringsvurderinger for midtre Nordsjoe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Husdal, Geir

    2012-06-15

    We conducted a site evaluation of power from land to several fields in the central North Sea. The findings are included Dagny, Edvard Grieg, Draupne and Johan Sverdrup. In addition, an unidentified future field is included in the evaluation. Unclassified cost estimates have been prepared and measures cost is calculated for a main concept based on a set of assumptions and suppositions. To check the robustness of the results and to identify which parameters the results are most sensitive to, we conducted sensitivity analyzes in which key assumptions are changed. The study shows a cost of Nok 412 Nok / tonne reduction in Co2 emissions. This is slightly higher than the sum of the current Co2 tax and quota price, but lower than the Co2 cost proposed in the white paper. Sensitivity calculations show that the cost of measures is very sensitive to investment costs, future energy demand and the price difference between gas sold on the continent and electricity from the grid in Norway. (eb)

  5. Wetland plant communities in the Potchefstroom Municipal Area, North-West, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Cilliers

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Wetlands in natural areas in South Africa have been described before, but no literature exists concerning the phyto­sociology of urban wetlands. The objective of this study was to conduct a complete vegetation analysis of the wetlands in the Potchefstroom Municipal Area. Using a numerical classification technique (TWINSPAN as a first approximation, the classification was refined by using Braun-Blanquet procedures. The result is a phytosociological table from which a number of unique plant communities are recognised. These urban wetlands are characterised by a high species diversity, which is unusual for wetlands. Reasons for the high species diversity could be the different types of disturbances occurring in this area. Results of this study can be used to construact more sensible management practises for these wetlands.  

  6. Seismic tomography of the area of the 2010 Beni-Ilmane earthquake sequence, north-central Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abacha, Issam; Koulakov, Ivan; Semmane, Fethi; Yelles-Chaouche, Abd Karim

    2014-01-01

    The region of Beni-Ilmane (District of M'sila, north-central Algeria) was the site of an earthquake sequence that started on 14 May 2010. This sequence, which lasted several months, was triggered by conjugate E-W reverse and N-S dextral faulting. To image the crustal structure of these active faults, we used a set of 1406 well located aftershocks events and applied the local tomography software (LOTOS) algorithm, which includes absolute source location, optimization of the initial 1D velocity model, and iterative tomographic inversion for 3D seismic P- and S-wave velocities (and the Vp/Vs ratio), and source parameters. The patterns of P-wave low-velocity anomalies correspond to the alignments of faults determined from geological evidence, and the P-wave high-velocity anomalies may represent rigid blocks of the upper crust that are not deformed by regional stresses. The S-wave low-velocity anomalies coincide with the aftershock area, where relatively high values of Vp/Vs ratio (1.78) are observed compared with values in the surrounding areas (1.62-1.66). These high values may indicate high fluid contents in the aftershock area. These fluids could have been released from deeper levels by fault movements during earthquakes and migrated rapidly upwards. This hypothesis is supported by vertical sections across the study area show that the major Vp/Vs anomalies are located above the seismicity clusters. PMID:25485193

  7. Assessment of the environmental impacts and health benefits of a nitrogen emission control area in the North Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammingh, P.; Geilenkirchen, G. [Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency PBL, Bilthoven (Netherlands); Maas, R. [National Institute of Public Health and Environmental Protection RIVM, Bilthoven (Netherlands); Holland, M.R. [Ecometrics Research and Consulting EMRC, Reading (United Kingdom); Jonson, J.E. [The Meteorological Synthesizing Centre - West MSC-W, Norwegian Meteorological Institute, Oslo (Norway)

    2012-06-15

    In the last five to ten years, concerns about the health and ecosystem effects of air polluting emissions from ships have grown in international policy debate regarding further air pollutant emissions control. As an outcome of the debate, the International Maritime Organisation (IMO) adopted more stringent emission standards in 2008 to further control air pollution from sea shipping. For example, their most stringent nitrogen oxide emission standards are about 75 per cent lower than the standards for current ships. However, these most stringent standards are only mandatory in specific emission control areas designated by the IMO. Such specific areas aim to protect densely populated areas and sensitive ecosystems from air pollution from nearby international shipping. Prior to a possible application for designation of a nitrogen oxide emission control area, the eight North Sea countries commissioned an assessment of the environmental impacts and health benefits (this report) and the economic impacts and costs (Danish EPA, 2012). The main conclusions of this assessment are presented and concisely explained below. A detailed elaboration of the work carried out, the results and the uncertainties can be found in 'Full results'.

  8. An analysis of the North Rainier Elk Herd area, Washington: Change detection and habitat modeling with remote sensing and GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benton, Joshua J.

    The North Rainier Elk Herd (NREH) is one of ten designated herds in Washington State, all managed by the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW). To aid in the management of the herd, the WDFW has decided to implement a spatial ecosystem analysis. This thesis partially undertakes this analysis through the use of a suite of software tools, the Westside Elk Nutrition and Habitat Use Models (WENHUM). This model analyzes four covariates that have a strong correlation to elk habitat selection: dietary digestible energy (DDE); distance to roads open to the public; mean slope; and distance to cover-forage edge and returns areas of likely elk habitation or use. This thesis includes an update of the base vegetation layer from 2006 data to 2011, a series of clear cuts were identified as areas of change and fed into the WENHUM models. The addition of these clear cuts created improvements in the higher quality DDE levels and when the updated data is compared to the original, predictions of elk use are higher. The presence of open or closed roads was simulated by creating an area of possible closures, selecting candidate roads within that area and then modeling them as either "all open" or "all closed". The simulation of the road closures produced increases in the higher levels of predicted use.

  9. Disconnected runoff contributing areas: Evidence provided by ancient watershed management systems in arid north-eastern Marmarica (NW-Egypt)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetter, T.; Rieger, A.-K.; Nicolay, A.

    2014-05-01

    This study presents the importance of disconnectivity in dryland area runoff demonstrated by manmade water harvesting structures dated to Greco-Roman times. Located on the coastal strip of some 20 km width along the Mediterranean coast of modern northwestern Egypt covering the north-eastern part of the region known in antiquity as Marmarica, the area receives winterly rainfalls of up to 140 mm. Further south, precipitation decreases quickly and desert conditions become more pronounced. Bedrocks are predominantly calcareous, soils are loamy, stony, calcareous, and shallow, except in relief sinks with sedimentary deposits. The land rises from the coast up to 230 m a.s.l. on the Marmarica Plateau in a sequence of zonal northsloping plains and scarps the northern parts of which are dissected and drained by wadis. Agriculturally suitable areas comprise some 9% of the coastal zone and adjacent tablelands. Overland flow controls the discharge dynamics and is the main source of wadi runoff and hence agricultural water supply. The land use pattern is scattered because cropping areas depend mainly on suitability of soils and the generation of runoff harvest, which are closely interrelated because of the arid water and sediment regime. The patchiness of runoff generation increases further south where aridity is higher and topography inhibits greater drainage patterns. The abundance of cisterns, many of them originally Greco-Roman, is strong evidence that tableland overland flows occur and are frequently disconnected from larger drainage systems.

  10. Update of data on decision making of test drills in the North Sea coastal area. Outlines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For activities that will have environmental impacts there exists a legal commitment in the Netherlands to draw up a so-called Environmental Effect Report (MER, abbreviated in Dutch). In this publication supplementary information is given on a previous MER with respect to exploratory drillings for natural gas in the title area. 8 refs

  11. Satellite tracking of harbour seals on Horns Reef - Use of the Horns Reef wind farm area and the North Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ten harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) caught on the Danish Wadden Sea island Roemoe were equipped with satellite linked time depth recorders. The animals were caught on three separate occasions (Jan. 4th, Feb. 18th and May 6th, 2002). The transmitters worked between 49 and 100 days, relaying positional and dive information back via the ARGOS satellite service until beginning of July. Background for the studies is the construction of the Worlds largest off shore wind farm on Horns Reef. Based on previous studies using VHF-transmitters, it was expected that the seals would spend considerable time on Horns Reef. The VHF-telemetry studies showed that the preferred direction for seals leaving the Danish Wadden Sea is NW from Graedyb tidal area outside Esbjerg, the direction directly towards the wind farm area. The previously used VHF-transmitters had a limited detection range and it was decided to equip a number of seals from the same area as before with satellite transmitters. This allows for positioning of the seals in the entire North Sea as well as providing dive summary information, as a transmitter with a depth transducer was chosen for the study. Positional information revealed that animals move about more extensively than previously believed. Substantial variation between animals was observed and each seal seemed to have adopted its own foraging strategy. Some animals travelled to the centre of the North Sea on foraging trips and spent considerable time close to the bottom at 30-70 meters depth. Other seals remained in the German Bight and yet others spent considerable time on and around Horns Reef. The area of Horns reef wind farm constitutes a negligible fraction of the total area visited by the tagged seals. The reef as a whole however, appears to be important to the seals both for foraging and as transit area to other feeding grounds further off shore. The resolution in positional information is not sufficiently high to allow for a detailed study of the effects

  12. Satellite tracking of harbour seals on Horns Reef - Use of the Horns Reef wind farm area and the North Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tougaard, J.; Tougaard, S.; Jensen, Thyge [Fisheries and Maritime Museum Esbjerg (Denmark); Ebbesen, I. [Univ. of Sourthern Denmark, Inst. of Biology, Odense (Denmark); Teilmann, J. [NationL Environmental Res. Inst., Roskidle (Denmark)

    2003-03-15

    Ten harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) caught on the Danish Wadden Sea island Roemoe were equipped with satellite linked time depth recorders. The animals were caught on three separate occasions (Jan. 4th, Feb. 18th and May 6th, 2002). The transmitters worked between 49 and 100 days, relaying positional and dive information back via the ARGOS satellite service until beginning of July. Background for the studies is the construction of the Worlds largest off shore wind farm on Horns Reef. Based on previous studies using VHF-transmitters, it was expected that the seals would spend considerable time on Horns Reef. The VHF-telemetry studies showed that the preferred direction for seals leaving the Danish Wadden Sea is NW from Graedyb tidal area outside Esbjerg, the direction directly towards the wind farm area. The previously used VHF-transmitters had a limited detection range and it was decided to equip a number of seals from the same area as before with satellite transmitters. This allows for positioning of the seals in the entire North Sea as well as providing dive summary information, as a transmitter with a depth transducer was chosen for the study. Positional information revealed that animals move about more extensively than previously believed. Substantial variation between animals was observed and each seal seemed to have adopted its own foraging strategy. Some animals travelled to the centre of the North Sea on foraging trips and spent considerable time close to the bottom at 30-70 meters depth. Other seals remained in the German Bight and yet others spent considerable time on and around Horns Reef. The area of Horns reef wind farm constitutes a negligible fraction of the total area visited by the tagged seals. The reef as a whole however, appears to be important to the seals both for foraging and as transit area to other feeding grounds further off shore. The resolution in positional information is not sufficiently high to allow for a detailed study of the effects

  13. Timing of the granulite facies metamorphism in the Sanggan area, North China craton: zircon U-Pb geochronology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO; Jinghui

    2001-01-01

    -pressure granulites and amphibolite from Sanggan area, North China craton, Chinese Science Bulletin, 2001, 46(2): 106-110.[10]Guo. J. H, Zhai M. G., Li, Y. G. et al., Isotopic ages and their tectonic significance of metamorphic rocks from middle part of the early Precambrian granulite belt, North China craton, in Geological Evolution of the Granulite Terrane in North Part of the North China Craton (eds. Qian, X., Wang, R.), Beijing: Seismolgical Press, 1994, 130-144.[11]Wang, J., Lu, S. N., Li, H. M., Isotope ages of metamorphic rocks from middle part of the Inner Mongolia, Bulletin of Tianjin Institute of Geology and Mineral Resources (in Chinese with English abstract), 1995, 29: 1-76.[12]Wu, C. H., Li, H. M., Zhong, C. T. et al,, The ages of zircon and rutile (cooling) from Khondalite in Huangtuyao, Inner Mongolia, Geological Review (in Chinese with English abstract), 1998, 44(6): 618-626.[13]Zhao, Z. P et al., Precambrian Crustal Evolution of Sino-Korean Paraplateform (in Chinese), Beijing: Science Press, 1994,444.[14]Dirks, P. H. G. M., Zhang, J. S., Passchier, C. W., Exhumation of high-pressure granulites and the role of lower crustal advection in the North China craton near Datong, J. Struct. Geol., 1997, 19: 1343-1358.[15]Zhang, J. Sh., Dirks, P. H, G., Passchier, C. W., Extensional collapse and uplift in a polymetamorphic granulite terrain in the Archaean and Palaeoproterozoic of north China, Precambrian Res., 1994, 67: 37-57.[16]Li. J. H.. Zhai, M. G., Qian, X. L. et al., The geological occurrence, regional tectonic setting and exhumation of late Archaean high-pressure granulite with the high-grade metamorphic terranes, north to central portion of North China craton.Acta Petrologica Sinica (in Chinese with English abstract), 1998, 14: 176-189.[17]Lu, L. Z., Xu, X. C., Liu, F. L., Early Precambrian Khondalite Series in North China (in Chinese with English abstract),Changchun: Changchun Press, 1996, 276.[18]Yan, Y. H.. Liu, W. J., Discussion

  14. Heavy metals in sea cucumber juveniles from coastal areas of Bohai and Yellow seas, north China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Haifeng; Tang, Shizhan; Qin, Dongli; Chen, Zhongxiang; Wang, Jinlong; Bai, Shuyan; Mou, Zhenbo

    2015-05-01

    The study was undertaken to assess the contents of heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Cr, Pb, Cd, As and Hg) in sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) juveniles from coastal areas of Bohai and Yellow seas in northern China. Sea cucumber juveniles were collected from twenty commercial hatcheries distributed in five coastal cities. The mean concentrations obtained for heavy metals in mg/kg were as follows: Cu (0.179), Zn (2.634), Cr (0.108), Pb (0.065), Cd (0.161), As (0.372), Hg (0.034). All the mean concentrations were below the maximum residual limits set by Chinese legislation, but As in 10 % samples exceeded the safety threshold. Significant differences in contents of Cr, Pb and Hg were found among the five investigated areas. Overall, the heavy metal levels in sea cucumber juveniles were relatively low and more attention should be paid to toxic metals Pb, Cd, As and Hg in future routine monitoring program.

  15. Effect of Ecotourism on Plant Biodiversity in Cherlagh Protected Area North-Eastern Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Amir Hossein Zarghi; Sayed Mohsen Hosseini; Hamid Ejtehadi

    2015-01-01

    Due to importance of considerable effects of ecotourism on environment, the effect of ecotourism on plant biodiversity in Cherlagh zone was investigated .To acquire the aim of the article, the sampling area was selected under the condition that the ecotourism is solely the variable factor and the slope, direction and height are considered constant factor after evaluation of the ecological land unit drawings. Two zones of high pressured and low pressured ecotourism were considered after evalua...

  16. Regional geochemical and geophysical surveys in the Berwyn Dome and adjacent areas, north Wales

    OpenAIRE

    Cooper, D. C.; Rollin, K.; Cornwell, J.D.

    1984-01-01

    This report describes stream sediment and gravity surveys carried out across the Berwyn Dome and adjacent areas. The gravity survey confirmed the presence of a broad regional Bouguer anomaly low in the central part of the Dome, on which is superimposed several smaller irregular highs and lows. Some of these local anomalies possibly reflect small igneous bodies but more detailed gravity surveys would be needed to determine their form. Near Corwen the Bryneglwys Fault co...

  17. TRAVEL PLANNING PROPOSALS SKI AREA IN NORTH OLTENIA TO INCREASE VISIBILITY AT NATIONAL LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CONSTANŢA ENEA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Mountain tourism potential is complex and varied in structure, size and spatial distribution, which is related to massive expansion, differentiation altitude, geological composition, configuration and specific geological landforms, fragmentation, vegetation cover and peculiarities of the river system, etc. Therefore under the mountain in northern Oltenia highlights some differences in the regions in terms of structure, volume, value, capitalizing on opportunities in tourism mountain tourism potential. Mountain tourism is one of the traditional forms of tourism in affirming Romanian tourism internationally, both through natural potential available by the low level of degradation of landscapes and through investment efforts that were made in the specific offer. European alpine countries (France, Switzerland, Austria, Italy, etc. attaches great importance to the potential of mountain tourism available and submitted in this regard, special efforts for the development of mountain resorts attract millions of tourists annually amateur ski of sports winter mountain in general. Romania has a great value ski area that can compete successfully with the ski areas of central and Western Europe. What are the strengths and weaknesses of Romanian mountain tourism potential in comparability with famous country ski area for winter sports will see throughout this paper.

  18. Geology and Uranium, Thorium Distributions of Gabal Humr Ar-Raha Area, North Eastern Desert, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabal Humr ar-Raha area, about 150 km2 of crystalline basement rocks, is delineated by Lat. 27° 18’ and 27° 26' N and Long. 32° 42' and 32° 48’ E. It is covered by Dokhan volcanics (oldest), younger granites (syenogranite) and post granitic dykes (youngest). Dokhan volcanics are represented by a thick sequence of stratified lava flows of intermediate (andesites) and acidic (rhyolites) composition. The main rock type of Gabal Humr ar-Raha granitoid rocks are classified as syenogranites; their emplacement were structurally controlled by pre-existing fractures trending NNE- SSW and NE-SW. The acidic Dokhan volcanics and younger granites show the highest equivalent uranium and equivalent thorium contents in the study area. The younger granites can be considered as uraniferous granites as revealed from their radiometric studies. They are originated from highly fractionated U-rich magma that trapping high concentrations of uranium in the accessory minerals. These granites host an interesting radioactive anomalies which are essentially exhibited by a strongly altered granites occupying at the intersection zone of two major strike-slip faults striking NNW-SSE and NE-SW. The sheared granites show dark brown spots of iron oxides at this zone. Thus the enrichment of uranium in the study area is controlled by structural elements

  19. ESTIMATION OF THE POPULATION EXPOSURE DOSES FROM DRINKING-WATER CONSUMPTION FOR THE INHABITANTS OF NORTH-EASTERN AREA OF RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Kaduka

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Data on natural radionuclides content in drinking-water of North-Eastern area of Russian Federation obtained in long-term investigations is presented; population internal exposure doses estimation from the drinking-water consumption is carried out for the inhabitants of the area.

  20. Splash erosion in recently-burnt area in North-West Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández Raga, María

    2013-04-01

    Splash erosion is generally acknowledged as the main erosive agent, because it represents the first step in water erosion (Ellison, 1944, Sempere Torres et al., 1994). The impact of raindrops not only modifies the structure of the earth's surface, (Moss, 1991) but also breaks down and emits soil fragments which are later transported over long distances in the case of additional surface runoff processes (Moss and Green, 1983). In the whole process we need to take into account not only the specific kinetic energy associated to each rain event, but also the type of soil and the size of the particles released (Sharma et al 1991), as well as the characteristics of the layer of water formed on the surface (Moss and Green, 1983, Kinnell, 1991, Leguédois et al., 2005). The erosion process is more obvious when it affects vulnerable areas that have recently been devastated by a wildfire. This study has computed the raindrop size, its volume, the fall velocity, and its kinetic energy by means of an optical disdrometer. The data have subsequently been compared with the mass of soil that was splashed and collected in a particular area devastated by an important wildfire on the 17th of May 2012. The splash erosion produced in 6 months has been analyzed. 2. Study Site The data were gathered in the period between the 29th May and the 30th November 2012, in the area of Congosto, in the province of León, Spain. The study zone is part of a transition area between the plain and the mountainous regions. The dominant climate is the continentalized Mediterranean climate, although with more moderate temperatures. In general, in this area we find a wide temperature range (from 12 to 20°C), long and cold winters, short springs and autumns, and short and warm summers. Precipitation is irregularly scattered along the year, and may reach, depending on the area, up to 1,500 mm per year. Intense precipitation events may occur. The area presents a coarse-grained siliceous lithology, that is

  1. Regional Evaluation of ERA-40 Reanalysis Data with Marine Atmospheric Observations in the North Sea Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nils H. Schade

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available An important task of the departmental research programme KLIWAS is the evaluation and assessment of climate model results by means of a comprehensive reference data set. For validation purposes, and to create a North Sea wide maritime atmospheric and oceanographic reference database, in-situ observations of the Centre for Global Marine Meteorological Observations (GZS of the National Meteorological Service DWD have been compared to the ERA-40 reanalysis. ERA-40 is used as forcing for the hindcast runs of the ENSEMBLES regional climate models, which is used within the KLIWAS model chain. The GZS hosts a regularly updated, quality controlled, world-wide data bank of weather observations from the oceans. It includes data from all sorts of observation platforms as Voluntary Observing Ships (VOS, drifting and moored buoys, light vessels, and offshore platforms, either from real-time (RT via the Global Telecommunication System (GTS or from international exchange in delayed-mode (DM. In addition to the automated set of programs applied for high quality control, erroneous data are also manually corrected to a certain extent, if possible. To assure reliable statistics for the evaluation, the corrected observations are gridded to a resolution of 2.25 degree, so each grid box includes four ERA-40 reanalysis grid points. The temporal coverage of the grid boxes depends on shipping routes and the positions of automated systems. Observed air temperatures, covering a period of 40 years (1961?2000, show noticeable differences to the reanalysis data for all land influenced boxes, specifically in the winter months. The same differences can be found if ERA-40 data alone are compared between land- and sea facing boxes. They can not be found in GZS data. It can be assumed that the differences are not resulting from measurement errors or uncertain fraction variabilities, since they are small during the winter months. A comparison of the differences basing on the 1981

  2. MAPPING OF MARINE PLANTS DISTRIBUTIONS IN NORTH COASTAL AREA OF SUMBAWA REGENCY USING ALOS/AVNIR-2 DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.P. Astuti

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The exploitation and management of water resource be more beneficial, if preceded by study which includes biological aspect besides physics and chemical parameter of waters. The biological aspects study can be conducted by monitoring the change of ecosystem (biomonitoring. One of study that entangles biomonitoring is the research concerning change of marine plants. Marine plants consists of seagrasses and seaweeds. Using ALOS/AVNIR-2 data in this research because it has 3 visible bands (blue, green, and red with 10 meter spacial resolutions can penetrate into water column. Aims of research were (1 to know combinations of bands in ALOS/AVNIR-2 data was better in Lyzenga method applying to mapping marine plants, (2 to know the general species of marine plants in north coastal area of Sumbawa regency. Lyzenga method was used in image processing process to know the combination of bands which have better for mapping marine plants. Preliminary steps of image processing were image cropping, geometric correction and radiometric correction. Water column effect was reduced by Lyzenga algorithm. Six classes were determined by multispectral classification process i.e. seagrass, seaweeds, coral, hard sand and rubble of coral, and substratum. Field surveys has done to identify the accuracy level. The accuracy method by Lillesand and Kiefer (1990 was used in this research.The result of accuracy test show for image band 1 and band 2 combination given better visual object benthic than another combinations of bands, with overall accuracy was 86.67%. Seagrass found in north coastal area of Sumbawa regency consist of four species there were Cymodocea rotundata, Enhalus acoroides, Syringodium isoetifolium, and Halophila ovalis with width equal to 835.37 ha, while seaweeds were found equal to five species there were Euchema cottoni, Euchema cottoni ssp sakul, Halimeda sp, Padina sp, and Sargasum duplicatum with width equal to 269,16 ha.

  3. Quality of surface-water supplies in the Triangle Area of North Carolina, water years 2012–13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeifle, C.A.; Cain, J.L.; Rasmussen, R.B.

    2016-09-07

    Surface-water supplies are important sources of drinking water for residents in the Triangle area of North Carolina, which is located within the upper Cape Fear and Neuse River Basins. Since 1988, the U.S. Geological Survey and a consortium of local governments have tracked water-quality conditions and trends in several of the area’s water-supply lakes and streams. This report summarizes data collected through this cooperative effort, known as the Triangle Area Water Supply Monitoring Project, during October 2011 through September 2012 (water year 2012) and October 2012 through September 2013 (water year 2013). Major findings for this period include:Annual precipitation was approximately 2 percent above the long-term mean (average) annual precipitation in 2012 and approximately 3 percent below the long-term mean in 2013.In water year 2012, streamflow was generally below the long-term mean during most of the period for the 10 project streamflow gaging stations. Streamflow was near or above the long-term mean at the same streamflow gaging stations during the 2013 water year.More than 7,000 individual measurements of water quality were made at a total of 17 sites—6 in the Neuse River Basin and 11 in the Cape Fear River Basin. Forty-three water-quality properties or constituents were measured; State water-quality standards exist for 23 of these.All observations met State water-quality standards for pH, temperature, hardness, chloride, fluoride, sulfate, nitrate, arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, nickel, and selenium.North Carolina water-quality standards were exceeded one or more times for dissolved oxygen, dissolved-oxygen percent saturation, turbidity, chlorophyll a, copper, iron, manganese, mercury, silver, and zinc. Exceedances occurred at all 17 sites.Stream samples collected during storm events contained elevated concentrations of 19 water-quality constituents relative to non-storm events.

  4. Assessment of the impact of moving fluids on the regional thermal field for the area of Brandenburg (North German Basin)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noack, V.; Scheck-Wenderoth, M.; Cacace, M.; Lewerenz, B.

    2012-04-01

    We present results from numerical simulations of the 3D thermal field for the area of Brandenburg in the North German Basin. The study area encompasses a part of the basin centre in the north, whereas to the south the basin margin is enclosed. Starting with Permocarboniferous volcanic rocks the basin fill is represented by Permian to Cenozoic sediments. A thick layer of mobilized salt (Zechstein, Upper Permian) generated elevated structures such as salt pillows and diapirs. Especially where diapirs pierce their overburden, the overlying deposits are strongly influenced in their thickness and distribution. This special configuration of the Zechstein salt is relevant for the thermal calculations due to the fact that salt has a distinctly higher thermal conductivity than the surrounding sediments and is impermeable to fluid flow. Therefore, the Zechstein salt acts as a conductive chimney for heat and a hydraulic decoupling horizon between the Pre-Permian and the Mesozoic-Cenozoic strata. The latter are characterized by two further quasi-impervious sediment complexes, the Rupelian-clay and the Muschelkalk. These two divide the Post-Permian strata in three main aquifer systems: the Buntsandstein, Keuper to Pre-Rupelian and the Post-Rupelian complex. Based on results from purely conductive modelling we additionally analyse the influence of moving fluids on the shallow temperature field above the Zechstein salt. Therefore coupled fluid flow and heat transfer numerical simulations are carried out to investigate the hydrothermal field. The 3D simulations for the heat transport processes are based on the finite element method. The results indicate that the distribution of thermal conductivities in the basin fill controls the short-wavelength pattern of the temperature distribution whereas the long wavelength pattern results from interaction between the highly conductive crust and low conductive sediments. Furthermore, the results reveal that the shallow temperature field

  5. Complex gravity zones and the extension of labour catchment areas in North Transdanubia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamás Hardi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The goals of this study are the identification of the centres of gravity of the Northern-Transdanubian cities, including Győr, by using a gravitation model and, based on empirical examination, the definition of manpower catchment areas. Then, we are going to analyze the impact fields determined by two methods and seek explanations for the overlaps and differences of the two delineations, which are also going to be analyzed with the consideration of geographic, social and economic factors. Both examinations were carried out at two dates, covering a timeframe of 10 years.

  6. Costs of urban area retrofit to district heating and cooling systems: north-central cities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santini, D J; Davis, A A; Marder, S M

    1978-03-01

    This study considers the major urbanized areas of six U.S. cities (Washington, D.C.; St. Louis; Cleveland; Milwaukee; Detroit; Chicago) to arrive at reasonably accurate estimates of costs required to retrofit them with district heating and cooling systems. Only costs associated with heating and hot water are addressed here. Demand estimates and energy-supply analyses are made, and component capital costs are estimated to arrive at annualized system costs. Finally, a comparison of alternative energy-delivery options is made, and estimates of scarce-fuel savings are derived. 39 refs., 12 figs., 14 tables.

  7. Distribution and source of heavy metals in the surface sediments from the near-shore area, north Jiangsu Province, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The sediment source controls the distribution of the heavy metals. • There is no Cu, Pb, Zn and As pollution instead of slight Cd pollution. • Cu, Pb and Zn are lithogenic while Cd and As are mixed in origin. • Cd in polluted stations showed obvious anthropogenic origin. - Abstract: Samples of surface sediment and vibrocore were collected in the near-shore area of north Jiangsu Province for grain size, elements, 210Pbexcess and 137Cs analyses. In our study area, the diversity of metal concentration was controlled not by the grain size, but by the source. The element content of the old Yellow River Delta was used as baseline for our study area. Geoaccumulation indexes indicate that no station was polluted by Cu, Pb, Zn and As, but the Igeo values of As were close to zero in some stations. Slight pollution caused by Cd was observed in some stations. Correlation and enrichment factors suggest that Cu, Pb and Zn are lithogenic in origin, while As and Cd are mixed in origin. Especially, in some polluted stations Cd was obviously anthropogenic in origin

  8. Diet of dingoes and other wild dogs in peri-urban areas of north-eastern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Benjamin L; Carmelito, Erin; Amos, Matt; Goullet, Mark S; Allen, Lee R; Speed, James; Gentle, Matt; Leung, Luke K-P

    2016-03-11

    Knowledge of the resource requirements of urban predators can improve our understanding of their ecology and assist town planners and wildlife management agencies in developing management approaches that alleviate human-wildlife conflicts. Here we examine food and dietary items identified in scats of dingoes in peri-urban areas of north-eastern Australia to better understand their resource requirements and the potential for dingoes to threaten locally fragmented populations of native fauna. Our primary aim was to determine what peri-urban dingoes eat, and whether or not this differs between regions. We identified over 40 different food items in dingo scats, almost all of which were mammals. Individual species commonly observed in dingo scats included agile wallabies, northern brown bandicoots and swamp wallabies. Birds were relatively common in some areas but not others, as were invertebrates. Dingoes were identified as a significant potential threat to fragmented populations of koalas. Dietary overlap was typically very high or near-identical between regions, indicating that peri-urban dingoes ate the same types or sizes of prey in different areas. Future studies should seek to quantify actual and perceived impacts of, and human attitudes towards, peri-urban dingoes, and to develop management strategies with a greater chance of reducing human-wildlife conflicts.

  9. Diet of dingoes and other wild dogs in peri-urban areas of north-eastern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Benjamin L.; Carmelito, Erin; Amos, Matt; Goullet, Mark S.; Allen, Lee R.; Speed, James; Gentle, Matt; Leung, Luke K.-P.

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of the resource requirements of urban predators can improve our understanding of their ecology and assist town planners and wildlife management agencies in developing management approaches that alleviate human-wildlife conflicts. Here we examine food and dietary items identified in scats of dingoes in peri-urban areas of north-eastern Australia to better understand their resource requirements and the potential for dingoes to threaten locally fragmented populations of native fauna. Our primary aim was to determine what peri-urban dingoes eat, and whether or not this differs between regions. We identified over 40 different food items in dingo scats, almost all of which were mammals. Individual species commonly observed in dingo scats included agile wallabies, northern brown bandicoots and swamp wallabies. Birds were relatively common in some areas but not others, as were invertebrates. Dingoes were identified as a significant potential threat to fragmented populations of koalas. Dietary overlap was typically very high or near-identical between regions, indicating that peri-urban dingoes ate the same types or sizes of prey in different areas. Future studies should seek to quantify actual and perceived impacts of, and human attitudes towards, peri-urban dingoes, and to develop management strategies with a greater chance of reducing human-wildlife conflicts. PMID:26964762

  10. Study of Landcover Change in Yelwa-Heipang Area of Plateau State, North-Central Nigeria: A Geoinformatics Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunmola, J. K.; Gajere, E. N.; Jeb, D. N.; Agene, I. J.

    2014-11-01

    This study is a research programme carried out to detect the change in land use/land cover of Yelwa-Heipang area of Plateau State, North Central Nigeria. It lies within the South-Eastern part of the Jos-Plateau. It is about 40 km South of Jos city. It is located between latitude 9°35'16.65" N, longitude 8°52'29.91" E and Latitude 9°38'38.92" N, longitude 8°57'03.87" E (Naraguta topomap, sheet 168S.E). Two sets of Landsat images of 1975, 1986 and NigeriaSat-X image of 2012 were subjected to various image processing techniques and a supervised classification was carried out on the various images using ILWIS (Integrated land and water information system) software. The classification scheme used are bare-surface, built-up, farmland and vegetation. A follow up field work was carried out to confirm the results of the classification. The results were subjected to various statistical analyses and it shows natural vegetated area coverage increased from 5.80 sqkm in 1975 to 18.47 sqkm in 1986 and later reduced to 16.85 sqkm in 2012. Non-vegetated area which comprised built-up area, farmlands and bare surface, decreased from 42.2 sqkm in 1975 to 33.82 sqkm in 1986, then to 35.86 sqkm in 2012.The rate of change of natural vegetation between 1975 and 1986 was 1.152 sqkm per annum, while that of 1986 and 2012 was 0.108 sqkm per annum. Loss of naturally vegetated area in Yelwa-Heipang Barkin-Ladi is mainly as a result of urban growth and expansion, farming and gully erosion. Another important issue in the study area is the problem of soil erosion. In the past mining activity had led to accelerated gully erosion which has stripped substantial areas of lands of their vegetations. This has led to the formation of bare surface. Land cover of the study area during the period between 1975 and 2012 changed from a forested area to other land uses as a result of increase in population, demand for land for agricultural purposes and increase in the demand for firewood.

  11. Heavy metals in sea cucumber juveniles from coastal areas of Bohai and Yellow seas, north China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Haifeng; Tang, Shizhan; Qin, Dongli; Chen, Zhongxiang; Wang, Jinlong; Bai, Shuyan; Mou, Zhenbo

    2015-05-01

    The study was undertaken to assess the contents of heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Cr, Pb, Cd, As and Hg) in sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) juveniles from coastal areas of Bohai and Yellow seas in northern China. Sea cucumber juveniles were collected from twenty commercial hatcheries distributed in five coastal cities. The mean concentrations obtained for heavy metals in mg/kg were as follows: Cu (0.179), Zn (2.634), Cr (0.108), Pb (0.065), Cd (0.161), As (0.372), Hg (0.034). All the mean concentrations were below the maximum residual limits set by Chinese legislation, but As in 10 % samples exceeded the safety threshold. Significant differences in contents of Cr, Pb and Hg were found among the five investigated areas. Overall, the heavy metal levels in sea cucumber juveniles were relatively low and more attention should be paid to toxic metals Pb, Cd, As and Hg in future routine monitoring program. PMID:25421712

  12. Effect of Ecotourism on Plant Biodiversity in Cherlagh Protected Area North-Eastern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Hossein Zarghi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to importance of considerable effects of ecotourism on environment, the effect of ecotourism on plant biodiversity in Cherlagh zone was investigated .To acquire the aim of the article, the sampling area was selected under the condition that the ecotourism is solely the variable factor and the slope, direction and height are considered constant factor after evaluation of the ecological land unit drawings. Two zones of high pressured and low pressured ecotourism were considered after evaluation of related drawings. Samples were taken in spring 2010. For evaluation of the plant biodiversity 60 samples of 1 m2 (30 samples in each zone were taken randomly and then the list of flora and the cover percentage of vegetation were recorded and then the percentage of vegetation data were analyzed in PAST software individual , the biodiversity (Shanon, Simpson richness (Menhinick, Margalef evenness (Dominance, Berger parker, indices were calculated. The mentioned indices were inserted in SPSS II software and the data normality was tested through Kolomogrov-Smirnov test also the homogeneity of variances was tested using Leven test. Due to data normality, non-paired T test was used in order to compare diversity analysis. The results indicate that the richness and individual indices show significant effects of ecotourism on biodiversity indices.

  13. Bimodal Distribution of Area-Weighted Latitude of Sunspots And Solar North-South Asymmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, Heon-Young

    2011-01-01

    We study the latitudinal distribution of sunspots observed from 1874 to 2009 using the center-of-latitude (COL). We calculate COL by taking the area-weighted mean latitude of sunspots for each calendar month. We then form the latitudinal distribution of COL for the sunspots appearing in the northern and southern hemispheres separately, and in both hemispheres with unsigned and signed latitudes, respectively. We repeat the analysis with subsets which are divided based on the criterion of which hemisphere is dominant for a given solar cycle. Our primary findings are as follows: (1) COL is not monotonically decreasing with time in each cycle. Small humps can be seen (or short plateaus) around every solar maxima. (2) The distribution of COL resulting from each hemisphere is bimodal, which can well be represented by the double Gaussian function. (3) As far as the primary component of the double Gaussian function is concerned, for a given data subset, the distributions due to the sunspots appearing in two different...

  14. Outbreak of Salmonella Typhi enteric fever in sub-urban area of North India:A public health perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nidhi Singla; Neha Bansal; Varsha Gupta; Jagdish Chander

    2013-01-01

    Outbreaks of enteric fever are a major health concern not only due to significant human morbidity and mortality but also fear of spread of multidrug resistant strains.We report an outbreak of enteric fever caused bySalmonella enterica serotypeTyphi in a suburban area, in cityChandigarh ofNorthIndia.Twenty-seven strains ofS. typhi were isolated from blood cultures over a period of two weeks with18 of these27 patients residing in the same area.Maximum cases were in the age group5-14 years(10 patients,55.5%) while4(22.2%) cases were children under5 years.All the strains showed similar resistogram being resistant to ampicillin and nalidixic acid, intermediate to ciprofloxacin and sensitive to chloramphenicol, ceftriaxone, cefotaxime, cotrimoxazole and azithromycin on disc diffusion testing.Minimum inhibitory concentration of ciprofloxacin was determined by agar dilution method and was found to be raised(≥2 μg/mL).This nalidixic acid resistant S. typhioutbreak report warrants the necessity of implementing stringent sanitation practices in public health interest.

  15. Contamination and risk of heavy metals in soils and sediments from a typical plastic waste recycling area in North China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Zhenwu; Zhang, Lianzhen; Huang, Qifei; Yang, Yufei; Nie, Zhiqiang; Cheng, Jiali; Yang, Jun; Wang, Yuwen; Chai, Miao

    2015-12-01

    Plastic wastes are increasingly being recycled in many countries. However, available information on the metals released into the environment during recycling processes is rare. In this study, the contamination features and risks of eight heavy metals in soils and sediments were investigated in Wen'an, a typical plastic recycling area in North China. The surface soils and sediments have suffered from moderate to high metal pollution and in particular, high Cd and Hg pollution. The mean concentrations of Cd and Hg were 0.355 and 0.408 mg kg(-1), respectively, in the soils and 1.53 and 2.10 mg kg(-1), respectively, in the sediments. The findings suggested that there is considerable to high potential ecological risks in more than half of the soils and high potential ecological risk in almost all sediments. Although the health risk levels from exposure to soil metals were acceptable for adults, the non-carcinogenic risks to local children exceeded the acceptable level. Source assessment indicated that heavy metals in soils and sediments were mainly derived from inputs from poorly controlled plastic waste recycling operations in this area. The results suggested that the risks associated with heavy metal pollution from plastic waste recycling should be of great concern.

  16. Levels and spatial distribution of airborne chemical elements in a heavy industrial area located in the north of Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lage, J; Almeida, S M; Reis, M A; Chaves, P C; Ribeiro, T; Garcia, S; Faria, J P; Fernández, B G; Wolterbeek, H T

    2014-01-01

    The adverse health effects of airborne particles have been subjected to intense investigation in recent years; however, more studies on the chemical characterization of particles from pollution emissions are needed to (1) identify emission sources, (2) better understand the relative toxicity of particles, and (3) pinpoint more targeted emission control strategies and regulations. The main objective of this study was to assess the levels and spatial distribution of airborne chemical elements in a heavy industrial area located in the north of Spain. Instrumental and biomonitoring techniques were integrated and analytical methods for k0 instrumental neutron activation analysis and particle-induced x-ray emission were used to determine element content in aerosol filters and lichens. Results indicated that in general local industry contributed to the emissions of As, Sb, Cu, V, and Ni, which are associated with combustion processes. In addition, the steelwork emitted significant quantities of Fe and Mn and the cement factory was associated with Ca emissions. The spatial distribution of Zn and Al also indicated an important contribution of two industries located outside the studied area. PMID:25072718

  17. Communal visual histories to detect environmental change in northern areas: Examples of emerging North American and Eurasian practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustonen, Tero

    2015-12-01

    This article explores the pioneering potential of communal visual-optic histories which are recorded, painted, documented, or otherwise expressed. These materials provide collective meanings of an image or visual material within a specific cultural group. They potentially provide a new method for monitoring and documenting changes to ecosystem health and species distribution, which can effectively inform society and decision makers of Arctic change. These visual histories can be positioned in a continuum that extends from rock art to digital photography. They find their expressions in forms ranging from images to the oral recording of knowledge and operate on a given cultural context. For monitoring efforts in the changing boreal zone and Arctic, a respectful engagement with visual histories can reveal emerging aspects of change. The examples from North America and case studies from Eurasia in this article include Inuit sea ice observations, Yu'pik visual traditions of masks, fish die-offs in a sub-boreal catchment area, permafrost melt in the Siberian tundra and early, first detection of a scarabaeid beetle outbreak, a Southern species in the Skolt Sámi area. The pros and cons of using these histories and their reliability are reviewed. PMID:26008615

  18. Contamination and risk of heavy metals in soils and sediments from a typical plastic waste recycling area in North China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Zhenwu; Zhang, Lianzhen; Huang, Qifei; Yang, Yufei; Nie, Zhiqiang; Cheng, Jiali; Yang, Jun; Wang, Yuwen; Chai, Miao

    2015-12-01

    Plastic wastes are increasingly being recycled in many countries. However, available information on the metals released into the environment during recycling processes is rare. In this study, the contamination features and risks of eight heavy metals in soils and sediments were investigated in Wen'an, a typical plastic recycling area in North China. The surface soils and sediments have suffered from moderate to high metal pollution and in particular, high Cd and Hg pollution. The mean concentrations of Cd and Hg were 0.355 and 0.408 mg kg(-1), respectively, in the soils and 1.53 and 2.10 mg kg(-1), respectively, in the sediments. The findings suggested that there is considerable to high potential ecological risks in more than half of the soils and high potential ecological risk in almost all sediments. Although the health risk levels from exposure to soil metals were acceptable for adults, the non-carcinogenic risks to local children exceeded the acceptable level. Source assessment indicated that heavy metals in soils and sediments were mainly derived from inputs from poorly controlled plastic waste recycling operations in this area. The results suggested that the risks associated with heavy metal pollution from plastic waste recycling should be of great concern. PMID:26318969

  19. Fishes associated with North Carolina shelf-edge hardbottoms and initial assessment of a proposed marine protected area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quattrini, A.M.; Ross, S.W.

    2006-01-01

    Fish community data are limited from deeper shelf-edge hardbottoms along the southeastern U.S. continental shelf. This lack of data Hampers the design of recently proposed marine protected areas (MPAs) on the outer shelf of the southeastern U.S. During 2001-2004, sampling was conducted (57-25 m) to describe habitats and fish communities within and outside of the North Carolina proposed MPA (p-MPA) using the JOHNSON-SEA-LINK submersible, remotely operated vehicles, otter trawls, and hook and line. Habitats observed included soft substrate or non-hardbottom (NH), a shipwreck ("Snowy Wreck"), low relief hardbottoms (LRH), boulder fields (BF), and high relief ledges (HRL), the latter of which were divided into three mi-crohabitats. Non-metric, multi-dimensional scaling indicated that hardbottom fish assemblages were distinct from NH, and fish assemblages among microhabitats on HRL were different. In total, 152 fish species were documented. Thirty-five species were observed only on NH and 117 were observed or hardbottoms and the Snowy Wreck. Several species of anthiines were the most abundant fishes on most hardbottoms, whereas triglids, synodontids, and Seriola spp. were abundant on NH. Species richness was highest on HRL, and species composition was unique at the Snowy Wreck (238-253 m) and on BF. Future shelf-edge hardbottom research should include more standardized surveys using direct observations. Further, we recommend that the boundaries of the North Carolina p-MPA be redrawn to include more hardbottom habitat. ?? 2006 Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science of the University of Miami.

  20. Magnetic storms and variations in hormone levels among residents of North Polar area - Svalbard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breus, Tamara; Zenchenko, Tatiana; Boiko, Evgeni

    geomagnetic activity leads to a significant change in the level of secretion of several hormones in residing at high latitudes area healthy individuals, indicating that they revealed the type of adaptive stress reaction in reply on GMA disturbance. 1. Breus T.K. and Rapoport S.I. Magnetic storms. Medico- biological aspects (in Russian), Publ.Co Soviet Sport,.Moscow, 2003, 271p.

  1. The inner circulation mechanism in sinking column formation in North China coal field——A case study in Fengfeng mining areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jing-ming; LIU Xian-wei; LIU Wen-sheng; GUAN Yong-qiang; WANG Jun-xian

    2007-01-01

    Sinking columns are one of the most hazardous geological structures in north Chine typed coal fields.To understand the sinking column formation,to judge if the columns are hazardous or not,the inner circle mechanism of groundwater in forming sinking columns in the relatively isolated areas was proposed according to the investigation on formation or distribution of sinking columns in some north China typed coal fields.such as Fengfeng,Xiangtai,Huaibei,Yangquan and so on.The heat generated by magma energized groundwater circulation and developed limestone karst in the relatively isolated areas.The CaCO3 solution accelerated by geothermal abnormality,the effect of high content of CO2 on dissolution and saturation of CaCO3 were discussed.Compared the forming conditions of the sinking columns developed in other coal mining areas in north China coal field,the paper deduced that the above factors collude karst development and sinking column formation,the columns in current geothermaI areas are permeable and those in high coal rank areas or in paleo abnormally geothermal areas.The paper suggested that the sinking columns in the current abnormally geothermal areas were permeable,but those in the areas with high coal rank were not on contract.

  2. Quantitative evaluation of the underground Geoheritage in karst areas: The Picos de Europa National Park, North Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballesteros, Daniel; Jiménez-Sánchez, Montserrat; José Domínguez-Cuestra, María; García-Sansegundo, Joaquín; Meléndez-Asensio, Mónica

    2014-05-01

    Karst areas show a lot of kilometers of cave conduits with a hidden Geoheritage poorly investigated in previous works that concerning with their cultural, scientific and education values. The evaluation of cave Geoheritage is complex due to methodological constrains. One of the most important karst areas in the World is the Picos de Europa National Park (North Spain) that was declared as a Global Geosite in 2007 and includes 14 % of the World's Deepest Caves. The GEOCAVE research project is being developed in several caves from the Picos de Europa National Park since 2012 in order to characterize geomorphology and geochronology of the cavities, proposing and validating new methodologies adapted to these environments. The aim of this work is to evaluate the Geoheritage of the Picos de Europa caves based on the studies made in nine selected caves. The methodology includes: 1) elaboration of geomorphological maps of the nine selected caves, projecting geomorphological, geological, hydrogeological, paleontological and cultural forms on the caves surveys; and 2) definition and calculation of three indexes useful to evaluate the Geoheritage of the caves. The indexes are: a) Cave Geoheritage Extension Index (CGhEI), defined as the percentage of the area occupied by the entire features divided by the cave area (excluding the forms that represent the conduits themselves), b) Feature Extension Index (FEI), defined as the area occupied by each group of form divided by the cave area, and c) Cave Geodiversity Index (CGdI), defined as the number of forms divided by the cave area. The nine cave geomorphological maps cover 178,639 m2 of caves and include a whole of 14.9 km of karst conduits, representing these caves the 4.1 % of the conduits of the Picos de Europa. The values of the Cave Geoheritage Extension Index range from 22 to 82 %, while the values of the Feature Extension Indexes for each group of features reach the following values: Geomorphological FEI take values of 20

  3. RELATIVE ABUNDANCE AND SPECIES COMPOSITION OF MOSQUITO POPULATIONS (DIPTERA:CULICIDAE) IN A LA CROSSE VIRUS- ENDEMIC AREA IN WESTERN NORTH CAROLINA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Container surveys were conducted in 5 communities on the Cherokee Indian Reservation, an area of western North Carolina endemic for transmission of La Crosse (LAC) virus, to determine the potential for peridomestic mosquito breeding, the relative abundance of mosquito species, an...

  4. Sediment and process water characterization in support of 300 Area North Process Pond physical soil washing test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Field, J.G.

    1994-02-18

    The sediments in the 300 Area North Process Pond are being considered for clean-up using soil washing processes. Prior to site clean-up several preliminary pilot-scale physical washing campaigns were performed by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) staff in the summer of 1993. WHC used equipment that was obtained from the US Environmental Protection Agency. Specific details are found in the 300-FF-1 Physical Separations CERCLA Treatability Test Plan. Physical soil washing includes separation and proper containment of the contaminant-rich fines and residual liquid effluent and release of the coarse ``clean`` fraction, should it meet minimum performance levels for residual contaminant concentration to the site being cleaned. A goal of the demonstration is to concentrate the contaminants into {le}10% of the soil volume excavated and, therefore, to release {ge}90% of the soil back to the site as clean soil. To support interpretation of the WHC soil washing treatability study, PNL performed some sediment and process water characterization on samples taken during three major and one small campaign. This report documents particle-size distributions in various field washed piles, and chemical and gama emitting radionuclide contents as a function of particle-size distribution for the field washed sediments and contents in the spent process water. All of the particle fractions were separated by wet sieving, but two field samples were also subjected to dry sieving and attrition scrubbing followed by wet sieving.

  5. Dental care knowledge and practices among secondary school adolescents in Ibadan North Local Government Areas of Oyo State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tunde Joshua Ogunrinde

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the dental care knowledge, and practice of secondary school adolescents in Ibadan North Local Government Area of Oyo State, Nigeria. Methodology: Four hundred and twelve secondary school adolescents were assessed using interviewer-administered questionnaire. Data on dental care knowledge and practice obtained through the questionnaire were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics with level of significance set at 5%. Result: Consumption of sticky, sugary and chocolaty food items was perceived by a majority (81.8% as unhealthy to dental health and 66.3% perceived consumption of fruits and vegetables as healthy to the teeth. Vertical brushing technique was mentioned by 69.7% of respondents as the best method of brushing the teeth, and 89.6% stated that teeth should be brushed twice daily. Majority 57.0% of respondents open caps of soft drink bottles with their teeth and 74.3% used toothpicks to remove food trapped in between teeth. Majority (82.8% perceived that dentist should be visited for check-up once in 6 months, however, only 31.6% of respondents had visited dentists before. There was a statistically significant relationship between tooth brushing technique and type of school attended by the respondents (P < 0.05. Conclusion: Majority of the respondents have good oral health knowledge but poor dental health practice.

  6. Exposure of birds to radionuclides and other contaminants in Special Protection Areas (SPAs) in North-West England

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There has been a decline in the population of some bird species at Morecambe Bay and the Solway Firth Special Protected Areas in North-West England during the last fifty years. It was suggested that the declines were caused, in part, by contaminants in the food and environment, primarily from the radioactive effluent discharge from the Sellafield Ltd nuclear fuel reprocessing plant in Cumbria. This study analysed bird feathers and tissues, vegetation and sediment for radionuclides, metals and persistent organic compounds. The non-radionuclide results were all low compared to relevant action limits. The ERICA model was used with field data to estimate the radiological dose to birds from exposure to 137Cs and 241Am with results between 1.26 to 3.83 μGy h-1, below the ERICA screening level of 10 μGy h-1 and within the IAEA 40 μGy h-1 guideline value below which potential adverse impacts on biota are unlikely. The study showed no link between bird population decline and anthropogenic discharges to the SPAs.

  7. The Netherlands and the designation of marine protected areas in the North Sea Implementing international and European law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harm Dotinga

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available There is general agreement that representative and ecologically coherent networks of marine protected areas (MPAs should be created to maintain biodiversity and to conserve specific species, habitats and ecological processes. This article addresses the contribution that is made by the Netherlands to the North Sea MPA network. It reviews the applicable legal obligations with regard to the designation of MPAs contained in global and regional treaties and EU law, and provides a critical assessment of the actions that have thus far been taken by the Netherlands to implement these obligations. The article concludes that significant steps have been taken towards a solid Dutch contribution to the global and regional goals of representative MPA networks. There are, however, a number of shortcomings. To a large degree, these are the result of the policy of the Netherlands Government to go no further in the designation of MPAs than what is strictly required by the EU Birds and Habitats Directives. On account of the widely acknowledged ‘marine deficiencies’ of the Habitats Directive, this policy stands in the way of achieving the target of a representative MPA network. Moreover, it is rather doubtful whether the same minimalist approach is sufficient to meet the relevant obligations of the Netherlands under global and regional treaties, in particular the OSPAR Convention. These shortcomings can be remedied by the designation of additional MPAs and, in some cases, by extending the list of species and habitats for which current MPAs have been selected.

  8. Ecological surveillance of small mammals at Dagmar North Training Area, Gyeonggi Province, Republic of Korea, 2001-2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Heung Chul; Klein, Terry A; Kang, Hae Ji; Gu, Se Hun; Moon, Sung Sil; Baek, Luck Ju; Chong, Sung Tae; O'Guinn, Monica L; Lee, John S; Turell, Michael J; Song, Jin-Won

    2011-06-01

    A seasonal rodent-borne disease surveillance program was established at Dagmar North Training Area located near the demilitarized zone, Republic of Korea, from 2001 through 2005. Selected habitats surveyed included earthen banks separating rice paddies, fighting positions along a 5 m rock-faced earthen berm, and extensive tall grasses with various degrees of herbaceous and scrub vegetation associated with dirt roads, rice paddies, ditches, ponds, or the Imjin River. Of the nine species of small mammals captured, the striped field mouse (Apodemus agrarius), the primary reservoir for Hantaan virus, was the most frequently collected, representing 92.5% of the 1,848 small mammals captured. Males were captured similarly to females during the spring and summer seasons but were captured less frequently during the fall and winter seasons. Gravid rates were highest in the fall (25.5-57.3%) with the lowest rates during the summer (0.0-2.2%). Capture rates were the lowest along earthen banks separating rice paddies (5.5%) and highest in unmanaged tall grasses and crawling vegetation (15.3-43.5%). An increased knowledge of ecological factors that impact the abundance and distribution of small mammals and the associated ectoparasites and pathogens they harbor is critical for developing accurate disease risk assessments and mitigation strategies for preventing vector- and rodent-borne diseases among soldiers training in field environments.

  9. Hantaan virus surveillance targeting small mammals at Dagmar North Training Area, Gyeonggi Province, Republic of Korea, 2001-2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Terry A; Kang, Hae Ji; Gu, Se Hun; Moon, Sungsil; Shim, So-Hee; Park, Yon Mi; Lee, Sook-Young; Kim, Heung-Chul; Chong, Sung-Tae; O'Guinn, Monica; Lee, John S; Turell, Michael J; Song, Jin-Won

    2011-12-01

    In response to a hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome case in November 2000, a seasonal rodent-borne disease surveillance program was initiated at Dagmar North Training Area (DNTA), Gyeonggi Province, Republic of Korea. From April 2001-December 2005, 1,848 small mammals were captured. Apodemus agrarius accounted for 92.5%, followed by Mus musculus (3.6%), Crocidura lasiura (2.1%), and Microtus fortis (1.1%). Three species of rodents were found to be antibody-positive (Ab+) for Hantaan virus (HTNV): A. agrarius (22.3%), M. musculus (9.1%), and M. fortis (5.0%). Ab+ rates for A. agrarius increased with increasing weight (age), except for those weighing <10 g. The peak HTNV transmission period in Korea coincided with the peak reproductive potential of A. agrarius during the fall (August/September) surveys. HTNV strains from DNTA were distinct from HTNV strains from the People's Republic of China. From these studies, more accurate risk assessments can be developed to better protect personnel from rodent-borne diseases.

  10. ANNUAL REPORT FOR THE FINAL GROUNDWATER REMEDIATION, TEST AREA NORTH, OPERABLE UNIT 1-07B, FISCAL YEAR 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FORSYTHE, HOWARD S

    2010-04-14

    This Annual Report presents the data and evaluates the progress of the three-component remedy implemented for remediation of groundwater contamination at Test Area North, Operable Unit 1-07B, at the Idaho National Laboratory Site. Overall, each component is achieving progress toward the goal of total plume remediation. In situ bioremediation operations in the hot spot continue to operate as planned. Progress toward the remedy objectives is being made, as evidenced by continued reduction in the amount of accessible residual source and decreases in downgradient contaminant flux, with the exception of TAN-28. The injection strategy is maintaining effective anaerobic reductive dechlorination conditions, as evidenced by complete degradation of trichloroethene and ethene production in the biologically active wells. In the medial zone, the New Pump and Treat Facility operated in standby mode. Trichloroethene concentrations in the medial zone wells are significantly lower than the historically defined concentration range of 1,000 to 20,000 μg/L. The trichloroethene concentrations in TAN-33, TAN-36, and TAN-44 continue to be below 200 μg/L. Monitoring in the distal zone wells outside and downgradient of the plume boundary demonstrate that some plume expansion has occurred, but less than the amount allowed in the Record of Decision Amendment. Additional data need to be collected for wells in the monitored natural attenuation part of the plume to confirm that the monitored natural attenuation part of the remedy is proceeding as predicted in the modeling.

  11. Measurement of indoor radon levels in North West Frontier Province and federally administered tribal areas-Pakistan during summer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indoor radon level measurement survey has been performed in several districts of the North West Frontier Province (NWFP) and federally administered tribal areas (FATA), Pakistan. These include Swabi, Mardan and Charsadda Districts of NWFP and Mohmand and Bajuar Agencies of FATA. CR-39-based National Radiological Protection Board, UK-type radon dosimeters were used in this study. The dosimeters were installed in bedrooms and drawing rooms of a total of 200 carefully selected houses and were exposed to radon and its daughters for three months. In bedrooms, maximum radon concentration of ∼323+/-5Bqm-3 was found in District Charsadda and minimum value of ∼13+/-6Bqm-3 was found in the District Swabi. Like bedrooms, maximum radon concentration level in drawing rooms (281+/-5Bqm-3) was also found in District Charsadda. Minimum level of indoor radon concentration of 21+/-8Bqm-3 was found in a drawing room of District Mardan. According to the weighted average minimum indoor radon of ∼25+/-7Bqm-3 was measured in Mardan and maximum of ∼210+/-5Bqm-3 was measured in Charsadda District

  12. Measurement of indoor radon levels in North West Frontier Province and federally administered tribal areas-Pakistan during summer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahman, S. [Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences (PIEAS), P.O. Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan); Matiullah [Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences (PIEAS), P.O. Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan)]. E-mail: matiullah@pieas.edu.pk; Rahman, Z. [Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences (PIEAS), P.O. Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan); Mati, N. [Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences (PIEAS), P.O. Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan); Ghauri, B.M. [SPAS Division, Sparcent, SUPARCO Karachi (Pakistan)

    2007-02-15

    Indoor radon level measurement survey has been performed in several districts of the North West Frontier Province (NWFP) and federally administered tribal areas (FATA), Pakistan. These include Swabi, Mardan and Charsadda Districts of NWFP and Mohmand and Bajuar Agencies of FATA. CR-39-based National Radiological Protection Board, UK-type radon dosimeters were used in this study. The dosimeters were installed in bedrooms and drawing rooms of a total of 200 carefully selected houses and were exposed to radon and its daughters for three months. In bedrooms, maximum radon concentration of {approx}323+/-5Bqm{sup -3} was found in District Charsadda and minimum value of {approx}13+/-6Bqm{sup -3} was found in the District Swabi. Like bedrooms, maximum radon concentration level in drawing rooms (281+/-5Bqm{sup -3}) was also found in District Charsadda. Minimum level of indoor radon concentration of 21+/-8Bqm{sup -3} was found in a drawing room of District Mardan. According to the weighted average minimum indoor radon of {approx}25+/-7Bqm{sup -3} was measured in Mardan and maximum of {approx}210+/-5Bqm{sup -3} was measured in Charsadda District.

  13. Experimental study of solvent-based emulsion injection to enhance heavy oil recovery in Alaska North Slope area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiu, F.; Mamora, D. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    2010-07-01

    This study examined the feasibility of using a chemical enhanced oil recovery method to overcome some of the technical challenges associated with thermal recovery in the Alaska North Slope (ANS). This paper described the second stage research of an experimental study on nano-particle and surfactant-stabilized solvent-based emulsions for the ANS area. Four successful core flood experiments were performed using heavy ANS oil. The runs included water flooding followed by emulsion flooding; and pure emulsion injection core flooding. The injection rate and core flooding temperature remained constant and only 1 PV micro-emulsion was injected after breakthrough under water flooding or emulsion flooding. Oil recovery increased by 26.4 percent from 56.2 percent original oil in place (OOIP) with waterflooding to 82.6 percent OOIP with injection of emulsion following water flooding. Oil recovery was slightly higher with pure emulsion flooding, at 85.8 percent OOIP. The study showed that low permeability generally resulted in a higher shear rate, which is favourable for in-situ emulsification and higher displacement efficiency. 11 refs., 4 tabs., 20 figs.

  14. Tertiary particle production and target optimization of the H2 beam line in the SPS North Area

    CERN Document Server

    Charitonidis, Nikolaos; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2016-01-01

    In this note, the tertiary particle yield from secondary targets of different materials placed at the ‘filter’ position of the H2 beam line of SPS North Area are presented. The production is studied for secondary beams of different momenta in the range of 50-250 GeV/c. More specifically, we studied six different targets: two copper cylinders with a radius of 40 mm and lengths of 100 and 300 mm, one solid tungsten cylinder with a radius of 40 mm and a length of 150 mm and three polyethylene cylinders with radius of 40 mm and lengths of 550, 700 and 1000 mm. Eight different momenta of the secondary beam (50, 60, 70, 100, 120, 150, 200 and 250 GeV/c) as well as two different physics lists (QGSP_BIC and FTFP_BERT) have been extensively studied. The purpose of this study is (a) to optimize (using the appropriate filter target) the particle production from the secondary targets as demanded by the experiments (b) investigate the proton production (with respect to the pion production) in the produced tertiary bea...

  15. Tertiary particle production and target optimization of the H2 beam line in the SPS North Area

    CERN Document Server

    Tellander, Felix

    2016-01-01

    H2 beam line of SPS North Area is a high energy, high resolution and multipurpose particle beam line. It is able to transport secondary hadron and pure electron beams with momenta between 10 and 400 GeV/c to be exploited by several different experiments. In this work, tertiary particle production from a secondary target placed in the line is studied. The introduction of this “filter” target enhances the middle to low momentum hadron (20 - 60 GeV/c) and electron production. In this work, a systematic Monte Carlo simulation study using a GEANT 4 based package, G4beamline, has been performed in order to investigate the tertiary particle production from several different targets. More specifically, Cu, W and polyethylene targets with different thicknesses have been studied. The proton over pi+ ratio is of particular interest, as well as the optimal electron production for several momenta. The present work will act as a reference to be used by the future test-beam users of the line as an indication of the expe...

  16. Adoption of Improved Processing Technologies by Fish Farmers in Akure North and South Local Government Areas, Ondo State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FELIX OLAYINKA OLADIPO

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to determine the adoption of improved processing technologies by fish farmers in Akure North and South LGAs, Ondo state, Nigeria. A two stage sampling technique was employed to select 150 fish farmers interviewed for the study, data were analyzed by using descriptive statistics and Tobit regression model. Results showed that majority of the farmers (68.0% were males with mean age of 38.5 years old. Majority (80.7% of respondents were married while (90% had various degree of formal education, oil drum, smoking kiln and mud oven were the improved fish processing technologies available in the study area. Furthermore, cooperatives (92.7% was ranked 1st as the most preferred source of information by the farmers, majority of respondents (94.7% were aware of oil drum. The mean levels of adoption was 2.50, values below and above the mean were regarded as low and high respectively, the use of oil drum (2.58, smoking kiln (1.47 and mud oven (1.33 were the adoption scores of the respondents in the study area. Moreover, age (4.201, education level (2.105, household size (1.791, income (3.021, gender (1.781, pond size (2.511 and other income generating activities (2.256 were factors that were statistically significant thus affecting the rate of adoption of improved fish processing technologies. The study concludes that respondents were aware of some of the improved technologies but low adoption, the study therefore recommends the need for capacity building and advisory services by extension agents and other stakeholders for fish processors.

  17. Integration of geological and geophysical data: a guide to exploration for uranium in Raghunathgarh area, North Delhi fold belt, Rajasthan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uranium mineralization associated with sulphide bearing sheared/brecciated quartzite in North Delhi Fold Belt is known from Raghunathgarh area of Sikar district, Rajasthan. Here, the surface mineralisation occurs intermittently over 1.5 km with samples (n=21) analysing 0.014-0.710% U3O8 (Av. 0.162%) with negligible thorium. Uraninite, along with other secondary minerals, occurs as fine sized grains along fracture planes, around grain boundaries and also as fine sized grains forming small clusters. The sulfides include pyrite, pyrhotite, and chalcopyrite. Magnetite is also present. Considering the promising surface indications, structural control and association of uranium mineralisation with sulfides, magnetic, IP/resistivity and EM surveys were carried out to delineate subsurface structural features and conductors in the area. A sizeable part of the area is covered with sand dunes and soil. The magnetic survey revealed two sub-surface faults, one of which is parallel to a shear and the mineralized zone. EM conductor axis, as marked by the EM survey, extends over a strike length of about 800m and again for 400m with a lateral shift. A prominent NE-SW trending high chargeability and corresponding low resistivity zone and a magnetic low depicting a fracture zone was identified in the NW part of the explored area. Based on the geological and geophysical data and the surface indications, sub-surface exploration was taken up at Raghunathgarh and a total of 42 boreholes have been completed so far. It is observed that the EM conductor axis and one of the faults delineated from the magnetic survey broadly coincide with the mineralization bands intercepted in some of the boreholes. A few boreholes were also drilled to test the NE-SW trending high chargeability/low resistivity zone corresponding to carbonaceous phyllite, clay, disseminated sulphides and the fracture zone marked by a magnetic low in the NW part. Core examination indicated the presence of varied lithounits

  18. CoPant 97222 – A High Yielding Mid Late Maturing Sugarcane Variety for North West Zone Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.K. Tyagi, K.A. Khan and A.Q. Khan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The variety CoPant 97222 was developed from open pollinated cross on cultivar CoPant 84212 at Sugarcane Breeding Institute, Coimbatore. It was evaluated against the check varieties Co 1148, CoS 767 and CoS 8436 for its performance under AICRP yield trials of North Western Zone from 2000-01 to 2003-04 in two plants and one ratoon crops at G. B. Pant Univ. of Agri.& Technology, Pantnagar. The clone CoPant 97222, recorded an average cane yield of 88.16 t/ha and sugar yield of 11.14 t/ha and thus found superior to the checks CoS 767 (72.70 and 8.81 t/ha and (Co 1148 (78.27 and 9.23 t/ha and CoS 8436 (71.33 and 8.88 t/ha for cane and sugar yields respectively. The percent increase for cane yield t/ha of CoPant 97222 over checks CoS767, Co 1148 and CoS 8436 was 21.12, 12.78 and 23.80 respectively. The percent increase for sugar yield over checks also ranged from 21.17 to 26.00. Juice sucrose percent at harvest in CoPant 97222 was on par with CoS 767 and CoS 8436 but superior to Co 1148. The number of millable canes in CoPant 97222 were on par with CoS 8436 but cane length, cane diameter and cane weight were high in variety CoPant 97222 over the checks. This variety was resistant to Red rot under natural and artificial inoculated conditions. This variety CoPant had tall medium thick canes with erect growing habit and non lodging . It was released for cultivation in North Western Zone comprising of five states viz., Rajasthan, Haryana, Punjab, UP and Uttarakhand by Central Variety Release Committee, Government in the year 2006. This variety is performing excellent in the notified areas.

  19. Geoarchaeology of the karstic area of Mirambello, North-East Crete (Greece): palaeoenvironmental investigations and human settlement implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghilardi, M.; Kunesch, S.; Robert, V.; Farnoux, A.; Wurmser, H.

    2009-04-01

    The present work aims to detail the preliminary researches dealing with the geomorphologic, topographic and archaeological setting from two major settlements located in north east Crete. The project undertook by the French school of Archaeology in Athens aims to reconstruct the palaeoenvironmental evolution of the whole area during the last millennia. Fieldworks, including coring, had already been done in August 2006, April 2007 and September 2008; we propose to present the main results. The settlements of Latô and Dreros belong to the area of Mirambello characterized by its spectacular karstic processes and landforms, different karstic depressions with different size can be identified and classified into Dolines and Poljés. As far as the archaeological interest is concerned, villages and cities were occupied during the hellenestic period; several remains are still present around and inside these depressions. Using a G.I.S., the first step consisted in establishing a local geomorphological mapping, taking into account the geological background and the historical occupation of the area. The second step consisted in establishing topographic cross sections of the doline, where the ancient settlement of Latô is located, based on various DGPS surveys. Several questions concerning the occupation of this depression arose : how and for which reasons people decided to leave close to this specific landform ? Which type of activities (farming, grazing, cultivation…) existed and did they were related with natural resources exploitation ? A project associating the local greek archaeological services (Ephoria of Aghios Nikolaos, Director Ms. Apostolakou), the mayor of Nea Polis, the University of Paris 12 (GEONAT EA 435) and the French School of Athens tries to depict the historical evolution of the landscape. Four boreholes (up to a maximum depth of 5 meters) had been drilled in the poljé of Dreros and in a doline situated 1 km away from the ancient settlement of Lat

  20. Distribution of sei whales (Balaenoptera borealis) in the subarctic-subtropical transition area of the western North Pacific in relation to oceanic fronts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murase, Hiroto; Hakamada, Takashi; Matsuoka, Koji; Nishiwaki, Shigetoshi; Inagake, Denzo; Okazaki, Makoto; Tojo, Naoki; Kitakado, Toshihide

    2014-09-01

    The subarctic-subtropical transition area of the western North Pacific is an important summer feeding grounds of sei whales. The oceanographic structure and circulation of this area are largely determined by strong oceanic fronts and associated geostrophic currents, namely the Polar Front (PF), Subarctic Front (SAF) and Kuroshio Extension Front (KEF). The relationship between the distribution of sei whales and oceanographic fronts was investigated using a generalized additive model (GAM), and the cetacean sighting survey data and oceanographic observations in July from 2000 to 2007 were used in the analysis. The number of individual sei whales was used as the response variable while the distances from the PF, SAF, and KEF to the whales were used as explanatory variables along with the longitude values. Sei whales were concentrated north and south of the SAF and the areas from 250 to 300 km north and from 100 to 200 km south of the SAF were estimated as high-density areas of sei whales. The entire inter-frontal zone between the PF and SAF featured an elevated concentration of sei whales, and the area south of the PF and along the SAF was identified as an important feeding ground of sei whales in July from 2000 to 2007.

  1. Revisions to the stratigraphic nomenclature of the Abiquiu Formation, Abiquiu and contiguous areas, north-central New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, Florian; Kelley, Shari A.

    2009-01-01

    Stratigraphic studies and geologic mapping on the Abiquiu 7.5-min quadrangle have led to revision of the stratigraphic nomenclature for the Oligocene to Miocene Abiquiu Formation in north-central New Mexico. The Abiquiu Formation had previously been defined to include informal upper, middle (Pedernal chert member), and lower members. The basement-derived conglomeratic lower member in the northern Jemez Mountains and Abiquiu embayment is here redefined. We propose removing the "lower member" from the Abiquiu Formation because provenance of these coarse sediments is dramatically different than the volcaniclastic strata of the "upper member." Furthermore, we propose that the term "lower member of the Abiquiu Formation" be replaced with an existing unit name, the Ritito Conglomerate of Barker (1958), and that the name Abiquiu Formation be restricted to the volcaniclastic succession. The lower part of the Ritito Conglomerate in Arroyo del Cobre on the Abiquiu quadrangle is 47 m (155 ft) thick and is composed of arkosic conglomeratic beds interbedded with arkosic sands and siltstones. Clasts include, in descending order of abundance, Proterozoic quartzite, granite, metavolcanic rocks, quartz, schist, and gneiss and a trace of Mesozoic sandstone and Paleozoic chert. Clasts are predominantly of pebble and cobble size but range from granule to boulder size. Paleocurrent data collected in the Arroyo del Cobre area indicate that the Ritito Conglomerate was deposited by a south-flowing river system during the Oligocene, eroding Laramide highlands such as the Tusas Mountains to the northeast, which contain predominantly Proterozoic rocks. This depositional setting has also been suggested by previous workers. The middle member or Pedernal chert member is present both at the top of the Ritito Conglomerate and as lenses within the lower part of the Abiquiu Formation. This post-depositional diagenetic chert remains an informal unit called the Pedernal chert.

  2. Limited-area atmospheric energetics: illustration on a simulation of the CRCM5 over eastern North America for December 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clément, Marilys; Laprise, René; Nikiéma, Oumarou

    2016-06-01

    The seminal work of Lorenz on global atmospheric energetics has allowed understanding much on the physical processes responsible for the general circulation, its maintenance and the development of synoptic-scale weather systems. In mid-latitudes, potential energy generated by the differential heating of the planet by the Sun is converted into kinetic energy by the weather systems and eventually dissipated by friction. While a corresponding study of atmospheric energetics over a limited region would have the advantage of focusing on the details of individual storms and the processes taking place over a domain of interest, such study has encountered several pitfalls and has been challenging. Here we build upon our earlier work on the energy cycle of inter-member variability in ensembles of limited-area model simulations to develop a regional-scale atmospheric energy cycle formulated in terms of available enthalpy and kinetic energy. The approach is then applied to study the energetics of a short simulation made with the fifth-generation of the Canadian Regional Climate Model (CRCM5) over an eastern North American domain for December 2004. The results obtained for a specific storm and monthly mean climatology confirm the current understanding that available enthalpy of the atmospheric time-mean state is mainly generated by the covariance of diabatic heating and temperature, and that the most important conversions of energy are found to correspond to baroclinic processes that take place along the storm track, where perturbations of temperature and wind are important. Finally, transient-eddy kinetic energy is mainly dissipated by friction in the boundary layer.

  3. Radioactive Accessory Minerals From Stream Sediments at Wadi Mayet EL Abd, Northern Gattar Area North Eastern Desert, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wadi Mayet El-Abd is located in the northern part of G. Gattar, north Eastern Desert of Egypt. Significant remarks have been recorded on the heterogeneous distributions of heavy minerals content along the stream course, where they are most common in both deeper sediments and downstream sites. Moreover, these sediments appear to be slightly favorable delivery pools for thorium but not for uranium which is probably due to either the marked enrichment in the thorium-bearing minerals or the selective leaching for uranium during the supergene processes. The greater eU/U and eTh/U ratios, besides the negative values of the calculated authigenic uranium and further the markedly reverse relationships between uranium and thorium as well as uranium and Th/U ratio reveal the disequilibrium state of uranium and confirm U leaching. The available data propose that, the study sediments are potential sink for radioactive accessory minerals as well as rare metal minerals that may control the geochemical enrichment of trace elements as; U, Th, Zr, Y, Nb, REE, Ba, Zn and V. The present work adopts the ESEM/EDX- BSE as an appropriate tool for the recognition of the accessory minerals. The minerals; betafite, ishikawaite, xenotime, fluorite and zircon have been identified as the most abundant uraniferous accessory minerals; whereas monazite dominates as thorium-bearing mineral. Moreover, thorite and uranothorite have occasionally been recognized. A particular attention has been given to the contents of the rare metals in general and radionuclides in paticular in the accessory minerals, despite of their frequency in the whole stream sediments. In conclusion, the study sediments are conceivably genetically related to common sources. Actually it reflects the mineral constituent of the different rocks composing the drained area. Hence it may represent an erosional remnant either of the bordering granites and Hammamat molasses terrenes of Wadi Mayet El- Abd or drained from the further

  4. Sedimentary geochemistry of chert from the Middle-Upper Ordovician in Shihuigou area, North Qilian orogenic belt and its tectonic implication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Yuansheng; ZHU Jie; GU Songzhu

    2007-01-01

    The North Qilian orogenic belt is an elongate tectonic unit that lies between the North China plate to the north and the Middle Qilian microplate to the south, and is formed by a collision of the two plates in the Caledonian. The Shihuigou Section from Yongdeng County, Gansu Province,is in the eastern sector of the North Qilian Mountains, span-ning the Ordovician island-arc zones. The Zhongpu Group is distributed in the Shihuigou area and composed of medium-basic volcanic rocks and volcanic clastic rocks interspersed with cherts, limestones, slates, and metamorphic sandstones.The geochemistry of chert from the Zhongpu Group reveals that all cherts coexisting with island-arc volcanic rocks formed in a continental margin basin environment. Research results of the rare earth elements reveal that these cherts formed in a relatively deep-water basin with no significant terrestrial interference. Therefore, it is inferred that the North Qilian orogenic belt was previously an archipelagic ocean in the Ordovician.

  5. The Adaptation of Fishing Instruments by a Farmers' Community in the Thung Kula Area, in North Eastern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Worawan Ubonlert

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: In a historical study of the ancient communities in the area of Thung Kula, it was revealed that there are important resources including rice, fish, salt and iron. Salt is used in making fermented fish (known locally as Pla Daek, a culinary culture which has been prevalent in the ethnic groups of Laos and Khmer. The availability of rice and fish in Thung Kula has continued to this day. Thung Kula farmers have extended their fishing sources from the government-owned places to their own fields or ponds. Approach: They use fishing instruments that had been developed out of folk wisdom in combination with the new technology in order to increase the fishing yields adequate for their own consumption and for commerce. The present research aimed to study the adaptation of fishing instruments of the farmers at Ban Ta Yuak, Thung Luang sub-district, Suwannaphum district, Roi-Et province. The studied area was Thung Kula in the North East of Thailand. The research method was qualitative. Data were collected from relevant documents and from field studies with 25 informants. Structured and unstructured interviews were conducted with local tradesmen, consumers, fishing-instrument shop owners. Results: The results were presented descriptively below. The adaptation of fishing instruments of Ban Ta Yuak farmers began with the increased population, the changing ecological systems as a result of the government’s construction of reservoirs, canals, public ponds and the market-oriented economy which had attracted the local fishing markets across the Thung Kula area. Ban Ta Yuak farmers have then adapted their fishing instruments to fit the available kinds of fish and the ecological systems of the local water sources. With assistance from the government, the farmers have their own fishing ponds. It was found that prior to the application of the national economic and social plan of 1962 these farmers created simple fishing instruments such as Sai (a

  6. Enrichment and shifts in macrobenthic assemblages in an offshore wind farm area in the Belgian part of the North Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, Delphine A; Deschutter, Yana; Vincx, Magda; Vanaverbeke, Jan

    2014-04-01

    The growing development of offshore wind energy installations across the North Sea is producing new hard anthropogenic structures in the natural soft sediments, causing changes to the surrounding macrobenthos. The extent of modification in permeable sediments around a gravity based wind turbine in the Belgian part of the North Sea was investigated in the period 2011-2012, along four gradients (south-west, north-east, south-east, north-west). Sediment grain size significantly reduced from 427 μm at 200 m to 312 ± 3 μm at 15 m from the foundation along the south-west and north-west gradients. The organic matter content increased from 0.4 ± 0.01% at 100 m to 2.5 ± 0.9% at 15 m from the foundation. The observed changes in environmental characteristics triggered an increase in the macrobenthic density from 1390 ± 129 ind m⁻² at 200 m to 18 583 ± 6713 ind m⁻² at 15 m together with an enhanced diversity from 10 ± 2 at 200 m to 30 ± 5 species per sample at 15 m. Shifts in species dominance were also detected with a greater dominance of the ecosystem-engineer Lanice conchilega (16-25%) close to the foundation. This study suggests a viable prediction of the effects offshore wind farms could create to the naturally occurring macrobenthos on a large-scale. PMID:24373388

  7. Trade openness and investment in North Africa: A CGE application to deep and comprehensive free trade areas (DCFTAs) between the EU and respectively Egypt, Morocco and Tunisia

    OpenAIRE

    BOULANGER PIERRE; Kavallari, Aikaterini; Rau, Marie-Luise; Rutten, Martine

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to provide an impact analysis of deep and comprehensive free trade areas (DCFTAs) between the European Union (EU) and most of the North-African (NAF) countries – namely Egypt, Morocco and Tunisia. Scenarios are modelled with MAGNET, a general equilibrium model, and focus on trade liberalisation including non-tariff measures (NTMs) on the one hand, increases in foreign direct investments (FDIs) and capital flows on the other. They assume either broad productivity gains...

  8. A NEGLECTED CASE OF FILARIASIS IN AN ENDEMIC AREA OF NORTH EASTERN KARNATAKA: AN APPROACH TO PREVENT MORBIDITY AND DISABILITY: A CASE REPORT

    OpenAIRE

    Sudheendra; Hiremath; Pramod S

    2015-01-01

    Title: A Neglected Case of Filariasis in an Endemic area of North Eastern Karnataka: An Approach to Prevent Morbidity and Disability. INTRODUCTION: Lymphatic Filariasis is a vector born disease found in 73 countries throughout the tropics and subtropics of the world affecting over 120 million people causing painful , profoundly disfiguring disease with tem porary or permanent disability. CASE PRESENTATION: We report a case of Chyluria due to Lymphatic...

  9. Integrated Green Roofs System and its Role of Achieving Sustainability in Residential Buildings in Urban Area in Athens, Greece and Famagusta, North Cyprus

    OpenAIRE

    Seyed Mehran shahidipour

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the characteristics and importance of the green roof in urban area would investigate in some residential buildings in Athens, Greece and then, some strategies give to integrate green roof in residential buildings in Famagusta, north Cyprus due to the importance of energy saving and thermal comfort in residential buildings. These days, sustainable architecture is spreading around the world. Therefore, Sustainable architecture has important role in design build...

  10. Atmospheric concentrations and air–soil gas exchange of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in remote, rural village and urban areas of Beijing–Tianjin region, North China

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Wentao; Simonich, Staci; Giri, Basant; Chang, Ying; Zhang, Yuguang; Jia, Yuling; Tao, Shu; Wang, Rong; Wang, Bin; Li, Wei; Cao, Jun; LU, XIAOXIA

    2011-01-01

    Forty passive air samplers were deployed to study the occurrence of gas and particulate phase PAHs in remote, rural village and urban areas of Beijing–Tianjin region, North China for four seasons (spring, summer, fall and winter) from 2007 to 2008. The influence of emissions on the spatial distribution pattern of air PAH concentrations was addressed. In addition, the air–soil gas exchange of PAHs was studied using fugacity calculations. The median gaseous and particulate phase PAH concentrati...

  11. Water quality in Reedy Fork and Buffalo Creek basins in the Greensboro area, North Carolina, 1986-87

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, M.S.

    1989-01-01

    Water and bottom-sediment samples were collected from April 1986 through September 1987 at 19 sites in Guilford County and the City of Greensboro, North Carolina. Sampling locations included 13 stream sites, two lakes that supply the City of Greensboro with drinking water, two City of Greensboro finished drinking-water filtration plants, and effluent from the two municipal wastewater plants prior to outfall into receiving streams. Water sampling consisted of six surveys during various stages of steady ground-water flow at all sites and high-flow-event sampling during two storms at six sites. Bottom-sediment samples were collected at three sites during two routine sampling surveys. A summary of nearly 22, 000 separate chemical or physical analyses of water samples or bottom sediment is presented and discussed as individual values, ranges of values, or median values with respect to the locations of sampling sites, streamflow conditions, or other information bearing on water-quality conditions under discussion. The results include discussions of general water-quality indicators; major ion, nutrient, and trace-element concentrations; acid and base/neutral extractable organic compounds; volatile organic compounds; and organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticides detected at each sampling site. Loadings of selected constituents are also estimated on a yearly and daily basis. The quality of the raw and finished water, municipal effluents, and streams in the Greensboro area are characterized by using State and Federal water-quality standards. Inorganic constituents most commonly found in excess of standards were iron, copper, zinc, arsenic, phosphorus, manganese, cyanide, and mercury. Relatively few organic compounds were detected; however, those consistently reported were phthalate, thihalomethane, organophosphorus pesticide, benzol, and phenolic compounds. Selected inorganic, physical, and total organic carbon data are used in a Wilcoxon test for two independent

  12. Hydro-geochemical evaluation of groundwater quality in Akoko North West local government area of Ondo State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Temitope Dare Timothy Oyedotun

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A sudden geometric increase in population of Akoko North West Local Government Area of Ondo State has led to an increase in demand for water and harnessing of subsurface water reserve. A total of twenty six water samples obtained from both boreholes and hand-dug wells were analyzed for their physico-chemical characteristics with the aim of assessing their quality, usability and also to determine the level of their contamination in the local government which is dominated by granite gneisses, charnockites, and augen gneisses as the main rock types. The following physico-chemical properties were analyzed for in the samples collected: electrical conductivity (EC, pH, total alkalinity (TA, total dissolved solids (TDS, total suspended solids (TSS, acid neutralizing capacity (ANC with major cations (Na+, Mg2+, Ca2+, anions (PO43-, HCO3-, SO43- and several heavy metals (Zn2+, Fe2+, As+, Ni+, Pb2+, Cd+, Cu2+. The following results were obtained from the analysis: Zn2+ (0.109 – 0.437 ppm, Fe2+ (0.216 – 0.726 ppm, As+ (0.01 – 0.03 ppm, Ni+ (0.036 – 0.074, Pb2+ (0.003 – 0.010, Cd+ (0.002 – 0.007, Cu2+ (0.086 – 0.241 with appreciable abundances of PO43-, Cd+, Fe2+and Ni+ some exceeding while some others are below the WHO acceptable level for drinking water, thereby making it a serious source of concern as it indicates varying levels of faecal contamination (from leaky septic tanks, interception with pit latrines and heavy metal liberation into the water consumed by the residents. It was also noticed that the water was fresh based on the analysis of the Total Dissolved Solids and the Pb2+ concentrations almost exceeded the standard permissible limit. Generally, it was concluded that the overall quality of the ground water is averagely good physico-chemically.

  13. Dynamic mechanism for horizontal deformation in part of North China area-- Three-dimensional finite-element calculation and analysis of results from GPS remeasurement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    A deformation monitoring network that covers part of North China area and takes the Beijing region as the center was measured for two times with high-precision GPS in 1995 and 1996 respectively. The results from remeasurement indicate that present horizontal movement in the monitored area is characterized by relative motion among several main tectonic blocks. Considering the spatial distribution features obtained from geological survey and results on seismic wave and activity in the area, and stratified features of crustal medium in depth, a three dimensional finite-element medium model is designed. And under the conditions of taking and not taking the action manner of the background stress field in the studied area into account, the relative motion between tectonic blocks is calculated and modeled. Based on the results from the analysis and calculations the dynamic mechanism for the present horizontal deformation in the area is discussed.

  14. Features and comprehensive evaluation of relative fitting anomalies of airborne gamma spectral in the south Hunan-north Guangxi area of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    South Hunan-North Guangxi area is a main uranium metallogenetic area in South China, in which the types of uranium mineralization are mostly granite type and carbonate-siliceous-pelitic rock type, and are main types of uranium prospecting in South China. In order to break through the area by much more economically and effectively utilizing available airborne radioactive data, the main features are studied and summarized for relative fitting anomalies of airborne gamma spectral. The fitting anomalies are mostly distributed in granite areas and its exterior zones, and are closely relative to fault zones and uranium mineralization areas. By comprehensive evaluation, the anomalies of grade 1, 2, and 3 are selected according to the significance of uranium metallogenetic prospect. The mineralization zone in which uranium content is larger than 2 ‰ are discovered in the anomaly of grade 1 by trenching. (authors)

  15. Shallow groundwater quality and geochemistry in the Fayetteville Shale gas-production area, north-central Arkansas, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kresse, Timothy M.; Warner, Nathaniel R.; Hays, Phillip D.; Down, Adrian; Vengosh, Avner; Jackson, Robert B.

    2012-01-01

    The Mississippian Fayetteville Shale serves as an unconventional gas reservoir across north-central Arkansas, ranging in thickness from approximately 50 to 550 feet and varying in depth from approximately 1,500 to 6,500 feet below the ground surface. Primary permeability in the Fayetteville Shale is severely limited, and successful extraction of the gas reservoir is the result of advances in horizontal drilling techniques and hydraulic fracturing to enhance and develop secondary fracture porosity and permeability. Drilling and production of gas wells began in 2004, with a steady increase in production thereafter. As of April 2012, approximately 4,000 producing wells had been completed in the Fayetteville Shale. In Van Buren and Faulkner Counties, 127 domestic water wells were sampled and analyzed for major ions and trace metals, with a subset of the samples analyzed for methane and carbon isotopes to describe general water quality and geochemistry and to investigate the potential effects of gas-production activities on shallow groundwater in the study area. Water-quality analyses from this study were compared to historical (pregas development) shallow groundwater quality collected in the gas-production area. An additional comparison was made using analyses from this study of groundwater quality in similar geologic and topographic areas for well sites less than and greater than 2 miles from active gas-production wells. Chloride concentrations for the 127 groundwater samples collected for this study ranged from approximately 1.0 milligram per liter (mg/L) to 70 mg/L, with a median concentration of 3.7 mg/L, as compared to maximum and median concentrations for the historical data of 378 mg/L and 20 mg/L, respectively. Statistical analysis of the data sets revealed statistically larger chloride concentrations (p-value conservative transport characteristics and relatively elevated concentrations in production waters associated with gas extraction activities. Major ions

  16. Cycling and Health: An Exploratory Study of Views about Cycling in an Area of North Liverpool, UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavill, Nick; Watkins, Francine

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore views about cycling among members of identified community groups living near the Loop Line, a cycling and walking path in a deprived part of North Liverpool, UK. Design/methodology/approach: Following a literature review, qualitative focus group research was conducted among six groups of children,…

  17. High amphibian diversity related to unexpected environmental values in a biogeographic transitional area in north-western Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Serrano, J.M.; Berlanga-Robles, C.A.; Ruiz-Luna, A.

    2014-01-01

    Amphibian diversity and distribution patterns in Sinaloa state (north-western Mexico) were assessed from the Global Amphibian Assessment database (GAA-2010). A geographic information system (GIS) was used to evaluate diversity based on distribution maps of 41 species, associated with environmental d

  18. Assessing the response of area burned to changing climate in western boreal North America using a Multivariate Adaptive Regression Splines (MARS) approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balshi, M. S.; McGuire, A.D.; Duffy, P.; Flannigan, M.; Walsh, J.; Melillo, J.

    2009-01-01

    Fire is a common disturbance in the North American boreal forest that influences ecosystem structure and function. The temporal and spatial dynamics of fire are likely to be altered as climate continues to change. In this study, we ask the question: how will area burned in boreal North America by wildfire respond to future changes in climate? To evaluate this question, we developed temporally and spatially explicit relationships between air temperature and fuel moisture codes derived from the Canadian Fire Weather Index System to estimate annual area burned at 2.5?? (latitude ?? longitude) resolution using a Multivariate Adaptive Regression Spline (MARS) approach across Alaska and Canada. Burned area was substantially more predictable in the western portion of boreal North America than in eastern Canada. Burned area was also not very predictable in areas of substantial topographic relief and in areas along the transition between boreal forest and tundra. At the scale of Alaska and western Canada, the empirical fire models explain on the order of 82% of the variation in annual area burned for the period 1960-2002. July temperature was the most frequently occurring predictor across all models, but the fuel moisture codes for the months June through August (as a group) entered the models as the most important predictors of annual area burned. To predict changes in the temporal and spatial dynamics of fire under future climate, the empirical fire models used output from the Canadian Climate Center CGCM2 global climate model to predict annual area burned through the year 2100 across Alaska and western Canada. Relative to 1991-2000, the results suggest that average area burned per decade will double by 2041-2050 and will increase on the order of 3.5-5.5 times by the last decade of the 21st century. To improve the ability to better predict wildfire across Alaska and Canada, future research should focus on incorporating additional effects of long-term and successional

  19. Intensity attenuation relation at Chamba–Garhwal area in north-west Himalaya with epicentral distance and magnitude

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G K Ghosh; A K Mahajan

    2013-02-01

    Seismic hazard assessment of any region depends on the attenuation relation which relates the seismological data with parameters of engineering interest. In the absence of sufficient strong motion data for northwest Himalayan region, isoseismal maps of previous earthquakes were the only source of information for computing the attenuation characteristics of that region. The northwest Himalayan region had experienced major and moderate earthquakes in the past and isoseismal maps had been developed by various authors for each of these earthquakes representing intensity pattern and decay of intensity in different directions. With this information, attenuation relations of intensity with distance can be obtained. The present study includes 10 moderate and major earthquakes ( ≥ 4.9) that had occurred during the last 100 years. These are primarily Kangra (1905), Chamba-1 (1945), Chamba-2 (1995), Kinnaur (1975), Dharamsala (1986), Uttar Kashi (1991), Garhwal-1 (1996), Garhwal-2 (1996), Sundarnagar (1997) and Chamoli (1999) earthquakes. Miezoseismal zones in majority of the isoseismal maps show two major directions, i.e., either the longest axis of these isoseismal maps which are aligned in NW–SE direction following the major longitudinal features or north-northwest to south-southeast direction, following the tectonic features which are transverse to the Himalayan trend. Isoseismal maps of Kangra (1905), Chamba (1945) and Uttar Kashi (1991) earthquakes are more symmetrical and elongated in south-east direction, but compressed in north-east and north-west directions, thus indicating fast attenuation characteristics in north-east and north-west directions reflecting lithological variation. On the other hand, Sundernagar (1997) and Kinnuar (1975) earthquakes show circular pattern of intensity distribution. Combining decay patterns from different magnitude earthquakes in different directions, two attenuation relationships have been developed using regression relationship

  20. Characterization of archaeological ceramics from the north western lowland Maya Area, using the technique of neutron activation analysis; Caracterizacion de ceramicas arqueologicas de las tierras bajas noroccidentales del Area Maya, empleando la tecnica de activacion neutronica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez R, M. C.; Tenorio, D.; Jimenez R, M. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, Ocoyoacac 52750, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Terreros, E. [Museo del Templo Mayor, INAH, Seminario No. 8, Col. Centro, Mexico 06060, D. F. (Mexico); Ochoa, L. [UNAM, Instituto de Investigaciones Antropologicas, Circuito Exterior s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, Mexico 04510, D. F. (Mexico)

    2008-07-01

    It is a study on 50 samples of ceramics from various archaeological sites of the north western lowland Maya Area. This study was performed by neutron activation analysis of 19 chemical elements and the treatments relevant statistical data. Significant differences were found among the pieces that led to group them into five major groups, the difference is the site of their manufacture and therefore in the raw materials used for this. (Author)

  1. Metals and pesticides in commercial bivalve mollusc production areas in the North and South Bays, Santa Catarina (Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, R V; Garbossa, L H P; Campos, C J A; Vianna, L F de N; Vanz, A; Rupp, G S

    2016-04-15

    Concentrations of heavy metals were quantified in mussels Perna perna and Pacific oysters Crassostrea gigas in 28 cultivation sites in the North and South Bays, SC (Brazil). Concentrations of pesticides were also quantified in these bivalve, water and sediment samples collected in 14 cultivation sites on four occasions in the period October 2012-October 2013. Pesticides were not detected in any of the mussel, oyster, water or sediment samples. The South Bay was found to be generally more contaminated with As while the North Bay showed higher concentrations of Ni. Concentrations of Pb and Cd were below the limit of detection of the method (0.5mg/kg) in all samples. Mussels accumulated more As and Ni than oysters, while the opposite was observed for Cu. Metal concentrations were below the maximum levels for foodstuffs specified in the Brazilian legislation. PMID:26897362

  2. Measures for regional security and arms control in the North-East Asian Area. Report of working group I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The following specific topics were of utmost interest in Working Group I: the possibility of establishing some kind of multilateral security mechanism in North-East Asia; elements of Korean reconciliation; non-proliferation of weapons; openness, transparency and confidence-building measures; general principles of norms of conduct for peace and security in the region; nuclear weapons and security measures; cooperative measures for regional security and stability

  3. High amphibian diversity related to unexpected environmental values in a biogeographic transitional area in north-western Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Serrano, J. M.; Berlanga-Robles, C.A.; Ruiz-Luna, A.

    2014-01-01

    Amphibian diversity and distribution patterns in Sinaloa state (north-western Mexico) were assessed from the Global Amphibian Assessment database (GAA-2010). A geographic information system (GIS) was used to evaluate diversity based on distribution maps of 41 species, associated with environmental data. The highest α and γ-diversities were identified in the south-eastern portion of the state, in mountain zones with a warm sub-humid climate, whereas the greatest β-diversity (multiplicative for...

  4. Connectivity of larval cod in the transition area between North Sea and Baltic Sea and potential implications for fisheries management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huwer, Bastian; Hinrichsen, H.-H.; Hüssy, Karin;

    2016-01-01

    distributions of juvenile cod. The transport of particles showed considerable intra- and interannual variability, but also some general patterns of retention within and dispersion todifferentmanagement areas.Good spatial overlapof particle end positions, representing potential juvenile settlement areas...

  5. Dingoes at the Doorstep: Home Range Sizes and Activity Patterns of Dingoes and Other Wild Dogs around Urban Areas of North-Eastern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeill, Alice T.; Leung, Luke K. -P.; Goullet, Mark S.; Gentle, Matthew N.; Allen, Benjamin L.

    2016-01-01

    Simple summary Conflicts with dingoes and other wild dogs are becoming increasingly common in and around urban areas of Australia. A lack of basic information about wild dog movement ecology hampers efficient planning and allocation of resources to mitigate human–wild dog conflicts. We captured, collared and released 37 wild dogs in urban areas of north-eastern Australia to investigate their movement ecology. In general, wild dogs occupied small fragments of bushland within an urban matrix, were active at all times of the day, and lived within a few hundred meters of houses and humans at all times. We conclude that wild dog management strategies in urban areas should focus on the mitigation of impacts at the individual or group level, and not population-level reductions in numbers. Abstract Top-predators around the world are becoming increasingly intertwined with humans, sometimes causing conflict and increasing safety risks in urban areas. In Australia, dingoes and dingo × domestic dog hybrids are common in many urban areas, and pose a variety of human health and safety risks. However, data on urban dingo ecology is scant. We GPS-collared 37 dingoes in north-eastern Australia and continuously monitored them each 30 min for 11–394 days. Most dingoes were nocturnal, with an overall mean home range size of 17.47 km2. Overall mean daily distance travelled was 6.86 km/day. At all times dingoes were within 1000 m of houses and buildings. Home ranges appeared to be constrained to patches of suitable vegetation fragments within and around human habitation. These data can be used to reallocate dingo management effort towards mitigating actual conflicts between humans and dingoes in urban areas. PMID:27537916

  6. Analysis of rupture area of aftershocks caused by twin earthquakes (Case study: 11 April 2012 earthquakes of Aceh-North Sumatra)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 11 April 2012 earthquakes off-shore Aceh-North Sumatra are unique events for the history of Indonesian earthquake. It is unique because that they have similar magnitude, 8.5 Mw and 8.1 Mw; close to epicenter distance, similar strike-slip focal mechanism, and occuring in outer rise area. The purposes of this research are: (1) comparing area of earthquakes base on models and that of calculation, (2) fitting the shape and the area of earthquake rupture zones, (3) analyzing the relationship between rupture area and magnitude of the earthquakes. Rupture area of the earthquake fault are determined by using 4 different formulas, i.e. Utsu and Seki (1954), Wells and Coppersmith (1994), Ellsworth (2003), and Christophersen and Smith (2000). The earthquakes aftershock parameters are taken from PGN (PusatGempabumiNasional or National Earthquake Information Center) of BMKG (Indonesia Agency Meteorology Climatology and Geophysics). The aftershock epicenters are plotted by GMT’s software. After that, ellipse and rectangular models of aftershock spreading are made. The results show that: (1) rupture areas were calculated using magnitude relationship which are larger than the the aftershock distributions model, (2) the best fitting model for that earthquake aftershock distribution is rectangular associated with Utsu and Seki (1954) formula, (3) the larger the magnitude of the earthquake, the larger area of the fault

  7. Analysis of rupture area of aftershocks caused by twin earthquakes (Case study: 11 April 2012 earthquakes of Aceh-North Sumatra)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diansari, Angga Vertika, E-mail: anggav.bmkg@gmail.com; Purwana, Ibnu; Subakti, Hendri [Academy of Meteorology and Geophysics, Jalan Perhubungan I no.5 Tangerang 15221 (Indonesia)

    2015-04-24

    The 11 April 2012 earthquakes off-shore Aceh-North Sumatra are unique events for the history of Indonesian earthquake. It is unique because that they have similar magnitude, 8.5 Mw and 8.1 Mw; close to epicenter distance, similar strike-slip focal mechanism, and occuring in outer rise area. The purposes of this research are: (1) comparing area of earthquakes base on models and that of calculation, (2) fitting the shape and the area of earthquake rupture zones, (3) analyzing the relationship between rupture area and magnitude of the earthquakes. Rupture area of the earthquake fault are determined by using 4 different formulas, i.e. Utsu and Seki (1954), Wells and Coppersmith (1994), Ellsworth (2003), and Christophersen and Smith (2000). The earthquakes aftershock parameters are taken from PGN (PusatGempabumiNasional or National Earthquake Information Center) of BMKG (Indonesia Agency Meteorology Climatology and Geophysics). The aftershock epicenters are plotted by GMT’s software. After that, ellipse and rectangular models of aftershock spreading are made. The results show that: (1) rupture areas were calculated using magnitude relationship which are larger than the the aftershock distributions model, (2) the best fitting model for that earthquake aftershock distribution is rectangular associated with Utsu and Seki (1954) formula, (3) the larger the magnitude of the earthquake, the larger area of the fault.

  8. Nuclear and mitochondrial DNA analyses of golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos canadensis) from three areas in western North America; initial results and conservation implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Erica H; Adams, Jennifer R.; Waits, Lisette P.; Fuller, Mark R.; Whittington, Diana M.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the genetics of a population is a critical component of developing conservation strategies. We used archived tissue samples from golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos canadensis) in three geographic regions of western North America to conduct a preliminary study of the genetics of the North American subspecies, and to provide data for United States Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) decision-making for golden eagle management. We used a combination of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) D-loop sequences and 16 nuclear DNA (nDNA) microsatellite loci to investigate the extent of gene flow among our sampling areas in Idaho, California and Alaska and to determine if we could distinguish birds from the different geographic regions based on their genetic profiles. Our results indicate high genetic diversity, low genetic structure and high connectivity. Nuclear DNA Fst values between Idaho and California were low but significantly different from zero (0.026). Bayesian clustering methods indicated a single population, and we were unable to distinguish summer breeding residents from different regions. Results of the mtDNA AMOVA showed that most of the haplotype variation (97%) was within the geographic populations while 3% variation was partitioned among them. One haplotype was common to all three areas. One region-specific haplotype was detected in California and one in Idaho, but additional sampling is required to determine if these haplotypes are unique to those geographic areas or a sampling artifact. We discuss potential sources of the high gene flow for this species including natal and breeding dispersal, floaters, and changes in migratory behavior as a result of environmental factors such as climate change and habitat alteration. Our preliminary findings can help inform the USFWS in development of golden eagle management strategies and provide a basis for additional research into the complex dynamics of the North American subspecies.

  9. UPWELLING AND SEDIMENTATION DYNAMICS Ⅲ: COINCIDENCE OF UPWELLING AREAS WITH MUD PATCHES IN NORTH HEMISPHERE SHELF SEAS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庞重光; 胡敦欣

    2002-01-01

    The determinant role of upwelling in fine sediment patches is examined from the viewpoints of physical process and biological process respectively. It is pointed out that physical and biological processes are usually coexistent and interact with each other during the sedimentation of suspended matters. This study used available figures showing the circulation pattern and surface sediment distribution in the whole China Seas, the Gulf of Maine, the Irish Sea and the North Sea, and additional data to verify that wherever upwelling exists on the continental shelf, mud must occur; and that wherever downwelling occurs, coarse sediment substitutes for mud.

  10. Area of aquifer contours enhanced with airborne electromagnetic (AEM) surveys of the principal aquifer for portions of the North Platte, South Platte, and Twin Platte Natural Resources Districts, western Nebraska

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey and its partners have collaborated to complete airborne geophysical surveys for areas of the North and South Platte River valleys and...

  11. Is Gray Water the Key to Unlocking Water for Resource-Poor Areas of the Middle East, North Africa, and Other Arid Regions of the World?

    OpenAIRE

    Leas, Eric C.; Dare, Anne; Al-Delaimy, Wael K

    2013-01-01

    Support for the use of treated gray water as an alternative water resource in the Middle East and North Africa is high, especially given the lack of religious restrictions against its use, but several obstacles have kept application of treated gray water near 1 % in some areas. The largest of obstacles include the cost of treatment and the ambiguity surrounding the health safety of gray water and treated gray water. This paper aims to provide an overview of current gray water practices global...

  12. ENTREPRENEURIAL CONSULTING AND DEVELOPMENT FOR YOUTH WITHIN RURAL AREAS - A CASE STUDY FOR DEVELOPING NORTH EAST, CENTRAL AND SOUTH EAST REGIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marin BURCEA

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available We propose to show the connection between consulting and entrepreneurial approach, emphasizing the normality of including assistance within the entrepreneurs’ activity. The theoretical component deals with the elements that define the consulting activity in business and the specific approach to initiate and develop business by young rural entrepreneurs. The applicative component is represented by the presentation of the specific consulting needs for business initiating and development in the rural areas within developing regions of North East, Central and South East. The undertaken sociological research is representative for the study group and was held within the SOP HRD strategic project “Rural Manager”.

  13. New Pump and Treat Facility Remedial Action Work Plan For Test Area North Final Groundwater Remediation, Operable Unit 1-07B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, L. O.

    2007-06-12

    This remedial action work plan identifies the approach and requirements for implementing the medial zone remedial action for Test Area North, Operable Unit 1-07B, at the Idaho National Laboratory. This plan details the management approach for the construction and operation of the New Pump and Treat Facility (NPTF). As identified in the remediatial design/remedial action scope of work, a separate remedial design/remedial action work plan will be prepared for each remedial component of the Operable Unit 1-07B remedial action.

  14. Completion summary for boreholes TAN-2271 and TAN‑2272 at Test Area North, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twining, Brian V.; Bartholomay, Roy C.; Hodges, Mary K.V.

    2016-06-30

    pumping well of 1.96 ft and 1.14 ft, respectively. The transmissivity estimates for wells tested were within the range of values determined from previous aquifer tests in other wells near Test Area North.Groundwater samples were collected from both wells and were analyzed for cations, anions, metals, nutrients, volatile organic compounds, stable isotopes, and radionuclides. Groundwater samples for most of the inorganic constituents showed similar water chemistry in both wells. Groundwater samples for strontium-90, trichloroethene, and vinyl chloride exceeded maximum contaminant levels for public drinking water supplies in one or both wells.

  15. The partially denuclearized area of North-East Asia. Status of ten years of informal 'new diplomacy'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1991, the G. Bush administration decided to remove away all US surface tactic nuclear weapons everywhere in the world in order to reduce the nuclear warfare risk. This decision has led to the ratification by both Northern Korea and Southern Korea of the declaration on the denuclearization of the Korean peninsula, followed the same year by Mongolia which has become nuclear weapons free. As a consequence of these initiatives, the Center for international strategy, technology and policy (CISTP) of the Georgia institute of technology (Atlanta, USA) has decided the creation of a 'limited nuclear weapons free zone North-East Asia'(LNWFZ), based on cooperation, arms control and non-proliferation. This article describes the genesis of this inter-governmental process of informal diplomacy: proposal of creation of a league for non-nuclear states for North-East Asia, of implementation of an inspection regime and of a cooperative security community, of establishment of confidence building measures and of economic incentives. Then it describes the main components of the LNWFZ project and the obstacles that must be cleared away before its official implementation. (J.S.)

  16. Diel variability of feeding activity in haddock ( Melanogrammus aeglefinus ) larvae in the East Shetland area, North Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MacKenzie, Brian; Ueberschar, B.; Basford, D.;

    1999-01-01

    aeglifinus) larvae four times per day during a 10-d cruise in the northern North Sea. Feeding activity was evaluated using indices of gut fullness, prey digestive state and biochemical measurements (tryptic enzyme activity). The gut fullness and the enzyme activity indices indicated moderate to high rates...... of food consumption throughout the cruise. Time series analysis of the three indices showed significant diel variability in all indices and enabled identification of significant lags between food uptake and peak digestive enzyme activity. The typical pattern of food consumption and digestion...... was characterized by maximal ingestion of prey early in the evening (19:00 hrs) and peak digestive enzyme activity at 01:00 hrs. The time scale over which enzyme activities reacted to prey ingestion was ca. 6 h, and is consistent with expectations from controlled laboratory experiments with other larval fish...

  17. Palynology of Waikato Coal Measures (Late Eocene-Late Oligocene) from the Raglan area, North Island, New Zealand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pocknall, D.T.

    1985-01-01

    Spore-pollen assemblages from Waikato Coal Measures in the Kawhia-Raglan region, North Island, indicate that the coal measures, which rest on basement, are time transgressive and young to the southwest. The climate was predominantly cool to warm temperate, in accord with other climatic reconstructions for the Late Eocene-Late Oligocene period elsewhere in New Zealand, with brassi beech being the dominant component in the forests of the region. One new genus, Gemmapollis, is erected to accommodate tricolporate pollen with thickened colpi margins and gemmate/verrucate surface sculpture. Five new species are described. These are Monosulcites subverrucatus, Gemmapollis raglanensis, Rhoipites aequatorius, R. karamuensis, and Sparsipollis acuminatus. One species, Polypodiaceoisporites papuanus, has been recombined, a revised description is given for Nothofagidites waipawaensis, and a new name is proposed for Rhoipites pilatus. The following taxa are recorded and/or illustrated from New Zealand for the first time - Polypodiaceoisporites papuanus, Tricolpites discus, Cupanieidites reticularis, Santalumidites cainozoicus, and Corsinipollenites oculus noctis.

  18. Ethno-Demographic Processes in the North-East Black Sea Area in the 19th – Early 21th Centuries (through the Example of Greater Sochi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr A. Cherkasov

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article examines ethno-demographic processes in the north-east Black Sea area, more specifically the territory of Greater Sochi, in the 19th – early 21th centuries. In writing the article, the authors have relied on archive materials from the archives department of the administration of the city of Novorossiysk and the archives department of the administration of the city of Sochi. The authors have consulted reference pre-revolution literature, Soviet-era and present-day population censuses, as well as the findings of present-day research studies. The methodological basis of this study are the principles of historicism, objectivity, and systemicity, which helps to get an insight into the general patterns and regional peculiarities in the demographic development of the major ethnicities in the north-east Black Sea area in the 19th-20th centuries. The authors touch upon the process of colonization of the territory and its ethnic composition. In the end, the authors come to the conclusion that the ethno-demographic picture of Greater Sochi had been forming in a complicated fashion. As a consequence, in the second half of the 19th century, following the Caucasian War, the territory had to be repopulated. Resettlement flows from different locations in the Russian Empire and overseas had formed by 1917 an ethno-picture that featured Russians and Armenians as two principal ethnicities. The authors note that this picture has not changed in a major way to this day.

  19. Dingoes at the Doorstep: Home Range Sizes and Activity Patterns of Dingoes and Other Wild Dogs around Urban Areas of North-Eastern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeill, Alice T; Leung, Luke K-P; Goullet, Mark S; Gentle, Matthew N; Allen, Benjamin L

    2016-01-01

    Top-predators around the world are becoming increasingly intertwined with humans, sometimes causing conflict and increasing safety risks in urban areas. In Australia, dingoes and dingo×domesticdoghybridsarecommoninmanyurbanareas,andposeavarietyofhumanhealth and safety risks. However, data on urban dingo ecology is scant. We GPS-collared 37 dingoes in north-easternAustraliaandcontinuouslymonitoredthemeach30minfor11-394days. Mostdingoes were nocturnal, with an overall mean home range size of 17.47 km2. Overall mean daily distance travelled was 6.86 km/day. At all times dingoes were within 1000 m of houses and buildings. Home ranges appeared to be constrained to patches of suitable vegetation fragments within and around human habitation. These data can be used to reallocate dingo management effort towards mitigating actual conflicts between humans and dingoes in urban areas.

  20. An in-situ campaign of spectral measurements for monitoring the crop stress and planting area in Luancheng of North China Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shui-Sen; Chen, Liang-Fu; Liu, Qin-Huo; Xiao, Qing

    2004-10-01

    In an attempt to support the demonstration application of "Spectral Library Of Chinese representative surface substances", an in-situ campaign of spectral measurements was carried out during the summer of 2003 for monitoring the crop stress and planting area in North China Plain. The experiment sites, based on Luancheng Agricultural ecosystem experiment station, Chinese Academy of Sciences, was a 5×5 km area located just south-east of Shijiazhuang, Hebei Province, China. The spectral instrument used is ASD FieldSpecFR with wavelength of 0.35~2.5μm. The experimental achievement includes: soil moisture, corn physiological & biochemical parameters, corn leaf water & chlorophyll-a,b contents, corn structure parameters, field farmland microclimate, aerological exploration data of atmosphere, corn spectra of component, corn crown & background spectra cross the growth period of crop. The paper details the whole experimental scheme and design and partial representation of results of data analysis.

  1. What happened to gray whales during the Pleistocene? The ecological impact of sea-level change on benthic feeding areas in the North Pacific Ocean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas D Pyenson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Gray whales (Eschrichtius robustus undertake long migrations, from Baja California to Alaska, to feed on seasonally productive benthos of the Bering and Chukchi seas. The invertebrates that form their primary prey are restricted to shallow water environments, but global sea-level changes during the Pleistocene eliminated or reduced this critical habitat multiple times. Because the fossil record of gray whales is coincident with the onset of Northern Hemisphere glaciation, gray whales survived these massive changes to their feeding habitat, but it is unclear how. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We reconstructed gray whale carrying capacity fluctuations during the past 120,000 years by quantifying gray whale feeding habitat availability using bathymetric data for the North Pacific Ocean, constrained by their maximum diving depth. We calculated carrying capacity based on modern estimates of metabolic demand, prey availability, and feeding duration; we also constrained our estimates to reflect current population size and account for glaciated and non-glaciated areas in the North Pacific. Our results show that key feeding areas eliminated by sea-level lowstands were not replaced by commensurate areas. Our reconstructions show that such reductions affected carrying capacity, and harmonic means of these fluctuations do not differ dramatically from genetic estimates of carrying capacity. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Assuming current carrying capacity estimates, Pleistocene glacial maxima may have created multiple, weak genetic bottlenecks, although the current temporal resolution of genetic datasets does not test for such signals. Our results do not, however, falsify molecular estimates of pre-whaling population size because those abundances would have been sufficient to survive the loss of major benthic feeding areas (i.e., the majority of the Bering Shelf during glacial maxima. We propose that gray whales survived the disappearance of their

  2. Canine Fecal Contamination in a Metropolitan Area (Milan, North-Western Italy: Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites and Evaluation of Health Risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Aurelio Zanzani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal parasites of dogs represent a serious threat to human health due to their zoonotic potential. Thus, metropolitan areas presenting high concentrations of pets and urban fecal contamination on public areas are at sanitary risk. Major aim of this survey was to determine prevalence of zoonotic parasites in dog fecal samples collected from public soil of Milan (north-western Italy. Differences in parasites prevalence distribution were explored by a geographical information system- (GIS- based approach, and risk factors (human density, sizes of green parks, and dog areas were considered. The metropolitan area was divided into 157 rectangular subareas and sampling was performed following a 1-kilometer straight transect. A total of 463 fecal samples were analyzed using centrifugation-flotation technique and ELISA to detect Giardia and Cryptosporidium coproantigens. A widespread fecal contamination of soil was highlighted, being fecal samples found in 86.8% of the subareas considered. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites was 16.63%. Zoonotic parasites were found, such as Trichuris vulpis (3.67%, Toxocara canis (1.72%, Strongyloides stercoralis (0.86%, Ancylostomatidae (0.43%, and Dipylidium caninum (0.43%. Giardia duodenalis was the most prevalent zoonotic protozoa (11.06%, followed by Cryptosporidium (1.10%. Faeces from subareas characterized by broad green areas showed to be particularly prone to infection.

  3. Climate services for the assessment of climate change impacts and risks in coastal areas at the regional scale: the North Adriatic case study (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentina, Gallina; Torresan, Silvia; Giannini, Valentina; Rizzi, Jonathan; Zabeo, Alex; Gualdi, Silvio; Bellucci, Alessio; Giorgi, Filippo; Critto, Andrea; Marcomini, Antonio

    2013-04-01

    At the international level, the interest for climate services is rising due to the social and economic benefits that different stakeholders can achieve to manage climate risks and take advantage of the opportunities associated with climate change impacts. However, there is a significant gap of tools aimed at providing information about risks and impacts induced by climate change and allowing non-expert stakeholders to use both climate-model and climate-impact data. Within the CLIM-RUN project (FP7), the case study of the North Adriatic Sea is aimed at analysing the need of climate information and the effectiveness of climate services for the integrated assessment of climate change impacts in coastal zones of the North Adriatic Sea at the regional to local scale. A participative approach was developed and applied to identify relevant stakeholders which have a mandate for coastal zone management and to interact with them in order to elicit their climate information needs. Specifically, the participative approach was carried out by means of two local workshops and trough the administration of a questionnaire related to climate information and services. The results of the process allowed identifying three major themes of interest for local stakeholders (i.e. hydro-climatic regime, coastal and marine environment, agriculture) and their preferences concerning key climate variables (e.g. extreme events, sea-level, wave height), mid-term temporal projections (i.e. for the next 30-40 years) and medium-high spatial resolution (i.e. from 1 to 50 km). Furthermore, the workshops highlighted stakeholder concern about several climate-related impacts (e.g. sea-level rise, storm surge, droughts) and vulnerable receptors (e.g. beaches, wetlands, agricultural areas) to be considered in vulnerability and risk assessment studies for the North Adriatic coastal zones. This information was used by climate and environmental risk experts in order to develop targeted climate information and

  4. Multiple modes of water quality impairment by fecal contamination in a rapidly developing coastal area: southwest Brunswick County, North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahoon, Lawrence B; Hales, Jason C; Carey, Erin S; Loucaides, Socratis; Rowland, Kevin R; Toothman, Byron R

    2016-02-01

    Fecal contamination of surface waters is a significant problem, particularly in rapidly developing coastal watersheds. Data from a water quality monitoring program in southwest Brunswick County, North Carolina, gathered in support of a regional wastewater and stormwater management program were used to examine likely modes and sources of fecal contamination. Sampling was conducted at 42 locations at 3-4-week intervals between 1996 and 2003, including streams, ponds, and estuarine waters in a variety of land use settings. Expected fecal sources included human wastewater systems (on-site and central), stormwater runoff, and direct deposition by animals. Fecal coliform levels were positively associated with rainfall measures, but frequent high fecal coliform concentrations at times of no rain indicated other modes of contamination as well. Fecal coliform levels were also positively associated with silicate levels, a groundwater source signal, indicating that flux of fecal-contaminated groundwater was a mode of contamination, potentially elevating FC levels in impacted waters independent of stormwater runoff. Fecal contamination by failing septic or sewer systems at many locations was significant and in addition to effects of stormwater runoff. Rainfall was also linked to fecal contamination by central sewage treatment system failures. These results highlight the importance of considering multiple modes of water pollution and different ways in which human activities cause water quality degradation. Management of water quality in coastal regions must therefore recognize diverse drivers of fecal contamination to surface waters.

  5. Multiple modes of water quality impairment by fecal contamination in a rapidly developing coastal area: southwest Brunswick County, North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahoon, Lawrence B; Hales, Jason C; Carey, Erin S; Loucaides, Socratis; Rowland, Kevin R; Toothman, Byron R

    2016-02-01

    Fecal contamination of surface waters is a significant problem, particularly in rapidly developing coastal watersheds. Data from a water quality monitoring program in southwest Brunswick County, North Carolina, gathered in support of a regional wastewater and stormwater management program were used to examine likely modes and sources of fecal contamination. Sampling was conducted at 42 locations at 3-4-week intervals between 1996 and 2003, including streams, ponds, and estuarine waters in a variety of land use settings. Expected fecal sources included human wastewater systems (on-site and central), stormwater runoff, and direct deposition by animals. Fecal coliform levels were positively associated with rainfall measures, but frequent high fecal coliform concentrations at times of no rain indicated other modes of contamination as well. Fecal coliform levels were also positively associated with silicate levels, a groundwater source signal, indicating that flux of fecal-contaminated groundwater was a mode of contamination, potentially elevating FC levels in impacted waters independent of stormwater runoff. Fecal contamination by failing septic or sewer systems at many locations was significant and in addition to effects of stormwater runoff. Rainfall was also linked to fecal contamination by central sewage treatment system failures. These results highlight the importance of considering multiple modes of water pollution and different ways in which human activities cause water quality degradation. Management of water quality in coastal regions must therefore recognize diverse drivers of fecal contamination to surface waters. PMID:26769702

  6. Evaluation of naturally occurring pigments of the North Bohemian lignite mining area; Bewertung von mineralischen Pigmentvorkommen des nordboehmischen Braunkohlenbeckens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buntenbach, Stephan [TriMin Consulting - Mineral Processing, Ammerthal (Germany); Botula, Jiri [VSB-Technical Univ. of Ostrava (Czech Republic). Mineral Processing Dept.; Leonhardt, Hana

    2010-11-15

    The research project ''Mineral Processing Methods for the Preparation of Naturally Occurring Pigments from Overburden of the Lignite Mines and from Shallow Clay Deposits of the North Bohemian Lignite Basin'', funded by the Deutsche Bundesstiftung Umwelt DBU, was conducted as a collaboration between the AKW Apparate+Verfahren GmbH, Hirschau with the Technical University of Ostrava. Geological, mineralogical and mineral processing studies for the development of a suitable beneficiation method were carried out to investigate the possibilities of the industrial usage of beneficiated pigments of these deposits. It should be demonstrated, that the significant reserves of mineral pigments in the shallow deposits and also in the overburden of the lignite mines can be utilized ecologically and economically. Based on the results of geological prospecting work already carried out, the deposit Horenec was selected as the most important pigment deposits for the production of bolus and ochre earth. The newly carried out geological, mineralogical and chemical studies formed the basis for the following mineral processing test work and the test work for the usage of beneficiated products as colouring paint for plastic, fabric and other materials. (orig.)

  7. Integration of Palmer Drought Severity Index and remote sensing data to simulate wetland water surface from 1910 to 2009 in Cottonwood Lake area, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, S.; Dahal, D.; Young, Caitlin; Chander, G.; Liu, S.

    2011-01-01

    Spatiotemporal variations of wetland water in the Prairie Pothole Region are controlled by many factors; two of them are temperature and precipitation that form the basis of the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI). Taking the 196km2 Cottonwood Lake area in North Dakota as our pilot study site, we integrated PDSI, Landsat images, and aerial photography records to simulate monthly water surface. First, we developed a new Wetland Water Area Index (WWAI) from PDSI to predict water surface area. Second, we developed a water allocation model to simulate the spatial distribution of water bodies at a resolution of 30m. Third, we used an additional procedure to model the small wetlands (less than 0.8ha) that could not be detected by Landsat. Our results showed that i) WWAI was highly correlated with water area with an R2 of 0.90, resulting in a simple regression prediction of monthly water area to capture the intra- and inter-annual water change from 1910 to 2009; ii) the spatial distribution of water bodies modeled from our approach agreed well with the water locations visually identified from the aerial photography records; and iii) the R2 between our modeled water bodies (including both large and small wetlands) and those from aerial photography records could be up to 0.83 with a mean average error of 0.64km2 within the study area where the modeled wetland water areas ranged from about 2 to 14km2. These results indicate that our approach holds great potential to simulate major changes in wetland water surface for ecosystem service; however, our products could capture neither the short-term water change caused by intensive rainstorm events nor the wetland change caused by human activities. ?? 2011.

  8. Geology and mineral resources of the North-Central Montana Sagebrush Focal Area: Chapter D in Mineral resources of the Sagebrush Focal Areas of Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, Utah, and Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauk, Jeffrey L.; Zientek, Michael L.; Hearn, B. Carter; Parks, Heather L.; Jenkins, M. Christopher; Anderson, Eric D.; Benson, Mary Ellen; Bleiwas, Donald I.; DeAngelo, Jacob; Denning, Paul D.; Dicken, Connie L.; Drake, Ronald M.; Fernette, Gregory L.; Folger, Helen W.; Giles, Stuart A.; Glen, Jonathan M. G.; Granitto, Matthew; Haacke, Jon E.; Horton, John D.; Kelley, Karen D.; Ober, Joyce A.; Rockwell, Barnaby W.; San Juan, Carma A.; Sangine, Elizabeth S.; Schweitzer, Peter N.; Shaffer, Brian N.; Smith, Steven M.; Williams, Colin F.; Yager, Douglas B.

    2016-10-04

    SummaryThe U.S. Department of the Interior has proposed to withdraw approximately 10 million acres of Federal lands from mineral entry (subject to valid existing rights) from 12 million acres of lands defined as Sagebrush Focal Areas (SFAs) in Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, Utah, and Wyoming (for further discussion on the lands involved see Scientific Investigations Report 2016–5089–A). The purpose of the proposed action is to protect the greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) and its habitat from potential adverse effects of locatable mineral exploration and mining. The U.S. Geological Survey Sagebrush Mineral-Resource Assessment (SaMiRA) project was initiated in November 2015 and supported by the Bureau of Land Management to (1) assess locatable mineral-resource potential and (2) to describe leasable and salable mineral resources for the seven SFAs and Nevada additions.This chapter summarizes the current status of locatable, leasable, and salable mineral commodities and assesses the potential of locatable minerals in the North-Central Montana SFA. The proposed withdrawal area that is evaluated in this report is located in north-central Montana, and includes parts of Fergus, Petroleum, Phillips, and Valley Counties.

  9. Characteristics of carbonaceous aerosols: Impact of biomass burning and secondary formation in summertime in a rural area of the North China Plain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Lan; Yang, Lingxiao; Chen, Jianmin; Wang, Xinfeng; Xue, Likun; Li, Weijun; Sui, Xiao; Wen, Liang; Chi, Jianwei; Zhu, Yanhong; Zhang, Junmei; Xu, Caihong; Zhu, Tong; Wang, Wenxing

    2016-07-01

    To determine the characteristics of carbonaceous aerosols in rural areas of the North China Plain, field measurements were conducted at Yucheng (YC) in the summers of 2013 and 2014. The concentrations of carbonaceous aerosols at YC exhibited clear diurnal variation, with higher concentrations in the early morning and at night and lower concentrations during the afternoon hours. The mass-balance method designed for particulate matter smaller than 2.5μm (PM2.5) was used to calculate the organic matter (OM)/organic carbon (OC) ratio. The value obtained, 2.07±0.05, was suggested as a reference to estimate organics in PM2.5 in rural areas of the North China Plain. Biomass burning was identified to be a significant source of carbonaceous aerosols; approximately half of the samples obtained at YC were affected by biomass burning during summer 2013. Case studies revealed that biomass burning accounted for up to 52.6% of the OC and 51.1% of the elemental carbon in PM2.5 samples. The organic coatings observed on sulphur-rich and potassium-rich particles indicated the formation of secondary organic aerosols (SOA) from the oxidation of precursor volatile organic compounds (VOCs) during the aging of smoke released from biomass burning. Based on the evolution of the VOCs, the contribution of VOCs oxidation to SOA concentration was 3.21 and 1.07μgm(-3)ppm(-1) CO under conditions of low nitrogen oxide (NOx) and high NOx, respectively. Aromatics (e.g. benzene, toluene, xylene and ethylbenzene) made the greatest contribution to SOA concentration (88.4% in low-NOx conditions and 80.6% in high-NOx conditions). The results of the study offer novel insights into the effects of biomass burning on the carbonaceous aerosols and SOA formation in polluted rural areas. PMID:27031303

  10. [Distribution Characteristics and Source of Fluoride in Groundwater in Lower Plain Area of North China Plain: A Case Study in Nanpi County].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Xiao-le; Wang, Shi-qin; Zhao, Huan; Yuan, Rui-qiang

    2015-11-01

    There is an obvious regional contradiction between water resources and agricultural produce in lower plain area of North China, however, excessive fluorine in deep groundwater further limits the use of regional water resources. In order to understand the spatial distribution characteristics and source of F(-) in groundwater, study was carried out in Nanpi County by field survey and sampling, hydrogeochemical analysis and stable isotopes methods. The results showed that the center of low fluoride concentrations of shallow groundwater was located around reservoir of Dalang Lake, and centers of high fluoride concentrations were located in southeast and southwest of the study area. The region with high fluoride concentration was consistent with the over-exploitation region of deep groundwater. Point source pollution of subsurface drainage and non-point source of irrigation with deep groundwater in some regions were the main causes for the increasing F(-) concentrations of shallow groundwater in parts of the sampling sites. Rock deposition and hydrogeology conditions were the main causes for the high F(-) concentrations (1.00 mg x L(-1), threshold of drinking water quality standard in China) in deep groundwater. F(-) released from clay minerals into the water increased the F(-) concentrations in deep groundwater because of over-exploitation. With the increasing exploitation and utilization of brackish shallow groundwater and the compressing and restricting of deep groundwater exploitation, the water environment in the middle and east lower plain area of North China will undergo significant change, and it is important to identify the distribution and source of F(-) in surface water and groundwater for reasonable development and use of water resources in future. PMID:26910989

  11. Hydrochemical and microbiological quality of groundwater in the Merdja area, Tébessa, North-East of Algeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehdi, Chemseddine; Rouabhia, Abdelkader; Mechai, Abdelbasset; Debabza, Manel; Abla, Khalida; Voudouris, Kostas

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to perform a preliminary assessment of the hydrochemical and microbial groundwater quality of the Merdja plain (Tébessa area). Twenty samples of groundwater collected from Bekkaria (Site 1) to Ain Chabro (Site 2) were assessed for their suitability for human consumption. Groundwater from the aquifer in the Merdja area can be divided into two major groups according to geographical locations and chemical compositions. Water in the center part of the study area is characterized by the dominance of chloride, sulfate, sodium, and potassium; whereas waters in the limestone aquifers in the west are dominated by the same cations but have higher concentrations of bicarbonate. Microbiological parameters were determined in 13 groundwater samples collected from the study area. Total coliforms, thermotolerant coliforms, E. coli, Enterococcus spp., Salmonella sp., Staphylococcus spp., and P. aeruginosa were detected in 96.36, 88.18, 100, 47.5, 97.27, 96.7, and 75 % of the groundwater samples, respectively. The pollution of groundwater comes from a variety of sources, Ouadi El Kebir River, including land application of agricultural chemicals and organic wastes, infiltration of irrigation water, septic tanks, and infiltration of effluent from sewage treatment plants, pits, lagoons, and ponds used for storage.

  12. Perception of Tourist towards the Potential Development of Tumpa Mountain Area as Integrated Ecotourism, Manado, North Sulawesi Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benny Irwan Towoliu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Tumpa is the name of mountain located at the northern part of the Manado City region which bordering The National Park of Bunaken. As a mountainous region with a height of ±623m (asl, it occupies a strategic position. In addition to being adjacent to the park, it is also part of uplands owned by the city of Manado. It serves as buffer zone (green belt of water, horticultural and agricultural areas with mangrove coastal areas. Master Plan of Tourism Development Region in Manado City used as part of ecotourism products from mountain and forest, but so far there has been no in-depth study to assess the holistic perception of tourist in the development potency of the region as an integrated tourism in Tumpa Mountain area. This study was purposed to determine the tourist perception toward the potential development as integrated ecotourism. This research involved a qualitative research approach, described by using figures on the percentage. Fieldwork was used as a questionnaire survey. The analysis measurement using Likert Scale, scoring and analysis combined with the analysis of the interest rate (level of importance. This study result shows that the average respondent answered good with the score range between 3.5 until 4.2. It means the respondents have argued that every indicator; natural, social-cultural and infrastructure that exists in the region Tumpa Mount area is still in good condition. In the level of interest the respondents answered between 3.6 until 4.6 with category important. This means respondents expect that good environmental circumstances will be always maintained and linked with the development of tourist attraction which is very suitable to be developed as ecotourism. In conclusion, the indicators are considered good and important to be developed as an integrated ecotourism area. Keywords: Ecotourism, Integrated, Perception, Tourist, Tumpa Mount.

  13. Ecological Forecasting of West Nile Virus Outbreaks in a High-Risk Area of the North-Central United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimberly, M. C.; Merkord, C. L.; Kightlinger, L.; Vincent, G.; Hildreth, M. B.

    2015-12-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is the most widespread and important mosquito-borne pathogen in North America. Since its emergence in the western hemisphere in 1999, human WNV disease has continued to exhibit recurrent outbreaks. Perplexingly, the incidence of this tropical disease has been highest in the cold-temperate climates of the Northern Great Plains (NGP). The spatial and temporal distributions of the vector mosquitoes and bird hosts, and consequently the risk of disease in humans, are strongly influenced by temperature, precipitation, vegetation, soils, and land use. We have utilized satellite remote sensing to map these environmental factors through time and develop models of disease risk. Outbreak years in South Dakota were preceded by warm winters, and WNV cases were most likely to occur during the hottest weeks of summer. Hot spots of persistent WNV transmission within the state were associated with rural land cover as well as patterns of physiography and climate. These models are currently being integrated into the South Dakota Mosquito Early Warning system (SDMIS), an automated WNV outbreak detection system that integrates remotely-sensed environmental indicators with vector abundance and infection data from a statewide mosquito surveillance network. The major goal of this effort is to leverage global environmental monitoring datasets to provide up-to-date, locally relevant information that can improve the effectiveness of mosquito control and disease prevention activities. This system was implemented for the first time during the summer of 2015. We will review the outcomes of this implementation, including the underlying influences of temperature on WNV risk, a preliminary statewide WNV risk map, and dynamic risk predictions made during the 2015 WNV season. Lessons learned as well as plans for future years will be discussed.

  14. Use of ethnoveterinary medicinal plants in cattle by Setswana-speaking people in the Madikwe area of the North West Province of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Van der Merwe

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Rapid Rural Appraisal (RRA methods were employed to document the use of ethnoveterinary medicinal plants in cattle by Setswana-speaking people in the Madikwe area of the North West Province of South Africa. The study indicated that Setswana-speaking people in the North West Province have a rich heritage of ethnoveterinary knowledge, which includes all aspects of ethnoveterinary medicinal plant use. Information was gathered from informants through individual interviews, group interviews, guided field walks and observations. Ethnoveterinary uses in cattle of 45 plant species representing 24 families were recorded. Plants were used in 84 % of the total number of recorded ethnoveterinary remedies. These plants were used alone (64 % or in mixtures (36 % for 29 indications. The most important indications were retained placenta, diarrhoea, gallsickness, fractures, eye inflammation, general ailments, fertility enhancement, general gastrointestinal problems, heartwater, internal parasites, coughing, redwater and reduction of tick burden. Plant materials were prepared in various ways including infusion, decoction, ground fresh material, sap expressed from fresh material, charred and dried. The most common dosage formwas a liquid for oral dosing. Other dosage forms included drops, licks, ointments, lotions and powders. Liquid remedies for oral dosing were always administered using a bottle. Medicinal plant material was preferably stored in a dried form in a cool place out of direct sunlight and wind. Lack of transfer of ethnoveterinary knowledge to younger generations puts this knowledge at risk. RRA was found to be a successful method of investigation for the study of ethnoveterinary medicine.

  15. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and heavy metals in road dusts from a plastic waste recycling area in north China: implications for human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Zhenwu; Huang, Qifei; Yang, Yufei; Nie, Zhiqiang; Cheng, Jiali; Yang, Jun; Wang, Yuwen; Chai, Miao

    2016-01-01

    Road dusts were collected from an area where intense mechanical recycling of plastic wastes occurs in Wen'an, north China. These dusts were investigated for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and heavy metals contamination to assess the health risk related to these components. Decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209) and Σ21PBDE concentrations in these dusts ranged from 2.67 to 10,424 ng g(-1) and from 3.23 to 10,640 ng g(-1), respectively. These PBDE concentrations were comparable to those observed in road dust from e-waste recycling areas but were 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than concentrations in outdoor or road dusts from other areas. This indicates that road dusts in the study area have high levels of PBDE pollution. BDE-209 was the predominant congener, accounting for 86.3% of the total PBDE content in dusts. Thus, commercial deca-BDE products were the dominant source. The average concentrations of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Pb, Sb, and Zn in these same dust samples were 10.1, 0.495, 112, 54.7, 0.150, 71.8, 10.6, and 186 mg kg(-1), respectively. The geoaccumulation index suggests that road dusts in this area are moderately to heavily polluted with Cd, Hg, and Sb. This study shows that plastic waste processing is a major source of toxic pollutants in road dusts in this area. Although the health risk from exposure to dust PBDEs was low, levels of some heavy metals in this dust exceeded acceptable risk levels for children and are of great concern.

  16. Classification and description of the vegetation in the Spitskop area in the proposed Highveld National Park, North West Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahlomola E. Daemane

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the proposed Highveld National Park (HNP is to conserve a considerable area of the poorly conserved Rocky Highveld Grassland and Dry Sandy Highveld Grassveld of the western Grassland Biome in South Africa. The park has not yet been proclaimed, but is currently under the management of the North West Parks and Tourism Board. The main aim of this study was to classify and describe the vegetation in the Spitskop area in the HNP. The areas affected by soil degradation were on the midslopes, footslopes, valley bottomland and the floodplains around the Spitskop hill. The concentrated grazing around the Spitskop area was also influenced by the existing dam in the floodplains. Floristic and soil degradation data were collected and used to classify and describe the plant communities of the Spitskop area. Vegetation sampling was performed by means of the Braun-Blanquet method and a total of twenty plots were sampled. A numerical classification technique (TWINSPAN was applied to the floristic data to derive a first approximation of the main plant communities. Further refinement was achieved by Braun-Blanquet procedures. The final results of the classification procedure were presented in the form of a phytosociological table, with three major communities and three subcommunities being described. Canonical correspondence analysis was used to determine the direct correlation between plant communities and soil degradation types. Soil compaction and sheet erosion were found to be the most significant variables determining plant community composition. Rill and gully erosion were shown to be of lesser significance in explaining the variation in plant communities. Conservation implications: Grasslands are amongst the most threatened biomes in South Africa, yet less than 1.3% are currently being conserved. The HNP has significant value for biodiversity conservation and the protection of this area will contribute to the preservation of the highly

  17. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and heavy metals in road dusts from a plastic waste recycling area in north China: implications for human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Zhenwu; Huang, Qifei; Yang, Yufei; Nie, Zhiqiang; Cheng, Jiali; Yang, Jun; Wang, Yuwen; Chai, Miao

    2016-01-01

    Road dusts were collected from an area where intense mechanical recycling of plastic wastes occurs in Wen'an, north China. These dusts were investigated for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and heavy metals contamination to assess the health risk related to these components. Decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209) and Σ21PBDE concentrations in these dusts ranged from 2.67 to 10,424 ng g(-1) and from 3.23 to 10,640 ng g(-1), respectively. These PBDE concentrations were comparable to those observed in road dust from e-waste recycling areas but were 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than concentrations in outdoor or road dusts from other areas. This indicates that road dusts in the study area have high levels of PBDE pollution. BDE-209 was the predominant congener, accounting for 86.3% of the total PBDE content in dusts. Thus, commercial deca-BDE products were the dominant source. The average concentrations of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Pb, Sb, and Zn in these same dust samples were 10.1, 0.495, 112, 54.7, 0.150, 71.8, 10.6, and 186 mg kg(-1), respectively. The geoaccumulation index suggests that road dusts in this area are moderately to heavily polluted with Cd, Hg, and Sb. This study shows that plastic waste processing is a major source of toxic pollutants in road dusts in this area. Although the health risk from exposure to dust PBDEs was low, levels of some heavy metals in this dust exceeded acceptable risk levels for children and are of great concern. PMID:26330321

  18. Physical and Verbal Aggressive Behaviour Pattern Among School Children in Urban Area of North Karnataka: A Cross Sectional Study

    OpenAIRE

    Fawwad Shaikh; R G Viveki; A.B. Halappanavar

    2014-01-01

    Background: There is growing concern with student conflict, aggression, and violence in the schools, and anger is an important contributing factor which can damage school climate. Aims and Objectives: To elucidate the differentials of aggressive behaviour among high school students and to recognize the influence of age and sex on aggressive behaviour. Material and Methods: The present cross sectional study was conducted in one of the high school in urban area, which...

  19. Summary and Trend Analysis of Water-Quality Data for the Oakes Test Area, Southeastern North Dakota, 1984-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryberg, Karen R.

    2007-01-01

    The Oakes Test Area is operated and maintained by the Garrison Diversion Conservancy District, under a cooperative agreement with the Bureau of Reclamation, to evaluate the effectiveness and environmental consequences of irrigation. As part of the evaluation, the Bureau of Reclamation collected water-quality samples from seven sites on the James River and the Oakes Test Area. The data were summarized and examined for trends in concentration. A nonparametric statistical test was used to test whether each concentration was increasing or decreasing with time for selected physical properties and constituents, and a trend slope was estimated for each constituent at each site. Trends were examined for two time periods, 1988-2004 and 1994-2004. Results varied by site and by constituent. All sites and all constituents tested had at least one statistically significant trend in the period 1988-2004. Sulfate, total dissolved solids, nitrate, and orthophosphate have significant positive trends at multiple sites with no significant negative trend at any site. Alkalinity and arsenic have single significant positive trends. Hardness, calcium, magnesium, sodium, sodium-adsorption ratio, potassium, and chloride have both significant positive and negative trends. Ammonia has a single significant negative trend. Fewer significant trends were identified in 1994-2004, and all but one were positive. The contribution to the James River from Oakes Test Area drainage appears to have little effect on water quality in the James River.

  20. Hydrogeology, hydraulic characteristics, and water-quality conditions in the surficial, Castle Hayne and Peedee aquifers of the greater New Hanover County area, North Carolina, 2012-13

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSwain, Kristen Bukowski; Gurley, Laura N.; Antolino, Dominick J.

    2014-01-01

    A major issue facing the greater New Hanover County, North Carolina, area is the increased demand for drinking water resources as a result of rapid growth. The principal sources of freshwater supply in the greater New Hanover County area are withdrawals of surface water from the Cape Fear River and groundwater from the underlying Castle Hayne and Peedee aquifers. Industrial, mining, irrigation, and aquaculture groundwater withdrawals increasingly compete with public-supply utilities for freshwater resources. Future population growth and economic expansion will require increased dependence on high-quality sources of fresh groundwater. An evaluation of the hydrogeology and water-quality conditions in the surficial, Castle Hayne, and Peedee aquifers was conducted in New Hanover, eastern Brunswick, and southern Pender Counties, North Carolina. A hydrogeologic framework was delineated by using a description of the geologic and hydrogeologic units that compose aquifers and their confining units. Current and historic water-level, water-quality, and water-isotope data were used to approximate the present boundary between freshwater and brackish water in the study area. Water-level data collected during August–September 2012 and March 2013 in the Castle Hayne aquifer show that recharge areas with the highest groundwater altitudes are located in central New Hanover County, and the lowest are located in a discharge area along the Atlantic Ocean. Between 1964 and 2012, groundwater levels in the Castle Hayne aquifer in central New Hanover County have rebounded by about 10 feet, but in the Pages Creek area groundwater levels declined in excess of 20 feet. In the Peedee aquifer, the August–September 2012 groundwater levels were affected by industrial withdrawals in north-central New Hanover County. Groundwater levels in the Peedee aquifer declined more than 20 feet between 1964 and 2012 in northeastern New Hanover County because of increased withdrawals. Vertical gradients

  1. Crustal Structure in the area of the North American Mid-Continent Rift System from P-wave Receiver Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H.; van der Lee, S.; Wolin, E.; Bollmann, T. A.; Revenaugh, J.; Wiens, D. A.; Wysession, M. E.; Aleqabi, G. I.; Frederiksen, A. W.; Darbyshire, F. A.; Stein, S. A.; Jurdy, D. M.

    2015-12-01

    The Mid-continent Geophysical Anomaly (MGA) represents the largest gravity anomaly in the North American continental interior, its strongest portion stretching from Iowa to Lake Superior, and is the direct result of 1.1 Ga deposition and uplift of volcanic rocks in the Mid-continent Rift System (MRS). The Superior Province Rifting Earthscope Experiment (SPREE) collected broadband seismic data around this prominent portion of the MGA for 2.5 years from 82 seismic stations, simultaneously with about 30 Transportable Array (TA) stations in the region. To image crustal structure around the MGA, we analyzed the P-wave trains of 119 teleseismic earthquakes at these stations using the time-domain iterative-deconvolution method of Ligorria and Ammon (1999), the waveform-fitting method of Van der Meijde et al. (2003), and the H-κ stacking method of Zhu and
Kanamori (2000). Our aim was to resolve intra-crustal layering and Moho characteristics. Despite considerable noise related to station installation constraints, we find that outside of the MGA, the Moho is sharp and relatively flat, both beneath the Archean Superior Province as well as beneath the Proterozoic terranes to its south. This Moho produces consistent P to S converted phases in the analyzed receiver functions. Receiver functions show much more complexity along the MGA, where P to S converted phases from the Moho are much weaker and more variable with azimuth and epicentral distance. Similar results have been found in Iowa by French et al. (2009). For many stations along the MGA, multiple weak S phases arrive around the time expected for the Moho-converted phase. In addition, strong P-to-S converted phases are observed from the base of shallow sedimentary layers. The base of the sedimentary layer is fairly shallow outside of the MGA, thickens near the flanks where gravity anomalies are low and shallows again in the center where the gravity peaks. We conclude that the Moho is not a strong feature of the MRS

  2. Studies on geological background and source of fluorine in drinking water in the North China Plate fluorosis areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, K.; Feng, F.; Li, H.; Chou, C.-L.; Feng, Z.; Yunshe, D.

    2008-01-01

    Endemic fluorosis in northern China is usually produced by high fluorine (F) content in drinking water. Thirty-one samples of drinking waters, mainly well waters and nearly 200 samples of rocks, loess, and coal were analyzed for F content using the combustion hydrolysis-fluoride-ion selective electrode (ISE) method. The geologic cross sections of two well-known fluorosis basins were studied. The solubility of F in different rock types collected from fluorosis areas was determined. Results showed that areas of endemic fluorosis in northern China are located in coal-bearing basins which are comprised of three stratagraphic portions. The lowest portion is Precambrian granitic rocks or Cambrian-Ordovician carbonates. The middle portion consists of Permo-Carboniferous or Jurassic coal-bearing sequences. The upper portion is 0-400 m Pleistocene loess. Flourine content in the Precambrian granite-gneiss contained (a) 1090-1460 ppm, in the Cambrian-Ordovician limestone and dolomite, (b) 52-133 ppm, in black shales and coal gob of Permo-Carboniferous coal-bearing strata, (c) 200-700 ppm, and (d) Pleistocene loess 454-542 ppm. The solubility of F in black shales of coal-bearing sequences was higher than in Precambrian granitic rocks, and both were more soluble than loess. F solubility from Precambrian granitic rocks was moderate, but Precambrian granitic rocks have high F content and thus contribute an appreciable amount of ion to the shallow groundwater (well water). Varying F content in shallow groundwater is controlled by geological conditions. The sources of F in the shallow groundwater from fluorosis areas in northern China are mainly derived from black shales of coal-bearing sequences and Precambrian granitic basement in the basins of northern China. ?? 2008 Taylor & Francis.

  3. Effects on non-human species inhabiting areas with enhanced level of natural radioactivity in the north of Russia: a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geras' kin, Stanislav A. [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology RAAS, 249020 Obninsk, Kaluga region (Russian Federation)]. E-mail: stgeraskin@gmail.com; Evseeva, Tatiana I. [Institute of Biology, Komi Scientific Center, Ural Division RAS, Kommunisticheskaya 28, 167982 Syktyvkar (Russian Federation); Belykh, Elena S. [Institute of Biology, Komi Scientific Center, Ural Division RAS, Kommunisticheskaya 28, 167982 Syktyvkar (Russian Federation); Majstrenko, Tatiana A. [Institute of Biology, Komi Scientific Center, Ural Division RAS, Kommunisticheskaya 28, 167982 Syktyvkar (Russian Federation); Michalik, Boguslaw [Central Mining Institute, Pl. Gwarkow 1, 40-166 Katowice (Poland); Taskaev, Anatoliy I. [Institute of Biology, Komi Scientific Center, Ural Division RAS, Kommunisticheskaya 28, 167982 Syktyvkar (Russian Federation)

    2007-05-15

    Results of long-term radioecological investigations in areas with an enhanced level of natural radioactivity in the north of Russia are summarized. Deleterious changes within animal and plant populations inhabiting areas with an enhanced level of natural radioactivity in the Komi Republic were revealed. These changes are expressed in enhanced levels of mutagenesis, destructive processes in the tissues of animals, disturbances of reproductive functions and reduced offspring viability. Compensatory processes, resulting in animal and plant survival under extremely adverse conditions of radium and uranium-radium contamination, were observed as well. However, obvious signs of adaptation failed to be detected. The findings suggest that adverse somatic and genetic effects are possible in plants and animals in the dose range observed at sites with an enhanced level of natural radioactivity. In contrast, different plant species inhabiting an area with an enhanced level of natural radioactivity in the taiga zone of the Sakha Republic (Yakutia) reveal a stimulation of growth processes, photosynthesis, endogenous low molecular weight antioxidant synthesis as well as adaptive response. It is apparent from the data presented that naturally occurring differences in terrestrial radiation level could be of genetic and ecological consequence.

  4. Baseline survey for rare plant species and native plant communities within the Kamehameha Schools 'Lupea Safe Harbor Planning Project Area, North Kona District, Island of Hawai'i

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobi, James; F. R. Warshauer, frwvolcano@hotmail.com; Jonathan Price, jpprice@hawaii.edu

    2010-01-01

    Kamehameha Schools, in conjunction with several federal, state, and private organizations, has proposed to conduct conservation management on approximately 5,340 ha (~13,200 acres) of land they own in the vicinity of Kīpukalupea in the North Kona District on the island of Hawai'i. The goal of this program is to restore and enhance the habitat to benefit native plant and animal populations that are currently, or were formerly, found in this site. The initial phase of this project has been focused on various activities including conducting baseline surveys for bird and plant species so Kamehameha Schools could develop a Safe Harbor Agreement (SHA) for the proposed project lands relative to the habitat management and species reintroduction efforts they would like to conduct in the Lupea Project area. This report summarizes methods that were used to collect field data on plant species and communities within the project area, and the results of that initial survey. The information was used to calculate baseline values for all listed threatened or endangered plant species found, or expected to be found, within the project area, and to design a monitoring program to assess changes in plant communities and rare plant species relative to management activities over the duration of the SHA.

  5. Evaluation of the hydrologic system in the New Leipzig coal area, Grant and Hettinger counties, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, C.A.

    1982-01-01

    Aquifers in the New Leipzig coal area consist of sandstone beds in the Fox Hills Sandstone, the Hell Creek Formation, the Cannonball and Ludlow Members of the Fort Union Formation, and the basal part of the Tongue River Member of the Fort Union Formation. Aquifers also occur in sandstone and lignite beds in the upper part of the Tongue River Member and Sentinel Butte Member of the Fort Union Formation. Potential well yields from each of the aquifers are variable, but are less than 100 gallons per minute. Water in the Fox Hills, Hell Creek, Cannonball, and Ludlow is soft and of the sodium bicarbonate type. Water in basal Tongue River aquifer is either soft or very hard and generally is of the sodium bicarbonate type. Water in the upper Tongue River and Sentinel Butte aquifer system is very hard and generally is either of the calcium bicarbonate or sodium bicarbonate type. There is little or no contribution of ground water to Thirty Mile Creek or the Cannonball River from the area of minable coal. Coal mining will expose sulfide minerals to oxidation, and result in an increase in dissolved solids and sulfate in water in the basal Tongue River aquifer. (USGS)

  6. Quality of extra virgin olive oils produced in an emerging olive growing area in north-western Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reboredo-Rodríguez, P; González-Barreiro, C; Cancho-Grande, B; Simal-Gándara, J

    2014-12-01

    Systematic studies of physico-chemical and stability-related properties, and chemical composition, of extra virgin olive oils (EVOOs) obtained from drupes cropped in specific regions are of special agricultural interest. This is particularly so with new production areas, where careful selection of the most suitable olive varieties for EVOO production is required. This paper reports the first comprehensive chemical characterisation of EVOOs obtained from three different olive varieties (viz., Picual, Morisca and Manzanilla de Sevilla) grown in a new cultivation area in Galicia (NW Spain). The Morisca variety was that providing the highest industrial oil yield (21%). However, the three types of EVOO exhibited no statistically significant differences in standard quality-related indices other than acidity. Morisca EVOO was that with the lowest content in oleic acid (mean=68%) and highest content in linoleic acid (mean=13%). Also, Morisca EVOO exhibited the highest sterol levels (mean=1,616 mg/kg) and Picual EVOO the lowest (mean=1,160 mg/kg). Picual EVOO contained greater amounts of the phenolic compounds luteolin and pinoresinol than both Morisca and Manzanilla de Sevilla EVOOs. Finally, Manzanilla de Sevilla EVOO exhibited differential attributes, with banana and olive fruit aromatic series prevailing predominantly over bitter-like, pungent-like and leaf series.

  7. Quality of extra virgin olive oils produced in an emerging olive growing area in north-western Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reboredo-Rodríguez, P; González-Barreiro, C; Cancho-Grande, B; Simal-Gándara, J

    2014-12-01

    Systematic studies of physico-chemical and stability-related properties, and chemical composition, of extra virgin olive oils (EVOOs) obtained from drupes cropped in specific regions are of special agricultural interest. This is particularly so with new production areas, where careful selection of the most suitable olive varieties for EVOO production is required. This paper reports the first comprehensive chemical characterisation of EVOOs obtained from three different olive varieties (viz., Picual, Morisca and Manzanilla de Sevilla) grown in a new cultivation area in Galicia (NW Spain). The Morisca variety was that providing the highest industrial oil yield (21%). However, the three types of EVOO exhibited no statistically significant differences in standard quality-related indices other than acidity. Morisca EVOO was that with the lowest content in oleic acid (mean=68%) and highest content in linoleic acid (mean=13%). Also, Morisca EVOO exhibited the highest sterol levels (mean=1,616 mg/kg) and Picual EVOO the lowest (mean=1,160 mg/kg). Picual EVOO contained greater amounts of the phenolic compounds luteolin and pinoresinol than both Morisca and Manzanilla de Sevilla EVOOs. Finally, Manzanilla de Sevilla EVOO exhibited differential attributes, with banana and olive fruit aromatic series prevailing predominantly over bitter-like, pungent-like and leaf series. PMID:24996353

  8. The new characteristics of coal-burning endemic fluorosis in some areas in North-Western Guizhou

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wua, D.S.; Zheng, B.S.; Wang, A.M. [CAS, Guiyang (China). Inst. of Geochemistry

    2004-07-01

    Fluoride contents in coal, drinking water, corn and chili, were assayed, and the prevalence of dental fluorosis and skeletal fluorosis and fluoride levels in urine in the local inhabitants were investigated. Fluoride content in coal of Hualuo, Majiazhuang and Pianpozhai (China) is 107.8, 104.1 and 117.6 mg/kg, respectively, in drinking water of the three villages is 0.12, 0.14 and {lt} 0.05 mg/l, respectively; in corn of the three villages is 30.6,33.4 and 49.8 mg/kg, respectively; in chili of the three village is 513.2, 342.6 and 281.0 mg/kg. Fluorosis is serious in the areas. It is concluded that fluoride levels in urine and coal is relatively low to the serious fluorosis and the high fluoride contents in foodstuff, it is the new characteristics in the endemic fluorosis area. Further study should be made.

  9. A Petrographic and Mineralogical Study of Volcanic Rocks from the Mayaxueshan Area, North Qilian Fold Belt, NW China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐达伟; 萧炎宏

    2002-01-01

    The Ordovician volcanic rocks in the Mayaxueshan area have been pervasively altered or metamorphosedand contain abundant secondary minerals such as albite, chlorite, epidote, prehnite, pumpellyite, actinolite, titanite, quartz,and/or calcite. They were denoted as spilites or spilitic rocks in terms of their petrographic features and mineral assem-blages. The metamorphic grades of the volcanic rocks are equivalent to that of the intercalated metaclastic rocks. Thisindicates that both the spilitic volcanic rocks and metaclastic rocks in the Mayaxueshan area have formed as a result ofCaledonian regional metamorphism. We suggest that the previously denoted spilitic rocks or altered volcanic rocks shouldbe re-denoted as metabasalts or metabasaltic rocks. The metamorphic grade of the volcanic rocks increases with their age:prehnite-pumpellyite facies for the upper part of the Middle Ordovician volcanic rocks, prehnite-pumpellyite to lowergreenschist facies for the lower part of the Middle Ordovician volcanic rocks, and lower greenschist facies for the LowerOrdovician volcanic rocks. The P-T conditions are estimated as T = 240 - 290C and P = 1.5 - 4.5 kbar for the lower partof the Middle Ordovician rocks, and T = ~ 300~C for the Lower Ordovician rocks. The variations of mineral assemblagesoccurring at different domains of the volcanic rocks were controlled by the variations of the effective bulk composition inthose domains during metamorphism. The geochemical characteristics of Mg-Al chromite in the Mayaxueshan volcanicrocks are consistent with an origin of island arc environment.

  10. Slope runoff study in situ using rainfall simulator in mountainous area of North China%华北山区坡地产流规律研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于静洁; 杨聪; 刘昌明; 宋献方; 胡珊珊; 李发东; 唐常源

    2009-01-01

    Simulated rainfall is a valid tool to examine the runoff generation on the slope. 13 simulated rainfall experiments with different rainfall intensities and durations are completed in a 5 m ×10 m experimental plot in mountainous area of North China. Simultaneously, rainfall, surface runoff, soil-layer flow, mantel-layer flow and soil moisture are monitored respectively. From the results, it is found that the hydrographs in all layers have the characteristics of rapid rise and fall. The recessions of surface flow and soil-layer flow are much faster than that of mantel-layer flow. Surface flow, the main contributor, makes up more than 60% of the total runoff in the study area. It even exceeds 90% in the cases of high intensity rainfall events. Runoff coefficient (ratio of total runoff to rainfall amount) is mainly influenced by rainfall amount, rainfall intensity and antecedent soil moisture, and the relationship can be well ex-pressed by a multiple linear regression function a = 0.002P + 0.1821 + 4.88Wa - 0.821. The relation between the rainfall intensity and the lag time of three flows (surface runoff, soil-layer flow and mantel-layer flow) is shown to be exponential. Then, the result also shows that the recession constant is 0.75 for surface runoff, is 0.94 for soil-layer and mantel-layer flow in this area. In this study area, the dominant infiltration excess runoff is simulated by Horton model. About 0.10 mm/min percolation is observed under the condition of different rainfall intensities, therefore the value is regarded as the steady infiltration rate of the study area.

  11. Geochemical and isotopic variations in shallow groundwater in areas of the Fayetteville Shale development, north-central Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Nathaniel R.; Kresse, Timothy M.; Hays, Phillip D.; Down, Adrian; Karr, Jonathan D.; Jackson, R.B.; Vengosh, Avner

    2013-01-01

    Exploration of unconventional natural gas reservoirs such as impermeable shale basins through the use of horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing has changed the energy landscape in the USA providing a vast new energy source. The accelerated production of natural gas has triggered a debate concerning the safety and possible environmental impacts of these operations. This study investigates one of the critical aspects of the environmental effects; the possible degradation of water quality in shallow aquifers overlying producing shale formations. The geochemistry of domestic groundwater wells was investigated in aquifers overlying the Fayetteville Shale in north-central Arkansas, where approximately 4000 wells have been drilled since 2004 to extract unconventional natural gas. Monitoring was performed on 127 drinking water wells and the geochemistry of major ions, trace metals, CH4 gas content and its C isotopes (δ13CCH4), and select isotope tracers (δ11B, 87Sr/86Sr, δ2H, δ18O, δ13CDIC) compared to the composition of flowback-water samples directly from Fayetteville Shale gas wells. Dissolved CH4 was detected in 63% of the drinking-water wells (32 of 51 samples), but only six wells exceeded concentrations of 0.5 mg CH4/L. The δ13CCH4 of dissolved CH4 ranged from −42.3‰ to −74.7‰, with the most negative values characteristic of a biogenic source also associated with the highest observed CH4 concentrations, with a possible minor contribution of trace amounts of thermogenic CH4. The majority of these values are distinct from the reported thermogenic composition of the Fayetteville Shale gas (δ13CCH4 = −35.4‰ to −41.9‰). Based on major element chemistry, four shallow groundwater types were identified: (1) low ( 100 mg/L and Ca–HCO3 dominated, (3) TDS > 100 mg/L and Na–HCO3dominated, and (4) slightly saline groundwater with TDS > 100 mg/L and Cl > 20 mg/L with elevated Br/Cl ratios (>0.001). The Sr (87Sr/86Sr = 0.7097

  12. Factors Influencing the Large-Scale Distribution of Hg(0) in the Mexico City Area and Over the North Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, R.; Mao, H.; Scheuer, E.; Dibb, J.; Avery, M.; Browell, E.; Sachse, G.; Vay, S.; Blake, D.; Huey, G.; Fuelberg, H.

    2007-12-01

    Gas-phase elemental mercury (Hg°) was measured aboard the NASA DC-8 aircraft during the NASA Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment Phase B (INTEX-B) campaign in spring 2006. Flights were conducted around Mexico City and on two subsequent deployments over the North Pacific based out of Honolulu, Hawaii and Anchorage, Alaska. Data was obtained during March-May 2006 and covered 0.15-12 km altitude. The vertical distribution in all three study regions showed that Hg° exhibited a relatively constant mixing ratio centered around 100 ppqv. Highly concentrated pollution plumes emanating from Mexico City revealed that mixing ratios of Hg° as large as 500 ppqv were correlated with combustion tracers such as CO, but not SO2 which is presumably released from coal burning, refineries, and volcanoes. Our analysis of Mexico City plumes indicated that widespread multi-source urban/industrial emissions may have a more important influence on Hg° than specific point sources. Over the Pacific, correlations with CO, CO2, CH4, and C2Cl4 were diffuse overall, but recognizable on flights out of Anchorage and Honolulu. In distinct plumes originating from the Asian continent the Hg° - CO relationship was better defined and yielded an average value of ~0.0050 ng Hg° m-3/ppbv, in good agreement with previous findings. A prominent feature of the INTEX-B dataset was frequent total depletion of Hg° in the upper troposphere when stratospherically influenced air was encountered. When O3 mixing ratios exceeded 300 ppbv, Hg° was rarely detected. It appears that in the tropopause and stratosphere Hg° is oxidized on the order of days followed by heterogeneous transformation to particulate mercury. Our data confirm efficient chemical cycling of Hg° in the tropopause region and show that it is strongly anti-correlated with O3. These processes constitute an effective chemical sink for Hg° at the top of the troposphere, which may recycle mercury back to the gas phase as stratospheric

  13. Geology, structure and age of the Nahuel Niyeu Formation in the Aguada Cecilio area, North Patagonian Massif, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, Gerson A.; González, Pablo D.; González, Santiago N.; Sato, Ana M.; Basei, Miguel A. S.; Tassinari, Colombo C. G.; Sato, Kei; Varela, Ricardo; Llambías, Eduardo J.

    2015-10-01

    The low-grade Nahuel Niyeu Formation in the Aguada Cecilio area (40°50‧S-65°53‧W) shows ultramafic to felsic metaigneous rocks forming a sill swarm intercalated in the metasedimentary sequence and a polyphase deformation which permit an integrated study of the magmatic and tectonometamorphic evolution of this geological unit. In this paper we present a geological characterization of the Nahuel Niyeu Formation in the Aguada Cecilio area combining mapping, structural and metamorphic analysis with a SHRIMP U-Pb age and geochemical data from the metaigneous rocks. The metasedimentary sequence consists of alternating metagreywackes and phyllites, and minor metasandstones and granule metaconglomerates. The sills are pre-kinematic intrusions and yielded one SHRIMP U-Pb, zircon crystallization age of 513.6 ± 3.3 Ma. Their injection occurred after consolidation of the sedimentary sequence. A syn-sedimentary volcanic activity is interpreted by a metaandesite lava flow interlayered in the metasedimentary sequence. Sedimentary and igneous protoliths of the Nahuel Niyeu Formation would have been formed in a continental margin basin associated with active magmatic arc during the Cambrian Epoch 2. Two main low-grade tectonometamorphic events affected the Nahuel Niyeu Formation, one during the Cambrian Epoch 2-Early Ordovician and the other probably in the late Permian at ˜260 Ma. Local late folds could belong to the final stages of the late Permian deformation or be even younger. In a regional context, the Nahuel Niyeu and El Jagüelito formations and Mina Gonzalito Complex show a comparable Cambrian-Ordovician evolution related to the Terra Australis Orogen in the south Gondwana margin. This evolution is also coeval with the late and early stages of the Pampean and Famatinian orogenies of Central Argentina, respectively. The late Permian event recorded in the Nahuel Niyeu Formation in Aguada Cecilio area is identified by comparable structures affecting the Mina Gonzalito

  14. The socio-demographic, environmental and reservoir factors associated with leptospirosis in an urban area of north-eastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, D S C; Guimarães, M J B; Portugal, J L; Medeiros, Z

    2009-03-01

    In an ecological study based on the 18 microregions that form the city of Recife, the capital of the Brazilian state of Pernambuco, associations between socio-demographic, environmental and reservoir factors and the incidence of leptospirosis in the city were investigated. Incidence over a 5-year period (2001-2005) and 14 variables were analysed, using central trend and dispersion measurements, Pearson's correlation and multiple linear regression. Variables relating to education, income, housing type, sewage system, rubbish collection and hydrographic factors were found to be significantly correlated with leptospirosis incidence (Plegal minimum (U.S.$83.55/month), and the proportion of households from which rubbish was dumped in skips, lakes, rivers or the sea or on vacant land - explained 60% (P=0.017) of the differences in disease risk observed between the various areas of the city.

  15. Monitoring of the artificial reef fish assemblages of golfe juan marine protected area (France, North-Western Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bodilis Pascaline

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Artificial reefs were deployed within the Golfe-Juan marine protected area (Alpes-Maritimes coast, France, Northwestern Mediterranean created in 1981. This no-take area is fully protected since its establishment, except in 2004 when some anthropic activities were, exceptionally, authorized. Moreover, no park rangers to prevent poaching since 2002 occur. In order to carry out a long term monitoring of the artificial reef fish assemblages, underwater visual censuses (UVC were carried out in 1988, 1998 and 2008, according to a traditional standardized visual census method that taken into account all fish species. The complexification of some large reefs built with wide voide spaces called Bonna reefs appear to be a good solution to increase species richness and density. Species richness and density of the fish assemblages showed significant increase between 1988 and 1998. However the fast increasing was stopped from 1998 and 2008 probably due to a lack of law enforcement and poaching. Despite artificial reefs were deployed in MPA since at least 20 years, they did not show a real positive impact on fish assemblages. These results could be explained (i by a lack of law enforcement patrol within the protected areas during the last decade, and (ii by the one-year opening to fishing activities within MPA. The real effectiveness of the artificial reefs in sustaining fish assemblages is discussed and the necessity of a regular and efficient control by park rangers is highlighted.Recifes artificiais foram implantados na área protegida Golfe-Juan (costa dos Alpes-Maritimes, Noroeste do Mediterraneo criada em 1981. Esta área NTZ (Area de Restrição da Pesca é inteiramente protegida, desde seu estabelecimento, exceto em 2004, quando algumas atividades antropicas foram excepcionalmente autorizadas. Além disso, desde 2002, não houve nenhuma patrulha florestal para impedir a caça e pesca ilegais. . A fim realizar um monitoramento a longo prazo das assembl

  16. Molecular indicators for pollution source identification in marine and terrestrial water of the industrial area of Kavala city, North Greece

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigoriadou, A. [Department of Mineralogy-Petrology-Economic Geology, School of Geology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece)], E-mail: grigoriadou@lek.rwth-aachen.de; Schwarzbauer, J. [Institute of Geology and Geochemistry of Petroleum and Coal, Aachen University of Technology, Lochnerstrasse 4-20, 52056 Aachen (Germany)], E-mail: schwarzbauer@lek.rwth-aachen.de; Georgakopoulos, A. [Department of Mineralogy-Petrology-Economic Geology, School of Geology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece)], E-mail: ageorgak@geo.auth.gr

    2008-01-15

    Eight terrestrial and four marine water samples were collected from the industrial section of the city of Kavala in northern Greece to determine the occurrence and distribution of organic contaminants, as well as to identify the molecular markers of different emission sources. The samples were analyzed by means of non-target screening analyses. The analytical procedure included a sequential extraction of the samples, GC-FID, GC/MS analyses, and additional quantitative analyses of selected pollutants. The results show a wide variety of compounds including halogenated compounds, technical additives and metabolites, phosphates, phthalates, benzothiazoles, etc. A close relationship between many of the contaminants and their emission sources was determined based on their molecular structures and information on technical applications. - Organic contaminants were used to estimate the state of the pollution and to identify sources in an area impacted by numerous anthropogenic activities.

  17. Appropriate density of water and soil conservation of Pinus tabulaeformis and Robinia pseudoacacia forests in loess area, North China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianjun ZHANG; Chengliang ZHANG; Wei HE; Lei NA

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, based on a long-term monitor-ing of water cycle in the water and soil conservation forest stands of Pinus tabulaeformis and Robinia pseu-doacacia, the soil moisture deficit is calculated. Following the principles of runoff-collecting forestry and applying the forest structure investigation results, the authors developed a formula to calculate appropriate density for forests on the basis of different diameters at breast height (DBH). Using this method to manage forests, the natural water requirement of forests can be met and soil drought can be avoided. In addition, with long-term monitoring of soil moisture in stands, the authors also give an appropriate managing density specifically for the water and soil conservation forests of P.tabulaeformis and R.pseudoacacia in the loess area which is according to soil moisture content,or with the lowest soil moisture content and invalid moisture frequency as the indexes.

  18. Studies on quality of sub-surface water around tanneries in some areas of north west frontier province (NWFP) Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study is a part of our investigations comprising (a) characterization of the tannery/leather industry effluents, (b) assessment of the pollution caused by these effluents to the environment, and (c) development of a simple but economical procedure for the pre-treatment and recycling of these effluents, to recover some valuable materials. In NWFP, the tanning industry has shown a rapid development in the late seventies, during which large-size industrial units were established at Peshawar, Charsadda and Jehangira. Since no pollution control measures are being adopted by these units, the hazards to the environment caused by the effluents and emissions from tanneries pose an acute problem in the country. The studies narrated below indicate that the under-ground water samples around tanneries have high concentrations of TDS, phenols, chromium and sulfides, which render the well-water in the area unsuitable for drinking and domestic uses. (author)

  19. Some evidences for earthquake occurrence in the shallow crust in some areas of North China and Southwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡新亮; 刁桂苓; 高景春; 张四昌; 张学民; 李钦祖; 秦清娟; 朱振兴; 张彦清

    2001-01-01

    The parameters of hypocentral location are important fundamental data for the study of seismology and the earth interior physics; among them, the focal depth is a very important one but can hardly be measured with higher precision. With the increase of seismic stations in number, the heightening of observation quality and the improvement of determination method, such a situation has been changed much. In this paper, the results of hypocentral location and re-location by 7 small-aperture digital seismic station networks at Tangshan, Zhangbei and Huailai of Hebei Province, Datong of Shanxi Province and Jianchuan, Luquan and Yao'an of Yunnan Province are used. Using these results together with those of focal depth inversion by far-field data of some individual large shocks in corresponding areas and those re-determined by the Linfen telemetered seismic network of Shanxi Province, a comparison with the results of focal depth determination in the past earthquake catalogues is made. It is found out that the focal depths determined by the small-aperture seismic networks are basically distributed in the range from the earth surface to ten-odd kilometers underground. In contrast, the focal depths determined in the past are mostly distributed at the depth range from the earth surface to 30 km underground. Besides, there is a difference of 50% to 100% between the average values of the two cases, which is quite an obvious one. From the result of analysis, it is considered that the results determined by the small-aperture seismic networks may be closer to the reality of focal depths distribution. That is to say, earthquakes in the above-mentioned areas should be distributed in the shallow part of the crust. The causes that lead to the above situation are discussed preliminarily, and some suggestions and measures for improving the precision of focal depth determination are put forward.

  20. Use of Polar Orbiting Earth Observatories to Create a Synoptic Inventory of North American Forested Areas Affected by Wildfire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohlberg, R.; Carroll, M.; Townshend, J.; McCarty, J.

    2005-12-01

    The authors will discuss a newly developed algorithm which utilizes the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument onboard the Terra and Aqua satellites to derive an ongoing inventory of forested areas affected by wildfire. The experimental data set has been developed at a spatial resolution of 250 m and a temporal resolution of 16 days. The intent is to provide a near real-time inventory of fire-affected forested landscapes. The method allows for discrimination between those areas which were recently burned and those which were burned previously in the same or earlier fire seasons. This is an automated and repeatable method for delineating fire-affected forest at a country scale. By relying entirely on satellite observations, the product is intended to be internally consistent, avoiding potential bias and omission introduced by ground and airborne-based mapping. The data set is intended for use at a national and regional scale to update forest inventories in a rapid fashion, and to direct land management efforts. This moderate resolution product can then be used to direct detailed inventory and characterization efforts utilizing fine resolution instruments and in situ observation. Additional features of the data set provide the ability to gain a basic understanding of the spatial distribution of burn severity. Based upon user requirements, such as the need to monitor specific events of national importance, the methods presented can be adapted to provide results on a daily basis. We will present validation results using perimeter and progression maps produced for large fires in the western United States and Alaska. Special attention will be given to future operational opportunities as we move to the next generation instrument, VIIRS, which will first launch aboard the NPP platform and later on a planned series of NPOESS satellites.

  1. Are levels of perfluoroalkyl substances in soil related to urbanization in rapidly developing coastal areas in North China?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concentrations of 13 perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) were quantified in 79 surface soil samples from 17 coastal cities in three provinces and one municipality along the Bohai and Yellow Seas. The ∑PFASs concentrations ranged from less than limitation of quantification (LOQ) to 13.97 ng/g dry weight (dw), with a mean of 0.98 ng/g dw. The highest concentration was observed along the Xiaoqing River from Shandong province, followed by that from the Haihe River in Tianjin (10.62 ng/g dw). Among four regions, ∑PFASs concentrations decreased in the order of Tianjin, Shandong, Liaoning and Hebei, which was consistent with levels of urbanization. Fluorine chemical industries allocated in Shandong and Liaoning played important roles in terms of point emission and contamination of PFASs, dominated by perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS). Intensive anthropogenic activities involved in urbanization possibly resulted in increasing releases of PFASs from industrial and domestic sources. - Highlights: • PFASs were detected in the soil of rapidly developing coastal regions in China. • PFAS concentrations ranged from LOQ to 13.97 ng/g dw, with a mean of 0.98 ng/g dw. • Higher concentrations of PFASs correspond to higher levels of urbanization. • Existence of fluorine industry induced PFAS pollutions dominated by PFOA and PFOS. • Intensive urbanization caused increasing emission of industrial and domestic PFASs. - Among urban, suburban and rural areas in the coasts, soils from urban area showed high degrees of PFASs contamination with the existence of industrial emissions dominated by PFOA and PFOS

  2. Tectonic and deformation history of the Gyeonggi Massif in and around the Hongcheon area, and its implications in the tectonic evolution of the North China Craton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yengkhom, Kesorjit S.; Lee, Byung Choon; Oh, Chang Whan; Yi, Kee Wook; Kang, Ji Hoon

    2015-04-01

    The Gyeonggi Massif (GM) in South Korea is considered to be a part of the North China Craton. The Precambrian rocks of the GM in and around the Hongcheon area, South Korea, consist of the Yongduri Gneiss Complex (YGC), Euiam Group (EG) and Euiam Gneiss Complex (EGC). The YGC and EG composed mainly of partially migmatised metasedimentary rocks and the EGC is Paleoproterozoic intrusive rock that intruded the EG. At least three major folding (F1, F2 & F3), two-stage ductile shearing and three-stages of metamorphic events (M1, M2 & M3) occurred in the study area. The F1 folds are extremely drawn out, isoclinal, intrafolial folds and have Class 2 to Class 1C geometry. The F1 folds and regional S1 foliation in the YGC and EG are results of the E-W compression during the D1 deformation. Ductile shearing in the southern part of the EG is marked by the Palbongsan Shear Zone that indicates top-to-the SW sheared movement during syn to post-F1 folding. The F2 folds are open to tight, SW plunging and inclined folds, and have Class 1A to 1C geometry. The F2 folding and subsequent NNE thrusting along multiple ductile shear zones parallel to S2 planar fabrics are results of the D2 deformation due to N-S progressive shortening. The D3 deformation was coaxial with the D1 deformation, leading to the development of the F3 kink bands in the mylonite zones. The SHRIMP U-Pb detrital zircon ages from quartzite and banded gneisses in the EG indicate that the sedimentation in the Chunseong basins began after ca. 2094 Ma. The banded gneisses yield M1 metamorphic age of 1917-1925 Ma. However ca.1867-1883 Ma, M2 metamorphism previously reported from the YGC is absent or weakly preserved in the EG representing that the M2 metamorphism was not strong enough to form new zircon in the EG. The igneous zircons form augen gneisses in the EGC yield intrusion age of ca. 1867-1881 Ma and the geochemistries of the EGC gneisses show post-collision tectonic origin. The D1deformation observed in the YGC and

  3. Relationship between localization of gold mining areas and hair mercury levels in people from Bolivar, north of Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivero-Verbel, Jesús; Caballero-Gallardo, Karina; Marrugo Negrete, Jose; Negrete-Marrugo, José

    2011-12-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a heavy metal that, once in the environment, is bioaccumulated and biomagnified through food chain impacting ecosystems. The aim of this study was to evaluate total Hg (T-Hg) concentrations in individuals along Cauca and Magdalena Rivers in Colombia, where most gold mining activities take place. A total of 1,328 hair samples were collected and analyzed for T-Hg using atomic absorption spectroscopy. T-Hg concentrations ranged from 0.01 to 20.14 μg/g. Greatest levels were detected in La Raya (5.27 ± 0.32 μg/g), Achi (2.44 ± 0.22 μg/g), and Montecristo (2.20 ± 0.20 μg/g), places that are located near gold mines. Concentrations decreased with the distance from main mining areas. Only 0.75% of the individuals had T-Hg levels above 10 μg/g. Men had significantly higher T-Hg levels than women, and correlation analysis revealed moderately weak but significant relationships between T-Hg and weight (R = 0.111, P mining, monitoring, and educational programs are necessary to protect health of people living near Colombian rivers. PMID:21476008

  4. Trophic magnification of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in the marine food web from coastal area of Bohai Bay, North China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Mihua; Tao, Ping; Wang, Man; Jia, Hongliang; Li, Yi-Fan

    2016-06-01

    Trophic transfer of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in aquatic ecosystems is an important criterion for assessing their environmental risk. This study analyzed 13 PBDEs in marine organisms collected from coastal area of Bohai Bay, China. The concentrations of total PBDEs (Σ13PBDEs) ranged from 12 ± 1.1 ng/g wet weight (ww) to 230 ± 54 ng/g ww depending on species. BDE-47 was the predominant compound, with a mean abundance of 20.21 ± 12.97% of total PBDEs. Stable isotopic ratios of carbon (δ(13)C) and nitrogen (δ(15)N) were analyzed to determine the food web structure and trophic level respectively. Trophic magnification factors (TMFs) of PBDEs were assessed as the slope of lipid equivalent concentrations regressed against trophic levels. Significant positive relationships were found for Σ13PBDEs and eight PBDE congeners (BDE-28, BDE-47, BDE-49, BDE-66, BDE-85, BDE-99, BDE-100 and BDE-154). Monte-Carlo simulations showed that the probabilities of TMF >1 were 100% for Σ13PBDEs, BDE-47, BDE-85, BDE-99 and BDE-100, 99% for DE-28, BDE-49, BDE-66 and BDE-154, 94% for BDE-153, and 35% for BDE-17.

  5. Geology and uranium mineralisation around Ampulli Area, Papum-Pare District, Arunachal Pradesh, North-East India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uranium mineralisation associated with Middle Proterozoic Bomdila Group (Daling equivalent) metasediments have been located intermittently over a strike length of 310 m with 0.11 to 2.0 m thickness around Ampulli area of Papum-Pare district, Arunachal Pradesh. The metasediments trend NE-SW and dip 20°- 85° due either side. The grab and trench samples assayed 0.012 - 0.36% eU3O8, 0.006 - 0.19% U3O8 (beta/gamma), 0.009 - 0.235% U3O8 (Chem.) and less than 0.010% ThO2. The host rocks have been identified as tourmaline bearing biotite-quartz schist, garnet bearing muscovite-biotite-quartz schist and muscovite-biotite schist. Uraninite, brannerite and U-Ti complex are observed with uranocircite and meta-uranocircite, the secondary uranium minerals. Replacement of uraninite by molybdenite and pyrite suggested earlier oxide and later sulphide phase. Partial chemical analysis indicated aluminous nature of the host rock and their high K2O/Na2O (3.3-10.73) ratios are suggestive of predominance of potash feldspar over sodic and effects of potash metasomatism. Both syngenetic as well as epigenetic hydrothermal origin of uranium mineralisation has been suggested. (author)

  6. Privatization of tubewells in North China: Determinants and impacts on irrigated area, productivity and the water table

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinxia; Huang, Jikun; Huang, Qiuqiong; Rozelle, Scott

    2006-03-01

    Despite the rise in importance of the private sector in the expansion of the use of groundwater in China and the potential implications this might have for production and poverty, little has been written about the effect of these phenomena on northern China’s economy. In examining determinants of tubewell privatization and its impact on producers in northern China, data were collected using a community leader survey, carried out in 448 villages in six provinces in northern China. The results show that since 1990 collective ownership of tubewells has largely been replaced by private ownership. Increasing water scarcity, government grants and bank loans for tubewell investment and the declining investment capacity of China’s local communities have led to the observed change in tubewell ownership patterns. By far, the most important positive effect on income appears to be due to the expansion of newly irrigated area that has been fueled by the rise of private tubewells. Many newly private tubewells also have begun to replace irrigation from surface water sources. While helping increase income and productivity, the rise of private tubewells also has contributed to the fall in groundwater levels.

  7. Mapping diagenetic fluid flow within a reservoir: K-Ar dating in the Alwyn area (UK North Sea)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hogg, A.J.C. (Aberdeen Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Geology and Petroleum Geology); Hamilton, P.J.; Macintyre, R.M. (Scottish Universities Research and Reactor Centre, Glasgow (United Kingdom))

    1993-06-01

    The Alwyn area demonstrates that variation in the timing of diagenesis on the field scale depends on the structure and the proximity to the sources of diagenetic fluids. Variation in reservoir quality within the structure is the result of facies control on fluid migration. Illite in Alwyn South formed in the Middle Palaeocene to Middle Oligocene between 60 and 38 Ma. At this time the Brent Group was at depths of between 2400 and 3000 m and reservoir temperatures ranged from 110 to 120[sup o]C. Extensive K-Ar dating shows that illitization, pre-oil emplacement, proceeded from the deepest reservoir panels along and up-structure. Fluid migration may have occurred along the deep seated Alwyn South-Ninian Fault System. Where the reservoir is lithologically homogeneous illite precipitation proceeded systematically base-upwards at rates of 5.5 m Ma[sup -1]. The duration of illite formation at any one level was between 2 and 8 Ma. In contrast, in heterolithic reservoirs fluid migration occurred initially along high permeability fairways and consequently illite ages do not vary systematically with depth. (Author)

  8. The distribution feature of size-fractionated chlorophyll a and primary productivity in Prydz Bay and its north sea area during the austral summer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘子琳; 陈忠元

    2003-01-01

    The investigation of size-fractionated chlorophyll a and primary productivity were carried out in three longitudinal sections (63°-69°12′S, 70°30′E, 73°E and 75(30′E) at December 18 -26, 1998 and January 12 -18, 1999 in Prydz Bay and its north sea area, Antarctica. The results showed that surface chlorophyll a concentration were 0.16 - 3.99 μg dm -3. The high values of chlorophyll a concentration ( more than 3.5 μg dm -3 ) were in Prydz Bay and in the west Ladies Bank. The average chlorophyll a concentration at sub-surface layer was higher than that at surface layer; its concentration at the deeper layers of 50 m decreased with increasing depth and that at 200 m depth was only 0.01 -0.95 μg dm-3. The results of size-fractionated chlorophyll a showed that the contribution of the netplanktion to total chlorophyll a was 56% , those of the nanoplankton and the picoplankton were 24% and 20% respectively in the surveyed area. The potential primary productivity at the euphotic zone in the surveyed area was 0. 11 - 11.67 mgC m-3 h -1 and average value was 2.00 ±2.80 mgC m-3h-1. The in-situ productivity in the bay and the continental shelf was higher and that in the deep-sea area was lower. The assimilation number of ted primary productivity show that the contribution of the netplanktion to total productivity was 58% , those of the nanoplankton and the picoplankton were 26% and 16% respectively. The cell abundance of phytoplankton was 1. 6 + 103 - 164. 8 + 103 cell dm-3 in the surface water.

  9. Life cycle assessment of water supply alternatives in water-receiving areas of the South-to-North Water Diversion Project in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi; Xiong, Wei; Zhang, Wenlong; Wang, Chao; Wang, Peifang

    2016-02-01

    To alleviate the water shortage in northern China, the Chinese government launched the world's largest water diversion project, the South-to-North Water Diversion Project (SNWDP), which delivers water from water-sufficient southern China to water-deficient northern China. However, an up-to-date study has not been conducted to determine whether the project is a favorable option to augment the water supply from an environmental perspective. The life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology integrated with a freshwater withdrawal category (FWI) was adopted to compare water supply alternatives in the water-receiving areas of the SNWDP, i.e., water diversion, wastewater reclamation and seawater desalination. Beijing, Tianjin, Jinan and Qingdao were studied as representative cities because they are the primary water-receiving areas of the SNWDP. The results revealed that the operation phase played the dominant role in all but one of the life cycle impact categories considered and contributed to more than 70% of their scores. For Beijing and Tianjin, receiving water through the SNWDP is the most sustainable option to augment the water supply. The result can be drawn in all of the water-receiving areas of the middle route of the SNWDP. For Jinan and Qingdao, the most sustainable option is the wastewater reclamation system. The seawater desalination system obtains the highest score of the standard impact indicators in all of the study areas, whereas it is the most favorable water supply option when considering the freshwater withdrawal impact. Although the most sustainable water supply alternative was recommended through an LCA analysis, multi-water resources should be integrated into the region's water supply from the perspective of water sustainability. The results of this study provide a useful recommendation on the management of water resources for China.

  10. Postwildfire preliminary debris flow hazard assessment for the area burned by the 2011 Las Conchas Fire in north-central New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillery, Anne C.; Darr, Michael J.; Cannon, Susan H.; Michael, John A.

    2011-01-01

    The Las Conchas Fire during the summer of 2011 was the largest in recorded history for the state of New Mexico, burning 634 square kilometers in the Jemez Mountains of north-central New Mexico. The burned landscape is now at risk of damage from postwildfire erosion, such as that caused by debris flows and flash floods. This report presents a preliminary hazard assessment of the debris-flow potential from 321 basins burned by the Las Conchas Fire. A pair of empirical hazard-assessment models developed using data from recently burned basins throughout the intermountain western United States was used to estimate the probability of debris-flow occurrence and volume of debris flows at the outlets of selected drainage basins within the burned area. The models incorporate measures of burn severity, topography, soils, and storm rainfall to estimate the probability and volume of debris flows following the fire. In response to a design storm of 28.0 millimeters of rain in 30 minutes (10-year recurrence interval), the probabilities of debris flows estimated for basins burned by the Las Conchas Fire were greater than 80 percent for two-thirds (67 percent) of the modeled basins. Basins with a high (greater than 80 percent) probability of debris-flow occurrence were concentrated in tributaries to Santa Clara and Rio del Oso Canyons in the northeastern part of the burned area; some steep areas in the Valles Caldera National Preserve, Los Alamos, and Guaje Canyons in the east-central part of the burned area; tributaries to Peralta, Colle, Bland, and Cochiti canyons in the southwestern part of the burned area; and tributaries to Frijoles, Alamo, and Capulin Canyons in the southeastern part of the burned area (within Bandelier National Monument). Estimated debris-flow volumes ranged from 400 cubic meters to greater than 72,000 cubic meters. The largest volumes (greater than 40,000 cubic meters) were estimated for basins in Santa Clara, Los Alamos, and Water Canyons, and for two

  11. Investigation of connections among physical, social and economic factors in case of optimal Land Use System Planning in the Egri-Bükkalja Foothill Area of North Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobos, Anna; Utasi, Zoltán; Tóth, Antal; Csabai Kitti, Edina; Laborczi, Annamária; Takács, Katalin; Hegyi, Balázs; Tamás Hegyi, Péter; Pásztor, László; Mika, János

    2016-04-01

    Nowadays, detailed knowledge of landscape elements and their capabilties, furthermore the probable tendency of climate change play important role in spatial planning of optimal land use system and solving agricultural and social challeges. During our research work, we have investigated three settlements (Cserépfalu, Egerszólát, Kerecsend) based on different landscape factors in the Egri-Bükkalja Fothill Areas of North Hungary. Our aim was to point out the landscape differences along north - south direction inside this microlandscape unit and their effects on land use system, economic developments, social challenges and their changeable tendency in the future We have investigated quantitative and qualitative connections among different landscape factors in suitable GIS environment. Based on the identified relationships thematic maps were compiled. The elaborated GIS integrates digitally processed legacy data, properly selected spatial data infrastructure elements and recently collected field data originating from our geomopholgical and pedological investigations carried out in last three years. We discribed soil features in soil profiles using methods according to FAO (2006) and Novák (2013). Soils were featured by soil type, the thickness of A horizon and the rate of soil erosion. Projected climate changes have also been considered for the region. Besides collection of the available recent OAGCM outputs and outputs by four RCM run in Hungary, an empirical approach has been also included. This is based on empirical regression relationship between relevant grid-point values of the CarpatClim data base and the temperature of the Northern Hemisphere. Land use maps were created based on the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th Military Survey Maps and aerial photographs covering a relatively long period from the 18th century till nowadays. Main social and economic factors and processes were characterized using data of the Hungarian Central Statistical Office, population census and

  12. Physical and Verbal Aggressive Behaviour Pattern Among School Children in Urban Area of North Karnataka: A Cross Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fawwad Shaikh

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is growing concern with student conflict, aggression, and violence in the schools, and anger is an important contributing factor which can damage school climate. Aims and Objectives: To elucidate the differentials of aggressive behaviour among high school students and to recognize the influence of age and sex on aggressive behaviour. Material and Methods: The present cross sectional study was conducted in one of the high school in urban area, which included all 347 students (199 boys and 148 girls of classes VII to X. The students were asked to answer, by recall method, a self-administered, pre tested, structured questionnaire indicating the types of aggressive behaviour by them in the previous month and to assess themselves with reference to the statements regarding physical / verbal aggression, after taking their consent. Results: Majority of the students (58.8% were from nuclear families and 26.2% students experienced aggressive behaviour in the family. Role models for aggressive behaviour were parents (42.3% and TV / Cinema actors (39.0%. Overall, 241 (69.5% children were physically aggressive in the previous month. Physical active direct and indirect aggression was significantly more common among boys than among girls. 248 (71.5% children were verbally aggressive in the previous month. Physical aggression increased substantially from VII standard (56.9% to X standard (84.6%. Conclusion: Aggressive behaviour was common among both boys and girls, with increasing trend of physical aggression from VII standard to X standard. Classroom management, counseling and life skills education strategies are recommended for channelizing the aggressive behaviour among school children.

  13. Integrated Green Roofs System and its Role of Achieving Sustainability in Residential Buildings in Urban Area in Athens, Greece and Famagusta, North Cyprus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mehran shahidipour

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the characteristics and importance of the green roof in urban area would investigate in some residential buildings in Athens, Greece and then, some strategies give to integrate green roof in residential buildings in Famagusta, north Cyprus due to the importance of energy saving and thermal comfort in residential buildings. These days, sustainable architecture is spreading around the world. Therefore, Sustainable architecture has important role in design buildings and urban design due to high amount of energy use and global warming around the world. There are different methods in sustainable design and one of them that has significant role is design green roof. Green roof integrated to the roof of the buildings to provide the suitable indoor temperature without spending high amount of budget. The methodology is qualitative type that trough the literature review and survey would be understood the importance and role of the green roof in both architecture and urban area. There are many significant architects like Wright that they understood how greenery would improve the function of the building in terms of provide thermal comfort and indoor temperature for the residences, and green roof as well. In Famagusta, there is not any green roof however, the design and integrating of green roof is inexpensive. Green roof should design properly depend on the characteristic of the climate of every place so, the location, temperature, and humidity, location, and wind have influence on the design of the green roof.

  14. [Differentiation of vegetation characteristics on slope micro-topography of fenced watershed in loess area of north Shaanxi Province, Northwest China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Zhu, Qing-Ke; Qin, Wei; Zhang, Hong-Zhi; Yun, Lei; Xie, Jing; Kuang, Gao-Ming

    2012-03-01

    Based on the investigation data of the vegetations in Hegou valley in Wuqi County of Shaanxi Province, this paper studied the vegetation characteristics on the five typical micro-topography categories including shallow gully, gully, collapse, platform, and scarp in the loess area of north Shaanxi, with the undisturbed slope as the control. There existed distinct differences in the species composition, quantitative characteristics, and species diversity of plant communities on the five typical micro-topography categories and the undisturbed slope. After twelve years of enclosure recovery, the study area formed herbaceous plant community, with Artemisia sacrorum and Artemisia giraldii as the dominant species. Among the main companion species, shrubs such as Prinsepia uniflora and Caragana korshinskii were found in scarp and gully, and hygrophyte Phragmites australis appeared in platform. The coverage, height, and biomass of the plant communities on most of the micro-topography categories, especially on the gully and collapse, were larger than those on the undisturbed slope. The Shannon index on the micro-topography categories and undisturbed slope was in the order of scarp > gully > shallow gully > undisturbed slope > platform > collapse.

  15. Soil gas radon–thoron monitoring in Dharamsala area of north-west Himalayas, India using solid state nuclear track detectors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Gulshan Kumar; Arvind Kumar; Vivek Walia; Jitender Kumar; Vikash Gupta; Tsanyao Frank Yang; Surinder Singh; Bikramjit Singh Bajwa

    2013-10-01

    The study described here is based on the measurements of soil gas radon–thoron concentrations performed at Dharamsala region of north-west (NW) Himalayas, India. The study area is tectonically and environmentally significant and shows the features of ductile shear zone due to the presence of distinct thrust planes. Solid state nuclear track detectors (LR-115 films) have been used for the soil gas radon–thoron monitoring. Twenty five radon–thoron discriminators with LR-115 films were installed in the borehole of about 50 cm in the study areas. The recorded radon concentration varies from 1593 to 13570 Bq/m3 with an average value of 5292 Bq/m3. The recorded thoron concentration varies from 223 to 2920 Bq/m3 with an average value of 901 Bq/m3. The anomalous value of radon–thoron has been observed near to the faults like main boundary thrust (MBT and MBT2) as well as neotectonic lineaments in the region.

  16. Rural population mixing and childhood leukaemia: effects of the North Sea oil industry in Scotland, including the area near Dounreay nuclear site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study was to determine if any excess of childhood leukaemia and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma was associated with certain striking examples of population mixing in rural Scotland produced by the North Sea oil industry. Details were traced for over 30 000 workers (25 yrs old) involved in the construction of the large oil terminals in the Shetland and Orkney islands in northern Scotland or employed offshore. Home addresses of the 17160 Scottish residents were postcoded, integrated with census data, and then classified as urban or rural. Rural postcode sectors, ranked by proportion of oil workers, were grouped into three categories with similar numbers of children but contrasting densities of oil workers. The incidence of leukaemia and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma was examined in these rural (and also in urban) categories in the periods 1974-8, 1979-83 and 1984-8. A significant excess of leukaemia and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma was found in 1979-83 in the group of rural home areas with the largest proportion of oil workers, following closely on large increases in the workforce. The area near the Dounreay nuclear installation, where an excess of leukaemia is already well known, was within the rural high oil category. (Author)

  17. Sexual abstinence: What is the understanding and views of secondary school learners in a semi-rural area of North West Province, South Africa?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokwena, Kebogile; Morabe, Mamaponesa

    2016-12-01

    Among strategies to prevent HIV, other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and unwanted pregnancies, are programs that promote sexual abstinence among adolescents. However, literature suggests that there may be differences in the understanding of abstinence across adolescents, and this study sought to explore the understanding of sexual abstinence among both male and female learners in a secondary school in a semi-rural area of North West Province, South Africa. Focus group discussions were used to collect data from learners who were in grades 8-10 at the time of the study. The findings are that the learners in this area understand sexual abstinence as the decision not to have sex, and this was associated with prevention of HIV, STIs and unwanted pregnancies, which ensures a better future. Barriers to sexual abstinence include peer pressure, myths and wrong perceptions about sex, influence of drugs and alcohol and the influence of television. Based on how it is delivered, school-based sex education was viewed as both an enabler and barrier to sexual abstinence. It is recommended that programs to promote sexual abstinence be strengthened and such programs be community-based. PMID:27315574

  18. Soil gas radon-thoron monitoring in Dharamsala area of north-west Himalayas, India using solid state nuclear track detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Gulshan; Kumar, Arvind; Walia, Vivek; Kumar, Jitender; Gupta, Vikash; Yang, Tsanyao Frank; Singh, Surinder; Bajwa, Bikramjit Singh

    2013-10-01

    The study described here is based on the measurements of soil gas radon-thoron concentrations performed at Dharamsala region of north-west (NW) Himalayas, India. The study area is tectonically and environmentally significant and shows the features of ductile shear zone due to the presence of distinct thrust planes. Solid state nuclear track detectors (LR-115 films) have been used for the soil gas radon-thoron monitoring. Twenty five radon-thoron discriminators with LR-115 films were installed in the borehole of about 50 cm in the study areas. The recorded radon concentration varies from 1593 to 13570 Bq/m3 with an average value of 5292 Bq/m3. The recorded thoron concentration varies from 223 to 2920 Bq/m3 with an average value of 901 Bq/m3. The anomalous value of radon-thoron has been observed near to the faults like main boundary thrust (MBT and MBT2) as well as neotectonic lineaments in the region.

  19. A short review of the distribution of short-beaked common dolphins (Delphinus delphis in the central and eastern North Atlantic with an abundance estimate for part of this area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cañadas

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses data from 3 programmes: (1 the North Atlantic Sightings Surveys (NASS surveys undertaken throughout much of the central and eastern North Atlantic north of about 40° N in 1987, 1989, 1995 and 2001; (2 the MICA-93 programme; and (3 the north eastern Atlantic segment of the Small Cetacean Abundance in the North Sea (SCANS survey in 1994. The data from all surveys were used to examine the distribution of common dolphins in the NE Atlantic. No sightings were made north of 57° N. An initial attempt to examine distribution against 4 potential non biological explanatory variables was made. A simple interpretation of the preliminary analyses presented here is that the primary areas for groups of common dolphins were in waters over 15° C and depths of 400-1,000 m (there does appear a link with shelf features, between around 49°-55° N especially between 20°-30°W. An illustrative example of spatial modelling is presented. Only for 1 year (and part of the total survey area were there sufficient data to attempt to estimate abundance: 1995. The estimated abundance in the W Block of the NASS-95 Faroese survey was 273,159 (cv=0.26; 95% CI=153,392-435,104 short-beaked common dolphins. This estimate is corrected for animals missed on the trackline (g(0 and for responsive movement.

  20. Regional Risk Assessment for the analysis of the risks related to storm surge extreme events in the coastal area of the North Adriatic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzi, Jonathan; Torresan, Silvia; Gallina, Valentina; Critto, Andrea; Marcomini, Antonio

    2013-04-01

    Europe's coast faces a variety of climate change threats from extreme high tides, storm surges and rising sea levels. In particular, it is very likely that mean sea level rise will contribute to upward trends in extreme coastal high water levels, thus posing higher risks to coastal locations currently experiencing coastal erosion and inundation processes. In 2007 the European Commission approved the Flood Directive (2007/60/EC), which has the main purpose to establish a framework for the assessment and management of flood risks for inland and coastal areas, thus reducing the adverse consequences for human health, the environment, cultural heritage and economic activities. Improvements in scientific understanding are thus needed to inform decision-making about the best strategies for mitigating and managing storm surge risks in coastal areas. The CLIMDAT project is aimed at improving the understanding of the risks related to extreme storm surge events in the coastal area of the North Adriatic Sea (Italy), considering potential climate change scenarios. The project implements a Regional Risk Assessment (RRA) methodology developed in the FP7 KULTURisk project for the assessment of physical/environmental impacts posed by flood hazards and employs the DEcision support SYstem for Coastal climate change impact assessment (DESYCO) for the application of the methodology to the case study area. The proposed RRA methodology is aimed at the identification and prioritization of targets and areas at risk from water-related natural hazards in the considered region at the meso-scale. To this aim, it integrates information about extreme storm surges with bio-geophysical and socio-economic information (e.g. vegetation cover, slope, soil type, population density) of the analyzed receptors (i.e. people, economic activities, cultural heritages, natural and semi-natural systems). Extreme storm surge hazard scenarios are defined using tide gauge time series coming from 28 tide gauge

  1. Local-area-enhanced, 2.5-meter resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of the North Bamyan mineral district in Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Philip A.; Davis, Philip A.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Defense Task Force for Business and Stability Operations, prepared databases for mineral-resource target areas in Afghanistan. The purpose of the databases is to (1) provide useful data to ground-survey crews for use in performing detailed assessments of the areas and (2) provide useful information to private investors who are considering investment in a particular area for development of its natural resources. The set of satellite-image mosaics provided in this Data Series (DS) is one such database. Although airborne digital color-infrared imagery was acquired for parts of Afghanistan in 2006, the image data have radiometric variations that preclude their use in creating a consistent image mosaic for geologic analysis. Consequently, image mosaics were created using ALOS (Advanced Land Observation Satellite; renamed Daichi) satellite images, whose radiometry has been well determined (Saunier, 2007a,b). This part of the DS consists of the locally enhanced ALOS image mosaics for the North Bamyan mineral district, which has copper deposits. ALOS was launched on January 24, 2006, and provides multispectral images from the AVNIR (Advanced Visible and Near-Infrared Radiometer) sensor in blue (420–500 nanometer, nm), green (520–600 nm), red (610–690 nm), and near-infrared (760–890 nm) wavelength bands with an 8-bit dynamic range and a 10-meter (m) ground resolution. The satellite also provides a panchromatic band image from the PRISM (Panchromatic Remote-sensing Instrument for Stereo Mapping) sensor (520–770 nm) with the same dynamic range but a 2.5-m ground resolution. The image products in this DS incorporate copyrighted data provided by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (©JAXA,2006,2007, 2008), but the image processing has altered the original pixel structure and all image values of the JAXA ALOS data, such that original image values cannot be recreated from this DS. As such

  2. Referral of epileptic patients in North East Coast of West Malaysia an area with poor MRI coverage: an analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Y; Alias, N N; Shuaib, I L; Tharakan, J; Abdullah, J; Munawir, A H; Naing, N N

    2006-11-01

    Advances in neuroimaging techniques, particularly Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), have proved invaluable in detecting structural brain lesions in patients with epilepsy in developed countries. In Malaysia, a few electroencephalography facilities available in rural district hospitals run by trained physician assistants have Internet connections to a government neurological center in Kuala Lumpur. These facilities are more commonly available than MRI machines, which require radiological expertise and helium replacement, which may problematic in Southeast Asian countries where radiologists are found in mainly big cities or towns. We conducted a cross-sectional study over a two year period begining January 2001 on rural patients, correlating EEG reports and MRI images with a clinical diagnosis of epilepsy to set guidelines for which rural patients need to be referred to a hospital with MRI facilities. The patients referred by different hospitals without neurological services were classified as having generalized, partial or unclassified seizures based on the International Classification of Epileptic Seizures proposed by the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE). The clinical parameters studied were seizure type, seizure frequency, status epilepticus and duration of seizure. EEG reports were reviewed for localized and generalized abnormalities and epileptiform changes. Statistical analysis was performed using logistic regression and area under the curve. The association between clinical and radiological abnormalities was evaluated for sensitivity and specificity. Twenty-six males and 18 females were evaluated. The mean age was 20.7 +/- 13.3 years. Nineteen (43.2%) had generalized seizures, 22 (50.0%) had partial seizures and 3 (6.8%) presented with unclassified seizures. The EEG was abnormal in 30 patients (20 with generalized abnormalities and 10 localized abnormalities). The MRI was abnormal in 17 patients (38.6%); the abnormalities observed were cerebral

  3. Winter Irrigation Effects in Cotton Fields in Arid Inland Irrigated Areas in the North of the Tarim Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengnian Yang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Winter irrigation is one of the water and salt management practices widely adopted in arid irrigated areas in the Tarim Basin located in the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region in the People’s Republic of China. A winter irrigation study was carried out from November 2013 to March 2014 in Korla City. A cotton field was divided into 18 plots with a size of 3 m × 3 m and five winter irrigation treatments (1200 m3/ha, 1800 m3/ha, 2400 m3/ha, 3000 m3/ha, and 3600 m3/ha and one non-irrigation as a control were designed. The results showed that the higher winter irrigation volumes allowed the significant short-term difference after the irrigation in the fields with the higher soil moisture content. Therefore, the soil moisture in the next sowing season could be maintained at the level which was slightly lower than field capacity and four times that in the non-irrigation treatment. The desalination effect of winter irrigation increased with the increase of water irrigation volume, but its efficiency decreased with the increase of water irrigation volume. The desalination effect was characterized by short-term desalination, long-term salt accumulation, and the time-dependent gradually decreasing trend. During the winter irrigation period, air temperature was the most important external influencing factor of the soil temperature. During the period of the decrease in winter temperatures from December to January, soil temperature in the 5-cm depth showed no significant difference in all the treatments and the control. However, during the period of rising temperatures from January to March, soil temperature in the control increased significantly, faster than that in all treatments. Under the same irrigation volume, the temperature difference between the upper soil layer and the lower soil layer increased during the temperature drop period and decreased during the temperature rise period. In this paper, we proposed the proper winter irrigation volume of 1800

  4. Phytosociological description of norite koppies in the Rustenburg area, North-West Province and refinement of the distribution of the Norite Koppies Bushveld on the national vegetation classification map of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. H. Lamprecht

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The Norite Koppies Bushveld vegetation type boasts a distinctive and contrasting topography and species composition easily distinguished from that of surrounding areas. A phytosociological study was done on the leased mining area of the Impala Platinum Mining Company north of Rustenburg in the North-West Province. Similar norite koppies, situated west of the Norite Koppies Bushveld vegetation, and not yet mapped by Mucina & Rutherford (2006, were identified in the study area and phytosociologically described. Six plant communities and two subcommunities were identified. Multivariate statistical analyses (correspondence analyses confirmed that the species composition of these areas corresponds with and does therefore form part of the Norite Koppies Bushveld vegetation type as described by Mucina & Rutherford (2006. Some of these communities contain Boscia albitrunca, a protected plant species, and should therefore be considered as areas with conservation value.

  5. A flexible system of remediation to stabilize a road affected by landslide in the area of Val di Maso (North-Eastern Italian Apls)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessari, G.; Cioli, C.; Floris, M.; Stevan, G.; Genevois, R.

    2012-04-01

    Slope stabilization follows different design procedures and approaches finalized to reduce the driving forces or increase resisting forces or avoid the problem at all by completely or partially remove unstable materials. But often the cost of stabilization works is very high. Therefore it is necessary to find new effective solutions with low or moderate costs. In this frame, this work reports the case study of a road in the area of Val di Maso, located in the North-Eastern Italian Alps. The road is threatened by the evolution of a mass movement occurred on November 2010 due to an extreme rainfall event that hit the entire North-Eastern sector of Italy. The complex landslide consists of a debris flow involving eluvial/colluvial deposits and past landslide debris. In the upper part, clear morphological evidences indicate that the instability is rapidly retrogressing by multiple rotational slides involving volcanic deposits that can be referred to a paleo-landslide. In the crown area, unstable materials have a thickness of around 20 m. For this reason, a stabilization system using rigid structures anchored to the stable bedrock for an appropriate length would be burdensome and costly. Starting from the geological model of the unstable slope, an innovative stabilization solution is proposed, a numerical simulation to analyze the effects of the stabilization is performed and an integrated monitoring system to control and verify the slope behaviour is planned. The proposed remediation works consist of a "floating belt", placed close to the edge of the road, and some "floating anchors" some meters further down behind the main scarp of the landslide. The system allows small displacements to induce a stress re-distribution favourable to the stability of the slope. The main advantages of the proposed solution are the adaptability to different geo-environmental situations and the low cost compared to other alternatives. On the basis of field data collected, a geological

  6. Geology and mineral resources of the North-Central Idaho Sagebrush Focal Area: Chapter C in Mineral resources of the Sagebrush Focal Areas of Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, Utah, and Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Karen; Zürcher, Lukas; Hofstra, Albert H.; Van Gosen, Bradley S.; Benson, Mary Ellen; Box, Stephen E.; Anderson, Eric D.; Bleiwas, Donald I.; DeAngelo, Jacob; Drake, Ronald M.; Fernette, Gregory L.; Giles, Stuart A.; Glen, Jonathan M. G.; Haacke, Jon E.; Horton, John D.; John, David A.; Robinson,, Gilpin R.; Rockwell, Barnaby W.; San Juan, Carma A.; Shaffer, Brian N.; Smith, Steven M.; Williams, Colin F.

    2016-10-04

    This report is temporarily unavailableSummaryThe U.S. Department of the Interior has proposed to withdraw approximately 10 million acres of Federal lands from mineral entry (subject to valid existing rights) from 12 million acres of lands defined as Sagebrush Focal Areas (SFAs) in Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, Utah, and Wyoming (for further discussion on the lands involved see Scientific Investigations Report 2016–5089–A). The purpose of the proposed action is to protect the greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) and its habitat from potential adverse effects of locatable mineral exploration and mining. The U.S. Geological Survey Sagebrush Mineral-Resource Assessment (SaMiRA) project was initiated in November 2015 and supported by the Bureau of Land Management to (1) assess locatable mineral-resource potential and (2) to describe leasable and salable mineral resources for the seven SFAs and Nevada additions.This chapter summarizes the current status of locatable, leasable, and salable mineral commodities and assesses the potential of locatable minerals in the North-Central Idaho SFA, which extends from east-central to south-central Idaho. The geologically complex area is composed of many different rock units that locally contain potential mineral resources.

  7. Geology and mineral resources of the North-Central Idaho Sagebrush Focal Area: Chapter C in Mineral resources of the Sagebrush Focal Areas of Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, Utah, and Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Karen; Zürcher, Lukas; Hofstra, Albert H.; Van Gosen, Bradley S.; Benson, Mary Ellen; Box, Stephen E.; Anderson, Eric D.; Bleiwas, Donald I.; DeAngelo, Jacob; Drake, Ronald M.; Fernette, Gregory L.; Giles, Stuart A.; Glen, Jonathan M. G.; Haacke, Jon E.; Horton, John D.; John, David A.; Robinson,, Gilpin R.; Rockwell, Barnaby W.; San Juan, Carma A.; Shaffer, Brian N.; Smith, Steven M.; Williams, Colin F.

    2016-10-04

    SummaryThe U.S. Department of the Interior has proposed to withdraw approximately 10 million acres of Federal lands from mineral entry (subject to valid existing rights) from 12 million acres of lands defined as Sagebrush Focal Areas (SFAs) in Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, Utah, and Wyoming (for further discussion on the lands involved see Scientific Investigations Report 2016–5089–A). The purpose of the proposed action is to protect the greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) and its habitat from potential adverse effects of locatable mineral exploration and mining. The U.S. Geological Survey Sagebrush Mineral-Resource Assessment (SaMiRA) project was initiated in November 2015 and supported by the Bureau of Land Management to (1) assess locatable mineral-resource potential and (2) to describe leasable and salable mineral resources for the seven SFAs and Nevada additions.This chapter summarizes the current status of locatable, leasable, and salable mineral commodities and assesses the potential of locatable minerals in the North-Central Idaho SFA, which extends from east-central to south-central Idaho. The geologically complex area is composed of many different rock units that locally contain potential mineral resources.

  8. Evaluation of the hydrologic system and potential effects of mining in the Dickinson lignite area, eastern slope and western Stark and Hettinger counties, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, C.A.

    1984-01-01

    Aquifer systems in the Dickinson lignite area of North Dakota are in sandstone beds in the Fox Hills Sandstone and lower Hell Creek Formation, in the upper Hell Creek Formation and lower Ludlow Member of the Fort Union Formation, in the upper Ludlow and lower Tongue River Members of the Fort Union Formation, and in the upper Tongue River and the Sentinel Butte Members of the Fort Union Formation. Well yields from each of the aquifer systems generally are less than 100 gallons per minute. Water in the Fox Hills-lower Hell Creek aquifer system and in the upper Hell Creek-lower Ludlow aquifer system is soft and a sodium bicarbonate type. Dissolved-solids concentrations range from 1 ,010 to 1,690 milligrams per liter. Water in the upper Ludlow-lower Tongue River aquifer system and in the upper Tongue River-Sentinel Butte aquifer system ranges from soft to very hard and generally is a sodium bicarbonate type. Dissolved-solids concentrations range from 574 to 2,720 milligrams per liter. Discharges of ground water are less than 0.1 cubic foot per second to the Cannonball River and less than 1.0 cubic foot per second to the Heart River. (USGS)

  9. Low resistivity oil(gas)-bearing reservoir conductive model --Dual water clay matrix conductive model in the north area of Tarim Basin, Xinjiang, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘和平; 王家映; 樊政军; 马勇; 柳建华; 李明强

    2001-01-01

    Shaly sands reservoir is one of the most distributive types of the oil(gas)-bearing reservoirs discovered in China, and low resistivity oil(gas)-bearing reservoirs are mostly shaly sands reservoirs. Therefore, shaly sands reservoir conductive model is the key to evaluate low resistivity oil(gas)-bearing reservoirs using logging information. Some defects were found when we studied the clay distribution type conductive model, dual-water conductive model, conductive rock matrix model, etc. Some models could not distinguish the conductive path and nature of microporosity water and clay water and some models did not consider the clay distribution type and the mount of clay volume. So, we utilize the merits,overcome the defects of the above models, and put forward a new shaly sands conductive model-dual water clay matrix conductive model (DWCMCM) in which dual water is the free water and the microporosity water in shaly sands and the clay matrix(wet clay) is the clay grain containing water. DWCMCM is presented here, the advantages of which can tell the nature and conductive path from different water (microporosity water and freewater), in consid-eration of the clay distribution type and the mount of clay volume in shaly sands. So, the results of logging interpretation in the oil(gas)-bearing reservoirs in the north of Tarim Basin area, China with DWCMCM are better than those interpreted by the above models.

  10. The impacts of a linear wastewater reservoir on groundwater recharge and geochemical evolution in a semi-arid area of the Lake Baiyangdian watershed, North China Plain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shiqin; Tang, Changyuan; Song, Xianfang; Wang, Qinxue; Zhang, Yinghua; Yuan, Ruiqiang

    2014-06-01

    Sewage leakage has become an important source of groundwater recharge in urban areas. Large linear wastewater ponds that lack anti-seepage measures can act as river channels that cause the deterioration of groundwater quality. This study investigated the groundwater recharge by leakage of the Tanghe Wastewater Reservoir, which is the largest industrial wastewater channel on the North China Plain. Additionally, water quality evolution was investigated using a combination of multivariate statistical methods, multi-tracers and geochemical methods. Stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen indicated high levels of wastewater evaporation. Based on the assumption that the wastewater was under an open system and fully mixed, an evaporation model was established to estimate the evaporation of the wastewater based on isotope enrichments of the Rayleigh distillation theory using the average isotope values for dry and rainy seasons. Using an average evaporation loss of 26.5% for the input wastewater, the estimated recharge fraction of wastewater leakage and irrigation was 73.5% of the total input of wastewater. The lateral regional groundwater inflow was considered to be another recharge source. Combing the two end-members mix model and cluster analysis revealed that the mixture percentage of the wastewater decreased from the Highly Affected Zone (76%) to the Transition Zone (5%). Ion exchange and redox reaction were the dominant geochemical processes when wastewater entered the aquifer. Carbonate precipitation was also a major process affecting evolution of groundwater quality along groundwater flow paths.

  11. Prevalence of Antenatal Depression and Associated Risk Factors among Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Clinics in Abeokuta North Local Government Area, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Okechukwu; Ajayi, IkeOluwapo

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The prevalence of antenatal depression (AD) and associated risk factors among pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in Abeokuta North Local Government Area, Nigeria, was determined. Methods. A descriptive cross-sectional survey was conducted, interviewing 314 pregnant women selected by multistage sampling technique from among those attending antenatal clinics. Information was collected using structured questionnaire and a screening tool, Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), to assess probable depression. Results. The prevalence of antenatal depression was 24.5%. There were significant associations between antenatal depression and attending public health facility (P = 0.000), young maternal age (P = 0.012), single marital status (P = 0.010), not having formal education (P = 0.022), large family size (P = 0.029), planned pregnancy (P = 0.014), coexisting medical conditions (P = 0.034), history of previous caesarian section (P = 0.032), drinking alcohol during pregnancy (P = 0.004), and gender based abuse (P = 0.001). On health seeking behaviour for antenatal depression among depressed pregnant women, most, 68.9%, consulted their husbands about their symptoms; 57.3% took the decision to get treatment from doctors, and 52% sought prayer in the church. Conclusion. Antenatal depression is prevalent in this study population. Interventions to address its risk factors should be carried out and physicians should suspect depression in pregnant women reporting alcohol use and gender abuse. PMID:27635258

  12. Geophysical Logs, Specific Capacity, and Water Quality of Four Wells at Rogers Mechanical (former Tate Andale) Property, North Penn Area 6 Superfund Site, Lansdale, Pennsylvania, 2006-07

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senior, Lisa A.; Bird, Philip H.

    2010-01-01

    As part of technical assistance to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) in the remediation of properties on the North Penn Area 6 Superfund Site in Lansdale, Pa., the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in 2006-07 collected data in four monitor wells at the Rogers Mechanical (former Tate Andale) property. During this period, USGS collected and analyzed borehole geophysical and video logs of three new monitor wells (Rogers 4, Rogers 5, and Rogers 6) ranging in depth from 80 to 180 feet, a borehole video log and additional heatpulse-flowmeter measurements (to quantify vertical borehole flow) in one existing 100-foot deep well (Rogers 3S), and water-level data during development of two wells (Rogers 5 and Rogers 6) to determine specific capacity. USGS also summarized results of passive-diffusion bag sampling for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the four wells. These data were intended to help understand the groundwater system and the distribution of VOC contaminants in groundwater at the property.

  13. Prevalence of Antenatal Depression and Associated Risk Factors among Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Clinics in Abeokuta North Local Government Area, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Okechukwu; Ajayi, IkeOluwapo

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The prevalence of antenatal depression (AD) and associated risk factors among pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in Abeokuta North Local Government Area, Nigeria, was determined. Methods. A descriptive cross-sectional survey was conducted, interviewing 314 pregnant women selected by multistage sampling technique from among those attending antenatal clinics. Information was collected using structured questionnaire and a screening tool, Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), to assess probable depression. Results. The prevalence of antenatal depression was 24.5%. There were significant associations between antenatal depression and attending public health facility (P = 0.000), young maternal age (P = 0.012), single marital status (P = 0.010), not having formal education (P = 0.022), large family size (P = 0.029), planned pregnancy (P = 0.014), coexisting medical conditions (P = 0.034), history of previous caesarian section (P = 0.032), drinking alcohol during pregnancy (P = 0.004), and gender based abuse (P = 0.001). On health seeking behaviour for antenatal depression among depressed pregnant women, most, 68.9%, consulted their husbands about their symptoms; 57.3% took the decision to get treatment from doctors, and 52% sought prayer in the church. Conclusion. Antenatal depression is prevalent in this study population. Interventions to address its risk factors should be carried out and physicians should suspect depression in pregnant women reporting alcohol use and gender abuse.

  14. Essential and Toxic Elements in Blood Samples of Harbor Seals (Phoca vitulina) from the Islands Helgoland (North Sea) and Anholt (Baltic Sea): A Comparison Study with Urbanized Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakuschke, Antje; Griesel, Simone

    2016-01-01

    The harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) from Helgoland (North Sea) and Anholt (Kattegat, Baltic Sea) are top predators within the marine food web and an indicator species of the environmental contamination. Furthermore, they are a main tourist attraction. Despite these important roles, little is known about the health and pollutant contamination of these seals. The objective of this study was therefore to investigate 18 essential and nonessential/toxic elements (Al, As, Be, Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mn, Mo, Ni, P, Pb, Rb, S, Se, Sr, and Zn) in blood samples using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and total X-ray-fluorescence spectrometry. Blood concentrations of mineral nutrients, such as Ca, K, P, and S, were within the reference ranges described for harbor seals. Likewise, for the trace elements, As, Be, Rb, Se, and Sr, no significant differences were observed compared with previous studies. Interestingly, blood concentrations of nine nonessential as well as essential trace metals (Al, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Zn) measured significantly lower in the offshore living seals from Helgoland and Anholt compared with results obtained from animals living close to urbanized areas, such as the Wadden Sea and Elbe estuary. This suggests that industrial emissions, sewage deposition, shipping traffic and dredging tasks might be the cause of increased metal concentrations of inshore harbor seals.

  15. Chronology and geochemistry of Mesozoic granitoids in the Bengbu area, central China: Constraints on the tectonic evolution of the eastern North China Craton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, De-Bin; Xu, Wen-Liang; Wang, Qing-Hai; Pei, Fu-Ping

    2010-01-01

    We performed zircon U-Pb dating and analyses of major and trace elements, and Sr-Nd-Pb isotopes for granitoids in the Bengbu area, central China, with the aim of constraining the magma sources and tectonic evolution of the eastern North China Craton (NCC). The analyzed zircons show typical fine-scale oscillatory zoning, indicating a magmatic origin. Zircon U-Pb dating reveals granitoids of two ages: Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous ( 206Pb/ 238U ages of 160 Ma and 130-110 Ma, respectively). The Late Jurassic rocks (Jingshan intrusion) consist of biotite-syenogranite, whereas the Early Cretaceous rocks (Huaiguang, Xilushan, Nushan, and Caoshan intrusions) are granodiorite, syenogranite, and monzogranite. The Late Jurassic biotite-syenogranites and Early Cretaceous granitoids have the following common geochemical characteristics: SiO 2 = 70.35-74.56 wt.%, K 2O/Na 2O = 0.66-1.27 (mainly Nushan and Xilushan granitoids, suggests that the primary magmas were derived from partial melting of the Yangtze Craton (YC) basement. In contrast, the occurrence of Paleoproterozoic and Paleoarchean inherited zircons within the Huaiguang granitoids indicates that their primary magmas mainly originated from partial melting of the NCC basement. The occurrence of YC basement within the lower continental crust of the eastern NCC indicates that the YC was subducted to the northwest beneath the NCC, along the Tan-Lu fault zone, during the early Mesozoic.

  16. Clinical and Environmental Surveillance for Vibrio cholerae in Resource Constrained Areas: Application During a 1-Year Surveillance in the Far North Region of Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debes, Amanda K; Ateudjieu, Jerome; Guenou, Etienne; Ebile, Walter; Sonkoua, Isaac Tadzong; Njimbia, Anthony Chebe; Steinwald, Peter; Ram, Malathi; Sack, David A

    2016-03-01

    Biological confirmation of the presence of Vibrio cholerae in clinical and environmental samples is often constrained due to resource- and labor-intensive gold standard methods. To develop low-cost, simple, and sustainable surveillance techniques, we modified previously published specimen sampling and culture techniques and applied the use of enriched dipstick testing in conjunction with the use of filter paper for DNA specimen preservation during clinical and environmental surveillance in the Far North of Cameroon from August 2013 to October 2014. The enriched dipstick methodology during routine use in a remote setting demonstrated a specificity of 99.8% compared with polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The novel application of filter paper as a preservation method for cholera DNA specimens reduced the need for cold chain storage and allowed for PCR characterization and confirmation of V. cholerae. The application of basic technologies such as the enriched dipstick, the use of simplified gauze filtration for environmental sample collection, and the use of filter paper for sample preservation enabled early case identification with reduced logistics and supply cost while reporting minimal false-positive results. Simplified laboratory and epidemiological methodologies can improve the feasibility of cholera surveillance in rural and resource-constrained areas, facilitating early case detection and rapid response implementation. PMID:26755564

  17. New Pump and Treat Facility Remedial Action Work Plan for Test Area North (TAN) Final Groundwater Remediation, Operable Unit 1-07B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. Vandel

    2003-09-01

    This remedial action work plan identifies the approach and requirements for implementing the medical zone remedial action for Test Area North, Operable Unit 1-07B, at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). This plan details management approach for the construction and operation of the New Pump and Treat Facility. As identified in the remedial design/remedial action scope of work, a separate remedial design/remedial action work plan will be prepared for each remedial component of the Operable Unit 1-07B remedial action. This work plan was originally prepared as an early implementation of the final Phase C remediation. At that time, The Phase C implementation strategy was to use this document as the overall Phase C Work Plan and was to be revised to include the remedial actions for the other remedial zones (hotspot and distal zones). After the completion of Record of Decision Amendment: Technical Support Facility Injection Well (TSF-05) and Surrounding Groundwater Contamination (TSF-23) and Miscellaneous No Action Sites, Final Remedial Action, it was determined that each remedial zone would have it own stand-alone remedial action work plan. Revision 1 of this document converts this document to a stand-alone remedial action plan specific to the implementation of the New Pump and Treat Facility used for plume remediation within the medical zone of the OU 1-07B contaminated plume.

  18. The impacts of a linear wastewater reservoir on groundwater recharge and geochemical evolution in a semi-arid area of the Lake Baiyangdian watershed, North China Plain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shiqin; Tang, Changyuan; Song, Xianfang; Wang, Qinxue; Zhang, Yinghua; Yuan, Ruiqiang

    2014-06-01

    Sewage leakage has become an important source of groundwater recharge in urban areas. Large linear wastewater ponds that lack anti-seepage measures can act as river channels that cause the deterioration of groundwater quality. This study investigated the groundwater recharge by leakage of the Tanghe Wastewater Reservoir, which is the largest industrial wastewater channel on the North China Plain. Additionally, water quality evolution was investigated using a combination of multivariate statistical methods, multi-tracers and geochemical methods. Stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen indicated high levels of wastewater evaporation. Based on the assumption that the wastewater was under an open system and fully mixed, an evaporation model was established to estimate the evaporation of the wastewater based on isotope enrichments of the Rayleigh distillation theory using the average isotope values for dry and rainy seasons. Using an average evaporation loss of 26.5% for the input wastewater, the estimated recharge fraction of wastewater leakage and irrigation was 73.5% of the total input of wastewater. The lateral regional groundwater inflow was considered to be another recharge source. Combing the two end-members mix model and cluster analysis revealed that the mixture percentage of the wastewater decreased from the Highly Affected Zone (76%) to the Transition Zone (5%). Ion exchange and redox reaction were the dominant geochemical processes when wastewater entered the aquifer. Carbonate precipitation was also a major process affecting evolution of groundwater quality along groundwater flow paths. PMID:24657581

  19. Occurrence and identification of risk areas of Ixodes ricinus-borne pathogens: a cost-effectiveness analysis in north-eastern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Capelli Gioia

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ixodes ricinus, a competent vector of several pathogens, is the tick species most frequently reported to bite humans in Europe. The majority of human cases of Lyme borreliosis (LB and tick-borne encephalitis (TBE occur in the north-eastern region of Italy. The aims of this study were to detect the occurrence of endemic and emergent pathogens in north-eastern Italy using adult tick screening, and to identify areas at risk of pathogen transmission. Based on our results, different strategies for tick collection and pathogen screening and their relative costs were evaluated and discussed. Methods From 2006 to 2008 adult ticks were collected in 31 sites and molecularly screened for the detection of pathogens previously reported in the same area (i.e., LB agents, TBE virus, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Rickettsia spp., Babesia spp., "Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis". Based on the results of this survey, three sampling strategies were evaluated a-posteriori, and the impact of each strategy on the final results and the overall cost reductions were analyzed. The strategies were as follows: tick collection throughout the year and testing of female ticks only (strategy A; collection from April to June and testing of all adult ticks (strategy B; collection from April to June and testing of female ticks only (strategy C. Results Eleven pathogens were detected in 77 out of 193 ticks collected in 14 sites. The most common microorganisms detected were Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (17.6%, Rickettsia helvetica (13.1%, and "Ca. N. mikurensis" (10.5%. Within the B. burgdorferi complex, four genotypes (i.e., B. valaisiana, B. garinii, B. afzelii, and B. burgdorferi sensu stricto were found. Less prevalent pathogens included R. monacensis (3.7%, TBE virus (2.1%, A. phagocytophilum (1.5%, Bartonella spp. (1%, and Babesia EU1 (0.5%. Co-infections by more than one pathogen were diagnosed in 22% of infected ticks. The prevalences of infection

  20. Development of an adjoint model of GRAPES-CUACE and its application in tracking influential haze source areas in north China

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Xing Qin; Xian Zhai, Shi; Jin, Min; Gong, Sunling; Wang, Yu

    2016-06-01

    The aerosol adjoint module of the atmospheric chemical modeling system GRAPES-CUACE (Global-Regional Assimilation and Prediction System coupled with the CMA Unified Atmospheric Chemistry Environment) is constructed based on the adjoint theory. This includes the development and validation of the tangent linear and the adjoint models of the three parts involved in the GRAPES-CUACE aerosol module: CAM (Canadian Aerosol Module), interface programs that connect GRAPES and CUACE, and the aerosol transport processes that are embedded in GRAPES. Meanwhile, strict mathematical validation schemes for the tangent linear and the adjoint models are implemented for all input variables. After each part of the module and the assembled tangent linear and adjoint models is verified, the adjoint model of the GRAPES-CUACE aerosol is developed and used in a black carbon (BC) receptor-source sensitivity analysis to track influential haze source areas in north China. The sensitivity of the average BC concentration over Beijing at the highest concentration time point (referred to as the Objective Function) is calculated with respect to the BC amount emitted over the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region. Four types of regions are selected based on the administrative division or the sensitivity coefficient distribution. The adjoint sensitivity results are then used to quantify the effect of reducing the emission sources at different time intervals over different regions. It is indicated that the more influential regions (with relatively larger sensitivity coefficients) do not necessarily correspond to the administrative regions. Instead, the influence per unit area of the sensitivity selected regions is greater. Therefore, controlling the most influential regions during critical time intervals based on the results of the adjoint sensitivity analysis is much more efficient than controlling administrative regions during an experimental time period.

  1. A NEGLECTED CASE OF FILARIASIS IN AN ENDEMIC AREA OF NORTH EASTERN KARNATAKA: AN APPROACH TO PREVENT MORBIDITY AND DISABILITY: A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudheendra

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Title: A Neglected Case of Filariasis in an Endemic area of North Eastern Karnataka: An Approach to Prevent Morbidity and Disability. INTRODUCTION: Lymphatic Filariasis is a vector born disease found in 73 countries throughout the tropics and subtropics of the world affecting over 120 million people causing painful , profoundly disfiguring disease with tem porary or permanent disability. CASE PRESENTATION: We report a case of Chyluria due to Lymphatic Filariasis which was neglected by the medical practitioners for past one year. A 40 - year - old male farmer visited the Primary Health Centre and BRIMS teaching hospital repeatedly during the past one year with a complaint of excretion of milky white urine with mild weight loss and physical weakness. The patient was undiagnosed for Filariasis. However , his urine examination revealed proteinuria with scanty pyuria , fat glo bules and elevated level of urinary triglyceride. Urine culture was found to be sterile. On physical examination of the patient , there was no visible swelling over the body. No enlarged lymph nodes were seen except non - tender minimal scrotal swelling. Radi ological examination of chest and pelvis had shown no calcification of lymph nodes. Overall , no abnormal findings were observed. Diagnosis revealed presence of microfilaria in peripheral blood smear after Diethylcarbamazine (DEC provocation test. The pati ent was prescribed the 12 days treatment regimen of DEC with Albendazole and asked to visit again for follow up. CONCLUSIONS: As this area is endemic for Filariasis in Karnataka state , it is a warning sign for the medical practitioners not to ignore patien ts presenting with Chyluria and to mandatorily investigate the presence of microfilaria even after mass drug administration. In this case the microbiological investigations helped prevent the patient from morbidity and disability due to Filariasis in futur e.

  2. A population-based audit of ethnicity and breast cancer risk in one general practice catchment area in North London, UK: implications for practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferris Michelle

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives To conduct a pilot population-based study within a general practice catchment area to determine whether the incidence of breast cancer was increased in the Ashkenazi population. Design Population-based cohort study. Setting A single general practice catchment area in North London. Participants 1947 women over the age of 16 who responded to a questionnaire about ethnicity and breast cancer. Main outcome measures Incidence of breast cancer, ethnicity. Results This study showed a 1.5-fold (95% CI 0.93–2.39 increase in breast cancer risk in the Ashkenazim compared with the non-Ashkenazi white population. The increased incidence was for both premenopausal and postmenopausal breast cancer (expected incidence pre:post is 1:4 whereas in the Ashkenazim it was 1:1; 51 and 52% of cases respectively. This increase was not shown in the Sephardim. Asians had a reduction in incidence (OR = 0.44; 95% CI 0.10–1.89. Results were adjusted for other risk factors for breast cancer. Conclusion This study showed a 1.5-fold increase in breast cancer rates in Ashkenazim compared with the non-Jewish white population when adjusted for age (i.e. corrections were made to allow comparison of age groups and this is not observed in the Sephardic population. The proportion of premenopausal breast cancer was just over double that of the general population. This is the first general practice population-based study in the UK to address this issue and has implications for general practitioners who care for patients from the Ashkenazi community.

  3. Timing of the deposition of uppermost Cretaceous and Paleocene coal-bearing deposits in the Greater Glendive area, Montana and North Dakota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    With the aid of a grant from the National Geographic Society, a cooperative agreement with the State University of New York at Stony Brook, and contract with the U.S. Department of Energy, Late Cretaceous and Paleocene geologic and paleontologic field studies were undertaken in Makoshika, State Park and vicinity, Dawson County, Montana. This region was chosen as a study area because of its potential for yielding new fossil localities and extensive exposures both above and below the K/T boundary, as suggested by previous research by David W. Krause and Joseph H. Hartman. Related field studies were also undertaken in areas adjacent to the Cedar Creek Anticline in North Dakota. This work was part of ongoing research to document change in the composition of mammalian and molluscan faunas during the Late Cretaceous and Paleocene and to relate observed patterns to floral and invertebrate changes in composition. This study focuses on the record of mammals and mollusks in the Makoshika stratigraphic section and places old and new observations into a paleomagnetic and palynomorph framework. Of particular interest is the appearance and diversification of archaic ungulate mammals. Simultaneous dinosaur extinction with ungulate radiation has been invoked in gradual, as opposed to catastrophic, models of faunal change at the K/T boundary. However, supposed Cretaceous localities bearing archaic ungulates and other mammals of {open_quotes}Paleocene aspect{close_quotes} may be the product of faunal reworking. Elsewhere in the Williston Basin (e.g., Garfield and McCone Counties, Montana), the molluscan record of uppermost Cretaceous and Paleocene strata indicates the extinction of all of the highly sculptured unionid bivalves just prior to the onset of coal swamps and subsequent coal formation.

  4. Ecology of sand flies in a low-density residential rural area, with mixed forest/agricultural exploitation, in north-eastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Débora Elienai de Oliveira; Sales, Kamila Gaudêncio da Silva; Faustino, Maria Aparecida da Gloria; Alves, Leucio Câmara; Brandão-Filho, Sinval Pinto; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; de Carvalho, Gílcia Aparecida

    2015-06-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania braziliensis is endemic in Brazil, where Lutzomyia whitmani is the most important vector involved in the transmission to humans, particularly in the peridomestic environment. Herein, we assessed the ecology of sand flies, including Lu. whitmani, in a low-density residential rural area with mixed forest/agricultural exploitation in north-eastern Brazil, where cutaneous leishmaniasis is endemic. Particularly, we hypothesized that sand fly abundance was correlated with climatic variables. Sand fly collections were carried out monthly from August 2013 to August 2014, using seven CDC light traps, for three consecutive nights, in three kinds of environments: indoor, peridomicile and forest. Collected sand flies were identified based on morphology and females of Lu. whitmani (n=169), Lu. amazonensis (n=134) and Lu. complexa (n=21) were selected and tested by PCR for Leishmania (Viannia) spp. In total, 5167 sand flies belonging to 19 species were identified, being that Lu. choti (43.2%) was the most frequent species, followed by Lu. amazonensis (16.6%), Lu. whitmani (15.8%), Lu. sordellii (10.7%) and Lu. quinquefer (5.8%), which together represented over 90% of the collected sand flies. All females tested by PCR were negative. The number of sand flies collected daily was positively correlated with temperature and negatively correlated with rainfall and relative humidity. Furthermore, there was a positive correlation between daily number of sand flies and daily average saturation deficit. This study points out that the number of sand flies captured daily is correlated to climatic variables, including saturation deficit, which may represent a useful parameter for monitoring sand fly populations in leishmaniasis-endemic areas.

  5. Distinct microbial populations are tightly linked to the profile of dissolved iron in the methanic sediments of the Helgoland mud area, North Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluwatobi Emmanuel Oni

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Iron reduction in subseafloor sulfate-depleted and methane-rich marine sediments is currently a subject of interest in subsurface geomicrobiology. While iron reduction and microorganisms involved have been well studied in marine surface sediments, little is known about microorganisms responsible for iron reduction in deep methanic sediments. Here, we used quantitative PCR (Q-PCR-based 16S rRNA gene copy numbers and pyrosequencing-based relative abundances of bacteria and archaea to investigate covariance between distinct microbial populations and specific geochemical profiles in the top 5 m of sediment cores from the Helgoland mud area, North Sea. We found that gene copy numbers of bacteria and archaea were specifically higher around the peak of dissolved iron in the methanic zone (250-350 cm. The higher copy numbers at these depths were also reflected by the relative sequence abundances of members of the candidate division JS1, methanogenic and Methanohalobium/ANME-3 related archaea. The distribution of these populations was strongly correlated to the profile of pore-water Fe2+ while that of Desulfobacteraceae corresponded to the pore-water sulfate profile. Furthermore, specific JS1 populations also strongly co-varied with the distribution of Methanosaetaceae in the methanic zone. Our data suggest that the interplay among JS1 bacteria, methanogenic archaea and Methanohalobium/ANME-3-related archaea may be important for iron reduction and methane cycling in deep methanic sediments of the Helgoland mud area and perhaps in other methane-rich depositional environments.

  6. Spatio-temporal distribution of phytoplankton in the Danjiangkou Reservoir, a water source area for the South-to-North Water Diversion Project (Middle Route), China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN Dacong; ZHENG Lingling; SONG Lirong

    2011-01-01

    One of the water source areas of the South-to-North Water Diversion Project is the Danjiangkou Reservoir (DJKR). To understand seasonal variation in phytoplankton composition, abundance and distribution in the DJKR area before water diversion, as well as to estimate potential risks of water quality after water diversion, we conducted an investigation on phytoplankton in the DJKR from August 2008 to May 2009. The investigation included 10 sampling sites, each with four depths of 0.5, 5, 10, and 20 m. In this study, 117 taxa belonging to 76 genera were identified, consisting of diatoms (39 taxa), green algae (47 taxa), blue-green algae (19 taxa), and others (12 taxa). Annual average phytoplankton abundance was 2.01xl06 ind./L, and the highest value was 14.72 x 106 ind/L (at site 3 in August 2008). Phytoplankton abundance in front of the Danjiangkou Dam (DJKD) was higher than that of the Danjiang Reservoir Basin. Phytoplankton distribution showed a vertical declining trend from 0.5 m to 20 m at most sites in August 2008 (especially at sites of 1, 2, 4 and 10), but no distinct pattern in other sampling months. In December 2008 and March 2009, Stephanodiscus sp. was the most abundant species, amounting to 55.23% and 72.34%, respectively. We propose that high abundance of Stephanodiscus sp. may have contributed greatly to the frequent occurrence of Stephanodiscus sp. blooms in middle-low reaches of the Hanjiang River during the early spring of 2009. In comparison with previous studies conducted from 1992 to 2006, annual average phytoplankton density, green algae and blue-green algae species, as well as major nutrient concentrations increased, while phytoplankton diversity indices declined. This indicates a gradual decline in water quality. More research should be conducted and countermeasures taken to prevent further deterioration of water quality in the DJKR.

  7. 'Save the North Sea' Fulmar Study 2002-2004: a regional pilot project for the Fulmar-Litter-EcoQO in the OSPAR area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franeker, van J.A.; Heubeck, M.; Fairclough, K.; Turner, D.M.; Grantham, M.; Stienen, E.W.M.; Guse, N.; Pedersen, J.; Olsen, K.O.; Andersson, P.J.; Olsen, B.

    2005-01-01

    North Sea Ministers at the Bergen Conference in 2002 decided that monitoring of marine plastic litter in stomachs of seabirds should become one of the 'Ecological Quality Objectives for the North Sea (EcoQO's)'. The task of implementation was delegated to OSPAR, which covers the wider northeast Atla

  8. Sustainable Development in the Core Water Resource Area of the Central Route of the South-to-North Water Transfer Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    With continued population growth and accelerated industrialization and urbanization, water shortages and water quality deterioration have become a bottleneck restraining global socioeconomic progress. In China, water resources are unevenly distributed, with abundance in the south and scarcity in the north. Every year, a loss of nearly 100 billion yuan is incurred by water shortages in the north.

  9. The impact of the lithospheric flexure during the Elsterian glacial maximum on post-/proglacial systems in the southern North Sea area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moreau, Julien; Le Pourhiet, Laetitia; Huuse, Mads;

    Tunnel valleys have long fascinated the geoscientists by their scale and the consequent intensity of the sedimentary processes necessary to their formation. The filling of tunnel valleys in the southern and eastern North Sea is mainly made of clinoforms prograding north. A new sedimentological mo...

  10. Structural evolution and Cenozoic tectonostratigraphy of the Cairo-Suez district, north Eastern Desert of Egypt: Field-structural data from Gebel Qattamiya-Gebel Um Reheiat area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagag, Wael

    2016-06-01

    Detailed field mapping reveals that continental rifting is strongly deforming the Gebel Qattamiya-Gebel Um Reheiat area and the entire Cairo-Suez district, in north Eastern Desert of Egypt. Rift-related structures are predominantly represented by E to WNW, NNW and NW oriented faults. The E to WNW oriented faults are small and build up the Gebel Qattamiya en echelon fault belt, whereas the faults trending NNW and NW establish a pervasive horst and graben structural style involving some rhomb-shape horsts as Gebel Qattamiya (GQRH), Gebel Um Reheiat (GURRH) and south Gebel Um Reheiat (SGURRH). Rock units of the Eocene succession and Oligocene sediments are well exposed and highly controlled by rift-related structures. Rifting was developed through two rift-phases; initial and major ones. The initial phase (a newly recognized phase in this contribution) has been occurred in Late Eocene (Priabonian), while the main phase was prevailing during Late Oligocene-Early Miocene time and is characterized by hydrothermal veins and basaltic eruptions. Continental transtension in the Cairo-Suez district, including the study area, was probably synchronous with a major tectonic stage (Pyrenean-Atlasic movement) of continental collision between African-Arabian and Eurasian plates in Late Eocene-Oligocene time. Field investigation suggests that the transfer of displacement (slip) from the Gulf of Suez proto-rift into the E-W oriented faults ''relays'' is an important mechanism, which helps to explain the current structural framework and tectonic evolution of the Cairo-Suez district. Reactivation of such faults with right-lateral divergent wrenching with NE-SW oriented extension deformed the Cairo-Suez district with several E-W oriented en echelon fault belts (e.g. Gebel Qattamiya fault belt in the study area). Thus the Cairo-Suez district represents an accommodation or transfer zone in northeastern Egypt, intercepting the ''far-field stresses'' from the Arabian-Nubian Shield, the Red

  11. Monitoring of the ground surface temperature and the active layer in NorthEastern Canadian permafrost areas using remote sensing data assimilated in a climate land surface scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchand, N.; Royer, A.; Krinner, G.; Roy, A.

    2014-12-01

    Projected future warming is particularly strong in the Northern high latitudes where increases of temperatures are up to 2 to 6 °C. Permafrost is present on 25 % of the northern hemisphere lands and contain high quantities of « frozen » carbon, estimated at 1400 Gt (40 % of the global terrestrial carbon). The aim of this study is to improve our understanding of the climate evolution in arctic areas, and more specifically of land areas covered by snow. The objective is to describe the ground temperature year round including under snow cover, and to analyse the active layer thickness evolution in relation to the climate variability. We use satellite data (fusion of MODIS land surface temperature « LST » and microwave AMSR-E brightness temperature « Tb ») assimilated in the Canadian Land Surface Scheme (CLASS) of the Canadian climate model coupled with a simple radiative transfer model (HUT). This approach benefits from the advantages of each of the data type in order to complete two objectives : 1- build a solid methodology for retrieving the ground temperature, with and without snow cover, in taïga and tundra areas ; 2 - from those retrieved ground temperatures, derive the summer melt duration and the active layer depth. We describe the coupling of the models and the methodology that adjusts the meteorological input parameters of the CLASS model (mainly air temperature and precipitations derived from the NARR database) in order to minimise the simulated LST and Tb ouputs in comparison with satellite measurements. Using ground-based meteorological data as validation references in NorthEastern Canadian tundra, the results show that the proposed approach improves the soil temperatures estimates when using the MODIS LST and Tb at 10 and 19 GHz to constrain the model in comparison with the model outputs without satellite data. Error analysis is discussed for the summer period (2.5 - 4 K) and for the snow covered winter period (2 - 3.5 K). Further steps are

  12. The impacts of a linear wastewater reservoir on groundwater recharge and geochemical evolution in a semi-arid area of the Lake Baiyangdian watershed, North China Plain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sewage leakage has become an important source of groundwater recharge in urban areas. Large linear wastewater ponds that lack anti-seepage measures can act as river channels that cause the deterioration of groundwater quality. This study investigated the groundwater recharge by leakage of the Tanghe Wastewater Reservoir, which is the largest industrial wastewater channel on the North China Plain. Additionally, water quality evolution was investigated using a combination of multivariate statistical methods, multi-tracers and geochemical methods. Stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen indicated high levels of wastewater evaporation. Based on the assumption that the wastewater was under an open system and fully mixed, an evaporation model was established to estimate the evaporation of the wastewater based on isotope enrichments of the Rayleigh distillation theory using the average isotope values for dry and rainy seasons. Using an average evaporation loss of 26.5% for the input wastewater, the estimated recharge fraction of wastewater leakage and irrigation was 73.5% of the total input of wastewater. The lateral regional groundwater inflow was considered to be another recharge source. Combing the two end-members mix model and cluster analysis revealed that the mixture percentage of the wastewater decreased from the Highly Affected Zone (76%) to the Transition Zone (5%). Ion exchange and redox reaction were the dominant geochemical processes when wastewater entered the aquifer. Carbonate precipitation was also a major process affecting evolution of groundwater quality along groundwater flow paths. - Highlights: • An unlined wastewater reservoir caused the deterioration of groundwater quality. • An evaporation fraction was estimated by Rayleigh distillation theory of isotopes. • 73.5% of wastewater recharge to groundwater by leakage and irrigation infiltration. • The region influenced by wastewater was divided into four subzones. • Mixing, ion exchange, and

  13. The impacts of a linear wastewater reservoir on groundwater recharge and geochemical evolution in a semi-arid area of the Lake Baiyangdian watershed, North China Plain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Shiqin [Faculty of Horticulture, Chiba University, Matsudo-City 271-8510 (Japan); Tang, Changyuan, E-mail: cytang@faculty.chiba-u.jp [Faculty of Horticulture, Chiba University, Matsudo-City 271-8510 (Japan); Song, Xianfang [Key Laboratory of Water Cycle and Related Land Surface Processes, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); Wang, Qinxue [National Institute for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba 305-8506 (Japan); Zhang, Yinghua [Key Laboratory of Water Cycle and Related Land Surface Processes, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); Yuan, Ruiqiang [College of Environment and Resources, Shanxi University (China)

    2014-06-01

    Sewage leakage has become an important source of groundwater recharge in urban areas. Large linear wastewater ponds that lack anti-seepage measures can act as river channels that cause the deterioration of groundwater quality. This study investigated the groundwater recharge by leakage of the Tanghe Wastewater Reservoir, which is the largest industrial wastewater channel on the North China Plain. Additionally, water quality evolution was investigated using a combination of multivariate statistical methods, multi-tracers and geochemical methods. Stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen indicated high levels of wastewater evaporation. Based on the assumption that the wastewater was under an open system and fully mixed, an evaporation model was established to estimate the evaporation of the wastewater based on isotope enrichments of the Rayleigh distillation theory using the average isotope values for dry and rainy seasons. Using an average evaporation loss of 26.5% for the input wastewater, the estimated recharge fraction of wastewater leakage and irrigation was 73.5% of the total input of wastewater. The lateral regional groundwater inflow was considered to be another recharge source. Combing the two end-members mix model and cluster analysis revealed that the mixture percentage of the wastewater decreased from the Highly Affected Zone (76%) to the Transition Zone (5%). Ion exchange and redox reaction were the dominant geochemical processes when wastewater entered the aquifer. Carbonate precipitation was also a major process affecting evolution of groundwater quality along groundwater flow paths. - Highlights: • An unlined wastewater reservoir caused the deterioration of groundwater quality. • An evaporation fraction was estimated by Rayleigh distillation theory of isotopes. • 73.5% of wastewater recharge to groundwater by leakage and irrigation infiltration. • The region influenced by wastewater was divided into four subzones. • Mixing, ion exchange, and

  14. Mapping the hydraulic connection between a coalbed and adjacent aquifer: example of the coal-seam gas resource area, north Galilee Basin, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhenjiao; Mariethoz, Gregoire; Schrank, Christoph; Cox, Malcolm; Timms, Wendy

    2016-07-01

    Coal-seam gas production requires groundwater extraction from coal-bearing formations to reduce the hydraulic pressure and improve gas recovery. In layered sedimentary basins, the coalbeds are often separated from freshwater aquifers by low-permeability aquitards. However, hydraulic connection between the coalbed and aquifers is possible due to the heterogeneity in the aquitard such as the existence of conductive faults or sandy channel deposits. For coal-seam gas extraction operations, it is desirable to identify areas in a basin where the probability of hydraulic connection between the coalbed and aquifers is low in order to avoid unnecessary loss of groundwater from aquifers and gas production problems. A connection indicator, the groundwater age indictor (GAI), is proposed, to quantify the degree of hydraulic connection. The spatial distribution of GAI can indicate the optimum positions for gas/water extraction in the coalbed. Depressurizing the coalbed at locations with a low GAI would result in little or no interaction with the aquifer when compared to the other positions. The concept of GAI is validated on synthetic cases and is then applied to the north Galilee Basin, Australia, to assess the degree of hydraulic connection between the Aramac Coal Measure and the water-bearing formations in the Great Artesian Basin, which are separated by an aquitard, the Betts Creek Beds. It is found that the GAI is higher in the western part of the basin, indicating a higher risk to depressurization of the coalbed in this region due to the strong hydraulic connection between the coalbed and the overlying aquifer.

  15. Morphostructural characterization of the Charco basin and its surrounding areas in the Chihuahua segment of north Mexican Basin and Range Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troiani, Francesco; Menichetti, Marco

    2014-05-01

    The Chihuahua Basin and Range (CBR) is the eastern branch of the northern Mexican Basin and Range Province that, from a morphostructural point of view, presently is one amongst the lesser-known zones of the southern portion of the North America Basin and Range Province. The study area covers an approximately 800 km2-wide portion of the CBR and encompasses the fault-bounded Charco basin and its surrounding areas. The bedrock of the area pertains to the large siliceous-igneous province of the Sierra Madre Occidental and consists of volcanoclastic rocks including Oligocene dacite, rhyolite, rhyolitic tuffs, and polimitic conglomerates. The region is characterized by a series of NW-SE oriented valleys delimited by tilted monoclinal blocks bounded by high angle, SW-dipping, normal faults. Abrupt changes in elevation, alternating between narrow faulted mountain chains and flat arid valleys or basins are the main morphological elements of the area. The valleys correspond to structural grabens filled with Plio-Pleistocene continental sediments. These grabens are about 10 km wide, while the extensional fault system extend over a distance of more than 15 km. The mountain ranges are in most cases continuous over distances that range from 10 to 70 km including different branches of the extensional and transfer faults. The morphogenesis is mainly erosive in character: erosional landforms (such as rocky scarps, ridges, strath-terraces, erosional pediment, reverse slopes, landslide scar zones, litho-structural flat surfaces) dominate the landscape. In contrast, Quaternary depositional landforms are mainly concentrated within the flat valleys or basins. The Quaternary deposits consist of wide alluvial fans extending to the foot of the main ridges, fluvial and debris-slope deposits. The morphostructural characterization of the area integrated different methodologies, including: i) geomorphological and structural field analyses; ii) remote sensing and geo-morphometric investigations

  16. Digital map of the configuration of the base of the principal aquifer in the Elkhorn-Loup Model area, north-central Nebraska

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Lewis and Clark Natural Resources District (NRD), Lower Elkhorn NRD, Lower Loup NRD, Lower Platte North...

  17. Terrestrial Riparian Arthropod Investigations In the Big Beaver Creek Research Natural Area, North Cascades National Park Service Complex,1995-1996: Part III, Arachnida:Araneae

    Data.gov (United States)

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory — Ground-dwelling spider communities of nine distinct habitat types were sampled within the riparian corridor of lower Big Beaver Creek, North Cascades National Park...

  18. Integration of spatial and temporal data for the definition of different landslide hazard scenarios in the area north of Lisbon (Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Zêzere

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A general methodology for the probabilistic evaluation of landslide hazard is applied, taking in account both the landslide susceptibility and the instability triggering factors, mainly rainfall. The method is applied in the Fanhões-Trancão test site (north of Lisbon, Portugal where 100 shallow translational slides were mapped and integrated into a GIS database. For the landslide susceptibility assessment it is assumed that future landslides can be predicted by statistical relationships between past landslides and the spatial data set of the predisposing factors (slope angle, slope aspect, transversal slope profile, lithology, superficial deposits, geomorphology, and land use. Susceptibility is evaluated using algorithms based on statistical/probabilistic analysis (Bayesian model over unique-condition terrain units in a raster basis. The landslide susceptibility map is prepared by sorting all pixels according to the pixel susceptibility value in descending order. In order to validate the results of the susceptibility ana- lysis, the landslide data set is divided in two parts, using a temporal criterion. The first subset is used for obtaining a prediction image and the second subset is compared with the prediction results for validation. The obtained prediction-rate curve is used for the quantitative interpretation of the initial susceptibility map. Landslides in the study area are triggered by rainfall. The integration of triggering information in hazard assessment includes (i the definition of thresholds of rainfall (quantity-duration responsible for past landslide events; (ii the calculation of the relevant return periods; (iii the assumption that the same rainfall patterns (quantity/duration which produced slope instability in the past will produce the same effects in the future (i.e. same types of landslides and same total affected area. The landslide hazard is present as the probability of each pixel to be affected by a slope movement

  19. The Variations and Trends of MODIS C5 & C6 Products’ Errors in the Recent Decade over the Background and Urban Areas of North China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Zhang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available With ten-year (2004–2013 ground-based observations of Beijing Forest (BJF and Beijing City (BJC sites in North China, we validated the high-quality MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS Collection 5 (C5 and Collection 6 (C6 Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD products’ precision and discussed the sensors degradation issues. The annual mean AOD and Angstrom exponent (α were 0.20 ± 0.02 and 0.83 ± 0.15 in the background over the past ten years, and they were 0.59 ± 0.07 and 1.13 ± 0.08 in the urban, respectively. Ground-based AOD had both slightly declining trends, with variations of 0.023 and 0.057 over the past decade in the background and urban, respectively. There were large differences among the eight kinds of MODIS AOD products (Terra vs. Aqua, C5 vs. C6, DT (Deep Target vs. DB (Deep Blue, and DTDB in the background and urban areas, but all the products’ monthly errors had larger variations in the spring and summer, and smaller ones in the autumn and winter. In the background, more than 62% of DT matchups for C5 and C6 products were within NASA’s expected error (EE envelope. In the urban, 69%~72% of C6 DB retrievals were falling within EE envelope. The new dataset named C6 DTDB had better performance in the background, whereas it overestimated by 37%~41% in the urban caused by surface reflectivity estimation error. The range of monthly average error varied from −0.21 to 0.28 in the background and from −0.63 to 0.48 in the urban. From the background to the urban areas, the retrieval errors of Terra and Aqua had slightly increased by 0.0023~0.0158 and 0.0011~0.0124 per year, respectively, which implied that the two MODIS instruments had degraded slowly.

  20. Digitial map of geologic units forming the base of the principal aquifer and areas where the base of aquifer is not well defined, Elkhorn-Loup Model area, north-central Nebraska

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Lewis and Clark Natural Resources District (NRD), Lower Elkhorn NRD, Lower Loup NRD, Lower Platte North...

  1. Application of Clinopyroxene Chemistry to Interpret the Physical Conditions of Ascending Magma, a Case Study of Eocene Volcanic Rocks in the Ghohrud Area (North of Isfahan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Sayari

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Volcanic rocks with a porphyritic texture have experienced two crystallization stages. The first is slow, resulting in phenocrysts, and the second, which took place at, or near the surface, or during intrusion into a cooler body of rock, result in a groundmass of glass, or fine crystals. The pressure and temperature history of a magma during crystallization is recorded in the chemical composition of the phenocrysts during both stages. These phenocrysts provide valuable data about the physicochemical conditions of the parent magma during the process of crystallization. The composition of clinopyroxene (cpx reflects not only the chemical condition and therefore the magmatic series, but also the physical conditions, i.e., temperature and pressure of a magma at the time when clinopyroxene crystallized. The Ghohrud area lies in the middle part of the Urumieh-Dokhtar Magmatic Arc , which is part of a much larger magmatic province extending in a vast region of convergence between Arabia and Eurasia north of the Zagros-Bitlis suture zone (Dilek et al., 2010. In the Ghohrud area, north of Isfahan, exposed Eocene volcanic rocks belong to the first pulse of Cenozoic volcanism of Iran (Sayari, 2015, ranging in composition from andesitic basalt to basalt. The basaltic rocks of the Ghohrud area are composed mainly of plagioclase phenocrysts surrounded by smaller crystals of clinopyroxene in a groundmass of microlites, glass and opaques. In this study, the clinopyroxene and plagioclase of these rocks were analyzed in order to estimate the physicochemical conditions of the parent magmas. Results Clinopyroxene and plagioclase phenocrysts of nineteen samples were analyzed with the electron microprobe. The chemical compositions of the clinopyroxenes were used to estimate both the chemical evolution and temperature and pressure conditions of the magmas during crystallization, using SCG, a specialized software for clinopyroxene thermobarometry (Sayari

  2. Laboratory Evaluation of In Situ Chemical Oxidation for Groundwater Remediation, Test Area North, Operable Unit 1-07B, Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Volume Three - Appendix F

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cline, S.R.; Denton, D.L.; Giaquinto, J.M.; McCracken, M.K.; Starr, R.C.

    1999-04-01

    This appendix supports the results and discussion of the laboratory work performed to evaluate the feasibility of in situ chemical oxidation for Idaho National Environmental and Engineering Laboratory's (INEEL) Test Area North (TAN) which is contained in ORNL/TM-13711/V1. This volume contains Appendix F. Appendix F is essentially a photocopy of the ORNL researchers' laboratory notebooks from the Environmental Sciences Division (ESD) and the Radioactive Materials Analytical Laboratory (RMAL).

  3. Sustainable Development in the Core Water Resource Area of the Central Route of the South-to-North Water Transfer Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    @@ With continued population growth and accelerated industrialization and urbanization, water shortages and water quality deterioration have become a bottleneck restraining global socioeconomic progress.In China, water resources are unevenly distributed, with abundance in the south and scarcity in the north.Every year, a loss of nearly 100 billion yuan is incurred by water shortages in the north.The Middle Route of the South-to-North Water Transfer Project is a key measure to optimize the spatial allocation of water resources in China.However, while giving opportunities for sound socioeconomic progress to the key headwaters region of the project, the move also poses new challenges to the region in terms of economic development, ecological balance, water quality monitoring and water quantity guarantee.

  4. On the Origin of One Basin-Multiple Mountain Couplings in the Mesozoic-Cenozoic Basin-Range Area in Eastern North China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NIU Shuyin; SHAO Ji'an; HOU Quanlin; WANG Baode; XU Chuanshi

    2004-01-01

    The basin-range coupling relation is a leading subject of the modern geology. In geometry, relations of this type include couplings between stretched orogenic belt and down-faulted basin, compressional orogenic belt and foreland basin, strike-slip orogenic belt and strike-slip basin and so on. Fault chains are the key for these couplings and there are typical examples for all these cases. The North China down-faulted basin is coupled west with the Tathang uplift, east with the Jiao-Liao Mountains, north with the Yanshan orogenic belt and south with the Dabie orogenic belt,that is to say, the central down-faulted basin and the surrounding orogenic belts bear a coupling relation within a uniform dynamistic system. Study shows that the central down-faulted basin and the North China mantle sub-plume structure have a close relation during their formation. Owing to intensive mantle sub-plume uplifting, the bottom of the lithosphere suffered from resistance, which caused the lithosphere of the eastern North China to be heated, thinned and fault-depressed. Meanwhile, mantle rocks that were detached outwards in the shape of mushroom was dissected by surrounding ductile shearing zones, which lead to decompression and unloading to generate hypomagmas, and a series of mantle-branch structures were formed around the down-faulted basin. There is an obvious comparability among these mantle branch structures (orogenic belts), and they have basin-range coupling relations with the central down-faulted basins.

  5. Conversion of the compensation measures for the utilization of a FFH area of the brown coal open mining Cottbus North; Umsetzung der Kompensationsmassnahmen fuer die Inanspruchnahme eines FFH-Gebietes durch den Braunkohletagebau Cottbus-Nord

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerstgraser, Christoph [gerstgraser - Ingenieurbuero fuer Renaturierung, Cottbus (Germany); Arnold, Ingolf; Dingethal, Heidemarie [Vattenfall Europe Mining AG, Cottbus (Germany)

    2008-08-15

    Since the year 1981, the open mining Cottbus-North (Brandenburg, Federal Republic of Germany) produces brown coal. Presently, 5 million tons of brown coal are produced. This brown coal is used in the power generation at the coal-fired power station Jaenschwalde. Within this area of mining there is the pond's group Lakoma. This pond's group consisted of 22 ponds with a total area of 69 ha. These ponds served for breeding of fishes and accommodated protected animal species. In December 2003, the pond's group Lakoma was suggested as a FFH area by the country Brandenburg. With the planning approval procedure for waters, a FFH area was completely eliminated in the approach of an open mining. A licensing procedure came to the result that a removal of these ponds was permissible with consideration of the public interest, if a reconciliation for the plants and animals is carried out. These compensation measures were realized within short time. Thus the open mining Cottbus-North could be continued according to plan.

  6. Factors influencing the large-scale distribution of Hg° in the Mexico City area and over the North Pacific

    OpenAIRE

    Talbot, R.; H. Mao; E. Scheuer; J. Dibb; Avery, M.; Browell, E.; Sachse, G.; S. Vay; D. Blake; Huey, G.; H. Fuelberg

    2008-01-01

    Gas-phase elemental mercury (Hg°) was measured aboard the NASA DC-8 aircraft during the Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment Phase B (INTEX-B) campaign in spring 2006. Flights were conducted around Mexico City and on two subsequent deployments over the North Pacific based out of Honolulu, Hawaii and Anchorage, Alaska. Data obtained from 0.15–12 km altitude showed that Hg° exhibited a relatively constant vertical profile centered around 100 ppqv. Highl...

  7. Factors influencing the large-scale distribution of Hg° in the Mexico City area and over the North Pacific

    OpenAIRE

    D. Blake; S. Vay; Sachse, G.; Browell, E.; Avery, M.; J. Dibb; E. Scheuer; H. Mao; Talbot, R.; Huey, G.; H. Fuelberg

    2007-01-01

    Gas-phase elemental mercury (Hg°) was measured aboard the NASA DC-8 aircraft during the Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment Phase B (INTEX-B) campaign in spring 2006. Flights were conducted around Mexico City and on two subsequent deployments over the North Pacific based out of Honolulu, Hawaii and Anchorage, Alaska. Data obtained from 0.15–12 km altitude showed that Hg° exhibited a relatively constant vertical profile centered around 100 ppqv. Highly concentrated pol...

  8. Factors influencing the large-scale distribution of Hg° in the Mexico City area and over the North Pacific

    OpenAIRE

    Talbot, R.; H. Mao; E. Scheuer; J. Dibb; Avery, M.; Browell, E.; Sachse, G.; S. Vay; D. Blake; Huey, G.; H. Fuelberg

    2008-01-01

    International audience Gas-phase elemental mercury (Hg°) was measured aboard the NASA DC-8 aircraft during the Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment Phase B (INTEX-B) campaign in spring 2006. Flights were conducted around Mexico City and on two subsequent deployments over the North Pacific based out of Honolulu, Hawaii and Anchorage, Alaska. Data obtained from 0.15?12 km altitude showed that Hg° exhibited a relatively constant vertical profile centered around 100 ppqv. Highly conc...

  9. An evaluation of the management of the selection process for educators at primary schools in the North West Area : theoretical and practical implications / A.T. Aphane

    OpenAIRE

    Aphane, A.T.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the research is about the evaluation of the management of the selection for educators at a primary school in the North West, Klerksdorp District and to consider theoretical and practical implications. Questionnaires were used as the main measuring instrument. The findings of the research revealed that some of the role players lack necessary skills and expertise to be part of the selection process. Policy implications were found to have an effect on the process. Ne...

  10. Migration and wintering areas of American Bitterns (Botaurus lentiginosus) that summer in central North America as determined by satellite and radio telemetry, 1998-2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huschle, Guy; Toepfer, John E.; Douglas, David C.

    2013-01-01

    Twenty adult male American Bitterns (Botaurus lentiginosus) were marked on summer range in central North America with satellite tracking Platform Transmitter Terminals (PTTs) to document migration routes and wintering range. Nineteen complete fall migration routes were documented for 17 individuals. Of the successful migrations, 63% (n = 12) went to southern Florida, 32% (n = 6) to southern Louisiana, and 5% (n = 1) to the Gulf coast of Texas. Spring migrations for nine birds were documented, and 78% (n = 7) showed fidelity to breeding range. Two complete migrations for two individuals were documented, and they demonstrated fidelity to winter range. The longest, fastest movement documented was 2,300 km in less than 74 hr. Extensive, post-breeding dispersal was not observed in the adult male American Bitterns in this study. Six male American Bitterns were marked with PTTs on winter range in Florida and Texas. Spring migration for these birds was documented to Nebraska, North Dakota, Saskatchewan, Manitoba and Ontario. Sixty-seven American Bitterns were marked with Very High Frequency radio transmitters on summer ranges, and 16% (n = 11) were located on wintering grounds used by the satellite-tracked birds, further documenting the importance of the Everglades and the Louisiana coast as winter habitat for American Bitterns that breed in Central North America.

  11. Analysis and forecasting of wind field character on the north of South China Sea borders near-ocean area%南海北部近岸海域风场特征分析与预报研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王蓉; 肖瑜璋; 俞胜宾; 宋萍萍; 杨凡

    2011-01-01

    The north of South China Sea borders on the north of East Asia in the north and faces the wide sea area (or: maritime space), which has a special geographic location. It has a typical character of monsoon. This paper makes a correlation analysis of near-ocean area's wind field and macroscale atmospheric circulation character,presenting an impact of abnormal atmospheric circulation to the wind field of the north South China Sea area. It confirms that the distributing of wind field has a strongly zonal and seasonal character. Because of the change of climate yearly, for example of Elnino and ENSO circulation, South China Sea's warm-pool area index change yearly, also have a correlation to the near-ocean area's wind field intensity. Except the traditional statistics, the prophase diagnosis analysis, prophase strong signal of atmospheric outer force factor, the compositive using of numerical forecast, and compositive diagnosis analysis and so on, are the effective measures of enhancing and improving on the medium-range and short-range forecasting result.%南海北部近岸海域北靠东亚大陆,南面广阔的南海海域,地理位置十分独特,具有典型的季风特征.本文对南海北部近岸海域风场与大尺度大气环流特征的相关分析,阐述大气环流异常对南海北部近岸海域风场的影响.研究表明,南海北部近岸海域风场分布具有较强的区域性和季节性;因气候年际变化的强弱,如厄尔尼诺与南方涛动(ENSO)循环、南海暖池面积指数的年际变化,与南海北部近岸海域风场强度也具有相关性.除使用传统的数理统计方法外,前期大气环流的诊断分析、大气外部强迫因子的前期强信号以及数值预报产品等的综合运用、综合诊断分析,是改进、提高中长期天气过程和短期气候预测的有效方法.

  12. Application of thorium-normalized airborne radio-spectrometric survey data of Wadi Araba area, North-eastern Desert, Egypt, as a guide to the recognition of probable subsurface petroleum accumulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Sadek, M.A. E-mail: elsadek_eg@yahoo.com

    2002-07-01

    A new exploration method has been developed by Saunders et al. (Geophysics 58(10) (1993) 1417) using surface and aerial gamma-ray spectral measurements in prospecting for petroleum in stratigraphic and structural traps. Wadi Araba area, North-eastern Desert, Egypt, was selected to apply this method on its recorded aerial gamma-ray spectrometric survey data, due to its distinct stratigraphic and structural setting as well as its situation in close connection with the Gulf of Suez, which represents one of the important sites of oil production in Egypt. The three variables (eU, eTh, and K) registered for the whole study area, in the form of three contour maps, were digitized along the flight paths every 1.0 km. The DRAD arithmetic means plus three standard deviations for the data set were computed. Any single profile value greater than this quantity should have a probability of 99.87% that it represents a valid anomaly and is not caused by random variations in the background values. The use of these criteria has identified one flight line which has a valid anomaly that is not caused by random variations in the background values. This might indicate a prospective possibility for petroleum accumulation in the Wadi Araba area, North-eastern Desert, Egypt.

  13. DEVELOPMENT OF INTERREGIONAL ENERGY PRODUCTION COOPERATION BETWEEN THE KOMI REPUBLIC AND THE AREAS OF THE NORTH-WESTERN AND URAL FEDERAL DISTRICTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Kalinina

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes preconditions for interregional energy production cooperation between the Republic of Komi, the North-Western and the Ural Federal Districts, based on an analysis of the resource base, production dynamics, processing of fuel and energy resources and transportation of oil and gas. Types of energy production cooperation specific for the regions in question have been identified; these types represent an essence for establishment of a large macro-region within the framework of the territories in question. A prospect of their extension is demonstrated.

  14. Nutrients and temperature profile data from XBT and CTD casts in the North/South Pacific Ocean and other Sea areas by the Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC), from 06 January 2000 to 08 February 2001 (NODC Accession 0000858)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Nutrients and temperature profile data were collected using XBT and CTD casts from the R/V MIRAI in the North/South Pacific Ocean and other Sea areas from 06...

  15. Laboratory Evaluation of In Situ Chemical Oxidation for Groundwater Remediation, Test Area North, Operable Unit 1-07B, Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Volume Four - Appendix G

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cline, S.R.; Denton, D.L.; Giaquinto, J.M.; McCracken, M.K.; Starr, R.C.

    1999-04-01

    This appendix supports the results and discussion of the laboratory work performed to evaluate the feasibility of in situ chemical oxidation for Idaho National Environmental and Engineering Laboratory's (INEEL) Test Area North (TAN) which is contained in ORNL/TM-13711/V1. This volume contains Appendix G. Appendix G is a presentation of VOC chromatography data collected during the study. Information on the calibration curves and calibration checks used as well as the sample GC reports themselves are included here. The concentration values presented on the GC reports are calculation using the data from the applicable calibration curve and any necessary dilutions which were made.

  16. Borehole geophysical logging and aquifer-isolation tests conducted in well MG-1693 at North Penn Area 5 Superfund Site near Colmar, Montgomery County, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Philip H.

    2006-01-01

    Borehole geophysical logging and aquifer-isolation (packer) tests were conducted in well MG-1693 (NP-87) at the North Penn Area 5 Superfund Site near Colmar, Montgomery County, Pa. Objectives of the study were to identify the depth and yield of water-bearing zones, occurrence of vertical borehole flow, and effects of pumping on water levels in nearby wells. Caliper, natural-gamma, single-point-resistance, fluid-temperature, fluid-resistivity, heatpulse-flowmeter, and borehole-video logs were collected. Vertical borehole-fluid movement direction and rate were measured under nonpumping conditions. The suite of logs was used to locate water-bearing fractures, determine zones of vertical borehole-fluid movement, and select depths to set packers. Aquifer-isolation tests were conducted to sample discrete intervals and to determine specific capacities of water-bearing zones and effects of pumping individual zones on water levels in two nearby monitor wells. Specific capacities of isolated zones during aquifer-isolation tests ranged from 0.03 to 3.09 (gal/min)/ft (gallons per minute per foot). Fractures identified by borehole geophysical methods as water-producing or water-receiving zones produced water when isolated and pumped. Water enters the borehole primarily through high-angle fractures at 416 to 435 ft bls (feet below land surface) and 129 to 136 ft bls. Water exits the borehole through a high-angle fracture at 104 to 107 ft bls, a broken casing joint at 82 ft bls, and sometimes as artesian flow through the top of the well. Thirteen intervals were selected for aquifer-isolation testing, using a straddle-packer assembly. The specific capacity of interval 1 was 2.09 (gal/min)/ft. The specific capacities of intervals 2, 3, and 4 were similar: 0.27, 0.30, and 0.29 (gal/min)/ft,respectively. The specific capacities of intervals 5, 6, 7, 8, and 10 were similar: 0.03, 0.04, 0.09, 0.09, and 0.04 (gal/min)/ft,respectively. Intervals 9, 11, and 12 each showed a strong

  17. North Atlantic Temperature Anomaly

    OpenAIRE

    Vukcevic, M.A.

    2009-01-01

    The author postulates the existence of a high correlation between North Atlantic Temperature Anomaly and the variations of magnetic field over the Hudson Bay region. Post-glacial uplift and convection in the underlying mantle uplift (as reflected in changes of the area's magnetic intensity) are making significant contribution to the Atlantic basin climate change.

  18. Response of benthic opportunistic polychaetes and amphipods index to different perturbations in coastal oligotrophic areas (Canary archipelago, North East Atlantic Ocean)

    OpenAIRE

    Riera, Rodrigo; de-la-Ossa-Carretero, Jose Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Oligotrophic areas harbour low macrofaunal abundance and patchy distribution. In these areas it is necessary to test the reliability of biological indicators, especially those based on taxonomic sufficiency where the level of identification is balanced against the need for ecological information and could affect the efficiency of bioindicators. The BOPA (benthic opportunistic polychaetes and amphipods) index was applied in five coastal areas subjected to different perturbations (aquaculture, ...

  19. Effects of Fire on Soil Organic Carbon of Cunninghamia lanceolata Stands in North Subtropical Area%火烧对北亚热带杉木林土壤有机碳的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵志霞; 李正才; 周君刚; 程彩芳; 赵睿宇; 孙娇娇

    2016-01-01

    [Objective]To study the effect of burning on soil organic carbon and to provide references for post-fire vegetation regeneration.[Method]The changes of organic carbon and nutrient contents in post-fire Cunninghamia lanceolata stand with the soil depth of 0 50 cm in north subtropical areas were analyzed.[Result]The contents of soil total organic carbon (TOC),easily-oxidized carbon (EOC)and light fraction organic carbon (LFOM)were higher than those of contrast sample area,which increased by 1 .7% 38.0%、6.6% 33.2% and 3.1 %45.7%,respectively.Significant differences were found in the soil layer with depth of 0 1 0 cm and 1 0 20 cm (P <0.01 ).Compared with the contrast sample area,the soil carbon storage in the layer with depth of 0 50 cm increased by 1 9.1 % one year after burning.The TOC,EOC and LFOMwere all significantly related to the soil nu-trients (total N,hydrolyzable N and available K).After burning,the increase of TOC,EOC and LFOMwere main-ly concentrated on the surface of soil and the organic carbon contents increased by 9.22 g·kg -1 in 0 1 0 cm lay-er.[Conclusion]Moderate intensity burning has a significant impact on organic carbon in the soil of C.lanceolata stand in the north subtropical area.Moderate burning can increase the soil organic carbon because the soil can mix the organic residues caused by incomplete combustion of vegetation layer.Replanting in the burned area could be a-dopted to promote the vegetation restoration.

  20. Utility of Climate Forecasts in promoting optimal inter-basin transfer in the North Carolina Triangle Area Weihua Li, Sankarasubramanian Arumugam and Ranji S. Ranjithan Department of Civil, Construction and Environmental Engineering North Carolina State University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, W.; Arumugam, S.; Ranjithan, R.

    2011-12-01

    Droughts experienced by regional water supply systems often result due to reduced streamflow/precipitation potential which could occur due to varying exogenous climatic conditions such as tropical sea surface temperature (SST). Similarly, water supply systems can also experience frequent shortages in supply due to increased water demand resulting from urbanization and population growth in the region. The goal of this study is to identify a sustainable way of managing triangle area's two major reservoir systems while in the meantime improving the water supply reliability for its urban area. In this study, the water resource availability within this area is determined using a predefined water surplus index, which indicates an uneven distribution of the available water resource. Therefore, combined with streamflow forecasts downscaled from GCM climate forecasts for the summer season, an integrated reservoir simulation-optimization model is developed to explore the potential benefit of inter-basin transfer between Falls Lake of the Neuse River basin and Jordan Lake in the Cape Fear River basin. Using the 3-month ahead ensembles of streamflow forecasts, the reservoir simulation model can estimate the average end of season storage deviation from the target storage across the two systems under the predefined inter-basin transfer scenario. Then the optimization model helps identify the optimal transfers among the systems that can minimize the average end of season storage deviation, while in the mean time sustain the water demand for the area. Results of the analysis for the period 1991~2008 show that by introducing inter-basin transfer, the reliability of the water supply systems for the triangle area could be increased, which would help in developing regional drought management strategies. Key words: Drought, climate forecast, inter-basin transfer

  1. Baseline well inventory and groundwater-quality data from a potential shale gas resource area in parts of Lee and Chatham Counties, North Carolina, October 2011-August 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Melinda J.; Gurley, Laura N.; Fitzgerald, Sharon A.

    2014-01-01

    Records were obtained for 305 wells and 1 spring in northwestern Lee and southeastern Chatham counties, North Carolina. Well depths ranged from 26 to 720 feet and yields ranged from 0.25 to 100 gallons per minute. A subset of 56 wells and 1 spring were sampled for baseline groundwaterquality constituents including the following: major ions; dissolved metals; nutrients; dissolved gases (including methane); volatile and semivolatile organic compounds; glycols; isotopes of strontium, radium, methane (if sufficient concentration), and water; and dissolved organic and inorganic carbon. Dissolved methane gas concentrations were low, ranging from less than 0.00007 (lowest reporting level) to 0.48 milligrams per liter. Concentrations of nitrate, boron, iron, manganese, sulfate, chloride, total dissolved solids, and measurements of pH exceeded federal and state drinking water standards in a few samples. Iron and manganese concentrations exceeded the secondary (aesthetic) drinking water standard in approximately 35 to 37 percent of the samples.

  2. Succession and Enhancement Mechanism of Ecosystem Productivity in the De-farming Area of the Ecotone Between Agriculture and Animal Husbandry in North China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Xiong; ZHANG Li-feng

    2008-01-01

    The succession and enhancement mechanism of the ecosystem productivity with the characteristics of de-farming in the ecotone between agriculture and animal husbandry in North China was discussed in order to provide an ideaology or a technical basis for maintaining the impetus of ecological restoration and economic development in this region. A case study was applied in combination with the theoretical analysis. The results indicated that the biomass productivity of the de-farming subsystem decreased by 38.4-72.3% compared with that of farming subsystem in the ecosystem. The main function of de-farming subsystem was focused on ecological productivity, it caused the ideal beneficial recycling'de-farming → planting grass → raising animals → earn money' difficult to be realized. With the differentiation of de-farming subsystem, the natural and social resources input to the farming subsystem were accumulated. This laid a basis for the new attributes of economic productivity to be upgraded. The case study indicated that the economic productivity of the ecosystem was increased by 8.85-13.35 times due to re-coupling between the de-farming subsystem and the farming subsystem as well as coupling between microhabitat differentiation and crop production in the subsystems, where the microhabitat differentiation could enrich water and fertilizer in the same field. It was concluded that the important mechanisms to enhance the system productivity in the ecotone between agriculture and animal husbandry of North China included structure rebuilding and opening of the de-farming ecosystem and taking the advantage of complementary cooperative production among different regions under the market economy and rebuilding an open agro-pasture production structure.f

  3. Stress-based aftershock forecasts made within 24 h postmain shock: Expected north San Francisco Bay area seismicity changes after the 2014 M = 6.0 West Napa earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Tom; Segou, Margaret; Sevilgen, Volkan; Milner, Kevin; Field, Edward; Toda, Shinji; Stein, Ross S.

    2014-12-01

    We calculate stress changes resulting from the M = 6.0 West Napa earthquake on north San Francisco Bay area faults. The earthquake ruptured within a series of long faults that pose significant hazard to the Bay area, and we are thus concerned with potential increases in the probability of a large earthquake through stress transfer. We conduct this exercise as a prospective test because the skill of stress-based aftershock forecasting methodology is inconclusive. We apply three methods: (1) generalized mapping of regional Coulomb stress change, (2) stress changes resolved on Uniform California Earthquake Rupture Forecast faults, and (3) a mapped rate/state aftershock forecast. All calculations were completed within 24 h after the main shock and were made without benefit of known aftershocks, which will be used to evaluative the prospective forecast. All methods suggest that we should expect heightened seismicity on parts of the southern Rodgers Creek, northern Hayward, and Green Valley faults.

  4. Stress-based aftershock forecasts made within 24h post mainshock: Expected north San Francisco Bay area seismicity changes after the 2014M=6.0 West Napa earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Thomas E.; Segou, Margaret; Sevilgen, Volkan; Milner, Kevin; Field, Ned; Toda, Shinji; Stein, Ross S.

    2014-01-01

    We calculate stress changes resulting from the M= 6.0 West Napa earthquake on north San Francisco Bay area faults. The earthquake ruptured within a series of long faults that pose significant hazard to the Bay area, and we are thus concerned with potential increases in the probability of a large earthquake through stress transfer. We conduct this exercise as a prospective test because the skill of stress-based aftershock forecasting methodology is inconclusive. We apply three methods: (1) generalized mapping of regional Coulomb stress change, (2) stress changes resolved on Uniform California Earthquake Rupture Forecast faults, and (3) a mapped rate/state aftershock forecast. All calculations were completed within 24 h after the main shock and were made without benefit of known aftershocks, which will be used to evaluative the prospective forecast. All methods suggest that we should expect heightened seismicity on parts of the southern Rodgers Creek, northern Hayward, and Green Valley faults.

  5. Nitrate and nitrite contamination of sub-surface water in some areas of North West Frontier Province (N.W.F.P.) Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the past few years, nitrate and nitrite contamination of sub-surface water samples from Peshawar, Charsada, Mardan and Nowshera districts of NWFP has been studied. In all the areas under study, nitrate concentration of sub-surface water was found to be below WHO approved limit of 45 mg/l. Whereas city area after 1987 showed a decreasing level of nitrate contamination of sub-surface water, it appeared to be on the increase in water samples from the outskirts of Peshawar-Charsada road. No uniform increasing or decreasing patterns of nitrate contamination were observed for water samples from cantonment, University and Hayatabad, areas of Mardan, Charsada and Nowshera under study. The nitrate contamination of sub-surface water appeared to be due to both the agricultural activities as well as human and animal wastes. A few sub-surface water samples from Peshawar city, Mardan and Nowshera areas indicated high concentration of nitrite, which is alarming in view of the earlier reports showing absence of nitrite in water samples from these areas. However, since 1993, nitrite presence has not been detected in sub-surface water samples from all the areas under present investigation. (author)

  6. Burned Area Mapping in the North American Boreal Forest Using Terra-MODIS LTDR (2001–2011: A Comparison with the MCD45A1, MCD64A1 and BA GEOLAND-2 Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Andrés Moreno Ruiz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An algorithm based on a Bayesian network classifier was adapted to produce 10-day burned area (BA maps from the Long Term Data Record Version 3 (LTDR at a spatial resolution of 0.05° (~5 km for the North American boreal region from 2001 to 2011. The modified algorithm used the Brightness Temperature channel from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS band 31 T31 (11.03 μm instead of the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR band T3 (3.75 μm. The accuracy of the BA-LTDR, the Collection 5.1 MODIS Burned Area (MCD45A1, the MODIS Collection 5.1 Direct Broadcast Monthly Burned Area (MCD64A1 and the Burned Area GEOLAND-2 (BA GEOLAND-2 products was assessed using reference data from the Alaska Fire Service (AFS and the Canadian Forest Service National Fire Database (CFSNFD. The linear regression analysis of the burned area percentages of the MCD64A1 product using 40 km × 40 km grids versus the reference data for the years from 2001 to 2011 showed an agreement of R2 = 0.84 and a slope = 0.76, while the BA-LTDR showed an agreement of R2 = 0.75 and a slope = 0.69. These results represent an improvement over the MCD45A1 product, which showed an agreement of R2 = 0.67 and a slope = 0.42. The MCD64A1, BA-LTDR and MCD45A1 products underestimated the total burned area in the study region, whereas the BA GEOLAND-2 product overestimated it by approximately five-fold, with an agreement of R2 = 0.05. Despite MCD64A1 showing the best overall results, the BA-LTDR product proved to be an alternative for mapping burned areas in the North American boreal forest region compared with the other global BA products, even those with higher spatial/spectral resolution.

  7. 华北冬麦区干热风发生规律及风险区划%Occurrence rules and risk zoning of dry-hot wind in winter wheat producing areas of north China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨霏云; 朱玉洁; 刘伟昌

    2013-01-01

    Based on the index of the occurrence of dryhot wind in winter wheat region,an index of its occurrence intensity was established and the occurrence rule of dry-hot wind was inverted for the main winter wheat producing areas in the North China Plain since 1961.According to the results,the winter wheat area of the middle and south of Hebei,the west and north of Shandong and the north of Henan are the high risk zones of dry-hot wind,and the occurrence has reduced since the beginning of 1980' s.Thus,using the winter wheat observatory meteorological data,production structure material,yield,growth phase and other data,a dry-hot wind risk assessment model was established after the construction of the dry-hot wind risk evaluation index system that cover the dry-hot wind strength risk index and integrated disaster resisting capability index of the winter wheat.The dry-hot risk in main winter wheat producing areas of north China was then assessed using the model,and the dry-hot wind risk zoning assessment map was made for the areas.Assessment results show that,southeast of Hebei and northwest of Shandong are areas with high risk of the dry-hot wind influence,while south of Henan,east of Shandong and Hebei are low risk areas.%基于冬小麦干热风发生指标,构建了冬小麦干热风的发生强度指标,反演了华北平原冬小麦主产区1961年以来干热风的发生规律.通过分析发现,河北中南部、山东西部和北部、河南北部等冬小麦区属于干热风高发区,而进入20世纪80年代以来,干热风发生呈减少趋势.利用冬小麦观测站的气象资料、产量及其结构资料和发育期资料等数据,构建了包括干热风强度风险指数、综合抗灾能力指数的干热风风险评估指标体系,建立了干热风风险评估模型,对华北冬小麦主产区的干热风风险进行了评估,制作了华北平原冬小麦区干热风风险区划评估图.评估结果显示,河北东南部和山东西北部为干热

  8. Impacts of ground water over exploitation on agricultural development and environment using RS & GIS case study (Garabolli area North west of Libya )

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shbeli, E.

    Impacts of Grownd water-over exploitation on agricultural development and Environment in nort-west Libya (Garabolli area) using R.S AND GIS. This study was carried out in Garabolli area nort-west of Libya which is east of Tripoli about 60km. This study reviews the development of grownd water abstraction in the area and displays its impacts on the aquifer water levels and salinity . Satellite data were used to produce land use land cover and soil maps scale 1:50000. Each soil mapping units investigated in the field and the soils were characterized and classified. The comparison between 2 different dates spot multispectral images were applied in this paper. GIS techniques were used to produce different maps and some statistics tables shows in the report.

  9. Zircon U-Pb Ages of Bottom and Top Parts of the Zhangjiakou Formation in Lingyuan Area (West Liaoning Province) and Luanping Area (North Hebei Province) and Their Significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Hong; Liu Xiaoming; Zhang Yeqing; Yuan Honglin; Hu Zhaochu; Diwu Chunrong

    2005-01-01

    In Lingyuan region of West Liaoning Province, the Zhangjiakou Formation (J3z) and the Yixian Formation (K1y) display an angular unconformity. That is, the Lower Mesozoic strata of the Zhangjiakou Formation are ENE (near E-W) oriented, while the overlying strata of the Yixian Formation exhibit an NNE orientation. The results of LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb ages show the Zhangjiakou Formation formed from about 130 Ma to 132 Ma in Lingyuan and 135 Ma to 136 Ma in Luanping (North Hebei Province), respectively. Three conclusions can be drawn: (1) The Zhangjiakou Formation in Lingyuan is comparable to that in Luanping, with the volcanic rocks of the Zhangjiakou Formation from Lingyuan being younger than those from Luanping. (2) 5-6 Ma difference between the top of the Zhangjiakou Formation and the bottom of the Yixian Formation in Lingyuan proves the angular unconformity between the two formations; and it reflects that the 5-6 Ma interval period is the main period of the transition of tectonic framework in Mesozoic in North Hebei and West Liaoning. In the interval period, the magmatic action went up to high tide in Mesozoic in the northeast of China. Moreover, after the interval period, the "Rehe fauna" developed into "erupted" period. This reflects that the interval period is also an important biological interface in Northern Hebei and Western Liaoning. (3) The Dabeigou Formation in Luanping should correspond to the upper part of the Zhangjiakou Formation, but not to the lower part of the Yixian Formation.

  10. Impacts of Grownd water-over exploitation on agricultural development and Environment in north-west Libya (Garabolli area) using R.S and GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shbeli, E.

    2003-04-01

    This study was carried out in Garabolli area nort-west of Libya which is east of Tripoli about 60km. This study reviews the development of grownd water abstraction in the area and displays its impacts on the aquifer water levels and salinity. Satellite data were used to produce land use land cover and soil maps scale 1:50000. Each soil mapping units investigated in the field and the soils were characterized and classified. The comparison between 2 different dates spot multispectral images were applied in this paper. GIS techniques were used to produce different maps and some statistics tables shows in the report.

  11. Melt-rock interactions and fabric development of peridotites from North Pond in the Kane area, Mid-Atlantic Ridge: Implications of microstructural and petrological analyses of peridotite samples from IODP Hole U1382A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harigane, Yumiko; Abe, Natsue; Michibayashi, Katsuyoshi; Kimura, Jun-Ichi; Chang, Qing

    2016-06-01

    North Pond is an isolated sedimentary pond on the western flank of the Kane area along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Drill-hole U1382A of IODP Expedition 336 recovered peridotite and gabbro samples from a sedimentary breccia layer in the pond, from which we collected six fresh peridotite samples. The peridotite samples came from the southern slope of the North Pond where an oceanic core complex is currently exposed. The samples were classified as spinel harzburgite, plagioclase-bearing harzburgite, and a vein-bearing peridotite that contains tiny gabbroic veins. No obvious macroscopic shear deformation related to the formation of a detachment fault was observed. The spinel harzburgite with a protogranular texture was classified as refractory peridotite. The degree of partial melting of the spinel harzburgite is estimated to be ˜17%, and melt depletion would have occurred at high temperatures in the uppermost mantle beneath the spreading axis. The progressive melt-rock interactions between the depleted spinel harzburgite and the percolating melts of Normal-Mid Ocean Ridge Basalt (N-MORB) produced the plagioclase-bearing harzburgite and the vein-bearing peridotite at relatively low temperatures. This implies that the subsequent refertilization occurred in an extinct spreading segment of the North Pond after spreading at the axis. Olivine fabrics in the spinel and plagioclase-bearing harzburgites are of types AG, A, and D, suggesting the remnants of a mantle flow regime beneath the spreading axis. The initial olivine fabrics appear to have been preserved despite the later melt-rock interactions. The peridotite samples noted above preserve evidence of mantle flow and melt-rock interactions beneath a spreading ridge that formed at ˜8 Ma.

  12. A plan to preserve the environmental integrity of the False Cape Outer Banks area : Virginia and North Carolina [Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is a plan meant to gain control of certain lands in the False Cape area of Virginia. Various methods of acquiring the land and their pros and cons are...

  13. The seascape of demersal fish nursery areas in the North Mediterranean Sea, a first step towards the implementation of spatial planning for trawl fisheries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Colloca

    Full Text Available The identification of nursery grounds and other essential fish habitats of exploited stocks is a key requirement for the development of spatial conservation planning aimed at reducing the adverse impact of fishing on the exploited populations and ecosystems. The reduction in juvenile mortality is particularly relevant in the Mediterranean and is considered as one of the main prerequisites for the future sustainability of trawl fisheries. The distribution of nursery areas of 11 important commercial species of demersal fish and shellfish was analysed in the European Union Mediterranean waters using time series of bottom trawl survey data with the aim of identifying the most persistent recruitment areas. A high interspecific spatial overlap between nursery areas was mainly found along the shelf break of many different sectors of the Northern Mediterranean indicating a high potential for the implementation of conservation measures. Overlap of the nursery grounds with existing spatial fisheries management measures and trawl fisheries restricted areas was also investigated. Spatial analyses revealed considerable variation depending on species and associated habitat/depth preferences with increased protection seen in coastal nurseries and minimal protection seen for deeper nurseries (e.g. Parapenaeus longirostris 6%. This is partly attributed to existing environmental policy instruments (e.g. Habitats Directive and Mediterranean Regulation EC 1967/2006 aiming at minimising impacts on coastal priority habitats such as seagrass, coralligenous and maerl beds. The new knowledge on the distribution and persistence of demersal nurseries provided in this study can support the application of spatial conservation measures, such as the designation of no-take Marine Protected Areas in EU Mediterranean waters and their inclusion in a conservation network. The establishment of no-take zones will be consistent with the objectives of the Common Fisheries Policy

  14. Paleoproterozoic igneous and metamorphic events in the Hongcheon area, southern margin of the Northern Gyeonggi Massif in the Korean Peninsula, and their links to the Paleoproterozoic collision in the North China Craton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Chang W.; Lee, Byung C.; Yengkhom, Kesorjit S.; Yi, Sang B.

    2014-05-01

    The Hongcheon area is located at the northern part of Gyeonggi Massif (GM) in the Korean Peninsula. The Hongcheon area is composed of the Paleoproterozoic Yongduri Gneiss Complex (YGC), Euiam Group (EG) and Euiam Gneiss Complex (EGC). Quartz-feldspathic gneisses in the northeastern part of the YGC record M2 peak metamorphic conditions of 790-840°C and 7.2-8.9 kbar, whereas granitic and garnet gneisses in the western part of the YGC record peak metamorphic conditions of 690-720°C and 6.1-6.9 kbar, and 640-660°C and 5.0-5.4 kbar, respectively. The M2 metamorphic conditions represent a regional low-P/T metamorphic event in which metamorphic grade increased towards east. SHRIMP zircon U-Pb age dating indicates that the M2 metamorphism occurred at ca. 1867-1883 Ma. The presence of relict kyanite in the gneisses within the YGC suggests that the M1 intermediate-P/T metamorphism (ca. 1925 Ma) occurred prior to the low-P/T metamorphic event. The YGC also records M3 metamorphic event related to Permo-Triassic continental collision between the North and South China Craton. Whole-rock geochemistry indicates that augen gneisses in the EGC were originally post-collision granitoids, and that amphibolites within these gneisses were originally within-plate mafic intrusions. These augen gneisses and amphibolites were emplaced between ca. 1864 and 1885 Ma, and metamorphosed during the Permo-Triassic event (ca. 246 and 265 Ma). The similarity in age between the Paleoproterozoic intrusion and the M2 low-P/T metamorphism indicates that the M2 metamorphism also occurred in a post-collision tectonic setting. The M1 intermediate-P/T metamorphism and post-collision events in the study area can be correlated to the 1.91-1.93 Ga collision related metamorphism and 1.84-1.88 Ga post-collision events in the North Korea and the Jiao-Liao-Ji collision belt in the North China Craton.

  15. Factors influencing the large-scale distribution of Hg° in the Mexico City area and over the North Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Blake

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Gas-phase elemental mercury (Hg° was measured aboard the NASA DC-8 aircraft during the Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment Phase B (INTEX-B campaign in spring 2006. Flights were conducted around Mexico City and on two subsequent deployments over the North Pacific based out of Honolulu, Hawaii and Anchorage, Alaska. Data obtained from 0.15–12 km altitude showed that Hg° exhibited a relatively constant vertical profile centered around 100 ppqv. Highly concentrated pollution plumes emanating from the Mexico City urban agglomeration revealed that mixing ratios of Hg° as large as 500 ppqv were related to combustion tracers such as CO, but not SO2 which is presumably released locally from coal burning, refineries, and volcanoes. Our analysis of Mexico City plumes indicated that widespread multi-source urban/industrial emissions may have a more important influence on Hg° than specific point sources. Over the Pacific, correlations with CO, CO2, CH4, and C2Cl4 were diffuse overall, but recognizable on flights out of Anchorage and Honolulu. In distinct plumes originating from the Asian continent the Hg°- CO relationship yielded an average value of ~0.56 ppqv/ppbv, in good agreement with previous findings. A prominent feature of the INTEX-B dataset was frequent total depletion of Hg° in the upper troposphere when stratospherically influenced air was encountered. Ozone data obtained with the differential absorption lidar (DIAL showed that the stratospheric impact on the tropospheric column was a common and pervasive feature on all flights out of Honolulu and Anchorage. We propose that this is likely a major factor driving large-scale seasonality in Hg° mixing ratios, especially at mid-latitudes, and an important process that should be incorporated into global chemical transport models.

  16. Factors influencing the large-scale distribution of Hg° in the Mexico City area and over the North Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, R.; Mao, H.; Scheuer, E.; Dibb, J.; Avery, M.; Browell, E.; Sachse, G.; Vay, S.; Blake, D.; Huey, G.; Fuelberg, H.

    2008-04-01

    Gas-phase elemental mercury (Hg°) was measured aboard the NASA DC-8 aircraft during the Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment Phase B (INTEX-B) campaign in spring 2006. Flights were conducted around Mexico City and on two subsequent deployments over the North Pacific based out of Honolulu, Hawaii and Anchorage, Alaska. Data obtained from 0.15-12 km altitude showed that Hg° exhibited a relatively constant vertical profile centered around 100 ppqv. Highly concentrated pollution plumes emanating from the Mexico City urban agglomeration revealed that mixing ratios of Hg° as large as 500 ppqv were related to combustion tracers such as CO, but not SO2 which is presumably released locally from coal burning, refineries, and volcanoes. Our analysis of Mexico City plumes indicated that widespread multi-source urban/industrial emissions may have a more important influence on Hg° than specific point sources. Over the Pacific, correlations with CO, CO2, CH4, and C2Cl4 were diffuse overall, but recognizable on flights out of Anchorage and Honolulu. In distinct plumes originating from the Asian continent the Hg°- CO relationship yielded an average value of ~0.56 ppqv/ppbv, in good agreement with previous findings. A prominent feature of the INTEX-B dataset was frequent total depletion of Hg° in the upper troposphere when stratospherically influenced air was encountered. Ozone data obtained with the differential absorption lidar (DIAL) showed that the stratospheric impact on the tropospheric column was a common and pervasive feature on all flights out of Honolulu and Anchorage. We propose that this is likely a major factor driving large-scale seasonality in Hg° mixing ratios, especially at mid-latitudes, and an important process that should be incorporated into global chemical transport models.

  17. Factors influencing the large-scale distribution of Hg° in the Mexico City area and over the North Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Blake

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Gas-phase elemental mercury (Hg° was measured aboard the NASA DC-8 aircraft during the Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment Phase B (INTEX-B campaign in spring 2006. Flights were conducted around Mexico City and on two subsequent deployments over the North Pacific based out of Honolulu, Hawaii and Anchorage, Alaska. Data obtained from 0.15–12 km altitude showed that Hg° exhibited a relatively constant vertical profile centered around 100 ppqv. Highly concentrated pollution plumes emanating from the Mexico City urban agglomeration revealed that mixing ratios of Hg° as large as 500 ppqv were related to combustion tracers such as CO, but not SO2 which is presumably released locally from coal burning, refineries, and volcanoes. Our analysis of Mexico City plumes indicated that widespread multi-source urban/industrial emissions may have a more important influence on Hg° than specific point sources. Over the Pacific, correlations with CO, CO2, CH4, and C2Cl4 were diffuse overall, but recognizable on flights out of Anchorage and Honolulu. In distinct plumes originating from the Asian continent the Hg°- CO relationship yielded an average value of ~0.56 ppqv/ppbv, in good agreement with previous findings. A prominent feature of the INTEX-B dataset was frequent total depletion of Hg° in the upper troposphere when stratospherically influenced air was encountered. Ozone data obtained with the differential absorption lidar (DIAL showed that the stratospheric impact on the tropospheric column was a common and pervasive feature on all flights out of Honolulu and Anchorage. We propose that this is likely a major factor driving large-scale seasonality in Hg° mixing ratios, especially at mid-latitudes, and an important process that should be incorporated into global chemical transport models.

  18. Lateral variation in oxygen fugacity and halogen contents in early Cretaceous magmas in Jiaodong area, East China: Implication for triggers of the destruction of the North China Craton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiao-Long; He, Peng-Li; Wang, Xue; Zhong, Jun-Wei; Xu, Yi-Gang

    2016-04-01

    Pacific subduction has been suggested as the trigger of the destruction of the North China Craton, but evidence for it remains ambiguous. To further investigate this issue, we studied Wulian pyroxene monzonite (123 ± 1 Ma) in the west and Rushan gabbro-diorite (115 ± 1 Ma) in the east of the Sulu orogen, East China. The rocks of both locations are characterized by low TiO2 but high SiO2 and K2O, fractionated REE patterns with notable negative Ta-Nb-Ti anomalies, and by high initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios and strongly negative εNd (t) and εHf (t) values. These geochemical and isotopic characteristics can be interpreted to be formed by partial melting of enriched lithosphere mantle refertilized by recycled crustal materials that were associated with the Sulu orogeny. Oxygen fugacities of the Rushan gabbro-diorites, estimated based on magnetite-ilmenite equilibration, are significantly higher than those of Wulian pyroxene monzonite. This lateral difference is mirrored by lower F and F/Cl but higher Cl in biotite in the Rushan gabbro-diorite compared to Wulian pyroxene monzonite. All these data suggest a spatially heterogeneous Cretaceous mantle source in terms of halogens and water contents beneath the Sulu orogen, which was most likely caused by the subduction processes of the Pacific plate. H2O-rich fluid in the mantle beneath the east of the Sulu orogen closer to the mantle wedge was prominently from early dehydration of subducted slab at shallow depth, while F-bearing fluid to further west was released by dehydrated deeper slab or stagnant oceanic slab within the mantle transition zone.

  19. Male circumcision, alcohol use and unprotected sex among patrons of bars and taverns in rural areas of North-West province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkosi, Sebenzile; Sikweyiya, Yandisa; Kekwaletswe, Connie T; Morojele, Neo K

    2015-01-01

    Strong research evidence has shown that medical male circumcision significantly reduces heterosexual HIV acquisition among men. However, its effectiveness is enhanced by behavioural factors such as condom use. Currently, little is known of unprotected sex associated with male circumcision (MC) among alcohol-drinking tavern-going men, or whether engagement in unprotected sex may differ between men who have been traditionally circumcised and those who have been medically circumcised. The study sought to determine the relative importance of alcohol consumption and MC as correlates of unprotected sex and to compare the risk of engaging in unprotected sex between traditionally circumcised and medically circumcised tavern-going men from two rural villages in North-West province, South Africa. Data from 314 adult men (≥18 years) were analysed. The men were recruited from four bars/taverns using systematic sampling. They responded to questions regarding their demographic characteristics, alcohol consumption, circumcision status and method (where applicable), and engagement in unprotected sex. Descriptive analyses and bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted. Age, education, relationship status, alcohol consumption and traditional male circumcision (TMC) were independently and significantly associated with unprotected sex. Specifically, probable alcohol dependence and traditional circumcision were independent risk factors for engaging in unprotected sex among tavern-going men. Traditionally circumcised men had a higher risk of engaging in unprotected sex than medically circumcised men. Interventions aimed at reducing alcohol consumption, encouraging protective behaviour among men who have undergone TMC, and increasing condom use are needed in bar/tavern settings. HIV prevention education must be urgently incorporated into TMC programmes.

  20. To burn or not to burn? Effect of management strategy on North American prairie vegetation for public urban areas in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmithals, Anja; Kühn, Norbert

    2014-01-01

    North American prairie vegetation has been a role model for designing highly attractive plantings for German urban green spaces for the past decade. In combination with gravel mulch top layers on planting sites and non-selective maintenance techniques like mowing or burning, prairie plantings are considered to be cost-effective and low-maintenance. This study was undertaken to assess the impact of different maintenance strategies and especially the necessity of fire management on the development success of ornamental prairie plantings in central Europe. A four factorial split-plot-block design was set up for investigation of different mixtures of prairie species under varying management conditions (mow-only, mowing plus selective weeding, mowing plus weeding and burning) on two differing soil types (in-situ topsoil and in-situ topsoil with a graywacke gravel mulch top layer) over three years. Significant effects of maintenance strategy on mortality rates and vitality were documented for a number of target species, which responded species specifically, either being slightly affected by the burning or thriving on it. Those effects were mostly restricted to topsoil sites. A strong impact on weed species presence and abundance and resulting maintenance times was found on both soil types. On topsoil sites, mow-only treatment resulted in a short-term loss of the original planting due to extensive weed growth. Corresponding gravel mulch sites were generally less colonised and visually dominated by weeds. Differences between weeded and weeded plus burned sites were minor. Unexpectedly, weed species populations were mostly unaffected by the additional burning treatment, while maintenance times and costs increased. No overall benefit of fire management for the establishment of prairie plantings was documented. The most effective management combination proved to be mowing plus regular selective weeding measures on gravel mulched planting sites.

  1. To burn or not to burn? Effect of management strategy on North American prairie vegetation for public urban areas in Germany.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Schmithals

    Full Text Available North American prairie vegetation has been a role model for designing highly attractive plantings for German urban green spaces for the past decade. In combination with gravel mulch top layers on planting sites and non-selective maintenance techniques like mowing or burning, prairie plantings are considered to be cost-effective and low-maintenance. This study was undertaken to assess the impact of different maintenance strategies and especially the necessity of fire management on the development success of ornamental prairie plantings in central Europe. A four factorial split-plot-block design was set up for investigation of different mixtures of prairie species under varying management conditions (mow-only, mowing plus selective weeding, mowing plus weeding and burning on two differing soil types (in-situ topsoil and in-situ topsoil with a graywacke gravel mulch top layer over three years. Significant effects of maintenance strategy on mortality rates and vitality were documented for a number of target species, which responded species specifically, either being slightly affected by the burning or thriving on it. Those effects were mostly restricted to topsoil sites. A strong impact on weed species presence and abundance and resulting maintenance times was found on both soil types. On topsoil sites, mow-only treatment resulted in a short-term loss of the original planting due to extensive weed growth. Corresponding gravel mulch sites were generally less colonised and visually dominated by weeds. Differences between weeded and weeded plus burned sites were minor. Unexpectedly, weed species populations were mostly unaffected by the additional burning treatment, while maintenance times and costs increased. No overall benefit of fire management for the establishment of prairie plantings was documented. The most effective management combination proved to be mowing plus regular selective weeding measures on gravel mulched planting sites.

  2. Biogas in EEG 2012. Regional structural effects and income effects in North Rhine-Westphalia. Financial Report ''Impact analysis of legislative modifications within renewable energy from the perspective of agriculture and rural areas in North Rhine-Westphalia''; Biogas im EEG 2012. Regionale Struktur- und Einkommenswirkungen in Nordrhein-Westfalen. Abschlussbericht ''Wirkungsanalyse gesetzlicher Aenderungen im Bereich erneuerbarer Energien aus Sicht von Landwirtschaft und laendlichen Raeumen in Nordrhein-Westfalen''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braun, Juergen; Lorleberg, Wolf; Stauss, Wolfgang

    2012-07-01

    The promotion of renewable energies is a main topic of the energy economic policy. The EEG (Renewable Energy Law) should be the main instrument at this point. The contribution of the renewable energy could be increased significantly in the last decade. The authors of the contribution under consideration report on an impact analysis of legislative modifications in the area of renewable energy from the perspective of agriculture and rural areas in North Rhine-Westphalia (Federal Republic of Germany).

  3. Resareh on Large-male Biogas Production Technique in North Low Temperature Area%北方低温区规模化沼气生产工艺的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马骏; 李会; 崔薇薇; 刘祥久; 杨涛

    2011-01-01

    The Methanogen under natural conditions was diflicult to adapt the low temperature of cold north area of china whirh made the present bgiogas production technique hardly meet the demand of continuity, high production and high conversion rate. The screening of bacteria to adapt to low temperature and the new large-boogas production technology and gas production equipment were reserched in order to achieve continuous and efficient gas in winter of north china.%自然条件下的产甲烷生物菌种难以适应我国北方寒冷低温条件,使得沼气生产工艺难以满足连续、高产、高转化率的要求.通过对低温适应菌群的筛选和新型规模化沼气生产工艺及产气装置的研究,旨在实现北方冬季条件下连续、高效的产气.

  4. Savannah River Laboratory hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance. Preliminary raw data release, Charlotte 10 x 20 NTMS area, North Carolina and South Carolina. National Uranium Resource Evaluation Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents preliminary results of stream sediment and ground water reconnaissance in the Charlotte National Topographic Map Series (NTMS) 10 x 20 quadrangle. Stream sediment samples were collected from small streams at 1254 sites for a nominal density of one site per 13 square kilometers (five square miles) in rural areas. Ground water samples were collected at 759 sites for a nominal density of one site per 25 square kilometers (ten squre miles). Neutron activation analysis (NAA) results are given for uranium and 16 other elements in sediments, and for uranium and 9 other elements in ground water. Field measurements and observations are reported for each site. Analytical data and field measurements are presented in tables and maps. Statistical summaries of data and a brief description of results are given. A generalized geologic map and a summary of the geology of the area are included. Key data are presented in page-sized hard copy. Supplementary data are on microfiche. Key data from stream sites include (1) water quality measurements (pH, conductivity, and alkalinity), (2) elements that may be related to potential uranium and thorium mineralization in this area (U, Th, Hf, Ce, and Dy), and (3) elements useful for geologic classification of the sample area (Ti, V, Fe, Mn, Al, and Sc). Supplementary data from stream sites include sample site descriptors (stream characteristics, vegetation, stream width, etc.) and additional elemental analyses that may be useful (F, Eu, Sm, La, Yb, and Lu). Key data from ground water sites include (1) water chemistry measurements (pH, conductivity, and alkalinity) and (2) elemental analyses (U, Na, Cl, Mg, Al, Mn, Br, V, and F). Supplementary data include site descriptors, information about the collection of the samples (well age, well depth, frequency of use of well, etc.), and analytical data for dysprosium

  5. Recent changes in rainfall characteristics and their influence on thresholds for debris flow triggering in the Dolomitic area of Cortina d'Ampezzo, north-eastern Italian Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floris, M.; D'Alpaos, A.; Squarzoni, C.; Genevois, R.; Marani, M.

    2010-03-01

    In this paper, we examine variations in climate characteristics near the area of Cortina d'Ampezzo (Dolomites, Eastern Italian Alps), with particular reference to the possible implications for debris-flow occurrence. The study area is prone to debris-flow release in response to summer high-intensity short-duration rainfalls and, therefore, it is of the utmost importance to investigate the potential increase in debris-flow triggering rainfall events. The critical rainfall threshold is agreed to be a crucial triggering factor for debris-flows. Data from a monitoring system, placed in a catchment near Cortina (Acquabona), show that debris-flows were triggered by rainfalls with peak rainfall intensities ranging from 4.9 to 17.4 mm/10 min. The analyses of meteorological data, collected from 1921 to 1994 at several stations in the study area, show a negative trend of annual rainfall, a considerable variation in the monthly rainfall distribution, and an increase in the temperature range, possibly related to global climate changes. Moreover, high-intensity and short-duration rainfall events, derived from data collected from 1990 and 2008, show an increase in exceptional rainfall events. The results obtained in a peak-over-threshold framework, applied to the rainfall data measured at the Faloria rain gauge station from 1990 to 2008, clearly show that the interarrival time of over-threshold events computed for different threshold values decreased in the last decade. This suggests that local climatic changes might produce an increase in the frequency of rainfall events, potentially triggering debris flows in the study area.

  6. Recent changes in rainfall characteristics and their influence on thresholds for debris flow triggering in the Dolomitic area of Cortina d'Ampezzo, north-eastern Italian Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Floris

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we examine variations in climate characteristics near the area of Cortina d'Ampezzo (Dolomites, Eastern Italian Alps, with particular reference to the possible implications for debris-flow occurrence. The study area is prone to debris-flow release in response to summer high-intensity short-duration rainfalls and, therefore, it is of the utmost importance to investigate the potential increase in debris-flow triggering rainfall events. The critical rainfall threshold is agreed to be a crucial triggering factor for debris-flows. Data from a monitoring system, placed in a catchment near Cortina (Acquabona, show that debris-flows were triggered by rainfalls with peak rainfall intensities ranging from 4.9 to 17.4 mm/10 min.

    The analyses of meteorological data, collected from 1921 to 1994 at several stations in the study area, show a negative trend of annual rainfall, a considerable variation in the monthly rainfall distribution, and an increase in the temperature range, possibly related to global climate changes. Moreover, high-intensity and short-duration rainfall events, derived from data collected from 1990 and 2008, show an increase in exceptional rainfall events. The results obtained in a peak-over-threshold framework, applied to the rainfall data measured at the Faloria rain gauge station from 1990 to 2008, clearly show that the interarrival time of over-threshold events computed for different threshold values decreased in the last decade. This suggests that local climatic changes might produce an increase in the frequency of rainfall events, potentially triggering debris flows in the study area.

  7. Large-area surveys for black carbon and other light-absorbing impurities in snow: Arctic, Antarctic, North America, China (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, S. G.; Doherty, S. J.; Hegg, D.; Dang, C.; Zhang, R.; Grenfell, T. C.; Brandt, R. E.; Clarke, A. D.; Zatko, M.

    2013-12-01

    Absorption of radiation by ice is extremely weak at visible and near-UV wavelengths, so small amounts of light-absorbing impurities (LAI) in snow can dominate the absorption of sunlight at these wavelengths, reducing the albedo relative to that of pure snow and leading to earlier snowmelt. Snow samples were collected in Alaska, Canada, Greenland, Svalbard, Norway, Russia, and the Arctic Ocean, on tundra, glaciers, ice caps, sea ice, and frozen lakes, and in boreal forests. Snow was collected mostly in spring, when the entire winter snowpack was accessible for sampling. Snow was also collected at 67 sites in western North America. Expeditions from Lanzhou University obtained black carbon (BC) amounts at 84 sites in northeast and northwest China. BC was measured at 3 locations on the Antarctic Plateau, and at 5 sites on East Antarctic sea ice. The snow is melted and filtered; the filters are analyzed in a spectrophotometer. Median BC mixing ratios in snow range over 4 orders of magnitude from 0.2 ng/g in Antarctica to 1000 ng/g in northeast China. Chemical analyses, input to a receptor model, indicate that the major source of BC in most of the Arctic is biomass burning, but industrial sources dominate in Svalbard and the central Arctic Ocean. Non-BC impurities, principally brown (organic) carbon, are typically responsible for ~40% of the visible and ultraviolet absorption. In northeast China BC is the dominant LAI, but in Inner Mongolia soil dominates. When the snow surface layer melts, much of the BC is left at the top of the snowpack rather than carried away in meltwater, thus causing a positive feedback on snowmelt. This process was quantified through field studies in Greenland, Alaska, and Norway, where we found that only 10-30% of the BC is removed with meltwater. The BC content of the Arctic atmosphere has declined markedly since 1989, according to the continuous measurements of near-surface air in Canada, Alaska, and Svalbard. Correspondingly, our recent BC

  8. Laboratory Evaluation of In Situ Chemical Oxidation for Groundwater Remediation, Test Area North, Operable Unit 1-07B, Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Volume Two, Appendices C, D, and E

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cline, S.R.; Denton, D.L.; Giaquinto, J.M.; McCracken, M.K.; Starr, R.C.

    1999-04-01

    These appendices support the results and discussion of the laboratory work performed to evaluate the feasibility of in situ chemical oxidation for Idaho National Environmental and Engineering Laboratory's (INEEL) Test Area North (TAN) which is contained in ORNL/TM-1371 l/Vol. This volume contains Appendices C-E. Appendix C is a compilation of all recorded data and mathematical calculations made to interpret the data. For the Task 3 and Task 4 work, the spreadsheet column definitions are included immediately before the actual spreadsheet pages and are listed as ''Sample Calculations/Column Definitions'' in the table of contents. Appendix D includes the chronological order in which the experiments were conducted and the final project costs through October 1998. Appendix E is a compilation of the monthly progress reports submitted to INEEL during the course of the project.

  9. 华北抗日根据地丧偶妇女再嫁问题研究%Remarriage Problems of Widowed Women in North China Anti-Japanese Base Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑立柱; 郑皓予

    2016-01-01

    Before the establishment of North China Anti Japanese base areas, the widowed women ’s rights for remarriage were not supported by public opinion and relevant rights couldn’t be guaranteed as well. Right after the establishment of North China Anti Japanese base areas, the Communist Party formulated and improved relevant laws, to carried out propaganda, to come to the aid of widowed women, to punish violations of widowed women remarriage rights, safeguard widowed women's rights and interests, improve the status of the remarried women. The Communist Party of China’s efforts had achieved some positive results, but due to the influence of traditional idea and social habits, there were still many unsatisfactory parts for the remarried widowed women and protection of women ’s rights had a long way to go.%华北抗日根据地开辟前,丧偶妇女再嫁得不到社会舆论的支持,相关权益也得不到保障。华北抗日根据地开辟后,中国共产党政权通过制定和完善相关法令、开展舆论宣传、援助丧偶妇女再嫁行为、惩处侵犯丧偶妇女再婚权益者等路径,保障丧偶妇女相关权益,改善丧偶妇女再婚状况。中国共产党的努力,取得了一定的成效,但由于传统观念和社会习惯的影响,丧偶妇女再嫁还存在很多不尽如人意的地方,保障妇女权益任重而道远。

  10. LA-ICP-MS U-Pb Zircon Dating for Felsic Granulite,Huangtuling Area, North Dabieshan: Constraints on Timing of Its Protolith and Granulite-Facies Metamorphism, and Thermal Events in Its Provenance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Nengsong; Liu Rong; Sun Min; Li Huimin; He Lei; Wang Qinyan; Zhang Hongfei

    2005-01-01

    Information about the protolith of the Huangtuling granulite in North Dabieshan has been unavailable. The complex evolution history of the rock and its host basement must be further discussed. LA-ICP-MS U-Pb dating was conducted on three textural domains in zircon from a high-temperature, high-pressure felsic granulite in the Huangtuling area, North Dabieshan, Central China. The metamorphic growth-derived detrital zircon domain yields a 207Pb/206Pb age in the range of (2 493±54) -(2 500±180) Ma. The magmatic genesis-derived detrital zircon domain gives a 207Pb/206Pb age ranging from 2 628 Ma to 2 690 Ma, with an oldest 206Pb/238U age of (2 790±150) Ma. The metamorphic overgrowth or metamorphic recrystallization zircon domain yields a dicsordia with an upper intercept age of (2 044.7±29.3) Ma. Compositions of the mineral assemblage, major element geochemistry, and especially the complex interior texture of the zircon suggest that the prololith of the felsic granulite is of sedimentary origin. Results show that the protolith material of the granulite came from a provenance with a complex thermal history, i.e. ~2.8 Ga magmatism and ~2.5 Ga metamorphism, and was deposited in a basin not earlier than 2.5 Ga. The high-temperature and high-pressure granulite-facies metamorphic age was precisely constrained at (2.04±0.03) Ga, which indicates the granulite in Huangtuling area should be a relict of a Paleoproterozoic UHT (ultrahigh temperature) metamorphosed slab.

  11. 北方干旱区地下水补给源问题讨论%A discussion of groundwater recharge sources in arid areas of North China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈建生; 王庆庆

    2012-01-01

    野外调查表明,内蒙高原、华北平原、东北湿地河流、湖泊的主要补给源来自于泉水,但是河流、泉水中的同位素与当地降水呈现出很大的差异,表明地下水存在外源的补给.通过北方干旱区地下水中的2H、18O与全国降水加权平均值的对比发现,西藏内流区的渗漏水与北方干旱区的河流水、湖泊水具有相同的来源,西藏内流区的河流、湖泊存在渗漏,初步估算渗漏量超过800亿m3/a,其中纳木错湖泊的渗漏量超过90亿m3/a.氚与氟利昂(CFC)测定地下水的循环周期为20~ 30a,由此推断,羌塘盆地的渗漏水可能通过一种深循环方式补给到了内蒙高原、华北平原、东北湿地等地区,深循环的导水通道沿着西域克拉通、东亚克拉通以及微板块的缝合带分布,据此推断,板块缝合带附近分布的深层承压水与地下水的深循环有关,缝合带中地壳出现的高导低速结构可能是由导水通道所造成的.%A field investigation shows that spring water is the main recharge source of streams and lakes on the Inner Mongolia Plateau, in the North China Plain, and on the wetlands in Northeast China, and the isotopes in streams and spring water are different from those in local precipitation, which indicates that there are exogenetic sources for groundwater recharge. Through comparison of 2H and 18O in groundwater in the arid areas of North China and the weighted average values of 2H and 18O in precipitation over China, it was found that the percolating water in the interior regions in Tibet and in the streams and lakes in the arid areas of North China has the same recharge sources. According to preliminary estimates, the leakage amount of streams and lakes is more than 80 billion m3 per year in the interior regions in Tibet. For instance, the annual leakage amount of Nam Co Lake exceeds 9 billion m5. The groundwater cycle is 20 to 30 years, which is determined using the tritium method and

  12. Level of heavy metals in some edible marine fishes of mangrove dominated tropical estuarine areas of Hooghly River, north east coast of Bay of Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De, T K; De, M; Das, S; Ray, R; Ghosh, P B

    2010-10-01

    The muscles of some important marine fishes collected in and around Hooghly estuarine coastal areas were analyzed for the heavy metals Cu, Zn, Ni, Cd, Cr and Pb. The concentration range of Cu (16.22-47.97 ppm), Pb (12.40-19.96 ppm) and Zn (12.13-44.74 ppm) were recorded comparatively higher and were similar to that found in contaminated areas. On the other hand the ranges of Ni (2.20-3.69 ppm), Cr (0-3.89 ppm) and Cd (0.62-1.20 ppm) were almost equal to those carried out over a wide range of geographical areas. The degree of bioaccumulations was metal-specific as well as species-specific in nature. The toxic groups of metals (Pb and Cd) showed higher variability than the essential metals (Cu, Zn and Ni). The calculated intake value of metals (week⁻¹ kg⁻¹ body wt) varied from 14.88 to 27.60 of Pb, 0.87 to 1.68 of Cd, 0.0 to 5.45 of Cr, 22.70 to 137.16 of Cu, 3.08 to 5.17 of Ni and 16.98 to 62.60 of Zn through human consumption of these fishes and were compared with those of standard Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake value (PTWI) per kg body weight as stipulated by WHO. The PTWI(Cal) values of Pb in some of the fishes recorded marginally excess values and may indicate a health risk through consumption of successive 7 days in a week.

  13. Landslide susceptibility modeling in a landslide prone area in Mazandarn Province, north of Iran: a comparison between GLM, GAM, MARS, and M-AHP methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourghasemi, Hamid Reza; Rossi, Mauro

    2016-08-01

    Landslides are identified as one of the most important natural hazards in many areas throughout the world. The essential purpose of this study is to compare general linear model (GLM), general additive model (GAM), multivariate adaptive regression spline (MARS), and modified analytical hierarchy process (M-AHP) models and assessment of their performances for landslide susceptibility modeling in the west of Mazandaran Province, Iran. First, landslides were identified by interpreting aerial photographs, and extensive field works. In total, 153 landslides were identified in the study area. Among these, 105 landslides were randomly selected as training data (i.e. used in the models training) and the remaining 48 (30 %) cases were used for the validation (i.e. used in the models validation). Afterward, based on a deep literature review on 220 scientific papers (period between 2005 and 2012), eleven conditioning factors including lithology, land use, distance from rivers, distance from roads, distance from faults, slope angle, slope aspect, altitude, topographic wetness index (TWI), plan curvature, and profile curvature were selected. The Certainty Factor (CF) model was used for managing uncertainty in rule-based systems and evaluation of the correlation between the dependent (landslides) and independent variables. Finally, the landslide susceptibility zonation was produced using GLM, GAM, MARS, and M-AHP models. For evaluation of the models, the area under the curve (AUC) method was used and both success and prediction rate curves were calculated. The evaluation of models for GLM, GAM, and MARS showed 90.50, 88.90, and 82.10 % for training data and 77.52, 70.49, and 78.17 % for validation data, respectively. Furthermore, The AUC value of the produced landslide susceptibility map using M-AHP showed a training value of 77.82 % and validation value of 82.77 % accuracy. Based on the overall assessments, the proposed approaches showed reasonable results for landslide

  14. Win-win Strategy: China-North Korea Cooperation and Development of Tumen River Area%双赢战略:中朝图们江区域合作与开发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金祥波; 王禹

    2012-01-01

    从图们江地区开发的战略地位、朝鲜对图们江地区开发的态度以及中朝两国在图们江地区合作开发中取得的成果看,都充分说明图们江地区国际合作开发是推进中朝经济发展与合作的重要项目。然而,中朝在图们江地区合作开发中也存在着一些问题,要解决这些问题,一、朝鲜应该早日消除朝核危机所带来的负面影响,营造一个良好的投资环境;二、中朝两国政府应加大宣传和招商引资力度;三、中国应积极参与朝鲜罗先地区的合作开发,掌握图们江区域合作开发的主动权;四、中朝两国应遵守国际惯例和准则,保护成员国公民的合法权益。%The strategic status, the attitude of North Korea and the achievements of China and North Korea prove that cooperative development of Tumen River Area is a major project which can forward the econom- ic development of the two countries. However, problems still exist and restrain the development. Ways to solve these problems include: 1. North Korea should eliminate the negative effect of nuclear crisis as soon as possible and build a favorable environment for investment; 2. governments of both countries should strengthen international communication to attract more investment; 3. it is necessary for China to partici- pate actively in the development of Rajin-Sonbong Special Economic Zone and take initiative in the coopera- tive development of Tumen River Area; 4. both countries should abide by international practice and rules and safeguard the legal rights of citizens of member countries.

  15. Potential for biofuel use in Lithuania. Possibilities for the procurement of wood fuel in seven forest enterprise areas in north eastern Lithuania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baltrusaitis, A. [Kaunas Univ. of Technology (Lithuania); Andersson, Lars [County Board of Forestry, Vaermland-Oerebro (Sweden)

    2001-05-01

    The report is the report of the First Phase of a Joint Swedish-Lithuanian Biofuel Development Project. The aim of this project is to contribute and to lay the basis for a sustainable development project going on in Lithuania with financing from the Baltic Billion Fund under the assignment to STEM directed towards conversion of oil coal fired boilers in the district heating system to the use of biofuel. The direction of the first phase of the project was to carry out a feasibility study to identify the present conditions for the utilisation of wood fuel and to define a demonstration area in the eastern part of Lithuania, where the largest forest resources are located. The Swedish National Energy Administration has commissioned the Swedish National Board of Forestry through the County Board of Forestry in Vaermland-Oerebro to carry out this project which is made in co-operation between the Department of Forest and Protected Areas under the Ministry of Environment in Lithuania. The Energy Department and the Energy Agency under the Lithuanian Ministry of Economy and other relevant energy, forestry and environment institutions in Lithuania also participate in the project. In general the following main methodical approaches have been applied: Definition of present forestry and economic aspects of round wood supply demand situation in the area of interest, in general, and wood fuel, in particular: Calculation of future scenarios of wood fuel potential in the years 2011-2020, 2021-2030. Creation of a method for disclosing territories with the best options for establishment of demonstration area, on basis of collected versatile information. Evaluation and comparison of options for the establishment of a demonstration area, carried out based on characteristics of forest sector and industry infrastructure within seven state forest enterprises. Figures on the potential wood fuel resources in the whole country differ according to different sources. Potential mentioned in the

  16. Mechanisms for the export of archaeal lipids down the water column in the upwelling area off Cape Blanc, North-West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebersbach, Friederike; Goldenstein, Nadine; Iversen, Morten; Mollenhauer, Gesine; Hinrichs, Kai-Uwe

    2016-04-01

    thousands of individual particles collected in gels in addition to (ii) the sinking particles and SPM present in different particle size fractions on the filters. First results show that the large size fraction carries relatively more intact lipids indicating fresh material being attached to sinking particles rather than suspended in the water column. Furthermore, the distribution of 1G-GDGTs over depths differs from that of 2G- and HPH-GDGTs which might relate to different archaeal communities at different depths. Our findings contribute to the mechanistic understanding of the export of organic molecules through the water column and support the validation of lipid-based paleoceanographic proxies. References Huguet, C., Cartes, J.E., Sinninghe Damsté, J.S., Schouten, S., 2006. Marine crenarchaeotal membrane lipids in decapods: Implications for the TEX86 paleothermometer. Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems 7 (11), Q11010. Mollenhauer, G., Basse, A., Kim, J.-H., Sinninghe Damsté, J.S., Fischer, G., 2015. A four-year record of UK'37- and TEX86-derived sea surface temperature estimates from sinking particles in the filamentous upwelling region off Cape Blanc, Mauritania. Deep Sea Research Part I: Oceanographic Research Papers 97, 67-79. doi:10.1016/j.dsr.2014.11.015 Schouten, S., Hopmans, E.C., Sinninghe Damsté, J.S., 2013. The organic geochemistry of glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraether lipids: A review. Organic Geochemistry 54, 19-61. Volk, T., Hoffert, M.I., 1985. Ocean carbon pumps: analysis of relative strengths and efficiencies in ocean-driven atmospheric CO2 changes. Geophysical Monographs 32, 99-110. Yamamoto, M., Shimamoto, A., Fukuhara, T., Tanaka, Y., Ishizaka, J., 2012. Glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers and TEX86 index in sinking particles in the western North Pacific. Organic Geochemistry 53 (0), 52-62.

  17. Prevalence of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency and haemoglobin S in high and moderate malaria transmission areas of Muheza, north-eastern Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Segeja, M D; Mmbando, Bruno Paul; Kamugisha, M L;

    2008-01-01

    by the disease. In November-December 2003, we conducted a cross-sectional survey to determine the prevalence of G6PD deficiency and HbS in the population and relate these to malaria infection and haemoglobin levels in lowland and highland areas of differing malaria transmission patterns of Muheza, Tanzania...... prevalence of G6PD deficiency and HbS than highlands (G6PD deficiency = 11.32% (24/212) versus 4.43% (9/203), P = 0.01, and HbS = 16.04% (98/611) versus 6.32% (36/570), P = 0.0001). Logistic regression model showed an association between G6PD deficiency and altitude [lowlands] (Odds ratio [OR] 3.4, 95% CI...

  18. Ground-water use, locations of production wells, and areas irrigated using ground water in 1998, middle Humboldt River basin, north-central Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plume, Russell W.

    2003-01-01

    In 1998, ground water was being pumped from about 420 production wells in the middle Humboldt River Basin for a variety of uses. Principal uses were for agriculture, industry, mining, municipal, and power plant purposes. This report presents a compilation of the number and types of production wells, areas irrigated by ground water, and ground-water use in 14 hydrographic areas of the middle Humboldt River Basin in 1998. Annual pumping records for production wells usually are reported to the Nevada Division of Water Resources. However, operators of irrigation wells are not consistently required to report annual pumpage. Daily power-consumption and pump-discharge rates measured at 20 wells during the 1998 irrigation season and total power use at each well were used to estimate the amount of water, in feet of depth, applied to 20 alfalfa fields. These fields include about 10 percent of the total area, 36,700 acres, irrigated with ground water in the middle Humboldt River Basin. In 1998 an average of 2.0 feet of water was applied to 14 fields irrigated using center-pivot sprinkler systems, and an average of 2.6 feet of water was applied to 6 fields irrigated using wheel-line sprinkler systems. A similar approach was used to estimate the amount of water pumped at three wells using pumps powered by diesel engines. The two fields served by these three wells received 3.9 feet of water by flood irrigation during the 1998 irrigation season. The amount of water applied to the fields irrigated by center-pivot and wheel-line irrigation systems during the 1998 irrigation season was less than what would have been applied during a typical irrigation season because late winter and spring precipitation exceeded long-term monthly averages by as much as four times. As a result, the health of crops was affected by over-saturated soils, and most irrigation wells were only used sporadically in the first part of the irrigation season. Power consumption at 19 of the 20 wells in the 1994

  19. Cutaneous onchocerciasis in Dumbu, a pastoral area in the North-West region of Cameroon: diagnostic challenge and socio-economic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njim, Tsi; Ngum, Joel Mbigha; Aminde, Leopold Ndemnge

    2015-01-01

    Onchocerciasis is a severe parasitic infestation caused by Onchocerca volvulus which causes disabling skin and subcutaneous tissue changes and ultimately leads to blindness. It has a huge public health impact due to its socioeconomic burden and the vast number of people it affects in developing countries. In this case, a 60 years old woman was encountered with leopard skin like changes, rashes and pruritus on the left leg; which had been managed as cutaneous mycosis for over a period of 8 years. A diagnosis of onchocerciasis was finally made after a skin snip identified onchocercal microfilariae. The above case shows that onchocerciasis is still a neglected tropical disease (NTD) in Cameroon. This emphasizes the need for more expansive outreach programs in remote areas in Cameroon, a change in health policies to ensure the eradication of this disabling disease and health promotion amongst vulnerable populations. PMID:26966494

  20. Critical rainfall thresholds for debris-flows occurrence and climate changes in the Dolomitic area of Cortina d'Ampezzo (North-Eastern Italian Alps)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floris, M.; D'Alpaos, A.; Tecca, P. R.; Squarzoni, C.; Genevois, R.; Marani, M.

    2009-04-01

    The mountainous area of Cortina d'Ampezzo (Dolomites, Eastern Italian Alps) is prone to debris-flow release in response to summer high intensity-short duration rainfalls. As this area has a great touristic economic value to maintain and is densely populated, it is of the utmost importance to prevent possible property damage and casualties associated to debris flows. According to previous research for predicting debris-flow occurrence, critical rainfall threshold is a crucial triggering factor. Many studies have been carried out to establish such thresholds, based on different approaches. In this note we analyze rainfall data recorded during the period 2000-2005 in the debris-flow monitoring system of Acquabona (Cortina d'Ampezzo) (Tecca et al., 2003), to evaluate the critical rainfall threshold in the study area, expressed in terms of cumulated rainfall and rainfall intensity. Preliminary results show that the triggering threshold seems to be unaffected by long-term antecedent precipitation. All the flows were triggered by rainfalls of less than 1 hour duration, with peak rainfall intensities ranging from 4.8 to 14.7 mm / 10 min. Furthermore it has been observed that the initial debris surges were associated with peak rainfall intensities measured over 10 minutes. Seventy rainfall events, triggering and not-triggering debris flow, have been analyzed in terms of cumulated rainfall, duration, average intensity, maximum hourly intensity, maximum intensity over 10 minutes. Based on the results, using the aforementioned terms, we found that debris-flow triggering rainfalls are clearly discriminated from the not-triggering rainfall when considering the maximum intensity rainfall over 10 minutes. In a peak over threshold framework applied to the rainfall data measured at the Faloria rain gauge station from 1990 to 2006, the probability of occurrence of the determined rainfall threshold for different time intervals has been computed. The exceedance of the precipitation

  1. Evaluation of the effects of the Lake Audubon on ground- and surface-water levels in the Lake Nettie area, eastern McLean County, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, C.A.

    1983-01-01

    Flooding of some roads and agricultural lands has occurred in the Lake Nettie area of eastern McLean County. Part of the flooding was caused by the raising of the level of Lake Audubon to an elevation of 1,848 feet and the construction and filling of the McClusky Canal. Water levels have risen in the Lake Nettie aquifer as a result of raising the level of Lake Audubon. As of 1982, water levels have risen as much as 4 feet in the lower unit of the Lake Nettie aquifer and between 1 and 2 feet in the upper unit of the Lake Nettie aquifer, which is hydraulically connected to Lake Nettie and Crooked Lake. Water levels have risen in the Turtle Lake aquifer both as a result of raising the water level in Lake Audubon and the filling of McClusky Canal. Water levels have risen as much as 6 feet near the canal, but generally are less than 1 foot higher at distances of about 0.5 mile. (USGS)

  2. Prevalence of haemoparasitic infections in dairy cattle (Friesian breeds at nagari integrated dairy farms, Gauta-Nike village, Keffi local government area, Nasarawa state, north central of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Abdullahi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The of prevalence ofhaemoparasites of cattle located in Nagari Integrated Farms, Gauta-NikeVillage, Keffi Local Government Area, Nasarawa State, Nigeria was conducted inOctober 2012 where 50 Friesian cattle (male and females are kept on intensivesystem of management were randomly selected. Blood samples were collected in ananticoagulant sample bottle and submitted to the Parasitology Laboratory ofFaculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ahmadu Bello University Zaria, Kaduna state ofNigeria for parasitological examination. Giemsa stained thin blood smears wereexamined for hemoparasites and Hematocrit Centrifuge Technique (HCT was usedto determine the presence of motile parasites. An overall prevalence of 90%(82% female and 8% male was recorded for all samples examined, 21 (42% wereinfected with Anaplasma marginale, Theileria mutans shows 20 (40% prevalenceand 4 (8% were infected by Babesia bigemina. Mixed infection between Anaplasmamarginale and Babesia bigemina revealed 2 (4% while Anaplasma marginale andTheileria mutans was 7 (14%. There was a significant difference (P > 0.05in infections caused by Anaplasma marginale, Babesia bigemina and Theileriamutans (Table 1 and also between sexes(Table 3,  but there was no significant difference  (P<0.05 between any of the mixedinfections observed (Table 2. The result of this study shows thesehemoparasites are endemic in the cattle under study which may result in seriousdisease conditions when such animals are subjected to stressful condition.

  3. Geochronology and Hf–Fe isotopic geochemistry of the Phanerozoic mafic–ultramafic intrusions in the Damiao area, northern North China Craton: Implications for lithospheric destruction

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jiulong Zhou; Zhaohua Luo

    2014-06-01

    Timing and source of several Fe-mineralized mafic–ultramafic intrusions in the Damiao area are investigated here by coupling new geochronological and Hf–Fe isotopic data with previous results. Although regarded as a Late Paleoproterozoic assemblage previously, two ∼140 Ma intrusions are recognized by zircon U–Pb dating, indicating emplacement of these intrusions from Middle Devonian to Early Cretaceous times. Both Hf and Fe isotopic features lead to the conclusion that distinct mantle components contributed to their magma generation. As the first magmatic phase, the ∼395 Ma intrusions were mainly derived from the slightly-enriched SCLM that was prevalent during the Paleozoic. However, asthenospheric material was strongly involved in the formation of the ∼215 Ma Gaositai intrusion. Therefore, the initiation of lithospheric destruction in the northern NCC is inferred to have occurred in Late Triassic time, triggered by post-orogenic extension following the ∼250 Ma collision between the Siberian Craton and the NCC. The ∼140 Ma intrusions originated from a significantly-enriched mantle component probably resided in the predominant slightly-enriched SCLM. This mantle source would have melted in the Late Mesozoic, when the thin lithosphere enabled enhanced heat transfer from the asthenosphere. In summary, these distinct mantle sources of mafic–ultramafic magmatism provide a record of mantle heterogeneity and the gradual upward migration of the lithosphere–asthenosphere boundary during lithospheric destruction.

  4. Tectonic and radioactivity impacts of 238U on groundwater-based drinking water at Gosa and Lugbe areas of Abuja, North Central Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tectonic contribution of activity level of 238U in groundwater-based drinking water in Gosa and Lugbe areas of Abuja was measured using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The highest activity level of 2736 µBq L-1 reported in Lugbe borehole, whereas the lowest value of 443 µBq L-1 reported at Gosa borehole. The inhabitants permanently used water from the boreholes for daily consumption. The group receives 5.55 × 10-5 mSv of the annual collective effective dose due to 238U in drinking water. The radiological risks of 238U in the water samples were found to be low, typically in magnitude of 10-7 with cancer mortality value of 1.03 × 10-7 and morbidity value of 1.57 × 10-7. The chemical toxicity risk of 238U in drinking water over a lifetime consumption has a mean value of 4.0 × 10-3 μg kg-1 day-1. It could be that the human risk due to 238U content in groundwater supplies from ingestion may likely be the chemical toxicity of 238U as a heavy metal rather than radiological risk. Significantly, Lugbe subsurface may have developed some fractions of granitic strata that contributed to the distribution of radioactive of 238U in tectonically weak zones. (author)

  5. Apparent Resistivity and Estimated Interaction Potential of Surface Water and Groundwater along Selected Canals and Streams in the Elkhorn-Loup Model Study Area, North-Central Nebraska, 2006-07

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teeple, Andrew P.; Vrabel, Joseph; Kress, Wade H.; Cannia, James C.

    2009-01-01

    In 2005, the State of Nebraska adopted new legislation that in part requires local Natural Resources Districts to include the effect of groundwater use on surface-water systems in their groundwater management plan. In response the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Upper Elkhorn, Lower Elkhorn, Upper Loup, Lower Loup, Middle Niobrara, Lower Niobrara, Lewis and Clark, and Lower Platte North Natural Resources Districts, did a study during 2006-07 to investigate the surface-water and groundwater interaction within a 79,800-square-kilometer area in north-central Nebraska. To determine how streambed materials affect surface-water and groundwater interaction, surface geophysical and lithologic data were integrated at four sites to characterize the hydrogeologic conditions within the study area. Frequency-domain electromagnetic and waterborne direct- current resistivity profiles were collected to map the near-surface hydrogeologic conditions along sections of Ainsworth Canal near Ainsworth, Nebraska; Mirdan and Geranium Canals near Ord, Nebraska; North Loup River near Ord, Nebraska; and Middle Loup River near Thedford, Nebraska. Lithologic data were collected from test holes at each site to aid interpretation of the geophysical data. Geostatistical analysis incorporating the spatial variability of resistivity was used to account for the effect of lithologic heterogeneity on effective hydraulic permeability. The geostatistical analysis and lithologic data descriptions were used to make an interpretation of the hydrogeologic system and derive estimates of surface-water/groundwater interaction potential within the canals and streambeds. The estimated interaction potential at the Ainsworth Canal site and the Mirdan and Geranium Canal site is generally low to moderately low. The sediment textures at nearby test holes typically were silt and clay and fine-to-medium sand. The apparent resistivity values for these sites ranged from 2 to 120 ohm-meters. The vertical

  6. Artesian pressures and water quality in Paleozoic aquifers in the Ten Sleep area of the Bighorn Basin, north-central Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooley, M.E.

    1985-01-01

    Major Paleozoic artesian aquifers in the southeastern Bighorn Basin of Wyoming area, in descending order, the Tensleep Sandstone; the Madison Limestone and Bighorn Dolomite, which together form the Madison-Bighorn aquifer; and the Flathead Sandstone. Operating yields commonly are more than 1,000 gallons per minute from flowing wells completed in the Madison-Bighorn aquifer. The initial test of one well indicated a flow of 14,000 gallons per minute. Wellhead pressures range from less than 50 to more than 400 pounds per square inch. Transmissivities are 500-1,900 feet squared per day for the Madison-Bighorn aquifer and 90-325 feet squared per day for the Tensleep and Flathead Sandstones. Despite extensive development for irrigation there have been few decreases in pressure. Some decreases in pressure have occurred in wells completed in the Flathead Sandstone. Fractures along linear structural features result in significant secondary permeability and allow upward interformational movement of water that affects the altitude of the potentiometric surfaces in the Tensleep Sandstone and Madison-Bighorn aquifer. Upward-moving water from the Tensleep and other formations discharges at the land surface as springs along or near these lineations. Water from the aquifers generally contains minimal concentrations of dissolved solids and individual constituents but has excessive hardness. The water is satisfactory for irrigation and other purposes when hardness is not a detrimental factor. Wellhead temperatures range from 11 degrees to 27.5 degrees C, giving a geothermal gradient of about 0.44 degrees C per 100 feet. (USGS)

  7. 某项目测量数据库的建立与应用%Measurement database build up and its application in A1 project in the North China exploration area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘素花; 满雪峰; 于九申; 刘先玲; 庞福建

    2012-01-01

    对测量数据资料进行科学化、规范化、可视化的管理,可以及时、准确、直观地为管理部门和勘探设计人员提供以往探区资料的分布和现状。本文详细地介绍了某探区物探测量数据库的数据来源、建立方法以及数据库建成后在勘探部署、工程设计和联合处理等方面的应用。%Under scientific, standardized and visual management, surveying data can be timely, accurately and intuitively to provide the distribution and status of the previous exploration area. This paper introduced the data source of the surveying database and how to set up the database in detail. In addition, the paper described its practical application in exploration deployment, project design and cooperation processing in the North China exploration area.

  8. Expedition surveys of the sea water and atmospheric air radioactive contamination in the Russian Far Eastern coastal areas and in the North- Western Pacific in connection with accident at the 'Fukushima-1' NPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikitin, Aleksandr; Shershakov, Viacheslav; Artemev, Georgii [Research and Production Association ' Typhoon' (RPA ' Typhoon' ), Obninsk, Kaluga Region (Russian Federation); Ramzaev, Valery [Ramzaev Saint-Petersburg Research Institute of Radiation Hygiene, Saint-Petersburg (Russian Federation); Osokin, Vladimir [V.G.Khlopin Radium institute, Saint-Petersburg (Russian Federation); Sevastianov, Aleksandr [Far Eastern Regional Hydrometeorological Research Institute, Vladivostok (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    In accordance with decision of the Russian Federation Federal Service on Hydro-meteorology and Environmental Monitoring (Roshydromet) on assessment of the sea water and atmospheric air radioactive contamination in the Russian coastal areas of the Far East in connection with accident at the 'Fukushima-1' NPP in Japan, two radioecological expedition surveys were conducted onboard of research vessels of the Far Eastern Regional Hydro-meteorological Research Institute (FERHRI) of Roshydromet in the Sea of Japan and in the North-Western Pacific (in the area adjacent to Kurile Islands and in the Kuroshio current selected area (coordinates 36 deg. 00'- 39 deg. 33' n., 146 deg. 33'- 150 deg. 00' e.): first survey in April-May 2011, onboard R/V 'Pavel Gordienko', second survey in August-September 2012, onboard R/V 'Akademik Shokalsky'. Both surveys were conducted under the Russian Geographical Society patronage. The leading Russian institutions dealing with ensuring of population radiation safety and protection of environment from radioactive contamination were enlisted to investigations. The following main observations were performed during the surveys: constant measurement of gamma-radiation dose rate above the sea surface; twenty-four hour sampling of atmospheric aerosols, sea water sampling from the surface and deep water horizons with preliminary concentrating of radionuclides for onboard gamma-spectrometry and for subsequent transportation to the shore laboratories for further analysis. During the expeditions, a real-time data were received onboard of research vessels which characterize impact of input of radioactive products of the 'Fukushima-1' NPP accident on radioactive contamination of environment existed on that period (these are onboard estimates of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 134}Cs concentrations in the sea water samples and {sup 131}I, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 134}Cs content in atmospheric aerosol samples, data

  9. On Development Strategy of Combination Newly-developed Area with Media in North Fujian%论闽北新兴发展区域媒体融合发展策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    路善全

    2011-01-01

    The media fusion is not only one kind of technology advancement,is also one kind of medium shape innovation;Is not only the method,is also the goal.The Minbei North Fujian emerging developed area transformation media development way,chooses road of inevitably the medium fusion."Chengdu pattern","the Mudanjiang pattern" provided for the Minbei emerging developed area media fusion development has experienced and uses for reference.The new media time Minbei emerging developed area media fusion development strategy includes:Implements three steps walks the strategy,the carrying out gradation reform;The establishment group politics localization,the strengthened organization guaranteed;Speeds up the construction infrastructure,establishes the multiple simulated markets;Strengthens the talented person troop construction,the promotion public medium accomplishment.%媒体融合既是一种技术进步,也是一种媒介形态创新;既是手段,也为目的。闽北新兴发展区域转变媒体发展方式,必然选择走媒介融合之路。"成都模式"、"牡丹江模式"为闽北新兴发展区域媒体融合发展提供了经验和借鉴。新媒体时代闽北新兴发展区域媒体融合发展策略包括:实施三步走战略,推行渐进性改革;确立集团政治定位,强化组织保证;加快建设基础设施,建立多重模拟市场;加强人才队伍建设,提升公众媒介素养。

  10. The metamorphic evolution from ultrahigh-temperature to amphibolite facies metamorphism in the Odaesan area after the collision between the North and South China Cratons in the Korean Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byung Choon; Oh, Chang Whan; Kim, Tae Sung; Yi, Keewook

    2016-07-01

    The Odaesan Gneiss Complex (Odesan Gneiss Complex) is the eastern end of the Hongseong-Odaesan collision belt in the Korean Peninsula, which is an extension of the Dabie-Sulu collision belt between the North and South China cratons. The Odaesan Gneiss Complex mainly consists of banded and migmatitic gneisses with porphyritic granitoids and amphibolites. The garnet-bearing banded gneisses can be subdivided into garnet-biotite and garnet-orthopyroxene banded gneisses. At the beginning of the post-collision stage, the banded gneisses underwent regional ultrahigh-temperature metamorphism (902-950 °C/8.8-9.4 kbar) at ca. 247-245 Ma due to the heat supplied from underplated basic magma, which was generated by the partial melting of the lithospheric mantle caused by the heat supplied from the asthenospheric mantle. As a result of the continuous extensional force, the study area (lower crust) uplifted onto the middle crust depths, and then the study area underwent prograde granulite facies metamorphism from 660 °C and 8.7 kbar to 750-760 °C and 6.3-6.5 kbar at ca. 227 Ma, causing migmatization, which erased the ultrahigh-temperature metamorphism in most of the study area. The ultrahigh-temperature metamorphism was preserved only in the garnet-orthopyroxene banded gneisses due to their very low water contents. During migmatization, the garnet-biotite banded gneisses were retrograded into upper granulite facies due to the relatively abundant water compared with the garnet-orthopyroxene gneisses. Finally, the study area was uplifted to a shallow depth and locally underwent amphibolite facies retrograde metamorphism (575-680 °C and 3.1-4.5 kbar). In addition, Paleoproterozoic metamorphic (ca. 1930-1886 Ma) and post-collisional magmatic events (ca. 1847 Ma) are identified based on SHRIMP age dating. These ages agree well with the regional Paleoproterozoic metamorphic and post-collisional magmatic activities reported from other areas of the Gyeonggi Massif.

  11. Edible North

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Anders Kristian

    2012-01-01

    -constitutive role in the formation of publics (Marres 2007) and the ways in which they are themselves reconfigured as ‘matters of concern’ (Latour 2003) in this process. I draw on digital cartographies and fieldwork carried out under the Carlsberg funded project Edible North: Mapping the ’New Nordic Food......With the publication of the Manifesto for a New Nordic Cuisine in 2004, the gastronomic potentials of the Scandinavian flora and fauna became the basis for a social innovation project with ambitions far beyond fine dining and select produce. Since then New Nordic Food has become a key platform...... for articulating concerns about (and discuss solutions for) more divisive or contentious topics like the lack of development in peripheral Scandinavia, the relationship between diet and disease, or the sustainability of our food production system. From an STS perspective it is interesting to contemplate how...

  12. North Carolina Statewide Lidar DEM 2014 Phase 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Geographic Extent: North Carolina Area of Interest for Sandy, covering approximately 9,396 square miles. Dataset Description: The North Carolina - Sandy LiDAR...

  13. 2014 NCFMP Lidar: Statewide North Carolina (Phase 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Geographic Extent: North Carolina Area of Interest for Sandy, covering approximately 9,396 square miles. Dataset Description: The North Carolina - Sandy LiDAR...

  14. Proliferation of MISS-related microbial mats following the end-Permian mass extinction in terrestrial ecosystems: Evidence from the Lower Triassic of the Yiyang area, Henan Province, North China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Chenyi; Chen, Zhong-Qiang; Retallack, Gregory J.; Huang, Yuangeng; Fang, Yuheng

    2016-03-01

    Microbially induced sedimentary structures (MISSs) are commonly present in siliciclastic shallow marine settings following the end-Permian mass extinction, but have been rarely reported in the post-extinction terrestrial ecosystems. Here, we present six types of well-preserved MISSs from the upper Sunjiagou Formation and lower Liujiagou Formation of Induan (Early Triassic) age in the Yiyang area, Henan Province, North China. These MISSs include: polygonal sand cracks, worm-like structures, wrinkle structures, sponge pore fabrics, gas domes, and leveled ripple marks. Microanalysis shows that these MISSs are characterized by thin clayey laminae and filamentous mica grains arranged parallel to bedding plane as well as oriented matrix supported quartz grains, which are indicative of biogenic origin. Facies analysis suggests that the MISS-hosting sediments were deposited in a fluvial sedimentary system during the Early Triassic, including lake delta, riverbeds/point bars, and flood plain paleoenvironments. Abundant MISSs from Yiyang indicate that microbes also proliferated in terrestrial ecosystems in the aftermath of the Permian-Triassic (P-Tr) biocrisis, like they behaved in marine ecosystems. Microbial blooms, together with dramatic loss of metazoans, may reflect environmental stress and degradation of terrestrial ecosystems or arid climate immediately after the severe Permian-Triassic ecologic crisis.

  15. 一种适合北方近南向窗口的可变构造设计方案%A variable structure design scheme suitable for near south window in north area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王天鹏

    2014-01-01

    针对北方地区节能设计的不足之处,提出了一种新型建筑窗口可变式构造设施的设计方案,详细阐述了冬季白天纳阳保温、夏季白天遮阳隔热等设计方法,以便能够实现综合协调天然采光、冬季增加室内太阳辐射得热、夏季遮阳隔热、防风沙、防爆等多功能需求。%According to the shortcomings of energy-saving design in north area,the paper proposed the design scheme of new type building window variable structure facilities,elaborated in detail the daytime sun insulation in winter,daytime shading heat insulation in summer and other design methods,in order to achieve the comprehensive coordination of heat day lighting,increase indoor solar radiation and heat insulation in winter, shading heat insulation in summer,anti-sandstorm,anti-storm and other functional requirements.

  16. 33 CFR 3.04-3 - Pacific Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....04-3 Pacific Area. (a) The Area Office is in Alameda, CA. (b) The Pacific Area is comprised of the.... longitude to the North American land mass; thence along the west coast of the North, Central, and...

  17. Saúde infantil em áreas pobres das regiões Norte e Nordeste do Brasil: comparando indicadores básicos em áreas atendidas pela Pastoral da Criança e áreas-controle Child health in poor areas of North and Northeast Brazil: a comparison of areas covered by the Children's Mission and control areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juraci A. Cesar

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Os diagnósticos comunitários de saúde são essenciais para o conhecimento de indicadores locais de saúde, avaliação de programas e implementação de ações em saúde. Em meados de 2002, realizou-se diagnóstico de saúde infantil em 18 áreas de nove municípios pobres nas regiões Norte e Nordeste do Brasil. Nove dessas áreas eram visitadas pelos líderes da Pastoral da Criança (LPC e as outras não. Por meio de questionários padronizados, entrevistadores previamente treinados coletaram informações no domicílio sobre 1.528 crianças menores de cinco anos, sendo 782 visitadas pelas LPC e 772 não visitadas. Essas crianças e suas famílias viviam em situação de extrema pobreza; 40,0% dos seus pais não eram alfabetizados, a renda per capita diária era de US$ 0,30, as condições de moradia, muito ruins. No entanto, a maioria dessas crianças vivia a menos de 1km de algum serviço público de saúde, e praticamente todas aquelas levadas à consulta médica conseguiram atendimento. O pré-natal foi inadequado em termos quantitativos e qualitativos. Crianças visitadas pelas LPC apresentaram melhor monitoração do crescimento, suas mães fizeram mais consultas de pré-natal e receberam mais freqüentemente sulfato ferroso.Community surveys are essential to estimate health indicators, evaluate health programs, and define health interventions. In 2002, a cross-sectional survey of children under five was conducted in 18 areas of the poorest counties in North and Northeast Brazil. Nine areas were visited by volunteer community health workers (CHW under the Children's Mission, and the others were not visited. Using a standard questionnaire, trained interviewers collected information at the household level for 1,528 children, 782 of whom were visited monthly by CHWs and 772 were not. All the children and their families were living below the poverty line; 40.0% of the parents were illiterate, per capita daily income was about US$0

  18. High resolution stratigraphy and paleoenvironmental changes in the southern North Sea during the Neogene : an integrated study of Late Cenozoic marine deposits from the northern part of the Dutch offshore area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuhlmann, Gesa

    2004-01-01

    This thesis is the result of a multidisciplinary study on the prograding marine Neogene sedimentary succession of the southern North Sea Basin. To date, sediment material available from the Neogene North Sea is very scarce. Its location between 400 and 1500 m below the seabed in the depocentre of th

  19. High resolution stratigraphy and paleoenvironmental changes in the southern North Sea during the Neogene : An integrated study of Late Cenozoic marine deposits from the northern part of the Dutch offshore area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuhlmann, G.

    2004-01-01

    This thesis is the result of a multidisciplinary study on the prograding marine Neogene sedimentary succession of the southern North Sea Basin. To date, sediment material available from the Neogene North Sea is very scarce. Its location between 400 and 1500 m below the seabed in the depocentre of th

  20. Built Environment And Public Health Review And Planning In North American Metropolitan Areas%北美都市区建成环境与公共健康关系的研究述评及其启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林雄斌; 杨家文

    2015-01-01

    Industrialization and urbanization have fundamentaly changed the built environment of cities, and caused negative efects such as environmental polution and physical diseases. Improving physical activities and health is the new concept of overseas built environment planning. There has been abundant study on the relationship of “built environment-public health” in North America metropolitan areas. The paper discusses the impact of land use, transportation system on public health, learns experience from North America, and provides reference for Chinese healthy built environment development.%我国工业化、城市化和机动化的快速发展显著改变了城市建成环境的特征,带来居民体力活动缺乏和环境污染等问题,导致肥胖、心血管等慢性疾病的增加。建成环境作为城市规划建设在空间上的反映,是影响居民体力活动和健康的重要载体。从建成环境规划与优化的视角来鼓励公众体力活动、提升健康水平,成为国外城市规划新的理念。北美都市区对“建成环境—公共健康”互动关系的研究已有丰富成果,并实施应对健康问题的体力活动建议导则与建成环境规划设计策略。研究重点论述土地利用、交通系统等建成环境因素对体力活动和健康的影响作用机制,进而借鉴北美都市区的公共健康问题的规划应对,为缓解我国城市健康问题和推进健康城市建成环境规划提供借鉴。

  1. Developments in Impact Assessment in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beginning with a background of recent global developments in this area, this presentation will focus on how global research has impacted North America and how North America is providing additional developments to address the issues of the global economy. Recent developments inc...

  2. Food security in 'Grain for Green Project' area of North Shaanxi based on households.%基于农户尺度的陕北退耕区粮食安全

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文卓; 谢永生

    2011-01-01

    对陕北退耕区米脂县(人口高密度区)和吴起县(低密度区)农户尺度粮食生产能力进行分析,应用最小人均耕地面积和生产函数方法研究了该区粮食安全状况及影响因素.结果表明:人口低密度区的粮食生产能力可基本保障其粮食安全,而人151高密度区不能确保粮食安全;基本农田面积和农业科技投入是影响农户粮食安全的主要因素,劳动力投入、素质和粮食补贴也有正向影响,但目前的农业科技水平和劳动力素质未达到粮食生产能力的囤蓄要求.应加大基本农田和农业科学技术的囤蓄力度,达到最小人均基本农田0.14 hm2,重视农业劳动力的技术培训,并制定合理的退耕后续政策.%This paper analyzed the food production by the households in the counties with high population ( Mizhi County) and low population (Wuqi County) in North Shaanxi. and studied the food security and its affecting factors in the two counties by using minimum cropland area per capita and Cobb-Douglass production function methods. The results demonstrated that the food production in low population county could meet the basic standard of food security, while that in high population county could not. Cultivated area and investment in agricultural technology were the major factors affecting food security; labor force, labor quality, and grain subsidy also had positive effects on food production. The current technology and labor quality did not reach their potential for food production. This region needed to increase grain production area to reach the mimmum standard of 0.14 hm2 per capita, put much stress on labor force training, and formulate appropriate following policies for 'Grain for Green' to realize the food security strategy.

  3. 华北平原冬小麦面积遥感提取及时空变化研究%Using remote sensing to determine spatio-temporal variations in winter wheat growing area in the North China Plain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘学鹏; 李改欣; 刘峰贵; 吴喜芳; 近藤昭彦; 沈彦俊

    2015-01-01

    Agricultural land uses affect land surface energy and water balance. The North China Plain (NCP) is one of the most important agricultural regions in China and is experiencing a severe water shortage due to decades of excessive extraction of groundwater for crop irrigation. The precise determination of the distribution of the land areas under different crops in NCP does not only provide the basic information needed for evaluating agricultural water consumption in space but also improve agricultural planning for sustainable water resources management. In this study, we established a method for agricultural land use classification using MODIS NDVI data time-series. Raw 16-day composite NDVI data were first processed using HANTS filtering and then sampled the time-series pattern of NDVI for different croplands based on ground truth data. The typical phenological characteristics of the main crops were determined based on field-monitored phenological data in agro-meteorological stations in the study area. Then multiple cropping index (MCI) was induced based on the NDVI time-series to distinguish land areas under wheat-corn double cropping system. Finally, the cultivated area under winter wheat in NCP for the period of 2000–2013 was extracted by using the CART algorithm. The result was validated with county agricultural statistics data, which showed a statistically significant correlation for the 13-year period with correlation coefficient of 0.94 at 95% confidence level. The probability of consistency less than 40% between the remote-sensing derived cultivated area and agricultural statistics data for the study period was less than 15% for the municipalities in the study area. Agricultural land use frequently changed (about yearly) due to crop rotation, price fluctuation, water limitation, etc. This made it difficult to evaluate agricultural land use change from only comparison of agricultural land use maps for any set of years. Thus in this study, the land use change

  4. Surveillance of schistosomiasis in Jinbao Channel areas in east route of Southto-North Water Diversion Project%南水北调东线工程金宝航道区域血吸虫病疫情监测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙道宽; 李倩; 王启龙

    2011-01-01

    Objective To understand the dynamic of the endemic situation of schistosomiasis in Jinbao Channel areas, so as to provide the evidence for surveillance and early-warning of schistosomiasis in the east route of the South-to-North Water Diversion Project. Methods The conventional methods were used for the surveillance of Oncomelarda hupensis snails in the first grade tributary and the flood land of Jinbao Channel. The methods of net salvage and attracting snails with rice straw curtains were used for snail surveys underwater in the surveillance sites. The residents, fishermen and crew were surveyed for schistosomiasis in the regions along the Jinbao Channel. The situation of the fishing boats carrying snails were surveyed, too. Results The accumulated areas where snails checked were 364.20 hm2. A total of 2 785 kg floats were collected and 400 pieces of rice straw curtains were placed in the surveillance sites, but no snails were found from 2006 to 2010. A total of 7 951 persons were surveyed for schistosomiasis by the serological test, and the total positive rate was 0.92%. The positive rates in the residents and fishermen were 0.79% and 1.55%, respectively. The fishmen's seropositive rate was higher than the residents' (χ2=7.11, P< 0.01). A total of 65 people received fecal examinations and there was one infected case. A total of 54 fish boats and 93 fishing gears were detected and no snails were found. Conclusions There are no snails and schistosomiasis transmission, but there are the risks of imported schistosomiasis infectious source in the regions along the Jinbao Channel in the east route of the South-to-North Water Diversion Project, therefore, the long-term surveillance is necessary.%目的 了解南水北调东线工程金宝航道血吸虫病疫情动态,为东线工程血吸虫病监测预警提供科学依据.方法 每年对金宝航道及其一级支流、周边滩地进行钉螺调查,选择金宝航道退水闸段为监测点,采用网捞法和稻

  5. Appliance of oxygen and hydrogen isotope in the process of precipitation infiltration in the shallow groundwater areas of North China Plain%基于氢氧同位素的华北平原降水入渗过程

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王仕琴; 宋献方; 肖国强; 王志民; 刘鑫; 王鹏

    2009-01-01

    华北平原地下水浅埋区水循环主要以垂直方向上的入渗、蒸发和蒸腾的方式存在,同位素可以作为一种有效"示踪剂"揭示降水入渗补给地下水的过程.选择华北平原中、东部地下水浅埋区的衡水和沧州为典型实验点,研究不同降水特征、土壤质地和植被条件下入渗过程的差异性.结果表明,土壤非均质条件下(沧州), 降水入渗补给过程中伴随着蒸发、植被蒸腾作用以及与土壤前期水分的强烈混合作用, 活塞流入渗的同时土壤100cm深度可能还存在大孔隙优先流; 土壤均质条件下(衡水), 降水向下均匀入渗,入渗速度较快,土壤水运动以新水基本代替老水的活塞流为主要形式,并经过强烈的蒸发浓缩作用补给地下水.%In the shallow groundwater areas of North China Plain water cycle mostly occurs as infiltration, evaporation and evapotranspiration in the vertical direction, in which the unsaturated zone plays an important role in precipitation and groundwater. Isotope can be used to trace the process when the precipitation infiltrates and recharges groundwater. In this paper Cangzhou and Hengshui sites are selected as the typical shallow groundwater areas to research the difference of the infiltration process under the different precipitation features, soil textures and vegetation conditions. The results show that at the site with the heterogeneous soil texture the precipitation infiltrates and moves in soil as the piston mode and the mixture effect, and the evapotranspiration effect during the infiltration process is significant in the distribution of soil water. Some evidence is provided for the existence of the preferable flow at 100 m depth. The groundwater is mainly recharged by precipitation. However, at the homogeneous site the infiltration process is uniform and the soil water moves as piston mode, too. Both deep soil water and groundwater are totally recharged by precipitation. After

  6. EUB Decision 2006-112 : Suncor Energy Inc. application for expansion of an oil sands mine (North Steepbank mine extension) and a bitumen upgrading facility (Voyageur Upgrader) in the Fort McMurray area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suncor Energy Inc. filed 2 applications to the Alberta Energy and Utilities Board for their proposed North Steepbank Mine Extension and Voyageur Upgrading Facility in the Fort McMurray area. This document provided an outline to the board of the location of the proposed projects, along with technical details concerning sulphur recovery, coke gasification, and by-product storage and use. The applications shared a common environmental impact assessment report, which presented details of tailings management programs; environmental effects to air, terrestrial resources, surface water, and groundwater; potential health effects to human populations; and traditional land use and ecological knowledge of the lands in the areas of the proposed upgrades. The social and economic effects of the projects were considered by the board, as well as the efforts of Suncor to engage with public consultation processes. It was noted that the projects are expected to provide $7.1 billion in federal taxes paid over the life of the project, in addition to $3.6 billion in provincial taxes and a further $23 million in municipal taxes. Details of several interventions filed by various First Nations groups were presented. It was noted that the Oil Sands Environmental Coalition (OSEC) has filed interventions stating concerns over consultation practices; cumulative effects; environmental monitoring; water usage; reclamation policies; and socio-economic issues. Various other groups have expressed concerns over the impacts of rapid development in the region and the subsequent strains on public infrastructure, housing and community resources. While the project is expected to provide employment, the current labour shortage in the region means that further development will be a disadvantage rather than a benefit to the communities in the region. Although a number of conditions were placed on Suncor before full acceptance of the project could be given, the board concluded that the Voyageur project was

  7. Local-area-enhanced, 2.5-meter resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of the North Takhar mineral district in Afghanistan: Chapter D in Local-area-enhanced, high-resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of mineral districts in Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Philip A.; Cagney, Laura E.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Defense Task Force for Business and Stability Operations, prepared databases for mineral-resource target areas in Afghanistan. The purpose of the databases is to (1) provide useful data to ground-survey crews for use in performing detailed assessments of the areas and (2) provide useful information to private investors who are considering investment in a particular area for development of its natural resources. The set of satellite-image mosaics provided in this Data Series (DS) is one such database. Although airborne digital color-infrared imagery was acquired for parts of Afghanistan in 2006, the image data have radiometric variations that preclude their use in creating a consistent image mosaic for geologic analysis. Consequently, image mosaics were created using ALOS (Advanced Land Observation Satellite; renamed Daichi) satellite images, whose radiometry has been well determined (Saunier, 2007a,b). This part of the DS consists of the locally enhanced ALOS image mosaics for the North Takhar mineral district, which has placer gold deposits. ALOS was launched on January 24, 2006, and provides multispectral images from the AVNIR (Advanced Visible and Near-Infrared Radiometer) sensor in blue (420–500 nanometer, nm), green (520–600 nm), red (610–690 nm), and near-infrared (760–890 nm) wavelength bands with an 8-bit dynamic range and a 10-meter (m) ground resolution. The satellite also provides a panchromatic band image from the PRISM (Panchromatic Remote-sensing Instrument for Stereo Mapping) sensor (520–770 nm) with the same dynamic range but a 2.5-m ground resolution. The image products in this DS incorporate copyrighted data provided by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (©JAXA,2006,2008), but the image processing has altered the original pixel structure and all image values of the JAXA ALOS data, such that original image values cannot be recreated from this DS. As such

  8. The North Dakota lignite partnership

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The State of North Dakota and the Lignite Energy Council have formed a government/industry partnership to promote the use of North Dakota lignite. The partnership provides funding and management for the Lignite Research, Development and Marketing Program. The program funds activities which preserve and enhance jobs and lignite production; ensure economic growth, stability and opportunity; and maintain a stable and competitive tax base. Funding is provided for activities in three areas: marketing feasibility studies, small research projects, and demonstration projects. Funding is derived from the state coal severance tax. Approximately $3,000,000 annually is appropriated from coal severance revenues for program activities. North Dakota is the ninth largest coal producing state, with lignite as the only rank of coal found in the state. Energy is the second largest economic sector in North Dakota, and it currently comprises over 12% of the state's total economic base. This paper reviews the North Dakota lignite industry and describes studies and projects which have received funding from the program

  9. Risk analysis on agricultural drainage ditch filling and flood disasters in lower plain area of North China%华北低平原农田排水沟平填及洪涝灾害风险分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵晓宇; 张凤荣; 李超

    2016-01-01

    The construction of irrigation and water conservancy was initiated on the North China Plain in the 1950s, which played a significant role in the saline-alkali soil improvement and flood discharge. However, the phenomenon of filling agricultural drainage ditches has become common in the North China Plain since the 1990s. It is necessary to know the condition of filling agricultural drainage ditches and flood disasters related with this phenomenon. Nowadays, there are few researches to analyze the condition of filling agricultural drainage ditches. In order to enrich existing studies, this research took Cangxian County which was battered by flooding and soil salinization in lower plain area as a case study, and explored the condition of filling agricultural drainage ditch and the flood disaster. The changes of drainage ditch area and spatial variation were analyzed based on land use databases of Cangxian County in 1992 and 2010 using the method of GIS (geographic information system). Then, the condition of filling agricultural drainage ditch was investigated by means of the field research in Nan Gutun Village. This village was one of the most densely populated agriculture villages in Cangxian County. Interviewing with the village committee members and the villagers over 70 years old, we learned about the local agricultural production mode, the way of life, the changes of agricultural drainage ditch and its mechanisms from 1960s to now. Finally, we analyzed the risk of flood disasters from the aspects of precipitation trends, percentage of precipitation anomalies, underground water level, drought/flood frequency, relationship between soil water capacity and rainfall, and upland water condition. The results showed that from 1992 to 2010, the area of drainage ditches in Cangxian County reduced by 37.73%. Meanwhile, the proportion of drainage ditches in Cangxian County decreased by 2.03% and the farm ditches was the most serious in being filled. The results of flood

  10. Qualitative study on health and developmental status among left-behind children in North Guizhou Rural Area%黔北农村留守儿童健康和抚育现状定性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹宇量

    2012-01-01

    目的 探究贵州北部农村留守儿童健康和抚育现状,为留守儿童教育和卫生保健工作的开展提供线索.方法 利用定性研究中的焦点团体访谈和个人深度访谈法,了解4个典型留守家庭中儿童生长发育、心理行为发育、常见疾病、发展期望等方面的现状.结果 留守儿童家庭经济状况较差;和非留守儿童相比,留守儿童在生长发育、心理行为发育方面无明显落后,常见疾病发病情况差异无统计学意义.但留守儿童表现出和父母之间依恋关系不强、言语交流差、学业成绩差等现象,其未来发展困难较大.结论 “留守”对儿童健康和抚育有一定不利影响.应充分利用儿童发展环境中的有利资源,促进留守儿童健康发展.%Objective To explore the health and developmental status among left-behind children in north Guizhou rural area. Methods Focus Group Discussions and Personal Interview from qualitative study methods were used to investigate the status of growth and development, psychological and behavioral development, diseases occurrence, perspective of future development a-mong left-behind children in 4 typical families. Results The economic status of left-behind families was poor. Compared with other children, differences in growth and development, psychological and behavioral development, and disease occurrence were not significant among left-behind children. However, the lack of attachment with biological parents, poor oral communication, and poor academic achievement were obvious among left-behind children, and the future of those children were even harder. Conclusion Being left-behind has some negative effects on children' s health and development, some beneficial resources in left-behind children' s environment should be used sufficiently to improve children' s health and development.

  11. Phoenix Animation Looking North

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for animation This animation is a series of images, taken by NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Surface Stereo Imager, combined into a panoramic view looking north from the lander. The area depicted is beyond the immediate workspace of the lander and shows a system of polygons and troughs that connect with the ones Phoenix will be investigating in depth. The images were taken on sol 14 (June 8, 2008) or the 14th Martian day after landing. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  12. Geology and mineral resources of the Sheldon-Hart Mountain National Wildlife Refuge Complex (Oregon and Nevada), the Southeastern Oregon and North-Central Nevada, and the Southern Idaho and Northern Nevada (and Utah) Sagebrush Focal Areas: Chapter B in Mineral resources of the Sagebrush Focal Areas of Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, Utah, and Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vikre, Peter G.; Benson, Mary Ellen; Bleiwas, Donald I.; Colgan, Joseph P.; Cossette, Pamela M.; DeAngelo, Jacob; Dicken, Connie L.; Drake, Ronald M.; du Bray, Edward A.; Fernette, Gregory L.; Glen, Jonathan M.G.; Haacke, Jon E.; Hall, Susan M.; Hofstra, Albert H.; John, David A.; Ludington, Stephen; Mihalasky, Mark J.; Rytuba, James J.; Shaffer, Brian N.; Stillings, Lisa L.; Wallis, John C.; Williams, Colin F.; Yager, Douglas B.; Zürcher, Lukas

    2016-10-04

    This report is temporarily unavailableSummaryThe U.S. Department of the Interior has proposed to withdraw approximately 10 million acres of Federal lands from mineral entry (subject to valid existing rights) from 12 million acres of lands defined as Sagebrush Focal Areas (SFAs) in Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, Utah, and Wyoming (for further discussion on the lands involved see Scientific Investigations Report 2016–5089–A). The purpose of the proposed action is to protect the greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) and its habitat from potential adverse effects of locatable mineral exploration and mining. The U.S. Geological Survey Sagebrush Mineral-Resource Assessment (SaMiRA) project was initiated in November 2015 and supported by the Bureau of Land Management to (1) assess locatable mineral-resource potential and (2) to describe leasable and salable mineral resources for the seven SFAs and Nevada additions.This chapter summarizes the current status of locatable, leasable, and salable mineral commodities and assesses the potential of selected locatable minerals in lands proposed for withdrawal that span the Nevada, Oregon, Idaho, and Utah borders. In this report, the four study areas evaluated were (1) the Sheldon-Hart Mountain National Wildlife Refuge Complex SFA in Washoe County, Nevada, and Harney and Lake Counties, Oregon; (2) the Southeastern Oregon and North-Central Nevada SFA in Humboldt County, Nevada, and Harney and Malheur Counties, Oregon; (3) the Southern Idaho and Northern Nevada SFA in Cassia, Owyhee, and Twin Falls Counties, Idaho, Elko County, Nevada, and Box Elder County, Utah; and (4) the Nevada additions in Humboldt and Elko Counties, Nevada.

  13. Geology and mineral resources of the Sheldon-Hart Mountain National Wildlife Refuge Complex (Oregon and Nevada), the Southeastern Oregon and North-Central Nevada, and the Southern Idaho and Northern Nevada (and Utah) Sagebrush Focal Areas: Chapter B in Mineral resources of the Sagebrush Focal Areas of Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, Utah, and Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vikre, Peter G.; Benson, Mary Ellen; Bleiwas, Donald I.; Colgan, Joseph P.; Cossette, Pamela M.; DeAngelo, Jacob; Dicken, Connie L.; Drake, Ronald M.; du Bray, Edward A.; Fernette, Gregory L.; Glen, Jonathan M.G.; Haacke, Jon E.; Hall, Susan M.; Hofstra, Albert H.; John, David A.; Ludington, Stephen; Mihalasky, Mark J.; Rytuba, James J.; Shaffer, Brian N.; Stillings, Lisa L.; Wallis, John C.; Williams, Colin F.; Yager, Douglas B.; Zürcher, Lukas

    2016-10-04

    SummaryThe U.S. Department of the Interior has proposed to withdraw approximately 10 million acres of Federal lands from mineral entry (subject to valid existing rights) from 12 million acres of lands defined as Sagebrush Focal Areas (SFAs) in Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, Utah, and Wyoming (for further discussion on the lands involved see Scientific Investigations Report 2016–5089–A). The purpose of the proposed action is to protect the greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) and its habitat from potential adverse effects of locatable mineral exploration and mining. The U.S. Geological Survey Sagebrush Mineral-Resource Assessment (SaMiRA) project was initiated in November 2015 and supported by the Bureau of Land Management to (1) assess locatable mineral-resource potential and (2) to describe leasable and salable mineral resources for the seven SFAs and Nevada additions.This chapter summarizes the current status of locatable, leasable, and salable mineral commodities and assesses the potential of selected locatable minerals in lands proposed for withdrawal that span the Nevada, Oregon, Idaho, and Utah borders. In this report, the four study areas evaluated were (1) the Sheldon-Hart Mountain National Wildlife Refuge Complex SFA in Washoe County, Nevada, and Harney and Lake Counties, Oregon; (2) the Southeastern Oregon and North-Central Nevada SFA in Humboldt County, Nevada, and Harney and Malheur Counties, Oregon; (3) the Southern Idaho and Northern Nevada SFA in Cassia, Owyhee, and Twin Falls Counties, Idaho, Elko County, Nevada, and Box Elder County, Utah; and (4) the Nevada additions in Humboldt and Elko Counties, Nevada.

  14. 皖北某县中学生艾滋病知识及态度的现况调查%Field survey on AIDS/HIV knowledge and attitudes in the middle school students in north Anhui areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈见; 何宇轩; 左淑娟; 方璐; 吴慕云; 卢放; 姚应水

    2012-01-01

    目的:了解皖北某县中学生对艾滋病的知识、态度的现状,为开展艾滋病健康教育提供理论依据.方法:采用整群抽样的方法抽取皖北地区某县在校初、高中生共1 600名,对其进行自填式匿名问卷调查.分析比较不同性别、年级的学生对艾滋病的知识、态度间的差异.结果:调查对象艾滋病基本知识回答正确率为26.2%~94.1%,其中对艾滋病相关政策方面的知识回答正确率为30%左右.艾滋病的全名、致死原因、蚊虫叮咬不会致病的原因、抗艾滋病标志等问题高中生的回答正确率高于初中生,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).对艾滋病传播途径知识正确回答率男生高于女生,高中生高于初中生,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).70%左右的被调查者可以接受与艾滋病人有社交性的接触,如乘同一交通工具、共用劳动工具,而且80%以上的被调查愿意给艾滋病人做护理工作,而仅有40%左右的中学生可以接受与艾滋病人共同进餐或者从艾滋病患者处购物.结论:应加强对低年级学生的艾滋病健康教育,并注重对艾滋病传播机制及国家政策等方面的宣传,以提高学生对艾滋病的认识.%Objective: To investigate the status of the knowledge, attitudes and behaviors towards AIDS/HIV in the middle school students from north Anhui areas for scientific evidence to supply this body with corresponding health education on the disease. Methods:By cluster sampling, we conducted a field survey on 1 600 junior and senior school students from certain area of a county in north Anhui province by written questionnaire responding anonymously,and examined the difference towards AID/ HIV knowledge and attitudes in the subjects concerning their sexes and years of schooling. Results: Of the valid questionnaires,26. 2% to 94.1% responders responded correctly to the general knowledge on AIDS/HIV epidemic, among whom some 30% gave accurate answers to the state

  15. Education and Leisure in North European Urban Spaces, with Emphasis on Less Privileged Areas, Particularly in the United Kingdom. A Seminar (London, England, United Kingdom, April 13, 1989). Educational Buildings and Equipment 11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Union of Architects, Paris (France).

    This collection was gathered from a seminar entitled "Education and Leisure in North European Urban Spaces," which was the result of cooperation between the Sports, Leisure, and Tourism Work Group of the International Union of Architects and the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). Papers were given by…

  16. Gender Disparities and Socio-Economic Factors on Learning Achievements in Agricultural Science in Rural and Urban Secondary Schools of Ogbomoso North Local Government Area of Oyo State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amao, S. R.; Gbadamosi, J.

    2015-01-01

    To contribute to the realization of the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) by the United Nations on the promotion of gender equity, the researchers sought to empirically verify the existence or otherwise of gender inequality in the agricultural and science achievement of urban and rural, male and female students in Ogbomoso North Local Government…

  17. Diseases in North Sea fishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dethlefsen, V.

    1984-03-01

    Prior to the studies reviewed here, only lymphocystis and skeletal deformities of a variety of fish species and certain diseases of eel were known to occur in the German Bight (North Sea). From 1977 until now, 9 externally visible lesions on North Sea fishes were observed; in addition to those mentioned before, they comprise: fin rot, ulcerations, epidermal papilloma, hyperplasia, pseudobranchial tumour, eye diseases and gill swellings. With the exception of information on changes in frequencies of vertebral deformities of herring from the 1950's to the 1970's, there are no long-term data characterizing changes in frequencies of the diseases under study. For pseudobranchial tumours of cod and epidermal papilloma of dab, information is provided on occurrence and abundance. The distribution pattern of cod afflicted with pseudobranchial tumours is strongly influenced by the migratory behaviour of the fish. Epidermal papillomas of dab were more frequently found at stations within the inner German Bight than in neighbouring areas. The Bight is used for dumping of wastes from titaniumdioxide production. Further disease hot spots are areas off the Humber estuary and the British coast. Analysis of chromium in dab from the German Bight revealed elevated concentrations in epidermal tissues of specimens from the dumping area compared with that found in dab from neighbouring localities. Particulate iron was demonstrated to occur in mucous cells of dab from the dumping area. From increased levels of heavy metals with cancerogenic potential in sensitive target tissues and from increased prevalences of diseased fish in the dumping area it is concluded that these phenomena are possibly causally linked. In the vicinity of the Humber estuary high disease rates were encountered and areas with high prevalences of dab afflicted with epidermal papilloma extended over regions shown to be transport routes for persistent pollutants such as radioactive materials. It is therefore suggested

  18. Petroleum geology of offshore North Sumatra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sekiya, E.; Inomata, T.

    1967-07-01

    Oil exploration in the Strait of Malacca, North Sumatra, is controlled by P.N. Permina (Persuhaan Negara Pertambangan Minjak Masional) oil company, owned by the government of Indonesia. In 1963, the company granted some rights for developing that area to REFICAN (Refining Associates of Canada). In 1966, the exploration activites were transferred to NOSOPEX (North Sumatra Offshore Petroleum Exploration Co. Ltd.). Up to the present time, the company has continued to explore at that area. The geologic structure of the land and offshore areas was studied. This report reviews the literature on that area in detail. The inland geological structure is based on a report by Mayer and Morgan and the first and second geological report of NOSODECO (North Sumatra Oil Development Co. Ltd.). The offshore geological structure is based on well information supplied by REFICAN. (25 refs.)

  19. THE LICHENS OF NORTH CENTRAL OKLAHOMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DARVIN WENDELL KECK

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Over 1,000 specimens of lichens were collected at 78 collecting stations in 11 counties of North Central Oklahoma during 1959 and 1960. The objectives were to identify lichens collected in the area; to establish a record of lichen distribution for each county in the area; and to analyze the ecological relationships.

  20. The feeder system for the 2014 fissure eruption at Holuhraun, Bárðarbunga volcanic system, Iceland: Geodetic and seismic constraints on subsurface activity in the area north of the Vatnajökull ice cap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumont, Stéphanie; Parks, Michelle; Sigmundsson, Freysteinn; Hooper, Andy; Hreinsdóttir, Sigrun; Ófeigsson, Benedikt; Spaans, Karsten; Vogfjörd, Kristin; Jónsdóttir, Kristín; Hensch, Martin; Gudmundsson, Gunnar; Rafn Heimisson, Elias; Drouin, Vincent; Árnadóttir, Thóra; Pedersen, Rikke; Rut Hjartardóttir, Ásta; Magnússon, Eyjólfur

    2015-04-01

    An intense earthquake swarm began on 16 August 2014 at Bárðarbunga volcano under the Vatnajökull ice cap in Central Iceland. It marked the beginning of an intrusive activity, with a dyke propagating over 45 km northward. Such major magmatic activity has not been observed for the last three decades in Iceland, since the Krafla rifting episode 1975-1984. The dyke propagation stopped 15 days after the onset of the seismic activity, with the dyke distal end in the Holuhraun plain north of the Vatnajökull ice cap. A small 4 hour eruption marked the beginning of extrusive activity. A new fissure eruption opened up on 31 August at the northern dyke tip, with lava fountaining and feeding extensive lava flows. In January 2014 the surface covered by the lava had exceeded 80 km2, and the eruption activity does not show significant decline. We have carried out interferometric analysis of SAR data (InSAR) since the onset of the unrest. X-band satellite images from COSMO-SkyMed and TerraSAR-X satellites were acquired and analyzed to map ground surface deformation associated with the dyke emplacement. Despite most of the dyke propagation occurring under several hundreds meters of ice, the last 10 km were outside the ice cap, allowing better characterisation of the dyke-induced deformation. Here we focus on the deformation in the Holuhraun plain, in order to better understand the link between the surface deformation detected in the vicinity of the dyke by InSAR as well as GPS measurements, and the eruptive activity. The regular SAR acquisitions made over the Holuhraun area since the beginning of the unrest offer a unique opportunity to better understand the evolution of the intrusion feeding the fissure eruption. For that purpose, we focus on the faults and fissures forming the graben borders on the glacier as well as in the Holuhraun plain, initially mapped using high-resolution radar images, acquired by airborne radar. We extract movement along and perpendicular to these

  1. Late Ordovician brachiopods from eastern North Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mac Ørum Rasmussen, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Late Ordovician rhynchonelliformean brachiopods, typical of the North American Red River fauna, are found sporadically in the BOrglum River Formation of the Centrum SO area, Kronprins Christian Land, eastern North Greenland. The geographical distribution of this characteristic brachiopod fauna is...... invasion of migrants from Baltica that arrived later during the Hirnantian. The offshore migration of this atypical Hiscobeccus fauna likely demonstrates the path of warm-water currents as the Centrum SO locality was located at the equator during the Late Ordovician....

  2. Discovery of a large area of ice-wedge networks in Ordos:Implications for the southern boundary of permafrost in the north of China as well as for the environment in the latest 20 kaBP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CUI Zhijiu; YANG Jianqiang; ZHANG Wei; ZHAO Liang; XIE Youyu

    2004-01-01

    The delineation of the southern boundary of the latitudinal permafrost in the north of China in the period of late Pleistocene, i.e. the last glaciation maximum (LGM), has been hampered for two reasons. Firstly, previous studies were limited to the eastern part of the north of China, and, secondly, the ages of the permafrost had not been determined systematically. In this paper, we suggest that the southern boundary of the high latitudinal permafrost in the north of China is bounded by approximately 38-40°N (eastern part) and 37-39°N (western part) lines of latitude based on our interpretation of periglacial phenomena and their implication to the environment during the late Pleistocene, and this southern boundary is plotted for the first time. Also, we reconstruct the migration of the southern latitudinal permafrost boundary and the environment after LGM. It is proposed that two cold stages occurred in the LGM at 26 kaBP and 23-13 kaBP, when the annual mean temperature was 8-12℃ lower than at present.

  3. SIGNIFICANT NATURAL HERITAGE AREAS (NC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The North Carolina Department of Environment and Natural Resources, Division of Parks and Recreation, Natural Heritage Program in cooperation with the NC Center for Geographic Information & Analysis, developed the Significant Natural Heritage Areas digital data to determine the a...

  4. Jurassic domes in the North Sea - northern North Atlantic region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surlyk, F. [Univ. of Copenhagen, Geological Inst., Copenhagen (Denmark)

    1996-12-31

    The stratigraphic and tectonic evolution of the Jurassic of East Greenland, the Norwegian Shelf and the North Sea is remarkably similar. A major Middle Jurassic unconformity occurs in all three areas. In the North Sea it is commonly termed the `Mid-Cimmerian Unconformity` and is characterized by progressive truncation of the underlying section towards a centre at the triple junction between the Central Graben, Viking Graben and Moray Firth. Strata above the unconformity show a progressive Late Aalenian-Early Kimmeridgian onlap in the same direction. These relations have been interpreted as caused by Early Jurassic uplift and of a major thermal dome in the central North Sea, followed by Medial and Late Jurassic rifting, erosion, deflation and transgression of the dome. The East Greenland unconformity shows progressive truncation of underlying strata from south to north, and Bajocian to Callovian onlap in the same direction. The same pattern seems to be developed on the conjugate Norwegian margin. This suggests the possibility that the three unconformities have similar causes for their development. It is proposed that major rift domes formed in the Central North Sea and in the Greenland-Norway seaway in Early Jurassic times. The domes were eroded and gradually deflated during Medial Jurassic times and were finally submerged by the Late Oxfordian-Kimmeridgian. They were associated with volcanism and rifting which was delayed with respect to dome initiation. Roughly contemperaneous domes were present west of Britain, north of the Porcupine Seabight, and in Scania, southern Sweden, as reflected by development of asymmetrical unconformities showing progressive truncation of underlying strata, onlap of overlying Jurassic strata, and associated intrusive and extrusive volcanism. The domes are related to impingement of the heads of transient mantle plumes at the base of the lithosphere. The associated unconformities are thus of non-eustatic nature. Domal uplift and

  5. The north Sulu Sea productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Z.

    2009-12-01

    The Sulu Sea is a part of the western North Pacific. It is a closed sea for its deep water and a semi-closed sea for its upper layer. The Sulu Sea exchanges mainly surface waters with the South China Sea and the Celebes Sea. The Sulu Sea is more productive than the adjacent South China Sea (Jones, 2002). On the basis of MERIS satellite observations from 2002 to 2008, we focus on the high-chlorophyll area as an indicator of the abundance of primary productivity in the Sulu Sea. Strong chlorophyll concentration in the north Sulu Sea close to the Mindoro Strait mainly occurs from December to March and low chlorophyll concentration happens in April to November. The adjacent South China Sea on the other side of Mindoro Strait has shown persistent signs of low chlorophyll concentration. Based on 1/8° Global Navy Coastal Ocean Model, the intrusion of the South China Sea waters through the Mindoro Strait to the Sulu Sea from April to November is the main reason for the low chlorophyll concentration observed in the north Sulu Sea. During April to November, the South China Sea waters flow through the Mindoro Strait and stay on the surface of the north Sulu Sea because of their low density. The north Sulu Sea waters mix with fresher waters coming from the South China Sea without new nutrients supply. When the inflow from South China Sea to Sulu Sea ceases in December to March, the upwelling due to the summer monsoon wind becomes an important mechanism supplying deep nutrients to the surface water which lead to high chlorophyll concentration. Jones, I.S.F., 2002. Primary production in the Sulu Sea. Proceedings of the Indian Academy of Sciences-Earth and Planetary Sciences 111, 209-213.

  6. 燕山地区承德盆地下白垩统磁性地层学研究及其对华北克拉通破坏的制约%Magnetostratigraphic study of lower Cretaceous at Chengde Basin, Yanshan area and its restriction on North China Craton destruction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡书慧; 贺怀宇; 朱日祥

    2012-01-01

    Lithosphere thinning, mantle property transforming and extensional tectonic activity are important performances of the North China Craton destruction. The timing of North China Craton destruction has been continuous paid attention to. There have already been plenty of research from Geology, Geophysics and Geochemistry. However, the exact destruction age of North China Craton is still controversial. In this paper, we try to put forward geomagnetic evidence of the peaking destruction age of North China Craton. Yanshan orogen is located at the northern edge of North China Craton and affected significantly by its destruction. Chengde Basin is located at the middle section of Yanshan orogen, which makes it an ideal area for studying the basin record of North China Craton destruction. Specific geomagnetic study is carried out at the area. The rock-magnetic results indicate that magnetic minerals of volcanics are complex, including magnetite, maghemite and hematite while sedimentary magnetic minerals are mainly magnetite, possibly including small amount of maghemite and hematite. The complexity of volcanic magnetic minerals may be closely related to the deep dynamic process of crustal deformation, magma tic activity, mantle upwelling and lower crustal remelting accompanying with the peak age of North China Craton. An age of 129 ~ 128 Ma is obtained from the radiometric dating result (private communication with B. Schoene). Magnetostratigraphic result shows three polarity sections: the lower normal section(N2), the middle reversal section(Rl) and the upper normal section (Nl). Comparing with the Geologic Time Scale 2004 and combining the radiometric dating result, it is believed that the N2 section is related to M3n, Rl related to Mir and Nl related to Mln. Therefore, it is concluded that Chengde Basin starts to sedimentate at about 128 Ma, which is a strong constraint on the peaking age of North China Craton destruction. Synthesizing the Geologic, Geophysical and

  7. North Korea drops out

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On March 12, North Korea announced that it was withdrawing from the Nuclear Non-Proliferation treaty (NPT). Soon afterward, it formally notified the U.N. Security Council of its intentions. The treaty remains binding on North Korea at least until mid-June, since a member must notify the Security Council and all other signatories three months in advance of withdrawing. This article explains North Korea's reasons for withdrawing, including reluctance to have the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) conduct inspections of its nuclear waste sites. At press time, the US was leading an international effort to convince North Korea to reconsider its decision to withdraw from the NPT

  8. Estimation of the Change in Freshwater Volume in the North Coast Limestone Upper Aquifer of Puerto Rico in the Rio Grande de Manati-Rio de la Plata Area between 1960 and 1990 and Implications on Public-Supply Water Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Gómez, Fernando

    2008-01-01

    Ground water in the upper aquifer of the North Coast Limestone aquifer system historically has been the principal source of public-supply and self-supplied industrial water use in north-central Puerto Rico. Development of the aquifer for these two major water-use categories began in about 1930; however, withdrawals did not become an important water-supply source for sustaining local development until the 1960s. Ground-water withdrawals averaged about 6 million gallons per day from 1948 to the mid-1960s and peaked at about 33 million gallons per day in the 1980s. Withdrawals have since declined, averaging about 11.5 million gallons per day in 2002. Aquifer contamination by industrial chemical spills and by nitrates from agricultural and domestic sources initially reduced pumpage for public-supply use within localized areas, leading eventually to increased withdrawals at unaffected well fields. The long-term effect of unconstrained ground-water withdrawals has been a regional thinning of the freshwater lens in an area encompassing 50,600 acres between the Rio Grande de Manati and Rio de la Plata, generally north of latitude 18?25?. The effects of aquifer overdraft have been documented in the regional thinning of the freshwater lens, with an increase in dissolved-solids concentration in ground-water wells. Dissolved-solids concentration in public-supply wells were generally between 250 and 350 milligrams per liter during the 1960s, but increased to greater than 500 milligrams per liter in virtually all of the wells by 2000. Depletion of fresh ground water was estimated at 282,000 acre-feet: 103,000 acre-feet in the Rio Grande de Manati to Rio Cibuco area between 1960 and 1995, and 179,000 acre-feet in the Rio Cibuco to Rio de la Plata area between 1960 and 1992. Thus, aquifer freshwater volume depletion below mean sea level datum may have contributed as much as 38 percent (7.5 million gallons per day) of the 20-million gallons per day average withdrawal rate during

  9. 华北石质山区乔、灌木耗水特征比较%The comparison of shrub's and arbor's water-consumption characteristics in the rocky mountainous area of north China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史文兵; 刘春鹏; 马长明; 司国玉; 孙双印

    2012-01-01

    The stem sap flow of native trees arbors {Pistacia chinensis; Robinia pseudoaca-cia } and shrubs (Zizyphus jujube ; Vitex negundo var. heterophylla) in the rocky mountainous area of north China was continuously detected with the thermal dissipation probe (TDP) to study their water-consumption characteristics in this research. The result reveals: (1) the variation of stem sap flow velocity of four plants can be all described as a JL-shaped curve, with the diurnal variations of sap flow velocity showing a single-peaked curve for Pistacia chinensis , broad-peaked curve for Robinia pseudoacacia and many-peaked curve for Zizy-phus jujube and Vitex negundo var. heterophylla; the sap flow of Pistacia chinensis started earliest, followed by Zizyphus jujube and Vitex negundo var. heterophylla, with the Robinia pseuduacacia the latest; the sap flow of Pistacia chinensis and Robinia pseudoacacia stopped later than that of Zizyphus jujube and Vitex negundo var. heterophylla and the order of the sap flow velocity was Pistacia chinensis^>Zizyphus j uj uba^>Vitex negundovar. heterophyl-la>Robinia pseudoacacia , and the order of the average of daily water consumption was Pistacia chinensis^>Robinia pseudoacacia^> Zizyphus jujuba^>Vitex negundo var. heterophylla. (2)The variation extent of stem sap flow of four plants was smaller in cloudy days than in sunny days, with the sap flow starting earlier and stopping later in sunny days than in cloudy days. (3) For four plants with different diameter, the variation extent of stem sap flow was similar; the sap flow of Pistacia chinensis started later and stopped earlier with larger diameter than that with smaller diameter while that of Robinia pseudoacacia started earlier and stopped later with larger diameter than with smaller diameter; however, that of Zizyphus jujube and Vitex negundo var. heterophylla with different diameter started and stopped similarly, which was very contrary to that of Robinia pseudoacacia. The sap flow velocity

  10. Distribution of Helicobacter pylori in north China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yue-Hua Gong; Ying Wang; Yuan Yuan

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To compare the distribution of virulence-associatedgenotypes of Helicobacter pylori(H pylori) in two areas of north China with different gastric cancer risk and furthermore probe into the pathogenicity of the bacterium. METHODS: Gastric biopsies were taken from 355 subjects from Zhuanghe, a high risk area of gastric cancer, and 136 subjects from Shenyang, a low risk area of gastric cancer. A total of 149 H pylori strains isolated from these patients were studied by PCR for differences in the genotypes of cagA, vac A, and iceA.RESULTS: In patients with high risk for gastric cancer, higher frequencies of vacA s1 or s1m1b genotypes were found as compared to those from the low risk area. CONCLUSION: There is significantly different distribution of H pylori genotypes between Zhuanghe and Shenyang areas in north China.

  11. CHARACTERISTICS OF NATURE-BASED TOURISM ENTERPRISES IN NORTH DAKOTA

    OpenAIRE

    Hodur, Nancy M.; Dean A. BANGSUND; Leistritz, F. Larry

    2004-01-01

    Recreational activities related to North Dakota's wealth of natural resources are well-established in North Dakota. In recent years, North Dakota's abundant resources have attracted visitors from around the country and the world. In addition to providing recreational activities for residents and visitors alike, natural resource-based tourism is a basic sector that may have considerable potential for creating economic opportunities in rural areas. Recognition of the potential importance of res...

  12. The 1991 North Dakota Legislature--Agricultural Update

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, Paul C.; Sheets, Jeff L.; Saxowsky, David M.

    1991-01-01

    The 1991 North Dakota Legislature extensively considered economic development. Growing North Dakota, perhaps one of the most comprehensive proposals, was not adopted until near the end of the session. This program encourages diversification and industrialization of North Dakota agriculture, as well as provides continued funding for several agricultural programs, including the beginning farmer program. The legislators acted to protect groundwater resources and established a Northwestern Area W...

  13. Presencia de juveniles de tiburón aletinegro Carcharhinus limbatus (Carcharhiniformes: Carcharhinidae en la zona norte de la ecoregión Tayrona, Caribe colombiano Presence of young blacktip sharks Carcharhinus limbatus (Carcharhiniformes: Carcharhinidae in the north area of the Tayrona ecoregion, Colombian Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Gaitán-Espitia

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Se registra la presencia de dos juveniles de Carcharhinus limbatus (Valenciennes, 1839 capturados por pescadores artesanales en el sector de la desembocadura del río Don Diego (11°18'N-73°43'W al norte de la zona de influencia del Parque Nacional Natural Tayrona en el Caribe colombiano. Este constituye el primer registro de la especie para el área local y se describen los ejemplares examinados.The presence of two young Carcharhinus limbatus (Valenciennes, 1839 is documented. The individuals were collected by artisanal fishers in the area around the Don Diego River mouth (11°18'N-73°43'W at the north of the Tayrona National Natural Park influence zone in the Colombian Caribbean. This is the first record of this species in the area. The specimens examined are described herein.

  14. North Korean nuclear negotiation drama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jai Bok

    1995-06-15

    This book reports negotiation on North Korean nuclear among South Korea, North Korea and U. S. It includes an account about international issues on North Korean nuclear activities, a new aspect on the problems of North Korean nuclear, pressure on North Korea and startup for dialogue trying to solve problems by communication, investigation by IAEA, IAEA resolution and high tension on Korean peninsula with North Korean nuclear.

  15. North Korean nuclear negotiation drama

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book reports negotiation on North Korean nuclear among South Korea, North Korea and U. S. It includes an account about international issues on North Korean nuclear activities, a new aspect on the problems of North Korean nuclear, pressure on North Korea and startup for dialogue trying to solve problems by communication, investigation by IAEA, IAEA resolution and high tension on Korean peninsula with North Korean nuclear.

  16. 36 CFR 7.66 - North Cascades National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false North Cascades National Park. 7.66 Section 7.66 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.66 North Cascades National Park....

  17. North Korea Conundrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proliferation has become an important political issue over the last decades, marked simultaneously by the nuclearization of South Asia, the strengthening of international regimes (TNP, CW, MTCR) and the discovery of fraud and trafficking. This paper presents the motivations and strategy of North Korea in violating existing agreements and developing an alternative source of weapons grade material. Then it analyses the US gradual economical and political strategy to pressure North Korea to eliminate its nuclear weapons program. The future position of the US will depend on the Iraq outcome and on the results of its pressure policy on North Korea. (J.S.)

  18. Gas deliveries from Haltenbanken/North Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The conference paper relates to the development and delivery of natural gas from the Haltenbanken area and the North Sea on the Norwegian continental shelf. Alternatives of field developments and pipelines together with the allocation of contracts for securing the contractual delivery of natural gas to the European continent in future and an alternative delivery to the Scandinavian countries, are discussed. 2 figs

  19. West Nile virus: North American experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmeister, Erik K.

    2011-01-01

    West Nile virus, a mosquito-vectored flavivirus of the Japanese encephalitis serogroup, was first detected in North America following an epizootic in the New York City area in 1999. In the intervening 11 years since the arrival of the virus in North America, it has crossed the contiguous USA, entered the Canadian provinces bordering the USA, and has been reported in the Caribbean islands, Mexico, Central America and, more recently, South America. West Nile virus has been reported in over 300 species of birds in the USA and has caused the deaths of thousands of birds, local population declines of some avian species, the clinical illness and deaths of thousands of domestic horses, and the clinical disease in over 30 000 Americans and the deaths of over 1000. Prior to the emergence of West Nile virus in North America, St. Louis encephalitis virus and Dengue virus were the only other known mosquito-transmitted flaviviruses in North America capable of causing human disease. This review will discuss the North American experience with mosquito-borne flavivirus prior to the arrival of West Nile virus, the entry and spread of West Nile virus in North America, effects on wild bird populations, genetic changes in the virus, and the current state of West Nile virus transmission.

  20. Biogas digestate and its economic impact on farms and biogas plants according to the upper limit for nitrogen spreading—the case of nutrient-burdened areas in north-west Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Auburger

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available At the end of 2012, an expert group presented its evaluation of the forthcoming amendment of the German Fertilizer Ordinance (DüV. The new proposal intends to include manure of plant origin in the calculation of the upper limit for nitrogen spreading, determined to be 170 kg per hectare. This would particularly affect regions of north-west Germany that are characterized by intensive animal husbandry and biogas production. This would lead to increased costs of the disposal of manure and the use of agricultural land, especially for pig farms and biogas producers. A spatial model of nutrient distribution demonstrates the regional impacts of the amendment, and example calculations at an enterprise level show that many farmers would no longer be able to suitably pay for the factors used. Monte Carlo analysis shows a relatively high probability that only successful pig farmers and biogas producers would be able to compensate for the rising costs of transport and land use in a sustainable manner. Successful piglet producers would improve their relative competitiveness compared to biogas producers and especially to pig-fattening enterprises. The adoption of new strategies should factor in both the water protection requirements and the ability of the affected farms to evolve and grow on a sustainable basis.

  1. Comparative evaluation of antigen detection ELISA and reverse transcriptase PCR in acute stage of Japanese encephalitis prevalent in endemic areas of North-Eastern part of Uttar Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Kumar Verma

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Objective of current study was to compare and evaluate different diagnostic tests to establish a reliable and less time consuming diagnostic test for prompt diagnosis of acute Japanese encephalitis cases mainly amongst children and young adults from North-Eastern part of Uttar Pradesh. Methods: A total of 100 subjects, including 50 suspected cases and 50 diseased controls were investigated to establish the diagnosis of JE in acute encephalitis patients. All CSF samples were subjected to MAC-ELISA, virus cultivation and RT-PCR. Results: Out of 50 cases, 6 showed negative results by all the three tests. 50% (22 out of 44, 47.5% (21 out of 44, and 66% (23 out of 44 were found positive by MAC-ELISA, Virus cultivation and RT-PCR respectively. The rate of detection by Virus cultivation and RT-PCR was higher in case of MAC-ELISA negative cases (57.1% and 78.5% than that of MAC-ELISA positive cases (22.7% and 27.2% respectively. Mean age of the patients was 12.5 years, which ranged from 1-24 years with male to female ratio of 3:1. Conclusions: The RT-PCR was found most reliable, sensitive and specific method amongst the three chosen methods for detection of JEV in suspected encephalitis patients. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(11.000: 3217-3223

  2. Controls on hydrocarbon column-heights in the north-eastern North Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Sollie, Ole Christian Engdal

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge about the controls on hydrocarbon column-heights is important in hydrocarbon exploration, as such column heights are the main controlling factor for in-place volumes of prospects. The north-eastern Viking Graben comprises an overpressured and a close to- normally pressured area, and commercial and sub-commercial discoveries as well as dry structures have been drilled in both areas. Both oil and gas is present in reservoirs in the study area and the aim ...

  3. Goose banding, Koyukuk and north slope Alaska, 1978

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Goose drive trapping and banding was successfully conducted in the Galena and North Slope areas of Alaska in 1978. This was the fourth year of a five consecutive...

  4. 南水北调来水对河北省受水区影响度评价%The Influence Degree Evaluation of South Water Inflow Transfer Project to North Intake Area in Hebei

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王殿茹; 邓思远

    2015-01-01

    南水北调中线工程的通水,将有效改善河北省水资源人口承载能力严重不足的境况,促进生产力的合理布局,为产业结构、地区结构调整创造机会,也将有效增加农田灌溉面积,为农业增产增收、居民饮水安全和生态环境修复等提供坚实保障。为此,河北省应充分做好水价的调节作用,形成科学的阶梯水价机制,严控水资源开发利用红线、用水效率红线以及限制纳污红线等。%The water of middle route of South to North Water Transfer Project has passed, which will improve the situation of insufficient population carrying capacity of water resources in Hebei province, promote the rational distribution of productive forces, create chances for adjustments of industrial structure and regional structure, effectively increase the farmland under irrigation, and provide strong security for farming increasing both production and income, residents' drinking water safety and ecological environment modification. So we should complete sufficiently the regulating effect of water price, establish the reasonable water price standard, strictly abide by the development and utilization red lines, water-use efficiency red lines and restriction received pollutant red lines.

  5. Mid-range sidescan-sonar images covering parts of proposed tracts for OCS lease sale 56 and contiguous areas, Manteo, Cape Fear, and adjacent quadrangles off North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popenoe, Peter; Cashman, K.V.; Chayes, Dale; Ryan, William B. F.

    1981-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Bureau of Land Management (BLM) and the Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory (LDGO), collected 335 km of mid-range sidescan-sonar data in some of the tracts proposed for inclusion in Federal OCS (Outer Continental Shelf) Oil and Gas Lease Sale 56 and in some contiguous areas (R.V. GYRE, September 18-25, 1980 [GYRE 80-9, leg 1]).

  6. The Analysis of Heavy Metal Concentrations in Eggs of Collared Flycatchers, Ficedula Albicollis (Passeriformes, Muscicapidae, and Tits, Parus Major, Parus Caeruleus (Passeriformes, Paridae, in Different Areas of North-Eastern Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaplygina A. B.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Collared flycatchers (Ficedula albicollis Temminck, 1815, have more opportunities to accumulate heavy metals due to migration but they are more resistant to contamination in contrast to tits, (Parus major Linnaeus, 1758, Parus caeruleus Linnaeus, 1758. This research aimed to detect concentrations of some trace elements in eggs of the collared flycatcher, great tit and blue tit in different areas. There were found differences in heavy metal concentrations in the eggs among species and study areas. For collared flycatchers there were not established consistent patterns of changes in element concentrations among areas. The highest heavy metal levels were found in tits in samples of egg contents from a forest park (Pb - 3.1410 ± 0.3249, Cu - 19.3290 ± 1.4840, Zn - 66.9612 ± 17.6665, Fe - 249.5513 ± 40.2800, Mn - 6.9032 ± 0.2946, Ca - 8298.3570 ± 0.1080, Sr - 17.6032 ± 0.7512, Ni - 0.5177 ± 0.0220. The lowest concentrations were found in egg contents of tits in Hetmanskyi National Nature Park (Cu - 4.3492 ± 0.2079, Fe - 44.6647 ± 0.2627, Mn - 1.3194 ± 0.2374, Ca - 998.7001 ± 0.0006, Ni - 0.2443 ± 0.0439, Cr - 0.1466 ± 0.0424. The results indicate that heavy metals accumulated differently in shells and contents of eggs of collared flycatchers and tits in each of the study area. Some of microelements (zinc, mercury, iron, manganese, selenium and iodine in small amounts are required for normal growth and development of birds. Heavy metal concentrations in egg shells and egg contents of all species did not exceed permissible levels.

  7. Characterization and simulation of fate and transport of selected volatile organic compounds in the vicinities of the Hadnot Point Industrial Area and landfill: Chapter A Supplement 6 in Analyses and historical reconstruction of groundwater flow, contaminant fate and transport, and distribution of drinking water within the service areas of the Hadnot Point and Holcomb Boulevard Water Treatment Plants and vicinities, U.S. Marine Corps Base Camp Lejeune, North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, L. Elliott; Suárez-Soto, René J.; Anderson, Barbara A.; Maslia, Morris L.

    2013-01-01

    This supplement of Chapter A (Supplement 6) describes the reconstruction (i.e. simulation) of historical concentrations of tetrachloroethylene (PCE), trichloroethylene (TCE), and benzene3 in production wells supplying water to the Hadnot Base (USMCB) Camp Lejeune, North Carolina (Figure S6.1). A fate and transport model (i.e., MT3DMS [Zheng and Wang 1999]) was used to simulate contaminant migration from source locations through the groundwater system and to estimate mean contaminant concentrations in water withdrawn from water-supply wells in the vicinity of the Hadnot Point Industrial Area (HPIA) and the Hadnot Point landfill (HPLF) area.4 The reconstructed contaminant concentrations were subsequently input into a flow-weighted, materials mass balance (mixing) model (Masters 1998) to estimate monthly mean concentrations of the contaminant in finished water 5 at the HPWTP (Maslia et al. 2013). The calibrated fate and transport models described herein were based on and used groundwater velocities derived from groundwater-flow models that are described in Suárez-Soto et al. (2013). Information data pertinent to historical operations of water-supply wells are described in Sautner et al. (2013) and Telci et al. (2013).

  8. Social Stratification: The Digital Divide In North Carolina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth R. Wilson

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite efforts to provide access to the internet in rural areas, in most areas of information technology the gap between urban and rural areas is growing. Urban residents are far more likely to have access to computer services than their rural counterparts. Whites much more likely to have access to the internet at home compared to African Americans in North Carolina.

  9. Diversity and community structure of epibenthic invertebrates and fish in the North Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Callaway, R.; Alsväg, J.; de Boois, I.;

    2002-01-01

    of epibenthos of the southern North Sea was dominated by free- living species, whilst north of the 50 m contour sessile species prevailed. A hybrid area, with sessile species typical of the north and free-living species characteristic of the south, was found off the Norfolk and Flamborough coast stretching...

  10. 冀北燕麦产区土壤肥力水平及高产创建实践分析%Analysis on Soil Fertility and Practice of Obtaining High Yield in Oat Producing Areas of North of Hebei Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵世锋; 曹丽霞; 王俊英; 张立军; 李云霞; 左文博; 董占红

    2013-01-01

    为寻求冀北地区燕麦最高生产能力,在以往高产栽培实践经验的基础上,2010~2012年对5个燕麦品种(皮燕麦品种1个、裸燕麦品种4个)进行了连续3 a的高产栽培试验,并于2012年4月燕麦播种前对冀北燕麦产区12个样点的土壤养分含量进行了测定,以明确目前冀北坝上地区的土壤养分状况以及试验品种的生长特性和产量潜力。结果表明:冀北燕麦产区过去“缺磷、少氮、富钾”的土壤肥力状况已经发生了改变,“增施有机肥提高土壤蓄水保肥能力,均衡配方施肥提高燕麦单产”将是今后一个时期燕麦生产的主要工作;参试的5个燕麦品种均表现抗逆性强、丰产性好,早熟或极早熟特性突出;坝莜6号在2012年获得了5494.5 kg/hm2的最高产量。%In order to seek the highest production capacity of oat in north of Hebei Province , based on previous experience of high yield cultivation, the high yield cultivation test of 5 oat varieties ( 1 leather oat variety and 4 naked oat varieties ) has been done from 2010 to 2012, and the soil nutrient contents of 12 points in oat producing areas of north of Hebei Province has been examined before oat sowing in April of 2012 to clear the soil nutrient status in Bashang area of north of Hebei Province and the growth characteristics and yield potential of the test varieties.The results showed that the soil fertility status of lack of N and P , rich of K in oat producing areas of north of Hebei Province has been changed , the main work in the future for a period of oat production will be increasing organic fertilizer to improve soil water storage capacity and balancing fertilization to increase the oats per unit area yield.The test varieties all showed strong resistance, high yielding, precocious or very precocious features prominent, Bayou No.6 with the highest yield of 5 494.5 kg/hm2 in 2012.

  11. Seamless Signal Coverage of Ultra-large and Complicated Areas--Hytera Trunked System Offers High-efficiency Communication Solutions for Shenzhen North Railway Station%超大复杂场区无缝信号覆盖--海能达集群系统为深圳北站打造高效通信解决方案

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘艳山

    2013-01-01

      海能达为深圳北站提供了一套无线通信解决方案,以解决该特大型综合交通枢纽复杂场区的无缝信号覆盖的安保通信需求。分析该项目的安保通信需求,介绍无线通信系统的组网结构、使用效果等方面内容。%In order to meet the security communication needs of the ultra-large &comprehensive transportation junction in complicated areas with seamless signal coverage, Hytera has offered a set of wireless communication solutions for Shenzhen North Railway Station. The demand analysis on security communication, network structure and using effect of the wireless communication system in this project are presented.

  12. Research on Ordinary College Sports Curriculum Resources Structure and the Characteristics ——Taking North Jiangsu Area as Example%普通高校体育课程资源结构层次与利用特征研究——以苏北地区为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史峰

    2012-01-01

    以苏北十所普通高校公共体育课为研究对象,运用文献资料、问卷调查、数理统计等方法,对苏北普通高校体育课程资源的结构与利用特征进行了研究,旨在把握课程资源的本质内涵,探讨地方高校体育课程资源的开发利用情况。%Taking the public sports courses of 10 ordinary colleges in north Jiangsu area as research subject, using the method of literature review, questionnaire and mathematical statistics, this paper makes study on ordinary college sports curriculum resources structure and characteristics. The main purpose is to master the essence of curriculum resources and discuss the development of local college sports curriculum resources.

  13. North Dakota geology school receives major gift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-10-01

    Petroleum geology and related areas of study at the University of North Dakota (UND) received a huge financial boost with the announcement on 24 September of $14 million in private and public partnership funding. The university announced the naming of the Harold Hamm School of Geology and Geological Engineering, formerly a department within the College of Engineering and Mines, in recognition of $10 million provided as a gift by oilman Harold Hamm and Continental Resources, Inc. Hamm is the chair and chief executive officer of Continental, the largest leaseholder in the Bakken Play oil formation in North Dakota and Montana, and he is also an energy policy advisor to Republican presidential candidate Mitt Romney. UND also received $4 million from the Oil and Gas Research Program of the North Dakota Industrial Commission to support geology and geological engineering education and research.

  14. 南水北调丹江口库区后靠移民可持续发展研究%Study on sustainable development of nearby resettled immigrants in Danjiangkou Reservoir area of South to North Water Diversion Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙海兵

    2015-01-01

    Based on the review of related researches on sustainable development of reservoir immigrants, the major obstacles to the sustainable development of nearby resettled immigrants in Danjiangkou Reservoir area are analyzed by means of questionnaire. It is founded that conflict between immigrants and land, employment pressure, low educational level of immigrants, and the back-ward environmental protection practice relative to the environmental protection awareness are the major obstacles. In view of the reality in the reservoir area, the countermeasures, including controlling population, creating employment opportunities through various channels, increasing immigrants ' human capital, improving social security system, and ensuring the sharing of project benefits among immigrants, are put forward to realize the sustainable development of the immigrants in the reservoir area.%在回顾了水库移民可持续发展相关研究成果的基础上,通过问卷调查的方式,分析探讨了阻碍丹江口库区后靠移民可持续发展的主要因素,即:人地矛盾突出、移民就业压力大、移民文化水平偏低、移民环保行为滞后于环保意识。针对库区实际情况,提出了应采取实施人口减载、多渠道创造就业机会、提高移民人力资本、完善社会保障体系、确保移民分享工程效益等措施,努力实现库区移民的可持续发展。

  15. "南水北调"陕西水源地县域经济可持续发展的思考%Reflection on the Sustainable Development of County Economy in the Watershed Area of Shaanxi Province under the South-to-North Water Diversion Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马静; 张睿海; 胡仪元

    2011-01-01

    The county economic development status in the watershed area of Shaanxi Province under the south-to-north water diversion project was studied, and the positive and negative impacts of the project on the county economy in this area were analyzed, it was deemed that the sustainable development of its county economy should focus on the eco-tourism industry, eco-agriculture and industry, and some measures were proposed to promote the sustainable development of the county economy in the watershed area of Shaanxi Province.%对南水北调工程陕西水源地县域经济发展的现状进行了研究,分析了南水北调工程对陕西水源地县域经济产生的有利和不利影响,认为陕西水源地县城经济可持续发展的重点领域应选择生态旅游产亚、生态农业和工业产业,并提出了促进陕西水源地县域经济可持续发展的保障措施.

  16. 华北平原地下水漏斗区马铃薯替代小麦种植及由此节省的水资源量估算%The Estimation of Saving Water Resources Because of Substitute Planting of Potato Instead Winter Wheat in the Funnel Area of the North China Plain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭燕枝; 王小虎; 孙君茂

    2014-01-01

    多年的地下水超采,导致华北平原已成为世界上最大的“漏斗区”,农业可持续发展压力巨大。综合考虑耕地资源持续利用和国家粮食安全,减少高耗水作物如冬小麦的种植面积,加快农业结构调整步伐是当务之急。根据已有研究成果,比较分析了华北平原冬小麦和马铃薯的水分亏缺量,推算出华北地下水漏斗区马铃薯替代小麦种植,每年可节约水资源总量达(3.47~7.35)×108m3,同时在一定的技术支持下,能够提高粮食产量水平。这将有利于在保障国家粮食安全的基础上,逐步缓解地下水资源衰变的态势。%During many years overexploitation of groundwater, the North China Plain has become the world�s largest“funnel areas”, the agricultural sustainable development faces much pressure. Considering the sustainable utilization of cultivated land resource and the national food security, the urgent affair is to reduce the high water consuming crops such as winter wheat planting area, accelerate the pace of adjustment of agricultural structure. Based on the existing research results, the article comparatively analyzed the winter wheat and potato water deficit in North China Plain, calculated the result that potato instead of winter wheat planting can save water reached a total of (3.47~7�35)×108m3/a in North groundwater funnel area, while in support of certain technology, it could improve the grain yield level. This would be good for national food security, and gradually decay groundwater resources situation at the same time.

  17. North Korea's corroding fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The roughly 8,000 irradiated or open-quotes spentclose quotes fuel rods recently discharged from the North Korean 25 megawatt (thermal) reactor are difficult to store safely under the conditions in the spent fuel ponds near the reactor. The magnesium alloy jacket, or open-quotes cladding,close quotes around the fuel elements is corroding. If the corrosion creates holes in the cladding, radionuclides may be released. In addition, the uranium metal underneath the cladding may begin to corrode, possibly creating uranium hydride which can spontaneously ignite in air. Unless the storage conditions are improved, North Korea may use the risk posed by the corrosion as an argument for reprocessing this fuel, a violation of its June 1994 pledge to the United States to freeze its nuclear program. North Korea, however, can take several steps to slow dramatically the rate of corrosion. Using available techniques, it can extend safe storage times by months or even years

  18. Disequilibrium in U-Series at G-II Occurrence of Uranium Mineralization at Gabal Gattar Area, North Eastern Desert, Egypt; A Comparative Study using HP Ge and Nal-Detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work aims to compare between using Nal-and HPGe-detectors for studying the state of radioactive disequilibrium in U-series at GII occurrence at Gabal Gattar area. This was achieved through the measurement of the activity concentration of parent and daughters of radionuclide in uranium series. Some parent/daughter and daughter/daughter ratios are calculated. The mineralized granite is more enriched in U-contents (average of 3890 ppm) and depleted in Th-contents (about 19 ppm in average). The calculated activity ratios reveal that in all samples the values of 238U/226Ra, 226Ra/214Pb, 214Pb/214Bi, 214Pb/238U and 214Bi/238U ratios in the U-238 series are more than unity indicating a state of radioactive disequilibrium. This state is attributed to enrichment of the parent U-238 relative to its daughters, especially Ra-226, Pb-214 and Bi-214 and reflects the enrichment of Ra-226 relative to Pb-214. The post magmatic enrichment of U and escaping of Rn gas along fractures and joints of the studied granites represent the main and significant factors causing radioactive disequilibrium of U-mineralization at G-II occurrence of Gabal Gattar area. The present work indicated that the radioactive equilibrium/disequilibrium studies using HPGe-detectors are more precise than that of Nal detectors

  19. North Korea, Quo Vadis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl H. Stingeder

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available North Korean politics appears neither irrational nor unpredictable: the logic of its actions may at first seem opaque, but it nonetheless displays its own rationale and patterns. – North Korea: a ruthless political actor, now under the leadership of Kim Jong-Un who inherited the regime’s leadership from his father and "Supreme Leader", Kim Jong-Il, in 2011. The country’s policy is based on its ongoing political agenda of (nuclear brinkmanship, a true threat to the world – or at least that's how the Western hemisphere sees it. Yet our factual knowledge of this post-Leninist and totalitarian regime is extremely limited and relatively distorted; it is largely circumstantial evidence and judgmental speculation that accounts for our perception of this East Asian state. Northeast Asia (China, Japan, South and North Korea, Taiwan is a region dominated by the legacy of the Cold War. The North Korean leadership has indeed established its priorities, primarily its isolationist orientation, but in the long term the regime cannot survive without external stimulus. Most importantly, even in a long-term, non-violent and gradual transformation of North Korea considerable danger can ultimately result in the demise of the regime. Apart from few signs of a North Korean "civil society", currently only the army might have the resources to see through a regime change. In the meantime, the strategies of isolationism as well as tight control of the media remain as fundamental cornerstones of the regime. A close-knit network of social control has been established and access to the internet for the most part is limited to the regime’s entrusted cadre.

  20. The thrust belts of Western North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moulton, F.C.

    1993-08-01

    Most of the Basin and Range physiographic province of western North America is now believed to be part of the overthrust. The more obvious overthrust belt along the eastern edge of the Basin and Range Province is named the Sevier orogenic belt, where older rocks are observed thrust onto younger rocks. More detailed surface geological mapping, plus deep multiple-fold geophysical work and many oil and gas wildcat wells, have confirmed an east-vergent shortened and stacked sequence is present in many places in the Basin and Range. This western compressive deformed area in east central Nevada is now named the Elko orogenic belt by the U.S. Geological Survey. This older compressed Elko orogenic belt started forming approximately 250 m.y. ago when the North American plate started to move west as the Pangaea supercontinent started to fragment. The North American plate moved west under the sediments of the Miogeocline that were also moving west. Surface-formed highlands and oceanic island arcs on the west edge of the North American plate restricted the westward movement of the sediments in the Miogeocline, causing east-vergent ramp thrusts to form above the westward-moving North American plate. The flat, eastward-up-cutting thrust assemblages moved on the detachment surfaces.

  1. Sewage Produced Characteristic of Rural Areas in North China Plain Region%华北平原地区农村生活污水产污特征研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张磊; 裴国霞; 张玉华; 刘东生; 李想; 谭平

    2012-01-01

    In order to evaluate the status of rural domestic wastewater pollution in the North China Plain region, the rural domestic wastewater of 15 typical peasant households with different income levels in Jingtangpu Village,Xushui County,Baoding City was made a continuous investigating and monitoring for 12 months,including the daily produced per capita,pH,chemical oxygen demand(COD), total ammonia nitrogen (TAN), total nitrogen(TN) and total phosphorus(TP) of rural domestic wastewater.The mean value of sewage generated was 21.03 L· d-1 ? Person-1, pH was 6.14, the sewage production coefficients of COD,TAN, TN and TP were 7.87 g·d-1 ? Person-1,0.581 g·d-1 ? Person-1, 1.31 g· d-1·person-1 and 0.066 2 g·d-1·person-1. The households with middle income levels had highest indicators,followed by high and low income level households,and the difference between high,middle and low income level households was significant,these results indicated that the amount of sewage produced per capita and sewage production coefficients were related to the income.%为了解华北平原地区农村生活污水产污特征,准确评价农村生活污染状况,本研究选取华北平原地区典型农村(保定市徐水县荆塘铺村)不同收入水平的15户典型农户,对其生活污水的产污情况进行12个月(2010年8月至2011年7月)的调查和监测,得到农户的生活污水人均日产生量、pH、COD、TAN、TN和TP的产污系数.农户生活污水人均日产生量为21.03 L·d-1·人-1,pH值为6.14,COD、TAN、TN和TP的产污系数分别为7.87、0.581、1.31 g·d-1·人-1和0.066 2g·d-1·人-1.各项指标从高到低依次为中收入水平农户,高收入水平农户和低收入水平农户,且高中收入水平农户与低收入水平农户各项指标差异性较显著.以上结果表明华北平原地区农村生活污水人均日产生量和污染物产污系数与收入水平有关.

  2. 南水北调中线工程核心水源区水安全模糊综合评价%Fuzzy Comprehensive Evaluation of Water Security in Central Water Source Area of Middle Route of South-to-North Water Diversion Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张中旺; 江华军; 李长安; 杨建; 孙小舟

    2012-01-01

    The central water source area of the Middle Route of the South-to-North Water Diversion Project is mainly located in Shiyan City of Hubei Province,and the water quality of this area basically meets the water transfer requirements. However, the water security problems,such as the soil and water loss,water pollution,immigration allocation,and the poverty and backwardness, can affect the quality of water transfer, the water resources allocation,and the sustainable development of society, economy and ecological environment Therefore, the evaluation of water security in the water source area is urgent Due to the complexity and fussiness of the meaning and evaluation of water security, a multi-layer fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method, which is based on the selection of 20 representative indexes and the development of the index system,is used to provide a quantitative assessment of the water security in the central water source area of Shiyan City located in the Middle Route of the South-to-North Water Diversion Project. The results show that the water security of the water source area has been in a critical state of basic safety since the implementation of the Middle Route of the South-to-North Water Diversion Project, which is consistent with the results obtained from the principal component analysis. Therefore, the method is feasible and it can provide a reliable conclusion%南水北调中线核心水源区主要在湖北省十堰市境内,其水源区水质基本达到调水要求,但水土流失、水体污染、移民安置、贫困与落后等水安全问题直接关乎到调水的质量、水资源的配置及社会、经济和生态环境的可持续发展,因此,水源区的水安全评价已是当务之急.针对水安全内涵及其评价的复杂性和模糊性,在选取20个代表性指标及建立评价指标体系的基础上,采用多层次模糊综合评判的方法,对南水北调中线工程核心水源区的十堰市水安全进行了定量的评

  3. North Atlantic Circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinari, R.; Bryan, K.; Schott, F.

    The intensity of the North Atlantic winddriven and thermohaline circulation and the close proximity of many oceanographic installations make the North Atlantic a particularly favored region of the world ocean from the standpoint of research in ocean circulation. Recent increases in available data and advances in numerical modeling techniques served as the impetus to convene a joint workshop of modelers and observers working on the North Atlantic with the Scientific Committee on Oceanic Research (SCOR) Working Group (WG) 68 (“North Atlantic Circulation”). Goals of the workshop were to provide an update on data sets and models and to discuss the poleward heat flux problem and possible monitoring strategies. The joint Workshop/SCOR WG-68 meeting was convened by F. Schott (chairman of the working group; Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science, Miami, Fla.), K. Bryan (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/ Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (NOAA/GFDL)), and R. Molinari (NOAA/Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (NOAA/AOML)).

  4. North-South Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Melville

    1975-01-01

    Multinational corporations operating mostly in northern Canada export natural resources thus creating jobs and money for foreign shareholders. Similarly, businesses based in southern Canada reap benefits from northern resources. Environmentalists and churches can ally north-south interests to protect northern resources and people from corporate…

  5. Was there a disparity in age appropriate infant immunization uptake in the theatre of war in the North of Sri Lanka at the height of the hostilities?: a cross-sectional study in resettled areas in the Kilinochchi district

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parameswaran Ananthan

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It was long speculated that there could be under-immunized pockets in the war affected Northern part of Sri Lanka relative to other areas. With the cessation of hostilities following the military suppression of the rebellion, opportunities have arisen to appraise the immunization status of children in areas of re-settlement in former war ravaged districts. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study to describe the coverage and age appropriateness of infant vaccinations in a former conflict district during the phase of re-settlement. The target population comprised all children of re-settled families in the age group of 12 – 23 months in the district. We selected a study sample of 300 children from among the target population using the WHO’s 30 cluster EPI survey method. Trained surveyors collected data using a structured checklist. The infant vaccination status was ascertained by reviewing vaccination records in the Child Health Development Record or any other alternative documentary evidence. Results The survey revealed that the proportion of fully vaccinated children in the district was 91%. For individual vaccines, it ranged from 92% (measles to 100% (BCG, DPT/OPV1. However, the age appropriateness of vaccination was less than 50% for all antigens except for BCG (94%. The maximum number of days of delay of vaccinations ranged from 21 days for BCG to 253 days for measles. Age appropriate vaccination rates significantly differed for DPT/OPV1-3 and measles during the conflict and post-conflict stages while it did not for the BCG. Age appropriate vaccination rates were significantly higher for DPT/OPV1-3 during the conflict while for the measles it was higher in the post conflict stage. Conclusions Though the vaccination coverage for infant vaccines in the war affected Kilinochchi district was similar to other districts in the country, it masked a disparity in terms of low age-appropriateness of infant immunizations

  6. Araneofauna captured in the forest and adjacent area, in the north of Paraná, Brazil Araneofauna capturada na mata e área aberta adjacente, no norte do Paraná, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizandra Lucy Catelli

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Arachnids make up an exclusive predator group. Eating habit makes the arthropods to move around in search for hunting or building traps with silk threads. In order to know the araneofauna of the Godoy’s Forest State Park, pitfall-like traps were installed inside the forest, edge and adjacent area predominantly grassy. Collections were carried out fortnightly, in the period of a year, separating what was collected during the day and during the night. One hundred and twenty-one individuals were collected, belonging to 18 families where Lycosidae and Theridiidae were the most abundant, although Lyniphiidae family has prevailed in the forest area. Young individuals prevailed. It is concluded that the highest frequency and abundance of young individuals may be directly related to its dispersal and spiders belonging to the Lycosidae, Zoridae and Theridiidae families, being able to be used as bioindicators. Os aracnídeos compõem um grupo exclusivamente predador. O hábito alimentar faz com que o artropoda locomova-se em busca da caça ou construa armadilhas com fios de seda. Buscando conhecer a araneofauna do Parque Estadual Mata dos Godoy, foram instaladas armadilhas tipo ptiffal dentro da mata, borda e área adjacente, com vegetação predominantemente formada por gramíneas. As coletas eram realizadas quinzenalmente, no período de um ano, separando o coletado em diurno e noturno. Foram coletados 121 indivíduos, pertencentes a 18 famílias, das quais as famílias Lycosidae e Theridiidae foram as mais abundantes, embora a família Lyniphiidae tenha predominado na área de mata. Houve maior freqüência de indivíduos jovens. Conclui-se que a maior freqüência e abundância de indivíduos jovens pode estar diretamente relacionada a sua dispersão e, além disso, as aranhas pertencentes as famílias Lycosidae, Zoridae e Theridiidae, podem ser utilizadas como bioindicadores.

  7. North Dakota Refining Capacity Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dennis Hill; Kurt Swenson; Carl Tuura; Jim Simon; Robert Vermette; Gilberto Marcha; Steve Kelly; David Wells; Ed Palmer; Kuo Yu; Tram Nguyen; Juliam Migliavacca

    2011-01-05

    According to a 2008 report issued by the United States Geological Survey, North Dakota and Montana have an estimated 3.0 to 4.3 billion barrels of undiscovered, technically recoverable oil in an area known as the Bakken Formation. With the size and remoteness of the discovery, the question became 'can a business case be made for increasing refining capacity in North Dakota?' And, if so what is the impact to existing players in the region. To answer the question, a study committee comprised of leaders in the region's petroleum industry were brought together to define the scope of the study, hire a consulting firm and oversee the study. The study committee met frequently to provide input on the findings and modify the course of the study, as needed. The study concluded that the Petroleum Area Defense District II (PADD II) has an oversupply of gasoline. With that in mind, a niche market, naphtha, was identified. Naphtha is used as a diluent used for pipelining the bitumen (heavy crude) from Canada to crude markets. The study predicted there will continue to be an increase in the demand for naphtha through 2030. The study estimated the optimal configuration for the refinery at 34,000 barrels per day (BPD) producing 15,000 BPD of naphtha and a 52 percent refinery charge for jet and diesel yield. The financial modeling assumed the sponsor of a refinery would invest its own capital to pay for construction costs. With this assumption, the internal rate of return is 9.2 percent which is not sufficient to attract traditional investment given the risk factor of the project. With that in mind, those interested in pursuing this niche market will need to identify incentives to improve the rate of return.

  8. 南水北调中线工程对丹江口库区生物多样性的影响%Environmental Impact of the Middle Section of the South-to-North Water Transfer Project on Biological Diversity in the Danjiangkou Reservoir Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    包洪福; 孙志禹; 陈凯麒

    2015-01-01

    Danjiangkou Reservoir area is the primary water resource of the middle section of South-to-North Water Transfer Project and the ecological environment of this area directly influences drinking water quality in North Chi-na.The effect of the South-to-North Water Transfer Project on the ecological environment of Danjiangkou Reservoir area,especially after water impoundment has caused concern.Biological diversity is an important component of ec-ological stability.In this study,the biological diversity of plants,animals and aquatic organisms in the Danjiangkou Reservoir area was investigated and analyzed,based on field investigations and previously collected data.The goals are to (1)assess the influence of the South-to-North Water Transfer Project on the ecological environment of the Danjiangkou reservoir area,(2)provide a base for conserving biodiversity and the ecological integrity of the re-source and (3)protect the quality of drinking water.A total of 2 059 species of vascular plant (752 genera and 171 families),306 terrestrial vertebrate species (96 families,28 orders and 4 classes),100 phytoplankton species (60 genera,8 phyla),96 zooplankton species (4 categories)and 88 fish species (17 families,7 orders)were re-corded during the investigation.Construction and operation of the South-to-North Water Transfer Project required immigrant resettlement and deforestation resulting in habitat loss for terrestrial vertebrates and water impoundment inundated plant habitat and altered the aquatic environment.The plankton composition in Danjiangkou Reservoir did not change markedly,but plankton biomass increased significantly after the dam height was increased.The zoo-benthos community structure also remained about the same,but the distribution of the zoobenthos increased with reservoir width after water impoundment and seasonal variation increased.After impoundment,the decrease in res-ervoir water flow severely affected spawning of four major Chinese carp species and other

  9. Leishmaniose tegumentar americana: flebotomíneos de área de transmissão no Norte do Paraná, Brasil American cutaneous leishmaniasis: phlebotominae of the area of transmission in the North of Parana, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ueslei Teodoro

    1991-04-01

    Full Text Available Dos casos de leishmaniose tegumentar diagnosticados no Laboratório de Ensino e Pesquisa de Análises Clínicas da Universidade Estadual de Maringá-PR (Brasil, a maioria está relacionada a áreas, no Norte do Paraná, que vem sendo ocupadas desde a década de 1940, quando se iniciou extenso desmatamento naquela Região. A vegetação nativa, já em grande parte destruída, é constituída por mata densa do tipo tropical de transição para subtropical. A paisagem no seu conjunto é de planalto, com clima tropical de transição para subtropical, temperaturas médias anuais entre 20°C e 22°C e média do mês mais quente superior a 22°C. Das florestas nativas restam poucas e esparsas manchas de vegetação, geralmente modificadas, ao longo das bacias dos rios Ivaí, Paranapanema e Paraná, e seus afluentes. Neste ambiente foram feitas 24 capturas de flebotomíneos, 2 por mês, de outubro de 1986 a setembro de 1987, das 18 horas à l hora do dia seguinte. As capturas, com armadilhas de Shannon, foram realizadas às margens de mata modificada, tendo sido classificados 16.496 flebotomíneos, pertencentes na sua quase totalidade a 13 espécies. Observou-se prevalência de Lutzomyia whitmani com 11.188 (67,82% exemplares, seguido por Lutzomyia intermedia com 2.900 (17,58% e Lutzomyia migonei com 1.491 (9,03%. Lutzomyia whitmani e Lutzomyia intermedia vêm mostrando grande capacidade de adaptação nos ambientes antrópicos, onde têm destacado papel na transmissão de leishmaniose.Most of the cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis diagnosed in the laboratory of the State University of Maringá, Paraná, Brazil, are related to areas of northern Paraná State, which have been settled since 40 years age, when the destructions of vast areas of forest in this region was begun. The native vegetation, already, in large part, destroyed is constituted of dense forest of the type found in the transition from tropical to subtropical regions. The landscape is

  10. 华北滨海地区土地整治中的管道输水灌溉工程研究%Research on Aqueduct Irrigation Project in Land Reclamation over Coastal Areas of North China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘风建; 尹永红

    2012-01-01

    河北省沧州市滨海地区耕地整治潜力大,水资源严重不足,节水灌溉措施成为区域土地整治持续的重要基础.该文以沧州市南大港孔庄子南土地整治项目为例,在种植业资源环境分析的基础上,针对滨海地区土地整治项目中管道输水工程的设计,从灌溉水源情况、取水工程布置、田间管道输水灌溉工程中管道布置及保护装置的设置等方面进行了分析和探讨,认为发展管道输水灌溉工程应是滨海地区扩大土地整治规模的重要措施.%The coastal areas in Cangzhou City Hebei Province have a great potential of reclamation on cultivated land. With a serious shortage of water resources, water-saving irrigation measures become an important basis for continued regional land reclamation. Taking land reclamation project in south of Kongzhuangzi County Nandagang Region in Cangzhou City as an example, based on analysis of farming resources and environment, the situation of irrigation water, set of intake water project and arrangement of aqueduct and protection device in field aqueduct irrigation were studied. The results showed that the development of aqueduct irrigation project is an important measure to expand the scale of land reclamation.

  11. The Pechelbronn oil field area (Upper Rhine Graben, North Alsace/France). Hydrogeological conditions; hydrochemistry of the oil field waters; isotopic composition of the groundwaters; subsurface temperature records. Data report and annexes 1 and 2. Das Pechelbronner Feld (Oberrhein-Graben, Nord-Elsass/Frankreich). Hydrogeologischer Rahmen; Hydrochemie der Oelfeldwaesser; Isotopenzusammensetzung der Grundwaesser; oberflaechennahe Temperaturverteilung. Fachbericht und Anlagenband 1 und 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ploethner, D.; Bender, H.

    1988-08-01

    The hypothesis of deep groundwater flow being one of the driving forces of secondary migration of hydrocarbons was reviewed in the Pechelbronn oil-field area (North Alsace, France). This oil field is located in the middle part of the Upper Rhine Graben which forms a deep graben system bordered by the Hochwald/Vosges to the west and the Black Forest (Schwarzwald) to the east. The graben fill, overlying a granitic basement, may roughly be described as a two-layer case: an aquifer system at the bottom and an aquitard system at the top. The tectonical structure of the Pechelbronn area is governed by a dense, deep reaching fault system. The predominantly antithetic faults run parallel to the graben axis and are at least partly hydraulically conductive. Temperature records of a 100 m deep predrilling at Soultz result in a temperature gradient of 11.8 K/100 m at a depth interval between 53 and 98 m. The average annual temperature for the earth's surface is at 10.75deg C. The distribution of salinity and trace element concentrations of shallow groundwaters is not clearly correlated with the occurrences of oil traces in the groundwater. The results of the hydrochemical, groundwater isotope and temperature investigations are generally in accordance with the hypothesis mentioned above. However, the hypothesis of deep groundwater flow being one of the driving forces of secondary migration of hydrocarbons can only be proved, if other complementary studies are considered, too. (orig./EF).

  12. 北方地区岩土导热系数及换热量的测试研究%Study on rock-soil thermal conductivity coefficient and heat transfer capacity in north area of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李慧星; 李国柱; 陈其针

    2012-01-01

    岩土导热系数是地源热泵地埋管换热器的重要设计参数;测井单位深度换热量是地埋管换热器系统的设计依据.掌握工程区域岩土的热物性及换热性能,是保证地源热泵系统高效、稳定运行的关键.文章建立了现场测试岩土导热系数及换热量的方法,并结合沈阳浑南高新技术产业开发区某地源热泵工程,测试分析了岩土导热系数和测井单位深度换热量.结果表明,该区域的岩土具有较好的导热能力,适合采用地埋管地源热泵系统;在特殊地理条件下设计地源热泵系统方案前,应对拟建区域的地质条件进行全面勘探,以优选工程区域,为岩土热响应测试结果的可靠性提供保障.%The rock-soil thermal conductivity coefficient is an important design parameter for borehole heat exchanger of ground source heat pump (GSHP) system, and the heat exchange of unit borehole depth could provide a reference for the design of GSHP. The grasp of rock-soil thermal properties and heat transfer capacity are the prerequisite for stable and efficient operation of the GSHP system.An in-situ measurement method of the rock -soil thermal conductivity and heat transfer capacity was constructed combined with a GSHP actual project in Shenyang hunnan high-tech development zone , and then the rock-soil thermal conductivity and heat exchange of unit borehole depth were analyzed. The results show that the area has a better heat capacity and suitable for GSHP system. Moreover,geological condition of the region plan to build should be explored comprehensively before the design of GSHP system, which could make the preference of project zone and provide the guarantees for test reliability.

  13. Effect of Slope Micro-topography on Spatial Distribution of Trees in Loess Area of North Shaanxi Province,China%陕北黄土区坡面微地形对乔木空间分布的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任正颵; 朱清科; 张恰咛; 马欢; 黄正佳

    2016-01-01

    [Objective]The purpose of this research is to analyze the coupling between gully,collapse,platform and other micro-topography with spatial distribution of exising forest stand,which can provide references for near-natural vegetation restoration and the structure configuration of soil and water conservation tree-shrub mixed stand.[Meth-od]Based on the investigaition data of the vegetations in Sandaochuan valley in Wuqi County of Shaanxi Province, the effects of slope micro-topography on spatial distribution of trees were analysed by using spatial analysis tools of software Arcgis 9 .3 .[Result]The results showed that the area of all types of micro-topography account for 2 1 .03%in undisturbed slope area,but the amount of trees on micro-topography account for 5 1 .77% of the total amount. Trees were distributed mainly in various type of micro-topography,and showed an aggregated distribution at gully and platform,but showed a random distribution at collapse and scrap.The trees in different micro-topography dis-played very significant difference,Ulmus pumila,Populus simonii,and Prunus sibirica showed an aggregated distri-bution at gully;Populus hopeiensis showed an aggregated distribution at gully and platform,while Robinia pseud-oacacia showed an aggregated distribution at platform.[Conclusion]The soil moisture of various slope micro-topog-raphy and its microhabitat have significant effects on the spatial distribution of trees.It is necessary to maintain the long term point of configuration trees planted in near-natural vegetation restoration according to various slope micro-topography habitats and spatial distributions of trees.Therefore,Populus hopeiensis,Populus simonii,Ulmus pumila and other tree species could be planted on gully,Populus hopeiensis,and Robinia pseudoacacia could be planted on platform,and the tree specvies such like Populus hopeiensis and Populus simonii should be planted on scrap.%[目的]传统造林树木种植点设计忽略了黄土坡面

  14. 北方农村地区火墙兼生活热水系统应用实验研究%Experimental Study on Application of Hot Wall with Heating Water System in North Rural Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴雨婷; 王万江; 齐典伟

    2015-01-01

    The hot wall system includes a stove (or furnace), firewall, chimney, as one kind of building traditional heating system, in recent years, is still the main forms of supply heating in most of the Xinjiang rural area. For the moment, the wall construction based on mainly experience. and has large differences in performance, A common problem with hot wall is that:high temperature of exhaust gas, energy consumption, low energy utilization rate. This article in view of the above shortcomings, the hot wall and domestic hot water system is proposed, arrangementin the copper tube in the original wall as new system. At different outdoor temperatures and the indoor thermal comfort conditions needs, the energy efficiency of new system were studied and compared with the traditional hot wall. The experimental results show that, the new hot wall and domestic hot water system can ensure indoor thermal comfort at the same time can heat domestic water use flue gas, reducing the exhaust gas temperature, the energy utilization rate is improved obviously. It is of certain significance to promotion and intensive study.%火墙系统包括炉灶(或火炉)、火墙、烟囱,作为一种建筑传统供暖系统,近年来,依然是新疆大部分农村地区民居采用的主要供暖形式。目前使用的火墙,建造多以经验为指导,性能参差不齐,普遍存在排烟温度高,能耗大,能源利用率低的缺点。本文针对上述缺点,提出了供暖火墙兼生活热水系统,即在原有火墙中加入了生活热水加热铜盘管。在不同室外温度下,满足室内热舒适性条件下,对该系统的能源利用率进行了实验研究并与传统火墙进行了对比。实验结果表明,供暖火墙兼生活热水系统的新式火墙能在保证室内热舒适性的同时又可以用烟气加热生活用水,降低了排烟温度,明显提高能源利用率,具有现实的推广和深入研究的意义。

  15. 宁夏卫宁北山金场子金矿床地质特征与控矿因素分析%Geological Characteristics,Ore-Controlling Factors and Mineralization Law of Gold Ore in the North Mountain of Weining Area,Ningxia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    仲佳鑫; 李欢; 李鹏; 闫廷亭

    2012-01-01

    宁夏卫宁北山地区划属北祁连成矿带之宁夏香山-卫宁北山-固原铜、金、铁、铅锌多金属成矿带,铜、金、铁多金属成矿作用显著.金矿体主要以似层状、透镜状产出,受断裂破碎带控制.矿石大部分为氧化矿石,少许为原生硫化物矿石.金矿床岩石稀土总量变化较大(∑REE=12.04×10-6~136.167×10-6),轻稀土富集,重稀土亏损;La/Yb值为0.609~16.158,Sm/Nd值为0.18~0.275,表明轻重稀土发生一定程度的分馏;δEu=0.447~0.91,表现为Eu的亏损.研究认为:金场子金矿应属于沉积-构造-热液改造型金矿,其形成受地层、岩性、构造控制,但成矿作用主要与石英闪长玢岩侵入有关,主要发生了黄铁矿化、高岭土化、黄钾铁矾化和硅化,后期经历了较强烈的氧化淋滤作用,对该矿床的形成具有非常重要的意义.%Weining north mountain area lies in the copper, gold and multi-metal metallogenetic belt ranged from Weining north mountain area to Guyuan area of Ningxia, which belongs to the metallogenetic belt of North Qilian, where the gold, copper and iron mineralization has a significant effect. The gold orebodies occur as bed-like or lense, and mainly controlled by the faulted zone. The oxide ores are the main ore types, with few primary sulfide ores. It has a very sharp fluctuation in the amount of REE (2REE = 12. 04X10~6-136. 167X10"6) in the rocks of the gold deposit, with enriched LREE and depleted HREE. La/Yb value is 0. 609-16. 158 and Sm/Nd value is 0. 18-0. 275, which shows that the fractional distillation occurred in HREE and LREE. The value of

  16. A Study on the Impact of Air Quality of the Industrial Area at the North Shore of the Yangtze River on the Main City of Nanjing Based on the Wind Analysis%基于风向分析的南京市江北工业区对主城大气质量的影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈子玉; 刘钦普; 李栋梁; 刘存丽

    2012-01-01

    According to the spread law of air pollutants, the rose diagram of wind is made, based on the land use satellite images in 1979,1988, 2000 and 2007 with the Autocad technology, indicating the way the main city of Nanjing is affected by the pollutants brought by the wind from the industrial area at the north shore of the Yangtze River in 16 different directions. The result shows that the polluted areas are getting larger and larger because of the extension of both the industrial areas and the main city. It must be npoted that the pollutant source of the northern industry, which is not on the upper side of the leading wind of the city, mainly has effects on the main city of Nan- jing in winter.%利用1979、1988、2000和2007年的土地利用遥感图像,使用autocad制图工具,依据大气污染物扩散规律,绘制出风向玫瑰图中的16个不同风向南京市江北工业区大气污染物扩散、输送对主城的影响.结果显示,随着南京主城区和江北工业区面积的不断扩大,江北工业区大气污染物对主城的影响范围在不断扩大、影响程度在不断加深;但是,江北工业区大气污染物输送和扩散不在南京主城的主导风向上侧,对主城的影响主要是在冬季,是一年中影响最大的.

  17. A checklist of Pteridophyta of the north-eastern Orange Free State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Roux

    1986-12-01

    Full Text Available A checklist of Pteridophyta recorded within a defined area of the north-eastern Orange Free State is presented. The geology, climate and vegetation of this area are discussed in brief.

  18. Lignite in North Dakota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The State of North Dakota and the lignite industry are working together in a partnership called the Lignite Research, Development and Marketing Program. The program provides funds and supports activities which: preserve and enhance jobs and lignite production; ensure economic growth, stability and opportunity; and maintain a stable and competitive tax base. Since 1987, 70 grants totaling $24 million have been awarded. Each program dollar has resulted in nearly five of matching dollars. These program investments have yielded returns for the state and industry, including an additional $20 million annually from by-products at the Great Plains Synfuels Plant; about $1 million annually from improved reclamation practices; and combustion options, which preserve 2,000 megawatts of existing generation capacity. Research activities have identified future opportunities, including: the SynCoal demonstration plant, requiring 800,000 tons per year of new production; new chemical feedstock by-products from Great Plains worth an additional $26 million annually; revised reclamation practices that could substantially reduce cost; and potential new markets for upgraded lignite of about 12 million tons annually. This program helps ensure a healthy future for the North Dakota lignite industry, which currently represents 10% of the state's total economic base. Such a program is important because it will encourage the development of new and better uses of North Dakota's most abundant resource--lignite coal

  19. North American Regional Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-11-15

    North America is an energy community fortunate to be endowed with a rich and varied resource base. It consumes about a third of the world's energy and produces about one quarter of world energy supply. North America depends on a mix of complementary energy sources that should remain competitive but not in conflict. The current supply mix varies between Canada, the United States and Mexico, but fossil fuels are dominant across the region, leaving the three member countries vulnerable to a myriad of risks associated with traditional supply sources. Energy trade between all three countries is also a major contributor to the region's economy. Thus, the impetus for collaboration across the region has grown out of the common goals of energy security and economic prosperity. The goal of the WEC regional group was to discuss avenues for advancing North American cooperation and coordination on a range of energy issues. An additional objective was to develop policy recommendations that will facilitate effective development and use of the region's energy resources. Results and recommendtaions are summarized from three forums that focused on the pertinent issues of energy trade, energy efficiency and energy diversification. The inaugural forum (Energy Trade) was held in Washington, D.C. in the fall of 2005. The following summer, the second forum (Energy Efficiency) took place in Mexico City. The third forum (Energy Diversification) was hosted in Halifax, Nova Scotia.

  20. Geographic distribution and dispersal of normapolles genera in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschudy, R.H.

    1981-01-01

    Normapolles pollen have been found in North America in Cretaceous and Lower Tertiary rocks from the eastern Atlantic Seaboard, the Mississippi embayment region and from the states and provinces from western North America as far north as the District of Mackenzie, Northwest Territories. Previous postulates relating to the Normapolles floral province (western Europe-eastern North America) were re-examined in the light of new finds of Normapolles genera in rocks from west of the Cretaceous epeiric seaway which separated the Normapolles province from the western North American Aquilapollenites province. A study of published occurrences of Normapolles genera and U.S. Geological Survey Denver Laboratory Normapolles records revealed that of the approximately 60 Normapolles genera recognized from western Europe, only 26 of these have been recognized from eastern North America. These data suggest that Normapolles-producing plants originated in western Europe and migrated to eastern North America prior to the opening of the north Atlantic seaway. Ten of these 26 genera also have been found in rocks from west of the Cretaceous epeiric seaway, suggesting that these genera were the only ones able to cross this barrier. At least six genera having Normapolles characteristics occur in eastern North America but have not yet been recorded from Europe. Two additional genera with Normapolles characteristics have been reported only from the Aquilapollenites province of western North America. Several discrepancies in the record need resolution, such as the latitudinal restriction of Thomsonipollis and Nudopollis to areas south 40??N latitude, the absence of records of Thomsonipollis east and north of central Georgia, and the absence of records of Kyandopollenites and Choanopollenites west of eastern Texas. These data show that the known boundaries of the Normapolles province are somewhat hazy and that firm conclusions regarding the geographic distribution and history of dispersal of

  1. North American poisonous bites and stings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Dan

    2012-10-01

    Critters and creatures can strike fear into anyone who thinks about dangerous animals. This article focuses on the management of the most common North American scorpion, arachnid, hymenoptera, and snake envenomations that cause clinically significant problems. Water creatures and less common animal envenomations are not covered in this article. Critical care management of envenomed patients can be challenging for unfamiliar clinicians. Although the animals are located in specific geographic areas, patients envenomed on passenger airliners and those who travel to endemic areas may present to health care facilities distant from the exposure.

  2. GRANITE PEAK ROADLESS AREA, CALIFORNIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Donald F.; Thurber, Horace K.

    1984-01-01

    The Granite Peak Roadless Area occupies an area of about 5 sq mi in the southern part of the Trinity Alps of the Klamath Mountains, about 12 mi north-northeast of Weaverville, California. Rock and stream-sediment samples were analyzed. All streams draining the roadless area were sampled and representative samples of the rock types in the area were collected. Background values were established for each element and anomalous values were examined within their geologic settings and evaluated for their significance. On the basis of mineral surveys there seems little likelihood for the occurrence of mineral or energy resources.

  3. Geology and ground water resources, Williams County, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freers, Theodore F.; Armstrong, C.A.

    1970-01-01

    Williams County, in northwestern North Dakota, is located near the center of the structural and sedimentary Williston basin. The preglacial sedimentary formations beneath the county are as much as 14,828 feet thick. Their beds dip generally to the south except along the flanks of the north-south striking Nesson anticline in the eastern part of the county. Late Wisconsinan glacial deposits cover all of Williams County except along the Missouri River and other scattered small areas.

  4. Comparison of arch forms between Turkish and North American

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmet A. Celebi; Hakan Keklik; Enes Tan; Ucar, Faruk I.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: The aim of this study was to clarify the morphological differences in the mandibular arches of Turkish and North American white subjects. Methods: The sample included 132 Turkish (34 Class I, 58 Class II, and 40 Class III) and 160 North American (60 Class I, 50 Class II, and 50 Class III) subjects. The most facial portion of 13 proximal contact areas was digitized from photocopied images of patients' mandibular dental arches. Clinical bracket points were calculated for ...

  5. Introduction to the Population Ecology of North American Caribou

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dale R. Seip

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Bergerud has discussed how major differences in caribou density across North America appear to be related to the impact of wolf (Canis lupus predation, and the strategies used by caribou to avoid wolves. Caribou living in areas without wolves usually occur at high densities and are regulated by competition for food. In this session, we asked the presenters to discuss the population ecology of different caribou herds in North America and to evaluate if they fit the general model.

  6. North Sea submarine cable disruptions and fishing activity

    OpenAIRE

    Hintzen, N.T.; Machiels, M.A.M.

    2014-01-01

    At the North Sea seafloor, numerous submarine cables are positioned that connect telecommunication networks between countries. Worldwide, human activities cause most of the cable disruptions with fisheries accounting for nearly half of all reported faults. Due to a recent increase of submarine cable disruptions in the central North Sea area, Global Marine Systems Ltd. requested IMARES to investigate a possible link between these occurrences and the recent gear switch of the Dutch –demersal be...

  7. Opportunities for suppliers in the North Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    If European suppliers to the offshore industry are to prosper, it has to be on the basis of a single internationally competitive North Sea market. If we continue to talk and think in terms of a British sector, a Norwegian sector, Dutch and Danish sectors, then we will inhibit the full development of contractors and suppliers. The long term future in oilfield supplies lies in a mixed portfolio of international projects. Oil and gas exploration and development, particularly offshore, is notoriously cyclical. To survive the downturns in one market supply, companies need to have access to the upswing in others. The significance of a single North Sea market is that it presents an international arena for the best companies to demonstrate their technical and commercial abilities. Individual national sectors do not - cannot - provide that opportunity to anything like the same extent. Taking then the North Sea as a single competitive market, it represents the most important offshore area in the world at the present time, and this is likely to continue during the 1990s. The prospects of achieving a single North Sea market are discussed. (author)

  8. The changing cross-border trade dynamics between north-western Uganda, north-eastern Congo and southern Sudan

    OpenAIRE

    Titeca, Kristof

    2009-01-01

    New field work conducted by Kristof Titeca for the CSRC in the border areas of North-Western Uganda, North-Eastern Congo and Southern Sudan yields important lessons about the development of cross-border trading patterns in this region. Informal trade between these countries pre-dates the colonial period, though major political and economic changes have occurred since the 1980's. Drawing from interviews with active traders and government officials, the author argues that internal and external ...

  9. Anaglyph, North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    This anaglyph (stereoscopic view) of North America was generated with data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). It is best viewed at or near full resolution with anaglyph glasses. For this broad view the resolution of the data was first reduced to 30 arcseconds (about 928 meters north-south and 736 meters east-west in central North America), matching the best previously existing global digital topographic data set called GTOPO30. The data were then resampled to a Mercator projection with approximately square pixels (about one kilometer, or 0.6 miles, on each side). Even at this decreased resolution the variety of landforms comprising the North American continent is readily apparent.Active tectonics (structural deformation of the Earth's crust) along and near the Pacific North American plate boundary creates the great topographic relief seen along the Pacific coast. Earth's crustal plates converge in southern Mexico and in the northwest United States, melting the crust and producing volcanic cones. Along the California coast, the plates are sliding laterally past each other, producing a pattern of slices within the San Andreas fault system. And, where the plates are diverging, the crust appears torn apart as one huge tear along the Gulf of California (northwest Mexico), and as the several fractures comprising the Basin and Range province (in and around Nevada).Across the Great Plains, erosional patterns dominate, with stream channels surrounding and penetrating the remnants of older smooth slopes east of the Rocky Mountains. This same erosion process is exposing the bedrock structural patterns of the Black Hills in South Dakota and the Ozark Mountains in Arkansas. Lateral erosion and sediment deposition by the Mississippi River has produced the flatlands of the lower Mississippi Valley and the Mississippi Delta.To the north, evidence of the glaciers of the last ice age is widely found, particularly east of the Canadian Rocky Mountains and around the

  10. Atmospheric PAHs in North China: Spatial distribution and sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanjun; Lin, Yan; Cai, Jing; Liu, Yue; Hong, Linan; Qin, Momei; Zhao, Yifan; Ma, Jin; Wang, Xuesong; Zhu, Tong; Qiu, Xinghua; Zheng, Mei

    2016-09-15

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), formed through incomplete combustion process, have adverse health effects. To investigate spatial distribution and sources of PAHs in North China, PAHs with passive sampling in 90 gridded sites during June to September in 2011 were analyzed. The average concentration of the sum of fifteen PAHs in North China is 220±14ng/m(3), with the highest in Shanxi, followed by Shandong and Hebei, and then the Beijing-Tianjin area. Major sources of PAHs are identified for each region of North China, coke process for Shanxi, biomass burning for Hebei and Shandong, and coal combustion for Beijing-Tianjin area, respectively. Emission inventory is combined with back trajectory analysis to study the influence of emissions from surrounding areas at receptor sites. Shanxi and Beijing-Tianjin areas are more influenced by sources nearby while regional sources have more impact on Hebei and Shandong areas. Results from this study suggest the areas where local emission should be the major target for control and areas where both local and regional sources should be considered for PAH abatement in North China. PMID:27241206

  11. Photovoltaic applications for rural areas in North-East Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lund, P. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Espoo (Finland); Faninger-Lund, H. [Solpros Ay, Helsinki (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    The photovoltaic (PV) markets have grown in the EU by ca 25 % per year during the past decade. World-wide the production of photovoltaic cells has exceeded the 80 MW{sub e}/a limit. The costs of PV modules have dropped by a factor of 5 during the last ten years and is now at the level of 4-5 USD/W{sub p}. The cost reductions mean on the hand new market segments for PV in the future. The market potential of photovoltaics, the financial issues connected to this, the PV system technology, the basic system design and the examples of typical projects are discussed in the presentation

  12. The North Area High Intensity Facility (NAHIF) is under way

    CERN Multimedia

    1978-01-01

    On the right are the stepped excavations forming a pyramid protecting site workers from landslips and facilitating the excavations of the access shafts. On the foreground lays the heavy concrete floor of the experimental hall (Annual Report 1978 p. 124).

  13. Ambient noise spectral properties in the north area of Xisha

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DA Lianglong; WANG Chao; HAN Mei; ZHANG Lin

    2014-01-01

    Ambient noise is very important in the prediction system of a sonar performance, because it determines the detection ranges always in a passive sonar and usually in an active sonar. In the uncertainty issue for the so-nar performance, it is necessary to know this factor’s statistical characteristics that are only obtained by data processing from the underwater ambient noise measurements. Broad-band ambient noise signals from 16 hydrophones were amplified and recorded for 2 min every 1 h. The results show that the ambient noise is essentially depth independent. The cross correlation of the ambient noise levels (1, 6 and 12 h average) with a wind speed is presented. It was found that the correlation is excellent on the upper frequency band and the noise levels correlate better with high wind speed than with low wind speed.

  14. Emigration flows from North Africa to Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassar, Hassène; Marzouk, Diaa; Anwar, Wagida A; Lakhoua, Chérifa; Hemminki, Kari; Khyatti, Meriem

    2014-08-01

    The region of North Africa (NA) represents a striking locality regarding migration with several migration patterns, namely emigration in the form of labour export to Europe and North America and, to a lesser extent, to the Arab Gulf area. The latter has increased enormously in the last decade because of the political instability in most of the NA countries. The aim of the present chapter was to explore the patterns of migration stocks and flows in NA countries, based on several websites, systematic review of journals, comparable data available by the United Nations and by the International Organization of Migration. The NA region has become an area of transit migration and labour migration. Emigrant flows from NA countries towards Europe and North America are increasing this decade more than towards the Arab Gulf countries after being replaced by Asian labour. The recent increase in the proportion of women among the migrant population is remarkable. Remittances sent by African migrants have become an important source of external finance for countries of origin. Transient and irregular migration to Egypt originates at the borders with Sudan, Palestine and Libya with destination to the Euro Mediterranean countries. In Tunisia and Morocco, irregular migrants originate from Sub-Saharan Africa to the northern borders. The NA countries serve as departure rather than destination countries, and migration flows to the Euro-Mediterranean countries through legal or illegal routes.

  15. Bioavailability of lead in North Sea sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersten, M.; Kröncke, I.

    1991-12-01

    As part of an interdisciplinary research programme, lead contents were measured in the polychaete Nephtys spp. and in the sea-urchin Echinocardium cordatum as well as in the respective sediment fractions <20 μm taken from the Dogger Bank proper and the eastern coastal North Sea. A lower lead content was generally observed in the organisms taken from the German Bight than in those from the Dogger Bank, especially from its northeastern part. It is possible to divide both areas according to the slope found in the linear regression of lead versus total organic carbon contents in sediments, which is twice as steep for the Dogger Bank as for the eastern North Sea. This criterium points to a difference in sediment quality with regard to toxic metal contamination. The sediment quality of the Dogger Bank seems to be twice as bad compared with that of the eastern North Sea. This is in good agreement with the differences found in lead contamination of the sediment-dwelling polychaetes from both areas. The results indicate that lead is primarily accumulated by food ingestion.

  16. Apollo in the North

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østermark-Johansen, Lene

    2015-01-01

    Walter Pater’s fascination with the Hyperborean Apollo, who according to myth resided north of the home of the northern wind, is explored in two of his pieces of short fiction, ‘Duke Carl of Rosenmold’ (1887) and ‘Apollo in Picardy’ (1893). The essay discusses some of Pater’s complex dialogue wit......: where does it begin? Where does it end? Is it a place of light or of darkness? Pater’s dark Apollo challenges conventional notions of the sun god and testifies to the strong presence of paganism in Pater’s late writings....

  17. The Use of Archers in the North Germanic Armies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pauli Jensen, Xenia

    2007-01-01

    This article deals with archery equipment within the South Scandinavian area in the period 175-400 AD. A comparison between the South Scandinavian area, the Roman Empire and the rest of Barbaricum results in three main areas of distribution of archery equipment. The increasing importance of the a...... of the archers in the North Germanic armies in the period in question is seen in connection with the standardisation that can be seen in the military equipment in general within this period....

  18. Roof Defects in North Cyprus

    OpenAIRE

    Aghghaleh, Shadi Pakpour

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The construction boom in North Cyprus, followed by Annan Plan, have resulted in the construction of a great number of buildings with minimum costs and quality. Although there exist certain rules for the construction of new buildings in North Cyprus, and part of these rules are related to the roofs, defects are observed few years after construction. This thesis intends to introduce different roof systems in North Cyprus, to find their problems and suggest solutions. In this respe...

  19. Segregation of herring larvae from inshore and offshore spawning grounds in the north-western North Sea — Implications for stock structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, M.

    Herring larvae hatching from spawning sites around the Scottish coast are dispersed by water currents during the weeks following hatching. Hydrographic data, observations on the distribution of caesium-137 and measurements of current velocities by moored meters and drifting buoys, suggest that larvae from offshore spawning sites around the north of Scotland should be more rapidly dispersed than those hatching in inshore areas. This has been confirmed by direct observations on the advection of herring larvae in different regions of the north western North Sea. The conclusion is that larvae hatching in inshore areas, especially in the Moray Firth, are most likely to contribute to nearby juvenile populations, whereas larvae from offshore spawning sites should be widely dispersed over the North Sea. Tagging and parasitology investigations have shown that adult herring spawning in the north-western North Sea have been widely dispersed in the North Sea and adjacent waters as juveniles (six months — one and a half years old). However, a high proportion of adult fish caught at inshore spawning sites and in the Moray Firth were found to have been recruited from more local areas. Taken together with the observations on larval drift, these observations suggest that the stock structure of herring in the northern North Sea may in part be a consequence of the physical oceanography of the area.

  20. Energy policy of North Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the year 1990, North Korea suffers internal-policy problems as well as foreign-political problems. The gross domestic investment decreased by 3.8% yearly between the years 1990 and 1998. Many actual problems of North Korea correspond with the energy crisis in this land affecting nearly all sectors of economy and society. This energy crisis was released by the fact, that the former Soviet Union has stopped the supply of primary energy in the year 1991. In the contribution under consideration, the author reports on the energy policy of North Korea. The main themes of this contribution are: (a) Development and characteristics of the energy sector; (b) Crisis of the energy sector; (c) Consequences of the energy crisis in North Korea; (d) Possibilities of the solution of the energy crisis. For the U.S.A. and the international community, the energy crisis offers the possibility to turn North Korea to negotiations by means of remedial measures in the energy sector. In response, North Korea should drop its nuclear energy program. Apart from such positive incentives, the threat of sanctions is conceivable. North Korea imports nearly 70 % of its oil demand from the People's Republic of China. Therefore, China has an great influence on North Korea. The energy crisis of North Korea shows the fatal consequences of a falsely performed energy policy with respect to the population of this land and with respect to the stability and disposing capacity of the political leadership

  1. Analysis of North Korea's Nuclear Tests under Prospect Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    North Korea has chosen nuclear weapons as the means to protect its sovereignty. Despite international society's endeavors and sanctions to encourage North Korea to abandon its nuclear ambition, North Korea has repeatedly conducted nuclear testing. In this paper, the reason for North Korea's addiction to a nuclear arsenal is addressed within the framework of cognitive psychology. The prospect theory addresses an epistemological approach usually overlooked in rational choice theories. It provides useful implications why North Korea, being under a crisis situation has thrown out a stable choice but taken on a risky one such as nuclear testing. Under the viewpoint of prospect theory, nuclear tests by North Korea can be understood as follows: The first nuclear test in 2006 is seen as a trial to escape from loss areas such as financial sanctions and regime threats; the second test in 2009 was interpreted as a consequence of the strategy to recover losses by making a direct confrontation against the United States; and the third test in 2013 was understood as an attempt to strengthen internal solidarity after Kim Jong-eun inherited the dynasty, as well as to enhance bargaining power against the United States. Thus, it can be summarized that Pyongyang repeated its nuclear tests to escape from a negative domain and to settle into a positive one. In addition, in the future, North Korea may not be willing to readily give up its nuclear capabilities to ensure the survival of its own regime

  2. BREAD LOAF ROADLESS AREA, VERMONT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slack, John F.; Bitar, Richard F.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of mineral-resource survey the Bread Loaf Roadless Area, Vermont, is considered to have probable resource potential for the occurrence of volcanogenic massive sulfide deposits of copper, zinc, and lead, particularly in the north and northeastern section of the roadless area. Nonmetallic commodities include minor deposits of sand and gravel, and abundant rock suitable for crushing. However, large amounts of these materials in more accessible locations are available outside the roadless area. A possibility exists that oil or natural gas resources may be present at great depth.

  3. MECHANISM OF LARGE-SCALE SLIDE AT EDGE OF LOESS PLATEAU ON NORTH OF WEIHE RIVER IN BAOJI URBAN AREA,SHAANXI PROVINCE%宝鸡渭河北岸黄土塬边大型滑坡成因机制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石菊松; 李滨; 吴树仁; 王涛; 辛鹏

    2013-01-01

    Baoji urban area.There have been quite many achievements on latest quaternary geology, tectonic geology and loess studies in the recent years.The Weihe river valley evolution process is rebuilt.The slope structure and lithological association with engineering geological characteristics of stratigraphic which prone to fail-ure are carried out.Active fault and tectonic joints or fissures are investigated as well.This study reveals the follows. The paleogeomorphology of north side of Weihe river is higher than the south part.The north land changed to the south Sanmen lake basin during Pliocene to early Pleistocene.Then the south lake basin gradually retreated and the Weihe river formed in early Pleistocene.The Weihe river mainstream periodicity north offset due to neotectonic movement and periodic climate change until Holocene epoch,and then gradually south offset.Hence,the present geomorphologic pattern is formed.The active Weihe north fault at the edge of loess plateau by sub-graben,horst bulge and half-graben provides not only water infiltration channels but also weak structure planes for slide failure surfaces tracking.The cause and model of paleo-slide and old-slide at the edge of loess plateau are induced by inte-grated erosion and rising of groundwater table.The main or sub-scarp and failure surface tracking along active frac-tures and Pliocene sand gravel and clay interface or internal clay are featured by garben-horst style multiple deep-seated rotational slide or multiple perched translational slide and its combination.They are controlled by Pliocene clay and tectonic fractures.They are special complex slides in loess landslides.

  4. North American tidal power prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayne, W. W., Jr.

    1981-07-01

    Prospects for North American tidal power electrical generation are reviewed. Studies by the US Army Corps of Engineers of 90 possible generation schemes in Cobscook Bay, ME, indicated that maximum power generation rather than dependable capacity was the most economic method. Construction cost estimates for 15 MW bulb units in a single effect mode from basin to the sea are provided; five projects were considered ranging from 110-160 MW. Additional tidal power installations are examined for: Half-Moon Cove, ME (12 MW, 18 ft tide); Cook Inlet, AK, which is shown to pose severe environmental and engineering problems due to fish migration, earthquake hazards, and 300 ft deep silt deposits; and the Bay of Fundy, Canada. This last has a 17.8 MW plant under construction in a 29 ft maximum tide area. Other tidal projects of the Maritime Provinces are reviewed, and it is noted that previous economic evaluations based on an oil price of $16/barrel are in need of revision.

  5. On Ecological and Environmental Protection of Water Source Area in South-to-North Middle Line Water Diversion Project under Eco-Tourism%生态旅游背景下的南水北调中线水源区生态环境保护研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付景保; 高军波

    2013-01-01

    Ecological and environmental problems of water source area in South-to-North middle line water diversion project have become the focus of attention widely. To study the ecological and environmental protection of the water source area has important practical significance from the perspective of the eco-tourism. By using field investigation and document analysis method, on the basis of studying ecological environment overview and eco-tourism development in water source area, the articles summed up the eco-tourism is a strategic choice industry to promote the protection of the ecological environment in the water source area, and proposed some development countermeasures like we should strengthen the government's macroeconomic and scientific management about protection work of the ecological environment of the water area; and should adjust the industrial structure, and actively develop eco-tourism; to carry out soil and water conservation, Green Jiangshan construction, to create a good environment for eco-tourism; and strengthen civic education on environmental protection, improve environmental protection awareness; re-layout the new residents area conducive to environmental protection with the new rural transformation; to establish well-detection environment system and compensation mechanism of ecology and water resource.%南水北调中线工程水源区生态环境问题已成为目前广为关注的热点.从生态旅游的视角研究水源区生态环境保护具有重要的现实意义.文章通过实地调查与文献分析方法,在研究水源区生态环境概况及生态旅游发展的基础上,总结了生态旅游是促进水源区生态环境保护的战略性选择产业,并提出了水源区生态环境保护工作要加强政府宏观管理,进行依法管理、科学管理;要大力调整产业结构,积极发展生态旅游业;要开展水土保持、绿化江山建设,营造良好的生态旅游环境;要加强公民环保教育,提高环保

  6. 苏北滨海滩涂区土壤重金属含量及其时空变异研究%Contents and spatio-temporal variability of soil heavy metals in the coastal mud-flat area of north Jiangsu Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚荣江; 杨劲松; 谢文萍; 伍丹华; 柏彦超; 余世鹏; 张新

    2016-01-01

    The study was carried out in a representative coastal mudflat area in north Jiangsu Province, China. Classical statistical and geostatistical methods were employed to summarize the concentrations of the four types of element (Pb, Cr, Cd, As) in surface soil in 2009 and 2014, to analyze the effect of land use types on heavy metal content, and to determine spatial patterns and spatio-temporal variability of soil heavy metals in these two periods. Results indicated that the content was general below the widely accepted environmental quality standard (first class) for the four types of soil elements. During the five years from 2009 to 2014, soil Cd accumulated significantly across the study area, soil Pb content in the residential area also increased remarkably, and significant accumulation of soil Pb and Cd was also observed in the industrial area, whereas the change of soil Cr and As contents was not significant in each type of land use. Under the control of large-scale tide deposits and small-range human activities, soil Pb and Cr contents exhibited similar spatial patterns during these two periods, whereas the spatial patterns of soil Cd and As ahowed great difference in the two periods. The enrichment of soil heavy metals across the different land use in the study area exhibited spatial variability and directional trends. Atmospheric deposition was another important factor that influenced the spatio-temporal variability of soil heavy metals. The coastal mudflat area presently faces the problem of soil heavy metal enrichment. It ought to take preventive countermeasures, such as strengthening in situ monitoring and source reduction, optimizing industrial layout, and prompting process blocking and biological remediation to prevent and minimize heavy metal hazards.%以苏北沿海某滩涂区为研究区,采用经典统计与地统计相结合的方法总结出2009年和2014年表层土壤Pb、Cr、Cd、As四种元素的含量,分析了土地利用方式对重金

  7. ITS Platform North Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lahrmann, Harry; Agerholm, Niels; Juhl, Jens;

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the project entitled “ITS Platform North Denmark” which is used as a test platform for Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) solutions. The platform consists of a newly developed GNSS/GPRS On Board Unit (OBU) to be installed in 500 cars, a backend server and a specially...... designed digital road map for ITS applications. The platform is freely accessible, which means that third party applications could be run on the platform. It is estimated that using this platform enables the ITS applications to be developed for 20% of the normal cost, hence third party are invited to test...... their applications in this platform. This paper presents the platform’s potentials and explains a series of test applications which are under development on it. Moreover, a number of new projects planned for the platform are demonstrated....

  8. North Carolina surgical workforce trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poley, Stephanie T; Kasper, Elizabeth W; Walker, Elizabeth K; Lyons, Jessica C; Newkirk, Vann R; Thompson, Kristie

    2011-01-01

    Between 1997 and 2008, the number of general surgeons in North Carolina increased and shifted demographically, geographically, and by specialty. However, surgeon numbers--overall and by specialty--do not appear to have increased as quickly or to have shifted in the same ways as North Carolina's general population.

  9. North Korea: A Geographical Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palka, Eugene J., Ed.; Galgano, Francis A., Ed.

    North Korea is a country about the size of the state of New York, inhabited by about 23 million people. It came into existence after the conclusion of World War II following decades of occupation of the Korean Peninsula by the Japanese empire. Dividing the peninsula into North and South Korea was the politically expedient solution to one of the…

  10. Effects of Different Soil and Water Conservation Species on Soil Quality in Lithoid Hilly Area of North China%华北石质山区不同水土保持树种对土壤质量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈家林; 裴丙; 刘红恩; 付梦瑶; 郭二辉; 杨喜田

    2016-01-01

    To analyze the effects of different soil and water conservation species on soil quality,three typi-cal 30-year-old soil and water conservation forests(Robiniap seudoacacia,Platycladus orientalis and Quer-cus variabili)in the lithoid hilly area of North-China were selected to study the soil physico-chemical properties and assessed the integrated soil fertility index based on principal components analysis.The re-sults showed that:(1 )Platycladus orientalis had the best restoration effect on soil clay content and porosi-ty,but Robinia pseudoacacia has a significant impact on soil silt content and moisture content.The im-provement function on soil hardness of Quercus variabilis is the largest.(2)Platycladus orientalis was the most effective to improve soil organic matter,total nitrogen and available nitrogen.Robinia pseudoacacia was conducive to increase soil available phosphorus and Quercus variabilis was beneficial to accumulate soil available potassium.(3 )The soil physical,chemical properties were integrated into a soil quality in-dex,which was higher in Platycladus orientalis (1 .42 )than in Robiniap seudoacacia forest (0.99 )and Quercus variabilis forest(0.53).Different tree species could remarkably improve the quality of soil with significant differences.Platycladus orientalis was suggested to be a better tree specie to improve soil quali-ty than Robinia pseudoacacia and Quercus variabilis in the lithoid hilly area of North China.%为探讨不同水土保持树种对土壤质量的影响,以华北石质山区3种30a生典型树种刺槐、侧柏和栓皮栎林为对象,研究各人工林地及对照样地的土壤理化性质,并采用主成分分析法计算各样地土壤质量指数。结果表明:1)侧柏林种植对土壤粘粒体积分数和孔隙度的提高作用最大,刺槐林最大限度地增加了土壤粉粒及含水率,栓皮栎林对土壤硬度降低作用最大;2)侧柏林对土壤有机质、全氮、碱解氮的积累作用

  11. The Study on the Abundance and Deficiency Indices of Phosphorus and Potassium of Rainfed Potato in North Yinshan Area of Inner Mongolia%内蒙古阴山北麓旱作马铃薯土壤氮、磷、钾丰缺指标研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张子义; 郑海春; 郜翻身; 樊明寿

    2011-01-01

    为了解决内蒙古阴山北麓区旱作马铃薯施肥过程中存在的关键技术问题,于2006-2008 年在该地区进行了198个"3414"试验,通过对结果的统计分析,将内蒙古阴山北麓旱作马铃薯土壤全氮划分为极低(2.64 g/kg) 5个等级,对应的推荐施氮量分别为>8.0、8.0~6.5、6.5~4.3、4.3~3.6、<3.6 kg/667m2; 速效磷含量划分的5个等级分别为极低(28.0 mg/kg),对应的推荐施磷量(P2O5)分别为>5.7、5.7~4.0、4.0~1.5、1.5~0.6、<0.6 kg/667m2;速效钾含量划分的5个等级分别为极低(193 mg/kg),对应的推荐施钾量 (K2 O)分别为>4.2、4.2~3.2、3.2~1.7、1.7~1.2、<1.2 kg/667m2.%The establishment of soil nutrient abundance index is the base of soil testing and fertilizer recommendation. From 2006 to 2008,198 rain fed potato 3414 field experiments were conducted in 8 counties of North Yinshn area,Inner Mongolia. The correlation between the soil nutrient concentration and the corresponding relative yield of potato tubers in different fertility levels was analyzed, soil nutrient abundance indexes of North Yinshan area was established initially ,and recommendation rates were also calculated from the fertilizer effect functions. The total soil N was classified as 5 degrees of very low( <0. 80 g/kg) ,low(0. 80 - 1.19 g/kg) ,medium( 1.19 - 2. 16 g/kg) ,high (2. 16 -2. 64 g/kg) and very high( >2. 64 g/kg) ,and the corresponding N fertilizer recommendation rates were as > 8.0,8.0 - 6. 5,6. 5 - 4. 3,4. 3 - 3.6, < 3.6 kg/667m2. Five Olsen P grades were as very low ( < 4. 6 mg/kg), low (4. 6 -8.4 mg/kg) ,medium(8.4 -20. 7 mg/kg) ,high(20. 7 -28. 0 mg/kg) and very high( >28.0 mg/kg) ,corresponding P fertilizer(P: O5 ) recommendation rates were as > 5.7,5.7 - 4. 0,4. 0 - 1.5,1.5 - 0. 6, < 0. 6 kg/667m2 Five soluble K grades were as very low( <64 mg/kg) ,1ow(64 -93 mg/kg) ,medium(93 -161 mg/kg) ,high( 161193 rog/kg) and very high( > 193 mg/kg) ,corresponding K

  12. Related Research of Social Expectations, Loneliness and Self-Awareness of Primary School Students in Immigration Areas of The South - to - North Water Diversion Project%南水北调移民地区小学生社会期望、孤独感和自我意识的相关研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晋红

    2012-01-01

    By related research on social expectations,loneliness and self- awareness of pupils in immigration areas of The South - to - North Water Diversion Project, this essay provides evidences for immigrant pupils adapting to new life and learning environment. There are gender differences in social expectations and three factors of behavior, gregariousness, happiness and satisfaction, no gender differences in loneliness of testes. Besides no grade differences in social expectations and be grade differences in loneliness and self- rconsciousness. There are significantly positive correlation social expectations with four factors of behavior,physical appearance and at- tributes,gregariousness,happiness and satisfaction , be no significantly correlation loneliness with anxiety, and be significantly negative correlation with the other factors of self- consciousness of testes. While in the concern to pupils'adaptation to the environment in immi- gration areas of the South - to -